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BULLETIN No. 19,
ITAWTA AQ6IOUTUtRAL GOL EW%,
Lake City, Florida.
REV. JAS. P. DEPASS, DIRECTOR.
THE MORNING NEWS PRINT.
A. & M. COLLEGE.
JAS. P. DEPASS, Prof. Agriculture.
J. N. WHITNER, Prof. of Horticulture and Pomology.
A. A. PERSONS, Prof. Agricultural Chemistry.
P. H. ROLFS, Prof. Botany and Entomology.
A. W. BITTING, Prof. Veterinary Science.
:Preparation of Seed Bed . .... ... ...... 3
Fertilizer for Beds ............ ... .. 3
Sowing the Seed ................. 3
Quantity of Seed ............. .. .... 4
What Kind of Seed to Plant ....... . . .... 4
Watering ...... .......... .. ....... 4
Size of Plants to Transplant ....... . . .... 5
Enemies, Cut Worm, Bud Worm ..... . .... 5
,Remedies ...... .... ...... .. ....... 5
Horn Worm . . .
Tobacco Land . . .
Preparation of Land . .
Fertilizing . . .
Methods of Cultivation . .
STopping and Suckering . .
IHarvesting . . .
The Curing Shed or Barn .
Preparing Crop for Market .
Bulking Crop . . .
Experiments of 1892 . .
'The Bemis Planter. .
Analysis Soils, etc . .
Inductions . . .
Hog Manure . . .
Opinions . . . .
WhereSeed Can be Had .....
Tile increasing interest in the culture of tobacco throughout the State
and the demand for literature oi the subject, i'iduces me to prepare
this Bulletin in the interest of the inexperienced grower.
THE PREPARATION OF SEED BED.
Prepare seed bed the first week in January. If land is new rake off
all trash, digging up carefully all roots. Break up land deep either
with spade or hoe if beds are small, if large with plow, but do not turn
under the top soil too deep. If the land is old hoe off all grass and
weeds before breaking it up.
The seed bed should have some exposure to sun and be near water.
Wet or springy laud is not good unless well drained. A bed in the
open forest where sun, shade and wa:er can be had as needed is the
best selection. New land, in some respects, is better than old, but it
should be manured whether burnt or not. Old land can be burnt over
and then fertilized, but the experience on the Station does not demn n-
strate that the burning of land for a saed bed is of any other advantage,
when the soil is prepared well and made rich by fertilizing, than the
destruction of weed and grass seed, which can be picked out cheaper
than by burning. The bed should be made smooth with one side
slightly higher than the other in order to shed water. The beds should
ba made narrow and so trenches that if it became necessary to water,
the trenches could be used to hold the water, and in this way allow the
beds to become wet by soaking in.
FERTILIZER FOR BEDS.
Decomposed or fresh stable or cow manure, cotton seed meal or
crushed cotton seed, or rotted cotton seed, are good. Qaite a number of
commercial fertilizers prepared specially for tobacco have proven good.
Almost any of the standard fertilizers for vegetables, in the absence of
others, would-s-rve, obssrvin7 this, mak- the bed rich. The intelligent
farmer who knows his soil must be the judge. Apply your fertilizer
a month before sowing and when applied do not put it deep, but on
top of the bed. It may be raked in but if so, barely cover it. The
young plants need the fertilizer at once and it must not be put beyond
SOWING THE SEED.
Seed sown earlier than February or the first of March in Northern
Florida are not likely to be of service unless protected from cold winds
and frosts. The best results for early planting have been obtained on
the Station by sowing after the middle of February to the latter part of
March. Seed have been sown on the Station as late as 19th of June
and planted on cabbage patch 12th of July and a good crop of first-
class tobacco raised. Broadcast or sow in drills. If in drills raise the
beds so that in case the weather becomes dry water can be poured be-
tween drills without injury to plants by caking the earth around
them. On dry sandy land I advise drills, although it will require a
larger area for bed and more labor.
If seed are either sown in drills or broadcast, cover very shallow and
roll the soil or press it with the hand. Seed lightly brushed and then
rolled is as good if not the best way to get them up.
The bed should be moist enough to sprout the seed and kept so.
After the bed is sowed cover it with brush which serves as a protec-
tion against frosts and beating rains.
QUANTITY OF SEED.
The quantity of seed to sow depends upon the area to be planted. One
oz., if a good stand is had, will furnish plants for three acres. It is not
safe, however, to be governed by such a rule. The tobacco seed are so
small and the plants so tender and tiny when they first come up as to
make them of all seeds and plants the most easily killed or injured. If
seed are covered too deep, or if theground is allowed to become dry after
they have sprouted, they will die. Again, insects may destroy them in
a day. Seed may come and the stand be good, and they may be the
prey of insects, or be dried out by the sun. Again, plants may come
and the fertilizer, not having been put in the soil long enough, may
burn them up directly. In view of these facts, and possibly others, it
is well to have on hand sufficient seed to provide against these contin-
gencies oraccidents. Again. No one should depend upon one sowing.
The firstshould be followed by another every week or two, not only as
a protection against accident, but to have fresh plants with which to
supply missing places in the field, for which purpose they are always
Oneoz., mixed thoroughly in three quarts of fine meal, will sow
broadcast 100 square feet. The meal indicates whether you have evenly
sowed the bed.
A hand roller can be made by sawing off a log, which is from
six to eight inches thick, and making a frame with handle to it, or it
can be used where beds are smill without. In place of a roller,
the hand, or a board may be used to press the dirt to the seed.
WHAT KIND OF SEED TO SOW.
The common impression prevails that Cuba seed, after they have
seeded here a year or longer, are better than freshly imported seed;
that they make a better wrapper, &c. This has not been the experience
of the station. Fresh imported seed have grown as large leaf, as good
wrapper and filling, and in every way done equally as well as those
which have been in the State from one to five years.
A great many tobacco beds are ruined by improper watering. To
properly water is of the utmost importance. The object sought is to
water so as not to pack the earth either on the seed or around the
growing plant. A simple contrivance is a barrel placed on a stand
eight or ten feet above the bed and to one side. In the bottom of this
barrel insert a M-inch pipe that will reach near the ground. To this
attach a hose long enough to reach the centre of seed bed. Attach the
hose to a pointed stick, to support it in middle of bed and in the
end place a revolving sprinkler and turn the water on. This will give
results as near a light rainfall as can be obtained. Other methods can
be used, such as the common rose sprinkler or sprayer. If beds are made
narrow and the trenches kept intact the trenches can be filled with
water and allowed to soak through beds.
The best time to water is in the evening, beginning early enough
to allow time to place sufficient water on beds, so that they will not dry
out the next day. Sometimes whole beds, during a dry time, are killed
by not wetting the bed sufficiently so that they will retain moisture
during the following day. The beds should be watered daily and
kept up until the plants are large enough to do without it.
SIZE OF PLANTS TO TRANSPLANT.
Plants are large enough, if the season is good, to take from bed when
they have four well developed leaves, even though they may spread
on the ground. The best size are those from four to six inches high.
Still plants that are from eight to twelve inches have been used suc-
cessfully by making the hole deep enough, so that from four to six
inches of the plant is left above ground.
In transplanting, and if done by hand, even if the season is a good
one, it will pay to water each plant a little, so as to settle the earth to it.
If the season is good they can be dropped and planted like cabbage
plants, and they will live and grow off as readily.
The seed bed has its enemies. They are not an uncommon cause
why there is a failure of plants. Seed, often good, are ruined by them
while sprouting, and plants after they have come up. Among the most
destructive is the flea beetle. This little pest will not be noticed un-
lessit is hunted. About the size and color of a flea they assail the seed
sometimes as soon as it sprouts. Again, the bed is green with in-
numerable plants one morning, when in a few days but few, if any,
Another insect, popularly known as a leaf hopper, and belonging to
the locust family, was observed on the leaf by Prof. Rolfs, the past sea-
son. Its color being very much like the leaf, it is not likely to be
noticed. It injures by sucking juice through epidermis of the plant.
If they should come in large numbers they would do great damage.
The cut worm is also destructive to plants in seed bed.
There are other insects also, we are led to believe, which destroy
plants, and which thus far we have not identified.
Experience, this season, teaches us that our greatest enemy, the bud
worm, attacks the plant in the seed bed. It does not, however, do so
until the plant has developed several leaves. But it is certain that it
does sometimes its most destructive work before the plant is trans-
planted in the field.
REMEDIES FOR ENEMIES.
Every person who grows tobacco should provide himself before
planting with paris green to protect himself against the ravages of
these pests. I give afew formulas which have been found to be effective
in destroying them.
FOR FLEA BEETLE.
Take 20 gallons of water and mix it in 2 lbs. of lime. Allow the lime
to settle, then draw off the water and add 1 oz. of paris green, mixing
well. Spray the bed with this after planting the seed, stirring well
before using, and the plants as they are coming up, and until they are
an inch or two high.
1 oz. of paris green to 20 gallons of weak soapsuds may serve as a
substitute, but is not as good.
If the plants are attacked by cut worms, take 1 oz. of paris green and
mix well with 4 lbs. of common flour or fine corn meal. A common
tin box, perforated with a nail, will serve as a duster. With this dust
he plants and the ground between.
Wherever stable or cow manure is used, or muck, or if the ground is
rich, you may expect the cut worm, especially if the stable or cov
manure has been exposed. Instinct leads the moth or fly to deposit its
eggs in these, and when placed in bed or field the eggs are hatched and
we have the worm. This remedy will apply to the field as well as the
bed. This worm appears sometimes the day after transplanting.
The bud worm is very small and the fly or moth lays its eggs in the
bud of the growing plant. When these buds put out the leaf is badly
cut or full of holes, rendering it useless for wrappers and only fit for
In the seed bed the remedy should be applied as soon as the plant
has attained about two inches. In the field the application should be
made every few days and to the growing bud. If, alter an application,
a good shower of rain falls, it will be wise to go over the bed or field, as
the rain may wash the remedy off.
The same mixture for cut worms is the remedy for the bud worm,
and it can be used by dusting the bud of the plant.
THE HORN WORM
does not trouble the bed but assails the plant in the field when it is
well grown. Its appearance is indicated by its eggs being laid on the
under side of the leaf. It is well to keep a sharp lookout for them
about May. These must be picked off by hand. Chickens, guineas
and turkeys, if they have the run of the field feed largely on this worm
and do not damage plant. Wasps, dirt-daubers, hornets, yellow-jackets
and all similar insects are great feeders on the worms which assail
tobacco and should never be killed. They are the farmer's friends and
should be protected. The small boy oughl to be taught that the wasp,
the hornet and the yellow-jacket should never have their nests de-
stroyed. It would be economy where farmers have no clay around
their wells or hor-e troughs to haul it there and thus furnish the dirt-
dauber the means of building his house, and thus encourage it to make
its home with him even if he did not plant tobacco. The same is true
of the other friendly insects; encourage and protect them so that they
may multiply, for they are of great value to the farmer.
should be either sandy or that which has a sub-soil of clay one foot or
more below the surface. Where the clay is on the surface it is not re-
garded as good tobacco land. Still there is land designated as clay
which has a preponderance of sand in it. Such land I would not hesi-
tate to plant tobacco in. As a rule any land which will bring a fair
crop of corn or cotton, whether they be high lands or low, experience
demonstrates, are good tobacco land in Florida, provided the high land
is not springy, or the low too wet, both of which have made good
tobacco the past season when properly drained.
Low or flat lands should be broken up and then bedded when ready
for fertilizer. The rows should run in the direction of the natural
drainage. NOTE.-"Sandy lands" is used as the common term in Flor-
idato designate the character of our soils. All soils which are not clay,
or largely mixed with clay, are called generally "sandy lands."
TO PREPARE LAND FOR CULTIVATION.
The farmer should begin early. The first of January is late enough
to prepare land for a tobacco crop. If weedy and grassy a two-horse
plow should be used to turn under. If before breaking up, a two-horse
cut-away harrow is run both ways over the field it will be of very great
advantage. After breaking up, a cut-away, or a smoothing, or sharp
tooth harrow, or a heavy brush, should be used to level the ground.
In this condition the field should remain until ready for fertilization,
which should be done at least a month b fore transplanting. If fertil-
izer is broadcasted, harrow it in. If placed in drills, open with six-inch
shovel and distribute it evenly and then cover with two furrows.
When ready to transplant from seed bed level the drills with harrow
running up and down the rows and then plant. Harrowing at this
time, whether manure has been put in drills or broadcast, kills both
weeds and grass and destroys a great many seed of each which have
germinated. Rows are laid of 4, 31 and 3 feet apart. I prefer the latter
distance. Plants are placed in drill from one to two feet apart. I
prefer from one foot to fifteen inches if the soil is rich enough, and it
should be made sufficiently fertile.
care should be taken to make the land rich. The planter should not
be economical here. From 1,000 pounds to four tons per acre should be
used according to the quality of the land and the quality of the
manure. If stable or cow manure, from four to ten tons will not be too
much if the soil needs it. If commercial fertilizer, less should be used
according to the grade. See inductions under the head of Analysis.
THE METHODS OF CULTIVATION.
The tobacco plant grows off very quickly, and the spread of its roots
is very rapid. The lateral roots run very near the surface, and the
cultivation of the plant should necessarily be shallow. A Planet, Jr.,
cultivator or a wide sweep are good tools to use. In grassy land it will
be necessary to hoe once and possibly more. The plant must be pro-
tected from grass and weeds.
In plowing it is better to throw the dirt slightly to the plant and thus
form a low bed in the row. Three or four plowings and one hoeing in
grassy land is usually sufficient work to make a crop and in new land less.
It may be only necessary for the last working to run, very shallow, a
sweep through the middle of lurrow to kill young grass.
TOPPING AND SUCKERING.
There is a difference of opinion as to the time the plant should be
topped. The Station is experimenting on this point, but has not de-
cided it so far by sufficient testing. The generally prevailing opinion
is that when the plant forms its blossom buds they should be pinched
off. At this time the plant has formed from 12 to 16 and even more
leaves. After topping, sprouts begin to shoot out from stalk where
the leaf joins it. These should be pinched off and not allowed to grow
longer than two or three inches. As these sprouts grow very fast,
sprouting should be very closely looked after. Care should be taken
not to pinch off the sprouts below the bottom leaves, and as the bottom
leaves are not as a rule the best, it may be well not to 'ake off the
sprouts for the.first two. From these sprouls below the bottom leaves,
and which come out above the two first, is where the second, third,
fourth and even later crops are gathered.
is very irregular. From the time it begins until the crop is gathered, it
is daily work. This work embraces the period from the first ripening
to the last. Tobacco begins to ripen from six weeks to two months
after being transplanted.
The best way to harvest is to cut the stalk when ripe near
the ground with a sharp knife. In doing so avoid cutting off
the suckers or injuring them. This should be done by bending
with the left hand and cutting from below up. The leaves should
not be stripped from the stalk. Care should be taken not to allow sand
to get on the leaves, as it very generally injures the sale of the crop.
If the plant has not begun to sucker when cut it will very soon do so.
Three or four suckers, if the plants healthy and the soil good, should be
allowed to grow. The second, third and fourth crops should be treated in
the same way. The fourth crop is a small one but the leaves serve as a
filler, or for smoking tobacco, and if gathered it makes an excellent
fertilizer. The stalks should all be saved for this purpose and are
valuable with which to mulch fruit trees. It will very greatly increase
the third and fourth crop if cotton seed meal is worked around the
plant after the second cutting or even the first. The great trouble with
inexperienced growers is to determine when the tobacco is ripe. Ex-
perience, however, soon settles thismatter and it is not difficult to learn.
The novice ought not to be deterred from planting because of the want
of this knowledge. Color of leaves does not prove the best rule to deter-
mine the ripeness of the plant, although when the leaves begin to
lighten in color or spotted it is a good sign. A better rule is that when
the leaves are doubled and pressed between the fingers, they will snap.
THE CURING SHED OR BARN
may or may not be a costly building in our climate. For those who are
beginners it is not necessary to build a barn especially for the purpose
if there is a gin house on the premises or a log house that can be used.
I have seen the very best quality of tobacco cured in a log house, the
joists of which were not six feet above the floor. A common wage n shed
will serve the purpose to begin with, if closed on the sides by rough-
edge boards. The tobacco crop of the Station is cured in the upper part
of a wagon and tool house. A great many persons will doubtless begin
the cultivation of tobacco by planting from one-half to five acres. In
their interest the above is written. For those who are determined to
make it their business and who wish to build barns they can do so
cheaply with rough lumber.
The points to be observed are, ventilation when needed, and the
shutting it off. There should be doors at each end of the barn large
enough to drive a wagon through. There is no necessity for a
wooden floor, but the sills ought to be laid on brick or rock in our
climate to prevent rotting, and the space between the sills and the
ground closed with plank. Frames from the top to the bottom
should be built inside on which to place poles or laths on which to
hang the tobacco to dry. A sharp hollow spear that will fit a lath,
made sharp enough to pierce through the stalk should be used. The
stalk pierced and slipped on the lath or small pole and repeated until
the pole is full, not allowingthe leaves to touch each other, and then
put in place on the frames, is the cheapest, easiest and most expedi-
tious way of hanging tobacco in the barns. It, however, may be tied
by strings to a pole, or with a knife a slit may be cut in the stalk and
one end of 'the small pole or lath may be sharpened and pushed
through, but these methods are both costly and tedious. Care
should be taken to economize all the space possible, and the number of
stalks to each lath or pole is to be settled by the distance Of frames apart
on which they are to rest. A shed 30 by 60 feet and from 10 to 14 feet
high is sufficiently roomy to cure five or six acres of tobacco. Persons
who desire to build fancy barns can do so, keeping in view the necessity
of ventilation both above and below.
PREPARING THE CROP FOR MARKET.
The leaves are ready to strip from the stalk when the stems are
sufficiently dry so as to show no sap when pinched. Before stripping,
however, the leaves should be moist enough so that they will notcrum-
ble or break in handling. If the weather is dry the tobacco becomes
very dry, but by giving it ventilation at night by opening doors and
windows, or during a rain, the condition can be obtained for handling.
A north or a northwest wind dries tobacco very rapidly. When they
blow shut up the barn.
In assorting, the top and bottom leaves and those which are ragged
should be put to themselves and tied into bundles ranging in number
from twenty-five to fifty according to size. These are for fillers. The
better leaves should be assorted according to size, and tied in bundles
or hands from twenty to thirty each. These are for wrappers. In
stripping tobacco the leaves should not be smoothed out by the hand,
but put into bundles just as they are on the stalk. It is the habit of
some to make three grades, wrappers, binders and fillers. Binders are
those where the leaves are in part free from holes.
The different grades should never be mixed in packing, but kept to
themselves. In packing into boxes or bales the tips should lap each
other and care should be taken to pack firmly and evenly. The ends
of the packages should not touch the box sides, for ventilation is needed
here to some extent to prevent moulding. When boxed keep on a board
floor and under no circumstances allow the box or package to remain
on the ground, or in close proximity to kerosene, commercial fertilizers,
or obnoxious scent. The boxes should be as light as possible and uni-
form in size, but the dry goods boxes of merchants serve an excellent
BULKING THE CROP.
I mean by bulking that the f rmers of a county would, I think, find
it to their interest to store their crop in their county town for assort-
ment and sale, securing or building a house for this purpose. An expert
should be employed who will carefully resweat, assort and bale the
tobacco in the same way as the Cubans do. It would be better to take
the tobacco to an expert to be sweated just after it is stripped and as-
sorted, than to wait until it has passed through the barn sweat.
Wrappers, binders and fillers should be packed and sweated to them-
selves. In this way the crop would realize more money, amply repay-
ing the cost of expert. On this line much could be said.
EXPERIMENTS OF 1892.
A large number of experiments were begun this yedr both in the
seed bed and field. The objects in view were:
1st. To find the best method of raising plants.
2d. The use of various kinds of fertilizers, as to their effect upon tex-
ture, quality and quantity per acre, embracing soft and hard phos-
phate, potashr nitrogen, single and in various combinations, com-
mercial fertilizers of different brands, and composts made on the
station. These composts were in part based on the analyses of Cuba
soil and Cuba tobacco, as given below.
3d. To test the quantity and texture of tobacco cut and cured at
different stages of growth, the distance between rows and the space
plants should have in drills.
The season was most unfavorable to success since from the first of
January to the 29th of May there was no rainfall at any time sufficient
to lay the dust. It was with much trouble that plants were grown,
and when transplanted to get them to live, water them as much and
often as possible. But by reason of much trying we succeeded in getting
quite a number of experiments in good shape, considering the dry sea-
On the 29th of May, when one experiment was just ready in which
to commence the harvest, a tornado, followed by an unusually hard
rain and hail, destroyed it and every other tobacco experiment in the
field,'as also the seed beds to a large extent. The result was that only
the naked stalks were left. This storm was so severe as to entirely
wash away the soil and fertilizer of another experiment. With what
was left us we did the best we could under the circumstances, on which
a report is made below.
In March we made a trip to Cuba in the interest of tobacco culture.
While there we learned that the methods of culture differed from ours,
rot only in the distance between the rows, but the distance between
plants in drill. It was observed, also, that the plants were topped at
an earlier stage of their growth, and that they were taken from the
field, being considered ripe by different signs and conditions than
those governing us. As near as we could, under the unfavorable
circumstances, we tried to gather and cure our experiments, which were
mainly from second growth, by the Cuban rule. The only thing left
us was to test the quality of texture and flavor. This tobacco, in con-
nection with lots from different parts of the State, we have resweated
and manipulated, by the assistance of a gentleman employed for the
purpose, a native of Cuba, and we had segars made from it and tested,
and the uniform testimony is, from different persons capable of judging,
living in different parts of the State, that they will compare favorably
with the best made from Cuba tobacco.
The other samples from other parts of the State have also been sim-
ilarly tested and pronounced to be of very fine quality. It is conceded
that resweating and betuning very greatly improves our Florida
tobacco af er it has passed through the barn sweat. The uniform tes-
timony of segar manufacturers is that our Florida tobacco is not ready
for them as it is prepared by our growers. Being apprised of this, for
nearly two years or more, it was with the object in view, that of learn-
ing the methods of preparing segar tobacco for market as the Cubans
do, that we sought a man who understood the process, and from him
learn it, in order to teach it to our agricultural students, and also
to those farmers who felt sufficient interest in the industry to under-
take the necessary course. To give the process to the public would
gratify curiosity and possibly induce some to attempt to sweat and
betune their own tobacco. This might mislead and be attended by
loss. Like everything else of value and importance the knowledge has
to be attained by patient care and attention, and also by diligent ap-
plication to the details. For these reasons it would be better to wait the
process of further experiment and thus obtain a more accurate and
thorough knowledge before it would be wise to try and teach the farmer
the process by means of bulletins. The fact that the farmers generally
do not know how to prepare their tobacco for market, and the diffi-
culties in the way of their learning, will necessitate the establishment
of sweating houses in every section of the State, convenient to growers,
and those houses must being charge of men who understand the art of
sweating. Until the farmer learns how to prepare his tobacco for mar-
ket those who understand the business must do it for him. The pres-
ent crop, for which there is, at this writing, no demand, should be re-
sweated, and it does appear that unless it is thus handled there will be
The station is preparing the next season to make a large number of
experiments in tobacco, and on a more extended scale than hereto-
It is supplied with a BEMIS PLANTER, which opens, plants, waters,
and covers at the same time. This machine has been thor-
oughly tested this year and found to be very successful in every
respect. It will pay for itself in the saving of expenses in a single sea-
son in a crop of from six to ten acres. It is also equally as well adapted
to planting all plants, such as cabbages, &c., as tobacco, and I very
readily commend it to our tobacco as well as our vegetable growers.
Mr. C. C. Chapman, who made a very fine crop of tobacco this fast
season near this place (Lake City), used one of these machines, which
I saw operate frequently. He planted regardless of drought, and his
heaviest loss from any one planting was not larger than 10 per cent.
After having become accustomed to its use his loss was reduced to
5 per cent. Those who expect to make the growing of tobacco their
business in the future should by all means supply themselves with this
admirable machine for transplanting.
ANALYSIS OF STATION AND CUBA TOBACCO SOIL
AND CUBA TOBACCO.
The soils of which the following analyses were made were taken
from Station Plots, on which the experiment was made the past season,
and also from a tobacco field in Cuba.
The tobacco analysis was of tobacco that had ripened on the Cuba
The analyses were made by Dr. J. J. Earle, Prof. of Chemistry in
Agricultural and Mechanical College.
Column One-Fla. Soil.
Moisture at 110 . .
Organic matter . .
Sand and insoluble matter.
Carbonic acid (CO..) .....
Sulphuric acid (SO3). ....
Oxide of iron (Fer 03) .. .
lime (CaO) .....
magnesia (Mg 0). .
Phosphoric acid (P20,) .
Potash (KO) . ..
Soda (Na0) .... ....
1.00 per cent.
14.20 per cent.
99.98 per cent. 100.15 per cent.
Nitrogen to..... . ...... .028 .32
Ammonia ..... ...... .034 .39 "
The suphuric acid is combined with the lime to form sulphate of
lime (gypsum.) The remainder of the lime is combined with the car-.
bonie acid to form carbonate of lime, and with the phosphoric acid to
form phosphate of lime.
CUBA TOBACCO STALK.
ANALYSIS OF THE AIR DRIED STALK.
M oisture .. .. ... .... .. ... ... .. 13.44
Organic matter .. . . . .... 72.42
Sand (Si O) ......... ........... .40
Carbonic acid (CO, ) ................ 3.64
Sulphuric acid ( 0 ) . . . . 55
Phosphoric acid (P 0) ....... ... ,. .59
Oxide of iron (Fc2, 6 .............. .84.
magnesia (MgO) .... ........ .52
Chlorine . . . . .. .65
Lime (CaO) . . . . 4.35
Potash (K O) . .... ..... 2.88
Soda (Nab) .. ............. .47
Ammonia. . ... . . .. 8..78
In the above analysis the sulphuric acid is combined with the lime
to form sulphate of lime (gypsum) The remainder of the lime is com-
bined with the phosphoric acid to form phosphate of lime.
The soda is combined with the chlorine to form sodium chloride
The careful reader will note a very wide difference between these
Those who have considered lime lands as unfit for tobacco will be
surprised to find so large a percentage of lime in Cuba land as well as
in the tobacco. After so widespread a condemnation of such fertilizers
as kainit, which contains a large percentage of salt, he will be impress-
ed by these analyses that our soil very generally will be benefitted by
the proper use of it. The station has used kainit and sulrphate of pot-
ash on tobacco during four years with marked benefit. We have used
as much as from 300 to 500 lbs. of kainit to the acre in compost.
The station soil, unusually poor, was selected because of its sterility to
test the value of different manures, and while for causes above stated
the experiment was a failure in this respect, and also as to quantity, for
the same reasons, still, by reason of these manures, it produced the very
best tobacco, so far as texture and quality were concerned. It will be
further observed to what an extent iron enters into the composition of
the ulant, thus indicating, that as our soils are largely deficient in lime,
iron and salt, the latter, 'from which clorine is obtained, that fertil-
izers, such as common lime, copperas, which is sulphate of iron,
should be used, and that such salts as kainit and the sulphate of potash,
which supplies the needed potash, will furnish also, so far as kainit is
concerned a good source from which the common salt can be supplied.
These analyses are given in the hope that the observant and intelli-
gent farmer will use them to much benefit in the production of his crop.
In this connection it may be as well to state that
HOG PEN MANURE
has also been condemned because, it is said, it imparted the unpleasant
odor of the skunk to the segar. The past season a hog pen, used as
such for over two years, was planted, and a crop sufficiently large,
though small, was made to test the truth of this statement. No such
odor has been observed. But this fact has been demonstrated, viz.: that
the hog pen tobacco grew rapidly and large, and the tobacco made in it
was of the best quality, the segar made from it having a rich Havana
flavor and in every way satisfactory. The hog pen manure is, to say
the least of it, a good manure for tobacco.
1st. After four years experience in growing tobacco, and afterresweat-
ing and betuning tobacco grown on different kinds of soil in various
parts of the State from Lake City to De Funiak and fertilized by differ-
ent methods, and after making segars from these several samples so
treated and testing them, I give it as an opinion that the tobacco
grown in tropical and semi-tropical regions is dependent more upon
the climate than the soil for that aroma, as well as that flavor so much
2nd. That the Pensacola Tobacco Fair demonstrated that Florida
soil was very generally adapted to the growth of segar tobacco and that
as my observation extends as far south as Ft. Myers, that no one seo-
tion thus far has demonstrated any special advantage over another in
producing it as to quality from Pensacola to Ft. Myers.
3d. That the main point to be learned to make Florida tobacco com-
pete successfully in the markets with Havana and make it valuable
lies in the proper sweating and betuning it when stripped from the
stalk, and putting it on the market as Florida tobacco.
JAS. P. DEPASS,
Director Experiment Station.
WHERE SEED CAN BE HAD.
NOTE.-Seed to plant small areas can be had free upon application to Hon. L. B.
Wombwell, Commiariouer Agriculture, Tallahassee, Fla. Those applying for seed
who receive this bulletin should state in their application that they haveor have
not received Bulletin 19, because Mr. Wombwell will send this bulletin to those who
apply to him for tobacco seed if they do not make this statement.