- Permanent Link:
- Production costs and returns for groves ten years and over in the Indian River area of Florida, 1974-77
- Series Title:
- Economic information report
- Brooke, Donald Lloyd, 1915-
- Place of Publication:
- Gainesville [Fla.]
- Food and Resource Economics Dept., Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
- Publication Date:
- Physical Description:
- 3 p. : ; 28 cm.
- Subjects / Keywords:
- Citrus fruit industry -- Economic aspects -- Florida -- Indian River County ( lcsh )
- non-fiction ( marcgt )
- General Note:
- Cover title.
- Economic information report (Gainesville, Fla.) ;
- Statement of Responsibility:
- D. L. Brooke.
- Source Institution:
- Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
- Holding Location:
- Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
- Rights Management:
- All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
- Resource Identifier:
- 026829609 ( ALEPH )
10827810 ( OCLC )
ACG0210 ( NOTIS )
The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.
Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
72ro,1,~ij on~ i
W) Jr ~fji
~~Li yfi. :
U1 i JJ j -"
)d and Resource Economics Department
perative Extension Service
"tute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
.versity of Florida, Gainesville 32611
'.-', -- si, 7 .,f
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Costs and returns were obtained from 10 young"groves in'the open
range of the Indian River area for each of the four seasons 1973-74
to 1976-77. Total operating costs per acre increasceJ 12 percent during
the period. Increasing yields reduced per box increases in cost to 10
percent. Returns from fruit increased 29 percent from 1974 to 1977.
Key words: Economics, citrus, annual costs, returns.
rF'PC D TTi,', COSTS A.;n .Til"'S FOP Gr':ES
TEN YEARS /.iL OVER IN THE INDIAN RIVER AREA OF. FLORIDA
D. L. Brooke
Ten firms having groves of 10 to 17 years of age planted in the open
range of the Indian River area were surveyed for the period 1973-74 to
1976-77. Once oa-\,es are established changes in acreage are few except
for encroachments by roads, sales of groves or additional acreages
planted. "'e of these c-i'ovs, 7 reported': acr'ee chn,'.-'s dc'i;2. study
period. Data here reported are in terms of gross acres in groves. Per-
formance faco:.s .:: costs and r'e.rns inior.10 ion .are sc:n in'the
The average a-e of the groves was 10 -:rs in 1973-74. The oldest
grove was 17 years in 1976-77. The number of trees per acre ranged from
84 in 1?'7_-74 to 87 in 1976-77. Interplanti ~ of yc,;ir trees in estab-
lished groves was responsible for the increase in number of trees per
acre. It is of interest to note that the percent of trces in 9' .-:rpe'Luit
increased during the period. Some miscellaneous citrus varieties were
replaced by grapefruit. Yield per acre ad..,c.d with age except for
the freeze damage in the 1977 season.
Labor, r.:,aer and equipment costs increased about one-eighth from
1973-74 to 1976-77. Fertilizer costs changed little but spray and dust
materials costs increased 15 percent in the four years. State and
county taxes increased in 1976-77, probably reflecting reassessr:.:.nts.
and increasing land values. Miscellaneous expenses changed little until
1975-76. Tree repl,'c.iment.- were heavier in the two latter years. Total
operating costs per acre were 12 percent higher in 1976-77 than in
1973-74. Bec~',.~ of increases in yields, per box costs incr,.s.il only
10 percent in the same time period.
DONALD L. BROOKE is an economist in the Food and Resource Economics
Department. .L- .
Interest on grove valuation was handled in a manner similar to that
for groves in the Ridge district. Average assessed valuation was based
upon an increasing scale by age of tree from planting to 25 years.
Groves 10 years of age were valued at $1600 per acre while those 25.
years of age, in good condition, were valued at $3100 per acre.
(A similar schedule is used V tax assessors.) Interest was charged
at a rate of 6 percent per annum, more for historical comparative
purposes than to reflect current rates. Depreciation on trees was
not included as a cost.
SReturns froi fruit averaged $1.61 per box in 1973-74 and $2,08
per box in 1976-77. That was an increase of.29 percent. However, net
ret.,i;ns from fruit ranged from a loss of $0.19 per box in 1973-74 to
a profit of $0.22 per box in 1975-76.
Per acre and per box production costs,
in the Indian River area ten years and
return, and other data for groves
over, 1973-74 to 1976-77
Item .1973-74 J197;-75 1975-76. 1976-77
Number of grove records
Total acres of records ..
Average acres per grove
.un.baLer of .trees per acre
Percent of trees grapefruit
Boxes ha'.ve.te. per acre
Costs per acre:
Labor, power & eq::i,;i:nt $156.12 $11.3.50 $179.57 $175.70
Fertilizer material 46.04 49.63 47.59 47.00
Spray and dust materials 40.30 43.55 46.57 46.41
St~t and county taxes 18.79 18.45 18.54 21.03
Miscellaneous 23.91 22.75 31.19 29.92
Total operating costs 285.16 290.88 323. 1 320.06
Interest on grove valuation 94.03 100.04 106.04 112.04
Total cost withou-t owner supervision 379.19 390.92 429.50 432.10
Ret D..-,-; per acre:
Returns from fruit 339.46 395.11 481.44 446.69
Net returns -39.73 4.19 5T.94 14.59
-.etu~,.s above operating costs 54.30 104.23 157.98 126.63
Costs per box:
Labor, power and equipment $ .74 $ .71 $ .76 $ .82
Fertilizer materials .22 .23 .21 .22
Spray and dust materials .19 .20 .20 .21
State and county taxes .09 .08 .08 .10
Miscellaneous .11 .10 .13 .14
Total -: '"; i :i,:, costs- 1.35 1.32 1.38 1.49 ,
Interest on grove valuation .45 .45 .45 .52
Total costs without owner supervision 1.80 1.77 1.83 2.01
Returns per box:
Returns from fruit 1.61 1.79 2.05 2.08
Net returns -.19 .02. .22 .07
Returns above operating costs .26 .47 .67 .59