Ornamental trees

Material Information

Ornamental trees
Series Title:
Bulletin University of Florida, Agricultural Experiment Station
Mowry, Harold
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla
University of Florida, Agricultural Experiment Station
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
134 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Ornamental trees -- Florida ( lcsh )
Seaside ( local )
City of Live Oak ( local )
Leaves ( jstor )
Deciduous trees ( jstor )
Tree trunks ( jstor )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
"June, 1933."
General Note:
Includes index.
Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station) ;
Statement of Responsibility:
by Harold Mowry.

Record Information

Source Institution:
Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location:
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier:
022888672 ( ALEPH )
09088484 ( OCLC )
AFE9321 ( NOTIS )


This item has the following downloads:

Full Text


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.

Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida

Bulletin 261

Wilmon Newell, Director


June, 1933

-. -,

Fig. 1.-Tropical almond, Terminalia Catappa.

Bulletins will be sent free upon application to the

' ; '-,


John J. Tigert, M.A., LL.D., President of the
LUri r-rlIt
\Wilnon Nerell. [' Sc.. Director
H. Harold Hulm.. M -.. Asst. F[ir FReearch
H-,-:.I-J MI. *. B .H A A lt Ilr.. Adrii.
J. iranc;' Coo:er. M S.... Edit.-r
R. rulph.un.. B S.A.. A-iitart Ed'ior
Ida Keeling Cracr.. Librarian
Ruby NeWrh:ill. AJn.iri.stratie Mlanager
K. H Granl'an,. B,-in,se Mansaer
RachelI MciQuarr. -..r\ Aountant


W. E. Stokes. M ., Agrnntomist**
W. A. Leukel. fIl.D Arroncniist
C. E. itch, M S.A A-on:ite*
Fred H. Hull, 1M.c, Ai-r.c;ate
J. D. Warner, M.S., Associate
John P. Camp, M.S., Assistant
A. L. Shealy, D.V.MI Arn;nal Holibandn,:,nri
R. B. Becker, PI .r, S- ,lll i. I ,rt. Hus-
W. M. Neal, Ph.D., A --.c;,are in Arniir.l Nutri-
E. F. Thomas, D.V.M., Assistant Vetes irnari- r
W. W. Henley, B.S.A., Assistant Hua-
l rindnpar
P. T. 1i:: Arnold. B.S.A., A-'.s tla t in i'-9.r. In-
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Chemist**
R. M. Barnette, Ph.D., Chemist
C. : P-il P i.l' A. :=,-, r.r.:
J. IM l.'.lC nir.. M S., .- As 'tall
H IV. I\ir,.,rr, B S A .-s ,l
H. \V. Jr.,.-- M S.. AS-.t-iant

C. V. N.ble. Ph FI. Ait.cultural
Rrutce McIKnles. A.B. B A.. A.-'-o;re
MI A. Bro.l:e!. Phr I,.. .\i r.-iate
Zrs. t*. ,.e, M S A.. A :- it,r.

Ouida 'i,' i. Alb.bit. F'Pr.. .. i'|.,, s list**
L. W G .-Iduint Ph B;...:h,. I..
C. F. A la.i.i.ii, Ph L.. PI. -l..i:..:g,:i

J. R. Watson, A.M., Lrnrot, .l.,-. '
A. N, Tissot, Ph.D., .\-i....if.r
H. E. Bail.: M I ? A. A-;-t .r
P. W. Calhoun, A:-istlan, -Cotton Insects

A. F. Camp. Ph D.. Hort;eultilstlt'
M. R. Ensign. M.51 A.\z.iottle
A. L. Strhl Pn.D.., A.. oc.ter
G. H. BlN Kr,.-..i, M S A.. PF C .n1 Culj,..
C. B. Van Cl-er, IM .\., Gr 1n-..r..-i i'. reman

W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist**
George r. AWe ,r. PI..T'.. P-'lar Pathologist
R. K. Vooi'rh..'. M I .. A -. s ;'ir
Erdnman \Vest, I S -tM:.c:.-i; -t
*In cooperation with U.S.D.A.
**Head of Department.


Rlta nnr r. Maruire. Chairnimrr. Orlando
A H. Blrndinc. Barton'
\ H Wa rei \V~W r Plim B-ach
CGe H. BhldlVit Jacs:n nlll
J T. [Dian. nd. Sec.etar TIll-a~.:ie


L. O. Grt', Ph D Plant Pathh..logiit in Charge
R. R K.neaid M. .\s t. Plrn
W. A. Cr.e,.r. Pin E- Asociat, Ar!onomrnlsa
P. 1. lonnr, B.F.A As--il r.t Agron.n'ist
Jeise Reev.r., Farm SiFi~rirntinrdent

John H. Jefferie= EuperntEnrid-i.
Geo. D. Ruehle, Pn D. Aisocetsr Plant Pathol-
W... A. Kirnz. A M.. A,\io,-iae Plant P.thologi61
B. R. Fudgc Ph A.zoe'irc Cheiist
\I. L. Thomlnr:c.r. B.S A- ilant Enromologist

R. V. Allison. Ph D -.'.l- Sr., :r- l'j-t irn Chnr -e
R. N Lobdell, Hl. Ernt.:n.l..-o: it
F D St,-.,enr R S I.t ic.'r Agr'rororii t
G. R. Ton, ni,. rd. Ph i.. .\A-t Plant Pathr.lok.i;t
I A ,,irn.E. PI, r .1. 1: ... PDhI-. loi:t
J. R. Nelltr Pn r. Bi..I,:l.e,-,
A. l.: anr,. Ph, L'.. AcLrrjrr,n.rl
R. W Kilder. B.S Ai:t. .\n,i..l,dnian
F:.:.' E., .Ai.i;lant Ch.6 n lt

H W. oli, Ph '.. HoI-l c.i'i.ri-t in Il,3ar'e
W. M rif.lel- M .N A. ta-r's tl
Stae. O Ha' lin-. M A Ai-lstant Plant
,P. tr.loig.t


M. N. Walker, Ph D.. Plant PatIololFit 11.
W. B. Sappy., Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathol-
K. Vt. Lruc rks. IM ., A s-t. Fl nt Pt'rli -l.-.L .;t
J. W W .l:-,.n. Ph D A,.. i;at. Enl-.iwn l. _i-:t
C. C. Golf, Il S.. A-ii'rant Entoni.lo ,.ist
Plant City
A. N. BRooks Ph.D.. Planr PathCrh:.L it
R. E. Nolei., M ? A., Ar. Plant Patiologipt
A. S. Rhoads, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist
West Palm Beach
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
Fred W. Walker, Assistant Entomologist
David G. Kelbert, Asst. Plant Pathologist


INTRODUCTION .................................................... 5

N ATIVE TREES .............................. ... ................ 7

CLIMATIC LIMITATION ....................... ..... ... ........... 8

CULTURE ........................................................... 9

PRUNING .................................... ............. 13

VARIETAL LIST ...................... ....1...................... 14

Broadleaved Evergreen and Deciduous Trees................. ... 15

Coniferous Trees ............................................ 109

Flowering Trees .......................... ................. 118

Trees with Unusual or Ornamental Fruits ...................... 118

Trees for Coastal Planting ................................... 119

Trees for W indbreaks ........................................ 119

Trees with Foliage Color Change ............................. 120

APPENDIX: CHC-_i Li;IT i.l' THE NATIVE TREES OF F;'Lri[D. .......... 121

INDEX OF COMMON NAMES ...................................... 135

Fig 2.-The fruits of the cannonball tree are borne only on the trunks and
larger limbs. Inset: Blossom of the cannonball tree.




Most landscapes are in large measure dependent on tree effects
for dimension, profile and perfection and for this reason trees
may well be considered as an indispensable element in landscape
composition. Other plants, of course, are required for complete-
ness but theirs is the minor role. Without its complement of
trees, it is seldom that a scheme of planting, whether it be a street,
roadside, urban home or farmstead, has achieved its fullest ob-
jective. Through the influence of trees, a residence, street, or
other site is set apart and given an individuality and, since trees
are in themselves the most permanent of plants, they impart to
their immediate surroundings a sense of permanence and sta-
Numerous and varied advantages are derived from ornamental
tree plantings but they are so obvious and so well known that
their further listing is needless. It is mainly a question of
variety and adaptability, for in Florida the number of available
varieties is so great that the choice is not a simple one. The
adaptability of a species for use in a specified location is of para-
mount importance and must be given consideration for climate
and soils vary so that a tree wholly adapted to one location may
be entirely unsuited to another.
Tender varieties planted in an area subject to low temperatures
can but ultimately prove a disappointment as will many species
from colder regions when planted in the most tropical sections.
Soil type, and particularly soil moisture, also has an important
role since many species naturally adapted to high dry lands do
not find low undrained soils conducive to sustained vigor of
growth. Neither can all varieties that in nature are found on
moist soils be expected to thrive in dry sandy locations even with
regular fertilization and irrigation. However, as a general rule,
plants may be transplanted from moist situations to drier loca-
tions with much better success following than is the case with
The v'. ilei acknowlede'es his indebtedness to Drs. A. F. Camp and A. S.
Rhoads f.. tihe Station tatff for several of the photographs; to Mr. Erdman
West, also of the Station staff, for aid in the identification of many species;
and to Mr. W. M. Buswell for the photographs in Figures 2, 32, 57, and 78,
as well as for notes on many trees of the southern area.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

dry-land plants that are moved to poorly drained areas. For sea-
shore planting the number of adapted varieties is limited in that
there are few species that can withstand the cot:,miiit ion of dune
sands and exposure to salt spray.
Much will depend on the local situation where trees are wanted
as to which of the numerous species is best suited. The great
variation in mature size, habit of grov.'th, and foliage and flower
characters make some especially well suited to street or roadside
planting, some to grouping, and others to specimen planting. Thick
foliaged, spreading types usually are preferred for shade but
because of the difficulty of growing lawn grasses and many shrubs
in densely shaded situations, there are conditioli to which those
with more open tops may be better fitted. If planted about a
building, its size and style of architecture will have a bearing on
the kinds chosen. Palms seem to be ideally suited to Spaiishi
types but not so well to the English, while the reverse is true with
the oaks; tall-growing, narrow-headed trees may be used to en-
hance the beauty and perspective of many types of larger build-
ings but usually are not so appropriate to small, low cottages or
bungalows. Irrespective, however, of the nature of the require-
ments of different situations as to trees best adapted, there is a
wide variety of suitable species available for most of them. The
range of both native and exotic species includes palms, conifers,
broadleaved evergreens and deciduous sorts, with an extreme
diversity in size, shape, and coloration of the foliage. flowers, and
It is difficult if not impossible to differentiate between orna-
mental trees and those of other classes or to choose any select
group and designate its members as ornamentals with the impli-
cation that those not chosen are without beauty or value for land-
scape planting. Differing as they do in size, shape. foliage, and
flower, some may have a greater attraction or be better fitted for
specific locations but there is no tree species that does not have
an individuality and some degree of beauty. Under some classi-
fications those that do not produce edible fruits or are of little or
no economic worth are termed ornamentals to the exclusion of
most fruit and many forest trees. Perhaps the better use of the
term ornamental would be the broader one that would include any
tree which because of some character it may possess is desirable
for inclusion in an ornamental planting. Another source of some
controversy is the indistinct and vaguely defined dividing line

Bulletin 261, Ornamental Trees

between trees and shrubs, since many small trees might well be
called large shrubs and many large shrubs appropriately termed
small trees. In the list of trees that follows are included those
grown for ornamental effect regardless of other uses or values
they may have and those plants attaining a height of 12 to 15
feet or more and normally having a single stem are considered
as trees, although in some instances the plant serves both as a
large shrub and a small tree.
The number of native tree species is exceptionally large but it
is not at all improbable that the number of introduced ones is
greater. Many of the latter are so well adapted that they are
now growing wild in many places as escapes from cultivation.
Trees from all continents have found a congenial environment
and there are doubtless hundreds more of the world's tree species
that would thrive in some parts of Florida were they to be intro-
duced. In this connection, the work of the Division of Foreign
Plant Introduction of the United States Department of Agricul-
ture in plant exploration is highly deserving of commendation,
for through its efforts great numbers of foreign plants, both
economic and ornamental, are being introduced and disseminated.

Florida's varied landscapes owe much of their variety to the
widely divergent types of native trees. It would be anticipated
that with an elevation factor of but slightly over 300 feet, there
would be a monotonous similarity of tree growth throughout the
state. This condition, however, is far from true, as is evidenced
by the panoramic diversity offered by the hardwood lamnmocks,
open pine forests, cypress, titi, and gum swamplands, palmetto-
dotted prairies, mangrove-, seagrape-, and palm-fringed keys and
seashores, oak-clad ridges, and stream banks lined with numerous
varieties of both hard- and soft-wood trees.
Among the native trees of Florida are some indigenous to the
New England, the Appalachian, and the South Atlantic and Gulf
Coastal Plains areas while others are found whose habitat includes
the West Indian and Caribbean islands. The state is thus an area
wherein the plant life of the temperate zone merges with that of
the tropics. Of marine origin, the area embraced by Florida is
both geologically and ecologically young and of necessity had to
draw the most of its plant life from other regions. In the north-

Florida Agricultural E.rpimi i Station

-ern section; of the state, the trees are predominantly those of the
'southern Appalachian region while in the southern peninsular
portion, where congenial climatic condition-s prevail, they are
identical or closely allied to those of the neighboring Indian
islands. Through the agencies of the sea and so(. therly-conir.-ing
rivers, aided in part by birds and animals, Florida has drawn
in past ages on a vast area for its now native plant life. This
situation, together with the probability of the development of
new species within the region; diversity of soil types, obtaining
climatic conditions, and slight difference in elevation, has given
to Florida a greater variety of native tree species than occur in
any like-sized area of the North American continent north of
Mexico. About one-fourth as many species of t rees as are native
to the United States are found in Florida as indigenes.
Throughout the northern sections of the state trees of the
temperate zone are in greatest numbers, there being 50 or more
species in that area that are also native to the Northern and
Northeastern states and some 90 species that grow as natives in
the other Southern states. Over one-half of the latter extend
their range well into the central parts of the state. The tropical
trees are in greatest abundance in favored locations of the extreme
South; numerous species growing here that, because of climatic
restriction, are not found elsewhere in the continental United
There is appended a list of Florida's native trees, as well as
those from other regions growing as escapes from cultivation,
with notations as to those utilized for ornamental planting and
the general areas in which they grow.


Due to the considerable variation in hardiness among tree'
species as well as the failure of some from colder regions to adapt
themselves to warmer climates and because of differences obtain-
ing in winter temperature minimums between the northern and
southern sections of Florida, there are comparatively few that
are wholly adapted to statewide planting. Differences in the
lower temperature extremes within the state are not great but
within that range is a critical point for many tropical plants that
suffer more or less severe damage, or death, when exposed for
several hours to temperatures below freezing. On the other hand,

Bulletin 261, Ornamental Trees

many trees of more temperate climates apparently require a period
of dormancy that is induced by or coincident with low tempera-
tures and short day length and consequently do not find a con-
genial environment in the warm winters of the sub-tropics. Thus,
in the choice of trees for a given locality, their climatic adapta-
bility is of first importance:
Normal prevailing winter temperatures have brought about a
definition of regions within the state, designated as northern,
central and southern, to which certain plants are climatically
adapted. These areas are not separated by any distinct or regular
lines of demarcation but have quite irregular boundaries because
of the influence on temperature exerted by elevation, presence of
large lakes, or proximity to the ocean and the Gulf Stream. Any
delineation of the areas according to a specified temperature min-
imum would fluctuate from year to year with seasonal variations
so that their boundaries are necessarily vague and broad rather
than sharply defined. As the names would indicate, the northern
area includes generally that part of the state lying north of a
line through Marion County and subject to the heaviest frosts;
the southern, that of the extreme south having the warmest
winter temperatures and extending northward along the coasts
approximately to Palm Beach and Punta Gorda; and the central,
that lying between the northern and southern sections. In each
of the areas designated there are some parts that have greater
protection on account of local factors where less hardy plants, not
adapted to the regions as a whole, may be successfully grown.
The classification of the numerous species according to their
climatic restriction has not been wholly an arbitrary one but is
based on observation of trees growing in the different regions.
It is highly probable that with many, the range has been shown
to be too greatly restricted while with some, too broad a range
may have been indicated. This is due to the few trees of some
species planted, the limited number giving only a very general
idea of their climatic range.
An under-nourished, diseased, or insect-infested plant, strug-
gling on the losing side for existence, has lost the value it may
normally possess as an ornamental. Only thrifty specimens, free
of destructive parasites to the extent that their vigor of growth
and attractive qualities are not impaired, can fulfill the exacting

Florida Agricultural Exp.ct i;eiit Station

iretuiirmeiints of those chosen for purposes of Ijeautification. For
the most part their thrift can be insured by fertilization, regular
tearingn g when rainfall is inadequate, correct and timely pruning,
and, if needed, control of insect pests and diseases. If a plant is
not worth some cultural attention it is not worth planting.
Because of the permanent character of trees, they are seldom
replaced and most of them, if at all adapted to the location, thrive
with little care; they require and receive less cultural attention,
as a group, than any other type of ornamental plant. In their
native habitat, trees grow and thrive in spite of over-crowding,
extended droughts, and other adverse conditions. Nevertheless.
the majority of them make a more vigorous growth and assume
a more natural symmetry if allowed adequate room for full devel-
opment and a regular supply of moisture and plailt nutrient ma-
terials is maintained in the soil. Tree growth is relatively slow
and a long period of time is required for mature development but
by supplying the needed cultural attentions their growth may be
materially hastened.
Many times, the loss or slow establishment of a newly planted
tree is directly traceable to a lack of the proper care in its trans-
planting. No particular skill or complex methods are required
in the removal of small trees from one location to another but too
often the operation is carried out in a manner better fitted to fence
posts than living plants. Since ornamental trees are seldom
planted in large numbers, the extra labor involved in careful trans-
planting as against the post-hole method amounts to little. Trees
planted in large holes with roots well spread and covered with
fertile soil and supplied with ample water rarely fail to grow
satisfactorily provided they are dug with a good root system
which has not been allowed to become dry in transit and the work
is done in a suitable season. This presupposes, of course, that
the tree is adapted to the soils and climate where planted.
Nursery-grown trees, because their root systems are better
developed and more compact, are generally given preference over
those taken from the woods. In digging many of the wild plants,
it is impossible to secure other than a small proportion of the root
system which may result in a heavy percentage of loss in trans-
planting or a slow start into thrifty growth. It, too, should be
borne in mind that variation exists in leaf and other growth
characters within the same species of the native trees and that
careful and intelligent selection and propagation of only the most

Bulletin 261, Ornamental Trees

desirable types would enhance the ornamental value of numerous
species. Nurserymen handling this type of material are the logical
ones to make such selections and by propagation of none other
than the most desirable forms they can add materially to the use
and value of native plants for ornamental planting.
Soil for filling in about the roots in planting may be enriched
by the incorporation of well-decayed leaf mold, manures or other
litter, and in addition to these, small quantities of muck on light
sands. Tankage or steamed bone meal may also be added but
complete commercial fertilizers are seldom used until later.
Whether or not any such additions are made, all subsoils from
the holes should be discarded and only topsoil used in planting.
Trees are set at approximately the same depth as they stood
in the nursery row. The soil about the roots should be well
watered at time of planting. Thorough watering tends to compact
the soil and to bring the particles in close contact with the roots
by elimination of air pockets. A basin-like depression left about
the tree is much better than a mound of soil, as the former will
collect rain or irrigation water while the latter will aid in its
run-off. A mulch of any coarse organic material helps to con-
serve soil moisture and on decaying increases soil fertility.
Percentage of loss in the transplanting of many kinds of large
trees may be reduced by covering the trunk and larger limbs at
the time of removal with a one- to two-inch layer of Sphagnum
moss which is tied in place with suitably strong cord. The moss
is kept damp for several weeks, preventing excessive drying out
of the aerial portion before the root system can resume growth
and its normal water intake. Spanish moss may be substituted
but it does not hold moisture so well as the Sphagnum.
Most deciduous trees are transplanted at a time when they
are bare of foliage or during the cooler winter months. From
early December through February is generally the most satisfac-
tory season for transplanting, although with some of the more
tropical species there is less restriction and they are moved at
any season but preferably not during dry periods unless irrigation
is available. In summer, losses in small, newly-set plants may
be reduced by partial shading for a few weeks.
Conifers of all kinds, after they have attained some size, are
difficult to transplant with bare roots and are therefore dug and
transported with a ball of soil about their roots or are grown in
boxes or pots. Many broadleaved evergreens are handled in the

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

same manner, which makes possible their transplanting at nearly
any season and without the necessity of severe pruning. In
planting these "balled and burlapped" plants it is not necessary
to remove the burlap holding the ball of soil; that part about the
stem of the plant is loosened and turned back so that all of the
burlap is covered with soil in filling the hole. The roots are in
nowise restricted, as they readily penetrate the burlap which
soon decays.
In many instances cultivated ornamental trees are under a
greater handicap in securing the required plant foods than are
trees growing in the forest. This is due in part to the close
proximity of pavements in many instances and to the common
practice of removing all fallen leaves or other litter from about
the trees which would later have a fertilizing value. It should
also be borne in mind that in their native habitats trees are usually
growing under soil and climatic conditions to which they are best
adapted. Scores of exotic as well as many native trees are trans-
planted to situations very different from their natural environ-
ments and often on much less fertile soils. Under such conditions
that they may make the wanted vigorous growth, it is necessary
to supply as far as possible those soil constituents which may be
lacking in the new environment.
Both bulky and concentrated forms of fertilizers are used to
advantage, particularly during the early life of the tree. Those
derived from organic sources are favored because of the longer
time required for all of their nitrogen to become available but the
ones made up of inorganic forms are by no means unsuited.
Complete fertilizers, derived from both organic and inorganic
materials, containing 3 to 5 percent nitrogen, 6 to 8 percent phos-
phoric acid, and 4 to 6 percent potash, are perhaps the most widely
used. The number of applications varies from one to three or
more annually, the first being made in early spring and the others
at intervals until late fall. From one pound to as high as 50
pounds or more are applied per year, this depending of course on
the size of the tree and the nature of the soils on which planted.
As the tree increases in size the area over which the fertilizer is
distributed should increase accordingly, the belt extending well
beyond the spread of the branches. Only with very young trees
should fertilizers be placed close to the trunk, since the bulk of
the feeding roots are not there but spread throughout the soil to
distances usually greater than the width of the top.

Bulletin 261, Ornamental Trees

Trees growing on lawns may be heavily fertilized without seri-
ously disturbing the lawn by making holes with a crowbar or like
tool at some distance from the trunks and as far out as the spread
of the branches. The holes may be a foot or more in depth, about
2 inches in diameter, and spaced two to four feet apart. They are
filled with bone meal, tankage, dried blood, or other not-too-con-
centrated fertilizer and then closed with the heel or a small amount
of soil. Manures may be applied to large trees without injury to
the grass by removing sections of sod and taking out the soil
underneath to a depth of 10 to 12 inches; the hole is then filled
with old stable manure, firmly packed, and the sod replaced.
Some pruning, judicious in kind and amount, is required in
most trees that they may develop into the general shape wanted.
Nearly all species have a distinctive habit of growth and the
effort should be made to direct the growth to the end that a
natural symmetry will be effected and maintained. By pruning,
branching may in large measure be controlled as to height, the
symmetry of the head initiated, and the crowding of main
branches as well as the development of weak crotches eliminated.
It is possible in many trees to materially change the growth habits
by severe and continued pruning which ordinarily is not practiced
unless for some unusual and specific reason. With young trees,
there is nothing exceptionally difficult nor complicated in the
pruning process and a limited amount of pruning at that stage
will exert a strong influence on the trend of growth and ultimate
The heavy cutting back common at the time of transplanting
quite often results in the development of a bushy head that later
requires thinning out to allow only a limited number of heavy
main branches to develop. The disposition of the branches that
are left should be such that they are fairly equally distributed
about the trunk and leave it at varying heights rather than in
whorls. However, some trees, as Terminalia Catappa, have a
natural tendency to whorl branching and with them the growth
is distinctive and no effort should be made to change it.
With older trees it may occasionally be necessary to remove
one or more of the larger branches, and it is in such cases that
they more often are "butchered" than rationally pruned. If
thinning of the head is required the removal of branches should

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

be so distributed that the shapliness of the tree is undisturbed
and large limbs as well as smaller branches are removed close to
the trunk so that no protruding stubs are left. Splitting, which
often accompanies the removal of large branches, may be avoided
by first cutting the limb partially through from the under side,
or with very large ones, making two separate cuts. In the latter
instance the limb is first cut off two to four feet from the trunk
to remove most of the weight and the final cut is then made close
to the stem.
Protruding stubs which may be left more often than not die
back to the main trunk and serve as a mode of entrance for decay
organisms which may ultimately weaken the tree or be the cause
of its premature destruction. All pruning should be done with
sharp tools so that as smooth a surface as possible be left and
the cut surface then covered with a protective wound dressing.
Several kinds of wound dressings are available and lead paint
alone is quite satisfactory. The function of these materials is to
protect the exposed surface from decay until such time as it is
permanently covered over with natural callous tissue.
The time of pruning will vary with different species but, as a
general rule, the work should not be done when the trees are in
an active flush of growth. Deciduous trees may be pruned late
in their dormant season and evergreens at nearly any time except
when actively growing. Callous tissue develops slowly on some
dormant deciduous species and for that reason pruning is deferred
with them until just prior to their resumption of active growth.
Ornamental trees are not pruned as severely as shrubs, so that
ordinarily any pruning done will have little effect on the blossom-
ing of the so-called flowering sorts.

In the following list will be found a majority of those trees,
other than palms and most of those bearing edible fruit, planted
in Florida as ornamentals. Palms and miscellaneous fruit trees,
many of the latter also being highly adaptable to ornamental use,
are discussed in previous bulletinst of this station. A short de-
scription of most species is given, with photographs of many, that
will be of some aid in identification and the choice of varieties
suitable for the different parts of the state. Technical botanical
1 Miscellaneous Tropical and Subtropical Florida Fruits. Bul. 223. 1931.
Native and Exotic Palms of Florida. Bul. 228. 1931.

Bulletin 261, Ornamental Trees

descriptions are not included as they are available from many
sources. Owing to the size of the area covered and the few trees
of some species planted, there is no doubt that many intro-
duced species have been unintentionally omitted. In the southern
area in particular, there are a great number of recently introduced
exotics that show great promise but have not yet reached suffi-
cient age and size to demonstrate their worth and adaptability
and no effort has been made to include them. It is quite possible
that some of the exotic species now growing only in limited num-
bers may later show faults or other signs of lack of adaptability
that are not now apparent in the young trees.
Because of the multiplicity of common names and their variable
use, the arrangement is alphabetical according to the botanical
name. Throughout, for each, the genus and species is given first,
followed in order by the family to which it belongs, the common
name, the sections to which apparently best adapted, and lastly,
its native habitat. In some instances, the botanical synonym is
included, it being placed in parentheses directly after the scientific
name. The common names are indexed.
Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. Leguminosae. Southern area.
Australia. This species, but recently introduced, shows promise
as an ornamental and windbreak tree in the southern areas. It
is of medium size, symmetrical and thick-foliaged, the leaves
(phyllodia) nearly falcate in shape, 3 to 6 inches long and 11/2 to
2 inches broad. The branchlets have 2 or 3 acute or almost
winged angles. Its pods, 2 to 4 inches long, are usually curved
when mature. The tree apparently has few pests and has been
planted considerably in the southeastern area.
Acacia longifolia Willd. Sydney Golden Wattle. Southern and
Central area. Australia. An erect shrub that in some specimens
attains the size of a small tree. Its leaves (phyllodia) are oblong-
lanceolate or linear and 5 or 6 inches in length. It is seemingly
well adapted to dry and exposed locations.
Acacia macrantha, a small tree from Mexico, is found occasion-
ally in the peninsular section. It is low and spreading with very
fine, bipinnate foliage of a somewhat bluish or steely color.
Acer rubrum L. Aceraceae. Red, Scarlet, or Swamp Maple.
Southern, Central, and Northern areas. Native. Found as a native
almost to the extreme southern part- of Florida, the red maple
is utilized to some extent for ornamental l'hnting but mainly in

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

the more northern areas. It is not fast growing and usually does
not attain a large size. The tree is upright in growth habit, forms
a rather narrow head and will grow well in the partial shade of
other trees. Its deciduous foliage is typically 3- or occasionally
5-lobed and turns to bright scarlet and yellow in late fall.
Acer saccharinum L. Aceraceae. Silver or Soft Maple. North-
ern area. Native. The silver maple, found in the Apalachicola
valley, is a large deciduous tree with a heavy, branched head and
5-lobed leaves to 5 inches across that are pale green above and
silvery white beneath. In combination with other trees, it is quite
striking when wind exposes the white undersurface of the foliage.
The chief handicap to its use in exposed locations is the brittle-
ness of the branches which break easily in ordinary windstorms.
Acer floridanum Chapm., the Florida or Southern sugar maple,
is found as a native in the richer soils of the central and western
parts of Florida. It is of decided ornamental worth and is planted
to some extent in the northern sections.
Adansonia digitata L. Bombacaceae. Baobab. Southern area.
Central Africa. Though grown but sparingly in Florida, the
baobab tree is of
interest because
of the immense
diameter of the
trunk in old speci-
mens. Some of
the trees in their
native habitat are
said to be among
the oldest living
plants and to have
attained a trunk
diameter of nearly
30 feet. The digi-
tately compound
leaves are usually
with 5 leaflets, but
some have only
three. For a time
,in late spring or
Early summer, the
Fig. 3.-Baobab tree, Adansonia digitata. tree is without

Bulletin 261, Ornamental Trees

foliage. The flow-
ering season is in
mid-summer, the
individual blos-
soms pendant on d
heavy peduncles,
white, 5 to 6
inches across and
lasting but a very
short time. The
white fruits have
a hard shell and
contain a mealy or
spongy, acid pulp
that is said to be
edible. (Figs. 3
and 4.)
pavonina L. Legu-
minosae. Red
Sandalwood. Bead
Tree. Circassian
Bean. Southern
area. Africa and Fig. 4.-Leaf and flower buds of the Baobab tree.
Southern Asia. A
moderate-sized, evergreen, quick-growing, upright tree with small,
feathery, pinnate foliage. The pods are 6 to 8 inches long, curling
up as they mature and exposing the hard, brilliant-red seeds which
are sometimes used as beads. The general shape is quite sym-
metrical and the tree is of decided worth as an ornamental. Its flow-
ers are yellowish in color and borne in spike-like racemes but are not
sufficiently striking to place among the flowering trees. (Fig. 5.)
Agyneja impubes L. Euphorbiaceae. Southern, Central, and
Northern areas. China. This species, introduced but recently, is
a small, deciduous tree exceptionally upright in growth habit. It
reaches a mature height of some 25 feet and seems well adapted
to sandy soils. Annual branchlets are produced and may easily
be mistaken for pinnate leaves. The leaves and the very small
flowers and fruits are all borne on these deciduous branches. It
is bare of foliage from about mid-December until March but be-
cause of the autumnal coloring of the leaves and its upright

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Fig. 5.-Red sandalwood, Adenanthera pavonina.

growth the tree is well-fitted for many situations. (Fig. 6.)
Ailanthus glandulosus L. (A. Altissima Sw.) Simaroubaceae.
Tree-of-Heaven. Northern area. China. In adapted situations,
this deciduous tree is large, spreading, and of fairly rapid growth.
It is sparingly planted but in a few instances is said to have be-
come naturalized. Its unevenly-pinnate leaves are very large,
occasionally nearly 2 feet in length, with numerous oblong lanceo-
late leaflets 4 to 5 inches long. The leaflets have entire margins
except for the base which has 1 to 4 pairs of coarse teeth that are
glandular on the lower surface. Both the odor of the crushed
foliage and of the male flowers is objectionable to most persons.
The tree is planted to some extent in cities of other states because
of its resistance to smoke.
Albizzia Lebbek Benth. Leguminosae. Lebbek. Woman's
Tongue Tree. Southern and Central areas. Tropical Asia and
Africa. A large broad-topped tree with spreading limbs that is

Bulletin 261, Ornamental Trees

very fast growing and
adapted to a wide range
of soils. In some areas
it is becoming locally
naturalized. Its chief use
has been as a dooryard
shade tree but it probably
has advantages for wind-
break use. In late spring,
for a few weeks, the tree as-
sumes a dead appearance
when defoliating. The
leaves are about 10 inches
long, with 4 to 8 pinnae,
each divided into 6 to 18
leaflets 1 to 11/2 inches long.
The pods, quite conspicuous
when the foliage is shed-
ding, are straw-colored,
leathery, flat, thin, and
shiny, 5 to 8 inches long.
The greenish-yellow flow-
ers, borne in globular heads,
are not so attractive as
Lhose of A. Julibrissin. (Fig.
Albizzia Julibrissin
Durazz. Silk-tree. Mimosa.
Southern, Central and
Northern areas. Asia. A
smaller tree than Lebbek
with more fern-like foliage, Fig. 6.-Foliage and blossoms of
with more fern-like foliage, Agyneja impubes.
the leaves being longer and
more finely divided. They may also be distinguished by the small
gland at the base of the rachis in this species. The numerous
globular flower heads are pink with noticeably long stamens and
place the tree in the "flowering" class. In the northern sections
of the state the species is quite common, both as a dooryard tree
and in the wild. (Fig. 8.)
Albizzia odoratissima Benth., a tree in general appearance much
resembling Lebbek, has been introduced into the southern area.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Fig. 7.-Woman's tongue tree, Albizzia Lebbek.
Aleurites. Euphorbiaceae. The five species of Aleurites are
grown in Florida. They are:
A. fordi Hemsl. Tung-oil tree. Native of China.
A. montana (Lour.) Wils. Mu-oil tree. Native of China.
(Fig. 9.)
A. moluccana Willd. Candlenut. Native of Malaya but now
wide spread in the tropics.
A. cordata R. Br. Japan wood-oil tree. Native of Japan and
A. trisperma Blanco. Banucalag. Native of the Philippines.
The species are hardy in approximately the order named, fordi
being the only one grown in the northern area. Montana has
reached a mature size in Alachua County but small plants are
injured by ordinary winter temperatures. Both fordi and mon-
tana produce seeds that are a source of the widely used tung oil

Bulletin 261, Ornamental Trees

or wood oil of the paint and varnish industries, the former being
grown in a commercial way in Florida.
All the species are of value as ornamental trees. They produce
large flowers in profusion and their foliage is large and abundant.
Other than moluccana, they are deciduous. Fordi's blossoms usu-
ally precede the leaves in the spring, while those of the other
species appear later. Montana and moluccana often have two
seasons of blossoming in one year, the second occurring in late
summer. Most of the trees attain a height of about 30 feet and
are spreading in habit with the exception of montana which is
more upright in growth. On suitable soils, all are of rapid


Fig. 8.-Leaf and flowers of Albizzia Julibrissin.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Fig. 9.-Aleurites montana, the mu-oil tree.

Bauhinia spp. L. Leguminosae. Mountain Ebony. Orchid
Tree. Southern and Central areas. India, Burma. The genus
includes several species of small trees the flowers of which are
orchid-like in appearance, quite large, and borne freely during
the winter and spring months. Of those species in Florida, the
leaves are leathery, broad, and two-lobed. B. purpurea L. bears
reddish or purplish flowers that are 3 to 4 inches across; its vari-

Bulletin 261, Ornamental Trees

ety alba has white flowers. A variety termed Simpson's Pink is
early blooming, the flower pink and somewhat smaller than those
of other varieties. According to late classification it is possible that
many trees that are supposedly purpurea should be placed under
the species variegata. All are partially without foliage during a
part of the late winter. (Fig. 10.)
Bischofia javanica Blume. (B. trifoliata Hook.). Euphor-
biaceae. Southern and
A ,Central areas. Asia. A
tall, fast-growing tree
with quite distinctive,
foliage. The leaves are
alternate and trifoliate
with variable crenate-
serrate leaflets that are
3 to 5 inches long. The
flowers are small and

Fig. 10.- Left: Moun-
tain ebony; below: Foliage
and flowers of Bauhinia

Florida Agricultural E.rperimlent Statioa

inconspicuous; the fruits black and fleshy, about ,4-inch in dia-
meter. Rarely seen in Florida but has made a vigorous growth
on the high lands of the central section.
Bi.a-u Orellana L. Bixaceae. Anatto. Southern and Central
areas. Tropical America. A'small tree, seldom reaching a height
of 25 feet, that is best known as the source of a dye, the anatto
of commerce. The large leaves are deciduous, broadly ovate, and
long-petioled. Its rose-colored blossoms are borne in terminal
panicles and are quite attractive. The fruits are globose spiny
capsules, bearing a resemblance to the chestnut bur, and contain
an orange-red pulp about the seeds. From this pulp is obtained
the yellow or orange dye that is extensively used in coloring
butter, cheese, soups, rice, and other. foods. In Florida the tree
is grown solely as an ornamental.
Bombii.r wiob.iriuca ,, DC. (B. Ceiba Burme). Bombacaceae.
Red Cotton-Tree. Southern area and warmer pa ts of Central area.
India. The red cotton-tree is a large, heavily buttressed tree,
often confused with Ceiba, the general appearance being much
the same. The digitate leaves are 5- or 7-parted, usually 5, and
the blossoms are red. For a short time in late winter the tree is
leafless and it is during this time that it blooms.
Broussonetia papyrifera Vent. (Popyrirs papyrifera (L)
Kuntze). Moraceae. Paper Mulberry. Central and Northern
areas. China. The paper mulberry, found growing as an escape
in the northern half of the state, is planted as a shade tree in
that area. The tree is deciduous, to about 40 feet in height, and
on well-grown specimens has a broad, round-headed crown. The
leaves are ovate. 3 to 8 inches long, coarsely toothed, often deeply
3- or 5-lobed. rough and dull-green on the upper surface. Its
small globular, oringe-red fruits ripening in early summer are
attractive to birds but. have an inspid flavor.
In China the bark is used for paper making but the tree is of
no economic importance in America.
Bucida Buceras L. Combretaceae. Black Olive. Bucida.
Jucaro. Southern area. Native. Recently the black olive has
gained much favor because of its high degree of resistance to
wind damage and its potential value for street and windbreak
use. In nature it may have a single straight trunk or several
heavy stems and it reaches a mature height of about 40 feet.
Heavy and spreading branches form a broad head. The leathery
leaves, crowded at the ends of short hranchlets, are variable in

Bulletin 261, Ornamental Trees

shape and size, ranging from spatulate to obovate or oblong-
lanceolate and from 2 to .3 inches in length. Most of the branch-
lets terminate in a short spine. Neither flowers nor fruits are of
particular ornamental value.
Calodendrum capensis Thunb. Rutaceae. Cape Chestnut.
Southern area and warmer parts of Central area. Africa. A
large, evergreen tree, seemingly well adapted but rarely planted
in Florida. The ovate leaves are a deep green, parallel-nerved,
and to 5 inches long. Its large lavender colored flowers are borne
in profusion in large panicles in early spring.
Calophyllum inophyllum L. Clusiaceae. Alexandrian Laurel.
Southern area. Tropics. Widely distributed through the tropics,
this species is growing as an exotic in Key West. Its native
habitat is near the coast and it probably could be included to
advantage among the few ornamental trees adapted to such
The tree is of medium size with large oval leaves. The leaves are
shining and leath-
ery, 3 to 4 inches
wide, and abouL
twice as long. The
leaf venation is
characterized by
numerous fine
parallel veinsthat
are at right angles
to the heavy mid-
rib. The new
growth of foliage
is reddish in color
for a time like that
of the camphor
and mango. The
flowers, borne in
racemes, are
small, white, and
fragrant; the
fruits are round,
nearly an inch in
diameter, and yel-
low in color. Fig. 11.-Ylang-Ylang, Canagium odoratum.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Canangium odoratum Lam. (Cananga odorata Hook. & Thorn.).
Annonaceae. Ylang-Ylang. Southern area. Philippines and
Java. The ylang-ylang, whose flowers are the source of the per-
fume of that name, is a large tree of fast growth occasionally seen
in the southern area. The leaves are simple, deep, ovate-oblong,
and to 8 inches in length. The flowers, appearing in early fall, are
about 2 inches long, greenish-yellow, borne in profusion and
strongly scented. Its fruits are in clusters, greenish, ovoid, and
about an inch in length. (Fig. 11.)
Cassia spp. Leguminosae. Senna. Southern area and warmer
parts of Central area. Of the many species of Cassia, only a limit-
ed few are grown in Florida, among them fistula, nodosa, grandis,
siamea, and Beariana. All are small trees with pinnate leaves
and are prized
because of their
flowers which are
so freely produced
Sb L in large masses.
Most are quite
tropical in re-
i... quirement and
4 .W should be planted
only in protected
C. fistula, the
-, pudding pipe or
golden shower,
has large leaves
and in spring
bears long, loose
racemes of yellow
flowers in profu-
S. sion. (Fig. 12.)
n The flowers of
Ssiamea are pale
yellow and in evi-
dence most of the
S.. C. nodosa, pink
.. .. cassia, is also free-
Fig. 12.-Golden shower, Cassia fistula, in flower. flowering, its

Bulletin 261, Ornamental Trees

blossoms rose-scented, and pink in color. The flowers of grandis
are a paler pink, and those of Beariana an attractive yellow.
Castanospermum australe Cunn. Leguminosae. Moreton Bay
Chestnut. Southern area and warmer parts of Central area.
Australia. A tall, evergreen, glabrous tree with large pinnate
leaves and producing large yellow flowers in loose racemes. The
leaves are to 18 inches long with 11 to 15 broadly oblong thick
leaflets. Large pods, 7 or 8 inches long and 2 inches broad, con-
tain the large chestnut-like seeds which are said to be edible if
roasted. The flowering period is in spring and the size and num-

Iw \ C

Fig. 13.-Leaf and flowers of the Moreton Bay chestnut,
Castanospermum australe.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

ber of the blossoms truly places the tree among the "flowering"
sorts. (Fig. 13.)
Casuarina spp. Casuarinaceae. Australian Pine. Beefwood.
She-Oak. Southern and Central areas. Australia and Tropical
Asia. The Casuarinas are adapted to perhaps the widest range of
ornamental uses of any tree in Florida and about the only factor
limiting their growth is low temperature. They are utilized ex-
tensively for closely clipped hedges, for trimmed and untrimmed
specimens, for windbreaks, and for street and highway planting.
They thrive on both acid and alkaline soils, making a vigorous
growth on dune sands, calcareous rocky soils, the muck of the
Everglades and the many other soil types of the lower peninsula.
One species in particular, equisetifolia, withstands brackish soils
and salt spray with no apparent injury and is planted exten-
sively on the seacoast. In many places the tree is becoming
naturalized through self-seeding and is able to compete success-
fully with the native vegetation. (Fig. 14.)

Fig. 14.-Seashore planting of Australian pine, Casuarina equiseti-
folia. The hedge, formally pruned trees, and trees in the background
all are of this species.
There are numerous species but the ones most widely planted
in the state are equisetifolia, Cunninghamiana, and lepidophloia,
with glauca, strict, and others grown in lesser numbers. All
are tall trees and of exceptionally rapid growth. Cunningham-

Bulletin 261, Ornamental Trees

iana is considered to be the most resistant to injury by low tem-
The trees of this genus differ materially from others in that
they are leafless except for very minute scales at the nodes of the
branchlets. In appearance the trees resemble the pines to some
extent, the numerous wiry, pendulous branchlets commonly be-
ing assumed to be needle-like leaves. The flowers are unisexual
and the fruit is a cone containing numerous transparently winged
seeds. In different species the length and diameter of the branch-
lets differs materially as does the growth habit of the trees. In
equisetifolia the branches are at nearly right angles to the trunk
for the most part and are not closely spaced on the stem, which
gives a quite open top in larger specimens. Lepidophloia has
branches which are more upright and a much thicker "foliage"
which probably makes it more desirable for many ornamental
uses as well as windbreak purposes. This latter species has not
been known to seed in Florida and is propagated by root suckers
which sprout freely under the trees, particularly on rocky soils.
In some localized areas quite serious losses have been experi-
enced in Australian pine plantings due to a disease affecting the
roots of the trees. Dr. A. S. Rhoads has isolated the causal
organism of this disease which is commonly termed Mushroom
root rot. A description of the disease with suggestions for con-
trol are contained in Florida Station Bulletin 229, Diseases of
Citrus in Florida.
Catalpa bignonioides Walt. Bignoniaceae. -(C. Catalpa Karst.).
Catalpa. Indian Bean. Central and Northern areas. Native. The
catalpa is a round-headed, spreading tree that may attain a
height of 40 to 50 feet if given adequate room for development.
It is not considered as one of the most desirable of ornamental
trees, being deciduous and with many specimens, unsymmetrical.
The leaves are ovate, occasionally lobed, to 8 inches in length and
have an unpleasant odor. The flowers are white with two stripes
of yellow within, and purplish-brown splotches in the throat and
on the lower lobes. They are borne in large, compact panicles, the
flowering season being in early summer.
Catesbaea spinosa L. Rubiaceae. Southern area. West Indies.
An evergreen, spiny, shrublike tree reaching a height of about
15 feet. The numerous wiry branchlets are armed with sharp
spines about an inch in length which slightly exceeds that of the
small, ovate leaves. It is a profuse bloomer, the creamy 'white

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

flowers, with slender funnel-shaped corollas several inches long,
being in evidence for several weeks during the late summer. The
small, ovoid, yellowish fruits are produced in great numbers and
are considered by some to be edible. (Fig. 15.)

Fig. 15.-Catesbaea spinosa.

Ceiba pentandra Gaert. (Eriodendron anfractuosum DC. C.
Casearia Medic.). Bombacaceae. Kapok. Silk-Cotton Tree.
Southern and warmer parts of Central areas. Tropics. The
kapok, huge, massively buttressed, and with its branches in
whorls extending horizontally at nearly right angles to the stem,
is one of the most distinctive trees growing in southern Florida.
In youth, the trunk is spiny. The deciduous leaves are digitately
compound, with 5-9 leaflets, usually 7, four to six inches long.
Flowering in summer, the great numbers of mallow-like,

Fig. 16.-Kapok tree, Ceiba pen-
tandra, below. Kapok leaf, right.

Buttressed base of a kapok tree
is shown below.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

greenish-white or pinkish blossoms are very attractive. Some two
months after flowering, the leathery, capsular, cucumber-shaped
fruits ripen, these containing about the seeds a silky, lustrous
floss, the kapok of commerce. This floss is soft, brittle and quite
inflammable and is used extensively as a stuffing for cushions on
ships because of its buoyancy.
This species and Bombax, the red-cotton tree, are sometimes
confused. The flowers of the latter are red or crimson, the leaves
with 5 or 7 leaflets, usually 5, and the trunk and branches spiny.
Both are highly ornamental because of their unusual size and
appearance as well as for their attractiveness during the flower-
ing period. (Fig. 16.)

Celtis laevigata Willd. (C.

Fig. 17.-Foliage and fruit of th4
Celtis laevigata.

mississipiensis Spach.) Ulmaceae.
Hackberry. Sugar-
berry. Southern,
Central, and North-
ern areas. Native.
The hackberry is a
spreading, broad-
headed, deciduous
tree reaching 75 feet
or more under suit-
able soil conditions.
The leaves are small,
2 to 5 inches, ovate to
oblique at the base,
thin, and light green
in color. The fruits
are small, sweet, glo-
bose drupes borne
on rather long ped-
icels. The tree is
planted but sparing-
ly as an ornamental
but in value for such
purposes ranks high
among the available
native deciduous
e hackberry, sorts. (Fig. 17.)

Bulletin 261, Ornamental Trees

Ceratonia siliqua L.
Leguminosae. Carob. St.
Johns-Bread. Algaroba.
Southern and Central
areas and warmer parts
of Northern area. E.
Mediterranean region.
Rarely seen in Florida,
but apparently adapted
to well-drained soils, the
Carob is of peculiar inter-
est because of its edible
pods and its part in Bib-
lical reference. The tree
is of slow growth and
medium size with ever-
green, leathery, pinnate
leaves. Usually monoe-
cious, it is necessary that
both pistillate and stam- Fig. 18.-Leaf of the carob tree,
inate flowering trees be Ceratonia siliqua.
planted that fruit may be.produced. (Fig. 18.)
Cercis canadensis L. Leguminosae. Redbud. Judas Tree.
Central and Northern areas. Native. Among the first of the
native trees to burst into Spring bloom, the redbud is among the
favorite native flowering trees. The clusters of small, rosy pink
flowers are produced in profusion on both old and new wood be-
fore the leaves appear and with a suitable background of green,
as is furnished by the native hammock growth, the effect is strik-
ingly beautiful. The leaves are broadly ovate, wider than long,
and palmately veined. The tree is usually of small size. A white
flowered variety, alba, is also available.
Cercis chinensis Bunge, a Chinese species, has been introduced
and reported as making a satisfactory growth in the central pen-
insular section.
Chilopsis linearis Don. Bignoniaceae. Desert Willow. North-
ern area. Southwestern United States. Although a native of
arid regions, the desert willow thrives in northern Florida and
is not uncommon as an ornamental plant in that area. The plant
is a small, shrubby, deciduous tree with willow-like foliage, from

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

which it derives its common name, and is valued for its flowers
and extended flowering season. Appearing first in early sum-
mer, the trumpet-shaped flowers, which are white to pale purple
with yellow splotches in the throat, continue to give a succession
of bloom for several months.
Chionanthus virginica L. Oleaceae. Fringe tree. Old Man's
Beard. Central and Northern areas. Native. Quite often classed
as a shrub, the fringe tree in Florida reaches a height of 25 to
30 feet. It is not widely planted, perhaps because of its slow
growth and deciduous character. The greenish-white flowers are

Fig. 19.-Fringe tree or old man's beard, Chionanthus virginica,
in blossom.

Bulletin 261, Ornamental Trees

borne in loose panicles 5 to 8 inches long in early spring at about
the same time the leaves appear. The oblate to oblong leaves are
deep green, leathery, and from 4 to 8 inches long. Loose clusters
of oblong, blue or purple fruits, about an inch long, ripen in early
fall. (Fig. 19.)
Chorisia speciosa
St. Hil. Bombaca-
ceae. Floss Silk Tree.
Southern area. Bra-
zil. In foliage and
appearance this
species does not dif-
fer greatly from
Ceiba or Bomnbax but
is a smaller tree in
maturity and is
heavily armed on
trunk and branch
with heavy, sharp
spines that'much re-
semble those of the
prickly ash. The
leaves are digitate
with usually five
serrate-edged leaf -
lets. The flowers are
pink and appear in Fig. 20.--Leaf of Chorisia speciosa.
early winter when the tree is defoliated. (Fig. 20.)
Cinnamomum camnphora L. (Cam phora officinarum Nees.).
Lauraceae. Camphor Tree. Southern, Central and Northern
areas. China and Japan. The camphor tree is common in the
northern parts of the state, where it seems best adapted, but is
by no means restricted to that area. On adapted soil types, it is
a large, spreading, round-headed tree, reaching a height of 50
feet or more. At best, however, it is slow-growing. Being an
evergreen, the foliage is attractive throughout the greater part
of the year except early spring. The flowers are inconspicuous;
the fruits black, pea-sized drupes, produced in great numbers and
persistent for several weeks after coloring. The tree may be
adapted to parkway planting but pruning is required to overcome
the low-branching growth habit.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

This species is the natural source of camphor, which is distilled
from the wood and leaves. The leaves when crushed give off the
distinct camphor odor. The discovery of a method for the manu-
facture of a synthetic substitute for this material has reduced the
demand for the natural camphor which is produced mainly in
Formosa and is used chiefly for medicinal purposes. (Fig. 21.)

Fig. 21.-Camphor tree, Cinnamomum camphora.
Cinnamomum cassia Blume. Lauraceae. Cassia-Bark Tree.
Southern and Central areas. China. Smaller than the camphor,
the cassia-bark tree is best adapted to the peninsular areas. The
foliage is similar to that of the camphor but is distinctly 3-nerved
from the base. The tree is pleasantly aromatic, the bark being
used as a cinnamon-bark substitute, and the fruits as the "cassia
buds" of commerce. Its use in Florida is restricted to ornamental
planting but it might be used to advantage as a windbreak tree.
(Fig. 22.)

Bulletin 261, Ornamental Trees

Fig. 22.-Cassia-bark tree, Cinnamomum cassia.

Citrus spp. Rutaceae. Most of the many citrus species and vari-
eties, when properly cared for, have a distinct ornamental value.
In the central and southern sections the majority of the species
may be grown in nearly all locations but in the northern areas
the number is restricted to hardy types like the Satsuma orange,
calamondin, and some of the trifoliata hybrids. Those available
include the orange, both sweet and sour, grapefruit, shaddock,
tangerine, lemon, lime, citron, kumquat, and hybrids, most of
them in wide variety. In addition to the Citrus species there are
several trees closely botanically allied that have recently been
introduced, as Balsamocitrus Dazuei, Aeglopsis Chevalieri,
Citropsis Schweinfurthi, Atalantia citrioides, Choetospermum
glutinosa, Feroniella oblata, and others, which have worth for
ornamental planting.
Chrysophyllum oliviforme Lam. Sapotaceae. Satinleaf. South-
ern area and warmer parts of Central area. Native. The glisten-

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

ing, coppery undersurface of the leaves of this tree gives it an
appearance that always arrests attention and makes it a desir-
able species for inclusion as an unusual subject. It is a small tree
with a compact but not broad head. The leaves are oval or elliptic,
2 to 31/2 inches long, leathery, deep green on the upper surface,
and lustrous brown beneath. Oval fruits, deep purple in color
and about 84/ inch long, are on the trees for an extended period
due to the irregular flowering habit.

Fig. 23.-The monkey-apple tree, Clusia rose, and (insets) its fruits.

Clusia rosea L. Clusiaceae. Monkey-Apple. Fat Pork Tree.
Southern area. West Indies. A glabrous, spreading tree with
large, thick leaves, cuneate-obovate in shape, that are from 5 to 9
inches long and nearly as broad. They may start as epiphytes on
other trees, as is common with the native Ficus species, and on
some specimens numerous aerial roots hang from the branches.
The flowers have fleshy petals and the fruit is a globular capsule
2 to 3 inches in diameter which on dehiscing exposes the brownish,
arillate seeds. (Fig. 23.)
Coccolobis uvifera Jacq. Polygonaceae. Seagrape. Southern
area and warmer parts of Central area. Native. A stout

Bulletin 261, Ornamental Trees

branched, broadly spreading and usually small tree that naturally
grows in coastal locations and is utilized to considerable extent
in beach plantings. The thick, leathery leaves are broadly ovate
to nearly circular in outline, lighter green on the under side,
4 to 5 inches long, and usually of greater width than length.
Greenish, ovoid fruits, about three-quarters of an inch long and
borne in drooping clusters, are produced in abundance. (Fig. 24.)

Fig. 24.-The seagrape, Coccolobis uvifera.

Colvillea racemosa Bojer. Leguminosae. Southern area and
warmer parts of Central area. Madagascar. A tree as yet rare
in Florida but promising to rival some of the better known and
best of the flowering species. Its leaves are quite large, bi-pin-
nate, and somewhat fern-like in appearance; there are some 20
or more pairs of primary leaflets that are each further divided
into as many as 28 pairs of secondary ones. The flowers are
borne in great numbers in long, loose racemes, the color bright
scarlet with showy yellow stamens. Those growers who have
flowering trees of the species are very enthusiastic over the rich-
ness of the bloom and its value as a flowering tree. In its native
habitat, it attains a height of 50 feet.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Fig. 25.-Foliage, flowers and fruit of the Geiger tree,
Cordia Sebestena.

Cordia Sebestena L.
naceae. Geiger Tree.

(Sebesten Sebestena Adans.). Boragi-
Southern area. Native of Keys. The

Fig. 26.-"Flowers" of the flowering dogwood.

Bulletin 261, Ornamental Trees

geiger tree is a small, slender-trunked, round-topped tree with
stout branches and large, deep green leaves. It is not widely
planted but is of ornamental value for the large, orange colored
flowers that are borne in large clusters and in evidence most of
the year. Its susceptibility to cold injury restricts its use to only
the warmest areas. (Fig. 25.)
Cornus florida L. Cornaceae. Flowering Dogwood. Central
and Northern areas. Native. Throughout the hammocks of the
northern sections, the flowering dogwood when in blossom in
early spring is a tree of rare beauty. The true flower is in itself
inconspicuous but is subtended by four involucral bracts or scales
that turn white and appear like petals to form a corolla-like cup
3 to 4 inches
across. The tree is
deciduous, rarely
over 30 feet high,
usually much less,
and its branches
are more or less in
whorls and extend
at right angles
from the trunk.
Small scarlet
fruits in tight
clusters and the
color change of
the foliage add to
its ornamental
value during the
fall months. (Fig.
Couroupita gui-
anensis Aubl.
Cannonball Tree.
Southern area.
Guiana. This
large, erect tree,
rare in Florida, is
of interest be-
cause of its un- Fig. 27.--The cannonball tree,
cause Cof its un- ouroupita guianensis.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

usual flowers and fruits as well as for its close relationship with
the tree producing the Brazil-nut of commerce. The flowers are
borne on heavy, woody racemes several feet in length that are
attached to the trunk or larger branches. They are large, of an
unusual semi-folded shape, fleshy, reddish-yellow on the outside
and crimson within. Huge, brown, hard, globular fruits, 7 or 8
inches in diameter and filled with a malodorous pulp, are produced
in large numbers. (Figs 2 and 27.)
Crescentia Cujete L. Bignoniaceae. Calabash Tree. Southern
area. Tropical America. The tree is small to medium-sized with
a low crown and wide-spreading horizontal to drooping branches.
The leaves are persistent, fascicled, oblanceolate to spatulate, dark
glossy green, and 5 to 6 inches in length. Its flowers develop from
buds on the older wood of the trunk and branches; they are us-
ually solitary, pendulous, dark brownish purple in color and from
2 to 3 inches in length. The heavy, hard, indehiscent, gourd-like
fruits are quite variable in size and shape, ranging from ovoid to
sub-globose and from 3 to 12 inches in diameter. The shell is
smooth and thin but exceptionally hard and is filled with pulp that
contains the numerous thin seeds. In the areas where the tree is
native, the shells of the fruits are utilized as cups or other vessels
and for ornament, the shell taking a high polish.
Crescentia alata H. B. K. much resembles the above but has


Fig. 28.-Blossoms and leaves of the calabash tree, Crescentia alata.

Bulletin 261, Ornamental Trees

smaller fruits and some trifoliate leaves. The leaves are usually
borne in threes with the central one 3-foliate and having a broadly-
winged petiole while the others are simple. (Figs. 28 and 29.)
Cudrania tricuspidata Bureau. Moraceae. Central and North-
ern areas. China and Japan. A small tree to 20 or 25 feet with
pale gray bark and slender, thorny branches. The deciduous
leaves are quite variable in shape with those lower on the branches
shallowly 3-lobed. The fruits are red, globose, about an inch in
diameter and said to be edible. In Florida the tree is rarely seen.
(Fig. 30.)

Fig. 29.-Fruit of the calabash tree.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Dalbergia Sissoo Roxbg.
Leguminosae. Southern and
Central sections. India. This
species of Dalbergia has
shown itself to be well
adapted in Lake, Pinellas
and Lee counties; in the last
named it has escaped and is
growing wild in a limited
area. The general appear-
ance of the tree and foliage
is somewhat like the poplar,
although close inspection
shows the leaves to be alter-
nately pinnate with 4 or 5
obovate, abruptly acumi-
nate leaflets. The flowers are
white, borne in cymes or
panicles, but are too small
to be of much ornamental
value. The tree is upright
in growth habit and is said
to reach over 75 feet in ma-
turity in its native habitat
and to withstand both sev-
ere droughts and flooding
for considerable periods
without damage. (Fig. 31.)
Dillenia indica L. Dillen-
aceae. Southern area. South-
eastern Asia. Although of
Fig. 30.--Foliage of Cudrania real value as an ornamental,
tricuspidata. this species is seldom seen.
The tree is symmetrical and of medium height with shiny, oblong,
serrate leaves that are 8 to 12 inches in length. The flowers are
pure white, 6 to 8 inches across, and the fruits round and green,
about 4 inches in diameter. The latter are very juicy and consid-
ered edible although quite acid. Their use is confined to the mak-
ing of jellies and ades. (Fig. 32.)
Dombeya Wallichi B. & H. Sterculiaceae. Southern and Cen-
tral areas. Madagascar. Generally known as a shrub, the Dom-

Bulletin 261, Ornamental Trees

Fig. 31.-Dalbergia Sissoo.
beya attains a tree size of 25 to 30 feet. It is particularly valu-
able because of its large foliage and mid-winter season of blossom-
ing. The flowers are pink, about 2 inches across and freely
borne in quite large, very compact, pendant umbels. The leaves
are usually 3-lobed, palmately nerved, cordate, and 9 to 12 inches
long and of about the same breadth, with a petiole as long as the
blade. Growth is very rapid.
Ehretia acuminata R. Br. Boraginaceae. Heliotrope Tree.
Central and Northern areas. China. The heliotrope tree, deriv-
ing its name from the odor of the flowers, is rare but has shown
its adaptability to the north-central parts of the state. Trees
perhaps 15 years old have attained a height of about 30 feet, are
quite symmetrically topped and heavily foliaged. The leaves are
deciduous, oblong or elliptic, acuminate, coarsely serrate, and
from 4 to 6 inches long. Its small, white flowers are not particu-
larly attractive but are followed in early summer by the numerous

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

large, loose clusters of small, orange-colored fruits that hang for
several weeks. (Fig. 33.)
Elaeocarpus dentata Sm. Elaeocarpaceae. Hinau Tree.
Southern area and warmer parts of Central area. New Zealarid.
Very rare in Florida but considered as one of the most beautiful
flowering trees of New Zealand. It is a fairly large, somewhat
unsymmetrically headed tree in maturity, with oblong-ovate
leathery leaves about 4 inches in length. When in blossom the
tree is a mass of creamy-white, saucer-shaped flowers, each about
half an inch across, the racemes resembling a spray of lily-of-the-
valley. The fruits resemble an olive in appearance and the wood
is said to be strongly fire resistant. (Fig. 34.)
Enallagma cucurbitina (L.) Baill. Bignoniaceae. Black Cala-
bash. Southern area. Native. The black calabash is a small
tree bearing large, lustrous, leathery leaves, which unlike those
of the calabash tree, Crescentia, are solitary and alternate. The
flowers are 11/ to 2 inches in length and of a greenish color. The
fruits, nearly globose, gourd-like, and seldom exceeding 4 inches
in diameter, are filled with a pulp that contains numerous thick
seeds. (Fig. 35.)

Fig. 32.-Flower and foliage of Dillenia indica.

Bulletin 261, Ornamental Trees

Enterolobium cyclocarpum Griseb. Leguminosae. Ear-Tree.
Southern area West Indies and Tropical America. A huge, wide-
spreading tree, with graceful, fern-like foliage, that is quite tend-
er and seldom seen in Florida. The leaves are bi-pinnate with
numerous small pinnae. Small, whitish-green flowers form glo-
bose heads. The broad, flat, leathery pods are bent or twisted in
such a way as to resemble the human ear, this giving the tree its
common name as above. (Fig. 36.)
Erythrina Poeppigiana Cook. (E. umbrosa Kth?). Legumi-
nosae. Coral tree. Bucare. Southern and Central areas. South
America. The coral tree reaches a height of 30 to 40 feet, usually
has a crooked trunk and is armed with short, sharp prickles. The
leaves are pinnately 3-foliate, the leaflets thin, ovate, and with
basal nectaries. Large, showy racemes of bright red papilionace-
ous flowers ap-
pear in late winter
at a time when
few other trees
are in blossom.
The chief handi-
cap to growing 4
the tree is a borer 'ec
which enters the ; ,
twig ends, caus-
ing a dying back
and loss of bloom.
E. indica Lam.,
of Asiatic origin, ,
is adapted to the .
warmer sections. .
It blooms in mid-
winter, having the '.
peculiar habit of
losing its foliage
and shortly there-
after bursting in-
to full flower.
Some of the trees
are armed with
sharp black prick- .
les. Fig. 33.-Heliotrope tree, Ehretia acuminata.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Fig. 34.-Hinau tree, Elaeocarpus dentata.

Eucalyptus spp. Myrtaceae. Eucalyptus. Gum. Southern
and Central areas. Australia. Several species of Eucalyptus are
found in the southern half of the state but the tree has never
been as popular there as in some of the more arid western regions
of the United States. It is not used to any extent for avenue
plantings as it has been difficult to get uniform growth in many
localities. Being a gross feeder with a wide-spread root system,
plantings are seldom made immediately adjacent to citrus groves
or other fruit trees. However, they are used in a limited way
for windbreak purposes and more generally as specimen shade
trees. A large number of species have been introduced but of
these the following are perhaps the most popular: E. robusta,
swamp mahogany; rudis, desert gum; tereticornis, gray gum;
globulus, blue gum; rostrata, red gum; and resinifera, red ma-
Eugenia spp. L. Myrtaceae. Of the hundreds of species of this
genus throughout the world, there are eight native to Florida

Bulletin 261, Ornamental Trees

that attain tree size. All of the eight bear the common name of
stopper, with some descriptive adjective to differentiate species,
as Spanish stopper, naked stopper, red stopper, etc., and are
found in the extreme southern part of the peninsula and on the
Keys. Some of them are occasionally used in ornamental plant-
Three introduced ones, jambolana, jambos, and dombeyi, are
grown in the lower peninsular section for their fruit as well as
ornamental value. The species eucalyptoides, another introduc-
tion, is also well adapted.
Ficus spp. Moraceae. Fig Tree. Rubber Tree. Southern and
Central areas. Tropics. The genus Ficus, in which there are
several hundred species, is well represented among the orna-

Fig. 35.-Leaf and fruit of the
black calabash,
Enallagma cucurbitina.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

mental of Florida. Two
species, aurea and
brevifolia are native.
Nearly all are vigorous
growers with handsome
foliage. A typical charac-
teristic of most is the
great number of aerial
roots hanging from the
branches, many of which
ultimately reach the
ground and thus form a
tree with numerous
trunks. Among the many
species there is a wide
variation in size, shape,
and texture of the leaves.
The fruits, too, vary
widely; they are typical
figs ranging in size from
that of a pea to that of the
cultivated fig and in color
from yellow and purplish
to a bright red, and of
Fig. 36.-Leaf of the ear-tree,
Enterolobium cyclocarpum. most species are inedible.
Most of the species are
tropical or sub-tropical in climatic requirement and cannot be
grown in the cooler portions of the state, some of the vines and
the cultivated fig excepted. Good soils do not seem essential to
a thrifty growth although, with many, well-drained locations
seem better suited.
No attempt is being made to list all of the species in Florida
since many are present in only small numbers. However, for
those who are interested in the genus, there is a wide field for
trial as the greater majority of the world's species have yet to be
introduced. F. altissima Blume, the lofty fig, is a native of India
and one of the taller growing species. It has thick, shining, large,
leathery leaves and comparatively few aerial roots. The main
trunk is quite heavy and the tree is well suited to street or park-
way planting. (Figs. 37 and 43.) F. aurea Nutt., the native
Florida strangler fig, is a rapid-growing tree of the hammocks of

Bulletin 261, Ornamental Trees

Fig. 37.-Lofty fig, Ficus altissima.

southern areas. Seeds dropped by birds in crotches or crevices
of other trees sprout there and the roots, reaching the ground, are
entwined about the trunk of the tree on which they grow. These
roots, as well as the tree top, gradually increase in size with the
result that the supporting tree is finally killed. When planted in
the open, the tree has numerous trunks like the banyan and
covers a large area. The leaves are 3 to 4 inches long, leathery,
and dark green; the fruit small, sessile, and reddish purple. The
tree is not well suited for ornamental planting unless ample room
is available. (Fig. 38.)
F. benghalensis L., another Indian native, is the banyan tree
which is noted particularly for its size and numerous secondary
trunks. The ovate leaves are to 8 inches long and the small, crim-
son fruits are produced in great numbers.
F. benjamin L., commonly called the Java fig, weeping laurel,
and Java willow, is a native of Malaya. It is a large spreading
tree with drooping branches and small, shining, ovate or oval
leaves. The tree is well adapted to street or park planting. (Fig.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

F. brevifolia Nutt. (F. populnea Sarg.) is the wild fig native
to the Keys and extreme Southern Florida. Its broadly pointed
leaves are thin and firm in texture, 3 to 5 inches long, and dark
green in color. Small, red fruits are produced on drooping stalks.
Like the other native species, area, the tree is epiphytal, being
seen growing on other trees. (Fig. 42.)
F. elastica Roxbg., the India rubber tree, is a very large, vigor-
ous growing, heavily buttressed tree with shining, smooth, large,
leathery, oval leaves. This is the "rubber plant" commonly grown
indoors by florists as a tub plant. Owing to the nature of its root
system, it is not entirely suited to street planting or small areas.
A variegated form, variegata, has a yellowish, or creamy white
irregularly colored leaf margin. (Figs. 39 and 41.)
F. glomerata Roxbg., the cluster fig from southeastern Asia, is
a vigorous growing, medium-sized tree having rather long and
narrow leaves that are thin and papery in texture. The upper
surface of the leaf has a gray, metallic luster.

Fig. 38.-Florida strangler fig, Ficus area.

Bulletin 261, Ornamental Trees

Fig. 39.-India rubber tree, Ficus elastic.

Fig. 40.-Fiddle-leaf fig, Ficus pandurata.

54 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Fig. 41.-Leaves of various Ficus species. Upper left, Indian fig, Ficus
indica; right, fiddle-leaf fig, Ficus pandurata; lower left, Moreton Bay fig,
Ficus macrophylla; center, India rubber tree, Ficus elastica; right, Ficus

Bulletin 261, Ornamental Trees

Fig. 42.-Leaves of Ficus species. Left to right: Ficus brevifolia,
rubiginosa, benjamin, nitida, and infectoria.

F. indica, a native of Malaya and sometimes termed the Indian
fig, is a large, spreading tree with shining foliage. The leaves are
oblong, pointed, to about 7 inches long, the younger ones with a
reddish coloration. (Fig. 41.)
F. infectoria Roxbg., the Indian Dotted Fig, is a fairly dense
growing tree, probably best suited for specimen planting. It is
deciduous, being without foliage for a short time. The leaves are
thin and small, seldom attaining a length of over 5 inches. (Fig.
F. macrophylla Desf., from Australia, is commonly known as
the Moreton Bay fig. It is a large and spreading tree that is quite
satisfactory for street planting. The large, leathery foliage,
brownish beneath, resembles that of elastica in size and shape.
(Fig. 41.)
F. pandurata Hance (F. lyrata?), the fiddle-leaf fig, derives
its common name from the large, leathery, deep green, fiddle-
shaped leaves. The tree is large, usually with a well-rounded
head. (Figs. 40 and 41.)
F. religiosa L., is the Peepul or Bo-Tree of India, venerated by
the Buddhists who will not personally disturb nor use any part of


Fig. 43.-Left: leaf and fruit of the parasol tree, Firmiana simplex; center: leaf of the Zulu fig, Ficus utilis; right: leaves of
lofty fig, Ficus altissima, and sacred fig, Ficus religiosa.

Bulletin 261, Oi uan nital Trees

the tree. It is a handsome, medium to large tree with quite dis-
tinct foliage. The long-petioled leaves are thin, light-green and
shining, somewhat heart-shaped, tapering to a long, tail-like ap-
pendage. The trunk and branches are smooth and quite free
from the aerial roots so common to the genus. It is very satisfac-
tory for specimen or street planting. Probably the world's oldest
transplanted tree is one of this species growing in Ceylon, it hav-
ing been brought there from India in 288 B. C. (Fig. 43.)
F. retusa L. (F. nitida Thunb.), the Indian laurel or laurel
rubber from southeastern Asia, is very popular as a street or
lawn tree. It is upright-growing, with dense foliage. The laurel-
like leaves are ovate, small, and a deep, glossy, green color. (Fig.
F. rubiginosa Desf., the rusty fig of Australia, is of compact
growth habit and one of the smaller trees of the genus. The
leaves are small, roundish to oblong in shape, leathery, glossy
green above and rusty beneath. An abundance of aerial roots are
produced on the branches. (Fig. 42.)
F. sycamorus L., a native of Syria and Egypt, is quite probably
the sycamore tree of Biblical reference. It is a large deciduous
tree with a heavy, rounded top and light-colored bark. The leaves
are quite large, attaining a length of 10 inches in some instances.
Unfortunately in Florida the tree has proved to be a favored host
to many insects.
F. utilis Sim, (F. Nekbudu), an East African species, is com-
monly known as the Zulu or Kaffir fig. It is a medium-sized,
single-stemmed, round-topped tree with very large leathery leaves
that are to 15 inches long and 7 or 8 inches broad. (Fig. 43.)
Firmiana simplex Wgt. (Sterculia platrififii lit L.) Sterculi-
aceae. Parasol-tree. Phoenix-tree. Japanese Varnish-tree.
Central and Northern areas. China and Japan. The parasol-tree
is grown mainly in the northern area. It is upright in habit of
growth, attaining a height of 35 to 40 feet. The heart-shaped
leaves, with 3 or 5 deep lobes, are 8 to 12 inches across. The bark
of both trunk and branches is smooth and differs from most trees
in its green coloration. Terminally borne in large panicles, the
flowers tlhemselve-- are small and unattractive. The fruits, how-
ever, differ materially from the ordinary in that the follicles con-
taining the seeds split long before maturity into four carpels, of
leathery, leaf-like appearance,,to the edges of which are attached
the small, round seeds. (Fig. 43.)

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

This species could be listed as an escape in Florida since num-
erous seedlings spring up in the area around older trees if they
are not destroyed by cultivation.
Ginkgo biloba L. Ginkgoaceae. Ginkgo. Maidenhair Tree.

Fig. 44.-Ginkgo or maidenhair tree, Ginkgo biloba.

Bulletin 261, Ornamental Trees

Northern area. China. A tall growing, slender, pyramidal tree
planted extensively in some of the northern states but rare in
Florida. It is deciduous, the fan-shaped leaves, 2 to 31/2 inches
across, being in clusters of 3 to 5, on spurs and divided or incised
at the apex, turning yellow or golden in the late fall. The plants
are dioecious and because of the foul odor of the fruits, it is best
to plant only those bearing the staminate flowers. (Fig. 44.)
Gleditsia delavayi Franchet. Leguminosae. Locust. Central
and Northern areas. China. In addition to the honey locust (G.
triacanthos) and the water locust (G. aquatica), the former
probably introduced and the latter native, the Chinese species
delavayi has shown its adaptability to the northern sections. The
first two of the above species are little grown as ornamentals and
as the last has not long been introduced it is rarely seen. It, how-
ever, is thriving in the north-central section and where a tree of
the type is desired is possibly the best suited. The tree is large,
round-topped, and heavily foliaged. The leaves are deciduous
and differ from other species in the oblique leaflets of which the
lower ones on the leaf are the smaller. Large strap-like pods, 12
to 20 inches long and about 2 inches wide, are produced in great
numbers. As an ornamental the tree would be undesirable in
many situations because of the numerous, long, branched, sharp
spines on the trunk and branches.
Gliricidia sepium Steud. (G. maculata HBK.) Leguminosae.
Madre de Cacao. Southern area. Central America. Rarely
seen in Florida, this species is commonly planted in the tropics
as a shade for coffee and cacao. It is normally a small tree with
odd-pinnate leaflets that vary from 7 to 15 in number, each with
a blotch of purple underneath. The flowers are pink, about
three-fourths of an inch long, and freely borne in large racemes
in the spring when the tree is partially or wholly without leaves.
The fruit is a shiny, compressed pod 4 to 6 inches long and about
1/2 inch wide.
Gordonia Lasianthus Ell. Theaceae. Loblolly Bay. Central
and Northern areas. Native. Preferring moist soils, the loblolly
bay is valued because of its foliage and its large, white fragrant
blossoms that appear successively for two or three months in
summer. Its lanceolate to oblong leaves are leathery, lustrous,
and 4 to 5 inches long. They drop irregularly, turning to a deep
scarlet color sometime prior to shedding~' The tree is tall and
has a somewhat narrow, compact head.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Grevillea robusta Cunn. Proteaceae. Silk-Oak. Southern
and Central areas. Australia. A tall, vigorous growing, ever-
green tree of upright habit that is well adapted to specimen,
street or roadside planting. It has shown itself especially well
adapted to the higher lands of the central area of the state. The
leaves are feathery in appearance, being twice-pinnatified with
11 to 21 pinnae, the secondary lobes usually about an inch long,
entire or again lobed. The whole leaf is 6 to 8 inches long and
almost as broad; white silky on the lower surface and deep

Fig. 45.-Roadside planting of Australian silk oak,
Grevillea robusta.

Bulletin 261, Ornamental Trees

green above. Large golden yellow or orange colored trusses of
flowers are borne in profusion for several weeks, beginning
usually in April. (Figs. 45 and 46.)
G. Banksii R. Br., also from Australia, is a small, slender tree
reaching a height of about 20 feet and having foliage much like
the above species. Its flowers, however, are a striking red and
are produced in profusion even while the tree is quite young.
Gymnocladus dioica Koch. Leguminosae. Kentucky Coffee
Tree. Central and Northern areas. Eastern North America.
The Kentucky coffee tree is seldom seen in Florida but cul-
tivated trees have demonstrated its adaptability when planted in

Fig. 46.-Below: leaf and
flowers of the Australian
silk oak; lower right: leaf
of Kentucky coffee tree,
Gymnocladus dioica; right:
flower and foliage of the ma- i
hoe, Hibiscus tiliaceus.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

fertile soils. It is a large tree, requiring much room for maxi-
mum development and is quite attractive due to its unusually
large, bi-pinnate foliage and ridged, flaky bark. The seeds,
once used as a coffee substitute, are borne in thick, fleshy brown
pods that are persistent long after the foliage has shed. (Fig.
Hibiscus tiliaceus L. (Paritium tiliaceum Juss.) Malvaceae.
Mahoe. Southern area. Old World Tropics. The mahoe grows as
a native or an escape on the Keys and in the extreme southern
peninsular portion of Florida. It thrives near the seacoast and
evidently has no aversion to brackish water. The tree attains
a height of about 30 feet and is striking because of its large
leaves and flowers. The leaves are rounded and leathery, 4 to
7 inches wide, and the hibiscus-like flowers are pale yellow with
petals 2 to 21/2 inches long. Blooms in summer. (Fig. 46.)
In some of the Pacific Islands the inner bark is used for cord-
age, mats, and coarse cloth. The wood is durable and flexible.
H. elatus, Swtz. (Paritium elatum Don.), the mountain ma-
hoe, is a species with red flowers that appear in profusion in
winter, as well as sparingly in the summer. It is more erect in
growth habit than the above and is also found in the southern
Hicoria spp. Raf. Juglandaceae. Hickory. Southern, Central,
and Northern areas. Native. Two hickories, alba, the mocker-
nut, and glabra, the pig-nut, are utilized extensively in the
northern sections as deciduous shade trees about houses, out-
buildings, and barnyards, but it is seldom that they are planted
for such purpose, most having been left when the lands were
cleared of native timber. Both are large trees in maturity and
are well worth preserving in clearing for new building sites.
Hicoria pecan Brit. (Carya pecan Engl. and Graebn.), the
pecan, a native of the lower Mississippi valley, is widely planted
in the northern area as a shade tree and in some instances is used
for street planting. In the central and southern sections an oc-
casional specimen is seen but there the trees cannot be depended
upon for regular fruiting. The large trees are ideal for summer
shade and if of the right varieties, of which there are many, they
will furnish, in addition, the winter's supply of nuts. There are
situations where shade is wanted in summer but not during the
winter months and for such places the pecan, where soils are suit-
able, is ideally adapted. Full information relative to pecan cul-

Bulletin 261, Ornamental Trees

Fig. 47.-The sandbox tree, Hura crepitans, and its fruit.
ture and varieties in Florida has been made available in other
Hura crepitans L. Euphorbiaceae. Sandbox. Southern area.
American Tropics. The sandbox is a large, upright, deciduous
tree grown in only extreme south Florida. Its trunk is closely
covered with short, sharp spines, and the leaves with long stems
are something like those of the poplar. The milky sap is poison-
ous. The fruits, about 3 inches across, and shaped like an onion,
are capsules divided into 12 to 15 sections, each containing a
single seed and exploding violently when mature. In those days
prior to the advent of the now common ink blotters and when
sand was used for drying ink on paper, the dried fruits of this
tree are said to have been used as containers for the sand, this
giving the tree its common name. The tree is of value both as
an ornamental shade tree and as a novelty. Its reddish flowers
are too small to place it in the class of the flowering trees. (Fig.
Ilex spp. Aquifoliaceae. Holly. Central and Northern areas.
Among Florida's 13 native Ilex species, there are six that attain
sufficient size to rank as trees. Of the latter, only three-opaca,
2 Blackmon, G. H., Pecan Growing in Florida. Fla. Expt. Sta. Bul. 191,

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

the American holly, Cassine, the dahoon, and vomitoria, the
yaupon-are used to any extent in ornamental plantings. These
species, as well as the Chinese holly, cornuta, seem best adapted
to the northern sections although the dahoon and one other na-
tive, Krugiana, are found in the extreme south. (Fig. 48.)
Holly has long had a significant part at the Anglo-Saxon Christ-
mas-tide and in America the use of the native American holly,
opaca, for decoration has threatened the destruction of that

Fig. 48.-Upper left: leaf and fruit of Jatropha curcas; right: Jaca-
randa foliage and flowers; lower: foliage and fruit of the American,
yaupon and Chinese hollies, Ilex opaca, vomitoria and cornuta,

Bulletin 261, Ornamental Trees

species in some areas. So great is the demand that some small
cultivated acreages have been planted for commercial cutting.
I. opaca Ait. is the largest species, reaching a height of 50 or
more feet. The leaves are leathery, a deep green on the upper
surface, vary from elliptic to obovate-oblong in shape, and have
spiny margins. The fruits, dull red in color and about one-
quarter of an inch in diameter, are borne freely on'the pistillate-
flowering trees and are persistent for a long period. On rare
occasions a tree is seen having yellow instead of red fruits.
I. Cassine L., the dahoon, is a small tree commonly found in
rich, moist soils. Its leaves are leathery, oblong to oblanceolate,
and without spines. The red fruits, mostly in 3's, are produced
in profusion.
I. vomitoria Ait., the yaupon, is at best a small tree and is com-
monly used as a hedge plant. The leaves are small, seldom over
2 inches long and ordinarily much less, oblong, and with serrate
margins. The small, shiny red fruits are produced in great pro-
I. cornuta Lindl., Chinese holly, is a large shrub or small bushy
tree with exceptional foliage. The leaves are 3 to 4 inches long,
rectangular-oblong with 3 to 7 strong, sharp spines, and very
deep glossy green in color. The fruits are larger than those of
opaca but on specimens seen are not so freely borne.
Jacaranda acutifolia Humb. and Bonpl. (J. ovalifolia R. Br. J.
mimosaefolia D. Don.) Bignoniaceae. Jacaranda. Southern and
warmer parts of Central areas. South America. Because of its
profusion of bloom and delicate, fern-like foliage, the Jacaranda
is one of the favorite flowering trees of Florida. It is a large,
spreading tree, attaining a height of 40 to 50 feet. The leaves
are bi-pinnate, each having 16 or more pairs of pinnae, each of
which is again usually further divided into 16 or more pairs of
leaflets. Long, loose panicles of large lavender-blue flowers are
borne in profusion and are in evidence from April until June.
For a short time prior to the blooming period the tree is partially
or wholly without foliage. The fruits are flat, discoid pods about
11/2 inches in dianieter; the seeds small and broadly winged.
(Fig. 48.)
Jatropha curcas L. Euphorbiaceae. Physic-Nut. Purging-Nut.
Southern and Central areas. Tropical America. The physic-nut
is a small tree much used in parts of the tropics as a live fencing
material about small areas. Large cuttings root rapidly and live-

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

stock will not eat the foliage. Its large leaves are 3 or 5 lobed
and the greenish flowers are borne in cymes. The fruits are olive-
shaped, 1 to 11/ inches in length, and contain usually 2 oblong,
black seeds each about three-fourths of an inch long. These seeds,
agreeable to the taste, are more poisonous than castor-bean seeds,
purgative in small amounts but poisonous in large quantities.

Fig. 49.-The sausage-tree, Kigelia Vinnata.

Bulletin 261, Ornamental Trees

The kernels contain over 50 percent oil which may be utilized in
the making of soaps but is of no value as a paint oil. The tree
thrives in the southern areas. (Fig. 48.)
Kigelia pinnata DC. (K. africana (Lam.) Benth.) Bignoni-
aceae. Sausage Tree. Fetish Tree. Southern area and warmer
parts of Central area. Tropical Africa. The sausage-tree is of
peculiar interest because of its status as a sacred tree in parts of
Africa and is planted as an ornamental novelty mainly for its odd
fruits which, in appearance, strongly resemble sausages sus-
pended by long cords. The tree is not large, rather unsymmetrical
in growth habit, and has large, odd-pinnate leaves, each with 7 or
9 leaflets which are 4 to 6 inches in length. Its dull, brownish-red,
tubular flowers-21/ to 3 inches long-are borne in large panicles
at the ends of long stems. (Figs. 49 and 51.)
Koelreuteria formosana Hayata. Sapindaceae. Southern,
Central, and Northern areas. Japan. This deciduous tree from
Formosa is yet quite rare in Florida but may be planted in the
cooler portions as a "flowering" tree. Its small yellow flowers
appear in early Octo-
ber in great terminal
panicles and are
shortly followed by
the bright, red, blad-
der-like, papery cap-
sules containing the
black, shot-like seeds.
The capsules bear a
striking resemblance
to the bracts of the
Bougainvillea and
give the tree the ap-
pearance of produc-
ing a crown of red
flowers. The leaves
are up to 18 inches
long, bi-pinnate, with
numerous small, ser-
rate leaflets. When
given proper cultural
attention, the tree is
fast growing. In its Fig. 50.-Leaf of Koelreuteria formosana.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

native habitat it reaches a height of 60 feet. (Fig. 50.)
Lagerstroemia speciosa Pers. (L. Flos-Reginae Retz.). Ly-
thraceae. Queen's Flower. Queen's Crape Myrtle. Southern area
and warmer parts of Central area. Australia, India. The queen's
crape myrtle is exceptionally free-flowering, whether the plant
is yet the size of a shrub or has attained its maximum height as
a fairly large tree. The flowers appear in early summer and are
similar to those of the more common crape myrtle but are much
larger, from 2 to 3 inches across. They are pink to mauve in
color and borne in large, terminal panicles. The trees are decid-
uous for a short time.
The common deciduous crape myrtle, L. indica L., while gen-
erally considered as a shrub, reaches the size of a small tree. It
is grown throughout the state and is available in pink, purple,
red and white flowering varieties.
Ligustrum lucidum Ait. Oleaceae. Glossy Privet. Central and
Northern areas. China. Through an error of some sort, it seems
that the two species lucidum and japonicum were confused at
some time in the past, and the correct names transposed, each
now being commonly known by the name of the other. Japonicum
is quite probably the one known as the wax privet so widely
planted as a large shrub.

Fig. 51.-Left: leaf of the sausage tree, Kigelia pinnata; right: foliage
and fruit cluster of glossy privet, Ligustrum lucidum.

Bulletin 261, Ornamental Trees 69

The glossy privet is utilized both as a shrub and small tree, it
attaining a height of about 25 feet. The leaves are evergreen,
ovate to ovate lanceolate, pointed and to 6 inches long. Small,
white flowers are produced in compact terminal panicles in
spring. Although grown occasionally in the central sections, it
seemingly is best adapted to the northern area. (Fig. 51.)
Liquidambar styraciflua L. Hamamelidaceae. Sweet Gum.
Southern, Central, and Northern areas. Native. The native
sweet gum is found throughout nearly the whole of the state ex-
cept the extreme southern part. It is a vigorous grower,
pyramidal in general shape, very tall in maturity, and well
suited for avenue or shade where a deciduous subject is want-
ed. The foliage is dense, the leaves are palmately 5-lobed
and maple-like
in appearance,.
and turn to beau-
tiful reds and yel-
lows in the late
fall months. A 4
winged, corky
growth is con-
spicuous on the .
branches. (Fig.
formosana Hance,
a native of China,
is a tall growing
species with 3-
lobed, maple-like
leaves that has
shown its adapt-
ability to the
northern parts of
the state and
would probably be -
as well adapted as
far south, at least, .
as the central
area. Fig. 52.-Sweet sum, Liquidambar styraciflua.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Liriodendron Tulipifera L. Magnoliaceae. Tulip-tree. Yellow
Poplar. Central and Northern areas. Native. This species is
among the largest of American trees and in maturity has a broad
spreading head with the straight trunk devoid of branches to
great heights. In youth the tree is pyramidal in shape. The leaf
blades are 4-lobed, 3 to 7 inches wide and about the same length.
The flowers are tulip-shaped with greenish-white petals that are
nearly 2 inches in length and orange colored at the base. Occur-
ring naturally along streams, it prefers a moist soil but thrives
on drier lands. (Fig. 53.)
Macadamia ternifolia F. v. Muell. Proteaceae. Queensland
Nut. Southern area
and warmer parts of
central area. Aus-
tralia. A glabrous,
dense foliaged, tall
tree, as seen in Flor-
ida usually low
branching or with
more than one stem.
The deep green, brit-
tle leaves, in whorls
of 3 or 4, are oblong
or lanceolate, from
a few inches to a foot
long, and with most,
serrate with prickly
teeth. They, in a
measure, have the
appearance of elon-
gated holly leaves.
The small flowers
are borne in racemes
about as long as the
leaves. The edible
seeds, termed the
S nuts, are globular,
about an inch in dia-
meter, and very
hard-shelled. The
Fig. 53.-The tulip tree, Liriodendron tulipifera. tree is relatively

Bulletin 261, Ornamental Trees

Fig. 54.-Foliage and fruit of the Queensland nut,
Macadamia ternifolia.
slow growing and does not fruit in its early years. (Fig. 54.)
Magnolia spp. Magnoliaceae. Three native magnolias, the
Southern magnolia (M. grandiflora L.), the sweet bay (M.
virgiana L.), and the large-leaved cucumber tree (M. macrophylla
Michx.) are grown as ornamental trees in Florida. The Southern
magnolia, justly famous throughout the South, is a magnificent
evergreen tree of great size. It thrives under a wide range of
soil conditions and occurs naturally in nearly all parts of the state
except on poorly drained lands and in the extreme south. The
stiff, leathery leaves, are oval-oblong, 5-8 inches long, deep shin-
ing green above and rusty brown beneath. The new foliage
appears in early spring, coincidental with the shedding of the old.
In April, May, and into June there is a succession of the large,
creamy white, strongly scented flowers. The scarlet seeds are
borne in cone-like receptacles and mature in early fall. Although
slow growing, the tree is long-lived and after once established
requires little or no cultural care. (Fig. 55.)
The sweet bay, also called swamp bay, grows in wet soils and
in transplanting its moisture requirements should be kept in
mind. It is a slender but tall growing tree with attractive foliage

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

and flowers. The leaves are bright green and lustrous above but
light gray beneath, which gives a silvery appearance to the foliage
when disturbed by winds. There is a succession of flowers dur-
ing the spring and early summer months, the individual blossoms
being white, 2 to 3 inches across and quite fragrant.
The deciduous large-leaved cucumber tree is noted for its im-
mense leaves which may attain a length of 30 inches and a width
of 10. Its white, cup-shaped, fragrant flowers are also quite
large, they having an extreme width of about 12 inches. The tree
attains a height of about 50 feet and has a heavy, straight trunk
and a symmetrical, somewhat rounded head. It is planted only
in the northern areas where it occurs naturally.
Some of the introduced magnolias, as M. Soulangeana Soul.
from China and Japan, and M. stellata Maxim. from China, are
planted in the northern areas and are of rare ornamental value
because of their large showy blossoms. They are both shrubby
trees and are free-blooming even in the juvenile stages. The
flowers of the former are purplish in color and the latter white;
both are fragrant.
Malus angustifolia Michx. Rosaceae. Crab Apple. Northern
area. Native. This crab apple, native to northwestern Florida,
is of value for situations where a free-blooming deciduous tree is

Fig. 55.-Flower of the Southern magnolia, Magnolia grandiflora.

Bulletin 261, Ornamental Trees

desired. Its pink blossoms, appearing in early spring before the
leaves, are about an inch across, quite fragrant, and borne in pro-
fusion. The tree attains a maximum height of about 25 feet and
is widespreading.
Mangifera indica L. Anacardiaceae. Mango. Southern area
and warmer part of Central
area. Tropical Asia. Al-
though mainly planted for
its fruit, the mango tree has
a distinct ornamental value.
It grows to a large size and
if given room for develop-
ment usually has a spread
of top equalling or exceed-
ing its height. It is an ever-
green with deep green, stiff,
lanceolate leaves that may
reach a length of a foot or
more. In the new flushes of
growth, the foliage is wine-
colored. There are numer-
ous varieties which give w,
considerable variation in
general tree shape as well
as in foliage. In a limited
way the tree has been used
for street planting.
Melaleuca leucadendron
L. Myrtaceae. Cajeput Tree.
Punk-Tree. Southern area
and warmer parts of Cen-
tral area. Australia. The
cajeput tree is of medium
height with slender, some-
times pendulous branches,
narrow leaves, and a con-
spicuous, gray, thick soft
bark that peels off in thin
layers. The flowers with pro-
truding stamens that give
the flower cluster a bottle- M elaleua leucajeput tree,
Meulce uca leucadendro n.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Fig. 57.-The cajeput tree growing as an escape from cultivation in
Southern Florida.

Bulletin 261, Ornamental Trees

brush shape, are white to yellowish and favored by honey bees.
In a few areas the tree has spread naturally from cultivation,
this showing conclusively its adaptability. It is little injured by
grass fires and in low areas suffers little or none from poor drain-
age. Fast growing and resistant to the effects of salt water, the
tree lends itself to a wide variety of uses and locations. (Figs.
56, 57 and 58.)
Melia azedarach L. Meliaceae. China-Berry. Pride of India.
Southern, Central, and Northern areas. Eastern Asia. An in-
troduced tree, the china-berry now grows as an escape in most
parts of Florida. It is most popular in the northern and western
areas and is there commonly planted as a shade tree. In the citrus
belt it is seldom tolerated as it is one of the favored hosts of the
citrus whitefly. Attaining a height of 30 to 40 feet, with a thick,
spreading, round-topped head, the tree is attractive and produces


Fig. 58.-Foliage and seed capsules of the cajeput tree,
Melaleuca leucadendron.



Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Fig. 59.-The Texas umbrella tree, Melia azedarach var. umnbraculifera.

a dense shade. The variety umbraculifera Sargent, Texas um-
brella-tree, is more symmetrical than the ordinary sort, having
a low, umbrella-like crown. (Fig 59.) The leaves are deciduous,
2- or 3-pinnate; the lilac flowers borne in large, showy panicles
in late spring; and the fruits smooth, yellow drupes, one-half to
three-quarters of an inch in diameter. The seeds are often used
as beads.
The tree is seemingly adapted to most soils and is of very rapid
Moringa Moringa (L) Milsp. (M. oleifera Lam. M. pterygos-
perma Gaert.) Moringaceae. Horseradish Tree. Southern area.
East Indies and India. A small tree, growing as an escape in the
southern area. The leaves are di- or tri-pinnately compound with
4 to 6 pairs of pinnae, each with 6 to 9 pairs of small leaflets.
The flowers, 1 to 11/2 inches wide, are yellowish-white and sweet-
scented, borne in panicles. The pendant, 3-angled, 9-ribbed,
slender pods, to 16 inches long, contain the winged seeds which
are the source of "ben oil" used for watch lubrication. The fleshy

Bulletin 261, Ornamental Trees

roots have the flavor and odor of horseradish for which they have
been substituted.
Morus spp. L. Moraceae. Mulberry. Southern, Central, and
Northern areas. Florida has one native mulberry, the red (M.
rubra L.), and two introduced species, the white (M. alba L.)
and the black (M. nigra L.), growing as escapes from cultivation,
None of the species can be considered as having much ornamental
value, their use being restricted for the most part to shade trees
about poultry yards and animal pens. They make a rapid growth
and seemingly are adapted to nearly all sections.
Olea europaea L. Oleaceae. Olive. Southern and Central areas
and warmer parts of northern area. Mediterranean region. The
cultivated olive makes a satisfactory growth in most well-drained
soils and is hardy throughout most of the state. Trees of various
ages are found here and there but it is a rare exception that one
produces any fruit whatever. Before the trees attain much size,
they are quite ornamental, the light grayish foliage differing in
appearance from that of most other trees. A height of about 25
feet is the maximum reached and by that time the trees have gen-
erally developed a somewhat open head and unsymmetrical shape.
Pachira aquatica Aubl. Bombacaceae. Southern Area. West
Indies. The few trees, presumably of this species, noted growing
in southern Florida are more spreading than upright in growth
habit and are of peculiar ornamental value because of their very
showy flowers. The leaves resemble those of the kapok tree in
that they are digitately compound, usually with 5 to 7 leaflets.
Appearing in late winter or early spring, the very large, tubular
flowers with their numerous scarlet stamens are very unusual and
attractive. The terminally borne flower buds, before opening,
have the appearance of-large, smooth acorns.
Parkinsonia aculeata L. Leguminosae. Jerusalem Thorn.
Southern, Central, and Northern areas. Tropical America. Of
drooping growth habit, the Parkinsonias with their thin, wiry,
pendulous foliage and green bark are quite unlike the usual tree
planted for ornament. They attain a maximum height of about
30 feet and are armed with short, sharp spines. Numerous, small,
-bright yellow flowers, in loose racemes, appear in early spring
and are in evidence in lesser numbers for several months. The
leaves, pinnate with numerous very small leaflets, are usually over
a foot in length. Because of the nature of its foliage, the tree

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Fig. 60.-Foliage of Jerusalem thorn, Parkinsonia aculeata.

has little value for shade but is valuable as an ornamental because
of its free-flowering habit and unusual leafage. (Fig. 60.)
Parmentiera cereifera Seem. Bignoniaceae. Candletree.
Southern area. Tropical America. The candletree, although rare
in Florida, thrives in the warmer sections. The tree is of medium
size and has small, thin, glabrous trifoliate leaves. Its white
flowers are about 2 inches long, and have a large, brown calyx.
The smooth, fleshy, cylindrical fruits, which constitute the chief
attraction of the tree, hang from the larger limbs and the trunk
and resemble long, yellow candles. They are about an inch in di-
ameter and of varying lengths, although a maximum of nearly 4
feet may be attained.
Paulownia tomentosa Koch. Scrophulariaceae. Empress Tree.
Royal Paulownia. Northern area. China. A rapid growing
tree of spreading habit, reaching a height of about 45 feet, hav-
ing quite ornamental foliage and long panicles of violet flowers
that appear in spring before the leaves. It is said to be growing
as an escape in limited numbers in parts of the western section.
The leaves are ovate, occasionally 3-lobed, from 5 to 7 inches long,
darker green above, and with long petioles. The tubular flowers

Bulletin 261, Ornamental Trees

are about 2 inches in length, pale violet colored, with lower lobes
marked by two yellow bands, fragrant, and produced in terminal
panicles to 10 inches in length. The tree is rarely planted.
Peltophorum ferrugineum Benth. (P. inerme Naves.). Leg-
uminosae. Southern area. Southeastern Asia. A large, fast
growing tree, rarely planted, that in foliage is somewhat similar
to the royal poinciana. The leaves are bi-pinnate with 16 to 20
oblong leaflets, each about half an inch in length. The shoots and
the under side of the younger leaves are covered with a rusty
velvety tomentum. Its showy, scented flowers are borne in large

Fig. 61.-The Chinese pistache, Pistacia chinensis.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

terminal panicles and are a rusty yellow in color. In general ap-
pearance the tree is quite attractive with its feathery foliage and
masses of yellow bloom.
P. dubium Taub., of the Philippines, is also grown in the south-
ern area but is rare.
Pimenta officinalis Berg. Myrtaceae. Allspice. Southern area.
West Indies and Tropical America. This tree is also rare but is
of interest as the source of allspice which is the dried immature
berry. Apparently no commercial possibilities are offered in
growing this tree but it does have an ornamental value. It reaches
a height of 25 to 30 feet and has shiny, leathery, oblong leaves
that are 5 to 6 inches long.

Pistacia chinensis Bunge.
Central and Northern areas.

Fig. 62.-Leaf and fruit of the C

Anacardiaceae. Chinese Pistache.
China. The Chinese pistache is a
broad round-
topped tree with
short main trunk
and heavy
branches. The
deciduous leaves
are odd-pinnate
with 11 to 13
F leaflets that are
oblique at the base
and to 3 inches
long. Pistillate
and staminate
blossoms are
S borne on separate
trees and those
with the male
flowers are us-
ually more heav-
ily foliaged. Small
compressed resin-
ous fruits are
produced in large
clusters and turn
a deep red on ma-
hinese pistache. turity. In late fall

Bulletin 261, Ornamental Trees

the leaves turn scarlet and orange and this with red fruits makes
the tree quite attractive over several weeks. (Figs. 61 and 62.)
It is said that in China the young shoots and leaves are utilized
as a vegetable. Growth is slow but the tree is exceptionally free
of diseases or insect pests. This species is used as rootstock for
Pistacia vera, which produces the edible pistachio nuts of com-
merce. The latter, however, is not known to be growing in Flor-

Fig. 63.-Pithecolobium dulce.

Pithecolobium dulce Benth. Leguminosae. Madras Thorn.
Manila Tamarind. Southern and Central areas. Central Amer-
ica, Mexico, and the Philippines.
A medium to fairly large, spreading, thorny tree that is now
being extensively used as an avenue tree in the southeastern sec-
tion. It is rapid growing and often the trunk is unsymmetrical



Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

unless properly staked for a time after planting. The leaves are
quite small, having but a single pair of pinnae each with 2
obovate, oblique leaflets about an inch long. Fruit pods are
narrow, much twisted, 4 to 6 inches long, and constricted between
the seeds. Because of its adaptability, quick growth, and freedom
from pests, it is gaining in popularity. (Fig. 63.)
Pittosporum viridiflorum Sims. Pittosporaceae. Cape Pittos-
porum. Central and Northern areas. South Africa. Usually
more or less shrubby, the cape pittosporum attains a height of
about 25 feet and due to its deep green, leathery foliage, is an
attractive small tree. The foliage is somewhat like that of the
common shrubby tobira but larger. Growth is fairly rapid. It
is rarely planted in Florida.
Pittosporum undulatum Vent., the Victorian box from Aus-
tralia, is adapted to the Central and Southern areas. It is a tree
attaining some 30 feet in height and has quite attractive deep
green and shining foliage; the leaves are 4 or 5 inches long and
about 1/ inch wide.
Platanus occidentalis L. Platanaceae. Plane tree. Sycamore.

Fig. 64.-Frangipani, Plumeria emarginata.

Bulletin 261, Ornamental Trees

Buttonwood. Southern, Central, and Northern areas. Native.
This tree thrives in all sections of the state but attains its great-
est size in the northwestern area. It reaches heights well over a
hundred feet and is among America's tallest trees. The branches
are heavy and spreading and form a broad, irregular head. The
leaves are 3 to 5 lobed, broadly ovate, and the fruit is a solitary,
pendant head about an inch in diameter. In spite of its deciduous
foliage, the tree is planted extensively as an ornamental. Be-
cause of its common name-sycamore-this tree should not be
confused with Ficus sycamorus which is grown in the southern
part of the state and which, no doubt, is the sycamore tree of the
Plumeria spp. Apocynaceae. Frangipani. Temple Tree.
Southern area. Tropical America. The Plumerias are short,
spreading, stocky trees with thick branches, milky sap, and very
fragrant flowers. P. rubra has very long, broad leaves and red
or purplish flowers; emarginata has white flowers, as has
also acuminata but
with yellow in the
base and more point-
ed leaves. Alba has
white flowers and
very narrow leaves.
The flowers are in .U -
evidence for several -
months in the year ". -
which makes the
tree very desirable
as a flowering
species. (Figs. 64
and 65.)
Poinciana regia
Bojer. (Delonix
regia Raf.) Legu-
minosae. Royal Poin-
ciana. Flamboyant.
Flametree. Southern
area and warmer
parts of Central
area. Madagascar.
The royal poinciana Fig. 65.-Flowers and foliage of the frangipani.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

is conceded by nearly everyone to be Florida's most popular
flowering tree. It blooms during the early summer months, amass
of scarlet overtopping the broad crown of deep green, finely-cut
foliage. The individual flowers are 2 to 3 inches across, the petals
scarlet except for the upper one which is tinged with yellow, and
borne in large racemes. The bi-pinnate leaves are fernlike,
attaining a maximum length of nearly 2 feet. For a time in
spring the tree is without foliage. The fruits are large, heavy,
strap-like pods, nearly 2 inches in width and to 24 inches long.
The tree attains a height of about 30 feet, the spread of its
branches usually equalling or exceeding the height. It is rapid
growing and adapted to quite a wide range of soil conditions.
(Figs. 66 and 67.)

Fig. 66.-The royal poinciana, Poinciana regia.

Pongamia pinnata Wight. (P. glabra Vent.) Leguminosae.
Pongam. Poonga Oil Tree. Southern area. Tropical Asia and
Australia. A quick-growing tree of medium size and thick foliage
that is well adapted for South Florida planting. It is quite resis-
tant to damage from heavy winds and is well suited to street or
windbreak planting. The glossy green leaves are odd-pinnate
with either 5 or 7 broadly ovate leaflets that are about 3 inches
long. The fruits are short, flat, thick pods with an incurving
point and containing but a single seed. (Figs. 68 and 69.)

Bulletin 261, Ornamental Trees

Fig. 67.-Flowers and foliage of the royal poinciana.

Populus spp. Salicaceae. Poplar. Central and Northern areas.
Three poplars, the native cottonwood or necklace poplar, P. del-
toides Marsh., the lombardy, P. nigra var. italica DuRoi., and the
Carolina, supposedly a hybrid, are planted in limited numbers in
the extreme northern and northwestern areas with an occasional
tree seen as far south as the mid-peninsular region. Most of them

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

seem to prefer moist soils but all make a good growth on a wide
range of soil types. The well known lombardy with its typical
very upright growth seems to vary in thrift so that rows of them
present an uneven appearance and it possibly is not as well
adapted as the others. P. simonii Carr., a Chinese native of re-
cent introduction, is a rapid growing, upright pyramidal tree that
apparently is adapted to the northern area as well as or better
than some of the better known species.
Posoqueria latifolia Roem. and Schult. Rubiaceae. Southern
area. Central America. This species is a small tree, 18 to 20
feet high, with leathery, deep green, oval or oblong leaves and
decidedly distinctive blossoms. The pure white flowers are borne
in terminal corymbs; they have very slender tubular corollas
some 5 to 6 inches long; 5-lobed, each about half an inch in length.

Fig. 68.-The pongam tree, Pongamia pinnata.

Bulletin 261, Ornamental Trees

The blossoming season is in spring. The fruits, somewhat re-
sembling those of the guava in appearance, are about 2 inches in
Poupartia axillaris (Roxbg.) King and Prain. Anacardiaceae.
Southern, Central and Northern areas. China. A large round-

^Sri e

Fig. 69.-Upper left: leaf and fruit of the pongam; right: leaf and
fruit of Poupartia axillaris; lower: foliage, blossoms and fruit of cherry
laurel, Prunus caroliniana.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

topped, deciduous tree with massive branches that is very rare in
Florida but is well adapted to the north-central section and prob-
ably would thrive in the other sections. In general shape, it is
somewhat like the chinaberry but not quite so heavily foliaged.
The leaves, to 15 inches in length, are odd-pinnate, with 9 to 13
lanceolate, sinuate margined, oblique leaflets to 41/2 inches long.
The fruit is oval, light transluscent yellow when ripe, and about
an inch long. The flavor is abominable although it is classed
among the edible Chinese fruits.
Because of its rapid growth and apparent freedom from
serious, insect or disease attack, this species ranks high among
deciduous sorts for ornamental planting. (Fig. 69.)
Prunus caroliniana Ait. (Laurocerasus caroliniana Reichenb.)
Rosaceae. Cherry Laurel. Mock Orange. Central and Northern
areas. Native. The cherry laurel, a native evergreen, reaches a
maximum height of about 35 feet and thrives on well-drained
fertile soils. It is used extensively as a hedge plant, withstand-
ing severe clipping or shearing without injury, and is quite free
of insects and diseases. The foliage is a deep, lustrous green, and
the tree at a distance appears somewhat like an orange tree. The
leaves are oblong-lanceolate, 2 to 4 inches long, usually with entire
margins but occasionally remotely serrate. Very small, white
flowers in racemes 1 to 3 inches long appear in early spring and
are followed by the small oblong black fruits which ripen in late
fall. (Fig. 69.)
Prunus serotina Ehrh. (Padus virginiana (L) Mill.). Rosa-
ceae. Wild Black Cherry. Central and Northern areas. Native.
The native black cherry, thriving on sandy soils, is a fast grow-
ing tree and is planted to some extent as an ornamental. It
attains a huge size under favorable conditions but as the wood is
brittle, it is severely broken up by storms. The foliage is a shin-
ing green and until the midsummer months, is quite attractive.
After that time, however, a disease causing leaf s-pottiig ordin-
arily occurs which imparts a more or less ragged appearance until
the time of leaf fall in late autumn. (Fig. 70.)
Pterospermum acerifolium Willd. Sterculiaceae. Southern
and Central areas. Southeastern Asia. A large tree, quite rare
in Florida, that is of interest because of its very large and pecul-
iarly-shaped leaves, many of which are over a foot long and nearly
as broad. They are leathery, oblong to oval, many irregularly
lobed, palmately nerved and white or grayish underneath. Its flow-

Bulletin 261, Ornamental Trees

ers are fragrant, white to yellowish, and quite large. (Fig. 71.)
Quercus spp. Fagaceae. Oak. Southern, Central, and North-
ern areas. The native oaks are quite properly utilized to a great-
er extent for specimen, park, avenue, and roadside plantings than
any other native or introduced tree. They are thoroughly adapted

.Fig. 70.-Wild black cherry, Prunus serotina.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Fig. 71.-Leaf of Pterocpermum acerifolium.

to both climate and soils, as proved by their long residence; they
are relatively free of attack by insects or diseases; and, because
of their size and growth habit, are admirably suited for perman-
ent ornamental planting. Botanists credit Florida with 30 na-
tive species of oaks, this number including some of the natural
hybrids. Within this range of species are found both evergreen
and deciduous sorts as well as a wide diversity in mature size
which ranges from small, shrubby specimens to immense trees.

Bulletin 261, Ornamental Trees

For general planting the evergreen specimens are chosen almost
without exception. Those most widely planted are the live oak,
Q. virginiana, the twin live oak, geminata, the water or laurel
oak, laurifolia, and the black or water oak, nigra. The first two
named are much longer lived than the last and for this reason are
given preference. The first three are found in nearly all areas
other than the extreme south so they may be properly selected for
planting anywhere except on the Keys. The largest size, however,
is attained by the trees in the northern areas. (Figs. 72 and 73.)
The Spanish cork oak, suber, has recently been introduced and
is making a thrifty, although somewhat slow, growth.

*' ...t 1

Fig. 72.-Laurel oak, Quercus laurifolia.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Fig. 73.-Roadside planting of native oaks, principally the laurel oak.
Ravenala madagascariensis J. F. Gmel. Musaceae. Traveler's
Tree. Southern area. Madagascar. Closely related to the
banana, the traveler's tree, also sometimes called traveler's
"palm," attains a height of 30 feet and its appearance gives the
impression of a huge open fan. It derives its common name from
the storage of a watery fluid in the base of the leaf-stalks which
is supposedly a palatable substitute for water. The leaves, attain-
ing a length of 15 feet, are easily frayed by winds but this seem-
ingly has little effect on the ornamental value of the tree. Differ-
ing materially in shape and appearance from other trees, this
species can be advantageously included where an uncommon plant
is wanted. (Fig. 74.)
Salix babylonica L. Salicaceae. Weeping Willow. Northern
area. China. Only an occasional specimen of the weeping willow
is found but when planted along stream banks or pond margins,
the tree makes a thrifty growth but perhaps does not attain the
size as farther northward. In its native habitat the tree reaches
a height of 30 to 40 feet and has a short trunk, a spreading head
and long, pendulous branchlets. The leaves are 3 to 6 inches long,
linear lanceolate, and taper to a narrow point.
Samanea Saman Merrill. (Pithecolobium Saman (Jacq.)

Bulletin 261, Ornamental Trees

Fig. 74.-Traveler's tree, Ravenala madagascariensis.

Benth.) Leguminosae. Rain Tree. Southern area. Central
America. The species much resembles the Pithecolobium that is
planted in the extreme south in both foliage and growth habit. It
attains an immense size in its native habitat and in many tropical
countries is used for roadside planting. The leaves are numer-
ously divided, usually bi-pinnate, with the leaflets 2 to 8 pinnate.
Unlike the above Pithecolobium, its indehiscent seed pods are
seldom curved and the leaflets tend to fold together in darkness
or cloudy weather. The tree is yet rare.


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Sapindus marginatus Willd. Sapindaceae. Soapberry. South-
ern, Central and Northern areas. Native. The soapberry tree,
reaching a maximum height of 30 feet, is planted more as a
novelty than an ornamental shade tree, although it is quite
satisfactory for the latter use during the summer months. Its
growth habit is variable in different specimens, some being quite
upright and others spreading. Its foliage is dense, the pinnate
leaves attaining a maximum length of about 11 inches and with
7 to 13 leaflets that are 4 or 5 inches long. The fruits, ripening
in late fall, are produced in quantity, usually in clusters. They
are light yellow, about an inch in length, obovoid, are keeled on the
back, and have a thin layer of mucilaginous, almost transparent
flesh about the large black seed. The pulp of the fruit, said to con-
tain some 30 percent saponin, will form a lather in water and
has been used as a soap substitute. The seeds are exceptionally
hard and have been
utilized as buttons

Another native
species, S. sapona-
ria, the leaves of
which have a broad-
ly winged rachis, is
found in the extreme
S(t pium sebiferum
Roxb. (Stillingia
a sebifera Michx.
S ... f' sebifera
S Sm.) Euphorbiace-
ae. Chinese Tallow-
Tree. Tallow-Tree.
Southern, Central,
and Northern areas.
China. In Florida
a and some of the
other most southern
states, the tallow-
tree has proved its
adaptability, as it
Fig. 75.-Leaf and fruits of the soapberry tree,
Sapindus nmarginat s. occasionally is found

Bulletin 261, Ornamental Trees

growing as an escape. Its habit of growth is spreading; the trunk
usually unsymmetrical and divided into several large branches.
Thirty feet is about its maximum height. The poplar-like leaves
change in color in late autumn from a light, shiny green to deep
reds and yellows. Milk-white seed, three to the capsule, are borne

Fig. 76.-Upper left: leaf of the kaffir bean tree, Schotia latifolia;
right: foliage and fruit of the Chinese tallow-tree, Sapianm sebifermn;
lower left: leaf of the fountain tree, Spathodea campanulata; right: leaf
and fruit cluster of Brazilian pepper, Schinus terebinthefolius.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

in profusion and adhere to the central column of the capsule for
weeks after the latter has opened. It is said that in China the
waxy coating of the seeds is used for candle and soap making.
Cultural requirements to insure thrifty growth are few, and the
tree is singularly free of diseases and insect pests. (Fig. 76.)
Sapium glandulosum (L.) Morong., the milk-tree, a native of
South America, is grown in Escambia county and reported to
have become sparingly naturalized in that region.

Fig. 77.-Yellow elder, Stenolobium stans.

Fig. 78.-Sterctlia foetida tree, left, and fruit and
flowers, below.

i !

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Schinus terebinthefolius Radd. Anacardiaceae. Brazilian
Pepper Tree. Southern and Central areas and warmer parts of
Northern area. Brazil. A small, evergreen tree, often used as
a large shrub, that has very attractive foliage and for an extend-
ed period in the winter months, numerous clusters of small, bright
red fruits. The leaves are 4 to 8 inches long, odd-pinnate, with
5 to 9 leaflets. (Fig. 76). Unlike the California pepper tree,
S. molle, it seems to be adapted to all but the coldest areas and
makes a very rapid growth.

Fig. 79.-Leaf of Sterculia foetida.

Bulletin 261, Ornamental Trees

Fig. 80.-Leaf and flowers of Tabebuia argentia.

Schotia latifolia Jacq. Leguminosae. Kaffir-Bean Tree. South-
ern area and warmer parts of Central area. South Africa. A
small tree, not over 30 feet, with pinnate foliage and bearing
much branched clusters of rose colored flowers in early spring.
The leaves are leathery, each with 4 to 8 ovate-oblong leaflets 1
to 21/2 inches long. (Fig. 76.)
S. brachypetala Sond., also from South Africa, is grown spar-
ingly in the same area as the above species. It is a small tree with
leaves having 8 to 10 leaflets and crimson flowers borne in rather
large panicles.
Sideroxylum foetidissimum Jacq. Sapotaceae. Mastic. Wild-
Olive. Southern area. Native. The native mastic is utilized to
a limited extent in the extreme south as a shade tree. It is very
large, having a heavy trunk and stout branches and reaching a