Title Page
 Table of Contents

Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 557
Title: Production of Southern peas (cowpeas) in Florida
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027087/00001
 Material Information
Title: Production of Southern peas (cowpeas) in Florida
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 28 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Lorz, A. P
Wilson, J. W ( John Wallace ), 1902-
Kelsheimer, E. G ( Eugene Gillespie ), 1902-
Perry, V. G ( Vernon George ), 1921-
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1955
Subject: Cowpea -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Cowpea -- Diseases and pests -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 28.
General Note: Cover title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027087
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000926771
oclc - 18279393
notis - AEN7471

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
Full Text


Production of Southern Peas (Cowpeas)
in Florida

I. Cultural Practices and Varieties
By A. P. LORZ, Horticulturist

II. Insects and Their Control
By J. W. WILSON and E. G. KELSHEIMER, Entomologists

III. Nematodes and Their Control
By V. G. PERRY, Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils, and
Agricultural Engineering, USDA

Fig. 1.-A horticulturist inspects some fine Southern peas.

Bulletin 557

February 1955



INTRODUCTION ............... ... ........... .......

............ 3

I. CULTURAL PRACTICES AND VARIETIES -..................... --.. ....-..... 5
Where to Plant ......--......-...---- .........-.. ......--.-- 5
How to Plant ....-.--.---..--.--...... .. .......-------.... 6
W hen to Plant .............. .. ... .................... ....-.. 8
W hat to Plant .................. -..-... ...------ ---....- 9
Crowder Varieties ........................ ... .-- ....... .... 10
Blackeye Varieties ...... ........ ...-.... -..................... .. 10
Cream Varieties .-----..............-...-........ ..... .... ..... 11
Other Varieties --....-............... -------..........-- 11

II. INSECTS AND THEIR CONTROL ................................. .......... 12
General Principles of Insect Control ..-...-... ...... ...... ............- 12
Precautions .......... .. ...-... -- ---. ...- ----... .... 14
Insects Attacking Southern Peas ....---....-.......--..... ... .............. 14
Cowpea Curculio ........-........ ......-...... -- ----..... ..-- .............-- 14
Potato Leafhopper .....--------------............. ........- -..---.---- 16
Lesser Cornstalk Borer .---.............. ..--... ......-- ........-- 18
Southern Green Stink Bug ..............-..........--..-- .--...---. 19
Harlequin Bug ...-.........--......... ....-...-- ------- ....----- 20
Serpentine Leaf Miner ............ --...-.....-......-............. 20
Cutworm s ............. .. ... ..-.. ------------- 21
Handling of Seed in Storage .......-......-- .............. ........ .... 22
A General Insect Control Program ..............-.. ....-............ 22

III. NEMATODES AND THEIR CONTROL ........... .- .... ....--- ..-................. 23
Root-knot Nematode ......-- ....................... ....-.-..... 24
Sting Nematode .......... ........... ... ................ 26
Stubby-root Nematode ...................-.. --.... ...... --.. .. --.. 27
Precautions ..------...-...... ......... ---.. ------- ... 27


LITERATURE CITED ...........-----.

--.-..-.. 28

Production of Southern Peas (Cowpeas)
The production of Southern peas for table use has been prac-
tised for a long time in the Southern states. In 'recent years
better quality varieties have been developed, resulting in much
wider use of this crop as a vegetable. The development of
methods for freezing this vegetable has further broadened its
distribution and use. Improved new varieties and wider distri-
bution of this crop to areas outside those in which it has been
grown so long brought about the more general recognition of the
term Southern pea. This has also been a response to a very
real need for a general common name under which to group all
the various table varieties of legumes known individually as
blackeyes, conchs, crowders, acre peas, asparagus beans, etc.
All of these legumes have certain technical botanical similarities
which cause them to be placed, along with their non-culinary
relatives, the cowpeas, into the botanical genus Vigna.
In answer to the oft-repeated question as to whether the seeds
of these varieties are to be regarded as peas or beans, we can
only say that they should technically be regarded as neither but
should be entitled to their own identifying general name. The
botanical genus Vigna is, however, quite closely related to the
genus Phaseolus, to which the true beans, lima, snap and dry
shell beans, belong. Any resemblance of the Southern pea to
what is known in the South as the English or garden pea is
more superficial than real because the two groups differ widely
in their climatic requirements. Although both are legumes,
they differ just as widely in those technical botanical character-
istics used as a basis for classification into the various legume
plant-groups or botanical genera. These characteristics, though
less generally understood than those which differentiate the
various groups of animals are, nevertheless, just as real and im-
portant. Southern peas and the true beans have a great deal
more in common than do Southern peas and English peas. This
relationship extends as well to climatic and cultural require-
ments and to some extent, also, to their reaction to infection
and infestation by diseases and pests.
Perhaps, more than for any other vegetable crop, the practice
of seed saving by individual farmers and growers has been re-
sponsible for the perpetuation of a great many localized varietal
According to Boswell (2), the origin of all Southern peas and
cowpeas can be traced back to southern Asia, with India being

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

the most probable center of origin. Most of the agronomic cow-
pea varieties grown in this country either have been imported
directly from southern Asia or have been the result of the plant
breeders' production of new varieties from these source varie-
ties. The horticultural or culinary Southern pea varieties were
brought to Jamaica from Africa in 1675, according to Boswell,
and reached Florida from the West Indies about 1700. Al-
though they came from Africa with the slave trade and a wild
form has become naturalized there, that continent is regarded
as a secondary distribution center. Varieties probably were
originally transported to Africa through Arabia and Asia Minor.
Many of our varieties differ little from the ones originally intro-
duced, but the recent increase in importance of this crop has
stimulated considerable interest among plant breeders and new
types are constantly appearing as a result of their efforts.
The recently developed interest in the economic possibilities
of this crop as a commercial table vegetable stems from the dis-
covery that certain varieties have been shown to be suitable for
canning, freezing or both, and also from the discovery that sat-
isfactory control of some of its most serious pests is now prac-
ticable through the use of the new hydrocarbon insecticides.
Cowpea curculio, for instance, now can be controlled even in
seasons of most abundance. It is now possible to provide the
housewife with an attractive worm-free vegetable. The control
of nematodes through soil fumigation has increased the likeli-
hood of success with the crop.
The economic possibilities of this crop only recently have been
appreciated. There has been hitherto no justification for any
considerable expenditure of effort to establish, through experi-
mentation, the more precise cultural preferences and practices
associated with successful crop production. Now that this justi-
fication is recognized, the future will doubtless provide the an-
swer to many production problems which remain. Therefore,
until results of more extensive experimentation with this crop
become available, the provisional character of this bulletin must
be emphasized. The purpose of this bulletin is to consolidate
under one heading available information concerning the more
commonly accepted cultural practices in the production of this
crop. Many of the recommendations doubtless will have to be
modified by later research. In addition to drawing upon the
limited amount of research published on this crop, the recom-
mendations put forth here are based on commonly accepted prac-

Production of Southern Peas (Cowpeas) in Florida

tices of growers within the state, the recommendations of seed
companies based on experience in producing the crop for seed,
and first-hand experience with the crop by various personnel of
the University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations.
Southern peas are planted in all parts of Florida. Table 1 in-
dicates the importance of Southern peas as a commercial crop.

of Farms Acres Acres with Bushels
Section of No. of Growing Grown Other Harvested
State Counties Southern Alone Crops Unshelled
__ Peas
Northwestern 15 1,067 1,454 416 47,068
Northeastern 10 646 1,005 879 26,387
Central .............. 22 1,879 5,256 929 195,944
Southern ............ 19 221 717 141 42,680

Total ............ 66 3,813 8,432 2,365 312,079

The Florida State Marketing Bureau reports truck move-
ments equivalent to 642 cars of Southern peas transported
across the state line in 1951.

I. Cultural Practices and Varieties


Southern peas will thrive on a wide variety of soil types but
generally do better where the physical nature of the soil is un-
favorable for the development of root-knot and Fusarium wilt
organisms. For this reason, Florida soils containing an appre-
ciable amount of clay are likely to produce better crops than
sandy soils. This probably explains the success of certain
wilt- and nematode-susceptible varieties in the states immedi-
ately north and northwest of Florida and the failure of these
varieties to make a good showing in Florida.
The better moisture-holding capacity of the clay soils also
enters the picture. Though Southern peas are capable of with-
standing comparatively long periods of dry weather, their yields
of both green matter and seeds may be seriously curtailed.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

The fact that a higher ratio of pods to green matter is often
obtained under dry conditions, even when the plants are stunted,
sometimes leads to the misinterpretation that the total yield
of pods is better than it would be were an abundance of moist-
ure available. This is not true because good vine development
is necessary to realize the highest yield potential. Excessive
vine development is another matter and will be discussed under
the heading, "When to Plant".

Preparation of the land for planting should be the same as
that recommended for many other Florida-grown vegetables,
especially snap beans. Particular attention should be paid to
turning under debris from previous crops at least four weeks
prior to planting. This should insure an adequate breakdown
of these plant remains by soil organisms and the final steps in
the preparation of the seedbed will be made easier. Inasmuch
as this breakdown is hastened by an abundance of soil moisture
and by high temperatures, it follows that a long interval be-
tween plowing and planting will be necessary if the weather is
cool and dry. In some cases it might be advisable to irrigate if
water is available when rainfall is insufficient.
Recommendations regarding rate of seeding will vary from 20
to 45 pounds per acre, depending upon the size of the seed as
well as the plant habit of the variety to be sown. Fewer pounds
will be necessary for planting smaller-seeded varieties such as
the conchs than for larger-seeded blackeyes and crowders.
Wider spacing is indicated for the semi-vining types than for
the more determinate bunch types. Wider spacing between the
rows as well as in the rows is also indicated for the running
types, a spacing of four feet being desirable for them and three
feet or less for the bunch types. Adjustment of the planting
machinery to deliver three or four seeds per running foot should
be adequate spacing for the bunch types, while two to three
per linear foot should suffice for the more viny types. The seed
should be planted between one and two inches deep.
Seed treatment with Chloranil (Spergon) seed protectant is
advised to check the growth of soil organisms which might dam-
age or rot the germinating seeds and young seedlings at time
of emergence. Lindane is suitable for the protection of seeds
from damage in storage by weevils or curculio. It is a sound
and convenient practice, for one who saves his own seed, to com-

Production of Southern Peas (Cowpeas) in Florida

bine the two treatments in one application by using a mixture of
1 part of commercially available 25 percent wettable lindane and
24 parts of the seed protectant. The seed should be treated with
this mixture as soon as harvested to prevent weevil damage.
The rate of 2 ounces per bushel of seed, usually recommended
for the seed protectant when used alone, will also apply to the
Chloranil-lindane mixture, since the Chloranil is not significantly
diluted by this small amount of lindane.
Strains of nitrogen-fixing bacteria capable of developing
nodules on Southern peas or cowpea roots are generally pres-
ent in Florida soils. In fields that have not been planted to
Southern peas or other leguminous crops for several years, the
nodule-producing bacteria may not be present. Since the inocu-
lum is inexpensive, it is suggested that seed to be planted in
fields that have not grown leguminous crops for several years
be inoculated.
Since the nitrogen needs of the plants are often supplied by
the nitrogen-fixing bacteria where nodulation is abundant, many
people feel that the use of fertilizers without this element is
indicated. Nitrogen fertilization should be withheld from muck
soils and here the use of an 0-12-12 analysis at the rate of 300
to 600 pounds per acre is recommended. On most other soils,
the use of a low-nitrogen fertilizer will help supply the needs
of the young plants before nodulation can become well estab-
lished, thus getting the young seedlings off to a better start.
The crop will thus usually benefit from the application of a
4-8-8 (or nitrogen equivalent in a 4-7-5 analysis) at a rate of
600 to 1,000 pounds per acre. Four to six hundred pounds of
a 6-8-6 analysis would give the approximate nitrogen equivalent
of the 4-8-8 recommendation and may prove just as suitable.
As much as 1,200 pounds of 4-8-8 (or the same amount of nitro-
gen supplied by certain other analyses generally available) per
acre has been recommended for marl soils but 900 pounds of
6-8-6 is the current recommendation for this kind of soil.
The fertilizer can be either broadcast or drilled into the row.
Broadcasting is less efficient and therefore less desirable but
may be necessary in the absence of machinery for proper fer-
tilizer placement. In this event, the fertilizer should be applied
about a week or 10 days before planting and, if possible, mixed
with the soil in the plant bed. This avoids losing seed due to
contact with strong concentrations of the fertilizer. In-the-row
application can, however, be done at time of planting if machin-

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

ery is available for placement of the fertilizer in a band about
two inches below and about one inch to the side of the seed.
This avoids fertilizer injury and at the same time makes the
fertilizer immediately available to the developing seedlings.
Southern peas and cowpeas, like many other legumes, are tol-
erant to a wide variation in soil reaction above pH 6.0 but grow
best in our Florida soils at a pH of about 5.5 to 6.5. If the
pH of the soil used is below 5.5 it is reasonably certain that
liming will be beneficial.
At present, due to insufficient experimental data, we can only
make broad generalizations regarding fertilization practices.
Inasmuch as excess vine growth at the expense of pod produc-
tion is likely to be encouraged by over-fertilization, it follows
that, with the naturally viny varieties, less fertilizer is needed
than with the naturally bushy varieties. Some growers follow
the same practices used for snap beans; few feel that Southern
peas should be more heavily fertilized than snap beans; but
the majority of growers feel that it is a good rule of thumb to
use two-thirds to three-fourths of the amounts generally recom-
mended for snap beans in a particular area.

Of all the phases of Southern pea culture discussed in the
literature, that dealing with the correct planting time is prob-
ably the most neglected. Perhaps this results from the common
observation that this vegetable can make fair development in
hot weather. In this it is unique among the commercial legume-
type table vegetables. But what a plant can tolerate and what
may promote best development are often different things. Lack
of experimental data on effect of planting time on yield ca-
pacity limits us to certain provisional recommendations based
on unpublished observations regarding the apparent response
of certain varieties to seasonal differences in day length.
Some slow-maturing types of Southern peas will develop as
determinate bunch types under greenhouse conditions in the
winter and bear a fairly concentrated yield of pods. The same
types when planted out-of-doors about March 1 in the Gaines-
ville area have been known to produce a few flowers and pods
before the onset of the longest days in late June, then stop flow-
ering, grow vegetatively by producing running vines during the
summer and then resume flower and pod production during the
shorter days of the fall season. Not all varieties exhibit this

Production of Southern Peas (Cowpeas) in Florida

same degree of sensitivity to day length. But it is a reasonable
assumption, at least until more experimental data on the sub-
ject are available, that many, if not all commercial varieties
are in some degree affected.
If this is true we may have exposed an important, if not
the principal, reason why the growth of Southern peas may
often be expressed by the production of vines rather than of
pods and seeds. Again, until more precise information is avail-
able on this subject of day length reaction, it might be wise to
avoid as much as possible growing the crop during the longer
summer days. This would involve planting the early crop as
soon as there is a reasonable assurance that a killing frost is
no longer likely, or even earlier than this if the frost hazard
is a calculated risk. Correspondingly, the late crop should be
planted about 90 days before the anticipated date of the first
frost in the fall or winter season. While it must be recognized
that other factors such as high fertility and an abundance of
moisture will encourage vine production, the initiation of flower
and pod production is probably controlled more by day length
than most people realize. Crops planted late in the spring sea-
son are likely to produce excessive vine development at the ex-
pense of yield. They are also subject to attack by larger
numbers of crowpea curculio and other insects described else-
where in this bulletin.
For further information regarding cultural methods the
reader is referred to USDA Farmers' Bulletin 1148, revised 1947.

Chiefly on the basis of differences in flowers, pods and seeds,
Brittingham (3) classifies the numerous varietal types into 13
different groups. Since many of the varieties he studied are
untried in Florida or are not available through normal com-
mercial seed channels, an attempt will be made here to discuss
only those varieties commonly grown in Florida. One or two of
the newer releases which have received favorable consideration
in preliminary trials and which are now commercially available
will be considered also.
Although Brittingham's classification is of unquestioned value
in the identification of varietal types, we propose to limit our-
selves to a simpler and more general grouping of varieties. Va-
rieties for which there is little demand and those newer varieties

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

which seem to show little basis for preference over the standard
types now grown will be omitted here.
While it is recognized that certain types popular locally may
fall outside our grouping, it would appear that basic preferences
delimit three fairly distinct groups, although there is some
overlapping between them. Most of the commercially available
types are either crowders, blackeyes or creams. The overlap-
ping occurs when we consider that such types exist as cream
crowders, backeye crowders and semi-crowders.
Crowder Varieties.-The term crowder originates from the
fact that the seeds of these varieties are closely crowded in the
pod. There are several different seed coat colors present in this
group but the brown crowders seem to be the most popular.
There are several strains of the brown crowder known chiefly
as Brown Crowder, Brown Sugar Crowder and Alabama Crowder.
Sometimes these names are more or less indiscriminately ap-
plied and there may or may not be a real basis for distinction
among them. Alabama Crowder should not be confused with
Alacrowder, which has a cream-colored seed with a small but
distinct black eye. Alacrowder, therefore, is classified as a
blackeye crowder and is regarded as one of the better types in
this category. The speckled crowders are represented by Blue
Goose (known also as Gray Goose), Taylor, Whittle, Gray Crow-
der and Speckled Java. These are the largest-seeded of the
Southern pea types. Since most of the crowders are inclined to
be semi-vining under good cultural conditions, allowance should
be made for this at time of planting. The crowders as a group
appear to possess some degree of resistance to mosaic under
field conditions.
Blackeye Varieties.-The blackeyes, probably because of an
early established reputation for good yield coupled with a more
or less determinate bunch type habit, are still the most popular
of the Southern peas and the most widely grown. Through
breeding, strains have been developed for which resistance to
root-knot and Fusarium wilt have been claimed. Since there is
no published record that these have been adequately tested in
Florida, we shall make no commitments as to the strength of
this resistance. In unreplicated observational trials they have
been known to continue growth and development for some time
after most of the other varieties succumbed to what was appar-
ently a complex of soil organisms, among which the presence of

Production of Southern Peas (Cowpeas) in Florida

root-knot nematodes was established. California Blackeye No.
5 and California Blackeye No. 8152 have been bred for nematode
resistance and are said to be wilt resistant. Wilt resistance is
claimed also for the Ramshorn Blackeye varieties. Earliness is
a feature worth considering in Extra Early Blackeye.
Cream Varieties.-Probably less widely known but preferred
by many over all varieties are the cream types. The most com-
mon representatives of this group are the bush and running
strains of the Conch variety, Lady Cream or Rice, White Acre
and the bunch type Cabbage pea. To many people these appear
less starchy and more succulent than the other types of Southern
peas. The cream crowders have not been as popular in Florida
as the other creams mentioned, though they overcome the ob-
jectionable small seed size of the other members of this group.
Perhaps the quality is regarded as somewhat inferior by those
who prefer the smaller-seeded types. Texas Cream No. 40 and
Texas Cream No. 12 are new types worth serious consideration.
Other Varieties.-Of the varieties which do not fit well into
simplified classification, Dixie Queen, Jackson Purple Hull and
Dixielee are noteworthy. These could be considered as semi-
crowder types, since the spacing of the seeds in the pods is about
intermediate between that of the blackeyes and that of the
crowders. Dixie Queen and Jackson Purple Hull have purple
pods at maturity and have buff-colored seeds with a small tan
or maroon eye.
Dixielee is a new variety with much promise. It is capable of
producing an abundance of attractive, well-filled pods and has
been known to yield well in nematode-infested soils. Similarly,
Calhoun Crowder has shown considerable stamina and growers
of crowder peas would do well to give it a trial.
Because varietal differences in quality are basically a matter
of individual taste preference it is impossible to recommend one
variety as being better than another in this respect. As regards
yielding capacity of various varieties, it is also impossible to
state definitely that one is superior to another. Although the
evidence from limited trials gives some indication that differences
do exist, definite statements will be premature until the pub-
lished records of more variety trials in Florida become available.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

II. Insects and Their Control

Effective chemical control of insect pests may, for convenience,
be considered under two headings: (1) selection of the proper
insecticide and (2) application of the insecticide. In a consid-
eration of the insecticide to be used, the first step is the correct
identification of the insect to be controlled. In case the farmer
is not sure of the identity of the insect he wishes to control,
he may call upon the County Agent or Experiment Station en-
tomologists for assistance. In recent years, a number of com-
mercial insecticide companies have employed well trained and
competent entomologists who are also available to assist the
grower. After the insect is correctly identified, one or more
chemicals may be equally effective. The choice should be made
on the basis of the most effective and economical material. Con-
sideration should be given also to the formulation of the chemi-
cal selected. Many present day insecticides are prepared as
dusts, wettable powders, or emulsifiable concentrates. The
growth characteristics of the crop and the habits of the in-
sect to be controlled will influence the choice of formulations.
If the crop is of the vining type with rather dense foliage,
dusts usually penetrate and give better coverage than liquid
preparations. On the other hand, liquid formulations usually
adhere better than dusts and if the insecticide is to be applied
during periods when frequent and heavy rains are to be ex-
pected, the liquid formulation may be most advantageous. In
some cases liquid formulations are more effective against par-
ticular insects. For example, emusifiable DDT is a fairly good
aphicide, whereas the dust or wettable powder formulations of
DDT are poor aphicides.
Several factors affect the efficient application of insecticides.
If dust formulations are used, three types of dusting equipment
are available. For small, inaccessible acreages either hand or
power dusters may be used. Where hand dusters are used there
is a tendency, which should be avoided, to apply excessive
amounts of the dust in bands. For larger acreages with boun-
daries free of obstructing electrical power lines and tall trees,
airplanes may be used for dust applications. When airplanes are
used, each swath should overlap slightly to insure an even and
thorough coverage of the crop. Where liquid formulations are
chosen, either ground power sprayers or airplanes may be used.

Production of Southern Peas (Cowpeas) in Florida

the peas renders them unsalable. Arant (1) has shown that in
Alabama during a three-year period the yield of peas was re-
duced by an average of 37.6 percent as a result of Cowpeas
Curculio attack.


i l I : I ii I I I I I 'III !I 'I I I | I i I I '

Fig. 2.-Effects of cowpea curculio attack: Upper left, a full-grown
curculio larva; upper, individual peas with oviposition and feeding punc-
tures; center, Southern pea pods punctured by adult curculio; and lower,
adult curculio on one of the pods.

The adult is about 3/16 of an inch long, with an almost
straight beak about 1/3 the length of the body, and black in
color. Eggs deposited in the individual peas hatch in four to
six days. The larvae feed in the seed and complete their growth
in about ten days, at which time they bore their way to the
outside and drop to the ground to pupate. The time required
for the life cycle from egg to newly emerged adult varies from
twenty to thirty days.
In tests conducted at Sanford, 5 percent toxaphene dust was
far superior to the other three dusts used. Results of this test
are presented in Table 2.
Application of the dust should begin when the young pea pods
begin to appear and should be continued at 7-day intervals for a

Production of Southern Peas (Cotwpeas) in Florida

The growth characteristics of some varieties of Southern peas
are such that an even coverage of all parts of the plants with
ground power sprayers will be very difficult to obtain.
Correct timing of the applications is a most important factor
in the efficient use of insecticides. Some growers are inclined
to apply insecticide at regular intervals in what is called a pre-
ventive program, regardless of the presence of injurious insects.
Such a practice is to be discouraged for the following reasons:
(1) regular applications of insecticides when no injurious pests
are present serve no useful purpose. Weathering and other
factors may reduce the amount of insecticide on the plant at the
time that harmful infestations occur, (2) regular applications of
insecticides may tend to build-up excessive residues in the soil
and on the edible portion of the crop. Continued building of in-
secticide residues in the soil may eventually reach the point that
succeeding crops are injured. Excessive residues on the edible
portion of the crop may be harmful to the consumers and must
be avoided. The Food and Drug Administration has held exten-
sive hearings on the effects of the use of insecticides on fruits
and vegetables. While the necessity for use of insecticides has
been well established, it seems certain that definite, low-level
residue tolerance restrictions will be promulgated, and in fact,
as this bulletin goes to press, such tolerances are already in the
formative regulation stage.
Some growers are inclined to delay insecticide applications
until severe insect damage is apparent. In such cases it is
obvious that insecticides are not being used to the best advan-
An even and thorough coverage of all parts of the plants to be
protected has already been mentioned. This factor in the appli-
cation of insecticides cannot be overemphasized. In most cases
insects are found on the undersides of leaves or other protected
parts of the plant. Hence to secure the greatest effect from in-
secticide applications, every effort should be made to cover all
parts of the plant evenly and thoroughly.
Finally, there is no substitute for a constant and close super-
vision of all phases of crop production. Growers who make this
a part of their farming practice will be aware of operations
which need correcting, the development of injurious insect in-
festations, the identity of the insects that may attack the crop,
the correct insecticides to be used and the proper application
of the necessary insecticides.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


As has already been stated, the necessity for the use of in-
secticides has been well established. Most of the insecticides
now in use are poisonous to man as well as insects. Since this
is true, growers, for their own protection, must insist on strict
observance of certain precautionary measures for the protection
of laborers applying the insecticides and the consumers of fresh
vegetables. An itemized list of the precautions to be observed
is given as a guide.
1. Realize the poisonous character of the chemicals being
used. This should encourage an attitude of carefulness.
2. Read the labels on the containers and become familiar
with the nature of the insecticides, the insects they will control
and the correct dosages.
3. Exercise every care to avoid breathing the dust of wet-
table powders and dust formulations and the mist of the dilute
4. If liquid or dust formulations accidentally come in con-
tact with any part of the body, wash the contaminated parts
thoroughly with water. Remove any contaminated clothing
5. Personnel engaged in spraying operations should take a
bath and change into fresh clothing immediately following each
day's spraying.
6. In case symptoms of poisoning develop, call a doctor im-
7. Use the insecticide at the recommended dosage and do not
make more applications than are required.
8. Bury or burn empty insecticide containers.


Cowpea Curculio.-The most destructive insect pest of South-
ern peas is the cowpea curculio, Chalcodermus aeneus Boh. In-
festations of more or less severity can be expected when and
where Southern peas are grown in Florida. The adult weevils
feed on the buds and young leaves before the seedpods form.
After the seedpods become 11/ to 2 inches long the adults will
feed on and deposit eggs in the developing peas. These feeding
and oviposition punctures cause unsightly spots on the pods and
the individual peas (Fig 2). The presence of weevil larvae in

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

total of three applications, using 30 to 40 pounds of the 5 per-
cent toxaphene dust per acre for each application. No objec-
tionable off-flavor has been reported following the use of toxa-
phene when the peas are prepared fresh, canned or frozen. To
avoid toxaphene residues on the prepared peas, thoroughly
wash the pods before shelling and use only the mature shelled
Amount of Dust Percent Worm-Free
Treatment Applied per Peas After Three
Acre (Lbs.) Applications
5% Toxaphene ................... 33 93.40
1.5% gamma from Lindane 40 58.40
5% DDT ................ .....-.. ... 40 49.50
5% Chlordane ..................... 33 60.75
L.S.D. at 5% level ................ 24.52

Potato Leafhopper.-The potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae
(Harr.), is more important as a pest of beans and Southern peas
than of potatoes in Florida (Fig. 3). It also attacks eggplant,
rhubarb, dahlia, alfalfa, apple, celery, soybean, clovers, several
other cultivated crops and a large number of wild plants. When
the potato leafhopper attacks potatoes and some other crops it
causes a condition known as hopperburn. In the case of South-
ern peas and beans the margins of the leaves do not turn brown
as in the typical hopperburn symptoms on potatoes. Severe
infestations on Southern peas and beans cause the leaves to
curl, become deformed, stunted and in cases of very heavy in-
festations the plants die.
Three to 10 days after mating, the adult females begin lay-
ing eggs, inserting them into the main leaf veins and stems.
These eggs are only 1/24 inch long, elongate in shape, and whit-
ish in color. After about 10 days the eggs hatch and the small,
light green nymphs begin to feed. The wingless nymphs shed
their skin five times and resemble the adult in shape and color.
The nymphal stage requires 17 to 21 days, with a total of 20
to 35 days for the completion of the life cycle. In the extreme
southern part of the State very high populations of leafhoppers
may be expected during December, January and February. In
central Florida very destructive populations have been observed

Production of Southern Peas (Cowpeas) in Florida

during June. In the Gainesville area high populations usually
occur during August, September and October. Warm to hot,
dry weather is most favorable for the development of the leaf-
hopper and it is during prolonged periods of favorable weather
that severe infestations are most likely to occur.

-' '""B^ \' 2 /

Fig. 3.-Stunting of Southern peas caused by potato leafhopper.

Southern peas are most susceptible to leafhopper attack dur-
ing the early stages of growth, that is, from the time the first
true leaves appear till the beginning of vining. During this
period the application of insecticides may be required to protect
the plants. If infestations are allowed to become severe the
plants will be so deformed and stunted that they will not de-
velop properly or they may die. During periods of favorable
weather for leafhopper development the insecticides should be
applied as soon as the leafhoppers begin to appear on the young
plants. Repeated applications should be made at about 10 day
intervals. A dust containing 5 percent DDT applied at the rate
of 30 to 35 pounds per acre or 2 pounds of 50 percent wettable
DDT in 100 gallons of water and applied to an acre will give
excellent control of the leafhoppers.
,1 -W

excellent control of the leafhoppers.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Leafhoppers breed prolifically on wild host plants and some-
times migrate into Southern pea plantings in very large num-
bers. During periods of such migrations the plants must be
watched closely and the insecticide applied at intervals close
enough to keep the insects under control.
The maintenance of adequate soil moisture by irrigation to
promote rapid plant growth assists in leafhopper control by
shortening the period during which the plants are most sus-
ceptible to injury.
Lesser Cornstalk Borer.-In Florida the lesser cornstalk
borer, Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zell.), is more injurious to
Southern peas and beans than to corn. Watson and Tissot
(5) stated that next to the potato leafhopper the lesser corn-
stalk borer is often the most injurious insect enemy of beans
and Southern peas and that it is capable of destroying an entire
planting. As in the case of the leafhopper, Southern peas are
most susceptible to lesser cornstalk borer attack during the
early stages of growth. Besides Southern pea, bean and corn,
the lesser cornstalk borer attacks peanut, wheat, turnip, and
other crops as well as crab grass, Johnson grass and other wild
The adult moth lays its eggs on the stem of the host plant
near the soil surface. These eggs hatch in about a week. The
young larvae feed on the roots for a while and then migrate to
the base of the plant and eat their way into the main stem just
above the soil line. Usually a dirt-covered silken tube extends
out from this entrance hole. The full-grown larva is about
1/2-inch long, with a brown head and large brown spots on each
body segment. The larvae complete their growth in two to three
weeks. At the end of the growing period they seek a protected
place, spin a cocoon and transform to the pupal stage which
lasts two to three weeks. The adult is a small, brownish moth
with cream-colored markings and folds its wings about its body.
Rotation of crops not attacked by the lesser cornstalk borer
and early planting help to control this pest. A 5 percent chlor-
dane dust at the rate of 25 pounds per acre and applied to the
rows just before the seedlings emerge is an effective control
measure. If a spray is preferred, the 50 percent wettable pow-
der or an emulsifiable formulation of chlordane may be used.
When liquid applications are used they should be applied at the
rate of 2 pounds of actual chlordane in 100 gallons of water per
acre. The spray must be directed on the row where the seed

Production of Southern Peas (Cowpeas) in Florida

have been planted. The spray droplets should be relatively
large, and the spray machine should be driven slowly enough to
moisten the soil slightly. After the borers enter the plants
they cannot be reached by insecticides. For this reason, pre-
ventive methods must be adopted in fields where it is suspected
that lesser cornstalk borer infestations may be serious.
Southern Green Stink Bug.-The Southern green stink bug,
Nezara viridula (L.), usually attacks the fruit pods. It has a
long beak which is folded back under its body when it is not
feeding. With this beak it punctures the pod, sucking up the
plant juices. Areas around these feeding punctures turn brown,
causing unsightly spots on the pods and peas.
The adult is a rather large, light green, shield-shaped bug
measuring about 1/2 inch long and 1/3 inch wide. Both adults
and immature stages feed on a wide variety of vegetable crops,
citrus and wild plants. Southern peas and other legumes are
listed with the favorite host plants of the Southern green stink
In Florida this insect does not hibernate during the winter
months but it is rather scarce and inactive during January
and February. Drake (4) reported that no immature stages
are found in the vicinity of Gainesville during January and
February. Eggs are deposited on the host plants in regular
rows to form hexagonal clusters. Southern green stink bug
egg clusters can be recognized by this tendency of the 'female
to place the yellowish-white, cup-shaped eggs in these character-
istic clusters. During the warmer months the eggs hatch
in four to five days. Twenty-four to 35 days are required for
the nymphs to complete their development. After the adult
emerges it may feed from three to five weeks before it reaches
sexual maturity.
The Southern green stink bug is subject to the attack of a
large number of parasites and predators. One of the most effec-
tive of these parasites is a tachinid fly, but during periods of
severe infestations commercial crops will suffer serious losses
before the parasites and predators can bring the insects under
control. For this reason Southern pea growers must be pre-
pared to use chemical controls when the stink bugs become
abundant in their pea fields.
Dusts containing 5 percent toxaphene or 5 percent chlordane,
applied at the rate of 30 to 40 pounds per acre, will effectively
control the Southern green stink bug. Sprays containing 1

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

pound of actual toxaphene or chlordane at the rate of 100 gal-
lons per acre also are effective if conditions are such that an
even, thorough coverage can be obtained.
Harlequin Bug.-The harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica
(Hahn), is a close relative of the Southern green stink bug
and is sometimes destructive to Southern peas in the northern
and western parts of the state. This insect prefers cabbage
and other vegetables of the crucifer group, but in the absence
of these preferred hosts it will feed on tomato, potato, egg-
plant, okra, bean, Southern pea and several other vegetable
The life history and habits of the harlequin bug are very
similar to those of the Southern green stink bug. Control
measures suggested for the Southern green stink bug are effec-
tive for the harlequin bug.
Serpentine Leaf Miner.-The serpentine leaf miner, Lirio-
myza pusilla (Meig.), like the potato leafhopper and the lesser
cornstalk borer, is most destructive to Southern peas during
the young stages of growth. However, it may be injurious
during all stages. In addition to Southern peas, this insect
attacks beans, 'potatoes, tomatoes, escarole, lettuce, cucurbits
and a number of other vegetable crops, as well as wild host
plants. This insect is usually kept under control by parasites
and predators. Severe outbreaks have occurred since 1945, par-
ticularly in the southern part of the state.
The adult serpentine leaf miner is a small fly, about 1/20
inch long, with a yellowish lower surface and black upper sur-
face. The adults puncture the leaf surface, causing some in-
jury. According to Wolfenbarger (6) eggs are deposited in
less than 1 percent of these punctures. The eggs hatch out
in three to five days and the larvae feed between the upper
and lower leaf surfaces. As the larvae feed, grow and move
forward the tunnels gradually widen, producing the character-
istic, crooked, clear mine for which,the insect is named. When
the larvae become full grown they may attach themselves to
the lower leaf surface and'pupate. However, most of them drop
to the ground and pupate beneath the soil surface. The period
required for development from egg to adult varies from 23 to
28 days, depending upon the prevailing temperature. When se-
vere outbreaks occur, the combined effect of the adult punctures
and the mining of the larvae seriously interferes with the pro-
duction of plant food by the affected leaves.

Production of Southern Peas (Cowpeas) in Florida

Excellent control of this insect can be obtained by spraying
with 1 pound of 15 percent wettable parathion to 100 gallons
of water per acre. A liquid emulsifiable formulation of parathion
is also available. One pint of the emulsifiable formulation con-
taining 25 percent parathion should be added to 100 gallons of
water for spraying an acre of peas.
Cutworms.-Several kinds of cutworms may attack Southern
peas in Florida. The black cutworm, Agrotis ypsilon (Rott.),
is one of the common species which feeds upon a wide variety
of vegetables and wild plants. This cutworm has the habit
of burrowing into the soil and resting during the day and com-
ing to the soil surface to feed during the night. Young, tender
plants are cut off at or near the soil surface. Most of the plant
is not eaten. The cutworm frequently can be found 1/2 to 1 inch
below the soil surface by carefully scratching around plants cut
off in this manner. Control measures should be applied imme-
diately after the first injury is noticed. Otherwise, the stand of
young plants may be seriously reduced.
The adult black cutworm is a moth with mottled, grayish black
wings and having a wing spread of about 11/2 inches. The eggs
are deposited singly or in small clusters on the leaves or stems
of the host plant. During the summer months the eggs hatch
in three to five days. The larvae shed their skins or molt five
times during a period of 10 to 15 days. When the larvae become
full grown they burrow into the soil to a depth of 1 to 2 inches
and build pupal cells. The larvae transform to the pupal stage,
which lasts six to eight days, after which the adult moths
emerge. After two to three days the moths begin laying eggs.
Each moth may lay from 400 to 2,000 eggs. During the cooler
months the various stages of the life cycle are prolonged con-
Grass and weeds or cover crops on land to be planted to South-
ern peas should be destroyed and worked into the soil by re-
peated disking at least 30 days prior to planting. This early
preparation of the land will destroy the cutworms, in addition
to producing a good seedbed. If cutworms attack the young
peas, a poison bran bait containing 2 percent toxaphene or 2
percent chlordane at the rate of 25 to 40 pounds per acre should
be applied in the late afternoon. Late afternoon applications
are most effective because the bait will be fresh and more attrac-
tive to the night feeding cutworms.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Many growers of Southern peas and field peas save their
own seed. Stored peas are subject to attack from two weevils:
the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) ; and the Chi-
nese weevil, Mylabris chinensis (L.). The bean weevil, Acan-
thoscelides obtectus (Say), occasionally attacks stored pea seed.
When pea seed are stored in Florida, where winter temperatures
are usually mild, these weevils may be expected to cause severe
The adult cowpea weevils emerge from storage in the spring
and feed upon honeydew and, to a slight extent, upon the foliage
until the young pea pods begin to develop. Eggs are glued
to the pods and hatch in three or more days. The minute larvae
eat their way into the developing peas. These entrance holes
are very small and heal over, leaving a small brown spot that
is difficult to detect. Feeding and growth continue for about
two weeks, when the mature larvae cut a cylindrical escape tube
to, but not penterating, the outer seed coat. The pupal stage
is spent inside the cavity produced by the feeding larva. The
adult weevil emerges from two to eight weeks after the larva
entered the seed. Several generations of weevils develop in the
growing peas. All stages of the weevil are carried into storage
with the dried peas. Adults emerging from stored peas deposit
their eggs among or on the dried peas and the life cycle is re-
peated in the dry stored seed. During periods of low tempera-
tures the various developmental stages are prolonged consid-
A dust containing 1.5 percent gamma isomer of benzene hexa-
chloride used at the rate of 4 ounces to 100 pounds of seed or
1/2 level teaspoonful for each pound of seed will control these
weevils while Southern pea seed are in storage. If it is desired
to protect the seed from fungi, spergon mixed with benzene
hexachloride or lindane (1.5 percent gamma isomer) may be
used at the same rate as the benzene hexachloride dust alone.
The benzene hexachloride dust or spergon mixture should be
mixed thoroughly with the seed so that each seed is coated
with the material.

Preparation of the land about 30 days prior to planting will
starve the cutworms that may have been feeding on the cover

Production of Southern Peas (Cowpeas) in Florida

Outbreaks of the lesser cornstalkk borers do not occur very
often but they are capable of being very destructive in Southern
pea plantings. In areas where this insect may be expected,
apply 25 pounds of 5 percent chlordane dust per acre to the row
just before the seedlings emerge.
During the early stages of growth the crop should be watched
closely for indications of attack by several insects.
1. Young plants cut off at the soil surface indicate the pres-
ence of cutworms. At the first sign of cutworm activity apply
25 to 40 pounds per acre of a poison bran bait containing 2 per-
cent toxaphene or 2 percent chlordane.
2. Curling and distortion of the leaves are signs of leafhop-
per activity. Apply 30 to 35 pounds per acre of 5 percent DDT
dust at 10 day intervals until the infestation is brought under
control. When infestations are very severe reduce the interval
between applications to five days.
3. Transparent crooked tunnels between the upper and lower
surfaces of the leaf are characteristic of serpentine leaf miner
attack. For the control of this insect use 1 pound of 15 percent
wettable parathion or 1 pint of 25 percent emulsifiable parathion
in 100 gallons of water per acre.
The insects mentioned above may or may not become abundant
enough to require treatment. For this reason, a regular spray
program cannot be recommended.
During the fruiting period Southern peas may be attacked by
the Southern green stink bug and, in some sections of the state,
by the harlequin bug. Except for very early spring plantings,
Southern peas are almost sure to be attacked by the cowpea
curculio. The green stink bug, the harlequin bug and the cow-
pea curculio are controlled with applications of 5 percent toxa-
phene dust at the rate of 30 to 40 pounds per acre. Applications
of the toxaphene dust should begin when the first fruit pods
appear and two additional applications should be made at 7 day

III. Nematodes and Their Control
Southern peas are injured by several different kinds of nema-
todes, of which the root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) and
the sting nematodes (Belonolaimus gracilis) are most impor-
tant. If a preceding crop has been heavily infected with the
stubby-root nematode (Trichodorus sp.), peas may be injured
by this parasite to some extent, especially when the plants are

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

small. Certain other nematodes feed on the roots of Southern
peas, but no instance has come to our attention where they
have caused serious damage.

Root-knot nematodes cause swellings or galls on the roots
of plants and are familiar to most growers. As a rule, root-
knot galls can be distinguished rather easily from the nodules
caused by nitrifying bacteria. Galls are swellings of the roots
themselves and vary greatly in size and shape, sometimes be-
coming an inch or so in diameter. Nodules are structures that
are more or less attached to the roots and, although varying
considerably, are more nearly uniform in size and shape. These
nodules are easily rubbed off the roots.
Six different species or subspecies of root-knot nematodes are
known to occur in the United States and all have been found in
Florida, although only three seem to be common and widespread.
These different root-knot nematodes all have about the same
effect on plants and it is not important that farmers concern
themselves about the differences between them except to re-
member that some crops may be susceptible to one kind and
not to another. Southern peas have not been tested exten-
sively against the different kinds of root-knot nematodes, but
so far as known, they are susceptible to all of them.
Root-knot nematodes are active throughout the year in Flor-
ida but they are hot weather organisms and their activity de-
creases during the winter, especially in the northern part of the
state. They occur in all kinds of soil, including muck, marl and
Control.-Measures for controlling root-knot are crop rota-
tions that include resistant or immune plants, flooding, and soil
Crotalaria spectabilis is immune to root-knot nematodes of
all kinds. Several other species of Crotalaria are equally im-
mune. Hairy indigo and beggarweed appear to be satisfactory
root-knot resistant crops for Florida. However, hairy indigo
is susceptible to a root-knot nematode that is common on pea-
nuts in southwestern Georgia and southeastern Alabama. There-
fore, its use in the part of Florida that adjoins this area may
be open to question. Oats are usually resistant. Brabham
cowpeas are fairly satisfactory if a pure strain of seed is ob-

Production of Southern Peas (Cowpeas) in Florida

The severity of root-knot damage can be substantially re-
duced by flooding. It is not known to what extent the effects
of flooding are influenced by season or precisely how long the
land must be kept flooded at different times of the year to give
satisfactory results. Until more definite information is avail-
able, keeping the soil saturated with water for eight weeks or
more is suggested. For best results root-knot susceptible plants
should not be growing on the land during the flooding period.
Soil fumigation is the best and most reliable procedure known
for controlling root-knot, but it is expensive and usually one
fumigation will protect only one crop. Soil fumigation is a some-
what exacting procedure and if not properly done the results
will not justify the expense.
Soil, to be fumigated with a chisel type applicator, should be
prepared to the consistency of a good seedbed. Vegetation that
grew on the land previously should be allowed time to decay.
For solid or broadcast application, use D-D or a 40 percent ethy-
lene dibromide mixture at the rate of about 20 gallons per
acre. Inject the fumigant to a depth of not less than 6 inches.
If the land is not level, the chisels of the applicator, when passing
over low spots or along a furrow, will not inject the fumigant
deeply enough. Channels left by the applicator chisels should
be promptly and firmly filled and the soil should be left smooth
and compact at the surface. If the land is dragged as a sepa-
rate operation, do this as quickly as possible after the fumigant
is applied.
Allow the land to remain undisturbed for at least one week,
then disk it deeply and thoroughly. Seed can be planted usually
from 2 to 4 weeks after the fumigant is injected, the necessary
interval depending on the weather. Cool, wet weather keeps
the fumigant in the soil and makes it necessary to wait longer.
Satisfactory control of root-knot usually can be obtained with
row fumigation. The procedure is the same as for solid fumi-
gation except that the fumigant is applied only in the rows
where seed is to be planted. Apply in a single stream along
each row at the rate of about 1 gallon to 1,900 feet of row.
When rows are 30 inches apart, an acre will require about 9
gallons. One disadvantage of row fumigation is that the land
must not be disked between application and planting, thus often
resulting in a difficult weed problem. However, very shallow cul-
tivation confined to the upper 3 inches of soil probably would
not seriously reduce the efficiency of the treatment. Some means

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

must be contrived for locating the rows in order that the seed
will be planted where the fumigant was applied.
When Southern peas are planted on fumigated land it is
very important that the seed be inoculated with the proper
strain of nitrifying bacteria.

The sting nematode is an external parasite that feeds at
root tips and along the sides of roots, killing the tips and pre-
venting the plant from developing an adequate root system.
This nematode is very destructive to seedlings but may severely
injure old plants, even trees. It damages many different crops.
Beans and related plants such as Southern peas are especially

t~r s


Fig. 4.-Roots

of Southern pea


s injured by the sting nematode.

The roots of affected plants are dark and discolored and have
very few feeder roots (Fig. 4). Most of the lateral roots that
develop are short and stubby and are often arranged in clusters.
Swellings or galls are not formed. Since very similar symptoms
are sometimes caused by other organisms and conditions it is

~i- .^

Production of Southern Peas (Cowpeas) in Florida 27

best to have a specialist examine a sample of the suspected roots
and surrounding soil. Such samples should not be allowed to
become dry before examination.
The sting nematode is active in Florida throughout the year
and we have no evidence that its activity is greatly decreased
in winter, at least in the central part of the state. This nema-
tode is fairly widespread in Florida but appears to be confined
to sandy soils. It has not been found in muck or marl soils.
Even on sandy soils, its distribution is confined to certain fields
or certain areas and there is much land of this type that is not
Control.-Very little is known about the comparative suscep-
tibility of different kinds of plants. No recommendations can
be made regarding control by crop rotations and other cultural
practices. The sting nematode is somewhat easier to control by
soil fumigation than are the root-knot nematodes. Follow the
same procedure as that recommended for root-knot. For solid
or broadcast applications use D-D or a 40 percent ethylene di-
bromide mixture at the rate of about 10 to 15 gallons per acre.
For row applications apply at about the same rate as for root-
The stubby-root nematode does not often injure Southern
peas enough to make control measures necessary. Should an
occasion arise where control of this pest seems desirable, the
land should be fumigated by the broadcast method at the same
rate as suggested for root-knot. Row fumigation is not recom-
mended as a measure for controlling stubby-root because these
nematodes move in from the adjacent unfumigated soil quickly
and populations build up so rapidly that the plants are given
only brief protection.

When handling soil fumigants avoid prolonged breathing of
the fumes. If the liquid is spilled on clothing remove the gar-
ment without delay. Be especially careful with regard to shoes.
Never, under any circumstance, take the risk of getting the
liquids into the eyes or mouth. Most fumigants are flammable
and the same precautions should be taken against igniting the
fumes as when handling gasoline.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


The authors wish to express their appreciation to Drs. R. W. Ruprecht,
E. L. Spencer, A. N. Tissot, G. M. Volk, F. S. Jamison, R. A. Dennison, M.
W. Hoover, D. G. Kelbert and J. R. Christie for reading the manuscript and
offering many helpful suggestions for its improvement.


1. ARANT, F. S. Life history and control of the cowpea curculio. Ala. Exp.
Sta. Bul. 246. 1938.
2. BOSWELL, V. R. Our vegetable travelers. Nat. Geog. Mag. 96: 145-217.
3. BRITTINGHAM, W. H. A key to the horticultural groups of varieties of
the southern pea, Vigna sincnsis. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 48: 478-
480. 1946.
4. DRAKE, C. J. The southern green stink bug in Florida. Quar. Bul. State
Plant Board of Fla. 4: 3: 41-94. 1920.
5. WATSON, J. R., and A. N. TISSOT. Insects and other pests of Florida
vegetables. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 370. 1942.
6. WOLFENBARGER, D. 0. The serpentine leaf miner and its control. Fla.
Agr. Exp. Sta. Press Bul. 639. 1947.

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs