Noncontagious diseases of tropical foliage plants

Material Information

Noncontagious diseases of tropical foliage plants
Series Title:
Noncontagious diseases of tropical foliage plants
Alternate title:
Bulletin 812 ; Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Marlatt, Robert B.
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Publication Date:

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
ADA2680 ( ltuf )
14221675 ( oclc )
022594272 ( alephbibnum )


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.|> February 1980 Bulletin 812


Robert B. Marlatt

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Agricultural Experiment Stations'
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
F. A. Wood, Dean for Research
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Agricultural Experiment Stations
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville
F. A. Wood, Dean for Research







Robert B. Marlatt

Plant Pathologist
University of Florida
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Agricultural Research and Education Center

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This public document was promulgated at an annual cost of
$9,065 or a cost of 55 cents a copy to provide information on
nonpathogenic diseases of tropical foliage plants produced in


Introduction ........... ... ........................... ........ .... 1

Use of This Manual .................................. ........... 2

Mineral Deficiencies and Toxicities .................. .............. 2
Boron ......................... ............................ 2
Calcium ............. .. ... .................... .......... 5
Copper ................. ....... ..... .......... ...... .... 7
Fluoride ............................................... 7
Iron .......... .......... ................... ...... ....... 11
M agnesium ..................................... ... ......... 11
M anganese ................................................ 11
Nitrogen ................... .............. .................. 12
Phosphorus ................................................. 14
Potassium .................................... .... ............ 14
Sulphur ................................. ..... ............ 15
Miscellaneous Micro Elements .............................. ... 16
Zinc ......... ........... ....... .......................... 16
General Fertilizer Excess ....................... .............. 17

Pesticide Injury ............................. .. ................. 18
Fungicides ................................................. 18
Herbicides ................................................... 20
Insecticides and M iticides ...................... .............. 20
Nematicide ....................... ..... ... ................... 20

Other Toxic Materials .......................... ................ 20
Gases ....................... ........ ............... 20
Growth Regulators ............ ......... ....... ........... 26
Leaf Shining Materials ..................... .................. 27
Si tntiot .. ......... ........ ................ . .... .. .... 27
Wood Preservatives ............................ .............. 27

Radiation ................ ..... ............................. 28
Insufficient Light .... ....... ........... ................. 28
Excessive Light ................. ............................ 29
Other Excessive Radiation ..................... .............. 29

RelativeHumidity .............. ............. .................. 29
Insufficient Humidity ................... .. ...... .......... 29
Excessive Humidity ......................................... .30


Temperature .................. ....................... ....... . 30
Excessive Heat .............. ................ ............ 30
Freezing ................................................... 32
Chilling ...... .............. ........................ 33
Temperature Miscellaneous .................................... 36

Genetic ..................... ................... ......... 36
Reversion of Mutants ........................................ 36
Albinos ............. ........................... ......... 37

Irrigation ........................................ ............ 37

Bibliography ............................. .. .... .............. 40

Index ........................................................ 48


Araucaria excelsa Albino seedlings .............................. 38
Brassaia actinophylla Insecticide injury .......................... 25
Chrysalidocarpus lutescens Boron deficiency ........................ 3
Chrysalidocarpus l tscens Boron toxicity .......................... 6
Chrysalidocarpus lutescens Manganese deficiency .................. 13
Chrysalidocarpus lutescens Zinc deficiency ........................ 16
Dieffenbachia picta Genetic reverting ............................ 37
Dracaenafragrans Chilling injury ................................ 34
Dracaena sanderiana Fluoride toxicity ............................ 8
Ficus elastica Boron deficiency .................................... 4
Ficus elastica Potassium deficiency ................................ 15
Ficus elastic Freeze inrlury ................................... 32
Ficus elastic Drought injury .................................... 38
Philodendron scandens oxycardium Magnesium deficiency ........... 12
Saintpaulia lonantha Boron deficiency ............................. 5
Sansevieria trifasciata Chilling injury ........................... 35
Sansevieria trifasciata Freeze injury .............................. 33


An internationally known plant pathologist, R. B. Stevens, describ-
ing nonparasitic noncontagious) disease, in 1974 stated, "We do not
know the precise toll but it is entirely likely that it equals or exceeds
that of disease caused by living organisms" (119).
As early as 1909, Sorauer devoted one entire volume of his two-vol-
ume treatise on plant diseases to those not caused by pathogens (118).
Many foliage plants submitted for diagnosis by Florida nursery-
men are abnormal because of unfavorable environment rather than
parasitic bacteria, fungi, nematodes, or viruses.
In attempting to diagnose foliage plant disease, one can easily find
information pertaining to contagious diseases, but little is available
c( icerning those which are noncontagious. It is hoped that this man-
ual fills this gap and that it will be useful to commercial growers, ex-
tension agents, and researchers.
In distinguishing noncontagious from contagious diseases, a few
general observations may be helpful. There are exceptions to each of
them, but the observations will be useful for making a preliminary
1. Several unrelated genera or species of plants are often affected
by a noncontagious disease in the area inspected. This is rarely the
case with disease caused by pathogens.
2. Noncontagious diseases may appear suddenly and be evenly dis-
tributed, whereas contagious diseases often spread from one small
area of a nursery or from the edges where weed hosts occur.
3. Noncontagious diseases may be indicated if distribution of dis-
eased plants i: related to arpea covered (or not covered) by sprinklers;
CCi' .Lii Ly ptS.-i ut size o Ci jit~ ijiti ,g, a ) i p LCulaJi d'iitxJc liua u oj. i';lceii-
house; areas adjoining pesticide or fertilizer storage, paths, or park-
ing lots.
4. The recent cultural history of the plants often offers a clue; i.e.,
application of fertilizer or pesticides, irrigation, or the origin of the
5. Can the problem be related to occurrence of frost, strong winds,
hail, flooding, or lightning, all of which may result in disease?
6. If there is no sign of a fungus or a bacterial ooze, one can suspect
a noncontagious disease or one caused by a virus. Bear in mind, how-
ever, that invasion of affected tissues by noninfective fungi and bac-
teria is inevitable, giving a false impression of a contagious disease.
7. Noncontagious diseases may cause no lesions. If lesions occur,
they frequently have no water-soaked or chlorotic margins.

If the foregoing procedures and information provided by the nur-
serymen suggest a specific cause of'disease, the 7Tale /'Crntents and
Index of'Plants will direct one to the section containing a description
of its symptoms, cause, and control or prevention. diagnosiss is an art;
therefore, it will be especially helpful to be familiar with the plant
and local conditions.
All statements pertaining to the diseases in this manual stem from
experimental results unless otherwise qualified as observations or
opinions. Some of the problems discussed have only been studied in
solution cultures or are rare. They are included in hopes that they
will be helpful to persons growing plants hydroponically or experi-


Boron Deficiency and Toxicity
Symptoms. Chrysalidocarpus lutescens, deprived of sufficient bo-
ron, exhibits plant stunting as well as undersized inflorescences,
flowers, and fruits. Leaflets have a chlorotic mottle which begins at
their tips. Narrow transverse chlorotic streaks appear interveinally;
these are clustered, become more numerous, coalesce, and eventually
become necrotic (Fig. 1). Immature leaves and-terminal buds die and
stems are abruptly tapered near their apices (71). Dracaena godsef-
fiana, grown without boron, gains 3% less weight, as compared !:i nor-
mal plants, with no additional symptoms. However, Dracaena
sanderiana, under similar conditions, produces leathery leaves with
brown margins and weighs 16% less than normal (11). Boron defi-
ciency symptoms ofFicus elu.,tica 'Decora' include plant stunting and
distortion of immature leaves (Fig. 2). Transverse splits in their upper

Terminal buds are very small and die. Philodendron oxycardium, de-
prived of boron, has short internodes, thick and brittle stems, and
small, stiff leaves. Saintpauliat ionantha has similar symptoms (Fig.
3), and terminal leaves ofPhilodendron are discolored with irregular
yellowish streaks (32).
Control. Drenching soil with water containing 2 parts per mil-
lion (ppm) boron will remedy a boron deficiency. One source recom-
mends that borax be applied to deficient soil at a rate of 5 to 10 pounds
per acre (3). These rates ofapplication should not be exceeded because
of possible toxicity.
Chrysalidocurpus lutescens, growing in the presence of excessive
amounts of boron, develops severe die-back of tips of mature leaflets

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Fraure 1. Chrysalzclocuirpiz liitcicens frond with horon deficiency. Note the
nairo% transvelrse 'yellow strealks on leaflets
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i'4ur'e 2. 1oron detic IenL P'F s elas.ica 'Decoa' is stunted, and terminal
leaves are d istorted.
(Fig. 4). The symptom progresses until leaves are dead except for im-

mature fronds (71).
Mature leaves on Ficus elastica 'Decora' containing too much boron
develop scattered, circular brown spots with hlorotic halos. These
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first are noticeable only on the undersides of'leaves but eventually are
visible from above Lesions become more numerous, widely scattered

on leaves, and then affected leaves drop from stems, starting with the

oldest ones. Immature leaves remain normal and are clustered at the
apex of the plant (71). Saintpaulia ionantha 'Mentor Boy' irrigated

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Figure. Saintpaulin ionantha plant with boron deficiency. Leaves are brittle
and cupped.

with water containing 5 ppm boron developed dead areas around leaf
margins (64). Carissa grandiflora is the only foliage plant listed as
tolerant to excessive boron (37).
Control. Application of lime to soil has been observed to reduce
the availability of boron. If excess boron comes from irrigation water,
another water source would have to be found. Sometimes well water
containing too much boron can be improved by changing the well

In addition to the following symptoms, a grower should be on the
lookout for weak leaf petioles. Calcium promotes cell wall strength.
Symptoms. Draccena deremensis 'Warneckii' under greenhouse
conditions shows drastic growth reduction when calcium is withheld.
Both young and mature leaves become severely serrated, and many
brown spots spread from leaf margins until most of the leaf is spotted.
Oldest leaves develop rust-like pustules, and new shoots are weak-
ened and have blackish leaflets. Deficient leaves have a tissue content
of only 0.32% calcium as compared to 1.54% for normal leaves (113).
Lack of calcium has caused Dracaena godseffiana to have 41% less
weight, as compared to normal plants. Both D. godseffiana and D.
sanderiana exhibit tipburn of young leaves followed by yellowing of

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Figure 4. Chrysalidocarpus lutescens frond showing symptoms of boron toxic-
ity. Tips of leaflets are dying back.



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leaf margins (11). Philodendron giganteum expresses deficiency as a
slight yellowing of interveinal areas. Later, yellowish areas turn
brown. Axillary buds grow slowly, if at all. Finally the roots become
short and brown, with knob-like tips; there are fewer branch roots
(125). Philodendron oxvcardium is affected differently; small, yellow-
ish spots appear on basal leaves first, then all leaves are affected. Yel-
low spots coalesce, and leaves thicken until they feel leathery. Stems
thicken and bear raised, corky areas (32).
Control. Addition of calcium to the soil mix, such as limestone or
gypsum, has been observed to diminish calcium deficiency.

Copper Deficiency
Symptoms. Inadequate amounts of copper cause new leaves of
Aglaonema comrmuttturn 'Fransher' to be distorted and small (ca. 1x4
cm) with curved and rolled edges. These symptoms are particularly
apparent during cool weather (108). Copper deficiency is particularly
common in pure peat mixes, and yields are decreased by a lack of cop-
per in newly cleared peat fields.
Control. Adding copper oxide at 40 pounds per acre gives a three-
fold yield increase of caladiums (35). Copper deficiency of Aglaonema
can be prevented by addition of 200 mg copper Sequestrene (13% Cu)
per 15-cm container. A fungicide spray, Kocide (54% Cu), at a rate of
3.5 grams in 2 liters of water also is helpful (108).

Fluoride Toxicity
Symptoms. In experiments devised to simulate air pollution,
Aglaonema x 'Silver King' has shown intermediate susceptibility to
HF fumigation while Asparaguo:s sprengeri has been highly suscepti-
1l- f20) A rrA r'". I.,.l,,4r1(^n, pxhibifs a mild lI-Jrfhlorosi.s; espTe-
cially in leaves under development, and Ardisia crenata shows a slight
marginal chlorosis of mature leaves (131). Chamacdorea elegans is
very susceptible and develops large, brown necrotic blotches with
dark centers, as well as leaf margin chlorosis and necrosis (131).
Chlorophytum comosum develops dead areas at leaf tips and margins,
and dead spots infrequently occur in white areas of leaves (103).
Symptoms on Chrysalidocarpus lutescens include leaf tip and mar-
ginal leaf scorch, streaks of interveinal chlorosis, and small tan or
brown spots with dark centers randomly scattered over leaves (131).
Cordyline terminalis 'Baby Doll' leaves bear small, brown, dead areas
which enlarge and coalesce until more than half of the lower leaves
are affected (14, 96). New leaf tips blacken and shrivel on Dizygotheca
elegantissima, and margins become scorched. These injuries occur

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Figure b. 1 sanueriana leaf with fluoride toxicity symptoms. Note ob-
long, brown spots in white areas.

during growth flushes, but no new damage appears once leaves are
mature (131). Dracaena deremensis 'Warneckii' and D. sanderiana at
first show symptoms as light brown, oblong spots within the white
areas of leaves (Fig. 5). Green areas have light green spots and tip ne-
crosis (98, 129). D. deremensis 'Janet Craig' exhibits dead leaf tips,
usually bordered by a yellowish band, and top weight is abnormally
low (104). Recently mature leaves of Howeia fosteriana show general
chlorosis at high fluoride concentrations (10 jig F/m3), but when the
gas is less concentrated (0.4 or 2 jug F/m3), only interveinal chlorosis
appears, and eventually leaf margins and tips are necrotic and dead
spots occur in leaves. Pwhenix roebelenii exhibits random brown fleck-
ing on leaflets, and recently matured Podocarpus macrophyllus leaves
have tip burn (131). Plants reported to be sensitive to fluorides (Table
1) include Chlorophytum cornosum, Cordyline terminalis 'Baby Doll',
C. terminalis (sport), Dracaena deremensis 'Janet Craig', and D. dere-
mensis 'Warneckii'. Plan ts considered to be slightly sensitive are Dra-

Spathiphyliumn cannaefliumr, Stromaunthe amabilis, and Yucca ele-
phantipes (105, 129). In .tsts to determine susceptibility of plants to
fumigation with hydrogen fluoride, Dracaena fragrans 'Massan-
geana'was considered tolerant, Aglaonema 'Silver King' intermedi-
ate, Dracaena deremensis 'Warneckii' susceptible, and Asparagus
sprengeri highly susceptible (129).
Control. Adjust soil pH to 6 6.5 by adding dolomite 5 to 10 lb per
cubic yard of potting mix. Hydrated lime can be substituted for dolo-
mite; use 80% of dolomite recommended. Superphosphate fertilizer
should not be.used; it contains 1.5% fluorine. Reduction of transpira-
tion by cuttings is also helpful (105). Fluorides in perlite are readily
removed if leached thoroughly two or three times with fluoride-free
water, as illustrated by Table 2.

Table 1. Susceptibility of'some foliage plants to fluoride air pollution.
Plant Susceptibility

Aglaonema x'Silver Queen' L

Aphelandra squarrtsa L

Araicaria heterophylla L

Ardisia crenata M

Asparagus densiflorus 'Sprengeri' H

Brassaia actinophylla L

Caladium x 'Red Flag' & 'Frieda Hemple' L

Chamaedorea elegans M-H

Chlorophytum comosum 'Variegatum' H

Chrysalidocarpus lutescens L

Codiaeum variegatum L

Coffea arabica L

Cordyline terminalis H

Crassula argentea L

Dizygotheca elegantissirna M

Dracaena deremensis 'Janet Craig' H

Dracaena deremensis 'Warneckii' H

Dracaenafragrans 'Massangeana' L

Dief/inwbachic: x '"E-:otica' L

Epipremnum anreum (Scindapsus aureus) L

Gynura procumbens L

Hemigraphis L

Howeiafosteriana M-H

Hoya carnosa L

Maranta leuconeura erythroneura M

Nephrolepis exaltata 'Bostoniensis' L

Nephrolepis exaltata 'Fluffy Ruffle' L

Table 1. Continued.

Peperoinia caperata

Peperomia obtusifolia

Pepermnia obtusifolia 'Variegata'

Philodendron scandens oxycardiumn

Philodendron bipen nifoliu m (P panduriform e)

Philodendron x'Red Emerald'

Philodendron selloum


Pilea cadierei

Plectranthus australis

Podocarpus macrophyllus

Pteris crelica 'Albo-lineata'

Pteris cretica 'Mayii'

Pteris ensiformis 'Evergemensis'

Sansevieria.trifasciata 'Hahnii'

Syngonium podophyllum

Zebrina pendula
Susceptibility H = high, M = medium, L = low (130, 131).

















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Table2. Influence of sequential leaching of perlite on fluoride toxicity of Cor-
dyline terminalis rooted in perlite leachate.
Necrosis rating
Leachate numbers
Treatment 0 1 2 3 4

Deionized water 1
Perlite (source A)
Perlite (source B)

'1 = no necrosis, 5 = severe necrosis (54).

Iron Deficiency
Iron is not distributed in plants from old to young leaves; therefore,
the latter show severest symptoms. If the acidity of growing media is
below pH 7, addition of iron salts or chelates will prevent deficiency;
if over pH 7, frequent foliar sprays may be needed.
Symptoms. Iron deficient Dracaena deremensis 'Warneckii' has
extremely chlorotic immature leaves and occasional necrotic spots
near the leaf bases. This spotting may eventually cover the entire
leaf. Deficient leaves contain only 83 ppm iron compared to the nor-
mal 223 ppm (113). Dracaena godseffiana and D. sanderiana develop
yellow immature leaves which become almost white. Deficient D.
sanderiana plants have 75% less weight than normal plants (11). D.
godseffiana has severe defoliation and stem tip dieback, whereas Phil-
odendron oxycardium leaves demonstrate only a mild interveinal yel-
lowing (32).
Control. Iron-EDTA chelate applied as a spray at 1 pound per 100
gallons of water stopped the symptoms. Plants were sprayed four
times at weekly intervals; iron sulfate spray caused an unsightly
green spotting (114).

Magnesium Deficiency
Symptoms. Young leaves of magnesium deficient Dracaena god-
seffiana produce dead tips and plants can be underweight as much as
41%. D. sanderiana also has tipburn and light blotches in dried leaves.
Leaves become brittle, the older ones are cupped; plants weigh up to
31% less than normal (11). Philodendron scandens oxycardium plants
lose vigor; stems are unusually thin with short internodes and small
leaves with yellowish green markings in an inverted V-shape (32).

(See Fig. 6).
Control. Control has been obtained by spraying foliage with a 2%
to 3% solution of magnesium sulfate (Epsom salts) or mixing dolo-
mite into the potting media.

Manganese Deficiency and Toxicity
Symptoms. Manganese is another mineral that cannot move
from mature to young leaves; therefore, symptoms of its deficiency
are most severe in immature leaves. Chrysalidocarpus lutescens ter-
minal fronds are stunted, twisted severely, and brownish or dead.
This symptom is referred to as "frizzle top" (Fig. 7). Dracaena godsef-
fiana growth rate is reduced, and new leaves near the stem tip form a

Figure 6. Philodendron scandens oxycardium leaves showing magnesium de-
ficiency. Chlorotic area forms an inverted "V".

rosette. Later, this cluster of terminal leaves becomes yellow and
dries, and the stem tip dies back. Plants weigh 15% less than normal.
Older leaves of D. sanderiana die, beginning at their tips, and weigh
as much as 26% less than normal plants (11).
Control. Sprays of chelated manganese were observed to be ben-
eficial in some instances, but soil application of manganese salts, che-
lates, and fitted materials are most commonly used and longer
lasting. Reducing soil acidity to below pH 6.5 may also be effective.
Plants in general which receive excessive amounts of manganese
become yellowish and stunted. Sterilizing some soils by steaming at
temperatures above 1800F releases sufficient amounts of available
manganese to cause this toxicity (38). Maintaining excessive mois-
ture levels for prolonged periods may also induce manganese toxicity.
Control. Leaching steamed soil thoroughly will remove excessive

may also be reduced by increasing the soil acidity to pH 6.5.

Nitrogen Deficiency
Symptoms. Insufficient available nitrogen causes the entire fo-
liage of Dieffenbachia picta 'Exotica' to become very light green in
color, and plants stop growing (100). Leaves of Dracaena godseffiana
become yellowish, beginning with lower leaves. As symptoms prog-
ress leaves become bright yellow, eventually die, and fall off. Plants
weigh 88% less than normal. D. sanderiana exhibits similar symp-
toms, and deficient plants weigh 70% less than healthy ones (11). Al-
sophila australis shows a general stunting and yellowish fronds, with
lower leaves affected first. Brown spots eventually appear on lower

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Figure 7. Chrysalidocarpus lutescens frond expressing manganese deficiency
symptoms. Lower leaflets on the youngest frond are brown, twisted and

fronds (43). Dracaena deremensis 'Warneckii' expresses nitrogen
deficiency by reduced top growth, pale green foliage, and develop-
ment of long, narrow young leaves with wavy margins. Some leaves
develop black spots along the white marginal stripe, and new suckers
are weak and few in number (113). Philodendron micans and P. oxy-

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cardium express a general yellowing of terminal leaves, which are un-
dersized. Petioles extend upward, the leaf blades bMnd- downward,
and internodes are shorter than usual. Older leaves eventually de-
velop dead spots, which coalesce until the entire leaf dies. Aerial roots
die hack, and then the entire plant dies (32, 122). Scindapsus aureus
reacts in the same manner (122). In addition to chlorotic foliage, Syn-
gonium podophyllum. 'Emerald Green' has reduced stem length and
less top weight (100).
Control. Apply a nitrogen fertilizer.

Phosphorus Deficiency
Symptoms. Dieffenbachia picta 'Exotica', deprived of sufficient
phosphorus, shows no decreased weight. Young leaves of phosphorus
deficient Dracaena deremensis 'Warneckii' are arranged in a rosette
pattern, have necrotic spots in their white stripes, and have ragged
margins. Young leaves in particular have serrated margins near their
bases and contain 0.07% phosphorus while normal foliage has 0.22%
(113). Leaves of Dracaena godseffiana develop a more intense green
color, and plants weigh 28% less than.normal. Deficient D. sander-
iana older leaves turn yellowish at their tips and margins; then dis-
colored areas die, and leaves drop as they become entirely yellow (11).
Philodendron scandens oxycardiurn stems are unusually thin, and
leaves and stems turn a dull, greyish green. Leaves are smaller and
internodes shorter than those on plants receiving adequate phospho-
rus. Basal leaves develop tipburn, the dead area advancing to the leaf
base, and older leaves are shed (32). Reduced stem length and reduced
top weight result when Syngonium podophyllum 'Emerald Gem' is de-
ficient (100).
Control. Apply a phosphorus fertilizer.

Potassium Deficiency
Symptoms. In Aechmea fasciata, potassium deficiency is ex-
pressed as leaf tip dieback of older leaves. In a fertilizer experiment a
potash (KO): nitrogen ratio of 3.8:7.2 resulted in this deficiency. A
ratio of 2:1 was adequate (5) to prevent deficiency. As in the case of
nitrogen or phosphorus deficiency, potassium deficient Dieffenbachia
picta 'Exotica' plants weighed less than plants receiving adequate po-
tassium (100). Dracaenagodseffiana with insufficient potassium shows
leaf death from the tips downward to their bases. Unaffected areas of
a leaf remain normal with a narrow band of yellow below the dead
area. Leaves gradually die and drop from the stems, and plants weigh
63% less than normal. D. sanderiana shows similar symptoms except

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Figure 8. Ficus elostica 'Decora' leaf with potassium deficiency symptoms.
Spotting is usually more severe on one side of the undersurface.

plants weigh 25% less than normal (11). Ficus elastica 'Decora' ma-
ture leaves bear numerous, small, angular red spots on the under-
sides only (Fig. 8). As spots coalesce, they become tan and eventually
are visible from the leaf upperside. Air-layers are considerably more
susceptible to potassium deficiency than normal branches, and plants
grown in full sunlight are much more seriously damaged than shaded
plants (72). Philodendron scandens oxcardium leaves become stunted
and stems have short internodes, producing chains of small, normally
-rpn lqnvas E liK Ijevs ) :11ri" 'it'eted first nrd dclon vloi low mar-
gins or become entirely yellow. Eventually, large brown dead spots
occur on leaves near the bases of the plants (32).
Control. Apply a high potash fertilizer (73). As an example, a
nurseryman who had been using a 5-8-10 fertilizer on field-grown
stock plants switched to a 6-6-6 formula and his Ficus elastica 'Dec-
ora' became unsalable because of severe symptoms of deficiency.

Sulfur Deficiency

Symptoms. When sulphur was omitted from fertilizer, the only
symptom on Dracaena godseffiana was 22% less weight than normal
plants. However, D. sanderiana showed yellowing and tipburn of
younger leaves and 26% less weight (11) than normal.


Miscellaneous Micro Elements
One should be aware of the fact that certain micro-element fer-
tilizers can damage some plants. For instance, mixing the micro-
elementi fertilizer "FTE-503" with soil at a rate of pound per cubic
yard has caused leaves of Aphelandra squarro.;u and Brassaia uctino-
phylla to become yellowish. A material called "Perk" also yellowed B.
actinophylla leaves (26). Other examples of foliage plants that have
been adv,-rsely affected by additions of secondary or micro-element
mixture-sinclude Aglaont.rma x 'Fransher', Dilffenbachiapicta 'Perfec-
tion', Muratnta leuconeuro 'Red Nerve', Philodendron oxycardiu,:, Po-
lystichurn adiantifbrme, and Scindap)ss aiureus. These unfavorable
responses sometimes can be explained by the fact that the trace ele-
ment mixtures were too concentrated, were imbalanced, or were added
to media which already contained sufficient amounts. Adding a mi-
cronutrient mixture to a medium before steam sterilization can also
cause excessive amounts of some elements to be released (15, 19, 97).

Zinc Deficiency
Symptoms. As deficiency in Chrysalidocarpus lutescens becomes
more severe, fronds are severely stunted, and leaflets are short, thick,
and closely spaced (Fig. 9).
Control. Apply a fertilizer containing zinc.

2* 4
*1 -z
I ,.. *
7` 1,*

/ _.:

Figure 9. Chrysalidocarpus lutescens plant
angular frond is typical.

" '



w : zicU dicc. Sm-all. t- -
with zinc deficiency. Small, tri-



: ...
: 1-

Y;~: _:~

i -


General Fertilizer Excess

Symptoms. Regardless of specific nutrients involved, excessive
fertilizer may damage plants because of toxic soluble salts in the soil
solution. If excess salts are suspected, it is wise to have the growing
media analysed by a reliable soils chemist. Aphelandra squarrosa
grows well following application of a soluble form of N, P, and K at
0.9, 0.4, and 0.8 kilograms per 100 square meters per month if irri-
gated at least weekly. However, three times that rate kills plants, and
double rates lower their quality beyond market acceptance. Soluble
salts in containers of such damaged plants vary from 1,403 to 2,625
ppm (22). Excess dissolved fertilizer causes yellowish mottling and
burns margins and tips of leaves of Dracaena fragans 'Massangeana
(24). Ficus benjamina often has severe leaf abscission shortly after
being purchased from nurseries which do not acclimatize plants un-
der lowered light levels and fertilization rates (23, 91). Table 3 illus-
trates the relative tolerance of some foliage plants to salinity.
Control Heavily fertilized plants are likely to have root damage
from soluble salts when soil dries. Plants that are growing fast re-
quire more frequent fertilizations, not heavier applications. If a pot-
ting mix contains slow-release fertilizer, it must not be stored; plant
immediately after mixing. Leach fertilizer if it is too concentrated

Table3. Salinity tolerance of foliage plants.
Salinity tolerance
Plant Tolerant tolerant Sensitive

Codiaeu rn punctr tis x

Euphorbia lucIa x
Euphorbia tirucalis x

Fatsiajaponiica x
Hedera helix x
Monstera delicioso x
Philodendron bipinnatifidurn x
Sansevieria sp. x x
Yuccu sp. x
Reference: 37.

(37). Irrigating regularly and sufficiently to keep the planting mix
moist can minrimizte injury.


Swnptonms. Severity of fungicide injury may vary from yellowing
of leaves to dead pots and distorted growth. lType of injury depends
on plant type, plant and environmental conditions, as well as the
kind of fungicide used. Damage from any pesticide may result from a
single, excessively heavy application or from excess applications of a
safe concentration. Injury can also occur if several applications do not
have a long enough interval between them. Therefore, the specific
symptoms are omitted from the following Table 4, and injury is con-
sidered to consist of any reaction that reduces salability of a plant.
The wood preservatives, creosote or pentachlorphenol, have often
caused plant injury or death when used on greenhouse or shade-
house structures, benches, and flats.

Table 4. Fungicide injury to foliage plants.
'_lant Damaging fungicide
Anthurium cryaallit num Dexon 150 ppm

Difolatan 50 ppm
Terrazole 12.5 ppm

A ridia ciena Iou ta

Aspurca-us spreagn'ri

Be~gontz sp.

Terrazole 50 ppm
Flurasil (F + Zn) wood preservative

'* '" I p .,..- V:cp )l IpiIlI

Basic copper sulfate 1.5 lb/100 gal
Benlate 1 lb/100 gal
Captan 1.5 lh/100 gal
Daconil 1 lb/100 gal
Difolatan 1 qt/100 gal
Dithane M-45 3 lb/100 gal
Maneb 2 lb/100 gal
Manzate D 3 lb/100 gal
Mertect 0.75 lb/100 gal
PCNB 50 lb/acre
Zineb 2 lb/100 gal


7 bh' 4. Continued.
Plant Damniaing fung-icide

Chamaedorea elegans Agristrep 400 ppm
Basic copper sulfate 1.5 lb/100 gal
Captan 50 ppm
Dexon 150 ppm
Terrazole 50 ppm

Dieffth bachia exotica Mertect 3 lb/100

Dizygotheca elegantissima Difblatan 100 ppm
Terrazole 25 ppm

Epiprernnum aureum Mertect 3 lb/100 gal

Nephrolepis exaltata Agrostrep 200 ppm
Basic copper sulfate 3 lb/100 gal
Dithane M-45 1.5 lb/100 gal
Mertect 3 lb/100 gal

Peperomia caperata Dexon 150 ppm
Terrazole 100 ppm

P. obtusifolia Dexon 25 ppm

P. obtusifolia uariegata Terrazole 50 ppm

Philodendron scandens o)xycardium Basic copper sulfate 3 lb/100 gal

P. wendlandi x lacineatum Streptomycin 800 ppm

Pilea cadierei Maneb 2 lb/100 gal
Zineb 2 lb/100 gal

-'fretront r v 'l't.'lr Be-nnm vl 100) ppm in seoi

Polystich um tsus.sierne Dexon 75 ppm
Difolatan 100 ppm
Terrazole 50 ppm

P. adiantiforme Agristrep 200 ppm
Basic copper sulfate 1.5 lb/100 gal
Difolatan 1 qt/100 gal

Scindapsus aureus Mertect 3 lb/100 gal

Syngonium podophyllurn Mertect 3 lb/100 gal
References: 2, 34. 62, 63, 79, 80, 83.

Symptolms. Leaves of Agnlanemna coLmmutttufut n are shorter and
narrower following soil application of I Ib/acre glyphosate (88). As-
paragus plurmnsus nortnus is damaged by calcium endothal and CIPC,
201 lb active ingredient (ai) per acre;-DHCP, 45 lb ai/acre; 2,4-D, 20 lb
ai/acre; monuron, 16 Ib ai/acre; PCP, 60 lb ai/acre; sodium TCA, 50
lb ai/acre; and 2,4,5-T, 5 lb ai/acre (52). Arancuria heterophylla leaves
were moderately distorted on new growth by dicanmba at 2.2 kg (4.8
lb) ai/acre (87). Similar symptoms appeared on Asparagus densiflorus
'Sprengeri', A. plunmo.sus inanus, Brassa in actinoplhylla, and Chry.sali-
docarpus lutescens (87). Prometone at 10 lb ai/acret killed leaf margins
of Cissus sp.; leaves ofCodiaeum variegatum were stunted and nar-
rowed by 10 lb/acre glyphosate, which also killed terminals ofDizy-
gotheca elegantissima, whereas 2.2 kg (4.8 Ib) ai/acre ofdicamba merely
distorted its leaves, as it did those of Dracaen marginata, Ficus ben-
jamina, and F retusa (87). Philodendron macrophyllus, P selloum, and
P. tobira leaves, were distorted by dicamba at 2.2 kg (4.8 lb) ai/acre
(87). Casoron at 4 lb ai/acre severely reduced growth ofPhilodendrun
scandens oxycardium (121).Hedera.sp. was killed by prometone, 10 lb
ai/acre, and leaf margins ofKalanchoe sp. were burned as were those
ofPilca sp. (127).

Insecticides and Miticides
Symptoms. Insecticide or miticide injury includes leaf spotting,
yellowing, deformation, or abscission. Each of these symptoms may
vary from slight to severe. In Table 5 the lowest concentration that
damaged plants is given and symptoms are not specified. Figure 10
shows symptoms of insecticide damage, to Brassaia actinophylla, a
plant that is extremely susceptible to pesticide spray injury.

Symptoms. Nemagon, DBCP, is used as a soil drench for living
plants. Six foliage plants were tested fbr tolerance and results are
shown in Table 6. Symptoms include abnormally small plants, leaf
stunting, yellowing, and slight spotting (45, 57).


Symptoms. Asparagus sprengeri has been round to be highly re-
sistant to chlorine, nitrogen peroxide, and sulfurdioxide; but Begonia

7hble 5. Insecticide-miticide injury to foliage plants.
Plant Damaging insecticide-miticide
Adiantum cuneatum Malathion, 1.5 lb tech./100*

Aphelcidra squarrosa

Ardisia sp.

Asparagus sprengeri

Brassaia actinophylla

Dursban 2E, 0.25 lb ai/100
Omite 30W, 0.45 lb ai/100
Orthene 75S, 0.5 lb ai/100
Science aerosol
Vydate 2L, 0.5 lb ai/100

Dylox 80% SP, 2 lb/100
Dylox LS, 4 lb/gal

I-Bomb aerosol
Phosvel 2.7EC, 1.5 lb ai/100
Raid aerosol
Science aerosol

Acaraben 4EC, 1 pt/100
Azodrin 5EC, 1 lb ai/A**
Cygon 2EC, 1 qt/100
Delnav 4EC, 1 pt/100
Diazinon 4EC, 0.5 lb ai/100
Dicofol 18.5EC, as recommended
Dimethoate 25EC, 2 pt/100
Dursban 2E, 0.25 lb ai/100
Dylox 80SP, 2 lb/100
Dylox LS, 4 lb/gal, 3 pt/100
Enstar, as recommended
Fundal 95SP, 0.5 lb/100
Fundal 4EC, 0.5 lb ai/100
Fu!radal 4F, 1 5 lb ali/100
Gardona 75WP, 2 lb/100
I-Bomb aerosol
Kelthane 35 WP, 1.3 lb/100
Kelthane 18.5EC, 2 pt/100
Lannate 90SP, 9 oz/100
Malathion 57EC, 2 pt/100
Meta-Systox R, EC, 1.5 pt/100
Monocrotophos as recommended
Morestan 25WP, 1 lb/100
Omite 30W, 0.45 lb ai/100

* 100 refers to 100 gal water.
** A refers to acre.
References: 8, 36, 41, 44, 46, 47, 60, 62, 89, 90, 110, 116, 117.


Chamaedorea elegans

Codicaeum variegatum


Codiaeurn L'lriegattum
'Gold Dust'

Collinia elegans

Crassulac argtrnea

Dieffenbachia exotica

Thlp 5. Continued.
LDUrma;i .r i nsect icide-initicide
Orthene 75WP, 2.6 lb/100
Orthene 75SP, 1.33 h/l100
Oxythioquinox, 2 oz/100
Phosvel 2.7EC, 1.5 lb ai/100
Phosvel,3 lb/gal, 4 pt/100
Plictran 40WP, 6 oz/100
Resmethin 7EC, 0.25 Ib ai/100
Science aerosol
Sevin 80WP, 2 lb/100
Volk oil, 1.6 gal/100
Vydate 2L, 0.5 lb ai/100

Acaraben 4EC, 1 pt/100
Aramite 15WP, 2 lb/100
Cygon 2EC, 1 qt/100
Fundal 95SP, 0.5 lb/100
I-Bomb aerosol
Kelthane 35WP, 1.3 lb/100
Kelthane 18.5EC, 2 pt/100
Meta-Systox R, EC, 1.5 pt/100
Morestan 25WP, 1 lb/100
Oil emulsion, 2%
Omite, 30WP, 1.5 lb/100
Orthene 75WP, 1.3 lb/100
Plictran 50WP, 6 oz/100

Malathion as recommended
Phosvel 2.7EC, 1.5 lb ai/100
Raid aerosol
i) t -, 1 1 .' i wr .'-

Furadan 4F, 0.5 lb ai/A

Kelthane 35WP, 1 lb/100
Omite 30WP, 1.5 lb/100

Raid aerosol

Cygon 2EC, 1 qt/100
Delnar-4EC, 1 pt/100
Malathion 57EC, 2 pt/100
Morestan 25WP, 1 lb/100

Table.' Continued.
Plant Damatging insecticide-miticide
Omite 30WP, 1.5 b/100
Orthene 75WP, 2.6 lh/100
Volk oil, 1.6 gal/100

Dieffen bachia picta

Dizygotheca elegant tissimra

Dracaena godseffianca

Dracaena marginauta

Draccena sanderiana

Ficus benjamin

Ficus rettusa

Ficus trial nnilaris

Hedera helix

Hoya carnosa

Maranta leuconeura

Nephrnlepis exaltata

Omite 30W, 0.45 lb ai/100
Raid aerosol

Azodrin 5EC, 1 lb ai/A

Lannate 90SP, 9 oz/100

Dylox LS, 4 lb/gal, 3 pt/100
I-Bomb Aerosol
Science Aerosol

Diazinon 25EC, 2 pt/100

Dursban 2EC, I lbai/t00
Dylox 1LS, 1.5 lb ai/100
Furadan 4F, 0.5 lb ai/100
I-Bomb aerosol
Raid aerosol
Resmethrin aerosol
Vydate 2EC, 0.5 lb ai/100

Carzol 95WP, 0.5 lb ai/100
Dursban 2EC, 1 lb ai/100
Dylox 1LS, 1.5 lb ai/100
Fundal 4EC, 0.5 lb ai/100
Furadan 4F, 0.5 lb ai/100
Phosvel 2.7EC, 1.5 lb ai/100
Szvin 4L, 1.5 lb ai/'00
Vydate 2EC, 0.5 lb ai/lOU

Orthene 1.3EC, 0.5 lb ai/100

Raid aerosol
Science aerosol

Diazinon 25EC, 2 pt/100

Cygon 2EC, 1 qt/100
Fundal 95SP, 0.5 lb/100
Orthene 75WP, 1.3 lb/100

Cygon 2EC, 0.375 lb ai/100
Diazinon 25EC, 2 pt/100

Table 5. Continued.
Plant Danminging insec'ticide-miricide

Dimethoate 25EC, 2 pt/100
Dursban 2E, 0.25 ai/100
Dylox SOSP, 2 lb/100
Dylox LS, 4 lb/gal, 3 pt/100
Gardona 75WP, 2 lb/100
Malathion 57EC, 2 pt/100
Malathion tech., 1.5 lb/100
Omnite 30W, 0.45 lb ai/100
Orthene 75SP, 1.3 lb/100
Phosvel, 3 lb/gal, 4 pt/100
Raid aerosol
Resmethrin 1%
Science aerosol
Peperoria obtusifolia Diazinon 25EC, 2 pt/100
Gardona 75WP, 2 lb/100
Meta-Systox R, 25EC, 1.5 pt/100
Onmite 30WP, 1.5 lb/100
Phosvel, 3 lb/gal, 4 pt/100
Peperomia obttisifolia Diazinun 25EC, 2 pt/100
variegated Dimethoate 25EC, 2 pt/100
Gardona 75WP, 2 lb/100
Lannate 90SP, 9 oz/100
Omite 30W, 0.45 lb ai/100
Phosvel, 3 lb/gal, 4 pt/100
Vydate 2L, 0.5 lb ai/100
Philodendronfriedrichstahli Aramite 15WP, 2 lb/100
MA,1Iho;i 25WVP. -4 lbvlAw
tImla/dedirone, oxycrrdium Oil emulsion 2'
Thimet 47.5EC, 1 qt/ 00
Pilea cadierei Aramite 15WP, 2 lb/100
Diazinon 25EC, 2 pt/100
Dimethoate 25EC, 2 pt/100
Lannate 90SP, 9 oz/100
Malathion 25WP, 4 lb/100
Parathion 15WP, 1.5 lb/100
Rheo discolor Lannate 1.8L, 0.5 lb ai/A
Orthene 1.3L, 1 lb ai/A
Sevin 80WP, 3 lb ai/A


Scin laps us an reus

Syngon iu m podophyvllun

Syngoniun podophyllum
'Emerald Gem'
Syngonium podophyllum
'Green Gold'

Table 5. Continued.
Damaging insecticide-miticide
Aramite 1-1WP, 2 lb/100
I-Bomb aerosol
Malathion 57EC, 2 pt/100
Omite 30WP, 0.45 lb ai/100
Raid aerosol

Dylox 80SP, 2 lb/100
Malathion 57EC, 2 pt/100
Omite 30WP, 1.51b/100

Dylox LS, 4 lb/gal, 3 pt/100
Malathion 57EC, 2 pt/100
Dylox LS, 4 lb/gal, 3 pt/100
Malathion 57EC, 2 pt/100

*frr V^'V-' H t y?--''*'''"? r*"-* -^ t' *^*"^Ttc*~^"^*^T.^**:~Pl ?r^a"*^.^'.C*y:~s. w^~r

o *. *.. . ' :' .- . ' . "
. . ' . . ,1

-. i ..

^ ^ ^ *,.;::; ; \ ,^ '^ ; ^i : ^

"-.... 'A V '" .

k. -.t.)-. ...- ,
.* -. ' ' ." .'' ;' ..-.'< / .- ../
Na .1;~
~ . . . a .. -: . .; i : - .

+2 "" * -" ' ": '* ."\ .' ''" f. "' -' 7.: ' "".^
Fitid s
Fgr 1 B s acti ph leave disttte d By msectirrd sp*a *
Figure~~~~~~~~~~~ 10.Sc ~ Brani aciio l levsditredb neciie pas

Al (Iclfrltf sp,.
Ph ilodlendrolt ia
P prtuss ini
P. ra br ma
P sp. 'Emerald

Rcl',rflce: 57.

Table, 6. Nenimticide injury to foliage plant s.
Plant Danangin nernaticid-'
Ner.mgon, 8..6E. 5oz/100
cinimutum Nemnagon, 8.61V. 10 oz/100
Nemagon, 8.6i. I oz/100
Nemagon, 8.6E, 5 oz/100
Queen' Nemagon, 8.6E, 10 oz/100
sp. Nemagon, 8.6E, 5 oz/100

gracilis is susceptible to all three gases (28). Hydrogen sulfide gas
readily damages young leaves of Nephrolepis exaltata (27).
Ethylene gas at a concentration of 5 ppm causes Aphelandra sp.
and Euphorbia leuconeura 'Fournieri', to drop almost all of their leaves
within 1 or 2 days. The same plants retain most of their leaves under
similar conditions in the presence of 25 g of aluminum oxide impreg-
nated with potassium pernmanganate (Purafil) (95). In an experi-
ment, plants were subjected to 2, 5, or 10 ppm of ethylene for 10 days,
and an injury index rating of several foliage plants was devised, the
higher ratings denoting more severe symptoms. Injury to Sansevieria
trifizsciata 'Laurentii' was rated only 19 in severity. Chamaedorea ele-
gans was rated 21, Begonia 'Coralina Lucern' received an injury rat-
ing of 54, and Philodendron scandens oxycardium a rating of 59 (51).
Ethylene injury of some other plants has consisted of leaf loss; ex-
amples include Begonia coccinea 'Lucerna', Bryophyllum sp., Cha-
maedorea elegans, Kalanchoe blossfeldiana 'Cherie', Philodendron
scandens oxycardium, and Sansevieria sp. (51, 56, 76, 77). Artificial
illuminating gas causes Scansevieria sp. to develop s;m:-1ll leaflets and
a, ,,-it i l ro .,i-; ;;','i,.. ai, i; in i itHVt pl: ,i t: ',, *I". ,i ',; r if's ', "c rt

Growth Regulators
Growth regulators are applied to foliage plants in order to give
them the compact appearance consumers prefer. However, some plants
are injured by these chemicals. Chlormequat, 3000 ppm, has reduced
branch development and caused severe yellowing of young leaves of
Cyanotis kewensis. It also yellowed young leaves of Pellionia pulchru,
Philodendron scandens oxycardium, Pileu cadierei, and P involucrata
(53). Surfaces of Epipreinnum aureurn leaves were experimentally
killed by 200 ppm ofPBA (81). Kinetin at a concentration of 100 ppm
prevented root formation of Saintputlia sp. (93).

Three growth regulators "Maintain", 20 and 40 ppm; rnaleic hy-
drazide, 3,240 ppm; and "Ethrel", 2,000 and 4,000 ppm were ap-
plied to three foliage plants. In Philodendron scandals oxycardium,
Epiprei n aum' aurcum, and Syngoniunm podopihyllumrn symptoms of
"Maintain" injury included production of lateral branches at some
nodes with deformed apical and lateral growth. Apical meristems
died on P. scandens oxvcardium and E. aureum following treatment
with maleic hydrazide. "Ethrel" caused P scandens oxycardium and
E. aureum to lose some leaves and develop long, thin yellow nodes. S.
podo)phyllium had erratic growth (94).
To induce flowering of Aechime fasciata, 15 ml of a 1% solution of
BOH '2-hydroxyt-thylhydrazine) was added to the hollow crowns of
the plants; poorly formed flowers resulted (33). Foliar damage re-
sulted when Kalunchol hlossfeldiana was treated with "Embark": N-
2, 4-dimethyl-(5-(trifluoromethyl) solfonyl aminophenylacetamide
to cause flowering (123).

Leaf Shining Materials
Five leaf shining materials were applied experimentally to Philo-
dendron oxycardimn, and treated plants were compared to untreated
plants. Materials included "Floraglow," "Leaf Glow," "Leaf Lustre
Black Magic," "Lustre Leaf Plant Polish," and "Schultze Plant Shine."
Foliage was treated biweekly for nine months. Plants which received
no treatments developed more leaves and longer shoots, were heavier,
and had fewest dead leaves; however, they were not as shiny (92).

Philodendron hastuttn has been found occasionally to develop yel-
iT., i ..'-.... n ......1 "~ -.,1 | ,,., '-' o- xvi r , 'i :'.r -n~t- n s dl liv
measure !,-[ss than n: mm in diameter. Spots are most numerous on old
leaves land sometimes nearly cover the entire leaf surface. Symptoms
appear tvwo to three weeks after leaves unfurl. Stomates contain a
plant exudate containing 93% sugar on old leaves and 28% on imma-
ture leaves. Spotting is controlled by removing the exudate with dis-
tilled water thrice weekly. Black, sooty mold growing on the exudate
is controlled with a fungicidal spray (84).

Wood Preservatives

Symptoms. Brassaia actinophylla leaves develop chlorotic mar-
gins when only the fumes of pentachlorophenol spread to the plant

Control. Wood can more safely be treated with copper nephthen-
ate, which does not volatile and is much less phytotoxic (4).


Insufficient Light
Symptoms. Light may be of insufficient intensity, hours of expo-
sure per day maybe insufficient, or the wave length may be improper.
Plants which receive no light will have long, slender, white stems and
yellow and white leaves. However, plants that receive somewhat less
than optimum light will express more subtle symptoms.
If Aphelandra sp. receives less than 300 to 400 foot-candles (ft-c), it
will not bloom. Flowers will appear in about 16 weeks under 500 to
600 ft-c and within 8 weeks under 1000 to 1500 ft-c (102). Cordyline
terminalis 'Baby Doll', under 80% shade, does not develop brilliant
pink color as under 40% or 60% shade. Cutting yields decrease under
40% shade, as compared to 80%, and Dieffenbachia exotica cuttings
are similarly affected (16). The latter plant becomes stunted when it
receives 1000 to 2000 ft-c but grows vigorously under 5000 to 6000 ft-
c (102). Corky callosities and pustules appear on the undersides of Fi-
cus elastica leaves when grown in poor light (124).
Nitrogen fertilizer may complement light intensity. The same
number of Maranta sp. cuttings have been produced under 2000 ft-c
plus 240 lb nitrogen per acre per year as under 4000 ft-c with no ad-
ditional nitrogen (102). Monster delicio a under insufficient light in-
tensity fails to split (9). As shade increases from 30% to 90%, leaf
chlorosis of Philodendron scandens scandens and P. scandens oxycar-
diaum decreases if nitrogen levels are below normal. As light in-
creases, stem length is reduced and leaf area decreases, a common
plant response. Epipruemnnum aurP u ren:ct' simi:trly (122). One
S .' .' ... -._. t. iu/ Jlig"tO t, .-. plui Li 'tlyve growth of
Sainlpaulia sp.; however, the same light for 12 hr per day is sufficient
(49). Epipremnium aureum cuttings grow much less under 80% than
under 40% shade (16). Plants are stunted when exposed to less than
1000 ft-c but grow well under 5000 ft-c (102). Syngonium podophylluin
fails to develop its normal foliage color when given insufficient light
Begonia tuherhybrida 'Helen Harms' and 'Ami Jean Bard' grow
slowly when they receive 25 ft-c for 12 hr, but growth stops when ex-
posure time is reduced to 11 hr daily. In addition to no growth, the
apical meristem sometimes abscises (68).
Leaves of Chrysalidocarpus lutescens grown in full sunlight often
are a faded green with dead leaf tips, whereas plants in 40% shade

develop normal, green leaves (101).
Leaves of Dracaena miarginrta have an increasingly intensified
green color as shade increases from 0 to 40)'/ to 801C (21). High light
intensity while plants are being forced results in poor adaptation to
the consumers' low light, with ensuing leaf drop (20,. When shade is
removed, Dracaenu godseffiana exhibits mild iron deficiency symp-
toms (11).
Many large cuttings are shipped to the U.S.A. from the tropical
Americas and Caribbean islands. Some contain low food reserves be-
cause they were grown in insufficient sunlight, and thus they may
fail to grow when replanted. Lack of light in shipping containers also
is detrimental. Such shipments must be potted immediately after re-
ceipt, because each day beyond the fourth day in a dark container re-
duces cutting quality 20% to 25%, mainly by exclusion of light (13).

Excessive Light
Variegated Chlorophyturn elatu green leaf areas are injured by as
little as 1000 lux (93 ft-c) of light. Since oxygen's presence is required
for injury, the process is considered to be photoxidation sensitized by
chlorophyll (67). In another experiment 20,000 lux (1860 ft-c) of light
turned the same species' green areas brown (69).

Other Excessive Radiation
Symptoms. X-ray radiation of two doses of 2300 R each to tiny
plantlets growing from leaves of Kalanchoe tubiflour caused the plants
to remain smaller than nontreated plants (67).


Symptoms. Wilting or leaf abscission can be a sign of insufficient
relative humidity as well as not enough irrigation. As an example,
Codiaeium variegatum cuttings often drop their leaves when cuttings
are being rooted. Desiccation is suspected, because more abscission
takes place as the period between taking cuttings and sticking them
is lengthened. A 3-day period results in less leaf drop than 5 days.
Continuous mist for 12 hr during the warmer part of the day saves
more leaves than 15 sec mist every 30 min for 24 hr a day. Air-layers
or cuttings from plants grown under full sun drop twice as many
leaves during rooting as those grown in 30% to 50% shade (25).
Cissus rhombifolia, Peperomia obtusifolia, and Epipremnum aurewn
have darker green leaves and larger chloroplasts when grown in an

average relative humidity of 91.9r as opposed to 34.4%. The plants
have greater fresh weight, dry weight, and leaf area and thickness in
the higher humidity t126). As an extreme example of high humidity
requirement, one author claims a relative humidity of 99'1 is inade-
quate for Begonia mucwluta, which has extremely large leaf cells; in
fact, its cell volume:cell surface ratio is 21:4, whereas Hedera hilix
tolerates a lower relative humidity and has a volurne:surface ratio of
4:2. Drought-killing relative humidity 6f Hedera is 85% (50% of plants
die) (67). Dieffinbachiu pic/a 'Perfection' tip cuttings suffer collapse
and yellowing of lower leaves when relative humidity is low. To pre-
vent desiccation, cuttings must be planted the same day as cut and
misted 15 sec every 30 min until rooting is sufficient (18). A major
cause ofleafloss of imported foliage plants with large leaves is desic-
cation because of low humidity (13).

Excessive Humidity
Many plants suberize injuries best at relative humidities ap-
proaching 100%; however, caladium tubers suberize better at 75%
than 90% (75).


Excessive Heat
Symptoms. In partial shade the killing temperature for Asplen-
ium sp. is 45-4i6C (1140F) for 30 min. One indicator of plant lethal
temperatures is failure of cell protoplasm to resume streaming after
temperature has dropped from a certain level. This was 560C (1330F)
for Chlorophytum elatum and 54.6C (130F) for Ficus radicans. A
plant will sometimes tolerate more heat when it is flowering than

;,, .,... i ,, ,, '' I l( r l riowering and 47C: (J 170F) for vegetative
plants (67). When Ficus clastica is subjected to too much heat, the up-
per leaf epidermis detaches from large areas of the leaf (115).
Foliage temperature is partially related to air movement through
the foliage. As wind velocity increases, air-to-leaf temperature gra-
dients decrease. Plant heights of Begonia semperflorens, Codiaeum
variegatum 'Aucubafolium,' Philodendron scandens oxycardium,
Saintpcudia ionantha, and Sansevieria trifasciata increase as wind ve-
locity increases. Chlorophyll content in leaves of the plants is directly
proportional to air velocity. Except for Begonia, plants grow faster at
wind speeds up to 4.4 miles per hour. Variegation of Codiaeum de-
creases with increased wind, and Codiaeum, Philocdendron, and San-
sevieria leaves become larger with increased air speed (10).

Brief periods (6 hr) of partial dehydration leading to water-satu-
ration deficits of 22% to 27% raised heat-killing temperatures by
about 30C (370F) in leaves of Commelina africana, Hedera helix, and
Phoenix reclinata (48).
Submerging plants in hot water is sometimes practical to kill in-
ternal infectious organisms such as bacteria and nematodes. Agla-
onema modestum, Caladium bicolor, Philodendron hastatum, P imbe,
and Sansevieria zeylanica tolerate submersion for 10 min in water at
500C (1220F). Many plants cannot tolerate such treatment, as shown
in Table 7 (7).
Caladium tubers were stored for 8 days at 400C (1040F) before
planting. During the subsequent six weeks the heated tubers pro-
duced fewer than 9 leaves, whereas tubers stored at room tempera-
ture yielded an average of 13 leaves (86).
Control. One method of lowering soil temperature in containers
exposed to sunlight is by choice of color. Coolest temperatures occur
in silver or white pots, and heat injury is more prevalent in black,
green, red or rusty containers (39).

Table 7. Tolerance of foliage plants to submersion in water
at 500C for 10 min.
I Survival %

Aglaonema modestum
Ardesia crenata
Caladium biocolor (8 var.)
Crassula arborescens
Cryptanthus sp.
Dracaena godseffia 7a

Epipremnum aureunm
Epipremnum oureum 'Wilcoxii'
Maranta leuconeura
Prperomia obtusifolia
Peperomia sandersii
Philodendron hastatum (leafy)
Philodendron hastatum (canes)
Philodendron imbe (canes)
Pilea invohlcrata
Sansevieria zeylanica
Sansevieria zeylanica 'Laurentii'
Syngonium podophyllum




Reference: 7.


There are two types-of low temperature damage. One is caused by
tissues being frozen, and the second is injury due to temperatures
above those sufficient to freeze, Adverse effects of freezing are visible
soon after tissues are thawed or are revealed by subsequent growth.
An example of the latter is death of frozen leaf margins. The dead
margins may go unnoticed until growth causes puckering and distor-
tion because margins cannot expand with the uninjured leaf blade
(Fig. 11).
Symptoms. During an experiment, foliage plants were stored in
shipping boxes held in a room adjusted to -17.80C (0F) for 1, 2, and
4 hr. In decreasing order of susceptibility to freezing, they were: Phil-
odendron scandens oxycardium, Epiprermnum aureum, and both Peper-
omia obtusifolia 'Variegata' and Syngonium liberica. Freeze injury was
slight after 1 hr, moderate after 2 hr, and severe after 4 hr. Plants in
the bottom corners of a box were most severely injured, whereas
plants in the center were least damaged. Among types of boxes used,
only the beat insulated ones protected plants for 2 hr (31).
Begonia. metallica, when subjected to -5C (230F) for 2 min, suffers
death of the old leaves. When held at -100C (140F) for the same
length of time, all leaves fall from the plants. Fittonia argyroneura

n W 9-/-,,n.. -I ,- .- .-?, t%. y - .. -. ... .... --,-^ y v-. -, .,,:L.. -. .. ^-

S. } .- i- ..

. . ,. ... ...:...

Figure 11. Ficus elustica 'Decora' leaves that were deformed by freezing tem-

dr ferenl o ...... temp0 rature S trifsi 'Lu e i l"1
r- Fepig e 1'2 -re'ez, ij 'r '" ,d. o' cc-ure i. .. i .

diff ere' t l.y "to :. e z .. .. t- a u r t r-- a i '" " *'. is least
suscep-tilef bu r eeze'- ..j r.. doe-s oc-cu (.. .. S, ,. tr .,-t a S.

long;flora are moderately susceptible, and S. thyrsiflora is the most
,." ., - ". .:, _. '.' i -' .- ,--"

in a few days.

"'. . : ." 1 "^ . '. .

Figure 12 Sasera trifsciata Laurenvealed that, damaged by freezing

wilts when subjected to -10C (14F) (66). Sansevieria species react
differently to freezing temperature. S. trifasciata 'Laurentii' is least
susceptible, but freeze injury does occur (Fig. 12). S. trifasciata and S.
longiflora are moderately susceptible, and S. thyrsiflora is the most
damaged. Frozen leaves do not resume growth (40) but become black
in a few days.
Investigation of Asparagus ferns revealed that, during a breeze,
still air in a slathouse can be colder than outside air. Outdoor air is
being stirred with upper, warmer air. With no breeze, slathouse air
can '' .... +r', 7.ocr ( 2?1') warmer <29 D'mtge occurs to new foliage
i1 u s LU/l,'ns., i .i', tIen liot t lOI'is1 0on pial. o1 r ; l e i-
perature remains at -2.2'C (28F) for 2 hr (30).

Symptoms. Many tropical foliage plants are injured by low tem-
peratures well above 0C (32'F). For instance, leaves of Saintpaulia
sp., when chilled by air or water at 180C (64.4F), develop coarse, yel-
low or brownish rings and line patterns on upper surfaces. Some
leaves contain larger yellow areas, becoming brown and leathery,
with collapse of tissues (55). A similar report states that wetting
Saintpaulia sp. leaves with cold water results in yellowish spots (120).
Some foliage plants are severely damaged by a temperature of
4.50C (400F). Aphelandra squarrosa chilled at that temperature for 2

days develops dead leaf tips and interveinal tissue. Chilling for a
week causes more severe necrosis, and 10 days later, many leaves
drop. M'arnta leuconuru exhibits wilted and spotted leaves and
eventually dies. Two days' chilling causes Scindapsuspictus leaves to
immediately become grao t'o black and water-soaked; parts of leavi's
die within the following week. If chilled for 4 days, all leaves die but
plants survive; 8 days' chilling kills all of these plants (82). Large
white areas and a slight curling of leaves of Sansecieria trifasciata
'Laurentii' follows exposure to 20 to 80C (35.60 to ,6.4F). Sunlight
following chill hastens symptom appearance.
Sometimes areas of chilled leaves, such as those of Dracaena fra-
grans 'Massangeana,' are shaded from sunlight by overlapping leaves,
and the shaded parts recover from the chill, in sharp contrast to leaf
areas that received direct sunlight hours afterward and lose their
green color (Fig. 13). Failure to develop chlorophyll is a common re-
sult of chilling, as in Sansevieria trifasciata (Fig. 14). Symptoms con-
tinue to develop for one month after plants have been chilled (70).
Caladium tubers do not sprout well and fewer leaves develop fol low-
ing storage at 100 or 15.60C (500 or 600F) for 10 days. When stored at
4.40C (40F) for 10 days, tubers do not sprout readily during a 68-day
period after planting. Storage at 21.10C (70F) is optimal (74). In an-
other study, tubers stored 7 weeks at 4.40 and 100C (400 and 500F)
failed to grow. Other tubers were stored at 23.90C (75F) for 0, 3, 6,
and 12 weeks. Incidence of sprouting and number of shoots per tuber
increased as the storage period increased (78).
Seeds, as well as tubers, can he adversely affected by chilly storage.
Seeds of Chamaedoreaelegans stored at 4.40C (400F) do not germinate
as well as those stored at 23.90C (750F) (99).
Control. Saintpaulia leaf spots can be prevented by avoiding get-
ting the leaves wet when watering, especially if the water is cool (55).
Continuous sprinkling during: a freeze prevents inj!ry to Asprra,,_,is
D0 t1:4 ,.10 S r'!, ,.,,.. r:' . ... ., .r p i. V, eveni
after ice forms on them. When sprinkling is stopped after ice forms,
damage is more severe than if plants are not sprinkled (30). Foliage
stock plants grown out-of-doors in southern Florida have expressed
chilling injury for several months following low temperature. For this
reason, nurserymen are advised to wait several weeks before evalu-
ating the extent of damage. It is important to prune back into live
wood so that healing can occur and to keep soil moist and lightly fer-
tilized during recovery (58).
Sansevieria trifasciata, S. longiflora, and S. thyrmiflora are less likely
to freeze when clean cultivation is practiced (40). Diminishing the
amount of nitrogenous fertilizer during fall and winter also results in
less chilling injury to S. trifasciata 'Laurentii' (21, 70).


"-* ; ~ ; ^
, F -.. -. _* .( d .--. .- a* .- r .j

Figure 13. Dracaenafragrans 'Massangeana' leaf that was chilled sufficiently
to lose its chlorophyll in areas exposed to sunlight.

.-'. . .i ? !* .*^ ;^i '? ,'" *' .. . .. ^. ,. "
i. ... *.i.. .,-;' -i. -

~' A
; .. +..i .^ ; / 'i :.-?', : l '5 ,

f ' ? ''+"' ' t .: + +!' ""'' 1 ,+'-1 ",, '* r *,. r "
;i*.- *.- :'' *i. ^ V '
1:, : -".; +- ... : 1, ". -' ;.. "'

ms. _'I + .. a.. n.' | -r, ... .,a aacn. ...,-d a ,.'
1 .+- '-- ] : ;+ *: i ..... .
i ''* .. .: *. / '* '. " "-

bigure 14. Sunset teria trifasciata leaves that were chilled sufficiently to lose
their chlorophyll.
i ;, ,::. : .
[ :. ...

" "' ,
Fig~~~~~~~~~~~ere ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 14 asvei rfsit evsta eecildsflienly ols
thei chlorphyll

Temperature Miscellaneous
Ardisia crenata is subject to a very unusual disease. The plants re-
quire the pre-.ence of one or two species of bacteria to provide cytoki-
nins for optimum growth. When the bacteria are killed by heating the
seeds, their absence results in gall formation at the lower st.em nodes
3 to 4 months after seed is planted. Seed germination at 300C (860F)
results in much more galling than germination at 250C (770F) (111).
Some plants are injured by sudden changes in temperature. Dra-
caena massaduglcana2 Ficus elastica, Monwstera dcliciosu, and Philoden-
dron hasttiumn are among those so affected. For instance, if the
temperature rises from 15.6 to 350C (60 to 950F) within 48 hr, an
apical leaf may become blackened and the growing tip of the stem
dies. Similarly, a sudden drop from 350 to 15.60C (950 to 600F) causes
the same symptoms as illustrated in Table 8 (42).

Table 8. Temperature changes that result in apical injury.
15.60-35- 350-15.60-
15.60-350C 15.60C 350C
Plant ___ (60-950F) (600-950-600F)(950-600-950F)
Dracaena massangeana + + 0
Ficus elastica + + +
Monstera deliciosa + + +
Philtcdendron ha.stattrn + + 0
+ = apical death and blackening of apical leaf.
Reference: 47.


teversion of MIIntants
Symptoms. The cult ivar'Laurentii' is a mutant of Sansevieria tri-
fasciata that has yellow leaf margins. As long as 'Laurentii' is propa-
gated by small plants bearing a piece of root, the yellow margins
remain. However, if propagation is by leaf cuttings, the variety re.
verts to S. trifosciata, with no yellow margins (50). Similarly, S. tri-
fasciata 'Emeralda,' if propagated by leaf cuttings, reverts to S.
trifasciata (128).
Dieffenbachiapicta 'Rudolph Ruehrs' has greenish white leaves bor-
dered with dark green. Frequently plants have been observed to be
gradually reverting to D. picta, which has dark green leaves with
white spots (Fig. 15).

Figure 15. Dieffenbachia picta 'Rudolph Ruehrs' plant showing part of it re-
verting to the original parent type shown beside it.

Albinos are seedlings which cannot develop chlorophyll. A common
example is the occasional appearance of white seedlings in plantings
of Norfolk Island pines, Araucaria heterophylla (Salisb.) Franco (Fig.


ies. For efficiency and economy, two or more sizes of containers in the
same bed may receive the same irrigation regime. As a result the
large, tall containers may receive insufficient water, and small con-
tainers may get too much. Improperly constructed containers may
continually be wet near the bottom, resulting in root death. Con-
tainers with corrugated bottoms or those with single bottom-holes or
with side holes not flush with the bottom may remain too wet because
of inadequate drainage (39). If adequate irrigation for a plant such as
Ficus elastic 'Decora' is suddenly diminished, leaf margins may die
(Fig. 17).
Dizygotheca elegantissima, according to one report, wilted severely
because roots had been killed by excessive irrigation (85). Corky cal-
losities and pustuls a ute form on the leaf undersurfaces of Ficus elastic

| y "- -- "-" -- -- -^.

Figure 16. Arauc'ria excels albino seedling's.
:. 1 .*. ..


I g. . : : : : . . . -

Figure 17. Ficu,9gaica 'Decora' leaves with their margins killed by sudden

following excessive irrigation (124).
Dracaena fragrans 'Massangeana' canes are shipped to nurseries in
the United States from Central and South America. To prevent them
from drying out enroute, ends of canes are coated with wax. If wax is
not removed from the bottom ends of planted canes, only 6% of them
develop buds near the top of the cane. In contrast, canes which have 1
cm cut from the bottom before planting are able to absorb much more
water, and 68% of these produced buds in one experiment. Likewise,
canes with their tops soaked in water before planting had only a 68%
survival after planting, whereas those with the bottoms soaked had
a 92% survival rate (109).


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- c

I we

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Adint-um cunentum, 21
Aechlern ftsciatu, 14, 27
Aglanonemat x co n iutatum, 7, 20
Aglaonemu modestum, 31
Aglaoncin x 'F'ransher', 16
Aglarnnma x 'Silver King,' 7
Aglaonenta x 'Silver Queen,' 9
Alsophila autstralis, 12
Anthurium crystallinumri, 18
Aphelandra sqwarrosa., 9, 16, 17,
Araucaria heterophylla, 7, 9, 20,
37, 38
Ardisia crenata, 7, 9, 21, 31, 36
Asparagus densiflorus 'Sprengeri,'
7, 8, 9, 18, 20. 21'
Asparagus plumosus nanm, 20,
Asplenium sp., 30

Begonia coccinea, 26
Begonia gracilis, 20, 26
Begonia.maculata, 30
Begonia metallica, 32
Begonia sempeiflorens, 30
Begonia tuberhybrida, 28
Begonia x 'Coralina Lucern,' 26
Brassaia actinophylla, 9, 16, 18, 20,
Br,-phylllum sp., 26

Caladium bicolor, 31
Cuiadiuni x 'Frieda mHnnple,' 9
(Clrnm x 'Red n,.' 9

C'hartice,'l.reu elegans, 7, 9, 1), 22,

Chlruphyturn comos,'nm, 7, 8, 9
Chloruphytum elaturn. 29, 30
Chrvsalidocarpus lutescens, 2, 3, 6,
7,9, 11, 13, 16,20,28
Cissu.srhombifolia, 29
Codiaeumn punctatis, 17
Codiaeum variegatum, 9, 20, 22,
Coffea arabica, 9
Collinea elegans, 22
Com melina africana, 31
Cordyline terminalis, 7, 8, 9, 10, 28
Crassula aborescens, 31

Crc.msi larg',ntea. 9, 22
Cryptanthas sp., 31
Cyanotis kewensis, 26

Dief'fnbachia picta. 12, 14, 16, 23,
30.36. 37
Dieffen'bachia x 'Exotica,' 9, 19,
22, 28
Di :r theco eleguntissima, 7, 9, 19,
u, 23, 37
Dracaena dermrensis, 5, 8, 9, 11,
13, 14
Dracuena godseffiana, 2, 5, 11, 12,
14, 15,23,29,31
Dracaenafragrans, 8, 9, 17. 34, 39
Dracaena marginata, 20, 23, 29
Dracaena nuassangeana, 36
Dracaena sanderiana, 2, 5, 8, 11,
12, 14, 15,23,31

Epipremnum aurcu,. 9, 19, 26, 27,
Euphorbia lIcten, 17
Euphorbia leuconeura, 26
Euphorbia tirucalis, 17

Fatsiajaponica, 17
Ficus benjamin, 17, 20, 23
Ficus elastica, 2, 4, 15, 28, 30, 32,
Ficus retusa, 20, 23
Ficus triangularis, 23
Fittonia arglvm nctri, 32

G.^ } H -p "*v t '.m'l am, l ,L (-;. 1

lieder, heli'x. 17. 2o, 23. 30, 31
tlernmi.: aiphis sp., 9
Howiieiafsteri'rntu,. 8, 9
Hoya carnosa, 9, 2;.

Kalenchoe blossfeldiana, 26, 27, 30
Kalenchoe tubiflora, 29

Marantaerythroneura, 8
Maranta kerchoveana, 8
Maranta leuconeura, 9, 16, 23,
Monstera deliciosa, 17, 28, 36

Nephrlepis exaltatn, 9, 19,23,26

Pellionia pulchra. 26
Pepermin ia cap'era ta, 10, 19
Pcperomia obtusifolia, 10, 19, 24.
Peperomia sandersii, 31
Philodendron bipennifoliurn, 10
Philodendron bipinnatifidu n, 17
Philodendron frtedrichstah li, 24
Philode',dron giganteum, 7
Philodendron hastatum, 27, 31, 36
Philodendron im be, 31
Philodendron laciniatum, 26
Philodendron macrophyllus, 20
Philodendron micans, 13
Philodendron panduriform e, 10
Philodendron pertussum, 26
Philodendron rubrum, 26
Philodendron scanden s
oxycardium, 2, 7, 10, 11, 12, 13,
14,15, 16,19, 20, 24, 26, 27, 28,
Philodendron selloum, 10, 20
Philodendron tobira, 20
Philodendron wendlandi x
lacineatum, 19
Philodendron x 'Emerald Queen,' 26
Philodendron x 'Red Emerald,' 10
Phoenix reclinata. 31

Phoenix roebelinii. 8, 10
Pilea cudierei, 10, 19. 24, 26
Pilea in Lolucrata, 26, 31
Plcrtranthus aunstrlis, 10, 19
Podocarpus macrophyllus, 8, 10
Polystichum adiantiforme, 16, 19
Polystichum tsussinmense, 19
Pteris cretica, 10
Pteris ensiformis, 10

Rheo discolor, 24

Saintpaulia ionaltha. 2, 4, 5, 30
Sansevieria longiflora, 33, 34
Sansevieria thyrsiflora, 33, 34
Sansevieria trifasciata, 10, 26, 30,
Sansevieria zeylanica, 31
Scindapsus aurcus, 9, 14, 16, 19, 25
Scindapsus pictus, 34
Spath iphyllum can naefolium, 8
Strornanthe amnabilis, 8
Syngoniun liberica, 32
Syngonium podophylluim, 10, 14,
19, 25, 27, 28, 31

Yucca elephantipes, 8, 15

Zebrina pendula, 10

r ___

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Bulletin812 ..IiU".......J-"-"..Jl.>,J.JL.O S0LANTS10RobrtB.MarlattAgriculturalExperimentStationsInstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciencesUniversityofFlorida,GainesvilleF.A. Wood,DeanforResearch7.(00 F(o3'=' 668.fro9. f-P_,_i'Cou., 10.Nelana1Ex!"11 3' 12.Stt13. Tl t1 "*g I Y February1980 '--------------, ..






N NCONTAGIOUS ISEASTR PI'VAL FOLIAGEPLRobert B. MarlattOFTSPlantPathologistUni versity ofFloridaInstituteof FoodandAgriculturalSciencesAgriculturalResearchandEducationCenterHomesteadThispublicdocumentwaspromulgatedatanannualcostof $9,065oracostof 55centsacopytoprovideinformationonnonpathogenicdiseasesoftropicalfoliageplantsproducedinFlorida.


CONTENTSPageIntroduction.......................................................1UseofThisManual2MineralDeficienciesandToxicities, "",2Boron...........................................................2Calcium5Copper.........................................................7Fluoride..................7Iron""11Magnesium11Manganese11Nitrogen12Phosphorus,14Potassium14Sulphur15Miscellaneous Micro Elements"16Zinc"..16.GeneralFertilizerExcess17PesticiIeInjury18Fungicides"18Herbicides20InsecticidesandMiticides20Nematicide20OtherToxicMaterials20Gases20GrowthRegulators26LeafShiningMaterials27 ntbtiol1 '27WoodPreservatives27Radiation28InsufficientLight:28ExcessiveLight29OtherExcessiveRadiation'29RelativeHumidity29 -,29ExcessiveHllmidity30iv\I


\\ Temperature30 Heat30Freezing32Chilling33Temperature-Miscellaneous36Genetic36ReversionofMutants36Albino'37Irrigation37Bibliography40Index48ILLUSTRATIONSPageAraucariaexcelsa Albinoseedlings38Brassaiaactinophylla Insecticideinjury25Chrysalidocarpus lutescens -Borondeficiency........................3Chrysalidocarpus ll/tescens Borontoxicity..........................6Chrysalidocarpus lutescens -Manganesedeficiency 13Chrysalidocarpus lutescens Zincdeficiency16Dief{enbachia piela -Geneticreverting37Dracaenafragmns-Chillinginjury34Dracaena sancleriana Fluoridetoxicity.............................8Fieus elastica -Borondeficiency....................................4Ficus el.astica -Potassium deficiency 15Ficus elatica.-Freezeiniury 32Ficus elastica -Droughtinjury38Philodendron scan dens oxycardium Magnesiumdeficiency 12Saintpauliaionantha -Boron deficiency '.' .....5Sanseuieria trifasciata -Chillinginjury35Sansevieria trifasciata -Freezeinjury33v


I i /.


\IINTRODUCTIONAninternationaIlyknownplantpathologist,R. B.Stevens,describingnonparasitic(noncontagious)disease,in1974stated, "We donotknowtheprecisetollbutitisentirelylikelythatitequalsorexceedsthatofdiseasecausedbylivingorganisms"(119).Asearlyas1909,Sorauerdevotedoneentirevolumeofhistwo-volumetreatiseonplantdiseasestothosenotcausedbypathogens(118).ManyfoliageplantssubmittedfordiagnosisbyFloridanurserymenareabnormalbecauseofunfavorableenvironmentratherthanparasiticbacteria,fungi,nematodes,orviruses.Inattemptingtodiagnosefoliageplantdisease,onecaneasilyfindinformationpertaini.ngtocontagiousdiseases,butlittleisavailablec('!1cerningthosewhicharenoncontagious.Itishopedthatthismanualfillsthi.sgapandthatitwillbeusefultocommercialgrowers,extensionagents,andresearchers.Indistinguishingnoncontagiousfromcontagiousdiseases,a fewgeneralobservationsmaybehelpful.Thereareexceptionstoeachofthem,buttheobservationswillbeusefulformakingapreliminarydiagnosis:1.Severalunrelatedgeneraorspeciesofplantsareoftenaffectedbyanoncontagiousdiseaseintheareainspected.Thisisrarelythecasewithdiseasecausedbypathogens.2.Noncontagiousdiseasesmayappearsuddenlyandbeevenlydistributed,whereascontagiousdiseasesoftenspreadfromonesmallareaofanurseryorfromtheedgeswhereweedhostsoccur. 3.Noncontagiousdiseasesmaybeindicatedifdistributionofdiseasedplants is relatedtoareascovered (ornotcovered) by sprinklers; cerLdinlypesorbi<:e::; uf conLaineti,Cial;clartihac.ehoube Jl grec house;areasadjoiningpesticideorfertilizerstorage,paths,orparkinglots. 4.Therecentculturalhistoryoftheplantsoftenoffers a clue; i.e.,applicationoffertilizerorpesticides,irrigation,ortheoriginoftheplants.5.Cantheproblemberelatedtooccurrenceoffrost,strongwinds,hail,flooding,orlightning,allofwhichmayresultindisease?6.Ifthereisnosignofafungusorabacterialooze,onecansuspectanoncontagiousdiseaseoronecausedby avirus.Bearinmind,however,thatinvasionofaffectedtissuesbynoninfectivefungiandbac-.teriaisinevitable,givingafalseimpressionofacontagiousdisease.7.Noncontagiousdiseasesmaycausenolesions.Iflesionsoccur,theyfrequentlyhavenowater-soakedorchloroticmargins.1


USE OF THIS MANUALIftheforegoingprocedures andinformationprovided by the nur serymensuggestaspecificcau:;c of"dis;ase, theTahle oj'CuntentsandIIl(/pxu{Plants willdirectoneto thesecLion containing it descriptionofits symptoms, cause, and cont1'01orpreven lion. Di agno:isis an art; therefore,itwillb especially helpfultobefamiliarwiththeplantandlocalcondition.A11statementspertaining to thediseasesin this manual stem fromexperimentalresultsunlessotherwiseljualifiedas observations oropinions.Someoftheproblems di;:;cllssed haveonlybe-enstudiedinsolutionculturesor are rare.Theyareincludl:din hOPb thattheywillbehelpfulto p-ersons growingplantshydroponicallyorexperi mentally.l\lINERAL DEFICIENCIESAND TOXICITIES BoronDeficiencyandToxicitySymptom.s. Chrysalidocwpw; lutescens,deprivedofsufficientboron,exhibitsplantstuntingaswellasundersized innoresc-ence , -flowers;andfr-uits.Leafletshaveachloroticmottlewhichbeginsattheirtips.Narrowtransversechloroticstreaksappearinterveinally;theseareclustered,becomemorenumerous, coalesce, andeventuallybecomenecrotic(Fig.1).Immatureleaves and-termimd budsdieand stems areabruptlytaperednear theirapices (71). Dracaella godse{{iana,grownwithoutboron,gains3%lessweight,ascompared t'o.\ normalplants,withnoaddi.tionalsymptoms.However,Dracaenasallderiana,under _si.milar .conditions, produces leatheryleaveswithbrownmarginsandweighs16'/0lessthannormal(ll).Borondeficiency of Ficlls-elc/.'lica 'Decm'a' incl.ude plantstuntinganddistortionofimmature IeavR (Fig. 2). Transverse splits intheirupper 'C'f,;..t-\lJU'::..,fr)r;-]l1r,)nltHs'1:faceQ. Terminalbudsareverysmallanddie.Philodendron oxycardium.,deprivedofboron,hasshortinternodes,thickandbrittlestems, and small,stiffleaves. Saintpall.lia ionanthu hassimilar symptoms(Fig.3),andterminalleavesofPhilodendronarediscoloredwithirregularyellowishstreaks(32).Control. -Drenchingsoilwithwatercontaining2partspermillion (ppm)boronwillremedyaborondeficiency.Onesource recom mendsthatboraxbeappliedtoc1eficientsoil at:lrnte of5to10poundsperacre(3).Theseratesofapplicationshouldnotbeexceededbecause of possibletoxicity. .Chrysalidocmpus lute:;cens, growinginthepresenceofexcessiveamountsofboron, develops severedie-backoftipsofmatureleaflets2


\ Figure 1.Chrysalidocarpns lulescensfrondwithborondeficiency.Notethenarrowtransvel'seyellowstreaksonleaflets.3


FLgure2.Boron deficient FLcuselastica 'Decora'isstullted,andterminalleavesaredistorted.(Fig. 4).Thesymptomprogressesuntilleavesaredeadexceptforimmaturefronds(71).,Matureleaveson Ficus elastica 'Decora'containingtoo much borondevelopscattered,circular brown spotswithchlorotic'.halos.Thesefirstarenoticeableonly ontheundersidesofleavesbuteventuallyarevisiblefrom above,Lesionsbecomemorenumerous,widelyscatteredonleaves,andthenaffecteclleave.s dropfromstems,startingwiththeoldestones.Immatureleavesremainnormalandarecli.lsteredattheapexofth,eplant(71). SaintpCtulia ionantha'MentorBoy'irrigated4


Figure3.Saintpauliaionanthaplantwithborondeficiency.Leavesarebrittleandcupped.withwatercontaining5ppmborondevelopeddeadareasaroundleafmargins(64).Carissa grandifloraistheonlyfoliageplantlistedastolerantto excessiveboron(37).Control. Applicationoflimetosoilhasbeenobservedtoreducetheavailabilityofboron.Ifexcessboroncomes fromirrigationwater,anotherwatersourcewouldhavetobefound.Sometimeswellwatercontainingtoomuchboroncanbeimprovedbychangingthewell.depth.Inadditiontothefonowingsymptoms,agrowershouldbeonthelookoutforweakleafptioles.Calciumpromotescell wall"strength. Symptoms.Dracaena deremensis'Warneckii'undergreenhouseconditionsshowsdrasticgrowt.hreductionwhencalciumiswithheld.Bothyoungandmatureleavesbecomeseverelyserrated,andmanybrownspotsspreadfromleafmarginsuntilmostoftheleafisspotted.Oldest.leavesdeveloprust-likepustules,andnewshootsareweakenedandhaveblackishleaflets.Deficientleaveshaveatissuecontentofonly0.32%calciumascomparedto1.54% fornormalleaves(113).LackofcalciumhascausedDracaena godseffianatohave41%lessweight,ascomparedtonormalplants.BothD. godseffianaandD. sanderianaexhibittipburnofyoungleavesfollowed byyellowingof5


!Figare 4. Chrysalidocarp/ls lu(elicens frond showingsymptomsofboron toxicity.Tipsofleafletsaredyingback. .6


leafmargins(11).Philodendrongigantewnexpresses deficiency asaslight'ellowingofinterveinalareas.Later,yellowishareasturnbrown.Axillarybudsgrow slowl,ifatall.Finallytherootsbecomeshortandbrown,withknob-liketips;therearfewerbranchroots(125). Philodendron oxycardiumis affecteddifferently;small,yellow ishspotsappearonbaalleavesfirst,thenallleavesareaffected. Yel lowspotscoalesce,andleavesthickenuntiltheyfeelleathery.Stemsthickenandbearraised,corkyareas(32).Control. -Additionofcalciumtothesoilmix,suchaslimestoneorgypsum,hasbeenobserved todiminishcalciumdeficiency.CopperDeficiencySymptoms.-InadequateamountsofcoppercausenewleavesofAglaOJlemacommutatllm'Fransher'tobedistortedandsmall(ca. 1x4 em)withcurvedandrollededges.Thesesymptomsareparticularlyapparentduringcoolweather(108).Copperdeficiencyisparticularlycommoninpurepeatmixes,andyieldsaredecreasedbyalackof copperinnewlyclearedpeatfields.Control. -Addingcopperoxideat40poundsperacregives athreefoldyieldincreaseofcaladiums(35).Copperdeficiency ofAglaonemacanbepreventedbyadditionof200mgcopperSequestrene(13% Cu)per15-cmcontainer.Afungicidespray,Kocide(54% Cu),atarateof 3.5gramsin2litersofwateralsoishelpful(l08).FluorideToxicitySymptoms.-Inexperimentsdevisedtosimulateairpollution,Aglaonemax'SilverKing'hasshownintermediatesusceptibilitytoHFfumigationwhileAspuraguprengerihasbeenhighlysuscepti10 ( '2!1);1rm'car;'1h.etf'rnphyll exhibisa mil ]pqfrhloroc;if', pspe ciallyinleavesunderdevelopment,andArdisiacrenatashows aslightmarginalchlorosisofmatureleaves(131).Chamaerlorea elegansisverysusceptibleanddevelopslarge,brownnecroticblotcheswithdarkcenters,aswellasleafmarginchlorosisandnecrosis(131).Chlorophytum comosumdevelopsdeadareasatleaftipsandmargins,anddeadspotsinfrequentlyoccurinwhiteareasofleaves(103).SymptomsonChrysalidocarplls lutescensincludeleaftipandmarginalleafscorch,streaksofinterveinalchlorosis,andsmalltanorbrownspotswithdarkcentersrandomlyscatteredoverleaves(131).Cordyline terminalis'BabyDoll'leavesbearsmall,brown,deadareaswhichenlargeandcoalesceuntilmorethanhalfofthelowerleavesareaffected(14,96).NewleaftipsblackenandshrivelonDizygothecaelegantissima,andmarginsbecomescorched.Theseinjuriesoccur7


.. ..::,.."Figure5. Draw.enasanderianaieafwith fluoridetoxici tysymptoms.Noteoblong,brownspotsinwhiteareas.during.growthflushes, nonewdamageappearsonceleavesaremature(131). Dmcaenaderemensis 'Warneckii'andD.sanderianaatfirstshowsymptomsaslightbrown, oblongspotswithinthe'whiteareasofleaves(Fig. 5).Greenareashavelightgreenspotsandtipnecrosis (98, 129).D. deremensis'JanetCraig'exhibit,deadleaf tips, usually bordered by a yellowishband,andtopweightisabnormallylow (104).RecentlymatureleavesofHoweia fostel'iO-na showgeneralchlorosisathighfluol:ide .concentrations (10}J-g F/mJ),but thegasislessconcentratd (0.4or 2}J-g F/mJ),onlyinterveinalchlorosisappears,andeventuallyleafmarginsandtipsarenecroticanddead spots occurinleaves. Phoenix roebeZeniiexhibitsrandom hi-own fleckingon leaflets,andrecently maturedPodocarpus macrophyllusleaves havetipburn(l31).Plants reported to besensitivetofluorides(Table 1)includeCJiZorophytumcomosum,CordyZine terminaZis'BabyDoll',C.terminaZis(sport),Dracaena deremensis'JanetCraig',andD. deremensis'Warneckii'.Plantsconsidered to beslightlysensitiveare Dra. caen.a/TagrensJIIL-l.-;S819-e:nH',Pl'.,thrn'!qIra,;l,f.In'rc .oveana,Spathiphyllum carinaefol'um, Stromantheamabilis,andYuccaelephantipes(l05,129).Int. ,sts todeterminesusceptibilityofplantstofumigationwithhydrogenfluoride,Dracaenafragrans'Massangeana"wasconsideredtolerant,Aglaonema'SilverKing'intermediate,Dracaena deremerwis 'Warneckii'susceptible,andAsparagus sprengeri highly susceptible (129).Control.-AdjustsoilpHto 66.5 byaddingdolomite 5 to 10lbpercubicyardofpottingmix.Hydratedlimecanbesubstitutedfor dolo mite;use80% of dolomite recommended. Super-phosphatefertilizershouldnotbe used;itcontains1.5% fluorine.Reductionoftranspirationbycuttingsisalsohelpful(l05).Fluoridesinperlitearereadilyremovedifleachedthoroughlytwoorthreetimeswithfluoride,freewater,asillustratedbyTable2.8


Table1.Suo l:eptibi Iityofsomefol iageplants Lofluorideairpollution.PlantSusceptibilityAglaollemax'SilverQueen'AphelandrasquarrosaAraucariahelerophyllaArdisiacrenutaAsparagusdensiflorus'Sprengeri'BrassaiaaClinophyllaCaladiumx'RedFlag'&'FriedaHemple'Chamaedorea elegansChlorophytumcomosum'Variegatum'Chrysalidocarpus lulescensCodiaeumuariegatum Coftea arabica Cordyline terminalis Crassula argenlea Dizygolh eca elegantissima Dracaena deremensis'JanetCraig'Dracaena deremensis'Warneckii'Dracaenafragrans'Massangeana'Dieffenbachic .'Exotica'Epipremnum aureum (Scindapsusaureus)GynuraprocumbensHemigraphisHoweiafosteriana. H oya carnosaMarantaleuconeura erythroneura Nephrolepis exaltata'Bostoniensis'Nephrolepis exaltata'Fluffy Ruffie'9LL LMHLLM-HHL L LH LMHHL L LLLM-HLMLLContinued


Tablel.Continued.PlantPeperoinia caperata Peperomia obtu.ifolia Peperomia obtusifolia'Variegata'Philodendronsco.ndens oxycardium Philodendron bipennifolium (P pandurifurmeJPhilodendronx 'RedEmerald'PhilodendronselloumPhoenix.roebelenii Pilea cadiereiPlectranthus mlstralis Podocarpus macrophyllus Pteris cretica'Albo-lineata'Pteris cretica'Mayii'Pteris ensiformis'Evergemensis'Sanseuieriatrifasciata'Hahnii' podophyllumZebrinapendlllaSusceptibility H=high, M=medium,L=low(I30,131).SusceptibiIit.yLL LM M LM-HMLL MH HHL L L10 'I =nonecrosis,5= riecrosis (54).Table2.Influenceofsequentialleachingofperliteonfluorideto,'icityofCordylineterminalisrootedinperlite leachate.Necrosisrating Leachate number". " ',,' 'Treatment01234 --Deionizedwater1.0Perlite(sourceA) 1.0Perlite(sourceB) 1.0


IronDeficiencyIronisnotdistributedinplantsfromoldtoyoungleaves;therefore,thelattershowseverestsymptoms.IftheacidityofgrowingmediaisbelowpH7,additionofiron:saltsorchelateswillpreventdeficiency;ifoverpH7,frequentfoliarspraysmaybeneeded.Symptoms.-IrondeficientDracaena derem.ensis'Warneckii'hasextremelychloroticimmatureleavesandoccasionalnecroticspotsneartheleafbases.Thisspottingmayeventuallycovertheentireleaf.Deficientleavescontainonly83ppmironcomparedtothenormal223ppm(113).Dracaena godseffianaandD. sanderianadevelopyellowimmatnreleaveswhichbecomealmostwhite.DeficientD.sanderianaplantshave75%lessweightthannormalplants(11).D. godseffianahasseveredefoliationandstemtipdieback,whereasPhil odendron oxycardiumleavesdemonstrateonlyamildinterveinalyellowing(32).Control. -Iron-EDTAchelateappliedasasprayat1poundper100gallonsofwaterstoppedtheymptoms.Plantsweresprayedfourtimesatweeklyintervals;ironsulfatespraycausedanunsightlygreenspotting(114).MagnesiumDeficiencySymptoms.-YoungleavesofmagnesiumdeficientDracaena god seffianaproducedeadtipsandplantscanbeunderweightasmuchas41%. D. sanderianaalsohastipburnandlightblotchesindriedleaves.Leavesbecomebrittle,theolderonesarecupped;plantsweighupto31%lessthannormal(11).Philodendron scandens oxycardiumplantslosevigor;stemsareunusuallythinwithshortinternodesandsmallleaveswithyellowishgreenmarkingsinaninvertedV-shape(32). 'T'ho;,"\v"';-n"'ITs t picalOfTY"l'lgnps,-pn in plant') (SeeFig.6).Control. -Controlhasbeenobtainedbysprayingfoliagewitha2%to3%solutionofmagnesiumsulfate(Epsomsalts)ormixingdolomiteintothepottingmedia. l\-langanese DeficiencyandToxicitySymptoms.-Manganeseisanothermineralthatcannotmovefrommaturetoyoungleaves;therefore,symptomsofitsdeficiencyaremostseverein immature leaves.Chrysalidocarpus lutescensterminalfrondsarestunted,twistedseverely,andbrownishordead.Thissymptomisreferredtoas"frizzletop"(Fig.7).Dracaenagodsef fianagrowthrateisreduced,andnewleavesnearthestemtipforma11


Figure6.Philodendron scandens oxycardiumleaves magnesium de ficiency.Chloroticarea fonus aninverted"V".rosette..Later, this clusterofterminalleaves.becomesyellowanddries,amIthestemtipdiesback.Plantsweigh15%lessthan normal. OlderleavesofD.sanderianadie,beginningattheirtips,andweighasmuchas26%less than norrrlalplants(11).Control. Spraysofchelated maBganese wereobservedtob ben eficialinsomeinstances,butsoilapplicationofmanganesesalts, che lates,andfritted aremostcOIIlmonlyusedandlongerlasting.ReducingsoilaciditytobelowpH6.5mayalso be effective.Plantsingeneralwhichreceive excessiveamountsofmanganesebecomeyellowishand stunted. Sterilizingsomesoilsbysteamingattemperaturesabove180Freleasessufficientamountsofavailablemanganesetocausethistoxicity(38). excessive mois turelevels forprolongedperiodsmayalsoinducemanganesetoxici ty.Control. -Lcachincr steamedsoilthoroughly will removeexcessive O,I,12'ane"pcausedh.l'lhl:';.;tr;-lmiot :\ PC:;0t'lxi,'it' mayalso bereducedby increasing thesoilaciditytopH6.5.NitrogenDeficiencySymptoms.-Insufficientavailablenitrogencausestheentire fo liageofDieffenbachia pieta'Exotica'to becomeverylightgreenincolor, and plantsstopgrowing(100). Leaves of Drac;aena godseffiana becomeyellowish,beginningwithlowerleave.'. As.symptOllls prog ress leaves becomebrightyellow,eventuallyd ie,andfall off.Plantsweigh88%lessthannormal.D. sanderia.naexhibitssimilar symp toms,anddeficientplantsweigh70%less than healthyones(11). Al sophila australisshowsageneral stunting andyellowish fronds,withlowerleavesaffectedfirst. Bro'W'l1 spotseventuallyappearonlower12


Figure7.Chrysalidocarpus lutescensfrondexpressingmanganesedeficiencysymptoms.Lowerleafletsontheyoungestfrondare bro'NTI, twistedanddead.fronds(43).Dracaena deremensis'Warneckii'expressesnitrogendeficiencybyreducedtopgrowth,palegreenfoliage,anddevelopmentoflong,narrowyoungleaveswithwavymargins.Someleaves developblackspotsalongthewhitemarginalstr.ipe,andnewsuckersareweakandfewinnumber(l13).Philodendron micansandP.OXY-13 -----


cardium.expressageneralyellowingofterrninalleaves,whichareundersized.Petiolesextendupward,theleafblades bt, ddownw'rd, und internodesareshorterthanusual.Older leave'; eventuaIJyde velopdeadspots,whichcoalesceuntilthe entire leafdies. Aebal roots die back,andthentheentireplantdies Scindapsusaurells reactsinthesamemanner(122).Inadditiontochloroticfoliage,Syngonium. podophyllum.'EmeraldGreen'hasreducedstemlengthandlesstopweight(100).Control. Applyanitrogenfertilizer. Phosphor 8 Deficiency Symptoms. Dieffenba<:hia pieta'Exotica',deprivedofsufficientphosphorus,showsnodecreasedweight.YoungleavesofphosphorusdeficientDraeaena dereTJ7,ensis 'Warneckii'arearrangedina rosette pattern,havenecrotic spots in their whitestripes,andhaveraggeumargins.Youngleavesinparticularhaveserratedmarginsneartheirbasesandcontain0.07%phosphoruswhilenormalfoliageha0.22% (113).Leavesof Dnieaena godseffianadevelop amore intense greencolor,andplantsweigh28%lessthannormal.DeficientD. anderianaolderleavestunyellowishattheirtipsandmargins;then dis coloredareasdie,andleaves dropas they becomeentirelyyellow (11). Philodendron scanclens oxyeardiumstemsareunusuallythin,andleavesandstemsturnadull,greyishgreen.Leavesaresmallerand shorterthanthoseonplantsreceivingadequatephosphorus.Basal leave$ developtipbnrn,thedeadareaadvancingtotheleafbase,andolderleavesareshed(32).Reducedstemlength (Oln

Figure8.Ficus elastica'Decma'leafwithpota:siumdeficiencysymptoms.Spottingisusuallymoresevereononesideoftheundersurface.plantsweigh25%lessthannormal(11).Ficus elastica'Decora'matureleavesbearnumerous,small,angular red spotsontheundersidesonly(Fig. 8). Asspotcoalesce,theybecometanandeventuallyarevisiblefromtheleafupperside.Air-layerareconiderablymoresusceptibletopotassiumdeficiencythannormalbranches,andplantsgrowninfullsunlightaremuchmoreserioulydamaged than shadedplants(72).Philodendron scandens oxcardiumleavesbecomestuntedandstemshaveshortintrnodes,producingchainsofsmall,normally ""rppn:Irffpctedfir.tanddpvplop yellowmargins orbecomeentirelyyellow.Eventually,largebrowndeadspotsoccur onleavesnearthebaseof the plants(32).Control. -Applyahighpotahfertilizer(73).Asanexample,anurserymanwhohadbeenusinga 5-8-10fertilizeronfield-grownstockplantsswitchedto a 6-6-6formulaandhisFicus elastica.'Decora'becameunsalablebecauseofseveresymptomsofdeficiency.SulfurDeficiencySymptoms.-When sulphur wasomittedfromfertilizer,theonlysymptomonDracaena god effianawas22%lessweightthannormalplants.However,D. sanderianashowedyellowingandtipburnofyoungerleavesand26%lessweight(11)thannormal.15


MiscellaneousMicroElementsOneshouldbe aware ofthe fact thatcertainmicro-elementfertilizerscan damage somepiants.For instance,mixing themicroelementfertilizer "FTE-503"with soilatarateof %.pound p'I'cubicyardhascaused leaves of ApheJandrasquarrO.Ja and Brassaia actinuphyllato hecome yellowish. Amaterial called"Perk" also yellowedB. actinophylialeaves(26).Otherexamplesoffoliageplantsthathave been adversely affected byadditionsofsecondaryormicro-elementmixturesinclude Ardaonem x'Franshcr',Die/fimbachiapicta'Perfec tion', Mctranta Leucolleura 'RedNerve',Philodendron oxycardi/lnl, Po lystichum adianti/brme, and Scindap.liUs aureus.These unfavornble responses sometimes canbeexplainedbythefactthatthetraceelementmixturesweretooconcentrated,wereimbalanced,orwereaddedtomediawhichalreadycontainedsufficientamounts.Addingami cronutrient mixturetoamediumbeforesteamsterilizationcanalsocauseexcessiveamountsofsomeelementsto bereleased(15,19,97).ZincDeficiencySymptoms. Asdeficiencyin ChrysaLidocarpas Lutescensbecomesmoresevere;fronds a r:e severely stunted,and leafletsare short,thick,andclosely spaced(Fig, 9),Control. Apply afertilizercontainingzinc, '}'t'._.......j;' ..Figure9.ChrysalidocarpllS lutescensplantwithzinc deficiency.Small,triangular frondis typical.16


GeneralertilizerxcessSymptoms. Regardlessofspecificnutrientsinvolved, fertilizermaydamage plants becauseoftoxicsolublesaltsintheoilsolution.Ifexcessalt.aresu pected,itiswisetohavethegrowingmediaanalysedby a reliab1esoilschemist.Aphelandmsquorrosagrowswellfol1owingapplicationofasolubleformofN,P,andKat0.9, 0.4,and0.8kilogramsper100square meters permonthifirrigatedatleastweek1y. However,threetimesthatratekillsplants,anddoublerateslowertheirqualitybeyondmarketacceptance.Solublesaltsincontainersofsuchdamagedplantsvaryfrom 1,403 to 2,625ppm(22).Excessdissolvedfertilizercausesyellowishmottlingand burns marginsandtipsofleavesof Dracaenafragans 'Massangeana'(24). Ficus benjaminaoftenhassevereleafabscissionshortlyafterbeingpurchasedfromnurerieswhichdonotacclimatizeplantsunderloweredlightlevelsandfertilizationrates(23,91).Table3illustratestherelativetoleranceofsomefoliageplantstosalinity.Control Heavilyfertil izedplantsarelikelytohaverootdamagefromsolublesaltswhensoildries.Plantsthataregrowingfastrequiremorefrequentfertilizations,notheavierapplications.Ifa pot tingmixcontainsslow-releasefertilizer,itmustnotbestored;plantimmediatelyaftermixing.LeachfertilizerifitistooconcentratedTable3.Salinitytoleranceoffoliageplants.SalinitytoleranceModeratelyPlantToleranttolerantSensitiveCodiaeuTn pUllctatisn .../......','IUx Euphorbia lacleaxEuphorbia tirucalis xFatsia japonicaxHedera helixxMonslera deliciosaxPhilodendronbipinnatifidumxSanseuieriasp.x xYuccasp.xReference: 37.17


(37).Irrigatingregularlyandsufficientlytokeeptheplantingmix moistcan minimizeinjury. p." TICIDE INJURY Fu.ngicdes Symptoms. -Severity offungicideinjut'Ymay V::H'y f{'omyellowingof leaesto dead ntsand distorted growth. 1ype of depends on'plant type,p'luntand environmentalconditions,aswell a.' thekindoffungicide u::;ed. Damage fromany pesticide mayresultfroma single, excessively heavyapplication or fromexcess application;;of asafeconcentration.Injurycanalsooccurifsevei'a1applicationsdonothavealongenoughintervalbetweenthem.Therefore,thespecificsymptomsareomitted hom thefollowingTable4,andinjuryisCOnsideredtoconsist ot" anyreactionthatreduces salability ofaplant,Thewoodpreservatives,creosoteorpentachlorphenol,haveoftencausedplantinjuryor c18ath whenusedongreenhouse or shadehousestructures,benches,andflats.Dexon 150ppmDifoJatan50ppm Terrazole 12,5ppmTerrazole50ppmContinued n",;Itl'",-UtijJlJmBasiccopper suIfate1.5Ib/l00gal Benlate1 Ib/IOO gal Captan1.5 lb/lOOgalDaconilllb/lOOgalDifoJatan IqUIOO gal Dithane M-453Ib/IOOgal Maneb 2Ib/IOOgalManzateD3Ib/IOOgal Mertect0.75 IbllOO gal PCNB50Ib/acreZineb2lb/IOO gal Flurasi]FlurasiI(F+Zn)woodpreservative18 Table4. Fungicide injurytofoliageplants. -------::::Plan fungicide ---Anthuriurn crY::ilalLinurn Aridia. crenu lata Asp ragus sprngeri ..'. O( ",.


1'ablp4. Continued. Plant Damaging fungicideChamaedorea elegansAgristrep400ppmBasiccoppersulfate1.5Ib/100galCaptan50ppmDexon150ppmTerrazole50ppmDieFfenbachia exoticaMerteet3Ib/l00Dizygotheea elegan/is'imaDifolatan100ppmTerrazole25ppmEpipremnll.nL all.rell.nL Mertect31b/100galNephrolepis exalta/aAgrostrep200ppmBasiccoppersulfate3lb/100galDithane M-45 1.51b/100galMertect3Ib/100galPeperomia cape rataDexon150ppmTerrazole100ppmP{oliaDexon25ppmP obtu.sifolia uariegataTerrazole50ppmPhilodendron scan dens oxycardium Basiccoppersulfate3Ib/100galP wendLandixlacineatumStreptomycin800 ppmPilea cadiereiManeb2lb/100galZineb21b/100gal PlerfranthlisC/usfmlis Benomvll0nppminsoilPolys/ie/wmtsussimenseDexon 75 ppmDifolatan100ppmTerrazole50ppmP adiantiformeAgristl'ep200ppmBasiccoppersulfate1.5Ib/100galDifolatan1qt/100galScindapsusau reusMertect3Ib/100galSyngoniumpodophyllumMerteet3Ib/100galReferences: 2, 34, 62, 63, 79, 80, 83.19 ---'---------------------


HerbicidesSympto/lls. -Leavesof Aglcwnf'ma cormnutulwlIareshorterandnarrowerfollowing soilapplicationof1lb/acreglyphosate (88). As paragus plumosusnCLfW.-: is dam8ged bycalciumendothalandCIPC,2ulbactivej'ngredient(ai)perac:re;DBCP,45 lbai/acre;2,4-D, 20 lbai/acre;monuron,16 lbai/acre;PCP, 60 lbai/acre;sodiumTCA, 50 lbai/acre;and2,4,5-T, 5 Ibai/acre(52).Arallcuiaheterophyl1aleavesweremoderatelydistortedonnewgrowthbydicambaat2.2kg(4.8 lb)ai/acre(87).Similar symptoms appearedonAsparagus Jensi/ZoTils A. plumoslis nanllS, Brassaia actinophylla,andChrysali docarplls LutesceliS(87).Prometoneat10Ib ai/acre killedleafmarginsofCiSSllSsp.; leavesofCocliaeum variegatLimwerestuntedandnarrowed by 10Ib/acreglyphosate, alsokilledterminalsof Dizy gotheca elegantissima,whereas 2.2 kg(4.8lb)ai/acreofdicambamerelydistorteditsleaves,asitdidthoseof DracaeWI rrituginata, Ficus ben jam ina, andFretusa(87).Philodendron macrophyllus,Pselloum,ancI P tobira leaves.weredistortedby dicamba at2.2kg(4.8 lb)ai/acre(87).Casoronat4lbai/acre '(;vel'ely reduced growth of Philodendron scandens oxycardium(1.21). Hed.era.sp. waskilledbyprometone,10 Ibai/acre,andleafmarginsofKalanchoesp.wereburnedaswerethoseofPileasp. (127).InsecticidesadMiticidesSj1mptoms. -Insecticideormiticideinjuryincludesleafspotting,yellowing,deformation,orabscission.Eachofthesesymptomsayvaryfromslighttosevere.InTable5 the lowestconcentrationthatdamagedplantsis givPn andsymptomsarenotspecified. F.igure 10showssymptomsof i n::;ecticide damagetoBrassaia actinophylla,aplautthatisextremelyusceptibleto pesticide sprayinjury.NeinaticldSymptoms.-Nemagon,DBCp, is u::>ed asa soildrenchforlivingplants.SixfoliageplantsweretestedfortoleranceandresultsareshowninTable6.Symptomsincludeabnormallysmallplants,leafstunting,yellowing,andslight spotting (45,57).OTHERTOXIC MAT i RIALS.GasesSymptoms.-Asparagussprengerihas'beenfound tobehighlyresistanttochlorine,nitrogenperoxide,andsulfurdioxide;butBegonia20


ijTable5.injuryto foliageplants.References: 8, 36, 41, 44, 46, 47, 60, 62, 89, 90, 110,116, 117.PlantAdiantumcuneatumAphelanclra squarrosaArdisiasp.Asparagussprengeri Brassaia actinophyllao100refersto 100galwater.0*Areferstoacre.Damaginginsecticide-miticideMalathion,1.5 Ib tech./lOO*Dursban2E, 0.25 Ib ai/lOOOmite30W, 0.45Ibai/IOOOrthene75S, 0.5lbai/IOO ScienceaerosolVydate2L, 0.5lbai/IOO Dylox 80% SP,21b/100Dylox LS,4lb/galI-Bomb aerosol Phosvel 2.7EC, 1.5Ibai/IOORaidaerosolScienceaerosolAcaraben4EC,1 pt/IOOAzodrin5EC,lIbailA**Cygon 2EC, 1 qt/lOODelnav4EC,I pt/lOODiazinon4EC,0.5lba1/100 DicofoI18.5EC,asrecommendedDimethoate25EC,2 pt/lOODursban2E,0.25lbai/lOO Dylox 80SP,21b/100Dylox LS,4Ib/gaI,3 pt/lOOEnstar,asrecommendedFundal95SP, 0.5 Ib/IOOFunda14EC,0.51b ai/lOO Fnradan 4F,1.5Ib ai/IOO Gardona75WP, Ib/llJU I-Bomb aerosolKelthane 35 WP, 1.3 Ib/IOOKelthanelS.5EC,2 pUIOOLannate90SP,90z/l00Malathion57EC,2 pt/IOOMeta-SystoxR,EC,1.5pt/100MonocrotophosasrecommendedMorestan25WP, 1 Ib/IOOOmite30W, 0.45lbai/lOOContinued21


PlantCka maedorea elegans Codiaellm uariegatum 7hble.5. Continued. Dam:1"illginsCc:licide-mitjridl:' Orthene75WP, 2.6 Ib/JOOOrthene75SP, 1.3 Ib/lOOOxythioquinox,20z/100PhosveI2.7EC,1.51bai/lOOPhosvel,3Jb/gal,4 pUlOOPliclran40WP,6oz/100 Re::;methin 7EC,0.25Ibail100Science acm. '01SevinSOW?,21b/100Volk oil,1.6 gal/lOa Vydate2L,0.5 Ibai/lOOAcaraben4EC,1 pUIOOAramitel5WP,2Ib/IOOCygan2EC,Iqt/lOOFundal95Sp'0.5Ib/lOOI-Bomb aero::;ol Kelthane35Wp'1.31b/lOOKelthaneIS.5EC,2ptilOaMeta-SystoxR,EC,1.5ptilOOMorestan25Wp'llb/lOOOilemulsion,2% Omite, 30WP,1.5IbllOOOrthene75Wp' 1.3lb/lOOPlictran50WP,60z/l00Malathion as recommendedPhosve12.7EC,1.51bai/IOORaid aero;:,ol('O(!:Ilf'lI.!1L'(r'.:t!f{utUl1lBravo' 22Furadan4F,0.5IbailA Kelthane 35Wp'llb/lOOOmite30WP, 1.5lb/lOORaidaerosolCodiaellm. uariegatum 'GoldDust'Collinia elegans Cra.ssula w:gtenea Dielfenbachia exoticaCygan2EC,1 qUlOODelnar-4EC,1pUlOOMalathion57EC,2pUlOOMorestan25WP,Ilb/lOO -------------


1PlantDieffimbachia picta'Perfedion'Dizygotheca elegantissima Dracaena godserriana Dracaena marginata Dracaena sanderiana Ficus benjamina Ficusretusa Ficus triangu laris Hedera helix Hoya carnosa Maranta !euconeura Nephrolepis exaltata Table5.Continued.Damagingin ecticide-miticidOmite30WP, 1.5 ]b/lOOOrthene75WP, 2.6 Ib/lOO Yolk oil, 1.6gal/lOaOmite30W, 0.45 Ibai/lOORaidaerosol Azodrin 5EC,lIbailALannate90SP, 9 oz/lOO Dylox LS, 4]b/gal,3 pUlOO I-Bomb Aerosol Science AerosolDiazinon25EC,2 ptilOODursban2EC,libai/lOO Dy]oxILS,1.51b ai/lOOFuradan4F, 0.5Ibai/lOO I-Bomb aerosolRaidaerosolResmethrinaerosolVydate2EC,0.5 ]b ai/lOO Carzol 95WP, 0.5lbai/lOODursban2EC,lIbai/lOaDyloxlLS,1.5 lb ai/lOOFundal4EC, 0.51bai/lOaFuradan4F, 0.5 lbai/lOaPhosveI2.7EC,1.5lbai/lOaSevin JL, .5Ib aill 00Vydate :lEe, 0.5Ibai/lOOOrthene1.3EC, 0.51b aillOORaidaerosol Science aerosolDiazinon25EC, 2 pt/lOOCygan2EC, 1 qtllOOFundal95SP, 0.5 Ib/lOOOrthene75WP,1.31b/100Cygan2EC, 0.3751bai/lOaDiazinon25EC, 2 ptilOOContinued23


Dimethuate25EC, 2pt/100Dursban2E,0.25 ai/lOO Dylox 80SP,21b/100DyloxL8,4Ib/gal,3 pUIOOGanJona75Wp' 21b/lOO J\Ialathiun 57EC, 2pt/lOOMalathiontech., 1.5Ib/JOOOmite30W. 0.451bai/l00Orthene75Sp' 1.31b/J 00Phosvel,3lb/gal,4 pt/IOORaidaerosolResmethrin1%ScienceaerosolDiazinon25EC,2 pt/lOODimethoate25EC,2pUlOOGardona75WP,21b/100Lannate90SP,90z/100 -amite30W; 0.45Jbai/lOOPhosvel,3Jb/gal, 4 pt/lOOVydate2L, 0.5lbailiOOAramite 2Jb/lOO Malathion 25WP. Ih/10IJDiazinon25EC,2 pt/lOOGardona75Wp' 2 Ib/lQOMeta-SystoxR,25EC,1.5 pt/lOOOmite30WP, 1.5IbllOOPhosvel,31b/gal,4 pt/lOO Table5.Continued. PlantDam:lgingin.:ecticldc-miticide--------------'----------------. Peperornia obtllsifolia Peperomia obtllslfoliavariegatedPhilodendronfriedrichstahli 1Jhllodelldrull uxycardium Pilea cadierei Rheodiscolor Oilemulsion 2% Tbimet47.5EC, 1 qUJOOAramitel5Wp'2 Jb/lOODiazinon25EC,2pt!lOODimethoate25EC, 2 pt/lOOLannate90SP,90z/100Malathion25WP,41b/100Parathionl5Wp'1.5Ib/lOOLannate1.8L, 0.5Jbai/AOrthene1.3L,lIbailASevin80WP, 3 IbailA --.------------:0----__ 24


.Tahle5.Continued. Plant Scindap.'usaureus SyngoniumpodophyllumSyngoniumpodophyllum'EmeraldGem'Syngoniumpodophyllum'GreenGold'Damagingin'ecticide-miticideAramitel4WP,2Ib/IOOI-Bomb aerosolMalathion57EC,2 pUIOOOmite30WP, 0.45 Ib ai/IOORaidaerosol Dylox 80SP,21b/100Malathion57EC,2 pt/lOOOmite30WP, 1.5 Ib/IOO Dylox LS, 4lb/gal,3 pt/lOOMalathion57EC,2pt/100 DyloxLS,4lb/gal,3 pt/lOOMalathion57EC,2 pt/lOOFigure 10. Brassaia actinophyllaleavesdistortedbyinsecticidesprays.I25 :.....-----------


Nemi,gO!1,8.61-:, 50z/I 00 Np11lagon, 8.6J<, 10 oz/1.00Nemagon,8.6,1oz/100Nemagon,8.6E,50zl100Nemagon, 8.BE, 10oz/100Nemagon,8.6E,50z/100 Tahle 6.Nematicideinjurytofol iageplant s. ---------_____P_l,_'llllDarnngi_llE_ . lvIarantasp.Philodendron lacinialumP pp.rfuSSlitn P rllbrumPsp.'EmeraldQueen' Ealhyphyl/um sp. Rl'{ereflcc: 57. gracilisis susceptibletoallthreegases(28).HydrogensulfidegasreadilydamagesyoungleavesofNephrolepis exalt.ala(27). Ethylenegasataconcentrationof5ppmcausesAphelandrasp..andEuphorbia leuconeura 'Folirnieri', todropalmostalloftheirleaveswithin1 or 2days.Thesameplants retainmost oftheirleavesundersimilarconditionsinthepresenceof25gofaluminumoxideimpregnatedwithpotassiumpermung-anate(Purafil)(95),Inan experi ment,plantsweresubjectedto2,5,or10ppmofethylenefor10days,andaninjuryindex ratingof several foliageplantswasdevised,thehigherratingsdenoting mol' sevel:e symptoms.InjurytoSanseuieria i;rifasciafa 'Laurentii'wasratedonly19inseverity.Chamaedorea eleganswasrated21, Begonia 'CnralinaLucern' reC'eivecl aninjuryratingof54,andPhilodendron scal/dens oxycardill7n aratingof59(51).Ethyleneinjuryofsomeotherplai1ts con;;isted ofleaf examplesiucludeBegonia coccinea'Lucerna',Bryophyllumsp.,Clw maedorea elegans, Kalanchoe blossfeldiana'Cheri"Ph.ilodendron scandens oxycardium,and.Sanseuieriasp. (51, 50, 76, 77),Artificialilluminatinggas causes Sanseuieriasp. todevelop small 1aDetsand I rout:..'m o.llclilJ [iOIlIpJarischIli Ii j..:rlp"'trrYf,rl )1). GrowthRer.tors Growthregulatorsare applied t{)foliageplantsinordertogivthemthecompactappea'anceconsumersprefer.However,some plants,3000ppm,hasreducedbranchdevelopmentandcausdsevereyellowingof yOl..lng leavesofCyanotis kewensis.Italsoyello.ed youngleavesofPellionia.pulch.ra, Philodendron scandens oxycardiwn, Pilea cadierei,andP inuolucrata(53).SurfacesofEpiprernnurn aureu'nL leaveswereexperimentallykilledby200 ppm ofPBA(81).Kinetinataconcentrationof100ppmpreventedrootformationofSaintpauliasp. (93).26


Threegrowth regulators"Maintain",20and40 ppm;maleic hy drazide,3,240ppm;and"Ethrel",2,000and4,000ppm-wereap plied tothreefoliageplants.InPhilodendron scandens oxycardium,Epiprcmflllmaurewn,andSyngonilllllpodophyllum.symptomsof "Maintain'.' injuryincludedproductionoflateralbranchesatsomenodeswithdeformedapicalandlateralgrowth.Apical meri, temsdied onP scandens oxycardium andE.uureumfollowingtreatment\ithmaleichydrazide."Ethrel"causedPsccmdens oxycardiumandE.aureumtolosesomeleavesanddevelop long,thinyellow nodes. S.podophyllu.mhaderraticgrowth(94). ToinducefloweringofAechmeafasciata,15mlofa1%solutionofBOH(2-hydroxyethylhydrazine)wasaddedtothehollowcrownsoftheplants'poorlyformed flowersresulted(33),FoliardamageresultedwhenKalanchoe hloss[eldianawastreatedwith"Embark":N 2,4-dimethy1-(5-( trif1uoromethy1)solfony 1aminophenylacetamide tocauselowering (123).LeafShiningMaterialFiveleafshiningmaterialswereappliedexperimentallytoPhilo dendron oxycardium,andtreatedplantswerecomparedtountreatedplants.Materialsincluded"Floraglow,""LeafGlow,""LeafLustreBlackMagic," "Lustre LeafPlantPolish,"and"SchultzePlantShine."Foliagewastreatedbiweeklyforninemonths.Plantswhichreceivednotreatmentsdevelopedmoreleavesandlongershoots,wereheaviel,andhadfewestdeadleaves;however,theywerenotasshiny(92).GuttationPhilodendron haMatum hasbeenfoundoccasionallyto develop yel In.,. lin I, \'wi-"'1rf1o'''<:;:-ilnt-.:wir"hdp;ld)'f;llSU;ll1yrnea,;ure less than mmindiameter.Spotsarerno tnumerousonoldleavesandsometimesnearlycovertheentire leaf surface.Symptomsappeartwotothreeweeksafterleavesunfurl.Stornatescontain a plantexudatecontaining 93% sugaronoldleavesand28%onimmatureleaves.Spottingiscontrolledbyremovingtheexudatewithdistilledwaterthriceweekly.Black,sootymoldgrowingontheexudateiscontrolledwithafungicidalspray(84),WoodPreservatives Symptoms, Brassaia actinophyllaleavesdevelopchloroticmarginswhenonlythefumesofpentachlorophenolspreadtotheplant(36).27


Control. Woodcanmoresafelybe treated withcop.ernephthenate,which docs notvolatizeandismuchle.sphytotoxic (4). RADIATION Insufficimt LightSymptoms. Light may beofinsufficientintensity,hoursofexposureperdaymaybeinsufficient,orthewavelength may be improper. Plantswhichreceivenolightwillhavelong,slender,white andyellowandwhiteleaves. Hovvever, plantsthatreceivesomewhat les.' than optimum lightwillexpress moresubtle symptoms.IfAphelandmsp.receiveslessthan300to400foot-candles(ft-c),itwillnotbloom.Flowerswillappearinabout16weeksunder500to600ft-candwithin8weeksunder1000to1500ft-c (102). terminalis'BabyDoll',under80%shade,doesnotdevelopbrilliantpinkcolorasunder40%or60%shade.Cuttingyieldsdecreaseunder40%shade,ascomparedto80%,and Die!fimbachia exotica cuttings aresimilarlyaffected(16).Thelatterplant becomes stuntedwhenitreceives1000to2000 ft-c butgrowsvigorously ullder 5000to6000ftc(102).Corkycallosities anrl pustulesappearontheundersidesof Fi cuselasticaleaves WhEln growninpoorlight(124).Nitrogenfertilizermaycomplementlightintensity.ThesamnumberofMaranto sp. cuttingshavebeenproduceclunder2000 fL-c plus240lbnitrogenperacreperyearasunder4000ft-cwithnoadditionalnitrogen(102). Monstemdelicioiia underinsufficient lightin tensityfailstosplit(9).As shade increasesfrom 30% to 90%, leafchlorosisofPhilodendronscandensseandelLsandPscandens ox)'car diumdecreasesifnitrogenlevelsarebelownormal.As lightin creases,stemlengthisreducedandleafarea decreases, acommonplantresponse. Epipr"'l/Un!allreUl7Irencts :irni ady On h,.."J. 1 ft,.,,....Gh't>-.':d<";;'11,IVL;;UJjJLll t h:get::ttlve grohofSaintpauli.asp.;however,thesamelightfor12hI'perdayissufficient (49). EpipremnlllnClurellmcuttings grow muchlessunder 80% thanunder40%shade(16).Plantsarestuntedwhenexposedto less than1000ft-ebutgrowwellunder5000ft-c (102).Syngoniumpodophyllumfailstodevelopitsnormalfoliagecolorwhengiveninsufficientlight(1).Begoniatuberhybrida.'HelenHarms'and 'Ami JeanBard'growslowlywhentheyreceive25 ft-c for12hI',butgrowthstopswhen ex posuretimeisreducedto11 hI'daily.Inadditiontonogrowth,theapicalmeristem so:netimes abscises(68).Leavesof Chrysalidocarpus lutescensgrowninfullsunlightoftenareafadedgreenwithdeadleaftips,whereasplantsin40%shade28


-----..--------------------------------developnormal,greenleaves(l01).LeavesofDracaena marginata have anincreasinglyintensifiedgreencolorasshadeincreasesfrom 0 to 40% to 80% (21).Highlightintensitywhileplants are beingforcedresultsinpooradaptationtotheconsumers'lowlight,with 811suing leafdrop(2m.Whenshadeis removed,Dracaena godseffianaexhibitsmildirondeficiencysymptoms (11). Manylarge cuttings are ;:;hipped totheU.S.A. fromthetropicalAmericasandCaribbean islands. Somecontain low foodreervesbecausetheyweregrownininsufficientsunlight, and thustheymayfail to growwhenreplanted.Lackoflightinshippingcontainersalsoisdetrimental.Suchshipmentsmustbepottedimmediatelyafterreceiptbecauseeachdaybeyondthefourthdayinadarkcontainerreducescuttingquality 20% to 25%,mainlybyexclusion ofhght (13).ExcessiveLightVariegatedChlorophytum elatum greenleafareasareinjuredbyaslittleas1000lux(93ft-c)oflight.Sinceoxygen'spresenceisrequiredforinjury,theprocessisconideredtobephotoxidationsensitizedbychlorophyll (67J. Inanotherexperiment20,000lux(1860 ft-c)oflightturnedthesamespecies'greenareasbrown(69).OtherExcesiveamationSymptoms.-X-rayradiationoftwo doseof2300Reachtotinyplantletsgrowingfrom leavesofKalanchoe tubifloracausedtheplantstoremainsmallerthannontreatedplants(67).RELATIVE HUMIDITYSymptoms.-Wiltingorleafabscissioncanbeasignofinsufficientrelativehumidityaswellasnotenoughirrigation.Asanexample,Codiaewn variegatumcuttingsoftendroptheirleaveswhencuttingsarebeingrooted. Desiccation issuspected,becausemoreabscissiontakesplaceastheperiodbetweentakingcuttingsandstickingthemislengthened.A3-dayperiodresultsinlessleafdropthan5days.Continuousmistfor12hrduringthewarmer part ofthedaysavesmoreleavesthan15secmistevery30minfor 24 hI' a day.Air-layersorcuttingsfromplantsgrownunderfullsundroptwiceasmanyleavesduringrootingasthosegrownin30%to50%shade(25). CiSSllS rhombifolia, Peperomia obtllsifolia,and Epipl'emnwn aureumhavedarker green leaveandlargerchloroplastswhengrowninan29


averagerelntive humidityof91.9%asopposedto 34.4%.Theplantshave greater weight, dry weight,and leaf'area andthicknessinthehigherhumidity (126). Asan extreme exampleofhighhumidityrequirement,oneauthor Claims a relativt: humidity0{99% is inade quatefor Bef{onia macula/a,which has extremely largeleaf cell.;in fact,itscel1volume:cell surface ratiois21:4,whereasHedera helixtolerates a lowerrelativehumidity andhas avolume:surface ratio of4:2.Drought-killingrelativehumidity of Hederu. is85'70(50% ofplantsdie) (67). Diefjenbachiu piela'Perfection'tipcuttingssuffer coJ!apse andyellowingoflowerleaveswhenrelativehumidityis low. TO'preventdesiccation,. cuttings mustbeplantcuthe SeHne day as cut :.Inti misted15secevery30minuntilrootingis sufTicient (18). Amajorcauseoneaflossofimportedfoliageplantswithlargeleavesisdesiccationbecauseoflowhumidity(13).ExcessiveHumidityManyplantssuberizeinjuriesbestatrelativehumiditiesapproaching100%;however,caladiumtubers subei'ize betterat 75% .than90% (75). TE1\tIPERATtJ EExcessiveHeatSymptoms. Inpartialshadethekillingtemperaturefor Asplen iumsp.is45-46C(114F) for30min.Oneindicatorofplantlethaltemperaturesisfailureofcellprotoplasmtoresumestreaningaftertemperature has droppedfromacertainlevel.Thiswas56C(1330F) forChlorophytum elatumand 54.6C (130F)forFiclls radicans.A phmt will somt:times toleraLemoreheat whenit isnoweringthan oth....,wi.pTi'orip;,t 1!l 1 that"If)(rHLIII'( Ill/' l

Briefperiods(6 hI')ofpartialdehydrationleadingtowater-saturationdeficitsof22%to 27%raisedheat-killingtemperaturesbyabout3C(37F)inleavesofCommelinaafricana,Hederahelix,and Plwenix reclinata(48).Submergingplantsinhotwaterissometimespracticalto kill in ternalinfectiousorganismssuchasbacteriaandnematodes.Aglaonemamodestum,Caladiumbicolor,Philodendronhastatum,Pimbe,andSansevieriazeylanicatoleratesubmersionfor10mininwaterat50C(l22F).Manyplantscannottoleratesuchtreatment,asshowninTable7 (7).Caladiumtuberswerestoredfor8daysat40C (104F) beforeplanting.Duringthesubsequentsixweekstheheatedtuberspro ducedfewerthan9leaves,whereastubersstoredatroomtemperatureyieldedanaverageof13 leaves(86).Control.-Onemethodofloweringsoiltemperatureincontainersexposedtosunlightisby choiceofcolor. Coolesttemperaturesoccurinsilverorwhitepots,andheatinjuryismoreprevalentinblack,green,redorrustycontainers(39).Table7.Toleranceoffoliageplantstosubmersioninwaterat50C for 10min.Survival%AglaonemamodestumArdesiaerenata Caladium biocolor(8var.)Crassula arboreseens Cryptanthussp.Draeaena godseffiana nrnrnfJnfl .. EpipremnumaureumEpipremnumaureum 'WiJcoxii' Maranta leueoneura P<,peromia obtusifolia Peperomia sandersii Philodendron hastatum(leafy)Philodendronhastatum(canes)Philodendron imbe(canes)Pilea inuoluerata Sansevieria zeylanica Sanseuieria zeylaniea 'Laurentii' SyngoniumpodophyllumReference:7.31Check1001010090 90100 10085100100100100100100 100 10090 60100Treated 1003510070100 100 10015 10o10o100 1001003010050100 '----'1'--____________ __


Freezing There are twotypeso'low temperature damage.Oneis caued bytissuesbeingfrozen,andthesecondisinjurydueto abovethosesufficientto1'reze. Adverse effectsoffreezing eire ,;isible Soonaftertissuesarethawedorarerevealedbysubsequent growth. Anexampleofthelatterisdeath ()f f1'02.enleafmargins.Thedeadmarginsmaygoun >oticd untilgrowth causes puckeringanddistortionbecausemargillscannotexpatdwiththeuninjuredleafblade(Fig. 11). Symptoms.Duringanexperiment,foliage werestoredinshipping boxes heldinaroomadjustedto-17.8C(OOP)for 1,2,and4hr.Indecreasingorderofsusceptibilityto freezing,they we_e: Philodendron scandens oxycardium,Epipremnumaureum,andbothPeper omia obtusifolia andSyngoniumliberica.Freezeinjlrywasslightafter1 hI', moderate after2hr,and severe after 4, hr.Plantsinthebottomcornersofa boxweremostseverelyinjured,whereasplantsinthecenterwereleast AmongtYPesofboxesused,onlythebestinsulated onesprotected plantsfor 2 hI' (31).Begonia metalllca,whensubjectedto-5C(23F)for2min,suffersdeathoftheold leaves.Whenheldat-loC(l4F)forthesamelengthoftime,alIleavesfallfromtheplants.Fittonia argyroneura.Figure11.Ficus elastica'Decora' leavesthatweredeformedbyfreezingtemperatures.32


Figure12.Sansevieria trifasciata'Laurentii'damagedbyfreezing. wiltswhen subjectedto-lOoC(l4F)(66).Sansevieriaspeciesreactdifferentlytofreezingtemprature.S. trifasciata'Laurentii'isleastsusceptible,butfreezeinjurydoes occur (Fig. 12).S. trifasciataandS. longifloraaremoderatelysusceptible,andS. thyrsifloraisthemostdamaged.Frozenleaves donotresumegrowth(40)butbecomeblackina few days.InvestigationofAsparagusfernsrevealedthat,duringabreeze,stillairinaslathousecanbecolderthanoutsideair.Outdoorairisbeingstirredwithupper,warmerair.Withnobreeze,slathouseaircan eup 07.2C(13P) \ arme, (29). Damage occurstonewfoliage otriSpU,-ugusptUIflUSliSh<..LnUS WILen trOf:>L!Uri 15 01 pldnt.s oral•temperatureremainsat-2.2C(28P) for 2 hI' (30). Chilling Symptoms. Manytropicalfoliageplantsareinjuredbylowtemperatureswell aboveDOC(32F).Forinstance,leaves ofSaintpauliasp.,whenchi lIedbyairorwaterat18C(64.4F), develop coarse, yel loworbrownishringsand line patternsonuppersurfaces.Someleavescontainlargeryellowareas,becomingbrownandleathery,withcollapseoftissues(55). Asimilarreportstatesthatwetting Saintpaulia. sp.leaveswithcoldwaterresultsinyellowishspots(120).Somefoliageplantsareseverelydamagedbyatemperatureof4.5C(40F).Aphelandrasquarrosachilledatthattemperaturefor 233 "----_--'-L. _


daysdevl"lopsdead leaftips anciinlerveinal tissue.Chillingfor a wpek causesmore..everene'crasis,and10days later, manyleaves drop.Mann/a lellconeu!"([ exhibitswiltedand spotteJ. leavesandeventually dies. Two days'chillingcausesScindnps/ls pic/lisleas toimmediatelybecome grLly tci:)Iack and water-soaked;parts oflea\.es diewithinthefollowing week.Ifchilledfor 4 days, all leave::; diebutplantssurvive;8days'chillingkillsall oftheseplants(82).Largewhiteareasandaslightcurlingofleavesof Sanset-'ieria trifasciata'Laurentii'followsexposureto 2 to 8C (35.6 to 16.4F). Sunlightfollowing chill hastens symptomappearance.Sometimesareasofchilledleaves,suchas thOBe of Dmca.enQ fra grans'Massangeana,'areshadedfromsunlightbyoverlappingleaves,andtheshadedpartsrecover fromthechill,insharpcontrasttoleafareasthatreceiveddirectsunlighthours aftcrw?rdand losetheir color (Fig. 13).Failureto developchlorophyllisacommon result ofchilling,asinSanseuieria trifasciata(Fig. 14).Symptomscontinueto develop foronemonthafterplantshavebeenchill.ed (70).Caladiumtubersdonotsproutwellandfewerleaves develop fonowingstorageat10or15.6C (50or60F)for 10 days.Whenstoredat4.4C(40F) for 10 daYs,tubersdonotsproutreadilyduringa68-dayperiodafterplanting. Storage at21.1 C (70F)isoptimal(74).Inanotherstudy,tubersstored7weeksat4.4andlOoe(40and500F) failecl to grow.Othertuberswerestoredat23.9e(75F) for0,3,6,and12 weeks.Incidenceofsproutingandnumberofshoots per tuberincreasedasthestorageperiodincreased(78).Seeds,aswellastubers,canheadverselyaffectedbychilly storage. SeedsofChamaedorea elegansstoredat4.4C (40F) donotgerminateaswellasthosestoredat23.9C (75F) (99).Control. leafspotscanbepreventedbyavoidinggettingtheleaveswetwhenwatering,especiallyifthewateriscool (55).Continuousprinkling during a freeze preventsinllr. to Asparagusvlltl'!osue;!>('nll.'; hI '.\1""""'., "•......_:1;: .-. c:.t"vIa its 'let evenafterice forms onthem.When sprinl-ling isstoppedafteric forms,damage is moreseverethanifplantsarenotsprinkled(30).Foliage stock plantsgrownout-of-doorsinsouthernFloridahaveexpressedchillinginjuryforseveralmonthsfollowing lowtemperature.Forthis reason, nurserymenareadvisedtowaitseveralweeksbefore atingtheextentofdamage.Itisimportanttoprunebackintolive wood so that healingcanOccurandtokeepsoilmoistandlightlyfertilizedduring reco\rery (58).Sanseuieria trifasciata,S.longi{lora,andS.thyrsi{loraarelesslikelyto freezewhencleancult.ivatio1is pradiced (40).DiminishingtheamountofnitrogenousfertilizerduringfaUandwinteralsoresultsinlesschillinginjurytoS. trifasciata'Laurentii'(21, 70).34


Figure13. Dracaenafragrans 'Massangeana'leafthatwaschilledsufficientlyto loseitschlorophyllinareasexposed tosunlight.Figure14.San.seuieria trifasciataleavesthatwerechilledsufficientlytolosetheirchlorophyll.35


Temperatur Ardisiacrenata is subject to averylinuslal disease.The plantsrequ irethe prc;:;ence of on ortwospecie.'of bRct.eria to providecytokininsforoptimumgrowth. When thebacteriaarekilledbyheating the seeds,theirab results j n gallformationatthelowerstemnodes3 to4monthsafterseedisplanted. Se dgerminationat30C(86F)results in muchmoregallingthangerminationat 2:-C (77F) (111).Some plants areinjurd bysuddenchangesin temperat.ure. Dra caena massartr;eana, Fic/I elaslica, MOI1.c;teradcliciosa, andPhilodendronhastalum.areamongthosesoaffede.Forinstance,ifthetemperature rises from15.6to35C(60 to 95F)within48 hI',anapicalleamaybecomeblackenedandthegTowingtipofthestemdies.Similarly.asudden dropfrom 35to 15.6C (95 to60F)causesthesamesymptoms as illw;tratedinTable8 (42).Table8. Temperature changesthatresultin apical inji.lry.". C-.--.,._"Teme..eratll res I5.6-3!i3flo:15.615.6-35eI5.6e35ePlaut(60-95F) (6Q.o-D5.60F) 95o -95F)Dracaena massangeana+ +0Ficus elastica++ +Monstera deliciosa++ + Philodendron hastatllm+ +0+ := apical death andblackeningofapicalleaf.Reference: 47. R'tW'ionofMItant.Symptoms,Thecultivar'Laurentii'isamutat ofSansevieriatriofasciatathathasyellow leafm.all:;ins. As long as'Laurentii'ispropagatedbysmall plmts bearinga piece ofroot,theyellowmarginsremain.Howev.1',if pi'opagahon isbyleafcuttings, the varietyI' ."verts toS.trifasciata,withnoyellowmargins(50).Similarly,S,tri fasciata 'Emeralda,' ifpropagatedbyleafcuttings,revertstoS,trifq.sciata(128).Dieffenbachiapicta'Rudolph hasgreenishwhite leavesbor deredwithdarkgreen.FrequentlyplantshavebeenobservedtobegraduallyrevertingtoD.pieta,whichhasdarkgreenleaveswithwhitespots(Fig. 15).36


......Figure15.Dieffenbaehia pieta'RudolphRuehrs'plantshowingpartofitrevertingtotheoriginalparenttypeshownbesideit.AlbinosAlbinosareseedlingswhichcannotdevelopchlorophyll.AcommonexampleistheoccasionalappearanceofwhiteseedlingsinplantingsofNorfolkIslandpines,Araucaria heterophylla(Salisb.)Franco(Fig.16).IRR!GATION!-'eli..:lc:.l'--UUUJ.\,;1. ... -.ld'L:t.;I:l in plant nurse::-ies.Forefficie cyandeconomy,twoormoresizesofcontainersinthesamebedmayreceivethesameirrigationregime.Asaresultthelarge,tallcontainersmayreceive insufficient water,andsmallcontainersmaygettoomuch.Improperlyconstructedcontainersmaycontinuallybewetnearthebottom,resultinginrootdeath.Containerswithcorrugatedbottomsorthosewithsinglebottom-holesorwithsideholesnotflushwiththebottommayremaintoowetbecauseofinadequatedrainage(39).Ifadequateirrigationfor aplantsuchasFicus elastica'DecOl"a'issuddenlydiminished,leafmarginsmaydie (Fig. 17).Dizygotheca elegantissima,accordingtoonereport,wiltedseverelybecauserootshadbeenkilledbyexcessiveirrigation(85).Corkycallositiesandpustulesform ontheleafundersurfacesofFicus elastica37


Figure16. Arau.caria excelsa albino seeJl ings. Figure 17. e:laslicatDecoral leaves with rmarginskilledbya drought.38


following excessiveirrigation(124).Draca.ena{ragrans'Massangeana'canesareshippedtonurseriesintheUnitedStatefromCentralandSouthAmerica.Topreventthemfromdryingoutenroute,endsofcanesarecoatedwithwax.Ifwaxisnotremovedfromthebottomendsofplantedcanes,only6%ofthemdevelopbudsnearthetopofthecane.Incontrast,caneswhichhave1 emcutfromthebottombeforeplantingareabletoabsorbmuchmorewater,and68%oftheseproducedbudsinoneexperiment.Likewise,caneswiththeirtopssoakedinwaterbeforeplantinghadonlya 68% survivalafterplanting,whereasthosewiththebottomssoakedhada 92%survivalrate(109).39


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INDEAdianLumcllnentllllJ,21 Aeehnlf!a fasciola, 14, '27 Ilglallonemu xcomrr,u/atlLln, 7,20AgLaollellw modest/lllI, 31 AgLaonema x 'fransher',16 Aglaollcma x 'Silver King,'7AgLaollemax 'Silver Queen,'9 ALsophila australis, 12 Anthuriunlery"lallinum, 18ApheLandra sqlla;-rosa, 9,16, 17, 21,33Araucariaheterophylla,7,9,20, 37,RB Ardisia crerwta, 7,9,21,31,36 AsporagusderlsifLol'lls 'Sprellgeri,'7,8,9,18,20,2-1Asparagus plumoslls 20, 33,3ij,Asplenium sp.,30Begonia eoecinea, 26 Begonia gracilis,20,26Begonia _maeulata, 30 Bpgonia metalliea, 32 Bego'nia sempe/fLorells, 30 BegonIa. tuberhybrida,28Begoniax'CoraliuaLucern,'26Brassaiaactinophylla, 9, 16,18, 20,21,25,27Br)ophyllumsp.,26Caladiumbieolor, 31Caladiumx'FriedaHemplc,'9Coladiumx 'RedFhg-: 9 f' ." ... ,.......I;f7 •..r:",Chamaedui"I!CLelegans, 7, H,UJ, '22, 26, :34 ChluruphytumconwslllIJ,71 tl, 9Chlorophytum elatwn, 29,30Chrysalidocarpus lutescens,2,3,6,7,9,11,13,16,20,28-Cissusrhombifolia,-29Codiaewnpunctatis,17Codiaeumvariegatnm,9,20,22,29,30Cofrea urabica,9Collinea elegans, 22 Coti/.7nelina alricana, 31 Cordyline term ina lis,7,8,9,10/ 28Crassulaaborescens, 3148Crassula 9,22Cryptanthlls sp_,31 Cymw/is Ret/:el/sis,2G Dieffenbachiupieta,12,14,16,23,30,36,37Dipffenbaehiax 9,19,22,28 DIZ\',JJ/heeadeguntissima, 7,9,19, 2U,23,37 Dracaena dercrnensis, 5,8,9,II,13, 14 Drawenagoclsef(iana, 2, 5,11,12,14,15,23,29,31. Dracaenafragral/s, 8, 9,17,34,39Dracaenamarginata, 2"0,'23, 29Dracaena massangcana, 36 DraeaenCtsan((eriana,2,5,8,11,12,14,15,23,31EpipremnunI al'lreum, 9,19,26,27,28,29/ 31 / 32Euphorbia La.eten, 17Euphorbialeuconeura,26Euphorbia I;rucalis, 17Fatsiajaponica,17Ficusbenjomina,17, 20, Ficus elastica, 2,4,15,28,30,32,36,37,38FicusreLusa, 20, 23 Ficus triangularis,23Filtonia argyronellm, 32 GYlIllruprUCU/lIUL/IS.Hedera;'I.'lix, 17,20,23,30,31Hernigraphis Rp.,9 Howeiafnsteriarw. 8,9Hoya carnosa,9,2,'3Kalenchoe blossfeldiana,26,27,30Kalenehoe tubiflora, 29 Maranta erythronellra,8Maranto kerehoveana, 8 Maranta leueoneura,9,16,23,31,34Monstera rlelieiosa,-17,28,36


Nephrolepis exaltato,9,19,23,26Pellionia pulchra, 26 Peperomia eaperata,10,19Peperomia obtusifolia, 10,19,24,29,01,32 Peperomia sanders ii, 31Philodendron bipennifolium, 10 Philodendronbipinnatifidum,17Ph ilodendron friedriehstahIi,24 Philodendron giganteum, 7 Philodendron hastatum,27,31,36Philodendronimbe,31Philodendron laciniatum, 26 Philodendron Trwcrophyllus, 20 Philodendron micans,13Philodendron panduriforme, 10 Ph ilodendronpertussum,26 Philodpndron rUDrum, 26 Philodendron scandens oxycardium,2,7,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,19,20,24,26,27,28,30,32Philodendronselloum,10,20Philodendron tobira, 20Philodendronwendlandi x lacineatum,19Philodendronx'EmeraldQueen:26Philodendronx'RedEmerald:10Phoenix rectinata, 31 Phoenix roebelif/ii,8, 10Pilea cadierei,10,19,24,26Pilea inuoilicrata,26,31Plee ranthus australi ,10,19Podowrpusmacrophyllu,8.10Polystichum adiantiforme,16, 19Polystichllm tS/lssimense,19Pteris cretica,10Pteris ensiformis, 10Rheadiscolor,24Saintpauliaional/tha,2,4,5,30Sanseuieria longiflora,33,34Sanseuieria thyrsiflora,33,34Sanseuieria trifo8ciata,10,26,30,33,34,36Sanseuieria zeylanica,31Scindapsusau reus, 9,14,16,19,25Seindapsuspictus,34Spathiphyllum CCLnnaefolium, 8Strornanthe amabilis,8Syngoniwn/iberica, 32Syngoniumpodophyllum,10,14,19,25,27,28,31Yucca elephantipes,8,15Zebrinapendula,1049 '.


Allpr0t,"Tams and acti\'itiessponsored orassistclhythe Florida A&Licultural Stations are open toaUperson r gardlessof r"a c lor,natiunal oribin. ag• sex:, orhandicap. .