Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Landscape uses
 Climatic conditions
 Planting and care
 Species and varieties
 Index of common names

Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Stations ; No. 571
Title: Ornamental vines for Florida
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027223/00001
 Material Information
Title: Ornamental vines for Florida
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 72 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Dickey, R. D ( Ralph Davis ), 1904-
West, Erdman, 1894-
Mowry, Harold
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1956
Subject: Ornamental climbing plants -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: R.D. Dickey, Erdman West and Harold Mowry.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: Includes index.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027223
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000926774
oclc - 18282639
notis - AEN7474

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Landscape uses
        Page 3
    Climatic conditions
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Planting and care
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Species and varieties
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Index of common names
        Page 71
        Page 72
Full Text

February 1956

J. R. BECKENBACH, Director

Ornamental Vines for Florida


'* .ft^ ,?'-'^.-. 7. .. '.*. -

Fig. 1.-Bougainvillea, Florida's most popular vine.

Single copies free to Florida residents upon request to

Bulletin 571





Soils .....-- ---. ..

Time of Planting ..... .........

Preparation of Soil ......... .- ...

Planting ...................-- -- ..

Cultivation and Fertilization .......

Trellising, Pruning and Training

SPECIES AND VARIETIES ...........----.....




...-.-.-... ....-- .. .----- ....-- ...-.- .- 6

-. -- -- ---- ---.. .. -. --- -- -- 6

-- -

..-...- -....-.-.---- .- -....-- 8

-........ .. .... .. ...-.-- -- ---..-- 9

...-- ........ ........ 14

---.-------- 15

Ornamental Vines for Florida


The woody vines constitute a group of ornamental plants as
important as trees and shrubs for creating landscape effects of
color, texture and form. They are adapted to many landscape
situations which are difficult or impossible to fill with trees and
shrubs. Plants of this very useful group are too often over-
looked or used as filler in the average landscape planting. The
varied uses to which they can be put make them prized plant
material in sub-tropical and tropical areas such as Florida.
It is not always easy to distinguish between a climbing shrub
and a vine. Several well-known vines (bougainvillea, some
species of jasmine and wisteria) may, with some pruning, be
grown as shrubs, whereas some shrubs (Chinese-hat-plant) and
elaeagnus) can be grown as vines.
For Florida planting there is an exceptionally wide choice of
vines, not only for a given type of support but in size, color and
general appearance of both foliage and flowers. Some vine is
in bloom every month in the year in different sections of the
state. Most species are evergreen, which makes them very
valuable because their beauty and utility are present through-
out the year. Because of their striking bloom or other desir-
able characteristics, there are some deciduous vines that are
worthy of space in many plantings.
Those parts of the state which are less subject to heavy frosts
are able to grow outdoors many species not known in less tem-
perate regions, except as greenhouse specimens. The species
include some which have very striking and unusual foliage and
bloom. Many interesting species are seldom seen in Florida
plantings and should be used where adapted.

Where buildings are concerned, ornamental vines are often a
necessary adjunct to the complete landscape planting. Aside
from the attractiveness and desirability of their foliage or flow-
ers, vines can be used effectively for many purposes. The proper
1 Dickey, Horticulturist; West, Botanist and Mycologist; Mowry, former
Director, Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations.
This bulletin replaces Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin
188, Ornamental Vines by Harold Mowry.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

use of carefully selected vines tends to lend contrast and char-
acter to landscape plantings that can be attained in no other
way. Pleasing architectural lines may be accentuated by closely
clinging species which are occasionally clipped, or undesirable
lines may be softened or obscured by the use of strong-growing,
branching species. Vines can be ideally used to transform un-
desirable and often unsightly shade trees, poles and posts into
more desirable landscape features, introducing color, form and
texture into otherwise uninteresting shrubs or trees. Necessary
but uninteresting walls or fences may be transformed into ob-
jects of attraction by utilizing vines to create patterns and
effects, many of which are ideally adapted to such situations.
Unsightly objects should be removed whenever possible but when
this is impossible, vines can be used to cover or to improve their
Vines are valuable for creating tropical effects, as shade for
tropical plantings, and to provide a narrow screen and interest-
ing covers for passageways. The trunks of trees are excellent
supports for many varieties and the utilization of them for this
purpose should not be overlooked. Many species are available
that will climb or cling to wood, wire, stone, brick or stucco, so
that regardless of the type of trellis, fence or building there
are vines entirely suited to that particular support.


Ornamental plants to be satisfactory for landscape planting
should be well adapted to the environment in which they are to
be grown, so that vigorous, thrifty growth will be obtained.
Many of the vines grown in colder regions are not adapted to
warmer climates; also, there is considerable variation in the
hardiness of the plants. Because of differences in winter tem-
perature minimums between the northern and southern sections
of the state, comparatively few vines are adapted to planting
throughout Florida. Differences between low temperatures in
various parts of the state are not wide, but even these small
differences may include the critical temperature for many tropi-
cal and sub-tropical vines that are more or less severely damaged
or killed when exposed for several hours to temperatures below
freezing. Duration of temperatures has considerable bearing
on the amount and severity of injury and this necessarily varies
considerably for different sections of the state.

Ornamental Vines for Florida

On the basis of normal prevailing temperatures, the state may
be divided into three regions, northern, central and southern,
to which certain plants are climatically adapted. The limits of
these areas cannot be exactly defined for any given species be-
cause of local conditions of elevation, water protection, proximity
to the coast and other factors influencing temperature. At the
same time, any delimitation of these areas according to a speci-
fied temperature minimum would fluctuate from year to year with
seasonal variation so that their boundaries are necessarily vague
and broad rather than exact. The northern area includes gen-
erally that part of the state lying north of a line running east
to west through Marion County and subject to the heaviest
frosts; the southern, that of the extreme south having the warm-
est winter temperatures and extending northward along the
coast approximately to Palm Beach and Punta Gorda; and the
central, that lying between northern and southern sections.
The temperature zones are shown on the map (Fig. 2). South-
ern, central and northern areas are designated by the numerals
1, 2 and 3, respectively.

Fig. 2.-Map showing the three
sections of Florida as used in the
description of species in this bul-

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Vines, usually planted in close proximity to buildings, receive
the benefit of such protection as a building or overhanging tree
will afford and are frequently less injured in such protected
locations than are equally tender shrubs or trees planted in a
more exposed situation. As the cold winds are generally from
a northwesterly direction, planting of the more tender species
on the south and east sides of a house may lessen the degree
of injury they would sustain by full exposure. A location shaded
early in the morning will, under some conditions, reduce cold
injury to tender species. Vines of this type, planted on the
exposed north and west sides of a building, are afforded some
protection by a screen, hedge or overhanging branches of a tree.
Many of the tender vines (yellow allamanda and coral-vine),
if frozen to the ground, will make a vigorous growth from the
roots with the return of warmer weather. Because shape of
the top may not be as important with vines as with trees, it is
possible to grow some of the more desirable tender species in
the cooler areas, even though they are killed back at irregular
The use of young, thrifty plants is of primary importance,
because such plants cost less and usually give better results.
However, if proper care is given following planting, the use of
larger plants may be advisable. Most of the vines discussed
flower best when grown in full sunlight, but many also may be
grown successfully in partial shade.

Ornamental vines grown in Florida, as a group, are well
adapted to a wide range of soil conditions. Most of them grow
well on sand, clay, muck, marl or rockland, if sufficient moisture
and plant food are provided and the soil is well drained.
Manganese and iron deficiencies are evidenced as a chlorosis
of the leaves on several species of vines in Florida. Although
these deficiencies are common on the acid sandy soils of the cen-
tral and southern peninsular areas, they are most prevalent and
acute on the alkaline sands and rockland soils of the coastal areas.

Most of the young plants produced by nurseries or the home
gardener in Florida are now grown in pots or containers, though

Ornamental Vines for Florida

some are planted in the nursery row and later dug and moved
with a ball of earth about the roots. Handled either way, ever-
green vines may be planted at any time during the year, if given
proper care. The cooler months are preferred, however, because
most plants are in a more dormant condition at this time and
the loss from transplanting is less. A very satisfactory time
for planting vines in the southern half of the state is just before
the rainy season starts. Deciduous vines (wisteria, trumpet-
vine) do best when moved during the winter months. Small,
thrifty, container-grown plants, however, can be planted at any
time during the year. The plants should be carefully removed
from the container to prevent disturbing the root system and
should be well watered after planting.

Proper preparation of the soil for planting will help insure vig-
orous, healthy plants and reduce the problem of after care. Usually
the planting location should be prepared some time in advance
so that the plants can be set immediately after their arrival.
Organic matter, an important constituent of the soil, is usually
low in the mineral soils of Florida and may become further
depleted in soils under cultivation. It is difficult to replace
humus where it cannot be incorporated by turning the soil. Areas
where vines are growing usually cannot be worked, which makes
it especially desirable to incorporate considerable amounts of
organic matter into the soil before planting and to keep the
plants mulched with organic materials, such as grass, weeds,
pine straw, or leaves.
Mark off the area where the plant is to be set and spread from
four to six inches of compost, peat, leaf mold, or well-decomposed
manure over it, add one-half to one cupful of commercial fertil-
izer, such as a 6-6-6, and spade it in to a depth of a foot or more.
Muck soils are usually high in nitrogen but low in phosphorus
and potassium. For this reason, on muck soils it is necessary
to incorporate fertilizers, such as an 0-8-12, containing only
phosphorus and potassium in the soil where the plants are to
be set.
When a vine is planted close to a tree, remove the tree roots
in the immediate area where the vine is to be planted. The soil
around houses, particularly those of masonry construction, often
contains lime. Remove this soil to a depth of about 18 inches and
replace with a normal acid soil taken from another location.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Container-grown and balled plants usually require no pruning
at time of planting. Large plants may require some pruning
to compensate for loss of roots, if moved during the late spring
and summer months. Deciduous vines transplanted bare-rooted
should be cut back to 6 to 12 inches in height.
In planting either container-grown or "balled and burlapped"
plants, dig a hole which is slightly larger than the ball of earth
about the roots in the prepared location. Set the plants at the
same depth that they were in the container or nursery row.
This can be done by setting the container or balled plant in the
hole and then adjusting the depth of the hole so that the surface
of the soil of the container or ball is even with the ground level.
Then carefully remove the plant from the container, taking care
not to disturb the ball of earth about the roots, and set it in the
hole. Partially fill in around the ball with the soil previously
taken from the hole and water thoroughly. Finish filling the
hole and water again. Follow the same procedure with the
balled plants. Do not remove the burlap. However, cut it away
at the top of the ball or turn it back so that the ground line,
which indicates the depth at which the plants should be set,
may be observed.
Before planting bare-rooted deciduous plants, trim off long
or broken roots with a sharp knife or pruning shears. Place
the plants in the hole at the same depth they grew in the nursery
row. Spread out the roots in their natural position and, using
the enriched soil, half fill the hole and water adequately. Finish
filling the hole and water again.
Leave a shallow basin around each plant to facilitate water-
ing. The plants should be mulched, as this helps to conserve
moisture, maintain the organic matter content of the soil, in-
crease aeration and reduce soil temperature during the summer.
Several months are required for newly transplanted plants to
grow an extensive root system. Therefore, they should be
watered frequently during drought periods for several months
following transplanting. After a strong root system has de-
veloped, the plants are better able to care for themselves during
droughts, but should not be allowed to suffer for lack of water.
Thorough watering to the depth of the root system or below is
better than light frequent watering. The latter encourages the
roots to develop near the surface and makes the plant more sub-
ject to drought injury.

Ornamental Vines for Florida

Vines should be set as close as possible to their supports so
that they do not have to grow over to them.

Ornamental vines usually will present an attractive appear-
ance, bloom well and be more resistant to cold if vigorous, healthy
growth is promoted by good care. This includes cultivation
and fertilization.
Keep an area around the plants cultivated, edged and mulched
to reduce competition from grass and weeds for moisture and
plant food. As the plants increase in size, gradually enlarge
the cultivated area.
Mulching is especially beneficial to plant species, such as
Solanum and Jasminum, subject to attack by root-knot nematodes.
It is usually necessary to fertilize regularly to promote and
maintain healthy, vigorous growth. This can be accomplished
by the use of both organic and mineral fertilizers. Newly set
container-grown or balled plants may not require fertilizer
the first season if the soil has been properly prepared before
planting, but it may be advisable to give them a light applica-
tion of fertilizer three or four months after planting if the plants
appear unthrifty.
For this purpose on the mineral soils, fertilizers containing
4 to 8 percent nitrogen, 6 to 8 percent phosphoric acid and 4 to 8
percent potash, such as a 4-7-5 or 6-6-6, are satisfactory. The
amount to apply will depend on the age and size of the plant,
fertility of the soil, amount of organic matter supplied, condi-
tion of the plant and number of applications per year, but may
range from about 1 ounce for a young plant to 3 or 4 pounds
for mature plants per application. Plants growing on muck
soils usually will not require the addition of nitrogen in the
fertilizer but may benefit from the application of phosphorus
and potassium. Fertilizers containing only these two elements
are available from commercial sources. Fertilize deciduous
vines that have been planted bare-rooted about every three
months during the growing season following transplanting. Fer-
tilize periodically after the first season as follows: In the south-
ern half of the peninsula, where growth may continue for most
of the year, make four applications, the first in January or
February, the second in April or May, the third in June or July
and the fourth from August to October. In the northern portion

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

of the state make the first application in February or March
and omit the fourth one or make it in early winter.
The fertilizer may be applied broadcast over the soil or sur-
face of the mulch and washed in with water from a hose. Apply-
ing the fertilizer in punch bar holes probably gives a more
efficient utilization of the plant food by reducing run-off and loss
to grass and other vegetation, but requires much more labor.

Fig. 3.-Manganese deficiency of allamanda. Chlorotic (left) and
normal shoots.

Vines may be adequately supplied with the major plant food
elements, yet remain chlorotic and unhealthy as a result of a
deficiency of one or more of the minor elements, such as manga-
nese, iron, zinc, copper and boron. Manganese deficiency has
been identified on several vines in Florida (allamanda, bougain-

Ornamental Vines for Florida

villea, flame vine,
furry jasmine and
Bengal clockvine -
Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6).
Many species other
than these are simi-
larly affected. Iron
deficiency has been
reported on Bignonia
magnifica (Fig. 7),
but it undoubtedly
occurs in several
other vine species,
especially those grow-
ing on alkaline sands
of the coastal areas
and the calcareous
soils of the Miami-
Homestead area.
When you know

I i

Fig. 4.-Manganese deficiency of Sander bou-
gainvillea. Normal (left) and chlorotic leaves.

Fig. 5.-Manganese deficiency of flame vine showing chlorotic leaves.


Fig. 6.-Manganese deficiency of Bengal clock-
vine. Normal (a), moderately affected (b) and
severely affected (c).

Fig. 7.-Iron deficiency of Bignonia magnifica. Normal leaf extreme right.

Ornamental Vines for Florida

the cause of a malnutrition trouble (for example, manganese
deficiency of allamanda or iron deficiency of Bignonia magnifica),
apply the specific element that is deficient.
Foliage or soil treatments, used alone or in combination, are
two general methods of correcting malnutrition. However, when
soil treatment is effective it is the better method because of
ease of application and residual effect. Better results are obtained
from applications made in spring or early summer.
Manganese deficiency on acid soil is usually effectively cor-
rected by the use of manganese sulfate. The amount to use
ranges from as little as 1 ounce of manganese sulfate for young
plants to 1 pound for large, mature vines. A second application
may be desirable in three or four months. However, these soil
applications may not prove satisfactory on alkaline soils, in
which case a foliage application of 1 ounce of manganese sulfate
and 1/ ounce of hydrated lime in 1 gallon of water usually will
correct the trouble. One or two sprays in the spring or early
summer usually will be sufficient.
Use soil applications of iron chelates to correct iron deficiency.
An iron chelate, FeEDTA, has proven effective in correcting iron
deficiency of several plants on acid soils and those slightly acid
in reaction, but has been much less effective on highly alkaline and
calcareous soils. Another iron chelate, FeEDTA-OH, has proven
satisfactory on alkaline soils. Maximum efficiency is obtained
in applying these iron chelates to moist soil around the plants
and washing in with water from a hose, or dissolving in water
and applying about the plants as a drench. If soil applications
of iron chelates do not correct the deficiency, it may be desirable
to supplement them with iron sulfate sprays. The iron chelates
are effective in relatively small amounts and an overdose may
burn the plant. Therefore, the manufacturers' directions for
their use should be carefully followed.
A persistent and acute chlorosis of several species of vines
is prevalent, especially on plants growing on alkaline soils of
the coastal areas and the rockland soils of the Miami-Homestead
area. This type of chlorosis may involve a deficiency of several
minor elements. Control of these chloroses usually will require,
in addition to chelated iron, a nutritional spray containing man-
ganese, zinc, copper and boron. The manganese-zinc-copper-
boron spray may be made by dissolving 2 ounces each of man-
ganese sulfate, zinc sulfate, copper sulfate and 1 ounce of borax
in 212 gallons of water. Then take 3 ounces of finely ground

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

hydrated lime, make into a paste with water and add to the
solution while stirring vigorously. Effectiveness of the spray
may be increased by adding a small amount of a suitable spreader.
If a deficiency of manganese, iron, copper or boron is suspected
on plants growing on acid sandy soils, it may be corrected by
soil applications of these elements. Zinc deficiency is best cor-
rected by spraying with 1 ounce of zince sulfate and 1/2 ounce
of hydrated lime to 1 gallon of water, because soil applications
of zinc have not been uniformly successful in peninsular Florida.

Vines usually create their most pleasing ornamental effect
when they have an immediate background and are seldom as
attractive when grown as detached specimen plants. For this
reason, a lone trellis located in the center of a lawn is not often
considered desirable, regardless of how ornate the trellis may
be, or the desirability of the vine growing upon it. Trellises
preferably should be placed close to the wall of the building,
but always clear of the drip from the eaves. Low, vine-covered
trellises may in many instances be used as very satisfactory
substitutes for hedges.
Regardless of the size or type of trellis, it is advisable to use
only the best materials, as replacement of a decayed or broken
trellis without considerable damage to the vines is difficult if
not impossible. If made of wood, cypress is probably the most
durable material. The underground portions of the posts should
be well saturated with a wood preservative and the parts above-
ground given at least two coats of paint at the time of construc-
tion. If metal is used, all parts below and above ground should
be of rust-proof finish, as unprotected iron, when exposed to
the weather, is weakened or destroyed by rust in a comparatively
short time.
Most of the vines will require a trellis or some similar support
so that they may climb by means of twining, weaving or attach-
ment by tendrils. Some exceptions are the following species
which will cling, unaided, by means of aerial roots or suction
discs to the surfaces under which they are listed (see next page).
Ordinarily, vines require little pruning except to keep them
within bounds. With some of the more vigorous species the
occasional removal of a portion may be required, particularly
if growing on buildings, as it is possible to have too much vine
growth on the walls of a building or over a porch. In some in-

Ornamental Vines for Florida

stances vines growing at random on walls will cause a building
to appear shaggy and unkept. Pruning of the flowering kinds
should be done, with most species, shortly after the blooming
period is over. With many, later pruning will remove the wood
producing next season's flower buds. Otherwise, pruning can
be done at any time during the year. However, the evidences of
pruning usually will be visible for a shorter time if pruning is
done just before or shortly after growth starts in late winter
or early spring.
Vines which cling to:
Wood or Bark Stone or Brick
Bignonia capreolata Bignonia capreolata
Campsis radicans Campsis radicans
Doxantha unguis-cati Doxantha unguis-cati
Ficus pumila Ficus pumilla
Monstera deliciosa Ficus villosa
Parthenocissus quinquefolia Hedera canariensis
Philodendron oxycardium Hedera helix
Pyrostegia ignea Hylocereus undatus
Scindapsus aureus Parthenocissus quinquefolia
Syngonium podophyllum Philodendron oxycardium
Vanilla planifolia Vanilla planifolia
Freezing temperatures injure some species of vines in varying
degrees. The severity of injury will vary depending upon sev-
eral factors, such as hardiness of the species, age of the plant
and temperature experienced. It is best to wait until growth
starts in the spring to prune cold-injured plants. At that time
the plants will indicate the extent of their injury and all dead
wood then can be pruned away. Dead parts often are unsightly.
When there is no doubt that tender plants have been killed to
the ground, they may be immediately pruned severely.

Of the woody vines suitable for planting in Florida, the follow-
ing list covers most species and varieties. No attempt, has been
made to include all vines used in Florida.
Because so many plants have several common names, some
of which are not universally known and used, the arrangement
is alphabetical according to botanical name. Genus and species
are given first, followed in order by the family to which the plant
belongs, the common name or names, the section for which
apparently best adapted and, lastly, its native habitat. In some
instances one or more synonyms are included in parentheses
directly after the scientific names. The common names are in-

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

dexed. The first common
Same given is the prefer-
\ red one, others listed are
/ lSin common usage.
S\ Abrus precatorius L.
\jL Leguminosae. Rosary Pea.
Crab's Eye Vine. South-
ern area and warmer parts
of Central area. Tropics.
This rosary pea is a
fast growing, twining vine
that can be used where a
comparatively dense cover
is wanted. The pinnate
leaves are composed of
Fig. 8.-Rosary pea, Abrus precatorius. from 10 to 20 pairs of
small, opposite, linear-oval
leaflets which are obtuse at both ends (Fig. 8). These leaves
are very sensitive to light changes, the leaflets hanging vertically
at night or during very cloudy weather. The pea-shaped flowers,
varying from white to rose or pale purple, are borne in pendent
racemes. The very hard, glossy seeds, 4 to 6 in a pod, are
scarlet, marked with a black spot. They are frequently used as
beads, but are poisonous and
should be kept away from chil-
dren. The seed, produced in
large numbers, germinate readily
and as a result it may become
a weed plant.
Akebia quinata Decne. Lardi-
zabalaceae. Five-Leaf Akebia.
Northern area. China and
S- The five-leaf akebia is a slen-
der, twining evergreen vine
which climbs to a height of ap-
proximately 15 feet. It is well
adapted for growing in the
northwestern part of the state.
a The compound leaves, on long,
slender petioles, are made up of
Fig. 9.-Henderson allamanda, Al-
lamanda cathartica hendersoni. 5 dark green, oval leaflets from

Ornamental Vines for Florida

1/2 to 1 inch in length. The fragrant, purplish flowers, from
3/ to 1 inch across, are borne in slender-stemmed axillary
racemes. The flowering period begins in March or early April.
The plant grows vigorously and produces a fairly dense shade.
Allamanda cathartica L. Apocynaceae. Yellow Allamanda,
Allamanda. Southern area and warmer parts of Central area.
South America.
The variety hendersoni, or
Henderson allamanda, is the one
most generally planted. The
large, elliptic-ovate leaves, which
are borne in whorls, are glossy,
thick and leathery, and the bell-
shaped flowers, 4 to 5 inches in
diameter, are golden yellow in
color. The flowering season
extends throughout most of the
year. The plant is very vigor-
ous and is well adapted for
growing on arbors or trellises.
Because of the long blooming
period, large attractive flowers leptopus.
and very green, glossy foliage,
it is one of the most popular vines for planting in the central
and southern areas (Fig. 9). The variety williamsi very much
resembles the above, but grows less vigorously and the flowers
are smaller. Both varieties are frequently grown as shrubs.
Antigonon leptopus Hook. & Arn. (Corculum leptopus Stuntz).
Polygonaceae. Coral-Vine. Pink Vine. Rosa-de-Montana. Coral-
lita. Southern area and warmer parts of Central area. Mexico.
The coral-vine is one of the most popular vines for planting
where a fast-growing, free-flowering species is wanted. The
light green, heart-shaped leaves are borne opposite on slender
stems. Small rose-pink flowers, borne in fairly large racemes,
are in evidence from early spring until winter. Unfortunately,
the vine has a very poor appearance during the later winter
months and can be cut back to the ground at this time with good
results. Climbing by means of tendrils, it grows well on fences
or trellies and will attain a height of 30 to 40 feet (Fig. 10).
A white-flowered variety, album, is also planted but is not as
Argyreia speciosa Sweet. Convolvulaceae. Woolly Morning-

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Glory. Southern area and warmer parts of Central area. India,
Java and China.
The woolly morning-glory is a large, woody climber that is
best suited for growing on heavy trellises or arbors. The white-
tomentose stems climb by twining around their support. The
leaves are glabrous above, densely-white-tomentose beneath,
ovate-cordate and are 3 to 12 inches wide. The flowers, about
2 to 3 inches long, are rose-purple and are borne in cymes on
3 to 6 inch long, white-tomentose peduncles. The flowering
period begins about May and extends through the summer into
early fall.
Aristolochia elegans Mast. Aristolochiaceae. Calico-Flower.
Southern area and warmer parts of Central area. Brazil.
The calico-flower is a graceful, slender, twining woody vine
with kidney-shaped to heart-shaped leaves 2 to 3 inches across.
It is a free blooming species which flowers from early summer
to early winter. Its flowers lack the unpleasant odor often
characteristic of flowers of this genus. The long-stalked soli-
tary flowers have a yellow-green inflated tube 11/2 inches long
with a kidney-shaped circular limb 3 inches across, which is

Fig. 11.-Calico-flower, Aristolochia elegans.

Ornamental Vines for Florida

white with purple veining on the outside and purple-brown in-
side, with a yellow eye (Fig. 11). The seed pods are of interest
as they resemble inverted parachutes. If frozen down, it will
come back quickly from the roots the following spring.
Aristolochia galeata Mart. & Zucco. Aristolochiaceae. Rooster-
Flower. Southern area and warmer parts of Central area.
The rooster-flower is a fast growing, twining, woody vine
that climbs to a height of 20 or more feet. It is suitable for
growing on arbors or trellises. The dull green, heart-shaped
leaves have a deeply indented sinus at their base. The long-
stalked solitary flowers, borne in the leaf axils, are mottled cream
and deep maroon to purple and resemble a bird's beak. They
have a curved tube which is inflated below and extended into a
2-lobed, mottled purple lip, the upper lobe to 3 inches long,
clawed, and the lower to 5 inches long (Fig. 12). The odor is
not agreeable but is not strong enough to be objectionable. The
bloom period approximates that of A. elegans.
Aristolochia grandiflora (Lindl.) Sw. (A. gigas Lindl.).
Aristolochiaceae. Pelican-Flower. Southern area and warmer
parts of Central area. Jamaica.
The pelican-flower is a heavy, woody vine that can be used
where a dense cover is wanted. The cordate-acuminate leaves

Fig. 12.-Rooster-flower, Aristolochia galeata.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

are 3 to 4 inches across. The flowers are an oddity because of
their large size, unusual shape and unpleasant odor. The yellow-
green perianth tube is inflated but constricted in the middle,
and the limb, which is blotched and veined with purple, is greatly
expanded and is several inches
across. The variety sturtevanti,
Sthe one most commonly grown,
Shas a very large flower with a
long pendent streamer or tail up
to 3 feet in length. It flowers
from early summer to early fall.
Asparagus falcatus L. Lilia-
ceae. Sickle Thorn. Southern
and Central areas. Tropical Asia
and Africa.
The sickle thorn is a heavy,
woody, much branched spiny
climber. This plant has small,
fragrant white flowers in large
panicles which are produced
during the summer months. The
leaves are deep green, 2 to 4
inches long and about 3/8 inch
wide (Fig. 13). The plant is
fast growing, attaining a length
of 25 to 30 feet, but does not
make a dense shade, being desir-
able for locations where a some-
Fig. 13.-Sickle thon, Asparagus what coarse, vigorous vine is
falcatus. what coarse, vigorous vine is
wanted. It thrives in shade.
Asystasia coromandeliana Nees. Acanthaceae. Coromandel.
Southern area. Malaya to Africa.
The coromandel does not attain a height of more than 4 to 6
feet on a trellis, but is desirable because of its free blooming
habit. The heart-shaped leaves, papery in texture, are borne
opposite on slender stems. The 5-lobed funnel-shaped flowers
are about 11/ inches long and a light blue or mauve in color
(Fig. 14). They are in evidence most of the year.
Bauhinia binata Blanco. Leguminosae. Southern area and
warmer parts of Central area. India, Southeastern Asia and
East Indies.
This is a spreading shrub-like plant with long drooping

Ornamental Vines for Florida

branches, but it may be used as a vine because it will scramble
over an artificial support such as an arbor or trellis. The leaves
are divided to the base to produce 2 separate leaflets. The
white, star-shaped flowers, about 2 inches across,
have stamens that turn red with age. They are
produced from April to June.
Bauhinia galpini N. E. Br. Leguminosae. Red
Bauhinia. Southern area and
warmer parts of Central area.
South and Tropical Africa.
The red bauhinia is a vigor-
ous growing, sprawling shrub
when unsupported, but may be
used as a vine because it will '
scramble over an artificial sup-
port such as an arbor or trellis.
The stems cling to objects by
twisting at the tips. The leaves
are from 11/2 to 2 inches long
and 2 to 3 inches wide and par-
itally divided down the middle
like other bauhinias. The bril-
liant orange-red flowers, about
21/2 inches across, are borne in
small clusters at the ends of
many side branches (Fig. 15).
They are produced in profusion _
from late spring to early fall.
Bauhinia saigonensis Pierre.
Leguminosae. Saigon Bauhinia.
Southern area and warmer
parts of Central area. Indo-
The Saigon bauhinia is a
large, vigorous, fast growing,
woody vine that will cover large
areas and is best suited for Fig. 14.-CoromandelAsystasia
growing on heavy trellises, ar-
bors or large trees. It climbs by means of tendrils which wrap
around supporting objects. The leaves are nearly circular in
outline but are divided into 2 distinct segments or lobes, 1 to
21/2 inches in diameter. Buds in the axils of old stems elongate

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

into leafy shoots which are terminated by flower clusters (Fig.
16). The flowers, about 1/8 to 11/ inches across, have 5 petals
which are pale lavender with purple stripes, and are produced
in profusion from April to June and at irregular intervals to
Beaumontia grandiflora Wall. Apocynaceae. Heralds-Trum-
pet. Nepal Trumpet Flower. Southern area. Himalayas.
The heralds-trumpet is a massive vine, and is possibly best
suited to such locations as heavy trellises, pergolas or large trees,
because of its vigor of growth. The ovate, wavy, light-green
leaves are somewhat longer than the flowers. Large, trumpet-
shaped flowers are borne in terminal clusters in early spring.
The flowers are exceptionally large, being about 5 inches long and
pure white except for green veining within the tube (Fig. 17).
Bignonia capreolata L. Bignoniaceae. Trumpet-Flower. Cross-
Vine. Northern area. Native.
The cross-vine is a strong growing plant that climbs to great
heights on living trees by means of branched, disc-bearing ten-
drils. For this reason, it is very desirable for growing on large
trees. It derives its name from the appearance of the stem
which, when cut transversely, shows a 4-parted or cross-like
arrangement. The evergreen, oblong-lanceolate leaflets, from
Fig. 15.-Red bauhinia, Bauhinia galpini.

. .

~;129-~ ~50i


Ornamental Vines Jor Florida

2 to 5 inches in length, are usually borne in twos. The tubular
flowers, yellow-red on the outside and lighter within, are about
2 inches in length and borne in clusters of 2 to 5 (Fig. 18).

Fig. 16.-Saigon bauhinia, Baulhinia saigonensis.

The season of bloom is Feb-
ruary and March.
Bignonia magnifica
(Sprague) Bull. (Arrabi-
daea magnifica Sprague).
Bignoniaceae. Southern area.
The plant is vigorous and
is well adapted to growing
on trellises, though it may
be trained as a shrub. The
smooth, stalked, leathery
leaflets up to 4 inches long,
are borne in twos. Large,
tubular-campanulate flowers
up to 3 inches long, from
up to 3 inches long, from Fig. 17.-Heralds-trumpet, Beaumontia
rose-pink to pale purple in grandiflora.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

color with purple streaks within the tube, are borne in panicles
at intervals throughout the year (Fig. 19).
Bougainvillea spp. Nyctaginaceae. Bougainvillea. South
This genus provides some of the most showy and spectacular
tropical vines available for planting in the southern half of
p peninsular Florida. The tax-
onomy of this group of plants is
Fig. complex. From the descriptions
Cross-vine, in the literature, it is difficult
Bignonia to clearly separate two of the
most used species (B.
r- glabra and B. specta-
bilis) from each other
or from other species
in the genus. The
1942 edition of Stan-
dardized Plant Names
lists 17 species of
They are vigorous,
woody vines that can
be grown on arbors,
trellises or sides of
buildings, or trained
along wires or walls
as a hedge, or some
varieties may be se-
verely pruned an d
grown as shrubs
(Fig. 1). The evergreen leaves are alternate, ovate or elliptic-
lanceolate and bright, glossy green. The true flowers are in-
conspicuous, small and yellow, enclosed in the large, showy
colored bracts (Fig. 20).
The main period of bloom for bougainvilleas is during the late
winter and eary spring. In addition, some varieties, such as
Sander bougainvillea, flower practically the year around, while
other varieties, including Crimson Lake and Praetorius, flower at
irregular intervals.
New varieties of bougainvilleas that give a much wider range
of flower (bract) color, growth habit and floriferousness than
was previously available, have come from several sources in

Ornamental Vines for Florida

Fig. 19.-Foliage and flowers of Bignonia magnifica.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

recent years. Several of these newer varieties have become
well established in Florida, but more time will be required
before it can be determined whether some others are sufficiently
different from existing varieties to become generally used.
Bougainvillea glabra Choisy. Nyctaginaceae. Lesser Bougain-
villea. Southern and Central areas. Brazil.
The lesser bougainvillea attains considerable size. The trunk
may become 1 foot or more in diameter and, under favorable
conditions, the plant may grow over buildings 2 to 4 stories high.
The glabrous or slightly
pubescent stems have stout,
usually straight spines. The
Evergreen, oblong-lanceolate
or ovate-oblong to broadly
ovate leaves are 2 to 4 inches
long and acuminate, tapering
A to wedge-shaped at the base.
The leaves are smooth or
slightly pubescent.
The variety Sander (san-
deriana, Hort.) is probably
the most widely planted. It
produces a wealth of pur-
plish bloom at intervals dur-
ing the year. However, care
should be exercised in plant-
Fig. 20.-Foliage and showy bracts of ing this vine among other
bougainvillea flowering shrubs, as its color
does not harmonize with most of them. It produces a pleasing
effect on white and yellow walled buildings. It is less susceptible
to cold injury than any of the several other varieties grown in
The variety Crimson Lake, long a favorite, is a strong, vigor-
ous, fast-growing plant that produces bright crimson bracts in
profusion at the shoot treminals on young and old plants. The
variety Praetorius (usually called Afterglow) is identical, ex-
cept for color, with Crimson Lake from which it originated as
a bud sport. The bracts are yellow to orange when young,
changing through copper to salmon with age.
The variety Cyphers (cypheri Hort.) has deep rose bracts
which are larger than Sander. The variety Variegated (varie-
gata Hort.) is a weak-growing variety that has little to recom-

Ornamental Vines for Florida

mend it other than its variegated leaves. Panama Pink became
popular several years ago because its light magenta-colored
bracts were usually considered as supplying the need for a pink
variety. It is now less popu-
lar because of its compara- -. .
tively light flowering and
straggly habit of growth.
Bougainvillea spectabilis
Wi lld. (B. brasiliensis
Raeusch.) Nyctaginaceae.
Great Bougainvillea. South-
ern area and warmer parts
Central area.
The great bou-
gainvillea is simi-
lar to B.
glabra but
differs in

the leaves
and stems densely
tomentose and the
spines predominantly more
recurved at the tips (Fig.
20). The typical colors of
this species are shades of
red. The variety Brickred
(lateritia Hort.) has bracts
bright red in color.
There are several varie-
ties growing in Florida that
cannot be positively as-
signedto anyspecies. Some Fig. 2L-Trumpet-vine, Camnpsis
signed to asny scie. S me radicans.
of these are Wilson's Or-
chid, Barbara Karst and Margaret Bacon, the last developed by
James E. Hendry. Barbara Karst has bracts that are similar in
color to Crimson Lake, but it is reported to have a much more
compact habit of growth, with flowers along the stem as well as
at shoot terminals. White bougainvillea, known by such variety
names as Purity, Moonlight Madonna and Elizabeth Doxey, can-

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

not, at present, he assigned to any botanical category. Most of
them are sold in Florida merely as "white bougainvillea."
Campsis grandiflora Loisel. (C. chinensis Voss. Tecoma
chinensis K. Koch.). Bignoniaceae. Chinese Trumpet-Creeper.
Southern, Central and Northern areas. China and Japan.
The Chinese trumpet-creeper resembles the trumpet-vine, but
is not so high climbing and has few or no aerial rootlets. The
flowers are produced in
larger and looser terminal
panicles and have a scarlet
corolla which is shorter and
broader than the trumpet-
Campsis radicans (L.)
Seem. (Bignonia radicans
L. Tecoma radicans (L.)
Juss.). Bignoniaceae. Trum-
pet-Vine. Trumpet-Creeper.
Southern, Central and North-
ern areas. Native.
The trumpet-vine is a de-
ciduous, high-climbing vine
which clings tenaciously by
means of aerial rootlets to
Fig. 22.-Purple cestrum, Cestrum posts or tree trunks and is
purpureum. posts or tree trunks and
very desirable for covering
such objects as well as for growing on trellises or walls of either
brick, stone or wood. The plant is deciduous for a short time
during the late winter but because of the attractive bloom should
be included in vine plantings where possible. The leaves are
opposite, odd-pinnate with 7 to 11 ovate-oval or oblong, serrate
leaflets. The flowers are borne freely in terminal racemes and
have a tubular-funnelform corolla about 3 inches long with 5 flar-
ing lobes which are usually orange with a scarlet limb (Fig. 21).
The season of bloom is during the spring and summer months.
Cestrum aurantiacum Lindl. Solanaceae. Orange Cestrum.
Southern area. Guatemala.
The orange cestrum resembles the purple cestrum in general
appearance and habit of the plant and is suitable for a location
where a shrubby vine is wanted. The ovate to oval leaves are
3 to 4 inches long. The orange-yellow flowers, 2 to 5 together,
are sessile and borne in terminal panicles.

Ornamental Vines for Florida

Cestrum purpureum Standl. (C. elegans Schlecht). Solanaceae.
Purple Cestrum. Coral Jessamine. Southern area. Mexico.
The purple cestrum is a low-climbing, evergreen, shrubby vine
having ovate-lanceolate leaves and red-
dish-purple flowers which are borne in
loose clusters and are in evidence during
most of the year (Fig. 22).
The flowers are very decora-
tive and the plant is entirely
satisfactory for any location
where a shrubby vine is
wanted. The variety smith
has blush-rose flowers.
Cissus incisa Desm. Vi-
taceae. Marine Ivy. South-
ern, Central and Northern
areas. Native.
The marine ivy is a hardy
deciduous native plant that is
used as an ornamental vine
because of its unusual
foliage. The leaves are
pale green, very fleshy,
tri-foliate and the notch-
ed leaflets vary from 2
to 4 inches in length
(Fig. 23). The rough,
fleshy, stems are high
climbing and have num-
SFig. 23.-Marine ivy, Cissus incisa.
erous pendent tendrils.
Because it is deciduous this vine is not desirable for planting
where a continuous shade is wanted. It is suitable for seacoast
planting, as it will withstand salt spray.
Clematis dioscoreifolia Levl. & Vaniot. (C. paniculata Thunb.).
Ranunculaceae. Japanese Clematis. Southern, Central and
Northern areas. Japan.
The Japanese clematis is a slender, twining vine that grows
best on a rather heavy soil and in a sunny location. The foliage
is not dense. The leaves are compound, usually with 3 leaflets
each from 1 to 4 inches in length. The small, fragrant, white
flowers which appear in late summer are borne in numerous
small panicles (Fig. 24).

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Clerodendrum speciosum D'Ombrain. (Hybrid C. thomsoniae
Balf. x C. splendens Don.). Verbenaceae. Southern area and
warmer parts of Central area.
This species is similar to the bag flower in general appearance
and habit of the plant and is used in the same way. It differs
from C. thomsoniae in having dull red flowers whose reddish
calyces persist for some time after the flowers have fallen.
Clerodendrum thomsoniae Balf. Verbenaceae. Bag Flower.
Glorybower. Bleeding-Heart. Southern area and warmer parts
of Central area. West Africa.
The bag flower is a vigorous, evergreen, twining vine that
makes a fairly dense shade and is well suited for growing on
trellises and arbors or anything about which it can twine. Its
leaves are dark green, oblong-ovate, acuminate, 3 to 41/2 inches
in length, with prominent veins which give the leaf a crinkled
appearance. The flowers, produced in large clusters during the
summer months, have a pure white, bag-shaped calyx which al-
most entirely encloses the scarlet corolla tube (Fig. 25).
Clytostoma callistegioides Bur. (Bignonia callistegioides Cham.
B. speciosa R. Grah.). Bignoniaceae. Painted Trumpet. South-
ern, Central and Northern areas. Argentina.
The painted trumpet, because of its attractive, glossy foliage
and showy bloom, is a desirable vine for planting throughout
the state, particularly in the northern area because of its hardi-
ness. The plant is evergreen, climbing by simple leaf-tendrils.

Fig. 24.-Japanese clematis, Clematis dioscoreifolia.


tt^ .^ .','- \ f

^~~~~ [ .,,v-

Ornamental Vines for Florida

The leaflets, borne in twos on short pedicels with a slender ten-
dril between, are deep green, shiny, acuminate, oblong-elliptic
and 21/ to 3 inches in length. The flowers, opening during late
March, April and early May, are about 3 inches in length, light
purple or lavender with darker purple
streaks within and are borne ter-
minally in twos (Fig. 26).
Combretum coccineum Lam. Com-
bretaceae. Scarlet Combretum. South-
ern area and warmer parts of Central
area. Madagascar.
The scarlet combretum is a vigor- I ,
ous woody vine that attains large
size. It may be used for the same 4
purposes as the showy combretum.
Like other members of the genus,
this species clambers over natural or
artificial supports, holding on by
means of blunt-hooked leaf petioles.
The brush-like, inverted spikes of
scarlet flowers are borne during
March and April.
Combretum grandiflorum G. Don.
Combretaceae. Showy Combretum.
Southern and warmer parts of Cen-
tral area. West Africa.
The showy combretum is a vigor-
ous, woody, climbing vine suitable dFige m flow, Clero-
for growing on heavy trellises, arbors
or pergolas. The young leaves, for a foot or more at the end
of the vine, first turn copper-red, an attractive feature of this
plant. The large leaves, borne opposite, are ovate and 6 to 10
inches in length. In full flower this vine presents a striking
appearance with its wealth of brilliant red flowers in closely
compacted, brush-like, inverted spikes. Individual flowers con-
sist of 4 petals, sheathed at the base with a jet black, bell-shaped
calyx. The anthers, 8 in number, are well developed and pro-
trude beyond the petals (Fig. 27). It flowers regularly from
November to June and produces scattered flowers in other
Congea tomentosa Roxb. Verbenaceae. Woolly Congea.
Southern area. India.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Under favorable conditions the woolly congea is a strong
climber suitable for growing on trellises and arbors. The ovate-
acute leaves, soft-hairy beneath, are 3 to 7 inches long, and are
borne opposite. Small white flowers, almost hidden in 3 large

Fig. 26.-Painted trumpet, Clytostoma callistegioides.

velvety bracts, are produced in large, loose, woody, terminal
panicles in late winter (Fig. 28). The showy feature of this
vine is the pink and changing tints of the large and persistent
bracts which remain for several weeks after flowering.
Cryptostegia grandiflora R. Br. Asclepiadaceae. Palay Rub-
ber-Vine. Southern area and warmer parts of Central area.
Tropical Africa.

Ornamental Vines for Florida

This species and the Madagascar rubber-vine, C. madagas-
cariensis Bojer, a native of Madagascar, are vigorous, twining,
woody vines having leathery, glossy green leaves 3 to 4 inches
long. Large, funnel-shaped, reddish-purple to pink flowers,

Fig. 27.-Flower spikes of showy combretum, Combretum grandiflorinm.

21/2 to 3 inches in diameter, are produced during the summer
and fall. By some pruning, rubber-vines may form very attrac-
tive shrubs and are frequently grown as such (Fig. 29).
Cydista aequinoctialis (L.) Miers. (Bignonia aequinoctalis
L.). Bignoniaceae. Cydista. Garlic Vine. Equinox Flower.
Southern area and warmer parts of Central area. West Indies
to Brazil.
The cydista is an evergreen climbing vine which clings by
tendrils. The plant is a fairly high climber and suited for
growing on trellises, arbors or tree trunks. It has shiny, ovate
to ovate-oblong leaves, from 3 to 4 inches long, which are borne
in twos. The plant is sometimes called garlic vine because of
the odor of the bruised or crushed leaves. The light purple or
deep pink flowers, borne in panicles and appearing at inter-

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

mittent intervals, are funnel-shaped and 2 to 21/ inches in length
(Fig. 30).
Derris scandens Benth. (Deguelia timoriensis (DC) Taub.).
Leguminosae. Malay Jewel Vine. Southern area. Malay, China
and Australia.
The Malay jewel vine is a vigorous, woody climber that is
suitable for growing on trellises and arbors. The compound
leaves are glossy green with from 9 to 18 leaflets which are
about 2 inches long. The white flowers, borne in axillarly
racemes, are produced in profusion during the summer and fall
Dioscorea spp. Dioscoreaceae. Yam. Air Potato. Cinna-
mon Vine. Southern, Central and Northern areas. Tropics.
The yams, although not recommended for permanent planting,
are very satisfactory for use as quick-growing temporary vines.
The large leaves, usually more or less heart-shaped, make a
fairly dense shade (Fig. 31). The plants are exceptionally
vigorous, climbing to heights of 30 to 40 feet. The tubers, which

Fig. 28.-Foliage, flowers and bracts of the woolly congea, Congea tomentosa.



Fig. 29.-Palay rubber-vine grown as a shrub, Cryptostegia grandiflora.

Fig. 30.-Foliage and flowers of Cydista aequinoctialis.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

are edible, attain an immense size in some species. These yams
should not be confused with the sweet potato, which is by some
termed "yams". The plants are usually killed to the ground
during the winter in areas where frost is
S, experienced, but it is not necessary to dis-
turb the tubers which will send out new
growth the following spring. The winged
yam, D. alata L., is the species most com-
monly seen in Florida.
Doxantha unguis-cati (L.) Rehd. (Big-
nonia unguis-cati L.). Bignoniaceae. Cats-
Claw. Southern, Central and Northern
areas. Argentina.
S The cats-claw is an evergreen, fast-
growing vine having slender stems and com-
yam, Dioscoeaalaa. paratively thin leaves. The plants cling
tenaciously by means of 3-parted claw-like
tendrils to either stone, brick or wood, making a fairly dense
covering within a short time. The leaflets, in pairs, are light
green, lanceolate, and from 2 to 3 inches in length. The flowers,
borne in profusion during late March and
early April, are trumpet-shaped, about Fig. 32.-Cats-
2 inches in length, golden yellow in color claw, Doxantha
with deeper colored lines in unguis-cati.
the throat (Fig. 32). An ob- r
jectionable feature of this vine
is the fact that the seeds are
widely distributed by the wind
and it rapidly becomes an
obnoxious weed plant.
Ficus pumila L. (F. repens
Hort.). Moraceae. Climbing '
Fig. Climbing Rubber. Rub-
ber-Vine. Southern, Central
and Northern areas. Asia.
This fig is an ivy-like ever-
green creeper, clinging by means of numerous aerial rootlets.
It is without peer as a solid covering of green on a brick, stucco
or stone surface. The leaves, 1 to 4 inches in length, are dark
glossy green above, lighter and prominently veined below, ovate,
and usually unequally lobed at the base. Those leaves on the
lateral branches extending out from the support are much larger

Ornamental Vines for Florida

than the ones borne close to the wall. The variety minima,
dwarf climbing fig, is a small-leaved variety that is desirable
because of the small foliage on the lateral branches. Hard fruits
resembling the common fig in appearance are produced in late
summer on the larger branches. The vine makes a vigorous
growth when once established and after a few years will require
one or two clippings annually to keep the appearance of the wall
at its best. The plant is high climbing and will make a dense
cover on walls 50 feet or more in height (Fig. 33). It is quite
suitable for seacoast planting as it will withstand salt spray.

Fig. 33.-Climbing fig on walls of Newell Hall, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Ficus pumila.

Ficus villosa Blume. Moraceae. Shaggy Fig. Southern area
and warmer parts of Central area. Malaya, China and Japan.
The shaggy fig is used for the same purpose as the climbing
fig, which it resembles very much. However, the leaves are larger
and more pointed and it is not as hardy as the climbing fig.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Gelsemium sempervirens Ait. f. Loganaceae. Carolina Yellow
Jessamine. Carolina Jessamine. Yellow Jessamine. Southern,
Central and Northern areas. Native.
The Carolina yellow jessamine is one of the most popular
native evergreen vines, having a wealth of bright yellow flowers
which are produced in late
January, February and
March. The flowers, borne
Sin the leaf axils, are funnel-
form and from 1 to 11/2
inches long (Fig. 34). The
dark green lanceolate or
oblong-lanceolate leaves are
attached at fairly wide inter-
vals to the slender, twining
stem. The foliage normally
is somewhat sparse and if
a dense cover is wanted, this
species should be interplant-
ed with some other vine.
Twenty feet is about the
maximum height to which
the plant will climb. It is
.. sometimes used as a ground
cover and can be planted to
Fig. 34.-Carolina yellow jessamine, advantage on fences or trel-
Gelsemium sempervirens.
Hedera canariensis Willd. Araliaceae. Algerian Ivy. North-
ern area. Canary Islands and North Africa.
Algerian ivy is an evergreen slightly woody vine that climbs
by aerial rootlets. It should be planted only in partially shaded
locations such as the north walls of buildings. It clings best
to brick or stone but may be used on large, evergreen trees or
as a ground cover (Fig. 35). It is quite resistant to salt spray.
Though it is hardy throughout the state, it is best adapted to
the northern area. The leaves are shallowly 3- to 7-lobed and
cordate at the base. The flowers are small, greenish-white and
in racemose umbels.
Hedera helix L. Araliaceae. English Ivy. Northern area.
Europe, Asia and North Africa.
English ivy often is confused with Algerian ivy but has smaller
leaves and the young leaves have the dark green color that is

Ornamental Vines for Florida

characteristic of the mature ones. Algerian ivy has larger leaves
and the young leaves are a yellowish-green (Fig. 36). The ivy
grown in the northern area is usually the Algerian.
Hoya carnosa R. Br. Asclepiadaceae. Wax-Plant. Southern
area and warmer parts of Central area. China and Australia.
The wax-plant is a slow-growing vine that climbs by aerial
rootlets. This plant does not produce dense foliage but may be
used where a low climbing vine of unusual type is wanted. The
leaves are about 3 to 4 inches long, smooth, succulent and shin-
ing, ovate-oblong and entire. The star-shaped, waxy flowers
are white with pink centers, fragrant and are borne in axillary
umbels (Fig. 37). The flowers are produced at intervals during
the spring, summer and fall months.

Fig. 35.-Algerian ivy, Hedera canariensis, is an evergreen vine
suitable for shady locations.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Hylocereus undatus Britt & Rose. (H. tricostatus Britt. &
Rose. Cereus triangularis Hort.).
Cactaceae. Night-blooming
Cereus. Pitaya. Strawberry-
Pear. Southern area. Mexico.
The night-blooming cereus is
a popular ornamental in the
warmer sections because of its
extremely large flowers and un-
usual, heavy, 3-angled stems.
Because of its scrambling habit
of growth, this plant is desirable
for growing on low walls where
ample room may be given. It
g. 36.-English ivy, Hedera helix. attains a length of about 25 feet.
Very large white flowers, open-
ing at night, are produced in
profusion during the sum-
mer months (Fig. 38). The
large red fruit, commonly
called the pitaya or straw-
berry-pear, are edible.
Ipomoea spp. Convolvu-
laceae. Morning Glory.
Southern area and warmer
parts of Central area. Amer-
ican tropics.
There are several species
of morning glory available
for those desiring vines of
this type, but the two species
which are possibly most de-
sirable are I. leari Paxt., the
blue-dawn flower, and the
Briggs variety of I. hors-
falliae Hook. Both species
are vigorous growing vines
with heavy foliage which are
suitable for trellises, arbors
or pergolas. The blue-dawn
flower has large purplish-
'ig. 37.-Wax-plant. Hoya carnosa. blue flowers, opening in late



Ornamental Vines for Florida

spring and early summer, and usually 3-lobed leaves. The Briggs
variety of I. horsfalliae has bright, magenta-crimson flowers
opening in early winter. Some of the Ipomoea species are suit-
able for seacoast planting.
The wooden rose or yellow morning glory, I. tuberosa L., is a
strong-growing vine which produces bell-shaped yellow flowers.
It is of interest because the dried brown seed pod with attached
sepals suggests a rose carved from wood, and is used in flower
Jasminum amplexicaule Don. (J. undulatum Ker.). Oleaceae.
Southern area and warmer parts of Central area. India.
This species has become increasingly popular since its intro-
duction and probably is in greater demand than any other jas-
mine planted in Florida. Unfortunately, this plant is now
widely known and distributed under the erroneous botanical
name of Jasminum ilicifolium.

Fig. 38.-Night-blooming cereus, Hylocereus undatus. (Photo by Turnage.)

Florida A,, ,,',l. .Il Experiment Stations

It is a strong-growing, woody vine which climbs by scrambling
over its support and is suitable for growing on trellises and

Fig. 39.-Foliage and flowers, Jasminumn amplexicaule.

Ornamental Vines tor Florida

arbors. It is, however, frequently grown as a shrub. The sim-
ple leaves are opposite, glossy dark green, ovate-lanceolate in
shape and from 2 to 4 inches long. The flowers, in evidence
during most of the year, are produced in few to many-flowered
clusters at the tips of side branches that develop from buds in
the leaf axils along
the older stem (Fig.
39). The bud is tint-
ed pink on the out-
side, but the flowers
are white when open
and are about 11/
inches across. The
calyx teeth are prom-
inent, sharp-pointed
and stand at right
angles to the tube as
the flowers mature.
Jasminum azori-
cum L. Oleaceae.
Azores Jasmine.
Southern area. Ca-
nary Islands.
The Azores jasmine
is a strong-growing
woody vine which
will climb to 20 or
lfeet in height tFig. 40.-Gold coast jasmine, Jasminumn
more feet in height dichotomum.
and produce a dense
cover. The opposite leaves are compound and consist of 3 dark
green leaflets. The center leaflet is slightly larger and has a
longer leaf stalk. The stems and leaf petioles are strongly
pubescent. The small fragrant white flowers, about 1 inch
across, are borne in many-flowered cymes at the ends of side
branches that develop from buds in leaf axils along the older
stems. They are produced at intervals throughout the year.
This plant fruits freely in southern Florida and on the Keys
and, as a result, may become a weed plant.
Jasminum dichotomum Vahl. Oleaceae. Gold Coast Jasmine.
Southern area. West Africa.
The gold coast jasmine is a vigorous growing, climbing, woody
vine with opposite, large, dark green leaves. The small, slightly

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

fragrant flowers are borne in much-branched terminal clusters
at intervals throughout the year (Fig. 40). Unopened flower
buds are tinged dark red on the outside but open flowers are
pure white on the inside of the petals. This species fruits
freely in southern Florida and, under some conditions, may
become a weed plant as
a result of birds spread-
S ., ing the seeds.
Jasminum gracile
Andr. Oleaceae. Austra-
4 lian Jasmine. Southern
Area and warmer parts
of Central area. Aus-
The Australian jas-
mine is similar in growth
habit and general ap-
pearance of the foliage
to J. amplexicaule and
can be used in the same
way. However, the dark
Green leaves are not as
Long and are wider in
comparison with their
length. This plant is
commonly distributed
under the erroneous bo-
tanical name of J. sim-
plicifolium in Florida.
The pure white flowers,
from 3/4 to 1 inch across,
Share borne in clusters in
the spring and at ir-
regular intervals during
Fig. 41.-Australian jasmine, Jasminum the rest of the year
(Fig. 41).
Jasminum gracillimum Hook. Oleaceae. Pinwheel Jasmine.
Star Jasmine. Southern and Central areas. North Borneo.
The pinwheel jasmine is very similar in general appearance
to the furry jasmine so that there is little choice or distinction
made between them for ornamental plantings. The simple leaves
are opposite, ovate-lanceolate, bright green above and pubescent

Ornamental Vines for Florida

beneath, up to 2 inches long. As compared with the furry jas-
mine, it has a more graceful flowering habit, the branches are
less pubescent and the somewhat larger flowers are borne in
dense hanging heads (Fig. 42).
The calyx is sparsely covered
with close, not spreading, pubes-
Jasminum multiflorum Andr.
(J. pubescens Willd.). Oleaceae.
Furry Jasmine. Downy Jasmine.
Southern and Central areas.
This plant is probably the one
most widely planted in Florida.
It is a strong-growing, woody vine
which climbs to a height of 20
or more feet by scrambling over
its support. It may be grown on
arbors or trellises but is more
commonly used as a shrub than as
a vine. Its deep green foliage is
and Fig. 42.-Pinwheel or star jasmine,
dense and the young leaves and Jasminum gracillimuzm.
stems are quite hairy or pubes-
cent. The leaves are simple, opposite, acute, rounded or slightly
heart-shaped at the base, and 1 to 3 inches long. The pure white
star-shaped flowers, about 1 inch across, are borne in few to
many-flowered clusters at the tips of short side branches. The
flowers are not fragrant. The calyx teeth are about 1/2 inch long
and covered with spreading yellow hairs (Fig. 43). Though flow-
ers are in evidence throughout most of the year, they are pro-
duced in greatest abundance during the summer and fall months.

Fig. 43.-Furry or downy jasmine, Jasminum multiflorum.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Jasminum officinale grandiflorum (L.) Bailey. Oleaceae.
Catalonian Jasmine. Spanish Jasmine. Italian Jasmine. South-
ern, Central and Northern areas. Southern Asia.

Fig. 44.-Catalonian jasmine, Jasminum officinale grandiflorum.

The Spanish or Italian jasmine is one of the best known species
and is used in the manufacture of perfume. This plant is a
scrambling, low climbing vine that can easily be trained as a
shrub. The compound leaves are opposite and have from 5
to 9 elliptic or ovate acute leaflets 12 to 212 inches long. The
pure white, strongly fragrant flowers, about 1/2 inches across,

Ornamental Vines for Florida

are produced in loose clusters (Fig. 44). The calyx teeth are
linear, prominent and from 14 to 1/ inch long. It has become
naturalized in southern Florida and in this area blooms the
year around.
Jasminum sambac Ait. Oleaceae. Arabian Jasmine. South-
ern and Central areas. India.
The Arabian jasmine is an old favorite which may be grown
as a low climbing vine or
trained as a shrub. The
simple leaves, borne opposite
or in threes, are elliptic or
broad-ovate in shape, dark
green, from 1l2 to 3 inches
long and prominently veined.
The very fragrant, pure
white flowers, from 11/ to
2 inches across, are produced

months in few to many-
flowered clusters. There are
two varieties of this species,
Grand Duke, which is double
flowered, and Maid of Or-
leans, which has single or
occasionally double flowers
(Fig. 45).
Fig. 45.-Arabian jasmine, Jasminumn
Lantana montevidensis sambac, variety Grand Duke.
Brig. (L. sellowiana Link &
Otto). Verbenaceae. Trailing Lantana. Southern and Central
areas. South America.
The trailing lantana is a very slender-stemmed plant that can
hardly be classed as a vine but which can be used to cover
sloping banks or low fences. The small, toothed, ovate leaves
are somewhat rough and the small lavender-purple flowers, in
heads, open from early spring until winter (Fig. 46). It is
usually advisable to cut the plants back to the ground in Feb-
ruary so that an entire new top growth will be forced in the
spring. It is tolerant of salt spray.
Lonicera japonica halliana Nichols. (Nintooa japonica Sweet.).
Caprifoliaceae. Japanese Honeysuckle. Southern, Central and
Northern areas. Eastern Asia.
Hall's variety of the Japanese honeysuckle is the type grown

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

in Florida. This plant is a strong-growing, low-climbing or
trailing evergreen vine which may be grown on fences or trellises
or used to cover banks or slopes.
The leaves are dark and glossy,
't oblong and up to 3 inches in
: length. The fragrant, tubular
flowers, 11/4 to 2 inches long,
S borne in pairs in the leaf axils,
S are white on opening, later
changing to yellow or buff (Fig.
47). The season of bloom is
heaviest during April and May
but flowers are in evidence at
intervals throughout several
Unless subjected to strict con-
trol at all times, the Japanese
honeysuckle will spread beyond
where it was intended to grow
Fig. 46.-Trailing lantana, Lan-
tana montevidensis. and soon become a nuisance.
Lonicera sempervirens L.
Caprifoliaceae. Trumpet Honeysuckle. Coral Honeysuckle.
Southern, Central and Northern areas. Native.
The trumpet honeysuckle is a native evergreen twining vine
which is adapted throughout the
state. Although the vine is high
climbing, it does not make a very
dense covering and can be ef-
fectively interplanted with other
species. The leaves are oval,
blue-green and 1 to 3 inches in
length. Tubular flowers, coral
or scarlet colored without, yel-
low within, usually less than 2
inches in length, are borne in
clustered spikes (Fig. 48). The
flowers appear intermittently
Throughout the spring and sum-
mer months.
S Monstera deliciosa Liebm.
Araceae. Ceriman. Monstera.
Fig. 47.-Japanese honeysuckle,
Lonicera japonica halliana. Southern area. Mexico.

Ornamental Vines for Florida

The ceriman, because of its large and peculiarly fashioned
leaves, is always a subject of interest. This plant is a very
vigorous, fairly high climbing evergreen aroid which clings to
its support by means of heavy aerial roots. A large tree trunk
or rough-barked tree seems to be best suited as a support for
the plant. It grows best in partial shade. The deep green leaves,
up to 2 feet in length, are perforated with holes of varying sizes
and are pinnatified or scalloped (Fig. 49). The fruit, a green-
ish yellow cone from 8 to 10 inches in length, is also an object


Fig. 48.-Trumpet honeysuckle, Lonicera sempervirens.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

of interest. It is edible, having a delicate pineapple-banana
odor, but many persons do not care for it because of the calcium
oxalate spicules present in the edible portion which cause an
irritation of the throat.
Pandorea jasminoides (Lindl.) Schum. (Tecoma jasminoides
Lindl.). Bignoniaceae. Bower-Plant. Jasmine Pandorea. South-
ern area and warmer parts of Central area. Australia.
The bower-plant, a native of Australia, may be used for the
same purposes as the podranea,
S;~i though it usually does not grow
as vigorously nor flower as
freely. The leaves are opposite,
I odd-pinate with 5 to 9 ovate to
lanceolate, smooth, entire, thick,
bright green leaflets. The at-
4 tractive flowers are borne in
few-flowered panicles during the
spring. They are 5-lobed, fun-
nel-shaped, 11/2 to 2 inches long,
white, sometimes suffused with
pink, with a pink throat
(Fig. 50).
Parthenocissus quinquefolia
(Michx.) Planch. (Ampelopsis
quinquefolia Michx.). Vitaceae.
Virginia Creeper. Northern
Fig. 49.--Ceriman, Monstera Native.
deliciosa. area. Native.
The Virginia creeper is found
in nearly all parts of Florida but because it is common, its value
as a cultivated ornamental is often overlooked. The vine is very
high climbing, bearing 5-parted compound leaves which are dull
green with a light metallic luster on the upper surface (Fig. 51).
In the late fall the leaves turn to an attractive reddish-yellow
color. Because of the leaf division, this vine is frequently mis-
taken for poison ivy. As the poison ivy has but 3 leaflets and
the Virginia creeper 5, a positive distinction is easily made.
The chief value of the plant as an ornamental is as a climber
on trunks of large trees. It clings tenaciously by means of ten-
drils to either stone or wood.
Passiflora spp. Passifloraceae. Passion-Flower. Maypop.
Southern, Central and Northern areas.
Several species of the passion-flower are grown in Florida,

Ornamental Vines for Florida


Fig. 50.-Bower-plant, Pandorea jasminoides.

but the two species most com-
monly seen are P. incarnata L.,
the maypop, which is a native
plant and can be grown in the'
northern area, and P. edulis
Sims, the purple granadilla, a
native of Brazil grown in the
southern area and warmer
parts of the central area. Fruit
of the latter is edible. Both are
strong growing vines having a
heavy deep green glossy foliage.
The flowers, which are particu-
larly striking, open in the spring
and summer and the fruit ripen
during summer and fall.

Fig. 51.-Virginia creeper, Par-
thenocissus quinquefolia.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Pereskia aculeata Mill. Cactaceae. Barbados-Gooseberry.
Lemon-Vine. Southern area and warmer parts of Central area.
Tropical America.
The barbados-gooseberry is a woody-stemmed, climbing cactus
having broad, flat, shiny, leathery leaves 2 to 3 inches in length,
with spines only in the leaf axils. This vine is a vigorous grower
and produces a fairly dense covering to a height of 15 to 20
feet in a short time. The plant flowers freely, bearing greenish-
white or pale yellow flowers about 11/2 inches in diameter
(Fig. 52).

Fig. 52.-Barbados-gooseberry, Pereskia aculeata.

Pereskia grandifolia Haw. Cactaceae. Bush Pereskia. South-
ern area. Brazil.
The bush pereskia is a tall, scandent, shrub-like plant that
may be grown as a low scrambling vine or trained as a shrub.
It is thorny and has fleshy, oblong leaves which are 3 to 6 inches
in length. This plant is desirable because of its beautiful white
to pink flowers, 11/2 to 2 inches in diameter which are borne
freely in clusters during the spring months (Fig. 53). It is
best adapted to the southern area because of its susceptibility
to injury by cold.
Petrea volubilis L. Verbenaceae. Purple Wreath. Queen's
Wreath. Southern area and warmer parts of Central area.

Ornamental Vines for Florida

West Indies, Mexico, Central America

and Northern South

Fig. 53.-Bush pereskia, Pereskia grandifolia.

The purple wreath is an evergreen, strong-growing, twining
climber, with very attractive flowers, which is suitable for
growing on trellises or arbors. The leaves are leathery, rough to
the touch, ovate or elliptic and from 2 to 8 inches long. The
individual 5-pointed flowers, in long racemes, are mauve and
blue, the sepals as well as the petals being colored (Fig. 54).
The petals drop off and the sepals persist for several weeks.
The flowering season is from spring through the summer months.
Philodendron spp. Araceae. Philodendron. Southern area
and warmer parts of Central area. American tropics.
Many species of this genus have been brought to Florida and
for a number of years have been accepted plant materials. Sev-


Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

eral large-leaved vining philodendrons, such as P. radiatum
Schott (P. dubium Hort.) and P. lacerum Schott, are being used
as vines in patios and for climbing the trunks of palms and
trees in the southern half of the peninsula. A number of philo-
dendrons have been introduced in recent years, some of which
are climbers or semi-scandent at maturity. Since their use out-
doors in Florida has not yet been well established, they are not
discussed in this bulletin.
Philodendron oxycardium Schott (P. scandens C. Koch & H.
Sellow, P. cordatum Hort.). Araceae. Heartleaf Philodendron.
Philodendron. Southern area and warmer parts of Central area.
American tropics.
This species is the philodendron that has become so popular
as a house plant. It has also been used for many years as a
low-growing screening vine, to climb wood, stone or brick walls
or the trunks of palms and trees to which it holds by aerial
roots developed at the internodes. The green to dark green
leathery leaves are cordate-ovate, 3 to 8 inches wide and 41/2
to 12 inches long. The apex
is prolonged into a slender
sharp-pointed tip about 1 inch ,
long. They are borne alter-
nately on slender woody stems.

Fig. 54.-Purple wreath, Petrea r "



Ornamental Vines for Florida

Pithecoctenium cynanchoides DC. (P. clematideum Griseb.).
Bignoniaceae. Argentine Monkeycomb. Southern area and
warmer parts of Central area. Argentina and Uruguay.
The Argentine monkeycomb, which derives its name from
the spiny fruit, is an attractive evergreen vine which clings by
means of tendrils. It is suitable for growing on trellises or
arbors. The compound leaves are composed of 3 ovate-acuminate
leaflets each up to 2 inches in length. The white flowers, ap-
pearing in the early spring in terminal clusters, are funnel-
shaped or tubular, and about 2 inches in length.
Pithecoctenium echinatum K. Schum. (P. muricatum DC.).
Bignoniaceae. Mexican Monkeycomb. Southern and warmer
parts of Central area. Mexico to Brazil.
The Mexican monkeycomb is similar in general appearance
to the preceding species and can be used for the same purpose.
The individual leaflets are larger but the flowers are about one-

Fig. 55.-Podranea, Podranea ricuoliana.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

half the size of those of the Argentine monkeycomb. They are
produced in terminal clusters and are white with a yellow to
buff color within the flower tube.
Podranea ricasoliana (Tanf.) Sprague. (Tecoma mackeni W.
Wats. Pandorea ricasoliana Baill.). Bignoniaceae. Podranea.
Ricasol Podranea. Southern area and warmer parts of Central
area. South Africa.
The podranea is an evergreen vine which grows vigorously
when once well established. It usually does not flower until it
has attained considerable size, and in order to flower profusely
should be planted in full sun. This plant is well suited for grow-
ing on trellises, arbors, fences or trees up which it readily
climbs. The leaves are opposite, odd-pinnate with 7 to 11
elliptic-ovate, dark green above, pale beneath, smooth, serrate
leaflets about 1 inch long. The 5-lobed funnel-shaped flowers
are about 2 inches long, light pink striped with red and sheathed
at the base in a 5-toothed calyx (Fig. 55). The flowers, pro-
duced in profusion during the winter and spring and at irregular
intervals in other months, are borne in loose terminal panicles.
Porana paniculata Roxbg. Convolvulaceae. Christmas-Vine.
Mountain Creeper. Horsetail Creeper. Southern area. India.
The Christmas-vine is a shrubby, twining climber, attaining
a height of about 30 feet. The large, ovate, heart-shaped leaves
are downy on the upper surface and smooth below. The flowers,
in evidence during the fall, are borne in long terminal sprays,
the individual blooms being very small, funnel-shaped, and white
in color (Fig. 56).

Fig. 56.-Christmas-vine, Porana paniculata.

Ornamental Vines for Florida

Pueraria thunbergiana Benth. (P. hirsuta Schneid.). Legu-
minosae. Kudzu-Vine. Kudzu. Southern, Central and North-
ern areas. Japan and China.
The kudzu-vine is a plant of exceptionally vigorous growth
which makes a dense shade in a short time. This vine is not
recommended for permanent ornamental planting but may be
used as a quick-growing temporary vine or interplanted with
others which may be more desirable but slower growing. This
plant has large, dark green, tri-
foliate leaves and slender twin-
ing stems. Purple flowers re-
sembling those of the pea are
borne in large racemes during
mid-summer or later. If killed
down during the winter it will
put out a vigorous new growth
in early spring, as the roots are
not injured.
Pyrostegia ignea (Vell.)
Presl. (Bignonia venusta Ker.).
Bignoniaceae. Flame Vine. Gol-
den Shower. Southern area and
warmer parts of Central area.
Fig. 57v-Flame vine, Pyrostegia
The flame vine is one of the Fig. 57.-Flame vine, Prostegia
most desirable evergreen vines
for Florida in the areas where it is adapted. This plant is an
exceptionally vigorous grower on a wide variety of soils, furnish-
ing a wealth of striking bloom during the mid-winter months.
It climbs by 3-parted tendrils and has slightly angled stems.
The light green leaves, borne opposite in twos and threes, are
glabrous above, acuminate and from 3 to 4 inches in length.
The flowers, borne in profusion in large pendulous terminal
clusters, are tubular-funnel-form in shape, bright orange in
color and 21/2 to 3 inches in length (Fig. 57).
This vine clings to both stone and wood, climbing to great
heights, and during the season of bloom is a mass of brilliant
color for several weeks. A second but lighter blooming period
follows in eary summer. It makes a fairly dense covering and
is suitable for planting in nearly any location where a flower-
ing vine is wanted.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Quisqualis indica L. Combretaceae. Rangoon-Creeper. South-
ern area and warmer parts of Central area. Burma, Malaya
and Philippines.
The rangoon-creeper is a large, fast growing, twining, shrubby
vine which makes a fairly dense cover and is suitable for use on
trellises and arbors. The leaves, borne opposite, are oblong-
lanceolate to elliptic and from 3 to 5 inches long. The fragrant
flowers, produced in terminal drooping spikes, have a slender
green calyx-tube, about 3 inches long, and white petals which
change to pink and then red (Fig. 58). It is an attractive vine,
particularly during the summer months which is its season of
full bloom.
Scindapsus aureus (Lindl. & Andre) Engler. (Pothos aureus
Lind. & Andre). Araceae. Pothos. Hunter's Robe. Southern
area. Solomon Islands.

Fig. 58.-Rangoon-creeper, Quisqualis indica.

Ornamental Vines for Florida

Pothos, an evergreen, shrubby climber, is an arcid which is
best for growing in shady locations as on tree trunks or in simi-
lar situations (Fig. 59). Because of its decided tropical effect,
it is widely planted in southern Florida where it is most fre-
quently seen decorating the trunks of palms. The large, pointed,
ovate leaves are a bright green with yellow variegation. The
heavy, succulent stems are supported by aerial roots. This plant
has long been sold in the trade under the name of Pothos which
is now considered invalid.
Senecio confusus Britton. Compositae. Mexican Flame-Vine.
Orange-Glow Vine. Southern area and warmer parts of Cen-
tral area. Mexico.
The Mexican flame-vine, a recent introduction, is rapidly be-
coming one of our more popular flowering vines. This is an
evergreen, rapid-growing vine which is suitable for growing on
trellises and arbors. The leaves are smooth, dark green, glossy,
narrowly ovate-lanceolate, 1 to 4
aj inches long and coarsely toothed.

Fig. 59.-Pothos, Scindapsus

Fig. 60.-Mexican flame-vine, Senecio

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Showy, orange or orange-red flowers, from 3 to 1 inch or more
in diameter, are produced in terminal clusters (Fig. 60). The
flowering season extends throughout most of the year, but flow-
ers are produced in greatest pro-
fusion during the spring and early
summer months.

Fig. 61.-Leaves of Smilax spp.

Smilax spp. Smilacaceae. Greenbrier. Smilax.
Southern, Central and Northern areas. Native.


Fig. 62.-Bugle chalice vine, Solandra longiflora.

Ornamental Vines for Florida

Although these vines are not suited to planting about build-
ings, there are occasionally locations such as about large trees
or places having a more or less jungle effect where they may be
used to advantage. Small gives 12 species as being native to
Florida. Several of these, S. lanceolata L. mostly, furnish the
"Southern smilax" which is used in large quantities for indoor
decorations. The plants are vigorous, mostly armed vines cling-

ing by means of tendrils
which arise from the leaf
stalk. The leaves of the vari-
ous species vary widely in
shape, size and markings
(Fig. 61).
Solandra longiflora Tus-
sac. (S. laevis Hook.). So-
lanaceae. Bugle Chalice Vine.
Solandra. Southern area and
warmer parts of Central
area. West Indies.
The bugle chalice vine is
an evergreen, heavy, woody,
rapid-growing vine which
is striking because of its ex-
tremely large flowers. Be-
cause of its size and woody
character, it requires a heavy
trellis for support. The al-
ternate, smooth, glossy, ellip-




Fig. 63.-Jasmine nightshade, Solanum

tic-oblong leaves which end in a blunt point are from 4 to 6 inches
in length. The large trumpet-shaped flowers, from 7 to 10 inches
in length, have long, slender tubes which are enclosed about
half their length at the base by the calyx. They are fragrant at
night but give out very little fragrance during the day. Buds
and newly opened flowers are creamy-white but gradually darken
to cream-yellow as they mature. The lobes of the corolla are
wavy and toothed and there is a distinctive constriction near
the lip of the cup (Fig. 62). The throat is marked by 10 distinct
purple lines. The flowers, borne singly at the ends of the
branches, appear during the late summer and fall months.
Solanum jasminoides Paxt. Solanaceae. Jasmine Nightshade.
Potato Vine. Southern, Central and Northern areas. Brazil.
2 Small, J. K. The shrubs of Florida, 1913.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

This plant is an evergreen, slender stemmed, twining vine
which makes a fairly dense cover and attains a maximum height
of about 20 feet. The shiny, smooth, ovate-lanceolate leaves are
about 3 inches long, entire or the lower ones pinnate. The
flowers, about an inch in diameter, in many-flowered clusters,
are star-shaped and white, tinged with blue (Fig. 63). It blooms
during April and at intervals throughout the summer.

Fig. 64.-Costa Rican nightshade, Solanum wendlandi.
Solanum seaforthianum Andr. Solanaceae. Brazilian Night-
shade. Southern area. Tropical America.
Brazilian nightshade is a graceful, slender vine attaining a
height of 10 to 15 feet. It is well suited for growing on small
trellises where a small, delicate vine is wanted. The leaves are
compound, each having 3 lanceolate leaflets which are usually
not over 2 inches in length. The star-shaped flowers, borne
freely in drooping axillary clusters during the spring months,
are about 1 inch across and light purple or blue.
Solanum wendlandi Hook. Solanaceae. Costa Rican Night-
shade. Paradise Flower. Southern area. Costa Rica.
The Costa Rican nightshade is a vigorous woody vine attain-
ing a length of from 50 to 60 feet within a few years. It is well

Ornamental Vines for Florida

adapted to most locations where a large, free-flowering vine is
wanted. The large, variable leaves, up to 10 inches long, have
the uppermost leaves simple and oblong-acuminate, the others
lobed or trifoliate with the terminal leaflet the largest. A few
thorns are usually present on the leaves. Its exceptionally at-
tractive lilac-blue flowers, 2 to 21/2 inches in diameter, are borne
in large branching clusters during the spring and summer
months (Fig. 64).
Stephanotis floribunda Brongn. Asclepiadaceae. Madagascar
Stephanotis. Madagascar-Jasmine. Stephanotis. Southern area.
The Madagascar stephanotis is an evergreen twining vine
suitable for growing on low barriers or small trellises. The
plant is fast-growing but does not attain great height. The
leaves are shining, leathery, elliptic, thick, up to 4 inches long.
Its fragrant, waxy, white or cream-colored flowers, funnel-form,
from 1 to 2 inches long with 5 pointed lobes, are borne in axil-
lary clusters during the summer months (Fig. 65). This is the
species of stephanotis that florists frequently use in wedding
Stigmaphyllon ciliatum Juss. Malphigiaceae. Fringed Ama-
zon Vine. Southern area. Brazil and northern South America.
The fringed Amazon vine is a woody, twining vine that seems
to thrive best in a shaded location. The leaves are smooth,
heart-shaped and have a fringe of hairs around the margin.
The attractive flowers, borne in profusion in axillary clusters
during the summer months, are bright yellow, with unequal
petals, the lobes of which are clawed.

Fig. 65.-Madagascar stephanotis, Stephanotis floribunda.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Syngonium podophyllum Schott. (Nephthytis liberica Hort.
N. afzeli Hort.). Araceae. Syngonium. Nephthytis. Southern
area and warmer parts of Central area. Mexico and Central
This plant is a large, fast-growing, high-climbing aroid that

Fig. 66.-Syngonium, Syngonium podophylum.
Fig. 66.-Syngonium, Syngonium podophyllum.

Ornamental Vines for Florida

is used for climbing the trunks of palms and trees
clings by means of heavy aerial roots (Fig. 66).
grow best in a semi-shaded loca-
tion. The mature leaves, borne
on long petioles, are palmately s-
lobed and have 5 to 11 (usually ,' -
9) divisions with the central
lobe somewhat larger than the
others. The juvenile stage of
this plant, which has entire
arrow-shaped leaves, is the
common Nephthytis liberica of
commerce. S. auritum (L.)
Schott is very similar to this
species and is used in the same
manner. It has 3-lobed leaves
of which the terminal lobe is
very much larger than the other

to which it
It seems to

Tecomaria capensis (Lindl.)
SachTeomaa capensis (Lindl.) Fig. 67.-Cape-honeysuckle,
Spach. (Tecoma capensis Lindl.). Tecomaria capensis.
Bignoniaceae. Cape-Honey-
suckle. Southern area and warmer parts of Central area. South
The cape-honeysuckle is a strong-growing, woody, evergreen,
shrubby vine which has fairly dense foliage and attractive bloom.
By pruning, this plant can be
grown as a shrub. The shiny
green leaves are odd-pinnate,
with 7 to 9 ovate, acute, serrate
leaflets which are from 1 to 2
inches long. The orange-red
flowers, borne terminally in -.
clusters, are tubular with the
tube curved, 4-lobed, and about
4 inches long (Fig. 67). They
are in evidence during the
greater part of the year.
Thunbergia fragrans Roxb.
Acanthaceae. Sweet Clock-Vine.
Southern area. India.
Southern area. India. hFig. 68.-Sweet clock-vine,
The foliage of the sweet Thunbergia fragrans.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

clock-vine somewhat resembles that of the Bengal clock-vine but
is more delicate and the vine is less robust. The fragrant pure
white flowers, about 11/2 inches in diameter, opening in late
summer, have a very slender tube with flaring lobes (Fig. 68).
The seeds may be spread by birds and as a
result, it may become a weed plant.
Thunbergia grandiflora Roxb. Acan-
thaceae. Bengal Clock-Vine. Sky
Flower. Southern area and warmer
parts of Central area. Bengal.
The Bengal clock-vine is an

Fig. 69.-Bengal clock-vine, Thunbergia grandiflora.

exceptionally rapid growing evergreen woody vine which has
dense foliage and very desirable bloom. This vine is well suited
for growing on trellises, arbors or buildings. The large leaves
are broadly ovate, pointed, deep green and slightly rough to
the touch. The 5-lobed bell-shaped flowers, about 3 inches in
diameter, are blue in color (Fig. 69). A white-flowered variety,
alba, is also grown. The period of bloom is throughout the sum-
mer extending well into the fall months.
Trachelospermum jasminoides Lem. (Rhynchospermum jas-
minoides Lindl.). Apocynaceae. Confederate Jasmine. Chinese
Star Jasmine. Southern, Central and Northern areas. China.
The confederate jasmine is one of the few vines bearing very




Fig. 70.-Confederate jasmine, Trachelospermum jasminoides.


Fig. 71.-Burma vallaris, Vallaris heynei.


Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

fragrant flowers. The flowers, which resemble those of several
species of Jasminum, are pure white, star-shaped, about 3/4 inch
in diameter and are borne in large numbers in loose cymes which
are usually terminal (Fig. 70). The flowering season extends
from April into May. The leaves are evergreen, leathery, ovate-
lanceolate, deep, glossy green above and lighter underneath.
The stems are woody without tendrils or aerial rootlets, the
vine climbing by twining. The plant thrives on a wide variety
of soils but is somewhat slow growing until well established.
Vallaris heynei Spreng. (V. dichotoma Wall.). Apocynaceae.
Burma Vallaris. Southern area and warmer parts of Central
area. India.

Fig. 72.-Common vanilla, Vanilla fragrans.

The Burma vallaris is an evergreen, tall-growing, heavy woody
vine which is best suited for growing on large trellises or
pergolas. The dark green, oval to linear-oblong leaves are promi-

Ornamental Vines for Florida

nently veined and up to 4 inches in length. Numerous clusters
of small, fragrant flowers are borne in the spring. Individual
flowers are cup-shaped, with 5 lobes, about %2/ inch in diameter
and creamy white or greenish-white in color (Fig. 71).

Fig. 73.-Chinese wisteria, Wisteria sinensis.

Vanilla fragrans (Salisb.) Ames. (V. planifolia Andr.). Or-
chidaceae. Common Vanilla. Mexican Vanilla. Vanilla Bean.
Southern area. Native, Mexico, Central America and Ameri-
can tropics.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

The pods of common vanilla, an orchid, are one of the sources
of pure vanilla which is used in the manufacture of the common
vanilla extract. It can be grown in only the most protected
parts of the state and its use in Florida is only as an interesting
ornamental. The plant, clinging by means of aerial roots to
either stone, wood or bark, should be planted only in semi-
shaded locations. The large, thick, fleshy leaves, oblong-elliptic,
acuminate in shape, are borne alternately on thick, succulent
stems (Fig. 72). The greenish-yellow, inconspicuous flowers,
about 2 inches long, are borne in many-flowered racemes. The
seed pods, an interesting feature of this vine, are narrowly
cylindrical, 4 to 9 inches long and 1/4 to 1/2 inch in diameter.
Very few pods develop unless the flowers are hand pollinated.
Wisteria sinensis Sweet. (W. chinensis DC.). Leguminosae.
Chinese Wisteria. Northern area. China.
The Chinese wisteria, a deciduous, heavy, woody climber with
its wealth of attractive flowers, has long been one of the favorite
flowering vines in northern Florida. This plant is very vigorous
in growth and is usually at its best when grown on large trellises
or allowed to climb native pines. By staking and pruning, it
may be trained as a shrub or small spreading tree. The leaves
are pinnately compound, usually with 11 ovate to ovate-lanceo-
late leaflets. The showy, blue-violet, pea-shaped flowers are
produced in abundance in long pendent racemes in March or
early April (Fig. 73). A white flowered variety, alba, is also

Ornamental Vines for Florida



A ir potato .............................
Allamanda ......................
Amazon-vine, fringed ......

Bag flower ..........................
B~rbados-gooseberry ....
B~uhinia, red ........................
Bauhinia, Saigon .................
Bleeding-heart ....................
Bougainvillea ...................
Bougainvillea, great ..-..........
Bougainvillea, lesser ......
Bower-plant ...........................
Burma vallaris .............

Calico-flower .. ...............
Cats-claw ....... ..............
Ceriman .................. .
Cestrum, orange ........
Cestrum, purple .............. ....
Chalice vine .. ..................
Christmas-vine ............
Cinnamon vine ... ........
Clematis, Japanese .. .....
Clock-vine, Bengal .......
Clock-vine, sweet ...................
Combretum, scarlet ............
Combretum, showy .......
Confederate jasmine .......
Congea, woolly ........................
Corallita ........... ...........--
Coral-vine ...................
Coromandel ...........................
Crab's eye vine .. .......
Cross-vine ...........................
Cydista ..........--...--.

Equinox flower ......................

Fig, climbing ..........................
Fig, shaggy ..........................
Five-leaf akebia ....................
Flame vine ................................

Garlic vine ................-...
Glorybower ....................
Golden shower ..............-....--
Granadilla, purple ...............

........ 30
.. .. 52
........ 21
........ 30
....... 24
.... 27
..... 26
.. .... 50
.. 68

... 48
... 28
..... 29
.. 61
.... 58
..... 34
... 29
..... 66
..... 65
........ 31
........ 66
........ 31
.. 17
........ 17
...... 20
.... 22

Greenbrier ..............

Heralds-trumpet ...........
Honeysuckle, cape .........
Honeysuckle, coral .........
Honeysuckle, Japanese .
Honeysuckle, trumpet ...
Horsebrier ......................
Horsetail creeper ..........
Hunter's robe ..............

Ivy, Algerian ........ .....
Ivy, English ................
Ivy, marine .................

......... .... 60

................. 22
....-. .... 65
.....- ..-... 48
....... ..... 47
............ 48
......... .... 60
............. 56
.. ............. 58

....... ... 38
........... ...- 38
......... ... 29

Jasmine, Arabian ................... ...... 47
Jasmine, Australian ................. 44
Jasmine, Azores .......................- 43
Jasmine, Catalonian ........ ........ 46
Jasmine, downy ........................... 45
Jasmine, furry ......... .......... ... 45
Jasmine, gold coast ................ 43
Jasmine, Italian .......................... 46
Jasmine, pinwheel .................... 44
Jasmine, Spanish ..................... .. 46
Jasmine, star ................................ 44
Jessamine, Carolina ..................... 38
Jessamine, Carolina yellow .......... 38
Jessamine, coral .--..............-. ....... 29

K udzu ......................... .. ... ......... 57

Lantana, trailing ........
Lemon-vine ................

......... 47
............ 52

....... 33 Madagascar-jasmine ...................
Malay jewel vine ....................
....... 33 M aypop ........................................
Mexican flame-vine ..................
........ 36 Monkeycomb, Argentine .........-
........ 37 Monkeycomb, Mexican ..............
...... 16 Monstera ..........................
..... 57 Morning-glory .................
Morning-glory, woolly .................
....... 33 Morning-glory, yellow ..............
........ 30 Mountain creeper .....................

........ 57
........ 50

Nepal trumpet flower .................. 22

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Nephthytis .....................
Night-blooming cereus ....
Nightshade, Brazilian .......
Nightshade, Costa Rican
Nightshade, jasmine .........

Orange-glow vine -.......-

Painted trumpet ...............
Pandora, jasmine .........--
Paradise flower ..............
Passion-flower .......-....
Pelican-flower ................
Pereskia, bush ...............
Philodendron ..............
Philodendron, heartleaf .
Pirk vine ......................
Pitaya -----............... --... ....
Podranea .................-........
Potato vine ....... .............
Pothos ............... .. ---...-
Purple wreath ................

Queen's wreath ....

Ricasol podranea
Rooster flower ....
Rosa-de-Montana ..
Rosary pea ............
Rubber, climbing ..

......... 64
... 40
..... 62
..... 62

Rubber-vine ............ ..
Rubber-vine, palay ..........
Rubber-vine, Madagascar

........ 36
....... 32
........ 33

.. 61 Sickle thorn ... ...... ..... .......... 17
Sky flower ......... ...... ................. 66
...... 59 Sm ilax .-........................ .- --- ..-- 60
Solandra .......................... .... .. 1
..- 30 Star jasmine, Chinese ............. 86
...50 Stephanotis, Madagascar .......... 63
... 62 Strawberry-pear ...-.......-......... 40
.. 50 Syngonium ...................... ............ 64

....- 19
.......... 52
.. ..-.. 53
.......... 54
.......... 17
..-........ 40
......... 56
..... ... 61
.......... 58
........... 52

................... ... 52

.......- ... ... ... 58
......... ........ 56
......-................ 19
-.. .... -....-....... 17
........................ 16
......................... 36

Trumpet-creeper ............
Trumpet-creeper, Chinese
Trumpet-flower ........
Trumpet-vine .-.....--..

Vanilla bean .......
Vanilla, common
Vanilla, Mexican
Virginia creeper ...

Wax-plant ............
Wisteria, Chinese .
Wooden rose .......
Woolly congea ...-

Yam ...................
Yellow allamanda
Yellow jessamine

..... 28
-. 28
... 22
... 28

.. ...... 69
.......... 69
.... 69
... 50

..-.-.-.---.-.- 39
--.......... .. 70
........- ...-..... 41
................... 31

....-.-............ 34
................. 17
... ............. 38

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs