Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Report of the director
 Report of the business manager
 Agricultural economics
 Agricultural engineering
 Animal husbandry and nutrition
 Dairy science
 Editorial and mailing
 Home economics
 Plant pathology
 Poultry husbandry
 Veterinary science
 Field laboratories
 Federal-state frost warning...
 Central Florida station
 Citrus station
 Everglades station
 Indian River field laboratory
 Gulf Coast station
 North Florida station
 Range cattle station
 Sub-tropical experiment statio...
 Suwannee Valley station
 West central Florida station
 West Florida station

Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027385/00001
 Material Information
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: The Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Creation Date: 1953
Publication Date: 1945-1967
Frequency: annual
Subjects / Keywords: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, Agricultural Experiment Station.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1931-1967.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002452809
oclc - 12029671
notis - AMF8114
System ID: UF00027385:00001
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
Succeeded by: Annual report for

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Table of Contents
        Page 6
    Report of the director
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Report of the business manager
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Agricultural economics
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Agricultural engineering
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Animal husbandry and nutrition
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
    Dairy science
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Editorial and mailing
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
    Home economics
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
    Plant pathology
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
    Poultry husbandry
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
    Veterinary science
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
    Field laboratories
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
    Federal-state frost warning service
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
    Central Florida station
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
    Citrus station
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
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        Page 201
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        Page 206
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        Page 211
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        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
    Everglades station
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
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        Page 234
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        Page 236
        Page 237
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        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
    Indian River field laboratory
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
    Gulf Coast station
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
    North Florida station
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
    Range cattle station
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
    Sub-tropical experiment station
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
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        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
    Suwannee Valley station
        Page 332
        Page 333
    West central Florida station
        Page 334
        Page 335
    West Florida station
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
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Full Text






JUNE 30, 1953

Hollis Rinehart, Chairman, Miami
J. Lee Ballard, St. Petersburg
Fred H. Kent, Jacksonville
William H. Dial, Orlando
Mrs. Alfred I. duPont, Jacksonville
George W. English, Jr., Ft. Lauder-
W. Glenn Miller, Monticello
W. F. Powers, Sec., Tallahassee

J. H. Miller, Ph.D., President3
J. W. Reitz, Ph.D., Provost for Agr.'
W. M. Fifield, M.S., Director
J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Asso. Dir.
L. 0. Gratz, Ph.D., Asst. Director
R. L. Bartley, B.S., Adm. Mgr.'
G. R. Freeman, B.S., Supt. of Field
W. H. Jones, B.S., Asst. Supt. of
Field Operations


H. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Agr. Econ. 3
M. A. Brooker, Ph.D., Agr. Econ.'
R. E. L. Greene, Ph.D., Agr. Econ."
W. K. McPherson, M.S., Agr. Econ.'
J. L. Tennant, Ph.D., Visiting Econ.
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Asso. Agr.
M. R. Godwin, Ph.D., Asso. Market-
ing Economist3
E. Thor, M.S., Asso. Agri. Econ.'
D. L. Brooke, M.S.A., Asso. Agr.
Z. Savage, M.S.A., Asso. Agr. Econ.
D. E. Alleger, M.S., Asso. Agricul-
tural Economist
C. N. Smith, M.A., Asso. Agricul-
tural Economist
L. A. Powell, Sr., M.S.A., Asst. Agri-
cultural Economist
J. C. Townsend, B.S.A., Agricultural
Statistician," Orlando
G. N. Rose, B.S., Asso. Agricultural
Economist, Orlando
J. F. Lankford, B.S.A., Agricultural
J. B. Owens, B.S.A., Agricultural
Statistician,' Orlando

F. Rogers, M.S.A., Agr. Eng.'
J. M. Myers, M.S.A., Asso. Agr. Eng.
J. S. Norton, M.S., Asst. Agr. Eng.
SHead of Department.
In cooperation with U. S.
SCooperative, other divisions. U. of F.
On leave.

F. H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist1
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Agronomist
R. W. Bledsoe, Ph.D., Agronomist
H. C. Harris, Ph.D., Agronomist
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Agronomist
D. D. Morey, Ph.D., Asso. Agron.
F. A. Clark, M.S., Asso. Agron."
D. E. McCloud, Ph.D., Asst. Agron."
G. C. Nutter, Ph.D., Asst. Agron.
E. S. Horner, Ph.D., Asst. Agron.
A. T. Wallace, Ph.D., Asst. Agron.3
M. G. Grennell, B.S.A., Asst. Agron.
R. L. Gilman, B.S., Asst. in Agron.
R. D. Roush, B.S., Interim Asst. in

T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., An. Husb.'1
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., An. Nutritionist3
M. Koger, Ph.D., An. Husb.0
R. L. Shirley, Ph.D., Biochemist
A. M. Pearson, Ph.D., Asso. An.
H. D. Wallace, Ph.D., Asst. An.
J. F. Hentges, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. An.
J. P. Feaster, Ph.D., Asst. An. Nutr.
L. R. Arrington, Ph.D., Interim Asst.
Animal Husbandman
S. J. Folks, Jr., M.S.A., Asst. An.
E. F. Johnston, M.S., Interim Asst.
Animal Husbandman
J. T. McCall, B.S., Asst. in Chemistry
J. C. Outler, Jr., B.S.A., Asst. in

E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Tech.' '
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husb."
S. P. Marshall, Ph.D., Asso. Dairy
L. E. Mull, Ph.D., Asso. Dairy Tech."
W. A. Krienke, M.S., Asso. Dairy
P. T. D. Arnold, M.S.A., Asso. Dairy
H. H. Wilkowske, Ph.D., Asst. Dairy
J. M. Wing, Ph.D., Asst. Dairy Husb.

J. F. Cooper, M.S.A., Editor'
C. K. Beale, A.B.J., Associate Editor:
W. G. Mitchell, A.B.J., Asst. Editor
J. N. Joiner, B.S.A., Asst. Editor"
L. 0. Griffith, B.A., Asst. Editor"

A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Entomologist'
L. C. Kuitert, Ph.D., Asso. Entom.
F. A. Robinson, M.S., Asst. Apic.
R. E. Waites, Ph.D., Asst. Entom.
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Asst. Entom.

O. D. Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ.'
R. B. French, Ph.D., Biochemist

G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Hort.'
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Hort."'
A. P. Lorz, Ph.D., Horticulturist
F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Horticulturist'
R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
R. K. Showalter, M.S., Asso. Hort.
R. H. Sharpe, M.S., Asso. Hort.
V. F. Nettles, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Asso. Hort.
C. B. Hall, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
C. H. Van Middelem, Ph.D., Asst.
S. E. McFadden, Jr., Ph.D., Asst.
L. H. Halsey, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
M. W. Hoover, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
J. Montelaro, Ph.D., Interim Asst.
A. Griffiths, Jr., B.S., Asst. Hort.
B. D. Thompson, M.S.A., Interim
Asst. Horticulturist
A. T. McNab, B.S., Asst. in Chem.

I. K. Cresap, Librarian

W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Path.'
P. Decker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. W. Earhart, Ph.D., Plant Path.'
E. West, M.S., Botanist and Myco-
H. N. Miller, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
L. E. Arnold, M.S., Asst. Botanist
C. W. Anderson, Ph.D., Asst. Plant

N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poul. Hubs.
J. C. Driggers, Ph.D., Asso. Poultry

F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologist' '
G. D. Thornton, Ph.D., Soil Microb."
SHead of Department.
In cooperation with U. S.
Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
SOn leave.

J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
G. M. Volk, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
N. Gammon, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chem.
L. C. Hammond, Ph.D., Asst. Soils
J. G. A. Fiskel, Ph.D., Asst. Bio-
W. G. Blue, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
C. F. Eno, Ph.D., Asst. Soil Micro-
W. K. Robertson, Ph.D., Asst. Chem.
H. L. Breland, Ph.D., Asst. Soils
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Asst. Chem.
R. E. Caldwell, M.S.A., Asst. Chem.'
V. W. Carlisle, B.S., Asst. Soil
J. H. Walker, M.S.A., Asst. Soil
0. E. Cruz, B.S.A., Asst. Soil Surv.
R. G. Leighty, B.S., Asst. Soil Surv.2

D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterin. :
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterin.
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasi-
C. F. Simpson, D.V.M., Asso.
G. Van Ness, D.V.M., Associate
Poultry Pathologist
E. W. Swarthout, D.V.M., Associate
Poultry Pathologist, Dade City
W. R. Dennis, D.V.M., Interim Asst.
W. M. Stone, Jr., M.S., Interim Asst.
in Parasitology

R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Vice-Director
in Charge
J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist
P. J. Westgate, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
G. Swank, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Plant
B. F. Whitner, Jr., B.S.A., Asst.

A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Vice-Director in
W. A. Simanton, Ph.D., Entomologist
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Entomologist
J. W. Sites, Ph.D., Horticulturist
H. J. Reitz, Ph.D., Horticulturist
R. F. Suit, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
I. W. Wander, Ph.D., Soils Chemist

F. W. Wenzel, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist
R. Patrick, Ph.D., Bacteriologist
R. W. Olsen, B.S., Biochemist
R. M. Pratt, Ph.D., Asso. Ent.-Path.
E. P. DuCharme, Ph.D., Asso. Plant
C. D. Leonard, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
M. H. Muma, Ph.D., Asso. Entom.
C. R. Stearns, Jr., B.S.A., Asso.
L. C. Knorr, Ph.D., Asso. Histologist'
E. J. Deszyk, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
J. W. Kesterson, M.S., Asso. Chem.
A. H. Rouse, M.S., Asso. Pectin
F. J. Reynolds, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.,
Fort Pierce
I. Stewart, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
H. W. Ford, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
D. S. Prosser, Jr., B.S., Asst. Eng.
F. E. Fisher, M.S., Asst. Plant Path.
H. 0. Sterling, B.S., Asst. Hort.
W. F. Newhall, Ph.D., Asst. Bio-
W. R. F. Frierson-Jackson, Ph.D.,
Assistant Chemist
W. T. Long, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.,
Fort Pierce
R. Hendrickson, B.S., Asst. Chemist
W. F. Spencer, Ph.D., Interim Asst.
R. B. Johnson, Ph.D., Interim Asst.
M. F. Oberbacher, B.S., Interim
Asst. Plant Physiologist
E. J. Elvin, B.S., Interim Asst. Hort.
L. R. Knodel, M.S., Asst. in Chem.
J. B. Weeks, B.S., Asst. in Ent.-
H. I. Holtsberg, B.S.A., Asst. in Ent.-
K. G. Townsend, B.S.A., Asst. in
J. W. Davis, B.S.A., Asst. in Ent.-
Troy L. Brooks, B.S.A., Interim Asst.
in Pathology
K. W. Loucks, M.S., Collaborator
E. F. Hopkins, Ph.D., Collaborator
S. V. Ting, Ph.D., Collaborator
C. D. Atkins, B.S., Collaborator
E. C. Hill, B.S.A., Collaborator
R. R. McNary, Ph.D., Collaborator
R. L. Huggart, B.S., Collaborator
R. W. Wolford, M.S., Collaborator
E. L. Moore, Ph.D., Collaborator
M. H. Dougherty, B.S., Collaborator
G. M. Donnelly, B.S., Asst. in Library
W. T. Forsee, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist in
i Head of Department.
In cooperation with U. S.
Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
On leave.

R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Fiber Tech.
J. W. Randolph, M.S., Agr. Eng.
J. C. Stephens, B.S., Drainage Eng.'
T. Bregger, Ph.D., Physiologist
C. C. Seale, Asso. Agronomist
F. V. Stevenson, M.S., Asso. Plant
W. N. Stoner, Ph.D., Asso. Plant
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Asso. An. Husb.
N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A., Asso.
Entomologist, Fort Pierce
F. T. Boyd, Ph.D., Asso. Agro-
nomist, Fort Lauderdale
D. S. Harrison, M.S., Asst. Agr. Eng.
A. E. Kretschmer, Jr., Ph.D., Asst.
Soils Chemist
V. E. Green, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Agron.
E. A. Wolf, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist
V. L. Guzman, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
R. J. Allen, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Agron.
W. G. Genung, M.S., Asst. Entom.
W. H. Thames, Jr., M.S., Asst.
H. L. Chapman, Jr., M.S.A., Asst.
Animal Husbandman
J. F. Darby, Ph.D., Asst. Plant
Pathologist, Fort Pierce
M. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Asst. Horti-
culturist, Fort Lauderdale
M. R. Bedsole, Jr., M.S.A., Asst. in

E. L. Spencer, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
in Charge.
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entom.
J. M. Walter, Ph.D., Plant Path.
R. 0. Magie, Ph.D., Plant Path.
D. G. A. Kelbert, Asso. Hort.
C. M. Geraldson, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
D. S. Burgis, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
S. S. Woltz, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
A. Jack, M.S., Asst. in Soils Chem.

W. C. Rhoades, M.S., Entomologist
in Charge
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Path.
W. H. Chapman, M.S., Asso. Agron.
L. G. Thompson, Jr., Ph.D., Soils
F. S. Baker, Jr., B.S., Asst. An.
F. E. Guthrie, Ph.D., Asst. Entom.
T. E. Webb, B.S.A., Asst. in Agron.
Mobile Unit, Chipley
J. B. White, B.S.A., Asso. Agron.

Mobile Unit, Marianna
R. W. Lipscomb, M.S., Asso. Agron.

Mobile Unit, Monticello
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Asso. Agron.

Mobile Unit, Pensacola
R. L. Smith, M.S., Asso. Agronomist

W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Vice-Director in
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Agronomist
D. W. Jones, M.S., Asst. Soil Tech.
F. M. Peacock, M.S., Asst. in An.


G. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Vice-Director in
R. A. Conover, Ph.D., Plant Path.
D. 0. Wolfenbarger, Ph.D., Entom.
F. B. Lincoln, Ph.D., Horticulturist
J. L. Malcolm, Ph.D., Asso. Soils
R. W. Harkness, Ph.D., Asst. Chem.
R. B. Ledin, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
J. C. Noonan, M.S., Asst. Hort.
M. H. Gallatin, B.S., Soil Con-

G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Agronomist in

M. W. Hazen, M.S., Animal Husb.
in Charge2
1 Head of Department.
SIn cooperation with U. S.
'Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
t On leave.

C. E. Hutton, Ph.D., Vice-Director
in Charge
H. W. Lundy, B.S.A., Asso. Agron.
W. R. Langford, Ph.D., Asso.

Potato, Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Patho-
gist in Charge
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Hort.
T. M. Dobrovsky, Ph.D., Asst.
Pecan, Monticello
A. M. Phillips, B.S., Asso. Entom.2
J. R. Large, M.S., Asso. Plant Path.
Strawberry, Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Path.
Watermelon and Grape,
J. M. Crall, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path-
ologist Acting in Charge
C. C. Helms, Jr., B.S., Asst. Agron.
L. H. Stover, Asst. in Horticulture
Weather Forecasting, Lakeland
W. O. Johnson, B.S., Meteorologist
in Charge2
D. C. Russell, B.S., Associate
R. H. Dean, Asst. Meteorologist'
J. G. George, Asst. Meteorologist'
B. H. Moore, B.A., Assistant
J. W. Milligan, Asst. Meteorologist"
O. N. Norman, B.S., Assistant
J. D. Cox, Asst. Meteorologist2
R. T. Sherouse, Asst. Meteorologist2
A. F. Wolford, Jr., Assistant
C. E. Skillman, Asst. Meteorologist"

6 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Director's Report ................... ..........- ... ..... -- 7
Business Manager's Report ...-----..- -----......-.- 22
Agricultural Economics ........................................ 25
Agricultural Engineering ....--.... ............- -- -------------- ----- 38
Agronomy .................... -............- ..-- .-- 44
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition .. ........... ....-- ..- --.... ------ 56
Dairy Science ....-... --------..................----- -- 66
Editorial and Mailing ----................. '.75
Entomology ....... ..---........ ---............. -- .. 93
Home Economics --..------------..........-- 101
Horticulture --- ..--- -................... 106
Library ............ ..... .......... ...... 125
Plant Pathology .............. ............................... ----- 126
Poultry Husbandry ............. .............---- ----.- -- ---------------- 132
Soils .................-- -- ... .............. -----. 135
Veterinary Science ........... --......... ........... ......... ------ --------- 149
Field Laboratories .................. .............--------- 156
Pecan Investigations Laboratory ....................... ---...... 156
Potato Investigations Laboratory .................---...... ------------ 156
Strawberry Investigations Laboratory .....-.............. ........ 160
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory -.. .... ..----- -- ---163
Federal-State Frost Warning Service ....................----..-- ------- 166
Central Florida Station ........ ......... ----- --........ 169
Citrus Station -......... ........... .. ..-..-.... .......... --- -- ------ 176
Everglades Station .-- ..-- ............. .. 223
Indian River Field Laboratory .......................... --.-- 265
Gulf Coast Station ......- ................. ....... -- ---------- ---------- -- ..- 272
North Florida Station ........... ........... ............ ..... 296
M obile Units ........................................ 303
Range Cattle Station .....-...- ---......-................. 307
Sub-Tropical Station --- ................... ------ .------ 313
Suwannee Valley Station .... --..... ----- ........... ...332
West Central Florida Station ..----....................- 334
W est Florida Station ......... ........ .................- 336

Annual Report, 1953


The Florida Agricultural Experiment Station was established under the
federal Hatch Act in 1887 as a department of the State Agricultural
College at Lake City, where it remained until 1906, when it was moved to
Gainesville, and made a department of the University of Florida. For
about 30 years it was operated mostly with federal funds, except for
small sums for a few buildings.
Below can be seen at a glance the growth which the Station has made
during the last three decades:

Number of
Date of r Main
Report Research Station Branch Field
Workers Depart- Stations Labora- Projects
ments stories

June 1923 .. 15 5 3 0
June 1933 .. 80 8 5 7 145
June 1943 .. 124 8 7 5 175
June 1953 .. 230 14 10 7 258

Including Editorial and Library.

As a result of this growth and development the accomplishments of the
Station have been manifold. The tempo and quality of its research have
increased greatly with the passing of the years and with it Florida's agri-
culture has taken great strides forward.
In 1923 the Station's 15 researchers were investigating problems in five
areas-agronomy, chemistry and soils, horticulture, plant pathology and
entomology. The current project system was begun in 1928 and since
then 674 working outlines have been "placed on the books" to serve as
guides for the researches undertaken. Research covered by these projects
is never static. Because of new information, new approaches and ever-
new situations, the projects are constantly being re-examined, revised or
closed and others begun. During the current year 50 new ones were
approved, six were revised, 26 were closed, and 184 others are being
As stated in this report last year, the trend toward teamwork is gaining
momentum. In 1933 there were no projects cutting across department
lines; 10 years later there were seven; 28 were conducted cooperatively
at the beginning of the current year, and now there are 37 such projects
where the research is conducted cooperatively by leaders from different
departments within the Station. Some of the Station's investigations are
conducted in cooperation with commercial organizations as well as with
agencies of the Federal Government. Brief reports of the investigations
conducted during the current fiscal year are given on subsequent pages.

Several items covering expansion and improvements for the fiscal year
are worthy of mention. For the Veterinary Science Department there was
established a Poultry Disease Diagnostic Laboratory at Dade City to aid
poultrymen in getting prompt diagnosis of flock diseases in that area. The

8 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

laboratory building and land for this unit were provided by poultrymen
and the Pasco County Fair Association. It is manned and is being equipped
by the Station.
A field laboratory, as part of the Everglades Station system, and called
Old Plantation Field Laboratory, was established near Ft. Lauderdale for
research with vegetables, grasses and other crops of the area. The land
for this unit, approximately 80 acres, was made available on a long-term
lease basis through the Board of Commissioners of Broward County.
The Citrus Station installed a much needed central sewage disposal
system to handle adequately waste products from the processing plant. At
that Station also was established, cooperatively with the State Plant Board,
a laboratory for more intensive study of tristeza.
Land purchases consisted of 300 acres for the Suwannee Valley Station
and 60 acres for the Range Cattle Station. Construction of a laboratory
building was begun for the Suwannee Valley Station. The Range Cattle
Station had drilled a 10-inch well, 781 feet deep, to furnish water for
irrigation and other purposes.

Peacock, Fentress McCoughan, Assistant in Animal Husbandry, Range Cat-
tle Station, September 1, 1952.
Crall, James M., Associate Pathologist, Acting in Charge, Watermelon,
Grape Investigations Laboratory, October 10, 1952.
Powell, Levi A., Sr., Assistant Agricultural Economist, Main Station,
September 1, 1952.
Smith, Cecil N., Associate Agricultural Economist, Main Station, October
1, 1952.
Montelaro, James, Interim Assistant Horticulturist, Main Station, Septem-
ber 1, 1952.
Mitchell, William G., Assistant Editor, Main Station, September 1, 1952.
Guthrie, Frank E., Assistant Entomologist, North Florida Station, Sep-
tember 1, 1952.
Oberbacher, Marion F., Interim Assistant Plant Physiologist, Citrus Sta-
tion, August 15, 1952.
Patrick, Roger, Bacteriologist, Citrus Station, September 1, 1952.
Elvin, Evert J., Interim Assistant Horticulturist, Citrus Station, October
1, 1952.
Tennant, John L., Visiting Economist, Main Station, October 1, 1952.
Learner, Edward N., Interim Assistant Horticulturist, Citrus Station, Sep-
tember 15, 1952.
Swarthout, Edward William, Associate Poultry Pathologist, Dade City
Poultry Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, November 1, 1952.
Newland, Herman William, Interim Research Assistant in Nutrition, Main
Station, October 1, 1952.
Hazen, Marian W., Animal Husbandman in Charge, West Central Florida
Station, August 3, 1952.
Dietz, James Hadley, Collaborator, Citrus Station, October 1, 1952.
Donnelly, Grace Marie, Assistant in Library, Citrus Station, November 1,
Dougherty, Marshall Harding, Collaborator, Citrus Station, January 1,
Ting, Sik Vung, Collaborator, Citrus Station, January 1, 1953.
Woltz, Shreve Simpson, Assistant Horticulturist, Gulf Coast Station,
January 1, 1953.

Annual Report, 1953

Hamilton, Max G., Assistant Horticulturist, Everglades Station, January
1, 1953.
Boyd, Frederick T., Associate Agronomist, Everglades Station, December
1, 1952.
McCall, John Temple, Assistant in Chemistry, Main Station, January 10,
Outler, Jason Curry, Jr., Assistant in Chemistry, Main Station, February
1, 1953.
Shirley, Ray L., Biochemist, Main Station, February 1, 1953.
Carpenter, James Woodford, Interim Research Assistant in Animal Hus-
bandry, Main Station, February 1, 1953.
Simpson, Everett C., Interim Research Assistant in Animal Husbandry,
Main Station, February 1, 1953.
MacNab, Alexander Taylor, Interim Assistant in Chemistry, Main Station,
March 1, 1953.
Roush, Robert Dean, Interim Assistant in Agronomy, Main Station, March
1, 1953.
Harrison, Dalton Sidney, Assistant Agricultural Engineer, Everglades Sta-
tion, June 15, 1953.
Forsee, William T., Jr., Chemist in Charge, Everglades Station, February
1, 1953.
Jones, William H., Jr., Assistant Superintendent of Field Operations, Main
Station, February 1, 1953.

Kiely, Gladys E., Assistant in Research, Main Station, August 16, 1952.
Cowperthwaite, William G., Assistant Horticulturist, Gulf Coast Station,
September 20, 1952.
Hills, Walter A., Associate Horticulturist, Everglades Station, September
30, 1952.
Harman, Dorothy Asbell, Collaborator, Citrus Station, June 16, 1952.
Jackson, William, Animal Husbandman in Charge, West Central Florida
Station, July 31, 1952.
Bowery, Tom G., Assistant Entmologist, Everglades Station, December 31,
Boney, Katherine McKay, Assistant Chemist, Main Station, January 10,
Stasch, Ann Rita, Assistant in Chemistry, Main Station, January 31, 1953.
Chapman, Herbert L., Assistant Animal Husbandman, Everglades Station,
June 30, 1953.
Langford, Walter Robert, Assistant Agronomist, West Florida Station, June
30, 1953.
Dietz, James Hadley, Collaborator, Citrus Station, March 31, 1953.
Grennell, Myron G., Assistant Agronomist, Main Station, May 31, 1953.
Dahlberg, Dorothy, Assistant in Agronomy, Main Station, June 30, 1953.
Stoner, Warren N., Assistant Plant Pathologist, Everglades Station, June
30, 1953.
The Station's research, conducted under planned and approved project
statements, is listed by the titles given below. Work of an exploratory
nature and of short duration is given in the various divisions under

10 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Agricultural Economics
Project No. Title Page
154 Farmer's Cooperative Associations in Florida ............-................. 25
186 Costs of Production and Grove Organization Studies of Florida
Citrus (revised during year) ................ .....- ...-.---.......- --- --- 25
345 Factors Affecting Breeding Efficiency, Its Possible Inheritance, and
Depreciation in Florida Dairy Herds .............................----.---. 26
429 Analysis of Farms and Markets in the Plant City Area with
Respect to Post-War Economic Problems (closed during year) 26
451 Crop and Livestock Estimating on Florida Farms with Emphasis
on Vegetable Crops .-.................................--- ....--------- ----- -- -- 27
480 Cost of Production and Returns on Vegetable Crops in Florida .. 27
483 Consumer Packaging of Vegetables (Except Tomatoes) (closed
during year) ........- ----- ---- ---....... ... ..------- -- 28
484 Packaging of Tom atoes ..................................... ....- ------------------ 28
485 Spoilage in Marketing Early Irish Potatoes (closed during year) -. 28
486 Costs and Factors Affecting Cost of Marketing Citrus Fruits in
Fresh and Processed Form .................. -.......... ... -------- 29
519 The Consumer Pattern for Citrus Fruit ............... ..-........... 30
520 Coordinated Selling of Citrus Fruit --...................-- ...-- ....... 30
556 Farm Rental Arrangements in Florida ....................................-.... 31
562 Consumer Demand for Citrus Products and Factors Affecting that
Demand ...------..........................------..-.---- ---- 31
579 Part-Time Farming in Florida ...........................----.--.. -------- ------- 31
593 Method of Shipping Florida Citrus Fruits and Citrus Products .. 32
602 Marketing Meat Animals in Florida .......................--............ ----.. -- 32
619 An Analysis of Present and Potential Utilization of Land for
Grazing and Alternative Uses in Central Florida ................ 33
626 An Analysis of the Efficiency of the Elementary Functions of
Packing and Handling Florida Citrus from the Tree Through
the Packing House (begun during year) ..........-........................ 33
627 Pasture Programs and Breeding Systems for Beef Production on
Flatwoods Soils of Central and North Central Florida (begun
during year) .....-- ..........--....... -- ----. ------- -------------- ----- ------ 34
630 Economy of Marketing and Methods of Handling Sweet Corn for
Long Distance Shipments (begun during year) ...............-........... 34
638 Improving Methods and Practices in Harvesting, Handling and
Packing Early Irish Potatoes (begun during year) ...............-. 34
647 The Effects of Enterprise Adjustments and Improved Management
Practices on Farm Incomes in North Florida (begun during
year) .--....................-................ ..---- .. .. ...-- ---------- ------------- 35
651 Effects of Inter- and Intra-Market Competition Milk Production
and Utilization in Central and South Florida (begun during
year) .........................- --- ..........- -------------. ---- ----------- 36
656 The Legal Aspects of Farm Tenancy in Florida (begun during
year) ...................................... ......- ------- ------------------ ----------- 36
664 The Characteristics of the Demand for Frozen Orange Concentrate
Produced in Florida (begun during year) ............................... 36
665 An Analysis of the Efficiency of the Elemental Functions of Pack-
ing, Shipping and Handling Florida Citrus from the Packing
Line to the Retail Store (begun during year) ......................... 37
666 Marketing Charges and Returns from Florida Vegetables by Types
of Firms and Methods of Sale. (Classification I. Marketing
Cost, Margins and Efficiency) (begun during year) ............ 37

Annual Report, 1953 11

Agricultural Engineering
Project No. Title Page
536 Curing Hay in Florida (closed during year) ........... ..... ........- 38
555 Fertilization and Culture of Flue-Cured Tobacco ............................ 38
573 Design and Operation of Heat Exchangers for Farm Drying
Equipment (closed during year) ...................... ....................... 38
577 Determination of Optimum Air Delivery, Air Temperature, and
Depth of Seed for Mechanical Drying ................................. 39
627 Pasture Programs and Breeding Systems for Beef Production on
Flatwoods Soils of Central and North Central Florida (begun
during year) ........................................... ...... .. ..... ....... .................. 39
628 Irrigation of Permanent Pastures for Lactating Dairy Cows (be-
gun during year) ........................ .... .... ....... ............. 39
661 Pasture Renovation (begun during year) ....................................... 41
...... Miscellaneous: Improving Methods and Practices in Harvesting,
Handling and Packing Early Irish Potatoes; Irrigation and
Fertilization of Flatwoods Pastures in Central and North Cen-
tral F lorida .................... .......................... ............... 41

20 Peanut Improvement (revised during year) ................................... 44
56 Variety Test W ork with Field Crops .................. ......... ................ 44
295 The Effects of Fertilizers and Management on the Yield, Grazing
Value, Chemical Composition, and Botanical Makeup of Pas-
tures (revised during year) ...........-......... ... ............ ...........- 45
297 Forage Nursery and Plant Introduction Studies (revised during
year) ............ .......- ......................-.. .. ....... .... 45
298 Forage and Pasture Grass Improvement ....................-.................... 46
301 Pasture Legumes (revised during year) ......................................... 46
304 Methods of Establishing Permanent Pastures Under Various Con-
ditions (revised during year) ................. ..-............ ....... .. 46
369 Effect of Environment on Composition of Forage Plants ............ 47
372 Flue-Cured Tobacco Improvement (revised during year) ........... 47
374 Corn Breeding (revised during year) ............................-............... 47
417 Methods of Producing, Harvesting, and Maintaining Pasture
Plants and Seed Stocks ...................................... .........-- ..... 48
440 Effect of Cu, Mn, Zn, B, S, and Mg on the Growth of Grain Crops,
Forage Crops, Pastures and Tobacco ..................................... 48
444 Permanent Seed-beds for Tobacco Plants ........................... ......... 49
487 Improvement of Oats, Rye, Wheat and Barley Through Breeding
for Desirable Agronomic Characters and Resistance to Disease 49
488 Nutrition and Physiology of the Peanut ..............--.. ............. 51
536 Curing Hay in Florida (closed during year) ...................-... ......... 51
537 Control of Insect Pests of Flue-Cured Tobacco ............................... 52
555 Fertilization and Culture of Flue-Cured Tobacco .......................... 52
600 Breeding Improved Varieties of White, Red, and Sweet Clover .. 53
612 Varietal Improvement of Lupines .................................... .......... 53
627 Pasture Program and Breeding Systems for Beef Production on
Flatwoods Soils of Central and North Central Florida (begun
during year) ............----- -........------- ...... .-- --... --------................. 54
652 Evaluation and Improvement of Turf Grasses for Florida (begun
during year) -..............--..-- -----......... -.............. 54
661 Pasture Renovation (begun during year) ............-............... ...... 54
..- Miscellaneous: Sea Island and Other Long Staple Cotton; Lawn
Management Studies; Crop Management ................................. 55

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Animal Husbandry and Nutrition
Project No. Title Page
133 Mineral Requirements of Cattle ...................----... ----.. ....- --. ------ 56
346 Investigation with Laboratory Animals of Mineral Nutrition Prob-
lems of Livestock (revised during year) ....................... --.... ......... 57
356 Biological Analysis of Pasture Herbage (revised during year) .. 58
412 Beef Yield and Quality from Various Grasses, from Clover and
Grass Mixtures, and Response to Fertilized and Unfertilized
Pastures ........................... ...-. ...- ...- ..---- ...---- .. .... .... .. 58
461 Supplemental Feeds for Nursing Beef Calves ............................-....... 59
512 Sweet Lupine Seed as a Protein Supplement for Growing and
Fattening Beef Cattle (closed during year) .......................... 59
518 Thyroid Function in Chickens ........ .....-..-..-- .......-...... 59
540 Citrus Molasses for Feeding Swine ..........................--------.. .......... 59
542 Supplemental Feeds for Sows During Reproduction and Lactation
on Florida Pastures .--.--.............- ..-- .. ....-- ..--...... ..........- 60
543 Roughages for Maintenance and Growth of Beef Cattle in Florida 60
546 Loss of Nutrients in Drip from Defrosted Frozen Meat ............. 60
551 Utilization of Calcium and Phosphorous by Poultry as Determined
with Radioactive Isotopes ................................... .. ...... .. ...... 60
566 Transfer of Mineral Elements Through the Placenta and Their
Distribution in the Fetus -................... .-- ...-...........-........ 61
627 Pasture Programs and Breeding Systems for Beef Production on
Flatwood Soils of Central and North Central Florida (begun
during year) --- ...-...-- .....--.-----..... ............----... ..-.....-..-... 61
629 Selection of Cattle Adapted for Beef Production in Southeastern
United States (begun during year) ..........................-........... ..... 61
631 A Comparison of the Carcass Characteristics of Purebred Brah-
man, Purebred British Breeds and Their Crosses (begun during
year) .-....... -... ........-... .......-... ... .... .......... ...---....... ............ 62
Micellaneous: Citrus Meal in Swine Rations; Supplements to Low
Gossypol Cottonseed Meal for Swine; The Effect of Reducing
and Discontinuing Aureomycin Supplementation During Grow-
ing-Fattening Period of the Pig; Effect of Aureomycin on the
Protein Requirement and Carcass Characteristics of Swine;
Sunflower-Seed Meal as a Protein Supplement for Fattening
Swine; Swine Dermatitis of Nutritional Origin; Antibiotic Im-
plants for Baby Pigs; Ammoniated Citrus Pulp for Cattle;
"Stringhalt" in Cattle; Interrelationships of Copper, Molybde-
num and Phosphorus; Sunflower-Seed Meal as a Protein Sup-
plement for Fattening Steers; The Effects of Sex Hormones
on Growing-Fattening Swine; Waste Beef Fat for Growing-
Fattening Pigs; The Content of B-Complex Vitamins in the
Tissues of Sows Receiving Radioactive Ca and Mo Prior to
Slaughter; Protein Level and Aureomycin Supplementation-
Their Influence Upon B-Complex Vitamins in the Tissues of
Swine; Effect of Feeding Dry Hay to Beef Cattle Grazing
O ats .............. .. ....... .. .. ............ ....... 62
Dairy Science
140 Relation of Conformation and Anatomy of the Dairy Cow to Her
Milk and Butterfat Production (closed during year) ................ 66
213 Ensilability of Florida Forage Crops ....................................... 66
345 Factors Affecting Breeding Efficiency, Its Possible Inheritance and
Depreciation in Florida Dairy Herds ................................ 67
497 Influence of Water Constituents (Minerals) on the Physical Prop-
erties and Whipping Quality of Ice Cream Mixes (closed dur-
ing year) ................... ...- ........... ..-...- .- .. -.. ...... 67

Annual Report, 1953

Project No. Title Page
534 Cooling and Aging of Ice Cream Mixes (revised during year) .... 67
564 Post Partum Development of Bovine Stomach Compartments and
Observations on Some Characteristics of Their Contents ......... 68
571 Effects of Antibiotics and Chemotherapeutic Agents on Microor-
ganisms in Milk and Dairy Products ........................................ 68
575 Study of the Production, Reproduction and Conformation of the
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Dairy Herd ..........-... 69
594 Effect of Aureomycin Feeding Upon the Performance of Dairy
Calves ........ .----- ............. ---. --............................ ............ 69
628 Irrigation of Permanent Pasture for Lactating Dairy Cows (begun
during year) ....................------ ..................... ........... .................... 70
633 Utilization of Temporary Pastures by Dairy Cattle (begun dur-
ing year) ....-- .--- ......--------------....................... ........... ................... 70
636 Influence of Dietary Pyrimidine Ribose Nucleic Acid and Some
of Its Probable Precursors on Dairy Calves (begun during
year) .............. ......................... ................ .. ............ 71
637 Improved Permanent Pastures for Growing Dairy Heifers (begun
during year) ...... ....-- ----- ......-- .................. ............................. 72
667 Sub-Normal Milk: Its Production, Correction and Utilization (be-
gun during year) ............. ... -. ................... ......................... 72
Miscellaneous: Detection of Butterfat Adulteration; Effectiveness
of Certain Chelating Compounds in Controlling the Copper In-
duced Oxidized Flavor of Milk; New Flavors for Ice Cream;
Cryoscopic Investigation Results in Improved Techniques;
Acidity Variations During Lactic Acid Fermentation in Re-
constituted Dairy Products; Dried Ramie Tops and Shives, with
Blackstrap M classes ......... ...... .. ... .................. ......... .. 73

Editorial Department
670 Dissemination of Information on Agricultural Research Results
(begun during year) .............-- .-------- --- ....... ........... 92

379 Control of Pecan Nut Casebearer --.....--.................- ... ........... ...... 93
531 Control of Insect and Arachnid Pests of Woody Ornamentals .... 93
537 Control of Insect Pests of Flue-Cured Tobacco ...-........................ 95
583 Introduction and Testing of Nectar and Pollen Producing Plants
in Florida ..... .... ...... ......-- ................. .. ... 96
597 Control of Hickory Shuckworm on Pecans ................... ....... .............. 96
616 Control of Insects and Related Pests of Pastures --........-....--....... 97
650 Factors Influencing Insecticidal Residues on Vegetable Crops
(begun during year) ................................ ...... 98
669 Biology and Control of Insects Attacking Cruciferous Crops in
Florida (begun during year) ......... .... .. -.................. ..... 99
... Miscellaneous: Systemic Insecticide Investigations; Earworm
Control in Sweet Corn ....... .--.......... .... ............ 99

Home Economics
568 Effects of Dietary Practices and Previous Illnesses on Carpal De-
velopm ent of Children .......... .................................... 101
569 The Effect of Carotene or Vitamin A Deficiency in Young Rats on
Subsequent Life Pattern .............. .. .............................. 101
570 Nutritional Deficiency in the Young Rat in Relation to Subsequent
Malformation of Bones .............. ... ... ...... ....... 102
625 Effect of Dietary Practices on the Composition of the Blood in the
Aged (begun during year) ..........-....... ... ... 103

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Project No. Title Page
50 Tung Production ........................................- -- -- 105
52 Native and Introduced Ornamental Plants .-..-......- ------..---.. 105
187 Variety Tests of Minor Fruits ...................------------------ 107
365 Cultural Requirements of the Mu-Oil Tree ............ ------------..-- 108
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ..............-.... ..-...-. ------------- 108
435 Irrigation of Vegetable Crops ...................------- --------- --- 109
452 Culture and Classification of Camellia and Related Genera .....-... 110
467 Maintaining Freshness in Vegetables with Ice -................-. .... 111
473 Freezing Preservation of Certain Florida-Grown Vegetables
(closed during year) -.................-- ...... --------- -- 111
475 Effect of Soil Fumigants on Yield and Qualty of Vegetables
(closed during year) ...................-.. ....... .... ---- ------------.----- 111
483 Consumer Packaging of Vegetables (Except Tomatoes) (closed
during year) .......-- ..... -... -- -................... ---- ------ -- 11'
484 Packaging of Tomatoes ...............................--- -. -------- 111
501 Vegetable Breeding ....................... ....................- ---.-- ------...- ... 112
521 Tomato Ripening (closed during year) .............---------..--------------. 112
526 Canning Florida-Grown Vegetables (closed during year) ....... 112
553 Testing Miscellaneous Fruits and Nuts .............----------... --....------ 113
565 Fertilization of Pecans ............................. -.....-.... ---- -------- 113
584 Quality Improvement of Honey and the Development of Honey
Products (closed during year) ....................---.-.-..... .... 113
592 Prevention of Skinning of Potatoes ......-.............--- ---- ------------ 113
599 Effect of Growth Regulators on Production and Quality of Certain
Nut and Fruit Plants ....................... -....... ........ -- --------. 113
616 Control of Insects and Related Pests of Pastures ........................... 114
624 Fertilizer Requirements of Watermelons ................................--------- 114
630 Economy of Marketing and Methods of Handling Sweet Corn for
Long Distance Shipments (begun during year) -..................... 114
632 The Removal of Insecticide Residues from Harvested Fresh Vege-
tables (begun during year) ...........................------------ .... .... 115
639 Analytical Techniques for the Chemical Determination of Insecti-
cide Residues of Vegetables (begun during year) ...............-........ 116
640 The Influence of Nutrition on Tomato Fruit Disorders (begun
during year) -.................................. ------- ..-- -- ----------------- 116
641 Maturity as Related to Quality of Tomatoes for the Fresh Market
(begun during year) ..---...................--- --......... ----- ----------- 118
642 Relationship of Heredity to the Ripening Performance of Toma-
toes (begun during year) ..........................- ...... ...------- ....... 118
643 Post-Harvest Effects of Temperature, Light, Storage Atmosphere
and Humidity on Tomato Quality (begun during year) ........ 119
644 Tomato Quality as Influenced by Pre-Harvest Environmental Con-
ditions (begun during year) ...............- .........-------- .-- -- 119
650 Factors Influencing Insecticidal Residues on Vegetable Crops
(begun during year) .................. ---------........... --.............----------- 119
653 The Influence of Maturity and Environment Upon the Quality of
Vegetables of the Legume Family (begun during year) ...... 119
673 The Effects of the Time and Rate of Application of Fertilizers
on Vegetable Crops (begun during year) ........................~-........- 120
Miscellaneous: Cantaloupe Breeding; Handling Injuries and Quality
of Congo Watermelons Prior to Shipping; Copper Induced
Azalea Chlorosis ............... -- -..--...... ..--- ......--.. ..... ---- --- 120
U. S. Field Laboratory for Tung Investigations
Breeding and Selection of Tung; Controlled Crosses .................... 121
Nutritional Studies .--............... ..------..--- -- --..-...... 122

Annual Report, 1953 15

Plant Pathology
Project No. Title Page
259 Collection and Preservation of Specimens of Florida Plants ....... 126
281 Damping-Off and Root Rots of Vegetable Crops .......................... 126
455 Cam ellia D diseases ....................... ........ ........ .... ..-..-. .................... 127
487 Improvement of Oats, Rye, Wheat and Barley Through Breeding
for Desirable Agronomic Characteristics and Resistance to
D disease ..........-..............-.... ............... 127
524 Nectar and Pollen Plants of Florida ....................................... ... 128
538 Virus Diseases of Cucurbits and Other Vegetables in Central
F lorida .............. ......... ............... ....... ...... ...... .......... .- 128
539 Control of Scab and Other Foliage Diseases of Pecan ................. 128
563 Causes and Control of Diseases of Potted Plants ...............-.... .. 129
574 The Resistance of Peppers, Capsiceum frutescens L., to Virus
D diseases ................. ....... .............. ...... ...... ........... .... .... ..... 129
588 Control of Soil Organisms Causing "Damping-off" and Root Rots
of N ursery Plants ......... ................ ........ ... ... ............. 130
612 Varietal Improvement of Lupines ................................ .... 130
Miscellaneous: Control of Foliage Diseases of Roses ....................... 131
Poultry Husbandry
489 Feeding Value of Citrus Meal and Citrus Seed Meal for Poultry .. 132
503 Broiler Feeding Trials .......................... .... ... ....... ............................. 132
517 Factors Influencing the Development of Pullet Disease (closed
during year) .... ..... ........ ......... .... .. .... ........ ... .. ..... ......... 132
551 Utilization of Calcium and Phosphorous by Poultry as Determined
with Radioactive Isotopes ........................-... --...-.....- ... ...... 133
572 The Comparative Value of Simplified Poultry Diets for Egg and
M eat P reduction ............................................- .... .................. 133
SMiscellaneous: The Control of Serum Calcium in Chickens; Deep
Litter in Laying Houses ... ....................................... ........ 133
328 Interrelationship of Microbiological Action in Soils and Cropping
System s in Florida .... .................. ....... ...... -........... .................. 135
347 The Chemical, Physical and Mineralogical Properties of Represen-
tative Florida Soils ...............-............- ....... ..................... .. 138
368 Factors Affecting the Growth of Legume Bacteria and Nodule
Develop ent ........................ .. ........-- ..-.. ....... .... 139
389 Classification and Mapping of Florida Soils ............................. ........ 139
404 The Maintenance of Soil Fertility Under Permanent Pasture (re-
vised during year) ....................-- ....-- ... .....---------- ....... ----- ......... 140
428 Availability of Phosphorus From Various Phosphates Applied to
Different Soil Types ....................... ...... ..... -... ..... ........ .. 140
433 Retention and Utilization of Boron in Florida Soils .................. 141
446 Testing Soils and Lim estone .................... ................ ... ................ 143
447 Availability and Leaching of Minor Elements in Florida Soils .. 143
493, 535, 544 Soil Management Investigations ..................-............... 147
513 Maintenance of Available Nitrogen in Florida Soils ........................ 143
576 The Relationship Between Several Soil Water Constants and the
Moisture Content of Soils Under Supplemental Irrigation 145
598 Role of the Major Bases in Florida Soils ............ ............ 145
608 Sulfur Requirements of Representative Florida Soils ............. 146
614 Effect of Certain Insecticides on Microbiological Action in Soils 146
M miscellaneous .....- .........----------.....--- 148
Veterinary Science
353 Infectious Bovine Mastitis .................. .................... .. .... 149
424 Fowl Leucosis-Role of Nucleoproteins ................................... 149

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Project No. Title Page
459 Control of the Liver Fluke (Trematoda) Disease of Cattle (closed
during year) .....- ............. ......... -...-- -- --------- -- -- --- 150
462 Anaplasmosis of Cattle ................. .. .......-.....------------------ --- ----- 150
517 Factors Influencing the Development of Pullet Disease (closed
during year) ........--................. .... -- ------. ... ---- -- .... 151
554 Control of Internal Parasites of Cattle .............-----......-----.- 151
557 Control of External Parasites of Cattle .--.......-............ ---------------.. 152
601 Built-Up Litter as Related to Certain Diseases of Poultry ........ 154
634 Role of Vaccination and of Brooding Temperature in Micrococcus
and Streptococcus Infections in Broilers (begun during year) .. 154
..- Miscellaneous: Poultry Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Dade City;
Infectious Bronchitis Immunization; Vibrionic Abortion and
Sterility of Dairy Cattle; Plants Poisonous to Livestock ........ 154

Pecan Investigations Laboratory
For Reports see Projects 379 and 597, ENTOMOLOGY; also PLANT
PATHOLOGY, Project 593.
Potato Investigations Laboratory
391 Vegetable Variety Trials .............................-.......-------- -- 156
419 Downy Mildew of Cabbage (closed during year) ............................--.. 156
465 Fertility Studies in Cabbage Production (closed during year) .... 156
469 Improvement of Potato Cultural Practices .....................--.....-------.... 157
500 Alternaria Leaf Spot of Cabbage and Other Crucifers (closed dur-
ing year) ................ ..-........ ... ....... ... ..------ --------- ----------- -------- 157
527 Cabbage Diseases Other Than Downy Mildew and Alternaria Leaf
Spot ..................... ... --...-- ---..-.... -----.. -- 157
529 Potato Diseases .......................---- ........... ..------ -- ------------ --------.. 158
620 Nature, Effects and Control of Molybdenum and Boron Deficiency
in Cauliflow er ......................................... ... ..---------- ------- ----.. 159
650 Factors Influencing Insecticidal Residues on Vegetable Crops (be-
gun during year) .....-..................- .... ..-.......-.--. ---- -------- ----.. 159
Miscellaneous: Wireworm Studies; Cabbage Worm Control; Con-
trol of Aphids on Cabbage; Effect of Some Insecticides on the
Development of Cabbage Seedlings ........................--.-- 159
Strawberry Laboratory
499 Strawberry Variety Trials ..........................-- -........... 161
S Miscellaneous: Ectoparasitic Nematodes ..........--...... -.....------ 162
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory
150 Investigation of and Control of Fusarium Wilt of Watermelon .... 163
151 Investigation of and Control of Fungus Diseases of Watermelons 164
586 Grasses and Legumes for Pastures in Central Florida ........-...... 164
..... Development of Superior Varieties and Cultural Methods for Grape
Production in Florida .............................--...... .. ----- ---- ---... 165
Miscellaneous: Cotton Strain Test; Weed Control in Plumosus
Fern (Asparagus plumosus Baker); Weed Control in Dixie
Runner Peanuts ............. ....... ..------ ....--------------- -- ------- ----------. 165
Federal-State Frost Warning Service Report for 1952-53 Season 166

Central Florida Station
281 Damping-Off and Root Rots of Vegetable Crops ....................... 169
336 Cercospora Blight of Celery ..................- .................... --.. 170

Annual Report, 1953

Project No. Title Page
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ......-........- -.........-- ---------- -----..... 170
401 Control of Lepidopterous Larvae Attacking Green Corn ........... 171
494 Improvement of Cultural Practices for Cabbage, Lettuce, Celery
and Other Vegetable Crops .....-.......... --........- ..-- --------- 171
495 Liquid Fertilizers for Vegetable Crops ......-........................... 172
496 Soil Management Problems in Vegetable Crop Fields ................ 172
500 Alternaria Leaf Spot of Cabbage and Other Crucifers (closed dur-
ing year) ..........--.. ..-. ...-.... ...-.- ...............- ----- .---- 173
501 Vegetable Breeding ........................................-..... -....- .. ---------- 173
523 Control of Nematodes Injurious to Vegetable Crops ....................... 173
581 Synthetic Insecticides and Fungicides for Vegetable Crops in Cen-
tral F lorida .......................... .............. ..... -- .---- -- -------. 173
587 Fungicidal Control of Helminthosporium Leaf Blight of Sweet
C orn .................. .........................- ----------------. 174
650 Factors Influencing Insecticidal Residues on Vegetable Crops (be-
gun during year) ....................................-....... .. ---- ..---..------- 174
.. Miscellaneous: Iron Response on a Virgin Soil; Drug Plants;
Evis W after Conditioner .........-.. ...--- --------------------- --.--- 175
Citrus Station
26 Citrus Progeny and Bud Selection ...................... .................. ..... 176
102 Variety Testing and Breeding .............................. ..--- --... --.--- -. 176
185 Investigations of Melanose and Stem-End Rot of Citrus Fruit .... 177
340 Citrus Nutrition Studies ........................--...--.-. -- -------...-- .--- ----- 177
341 Combined Control of Scale Insects and Mites on Citrus .............. 184
508 Water Relations with Citrus in the Coastal Areas ........................ 186
509 Nature, Causes and Control of Citrus Decline .....................-... 188
510 Insect Parasitism and Related Biological Factors as Concerned
with Citrus Insect and Mite Control ................-........- .... 190
511 Diseases of Citrus Insects .......................... ---. --- -- --- -- 191
547 Bulk Handling of Fresh Fruit for Packinghouses ......................... 191
550 Microbiology of Frozen Concentrated Citrus Juices ....................... 192
561 Coliform Organisms in Frozen Concentrated Citrus Juices (closed
during year) ........................ -. ................---- 193
605 Improved Machinery for Citrus Production ................................. 193
606 Ecological Factors Affecting Citrus Production .............................. 193
607 Florida Citrus Oils ............................. ........... .. -- --.-- ------ ----------.. -- 194
610 Chemical Studies on New Fungicides and Insecticides ................... 195
611 Storage Studies on Processed Citrus Juices and Concentrates ..... 197
617 Citrus Rootstock Investigations in the Coastal Areas ................ 197
622 Recovery and Utilization of Naringin ................................-... 198
623 Refinement of Citrus M olasses ............... ..........-....... ------.....-. -- 198
646 Recovery and Utilization of Hesperidin (begun during year) .... 198
648 Citrus Juice Dispensers (begun during year) ....-.............................. 199
649 Clarification and Gelation in Concentrated Citrus Juices (begun
during year) .................... ... .................. .. ..--- .. --------- ... 199
658 Soil Fertility and Grove Management Practices for Citrus in the
Indian River Area (begun during year) ...............-... .........-. 200
659 Control of Citrus Insects and Mites in the Indian River Area
(begun during year) ............. ....... .. ....- ....... .... ---........... 202
663 Root Distribution of Citrus Trees (begun during year) ............. 203
668 Color-Adding and Protective Coating Processes for Citrus Fruits
(begun during year) ................ ........... ....-...-......-. 205
671 Degreening of Citrus Fruits (begun during year) ..................... 206
..... Decay Control Research ..........- ........ ............ ..... ...... 207

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Project No. Title Page
Miscellaneous: Relationship of Heat Treatment to the Quality of
Processed Citrus Juices and Concentrates; Standardization
of Processed Citrus Juices and Concentrates; Oxidizing En-
zymes in Citrus Products; Color of Citrus Products; Frozen
Tangerine Concentrate; Methane Fermentation of Waste Wa-
ter from Citrus Processing Plants; Chemical Changes in
Citrus Fruits During Maturation; Copper Oxide as a Fertilizer
for Citrus; Fibreboard Shipping Containers; Distribution and
Rate of Spead of Tristeza Disease; Effects of Florida Tristeza
on Grapefruit Trees and on "Tolerant" Orange and Tangerine
Combinations, Diagnosis and Rapid Determination of Tristeza;
Establishment of Nucellar Strains of Commercial Citrus Varie-
ties; Phosphatic Complexes in the Soil-Their Effect on Re-
tention and Availability of Nutrient Cations; Foliar Applied
NuGreen as a Supplementary Nitrogen Fertilizer for Citrus;
Sodium in Citrus Nutrition; Investigation of Phosphatic In-
secticides; Spectroscopic Analysis ..-.................. ..... ....-.... .. 209-222

Everglades Station
85 Fruit nd Forest Tree Trials and Other Introductory Plantings .... 224
86 Soil Fertility Investigations Under Field and Greenhouse Condi-
tions ....--..... -- .- ......... .......... ..- ....- 225
87 Insect Pests and Their Control ................... ...-... ... ... .. 225
88 Soils Investigations ......... ............................... 228
89 W ater Control Investigations ....... .... .................................... 228
133 Mineral Requirements of Cattle .........................-- .........-..--.... .. 230
168 Role of Special Elements in Plant Development Upon the Peat
and Muck Soils of the Everglades ........----....................... ........-- 231
169 Studies Upon the Prevalence and Control of the Sugar Cane Moth
Borer in South Florida ........... -..................... ..... -... -. ...... 232
171 Cane Breeding Experiments (closed during year) ....................... 232
172 Physiology of Sugar Cane ......................-- ..............--- ....-- ...---.. 232
195 Pasture Investigations on the Peat and Muck Soils of the Ever-
glades ...............- -........ .......-... .-....-..- 234
206 Fiber Crop Investigations ................-.........-...................--- 235
391 Vegetable Variety Trials --.................... ..... ........ ........ ......... .. 238
458 Sclerotiniose Disease of Vegetables (closed during year) ....-......... 240
533 Grasses for Lawns, Recreation Areas, Parks, Airports and Road-
sides (closed during year) .........................- --... --.......-.......... .. 240
545 Breeding Beef Cattle for Adaptation to South Florida Conditions 241
549 Utilization of Feeds and Forages for Beef Production in the Ever-
glades and Lower East Coast of Florida ...................................-.. 241
558 Viruses Affecting Vegetable Crops in the Everglades Area ........... 242
559 Control of Nematodes and Subterranean Insects Injurious to Cul-
tivated Crops ......................- ........ .....-. ..... ..... .. ..... ......... ... ... 242
560 Improvement and Development of Spraying and Dusting Equip-
ment for Agricultural Use --....-.. --...... --.... ........................ ..... 243
587 Fungicidal Control of Helminthosporium Leaf Blight of Sweet
Corn .-- ....--.. ---............. --------...... -........... .... -.............. 243
603 Breeding Snap Beans Celery and Sweet Corn for Southern Florida 244
604 Plant Virus as a Possible Cause of Grape Degeneration (closed
during year) ..................-............- ...... ..---. .-- .. .. ... .. .................. 247
609 A Survey of Insecticide Residues on Major Vegetable Crops in the
Belle Glade-Fort Pierce Area for the 1952 Season (closed during
year) ..... --..... ... .... ..... ...... ... .. ... .... 247

Annual Report, 1953

Project No. Title Page
616 Control of Insect and Related Pests of Pastures -............................. 247
654 Weed Control Investigations in Vegetable Crops (begun during
year) .............-........-- ...........------.------------- -------- ---- ----- -- 249
655 An Evaluation of 2,4-D Contamination to Untreated Sensitive
Plants (begun during year) .................... -.. ...-------- -----.-------- 254
657 Cane Breeding, for Sugar, Syrup, Chewing and Forage Uses (be-
gun during year) .............. ........----- -----.. --- ----. -- -----.--------- -.. 257
662 Selection, Breeding and Cultural Investigations of Field Corn and
Small Grains in South Florida as Sources of Livestock Feeds -. 258
674 Investigations of Agronomic Crops for Forage, Cover and Special
Uses (begun during year) ....................... ... ........ --------- 259
Miscellaneous: Rice Investigations in the Everglades Area; Gen-
eral Plant Disease Survey; Fungicidal Control of Cercospora
Blight of Celery; Control of Weeds and Damping Off by the
Simultaneous Application of Fungicides and Preemergence
Weed Control Materials; "Home Grown" vs. Western Grown
Snap Bean Seed; Cultural Practices with Vegetable Crops;
Pelleted Vegetable Seeds; Chemical Weed Control in Sugar
Cane; Factors Affecting Milk Production in South Florida .. 259
Indian River Field Laboratory
86 Soil Fertility Investigations Under Field and Greenhouse Condi-
tions; Grass-Clover Fertility Experiment; Field Corn Fertility
Experim ent .......-.........-... ......... .. ----- ---- -- ..------- 265
87 Insect Pests and Their Control; Corn Earworm Control-DDT
Formulations; Southern Armyworm on Sweet Potatoes ........ 266
674 Investigations of Agronomic Crops for Forage Cover and Other
Uses; Tomatoes, Fungicide Trials, Variety and Line Tests,
Replicated Yield Trials, STEP Trials, Nutrient Sprays, Vege-
table-Pasture Rotation Trials ..................---- ....-......... --------- 266
Plantation Field Laboratory
Installation of Water Control System; Preparation for Field Ex-
perim ents .......... -----.... ..- .. -- .. ..- ----- ---------- 271
Gulf Coast Station
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ............................--------- ---------------------.. 272
398 Breeding for Combining Resistances to Diseases and Insects in the
Tom ato -.........-......- ....--------- -- -......---- .. 276
401 Control of the Lepidopterous Larvae Attacking Green Corn ........... 277
402 Symptoms of Nutritional Disorders of Vegetable Crop Plants .... 277
445 Insecticidal Value of DDT and Related Synthetic Compounds on
Vegetable Crop Insects in Florida ..--................-.....---- ----.. ..... 278
449 Organic Fungicides for the Control of Foliage Diseases of Vege-
tables ........--..........-------- --.. ....... 278
464 Gladiolus Variety Trials ---.....................-- -- ----------- 279
502 Controlling Gladiolus Corm Diseases ........-........--------- --------- 280
504 Controlling Insect Pests of Gladiolus ................... -----...........-.----- 280
506 Etiology and Control of Certain Epiphytotic Diseases of Gladiolus 281
523 Control of Nematodes Injurious to Vegetable Crops .................... 281
587 Fungicidal Control of Helminthosporium Leaf Blight of Sweet Corn 283
590 Gladiolus Fertility Studies -....... -.-..-..........- -------- .. -- 283
591 Chemical Weed Control for Commercial Vegetable and Gladiolus
Production ...-.......... ----- ...-.-.-....-... -- --- ------ 284
595 Gladiolus Corm Storage ........ ... ..........-.......-- .-- ..---------------- 286

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Project No. Title Page
613 Factors Affecting Germination of Seed and Growth of Vegetable
Plants in Seedbeds on Sandy Soil ........................... ...... .. .... 286
616 Control of Insects and Related Pests of Pastures ....................... 290
621 The Effect of Accumulations of DDT and Other Organic Insecti-
cides in Sandy Soil on Tomato and Certain Microbiological
Processes in the Soil ...... .......... .. ................ ............ .............. 291
645 Control of Insects of Vegetables with Phosphatic Insecticides (be-
gun during year) .- ........ ........ ..... ... ............. ... ...---- ................. 291
650 Factors Influencing Insecticidal Residues on Vegetable Crops (be-
gun during year) ................ ...................... ............... ................. 292
660 The Effect of Different Sources of Nitrogen and Potassium in the
Fertilizers on the Yield and Quality of Vegetables (begun
during year) ..-----.. --- ......................... ................ ........................ 292
672 The Cause and Control of Black-Heart of Celery (begun during
year) ..-.. .......-- .....-. ......- .......... ............. .......... ......... .. 293
-. Miscellaneous: Chinch Bugs and Other Lawn Insects; NematodeF
in Lawns; Nutritional Sprays; Iron Supplements; Effect of
Soluble Salt on Growth of Potatoes; Gladiolus Leaf Scorch 294

North Florida Station
33 Disease-Resistant Varieties of Tobacco ...-.... ... 296
260 Grain Crop Investigations ............................ 296
261 Forage Crop Investigations .......... -- ........................... -.. 298
374 Corn Breeding (revised during year) ........... ............................. 298
491 Production of Feeder Pigs (closed during year) -..... .... 298
493 Soil Management Investigations ........................................ ....... 299
498 Utilization of Pastures in the Production of Beef Cattle ......... 299
525 Control of Insects Attacking Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco ................ 299
532 Management of Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco Plant Beds .................... 300
535 Soil Management Investigations (Mobile Unit No. 3) ...........-. 305
543 Roughages for Maintenance and Growth of Beef Cattle ........... 300
580 Use of Citrus Molasses and Urea in Steer Fattening Rations .... 300
585 Control of Insects Affecting Peanuts ..........-..................-........ 301
612 Varietal Improvement of Lupine ................ ......... -....... .....- 301
616 Control of Insects and Related Pests of Pastures ............................ 302
635 Effect of Aureomycin Added to Rations of Swine Grazing High
Quality Pastures (begun during year) ...................-.....- .... .... ....... 302
.. Miscellaneous: Hornfly and Housefly Control; Special Soil Studies;
Date of Priming Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco; Bacterial (Gran-
ville) Wilt of Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco ..................................... 302
..... M obile U nits ................ ....... .. .... .. ...................... 303

Range Cattle Station
390 Breeding Beef Cattle for Adaptation to Florida Environment ...... 307
404 The Maintenance of Soil Fertility Under Permanent Pasture (re-
vised during year) .......................................... ............... 307
410 Wintering Beef Cows on the Range ................................... ...... 307
423 Effect of Fertilization and Seeding on Grazing Value of Flatwoods
P astures --.... ....................... .... ....... .... .. .. ...... .- ........ ..... 308
476 Utilization of Citrus Products for Fattening Cattle ....................... 309
608 Sulfur Requirements of Representative Florida Soils ................ 310
615 Influence of Breed Composition and Levels of Nutrition on Adapta-
bility of Cattle to Central Florida Conditions ........................ 310
616 Control of Insects and Related Pests of Pastures ............................ 310
618 Effect of Different Prosphatic Fertilizer Materials on Nutritive

Annual Report, 1953

Project No. Title Page
Quality, Herbage Yields and Beef Production of Pangola Pas-
tures ........................................ .............................. 311
631 A Comparison of the Carcass Characteristics of Purebred Brah-
man, Purebred British Breeds and Their Crosses (begun dur-
in g y ear) ------ .. .......... ............ .............. ...... .......................... 311
.. Miscellaneous: Seed Harvest; Pasture Irrigation; Forage Variety
Trials; Salt as a Means of Regulating Concentrate Intake .... 311
Sub-Tropical Station
275 Citrus Culture Studies ....... ..-..... ...........................-........ ..... 313
276 Avocado Culture Studies ................................ ... ............ ... ........ 314
279 Diseases of Minor Fruits and Ornamentals (closed during year) .. 314
280 Sub-Tropical Crops of Minor Economic Importance ........................ 314
285 Potato Culture Investigations .............. .................... .............. 316
286 Tomato Culture Investigations ... .......... .................. .............. 317
287 Cover Crop Studies (closed during year) ......................................... 318
289 Control of Potato Disease in Dade County (closed during year) .. 318
290 A Study of Diseases of Avocado and Mango and Development of
Control M measures ......------ ... ... ................... ... ............ 319
291 Control of Tomato Diseases ..............-............. ............. 320
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ......................--.-.......... ... .......... ....... 323
422 Disease of the Tahiti (Persian) Lime .................................. 324
458 Sclerotiniose of Vegetables (closed during year) ............................ 324
470 Biology and Control of Insects Affecting Sub-Tropical Fruits ........ 324
471 Biology and Control of Insects Affecting Winter Vegetable Crops 325
505 Importance, Etiology, and Control of Papaya Diseases ................ 326
514 Sub-Tropical and Tropical Plant Introductions .............................. 326
515 Mango Selection, Propagation, and Culture -----....-............ ....... 326
522 Guava Propagation, Culture, Breeding and Selections ................ 327
587 Fungicidal Control of Helminthosporium Leaf Blight of Sweet
Corn ... ......... ..---- -------------..............- ..................... ........ ....... 328
.. Miscellaneous: Weed Control on Golf Courses; Grasses; Avocado
Maturity Standards; Control of Rhizoctonia solani on Snap
Beans; Study of Chelating Compounds for the Correction of
Chlorosis; Soil Conservation Service Investigations (Coopera-
tive with Sub-Tropical Station) .....................---.................... 328
Suwannee Valley Station
..... Miscellaneous: Tobacco Studies; Pasture Studies; Fertilization
Studies; Clovers; Field Crop Studies; Small Grains; Other
Crops; Corn Variety Test ---.......---..... ............ .............. 332
West Central Florida Station
... Miscellaneous: Cattle Breeding; Grazing Studies; New Pastures;
Visitors (Cooperative USDA) --........ ........... ............................. 334
West Florida Station
374 Corn Breeding --------------........ -- --- --.- ........... ................... 336
404 The Maintenance of Soil Fertility Under Permanent Pasture (re-
vised during year) -..-------- --..-...-.. --.... ........... ............... 336
428 Availability of Phosphorus from Various Phosphates Applied to
Different Soil Types ......-..........-....- ...-.... ...... ........ 336
544 Soil Management Studies ....---- ..----- .....--.. ........... ........... 336
553 Testing Miscelleaneous Fruits and Nuts --.........-..------................. 337
582 Pasture Investigations in W est Florida .....------.. ....... .................... 338
596 Variety Investigations in Grain, Forage, Pasture and Legume
Crops .................................... ............... ............. ... 339

Salaries and wages ..............

Travel ................

Transportation of things .....

Communication ................

Heat, light, power, etc...-

Rental .- ..... ..... .

Contractual Services ..........

Supplies and materials .......

Equ'pm ent ...........-- .....

Transfer .. ---...

Total Disbursements ..........

Balance 6-30-53 .................

Total ....



Hatch Fund Adams Fund Purnell Bankhead
Fund Jones

$ 15,000.00 $ 15,000.00 $ 60,000.00 $ 43,856.88


..- ......... ................. 14.09

.. ...... ................ ..- ...............-------- -- .

--- ------------


$ 15,000.00


$ 15,000.00







$ 60,000.00 $ 49,453.31 $ 88,485.55 $227,938.86


$ 67,324.55
























Annual Report, 1953


Grants and Total

Salaries and wages ........................ $ 57,158.44 $ 57,158.44
Professional Services .................... 42.50 42.50
Travel ........... --..... ..... .... ... ....-.. 2,157.32 2,157.32
Transportation of things ............. 55.43 55.43
Communication ..... ..................... 37.44 37.44
Rental .......- ..........-.. .... ...-.. ..... 44.00 44.00
Printing ....... ...--....-.-........ 44.47 44.47
Contractual services ..................... 1,022.48 1,022.48
Supplies and materials .................. 12,168.99 12,168.99
Equipment ...................... ...- 10,666.49 10,666.49
Land and buildings ........... 4,649.96 4,649.96
Transfer ...4.~... ................................ 4,100.00 4,100.00

Total disbursements ............. 92,147.52 92,147.52
Balance 6-30-53 ......................... 179,970.40 179,970.40

Total ........ .............................. $272,117.92 $272,117.92




Personal services .............
Professional Services ..
Travel .....................--- ...
Transportation of things
Communication ..-...........
Heat, light, power, etc.
Printing .......--...... .........
Printing Publications
Contractual services ..
Supplies and materials ...
Equipment ...-.. .....- .....
Lands and structures ....
Transfer ....-......- -. --....

Total Disbursements .......
Balance 6-30-53 .........


$ 55,115.72 $ 55,115.72
808.09 808.09
4,573.79 4,573.79
1,368.37 1,368.37
805.23 805.23
5,056.81 5,056.81
8,397.87 8,397.87
307.45 307.45
16,653.55 16,653.55
114,831.88 114,831.88
57,981.36 57,981.36
61,822.24 61,822.24
1,000.00 1,000.00

328,722.36 328,722.36
222,846.67 222,846.67

$551,569.03 $551,569.03

Salaries and labor ..--
Professional services ..
Travel -..................-.. .......
Transportation of things .
Communication .................
Heat, light, power, etc.
Rent -.... ....- .....
Printing .....................
Contractual services .....
Supplies and materials ...
Equipm ent ----...........--....
Land and buildings ...........

Total disbursements
Balance 6-30-53 ..........

Total ............... ......

Salaries and wages .......
T ravel ........................ ....
Transportation of things.
Communications .............
Rent and utility service -.
Printing and publications
Contractual services ........
Supplies and materials ....
Equipment ...........
Land and buildings .....
Transfer ..........................

Total Disbursements ....
Balance ...... .......

T otal ....................................

Exp't. Stations
S $1,860,368.20
.............. 1,887.65
........... 77,878.54
...... 3,950.37
.. ......... 20,366.42
............ 31,007.73
..- ...- 4,610.76
............ 37,560.49
.-..-.-....-.. .... 291,737.78
..... ......... 109,707.35

......... 2,463,714.53

................ $2,472,565.08
Fund State Fund
$ 55,923.81 $1,863,441.5!
4,573.79 77,878.5,
1,368.37 3,971.1
805.23 20,366.4
13,454.68 35,711.4
307.45 24,639.2
16,653.55 37,885.0
114,831.88 294,193.1
57,981.36 110,821.9
61,822.24 20,212.1!
1,000.00 -

328,722.36 2,489,120.6
222,846.67 9,160.7

S$ 551,569.03 $2,498,281.3







$ 5,115.36




Grants and
$ 57,200.94


$ 272,117.92




$ 48.31








$ 20,552.58

Less: Weather
$ -5,455.59
---- ---


$ -24,203.54








Annual Report, 1953


During the year three projects were closed and 10 new ones were
outlined. Marketing of milk, improved methods of handling and packing
potatoes, methods of handling sweet corn for long distance shipments,
effect of improved management practices on farm income, and more
efficient methods of harvesting and packing citrus fruit constituted the
areas of new work.

State Project 154 H. G. Hamilton
Obtaining detailed data on the 1951-52 season's operations of 20 co-
operatives constituted the work done on this project during the year.
These data, together with similar data for past and future years, will
be analyzed to determine the factors that make for success or failure
of farmer cooperatives.

Purnell Project 186 Zach Savage
Cash costs per acre in 1952-53 were three times those of the period of
1932 to 1942 on groves of comparable ages and varieties. However, costs
per box increased only slightly over this period due to increased yields.
The yield of cost account groves for the 1931-36 period averaged five boxes
per acre less than the yield of all mixed groves of the state at the same
ages. Since that time five-year average yields of cost account groves ex-
ceeded comparable groves in the state as follows: 1936-41, 20 boxes; 1941-
46, 30 boxes; and 1946-51, 35 boxes per acre. These figures indicate the
beneficial results derived from better practices pointed out in the use
of these accounts.
Temple oranges are now an important variety in terms of production.
In the 1950-51 season 1,700,000 boxes were produced. Yield, returns and
cost for Temple oranges 21 to 23 years of age for the years 1945-51 for
six groves were:
Yield per acre (boxes) ......................... .. .......... 293
Yield per tree (boxes) .................... ..- ............ 3.70
Per Acre Per Box
Returns (on tree) ....................... .... $685.87 $2.34
Total costs ............................ .............. 268.51 .92
Net returns ..... .....-....... .................. 417.36 1.42
Yields of all citrus at 20 years of age averaged 225 boxes per acre
in 1952, as compared to 114 boxes in 1932 for the same age. Increases
at other ages were proportional to age of tree. Various kinds and varie-
ties had slightly different yield curves as to age of tree.
Highest returns above costs per acre were attained with cash costs at
$100 to $130 per acre in the period of 1931 to 1943 and $125 to $165
per acre in the period of 1944 to 1953, depending upon the general price
level at the time. In general, the highest net returns were realized with
40 to 50 percent of the costs going for fertilizer materials needed. Most
bearing groves produced at highest efficiency and profitableness when ap-

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

proximately 250 pounds of nitrogen were used per acre. An inadequate
stand and diseased trees were important factors in lowering profits.
Yield, production cost and returns per acre ordinarily increased with
age of tree after the second year from time of setting in the grove. Maxi-
mum yields and profitableness were attained in excess of 50 years of age
for varieties other than Temple and King oranges. The rate of increase
in yield and profitableness lessened after 35 years from setting-varying
with kind and variety.
Of the most commonly grown varieties, Valencia was the most profit-
able. Temple had a lower yield but the price received for fruit was higher,
resulting in slightly higher net returns than Valencias of the same age.
Seasonal net returns fluctuated from year to year. Net returns varied
widely during the same season between groves. During the period of these
accounts, however, there were groves that made a profit each season.
On the other hand, times and conditions were never so good but that a
few groves failed to make a profit above cash costs.

State Project 345 A. H. Spurlock
This project is conducted cooperatively with the Department of Dairy
Records on breeding, inventory, replacements and causes of losses were
continued with eight Florida dairy herds.
Data from all previous records of useful lifespan and reasons for dis-
posal were summarized and sent to a large number of dairymen. The life-
span of all cows averaged 6.7 years, or about 4.7 years of usefulness in the
herd. Disposals increased rapidly after the first two years and at age
five only about two-thirds of the original number remained in the herd.
At age 10 86 percent of the original herd was gone. Cows living to 10
years or more averaged 11.9 years of life and had a further expectancy
of 1.9 years at age 10.
Mastitis and other udder trouble have been the leading causes of dis-
posal of dairy cows, with 21.3 percent leaving the herd for those reasons.
Low production was the next most frequent reason for disposal, account-
ing for 18.8 percent. Reproductive trouble removed 12.7 percent and
combinations of the above reasons 5.2 percent. Deaths from all causes
were responsible for 14.2 percent of all losses.
A mimeographed release was prepared and sent to about 200 dairy-
men (Turnover of Cows in Florida Dairy Herds, Agricultural Economics
Series 52-9, October 1952.) A manuscript covering all work on this project
to date is being prepared for publication. (See also Proj. 345, DAIRY

Purnell Project 429 R. E. L. Greene
Work on this project consisted of completing the analysis of the data
available and preparation of a manuscript which was submitted for pub-
lication. The results of the study show some of the significant changes
that have taken place in the farming of the Plant City area over the last
30 years. They show some of the major problems facing farmers in the
area and how they have attempted to adjust to changes in technology

Annual Report, 1953

and economic conditions. Suggestions are made of ways and means of
improving farm income and the effects of recommended changes on pro-
duction and income. This project has been closed.

State Project 451 G. N. Rose
This project supplements, collaboratively, the work of the Florida Crop
and Livestock Reporting Service of the USDA Bureau of Agricultural
Economics, Orlando, Florida, and all reports are released on a cooperative
From data obtained by regular and special mailed schedules, telephone,
and personal contacts and observations, estimates of acreages and fore-
casts of production were made on 7 fall, 15 winter, and 13 spring com-
mercial vegetable crops. Eight monthly reports of these estimates, with
comparisons of previous years, and showing similar estimates from com-
peting states, were released, along with nine special reports through the
season. Approximately 15,700 copies of these reports were distributed
to interested growers, packers, shippers and others in work closely allied
to the vegetable industry. Data were obtained similarly for release of 15
truck crop news reports with a total seasonal distribution of 26,000 copies.
A survey in progress at the beginning of the fiscal year was completed,
furnishing data to determine the necessary revisions of acreages, produc-
tion and value of the previous season. An annual statistical summary
of these final revisions entitled Florida Vegetable Crops, Volume VIII,
was released. This report showed acreages, production and value, season-
ally, with comparisons; current acreage and production by counties and
areas; and shipments by rail, mixed car and truck. (See Proj. 480, below.)
Data developed under this project will be used largely as a basis for
the report of the Florida Agricultural Outlook Committee's annual appraisal
of agricultural production for 1953-54.

State Project 480 Donald L. Brooke
Field schedules of costs and returns on vegetable crops for the 1951-
52 season were obtained from more than 350 growers covering 78,245 acres
of vegetables. Crop summary tables by major producing areas for the
1951-52 season were prepared and returned to cooperating growers in a
mimeographed report, AE Series 53-3, Costs and Returns from Vegetable
Crops in Florida, Volume VII.
Growing costs per acre increased in 1951-52 over the five-season average,
1947-48 to 1951-52, for most vegetables. The largest increase was shown
by cabbage with 22 percent. Growing costs per acre increased by more
than 10 percent also for sweet corn, eggplant, lettuce, peppers and to-
matoes. Increases in growing cost of 3 to 10 percent were shown for
lima beans, celery, cucumbers and watermelons.
Higher rates for labor and for materials used were the principal causes
of the higher costs per acre.
Crop yields per acre in 1951-52 fluctuated widely as compared with the
five-year average. Snap beans showed the largest increase in yield with
13 percent. Increases up to 10 percent over the five-year average were
found also for celery, cabbage, eggplant, peppers, watermelons, sweet

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

corn and tomatoes. Lower yields were recorded for lima beans, cucumbers,
pole beans, lettuce, Irish potatoes and squash.
Net returns to the grower were not always related to either yield or
growing cost. Favorable returns for 1951-52 as compared with the five-
year average were shown for snap beans, cabbage, cucumbers, peppers,
lettuce, Irish potatoes, squash and watermelons. However, there was
much variation between areas in returns. For snap beans the larger pro-
duction areas had losses in 1951-52, with unusual returns being obtained
in several small areas. Growers lost on limas and eggplant and returns
on tomatoes and celery were in general comparatively small, with wide
variation by areas.

Purnell Project 483 A. H. Spurlock
This project has been inactive during the year. No further work is
contemplated on it by the Department of Agricultural Economics and the
project is closed herewith. (See also Proj. 483, HORTICULTURE.)

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9), Project 484 A. H. Spurlock
(Regional SM-3)
This project is conducted cooperatively with the Department of Horti-
culture and the USDA. Only the work by the Department of Agricultural
Economics is reported here.
Packinghouse costs for 13 firms packing tomatoes were analyzed by type
of containers used for the 1950-51 season. The average cost of packing
tomatoes in 30-pound lugs was 89.2 cents; for open-top 60-pound field boxes,
55.8 cents; and 60-pound nailed boxes, $1.14. When the 60-pound wire-
bound (TAB) was packed by the same house packing the nailed box, its
cost was about the same.
Packing tomatoes in lugs was more costly than in larger containers
because of the higher materials cost per pound and the large amount of
labor for wrapping and place-packing each tomato. The hours of labor
required for a crew of packers was 31 times as much for lug-packing
as for jumble packing the same quantity in bushel boxes.
Total costs of packing were influenced by volume packed. Houses with
a 200,000-box volume or more packed for 20 percent less cost than houses
with 100,000 boxes.
Capital invested in land, buildings and equipment averaged $70,724 for
13 packinghouses, or $0.78 per bushel of tomatoes packed.
The findings on suitability and costs of containers have been summarized
and sent to all packinghouses in the state in mimeographed form, Costs of
Packing Tomatoes, f.o.b. Prices, and Returns to Growers, by Containers.
(See also Proj. 484, HORTICULTURE.)

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9), Project 485 R. E. L. Greene
(Regional SM-5)
This project was conducted cooperatively with the North Carolina,
South Carolina and Virginia Agricultural Experiment Stations and the

Annual Report, 1953

USDA Bureaus of Agricultural Economics and Plant Industry, Soils and
Agricultural Engineering. Work on the project consisted of the completion
of analysis of data and preparation of manuscripts for publication. A
publication, Reduction of Physical Injuries in Digging and Picking up
Early Irish Potatoes, was completed and published as Southern Cooperative
Series Bulletin 32, 1953, by the South Carolina Agricultural Experiment
Station. A second publication, Transportation Tests with Early Irish
Potatoes from the Southeastern United States, 1950, was completed and
published as Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin 31, by the Virginia
Agricultural Experiment Station.
Work on the operation of mechanical potato harvesters was continued
under a new project, Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9), 638 (Regional SM-5). This
project has been closed.

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9), Project 486 Eric Thor, J. L. Tennant,
(Regional SM-4) A. H. Spurlock and H. G. Hamilton
Costs of packing and selling fresh citrus fruit have advanced during
the past five years. The cost of packing and selling oranges in 1%/-bushel
bruce boxes has increased 11.5 percent since the 1946-47 season. Grape-
fruit increased 11.9 percent and tangerines 19.0 percent. Data on 1951-52
costs were obtained from 67 packinghouses, 15 canneries and 8 concentrate
plants. The 1951-52 average cost of packing and selling Florida oranges
was $0.92 per 1% bruce box; grapefruit, $0.84 per 1% bruce box; and
tangerines, $1.38 per 1% box equivalent. There was no significant change
in the cost of packing and selling oranges from the 1950-51 season. The
cost of packing and selling grapefruit increased $0.02 per 13/ bruce box.
The cost of packing and selling tangerines in 13/ box equivalent decreased
by $0.04 per box.
Materials-containers, labels, paste, end guards, paper, strips, straps,
etc.-composed the largest cost item in packing and selling Florida citrus.
Fifty percent of the total packing and selling cost of oranges in 1% bruce
boxes was accounted for by materials and 23.3 percent by labor; for grape-
fruit in 13/5 bruce boxes materials took up 51.2 percent and labor 21.1 per-
cent and for tangerines in % bruce boxes materials equaled 53.0 percent
and labor 25.3 percent of the total cost.
Based on records of 26 operators, including both specialized citrus dealers
and fresh fruit packers, average cost of picking and hauling for 1951-52
was $0.38 for oranges, $0.29 for grapefruit and $0.71 for tangerines. The
average cost of hauling citrus for the firms studied was $0.097 per 1%
bushel box. Citrus dealers had an additional cost of buying and selling
fruit amounting to $0.034 per box.
There was not much difference in the total cost of picking citrus between
the specialized citrus dealers and the fresh fruit packinghouses as a group.
Between firms, however, the cost variation for citrus dealers ranged from
$0.24 to $0.37 for picking oranges, $0.18 to $0.28 for picking grapefruit,
and $0.50 to $0.79 for picking tangerines. Hauling costs for citrus dealers
varied from $0.062 to $0.17 per box.
This project is conducted cooperatively with the Texas Agricultural
Experiment Station; the Bureau of Agricultural Economics; the Fruit and
Vegetable Branch, PMA; and the Research and Service Division, FCA,

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9), Project 519 M. R. Godwin, L. A. Powell, Sr.,
(Regional SM-4) and H. G. Hamilton
A study of the demand for Florida oranges was conducted in seven
retail food stores in central Kentucky during the period from April 28
through June 14, 1952. This study involved the use of vari-pricing tech-
niques as a means of establishing demand relationships. Results are
reported in Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 508 entitled,
Customer Response to Varying Prices for Florida Oranges.
Results of this study indicate that demand for oranges is, as a general
rule, slightly elastic. Over the range of price conditions tested, a change
in the price of 1 percent was accompanied by a corresponding change in
the volume of purchases per 100 customers of 1.16 percent. There were,
however, significant differences in the characteristics of the demand for
oranges under varying price conditions. At prices near the established
market level, the customer response to price changes was more pronounced
than when oranges were sold at substantial premiums or discounts. At a
premium of 5 cents above the prevailing market price, an elasticity co-
efficient of 1.30 was obtained, meaning that a 1 percent change in price
resulted in increase in volume of purchases of 1.30 percent. At a discount
of 5 cents per dozen the elasticity coefficient was 1.47, and at a discount
of 15 cents per dozen a coefficient of 1.09 was obtained. At prices above
a premium of 5 cents per dozen the demand for fresh oranges became
inelastic. The elasticity coefficient obtained when fruit was sold at a
premium of 10 cents per dozen was .70.
This study indicates that, with the exception of circumstances resulting
in the availability of a very limited quantity of fresh oranges, the maxi-
mum revenue for a given quantity is obtained at the retail level by
marketing the entire supply. The results also indicate that the extent to
which prices must decline at retail in order to induce customers to increase
their purchases by a given percentage depends upon the prevailing market
price for fruit.
The analysis of the store sales data collected in Jacksonville, Florida,
and Memphis, Tennessee, for the periods of December 1949 to June 1950
and January to June 1951, respectively, has been continued. The principal
endeavor has consisted of a study of the comparative degree of substitution
between various citrus products and between citrus and non-citrus products
by analyzing the relationship between the price and quantity ratios of pairs
of items. This analysis indicates the existence of substitution between
apples and oranges; oranges and frozen orange concentrate; orange con-
centrate and blended juice; and orange juice and grapefruit juice. Results
obtained thus far, however, are inadequate to serve as a basis for a quantita-
tive statement of the degree of substitution between these and the other
products included in the study. Statistical tests for substitution have been
made on a total of 147 pairs of items in three income areas of the two cities
in which data were obtained.
This study is being continued to evaluate the feasibility of determining
demand relationships and the degree of substitution from the analysis of
data obtained at the retail store under normal market conditions.

State Project 520 H. G. Hamilton
This project is conducted in cooperation with the Farm Credit Admin-
istration, USDA. Two manuscripts reported in last year's report were

Annual Report, 1953

published during the year. Work was begun on determining methods and
price practices in acquiring fruit for processing plants.

State Project 556 D. E. Alleger
Based upon the analyses of individual leasing arrangements, preliminary
lease forms have been prepared for cash renting, share-tenant farming and
sharecropping, in cooperation with the College of Law of the University of
Florida and the Bureau of Agricultural Economics of the United States
Department of Agriculture. These lease forms have been tested in the field
through interviews with landlords, cash and share tenants and share-

RMA Project 562-Title II Cecil N. Smith and H. G. Hamilton
(RM:C-33 L.P.3, ES-41)
The manuscript on the use of citrus products in Meridian, Mississippi,
households was published in December 1952 as Florida Agricultural Experi-
ment Station Bulletin 509. The major findings of this bulletin were sum-
marized in last year's annual report.
Analysis of weekly sales data on fresh and processed citrus and compet-
ing products, which were collected in 20 Meridian, Mississippi, retail grocery
stores during August and October 1950 and February and May 1951 has
been continued. Little variation was noted in the month-to-month value of
processed citrus and competing product sales. However, a large amount of
variation existed in the month-to-month pattern of fresh citrus sales with
February as the peak month. The volume then was more than three times
higher than that in the preceding August. Sales of fresh citrus in October
and May were double the August value.
Frozen concentrated orange juice and fresh grapefruit sales were rela-
tively more important in the high-income area group of stores than in the
low. Orangeade sales were relatively most important in the low-income
area stores and the "downtown" stores groups.
Fresh fruit sales accounted for two-thirds of the total sales value in the
low-income area group of stores but for only half in the high-income area
group. When comparing all processed citrus and non-citrus products sales,
those of citrus products accounted for a larger percentage of the sales in
the high-income area group than they did in the low.

Purnell Project 579 D. E. Alleger
Two field surveys have been completed; the first in Duval County in
1951 and the second in Hillsborough, Putnam and Marion counties in 1952.
The Duval County survey related largely to employed workers to whom
farming was subsidiary to their gainful employment. The Duval County
survey indicated that part-time farms were maintained primarily for resi-
dences. Most farms provided some farm products for home use but very
little for sale. Two-thirds of the farms were under six acres in size.
Approximately 75 percent of the operators interviewed cultivated under
one acre, the crops planted being mostly for table use. On an average,
the combination of gardening and poultry for home use was successful.
The keeping of one or more family milk cows also proved successful when

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

pastures were maintained or feed crops grown, but the production of hogs
was often unsuccessful because most feed was purchased. For 50 part-
time farms with an acre or more in crops, gross receipts (sales and value
of home-used products) were $603, cash expenses $524 and net returns $79.
It is expected the Duval County findings will be published during the 1953-54
fiscal year.
The second survey is concerned with retirees who did some farming
to supplement retirement incomes or to satisfy other desires. Field work
on retirement farming has not been completed.

RMA Project 593 Marvin A. Brooker and Kenneth M. Gilbraith
(BAE Contract)
To test the significance of certain factors which were thought to in-
fluence mode of transportation of fresh citrus, tabulations were run involv-
ing type of container, origin area of the shipment, region of destination,
size of destination city, method of sale, seasonality of movement, type of
purchaser and cost of transportation.
The type of container used apparently exerts little influence on the mode
of transportation. The railroads were found to handle 93 percent of the
fruit sold at auction and approximately two-thirds of the volume sold
through commission houses. Trucks tend to become more important, rela-
tively, as the size of the city decreases. Trucks also are relatively im-
portant during the early and late months of the season, declining in
importance relative to rail during mid-season.
There was an increase of about 16 percent in the use of rail, relative to
other modes of transportation, between the 1949-50 and 1950-51 seasons. A
significant part of this increase was due to water facilities becoming
unavailable during the second season and to an increase in auction sales
due to heavier volume. However, an analysis of rail freight rate reductions
which occurred during the second season leads to the conclusion that trans-
portation cost is perhaps the most important single factor in determining
the mode of transportation used in moving fresh citrus to market.

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9), Project 602 W. K. McPherson and
M. A. Brooker
A comprehensive analysis of the markets for cattle and calves in Florida
and an exhaustive analysis of prices paid for the several classes and grades
of animals in three Florida auctions and Chicago over a 40-month period-
September 1948 through 1951-provides a basis for concluding:
1. Auctions provide the only organized markets in the state where prices
paid for cattle and calves sold are made available to other buyers and
2. The number of prime, choice and good slaughter animals and com-
parable grades of stocker and feeder animals sold at auction is too small
to establish a reliable market price on these classes and grades.
3. The number of commercial, utility, cutter and canner slaughter grades
and comparable stocker and feeder grades sold at auction is sufficient to
establish a reliable market price for these classes and grades in some
4. The difference between the prices established for comparable classes
and grades of cattle and calves in different Florida auctions is frequently

Annual Report, 1953

larger than the difference between the prices established for the same
classes and grades in Chicago and the Florida auctions that establish the
highest prices.
These imperfections in the price-making mechanism for cattle and calves
in Florida depress the price of the higher grade animals below the market
price that prevails in the nation as a whole. The failure of some auctions
to establish the highest possible market price for the lower grades of
animals depresses the price of all classes and grades of animals in the
areas served by these markets.

Purnell Project 619 L. A. Reuss, R. E. L. Greene
and W. K. McPherson
Work on this project during the year involved a study of land use in-
formation by counties and the initiation of an investigation of improved
pastures in relation to alternate land uses in Central Florida. The land use
information for the state of Florida, including data from the 1950 Census
of Agriculture and other sources, is in partial draft form. Twenty-nine
schedules have been obtained from ranch operators and seven from custom
land developers in Pasco County on the study of improved pastures in
Central Florida. These schedules contain data on cost of establishing pas-
tures, such as land clearing, seedbed preparation, fertilization, seeds and
plants materials, planting and other costs. They also contain data on the
returns being derived from improved pastures. The schedules are now being
summarized. The data will be used to show estimates of per-acre costs
and returns from pastures with varying levels of inputs and quality of
This study is being conducted in cooperation with the Land Economics
Division of the USDA Bureau of Agricultural Economics.

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9), Project 626 Eric Thor and George Capel
(Regional SM-4)
The research completed in Project 486, Costs and Factors Affecting Cost
of Marketing Citrus Fruits in Fresh and Processed Form, indicated that
there are significant differences in cost among plants. The purpose of this
project is to determine the reasons for the differences in cost.
A cost analysis of handling citrus fruit from the tree onto the high-
way truck was made for the following methods: (1) hand dumping-field
box, (2) field box-bulk field truck, (3) portable elevator-bulk field truck,
(4) tractor-bulk field trailer and (5) tractor basket. The tractor basket
method had the lowest cost for field crews handling volumes larger than
200,000 boxes per season. The tractor-bulk field trailer had the lowest sea-
sonal cost for volumes of less than 200,000 boxes per season.
Detailed data have been collected from 12 fresh fruit packinghouses to
make comparative analyses of handling fruit from field truck to coloring
rooms by hand truck vs. fork truck; transporting fruit to the dumping
table by use of hand truck vs. fork truck; hand dumping vs. mechanical
dumping; packing by different types of containers; and handling packed
fruit by conveyer, fork truck and hand truck.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

In addition, the data are being combined to determine the effect of volume
and the effect of plant layout upon cost of packing and handling citrus
sold for fresh consumption.
This project is being conducted cooperatively with the USDA Bureau of
Agricultural Economics.

State Project 627 R. E. L. Greene
This project is conducted in cooperation with several departments. See
Proj. 627 AN. HUSB. and NUTR. for details of work for this fiscal year.

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9), Project 630 A. H. Spurlock
This project is conducted in cooperation with the Department of Horti-
culture and the USDA. Only the work by the Department of Agricultural
Economics is reported here.
The labor requirement and harvesting methods used for sweet corn
were studied in the Everglades and Pompano areas for both machine and
bin crews.
Some of the machines used were self-propelled and some were drawn by
a crawler tractor. Where a tractor was used several rows had to be pulled
in advance and carried back to the conveyer belt in baskets, thus making
a rather awkward procedure. In general, the operation of pulling was
somewhat less efficient with machines (and involved some carrying of ears)
than with tractor carts, in which the ears were thrown as pulled. Grading
and packing were more efficient on machines than with bin crews. Driving
trucks was less efficient with the machine crews, as more idle truck time
was required. The machine crews required one driver for the whole ma-
chine, whereas the bin crews required several tractor drivers.
Over-all the man labor requirements per crate were not widely different
between the bin harvesting and machine harvesting methods. More varia-
tion was found between individual crews than between methods used. Aver-
age man-hour requirements for harvesting and hauling to the precooler
averaged 0.26 hours per crate for bin crews using tractor carts and 0.24
hours per crate for machine crews.
Capital requirements for the machine-harvesting method were higher
than for bin-harvesting equipment, and tractors used in the latter method
can be used for other purposes.
Sweet corn for shipment is normally graded, packed in wirebound crates,
precooled and iced. (See also Proj. 630, HORTICULTURE.)

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9), Project 638 R. E. L. Greene
(Regional SM-5)
This project is carried on cooperatively with experiment stations of
North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia and USDA Bureaus of Plant
Industry, Soils and Agricultural Engineering, and Agricultural Economics.
1Cooperative with AGR. ENGINEERING.

Annual Report, 1953

Work during the year was concentrated on a study of mechanical harvesting
and bulk handling of potatoes in Florida and Alabama to determine the
amount of use of equipment, cost of harvesting, and quality of potatoes
harvested and handled with mechanical equipment and some of the problems
associated with this method of handling. During the year about 300 acres
of potatoes were harvested in Florida and 2,000 acres in Alabama with com-
plete mechanical equipment. About 825 acres were harvested in Florida
with harvesters that placed the potatoes in either field bags or field boxes
and two farmers in the Hastings area used a field loader and bulk trucks
to handle about 500 acres of potatoes from the field to the washer.
The use of bulk equipment proved to be a satisfactory method to handle
Sebago potatoes from the field to the washer. Tests indicated that physical
damage to the potatoes added in the handling process amounted to only 1.7
percent minor and 0.2 percent major damage. Based on the operation on
one farm, which was the only one in the Hastings area on which this method
was used to handle the entire crop, the direct and indirect savings from the
use of bulk handling was 1.3 cents per 100-pound packed bag.
In Alabama, farmers using mechanical harvesters and bulk handling
equipment saved about 10 cents per packed 100-pound bag, or $12 per acre,
compared with the usual method of harvesting. The investment in harvest-
ing equipment, where only one unit was owned, varied from $6,000 to
$8,500, depending on the make of equipment, method of harvesting and
other factors.
The amount of physical damage in potatoes harvested and handled
mechanically was slightly higher than that in potatoes harvested and
handled in the usual way. Of the total physical damage in the potatoes at
time of washing, 60 to 75 percent occurred before they were loaded on
bulk trucks, 10 to 25 percent in loading the trucks and the remainder in
unloading and conveying to the washer. Amount of damage in the pota-
toes during the past season was higher than it should be because of inex-
perience and carelessness in operating the equipment. Also, very few of
the packinghouses were set up properly to handle potatoes in bulk. Pre-
liminary tests indicate that the amount of damage being done at present
can be reduced substantially by using rubber tubes on conveyer chains,
padding the equipment and modifying it in other ways.

State Project 647 Marvin A. Brooker, R. E. L. Greene
and Theo H. Ellis
This project was begun late in 1952, with this objective: To determine
the effects of enterprise adjustments and improved management practices
on farm income of various farming systems with special emphasis on swine
and the related feed enterprises. Suwannee and Columbia counties were
selected as the area for the study and it was determined to proceed by
the survey method, covering the year 1952.
Prior to beginning the field work a systematic random sample of farms
in the two counties was drawn on the basis of the Master Sample of
Agriculture Maps approximatelyy 150 farms). A form was then prepared
for use in assembling the information desired regarding these farms, in-
cluding a complete farm business record and various management practices.
This form was tested in the field before it was pat into final form.
Field work was begun after the first of the year and approximately 60
records have been completed. It is anticipated that this field work can be

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

completed within the summer, after which tabulating and analytical work
will proceed.

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9), Project 651 W. K. McPherson
and Ernest E. Brown
The data that will be used in making this analysis are being collected
from (a) The State Department of Agriculture, (b) The Florida Milk Con-
trol Commission, and (c) approximately 150 milk producers, producer-dis-
tributors and distributors. Approximately two-thirds of the information
needed has been assembled.

State Project 656 J. R. Greenman, J. W. Day"
and H. G. Hamilton
Since this project was approved on February 26, 1953, a general review
has been made of the laws of farm tenancy as stated by authorities in the
field; and the Florida statutes, constitution and reported cases have been
analyzed to determine the characteristics of the different kinds of farm
tenancy in Florida. Three kinds of non-freehold tenancy are recognized
under the statutes and reported cases of Florida: (a) tenancy at will;
(b) tenancy for a term; and (c) tenancy at sufferance.
Most farm tenants in Florida rent under an oral contract with rent
payable annually. Their tenancy under the Florida statutes is a tenancy
at will from year to year and it can be terminated by the giving of notice
by the landlord or tenant three months prior to the end of the annual
rental period. The tenancy designated as a tenancy at will in the Florida
statutes corresponds to the old common law periodic tenancy. At common
law the distinguishing characteristic of a true tenancy at will was the right
of the tenant or landlord to terminate summarily-not after three months
notice as now required in Florida. Whether a type of tenancy exists in
Florida today that corresponds to the true common law tenancy at will is
not clear from the statutes and cases, but it seems likely that such a
tenancy would be recognized by the courts in construing certain kinds of
contractual arrangements.
At common law a cropper is not a tenant and has the status of a mere
laborer; while a tenant, other than a tenant at sufferance, has rights in the
land and in the crops produced thereon. Florida statutes and cases that
define the nature of the cropper relationship do not exist. As the project
continues it becomes increasingly apparent that neither the Florida stat-
utes, nor reported Supreme Court decisions cover many aspects of farm
tenancy and sharecropping in the state. On these matters it will be neces-
sary to analyze the reported cases of other states in order to determine the
probable position of the Florida Supreme Court when called upon to render
decisions as to the law in such situations.

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9), Project 664 H. G. Hamilton
(Regional SM-4) and M. R. Godwin
Cooperative with College of Law, University of Florida.

Annual Report, 1953 37

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9), Project 665 Eric Thor, H. G. Hamilton,
(Regional SM-4) Bennett S. White and George L. Capel

RMA Project 666 H. G. Hamilton, Donald L. Brooke
(Title II, ES-235) and Cecil N. Smith
All three of these projects were approved on June 19, June 19, and
May 15, respectively, and results of current investigations are therefore
not available.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


During the year more emphasis was placed on research dealing with
supplemental irrigation. The irrigation phase of the flue-cured tobacco
project was revised to permit securing broader information on the subject.
Research was initiated to determine the optimum moisture and fertility
management practices for clover-grass pastures on flatwoods soils. New
research was started to determine the effectiveness of various methods of
pasture renovation. Facilities of the Department were improved by the
addition of laboratory and farm equipment.

Bankhead-Jones Project 536 J. M. Myers
For the report see Proj. 536, AGRONOMY.

Hatch Project 555 J. M. Myers
The tobacco irrigation phase of this project was re-designed for the
1953 season in order that information could be obtained on the relationship
between certain irrigation levels and plant populations. Also, an effort
is being made to design a practical procedure, or schedule, whereby a
tobacco grower can more accurately determine the time to apply irriga-
tion water and the amount needed.
Three daily consumptive use schedules (low, medium and high) were
used as irrigation treatments during the 1953 season, with the "medium
schedule" being the daily moisture requirement as reported in the 1952
Annual Report, the "low schedule" being one-third less and the "high sched-
ule" being one-third more. It appears that the daily moisture requirement
in 1953 was approximately the same as it was in 1952. There was more
than enough total rainfall to supply the moisture requirements for the 1953
tobacco crop, but the rainfall distribution was rather erratic, with wet
periods occurring during the early part of April and the month of June and
a dry period occurring during May. The "low schedule" produced the
highest rate of growth during the wet periods and the "high schedule" pro-
duced the best rate of growth during the dry period.
Green weight samples taken during the growing season indicated that
10,000 plants per acre produced a larger yield than 7,500 plants per acre
for the three irrigation treatments.
Results of this study will be more conclusive after curing has been
completed and final yield and cured leaf quality determined. (See also
Proj. 555, AGRONOMY.)

State Project 573 J. M. Myers and Frazier Rogers
This project was inactive during the year except for further analysis
of data already obtained. A manuscript is being prepared for publication.
This project is closed with this report.

Annual Report, 1953

State Project 577 J. M. Myers and Frazier Rogers
Additional information was obtained on mechanical drying and harvest-
ing of peanuts. Bulletin 507 was published on this subject during the
past year.
It was found that peanuts may be dried economically on a batch-type
crop drier. The two most important practices that affected quality of
mechanically dried peanuts were (1) the final moisture content of the pea-
nuts and (2) the temperature of the drying air. Best results were obtained
when peanuts were dried to a moisture content range of from 7 to 9
percent (wet basis) and when the drying air temperature was 115 F. or less.
It was also concluded that peanuts can be dried from a partially cured
state (40 percent moisture content on a wet basis, or under) by mechanical
means with no serious injury to the peanuts. A rate of air of 40 cfm per
square foot of drying floor area was adequate.
Because of the critical effect of the final moisture content on peanut
quality, it is strongly recommended that a reliable moisture tester be used
for determining moisture contents. Peanuts should be dried in depths of not
more than four feet.

State Project 627 J. S. Norton
Contributions to this project by the Department of Agricultural Engi-
neering will be found under Project 627, ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND

State Project 628 J. M. Myers
Irrigation water was applied during the year at intervals and in amounts
sufficient to assure an adequate supply of available moisture for the pasture
plants. In May 1953, during a period of unusually high temperatures when
the water requirement of the plants was highest, the available water
supply was exhausted from the soil to a depth of approximately 6 inches.
At no time during the year was the available soil moisture in the remainder
of the plant root zone less than 25 percent of the total available soil
There were several periods of rather long duration during which there
was not sufficient rainfall to supply adequately the water requirements of
the pasture plants. These periods were August 9 to September 19 (42 days
-rainfall 1.85 inches); October 23 to December 31 (70 days-rainfall 1.01
inches); January 28 to March 11 (43 days-rainfall 1.24 inches); and April
29 to June 6 (39 days-rainfall 0.34 inches). Total rainfall for the year
(July 1, 1952, to June 30, 1953) was 45.25 inches, and the total irrigation
water pumped was 25.92 inches, of which it is estimated 24.21 inches
were applied to the soil. (See Proj. 628, DAIRY SCIENCE, for production
and quality of pastures.)

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Fig. 1.-Top left, a modified anhydrous ammonia applicator which was
used for pasture cultivation (no ammonia applied). This implement gave
a medium intensity of cultivation to a depth of 4.5 inches with approxi-
mately 12% sod displacement. Center left and lower left, general view
and close-up view of the cultivating action of the modified anhydrous am-
monia applicator. Top right, ground-driven rotary tiller. This implement
gave a light intensity of cultivation to a depth of 4 inches with a 30% sod
displacement. Center right, the ground-driven rotary tiller in operation,
and lower right, a close-up of the cultivated pasture.

Annual Report, 1953

State Project 661 J. S. Norton and J. M. Myers
This project was established to develop one or more methods for re-
storing or increasing the vigor and production of permanent pasture plants
through the use of renovating equipment.
The experiment is composed of 24 treatments which include three species
of grasses (Pangola, Pensacola Bahia and Coastal Bermuda) and eight culti-
vation treatments. All treatments were seeded to a mixture of White Dutch,
Hubam and Kenland Red clovers. The cultivation treatments varied accord-
ing to depth of penetration, intensity of cultivation and percent of sod
Preliminary results and observations indicate that the cultivation treat-
ments of heavy intensity and 45 to 50 percent sod displacement produced
an earlier and more vigorous stand of clover. These same treatments appear
to be producing a more palatable forage on Pensacola Bahia grass, as cattle
which have free access to all treatments are grazing these treatments more
closely than they are the others.
Figures 1, 2 and 3 show some of the cultivating implements used for this
experiment, as well as the condition of the pasture sod after treatment.
(See also Proj. 661, AGRONOMY.)

Improving Methods and Practices in Harvesting, Handling and Packing
Early Irish Potatoes.-The work this season dealt mainly with the observa-
tion of mechanical potato harvesting and handling equipment in Florida
and Alabama. This was the second season that such equipment has been
used in Alabama and the first season that much interest was demonstrated
in its use in Florida. Considerable farmer interest has developed also
in the use of rubber tubing for protecting potatoes against mechanical
damage during the digging operation, which was the phase emphasized in
the work reported in 1952. (See also Proj. 638, AGR. ECONOMICS.)
(R. E. L. Greene and J. S. Norton.)
Irrigation and Fertilization of Flatwoods Pastures in Central and North
Central Florida.-An area was selected at the Beef Research Unit on the
Monteocha Road, northeast of Gainesville, for a pasture irrigation and fer-
tilization study. The purpose of this study is to determine the optimum
irrigation and fertilization management practices to use on irrigated flat-
woods pastures.
The area was plowed, limed, fertilized and planted in October 1952.
Pangola grass-clover and Bahia grass-clover are the two pasture mixtures
on which the study is being conducted. By March 15, 1953, the pasture
plants had become well enough established to start the experiment. At that
time the area was clipped and refertilized.
Between March 15 and June 30 the plots were clipped three times. Yield
data for three clippings show slight trends in favor of both the higher irri-
gation rates and the higher fertilization rates.
Extremely hot and dry weather during the month of May killed most
of the clover in some of the plots. The un-irrigated and the low water rate
treatments suffered most of the damage, with a total of 48 out of the 72
plots in those treatments being severely affected. However, the clover
was retarded somewhat in 21 of the 96 medium and high water rate plots.
Rainfall during April and June was above normal and well distributed.
However, it rained only once in May, on May 7, 0.65 inch. Rainfall totaled
8.62 inches in April and 9.78 inches in June. This high amount of rainfall

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

tended to mask the beneficial effects of irrigation during May, when rain-
fall was insufficient. (J. M. Myers and J. S. Norton.)

Fig. 2.-Top left, sub-soiler used in pasture renovation experiment.
This implement gave a medium intensity of cultivation to a depth of 15
inches with approximately 5% sod displacement. Center left, the sub-
soiler in operation, and lower left, a close-up of the sub-soiler cultivated
pasture. Top right, spring-tooth field cultivator used in pasture renovation
experiment. This implement gave a heavy intensity of cultivation to a
depth of 9 inches, with approximately 45% sod displacement. Center right,
the field cultivator in operation, and lower right, a close-up of the cultivated

Annual Report, 1953

Fig. 3.-Top left, power-driven rotary tiller modified by removing alter-
nate groups of blades. This implement pulverized alternate 8-inch strips of
soil to a depth of 5 inches. Center left, rotary tiller in operation. Lower left,
general view of pasture cultivated by rotary tiller. Lower right, close-up
of alternately pulverized and undisturbed strips of soil. Top r'ght, turf
renovator. This implement perforates the soil surface to a depth of 4
inches which permits aeration of the soil. Approximately 8% of the sod
is removed. Center right, close-up view of a pasture cultivated with turf

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Research on pasture development was largely devoted to establishment
of grass and clover pastures in the new project at the Beef Research Unit,
in cooperation with other Departments. Some renovation work was begun
on old pastures. Testing of new forage introductions and breeding of
grasses, clovers and other forage legumes have been continued with
promising advancements.
Investigations of responses of tobacco, corn, peanuts and other field
crops to fertilizer, irrigation, soil fumigation and insect, disease and weed
control measures were continued with some good results.
Breeding and variety testing of small grains, tobacco, peanuts, lupines,
soybeans and cowpeas have again provided significant and valuable ad-
The turf research program, recently started, has gotten well under way
with installation of an irrigation system and establishment of a number of
Some additional laboratory equipment obtained in the past year will
provide more facility and safety in handling radioactive materials.


State Project 20 W. A. Carver, Fred H. Hull
and Fred Clark

A new peanut variety, having predominantly Spanish pod and seed
characters and a runner plant habit, was released for general planting
in the spring of 1953. The new variety was named Florispan Runner. It
is known as number 334A in the breeding nursery, being selected from the
cross Ga. 207-3 x (Small White Spanish x Dixie Giant). Preliminary pro-
cessing tests with Florispan Runner peanuts indicate that they blanch
well. The seed are not as dormant as those of Early Runner, and Early
Runner is recommended in preference for hogging-off. Both varieties
mature about the same time, 135 days after planting.
An experimental growing and processing test was conducted with Early
Runner in 1952. Florida farmers, a local peanut shelling plant, and an end
user of peanuts cooperated in the test. Early Runner seed were found to
blanch better than seed of common runners that were handled during the
same period. The better blanching quality was attributed to the more
uniform seed size of Early Runner.
Variety-strain tests were conducted in 1952 at Gainesville, Marianna
and Jay. Yields of sound and mature seed of the leading varieties ex-
pressed in percent of common runner peanuts are as follows: Florispan
Runner 143, Early Runner 120, Dixie Runner 112, Virginia Station Runner
101, and Virginia Bunch G-2 95 percent.


Hatch Project 56 W. A. Carver, Fred Clark
and D. D. Morey

A regional variety test of millets and Sudan grasses was conducted
in 1952 at Gainesville. Of seven millets the highest producers of forage
were Hybrid D, Hybrid E and Hybrid C. The most productive Sudan

Annual Report, 1953

grasses were Sweet Sudan, Piper Sudan and Wheeler Sudan. The average
green weight per plot for the millets was 6.40 pounds, against 3.50 pounds
for the Sudan grasses.
In the regional soybean variety test the highest producers of beans
in Group VII were Roanoke, N47-3479 and D49-772. Highest producers in
Group VIII were Mamotan 6640, Mamotan 6680 and Woods Yellow No. 1.
Yields were inconclusive in Group VI because of poor field stands.
Cowpea varieties that produced highest in a test of types considered best
for combine harvesting were Dixielee, Blue Goose, Paraguay No. 1, Chi-
nese Red and Calhoun Crowder.
An observation plot containing 11 sunflower introductions is being
grown in 1953.

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Project 295 G. B. Killinger
and R. W. Bledsoe
Two pastures each of Pangola, Pensacola Bahia and Coastal Bermuda
grasses in combination with white and Hubam clovers were grazed in
sequence for the first time. Prior to this grazing season each of these
grass species was grazed separately with a group of steers. The steers
readily grazed Pensacola Bahia following either Pangola or Coastal
Bermuda. One group of steers was allowed to graze Pangola, Pensacola
Bahia and Coastal Bermuda, while another lot grazed these grasses
and also had access to all the Bahia or Pangola hay they would eat.
The steers receiving the hay in addition to grazing gained most. The
most benefit from hay feeding was noted during the first month of grazing
when the herbage was very succulent and before the animals had become
accustomed to the pasturage. (See also Proj. 412, AN. HUSB. and NUTR.)


Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Project 297 D. E. McCloud
and Fred H. Hull
Over 200 plant introductions from 21 foreign countries and five con-
tinents were tested in the forage and cover crop screening nursery at
Gainesville. These were started in the greenhouse and transplanted to a
field nursery to be screened for general climatic adaptations. Fifty-five
introductions seemed adapted to Florida's climate. Of these adapted plants
two lespedezas, two Bahias, one Buffel grass strain, a Dallis grass strain.
two Chloris species, five Indigoferas, 10 Crotalarias, and two forage Vignas
were among the more promising new plant introductions.
Seed increases were made for the Regional Plant Introduction Station
and for distribution to branch stations for testing in Florida.
The Bahia evaluation test was continued and the forage yield of Pensa-
cola and Argentine continued to be about equal. Pensacola again produced
higher yields in early spring and Argentine gave peak production in mid-
summer. The Bahia grass introduction P. I. 162,902 continued to give
much lower forage yields than either Pensacola or Argentine. This Bahia
grass introduction does have the characteristics of very rapid establishment
and sodding.

3 In cooperation with the Division of Forage Crops and Diseases, BPISAE, USDA.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Project 298 W. A. Carver
and Fred H. Hull'
A total of 40 plant selections were made in 1952 among the leading
Bahia grasses. These selections are being increased and compared to
standard grasses in rate of growth, quality of forage and resistance to
frost. All of the narrow-leaf Pensacola Bahia types made noticeably
more growth in January and February 1952 and 1953 and showed more
resistance to frost than selections from the broad-leaf Bahia types.
Crosses were made in 1952 using as the seed parent three self-sterile
Pensacola Bahia type lines, numbers 1, 14 and 108, from the Georgia Ex-
periment Station. Pollen for the crosses was taken from Argentine Bahia,
Lassiter's Giant Pensacola Bahia and Bahia 162,902. A total of 53 F1 plants
were secured in the fall of 1952 from these crosses. They are being in-
creased and compared to the standard Bahia varieties. Additional crosses
between the same lines are being made in 1953.


Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Project 301 A. T. Wallace, M. G. Grennell,
G. B. Killinger, E. S. Horner,
and Fred H. Hull '
Louisiana White and Ladino clovers continued to be superior to other
varieties of white clovers. Ladino lived through the summer and the
second year better than the other white clover varieties. Kenland Red,
Louisiana (Nolin) Red and Port Gibson Red were superior to other red
clover varieties. Louisiana (Nolin) Red was the earliest maturing red
clover, with Port Gibson about three weeks later and Kenland three weeks
later than Port Gibson. New Zealand and Columbia strains of big tre-
foil were superior to other strains during 1952. Hairy Peruvian alfalfa
continued to be the leading forage producer in varietal trials of alfalfa.
Forage from one strain of serradella, which was superior in yield tests,
was fed to livestock without any apparent damage to the livestock. From
149 selections of hairy indigo, 23 were selected for further testing. Some
of these selections appeared to have light frost resistance. Twenty-eight
lines of big trefoil, selected from the 175 tested, were put in a polycross
nursery for the production of seed to be used in determining the general
combining ability of the individual lines.


Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Project 304 G. B. Killinger
Two methods of seedbed preparation were tried for Pensacola Bahia and
Pangola grass. One method involved the use of a web plow and bush
and bog harrow, while the other was with only the bush and bog harrow.
Both grasses established satisfactorily under both systems of seedbed
preparation; however, much more of the palmetto and runner oak were de-
stroyed where the web plow was used.
Small plots of native wiregrass were burned and seeded to Pensacola
Bahia and hairy indigo. Both of these crops were established successfully
in this manner without mechanical seedbed preparation.

In cooperation with Division of Forage Crops and Diseases, BPISAE, USDA.
In cooperation with Division of Forage Crops and Diseases, BPISAE, USDA.

Annual Report, 1953

Adams Project 369 R. W. Bledsoe
Additional studies of the movement of radioactive calcium in plants
suggest that under some conditions little or no downward movement of
calcium occurs in the phloem.
Hairy indigo was grown on fertilized and unfertilized areas and har-
vested at various stages of growth. Results indicate that mineral fer-
tilizers had little influence on yield or mineral and feed analyses of the
Wheat, rye and four varieties of oats grown with and without irrigation
were fertilized at 500 pounds per acre with an 0-12-12 mixture and with
nitrogen at various rates up to 400 pounds per acre. Southland oats gave
the highest yields and percentage recovery of nitrogen during the months
of September, October and early November. Yields of wheat (Coker's No.
4727) were superior to those of oats and rye during periods of colder
weather. Rye (Florida Black) did not give increased yields to high rates
of nitrogen fertilization.
Pangola and Pensacola Bahia grasses were fertilized with sodium nitrate
and ammonium sulfate at rates of 30 to 480 pounds of nitrogen per acre.
The source of nitrogen had little influence on yields and protein content of
grasses at the low rates of application. However, at high rates of nitrogen
application the yields and protein contents of Pangola grass were higher
with sodium nitrate, while those of Pensacola Bahia were larger with
ammonium sulfate as the source of nitrogen. Pangola grass responded
more favorably to high rates of nitrogen than did Pensacola Bahia grass.

Adams Project 372 A. T. Wallace and Fred Clark "
In the recurrent selection program, a breeding plan designed to break
the close linkage between nematode resistance and narrow leaves, 285
lines are being evaluated in 1953. This program is at the end of its third
cycle and the indications are that some progress is being made in breaking
up the association between narrow leaves and high nematode resistance
because some of the lines in the current test have medium leaf width
and good resistance. Selections are being made which will be grown and
selfed to fix the leaf size and nematode resistance.
Germinating seeds of Nicotiana tabacum L. have been treated with
1 percent colchicine solution to double the chromosome number. The plants
with doubled chromosome number will be crossed with N. megalosiphon
Heurck and Mull., N. i... .-1..,.. Cav., and N. repanda Willd., three species
of Nicotiana which are resistant to nematodes.
The Fa progeny from 100 randomly selected F2 plants from a cross be-
tween a nematode-resistant line and a susceptible variety are being grown
and data collected for determination of the heritability and the genetic
correlation between leaf size and nematode resistance.

Purnell Project 374 Earl S. Horner
and Fred H. Hull
The second cycle performance test of the program of selection for
combinability with F44 x F6 was grown in seven replications. Of the

In cooperation with Division of Tobacco, Medicinal, and Special Crops, BPISAE, USDA.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

570 hybrids tested, 25 were selected for high yield, their average being
8 percent above Dixie 18. The corresponding inbred lines were intercrossed
in the greenhouse to complete the cycle.
Several other groups of experimental hybrids also were placed in repli-
cated tests. A group of Sa lines crossed with F44 x F6 showed promise,
as several crosses produced between 10 and 15 percent more grain than
Dixie 18.
In the breeding nursery, conversion of several lines to the male-sterile
type was continued to facilitate detasseling in commercial seed production
fields. Also, the development of new inbred lines was continued and 280
new experimental hybrids were produced and are being tested in 1953.
Georgia 103 and Dixie 17 were the highest yielding hybrids in the com-
mercial variety tests. However, considering standability and weevil re-
sistance as well as yield, Dixie 18 proved to be the best yellow hybrid and
Coker's 811 the best white hybrid at Gainesville. (See also Proj. 374,


Bankhead-Jones Project 417 G. B. Killinger
Coastal Bermuda nurseries, from which Bermuda grass plants were
removed by plowing and raking, completely recovered by sodding over in
about six weeks following an application of 400 to 600 pounds per acre
of an 8-8-8 fertilizer. New stands of Bermuda grass following removal
of old plants and rhizomes were usually better than the original stands.
Burning in October of Coastal Bermuda, Pensacola Bahia and carpet
grass sods which had supported good stands of white clover the previous
year increased early fall clover seed germination and clover growth.
Some lots of Argentine Bahia grass seed produced at Gainesville con-
tained as much as 25 percent ergoty seed. It was not found possible to
remove this ergoty seed by ordinary seed cleaning methods. Seed crops
of Argentine Bahia showing heavy ergot infestations in early stages of
seed development have been mowed and the succeeding seed crop has been
free of ergot when it encountered drier weather. Ergot infestations have
been most severe under prolonged rainy periods.


Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5), Project 440 H. C. Harris, R. W. Bledsoe
and Fred Clark

Minor and secondary element experiments were again conducted at
the greenhouse. Blanton fine sand-shallow phase from near Live Oak,
Florida, was used in these experiments. Sulfur was again deficient in this
soil for the growth of tobacco and corn. The minor elements had no
apparent effect on these crops. A number of elements, including stron-
tium, vanadium, columbium, rubidium, chromium, gallium, cerium, tungsten,
cobalt, nickel, iodine and tin, were applied to this soil without any notice-
able effect on the growth of tobacco or corn.
Oats grown in an alkaline spot on the Station Farm, Gainesville,
Florida, developed what appeared to be "gray-speck". An application of
manganese sulfate corrected this condition.

Annual Report, 1953


State Project 444 Fred Clark
The combination of 1 pound of urea and 1 pound calcium cyanamid
per square yard and 1 pound of urea alone was better for weed control
than 1 pound of calcium cyanamide per square yard for the ninth succes-
sive year.
Calcium cyanamid was tested at the rate of 11/2 pounds per square yard
in a new location and several phosphate combinations were used in con-
junction with the above rate. None proved satisfactory. Methyl bromide
gave the best overall control of weeds, with excellent plant production when
used at the rate of 1 pound per 100 square yards. Sheep manure and
weed seed-free peat moss were also used with methyl bromide and where
peat moss was used the plant stands were double those where sheep manure
was applied or on the check plot.
Zineb, Fermate, Vancide-51, Vancide 6.5 (Fe dust) and Vancide W. P.
Je 625 were tested for the control of blue mold. All proved satisfactory
this year. However, blue mold was not a serious problem.
Chlorobromopropene-55 was tested again this year for weed control
at Gainesville and Live Oak. Best control of weeds was had on the Gaines-
ville plots. Data to date are inconclusive and no recommendations can be
given for this product.


Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9) Project 487 Darrell D. Morey'
Oats have been selected which show superior resistance to crown rust,
stem rust and culm rot. Major attention has been given also to high
forage and grain production and to early maturity.
Two new oat varieties have been recommended for release to Florida
growers. Sunland (C. I. 6600), selected from the cross Fulghum 708 x
Landhafer, has crown rust resistance similar to Floriland and much better
than Southland. It is a tall growing variety with large, plump kernels
of good quality. Sunland has given high yields of forage and grain in
trials over a three-year period.
Seminole (C. I. 5924) a selection from the cross Appler x Clinton -
Santa Fe, is a short-strawed oat with a record of high grain and forage
production. Seminole resistance to crown rust is derived from Santa Fe,
a South American introduction. It has been resistant to Victoria blight,
culm rot and smut during three years of testing.
The principal characteristics of these new varieties are shown in Table
1, in comparison with four standard varieties grown in the same tests.
Continued testing of Gullen '-Gaza wheats has revealed that some
selections are highly susceptible to Septoria nodorum (Berk.) Berk.
Bobin '-Gaza selections gave the best test weights and highest yields in
Rye No. 8-21 has continued to give high yields of forage and grain.
More selection will be needed to purify this rye for higher resistance to
leaf rust, stem rust and mildew.
A number of promising barley selections have been saved and distributed
to other breeders. They have shown superior resistance to spot blotch
(Helminthosporiumn sativum. PK and B.) and powdery mildew, (Erysiphe

SIn cooperation with Division of Cereal Crops and Diseases, BPISAE, USDA.


Number of
Expermiments ..-.....................

C. I.
Variety Number

Sunland ......... ....

Seminole .....

Southland .........

Floriland .- ..---.

Victorgrain 48-93

Red Rustproof ....







8 7

Crown Heig
Rust* Inch

R 46

R 38










8 6
Date of Kernel
Heading Weight

3-13 43.5

3-9 40.7

3-25 33.9

3-17 39.4

3-27 38.1

4-8 30.9


of Hull

























* HR is highly resistant, R is resistant, I is intermediate, S is suscep.i'le.
** Using Red Rustproof as a base at 100%/.



52.7 -



52.5 C'

36.3 Co



Annual Report, 1953 51

graminis hordei Em. Marchal.) (See also Proj. 487, PLANT PA-

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9) Project 488 R. W. Bledsoe, H. C. Harris
and Fred Clark
A field experiment involving different cover crops, fumigation and
different proportions of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in a factorial
arrangement was repeated this year on the same plots at the Station
Farm, Gainesville. Again none of the treatments or cover crops had much
effect on yields. For the second year methyl bromide soil fumigation was
injurious to plants during early growth, but the peanuts appeared to re-
cover later in the growing season.
In sand culture studies S", when applied to either the fruiting zone
or the root zone, was taken up and moved to all parts of the plant. More
S" was taken up when applied to the root area than when applied to the
fruiting area. A deficiency of sulfur in the root zone appeared to increase
the S" taken up through the fruit.
A Hernando fine sand which had been in cultivation for 40 or 50 years
without fertilizer treatment during that time was used in pot cultures.
Peanuts grown on this soil without sulfur in the fertilizer developed the
characteristic yellow color of sulfur deficiency. Plant growth indicated that
the soil was also deficient in copper, potassium and magnesium.
Yields of Virginia Station Runner peanuts grown in rows spaced 18
inches apart were 1.9 and 1.7 times higher than those of plants grown in
rows spaced at 27 inches and 36 inches, respectively.
Studies of the utilization of soil and fertilizer phosphorus by peanut
varieties when radioactive phosphorus was used as a tracer were concluded.
Identical experiments were performed on an Arredondo fine sand at Gaines-
ville, at two locations on Red Ray fine sandy loam at Marianna, and on
Eustis loamy sand at Milton. The phosphorus level of soils, as measured
by the modified Truog method, was 443, 145, 35 and a trace of P2O in
pounds per acre, respectively. Growth response and yield of plants were
not influenced by phosphorus applied in the fertilizer at the two locations
having the two highest levels of soil phosphorus. The percentage of
applied phosphorus utilized was very low at those locations. Growth and
yield of peanuts were improved as the rate of applied phosphorus increased
at the third location with the soil level of 35 pounds per acre of P2Os, but
differences were not significant. There was a definite growth response
and a significant increase in yields from phosphorus fertilization at the
fourth location where the soil had a trace of available P O. However, total
vegetative growth and yield of plants were considerably less than those of
plants grown at the three locations with higher levels of soil phosphorus
supply. Results show that peanuts utilize applied fertilizer phosphorus
very efficiently when grown on soils of low available phosphorus. (See also

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Project 536 G. B. Killinger
and R. W. Bledsoe
Five cuttings of alfalfa hay were cured in a heated, forced air hay barn
successfully. Part of the alfalfa from two cuttings was allowed to dry in

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

the field. The field-dried alfalfa lost many leaves and the color was dark
due to several light showers of rain. This alfalfa yielded four tons of
dry hay per acre for the season.
From this and previous years' experiments it is evident that a hay dry-
ing barn is essential in the Gainesville area, if good quality hay is to be
produced. This project is closed with this report. (See also Proj. 536, AGR.
ENGINEERING, and Proj. 543, AN. HUSB. and NUTR.)

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5), Project 537 Fred Clark
Sixteen insecticides were tested under uniform cultural practices. There
were no significant differences in yields, in production of high quality
tobacco or in acre value from any of the treatments. Acre yields ranged
from 992 pounds to 1,295 pounds per acre and gross acre values from
$529 to $723 per acre. The untreated plot produced 1,128 pounds of
tobacco with an acre value of $642. Plots treated with 5 percent malathion
produced 1,295 pounds of tobacco with a gross value of $723 per acre.
(See also Proj. 537, ENTOMOLOGY.)

Hatch Project 555 Fred Clark, H. C. Harris
and R. W. Bledsoe
Effects of irrigation, soil fumigation and organic nitrogen in the
fertilizer on yields and acre values of flue-cured tobacco are summarized
in Table 2.
IDA, 1952.

Irrigated I Non-Irrigated
Non- Non- Average
Fumi- Fumi- Fumi- Fumi-
gated gated gated gated

All mineral Yield 1,621 1,208 1,087 1,116 1,258
nitrogen Value 920 661 525 567 668

Combination of
1/3 mineral and Yield 1,651 1,346 1,072 1,111 1,295
1/ organic Value 980 773 544 564 715

Average Yield 1,636 1,277 1,079 1,113
Value 950 717 535 566

Yield Value
Average all irrigated plots ......... ......... .. 1,457 833
Average all non-irrigated plots .......................... 1,096 550
Average all fumigated plots .................................. 1,358 742
Average all non-fumigated plots ........... ................. 1,195 641

Average yield on all non-irrigated plots was 1,096 pounds. Irrigation
gave an increase of 360 pounds of tobacco, valued at $283, per acre,

Annual Report, 1953 53

most of which was obtained from the fumigated plots. Root-knot was
present but did not cause plant loss on the non-fumigated plots.
Average yields on all non-fumigated plots was 1,195 pounds. Fumiga-
tion gave an increase of 162 pounds, valued at $100. Most of this
increase was obtained on the irrigated plots.
Tobacco grades were better and average prices higher for tobacco
produced on plots that were both irrigated and fumigated.
Average yield for five fertilizer treatments with all nitrogen from
mineral sources was 1,258 pounds. Average yield for five other fer-
tilizers with 33 percent of the nitrogen from organic sources was 37
pounds more. However, an increase of $47 in acre value was obtained
with organic nitrogen due to improved quality on irrigated plots.
Experiments were conducted with mineral oil and maleic hydrazide
for the control of suckers. Maleic hydrazide was better than mineral
oil. Mineral oil caused tobacco to develop soft rot, and considerable
damage resulted this year from its use. (See also Proj. 555, AGR. ENGI-


Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5), Project 600 Earl S. Horner
and Fred H. Hull
Nurseries of about 2,500 plants each of red and white clover were
planted in the fall of 1952. Red clover plants which had good vigor and
resistance to powdery mildew and root-rot were saved for further testing.
Selection of the better white clover plants will be done in late summer.
Floranna sweet clover produced on the average 49 percent more dry
forage than commercial Hubam when cut at the early bloom stage.
Selection for vigor, disease resistance and late maturity is being con-
tinued in annual white sweet clover.


Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5), Project 612 A. T. Wallace
and Fred H. Hull
A total of 545 selections, 138 introductions and 188 F,'s was grown
in replicated plots in the 1952-53 lupine nursery. A virus disease appears
to be the most serious disease of lupines. This disease attacks both the
yellow and blue species, but is more serious on the yellow, as it kills
the blue plants and does not spread rapidly, while on the yellow plants
it spreads over the entire planting, causing the flowers to abort, thereby
preventing a seed crop. No lines among all yellow entries in the nursery
were completely resistant to the virus, but individual plants scattered
throughout the nursery produced seed, although they showed symptoms
of the disease. Seed from 947 such plants were saved and will be
thoroughly checked for resistance. Five pounds of Alta Blue seed irradi-
ated with 20,000 roentgen units were grown and a total of 1,264 individual
plant selections made for further study.
Twenty-seven lines from the advanced preliminary test of blue lupine
selections produced more than 23,000 pounds of green forage per acre.
These lines were saved and will be given further testing. In other tests,
high yielding varieties were Florida No. 2, a bitter blue introduction
from Australia, and Borre, a sweet blue variety from Sweden.
SIn cooperation with Division of Forage Crops and Diseases, BPISAE, USDA.

54 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Data collected from date of planting tests show that lupines planted
early in October will produce more green forage and produce it earlier
than later planted lupines. Clipping yellow lupines gave the following
results: Clipping at two-week intervals down to two and four inches in
height produced 5,970 and 12,410 pounds of green forage per acre, re-
spectively; clipping at four-week intervals down to two-inch and four-inch
heights produced 7,175 and 13,535 pounds, respectively; clipping only
at "early bloom" produced 22,925 pounds. The average protein content
of the forage for each of the clipping treatments was about 31 percent,
except for the "early bloom" clipping which was 18 percent.
Results show that only 2.6 percent natural cross-pollination occurred in
the yellow lupine nursery during 1952, while 8.2 percent occurred during
1951. (See also Project 612, PLANT PATHOLOGY and NORTH FLORIDA

State Project 627 G. B. Killinger
See Proj. 627, AN. HUSB. and NUTR.

State Project 652 Gene C. Nutter
Bermuda Grass Nursery.-In January 1953 84 selections of turf-type
Bermuda grass were planted in an irrigated testing nursery at Gainesville.
These selections, transferred from a screening nursery, were originally
assembled from other Southern agricultural experiment stations, as well
as from various locations throughout Florida.
Data have been collected to date on rate of establishment and coverage,
and preliminary evaluations have been made on texture, growth habit,
density, color and disease tolerance. Considerable variation in these criteria
has been observed so far among the selections tested. Further objectives
include evaluation for cold tolerance, adaptability to close mowing (1 inch),
response to different fertility levels and tendency to develop mat or grain.
Miscellaneous Turf Grass Nurseries.-In May 1953 18 different Zoysia
grasses including selections of Zoysia matrella (L.) Merr., Zoysia japonica
(Steud.), Zoysia tenuifolia Willd., and some hybrids were planted in an
irrigated nursery in Gainesville. Also planted at this time were 24 selec-
tions of St. Augustine, seven selections of centipede, and 18 selections of
other grasses including Bahia grass, Digitaria spp. and carpet grass. Es-
tablishment of these nurseries has been the principal objective during the
initial year.
Cooperative Tests.-In February 1953 15 selections of improved Bermuda
grass were planted on greens and tees of a newly constructed "pitch and
putt" golf course on the campus of the University of Florida, where they
will be tested for tolerance to heavy traffic and continual usage. An in-
tensive management program is hastening establishment of these grasses.

State Project 661 G. B. Killinger
Various types of pasture tillage implements were tried on replicated
plots of Pangola, Pensacola Bahia, and Coastal Bermuda in the fall of
1952. Data to date are not conclusive enough to draw definite conclusions

Annual Report, 1953

other than that the implements disturbing or tearing up the sod and soil
most allowed for superior stands of winter clovers. Grass stimulation and
botanical composition results will not be available until fall. (See also Proj.


Sea Island and Other Long Staple Cotton.-Pedigree selection in the
Sealand variety is being conducted at Gainesville. The objectives are:
(1) strong lint that fluffs well in the lock; (2) easier separation of the
lint from the seed in roller ginning; (3) short lower branches that hold the
bolls well above the ground; and (4) the ability to produce a good stand
of healthy plants. The Sealand variety appears to have sufficient heritable
variation to allow some improvement in these characters.
Cotton variety tests having six replications in each were planted at the
Leesburg and Sanford Stations in 1952. The average yield of seed cotton
per acre and percent lint for the two tests were as follows: EH 808 1,483
pounds and 31 percent; EH 809 1,164 pounds and 30 percent; Sealand
1,141 pounds and 30 percent; B 12 (Sea Island line) 562 pounds and 32
percent and B 17 (Sea Island line) 424 pounds and 33 percent. (W. A.
Carver, J. W. Wilson, Clyde C. Helms and Fred H. Hull ".)
Lawn Management Studies.-Plots of Bermuda, St. Augustine, centi-
pede, carpet, Bahia and Zoysia grasses were planted in May 1953. When
established these plots will undergo various lawn culture practices in order
to learn more about the management requirements of the different lawn
grasses. Objectives of the work include study of such factors as height-of-
cut tolerance, fertility requirements, disease and insect control measures,
irrigation requirements and method of renovation. (Gene C. Nutter.)
Crop Management.-A continuous cropping system of Dixie 18 corn with
bitter lupines as a cover crop was begun in 1948. The lupines were seeded
after peanuts which had been fertilized with 400 pounds of 0-14-10 fer-
tilizer and 10 pounds of copper sulfate per acre.
Lupine yields have ranged from 10 to 15 tons per acre since 1948 without
There has been no significant increase in grain yields of corn from an
0-12-12 fertilizer treatment, from the addition of 32 pounds of nitrogen
alone, nor from a combination of the fertilizer and nitrogen over the no-
fertilizer treatment since 1948.
Eight cultural practices were added to each of the above fertilizer treat-
ments in 1952. There were no significant differences between cultural prac-
tices nor between fertilizer treatments. Corn yields ranged from 22 bushels
with no cultivation to 60 bushels per acre with regular cultivation. (Fred
Clark and T. C. Skinner.)
9In cooperation with the Division of Cotton and Other Fiber Crops and Diseases,

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


The new Beef Research Unit was put into operation this year. Coopera-
tive studies in beef cattle production and breeding, pasture fertilization,
irrigation and costs of beef production are under way in cooperation with
the Departments of Agronomy, Soils, Agricultural Engineering and Agri-
cultural Economics.
Grants-in-aid have been received from Lederle Laboratories, Merck and
Company, The National Vitamin Foundation, the Lasdon Foundation, Inc.,
The Nutrition Foundation, U. S. Atomic Energy Commission, U. S. Public
Health Service, Coronet Phosphate Company, American Chlorophyll Di-
vision of Strong, Cobb and Company, Inc., and the Lovett-Steiden Table
Supply Foundation Fund. These grants have enabled the department to
expand many of its investigations on nutrition, minerals, swine, beef cattle
and meats.
The Animal Breeding and Genetics specialist has cooperative studies
underway in beef cattle breeding with the branch stations at Ona, Belle
Glade and Brooksville. The Meats specialist began a project for cooperative
carcass studies on beef cattle with the branch stations at Ona, Brooksville
and Quincy, as well as the Beef Research Unit.
The Southeastern Livestock Improvement Foundation, Quincy, Florida,
has made $7,000 available for purchase of cattle to improve the Hereford
herd. The Eastern Brahman Breeders Association has approved giving the
Department 10 outstanding purebred females.
In recognition of the outstanding work with cobalt done at the Nutrition
Laboratory, the National Minerals Feed Association requested that a review
of the literature on cobalt in the nutrition of farm animals be prepared
and the Association underwrote the cost of this review.
Work at the Nutrition Laboratory has continued to expand in the field
of radioactive isotopes, using these valuable tools to trace the functions
and requirements of trace elements in the nutrition of cattle, swine, rats,
guinea pigs and chickens. Analyses of feed and blood samples have been
made for cooperative projects with other departments at Gainesville and
branch stations in the state. A cooperative program is also under way
with the University of Tennessee's agricultural research program at Oak
Expansion of beef cattle production in the muck areas of the state has
resulted in considerable demand for information on the copper and molyb-
denum content of pasture forages grown in these areas. This has given
rise to cooperative work with cattlemen in meeting mineral supplementation
problems on the muck.

Purnell Project 133 George K. Davis, R. L. Shirley,
W. G. Kirk,"1 R. B. Becker,1"
P. T. Dix Arnold,"' S. P. Marshall,"
John P. Feaster, J. T. McCall
and Katherine Boney
A condition was observed during the year that appears to have a nutri-
tional origin and is probably due to an imbalance of the dietary mineral
elements. At present this condition, which is marked by abnormal wear
and fracture of the molars of cattle ranging in age from calves to mature
1o Cooperative with Range Cattle Station and Dairy Science.

Annual Report, 1953

animals, has been observed on ranches in the Everglades, St. Johns River
marshland pastures, in the vicinity of Lake Apopka, and along the Apala-
chicola River in Gulf and Franklin counties. The areas where this condi-
tion occurs suggest that it may be associated with disturbed copper nutri-
tion, but adding copper to the ration has not corrected the difficulty. While
resembling to some extent fluorine toxicity, the absence of even moderate
levels of fluorine eliminates fluorine as a causative agent.
Work at the Everglades Station has been reoriented to thoroughly in-
vestigate the observation that increasing the cobalt intake alleviated symp-
toms of copper deficiency-molybdenum toxicity in cattle. Phosphate sources
work has been continued at the Range Cattle Station and has shown the
value of split applications of fertilizer as a means of maintaining adequate
pasture for cattle on a year-round basis. At the Dairy Research Center at
Hague investigations have been carried on with mineral mixtures containing
varying levels and proportions of copper, cobalt and iron. These experi-
ments are designed to determine the most satisfactory mineral mixture for
dairy cattle. Growth, reproduction, production and hemoglobin values on a
life-long basis are being used as criteria in evaluating the mineral mixtures.
Results of work under this project include observations that: (1) Ca:P
ratios of above 15:1 may result in negative phosphorus balances; (2) high
levels of calcium intake slightly accentuated molybdenum absorption; (3)
high intakes of molybdenum increased manganese excretion; (4) on the
basis of preliminary results, the level of iron oxide in the original Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station mineral mixture may be lowered without
affecting blood hemoglobin values of the cattle consuming these mixtures;
and (5) the primary deficiencies of flatwoods pastures are phosphorus and
cobalt, with copper becoming the limiting factor after these two are sup-
plied. (See also Proj. 133, EVERGLADES STATION.)

Purnell Project 346 George K. Davis, John P. Feaster.
J. T. McCall, Katherine Boney,
L. R. Arrington and R. L. Shirley
The high calcium-low phosphorus contents of a number of rations and
pastures fed in Florida has prompted studies with these and similar ra-
tions to determine the availability of calcium and phosphorus as well as
some trace mineral elements when animals are fed such rations. With
calcium to phosphorus ratios of 15:1 to 20:1, it was found that calcium
and molybdenum were readily absorbed from the intestine and distributed
through the tissues. Phosphorus was poorly absorbed and more phos-
phorus was excreted than absorbed, so that these rations served to deplete
the animals of phosphorus. High potassium levels such as occur in some
areas have been fed to rats and some effect has been noted in the calcium
and phosphorus content of the blood, heart, muscle and bones. Levels
of 7 and 10 percent potassium caused some increase of calcium and phos-
phorus in the bone and some decrease in blood and muscle tissues. Sig-
nificance of these changes is uncertain.
Cobalt has been fed at high levels to chickens without noticeable
effects upon health or egg production. It was found also that chickens
appear to be more resistant to radiation injury from radioactive materials
such as Ca" and P" than are mammalian species.
Vitamin B,1 fed to rats suffering from molybdenum toxicity resulted
in remission of the toxicity symptoms. The effects were more marked in
the males than in the females, indicating a possible endocrine involve-

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

ment. Supporting this view have been similar changes occurring when
the adrenal glands were removed from rats and rabbits suffering from
molybdenum toxicity.
Two grants from the Institute of Public Health have permitted expan-
sion of certain phases of this project and of Purnell 133, above.

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Project 356 George K. Davis,
Katherine M. Boney
and J. T. McCall
The amount of phosphorus available to pasture grasses has influenced
the amount of protein in the dry matter of the plants. In work under
this project it was observed that the application of nitrogen did not give
protein increases, with low-phosphorus conditions, comparable with the pro-
tein increases where adequate phosphorus was present, even when extra
nitrogen was applied to the low-phosphorus soils. Nitrogen applications
to pastures containing adequate phosphorus resulted in Pangola grass
containing 14 percent protein in the dry matter, compared to 7 percent
from low phosphorus pastures. Copper applications increased the phos-
phorus content of pasture grasses and improved nitrogen utilization by
the plants. Fescue grass containing 160 parts per million of molybdenum
soon after being established on new muck stabilized at levels of 40 to 60
parts per million after 12 to 18 months growth. In a number of instances
it was observed that the application of superphosphate fertilizer to pas-
tures resulted in an increased copper content of the pasture grasses. This
increase was as much as 100 percent in some instances. An explanation
for this change is not certain, as sulfur, phosphorus or other factors may
have increased copper availability. This project was revised during the


State Project 412 J. F. Hentges, T. J. Cunha
and G. B. Killinger 1
One pasture each of Coastal Bermuda, Pensacola Bahia and Pangola
grass with volunteering white and Hubam clovers was grazed in rotation by
steers. Another duplicate set of pastures was grazed by steers and a lim-
ited quantity of locally produced hay (Pangola and Bahia) was fed during
the grazing season to this second lot of steers.
Both sets of pastures received the same fertilization, which was 500
pounds per acre of 0-12-12 fertilizer late in October of 1951.
Grazing of both lots of steers was started on February 21, 1952, and
was terminated September 19 of the same year.
Clover growth was poor to good on the pastures, with the second set
of pastures, grazed by steers receiving hay, having the most clover growth.
The Pangola pastures were slow in starting and were not grazed until June,
thus reflecting on total grazing days.
The data on page 59 were recorded for each lot.
The steers on Lot 1, without hay, gained a total of 2,253 pounds from
the three pastures; the second lot of steers, receiving hay, gained a total
of 3,041 pounds, making a difference of 788 pounds gain in favor of hay-fed
11 Cooperative with AGRONOMY.

Annual Report, 1953

steers. Total hay consumed was 3,280 pounds, or 4.2 pounds of hay for
each extra pound of beef.

Lot 1 (without hay) Lot 2 (with hay)
Ber- Pan-i Ber- Pan-
Bahia muda gola Bahia muda gola
Clover Clover Clover Clover Clover Clover

Pounds of gain per acre 346 307 330 344 576 402

Grazing days furnished .... 628 560 441 1,015 860 665
Av. daily gain, lbs. ......... 1.25 1.26 1.72 0.78 1.54 1.39

There was no replication in this experiment. It is acknowledged that
the pastures grazed by steers getting hay were somewhat superior and
therefore the extra beef gains from the hay-fed steers may not be due
entirely to the feeding of dry hay. (See also Proj. 295, AGRONOMY.)

State Project 461 J. F. Hentges, T. J. Cunha
and M. Koger
The Angus cows averaged 1,043 pounds in weight within 12 hours after
calving and produced calves which averaged 65 pounds at birth. The
Hereford cows averaged 1,049 pounds and produced 72-pound calves. After
grazing all summer without supplemental feeding, the Angus calves weighed
379 pounds and the Hereford calves 388 pounds when the weights were
adjusted to 100 days of age. At weaning time the Angus cows averaged
1,102 pounds in weight and the Hereford cows averaged 1,182 pounds. All
cattle and calves in the purebred herds were graded on type, conformation
and condition. This information is being used in the selection and culling
operations of the herd and will be used later in performance studies.

State Project 512 T. J. Cunha and J. F. Hentges
This project, inactive this year, is closed with this report.

State Project 518 George K. Davis
At the suggestion of Dr. Jacob Furth of the Oak Ridge National Labora-
tories, chickens which had been thyroidectomized by use of I11 were re-
examined for evidences of pituitary tumor during the past year. In none
of the tissues checked was there evidence of accelerated cell growth. It is
planned to continue this investigation of endocrine gland interrelationships
with thyroidectomized birds that have had very small amounts of thyroxive.

State Project 540 H. D. Wallace and T. J. Cunha
This project was inactive during the past year.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


State Project 542 H. D. Wallace, S. J. Folks
and T. J. Cunha
A study is under way to determine the long-time effect of adding aureo-
mycin to the ration of gestating-lactating sows maintained on good grass
and legume pastures. First litter performances as measured by number of
pigs farrowed, birth weights and weaning weights indicate no advantage
for the addition of 20 grams of aureomycin per ton of feed. These animals
were fed limited quantities of a well balanced grain ration while running
on excellent forage.


State Project 543 J. F. Hentges, T. J. Cunha
and G. B. Killinger 1
In a preliminary trial three lots of three long yearling steers each
were fed a concentrate and mineral mixture formulated to supplement
coarse roughages for fattening steers. The ration supplement, which con-
tained 3 pounds cottonseed meal, 1 pound citrus molasses, 0.85 pound alfalfa
meal, 0.10 pound steamed bonemeal and 0.05 pound iodized salt (contain-
ing 2 ounces cobalt sulfate per 100 pounds), was fed daily with the rough-
age. Lot 1 steers gained 1.1 pounds daily during the 122-day feeding trial
on a ration of 5 pounds supplement and Bahia grass hay free choice. Lot
2 steers gained 1.7 pounds daily on a ration of 5 pounds supplement, free
choice Bahia grass hay and 8 pounds cob and shuck meal. Lot 3 steers
gained 2.0 pounds daily on a ration of 5 pounds supplement and cob and
shuck meal ad lib. (approximately 16 pounds per day). Hay consumption
was 4,649 pounds in Lot 1 and 3,581 pounds in Lot 2. Feed cost per hun-
dred pounds of weight gain was $26.71 for Lot 1, $19.27 for Lot 2 and
$10.75 for Lot 3. (See also Proj. 536 and Proj. 543, AGRONOMY, NORTH


State Project 546 A. M. Pearson and T. J. Cunha
Samples of frozen Longissimus dorsi pork muscle were analyzed in the
frozen condition, while a similar sample was thawed and the drip was col-
lected and analyzed for B-complex vitamins. The pantothenic acid content
was 10.88 ug/ml. for the drip, 18.72 pg/gm. for the meat, resulting in a loss
of 4.84 percent of the total pantothenic acid in the drip. The folic acid
content was 0.0442 pg/mI. for drip and 0.0595 pg/gm. for the meat, with
a loss of 11.22 percent of the total folic acid in the drip.


State Project 551 R. L. Shirley, J. P. Feaster,
J. T. McCall and G. K. Davis
For this report see Proj. 551, POULTRY HUSBANDRY.

12 Cooperative with AGRONOMY.

Annual Report, 1953


Adams Project 566 George K. Davis, John P. Feaster,
L. R. Arrington, John T. McCall
and R. L. Shirley
A renewal of the grant from the Atomic Energy Commission enabled
work under this project to continue on an expanded scale. In an effort to
discover the underlying reasons for the abnormal number of monstrosities
occurring among cattle in some areas, as well as the reason for poor de-
velopment of some pigs in many litters, work under this project was directed
along several lines.
1. Rats, rabbits and guinea pigs fed high calcium-low phosphorus ra-
tions, similar to those fed cattle in some Florida areas, produced normal
young but reproduction rate was very low. Molybdenum did not cross
the placenta in appreciable quantities when fed with these rations.
2. Rats on a low vitamin D intake stimulated Ca transfer across the
placenta, as measured with radioactive Ca", but the reverse was true for
3. When various ratios of trace elements were fed to rats and rabbits.
it was shown that molybdenum interfered with manganese absorption.
4. When diets high in copper were fed with high molybdenum levels it
was found that the copper content of the livers of both young and dam
were increased. The availability of the copper in the fetus apparently was
normal. Other work has indicated that the copper in the liver of animals
fed high molybdenum diets is not available to the animal.
5. Cobalt in the diet as vitamin B12 increased the placental transfer of
copper in rabbits.

State Project 627 M. Koger
Two replicates each of eight different pasture programs and eight reserve
pastures were established during the spring, summer and fall of 1952. Irri-
gation wells for one program were developed. One hundred head of bred
grade Braham heifers were put on the pastures in September 1952. Cows
were sorted into breeding groups and bred to bulls of four breeds-Angus,
Brahman, Hereford and Shorthorn-during March, April and May 1953.
The cattle wintered well and have made excellent gains to date. The
experiment has not been underway long enough to indicate significant
trends in production from the various pasture programs or breeding groups.
The first calves will be weaned during the fall of 1953. (See also Proj. 627,

State Project 629 (in M. Koger, W. G. Kirk,
cooperation with Bureau M. W. Hazen and
of Animal Industry) E. J. Warwick "
This project was initiated in 1952. Four of five foundation herds (Brah-
man, Hereford, Brangus, Santa Gertrudis) have been assembled, with the
fifth (Angus) to be purchased in 1953-54. (See also Report, WEST CEN-
1 In cooperation with RANGE CATTLE STATION and BUR. AN. HUSB., USDA.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

State Project 631 A. M. Pearson, Marvin Koger
and F. S. Baker, Jr."
Forty-one steers of Brahman breeding and 14 of the British breeds were
slaughtered by a local packer. The Brahman steers weighed an average of
838 pounds, yielded a dressing percentage of 59.96 on the warm basis, and
yielded 51.52 percent of the carcass weight in the front quarter. The steers
of British breeding weighed an average of 904 pounds on foot, yielded a
dressing percentage of 59.93 based on warm carcass weight, and yielded
51.32 percent of front quarter. The Brahman carcasses graded Low Com-
mercial while the British carcasses graded Average Good. (See also Proj.
Citrus Meal in Swine Rations.-An experiment was conducted to deter-
mine the feeding value of citrus meal, the fine particles of dried citrus
pulp, when added in small quantities (0.5, 2.0 and 5.0 percent) to swine
rations. Results indicate that as much as 5.0 percent of citrus meal can
be satisfactorily fed to young pigs. Citrus meal is presently being used as
a commercial vitamin and antibiotic carrier. This work was supported in
part by a grant from Lederle Laboratories. (H. D. Wallace, G. E. Combs
and T. J. Cunha.)
Supplements to Low Gossypol Cottonseed Meal for Swine.-Both a high
level of antibiotic (100 grams of aureomycin per ton of feed) and 0.25 per-
cent of FeSO, improved a corn-low gossypol cottonseed meal ration for
weanling pigs fed in dry lot. A surface active agent (Aerosol S. E. Phos-
phate C674) d-1 lysine, and CuSO, were ineffective supplements. This work
was supported in part by a grant from Merck and Company, Lederle Labora-
tories and the Lasdon Foundation, Inc. (H. D. Wallace, G. E. Combs and
T. J. Cunha.)
Effect of Reducing and Discontinuing Aureomycin Supplementation
During Growing-Fattening Period of the Pig.-Using three plant protein
type rations, corn-peanut meal, corn-soybean oil meal and corn-cottonseed
meal, it was demonstrated clearly that antibiotic supplementation should
not be discontinued during the growing-fattening period. Setbacks in
growth rate occurred when the antibiotic was taken from the ration. There
was no interference with growth when the antibiotic was reduced from
20 to 10 grams per ton. This study was supported in part by a grant from
Lederle Laboratories, The National Vitamin Foundation and The Lasdon
Foundation, Inc. (H. D. Wallace, L. T. Albert ", W. A. Ney 1", G. E. Combs
and T. J. Cunha.)
Effect of Aureomycin on the Protein Requirement and Carcass Charac-
teristics of Swine.-A corn-soybean meal ration, well fortified with vitamins
and minerals and containing 14 percent of crude protein, was as efficient
in promoting gains of weanling pigs in dry lot as similar rations containing
17 percent and 20 percent of crude protein. Aureomycin was not con-
sistently effective in promoting gains. Animals that received aureomycin
dressed higher and showed more backfat thicknesses. This study was sup-
ported in part by a grant from Lederle Laboratories, Merck and Company,
The National Vitamin Foundation and the Lasdon Foundation, Inc. (H. D.
Wallace, Mike Milicevic, A. M. Pearson, T. J. Cunha, and M. Koger.)
n In cooperation with NORTH FLORIDA STATION.
15 Graduate student.

Annual Report, 1953

Sunflower-Seed Meal as a Protein Supplement for Fattening Swine.-
Three experiments have indicated that sunflower-seed meal is not a suitable
protein supplement for swine unless used sparingly or in combination with
other high quality protein supplements. The product tested appears to be
deficient in lysine. Supported in part by a grant from Merck and Company.
(H. D. Wallace, Mike Milicevic,' Donald Kropf and George Combs.)
Swine Dermatitis of Nutritional Origin.-Skin lesions have been observed
in pigs on dry lot experiments. These have been particularly numerous in
animals fed corn-peanut meal, corn-cottonseed meal and corn-sunflower-seed
meal rations. The exact nutritional deficiency has not been ascertained,
but the difficulty appears to be related to protein metabolism. Thus far,
blood studies have revealed no important differences in hemoglobin, blood
calcium, blood phosphorus or red and white blood cell counts between
affected and non-affected pigs. This study has been supported in part by
a grant from Merck and Company. (H. D. Wallace, Mike Milicevic and
George Combs.)
Antibiotic Implants for Baby Pigs.-Aureomycin and bacitracin pellets
have been implanted at the base of the ear of two-day-old pigs. Prelimi-
nary data from 20 litters indicate no clear advantage for the use of the
pellets. Four- and eight-week weights have slightly favored the treated
pigs. There have been no important differences in survival. This work has
been supported in part by a grant from Lederle Laboratories, The National
Vitamin Foundation and the Lasdon Foundation, Inc. (H. D. Wallace and
Mike Milicevic ".)
Ammoniated Citrus Pulp for Cattle.-Additional experiments have been
conducted with three batches of ammoniated citrus pulp secured from two
different sources and prepared in two different ways. Attempts to provide
large quantities of material containing above 12 percent crude protein have
not been successful. All of the ammoniated citrus pulp used during the last
two years has contained approximately 12 percent crude protein. Palata-
bility continues to be a problem with ammoniated citrus pulp. Of the three
batches tested, one was as palatable as plain citrus pulp and two were
considerably less palatable. Results obtained from one feeding trial at
the Range Cattle Station resulted in 1.81 pounds daily gain on an ammo-
niated pulp and 2.61 pounds daily gain on a plain pulp ration for 87 days.
When cracked corn was substituted for part of the citrus pulp, an immediate
improvement in response was noted. These results emphasize the need for
improved palatability if this is to become a satisfactory feed. (George K.
Davis and W. G. Kirk.1.)
"Stringhalt" in Cattle.-Although little evidence was obtained that nu-
tritional supplement or surgical intervention would correct upward luxa-
tion of the patella (stringhalt) in cattle, work has been continued by breed-
ing cows suffering with this condition to a bull showing "stringhalt." The
influence of nutrition upon the development or non-development of "string-
halt" in the developing second generation is being followed. Leg bones
from steers with a heriditary background of stringhalt have been care-
fully examined and preserved in an attempt to identify structural changes
that may be associated with "stringhalt." (George K. Davis, W. G. Kirk
and D. A. Sanders ".)
Interrelationships of Copper, Molybdenum and Phosphorus.-Much of
the work under this grant from the Nutrition Foundation is an extension

1o Graduate student.
17 Cooperative with RANGE CATTLE STATION.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

of work under Purnell Project 346. During the year it has been discovered
that marked kidney destruction with kidney stone formation may develop as
a result of diets very high in calcium fed to rats and rabbits. The bone
changes which occur in rabbits due to high molybdenum levels are similar
to changes seen in young cattle. In work with rats removal of the adrenal
glands relieved the symptoms of molybdenum toxicity. This operation was
more effective in males than in females, pointing up the endocrine relation-
ships involved in copper and molybdenum nutrition. An apparent effect
of copper and molybdenum on manganese utilization has been observed also
and may be related to endocrine changes. (George K. Davis, L. R. Arrington
and T. L. Meade ".)
Sunflower-Seed Meal as a Protein Supplement for Fattening Steers.-A
trial was completed in which sunflower-seed meal was compared to cotton-
seed meal in a ration of corn, oats, citrus pulp, cane molasses and Pangola
hay. There were six steer calves on each ration. The steers were in-
dividually full-fed for 137 days. The steers receiving sunflower-seed meal
made an average daily gain of 1.93 pounds, compared to 1.90 pounds for
those getting the cottonseed meal. The steers on both rations graded Choice
on foot and in the carcass. In this trial sunflower-seed meal was equivalent
to cottonseed meal in a fattening ration for steers. (A. M. Pearson and
J. F. Hentges.)
Effects of Sex Hormones on Growing-Fattening Swine.-Two experi-
ments involving a total of 54 pigs were conducted to determine the effects
of intramuscular injections of testosterone, estradiol and a combination of
the two upon average daily gains, efficiency of gains and certain carcass
measurements. At the level used neither testosterone, estradiol nor a mix-
ture of the two appeared to influence significantly rate of gain, carcass
length, carcass grade, dressing percentage, thickness of back fat, palata-
bility of roasts or tenderness as measured by the Warner-Bratzler shear.
Data on efficiency of gains are inconclusive. (A. M. Pearson, R. B. Sleeth ",
H. D. Wallace and Marvin Koger.)
Waste Beef Fat for Growing-Fattening Pigs.-Four experiments in-
volving a total of 73 pigs were conducted to determine the feeding value
of waste beef fat in swine rations. The addition of the fat up to 15 percent
of the basal corn-soybean oil meal-meat scraps ration increased gains in
all but one experiment and resulted in more efficient gains. Raw ground
beef fat had an average replacement value of 115 percent of corn. The
addition of seven B-vitamins to the ration containing fat resulted in even
higher gains. Although thiamine, riboflavin and niacin increased gains
above the unsupplemented ration, results were not equal to those obtained
when all seven B-complex vitamins were used. The addition of waste beef
fat to the ration resulted in no significant differences in dressing percentage,
fatback thickness or carcass firmness. This study was supported in part
by a grant from Winn Lovett-Steiden Table Supply Welfare Association.
(A. M. Pearson, D. H. Kropf 2 and H. D. Wallace.)
Content of B-Complex Vitamins in the Tissues of Sows Receiving Radio-
active Ca and Mo Prior to Slaughter.-Two sows were slaughtered 30 hours
after dosing with 8.7 millicuries of Ca'5 and 3.0 millicuries of Mo" each
during the last week of gestation. Average values of niacin were 59.90
fg./gm. for the ham, 61.31 for the Longissimus dorsi muscle and 140.39 for
the liver. Value for riboflavin were 1.72 ug./gm. for the ham, 1.93 for the
Longissimus dorsi and 4.93 for the liver. Pantothenic acid values were
13.03 ug./gm. for the ham and 14.93 for the Longissimus dorsi. Folic acid

"0 Graduate student.
~O Graduate student.

Annual Report, 1953

values averaged 1.43 ug./100 gms. for the ham, 1.91 for the Longissimus
dorsi and 59.45 for the liver. This study was carried on with funds pro-
vided by a grant-in-aid from the Atomic Energy Commission. (A. M.
Pearson, D. H. Kropf ", F. H. Jack, J. W. Carpenter "1 and G. K. Davis.)
Protein Level and Aureomycin Supplementation-Their Influence upon
B-Complex Vitamins in the Tissues of Swine.-Samples of ground ham from
pigs fattened on rations containing 14.3, 17.6 or 20.9 percent protein, with
and without aureomycin supplementation, were analyzed for certain B-
complex vitamins. Incomplete results show average values for niacin to be
33.77, 34.25 and 37.13 pg./gm. of fresh tissue for the unsupplemented rations
at 14.3, 17.6 and 20.9 percent protein, respectively, as compared to corre-
sponding values of 29.69, 36.60 and 31.67 for those receiving aureomycin.
Values for riboflavin averaged 1.054, 1.239 and 1.206 Ag./gm. of fresh
tissue on the 14.3, 17.6 and 20.9 percent protein rations, respectively, without
aureomycin as compared to 0.915, 1.647 and 1.225 for the comparable ani-
mals receiving aureomycin. (A. M. Pearson, J. W. Carpenter 2', F. H.
Jack ", H. D. Wallace and Mike Milicevic 1.)
Effect of Feeding Dry Hay to Beef Cattle Grazing Oats.-Two three-
acre pastures were seeded to Southland oats on October 12, 1952, at the
rate of two bushels per acre. Fertilizer was applied at the rate of 500
pounds of 6-6-6 on October 12 and 200 pounds of ammonium nitrate on
December 7.
Grazing was started on December 15 with five head of steer calves in
each three-acre pasture. In one pasture dry hay (Pangola and oat straw)
was fed in a rack, free choice. During the first two weeks the steers
grazing oats alone gained a total of 35 pounds, while those with access
to dry hay free choice gained a total of 105 pounds. During the entire
84-day grazing period the steers with access to dry hay ate 1,210 pounds
of dry hay and gained 725 pounds, those on oats alone without access to
hay gained 825 pounds. (J. F. Hentges, T. J. Cunha and G. B. Killinger ".)
'1 Graduate student.
22 Cooperative with AGRONOMY.

Florida. Agricultural Experiment Stations


The Dairy Research Unit at Hague has added several purebred Jersey
and Guernsey cows and heifers to the herd during the past year. Some
new farm machinery has been acquired, the most important of which is a
field harvester and blower for the handling of crops for silage. New
laboratory apparatus for the determination of nitrogen and moisture in
feeds has been installed. The Dairy Products Laboratory has acquired
a new machine for packaging milk in paper cartons, as well as a newly
developed machine embodying the most advanced principles of clarifica-
tion and separation of milk.


State Project 140 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold
and G. K. Davis "'
Eight publications based on the cooperative phases of this study were
published by project leader W. W. Swett and associates of the USDA
Bureau of Dairy Industry. Others will follow. A current analysis indi-
cated that many body measurements relating to size were correlated posi-
tively with production of milk by Jersey and Holstein cows. Contributions
of records from dairy cows at the Florida station have been completed
and the project is closed with this report.


State Project 213 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold,
G. K. Davis ", J. M. Wing
and A. B. Sanchez
Six laboratory pit silos 48 inches in diameter and 8 feet deep were used
with three crops. Unchopped wilted White Dutch clover in one silo pro-
duced silage with an aroma of butyric acid and protein by-products. In a
second silo 80 pounds of citrus molasses were added per ton of wilted White
Dutch clover. The resulting silage had a mild, acid aroma and was pre-
ferred by the cows over the plain clover silage. All of both silages was
eaten, along with the regular offering of corn silage on the same days.
Cowpeas were harvested when the first seeds were hardening. They
were chopped and placed in one silo. Eighty pounds of citrus molasses
were added per ton of chopped cowpeas in a second silo. The cowpea-and-
molasses silage was more palatable to milk cows than the plain silage, yet
the total offerings were eaten. A distinct feed flavor was detected in milk
that had not been cooled or aerated which came from cows fed cowpea
Unchopped Southland oats were placed in three silos and 173 and 278
pounds of dried citrus pulp were added per ton of oat forage to two of
them. The plain oat silage gave off a pungent acid aroma. By the second
day cows learned to like this silage. Silages with dried citrus pulp pos-
sessed a slightly more acid aroma and were more palatable. During a
four-day period four cows ate 77.3 pounds of the oats silage per 1,000
pounds live weight.
3 Cooperative with AN. HUSB. and NUTR.

Annual Report, 1953

State Project 345 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold
and S. P. Marshall
Eight cooperating Florida herds contributed records of breeding, inven-
tory, replacements and causes of losses from the milking herds. Increasing
numbers of records have been obtained of bulls of five dairy breeds and of
Milking Shorthorns in artificial breeding units.
In natural service 2,254 bulls were discarded while yet serviceable,
mainly from small herds. Reasons given were: avoid inbreeding, 34.5
percent; bad disposition, 14.1 percent; low production of daughters, 10.4
percent; transmitted poor type, weak udders, etc., 6.8 percent; and small
numbers for other reasons. Reasons were not given for 17.7 percent of
discarded bulls.
Of 5,177 bulls completing their useful lives in natural service, 28.9
percent were discarded when sterile; accidents and injuries eliminated
9.9 percent; low fertility 8.9 percent; and senility 8.8 percent. In three
categories losses from natural service were higher than from artificial
use, namely: foreign bodies (nails, wire, etc.), 5.37 percent as compared
with 3.04 percent; lameness, poor feet and legs, 5.08 percent as compared
with 3.88 percent; and total losses from infectious causes, 8.34 percent as
compared with 15.26 percent. Actinimycosis (lumpy jaw) alone caused 3.69
percent removals from natural service and 2.70 percent from artificial use.
Care in selection and management and veterinary care account for some
Completed records on 1,186 desirable bulls in artificial use are at hand.
Of these 190 were born before January 1937, and hence their analysis is
practically free from age distortion. Their average tenure in artificial
use was 2.72 years. Over 28 percent were usable less than 12 months;
20.6 percent from one to two years; 16.8 percent from two to three years,
and 24.2 percent from three to six years in artificial service. One animal
served 10.75 years, starting as a two-year-old.
Disregarding age distortion, low breeding efficiency caused removal of
46.88 percent of 1,186 desirable bulls from artificial service. Sterility, re-
fusal to work and some semen defects eliminated 14.25 percent. Accidents,
injuries and rupture removed 7.08 percent and senility 3.96 percent.
This project is cooperative with Agricultural Economics. (See also Proj.

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5), Project 497 E. L. Fouts, W. A. Krienke
and L. E. Mull
No additional investigations were conducted during the year and the
data are being analyzed for publication. The project is closed herewith.

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5), Project 534 W. A. A. Krienke,
E. L. Fouts and H. F. Roberts
Nine series of ice cream mixes have been prepared. The individual
mixes were stabilized with gelatin, with sodium alginate, or with a modi-

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

fled locust bean gum stabilizer and were prepared with and without an
emusifier (0.03 percent of the mix). The sources of butterfat for the
individual mixes were fresh cream or frozen stored cream. Condensed
skimmilk for the milk solids not fat was also of the fresh or the frozen
stored type.
The emulsifier improved the whipping properties of all mixes in which
it was used, as compared with the respective mixes in which no emulsifier
was incorporated. Initial cooling to only 90 F. followed by slow cooling
to slightly below 40 F. resulting in the highest viscosity in the gelatin
series, both when the emulsifier was used and when not used. Viscosities
were progressively lower in the 70, 50', 40 and 300 F. gelatin mixes. No
important differences in final viscosities resulted from changes in cooling
when the stabilizer was sodium alginate. Some difficulty, however, was
experienced in obtaining low temperatures of the sodium alginate mixes
over the surface cooler, due to the viscosity of the mixes. This was the
condition also when the modified locust bean gum stabilizer was used in
the mix.
Gelatin mixes of high viscosity whipped with more difficulty than those
of low viscosity, indicating the desirability of rapid cooling to very low
temperatures when this stabilizer is used. No appreciable differences in
whipping resulted among the sodium alginate mixes because of differences
in cooling. A similar condition prevailed for the modified locust bean gum
stabilizer. However, the maximum overruns attained were relatively low.

State Project 564 S. P. Marshall, P. T. Dix Arnold,
R. B. Becker and J. M. Wing
Eight male Jersey calves between the ages of 10 and 140 days were
used in continuing the study of the development of stomach compartments
and of their contents. These animals were of normal weight for age and
had been fed a standard ration of alfalfa hay and concentrate supplemented
with milk through 60 days of age.
Growth in compartment size was most rapid for the rumen and omasum,
followed by the reticulum. The abomasum was well-developed in early
life but showed the slowest increase in size.
The dry matter content of stomach compartment ingesta of 19 calves
between the ages of 21 and 120 days averaged: rumen, 16.80 percent;
reticulum, 12.68 percent; omasum, 21.0 percent; abomasum, 15.75 percent.
The abomasum contents of calves up to 60 days of age and receiving
milk averaged 18.60 percent dry matter, while those above this age and
consuming only dry feed averaged 12.19 percent dry matter.
The pH of stomach compartment contents of 81 calves ranged as fol-
lows: rumen, 5.17 to 7.10; reticulum, 5.10 to 7.19; omasum, 4.21 to 7.00;
abomasum, 1.84 to 4.87. Specific gravity values for stomach compartment
contents ranged as follows: rumen, 0.8429 to 1.0377; reticulum, 0.8136 to
1.0222; omasum, 0.9110 to 1.0405; abomasum, 0.9981 to 1.1130.

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5), Project 571 W. A. Krienke, H. H. Wilkowske,
E. L. Fouts and H. F. Roberts
The commercial blend, Quadricillin, containing procaine penicillin G
100,000 units, dihydrostreptomycin (as sulfate) 100 mg., sulfamerazine

Annual Report, 1953

10 percent w/v, and sulfathiazole 10 percent w/v was used in the intra-
mammary treatment of a mild udder infection of a producing dairy cow.
Milk from the treated quarter was collected at the regular milking time
(twice a day). The milk was blended in several proportions with other
milk known to support normal growth of lactic organisms. When the blend
contained only 1 percent of the milk of the first milking after treatment,
lactic organisms failed to grow normally, as indicated by very little acid
development in the milk. Milk of the sixth milking contained a sufficient
concentration of the growth-inhibitory materials to allow only about one-
half the normal acid development, indicating the necessity of avoiding use
of such milk for lactic dairy products for at least three days after final
treatment with this preparation.
The microorganisms Penicilliium roqueforti and Penicillimn camemberti
used in the manufacture of mold-ripened cheese are closely related to
various other species of Penicillia which are capable of penicillin production.
A method has been developed for microbiological assay of mold-ripened
cheese for the presence of penicillin and other dairy starter inhibitory
agents. Preliminary trials using this assay method on several samples
of mold-ripened cheese indicate that the concentration of penicillin, if any
is present, is less than 1 unit per gram of cheese.


State Project 575 P. T. Dix Arnold, S. P. Marshall
and R. B. Becker
During the year 17 cows completed official production records. High
record for the year was made by Florida Golden Madeline 1623816. She
produced 10,686 pounds of milk and 535 pounds butterfat in 305 days as a
four-year-old milked twice daily.
The official Jersey judge classified 39 young cows for conformation, 16
of which scored low on type of mammary system and udder attachment.
The younger sires in the herd were selected from families especially strong
in these characteristics in an attempt to overcome this fault in conforma-
Four well-bred Jersey bull calves were obtained and will be put in
limited service next fall, to lighten the heavy service of two senior herd
sires of advanced age.
Through the continued interest of the Florida Guernsey Cattle Club,
four Guernsey heifers were obtained from Florida breeders, which makes
a total of 18 Guernseys in this club-sponsored project. Three of the older
animals have freshened and are producing at a very satisfactory rate.
A total of 17 cows passed their period of usefulness during the year
and were sold for slaughter. Low production, breeding troubles and in-
firmities associated with old age were the principal reasons for disposal.

State Project 594 S. P. Marshall, P. T. Dix Arnold
and J. M. Wing
Both the control and aureomycin-fed groups of calves were fed colos-
trum the first three days, whole milk the next 18 and skimmilk through 60
days of age. Milks were fed twice daily from nipple pails at the rate of

70 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

4.5 percent of body weight per feeding. Concentrate mixture and a good
quality of alfalfa hay were fed free choice.
Calves fed milks containing 5 mg. of aureomycin hydrochloride per
pound gained an average of 49.8 pounds from birth through 60 days of
age, as compared with an average gain of 43.2 pounds by those offered the
control ration. The aureomycin-fed group consumed an average of 4.1
percent more milk, 13.1 percent more concentrate and 7.5 percent more
hay per animal during this period than did the control group.
Following discontinuation of aureomycin in the ration at 60 days of
age, two calves gained only 6.4 and 7.5 pounds, respectively, during the
ensuing 30 days, while control animals gained an average of 32.8 pounds
during this period. The consumption of concentrate and hay by these two
calves during this period was less than that for animals which had not
received aureomycin.


State Project 628 S. P. Marshall
Two irrigated and two non-irrigated plots of fertilized Pangola-white
clover were grazed rotationally with separate groups of lactating cows from
March 18, 1952, until October 30, when the pastures were damaged by frost.
During this 226-day grazing period the irrigated pastures provided 607
cow days of grazing per acre and the animals obtained 6,179.8 pounds of
total digestible nutrients per acre. Non-irrigated pastures furnished 506
cow days of grazing and 5,214.7 pounds of total digestible nutrients
per acre.
Grazing was started March 3, 1953, on the irrigated pastures and on
March 27 on the non-irrigated plots. Clover growth in the irrigated plots
was excellent, but in the non-irrigated plots the stand was poor and growth
slow during the dry weather of late winter and early spring. The irrigated
pastures had provided 592 cow days of grazing through June 30, 1953,
while the non-irrigated plots had furnished 399.5 cow days of grazing.
Inadequate soil moisture supply in the non-irrigated plots slowed plant
growth to the extent that it was necessary on several occasions to remove
cows from these pastures. The application of supplemental water to the
irrigated pastures during the dryer periods produced a more uniform rate
of forage growth and increased the yield of nutrients per acre. Irriga-
tion increased the carrying capacity of Pangola-clover pasture and reduced
the amount of supplementary feed that otherwise would have been required
by the cows during the dryer periods. (See also Proj. 628, AGR. ENGI-

State Project 633 S. P. Marshall and P. T. Dix Arnold
Pearl Millet.-Pearl millet seeded in rows on Orlando fine sand and fer-
tilized with nitrogen, phosphorus and potash provided grazing for an
average of 2.6 lactating cows per acre from June 10 through September
17, 1952. Cows produced an average of 29.1 pounds of 4 percent fat-
corrected milk daily and persistency was good even at higher production
levels. Fluctuations in body weight were relatively small during the
An average of 2,648.5 pounds of total digestible nutrients per acre
was obtained from millet. Cows derived 61.9 percent of their total diges-
tible nutrient intake from this pasture, which was adequate to support

Annual Report, 1953

the requirements for body maintenance plus the production of 10 pounds of
4 percent fat-corrected milk daily.
Forage samples taken during the first, third and fourth rotations con-
tained 12.3, 15.4 and 15.8 percent of dry matter and 2.88, 3.69 and 3.40 per-
cent of crude protein, respectively.
Dairy heifers grazing pearl millet grown in rows on Scranton loamy
fine sand and fertilized with nitrogen, phosphorus and potash obtained
1,993.1 pounds of total digestible nutrients per acre from the pasture
during an 86-day grazing period. Jersey heifers above 10 months of age
and in thrifty condition gained at rates above normal on millet pasture.
Animals seven to 10 months of age that were well-developed and in good
condition made satisfactory gains on millet pasture alone, but small or thin
heifers grew at subnormal rates.
Alyce Clover.-Alyce clover grown on Orlando fine sand and fertilized
with calcium, phosphorus and potash provided pasture during the period of
August 15 through October 1, 1952. The grazing season was short and over
two-thirds of the total digestible nutrients derived from this pasture were
obtained during the first rotation period of four weeks. An average of 3.3
cows per acre grazed the pasture during the first rotation and 1.6 per acre
during the second.
Production averaged 26.0 pounds of 4 percent fat-corrected milk daily
and persistency was satisfactory during the 48-day experiment. Average
change in body weight per cow was -0.1 pounds. The animals obtained
1,159.3 pounds of total digestible nutrients per acre from pasture, which
was equivalent to that present in 1.15 tons of alfalfa hay.
Oats.-Southland oats were seeded on Orlando fine sand and 500 pounds
per acre of 4-7-5 fertilizer drilled at planting time. Thirty-three pounds
of nitrogen per acre were applied in each of two top-dressings made during
the winter.
Grazing was started December 9, 1952, and during the succeeding 119
days the cows obtained 1,478 pounds of total digestible nutrients per acre
from oats. They produced a daily average of 35.1 pounds of 4 percent fat-
corrected milk and obtained 57.5 percent of their total digestible nutrient
requirements from pasture.
Separate groups of heifers were grazed rotationally on three fields of
Southland and on three fields of Camellia oats. Both varieties were grown
on Scranton loamy fine sand. Five hundred pounds of 4-7-5 fertilizer were
drilled per acre at planting time and the oats were top-dressed twice with
33 pounds of nitrogen per acre being applied each time.
Grazing was started on each variety on December 3, 1952, and during
the ensuing 136 days heifers obtained 2,152.4 pounds of total digestible
nutrients per acre from Southland oats. They gained 276.4 pounds per
acre of oats grazed and increased in weight an average of 1.17 pounds daily.
Camellia oats were grazed 138 days and the animals derived 2,068.8
pounds of total digestible nutrients per acre. Gains in body weight aver-
aged 252.6 pounds per acre of oats grazed and daily increases per animal
averaged 1.13 pounds.


State Project 636 James M. Wing
Six groups of calves (from four to 60 days of age) were fed skimmilk
supplemented with vitamin A and various combinations of orotic acid,
nucleic acid and methionine. Hay and a concentrate feed were offered free

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

choice to all calves. A combination of nucleic acid and methionine appeared
to cause calves to eat more hay than control calves. Animals which
received orotic acid together with methionine were superior to control
calves in concentrate consumption and growth, as indicated by changes
in body weight and height at withers.


State Project 637 Sidney P. Marshall
Two fields of fertilized Coastal Bermuda-white clover grown on Scran-
ton loamy fine sand and two fields of Pangola-white clover grown on this
soil type and treated comparably were grazed rotationally with separate
groups of heifers beginning March 11, 1952. Heifers were removed from
the Coastal Bermuda-white clover fields on November 5 and during the
240-day grazing period the pasture provided 808.6 heifer days of grazing
and 5,853.4 pounds of total digestible nutrients per acre. Body weight
gains averaged 433.9 pounds per acre of pasture grazed.
The animals were removed from the Pangola-white clover areas October
30 when frost had damaged the forage. During the 234-day grazing period
this pasture furnished 854.4 heifer days of grazing and 6,752.9 pounds of
total digestible nutrients per acre. Heifers gained 625.1 pounds per acre
of pasture grazed.


Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5), Project 667 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold,
James M. Wing, Herman Somers,
W. A. Krienke, L. E. Mull,
H. H. Wilkowske and E. L. Fouts
Complaints of subnormally low butterfat tests of cow's milk in areas
following three conditions-extended dry weather, flooded pasture lands
and killing frosts followed by rain that leached soluble nutrients from
pasture grasses-have been investigated. The shortage of leafy roughages
was being made up in part by providing extra bulky concentrates and
mixed dairy feeds. In some instances milk from nearby dairy herds was
"normal" for the breeds when either long hay, corn silage or enough
leafy pasture was supplied to the cows. With this situation there appeared
to be too little leafy forage for "normal" nutrition of milking cows.
Limited amounts of leafy baled hay were fed, and butterfat tests re-
turned toward "normal." Timothy, Johnson grass and mixed alfalfa-alsike
hay were effective. Adequate responses resulted after two to three weeks
of continuous feeding of the long hay.
Attempts to produce this condition experimentally met with some success.
All leafy roughages were withdrawn from the feed of eight cows, resulting
in declining fat tests, the most pronounced change being from 6.0 percent
down to 2.5 percent butterfat. The butterfat became practically colorless.
As a corrective measure, four and five pounds of pasture clippings (hay)
were supplied respectively to each of two pairs of cows. Responses varied
with individuals, but complete recoveries were obtained.
Later, when the cows were placed on lush green pasture, color began
to return to the cream within a few days.

Annual Report, 1953

Detection of Butterfat Adulteration.-Because of differences in market
prices of the various edible fats and oils, adulteration of butterfat products
offers considerable temptation to those who would seek to gain financial
advantages in the sale of butterfat-containing foods. Although methods
are available that will yield results to indicate adulteration of butterfat
when the adulterant is present in a high percentage, there is need for a
method whereby relatively low concentration of nonmilk fat can be detected
when present in the genuine product.
Butterfat has been fractionated by filtering the solidified portion in
successive steps as the temperature of the liquefied portion was lowered suf-
ficiently to permit partial solidification. Differences in Reichert-MeissI
numbers among the fractions thus obtained as compared to the value for
the whole butterfat are such that the presence of 2 to 5 percent edible
fat or oil in butterfat can be detected. (See Jr. Dairy Science 36: 6: 567;
1953.) (W. A. Krienke.)
Effectiveness of Certain Chelating Compounds in Controlling the Copper
Induced Oxidized Flavor of Milk.-Several series of samples of milk were
subjected to refrigerated storage after additions of copper only and copper
plus a chelating compound. The copper was in the form of copper sulfate.
Sodium diethyldithio-carbamate and three salts of ethylene diamine tetra
acetic acid (EDTA) (1. di sodium; 2. tetra sodium; 3. di sodium calcium)
were added to the milk in several different percentages. The additions
were made to some samples before pasteurization and to others after
pasteurization, to some before the addition of the copper and to others
after the addition of the copper, and to some to which copper was not added.
When copper only was added in amounts of 3 to 5 ppm a pronounced
oxidized flavor developed in the milk within two to three days. In milk having
similar levels of copper but to which was added also one of the chelating
materials the oxidized flavor was completely absent or was of very low
intensity when 50 to 100 ppm was the amount used. The tetra sodium salt
of EDTA was the least effective of the four chelating compounds in this
respect; the other three were about equally effective.
None of the chelating compounds imparted any off-flavor to the milk
at levels that were required for protection against the oxidized flavor
Experiments with weanling rats showed no toxic effects when the di
sodium salt of EDTA was fed at levels of 300 and 900 ppm in a mineralized
milk sucrose diet. Over a 12-week period there were no evidences of
toxicity as determined by growth, hemoglobin concentration and observa-
tions of any gross symptoms of toxicity. (See Jr. Dairy Science 36: 6: 571;
1953) (Department of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition cooperating) (L. R.
Arrington and W. A. Krienke.)
New Flavors for Ice Cream.-Mangos have been found to be excellent
for flavoring ice cream when prepared into an injection type material.
The flavor compatibility is excellent and the veins of rich golden color
give the finished ice cream a very attractive appearance. When compared
to a fresh peach ice cream prepared in a similar manner the mango ice
cream had a very much more pronounced flavor that seemed also to impart
richness of flavor to the ice cream. (W. A. Krienke.)
Cryoscopic Investigation Results in Improved Techniques.-When at-
tempting to follow instructions in A.O.A.C. for the freezing point deter-
minations of milk, variations among replicate determinations of 0.0050 to
0.0100 C. are frequently encountered. Observations of the erratic behavior

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

of the mercury thread in its final adjustment when completing the rise from
the point of supercooling led to an investigation surrounding the causes
With the use of a stop watch, careful observations were made to deter-
mine the exact time necessary for the mercury thread to attain a maximum
rise for a sample of milk to indicate its freezing point. A second observa-
tion was made to determine the length of time that the mercury thread
remained stationary before receding. These observations plus various
attempts at adequate vibration of the thermometer to eliminate the erratic
movement of the mercury thread resulted in the adoption of a procedure
that consistently yielded values that were within 0.0020 C. of one another;
many were exactly the same or deviated only 0.001 C. (See Jr. Science
36: 6: 567; 1953) (W. A. Krienke.)
Acidity Variations During Lactic Acid Fermentation in Reconstituted
Dairy Products.The relationship between titratable acidity and pH during
lactic acid fermentation in reconstituted nonfat milk ranging from 9 to 20
percent solids has been investigated. After reconstitution but before
fermentation a 0.02 percent increase in titratable acidity occurred for
each 1 percent increase in solids, with only a slight decrease in pH from
6.6 to 6.4. During fermentation proportionately larger increases in acidity
were observed in milk of higher solids content. At pH 4.6 both the recon-
stituted solids and whey obtained therefrom showed a 0.06 percent increase
in titratable acidity for each 1 percent increase in the original solids con-
This inter-relationship shown on prepared graphs may be used as a guide
in selecting proper combinations of solids concentrations and acidity values
for manufacture of cultured buttermilk and cottage cheese. Good quality
buttermilk was made using 11 percent reconstituted nonfat milk and fer-
menting to a titratable acidity of 0.90 percent of pH 4.4. Satisfactory
cottage cheese was made using 13 percent reconstituted solids and cutting
the curd at a clear whey titratable acidity of 0.62 percent at pH 4.8. (H.
H. Wilkowske.)
Dried Ramie Tops and Shives, with Blackstrap Molasses.-Ramie tops
had been in a large pile near a processing plant. They were being dried,
with blackstrap molasses added, and offered for use in mixed feeds. This
material had been passed through a hammermill and reduced practically to a
flour. The plain ramie meal was refused by each of 21 cows. Ramie meal
with added molasses was offered to 20 cows. Four of them showed interest
by smell or a taste but did not eat the offering.
Leafy materials intended for dairy cattle should not be reduced finer
than "dairy cut" or coarsely chopped. (R. B. Becker and George K. Davis.
in cooperation with the Nutrition Laboratory.)

Annual Report, 1953


More research information was presented to the people of Florida
than ever before during this fiscal year, especially through such media of
mass communications as farm magazines and radio. Technical information
was published in larger amounts through the new journal series and in tech-
nical bulletins. Newspaper coverage of research findings also was increased
during the year.
Besides the work listed in this report, special writers from a number
of Florida newspapers wrote many stories for their papers after consulting
with the editors and other staff members. Editors from a number of Florida,
Southern and national farm magazines visited the Stations during the year
and wrote stories for their publications as a result.
All members of the Station staff-administrators, research workers, and
editors-have made a special effort to bring the results of research before
the public as soon as possible, using all available media of communications.
During the year, a full-time assistant Station editor was added to the
staff. All other Station editors work about half of their time for the
Agricultural Extension Service, by whom they are cooperatively employed.


The Station published 21 new bulletins, reprinted one bulletin, printed
nine new circulars, and printed the bulletin list (press bulletin) twice. The
21 new bulletins ranged in size from 12 to 76 pages and totaled 676 pages.
They ranged in edition from 5,000 to 25,000 and totaled 244,000 copies.
The nine new circulars, from 4 to 20 pages in size, totaled 88 pages and
110,000 copies. The reprinted bulletin contained 36 pages, and 6,000 copies
were printed.
Following is a list of bulletins printed:
Bul. Title Pages Edition
499 Insects and Diseases of the Pecan in Florida, Arthur
M. Phillips, John R. Cole and John R. Large ................ 76 10,000
500 A Survey of Food Preference of Florida Men, O. D.
Abbott, Ruth O. Townsend and R. B. French .........-.... 28 6,500
501 Cabbage Varieties Adapted to Commercial Production
in Florida, E. N. McCubbin, F. S. Jamison, R. W.
Ruprecht and E. A. W olf .................. .......................... 32 10,000
502 Liver Fluke Disease and Its Control, Leonard E. Swan-
son, Edward G. Battle and Walter R. Dennis ........... 20 10,000
503 The Genus Aleurites in Florida, R. D. Dickey, Seymour
G. Gilbert and Clare M. Gropp .................................... 40 5,000
504 Effect of Liming and Fertilization on Yield and the
Correction of Nutritional Leaf Roll of Irish Potatoes,
G. M. Volk and Nathan Gammon, Jr. ....................... 16 6,000
505 Fattening Cattle in North Florida, F. S. Baker, Jr. 24 6,000
506 Know Your Fertilizers, G. M. Volk ........................... 24 20,000
507 Mechanical Drying and Harvesting of Peanuts, J.
Mostella Myers and Frazier Rogers ......................... 16 10,000
508 Customer Response to Varying Prices for Florida
Oranges, Marshall R. Godwin .............................. ......... 24 7,000
509 Use of Citrus Products in Meridian, Mississippi, House-
holds, Spring of 1951, D. C. Kimmel ............................. 56 7,000

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

510 Poisonous Plants in Florida, Erdman West and M. W.
Emmel .--.......-- .. ...... .............. ...------------.-- ..... ......-... 60
511 Naringin, A Bitter Principle of Grapefruit, J. W.
Kesterson and R. Hendrickson .............-.............. ..... 36
512 Fertilizer Tests with Flue-Cured Tobacco, Fred Clark 28
513 Minerals for Dairy and Beef Cattle, R. B. Becker,
P. T. Dix Arnold, W. G. Kirk, George K. Davis and
R. W Kidder .............-...-.......... ....... .. .. ....-- .... 52
514 Soils and Fertilizers for Florida Vegetables and Field
Crops, S. N. Edson and F. B. Smith .......................... 24
515 Maintaining Fertility in Mineral Soils under Perma-
nent Pasture, N. Gammon, Jr., W. G. Blue, J. R. Neller,
D. W. Jones, H. W. Lundy and G. E. Ritchey ......... 32
516 Grasshoppers and Their Control, L. C. Kuitert and
R. V. Connin ............. --.........-... .. ... .... .. ... .- ..- 32
517 Winter Clovers in Central Florida, E. M. Hodges,
D. W. Jones and W. G. Kirk .................................... 24
518 Lawns in Florida, George E. Ritchey and George D.
Thornton .................--- ........- ....-... ..-.. ....... ..- ... ... ... 20
519 Hedging Machine for Citrus Groves, David S. Prosser,
Jr. ....................... ...-.. ....... ................ ............. 12
453 Carpet Grass and Legume Pastures in Florida (re-
printed), R. E. Blaser, R. S. Glasscock, G. B. Killinger
and W E. Stokes ....--................... ...........--... .......... 36
SCS 31 Transportation Tests with Early Irish Potatoes from
the Southeastern States, 1950 Season, L. J. Kushman,
R. E. L. Greene and Morris White ..... .......... ..... 32

The following circulars were printed:
Cir. Title P
S-49 Big Trefoil-A New Pasture Legume for Florida, Alvin
T. W allace and G. B. Killinger ..................................-..
S-50 Chinch Bug Control and Subsequent Renovation of
St. Augustine Grass Lawns, L. C. Kuitert and Gene
C N utter .. -.......-. .... .. .......-- ... ..--.. ..-....-.. ... .
S-51 Insects of Tomatoes and Their Control, E. G. Kel-
sheimer and D. O. Wolfenbarger .........-...........
S-52 The Early Runner Peanut Variety, W. A. Carver,
Fred H. Hull and Fred Clark ................................
S-53 Floriland Oats, W. H. Chapman ............... ... ........
S-54 Perizoma, a Potential Weed Pest, Erdman West -.........-
S-55 Control of Disease in Celery Seedbeds with Methyl
Bromide, George Swank, Jr., and Vernon G. Perry ..
S-56 A Tropical Black Raspberry for South Florida, Bruce
L edin ................ ........ ...... .. ... .. ..... ..._ .... ...... .. ..-
S-57 Feeding Beef Cattle for Show and Sale, T. J. Cunha
and J. F. H entges .......................................











ages Edition








Station staff members presented more talks on the radio this year than
ever before. The library of taped talks that was begun last year was
increased, and more talks were sent out to other stations on tapes than
previously. The editors sent 47 tapes to eight Florida radio stations during
the year, containing a total of 90 separate talks. This was almost twice
the number of talks sent out last year. The library tapes were dubbed

Annual Report, 1953

several times and sent out to various stations. On March 20, the National
Broadcasting Company taped talks from four Station people for use on
its network. One tape was made for the National Cattlemen's Association
and was sent to 52 stations.
Staff members continued to appear on the Florida Farm Hour program,
which is presented daily over the University of Florida radio station,
WRUF. These appearances consisted of talks, discussions and interviews,
and numbered 144. During the year 126 of these talks, or other material
from Station workers, were prepared as Farm Flashes and sent to 39 radio
stations or to county agents for use on the air, by the Extension Service.
As in the past, the farm question box was presented every Tuesday on
the Florida Farm Hour. Questions were those mailed in by the radio
audience, and most of the answers were from Station staff members.
The Station presented one television program of 30 minutes during the
year, on agricultural engineering. Since April 28, 1953, the editors have
sent five minutes of news copy each week to WMBR-TV in Jacksonville
for use on television.

The amount of research information published during the year through
the farm magazine press increased considerably. During the year eight
Florida magazines used 40 articles by the editors, totaling 1,043 column
inches of space. Five Southern magazines used 15 articles which occupied
448 column inches, while three national agricultural journals accepted four
articles for a total of 33 column inches. In all, 59 articles were printed
during the year and amounted to 1,524 column inches, more than twice as
much space as last year and almost twice as many articles.
The weekly clipsheet, Agricultural News Service, issued by the Exten-
sion Service, continued to be the chief method of sending Station information
to weekly newspapers and farm correspondents. It carried 8 to 15 stories
each week, with at least half of them based on research material. A survey
of the effectiveness of this clipsheet, completed during the year by one
of the editors, showed that most of the newspaper editors who receive
it find it very useful.
Stories were sent to daily papers through the wire services and by
direct mailings, as in the past. Besides this, farm editors from several
daily papers made visits to the Main Station and Branch Stations to gather
material, with the help of the editors and other staff members.

The Journal Series of technical articles, started almost two years ago,
continues to grow rapidly. This series is admirably suited to low-cost
release of technical information not of widespread interest, in addition to
that published in bulletins and circulars.
The following articles in this series, listed numerically, were published
during this fiscal year. Reprints are available on request.
38. Kesterson, J. W., and R. Hendrickson. Viscosity of Citrus Molasses.
Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 65. 1952.
54. Winsor, Herbert W. Variations in Soil Boron with Cultivation and
Season. Soil Science 74: 5. 1952.
60. Winsor, Herbert W. Penetration and Loss of Heavy Applications of
Borax in Florida Mineral Soils. Soil Science 74: 6. 1952.
62. Neller, J. R., and H. W. Lundy. Availability of Residual Phosphorus
of Superphosphate and Rock Phosphate Determined by Phosphorus
in Crops from Radioactive Superphosphate. Soil Science 74: 6. 1952.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

63. Rouse, A. H., and C. D. Atkins. Heat Inactivation of Pectinesterace
in Citrus Juices. Food Technology 6: 8. 1952.
64. McPherson, W. K. A Critical Appraisal of Family Farms as an Ob-
jective of Public Policy. Jour. of Farm Economics 35: 3. 1952.
66. Neller, J. R. Effect of Lime on Availability of Labeled Phosphorus of
Phosphates in Rutledge Fine Sand and Marlboro and Carnegie Fine
Sandy Loams. Soil Science 75: 2. 1952.
67. Montelaro, James, C. B. Hall and F. S. Jamison. Reduction of Urea
Injury to Tomato Foliage by Addition of Magnesium Sulfate to the
Spray Solution. Am. Soc. for Hort. Sci. 60. 1952.
68. Connin, R. V., and L. C. Kuitert. Control of the American Grass-
hopper with Organic Insecticides in Florida. Jour. of Eco. Ento-
mology 45. 1952.
70. Simpson, Charles F., and D. A. Sanders. Diagnosis of the Carrier
Stage of Anaplasmosis under Experimental Conditions. Veterinary
Medicine 48: 5. 1952.
72. Elvin, Evert J., and L. R. Knodel. Infrared Determinations of Bi-
phenyl in Treated Fibreboard Cartons. Anal. Chem 24. 1952.
73. Wolfenbarger, D. 0. Some Notes on the Citrus Root Weevil. Fla.
Entomologist 35: 4. 1952.
74. Stewart, Ivan, and C. D. Leonard. Chelates as Sources of Iron for
Plants Growing in the Field. Science 116: 3021. 1952.
75. Morey, Darrell D., and R. W. Earhart. Golden Oats. Jour. Heredity
43: 4. 1952.
76. Seale, Charles C., John W. Randolph and John C. Stephens. Tests
with Aromatic Solvents for the Control of the Submersed Water Weed
Naiad, Najas quadalupensis (Spreng) Morong., in Florida. Weeds
1: 4. 1952.
77. Olsen, R. W., C. R. Stearns, Jr. and R. Hendrickson. Examination
of Citrus Juices Processed from Parathion-Sprayed Fruit. Food
Technology 6: 9. 1952.
78. Dietz, James H., and A. H. Rouse. A Rapid Method for Estimating
Pectic Substances in Citrus Juices. Food Technology 18: 2. 1952.
79. Wolford, Richard W., Vincent D. Patton and Robert R. McNary. A
Method for Removal of Peel Oil from Citrus Juices and Process
Liquids. Food Technology 6: 11. 1952.
81. Neller, J. R. Phosphorus for Soils in Pasture. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc.
of Fla. 12. 1952.
82. Anderson, Chris W. The Distribution of Cucurbit Viruses in Central
Florida. P1. Dis. Rept. 36: 10. 1952.
83. Griffiths, J. T. Observations on Peel Injury to Pope Summer Oranges
in the Vero Beach Area. Fla. Entomologist 35: 4. 1952.
84. Griffiths, J. R. Some Biological Notes on Katydids in Florida Citrus
Groves. Fla. Entomologist 35: 4. 1952.
85. Atkins, C. D., A. H. Rouse, R. L. Huggart, E. L. Moore and F. W.
Wenzel. Gelation and Clarification in Concentrated Citrus Juices III.
Effect of Heat Treatment of Valencia Orange and Duncan Grapefruit
Juices Prior to Concentration. Food Technology 7: 2. 1953.
87. Conover, Robert A., and James M. Walter. Tomato Late Blight Re-
sistance as Affected by Races of Phytophthora infestans. Proc. Fla.
St. Hort. Soc. 65. 1952.

Annual Report, 1953

91. Conover, Robert A., and James M. Walter. The Occurrence of a Viru-
lent Race of Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) Dby. on Late-Blight-
Resistant Tomato Stocks. Phytopath. 43: 6. 1953.
92. Stearns, C. R., Jr., and J. T. Griffiths. Parathion Contamination
Hazards to Spray Labor. Fla. Entomologist 35: 4. 1952.
93. Volk, G. M. Comparative Efficiency of Various Nitrogen Carriers.
Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 12. 1952.
94. Kesterson, J. W., and R. Hendrickson. The Glucosides of Citrus.
Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 65. 1952.
95. Eddins, A. H., E. N. McCubbin, Nathan Gammon, Jr. and G. M. Volk.
Correction of Molybdenum Deficiency in Cauliflower. Proc. Fla. St.
Hort. Soc. 65. 1952.
97. Dennison, R. A. Studies on the Preparation of Processed Celery
Products. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 65. 1952.
98. McCubbin, E. N. Some Factors Affecting Production of Broccoli at
Hastings. Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 65. 1952.
99. Huggart, Richard L. Effect of Concentration on Clarification in Con-
centrated Citrus Juices. Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 65. 1952.
100. Nettles, V. F. Promising Commercial Vegetable Varieties for Flori-
da. Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 65. 1952.
101. Atkins, D. C., R. L. Huggart and F. W. Wenzel. Clarification in Heat-
Treated Pineapple Orange Concentrates. Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc.
65. 1952.
102. Rouse, A. H. Pectinesterase Retention in Citrus Juices Stored at
Various Temperatures. Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 65. 1952.
103. Wolfenbarger, D. O. Insect and Mite Control Problems on Lawns
and Golf Courses. Fla. Entomologist 36: 1. 1953.
104. Edson, S. N., and F. B. Smith. A Modified Cupra-Ammonia Test
for Determining Cation Exchange Capacity of Mineral Soils. Fla.
Acad. of Sci. 16: 1. 1953.
105. Ruehle, George D. Grafted Casurarina Trees for Use as Windbreaks
or Ornamentals. Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 65. 1952.
106. Ledin, R. Bruce. The Naranjilla (Solanmn quitoense Lam.) Proc.
Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 65. 1952.
107. Hoover, M. W. The Importance of Stage of Maturity upon the Edible
Quality of Green Beans, Lima Beans, and Southern Field Peas. Proc.
Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 65. 1952.
108. Burgis, Donald S., and W. G. Cowperthwaite. Report on the Use of
Chemical Weedkillers for Nutgrass Control. Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc.
65. 1952.
109. Edson, Seton N. Observations on the Growth Response of Aspergillus
niger and Other Fungi to Various Levels of Zinc. Fla. Acad. of Sci.
16: 1. 1953.
110. Westgate, Philip J. Preliminary Report on Copper Toxicity and Iron
Chlorosis in Old Vegetable Fields. Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 65. 1952.
111. Stearns, C. R., Jr., W. L. Thompson, R. B. Johnson and E. J. Deszyck.
Methods of Applying Insecticides with Different Spray Machines.
Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 65. 1952.
112. Ford, Harry W. The Effect of Spreading Decline on the Root Distribu-
tion of Citrus. Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 65. 1952.
113. Dennison, R. A., C. B. Hall and V. F. Nettles. Influence of Certain
Factors on Tomato Quality. Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 65. 1952.

80 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

114. Wolfenbarger, D. O. Systox, A Synthetic Insecticide for Pineapple
Mite Control. Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 65. 1952.
115. Dietz, J. H., and F. W. Wenzel. Changes in Pectic Substances in
Valencia Orange Juice During Concentration. Proc. Fla. St. Hort.
Soc. 65. 1952.
116. Bledsoe, R. W. Radioactive Tracer Elements as Tools in Modern
Plant Science Research. Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 65. 1952.
117. Geraldson, Carroll M. Studies on Control of Blackheart of Celery.
Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 65. 1952.
119. Stewart, Ivan, and C. D. Leonard. The Cause of Yellow Tipping in
Citrus. Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 65. 1952.
120. Hayslip, N. C., R. J. Allen, Jr. and J. F. Darby. A Vegetable-Pasture
Rotation Study at the Indian River Field Laboratory. Proc. Fla. St.
Hort. Soc. 65. 1952.
121. Wenzel, F. W., R. L. Huggart, R. W. Olsen, E. L. Moore and C. D.
Atkins. Examination of Experimental Packs of Frozen Tangerine
Concentrate. Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 65. 1952.
122. Leonard, C. D., and Ivan Stewart. Correction of Iron Chlorosis in
Citrus with Chelated Iron. Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 65. 1952.
123. Reitz, Herman J., and W. T. Long. Mineral Composition of Citrus
Leaves from Indian River Area of Florida. Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc.
65. 1952.
124. DuCharme, E. P., and L. C. Knorr. Comments on Methods of Mini-
mizing Tristeza Damage. Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 65. 1952.
125. Sites, John W., and Edward J. Deszyck. The Effect of Varying
Amounts of Potash on the Yields and Quality of Valencia and Hamlin
Oranges. Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 65. 1952.
126. Swank, George. Control of Celery Seed Bed Diseases by Soil Fumi-
gation. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 12. 1952.
128. Deszyck, E. J., H. J. Reitz and J. W. Sites. The Effect of Copper
and Lead Arsenate Sprays on the Total Acid and Maturity of Duncan
Grapefruit. Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 65. 1952.
129. Pratt, Robert M. Seasonal and Geographical Distribution of Some
Citrus Insects and Mites in Florida. Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 65. 1952.
130. Forsee, W. T., Jr. Minor Element Deficiencies and Field Corrections
Established by Research in Florida Vegetables. Proc. Fla. St. Hort.
Soc. 65. 1952.
132. Sleeth, R. B., A. M. Pearson, H. D. Wallace, D. H. Kropf and Marvin
Koger. The Effects of Injection of Testosterone, Estradiol and a Com-
bination of the Two upon Growing-Fattening Swine. Jour. of Ani-
mal Sci. 12: 2. 1952.
133. Wallace, H. D., L. T. Albert, W. A. Ney, G. E. Combs and T. J. Cunha.
Effects of Reducing and Discontinuing Aureomycin Supplementation
during the Growing-Fattening Period of Pigs Fed Corn-Peanut Meal,
Corn-Soybean Meal, and Corn-Cottonseed Meal Rations. Jour. of
Animal Sci. 12: 2. 1953.
134. Braude, R., H D. Wallace and T. J. Cunha. The Value of Antibiotics
in the Nutrition of Swine. Jour. of Antibiotics and Chemotherapy.
3: 3. 1953.
135. McPherson, W. K. A Method of Determining the Amount of Money
a Farmer Can Invest in Improved Pastures. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of
Fla. 12. 1952.

Annual Report, 1953

136. Westgate, Philip J. Preliminary Report on Chelated Iron for Vege-
tables and Ornamentals. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 12. 1952.
137. Davis, G. K., and W. G. Kirk. Nutritional Quality in Pastures. Proc.
Soil Sic. Soc. of Fla. 1.2. 1952.
138. Stewart, Ivan and C. D. Leonard. The Chemistry of the Metal Chelates
and Their Application in Agriculture. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla.
12. 1952.
139. Killinger, G. B. Burning to Establish and Maintain Clover Pastures.
Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 12. 1952.
140. Spencer, E. L., Donald S. Burgis and Amegda Jack. Crop Response
as Influenced by Soil Fumigation. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 12.
141. Jones, D. W., and E. M. Hodges. Pastures in South Florida. Proc.
Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 12. 1952.
142. Kincaid, R. R. Effects of Two-Year Rotations on Nematode Diseases,
Yield, and Quality of Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc.
of Fla. 12. 1952.
143. Gammon, Nathan, Jr., and W. G. Blue. Potassium Requirements for
Pastures. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 12. 1952.
144. Thornton, George D. Effects of D-D, EDB and Chloropicrin on
Microbiological Action in Some Florida Soils. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of
Fla. 12. 1952.
146. Horn, Granville C. The Effect of Certain Insecticides on the Flora of
Arrendondo Fine Sand. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 12. 1952.
147. Ross, H. F. Effects of DDT, Chlordane and Aldrin on Nitrification
and Ammonification in Arrendondo Fine Sand. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc.
of Fla. 12. 1952.
148. Blue, William G., and Charles F. Eno. Some Aspects of the Use of
Anhydrous Ammonia on Sandy Soils. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 12.
149. Rouse, A. H., and C. D. Atkins. Further Results from a Study of
Heat Inactivation of Pectinesterase in Citrus Juices. Food Technology
7: 221-223. 1953.
150. Eddins, A. H. Transmission of Cabbage Black Rot at Hastings, Flor-
ida. P1. Dis. Rept. 37: 4. 1953.
151. Stoner, Warren N., and W. D. Moore. Lowland Rice Farming, a
Possible Control for Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in the Everglades. P1.
Dis. Rept. 37: 4. 1953.
152. Thames, Walter H., Jr., and Warren N. Stoner. A Preliminary Trial
of Lowland Rice Culture in Rotation with Vegetable Crops as a
Means of Reducing Root-Knot Nematode Infestations in the Ever-
glades. P1. Dis. Rept. 37: 4. 1953.
164. Choate, R. E., D. E. McCloud and L. C. Hammond. Depth and Fre-
quency of Supplemental Irrigation for Pastures. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc.
of Fla. 12. 1952.

In addition to the articles listed above 231 articles not given journal
series numbers were published in periodicals and journals as follows:

Abbott, O. D. Effect of Processing upon Value of Milk. Fla. Dairy News
3: 6:24. 1952.

82 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Allen, R. J., N. C. Hayslip and J. F. Darby. A Pasture-Vegetable Cropping
System for Florida Sand Soils. Proc. Assn. Sou. Agr. Wkrs. 50: 201.
Arnold, P. T. Dix. The Effect of Cow Depreciation on the Cost of Producing
Milk. Guernsey Breeders Jour. 87: 3: 280-281. 1953.
Arrington, L. R., and W. A. Krienke. Effects of Chelating Compounds upon
Oxidized Flavor of Milk. Jour. Dairy Sci. 34: 6: 571. 1953.
Baker, F. S., Jr. Good Grazing Will Cover Multitude of Sins in Raising
Swine Properly. Fla. Cattleman 17: 1: 64. 1952.
Beckenbach, J. R. What Research Is Doing for Florida Agriculture. Fla.
Grower 60:12 (1262): 21, 36, 39. 1952.
Becker, R. B. Relation of Florida Research Programs to More Efficient
Milk Production. Fla. Dairy News 2: 8: 15, 32. 1952.
Becker, R. B. Balanced Dairy Rations. Fla. Grower 61: 1 (1263): 5, 29.
Becker, R. B. Jerseys Make Florida History. Jersey Bul. 72: 8: 554, 636-
638. 1953.
Becker, R. B., and P. T. Dix Arnold. What Happens to Those Good Bulls?
Hoard's Dairyman 97: 22: 946-947. 1952.
Becker, R. B., and P. T. Dix Arnold. Tenure and Turnover of Desirable
Bulls in Artificial Studs. Jour. Dairy Sci. 86: 575-576. 1953.
Becker, R. B., P. T. Dix Arnold and G. K. Davis. Minerals for Cattle on
Sand and Muck Soils. Indian Sci. Congress Jan. 28, 1953.
Bledsoe, Roger W. Downward Transport of Ca'5 in Plant Roots. Proc. Assn.
Sou. Agr. Wkrs. 50: 167. 1953.
Brooke, Donald L. Trends in Costs and Returns. Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc.
65: 121-124. 1952.
Brooke, Donald L. General Farming and Truck Crops. Fla. Handbook,
4th Edition. 1953.
Brooker, Marvin A. Problems of Normal Value with Rising Prices. Jour.
Farm Economics 34: 5: 937-943. 1952.
Burgis, Donald S., and W. G. Cowperthwaite. Report on the Use of Chemi-
cal Weedkillers for Nutgrass Control. Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 65: 163-
165. 1952.
Camp, A. F. Trace Elements in Crop Production. Jour. Agr. and Food
Chemistry 1: 4:294-300. 1953. Also, Agr. Chemicals 8: 5: 38-40, 123,
124. 1953.
Camp, A. F., W. L. Thompson and C. R. Stearns. Station Issues Instructions
on Use of Parathion. Citrus Ind. 33: 8: 4, 13. 1952.
Carver, H. L., and L. C. Hammond. Sequestering Compounds as Dispersing
Agents in the Mechanical Analysis of Soils. Proc. Assn. Sou. Agr.
Wkrs. 50: 55. 1953.
Chapman, H. L., Jr., and Ralph W. Kidder. Protein Need Tested in Glades.
Fla. Cattleman 17: 5: 48, 82. 1953.
Clark, Fred, and J. M. Myers. Irrigation of Flue-Cured Tobacco in Florida.
ACL Agricultural and Livestock Topics 5: 3: 1, 3. 1953.
Cooper, J. Francis. New Clover, Oats Brighten Gulf Feed Outlook. Seeds-
men's Digest 3: 10: 13, 27, 28. 1952,
Cooper, J. Francis. They're Doing Big Things at Florida's Ten Experi-
ment Stations. Seedsmen's Digest 3: 12: 16, 68, 76. 1952.

Annual Report, 1953

Cooper, J. Francis. The Pay-Off Tomato-Manalucie. Sou. Seedsman 16:
5: 62. 1953.
Cunha, T. J. Southeastern Cattle Production. Shorthorn World 37: 17: 57-
59. 1952.
Cunha, T. J. Over or Under Grazing Equally Bad in Search for Maximum
Beef Gains. Fla. Cattleman 16: 10: 24-25. 1952.
Cunha, T. J. Cunha Says Future Bright for Beef Cattle Industry in Florida
and Southeast. Fla. Cattleman 16: 12: 60-62. 1952.
Cunha, T. J. Economical Production Should Be Goal of Cattlemen. Fla.
Cattleman 17: 9: 34. 1953.
Cunha, T. J. University of Florida Herd Relatively New. Am. Hereford
Jour. 43: 5: 282, 286. 1952.
Cunha, T. J. Cows Make Their Own Protein. Prog. Farmer 67: 10: 47.
Cunha, T. J. Water in Animal Nutrition. Fla. Grower 60: 9 (1259): 12, 14.
Cunha, T. J., J. F. Hentges, M. Koger and A. M. Pearson. The Beef Cattle
Industry of Florida. U. of F. Economic Leaflets, Coll. of Bus. Adm.
12: 4: 1-4. 1953.
Davis, Geo. K. Pasture as a Source of Protein for Cattle Production. Vic-
tory Farm Forum 45: 10-11. 1952.
Davis, Geo. K. Mineral Deficiencies in North America. VI International
Grassland Congress, Pa. State College, Aug. 1952.
Davis, Geo. K. Minerals in Nutrition. Nutritional Observatory 13: 4: 69-75.
Davis, Geo. K. Isotope Studies with Trace Elements in Animal Nutrition.
Proc. 4th Annual Oak Ridge Summer Symposium 171-184. 1953.
Davis, Geo. K., J. P. Feaster and S. L. Hansard. Placental Transfer of
Zinc. Jour. An. Sci. 11: 4: 791. 1952.
Davis, Geo. K., W. G. Kirk and H. M. Crowder. Ammoniated Citrus Pulp
for Cattle. Jour. An. Sci. 11: 4: 760. 1952.
Dickey, R. D. Germination of Pigmy Date Palm Seed as Affected by
Treatment with Sulfuric Acid. Proc. Assn. Sou. Agr. Wkrs. 50: 139.
Dickey, R. D. Further Studies on the Cold Treatment of Tulip Bulbs in
Fla. Proc. Assn. Sou. Agr. Wkrs. 50: 138. 1953.
Dickey, R. D. Development of Excellent Varieties Explains Hibiscus Suc-
cess in Florida. Tropical Homes and Gardening 3: 5: 24-25. 1953.
Driggers, J. C. Hatching Eggs from Caged Layers. Fla. Poultry and Farm
Jour. 18: 12: 10-11; 1952; also Poultry Digest 12: 133: 152-153. 1953.
Driggers, J. C. Producing Hatching Eggs in Cages by Artificial Insemina-
tion. Proc. Assn. Sou. Agr. Wkrs. 50: 183-184. 1953.
Earhart, R. W. Small Grain Diseases of the Southeastern Coastal Plain.
Plant Disease Reporter 36: 11: 420-422. 1952.
Earhart, R. W. Culm Rot, Another Helminthosporium Disease of Oats in
Florida. Proc. Assn. Sou. Agr. Wkrs. 50: 164. 1953.
Earhart, R. W. A Re-Evaluation of Oat Seed Treatment. Proc. Assn. Sou.
Agr. Wkrs. 50: 165. 1953.
Earhart, R. W., and D. D. Morey. Septoria nodorum Attacking Wheats in
the Southeastern Coastal Plain. Plant Disease Reporter 37: 5: 310. 1953.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Eddins, A. H. Distribution of Cabbage Yellows in Florida in 1952. Pla.
Dis. Rept. 36: 8: 337. 1952.
Edson, Seton N. A Rapid Test for Calcium Carbonate Equivalent in Liming
Materials. Better Crops 37: 3: 22, 44, 45. 1953.
Emmel, M. W. Coccidiosis in Chickens. Fla. Poultry and Farm. Jour.
19: 2: 3, 21, 22. 1953.
Feaster, John P., Ray L. Shirley, Geo. K. Davis and John T. McCall. Effect
of Vitamin D-Deficient and Low-Phosphorus Rations on the Distribution
of P"' in Weanling Rats. Proc. Am. Chem. Soc. 1952.
Fifield, Willard M. The Agricultural Experiment Stations and the Seed
Industry. Ann. Rpt. Sou. Seedsmen's Assn. 34: 39-42. 1952.
Fifield, Willard M. Florida's Changing Agriculture. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 65: 3-7. 1952.
Fifield, Willard M. Concepts of Regional Marketing Research. Proc. Assn.
Sou. Agr. Wkrs. 50: 146. 1953.
Fisher, Fran. E. Diseases of Scale Insects. Citrus Mag. 15: 1: 25-26. 1952.
Fiskel, J. G. A., and H. F. Ross. The Effect of Some Salts of Ethylene
Diamine Tetra Acetic Acid on Growth of Aspergillus niger and on Soil
Microbiological Activity. Proc. Assn. Sou. Agr. Wkrs. 50: 53. 1953.
Folks, John. Providing Right Facilities for Swine Isn't Difficult-but Are
You Doing Everything You Can to Care for Yours? Fla. Cattleman
17:1:66. 1952.
Ford, Harry W. The Distribution of Feeder Roots of Orange and Grape-
fruit Trees on Rough Lemon Rootstock. Citrus Mag. 14: 1:22-23. 1952.
Forsee, W. T., Jr. Fertilizer Requirements of Vegetable Crops Growing on
the Organic Soils of the Florida Everglades. An. Rpt. Vegetable Grow-
ers Assn. of America. 3-15. 1953.
Fouts, E. L. Facts by Fouts. Sou. Dairy Prod. Jour. 52: 1: 78-79; 2: 62-63;
3: 176-177; 4: 78-81; 5: 70-72; 6: 70-72. 1952. 53: 1: 90-92; 2: 108-111;
3: 104-107; 4: 80-83; 5: 124-126; 6: 70-71. 1953.
Fouts, E. L. Summary of 1952 Activities U. of F. Dept. of Dairy Science.
Fla. Dairy News 3: 1: 24, 28. 1953.
Gammon, Nathan, Jr. Sodium and Potassium Relationships in Pangola
Grass. Victory Farm Forum 45: 8-9. 1952.
Gammon, Nathan, Jr., and William G. Blue. The Sandy Soils of Florida
Need Potash for Pastures. Better Crops 37: 4: 25-26, 40-41. 1953.
Godwin, Marshall R. The Use of the Controlled Experiment in Establish-
ing Demand Relationships. Proc. Marketing Section, Assn. Sou. Agr.
Wkrs. 50. 1953.
Green, Victor E., Jr. A Hybrid Corn for South Florida. Fla. Grower 60:
10 (1260): 10, 24. 1952.
Green, Victor E., Jr. Florida-A Potential Rice Producing State. Rice
Annual. June 1953.
Green, Victor E., Jr. Farm Crops Invade the Everglades. Crops and Soils.
5: 8: 22, 30. June-July, 1953.
Green, Victor E., Jr., and Warren N. Stoner. Rice Culture on Muck Soils
of the Everglades. Rice Jour. September 1952.
Greene, R. E. L. Possibilities of Mechanical Potato Harvesters and Indi-
cated Adjustments in Florida Operations. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
65: 112-114. 1952.

Annual Report, 1953

Griffiths, Austin. Controlled Nomenclature of Foreign Camellia Varieties-
a Must. Am. Camellia Yrbk. 44-50. 1952.
Griffiths, Austin. The Herme Complex. Am. Camellia Yrbk. 33-40. 1952.
Griffiths, Austin. Nomenclatural Notes-1. Am. Camellia Quart. 7: 3: 5-6.
Griffiths, Austin. Nomenclatural Notes-2. Am. Camellia Quart. 7: 4: 8-12.
Griffiths, Austin. Nomenclatural Notes-3. Am. Camellia Quart. 8: 1:4-
10. 1953.
Griffiths, Austin. Nomenclatural Notes-4. Am. Camellia Quart. 8: 2: 23-
27. 1953.
Griffiths, J. T., C. R. Stearns and W. L. Thompson. Comparison of Dusting
and Spraying over a Three-Year Period. Citrus Mag. 15: 2: 36-38. 1952.
Hall, C. B., V. F. Nettles and R. A. Dennison. Influence of Sunlight Ex-
posure on Speed of Ripening and Composition of Tomato Fruits. Proc.
Assn. Sou. Agr. Wkrs. 50: 135. 1953.
Hall, C. B., and R. A. Dennison. Preliminary Observations on Tomato Fruit
Disorders Resulting from Low Calcium Supply. Proc. Assn. Sou. Agr.
Wkrs. 50: 167-168. 1953.
Halsey, L. H., and R. K. Showalter. How Does Tomato Maturity Affect
Market Quality. Proc. Assn. Sou. Agr. Wkrs. 50: 134-135. 1953.
Hamilton, H. C. Patronage Refund Practices of Cooperatives. Am. Co-
operation. 1952.
Hammond, L. C. Methods of Measuring Soil Moisture. Citrus Ind. 33: 10:
8, 9, 11. 1952.
Hammond, L. C. Soil, Water and Plant Relations Basic to Supplemental
Irrigation. Proc. Assn. Sou. Agr. Wkrs. 50: 94. 1953.
Hammond, L. C., and James E. Richards. Effect of Various Chemicals on
the Wettability of Sandy Soils under Citrus Trees. Proc. Assn. Sou.
Agr. Wkrs. 50: 55-56. 1953.
Hansard, Sam L., C. L. Comar, M. P. Plumlee and G. K. Davis. The Effects
of Age upon Calcium Metabolism in Cattle. Jour. An. Sci. 11: 4: 793.
Hansard, Sam L., John P. Feaster and Geo. K. Davis. The Distribution of
Radioactive Zn' in Cattle. Proc. Assn. Sou. Agr. Wkrs. 50: 63. 1953.
Hayslip, N. C., E. G. Kelsheimer, W. H. Thames, Jr., and J. W. Wilson.
Corn Earworm Control in Florida. Proc. Assn. Sou. Agr. Wkrs. 50: 115.
Helms. C. C., Jr., and E. G. Rodgers. Herbicidal Influences on Dixie Runner
Peanuts and Existing Weed Populations. Proc. Sou. Weed. Conf. 6: 143-
149. 1953.
Hendrickson, R., and J. W. Kesterson. Nomogram for Quality Control of
Citrus Juices. Citrus Mag. 15: 10: 33-34. 1953.
Hentges, J. F. Approved Practices Are Outlined for Cattlemen by Uni-
versity Professor. Fla. Cattleman 16: 12: 54-56. 1952.
Hentges, J. F. Dehorning Practicality Discussed. Fla. Cattleman 17: 6: 82.
120. 1953.
Hodges, E. M. Floridians Go to Grass Conference. Fla. Cattleman 17: 2:
34-35. 1952.
Hodges, E. M. Improved and Native Pature Supplement Each Other. Vic-
tory Farm Forum 45: 20. 1952.

86 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Hodges, E. M. Soil Fertility and Grass-Legume Relationships on Sandy
Land. VI Int. Grassland Congress, State College Pa., Aug. 1952.
Hodges, E. M., D. W. Jones and W. G. Kirk. Pasture Progress Benefits
Cattlemen. Fla. Cattleman 17: 9: 22-25. 1953.
Hutton, C. E., and W. K. Robertson. Response of Corn to Fertilizer Addi-
tions on Red Bay Fine Sandy Loam. Proc. Assn. Sou. Agr. Wkrs.
50: 48. 1953.
Joiner, Jasper N. U. of F. Beef Unit Begins Use of Williamson Tract.
Fla. Cattleman 17: 2: 36, 37, 71. 1952.
Joiner, Jasper N. Floranna Clover. ACL Agricultural and Livestock
Topics 4: 9: 1-3. 1952.
Joiner, Jasper N. Gardening Along the Tampa "Parallel." Tropical Homes
and Gardening 3: 6: 19. 1953.
Joiner, Jasper N. Efforts of Poultry Interests Result in Two New Labs.
Fla. Grower 61:1: (1263):22. 1953.
Joiner, Jasper N. Garden Switch-Over to Spring. Fla. Grower 61:2
(1264): 30. 1953.
Jones, D. W., E. M. Hodges and W. G. Kirk. Irrigation of Clover-Grass
Pastures. Proc. Assn. Sou. Agr. Wkrs. 50: 200-201. 1953.
Jones, D. W., E. M. Hodges and W. G. Kirk. Native and Improved Pasture
for a Cow and Calf Herd. Fla. Cattleman 17: 9: 50-51. 1953.
Joyner, J. F., E. O. Gangstad and C. C. Seale. Ramie-The Chinese Silk
Plant. Jan.-Feb. Issue of Garden Jour. 18-21. 1953.
Kelsheimer, E. G. Some Reasons Why We Have Wormy Sweet Corn. Proc.
Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 65: 162-163. 1952.
Kesterson, J. W., and R. Hendrickson. A Study of Hesperiden and Naringin
from Citrus Fruits. Citrus Ind. 33: 12: 6-7, 12. 1952.
Kidder, R. W. A Ton of Beef per Acre in 12 Months. Breeder's Gazette
107: 8. 1952.
Kidder, R. W., T. C. Erwin, R. V. Allison, D. W. Beardsley and H. L. Chap-
man, Jr. Copper Storage in the Livers of Cattle from Feeding Mineral
Mixtures Containing Different Levels of Copper. Proc. Assn. Sou. Agr.
Wkrs. 50: 62-63. 1953.
Killinger, G. B. New Pasture Plants for the Coastal Region. Farm and
Ranch 83: 3: 15. 1953.
Killinger, G. B. The Florida Pasture Outlook. Better Crops 37: 3: 24-26,
45, 46. 1953.
Killinger, G. B., and John D. Haynie. Honeybees in Florida's Pasture De-
velopment. Proc. Fla. State Beekeepers Assn. 1950-51.
Killinger, G. B., and John D. Haynie. Honeybees in Florida's Legume
Program. ACL Agricultural and Livestock Topics 5: 2: 1-2. 1953.
Kincaid, R. R. Shade Tobacco Growing in Florida. Fla. State Dept. of
Agriculture Bul. No. 136. 1952.
Kirk, W. G. Salt Help in Protein Feeding. Fla. Cattleman 17: 6: 43, 98, 99.
Kirk, W. G. Urea and Cottonseed Meal in the Fattening Ration. Jour. An.
Sci. 11:4: 769. 1952.
Kirk, W. G., E. M. Hodges and D. W. Jones. Range Station Releases In-
formation Concerning Effects of Protein Used in Feed Rations for Beef
Cattle Herds. Fla. Cattleman 16: 11: 84. 1952.

Annual Report, 1953

Kirk, W. G., E. M. Hodges and D. W. Jones. Feeding Cottonseed Pellets
to Steers on Pasture. Proc. Assn. Sou. Agr. Wkrs. 50: 71. 1953.
Knorr, L. C., and E. P. DuCharme. Recognizing Tristeza. Citrus Mag.
14: 12: 23-26. 1952.
Koger, Marvin. Production Records of Beef Cattle Are Important. Fla
Cattleman 16: 10: 61-63. 1952.
Krienke, W. A. Ice Cream Defects. Sou. Dairy Prod. Jour. 52: 2: 74-82.
Krienke, W. A. Fractionation by Selective Solidification as an Aid in De-
tecting Butterfat Adulteration. Jour. Dairy Sci 36: 6: 567. 1953.
Krienke, W. A. Improved Techniques Makes Cryoscopic Values Reliable.
Jour. Dairy Sci. 36: 6: 567. 1953.
Krienke, W. A., and L. E. Mull. Delicate Flavors of Fresh Citrus Captured
in New Ice Creams. Sou. Dairy Prod. Jour. 52: 6: 133-134. 1952; Ice
Cream Review 36: 4: 45-47, 68. 1952; Ice Cream Trade Jour. 48: 12:
62, 82. 1952; Ice Cream Field 60: 6: 68-69. 1952; Dairy Foods Review
56: 12: 24-25. 1952; Proc. Convention Int. Assn. Ice Cream Mfgrs.
48: 86-88. 1952.
Kropf, D. H., A. M. Pearson and H. D. Wallace. Waste Beef Fat in Swine
Rations. Proc. Assn. Sou. Agr. Wkrs. 50: 67. 1953.
Kuitert, L. C. Control of Home Insect Pests. Fla. Grower 60: 7 (1257): 38.
Kuitert, L. C., and Gene C. Nutter. Chinch Bug Control and Subsequent
Renovation of St. Augustine Grass. Fla. Sub-Trop. Gardener Part I--
1: 5: 16-19; Part II 1: 6: 14-15. 1953.
Langford, W. R. Pastures in West Florida. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla.
12. 1952.
Large, John R. Aeroplane Spraying for Pecan Scab Control. Plant Dis.
Reporter 37: 266-268. 1953.
Large, John R. Progress Report on Pecan Scab Control with a High Pres-
sure Ground Spray Machine in Florida in 1952. Proc. SE Pecan Grow-
ers Assn. March 1953.
Ledin, R. Bruce. Naranjilla (Little Orange), a New Fruit for Florida. Fla.
Grower 60: 10 (1260): 20, 26, 27. 1952.
Ledin, R. Bruce. Twenty Species of Bauhinia for Florida. Fla. Sub.-Trop.
Gardener 1: 4: 6-8. 1952.
Ledin, R. Bruce. New and Lesser Known Tropical Fruits. Florist and
Nurseryman 4: 12: 8, 44-47. 1953.
Leonard, C. D., and Ivan Stewart. Fruit Burn Caused by Chelated Iron.
Citrus Mag. 15: 9: 19, 22. 1953.
McPherson, W. K. Initial Results of Livestock Marketing Study Are Re-
ported by Experiment Station Researchers Probing Subject. Fla. Cat-
tleman 16: 12: 28-31. 1952.
Magie, R. 0. Methyl Bromide, an Effective Soil Treatment. The Gladiolus
Mag. 16: 5: 37-40. 1952.
Magie, R. O. Breeding Disease-Resistant Gladiolus. N. Am. Gladiolus
Council Bul. 30: 78-83. 1952.
Magie, R. O. Curing and Storage of Gladiolus Bulbs. N. Am. Gladiolus
Council Bul. 32: 98-99. 1952.
Magie, R. O., and W. G. Cowperthwaite. Progress in Gladiolus Research.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 65: 263-266. 1952.

88 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Magie, R. O., Floyd F. Smith and Philip Brierley. Occurrence of Western
Aster Yellows Virus Infection in Gladiolus in Eastern United States.
Plant Dis. Reporter 36: 12: 468-470. 1952.
Marshall, Sidney P., A. B. Sanchez, H. L. Somers and P. T. Dix Arnold.
Annual Grazing Crops for Dairy Cattle. Proc. Assn. Sou. Agr. Wkrs.
50: 87-88. 1953.
Meade, Thomas L., Sam L. Hansard, C. L. Comar and Geo. K. Davis. Molyb-
denum Metabolism and Interactions in Cattle. Proc. Assn. Sou. Agr.
Wkrs. 50: 63-64. 1953.
Miller, H. N. Disease Control-Ornamental Foliage Plants. Florist and
Nurseryman 4: 11: 12-15, 22. 1953.
Mitchell, William G. New Developments in Agricultural Research. Fla.
Col. Farmer 5: 1: 12-13. 1952.
Mitchell, William G. Marketing Facilities Success Key to Turkey Produc-
tion. Fla. Poultry and Farm Jour. 19: 2: 11. 1953.
Mitchell, William G. Chicken Flock Size Can Be Important. Fla. Poultry
and Farm Jour. 19:2:16. 1953.
Mitchell, William G. Mother Nature's Biological Control in Citrus Groves.
Fla. Grower 61:1 (1263): 23. 1953.
Mitchell, William G. Florida Plans New Beef Research. Prog. Farmer
67: 11: 16. 1952.
Mitchell, William G. New Citrus Era Ahead? Prog. Farmer 68: 2: 28.
Mitchell, William G. Better Carotene-in the South. Prog. Farmer 68: 3:
114a. 1953.
Mitchell, William G. Anhydrous Ammonia on Sandy Soils. Prog. Farmer
68: 5:152. 1953.
Mitchell, William G. Early Runner Peanut-Something to Grunt About.
Sou. Seedsman 16: 4: 39, 47. 1953.
Mitchell, William G. Floranna Growers Are Rolling in Clover. Sou.
Seedsman 16: 6: 20, 61. 1953.
Mitchell, William G. Argentine Bahia-Nearest Thing to Eden. Sou.
Seedsman 16: 6: 21, 64. 1953.
Mitchell, William G. Pasture Renovation Discussed. Fla. Cattleman 17: 6:
40. 1953.
Mitchell, William G. Are Your Cows Protected from Poison Plants? Fla.
Cattleman 17: 8: 44-45. 1953.
Mitchell, William G. No Room for Inefficient Cattle Soon. Fla. Cattleman
17: 8: 48-49. 1953.
Mitchell, William G. Chelated Iron-Tonic for Ailing Citrus Trees. Farm
and Ranch 88: 5: 16. 1953.
Montelaro, James, C. B. Hall and F. S. Jamison. Effect of Magnesium Sul-
fate on the Absorption of Urea by Tomato Leaves. Proc. Assn. Sou.
Agr. Wkrs. 60: 168-169. 1953.
Muma, Martin H. Ladybeetle Predators of Citrus Aphids. Citrus Mag.
15: 8: 32-33. 1953.
Myers, J. Mostella. Mechanical Drying of Peanuts. Proc. Assn. Sou. Agr.
Wkrs. 50: 28. 1953.
Nettles, V. F. Southeast Growers Now "Irrigation Minded." Market
Growers Jour. 82: 5: 16-17, 44-45. 1953.

Annual Report, 1953 89

Pearson, A. M., R. B. Sleeth, D. H. Kropf, M. A. Guess and F. H. Jack.
Losses of B-Complex Vitamins in Drip Obtained upon Defrosting Frozen
Pork. Jour. An. Sci. 11:4: 751. 1952.
Perry, V. G., and George Swank, Jr. Some Celery Seedbed Diseases of
Central Florida and Their Control with Certain Chemicals. Proc. Assn.
Sou. Agr. Wkrs. 50: 157. 1953.
Pratt, Robert M. Forecasting Citrus Insect Infestations. Fla. Grower
60: 11 (1261): 21. 1952.
Randolph, John W., and Warren N. Stoner. Some Developments in Corn
Spraying Equipment Applicable in the Everglades. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 65: 124-129. 1952.
Reitz, J. Wayne. Problems in Developing a Balanced Supply Program for
Florida Citrus. Cit. Ind. 33: 10: 5-7. 1952.
Robertson, W. K. Efficient Utilization of Fertilizer Supplies. Victory
Farm Forum 47: 4-5. 1953.
Robinson, F. A. The Use of Honeybees in the Production of Cucurbits in
Florida. Am. Bee Jour. 92: 8: 326-328. 1952.
Ruehle, Geo. D. Growing Mangos in Florida. Fla. Sub-Trop. Gardener,
Part 1-1: 3: 12, 21; Part II-1: 4: 17. 1952.
Ruehle, Geo. D. Research on the Mango at the University of Florida
Sub-Tropical Station. Proc. Fla. Mango Forum 8-31. 1952.
Sanders, D. A. Care of New-Born Dairy Calves. Fla. Dairy News 2: 8: 24.
Sanders, D. A. Care Can Protect from Disease. Fla. Cattleman 17: 1:
92. 1952.
Savage, Zach. Does Grove Irrigation Pay? Yes and No. Citrus Ind. 33:
9:4, 13-15. 1952.
Savage, Zach. Grove Management and Public Policy. Citrus Mag. 14: 11:
14. 1952.
Savage, Zach. Some Aspects of the 1951-52 Season. Citrus Mag. 14: 12:
15. 1952.
Savage, Zach. One Percent Decrease in World Citrus Production. Citrus
Mag. 15: 1: 16, 17. 1952.
Savage, Zach. Exports of Fresh Citrus. Citrus Mag. 15: 16, 17. 1952.
Savage, Zach. The 1952-53 Citrus Season with Comparisons. Citrus Mag.
15: 3: 32. 1952.
Savage, Zach. Profitableness of Oranges, Temples and Tangerines, 1945-50.
Citrus Mag. 15: 4: 16-17. 1952.
Savage, Zach. Profitableness of Seeded and Seedless Grapefruit, 1945-50.
Citrus Mag. 15: 5: 13. 1953.
Savage, Zach. Citrus Tree Movement from Florida Nurseries. Citrus Mag.
15: 6: 10-13. 1953.
Savage, Zach. World Citrus Crop Largest Ever Produced. Citrus Mag.
15: 7: 14-15. 1953.
Savage, Zach. No Citrus Produced Except on Trees. Citrus Mag. 15: 8:
15. 1953; also Citrus Leaves 33: 6: 16. 1953.
Savage, Zach. Are Small Groves as Profitable as Large Ones? Citrus Mag.
15: 9: 16. 1953.
Savage, Zach. Should I Buy or Sell a Grove? Citrus Mag. 15: 10: 11.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Schomer, H. A., R. K. Showalter and V. A. Reubelt. Air Shipment of Pre-
Packaged Sweet Corn from Florida. Pre-Package 6: 5: 11-13. 1953.
Sharpe, R. H., and G. H. Blackmon. Different Cultural Methods Used in
Productive Florida Orchards. Proc. SE Pecan Growers Assn. 46: 32,
34. 1953.
Showalter, R. K. How and Where Should Fresh Vegetables Be Pre-
packaged? Mkt. Growers Jour. 81: 12-13. 1952.
Simpson, Charles F. Herd Health. Fla. Dairy News 3: 6: 12, 23. 1952.
Sleeth, R. B., A. M. Pearson, H. D. Wallace and D. H. Kropf. The Effects
of Testosterone and Estradiol Benzoate upon Growth, Efficiency of
Feed Utilization and Carcass Characteristics of Swine. Jour. An. Sci.
11:4:801. 1952.
Smith, F. B. Winter Fertilization of Crops and Soils in Florida. Victory
Farm Forum 46: 17. 1952.
Spurlock, A. H. Livestock, a Progressive Industry. Fla. Handbook 4th
Edition. 1953.
Spurlock, A. H., and H. G. Hamilton. Costs of Picking and Hauling Florida
Citrus Fruits-50-51 Season. Citrus Ind. 33: 9: 8-10. 1952.
Stearns, Charles R., W. L. Thompson, R. B. Johnson and E. J. Deszyck.
Methods of Applying Insecticide with Different Spray Machines. Citrus
Mag. 15: 4: 34-37. 1952.
Stearns, Charles R., and W. L. Thompson. Parathion Can Be Used Safely.
Citrus Ind. 34: 3: 20. 1953.
Stewart, Ivan, and C. D. Leonard. Molybdenum Deficiency in Florida Citrus.
Nature 170: 714. 1953.
Stewart, Ivan, and C. D. Leonard. Molybdenum-the 12th Addition to the
List of Citrus Nutrients. Citrus Mag. 15: 5: 35-38. 1953.
Stoner, Warren N. Internal Cork of Sweet Potato Observed in South Flor-
ida. Plant Disease Reporter 36: 8: 337. 1952.
Stoner, Warren N. Leaf Fleck, an Aphid-Borne Persistent Virus Disease
of Maize. Phytopathology 42: 12: 683-689. 1952.
Stoner, Warren N. A Fungicidal Control for Powdery Mildew, Levillula
taurica (Lev.) Arn., of Kenaf, Hibiscus Cannabinus L., in South Flor-
ida. Pit. Dis. Reporter 36: 7: 302. 1952.
Stoner, Warren N. Greenhouse Tests of the Resistance of Ohio MR17 and
Niagara Cucumbers to the Southern Strain of Cucumber Mosaic Virus.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 65: 165-169. 1952.
Stoner, Warren N., and Victor E. Green, Jr. Lowland Rice, a Potential
Crop for the Everglades. Fla. Grower 61: 5 (1267): 17, 19, 27, 29. 1953.
Stoner, Warren N., and Loren H. Stover. Some Field Observations in Flor-
ida Experiment Station Hybrid Grapes. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 65:
193-196. 1952.
Swanson, Leonard E. Lungworm Dangers Described. Fla. Cattleman 17: 1:
42A, 43, 44. 1952.
Thames, Walter H. The Benefits of Flooding in the Control of Nematodes.
Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 12. 1952.
Thompson, L. G., Jr. Pastures in North Florida. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of
Fla. 12. 1952.
Thompson, W. L. The Rust Mite. Citrus Mag. 15: 8: 19-21. 1953.
Thompson, W. L., and R. M. Pratt. Citrus Insect Control. Cit. Ind. 33: 7:
3-4; 8: 3; 9:3; 10: 3; 11: 3; 12: 3; 1952; 34: 1:1; 2:4; 3:4; 4: 4; 5: 3;
6: 3. 1953.

Annual Report, 1953 91

Thompson, W. L., I. W. Wander, Fran E. Fisher and J. T. Griffiths, Jr. The
Use of Sulphur in Citrus Groves. Citrus Mag. 15: 1: 28-30. 1952.
Tissot, A. N. Pasture Insects and Their Control. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of
Fla. 12. 1952.
Van Middelem, C. H. Status of Pesticide Residues on Florida Vegetables.
Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 65: 159-162. 1952.
Van Ness, Glenn. "Bell Paralysis" in Laying Hens. Auburn Veterinarian
9:1:17. 1952.
Van Ness, Glenn. Turkey Disease Control Measures. Fla. Poultry and
Dairy Jour. 18: 8: 4, 11. 1952.
Van Ness, Glenn. Trichomoniasis in Poultry. Fla. Poultry and Farm Jour.
19: 4: 10. 1953.
Van Ness, Glenn. Built-Up Poultry House Litter (It Developed During
Labor Deficiency in World War). Fla. Grower 61: 5 (1267): 13. 1953.
Van Ness, Glenn. Climatic Influences in Poultry Production. Proc. Assn.
Sou. Agr. Wkrs. 50: 178. 1953.
Volk, Gaylord M. Survey of Research on New Soil Conditioners. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 65: 137-142. 1952.
Volk, Gaylord M. Moisture Equivalent Percentage as a Measure of Soil
Variation for the Adjustment of Yields. Proc. Assn. Sou. Agr. Wkrs.
50: 54-55. 1953.
Volk, Gaylord M., and Nathan Gammon, Jr. Liming and Nitrates Pay Off
on Irish Potatoes. Victory Farm Forum 46: 22-23. 1952.
Wallace, H. D. Selection of Replacement Gilts. Farm and Ranch 83: 4:
15. 1953.
Wallace, H. D. Latest Developments in Antibiotics, Surfactants, Arseni-
cals, and Br for Swine Feeding. ACL Agr. and Livestock Topics 5: 5: 1.
2, 4. 1953.
Wallace, H. D., G. E. Combs and T. J. Cunha. Supplements to Low-Gos-
sypol Cottonseed Meal Rations for Weanling Pigs Fed in Dry Lot. Proc.
Assn. Sou. Agr. Wkrs. 50: 66. 1953.
Wallace, H. D., Mike Milicevic, A. M. Pearson and T. J. Cunha. The Effect
of Aureomycin on the Protein Requirement of Pigs. Proc. Assn. Sou.
Agr. Wkrs. 50: 65. 1953.
Walter, James M. Fungicide for Tomatoes. Fla. Grower 60: 10 (1260): 5.
25. 1952.
Wenzel, F. W., C. D. Atkins, E. C. Hill, R. L. Huggart and R. W. Olsen.
Evaluation and Use of Citrus Juice Dispensers. Citrus Mag. 14: 12: 18-
21, 1952.
Wilkowske, H. H. Cream Plug Problems. Sou. Dairy Prod. Jour. 52 2: 50,
52, 57, 58, 60. 1952.
Wilkowske, H. H. Coliform in Dairy Products. Sou. Dairy Prod. Jour. 52:
4: 50, 52. 1952.
Wilkowske, H. H. Proper Control of Cream Layer Formation on Milk. Fla.
Dairy News 3: 2: 10, 25. 1953.
Williams, J. W., J. T. Griffiths and C. R. Stearns. Parathion Poisoning in
Citrus Grove Operations in 1952. Jour. Fla. Med. Assn. 39: 655-657.
Wing, James M. The Electric Fence Gains in Popularity. Fla. Dairy News
3:2:11. 1953.

92 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Wolf, Emil A. Better Sweet Corn for Dixie. Sou. Seedsman 16: 3: 36, 52.

State Project 670 William G. Mitchell
There is ever the question of providing for a quick and satisfactory
flow of information from the researcher to the grower and producer. A
project was begun during the year to ascertain how, and how quickly,
rural people acquire the results of research. A brief report follows:
Preliminary work was begun on this project during the year. A pilot
study was made to determine the value of a questionnaire designed to be
mailed to farmers to determine the speed and effectiveness of the dissemi-
nation of Station research results. As a result of this pilot study, several
changes will be made. The study also checked the value of two different
mailing lists.

Annual Report, 1953


Insect pests of flue-cured tobacco, woody ornamentals, pecans and pas-
tures were investigated during the year. The work with insecticide residues
on vegetable crops was expanded into a project designed to study the
effects of weather and other factors on amounts of residue present at
harvest. A cooperative project with workers at other stations was set up
to investigate the pests of cruciferous crops. A test with sweet clover
showed a definite correlation between the amounts of lime added to the
soil and the sugar content of the nectar produced by the plants. Work
with systemic insecticides indicated that these materials will be very useful
for combating certain pests of ornamental plants and there is a possibility
they may find a place in the control of some vegetable pests.

State Project 379 A. M. Phillips
This project was continued at the Pecan Investigations Laboratory in
cooperation with the USDA Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine.
DDT and parathion, applied June 3 and 24, July 14 and August 25, 1952,
for control of the hickory shuckworm, each gave 100 percent control of
the nut casebearer on Moore variety pecans. (For concentration of ma-
terials, see report under State Project 597.)
Parathion, EPN and malathion each gave a very high degree of con-
trol of a moderate infestation of first generation nut casebearer on Moore
variety when applied on different dates. Sprays containing 2 pounds of
parathion 15 percent wettable, plus 1 quart summer oil emulsion per 100
gallons, applied May 1, 4 and 7, reduced the infestation of nut casebearer
92.1, 99.3 and 95.1 percent for the respective dates. Two pounds EPN 25
percent wettable, plus 1 quart summer oil emulsion per 100 gallons, applied
on the above dates gave a reduction of 98.0, 96.7 and 91.5 percent, respec-
tively. Malathion 25 percent wettable, at 2 pounds plus 1 quart summer
oil emulsion per 100 gallons, applied on same dates reduced the nut case-
bearer infestation 91.5, 89.5 and 90.8 percent. The infestation of nut clus-
ters in unsprayed plot was 15.2 percent.
A parathion concentrate spray applied by airplane for control of first
generation nut casebearer was inferior to parathion spray applied by
hydraulic sprayer. Spray containing 36 quarts nabam (Dithane D-14), 18
quarts zinc sulfate, 18 quarts summer oil emulsion and 11 quarts parathion
25 percent emulsifiable in 100 gallons water applied by airplane on May
8 reduced the infestation of nut casebearer to 5.3 percent. Parathion
15 percent wettable 2 pounds, plus 2 pounds zineb wettable (Dithane
Z-78) and 1 quart summer oil emulsion per 100 gallons applied on May
7 by hydraulic sprayer reduced the infestation of nut casebearer to 2.4
percent. Infestation in check plot was only 5.6 percent.

State Project 531 L. C. Kuitert
Two applications of insecticides were made to the old block of camellias,
with particular attention to the timing of the treatments. The fall applica-
tion was made about two weeks after the first infestation of the mite,
Paratetranychus yothersi Meg., was observed. By thus timing the applica-
tion, the number of mites and amount of mite damage were held to a

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

minimum during the winter months. The spring treatment was delayed
until most of the overwintering eggs of Florida red scale, Chrysomphalus
aonidium (Linn.), and tea scale, Fiorinia theae Green, had hatched but
before sufficient time had elapsed for any individuals of the new generation
to become adults. Biological studies indicate that the time of hatching
of overwintering scale eggs is correlated with the development of new
growth. Scale crawlers appeared coincidentally with the growth flush,
regardless of variety.
The following materials and rates of application gave effective control
of scale insects and mites: parathion, 15 percent wettable powder, 2 pounds
per 100 gallons; parathion, 15 percent wettable powder, 1 pound plus
oil emulsion (Florida Volck) 2 quarts per 100; parathion, 15 percent
wettable powder, 2 pounds, plus Ovotran 50 percent wettable powder, 2
pounds per 100; and Systox 48.1 percent emulsifiable, 1 quart per 100.
There was no evidence of phytotoxicity from any treatment.
Malathion 50 percent emulsifiable at 1 quart per 100 gallons gave effec-
tive control of aphids, thrips, mealybugs, whiteflies and mites infesting
azaleas, camellias, Citrus sp., gardenias, hibiscus, roses and viburnum,
but was inferior to 0.3 pounds technical parathion per 100 gallons for
controlling armored and soft scales.

Fig. 4.-Roots of gardenia plants showing effects of treatments with
Systox. Left, no insecticide and no fertilizer; center, fertilizer but no
insecticide; right, insecticide and fertilizer.

Gardenia cuttings were rooted in 4-inch pots and then transplanted
to 12-inch pots filled with soil from an area known to be infested with
root-knot nematodes. Systox 48.1 percent emulsifiable at 4, 8, 12 and 16
ounces per 100 gallons was applied to the soil using 1 quart of diluted
material per 12-inch pot. Fertilizer was added uniformly to all treatments
with the exception of a check. Excellent control of whiteflies resulted;
however, the 12- and 16-ounce rates caused considerable burning of foliage.
Six months after application the root systems of plants in three of the
treatments were examined. They are shown in Figure 4.
The roots of the plants in the pots which were not treated generally
remained in the original soil core and the failure of the roots to penetrate

Annual Report, 1953

into the surrounding soil was attributed to the presence of nematodes. The
Systox treatment could have controlled the nematodes directly; it may have
been absorbed by the plant, thus making the plant resistant to the nema-
todes; or it may have had some nutritional effect.
Soil applications of Systox 48.1 percent emulsifiable at 8 ounces per
100 gallons eliminated heavy aphid infestations on roses. Six weeks after
application the treated plants showed no evidence of mites or mite damage,
while 75 percent of the non-treated plants were heavily infested with
mites. Systox used at this same concentration eliminated aphid infesta-
tions of hibiscus. There was no evidence of phytotoxicity.

Bankhead-Jones Project 537 L. C. Kuitert and A. N. Tissot
Approximately one acre of tobacco was used in the 1953 insect control
tests. Winged green peach aphids flew into the field in large numbers
soon after the tobacco was planted. A survey on April 6 showed an
average of two individuals cf this species per plant. By May 1 one-fourth
of the plants were infested, many of them heavily. Hornworms also
appeared early and, though the buildup was gradual, this pest nearly
defoliated many plants in the check plots and untreated buffer rows before
harvest was completed. Budworms were found first on April 20 and the
infestation developed so rapidly that nearly half of the plants were in-
fested by the middle of May.
Twelve insecticide formulations were used in the 1953 tests. Dusts
included: aldrin 2.5 percent; dieldrin 1.5 percent; TDE 5 percent; DDT 5
percent; TDE 5 percent plus parathion 1 percent; DDT 5 percent plus
parathion 1 percent; malathion 5 percent; and ryania 40 percent. Emulsi-
fiable concentrates were used for all of the sprays. The insecticides used
as sprays and the amounts of active ingredient per 100 gallons of water
were: endrin 18.5 percent, 0.5 pounds; isodrin 18.5 percent, 0.5 pounds;
TDE 25 percent, 1.0 pound; and Perthane 50 percent, 1.0 pound. Three
applications of insecticides were made May 16 and June 3 and 18.
The aphid infestation varied considerably in different parts of the field,
but at least a few infested plants were found in every plot at time of the
first insecticide application. After that application the plots receiving
malathion and the two dusts containing parathion remained consistently
free of aphids except for one small incipient colony in one TDE-parathion
plot and three similar colonies in the malathion plots. These colonies per-
sisted but a few days. Many dead aphids were noted in plots sprayed with
endrin and isodrin and after the second application the infestation in
these plots remained at a very low level. Aldrin, dieldrin and DDT dusts
and the Perthane spray apparently had some effect on aphids but the
slight reduction was of no practical importance.
All of the insecticides gave some control of hornworms. On the basis
of immediate kill, retardation of reinfestation and prevention of plant
injury, the dusts containing TDE and DDT and the TDE, endrin and isodrin
sprays were noticeably superior. Aldrin and dieldrin dusts were somewhat
less effective and they were followed in turn by Perthane spray and mala-
thion dust. Ryania dust was only slightly better than the check.
Prevention of plant injury seemed the best criterion for evaluating
the insecticides for budworm control, but initial kills and numbers of
larvae also were considered. None of the materials prevented egg laying
and small larvae often were found in considerable numbers, even in the
best treatments. Once more formulations of TDE, DDT, endrin and isodrin
were most effective. Aldrin dust was only slightly inferior and it was

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

appreciably more effective than dieldrin and malathion dusts. Ryania dust
and Perthane spray were no better than the check. (See also Proj. 537,

State Project 583 F. A. Robinson
Fourteen plants were selected for further testing in the Honey Plant
Introduction Garden during the past year. Dixie reseeding crimson
clover, Trifolium incarnatum L., and Florana annual sweet clover, Meli-
lotus alba Desr., again proved to be very good nectar producing plants
and their blooms were visited by honeybees in large numbers throughout
their blooming season. White Dutch clover, Trifolium repens L., again
proved to have little value as a nectar-producing plant, but it does supply
large amounts of pollen. Lionstail mint, Leonurus sibiricus L., seems to
be one of the most promising plants that has been tried in the Introduction
Garden. It attracts honeybees in large numbers and grows well, even
under heavy competition from weeds and other plants. The everflowering
locust, Robinia pseudoacacia L., continued to grow and attract bees in large
numbers. Several hundred seed pods were produced by these trees, and
attempts are being made to grow new trees from seed. One hundred and
fifty white tupelo, Nyssa ogeeche Bartr., seedlings were set out in the
Introduction Garden and over 600 seed planted. Tupelo seed stored at 0
degrees C. for 40 days gave 50 percent higher germination than seed
stored at room temperature.
Approximately one acre of Japanese buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum
Moenuch, planted in March 1953 was in full bloom by April 19, and it
attracted honeybees in very large numbers. Nectar secretion by this
plant ceases abruptly in the middle of the day and no bees could be found
in the field after 1 p.m.
A replicated test was conducted to determine the effects of lime on the
sugar content of sweet clover nectar. Lime was applied to the clover
plots at the rates of 0, 500, 1,000, 2,000 and 2,500 pounds per acre. Nectar
samples were taken from the honey stomach of bees and the sugar content
determined with a refractometer. In all cases the sugar content increased
as the rate of lime applications increased. An analysis of variance of
these results showed that the increase was significant in all cases except
between the 500 and 1,000-pound rates.
A test was made to determine the effects of parathion sprays on honey-
bees placed in watermelon fields for pollination. Parathion was used at
the rate of 1 pound of 15 percent wettable powder to 100 gallons of water
and eight applications were made. These applications were made in the
afternoon and no signs of any injury to honeybees was observed.

State Project 597 A. M. Phillips
This project was carried on at the Pecan Investigations Laboratory in
cooperation with USDA Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine.
Under conditions of a heavy infestation on Mahan variety four and
five applications of insecticides made on June 3 and 26, July 17, August
5 and 26 and September 15 did not give effective control of shuckworm.
Two early and two late applications, each containing 4 pounds of 50 per-
cent DDT wettable per 100 gallons gave a reduction of 37.3 percent in

Annual Report, 1953 97

infested nuts at harvest. Three early and one late application gave a
25.5 percent reduction, while two early and two late applications of DDT
plus 1 pound Ovotran 50 percent wettable gave only 12.5 percent reduction.
Two early and two late sprays containing 31 pounds parathion 15 percent
wettable applied on above dates gave a reduction of 25.5 percent in infested
nuts. A similar number of parathion sprays plus 1 pound Ovotran 50 per-
cent wettable per 100 gallons gave 28.8 percent reduction. Five consecutive
applications of parathion beginning June 3 gave only 19.9 percent reduc-
tion. Three early and two late sprays each containing 2 pounds EPN 25
percent wettable gave a reduction of 45.9 percent in infested nuts. Spray
containing 1 pint metacide 50 percent emulsion per 100 gallons applied on
same dates as EPN gave only 19.4 percent reduction. The infestation of
nuts on unsprayed plot was 92.0 percent. On the Moore variety with an
infestation of 45.0 percent of the nuts in the check plot, three early and two
late applications of either DDT or parathion were superior to three early
and one late applications.
With an infestation of 56.2 percent of nuts in check plot on Mahan
variety at harvest, a single application of spray containing 2 pounds EPN
25 percent wettable per 100 gallons applied on September 2 gave a re-
duction of 41.6 percent in infested nuts at harvest. Similar sprays applied
September 2 and 12 gave a reduction of 59.4 percent, while a single appli-
cation made on September 12 gave 65.4 percent reduction. Spray con-
taining 31s pounds parathion 15 percent wettable per 100 gallons applied
September 2 gave 33.6 percent reduction. Similar sprays applied September
2 and 12 gave 56.8 percent reduction, while a single application made
September 12 gave 50.5 percent reduction.

State Project 616 A. N. Tissot, L. C. Kuitert and R. E. Waites
During the year numerous observations were made on the biology of a
spider mite. Tetranychina apicalis Banks, infesting clover. Tests were con-
ducted to evaluate several acaracides in controlling this mite. Emulsifiable
concentrates were used in the first trial and all sprays applied at the rate
of 36 gallons per acre. The materials used and the amount applied per
acre were: malathion 50 percent, 1 quart; Chlorobenzilate 25 percent, 1
quart; Systox 50 percent, 1 pint; and parathion plus Ovotran (Fasc-Mite
15-6), 2 quarts. The sprays were applied with a 3-gallon pneumatic
sprayer at 30 to 45 pounds pressure. Plots were 0.055 acre. Pretreatment
counts of 20 leaves picked at random from each plot varied from 30 to 81
mites per leaf, with an average of 55 for all plots. A post-treatment count
was made 20 days after treatment. The Systox was very effective, averag-
ing less than one living mite per leaf with no mite damage evident on
new growth. The parathion plus Ovotran, malathion and Chlorobenzilate
treatments showed light damage and the number of living mites varied
from two to 10 per leaf. The foliage in the check plots continued to be
severely damaged and the number of mites varied from 10 to 30 per leaf.
Five materials were evaluated in a second test. Emulsifiable concen-
trates of Systox and parathion plus Ovotran were used in the same manner
and at the same rates as above. In addition, the trial included 21/ percent
aldrin, 40 percent sulfur and 2 percent parathion dust treatments. The
dusts were applied with a crank-type rotary duster. Again Systox was
superior in effectiveness. Good results were obtained also with the para-
thion plus Ovotran and 2 percent parathion treatments. The sulfur treat-
ment was inferior to the better treatments but superior to the 2%/2 percent
aldrin treatment, which was not perceptibly better than the check. (See

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


State Project 650 R. E. Waites
Residue determinations were made of chlordane, malathion and DDT
on snap beans, toxaphene on Southern peas, parathion on okra and turnips,
malathion on cabbage, and malathion, parathion and DDT on celery.
In a preliminary experiment on snap beans, chlordane 50 percent wet-
table powder, 72 percent emulsifiable concentrate and 5 percent dust were
applied at two rates for a total of five applications. Residue analyses
showed much variation and there was no correlation between amounts
applied and residues found. Residue determinations on snap beans receiving
three applications of chlordane 50 percent wettable powder at 1.0, 1.5
and 2.0 pounds of active material per application per acre ranged from
0.30 to 1.87 ppm for the lowest and highest rates on beans harvested four
days after the last application.
Four applications of toxaphene on blackeye peas as 40 percent wettable
powder, 60 percent emulsifiable concentrate and 10 percent dust, each at
two rates, gave residues ranging from 0.49 to 1.88 ppm. The higher appli-
cation rate of 10 percent dust, which contained the largest amount of
technical material used in this test, gave the lowest residue. Peas harvested
four days after the third application showed lower residues than those
harvested two days after the fourth application.
Six applications of parathion 15 percent wettable powder, 25 percent
emusifiable concentrate and 1 percent dust, each at two rates, were made
on okra. Residues ranged from 0.18 ppm from 1 percent dust at .20 pounds
to 0.32 ppm from 25 percent emulsifiable concentrate at .30 pounds of
active material per acre. Residues for the second harvest were slightly
higher than for the first. Rainfall between the fifth application and the
first harvest was .96 inches and between the sixth application and the
second harvest it was .14 inches. This difference in rainfall and its occur-
rence right before harvest probably account for the slightly higher residue
in the second harvest.
Three applications of parathion 15 percent wettable powder at 0.11,
0.15 and 0.30 pounds of active material per application per acre were made
on turnips at four-day intervals. Samples were taken two hours, 24 hours,
three days and seven days after the last application. Residues ranged
from 2.11 to 11.09 ppm two hours after the last application and from 0.69
to 3.09 ppm seven days after. The lowest and highest residues were
from 0.11 and 0.30 pounds of active material per acre, respectively. The
largest reduction of residue, 45 percent to 60 percent for the medium and
high rates, came within 24 hours after application. Reduction after 24
hours was gradual.
Three applications of malathion 50 percent emulsifiable concentrate at
10.1, 20.2 and 30.3 ounces of active material per application per acre
were made on snap beans. Residues ranged from 0.04 to 0.32 ppm for the
lowest and highest treatments.
Three applications of malathion 50 percent emulsifiable concentrate at
the same rates as above were made on cabbage at seven-day intervals.
Samples were taken at four hours, 24 hours, two days and seven days after
the last application. Only the outer leaves were used for residue deter-
minations. Residues ranged from 12.0 to 122.5 ppm four hours after the
last application and from 1.2 to 39.0 ppm seven days after. The lowest

Annual Report, 1953

and highest residues came from 10.1 and 30.3 ounces of active material
per acre, respectively. There was a gradual decline in the amount of resi-
due after the last spray.
Three applications of DDT 25 percent emulsifiable concentrate at 0.375,
0.5 and 1.0 pounds of active material per application per acre were made
on snap beans at four-day intervals. Samples were taken two days after
the last application but residue analyses have not been completed. (See also

State Project 669 L. C. Kuitert
Three phosphatic insecticides were used on turnips, mustard and collards
infested with the turnip aphid, Rhopalosiphum pseudobrassicae (Davis),
and the green peach aphid, Myzlus persicae (Sulzer), in the fall of 1952.
Malathion 50 percent, parathion 25 percent, and Systox 48.1 percent were
the materials used. All were emusifiable concentrates and each was used
at the rate of 1 pint per 100 gallons of water. These materials were ex-
tremely effective in controlling both species of aphids.
In the winter of 1952 approximately one-third acre was planted to cab-
bage for insecticide tests. A five-day period of unusually cold weather,
two very heavy rains, the activity of parasites, and perhaps other factors,
kept the cabbage practically free of insects. As the planting was useless
for the purpose intended, it was used by R. E. Waites for insecticide residue
studies. (See Proj. 650. See also Proj. 669, CENTRAL FLORIDA, GULF

Systemic Insecticide Investigations.-In the summer of 1952 Systox 48.1
percent emusifiable concentrate at 2 and 4 pounds per acre and Pestox III
45 percent emulsifiable concentrate at 3 and 6 pounds were applied as soil
drenches for okra and summer squash. Before planting, the diluted in-
secticides were applied in the rows with a sprinkling can and worked into
the soil. Both materials retarded aphid infestation, but Systox at both
rates was somewhat more effective than Pestox III at either rate. Six
weeks after application the squash in treated plots were generally infested.
Eight weeks after application okra on treated plots was much freer of
aphids than in check plots. After 12 weeks all plots were becoming heavily
infested. The insecticides had no apparent effect on squash bugs, melon
worms, pickle worms or squash vine borer, and there was no measurable
effect on yields. Samples of the squash and okra are being taken for analy-
sis to determine if any insecticide residue is present in the produce at
harvest. Systemic insecticides are not now recommended for use on any
food crop. (H. E. Bratley.)
Earworm Control in Sweet Corn.-Tests were conducted to evaluate
the effectiveness of several insecticides applied with hand equipment for
controlling corn earworms. An early and a late planting, each of ap-
proximately 1/3 acre and consisting of 18 plots, were used. Each plot con-
tained four rows 56 feet in length and each planting provided for three
replications of five treatments and a check. An overall application of 1
percent parathion dust for budworm control was made with a crank-type
rotary duster about 10 days prior to the initial earworm treatments. The