Citation
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

Material Information

Title:
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Uniform Title:
Robinson Crusoe
Creator:
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
S. W. Partridge & Co ( Publisher )
Archd. K. Murray and Co ( Printer )
Place of Publication:
London
Publisher:
S.W. Partridge & Co.
Manufacturer:
Archd. K. Murray and Co.
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
vii, 332, 4 p., [44] leaves of plates : col. ill. ; 21 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Castaways -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1873 ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1873 ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1873
Genre:
Imaginary voyages ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements ( rbgenr )
fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London
Scotland -- Glasgow
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

Citation/Reference:
BM Daniel Defoe,
General Note:
Spine title: Robinson Crusoe.
General Note:
Date from citation below.
General Note:
"Memoir of De Foe," p. i-vii.
General Note:
Front cover has inset col. ill. of Crusoe in his island home.
General Note:
Includes publisher's advertisement (4 p.) at end which gives publisher's address as 9, Paternoster Row.
General Note:
All pages bordered by a simple frame.
General Note:
Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe. Part II originally published under title: Farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
Funding:
NEH RLG GCMP4
Statement of Responsibility:
by Daniel Defoe.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
029086743 ( ALEPH )
30060943 ( OCLC )
AJQ4398 ( NOTIS )

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Full Text
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— ADVENTURES

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MEMOIR OF DANIEL DE FOR.”

How seldom it happens that great men are born in great towns. Some
secluded spot, where the influence of nature rather than of human society is
felt, is commonly the nursery of genius. Great cities seem to have a depres-
sing influence upon the human mind. The high pressure of an artificial
competition, while forcing it into a premature activity, leaves its finest
faculties dormant. City life thus favours the production of a crowd of
mediocrities; and amid a surrounding of narrow but keenly polished wits, the
dawn of a new intellectual life is exposed to the friction of a minute and
sterile criticism which damps enthusiasm and crushes out the early spark of
originality. Conformity to a pattern of conventional acquirements takes the
place of the unfettered development of the individual nature, and a perpetual
round of petty activities keeps alive a semblance of intellectual excitement
which completes the absorption of the individual in the collective life.

How strange that the author of Robinson Crusoe, a man distinguished above
all things for individuality, and the masterpiece of whose genius is the
description of a solitary life in a desert island, should have been born in
London. We must regard this striking exception as a bold assertion of the
sovereignty of nature over the strongest combinations of those conventional
barriers by which men endeavour to restrict her sway.

Daniel De Foe was born in London, in the parish of St. Giles’, Cripplegate,
in 1661. He died in the same parish in April, 1731. During his life of

seventy years he saw, seated on the throne of England, six successive monarchs,
from Charles IT. to George IL, and he witnessed the final phases of the greatest
revolution in our history.

Let no one imagine that in these stirring days the author of Robinson
Crusoe lived the life of a contemplative recluse. His mind was not of a kind
to be satisfied even with the activities of city life; and from about the age of
twenty-one to that of fifty-four, he was incessantly engaged in the fiercest
political strife of that stormy period.

Daniel’ De Foe was the son of James Foe, a butcher, in the parish of St Giles’;
his grandfather, Daniel Foe, was a yoeman of Elton, in Huntingdonshire, It

a 3 i*

















MEMOIR OF DANIEL DE FOE.



is not known at what time he adopted the prefix “De,” which distinguishes
his name from that of his ancestors. His grandfather is said to have been a
cavalier; his father, it is certain, was a round-head and a dissenter. Daniel
received an excellent education at a dissenting academy, being intended for the
ministry, which, for some reason unknown, he did not enter. That he profited
by his education appears not only by his works, but from his own testimony.
When taunted by an opponent with his want of learning, he, on one occasion,
replied, “As to my little learning and his great capacity, I fairly challenge him
to translate with me any Latin, French, or Italian author, and after that to re-
translate them, crossways, for twenty pounds each book.” He was also well
read in the theological controversies of the day.

He began life as a merchant hosier, and continued this occupation up till
1695. His place of business was in Freeman’s Court, Cornhill. His business
transactions during this period were considerable.

It was not long till his political activity began to show itself. In 1682-3
he published his first tracts, one of them upon the invasion of Austria by the
Turks. He did not include these early publications in the editions he after-
wards prepared of his collected works.

In 1685 he joined the rebellion under the Duke of Monmouth. Being at
this time a young man, and comparatively unknown, he seems to have escaped
notice, and, on the failure of the enterprise, he came quietly back to London
and resumed his occupations.

On the 26th of January, 1688, he was admitted a livery man, his name being
entered in the Chamberlain’s book as Daniel Foe. Towards the close of the
same year he had the gratification of meeting the Prince of Orange at Henley,
and marching with him to London; and in the following year he formed one
of a guard of honour who attended King William on the occasion of his dining
at the Guildhall with the Lord Mayor.

He had now become a considerable trader, and his business took him on
one occasion to Spain, where he resided for some time, and learned the lang-
uage. He also on different occasions visited France and Germany. The turning
point in De Foe’s career, however, came in the form of business disasters. In
1692 he was obliged to abscond from his creditors; but during his temporary
flight, a composition was arranged on his own bond, which he faithfully dis-
charged, and afterwards made considerable efforts to pay his creditors in full.
About the causes of his want of success in business there appears to be little
doubt. He, himself, explains them with sufficient clearness. Being of a san-
guine disposition, he speculated beyond his means, and trusted people who
were unworthy of credit. That he neglected his business for literary pursuits,
is an assumption of some of his biographers which seems to be both un-
necessary and groundless. His debts amounted to £17,000, which he says he
afterwards reduced to £5,000.

n



















MEMOIR OF DANIEL DE FOE.

Lest his flight from his creditors should be supposed to reflect upon his
honour, it may be well to advert to the state of the bankruptcy law at the
time, which he was afterwards instrumental in getting changed. His own
statement of it is: —“The cruelty of our law against debtors, without distinction
of honest or dishonest, is the shame of our nation. I am persuaded the
honestest man in England, when by circumstances he is compelled to break,
will fly out the kingdom rather than submit. To stay here, this is the conse-
quence : as soon as he breaks he is proscribed as a criminal, and has thirty or
sixty days to surrender both himself and all that he has to his creditors. If
he fails to do so, he has nothing before him but the gallows, without benefit of
clergy; if he surrenders, he is not sure but he shall be thrown into jail for life
by the commissioners, only on pretence that they doubt his oath. It is
certainly,” he adds, “the interest of the creditor that when a debtor has failed
he should come and throw himself into the creditor’s hands, and there be safe.”

His friends now wished to establish him as a factor in Cadiz, but “Providence
placed a secret aversion in his mind to quitting England.”

He obtained, in 1695, the appointment of accomptant to the commissioners,
for managing the duties on glass; which he held till 1699, when the duty was
abolished.

In 1697 he published an “ Essay upon Projects,” which contains, among other
suggestions, one for the formation of a society for the cultivation of literature,
and the improvement of the English language, on the plan of the French
Academy, a project which has since been advocated by Swift and others, up to
the present day. From this time he became a constant writer on all the social
and political topics of the day.

In 1701 appeared a work on which De Foe always highly valued himself,
and of which it was his practice to cite himself as the author in-his subsequent
publications. This was, “The True-born Englishman.”

William III. had been placed on the throne by a coalition of whigs and tories.
The strong attachment of the latter to the principle of legitimacy was not, how-
ever, overcome by their well-founded distrust of James, and the sympathies of
the nation were largely on their side. Hence dreams and projects of a restora-
tion began to be entertained, and many would gladly have welcomed James
back under conditions which would have secured constitutional liberty, and
the ascendency of the Protestant religion. In the mouths of the reactionaries
the phrase, “a true-born Englishman,” had acquired a significance which
reflected upon William as an alien. Against this use of the phrase, which he
adopted as his title, De Foe directed a satire.

Here it may be observed that while De Foe was partial to verse, and fre-
quently used it as 2 means of conveying his sentiments, he never took any pains
to cultivate a style and mode of expression suitable to the most refined medium
of communication for human thought. He wrote poetry like a pamphleteer;

zs im













MEMOIR OF DANIEL DE FOR



and the English language, though it admits of a very elevated diction, is not
favourable to improvisatori. Otherwise there are touches of vigour in his
style that might almost justify one in holding, contrary to the common
opinion, that with leisure and inclination he might have been as highly dis-
tinguished as a poet as he is as a prose writer.

Take for example such distichs as this from “The True-born English-
man :”—

“Who their old monarch eagerly undo,
And yet uneasily obey the new.”

“Fools out of favour grudge at knaves in place,
And men are always honest in disgrace.”

It was somewhat daring in Pope to place a man who could bite like
this in the “Dunciad;” yet, it is true, we are much oftener favoured with
couplets like the following :—

Search, satire, search ; a deep incision make:
The poison’s strong, the antidote’s too weak.”

This poem admitted De Foe to the favour of King William, who though not
so great a patron of literature as his rival Louis XIV., was sensible to the muses
when they espoused his cause. He consulted and employed De Foe; yet this
did not prevent the bold and honest poet from writing in favour of peace with
France, when the king had determined on war.

Satire was De Foe’s favourite weapon, and early in the following reign he
found an admirable occasion for using it. During the reign of Queen Anne
sectarian intolerance, with the least possible excuse, reached the highest point
it has ever been known to attain. The common dangers from which all Pro-
testants had escaped might have been expected to dispose them to feelings of
charity and brotherhood towards each other; but this was not the view of the
High Churchmen. _A dissenter with them was more to be despised, if less to
be dreaded, than a Romanist. Conformity to the church was the only condi-
tion on which either state or civic dignities were to be held. This had led to a
practice among the dissenters of occasional conformity, for the sake of holding
office, which was defended by men of high reputation, both lay and clerical, on
the plea of moderation, until, in 1711, it was put a stop to, not by the scruples
of the dissenters themselves, but by the rising intolerance of churchmen, who
succeeded in passing, by a coalition of whigs and tories, a bill making a single
attendance at a conventicle the cause of deprivation of office.

On this subject De Foe took up a position offensive to all parties, and which
was the occasion of a great part of the sacrifices and sufferings of his life. He

steadily opposed the practice of occasional conformity as inconsistent and sac-
iv



















MEMOIR OF DANIEL DE FOE.



rilegious. He had already written against it in the reign of King William.
At the same time the further designs of the High Church party filled him with
disgust and indignation, and he employed against them the powerful weapon
of his satire.

In a tract entitled “The Shortest Way with the Dissenters,” he assumed the
character of a High Churchman, and gravely parodied the intolerance of the
zealots of the party. So well had he studied his models that he was only in
advance of them in time. Extreme adherents of the party actually commended
his views, and some of his predictions came afterwards to be verified; but in
the meantime they aroused the rage of all parties, and especially of the
dissenters, who were offended with his scrupulousness, and could not compre-
hend the delicacy of his satire. They treated him as a disturber of the peace,
and called his tract scurrilous. ,

The matter was taken up by the House of Commons, and some parts of the
book being read in the House, 25th February, 1702-3, it was resolved, “That
this book being full of false and scandalous reflections on this Parliament, and
tending to promote sedition, be burnt by the hands of the common hangman
to-morrow in New Palace Yard.”

A reward of £50 was offered for the apprehension of De Foe, who
surrendered, in order to relieve his printers from the responsibility. He was
sentenced to pay a fine of 200 marks to the Queen, to stand three times in the
pillory, to be imprisoned during the Queen’s pleasure, and to find sureties for
his good behaviour for seven years. De Foe was attended to the pillory by a
guard of honour provided by the mob, which protected him from insult, and
crowned the instrument with garlands.

It is a sufficient comment upon this affair to say that De Foe was ultimately
released from prison by the intervention of Harley, afterwards Eatl of Oxford,
the leader of the tory party, at whose instance the Queen paid his fine, and sent
a sum of money to his wife.

Previous to his imprisonment he had been engaged in a brick and tile kiln
work in Essex, and he complains it cost him the destruction of his business, with
the loss of £8,500, and upset his plans for paying his creditors, which were
progressing satisfactorily. He also laments the loss to his country of an industry
which he was successfully striving to introduce, this manufacture having been
previously carried on in Holland.

While in prison he was not idle. He projected a periodical paper which he
began, six months before his release, in February, 1704. This paper, which
was continued for nine years, forms one of the most considerable of his works.
It was one of the earliest British newspapers, and to render it attractive he
added to it the feature of a Scandal Club, which discussed all manner of topics,
social, political, and literary. It was written wholly by himself, and was con-
tinued without interruption during protracted absences from England, one of

v



















MEMOIR OF DANIEL DE FOE.



them of sixteen months’ duration, when he was engaged in important trans-
actions in Scotland. During another protracted visit to Scotland, he was
asked by the corporation of Edinburgh to edit the Edinburgh Courant, which
he did in 1710-11, for forty-five numbers, without relinquishing the Review.
During all this time he never ceased issuing new books and pamphlets.

On his release from prison he was first employed by Harley on a secret
mission to the Continent, and then, in 1706, after being admitted to an inter-
view with the Queen, and permitted to kiss her hand, he was sent to Scotland to
promote the Union, which he had already zealously advocated. For his services
in this negotiation, which were dictated by the most enlightened patriotism,
and conducted in a manner which made him many warm friends in the
Scottish nation, he deserves the highest praise. Hazlitt says that, “As a
public advocate, when their religion or their liberties were attacked, the Scots,
perhaps, had not a more zealous or sincere friend among the English,” and of
his “History of the Union,” published in 1709, he says, “It had alone preserved
his name, had his Crusoe pleased us less.”

On his return from Scotland he was rewarded with an appointment, which
was continued through subsequent changes of ministry, but his salary does not
seem to have been regularly paid. He constantly enjoyed, however, the
confidence and private friendship of Harley; and on this account, as well as
from some differences of opinion with them, he became an object of suspicion
and dislike to the whigs.

They had a second opportunity of shewing the blindness of their malignity
on the occasion of another satirical pamphlet of De Foe’s, which this time was
directed against the Jacobites. Pretending again to take his words in a literal
sense, they instituted a prosecution against him, but before the trial came on
the Earl of Oxford again rescued him by a pardon under the Great Seal.

Changes of party were common in those days, as they are in ours, but it is
without ground that De Foe has been accused of political tergiversation. As
a statesman he was more enlightened than most of the placemen, either whig
or tory, by whom he was surrounded. He differed from the whigs on many
important points, and their narrowness and intolerance of his independence
alienated him, while the more generous treatment of his political opponents
had the natural effect of inducing him to moderate his opposition.

There can be no doubt that during the later years of the Review he gave an
independent support to the ministry of the Earl of Oxford, and advocated a
union of moderate whigs and tories. Even Hazlitt, who strenuously contends
against the idea of De Foe’s being considered‘a supporter of the ministry, is
constrained to admit that one of his pamphlets was artfully intended to prepare
the dissenters for further severities. But in all this De Foe acted not as a
tory but as an ill-used whig, and he never forsook his principles, even when

unable to co-operate with his former associates. His independence is
vi



















MEMOIR OF DANIEL DE FOE.





sufficiently attested by the fact that he wrote against the peace of Utrecht, and
after Harley and Bolingbroke had quarreled, defended an unpopular measure
of the latter, Free trade with France, in which the Earl of Oxford had no
concern.

His last political publication was a vindication of his character from ‘the
vituperation and incessant calumnies to which he was subjected, and which had
always had a powerful effect on his sensitive mind, in an “Appeal to the
Honour and Justice of his Enemies.”

While engaged in this work, in 1715, he was seized with apoplexy. His
friends, after waiting some time for his recovery, thought it advisable to
publish it unfinished.

It was this battered old dissenter, retired to nurse the wounds received in
political conflict, who astonished the world with “ Robinson Crusoe,” and other
equally brilliant, though less known works of fiction. To enter on a critical
examination of De Foe’s genius in this brief Memoir, the whole space covered
by which would not suffice for a catalogue of his works, would be unreason-
able. As an illustration of his extraordinary energy, it may be proper to
enumerate a few of his later productions, warning the reader that it is a
sample only, and not a complete list, even of the works of his declining years
that is here presented. i

Robinson Crusoe was published in 1719. From this time till 1728,
appeared Life and Piracies of Captain Singleton; History of Duncan Campbell;
Fortunes and Misfortunes of Moll Flanders; Life of Colonel Jaque; A Journal
of the Plague; Memoirs of a Cavalier (of which the Earl of Chatham used to
speak as the best history of the civil war extant); Tours through England
and Scotland; The Fortunate Mistress, or Adventures of Roxana; Political
History of the Devil; Complete Tradesman; and Plan of English Commerce.

Of seventy years spent in such activities this Memoir does not profess to
give even an outline. If the few incidents it presents suffice to give some idea
of the spirit of the man, its purpose will be served.
































LIFE AND ADVENTURES

OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE.

though not of that country, my father being a foreigner of Bremen,

who settled first at Hull. He got a good estate by merchandise, and
leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at York; from whence he had married
my mother, whose relations were named Robinson, a very good family in
that country, and from whom 'I was called Robinson Kreutznaer; but, by the
usual corruption of words in England, we are now called,—nay, we call
ourselves, and write our name, Crusoe; andso my companions always called me.

Thad two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-colonel to an English
regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly commanded by the famous Colonel
Lockhart, and was killed at the battle near Dunkirk against the Spaniards.
What became of my second brother I never knew, any more than my father
or mother did know what was become of me.

Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade, my head
began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts. My father, who was
very ancient, had given me a-competent share of learning, as far as house-
education and a country free-school generally go, and designed me for. the
law; but I would be satisfied with nothing but going to sea; and my inclina-
tion to this led me so strongly against the will, nay, the commands of my
father, and against all the entreaties and persuasions of my mother and other
friends, that there seemed to be something fearful in that propensity of nature
tending directly to the life of misery which was to befal me. :

My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excellent counse
against what he foresaw was my design. He called me one morning: into his
chamber, where he was confined by the gout, and expostulated very vamnily

A

| WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good family,



eee















LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

with me upon this subject. He asked me what reasons, more than a mere
wandering inclination, I had for leaving my father’s house and my native
country, where I might be well introduced, and had a prospect of raising my
fortune by application and industry, with a life of ease and pleasure. He
told me that it was men of desperate fortunes on one hand, or of aspiring,
superior fortunes on the other, who went abroad upon adventures, to rise by
enterprise, and make themselves famous in undertakings of a nature out of
the common road; that these things were all either too far above me, or too
far below me; that mine was the middle state, or what might be called the
upper station of low life, which he had found, by long experience, was the best
state in the world, the most suited to human happiness, not exposed to the
misery and hardships, the labour and sufferings of the mechanic part of
mankind, and not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of the
upper part of mankind. He told me I might judge of the happiness of this state
by one thing, viz., that this was the state of life which all other people envied;
that kings have frequently lamented the miserable consequence of being born to
great things, and wished they had been placed in the middle of the two extremes
—between the mean and the great; that the wise man gave his testimony to
this, as the standard of felicity, when he prayed to have neither poverty nor
riches.

He bade me observe it, and I should always find, that the calamities of life
were shared among the upper and lower part of mankind; but that the
middle station had the fewest disasters, and was not exposed to so many
vicissitudes as the higher or lower part of mankind; nay, they were not
subjected to so many distempers and uneasiness, either of body or mind, as
those were who, by vicious living, luxury, and extravagances on one hand, or
by hard labour, want of necessaries, and mean or insufficient diet on the other
hand, bring distempers upon themselves by the natural consequences of their
way of living; that the middle station of life was calculated for all kind of
virtues and all kind of enjoyments; that peace and plenty were the handmaids
of a middle fortune; that temperance, moderation, quietness, health, society,
all agreeable diversions, and all desirable pleasures, were the blessings attending
the middle station of life; that this way men went silently and smoothly
through the world, and comfortably out of it, not embarrassed with the labours
of the hands or of the head, not sold to a life of slavery for daily bread, or
harrassed with perplexed circumstances, which rob the soul of peace and
the body of rest; nor enraged with the passion of envy, or the sacred
burning lust of ambition for great things; but in easy circumstances, sliding
gently through the world, and sensibly tasting the sweets of living without
the bitter; feeling that they are happy, and learning by every day’s experience
to know it more sensibly.

After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affectionate manner,
2



















ROBINSON CRUSOE.



not to play the young man, nor to precipitate myself into miseries which
nature, and the station of life I was born in, seemed to have provided against;
that I was under no necessity for seeking my bread; that he would do well
for me, and endeavour to enter me fairly into the station of life which he had
just been recommending to me; and that if I was not very easy and happy in
the world, it must be my mere fate or fault that must hinder it; and that he
should have nothing to answer for, having thus discharged his duty in warning
me against measures which he knew would be to my hurt ; in a word, that as
he would do very kind things for me if I would stay and settle at home as he
directed, so he would not have so much hand in my misfortunes, as to give
me any encouragement to go away: and, to close all, he told me I had my
elder brother for an example, to whom he had used the same earnest per-
suasions to keep him from going into the Low Country wars, but could not
prevail, his young desires prompting him to run into the army, where he was
killed; and though he said he would not, cease to pray for me, yet he would
venture to say to me, that if I did take this foolish step, God would not bless
me, and I should have leisure hereafter to reflect upon having neglected his
counsel, when there might be none to assist in my recovery.

I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was truly prophetic,
though I suppose my father did not know it to be so himself; I say, I
observed the tears run down his face very plentifully, especially when he
spoke of my brother who was killed; and that when he spoke of having
leisure to repent, and none to assist me, he was so moved that he broke off the
discourse, and told me his heart was so full he could say no more to me.

I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as indeed who could he other-
wise? and I resolved not to think of going abroad any more, but to settle at
home according to my father’s desire. But, alas! a few days wore it all off ;
and, in short, to prevent any of my father’s further importfinities, in a few
weeks after I resolved to run quite away from him. However, I did not act
quite so hastily as the first heat of my resolution prompted, but I took my
mother, at a time when I thought her a little pleasanter than ordinary, and
told her that my thoughts were so entirely bent upon seeing the world, that I
should never settle to anything with resolution enough to go through with it,
and my father had better give me his consent than force me to go without it ;
and I was now eighteen years old, which was too late to go apprentice toa
trade, or clerk to an attorney; that I was sure if I did, I should never serve
out my time, but I should certainly run away from my master before my time
was out, and go to sea; and if she would speak to my father to let me go one
voyage abroad, if I came home again, and did not like it, I would go no more ;
ad I would promise, by a double diligence, to recover the time that I had
ost.

This put my mother into a great passion. She told me she knew it sh be

















LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



to no purpose to speak to my father upon any such subject; that he knew too
well what was my interest to give his consent to anything so much for my
hurt; and that she wondered how I could think of any such thing after the
discourse I had had with my father, and such kind and tender expressions as
she knew my father had used to me; and that, in short, if I would ruin
myself, there was no help for me; but I might depend I should never have
their consent to it; that for her part, she would not have so much hand in
my destruction; and I should never have it to say that my mother was willing
when my father was not.

Though my mother refused to name it to my father, yet I heard afterwards
that she reported all the discourse to him, and that my father, after showing
a great concern at it, said to her, with a sigh:—“That boy might be happy if
he would stay at home; but if he goes abroad he will be the most miserable
wretch that ever was born; I can give no consent to it.”

It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose, though, in the
meantime, I continued obstinately deaf to all proposals of settling to business,
and frequently expostulated with my father and mother about their being so
positively determined against what they knew my inclinations prompted me
to. But being one day at Hull, whether I went casually; and without any
purpose of making an elopement at that time; but, I say, being there, and one
of my companions being going by sea to London in his father’s ship, and
prompting me to go with them, with the common allurement of a sea-faring
man, that it should cost me nothing for my passage, I consulted neither father
nor mother any more, nor so much as sent them word of it; but leaving
them to hear of it as they might, without asking God’s blessing or my
father’s, without any consideration of circumstances or consequences, and in
an ill hour, God knows, on the Ist of September, 1651, I went on board a
ship bound for London. Never any young adventurer’s misfortunes, I believe,
began sooner or continued longer than mine. The ship was no sooner got
out of the Humber, than the wind began to blow and the sea to rise in a most
frightful manner; and as I had never been at sea before, I was most inexpres-
sibly sick in body, and terrified in mind. I began now seriously to reflect
upon what I had done, and how justly I was overtaken by the judgment of
Heaven for my wicked leaving my father’s house, and abandoning my duty. +
All the good counsels of my parents, my father’s tears and my mother’s
entreaties, came now fresh into my mind; and my conscience, which was not
yet come to the pitch of hardness to which it has come since, reproached me
with the contempt of advice, and the breach of my duty to God and my father.

All this while the storm increased, and the sea went. very high, though
nothing like what I have seen many times since; no, nor what I saw a few
days after; but it was enough to affect me then, who was but a young sailor,

and had never known anything of the matter. I expected every wave would
4





SSS
|

‘
4





My first storm! “A mere capful of wind.”













ROBINSON CRUSOE,



have swallowed us up, and that every time the ship fell down, as I thought it
did, in the trough or hollow of the sea, we should never rise more. In this
agony of mind I made many vows and resolutions, that if it would please God
to spare my life in this one voyage, if ever I got once my foot upon dry land
again, I would go directly home to my father, and never set it in a ship again
while I lived; that I would take his advice, and never run myself into such
miseries as these any more. Now I saw plainly the goodness of his observa-
tions about the middle station of life—how easy, how comfortably he had
lived all his days, and never had been exposed to tempests at sea, or troubles
on shore; and, in short, I resolved that I would, like a true repenting prodigal,
go home to my father.

These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the storm lasted, and,
indeed, some time after; but the next day the wind was abated, and the sea
calmer, and I began to be a little inured to it: however, I was very grave for
all that day, being also a little sea-sick still; but towards night the weather
cleared up, the wind was quite over, and a charming fine evening followed.
The sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so the next morning; and having
little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun shining upon it, the sight was, as
I thought, the most delightful that ever I saw.

I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick, but very cheerful,
looking with wonder upon the sea that was so rough and terrible the day before,
and could be so calm and so pleasant in so little a time after. And now, lest
my good resolutions should continue, my companion, who had enticed me
away, comes to me: “Well, Bob,” says he, clapping me upon the shoulder,
“how do you do after it? I warrant you were frighted, wer’n’t you, last night,
when it blew but acapful of wind?”—“A capful d’you call it?” said I;
“twas a, terrible storm.”—“A storm, you fool you!” replies he; “do you call
that a storm? why, it was nothing at all; give us but a good ship and sea-
room, and we think nothing of such a squall of wind as that; but you’re but
a fresh water sailor, Bob. Come, let us make a bowl of punch, and we'll
forget all that: d’ye see what charming weather ’tis now?” To make short
this sad part of my story, we went the way of all sailors: the punch was
made, and I was made half-drunk with it; and, in that one night’s wickedness,
I drowned all my repentance, all my reflections upon my past conduct, all my
resolutions for the future. Ina word, as the sea was returned to its smooth-
ness of surface and settled calmness by the abatement of that storm, so the
hurry of my thoughts being over, my fears and apprehensions of being
swallowed up by the sea being forgotten, and the current of my former
desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows and promises that I made in my
distress. I found, indeed, some intervals of reflection ; and the serious thoughts
did, as it were, endeavour to return again sometimes; but I shook them off,
and roused myself from them as it were from a distemper, and, applying

5



















LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



myself to drinking and company, soon mastered the return of those fits—for
so I called them; and I had in five or six days as complete a victory over my
conscience as any young fellow that resolved not to be troubled with it could
desire. But I was to have another trial for it still; and Providence, as in
such cases generally it does, resolved to leave me entirely without excuse; for
if I would not take this for a deliverance, the next was to be such a one as the
worst and most hardened wretch among us would confess both the danger and
the mercy of.

The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth Roads; the wind
having been contrary, and the weather calm, we had made but little way since
the storm. Here we were obliged to come to an anchor,.and here we lay, the
wind continuing contrary, viz. at south-west for seven or eight days, during
which time a great many ships from Newcastle came into the same roads, as
the common harbour where the ships might wait for a wind for the river.

We had not, however, rid here so long, but we should have tided it up the
river, but that the wind blew too fresh, and, after we had lain four or five
days, blew very hard. However, the roads being reckoned as good as a
harbour, the anchorage good, and our ground-tackle very strong, our men
were unconcerned, and not in the least apprehensive of danger, but spent the
time in rest and mirth, after the manner of the sea; but the eighth day, in the
morning, the wind increased, and we had all hands at work to strike our top-
masts, and make everything snug and close, that the ship might ride as easy
as possible. By noon the sea went very high indeed, and our ship rid fore-
castle in, shipped several seas, and we thought once or twice our anchor
had come home; upon which our master ordered out the sheet anchor, so
that we rode with two anchors a-head, and the cables veered out to the better
end.

By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I began to see terror
and amazement in the faces even of the seamen themselves. The master,
though vigilant in the business of perserving the ship, yet, as he went in and
out of his cabin by me, I could hear him softly to himself say several times,
“Lord, be merciful to us! we shall be all lost; we shall be all undone!” and
the like. During these first hurries I was stupid, lying still in my cabin,
which was in the steerage, and cannot describe my temper. I could ill resume
the first penitence which I had so apparently trampled upon and hardened
myself against. I thought the bitterness of death had been past, and that this
would be nothing like the first; but when the master himself came by me, as
I said just now, and said we should be all lost, I was dreadfully frightened. I
got up out of my cabin and looked out, but such a dismal sight I never saw:
the sea ran mountains high, and broke upon us every three or four minutes.
When I could look about, I could see nothing but distress round us. Two
ships that rid near us, we found, had cut their masts by the board, being deep

6





















ROBINSON CRUSOE.



laden ; and our men cried out that a ship which rid about a mile a-head of us
was foundered. Two more ships being driven from their anchors, were run
out of the roads to sea, at all’ adventures, and that not with a mast standing.
The light ships fared the best, as not so much labouring in the sea; but
two or three of them drove, and came’close by us, running away with only
their spritsail out before the wind.

Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the master of our ship to
let them cut away the foremast, which he was very unwilling to do; but the
boatswain protesting to him that if he did not, the ship would founder, he
consented ; and when they had cut away the foremast, the mainmast stood
so loose, and shook the ship so much, they were obliged to cut that away
also, and make a clear deck.

Any one must judge what a condition I must be in at all this, who was
but a young sailor, and who had been in such a fright before at but a little.
But if I can express at this distance the thoughts I had. about me at that
time, I was in tenfold more horror of mind upon account of my former
couvictions, and the having returned from them to the resolutions I had
wickedly taken at first, than I was at death itself! and these, added to the
terror of the storm, put me into such a condition that I can by no words
describe it. But the worst was not come yet; the storm.continued with such
fury that the seamen themselves acknowledged they had never seen a worse.
We had a good ship, but she was deep laden, and wallowed in the sea, so
that the seamen every now and then cried out she would founder. It was
my advantage in one respect that I did not know what they meant by
founder, till I inquired, However, the storm was so violent that I saw
what is not often seen, the master, the boatswain, and some others more
sensible than the rest, at their prayers, and expecting every moment when
the ship would go to the bottom. In the middle of the night, and under all
the rest of our distresses, one of the men that had been down to see, cried
out we*had sprung a leak; another said, there was four feet water in the hold.
Then all hands were called to the pump. At that word my heart, as I
thought, died within me; and I fell backwards upon the side of my bed
where I sat, into the cabin. However, the men roused me, and told me that
I, that was able do nothing before, was as well able to pump as another; at
which I stirred up, and went to the pump, and worked very heartily. While
this was doing, the master, seeing some light colliers, who, not able to ride
out the storm, were obliged to slip and run away to the sea, and would come
near us, ordered to fire a gun as a signal of distress. I, who knew nothing
what they meant, thought the ship had broken, or some dreadful thing
happened. In a word, I was so surprised that I fell down in a swoon. As
this was a time when everybody had his own life to think of, nobody minded
me, or what was become of me; but another man stepped up to Wg PUR

















LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



and, thrusting me aside with his foot, let me lie, thinking I had been dead;
and it was a great while before I came to myself.

We worked on; but, the water increasing in the hold, it was apparent that
the ship would founder; and though the storm began to abate a little, yet as
it was not possible she could swim ‘till we might run into any port, so the
master continued firing guns for help; and a light ship, who had rid it out
just a-head of us, ventured a boat out to help us. It was with the utmost
hazard the boat came near us, but it was impossible for us to get on board,
or for the boat to lie near the ship’s side, till at last the men rowing very
heartily, and venturing their lives to save ours, our men cast them a rope
over the stern with a buoy to it, and then veered it out a great length, which
they, after much labour and hazard, took hold of, and we hauled them close
under our stern, and got all into their boat. It was to no purpose for them
or us, after we were in the boat, to think of reaching to their own ship; so all
agreed to let her drive, and only to pull her in towards shore as much as we
could; and our master promised them that if the boat was staved upon shore,
he would make it good to their master; so partly rowing, and partly driving,
our boat went away to the northward, sloping towards the shore almost as far
as Winterton Ness.

We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of our ship till we
saw her sink, and then I understood for the first time what was meant by a
ship foundering in the sea. I must acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look up
when the seamen told me she was sinking; for from the moment that they
rather put me into the boat, than that I might be said to go in, my heart was,
as it were, dead within me, partly with fright, partly with horror of mind, and
the thoughts of what was’ yet before me.

While we were in this condition—the men yet labouring at the oar to bring
the boat near the shore—we could see (when, our boat mounting the waves,
we were able to see the shore) a great many people running along the strand
to assist us when we should come near; but we made but slow way towards
the shore; nor were we able to reach the shore till, being past the lighthouse
at Winterton, the shore falls off to the westward towards Cromer, and so the
land broke off a little the violence of the wind. Here we got in, and, though
not without much difficulty, got all safe on shore, and walked afterwards on
foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we were used with great
humanity, as well by the magistrates of the town, who assigned us good
quarters, as by particular merchants and owners of ships, and had money
given us sufficient to carry us either to London or back to Hull, as we
thought fit.

Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and have gone home,
I had been happy, and my father, as in our blessed Saviour’s parable, had even
Killed the fatted calf for me; for hearing the ship I went away in was cast

8















ROBINSON CRUSOE.



away in Yarmouth Roads, it was a great while before he had any assurances
that I was not drowned.

But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that nothing could
resist, and though I had several times loud calls from my reason and my more
composed judgment to go home, yet I had no power to do it. I know not
what to call this, nor will I urge that it isa secret overruling decree that
hurries us on to be the instruments of our own destruction, even though it be
before us, and that we rush upon it with our eyes open. Certainly, nothing
but some such decreed unavoidable misery, which it was impossible for me to
escape, could have pushed me forward against the calm reasonings and
persuasions of my most retired thoughts, and against. two such visible
instructions as I had met with in my first attempt.

My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who was the
master’s son, was now less forward than I. The first time he spoke to me
after we were at Yarmouth, which was not till two or three days, for we were
separated in the town to several quarters ; I say, the first time he saw me, it
appeared his tone was altered ; and, looking very melancholy, and shaking his
head, he asked me how I did, and telling his father who I was, and howI had
come this voyage only for a trial, in order to go further abroad; his father,
turning to me with a very grave and concerned tone, “ Young man,” says he,
“you ought never to go to sea any more; you ought to take this for a plain
and visible token that you are not to be a seafaring man.” “Why, sir,” said
I; “will you go to sea no more?” “That is another case,” said he; “it
is my calling, and therefore my duty; but as you made this voyage for a
trial, you see what a taste Heaven has given you of what you.are. tO expect if
you persist. Perhaps this has all befallen us on your account, like Jonah in
the ship of Tarshish. Pray,” continues he, “what are you, and on what
account did you go to sea?” Upon that I told him some of my story, at the
end of which he burst out in a strange kind of passion: “ What had I done,”
says he, “that such an unhappy wretch should come into my ship? I would
not set my foot in the same ship with thee again for a thousand pounds.”
This indeed was, as I had said, an excursion of his spirits, which were yet
agitated by the sense of his loss, and was farther than he could have authority
to go. However, he afterwards talked very gravely to me, exhorting me to go
back to my father, and not tempt Providence to my ruin;- telling me I
might see a visible hand of Heaven against me. “And, young man,” said he,
“depend upon it, if you do not go back, wherever you go you will meet with
nothing but disasters and disappointments, till your father’s words are
fulfilled upon you.”

We parted soon after; for I made him little answer, and I saw him no
more. Which way he went I knew not. As for me, having some money in
my pocket, I travelled to London by land ; and there, as well as on the road,

9

















LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

had many struggles with myself, what course of life I should take, and
whether I should go home or go to sea.

As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that offered to my
thoughts; and it immediately occurred to me how I should be laughed at
among the neighbours, and should be ashamed to see, not my father and
mother only, but even everybody else; from whence I have since often
observed how incongruous and irrational the common temper of mankind is,
especially of youth, to that reason which ought to guide them in such cases,
viz., that they are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent; not
ashamed of the action for which they ought justly to be esteemed fools, but
are ashamed of the returning, which only can make them be esteemed wise
men.

In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncertain what measures
to take, and what course of life to lead. An irresistible reluctance continued
to going home; and, as I stayed awhile, the remembrance of the distress I had
been in wore off; and as that abated, the little motion I had in my desires to
return wore off with it, till at last I quite laid aside the thoughts of it, and
looked out for a voyage.

That evil influence which carried me first away from my father’s house,—
which hurried me into the wild and indigested notion of raising my fortune,
and that impressed those conceits so forcibly upon me, as to thake me deaf to
all good advice, and to the entreaties and even the commands of my father: I
say, the same influence, whatever it was, presented the most unfortunate of all
enterprises to my view; and I went on board a vessel bound to the coast of
Africa, or,'as our sailors vulgarly called it, a voyage to Guinea.

It was my great misfortune that in all these adventures I did not ship
myself as a sailor; when, though I might indeed have worked a little harder
than ordinary, yet at the same time I should have learnt the duty and office
of a foremast man; and, in time, might have qualified myself for a mate or
lieutenant, if not fora master. But, as it was always my fate to choose for
the worse, so I did here; for having money in my pocket, and good clothes
upon my back, I would always go on board in the habit of a gentleman; and
so I neither had any business in the ship, nor learned-to do any.

It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good company in London, which
does not always happen to such loose and misguided young fellows as I then
was: the devil generally not omitting to lay some snares for them very early;
but it was not so with me. I first got acquainted with the master of a ship
who had been on the coast of Guinea, and who, having had very good success
there, was resolved to go again. This captain taking a fancy to my conversa-
tion, which was not at all disagreeable at. that time, hearing me say I had a
mind to see the world, told me if I would go the voyage with him I should be

at no expense; I should be his messmate and his companion; and if I could
10

















ROBINSON CRUSOE.

carry anything with me, I should have all the advantage of it that the trade
would admit; and perhaps I might meet with some encouragement.

I embraced the offer; and, entering into a strict friendship with this captain,
who was an honest, plain-dealing man, I went the voyage with him, and
carried a small adventure with me, which, by the disinterested honesty of my
friend the captain, I increased very considerably; for I carried about £40 in
such toys and trifles as the captain directed me to buy. This £40 I had
mustered together by the assistance of some of my relations whom I corres-
ponded with; and who, I believe, got my father, or at least my mother, to
contribute so much as that to my first adventure.

This was the only voyage which I may say was successful in all my
adventures, which I owe to the integrity and honesty of my friend the captain;
under whom also I got a competent knowledge of the mathematics and the
rules of navigation, learned how to keep an account of the ship’s course, take
an observation, and, in short, to understand some things that were needful to
be understood by a sailor; for, as he took delight to instruct me, I took
delight to learn; and, in a word, this voyage made me both a sailor and a
merchant: for I brought home five pounds nine ounces of gold-dust for my
adventure, which yielded me in London, at my return, almost £300, and this
filled me with those aspiring thoughts which have since so completed my ruin.

Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too; particularly, that I was
continually sick, being thrown into a violent calenture by the excessive heat
of the climate; our principal trading being upon the coast, from the latitude
of fifteen degrees north even to the line itself.

I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to my great misfor-
tune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go the same voyage again, and
I embarked in the same vessel with one who was his mate in the former
voyage, and had now got the command of the ship. This was the unhappiest
voyage that ever man made; for though I did not carry quite £100 of my
new-gained wealth, so that I had £200 left, which I had lodged with my
friend’s widow, who was very just to me, yet I fell into terrible misfortunes.
The first was this—our ship, making her course towards the Canary Islands,
or rather between those Islands and the African shore, was surprised in the
grey of the morning by a Turkish rover of Sallee, who gave chase to us with
all the sail she could make. We crowded also as much canvas as our yards
would spread, or our masts carry, to get clear; but, finding the pirate gained
upon us, and would certainly come up with us in a few hours, we prepared to
fight; our ship having twelve guns and the rogue eighteen. About three in
the afternoon he came up with us, and bringing to, by mistake, just athwart
our quarter, instead of athwart our stern, as he intended, we brought eight cf
our guns to bear on that side, and poured in a broadside upon him which
made him sheer off again, after returning our fire, and pouring in also his

il

















LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



small shot from near two hundred men which he had on board. However, we
had not a man touched, all our men keeping close. He prepared to attack us
again, and we to defend ourselves; but laying us on board the next time upon
our other quarter, he entered sixty men upon our decks, who immediately fell
to cutting and hacking the sails and rigging. We plied them with small-shot,
half-pikes, powder-chests, and such like, and cleared our deck of them twice.
However, to cut short this melancholy part of our story, our ship being disabled,
and three of our men killed, and eight wounded, we were obliged to yield,
and were carried all prisoners into Sallee, a port belonging to the Moors.

The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first [ apprehended; nor
was I carried up the country to the emperor’s court, as the rest of our men
were, but was kept by the captain of the rover as his proper prize, and made
his slave, being young and nimble, and fit for his business. At this surprising
change of my circumstances, from a merchant to a miserable slave, I was per-
fectly overwhelmed; and now I looked back upon my father’s prophetic
discourse to me, that I should be miserable and have none to relieve me,
which I thought was now so effectually brought to pass, that I could not be
worse; for now the hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and I was undone
without redemption. But, alas! this was but a taste of the misery I was to
go through, as will appear in the sequel of this story.

As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his house, so I was
in hopes that he would take me with him when he went to sea again, believing
that it would some time or other be his fate to be taken by a Spanish or
Portugal man-of-war; and that then I should be set at liberty. But this hope
of mine was soon taken away; for when he went to sea, he left me on shore
to look after his little garden, and do the common drudgery of slaves about
his house; and when he came home again from his cruise, he ordered me to lie
in the cabin to look after the ship.

Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method I might take to
effect it, but found no way that had the least probability in it. Nothing
presented to make the supposition of it rational; for I had nobody to com-
municate it to that would embark with me, no fellow-slave, no Englishman,
Irishman, or Scotchman there but myself; so that for two years, though I
often pleased myself with the imagination, yet I never had the least encourag-
ing prospect of putting it in practice.

After about two years an odd circumstance presented itself which put the
old thought of making some attempt for my liberty again in my head
My patron lying at home longer than usual without fitting out his ship,
which, as I heard, was for want of money, he used, constantly, once or twice a
week, sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the ship’s pinnace,
and go out into the road a-fishing; and, as he always took me and young
Maresco with him to row the boat, we made him very merry, and I proved

12





















ROBINSON CRUSOE.



very dexterous in catching fish; insomuch that sometimes he would send me
with a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth—the Maresco, as they called
him, to catch a dish of fish for him.

It happened one time that, going a-fishing in a calm morning, a fog rose
so thick that, though we were not half a league from the shore, we lost sight
of it; and rowing we knew not whither or which way, we laboured all day,
and all the next night, and when the morning came, we found we had pulled
off to sea instead of pulling in for the shore; and that we were at least two
leagues from the shore. However, we got well in again, though with a great
deal of labour and some danger; for the wind began to blow pretty fresh in
the morning; but we were all very hungry. ;

But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more care of
himself for the future; and having lying by him the long-boat of our English
ship that he had taken, he resolved he would not go a-fishing any more
without a compass and some provision ; so he ordered the carpenter of his ship,
who also was an English slave, to build a littie state-room, or cabin, in the
middle of the long-boat, like that of a barge, with a place to stand behind it
to steer, and haul home the main-sheet; and room before for a hand or two
to stand and work the sails. She sailed with what we call a shoulder-of-
mutton sail; and the boom gibed over the top of the cabin, which lay very
snug and low, and had in it room for him to lie, with a slave or two, and a
table to eat on, with some small lockers to put in some bottles of such liquor
as he thought fit to drink; and his bread, rice, and coffee.

We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing, and, as I was most
dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went without me. It happened that
he had appointed to go out in this boat, either for pleasure or for fish, with two
or three Moors of some distinction in that place, and for whom he had pro-
vided extraordinarily, and had therefore sent on board the boat over-night a
larger store of provisions than ordinary; and had ordered me to get ready
three fusees with powder and shot, which were on board his ship, for that
they designed some sport of fowling as well as fishing.

I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited the next morning
with the boat washed clean, her ancient and pendants out, and everything to
accommodate his guests; when by-and-by my patron came on board alone,
and told me his guests had put off going, from some business that fell out,
and ordered me, with the man and boy, as usual, to go out with the boat and
catch them some fish, for that his friends were to sup at his house, and
commanded that as soon as I got some fish I should bring it home to his
house ; all which I prepared to do.

This moment, my former notions of deliverance darted into my thoughts,
for now I found I was likely to have a little ship at my command ; and my
master being gone, I prepared to furnish myself, not for fishing business, but

13

















LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



for a voyage, though I knew not, neither did I so much as consider, whither
I should steer—anywhere to get out of that place was my desire.

My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to this Moor, to get
something for our subsistence on board ; for I told him we must not presume
to eat of our patron’s bread. He said that was true; so he brought a large
basket of rusk or biscuit, and three jars of fresh water, into the boat. I knew
where my patron’s case of bottles stood, which it was evident, by the make,
were taken out of some English prize, and I conveyed them into the boat
while the Moor was on shore, as if they had been there before for our master.
I conveyed also a great lump of bees-wax into the boat, which weighed about
half a hundredweight, with a parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw, anda
hammer, all of which were of great use to us afterwards, especially the wax to
make candles. Another trick I tried upon him, which he innocently came
into also—his name was Ismael, which they call Muley, or Moley; so I called
to him,—* Moley,” said I, “ our patron’s guns are on board the boat; can you
not get a little powder and shot? It may be we may kill some alcamies (a
fowl like our curlews) for ourselves, for I know he keeps the gunner’s stores
in the ship.” “Yes,” says he, “I'll bring some;”and accordingly he brought a
great leather pouch, which held a pound and a half of powder, or rather more;
and another with shot, that had five or six pounds, with some bullets, and put
allinto the boat. At the same time, I had found some powder of my master’s
in the great cabin, with which I filled one of the large bottles in the case,
which was also empty, pouring what was in it into another; and thus
furnished with everything needful, we sailed out of the port to fish. The
castle, which is at the entrance of the port, knew who we were, and took no
notice of us; and we were not above a mile out of the port before we hauled
in our sail, and set us down to fish. The wind blew from the N.N.E., which
was contrary to my desire, for had it blown southerly, I had been sure to have
made the coast of Spain, and at least reached to the bay of Cadiz; but my
resolutions were, blow which way it would, I would be gone from that horrid
place where I was, and leave the rest to fate.

After we had fished some time and caught nothing ; for when I had fish on
my hook, I would not pull them up, that he might not see them, I said to the
Moor, “This will not do; our master will not be thus served; we must stand
farther off’ He, thinking no harm, agreed, and being in the head of the
boat, set the sails; and, as I had the helm, I run the boat out near a league
farther, and then brought her to, as if I would fish; when, giving the boy the
helm, I stepped forward to where the Moor was, and making as if I stooped
for something behind him, I took him by surprise with my arm under his
waist, and tossed him clean overboard into the sea. He rose immediately, for
he swam like a cork, and called to me, begged to be taken in, told me he

would go over all the world with me. He swam so strong after the boat,
14





















ROBINSON CRUSOE.

that he would have reached me very quickly, there being but little wind;
upon which I stepped into the cabin, and, fetching one of the fowling pieces,
I presented it at him, and told him I had done him no hurt, and if he would
be quiet I would do him none. “But,” said I, “you swim well enough to
reach to the shore, and the sea is calm; make the best of your way to shore, and
I will do you no harm; but, if you come near the boat, I'll shoot you through
the head, for I’m resolved to have my liberty ;” so he turned himself about,
and swam for the shore; and I make no doubt but he reached it with ease,
for he was an excellent swimmer.

T could have been content to have taken this Moor with me, and have
drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to trust him. When he was
gone, I turned to the boy, whom they called Xury, and said to him, “ Xury, if
you will be faithful to me, I'll make you a great man ; but if you will not
stroke your face to be true to me,” that is, swear by Mahomet and his
father’s beard, “I must throw you into the sea too.” The boy smiled in my
face, and spoke so innocently, that I could not distrust him, and swore to be
faithful to me, and go all over the world with me.

While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, I stood out directly to
sea with the boat, rather stretching to windward, that they might think me
gone towards the Straits’ mouth (as, indeed, any one that had been in their
wits must have been supposed to do); for who would have supposed we were
sailed on to the southward to the truly Barbarian coast, where whole nations
of negroes were sure to surround us with their canoes, and destroy us; where
we could not go onshore but we should be devoured by savage beasts, or more
merciless savages of human kind. .

But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening I changed my course, and
steered directly south and by east, bending my course « little towards the
east, that I might keep in with the shore ; and having a fair, fresh gale of wind,
and a smooth, quiet sea, I made such sail that I believed by the next day at
three o’clock in the afternoon, when I first made the land, I could not be less
than 150 miles south of Sallee; quite beyond the Emperor of Morocco’s
dominions, or indeed of any other king thereabouts, for we saw no people.

Yet such was the fright I had taken of the Moors, and the dreadful
apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that I would not stop, or go
on shore, or come to an anchor. The wind continuing fair till I had sailed in
that manner five days; and then the wind shifting to the southward, I
concluded also that if any of our vessels were in chase of me, they also would
now give over; so I ventured to make to the coast, and came to an anchor
in the mouth of a little river, 1 knew not what, or where; neither what
latitude, what country, what nation, or what river. I neither saw, or desired
to see, any people: the principal thing I wanted’ was fresh water. We came
into this creek in the evening, resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was

15













LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



dark, and discover the country; but as soon as it was quite dark we heard
such dreadful noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of wild creatures, of
we knew not what kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die with fear, and
begged of me not to go on shore till day. “ Well, Xury,” said I, “ then I won't;
but it may be we may see men by day who will be as bad to us as those
lions.” —‘ Then we give them the shoot gun,” says Xury, laughing; “make |
them run wey.” Such English Xury spoke by conversing among us slaves.
However, I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him a dram (out
of our patron’s case of bottles) to cheer him up. After all, Xury’s advice was
good, and I took it; we dropped our little anchor, and lay still all night; I
say still, for we slept none, for in two or three hours we saw vast great
creatures (we knew not what to call them) of many sorts come down to the
sea-shore and run into the water, wallowing and washing themselves for the
pleasure of cooling themselves; and they made such hideous howlings and
yellings, that I never indeed heard the like.

Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too; but we were both
more frighted when we heard one of these mighty creatures come swimming
towards our boat. We could not see him, but we might hear him by his
blowing to be a monstrous huge and furious beast. Xury said it was a lion,
and it might be so for aught 1 know; but poor Xury cried to me to weigh
the anchor and row away. “No,” says I, “Xury; we can slip our cable, with
the buoy to it, and go off to sea; they cannot follow us far.” I had no sooner
said so, but I perceived the creature (whatever it was) within two oars’ length,
which something surprised me; however, I immediately stepped to the cabin-
door, and taking up my gun, fired at him; upon which he immediately turned |
about, and swam towards the shore again.

But it is impossible to describe the horrid noises and hideous cries and
howlings, that were raised, as well upon the edge of the shore as higher within
the country, upon the noise or report of the gun, a thing I have some reason
to believe those creatures had never heard before. This convinced me that |
there was no going on shore for us in the night on that coast, and how to
venture on shore in the day was another question too ; for to have fallen into the |
hands of any of the savages had been as bad as to have fallen into the hands
of lions and tigers; at least we were equally apprehensive of the danger of it.

Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore somewhere or other
for water, for we had not a pint left in the boat—when or where to. get it, was
the point. Xury said if I would let him go on shore with one of the jars, he
would find if there was any water, and bring some to me. I asked him why
he would go? why I should not go, and he stay in the boat? The boy
answered with so much affection, as made me love him ever after. Says he,
“Tf wild mans come, they eat me, you go wey.”—‘“ Well, Xury,” said I, “we
will pee go, and if the wild mans come, we will kill them ; they shall eat
































ROBINSON CRUSOE.

neither of us.” So I gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to eat, and a dram out
of our patron’s case of bottles which I mentioned before; and we hauled the
boat in as near the shore as we thought was proper, and so waded on shore,
carrying nothing but our arms and two jars for water.

I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the coming of canoes
with savages down the river; but the boy, seeing a low place about a mile up
the country, rambled to it,and by-and-by I saw him coming running towards me.
I thought he was pursued by some savage, or frighted with some wild beast,
and I ran forwards towards him to help him; but when I came nearer him I
saw something hanging over his shoulders, which was a creature that he had
shot, like a hare, but different in colour, and longer legs. However, we were
very glad of it, and it was very good meat; but the great joy that poor
Xury came with, was to tell me he had found good water, and seen no
wild mans.

But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains for water, for a
little higher up the creek where we were we found the water fresh when ‘the
tide was out, which flowed but a little way up; so we filled our jars, and
feasted on the hare we had killed, and prepared to go on our way, having seen
no footsteps of any human creature in that part of the country.

As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very well that the
islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de Verd Islands also, lay not far off from
the coast. But as I had no instruments to take an observation to know what
latitude we were in, and not exactly knowing, or at least remembering, what
latitude they were in, I knew not where to look for them, or when to stand off
to sea towards them ; otherwise I might now easily have found some of these
Islands. But my hope was that if I stood along this coast till I came to that
part where the English traded, I should find some of their vessels upon their
usual design of trade that would relieve and take us in.

By the “best of my calculation, that place where I now was must be that
country which, lying between the Emperor of Morocco’s dominions and the
negroes, lies waste and uninhabited, except by wild beasts, the negroes having
abandoned it and gone farther south, for fear of the Moors, and the Moors not
thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason of its barrenness ; and, indeed, both
forsaking it because of the prodigious numbers of tigers, lions, leopards, and
other furious creatures which harbour there ; so that the Moors use it for their
hunting only, where they go like an army, "two or three thousand men at a
time ; and, indeed, for near a hundred miles together upon this coast, we
saw nothing but a waste uninhabited country by day, and heard nothing but
howlings and roaring of wild beasts by night.

Once or twice in the day-time I thought I saw the Pico of Teneriffe, being
the high top of the Mountain Teneriffe in the Canaries ; and had a great mind
to venture out, in hopes of reaching thither ; but having tried twice, I was

3B 17

















LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

forced in again by contrary winds, the sea also going too high for my little
vessel; so I resolved to pursue my first design, and keep along the shore.

Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water after we had left this
place, and once in particular, being early in the morning, we came to an
anchor under a little point of land, “which was pretty high ; and the tide be-
ginning to flow, we lay still to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more
about him than it seems mine were, calls softly to me, and tells me that we
had best go farther off the shore; “ for,” says he, “ look, yonder lies a dreadful
monster on the side of that hillock, fast asleep.” I looked where he pointed,
and saw a dreadful monster indeed, for it was a terrible great lion that lay on
the side of the shore, under the shade of a piece of the hill that hung as it were
a little over him. “ Xury,” says I, “you shall go on shore and kill him.”
Xury looked frighted, and said, “Me kill! he eat me at one mouth;” one
mouthful he meant. However, I said no more to the boy, but bade him lie
still, and I took our biggest gun, which was almost musket-bore, and loaded
it with a good charge of powder, and with two slugs, and laid it down; then
I loaded another gun with two bullets; and the third (for we had three pieces)
I loaded with five smaller bullets. I took the best aim I could with the first
piece to have shot him on the head, but he lay so, with his leg raised a little
above his nose, that the slugs hit his leg about the knee, and broke the bone.
He started up, growling at first, but finding his leg broke fell down again; and
then got up upon three legs and gave the most hideous roar that ever I heard.
I was a little surprised that I had not hit him on the head; however, I took
up the second piece immediately, and though he began to move off, fired again,
and shot him in the head, and had the pleasure to see him drop, and make
but little noise, but lie struggling for life. Then Xury took heart, and would
have me let him go on shore. “ Well, go,” said I; so the boy jumped into the
water, and, taking a little gun in one hand, swam to shore with the other
hand, and coming close to the creature, put the muzzle of the piece to his ear,
and shot him in the head again, which despatched him quite.

This was game indeed to us, but this was no food; and I was very sorry to
lose three charges of powder and shot upon a creature that was good for no-
thing to us. However, Xury said he would have some of him; so he comes on
board, and asked me to give him the hatchet. “For what, Xury?” said I.
“Me cut off his head,” said he. However, Xury could not cut off his head,
but he cut off a foot, and brought it with him, and it was a monstrous
great one.

I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of him might, one way
or other, be of some value to us; and I resolved to take off his skin if I could.
So Xury and I went to work with him ; but Xury was much the better work-
man at it, for I knew very ill how to do it. Indeed, it took us both up the
whole day, but at last we got off the hide, and spreading it on the top of our

18























ROBINSON CRUSOE.





cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two days’ time, and it afterwards served
me to lie upon. - :

After this, we made on to the southward continually for ten or twelve days,
living very sparingly on our provisions, which began to abate very much, and
going no oftener to the shore than we were obliged for fresh water. My design
in this was, to make the River Gambia or Senegal, that is to say, anywhere
about the Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes to meet with some European
ship; and if I did not, I knew not what course I had to take, but to seek for
the islands, or perish there among the negroes. I knew that all the ships from
Europe, which sailed either to the coast of Guinea or to Brazil, or to the East
Indies, made this Cape, or those islands; and, in a word, I put the whole of
my fortune upon this single point, either that I must meet with some ship, or
must perish.

When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer, as I have said,
I began to see that the land was inhabited; and in two or three places, as we
sailed by, we saw people stand upon the shore to look at us. We could also
perceive they were quite black, and naked. I was once inclined to have gone
on shore to them; but Xury was my better counsellor, and said to me, “ No
go, no go.” However, I hauled in nearer the shore that I might talk to them,
and I found they ran along the shore by me a good way. I observed they
had no weapons in their hands, except one, why had a long slender stick,
which Xury said was a lance, and that they could throw them a great way
with good aim; so I kept at a distance, but talked with them by signs as well
as I could, and particularly made signs for something to eat. They beckoned
to me to stop my boat, and they would fetch me some meat. Upon this, I
lowered the top of my sail, and lay by, and two of them ran up into the coun-
try, and in less than half an hour came back, and brought with them two
pieces of dry flesh, and some corn, such as is the produce of their country ;
but we neither knew what the one or the other was. However, we were will-
ing to accept it. But how to come at it was our next dispute : for I would
not venture on shore to them, and they were as much afraid of us. But they
took a safe way for us all; for they brought it to the shore and laid it down,
and went and stood a great way off till we fetched it on board, and then came
close to us again.

We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to make them amends,
but an opportunity offered that very instant to oblige them wonderfully ; for
while we were lying by the shore, came two mighty creatures, one pursuing the
other (as we took it) with great fury from the mountains towards the sea.
Whether it was the male pursuing the female, or whether they were in sport or
in rage, we could not tell, any more than we could tell whether it was usual or
strange; but I believe it was the latter; because, in the first place, those ravenous
creatures seldom appear but in the night; and, in the second place, we found the

19

















LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



people terribly frighted, especially the women. The man that had the lance or
dart did not fly from them, but the rest did. However, as the two creatures ran
directly into the water, they did not offer to fall upon any of the negroes, but
plunged themselves into the sea, and swam about, as if they had come for their
diversion. At last one of them began to come nearer our boat than at first I
expected; but I lay ready for him, for I had loaded my gun with all possible
expedition, and bade Xury load both the others. As soon as he came fairly
within my reach, I fired, and shot him directly in the head. Immediately he
sank down into the water, but rose instantly, and plunged up and down, as if he
was struggling for life, and so indeed he was. He immediately made to the
shore; but between the wound, which was his mortal hurt, and the strangling of
the water, he died just before he reached the shore.

It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor creatures at the
noise and fire of my gun. Some of them were even ready to die for fear, and
tell down as dead with the very terror; but when they saw the creature dead,
and sunk in the water, and that I made signs to them to come to the shore, they
took heart and came, and began to search for the creature. I found him by his
blood staining the water; and by the help of a rope which I slung round him,
and gave the negroes to haul, they dragged him on shore, and found that it was
a most curious leopard, spotted, and fine to an admirable degree; and the
negroes held up their hands with admiration, to think what it was I had
killed him with.

The other creature, frighted with the flash of-fire and the noise of the gun,
swam on shore, and ran up directly to the mountains, from whence they came;
nor could I, at that distance, know what it was. I found quickly the negroes
wished to eat the flesh of this creature, so I was willing to have them take 3 as
a favour from me: which, when I made signs to them that they might take him,
they were very thankful for. Immediately they fell to work with him ; and
though they had no knife, yet, with a sharpened piece of wood, they took off his
skin as readily, and much more readily, than we could have done with a knife.
They offered me some of the flesh, which I declined, pointing out that I would
giveit them; but made signs for the skin, which they gave me very freely, and
brought me a great deal more of their provisions, which, though I did not
understand, yet I accepted. I then made signs to them for some water, and
held out one of my jars to them, turning it bottom upward to show that it was
empty, and that I wanted to have it filled. They called immediately to some
of their friends, and there came two women, and brought a great vessel made of

earth, and burnt, as I supposed, in the sun ; this they set down to me, as before,

and I sent Xury on shore with my jars, and filled them all three. The women

were as naked as the men.

I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and water; and,

leaving my friendly negroes, I made forward for about eleven days more, ‘with-
30











“They dragged the dead leopard on shore.”











ROBINSON CRUSOE.



out offering to go near the shore, till I saw the land run out a great length into

the sea, at about the distance of four or five leagues before me, and the sea being
very calm, I kept a large offing to make this point. At length, doubling the
point, at about two leagues from the land, I saw plainly land on the other side, to
seaward; then I concluded, as it was most certain, indeed, that this was the Cape
de Verd, and those the islands, called, from thence, Cape de Verd Islands. How-
ever, they were at a great distance, and I could not well tell what I had best to
do; for ifI should be taken with a fresh of wind, I might neither reach one or
other.

In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the cabin, and sat
down, Xury having the helm, when, on a sudden, the boy cried out, “ Master,
master, a ship with a sail!” and the foolish boy was frighted out of his wits,
thinking it must needs be some of his master’s ships sent to pursue us; but I
knew we were far enough out of their reach. I jumped out of the cabin, and
immediately saw, not only the ship, but that it was a Portuguese ship; and, as
I thought, was bound to the coast of Guinea, for negroes. But, when I ob-
served the course she steered, I was soon convinced they were bound some
other way, and did not design to come any nearer to the shore; upon which I
stretched out to sea as much as I could, resolving to speak with them, if
possible.

With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able to come in their
way, but that they would be gone by before I could make any signal to them ;
but after I had crowded to the utmost, and began to despair, they, it seems,
saw, by the help of their glasses, that it was some European boat, which they
supposed must belong to some ship that was lost, so they shortened sail to let me
comeup. I was encouraged with this, and as I had my patron’s ancient on
board, I made a waft of it to them for a signal of distress, and fired a gun, both
which they saw ; for they told me they saw the smoke, though they did not
hear the gun. Upon these signals they very kindly brought to, and lay by for
me, and in about three hours’ time I came up with them.

They asked me what I was in Portuguese, in Spanish, and in French, but [
understood none of them; but at last a Scots sailor, who was on board, called
to me, and I answered him, and told him I was an Englishman ; that I had
made my escape out of slavery from the Moors, at Sallee. They then bade me
come on board, and very kindly took me in, and all my goods.

It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will believe, that I was thus
delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable and almost hopeless condition
as I was in, and I immediately offered all I had to the captain of the ship, as a
return for my deliverance; but he generously told me he would take nothing
from me, but that all I had should be delivered safe to me, when I came to the
Brazils. “For,” says he, “I have saved your life on no other terms than I
would be glad to be saved myself; and it may one time or other be my lot to be

21

















LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

taken up in the same condition. Besides,” said he, “when I carry you to the :
Brazils, so great a way from your own country, if I should take from you what
you have, you will be starved there, and then I only take away that life I have
given. No, no,” says he, “ Seignor Inglese (Mr. Englishman), I will carry you
thither in charity, and those things will help to buy your subsistence there, and
your passage home again.”

‘As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the performance to a
tittle; for he ordered the seamen that none should touch anything that I had.
Then he took everything into his own possession, and gave me back an exact in-
ventory of them, that I might have them, even to my three earthen jars.

As to my boat, it was a very good one, and that he saw, and told me he would
buy it off me for his ship’s use, and asked me what I would have for it? I told
him he had been so generous to me in everything, that I could not offer to make
any price of the boat, but left it entirely to him; upon which he told me he
would give me a note of hand to pay me eighty pieces of eight for it at Brazil;
and, when it came there, if any one offered to give more, he would make it up.
He offered me also sixty pieces of eight more for my boy Xury, which I was
loath to take, not that 1 was unwilling to let the captain have him, but I was
very loath to sell the poor boy’s liberty, who had assisted me so faithfully in
procuring my own. However, when I let him know my reason, he owned it
to be just, and offered me this medium, that he would give the boy an obliga-
tion to set him free in ten years, if he turned Christian : upon this, and Xury
saying he was willing to go to him, I let the captain have him.

We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and I arrived in the Bay de
Todos los Santos, or All Saints’ Bay, in about twenty-two days after. And
now I was once more delivered from the most miserable of all conditions of
life; and what to do next with myself I was to consider.

The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never enough remember.
He would take nothing of me for my passage; gave me twenty ducats for the
leopard’s skin, and forty for the lion’s skin, which I had in my boat, and
caused everything I had in the ship to be punctually delivered to me; and
what I was willing to sell he bought of me; such as the case of bottles, two
of my guns, and a piece of the lump of bees’-wax,—for I had made candles of
the rest: in a word, I made about two hundred and twenty pieces of eight of
all my cargo ; and with this stock I went on shore in the Brazils.

I had not been long here before I was recommended to the house of a good
honest man, like himself, who had an ingento, as they call it (that is, a planta-
tion and a sugar-house). I lived with him some time, and acquainted myself,
by that means, with the manner of planting and making of sugar ; and seeing
how well the planters lived, and how they got rich suddenly, I resolved, if I
could get a licence to settle there, I would turn planter among them: resolv-
ing, in the meantime, to find out some way to get my money, which I had left

22

















: ROBINSON CRUSOE.



in London, remitted tome. To this purpose, getting a kind of letter of natu-
ralisation, I purchased as much land that was uncured as my money would
reach, and formed a plan for my plantation and settlement; such a one as
might be suitable to the stock which I proposed to myself to receive from
England.

T had a neighbour, a Portuguese, of Lisbon, but born of English parents,
whose name was Wells, and in much such circumstances as I was. I call him
my neighbour, because his plantation lay next to mine, and we went on very
sociably together. My stock was but low, as well as his; and we rather planted
for food than anything else for about two years. However, we began to increase,
and our land began to come into order, so that the third year we planted some
tobacco, and made each of usa large piece of ground ready for planting canes
in the year to come; but we both wanted help ; and now I found, more than
before, I had done wrong in parting with my boy Xury.

But, alas! for me to do wrong that never did right, was no great wonder.
I had no remedy but to go on. I had got into an employment quite remote
to my genius, and directly contrary to the life I delighted in, and for which I
forsook my father’s house, and broke through all his good advice ; nay, I was
coming into the very middle station, or upper degree of low life, which my
father advised me to before; and which, if I resolved to go on with, I might
as well have stayed at home, and never have fatigued myself in the world, as I
had done ; and I used often to say to myself, I could have done this as well in
England, among my friends, as have gone five thousand miles off to do it among
strangers and savages in a wilderness, and at such a distance as never to hear
from any part of the world that had the least knowledge of me.

In this manner I used to look upon my condition with the utmost regret. I
had nobody to converse with, but now and then this neighbour ; no work to
be done but by the labour of my hands; and I used to say, I lived just like a
man cast away upon some desolate island, that had nobody there but himself.
But how just has it been; and how should all men reflect, that when they
compare their present conditions with others that are worse, Heaven may
oblige them to make the exchange, and be convinced of their former felicity
by their experience ; I say, how just has it been, that the truly solitary life I
reflected on, in an island of mere desolation, should be my lot, who had so
often unjustly compared it with the life which I then led, in which, had I
continued, I had, in all probability, been exceeding prosperous and rich.

I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carrying on the plantation,
before my kind friend, the captain of the ship that took me up at sea, went
back ; for the ship remained there, in providing his lading, and preparing for
his voyage, nearly three months ; when, telling him what little stock I had left
behind me in London, he gave me this friendly and sincere advice :—“ Seignor
Inglese,” says he (for so he always called me), “ if you will give me letters, and

23















LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



a procuration in form to me, with orders to the person who has your money
in London, to send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as I shall direct,
and in such goods as are proper for this country, I will bring you the produce
of them, God willing, at my return; but, since human affairs are all subject to
changes and disasters, I would have you give orders but for one hundred pounds
sterling, which, you say, is half your stock, and let the hazard be run for the
first ; so that if it come safe, you may order the rest the same way ; and, if it
miscarry, you may have the other half to have recourse to for your supply.”

This was so wholesome an advice, and looked so friendly, that I could not
but be convinced it was the best course I could take; so I accordingly pre-
pared letters to the gentlewoman with whom I had left my money, and a pro-
curation to the Portuguese captain, as he desired.

I wrote the English captain’s widow a full account of all my adventures—
my slavery, escape—and how I had met with the Portugal captain at sea, the
humanity of his behaviour, and what condition I was now in, with all other
necessary directions for my supply ; and when this honest captain came to
Lisbon, he found means, by some of the English merchants there, to send over,
not the order only, but afull account of my story to a merchant at London, who
represented it effectually to her: whereupon she not only delivered the money,
but, out of her own pocket, sent the Portugal captain a very handsome present
for his humanity and charity to me.

The merchant in London, vesting this hundred pounds in English goods, such
as the captain had written for, sent them directly to him at Lisbon, and he
brought them all safe to me to the Brazils; among which, without my direction
(for I was too young in my business to think of them), le had taken care to have
all sorts of tools, iron work, and utensils necessary for my plantation, and
which were of great use to me.

When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortunes made, for I was surprised
with the joy of it; and my good steward, the captain, had laid out the five
pounds which my friend had sent him for a present for himself, to purchase
and bring me over a servant, under bond for six years’ service, and would not
accept of any consideration, except a little tobacco, which I would have him
accept, being of my own produce.

Neither was this all; for my goods being all English manufacture, such as
cloths, stuffs, baize, and things particularly valuable and desirable in the coun-
try, I found means to sell them to a very great advantage ; so that I might say
Thad more than four times the value of my first cargo, and was now infinitely
beyond my poor neighbour—I mean in the advancement of my plantation; for
the first thing I did, I bought me a negro slave, and an European servant also;
I inean another besides that which the captain brought me from Lisbon.

But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means of our greatest

adversity, so was it with me. I went on the next year with great success in
24











ROBINSON CRUSOE.



my plantation. I raised fifty great rolls of tobacco on my own ground, more
than I had disposed of for necessaries among my neighbours; and these fifty
rolls, being each of above a hundred weight, were well cured, and laid by against
the return of the fleet from Lisbon. And now, increasing in business and in
wealth, my head began to be full of projects and undertakings beyond my
reach: such as are, indeed, often the ruin of the best heads in business. Had
T continued in the station I was now in, I had room for all the happy things to
have yet befallen me, for which my father so earnestly recommended a quiet,
retired life, and of which he had so sensibly described the middle station of life
to be full of. But other things attended me, and I was still to be the wilful
agent of all my own miseries ; and particularly, to increase my fault, and
double the reflections upon myself, which in my future sorrows I should
have leisuré to make, all these miscarriages were procured by my apparent
obstinate adhering to my foolish inclination of wandering abroad, and pursuing
that inclination in contradiction to the clearest views of doing myself good in
a fair and plain pursuit of those prospects and those measures of life which
nature and providence concurred to present me with, and to make my duty.

As I had once done thus in my breaking away from my parents, so I could
not be content now, but I must go and leave the happy view I had of being a
rich and thriving man in my new plantation, only to pursue a rash and im-
moderate desire of rising faster than the nature of the thing admitted; and’
thus I cast myself down again into the deepest gulf of human misery that ever
man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent with life and a state of health
in the world.

To come, then, by the just degrees, to the particulars of this part of my
story :—You may suppose, that having now lived almost four years in the
Brazils, and beginning to thrive and prosper very well upon my plantation, I
had not only learned the language, but had contracted acquaintance and friends
ship among my fellow-planters, as well as among the merchants at St. Salva-
dor, which was our port; and that, in my discourses among them, I had
frequently given them an account of my two voyages to the coast of Guinea,
the manner of trading with the negroes there, and how easy it was to purchase
upon the coast for trifles—such as beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits of
glass, and the like—not only gold dust, Guinea grains, elephants’ teeth, etc.,
but negroes, for the service of the Brazils, in great numbers.

They listened always very attentively to my discourses on these heads, but
especially to that part which related to the buying negroes, which was a trade
at that time, not only not far entered into, but, as far as it was, had been
carried on by the assientos, or permission of the kings of Spain and Portugal,
and engrossed in the public stock, so that few negroes were brought, and those
excessively dear.

It happened, being in company with some merchants and pare of my

oO



















LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



acquaintance, and talking of those things very earnestly, three of them came
to me the next morning and told me they had been musing very much upon
what I had discoursed with them of the last night, and they came to make a
secret proposal to me; and, after enjoining me secrecy, they told me that they
had a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea; that they had all plantations as
well as I, and were straitened for nothing so much as servants ; that as it was
a trade that could not be carried on, because they could not publicly sell the
negroes when they caine home, so they desired to make but one voyage to
bring the negroes on shore privately, and divide them among their own planta-
tions ; and, in a word, the question was, whether I would go their supercargo
in the ship, to manage the trading part upon the coast of Guinea; and they
offered me that I should have my equal share of the negroes, without provid-
ing any part of the stock.

This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been made to any one
that had not had a settlement and a plantation of his own to look after, which
was in a fair way of coming to be very considerable, and with a good stock
upon it. But for me, that was thus entered and established, and had nothing
to do but go on as I had begun, for three or four years more, and to have sent
for the other hundred pounds from England ; and who in that time, and with
that little addition, could scarce have failed of being worth three or four thousand
pounds sterling, and that increasing, too—for me to think of such a voyage
was the most preposterous thing that ever man in such circumstances could
be guilty of.

Bué I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no more resist the offer
than I could restrain my first rambling designs, when my father’s good counsel
was lost upon me. Ina word, I told them I would go with all my heart if they
would undertake to look after my plantation in my absence, and would dispose
of it to such as I would direct, if I miscarried. This they all engaged to do, and
entered into writings or covenants to do so; and I made a formal will, dispos-
ing of my plantation and effects in case of my death, making the captain of the
ship that had saved my life, as before, my universal heir, but obliging him to
dispose of my effects as I had directed in my will; one-half of the produce
being to himself, and the other to be shipped in England.

In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects, and to keep up
my plantation. Had I used half as much prudence to have looked into my
own interest, and have made a judgment of what I ought to have done and not
to have done, I had certainly never gone away from so prosperous an under-
taking, leaving all the probable views of a thriving circumstance, and gone upon
a voyage to sea, attended with all its common hazards, to say nothing of the
reasons I had to expect particular misfortunes to myself.

But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my fancy rather

than my reason; and, accordingly, the ship being fitted out, and the cargo
26





















ROBINSON CRUSOE.



furnished, and all things done, as by agreement, by my partners in the voyage,
I went on board in an evil hour, the 1st of September, 1659—being the same
day eight years that I went from my father and mother at Hull, in order to
act the rebel to their authority, and the fool to my own interest.

Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons burden, carried six guns,
and fourteen men, besides the master, his boy, and myself. We had on board
no large cargo of goods, except of such toys as were fit for our trade with the
negroes—such as beads, bits of glass, shells, and other trifles, especially little
looking-glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets, and the like. =

The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away to the northward
upon our own coast, with design to stretch over for the African coast, when we
came about ten or twelve degrees of northern latitude, which, it seems, was the
manner of course in those days. We had very good weather, only excessively
hot, all the way upon our own coast till we came to the height of Cape St.
Augustina; from whence, keeping further off at sea, we lost sight of land, and
steered as if we were bound for the isle Fernando de Noronha, holding our
course N.E. by N., and leaving those isles on the east. In this course we
passed the line in about twelve days’ time, and were, by our last observation,
in seven degrees twenty-two minutes northern latitude, when a violent tornado,
or hurricane, took us quite out of our knowledge. It began from the south-
east, came about to the north-west, and then settled in the north-east; from
whence it blew in such a terrible manner, that for twelve days together we
could do nothing but drive, and scudding away before it, let it carry us
whither ever fate and the fury of the winds directed; and, during these twelve
days, I need not say that I expected every day to be swallowed up; nor, indeed,
did any in the ship expect to save their lives.

In this distress we had, besides the terror of the storm, one of our men die
of the calenture, and one man and the boy washed overboard. About the
twelfth day, the weather abating a little, the master made an observation as
well as he could, and found that he was in about eleven degrees north latitude,
but that he was twenty-two degrees of longitude difference west from Cape St.
Augustina, so that he found he was upon the coast of Guiana, or the north
part of Brazil, beyond the river Amazons, towards that of the river Oroonoque,
commonly called the Great River; and began to consult with me what course
he should take, for the ship was leaky, and very much disabled, and he was
going directly back to the coast of Brazil.

I was positively against that ; and looking over the charts of the sea coast
of America with him, we concluded there was no inhabited country for us to
have recourse to till we came within the circle of the Caribbee islands, and
therefore resolved to stand away for Barbadoes, which, by keeping off at sea, to
avoid the in-drift of the bay or gulf of Mexico, we might easily perform, as we
hoped, in about fifteen days’ sail; whereas we could not possibly make our

27















LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

voyage to the coast of Africa without some assistance both to our ship and
to ourselves.

With this design we changed our course, and steered away N.W. by W., in
order to reach some of our English islands, where I hoped for relief. But our
voyage was otherwise determined; for, being in the latitude of twelve degrees
eighteen minutes, a second storm came upon us, which carried us away with
the same impetuosity westward, and drove us so out of the way of all human
commerce, that had all our lives been saved as to the sea, we were rather
in danger of being devoured by savages, than returning to our own country.

In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our men, early in the
morning, cried out, “Land!” and we had no sooner run out of he cabin to
look out, in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the world we were, than the ship
struck upon a sand, and, ina moment, her motion being so stopped, the sea
broke over her in such a manner that we expected we should all have perished
immediately; and we were immediately driven into our close quarters, to shelter
us from the very foam and spray of the sea.

It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like condition to describe
or conceive the consternation of men in such circumstances. We knew no-
thing where we were, or upon what land it was we were driven; whether an
island or the main—whether inhabited or not inhabited ; and as the rage of
the wind was still great, though rather less than at first, we could not so much
as hope to have the ship hold many minutes without breaking into pieces, un-
less the winds, by a kind of miracle, should turn immediately about. In a
word, we sat looking upon one another and expecting death every moment,
and every man, accordingly, preparing for another world ; for there was little
or nothing more for us to do in this. That which was our present comfort,
and all the comfort we had, was that, contrary to our expectation, the ship did
not break yet, and that the master said the wind began to abate.

Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate, yet the ship hav-
ing thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast for us to expect her get-
ting off, we were in a dreadful condition indeed, and had nothing to do but to
think of saving our lives as well as we could. We had a boat at our stern
just before the storm, but she was first staved by dashing against the ship’s
rudder, and, in the next place, she broke away, and either sunk or was driven
off to sea; so there was no hope from her. We had another boat on board ;
but how to get her off into the sca was a doubtful thing. However, there was
no time to debate; for we fancied the ship would break in pieces every minute,
and some told us she was actually broken already.

In this distress the mate of our vessel laid hold of the boat, and, with the
help of the rest of the men, got her slung over the ship’s side; and, getting ali
into her, let go, and committed ourselves, being eleven in number, to God’s
mercy and the wild sea; for though the storm was abated considerably, yet

28















ROBINSON CRUSOE.



the sea ran dreadfully high upon the shore, and might be well called den wild
zee, as the Dutch call the sea in a storm. ;

And now our case was very dismal indeed ; for we all saw plainly that the
sea went so high that the boat could not live, and that we should be inevitably
drowned. As to making sail, we had none, nor, if we had, could we have done
anything with it; so we worked at the oar towards the land, though with
heavy hearts, like men going to execution; for we all knew that when the
boat came nearer the shore she would be dashed ina thousand pieces by the
breach of the sea. However, we committed our souls to God in the most
earnest manner; and the wind driving us towards the shore, we hastened our
destruction with our own hands, pulling as well as we could towards land.

What the shore was—whether rock or sand, whether steep or shoal—we
knew not. The only hope that could rationally give us the least shadow of
expectation was, if we might find some bay or gulf, or the mouth of some
river, where by great chance we might have run our boat in, or got under the
lee of the land, and perhaps made smooth water. But there was nothing like
this appeared ; but as we made nearer and nearer the shore, the land looked
more frightful than the sea.

After we had rowed, or rather driven about a league and a half, as we
reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came rolling astern of us, and
plainly bade us expect the coup de grace. In a word, it took us with such a
fury that it overset the boat at once; and separating us as well from the boat
as from one another, gave us not time to say, “O God!” for we were all
swallowed up in a moment.

Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt wher I sunk
into the water; for though I swam very well, yet I could not deliver myself
from the waves so as to draw breath, till that wave having driven me, or rather
carried me, a vast way on towards the shore, and having spent itself, went
back, and left me upon the land almost dry, but half-dead with the water I
took in. I had so much presence of mind, as well as breath left, that, seeing
myself nearer the mainland than I expected, I got upon my feet and endea-
voured to make on towards the land as fast as I could before another wave
should return and take me up again. But I soon found it was impossible to
avoid it; for I saw the sea come after me as high as a great hill, and as furious
as an enemy, which I had no means or strength to contend with. My business
was to hold my breath, and raise myself upon the water, if I could; and so,
by swimming, to preserve my breathing, and pilot myself towards the shore,
if possible, my greatest concern now being that the sea—as it would carry me
a great way towards the shore when it came on—might not carry me back
again with it when it gave back towards the sea.

The wave that came upon me again buried me at once twenty or thirty feet
deep in its own body, and I could feel myself carried with a mighty force and

29













LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

swiftness towards the shore a very great way; but I held my breath, and.
assisted myself to swim still forward with all my might. Iwas ready to burst
with holding my breath, when, as I felt myself raising up, so, to my immediate
relief, I found my head and hands shoot out above the surface of the water;
and though it was not two seconds of time that I could keep myself so, yet it
relieved me greatly—gave me breath and new courage. I was covered again
with water a good while, but not so long but I held it out; and finding the
water had spent itself, and began to return, I struck forward against the return
of the waves, and felt ground again with my feet. I stood still a few moments,
to recover breath, and till the waters went from me, and then took to my heels
and ran, with what strength I had, further towards the shore. But neither
would this deliver me from the fury of the sea, which came pouring in after me
again, and twice more I was lifted up by the waves and carried forwards as
before, the shore being very flat.

The last time of these two had well nigh been fatal tome; for the sea having
hurried me along as before, landed me, or rather dashed me, against a piece of
rock, and that with such force as it left me senseless, and indeed helpless, as to
my own deliverance ; for the blow taking my side and breast, beat the breath,
as it were, quite out of my body, and had it returned again immediately, I
must have been strangled in the water; but I recovered a little before the return
of the waves, and seeing I should be covered again with the water, I resolved to
hold fast by a piece of the rock, and so to hold my breath, if possible, till the
wave went back. Now, as the waves were not so high as at first, being nearer
land, I held my hold till the wave abated, and then fetched another run, which
brought Mme so near the shore that the next wave, though it went over me, yet
did not so swallow me up as to carry me away; and the next run I took I got
to the mainland, where, to my great comfort, I clambered up the cliffs of the
shore, and sat me down upon the grass, and quite out of the reach of the water.

I was now landed,,and safe on shore, and began to look up and thank God
that my life was saved, in a case wherein there was, some minutes before, scarce
any room to hope. I believe it is impossible to express to the life what the
ecstacies and transports of the soul are when it is so saved, as I may say,
out of the very grave ; and I do not wonder now at the custom when a
malefactor, who has the halter about his neck, is tied up, and just going
to be turned off, and has a reprieve brought to him—I say I do not wonder
that they bring a surgeon with it, to let him blood that very moment they
tell him of it, that the surprise may not drive the animal spirits from the
heart, and overwhelm him.

For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.

I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands; and my whole being,
as I may say, wrapt up in a contemplation of my deliverance; making a
30



















ROBINSON CRUSOE.



thousand gestures and motions, which I cannot describe ; reflecting upon all
my comrades that were drowned, and that there should not be one soul saved
but myself; for, as for them, I never saw them afterwards, or any sign of them,
except three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes that were not fellows.

I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when, the breach and froth of the sea
being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far off; and considered, Lord!
how was it possible I could get on shore ?

After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my condition, I
began to look round me, to see what kind of place I was in, and what was
next to be done; and I soon found my comforts abate, and that, in a word, I
had a dreadful deliverance; for I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor
anything either to eat or drink, to comfort me. Neither did I see any prospect
before me, but that of perishing with hunger, or being devoured by wild
beasts; and that which was particularly afflicting to me was, that I had no
weapon either to hunt and kill any creature for my sustenance, or to defend
myself against any other creature that might desire to kill me for theirs. Ina
word, I had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco
in a box. This was all my provision; and this threw me into terrible agonies
of mind, that, for a while, I ran about like a madman. Night coming upon
me, I began, with a heavy heart, to consider what would be my lot if there
were any ravenous beasts in that country, a6 at night they always come abroad
for their prey.

All the remedy that offered to my thoughts, at that time, was to get up into
a thick bushy tree, like a fir, but thorny, which grew near me, and where I
resolved to sit all night, and consider the next day what death I should die ;
for as yet I saw no prospect of life. I walked about a furlong from the shore,
to see if I could find any fresh water to drink, which I did to my great joy;
and having drank, and put a little tobacco in my mouth to prevent hunger, I
went to the tree, and getting up into it, endeavoured to place myself so that if
I should sleep I might not fall. And having cut me a short stick, like a
truncheon, for my defence, I took up my lodging ; and having been excessively
fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I believe, few could have
done in my condition, and found myself more refreshed with it than I think I
ever was on such an occasion.

When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the storm abated,
so that the sea did not rage and swell as before. But that which surprised me
most was, that the ship was lifted off in the night from the sand where she
lay, by the swelling of the tide, and was driven up almost as far as the rock
which I at first mentioned, where I had been so bruised by the wave dashing
me against it. This being within about a mile from the shore where I was,
and the ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished myself on board, that at
least I might save some necessary things for my use.

31















LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

When I came down from my apartnyent in the tree, I looked about me again,
and the first thing I found was the boat, which lay, as the wind and sea had
tossed her up, upon the land, about two miles on my right hand. I walked as
far as I could upon the shore to have got to her; but found a neck, or inlet,
of water between me and the boat, which was about half a mile broad; so I
came back for the present, being more intent upon getting at the ship, where I
hoped to find something for my present subsistence.

A little after noon, I found the sea very calm, and the tide ebbed so far ont
that I could come within a quarter of a mile of the ship. And here I found a
fresh renewing of my grief; for I saw evidently that if we had kept on
board, we had been all safe: that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and
T had not been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all comfort
and company, as I now was. This forced tears to my eyes again; but as
there was little relief in that, I resolved, if possible, to get to the ship; so I
pulled off my clothes, for the weather was hot to extremity, and took the
water, But when I came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater te know
how to get on board; for, as she lay aground, and high out of the water, there
was nothing within my reach to lay hold of. I swam round her twice, and the
second time I spied a small piece of rope, which T wondered I did not see at
first, hung down by the forechains so low, that with great difficulty I got hold
of it, and by the help of that rope I got up into the forecastle of the ship.
Here I found that the ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water in her
hold ; but that she lay so on the side of a bank of hard sand, or rather earth,
that her stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head low, almost to the
water. By this means all her quarter was free, and all that was in that part
was dry; for you may be sure my first work was to search and to see what
was spoiled and what was free. And, first, I found that all the ship’s provi-
sions were dry and untouched by the water, and being very well disposed to
eat, I went to the bread-room, and filled my pockets with biscuit, and eat it as
I went about other things, for I had no time to lose. I also found some rum
in the great cabin, of which I took a large dram, and which I had, indeed, need
enough of to spirit me for what was before me. Now I wanted nothing but a
loat to furnish myself with many things which I foresaw would be very
necessary to me.

It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be had; and this
extremity roused my application, We had several spare yards, and two or
three la.ge spars of wood, and a spare top-mast or two in the-ship. I resolved
to fallto work with these, and I flung as many of them overboard as I could
manage for their weight, tying every one with a rope, that they might not drive
away. When this was done, I went down the ship’s side, and pulling them to
me, I tied four of them together at both ends, as well as I could, in the form
of a raft, and laying two or three short pieces of plank upon them cross-ways,

32











Pe

Se

i)
"



“T tied them together in the form of a raft.”











ROBINSON CRUSOE,

IT found I could walk upon it very well, but that it was not able to bear any
great weight, the pieces being too light. So I went to work; and with the
carpenter’s saw I cut a spare top-mast into three lengths, and added them to
my raft, with a great deal of labour and pains. But the hope of furnishing
myself with necessaries encouraged me to go beyond what I should have been
able to have done upon another occasion.

My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable weight. My next
care was what to load it with, and how to preserve what I laid upon it from
the surf of the sea: but I was not long considering this. I first laid all the
plank or boards upon it that I could get, and having considered well what I
most wanted, I first got three of the seamen’s chests, which I had broken open
and emptied, and lowered them down upon my raft. The first of these I filled
with provisions, viz., bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried goat’s
flesh (which we lived much upon), and a little remainder of European corn,
which had been laid by for some fowls which we brought to sea with us; but
the fowls were killed. There had been some barley and wheat together ; but,
to my great disappointment, I found afterwards that the rats had eaten or
spoiled it all. As for liquors, I found several cases of bottles belonging to our
skipper, in which were some cordial waters; and, in all, about five or six gal-
lons of rack. These I stowed by themselves, there being no need to put them
into the chest, nor any room for them. While I was doing this, I found the
tide began to flow, though very calm; and I had the mortification to see my
coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left on the shore upon the sand, swim
away. As for my breeches, which were only linen and open-knee’d, I swam on
board in them and my stockings. However, this set me on rummaging for
clothes, of which I found enough, but took no more than I wanted for present
use, for I had other things which my eye was more upon—as, first, tools to
work with on shore. And it was after long searching that I found out the
carpenter’s chest, which was indeed a very useful prize to me, and much more
valuable than a ship-lading of gold would have been at the time. I got it
down to my raft, whole as it was, without losing time to look into it, for I knew
in general what it contained.

My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There were two very
good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two pistols. These I secured first,
with some powder-horns and a small bag of shot, and two old rusty swords. I
knew there were three barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not where our
gunner had stowed them; but with much search I found them, two of them
dry and good, the third had taken water. These two I got to my raft, with
the arms. And now I thought myself pretty well freighted, and began to
think how I should get to shore with them, having neither sail, oar, or rudder ;
and the least cap-full of wind would have overset all my navigation.

I had three encouragements: Ist, a smooth, calm sea; 2ndly, the tide rising,

c 33





















LIFE AND ADVENTURES QE |

and setting in to the shore; 3rdly, what little wind there was blew me towards
the land. And thus, having found two or three broken oars belonging to the
boat, and besides the tools which were in the chest, two saws, an axe, and a
hammer: with this cargo I put to sea. For a mile, or thereabouts, my raft
went very well, only that I found it drive a little distant from the place where
I had landed before, by which I perceived that there was some indraft of the
water, and, consequently, I hoped to find some creek or river there, which I
might make use of as a port to get to land with my cargo.

As I imagined, so it was. There appeared before me a little opening of the
land, and I found a strong current of the tide set into it; so I guided my raft,
as well as I could, to keep in the middle of the stream.

But here I had like to have suffered a second shipwreck, which, if I had, I
think verily would have broke my heart, for, knowing nothing of the coast,
my raft ran aground at one end of it upon a shoal, and not being aground at
the other end, it wanted but a little that all my cargo had slipped off towards
the end that was afloat, and so fallen into the water. I did my utmost, by
setting my back against the chests, to keep them in their places, but could not
thrust off the raft with all my strength; neither durst I stir from the posture I |
was in; but holding up the chests with all my might, I stood in that manner
near half an hour, in which time the rising of the water brought me a little
more upon a level; and, a little after, the water still rising, my raft floated
again, and I thrust her off with the oar I had into the channel, and then driving
up higher, I at length found myself in the mouth of a little river, with land on
both sides, and a strong current or tide running up. I looked on both sides
for a proper place to get to shore ; for I was not willing to be driven too high
up the river, hoping, in time, to see some ship at sea, and therefore re-
solved to place myself as near the coast as I could. |

At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek, to which,
with great pain and difficulty, I guided my raft, and at last got so near |
that, reaching ground with my oar, I could thrust her directly in. But |
here I had liked to have dipped all my cargo into the sea again; for that
shore lying pretty steep—that is to say, sloping—there was no place to land,
but where one end of my float, if it ran on shore, would lie so high, and the
other sink lower, as before, that it would endanger my cargo again. All I
could do was to wait till the tide was at the highest, keeping the raft with
my oar like an anchor to hold the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat
piece of ground, which I expected the water would flow over; and so it did. |
As soon as I found water enough—for my raft drew about a foot of
water—I thrust her on upon that flat piece of ground, and there fastened
or moored her, by sticking my two broken oars into the ground—one on one
side, near the end, and one on the other side, near the other end; and thus I
lay till the water ebbed away, and left my raft and all my cargo safe on shore.

34 |



















ROBINSON CRUSOE.



My next work was to view the country and seek a proper place for my
habitation, and where to stow my goods, to secure them from whatever might
happen. WhereI was, I yet knew not; whether on the continent or on at
island ; whether inhabited or not inhabited ; whether in danger of wild beasts
or not. There was a hill not above a mile from me, which rose up very steep
and high, and which seemed to overtop some other hills, which lay as ina
ridge from it, northward. I took out one of the fowling-pieces, and one of
the pistols, and a horn of powder ; and thus armed I travelled for discovery
up to the top of that hill, where, after I had with great labour and difficulty
got to the top, I saw my fate, to my great affliction, viz., that I was in an island
environed on every side by the sea. No land to be seen except some rocks,
which lay a great way off, and two small islands, less than this, which lay
about three leagues to the west.

I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I saw good reason
to believe, uninhabited except by wild beasts, of whom, however, I saw none.
Yet I saw abundance of fowls, but knew not their kinds; neither, when I
killed them, could I tell what was fit for food, and what not. At my coming
back I shot at a great bird, which I saw sitting upon a tree, on the side of a
ereat wood. I believe it was the first gun that had been fired there since the
creation of the world. I had no sooner fired, than from all the parts of the
wood there arose an innumerable number of fowls, of many sorts, making a,
confused screaming and crying, every one according to his usual note, but not
one of them of any kind that I knew. As for the creature I killed, I took it
to be akind of a hawk, its colour and beak resembling it, but it had no talons
or claws more than common. Its flesh was carrion, and fit for nothing.

Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and fell to work to
bring my cargo on shore, which took me up the rest of that day. What to do
with myself at night I knew not, nor, indeed, where to rest ; for I was afraid
to lie down on the ground, not knowing but some wild beast might devour me,
though, as I afterwards found, there was really no need of those fears.

However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself round with the chests and
boards tlgt I had brought on shore, and made a kind of hut for that night’s
lodging. As for food, I yet saw not which way to supply myself, except that
T had seen two or three-creatures, like hares, run out of the wodd where I shot
the fowl.

I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many things out of the
ship which would be useful to me, and particularly some of the rigging and
sails, and such other things as might come to land; and I resolved to make
another voyage on board the vessel, if possible. And as I knew that the first
storm that blew must necessarily break her all to pieces, I resolved to set all
other things apart till I had got every thing out of the ship that I could get.
Then I called a council—that is to say, in my thoughts—whether I should take

35













LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

back the raft ; but this appeared impracticable : so I resolved to go as before,
when the tide was down; and I did so, only that I stripped before I went
from my hut, having nothing on but a chequered shirt, a pair of linen drawers,
and a pair of pumps on my feet.

IT got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second raft; and, having
had experience of the first, I neither made this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so
hard. But yet I brought away several things very useful to me; as, first, in
the carpenter’s stores, I found two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a great
screw-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and, above all, that most useful thing
called a grindstone. All these I secured, together with several things belong-
ing to the gunner; particularly two or three iron crows, and two barrels of
musket bullets, seven muskets, and another fowling piece, with some smail
quantity of powder more; a large bagful of small shot, and a great roll of
sheet lead; but this last was so heavy I could not hoist it up to get it over
the ship’s side.

Besides these things, I took all the men’s clothesthat I could find, and a spare
fore-top sail, a hammock, and some bedding; and with this I loaded my
second raft, and brought them all safe on shore, to my very great comfort.

Iwas under some apprehension, during my absence from the land, that at
least my provisions might be devoured on shore: but when I came back, I

_ found no sign of any visitor; only there sat a creature like a wild cat upon
one-of the chests, which, when I came towards it, ran away a little distance,
and then stood still. She sat very composed and unconcerned, and looked full
in my face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted with me. I presented my
gun to her, but, as she did not understand it, she was perfectly unconcerned
at it, nor did she offer to stir away ; upon which I tossed her a bit of biscuit
—though, by the way, I was not very free of it, for my store was not great.
However, I spared her a bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled at it, and ate it,
and looked (as if pleased) for more; but I thanked her, and could spare no
more: so she marched off.

Having got my second cargo on shore—though I was obliged to open the
barrels of powder, and bring them by parcels, for they were too heavy, being
large casks—I went to work to make me a little tent, with the sail and some
poles which I cut for that purpose ; and into this tent I brought everything
that I knew would spoil either with rain or sun; and I piled all the empty
chests and casks up in a circle round the tent, to fortify it from any sudden
attempt either from man or beast.

When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent with some boards
within, and an empty chest set up on end without; and spreading one of my.
beds upon the grouud, laying my two pistols just at my head, and my gun at
length by me, I went to bed for the first time, and slept very quietly all night,
for I was very weary and heavy; for the night before I had slept little, and

36











Bey
Lp

a Mr
ef Neia fh ‘af

Sie UFO 85 7
eye A



“Tt blew hard all night, and in the morning no ship was to be seen.”





ROBINSON CRUSOE.



had laboured very hard all day to fetch all those things from the ship, and to
get them on shore.

IT had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was laid up, I believe,
for one man. But I was not satisfied still; for while the ship sat upright in
that posture, I thought I ought to get everything out of her that I could: so
every day, at low water, I went on board and brought away something or
other : but particularly the third time I went and brought away as much of
the rigging as I could, as also the small ropes and rope twine I could get, with
a piece of spare canvas, which was to mend the sails upon occasion, and the
barrel of wet gunpowder. Ina word, I brought away all the sails first and
last; only that I was obliged to cut them in pieces, and bring as much at a
time as I could, for they were no more useful to be sails, but as mere canvas only.

But that which comforted me more still, was, that last of all, after I had
made five or six such voyages as these, I thought I had nothing more to ex-
pect from the ship that was worth my meddling with,—I say, after all this, I
found a great hogshead of bread, three large runlets of rum or spirits, and a
box of sugar, and a barrel of fine flour. This was surprising to me, because
T had given over expecting any more provisions, except what was spoiled by
the water. I soon emptied the hogshead of the bread and wrapped it up, par-
cel by parcel, in pieces of the sails which I cut out; and, in a word, I got all
this safe on shore also.

The next day I made another voyage. And now, having plundered the ship
of what was portable and fit to hand out, I began with the cables, cutting the
great cable into pieces such as I could move. I got two cables and a hawser
on shore, with all the iron-work I could get ; and having cut down the sprit-
sail-yard and the mizen-yard, and everything I could to make a large raft, I
loaded it with all these heavy goods, and came away ; but my good luck began
now to leave me, for this raft was so unwieldy and so overladen, that after I
was entered the little cove, where I had landed the rest of my goods, not being
able to guide it so handily as I did the other, it overset, and threw me and
all my cargo into the water. As for myself, it was no great harm, for I was
near the shore; but as to my cargo, it was a great part of it lost, especially
the iron, which I expected would have been of great use to me. However,
when the tide was out, I got most of the pieces of cable ashore, and some of
the iron, though with infinite labour, for I had to dip for it into the water—
a work which fatigued me very much. After this I went every day on board,
and brought away what I could get.

I had been now thirteen days on shore, and had been eleven times on board
the ship, in which time I had brought away all that one pair of hands could
well be supposed capable to bring, though I believe verily, had the calm
weather held, I should have brought away the whole ship, piece by piece; but
preparing the twelfth time to go on board, I found the wind began to rise.

37

oO













LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



However, at low water, I went on board, and though I thought I had rammaged
the cabin so effectually that nothing more could be found, yet I discovered a
locker with drawers in it, in one of which I found two or three razors, and
one pair of large scissors, with some ten or a dozen of good knives and forks.
In another I found about thirty-six pounds value in money, some European
coin, some Brazil, some pieces-of-eight, some gold, and some silver.

I smiled to myself at the sight of this money. “O drug!” said I, aloud,
“what art thou good for? Thou art not worth to me—no, not the taking off
the ground; one of those knives is worth all thisheap. I have no manner of
use for thee, e’en remain where thou art, and go to the bottom, asa creature
whose life is not worth saving.” However, upon second, thoughts, I took it
away ; and wrapping all in a piece of canvas, I began to think of making
another raft ; but while I was preparing this, I found the sky overcast, and the
wind began to rise, and in a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale from the
shore. It presently occurred to me that it was in vain to pretend to make a
raft with the wind offshore, and that it was my business to be gone before the
tide of flood began, otherwise I might not be able to reach the shore at all.
Accordingly, I let myself down into the water, and swam across the channel
which lay between the ship and the sands, and even that with difficulty enough,
partly with the weight of the things I had about me, and partly from the
roughness of the water, for the wind rose very hastily, and before it was quite
high water it blew a storm.

But I had got home to my little tent, where I lay, with all my wealth about
me, very secure. It blew very hard all that night, and in the morning when
I looked out, behold no more ship was to be seen! I wasa little surprised,
but recovered myself with this satisfactory reflection, that I had lost no time,
nor abated any diligence, to get everything out of her that could be useful to
me, and that, indeed, there was little left in her that I was able to bring away
if I had had more time.

I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of anything out of her,
except what might drive on shore from her wreck; as, indeed, divers pieces of
her afterwards did, but those things were of small use to me.

My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing myself against either
savages, if any should appear, or wild beasts, if any were in the island; and I
had many thoughts of the method how to do this, and what kind of dwell-
ing to make,—whether I should make me a cave in the earth, or a tent upon
the earth; and, in short, I resolved upon both—the manner and description of
which it may not be improper to give an account of.

I soon found the place I was in was not fit for my settlement, because it was
upon alow, moorish ground, near the sea, and I believed it would not be whole-
some, and more particularly because there was no fresh water near it; so I
resolved to find a more healthy and more convenient spot of ground.

38









a eae Ne Ne LE es Re OR



“In this half circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes.”









ROBINSON CRUSOE.



I consulted several things in my situation, which I found would be proper
for me,—lIst, health and fresh water, I just now mentioned; 2ndly, shelter from
the heat of the sun; 3rdly, security from ravenous creatures, whether men or
beasts; 4thly, a view to the sea, that if God sent any ship in sight, I might not
lose any advantage for my deliverance, of which I was not willing to banish all
my expectation yet.

In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain on the side of a
rising hill, whose front towards this little plain was steep as a house-side, so
that nothing could come down upon me from the top. On the side of the rock
there was a hollow place, worn a little way in, like the entrance or door of a
cave; but there was not really any cave or way into the rock at all.

On the flat of the green just before this hollow place I resolved to pitch my
tent. This plain was not above a hundred yards broad, and about twice as
long, and lay like a green before my door, and, at the end of it, descended
irregularly every way down into the low ground by the sea-side. It was on
the N.N.W. side of the hill, so that it was sheltered from the heat every day, till
it came to a W. and by S. sun, or thereabouts, which in those countries is
near the setting.

Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle before the hollow place, which
took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter, from the rock, and twenty yards
in its diameter, from its beginning and ending.

In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving them into
the ground till they stood very firm like piles, the biggest end being out of the
eround above five feet and a-half and sharpened on the top. The two rows did
not stand above six inches from one another.

Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship, and laid them in
rows, one upon another, within the circle, between these two rows of stakes, up
to the top, placing other stakes in the inside, leaning against them, about two
feet and a-half high, like a spur toa post; and this fence was so strong that
neither man nor beast could get into it or over it. This cost mea great deal
of time and labour, especially to cut the piles in the woods, bring them to the
place, and drive them into the earth.

The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a door, but by a short lad-
der to go over the top; which ladder, when I was in, T lifted over after me;
and so I was completely fenced in and fortified, as I thought, from all the world,
and, consequently, slept secure in the night, which otherwise I could not have

‘ done; though, as it appeared afterwards, there was no need of all this caution

from the enemies that I apprehended danger from.

Into this fence or fortress, with infinite labour, I carried all my riches, all
my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which you have the account above;
and I made a large tent, which, to preserve me from the rains, that in one part
of the year are very violent there, I made double, one smaller tent within, and

39













LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



one larger tent above it; and covered the uppermost with a large tarpaulin,
which I had saved among the sails.

And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which I had brought on shore,
but in a hammock, which was indeed a very good one, and belonged to the
mate of the ship.

Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything that would spoil
by the wet; and having thus enclosed all my goods, I made up the entrance,
which till now I had left open, and so passed and repassed, as I said, by a
short ladder.

When I had done this, I began to work my way into the rock; and bringing
all the earth and stones that I dug down out through my tent, I laid them up
within my fence, in the nature of a terrace, so that it raised the ground within
about a foot and a-half; and thus I made me a cave, just behind my tent,
which served me like a cellar to my house.

It cost me much labour and many days before all these things were brought
to perfection; and therefore I must go back to some other things which took
up some of my thoughts. At the same time it happened, after I had laid my
scheme for the setting up my tent and making the cave, that a storm of rain
falling from a thick, dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning happened, and,
after that, a great clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect of it. Iwas not so
much surprised with the lightning, as I was with a thought which darted into
my mind as swift as the lightning itself; O my powder! My very heart sank
within me when I thought that, at one blast, all my powder might be destroyed;
on which, not my defence only, but the providing me food, as I thought, en-
tirely depended. I was nothing near so anxions about my own danger,
though, had the powder took fire, I should never have known who had
hurt me.

Such impression did this make upon me, that after the storm was over, I
laid aside all my works, my building and fortifying, and applied myself to make
bags and boxes, to separate the powder, and to keep it a little and a little in a
parcel, in hope that whatever might come, it might not all take fire at once ;
and to keep it so apart, that it should not be possible to make one part fire
another. I finished this work in about a fortnight ; and I think my powder,
which in all was about two hundred and forty pounds weight, was divided into
not less than a hundred parcels. As to the barrel that had been wet, I did not
apprehend any danger from that; soI placed it in my new cave, which,
in my fancy, I called my kitchen; and the rest I hid up and down in holds
among the rocks, so that no wet might come to it, marking very carefully
where I laid it.

In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out once at least every
day with my gun, as well to divert myself as to see if I could kill anything fit
for food; and, as near as I could, to acquaint myself with what the island pro-

4

















ROBINSON CRUSOL.





duced. The first time I went out, I presently discovered that there were goats
in the island, which was a great satisfaction to me; but then it was attended
with this misfortune to me, viz., that they were so shy, so subtle, and so swift
of foot, that it was the difficultest thing in the world to come at them. But I
was not discouraged at this, not doubting but I might now and then shoot
one, as it soon happened ; for after I had found their haunts a little, I laid
wait in this manner for them : I observed if they saw me in the valleys, though
they were upon the rocks, they would run away, as in a terrible fright; but
if they were feeding in the valleys, and I was upon the rocks, they took no
notice of me; from whence I concluded that, by the position of their optics,
their sight was so directed downward, that they did not readily see
objects that were above them; so afterwards, I took this method, —I
always climbed the rocks first, to get above them, and then had frequently
a fair mark.

The first shot I made among these creatures, I killed a she-goat, which had
a little kid by her, which she gave ‘suck to, which grieved me heartily ; for,
when the old one fell, the kid stood stock still by her, till I came and took her
up; and not only so, but when I carried the old one with me, upon my
shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my enclosure; upon which I laid down
the dam and took the kid in my arms, and carried it over my pale, in hopes
to have bred it up tame ; but it would not eat; so I was forced to kill it, and
eat it myself, These two supplied me with flesh a great while; for I
ate sparingly, and saved my provisions, my bread especially, as much as
possibly I could.

Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely necessary to provide
a place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn; and what I did for that, as also
how I enlarged my cave, and what conveniences I made, I shall give a full ac-
count of in its place; but I must now give some little account of myself, and
of my thoughts about living, which it may well be supposed were not a few.

JT had a dismal prospect of my condition ; for as I was not cast away upon
that island without being driven, as is said, by a violent storm, quite out of the
course of our intended voyage, and a great way—viz., some hundreds of leagues
out of the ordinary course of the trade of mankind—I had great reason to
consider it as a determination of Heaven that, in this desolate place, and in this
desolate manner, I should end my life. The tears would run plentifully down
my face when I made these reflections ; and sometimes I would expostulate
with myself why Providence should thus completely ruin its creatures, and
render them so absolutely miserable, so without help, abandoned, so entirely
depressed, that it could hardly be rational to be thankful for such a life.

But something always returned swift upon me to check these thoughts, and
to reprove me; and particularly one day, walking with my gun in my hand by
the sea side, I was very pensive upon the subject of my present condition, when

41















LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



reason, as it were, expostulated with me the other way. Thus,—« Well, you
are in a desolate condition, it is true ; but, pray remember, where are the rest
of you? Did not you come eleven of you into the boat? Where are the ten ?
Why were they not saved and you lost? Why were you singled out? Is it
better to be here or there?” And then I pointed to the sea. All evils are
to be considered with the good that is in them, and with what worse
attends them.

Then it occurred to me again how well I was furnished for my subsistence,
and what would have been my case if it had not happened (which was a hun-
dred thousand to one) that the ship fleated from the place where she first struck,
and was driven so near to the shore that I had time to get all these things out
of her; what would have been my case if I had been forced to have lived in
the condition in which I at first came on shore, without necessaries of life, or
necessaries to supply and procure them? “Particularly,” said I, aloud (though
to myself), “what should I have done without a gun, without ammunition,
without any tools to make anything, or to work with, without clothes, bedding,
a tent, or any manner of covering ?”—and that now I had all these to sufficient
quantity, and was in a fair way to provide myself in such a manner as to live
without my gun when my ammunition was spent; so that I had a tolerable
view of subsisting, without any want, as long as I lived; for I considered from
the beginning how I would provide for the accidents that might happen, and
for the time that was to come, even not only after my ammunition should be
spent, but even after my health and strength should decay.

I confess I had not entertained any notion of my ammunition being de-
stroyed at one blast—I mean my powder being blown up by lightning ; and
this made the thoughts of it so surprising to me when it lightened and thun-
dered, as I observed just now.

And now, being to enter into a melancholy relation of a scene of silent life,
such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the world before, I shall take it from
its beginning, and continue it in its order. It was, by my account, the 30th of
September, when, in the manner as above said, I first set foot upon this horrid
island; when the sun, being to us in its autumnal equinox, was almost just over
my head; for I reckoned myself, by observation, to be in the latitude of nine
degrees twenty-two minutes north of the line.

After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came into my thoughts
that I should lose my reckoning of time for want of books, and pen, and ink,
and should even forget the Sabbath days; but to prevent this, I cut with my
knife upon a large post, in capital letters; and making it into a great cross,
I set up on the shore where I first landed, “I came on shore here on the 30th
of September, 1659.”

Upon the sides of this square post I cut every day a notch with my knife,
and every seventh notch was as long again as the rest, and every first day of

42



















ROBINSON CRUSOE.



the month as long again as that long one; and thus I kept'my calendar, or
weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning of time.

In the next place, we are to observe that among the many things which I
brought out of the ship in the several voyages which, as above meutioned, I
made to it, I got several things of less value, but not at all less useful to me,
which I omitted setting down before: as, in particular, pens, ink, and paper ;
several parcels in the captain’s, mate’s, gunner’s, and carpenter’s keeping, three
or four compasses, some mathematical instruments, dials, perspectives, charts,
and books of navigation ; all which I huddled together, whether I might want
them orno. Also, I found three very good Bibles, which came to me in my
cargo from England, and which I had packed up among my things; some
Portuguese books also, and among them two or three Popish prayer-books, and
several other books, all which I carefully secured. And I must not forget that
we had in the ship a dog and two cats—of whose eminent history I may have
occasion to say something in its place, for I carried both the cats with me; and
as for the dog, he jumped out of the ship of himself, and swam on shore to me
the day after I went on shore with my first cargo, and was a trusty servant to
me many years. I wanted nothing that he could fetch me, nor any company
that he could make up to me—I only wanted to have him talk to me, but that
would not do. AslI observed before, I found pens, ink, and paper,and I
husbanded them to the utmost; and I shall show that while my ink lasted, I
kept things very exact; but after that was gone I could not, for I could not
make any ink by any means that I could devise.

And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, notwithstanding all that
Thad amassed together ; and of these, ink was one, as also a spade, pick-axe,
and shovel, to dig or remove the earth; needles, pins, and thread. As for linen,
I soon learned to want that without much difficulty.

This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily; and it was near
a whole year before I had entirely finished. my little pale, or surrounded my
habitation. The piles or stakes, which were as heavy as I could well lift, were
a long time in cutting and preparing in the woods, and more, by far, in bringing
home; so that I spent sometimes two days in cutting and bringing home one
of those posts, and a third day in driving it into the ground; for which purpose
I got a heavy piece of wood at first, but at last bethought myself of one of the
iron crows, which, however, though I found it, made driving those posts or piles
very laborious and tedious work. But what need I have been concerned at
the tediousness of anything I had to do, seeing I had time enough to do it in?
nor had I any other employment, if that had been over, at least that I could
foresee, except the ranging the island to seek for food, which I did, more or
less, every day. ie

I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the circumstances I was
reduced to; and I drew up the state of my affairs in writing, not so much to

43















LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



leave them to any that were to come after me; for I was likely to have but
few heirs, as to deliver my thoughts from daily poring upon them, and afflicting
my mind: and as my reason began now to master my despondency, I began
to comfort myself as well as I could, and to set the good against the evil, that
I might have something to distinguish my case from worse; and I stated very
impartially, like debtor and creditor, the comforts I enjoyed against the miseries
I suffered. Thus :-—

EvIL. Goop.
Iam east upon a horrible desolate But I am alive, and not drowned, as
island, void of all hope of recovery. all my ship’s company were.

T am singled out and separated, as But I am singled out, too, from all
it were, from all the world, to bemiser- the ship’s crew, to be spared from
able. death; and he that miraculously saved

me from death, can deliver me from
this condition.

T am divided from mankind—a soli- But I am not starved, and perish-
taire ; one banished from human _ ing ina barren place, affording no sus-
society. tenance.

I have not clothes to cover me. But I am in a hot climate, where, if

I had clothes, I could hardly wear
them.

Tam without any defence, or means But I am cast on an island where
to resist any violence of man or beast. I see no wild beast to hurt me, as I
saw on the coast of Africa; and what
if I had been shipwrecked there ?
T have no soul to speak to, or relieve But God wonderfully sent the ship
me. in near enough to the shore, that I
have got out as many necessary things
as will either supply my wants, or
enable me to supply myself, even as
long as I live.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony that there was scarce
any condition in the world so miserable, but there was something negative, or
something positive, to be thankful for in it: and let this stand as a direction,
from the experience of the most miserable of all conditions in this world—that
we may always find in it something to comfort ourselves from, anf to set, in
the description of good and evil, on the credit side of the account.

Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition, and given over
looking out to sea, to see if I could spy a ship; I say, giving over these things,
I began to apply myself to arrange my way of living, and to make things as
easy to me as IJ could.

44











“T made a table and a chair out of the short boards brought from the wreck.”







ROBINSON CRUSOE.

T have already described my habitation, which was a tent under the side of
arock, surrounded with a strong pale of posts and cables; but I might now
rather call it a wall, for I raised a kind of wall up against it of turfs, about two
feet thick on the outside; and, after some time (I think it was a year and a-
half), I raised rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and thatched or covered it
with boughs of trees, and such things as I could get, to keep out the rain,
which I found at some times of the year very violent.

T have already observed how I brought all my goods into this pale, and into
the cave which I had made behind me. But I must observe, too, that at first
this was a confused heap of goods, which, as they lay in no order, so they took
up all my place. Ihad no room toturn myself; so I set myself to enlarge my

. cave and work farther into the earth ; for it was a loose, sandy rock, which

yielded easily to the labour I bestowed on it: and so, when I found I was
pretty safe as to beasts of prey, [ worked sideways, to the right hand into the
rock; and then turning to the right again, worked quite out, and made me a
door to come out on the outside of my pale or fortification.

This gave me not only egress and reeress, as it was a back-way to my tent
and to my storehouse, but gave me room to store my goods.

And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary things as I found
I most wanted, particularly a chair and a table; for without these I was not
able to enjoy the few comforts I had in the world. I could not write, or eat,
or do several things with so much pleasure, without a table, so I went to work.
And here I must needs observe that as reason is the substance andorigin of the
mathematics, so by stating and squaring everything by reason, and by making
the most rational judgment of things, every man may be, in time, master of
every inechanic art. J had never handled a tool in my life; and yet, in time,
by labour, application, and contrivance, I found, at last, that I wanted nothing
but I could have made it, especially if I had had tools. However, I made
abundance of things, even without tools ; and some with no more tools than
an adze and a hatchet, which, perhaps, were never made that way before, and
that with infinite labour. For example, if I wanted a board, I had no other
way but to cut down a tree, set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on either
side with my axe, till I had brought it to be thin as a plank, and then dub it
smooth with my adze. It is true, by this method I could make but one board
out of a whole tree; but this I had no remedy for but patience, any more
than I had for the prodigious deal of time or labour which it took me up to
make a plank or board; but my time or labour was little worth, and so it was
as well employed one way as another.

However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed above, in the first
place; and this I did out of the short pieces of boards that I brought on my
raft from the ship. But when I had wrought out some boards as above, I
made large shelves, of the breadth of a foot and a half, one over another all

45



















LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



along one side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and iron-work on; and, in
a word, to separate everything at large into their places, that I might come
easily at them. I knocked pieces into the wall of the rock to hang my guns
and all things that would hang up; so that had my cave been to be seen, it
looked like a general magazine of all necessary things; and I had everything
so ready at my hand, that it was a great pleasure to me to see all my goods in
such order, and especially to find my stock of all necessaries so great.

And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every day’s employment ;
for indeed, at first, I was in too much hurry—and not only hurry as to labour,
but in too much discomposure of mind, and my journal would have been full
of many,dull things. For example, I must have said thus, “ Sept. 30th.—After
Thad got to shore, and had escaped drowning, instead ‘of being thankful to
God for my deliverance, having first vomited ‘with the great quantity of salt
water which had got into my stomach, and recovering myself a little, I ran
about the shore, wringing my hands, and beating my head and face, exclaiming
at my misery, and crying out, ‘I was undone, undone!’ till, tired and faint, I
was forced to lie down on the ground to repose; but durst not sleep, for fear
of being devoured.”

Some days after this, and after I had been on board the ship and got all that
I could out of her, yet I could not forbear getting up to the top of a little
mountain, and looking out to sea, in hopes of seeing a ship; then fancy at a
vast distance I spied a sail, please myself with the hopes of it, and then, after
looking steadily, till I was almost blind, lose it quite, and sit down and weep
like a child, and thus increase my misery by my folly.

But having gotten over these things in some measure, and having settled
my household stuff and habitation, made me a table and a chair, and all as
handsome about me as I could, I began to keep my journal, of which I shall
here give you the copy (though in it will be told all these particulars over again)
as long as it lasted; for having no more ink, I was forced to leave it off.

THE JOURNAL.

September 30, 1659.—TI, poor, miserable Robinson Crusoe, being ship-
wrecked during a dreadful storm in the offing, come on shore on this dismal,
unfortunate island, which I called “ The Island of Despair;” all the rest of
the ship’s company being drowned, and myself almost dead.

All the rest of the day I spent in afflicting myself at the dismal circum-
stances I was brought to—viz., I had neither food, house, clothes, weapon, nor
place to fly to; and, in despair of any relief, saw nothing but death before me
—cither that I should be devoured by wild beasts, murdered by savages, or
starved to death for want of food. At the approach of night i slept
in a tree, for fear of wild creatures; but slept soundly, though it rained
all night.

46













ROBINSON CRUSOE.



October 1—In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the ship had floated
with the high tide, and was driven on shore again much nearer the island,
which, as it was some comfort, on one hand, for seeing her sit upright, and
not broken to pieces, I hoped, if the wind abated, I might get on board, and
get some food and necessaries out of her for my relief; so, on the other hand,
it renewed my grief at the loss of my comrades, who, I imagined, if
we had all stayed on board; might have saved the ship, or at least
that they would not have been all drowned, as they were, and that had
the men been saved, we might perhaps have built us a boat out of the
ruins of the ship to have carried us to some other part of the world. I
spent great part of this day in perplexing myself on these things; but at
length, seeing the ship almost dry, I went upon the sand as near as I could, and
then swam on board. This day, also, it continued raining, though with no
wind at all. ;

From the st of October to the 24th.—All these days entirely spent in many
several voyages to get all I could out of the ship, which I brought on shore,
every tide of flood, upon rafts. Much rain also in the days, though with some
intervals of fair weather; but it seems this was the rainy season.

October 20.—I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got upon it; but
being in shoal water, and the things being chiefly heavy, I recovered many of
them when the tide was out.

Oct. 25.—It rained all night and all day, with some, gusts of wind, during
which time the ship broke in pieces, the wind blowing a little harder than be-
fore, and was no more to be seen, except the wreck of her, and that only at low
water. I spent this day in covering and securing the goods. which I had saved,
that the rain might not spoil them.

Oct. 26.—I walked about the shore almost all day, to find out a place to fix
my habitation, greatly concerned to secure myself from any attack in the night
either from wild beasts or men. Towards night I fixed upon a proper place
under a rock, and marked out a semi-circle for my encampment, which I re-
solved to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortification made of double piles,
. lined within with cables, and without with turf.

From the 26th to the 30th I worked very hard‘in carrying all my
goods to my new habitation, though some part of the time it rained
exceedingly hard.

The 31st.—In the morning I went out into the island with my gun to see
for some food, and discover the country, when I killed a she-goat, and
her kid followed me home, which I afterwards killed also, because it would
not feed.

November 1.—I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there for the first
night, making it as large as I could, with stakes driven in to swing my
hammock upon. .















LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

Nov. 2.—I set up all my chests and boards, and the pieces of timber which
made my rafts, and with them formed a fence round me—a little within the
place I had marked out for my fortification.

Nov. 3.—I went out with my gun and killed two fowls like ducks, which
were very good food. In the afternoon went to work to make me a table.

Nov. 4.—This morning I began to order my times of work, of going out
with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diversion—viz., every morning I
walked out with my eun for two or three hours, if it did not rain; then em-
ployed myself to work till about eleven o’clock; then ate what I had to live

on; and from twelve till two I lay down to sleep, the weather being ex-

cessively hot ; and then, in the evening, to work again. The working part of
this day and of the next were wholly employed in making my table, for I was
yet but a very sorry workman, though time and necessity made me a complete
natural mechanic soon after, as I believe they would do any one else.

Nov. 5.—This day went abroad with my gun and my dog, and killed a wild
cat ; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good for nothing. Every creature that
I killed I took off the skins and preserved them. Coming back by the sea-
shore, I saw many sorts of sea-fowls which I did not understand ; but was
surprised, and almost frightened, with two or three seals, which, while I was
gazing at, not well knowing what they were, got into the sea, and escaped me
tor that time.

You. 6.-—After my morning walk, I went to work with my table again
and finished it, though not to my liking; nor was it long before I learned
to mend it.

Nov. 7—Now it began to be settled fair weather. The 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th,
and part of the 12th (for the 11th was Sunday), I took wholly up to make me
a chair, and, with much ado, brought it to a tolerable shape, but never to
please me ; and even in the making I pulled it in pieces several times.

Note.—I soon neglected my keeping Sundays ; for, omitting my mark for
them on my post, I forgot which was which.

Nov. 13.—This day it rained, which refreshed me exceedingly, and cooled
the earth; but it was accompanied with terrible thunder and lightning, which
frighted me dreadfully, for fear of my powder. As soon as it was over, I re-
solved to separate my stock of powder into as many little parcels as possible,
that it might not be in danger.

Nov. 14, 15, 16.—These three days I spent in making little square chests,
or boxes, which might hold about a pound, or two pounds at most, of powder;
and so, putting the powder in, I stowed it in places as secure and remote from
one another as possible. On one of these three days I killed a large bird that
was good to eat, but I knew not what to call it.

Nov. 17,—This day I began to dig behind my tent into the rock, to make

room for my further conveniency.
48













ROBINSON CRUSOE.



Note.—Three things I wanted exceedingly for this work—viz., a pickaxe, a
shovel, and a wheelbarrow, or basket ; so I desisted from my work, and began
to consider how to supply that want and make me some tools. As for the
pickaxe, I made use of the iron crows, which were proper enough, though
heavy; but the next thing was a shovel, or spade. This was so absolutely
necessary that, indeed, I could do nothing effectually without it; but what kind
of one to make I knew not.

Nov. 18.—The next day, in searching the woods, I found a tree of: that wood,
or like it, which in the Brazils they call the iron-tree, for its exceeding hard-
ness. Of this, with great labour, and almost spoiling my axe, I cut a piece
and brought it home, too, with difficulty enough, for it was exceeding heavy.
The excessive hardness of the wood, and my having no other way, made me a
long while upon this machine, for I worked it effectually, by little and little,
into the form of a shovel or spade; the handle exactly shaped like ours in
England, only that the board part having no iron shod upon it at bottom, it
would not last me so long. However, if served well enough for the uses which
T had occasion to put it to; but never was a shovel, I believe, made after that
fashion, or so long in making.

I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket, or a wheelbarrow. A basket I
could not make by any means, having no such things as twigs that would bend
to make wicker-ware—at least, none yet found out ; and as to a wheelbarrow,
I fancied I could make all but the wheel; but that I had no notion of, neither
did I know how to go about it. Besides, I had no possible way to make the
iron gudgeons for the spindle or axis of the wheel to run in; so I gave
it over, and so, for carrying away the earth which I dug out of the cave,
I made me a thing like a hod, which the labourers carry mortar in when they
serve the bricklayers. This was not so difficult to me as the making the shovel;
and yet this and the shovel, and the attempt which I made in vain to make a
wheelbarrow, took me up no less than four days—I mean always excepting my
morning walk with my gun, which I seldom failed, and very seldom failed also
bringing home something fit to eat.

Nov. 23.—My other work having now stood ‘still, because of my making
these tools, when they were finished, I went on, and working every day as my
strength and time allowed. I spent eighteen days entirely in widening and
deepening my cave, that it might hold my goods commodiously.

Note.—During all this time, I worked to make this room or cave spacious
enough to accommodate me as a warehouse or magazine, a kitchen,.a dining-
room, and a.cellar. As. for my lodging, I kept to the tent; excepting that some-
times, in the wet season of the year, it rained so hard that I could not keep
myself dry, which caused me afterwards to cover all my place within my pale
with long poles, in the form of rafters, leaning against the rock, and load them
with flags and large leaves of trees, like a thatch.

D 49













LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



December 10.—I began now to think my cave or vault finished, when on a
sudden (it seems I had made it too large) a great quantity of earth fell down
from the top and one side; so much that, in short, it frighted me, and not
without reason, too; for if I had been under it, I had never wanted a
grave-digger. I had now a great deal of work to do over again; for
I had the loose earth to carry out; and, which was of more import-
ance, I had the ceiling to prop up, so that I might be sure no more would
come down.

Dec. 11.— This day I went to work with it accordingly, and got two
shores or posts pitched upright to the top, with two pieces of boards across
over each post. This I finished the next day; and setting more posts up
with boards, in about a week more I had the roof secured ; and the posts,
standing in rows, served me for partitions to part off the house.

Dec. 17—From this day to the 20th I placed shelves, and knocked up
nails on the posts, to hang everything up that could be hung up; and now I
began to be in some order within doors.

Dec. 20.—Now I carried everything into the cave, and began to furnish
my house, and set up some pieces of boards like a dresser, to order my
victuals upon; but boards began to be very scarce with me. Also, I made
me another table.

Dec. 24.—Much rain all night and all day; no stirring out.

Dee. 25.—Rain all day.

Dec. 26.—No rain, and the earth much cooler than before, and pleasanter.

Dec. 27.—Killed a young goat, and lamed another, so that I caught it, and
led it home in a string. When I had it at home, I bound and splintered up
its lee, which was broke.

N.B.—I took such care of it that it lived, and the leg grew well and as
strong as ever; but by my nursing it so long it grew tame, and fed upon the
little green at my door, and would not go away. This was the first time that
T entertained a thought of breeding up some tame creatures, that I might have
food when my powder and shot was all spent.

Dec. 28, 29, 80, 31—Great heats, and no breeze, so that there was no
stirring abroad, except in the evening, for food. This time I spent in putting
all my things in order within doors.

January 1.—Very hot still; but I went abroad early and late with my gun,
and lay still in the middle of the day. This evening, going farther into the
valleys which lay towards the centre of the island, I found there were plenty
of goats, though exceedingly shy, and hard to come at. However, I resolved
to try if I could not bring my dog to hunt them down.

Jan. 2.—Accordingly, the next day I went out with my dog, and set him
upon the goats; but I was mistaken, for they all faced about upon the dog, and
he knew his danger too well, for he would not come near them.

50









ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Jan. 3.—I began my fence, or wall, which, being still jealous of my being
attacked by somebody, I resolved to make very thick and strong.

N.B.—This wall being described before, I purposely omit what was said in
the Journal. It is sufficient to observe that I was no less time than from the
3rd of January to the 14th of April working, finishing, and perfecting this
wall, though it was no more than about twenty-four yards in length, being a
half-circle, from one place in the rock to another place, about eight yards from
it; the door of the cave being in the centre behind it.

All this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering me mauy days, nay,
sometimes weeks, together; but I thought I should never be perfectly secure
till this wall was finished; and it is scarcely credible what inexpressible labour
everything was done with, especially the bringing piles out of the woods, and
driving them into the ground; for I made them much bigger than I needed
to have done.

When this wall was finished, and the outside double-fenced, with a turf
wall raised up close to it, I pursuaded myself that if any people were to come
on shore there they would not perceive anything like a habitation; and it was
very well I did so, as may be observed hereafter, upon a very remarkable
occasion.

During this time I made my rounds in the woods for game every day, when
the rain permitted me, and made frequent discoveries in these walks of some-
thing or other to my advantage. Particularly I found a kind of wild pigeons,
which build, not as wood-pigeons in a tree, but rather as house-pigeons, in the
holes of the rocks; and taking some young ones, I endeavoured to breed them
up tame, and did so; but when they grew older they flew away, which perhaps
was at first for want of feeding them, for I had nothing to give them. How-
ever, I frequently found their nests, and got their young ones, which were very
good meat. And now, in the managing my household affairs, I found myse!f
wanting in many things, which I thought at first it was impossible for mc to
make; as, indeed, with some of them it was. For instance, I could never make
a cask to be hooped. I had a small runlet or two, as I observed before, but I
could never arrive at the capacity of making one by them, though I spent
many weeks about it. I could neither put in the heads, or join the staves so
true to one another as to make them hold water; so I gave that also over. In
the next place, I was at a great loss for candles; so that as soon as ever it was
dark, which was generally by seven o'clock, I was obliged to goto bed. I
remembered the lump-of bees’-wax with which I made candles in my African
adventure; but I had none of that now. The only remedy I had was that
when I had killed a goat I saved the tallow, and with a little dish made of
clay, which I baked in the sun, to which I added a wick of some oakum, I
made me a lamp; and this gave me light, though not a clear, steady light like
acandle, In the middle of all my labours it happened that, rummaging my

51
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LIFE AND ADVENTURES OP



things, I found a little bag, which, as I hinted before, had been filled with corn
for the feeding of poultry—not for this voyage, but before, as I suppose, when
the ship came from Lisbon. The little remainder of corn that had been in the
bag was all devoured with the rats, and I saw nothing in the bag but husks
and dust; and being willing to have the bag for some other use (I think it was
to put powder in, when I divided it for the fear of the lightning, or some such
use), I shook the husks of corn out of it on one side of my fortification,
under the rock. :

It was a little before the great rains juss now mentioned that I threw this
stuff away, taking no notice; and not so much as remembering that I had
thrown anything there, when about a month after, or thereabouts, I saw some
few stalks of something green shooting out of the ground, which I fancied
might be some plant I had not seen; but I was surprised and perfectly
astonished when, after a little longer time, I saw about ten or twelve ears come
out, which were perfect green barley, of the same kind as our European—nay,
as our English barley.

It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion of my thoughts
on this occasion. I had hitherto acted upon no religious foundation at all.
Indeed, I had very few notions of religion in my head, nor had entertained
any sense of anything that had befallen me, otherwise than as chance, or, as we
lightly say, what pleases God, without so much as inquiring into theend of
Providence in these things, or his order in governing events for the world.
But after I saw barley grow there, in a climate which I knew was not proper
for corn, and especially that I knew not how it came there, it startled me
strangely; and I began to suggest that God had miraculously caused his grain
to grow without any help of seed sown, and that it was so directed purely for
my sustenance on that wild, miserable place.

This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out of my eyes; and I
Lexan to bless myself that such a prodigy of nature should happen upon my
account. And this was the more strange to me, because I saw near it still, all
along by the side of the rock, some other straggling stalks, which proved to be
stalks of rice, and which I knew, because I had seen it grow in Africa, when I
was ashore there.

I not only thought these the pure productions of Providence for my support,
but not doubting that there was more in the place, I went all over that part
of the island where I had been before, peering in every corner, and under
every rock, to see for more of it, but I could not find any. At last it accurred
to my thoughts that I shook a bag of chickens’ meat out fn that place, and
then the wonder began to cease; and, I must confess, my religious thankfulness
to God’s Providence began to abate, too, upon the discovering that all this was
nothing but what was common, though I ought to-have been as thankful for

so strange and unforeseen a providence as if it had been miraculous; for it was
52





Hee













ROBINSON CRUSOE.



really the work of Providence to me that should order or appoint that ten or
twelve grains of corn should remain unspoiled, when the rats had destroyed all
the rest, as if it had been dropped from heaven. As also, that I should throw
it out in that particular place, where, it being in the shape ofa high rock, it
sprang up immediately; whereas, if I had thrown it anywhere else, at that time,
it had been burnt up and destroyed.

I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in their season,
which was about the end of June; and, laying up every corn, I resolved to
sow them all again, hoping, in time, to have some quantity sufficient to supply
me with bread. But it was not till the fourth year that I could allow myself
the least grain of this corn to eat, and even then but sparingly, as I shall say
afterwards, in its order; for I lost all that I sowed the first season by not
observing the proper time; for I sowed it just before the dry season, so that it
never came up at all; at least not as it would have done—of which in its place.

Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty stalks of rice,
which I preserved with the same care and for the same use, or to the same
purpose, to make me bread, or rather food; for I found ways to cook it with-
out baking, though I did that also after some time.

But to return to my Journal :—

I worked excessively hard these three or four months to get my wall done,
and the 14th of April I closed it up, contriving to go into it, not by a door,
but over the wall, by a ladder, that there might be no sign on the outside of
my habitation.

April 16.—I finished. the ladder. So I went up the ladder to the top, and
then pulled it up after me, and let it down in the inside. _ This was a complete
enclosure to me; for within I had room enough, and nothing could come at me
from without, unless it could first mount my wall.

The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost had all my
labour overthrown at once, and myself killed. The case was thus :—As I was
busy in the inside, behind my tent, just at the entrance into my cave, I was
terribly frighted with a most dreadful surprising thing indeed: for, all on a
sudden, I found the earth come crumbling down from the roof of my cave,
and from the edge of the hill over my head, andtwo of the posts I had set up
in the cave cracked in a frightful manner. I was heartily scared; but thought
nothing of what was really the cause, only thinking that the top of my cave
was fallen in, as some of it had,done before; and for fear I should be buried
in it, I ran forward to my ladder, and not thinking myself safe there neither,
I got over my wall for fear of the pieces of the hill, which I expected might
roll down upon me, JI had no sooner stepped down upon the firm ground, .-
than I plainly saw it was a terrible earthquake; for the ground I stood on ©
shook three times at about eight minutes’ distance, with three such shocks as
would have overturned the strongest building that could be supposed i. have

5
——-















LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



stood on the earth, and a great piece of the top ofa rock, which stood about
half a mile from me, next the sea, fell down with such a terrible noise as I
never heard in all my life. I perceived also the very sea was put into violent
motion by it; and I believe the shocks were stronger under the water than on
the island.

I was so much amazed with the thing itself, having never felt the like, nor
discoursed with any one that had, that I was like one dead or stupified; and
the motion of the earth made my stomach sick, like one that was tossed at sea;
but the noise of the falling of the rock awaked me, as it were, and rousing me
from the stupified condition I was in, filled me with horror, and I thought of
nothing then but the hill falling upon my tent and all my household goods,
and burying all at once; and this sunk my very soul within me a second time.

After the third shock was over—and I felt no more for some time—lI began
to take courage; and yet I had not heart enough to go over my wall again, for
fear of being buried alive, but sat still upon the ground greatly cast down and
disconsolate, not knowing what todo. All this while I had not the least serious
religious thought; nothing but the common “Lord, have mercy on me!” and
when it was over, that went away too.

WhileI sat thus, Ifound the air overcast and grow cloudy, as if it would rain.
Soon after that the wind arose by little and little, so that in less than half an
hour it blew a most dreadful hurricane. The sea was all on a sudden covered
over with foam and froth—the shore was covered with the breach of the water
—the trees were torn up by the roots; and a terrible storm it was. This held
about three hours, and then began to abate; and in two hours more it was
quite calm, and began to rain very hard. All this while I sat upon the ground,
very much terrified and dejected, when, on a sudden, it came into my thoughts
that these winds and rain, being the consequences of the earthquake, the earth-
quake itself was spent and over, and I might venture into my cave again. With
this thought my spirits began to revive, and the rain also helping to persuade
me, I went in and sat down in my tent; but the rain was so violent that my
tent was ready to be beaten down with it, and I was forced to go into my cave,
though very much afraid and uneasy, for fear it should fall onmy head. This
violent rain forced me to a new work—viz., to cut a hole through my new for-
tification, like a sink, to let the water go out, which would else have flooded my
cave. After I had been in my cave for some time, and found still no more
shocks of the earthquake follow, I began to be more composed. And now, to
support my spirits—which, indeed, wanted it very much—lI went to my little
store and took a small sup of rum, which, however, I did then and always, very
sparingly, knowing I could have no more when that was gone. It continued
raining all that night and great part of the next day, so that I could not stir
abroad; but my mind being more composed, I began to think of what I had best
do, concluding that, if the island was subject to these earthquakes, there would

b4
®























































ROBINSON CRUSOE.

be no living for me in a cave, but I must consider of building a little hut in an
open place, which I might surround with a wall, as I had done here, and so
make myself secure from wild beasts or men; for I concluded if I stayed where
I was, I should certainly, one time or other, be buried alive. ;

With these thoughts, I resolved to remove my tent from the place where it
now stood, which was just under the hanging precipice of the hill, and which,
if it should be shaken again, would certainly fall upon my tent; and I spent
the two next days, being the 19th and 20th of April, in contriving where and
how to remove my habitation. The fear of being swallowed up alive made me
that I never slept in quiet; and yet the apprehension of lying abroad without
any fence was almost equal to it. But still, when I looked about and saw
how everything was put in order—how pleasantly concealed I was, and how
safe from danger, it made me very loath to remove. In the meantime, it oc-
curred to me that it would require a vast deal of time for me to do this, and
that I must be contented to venture where I was till I had formed a camp for
myself, and had secured it so as to remove to it. So, with this resolution, I
composed myself for a time, and resolved that I would go to work with all speed
to build me a wall with piles and cables, etc., in a circle, as before, and set my
tent up in it when it was finished, but that I would venture to stay where I
was till it was finished and fit to remove. This was the 21st.

April 22—The next morning I began to consider of means to put this
resolve into execution; but I was at a great loss about my tools. I had three
large axes and abundance of hatchets (for we carried the hatchets for traffic
with the Indians), but with much chopping and cutting knotty, hard wood,
they were all full of notches, and dull; and though I had a grindstone, I could
not turn it and grind my tools too. This cost me as much thought as a states-
man would have bestowed upon a grand point of politics, or a judge upon the
life and death of aman. At length I contrived a wheel witha string, to turn
it with my foot, that I might have both my hands at liberty.

Note.—I had never seen any such thing in England, or at least not to take
notice how it was done, though since I have observed it is very common there.
Besides that, my grindstone was very large and heavy. This machine cost me
a full week’s work to bring it to perfection.

April 28, 29.—These two whole days I took up in grinding my tools; my
machine for turning my grindstone performing very well.

April 30.—Having perceived my bread had been low a great while, now I
took a survey of it, and reduced myself to one biscuit-cake a day, which made
my heart very heavy. ;

May 1.—In the morning, looking toward the sea-side (the tide being low),
I saw something lie on the shore bigger than ordinary, and‘it looked like a
cask. When I came to it, I found a small barrel and two or three pieces of

the wreck of the ship, which were driven on shore by the late hurricane. And

55













LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



looking towards the wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie higher out of the
water than it used to do. I examined the barrel which was driven on shore,
and soon found it was a barrel of gunpowder; but it had taken water, and the
powder was caked as hard asa stone. However, I rolled it farther on shore
for the present, and went on upon the sands as near as I could to the wreck
of the ship, to look for more. ;

When I came down to the ship I found it strangely removed. The fore-
castle, which lay before buried in sand, was heaved up at least six feet;
and the stern, which was broke in pieces, and parted from the rest by the
force of the sea soon after I had left rummaging her, was tossed, as it were,
up and cast on one side, and the sand was thrown so high on that side next
her stern, that whereas there was a great place of water before, so that I
could not come within a quarter of a mile of the wreck without swimming, I
could now walk quite up to her when the tide was out. I was surprised with
this at first, but soon concluded it must be done by the earthquake; and as
by this violence the ship was more broke open than formerly, so many things
came daily on shore which the sea had loosened, and which the winds and
water rolled by degrees to the land.

This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of removing my habi-
tation; and I busied myself mightily, that day especially, in searching whether
T could make any way into the ship, but I found nothing was to be expected
of that kind, for all the inside of the ship was choked up with sand. How-
ever, as I had learned not to despair of anything, I resolved to pull everything
to pieces that I could of the ship, concluding that everything I could get from
her would be of some use or other to me.

May 3.—I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam through, which
I thought held some of the upper part or quarter deck together, and when I had
cut it through, I cleared away the sand as well as I could from the side which
lay highest; but the tide coming in, I was obliged to give over for that time.

May 4.—I went a fishing, but caught not one fish that I durst eat of, till
I was weary of my sport; when, just going to leave off, I caught a young
dolphin. I had made me a long line of some rope-yarn, but I had no hooks;
yet I frequently caught fish enough, as much as I cared to eat; all which
I dried in the sun, and ate them dry.

May 5.—Worked on the wreck ; cut another beam asunder, and brought
three great fir planks off from the decks, which I tied together, and made to
float on shore when the tide of flood came on. "

May 6.—Worked on the wreck ; got several iron bolts out of her, and other
pieces of iron-work ; worked very hard, and came home very much tired, and
had thoughts of giving it over.

May 7—Went to the wreck again, not with an intent to work, but found

the weight of the wreck had broke itself down, the beams being cut; that
58













The wreck of the ship cast up by the earthquake,







ROBINSON CRUSOE.

several pieces of the ship seemed to lie loose, and the inside of the hold lay so
open that I could see into it, but it was almost full of water and sand.

May 8—Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow to wrench up the
deck, which lay now quite clear of the water or sand. I wrenched open two
planks, and brought them on shore also with the tide. I left the iron crow in
the wreck for next day.

May 9.—Went to the wreck, and with the crow made way into the body of
the wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened them with the crow, but could
not break them up. I felt also a roll of English lead, and could stir it, but it
was too heavy to remove.

May 10-14.—Went every day to the wreck, and got a great many pieces
of timber, and boards, or plank, and two or three hundred weight of iron.

May 15.—I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not cut a piece off the
roll of lead, by placing the edge of one hatchet, and driving it with the
other; but as it lay about a foot and a half in the water, I could not make
any blow to drive the hatchet.

May 16.—It had blown hard in the night, and the wreck appeared more
broken by the force of the water; but I stayed so long in the woods, to
get pigeons for food, that the tide prevented my going to the wreck that day.

May 17.—1 saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore, at a great
distance, near two miles off me, but resolved to see what they were, and
found it was a piece of the head, but too heavy for me to bring away.

May 24.—Every day, to this day, I worked on the wreck; and with hard
labour I loosened some things so much with the crow, that the first blowing
tide several casks floated out, and two of the seamen’s chests; but the wind
blowing from the shore, nothing came to land that day but pieces of timber,
and a hogshead, which had some Brazil pork in it, but the salt water and the
sand had spoiled it. I continued this work every day to the 15th of June,
except the time necessary to get food, which I always appointed, during this
part of my employment, to be when the tide was up, that I might be ready
when it was ebbed out: and by this time I had got timber, and plank, and iron-
work, enough to have built a good boat, if I had known how; and also I got,
at several times, and in several pieces, near one hundred weight of the sheet-lead.

June 16.—Going down to the sea-side, I found a large tortoise, or turtle.
This was the first I had seen, which it seems was only my misfortune, not any
defect of the place, or scarcity ; for had I happened to be on the other side of
the island, I might have had hundreds of them every day, as I found atter-
wards; but perhaps had paid dear enough for them.

June 17—I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her threescore eggs ;
and her fiesh was to me, at that time, the most savoury and pleasant that ever
I tasted ‘n my life, having had no flesh, but of goats and fowls, since I landed
in this horrid place.

57















LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



June 18.—Rained all day; stayed within. I thought, at this time, the rain felt
cold, and I was something chilly, which I knew was not usual in that latitude.

June 19.—Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had been cold.

June 20.—No rest all night; violent pains in my head, and feverish.

June 21.—Very ill; frighted almost to death with the apprehensions of my
sad condition—to be sick, and no help. Prayed to God, for the first time
since the storm off Hull, but scarce knew what I said, or why, my thoughts
being all confused.

June 22.—A little better; but under dreadful apprehensions of sickness.

June 23.—Very bad again; cold and shivering, and then a violent headache.

June 24.—Much better.

June 25—An ague very violent: the fit held me seven hours; cold fit,
and hot, with faint sweats after it.

June 26.—Better ; and having no victuals to eat, took my gun, but found
myself very weak; however, I killed a she-goat, and with much difficulty got
it home, and broiled some of it, and ate. I would fain have stewed it, and
made some broth, but had no pot.

June 27—The ague again so violent that I lay a-bed all day, and neither
ate nor drank. I was ready to perish for thirst; but so weak, I had not
strength to stand up, or to get myself any water to drink. Prayed to God
again, but was light-headed ; and when I was not, I was so ignorant that I
knew not what to say, only I lay and cried, “Lord, look upon me! Lord, pity
me! Lord, have mercy upon me!” I suppose I did nothing else for two or
three hours, till the fit wearing off, I fell asleep, and did not wake till far in
the night. When I awoke, I found myself much refreshed, but weak, and ex-
ceeding thirsty. However, as I had no water in my habitation, I was forced to
lie till morning, and went to sleep again. In this second sleep I had this
terrible dream: I thought that I was sitting on the ground, on the outside of
my wall, where I sat when the storm blew after the earthquake, and that I saw
a man descend from a great black cloud, in a bright flame of fire, and light
upon the ground. He was all over as bright as a flame, so that I could but
just bear to look towards him. His countenance was most inexpressibly dread-
ful, impossible for words to describe. When he stepped upon the ground with
his feet, I thought the earth trembled, just as it had done before in the earth-
quake, and all the air looked, to my apprehension, as if it had been filled with
flashes of fire. He was no sooner landed upon the earth, but he moved
forward towards me, with a long spear or weapon in his hand, to kill me;
and when he came to a rising ground, at some distance, he spoke to me,—or
I heard a voice so terrible that it is impossible to express the terror of it. All
that I can say I understood, was this:—‘“Seeing all these things have not
brought thee to repentance, now thou shalt die;” at which words, I thought
he lifted up the spear that was in his hand to kill me.

58

















ROBINSON CRUSOE.



No one that shall ever read this account will expect that I should be able
to describe the horrors of my soul at this terrible vision. I mean, that even
while it was a dream, I even dreamed of those horrors. Nor is it any more
possible to describe the impression that remained upon my mind when I
awaked, and found it was but a dream. :

I had, alas! no divine knowledge. What I had received by the good
instruction of my father was then worn out by an uninterrupted series, for
eight years, of seafaring wickedness, and a constant conversation with none
but such as were, like myself, wicked and profane to the last degree. I do
not remember that I had, in all that time, one thought that so much as tended
either to looking upwards towards God, or inwards towards a reflection upon
my own ways; but a certain stupidity of soul, without desire of good, or
conscience of evil, had entirely overwhelmed me, and I was all that the most
hardened, unthinking, wicked creature among our common sailors can be
supposed to be: not having the least sense, either of the fear of God in danger,
or of thankfulness to God in deliverance.

In the relating what is already past of my story, this will be the more
easily believed when I shall add that through all the variety of miseries that
had to this day befallen me, I never had so much as one thought of it being
the hand of God, or that it was a just puvishment for my sin: my rebellious
behaviour against my father; or my present sins, which were great; or so
much as a punishment for the general course of my wicked life. When I was
on the desperate expedition on the desert shores of Africa, I never had so
much as one thought of what would become of me, or one wish to God to
direct me whither I should go, or to keep me from the danger which apparently
surrounded me, as well from voracious creatures as cruel savages. But I was
merely thoughtless of a God or a Providence, acted like a mere brute, from
the principles of nature, and by the dictates of common sense only, and,
indeed, hardly that. When I was delivered and taken up at sea by the
Portugal captain, well used, and dealt justly and honourably with, as well as
charitably, I had not the least thankfulness in my thoughts. When, again,
I was shipwrecked, ruined, and in danger of drowning, on this island, I was
as far from remorse, or looking on it as a judgment. I only said to myself
often, that I was an unfortunate dog, and born to be always miserable.

It is true, when I got on shore first here, and found all my ship's crew
drowned, and myself spared, I was surprised with a kind of ecstacy, and some
transports of soul, which, had the grace of God assisted, might have come up
to true thankfulness; but it ended where it began, in a mere common flight of
joy, or, as I may say, being glad I was alive, without the least reflection upon
the distinguished goodness of the hand which had preserved me, and had
singled me out to be preserved when all the rest were destroyed, or an inquiry
why Providence had been thus merciful unto me. Even just the same common

59



















LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



sort of joy which seamen generally have, after they are got safe ashore from a
shipwreck, which they drown all in the next bowl of punch, and forget almost
as soon as it is over; and all the rest of my life was like it. Even when I was,
afterwards, on due consideration, made sensible of my condition—how I was
cast on this dreadful place, out of the reach of human kind—out of all hope of
relief or prospect of redemption; as soon as I saw but a prospect of living,
and that I should not starve and perish for hunger, all the sense of my afflic-
tion wore off, and I began to be very easy, applied myself to the works proper
for my preservation and supply, and was far enough from being afflicted at
my condition, as a judgment from Heaven, or as the hand of God against me.
These were thoughts which very seldom entered my head.

The growing up of the corn, as is hinted in my Journal, had, at first, some
little influence upon me, and began to affect me with seriousness, as long as I
thought it had something miraculous in it; but as soon as ever that part of
the thought was removed, all the impression that was raised from it wore off
also, as I have noted already. Even the earthquake, though nothing could be
more terrible in its nature, or more immediately directing to the invisible
power whichalone directs such things, yet no sooner was the first fright over
but the impression it had made went off also. I had no more sense of God or
His judgments, much less of the present affliction of my circumstances being
from His hand, than if I had been in the most prosperous condition of life.
But now, when I began to be sick, and a leisurely view of the miseries of
death came to place itself before me—when my spirits began to sink under
the burden of a strong distemper, and nature was exhausted with the violence
of the fever—conscience, that had slept so loyg, began: to awake, and I began
to reproach myself with my past life, in which I had so evidently, by uncom-
mon wickedness, provoked the justice of God to lay me under uncommon
strokes, and to deal with me in so vindicative a manner. These reflections
oppressed me for the second or third day of my distemper; and in the violence,
as well of the fever as of the dreadful praying to God, though I cannot say
they were either a prayer attended with desires or with hopes. It was rather
the voice of mere fright and distress) My thoughts were confused, the con-
victions great upon my mind, and the horror of dying in such a miserable
condition raised vapours into my head with the mere apprehension; and in
these hurries of my soul, I knew not what my tongue might express. But it
was rather exclamation, such as, “ Lord, what a miserable creature am I! If
I should be sick, I shall certainly die for want of help, and what will become
of me?” Then the tears burst out of my eyes, and I could see no more for
a good while. In this interval the good advice of my father came to my
mind ; and presently his prediction, which I mentioned at the beginning of
this story—viz., that if I did take this foolish step, God would not bless me,

and I would have leisure hereafter to reflect upon having neglected his counsel
60

















ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Se SS SSS SS SS

when there might be none to assist in my recovery. “Now,” said I, aloud,
“my dear father’s words are come to pass; God’s justice has overtaken me,
and I have none to help or hear me. I rejected the voice of Providence,
which had mercifully put me in a posture or station of life wherein I might
have been happy and easy; but I.would neither see it myself or learn to
know the blessing of it from my parents ; I left them to mourn over my folly,
and now I am left to mourn under the consequences of it; I refused their help
and assistance who would have lifted me in the world, and would have made
everything easy to me; and now I have difficulties to struggle with too great
for even nature itself to support, and no. assistance, no help, no comfort, no
advice.” Then I cried out, “Lord, be my help, for I am in great distress.”
This was the first prayer, if I may call it so, that I had made for many years.

But to return to my Journal :—

June 28.—Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep I had had, and
the fit being entirely off, I got up; and though the fright and terror of my
dream was very great, yet I considered that the fit of the ague would return
again the next day, and now was my time to get something to refresh and
support myself when I should beill. And the first thing I did I filled a large
square case-bottle with water, and set it upon my table, in reach of my bed;
and to take off the chill or aguish disposition of the water, I put about a
quarter of a pint of rum into it, and mixed them together. Then I got mea
piece of the goat’s flesh and broiled it on the coals, but could eat very little.
I walked about, but was very weak, and withal very sad and heavy-hearted
under a sense of my miserable condition, dreading the return of my distemper
the next day. At night I made my supper of three of the turtle’s eggs, which
I roasted in the ashes, and ate (as we call it) in the shell. And this was the
first bit of meat I had ever asked God’s blessing to, that I could remember, in
my whole life. After I had eaten, I tried to walk, but found myself so weak
that I could hardly carry a gun (for I never went out without that), so I went
but a little way, and sat down upon the ground, looking out upon the sea, which
was just before me, and very calm and smooth. As I sat here, some such
thoughts as these occurred to me: What is this earth and sea of which I have
seen so much ?—whence is it produced ?—and what am I and all the other
creatures, wild and tame, human and brutal? Whence are we? Sure we are
all made by some secret power, who formed the earth and sea, the air and
sky. And whois that? Then it followed most naturally—it is God that has
made all. ‘Well, but then it came on strangely, if God has made all these
things, He guides and governs them all, and all things that concern them; for
the power that could make all things must certainly have power to-guide and
direct them. If so, nothing can happen in the great circuit of His works,
either without His knowledge or appointment.
And if nothing happens without His knowledge, He knows that I mn here,













LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

and am in this dreadful condition; and if nothing happens without His
appointment, He has appointed all this to befal me. Nothing occurred to my
thought to contradict any of these conclusions ; and therefore it rested upon
me with the greater force that it must needs be that God had appointed all
this to befal me—that I was brought into this miserable circumstance by His
direction, He having the sole power, not of me only, but of everything that
happened in the world. Immediately it followed: why has God done this to
me ?—what have I done to be thus used? My conscience presently checked
me in that inquiry, as if I had blasphemed, and methought it spoke to me
like a voice, “ Wretch, dost thou ask what thou hast done? Look back upon
a dreadful mis-spent life, and ask thyself what hast thou not done? Ask why
is it that thou wert not long ago destroyed? Why wert thou not drowned in
Yarmouth Roads—killed in the fight when the ship was taken by the Sallee
man-of-war—devoured by the wild beasts on the coast of Africa—or drowned
here, when all the crew perished but thyself? Dost thou ask, What have I
done?” I was struck dumb with these reflections, as one astonished, and had
not a word to say—no, not to answer to myself, but rose up pensive and sad,
walked back to my retreat, and went over my wall, as if I had been going to
bed. But my thoughts were sadly disturbed, and I had no inclination to
sleep; so I sat down in my chair and lighted my lamp, for it began to be dark.
Now as the apprehension of the return of my distemper terrified me very much,
it occurred to my thought that the Brazilians take no physic but their tobacco
for almost all distempers; and I had a piece of a roll of tobacco in one of the
chests which was quite cured, and some also that was green, and not quite cured.

I went, directed by heaven, no doubt, for in this chest I found a cure both
for soul and body. I opened the chest and found what I looked for—the
tobacco. And as the few books I had saved lay there too, I took out one of the
Bibles, which I mentioned before, and which to this time I had not found
leisure or inclination to look into. I say I took it out, and brought both that
and the tobacco with me to the table. What use to make of the tobacco I
knew not, in my distemper, or whether it was good for it or no; but I tried
several experiments with it, as if I was resolved it should hit one way or other.
T first took a piece of leaf, and chewed it in my mouth, which, indeed, at first,
almost stupified my brain, the tobacco being green and strong ; and that I had
not been much used to. Then I took some and steeped it an hour or two in
some rum, and resolved to take a dose of it when I lay down; and, lastly,
I burnt some upon a pan of coals, and held my nose close over the
smoke of it as long as I could bear it, as well for the heat, as almost for
suffocation. In the interval of this operation, I took up the Bible, and
began to read, but my head was too much disturbed with the tobacco
to bear reading, at least at that time; only, having opened the book casually,
the first words that occurred to me were these: “Call on me in the day

62











“TY killed a sea-fowl, something like a brand goose.”







ROBINSON CRUSOE.

of trouble, and I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me.” These words
were very apt to my case, and made some impression upon my thoughts
at the time of reading them, though not so much as they did afterwards; “for,
as for being deliver ed, the word had no sound, as I may say, to me. The
thing was so remote, so impossible in my apprehension of things, that I began
to say, as the children of Israel did when they were promised flesh to eat,
“Can God spread a table in the wilderness?” so I began to say, “Can God
himself deliver me from this place?” And as it was not for many years that
any hopes appeared, this prevailed very often upon my thoughts; but, how-
ever, the words made a great impression upon me, and I mused upon them
very often. It grew now late, and the tobacco had, as I said, dozed my head
so much that I inclined to sleep; so I left my lamp burning in the cave lest I
should want anything in the night, and went to bed. But before I lay down
I did what I never had done in all my life—kneeled down and prayed to God
to fulfil the promise to me, that if I called upon him in the day of trouble he
would deliver me. After my broken and imperfect prayer was over, I drank
the rum in which I had steeped the tobacco; which was so strong and rank of
the tobacco, that I could scarcely get it down. Immediately upon this I went
to bed. I found presently it flew up into my head violently; but I fell into a
sound sleep, and waked no more till, by the sun, it must necessarily be near
three o’clock in the afternoon the next day. Nay, to this hour I am partly of
opinion that I slept all the next day and night, and till almost three the day
after, for otherwise I know not how I should lose a day out of my reckoning
in the days of the week, as it appeared some ycars after I had done; for if I
had lost it by crossing and recrossing the line, I should have lost more than
one day; but certainly I lost a day in my account, and never knew which way.
Be that, however, one way or the other, when I awaked I found myself exceed-
ingly refreshed, and my spirits lively and cheerful. When I got up I was
stronger than I was the day before, and my stomach better, for I was hungry;
and, in short, I had no fit the next day, but continued much altered for the
better. This was the 29th.

The 30th was my well day, of course, and I went abroad with my gun, but
did not care to travel too far. I killed a sea-fowl or two, something like a
brand goose, and brought them home, but was not very forward to eat them,
so I ate some more of the turtle’s eggs, which were very good. This evening
I renewed the medicine, which I had supposed did me good the day before—
the tobacco steeped in rum; only I did not take so much as before, nor did I
chew any 6f the leaf, or hold my head over the smoke. However, I was not
so well the next day, which was the Ist of July, as I hoped I should have been,
for I had a little spice of the cold fit, but it was not much.

July 2.-—I renewed the medicine all the three ways, and dosed myself with
it as at first, and doubled the quantity which I drank.

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LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

July 3.—I missed the fit for good and all, though I did not recover my full
strength for some weeks after. While I was thus gathering strength, my
thoughts ran exceedingly upon this Scripture, “I will deliver “thee; »“and the
impossibility of my deliverance Jay much upon my mind, in bar of my ever
expecting it. But as I was discouraging myself with such thoughts, it
occurred to my mind that I pored so much upon my deliverance from the
main aftliction, that I disregarded the deliverance I had received; and I was,
as it were, made to ask myself such questions as these, viz.—Have I not been
delivered, and wonderfully too, from sickness—from the most distressed con-
dition that could be, and that was so frightful to me——and what notice had I
taken of it? Had I done my part? God had delivered me, but I had not
glorified Him—that is to say, I had not owned and been thankful for that as
a deliverance. And how could I expect greater deliverance? This touched
my heart very much; and immediately I knelt down, and gave God thanks
aloud for my recovery from my sickness.

July 4—In the morning I took the Bible, and beginning at the New
Testament, I began seriously to read it, and imposed upon myself to read
awhile every morning and every night; not tying myself to the number of
chapters, but as long as my thoughts should engage me. It was not long
after I set seriously to this work till I found my heart more deeply and
sincerely affected with the wickedness of my past life. The impression of my
dream revived, and the words, “All these things have not brought thee to
repentance,” ran seriously in my thoughts. I was earnestly begging of God
to give me repentance, when it happened providentially, the very “day that,
reading the Scripture, I came to these words, “He is exalted a Prince and a
Savicur, to give repentance and to give remission.” I threw down the book,
and with my heart as well as my hands lifted up to heaven, in a kind of
ecstasy of joy, I cried out aloud, “Jesus, thou son of David !—Jesus, thou
exalted Prince and Saviour! give me repentance!” This was the first time I
could say, in the true sense of the words, that I prayed in all my life; for now
I prayed with a sense of my condition, and with a true Scripture view of hope,
founded on the encouragement of the Word of God; and from this time, I
may say, I began to have hope that God would hear me.

Now I began to construe the words mentioned above, “Call on me, and I
will deliver thee,” in a different sense from what I had ever done before; for
then I had no notion of anything being called deliverance, but my being
delivered from the captivity I was in; for though I was indeed at large in the
place, yet the island was certainly a prison to me, and that in the worst sense
in the world. But now I learned to take it in another sense. Now I looked
back upon my past life with such horror, and my sins appeared so dreadful,
that my soul sought nothing of God but deliverance from the load of guilt
that bore down all my comfort, As for my solitary life, it was nothing; I

64















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did not so much as pray to be delivered from it, or think of it; it was all of no
consideration, in comparison to this. And I add this part here, to hint to who-
ever shall read it, that whenever they come to a true sense of things, they will find
deliverance from sin a much greater blessing than deliverance trom affliction.

But, leaving this part, I return to my Journal:—

My condition began now to be, though not less miserable as to my way of
living, yet much easier to my mind; and my thoughts being directed, by a
constant reading the Scripture and praying to God, to things of a higher
nature, I had a great deal of comfort within, which, till now, I knew nothing
of; also, my health and strength returned, I bestirred myself to furnish myself
with everything that I wanted, and make my way of living as regular as I could.

From the 4th of July to the 14th, I was chiefly employed in walking about
with my gun in my hand, a little and a little at a time, as a man that was
gathering up his strength after a fit of sickness: for it is hardly to be
imagined how low I was, and to what weakness I was reduced. The appli-
cation which I made use of was perfectly new, and perhaps which had never
cured an ague before. Neither can I recommend it to any one to practise by
this experiment; and though it did carry off the fit, yet it rather contributed
to weakening me, for I had frequent convulsions in my nerves and limbs for
some time. I learned from. it also this, in particular, that being abroad in
the rainy season was the most pernicious thing to my health that could be,
especially in those rains which came attended with storms and hurricanes of
wind; for as the rain which came in the dry season was almost always accom-
panied with such storms, so I found that rain was much more dangerous than
the rain which fell in September and October.

I had now been in this unhappy island above ten months. All possibility
of deliverance from this condition seemed to be entirely taken from me; and
I firmly believed that no human shape had ever set foot upon that place.
Having now secured my habitation, as I thought, fully to my mind, I had a
great desire to make a more perfect discovery of the island, and to see what
other productions I might find, which I yet knew nothing of.

It was on the 15th of July that I began to make a more particular survey of
the island itself, I went up the creek first, where, as I hinted, I brought my
rafts on shore. I found, after I came about two miles up, that the tide did
not flow any higher, and that it was no more than a little brook of running
water, very fresh and good; but this being the dry season, there was hardly
any water in some parts of it, at least not enough to run in any stream, so as
it could be perceived. On the banks of this brook, I found many pleasant
savannahs or meadows, plain, smooth, and covered with grass; and on the
rising parts of them, next to the higher grounds, where the water, as might
be supposed, never overflowed, I found a great deal of tobacco, green, and
growing to a great and very strong stalk. There were divers other plants,

E 65

















LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



which I had no notion of or understanding about, that might, perhaps, have
virtues of their own, which I could not find out. I searched for the cassava
root, which the Indians, in all that climate, make their bread of, but I could
find none. I saw large plants of aloes, but did not understand them. I saw
several sugar-canes, but wild, and for want of cultivation, imperfect. I
contented myself with these discoveries for this time, and came back, musing
with myself what course I might take to know the virtue and goodness of any
of the fruits or plants which I should discover; but could bring it to no
conclusion ; for, in short, I had made so little observation while I was in the
Brazils, that I knew little of the plants in the field, at least very little that
might serve me to my purpose now in my distress.

The next day, the 16th, I went up the same way again; and after going
somewhat further than I had gone the day before, I-found the brook and
savannahs cease, and the country became more woody than before. In this
part I found different fruits, and particularly I found melons upon the ground,
in great abundance, and grapes upon the trees. The vines had spread, indeed,
over the trees, and the clusters of grapes were just now in their prime, very
ripe and rich. This was a surprising discovery, and I was exceeding glad
of them; but I was warned by my experience to eat sparingly of them,
remembering that when I was ashore in Barbary, the eating of grapes killed
several of our Englishmen, who were slaves there, by throwing them into
flukes and fevers. But I found an excellent use for these grapes, and that
was to cure or dry them in the sun, and keep them as dried grapes or raisins
are kept, which I thought would be, as indeed they were, wholesome and
agreeable to eat, when no grapes could be had.

I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my habitation, which,
by the way, was the first night, as I might say, I had lain from home. In
the night I took my first contrivance, and got up into a tree, where I slept
well; and the next morning proceeded upon my discovery, travelling nearly
four iniles, as I might judge by the length of the valley, keeping still due
north, with a ridge of hills on the south and north side of me. At the end
of this march I came to an opening, where the country seemed to descend to
the west, and a little spring of fresh water, which issued out of the side of the
hill by me, ran the other way, that is, due east ; and the country appeared so
fresh, so green, so flourishing, everything being in a constant verdure, or
flourish of spring, that it looked like a planted garden. I descended a little on
the side of that delicious vale, surveying it with a secret kind of pleasure,
though mixed with my other afflicting thoughts, to think that this was all my
own ; that I was king and lord of all this country indefeasibly, and had a
right of possession ; and, if I could convey it, I might have it in inheritance
as completely as any lord of a manor in England. I saw here abundance of
cocoa trees, orange, and melon, and citron trees; but all wild, and very few

66











ROBINSON CRUSOE.



bearing any fruit, at least, not then. However, the green limes that I
gathered were not only pleasant to eat, but very wholesome, and I mixed their
juice afterwards with water, which made it very wholesome, and very cool and
refreshing. I found now I had business enough to gather and carry home;
and I resolved to lay up a store, as well of grapes as limes and lemons, to
furnish myself for the wet season, which I knew was approaching. In order
to do this, I gathered a great heap of grapes in one place, a lesser heap in
another place, and a great parcel of limes and lemons in another place; and
taking a few of each with me, I travelled homewards, and resolved to come
again, and bring a bag or sack, or what I could make, to carry the rest home.
Accordingly, having spent three days in this journey, I came home (so I must
now call my tent and my cave); but before I got thither the grapes were
spoiled—the richness of the fruit and the weight of the juice having broken
them and bruised them, they were good for little or nothing. As to the
limes, they were good, but I could bring but a few.

The next day, being the 19th, I went back, having made me two small bags
to bring home my harvest. But I was surprised when, coming to my heap of
grapes, which were so rich and fine when I gathered them, I found them all
spread about, trod to pieces, and dragged about—some here, some there, and
abundance eaten and devoured. By this I concluded there were some wild
creatures thereabouts, which had done this; but what they were I knew not.
However, as I found there was no. laying them up on heaps, and no carrying
them away in a sack—but that one way they would be destroyed, and the other
way they would be crushed with their own weight—lI took another course,
for I gathered a large quantity of the grapes, and hung them upon the out-
branches of the trees, that they might cure and dry in the sun. And as for
the limes and lemons, I carried as many back as I could well stand under.

When I came home from this journey I contemplated with great pleasure
the fruitfulness of that valley, and the pleasantness of the situation—the
security from storms on that side the water, and the wood—and concluded
that I had pitched upon a place to fix my abode, which was by far the worst
part of the country. Upon the whole, I began to consider of removing my
habitation; and looking out for a place equally safe as where* now I was
situate—if possible, in that pleasant, fruitful part of the island. “

This thought ran long in my head, and I was exceeding fond of it for some
time, the pleasantness of the place tempting me. But when I came to a
nearer view of it, I considered that I was now by the sea-side, where it was at
least possible that something might happen to my advantage, and, by the same
ill fate that brought me hither, might bring some other unhappy wretches to
the same place. And though it was scarce probable that any such thing
should ever happen, yet to enclose myself among the hills and woods in the
centre of the island, was to anticipate my bondage, and to render such an

67

,















LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



aflair not only improbable, but impossible; and that therefore I ought not by
any means to remove. However, I was so enamoured of this place, that I
spent much of my time there for the whole of the remaining part of the month
of July. And though, upon second thoughts, I resolved not to remove, yet I
built me a little kind of a bower, and surrounded it at a distance with a strong
fence, being a double hedge, as high as I could reach, well staked, and filled
between with brushwood. And here I lay very secure, sometimes two or three
nights together, always going over it with a ladder, so that I fancied now I
had my country house and my sea-coast house; and this work took me up to
the beginning of August.

T had but newly finished my fence, and began to enjoy my labour, when the
rains came on, and made me stick close to my first habitation. For though I
had made me a tent like the other, with a piece of a sail, and spread it very
well, yet I had not the sheiter of a hill to keep me from storms, nor a cave
behind me to retreat into when the rains were extraordinary.

About the beginning of August, as I said, I had finished my bower, and
began to enjoy myself. The 3d of August I found the grapes I had hung up
perfectly dried, and indeed were excellent good raisins of the sun; so I began
to take them down from the trees; and it was very happy that I did so, for
the rains which followed would have spoiled them, and I had lost the best
put of my winter food; for I had above two hundred large bunches of them.
No sooner had I taken them all down, and carried most of them home to my
cave, but it began to rain. And from hence, which was the 14th of August,
it rained, more or less every day, till the middie of October, and sometimes so
violently that I could not stir out of my cave for several days.

In this season I was much surprised with the increase of my family. I had
been concerned for the loss of one of my cats who ran away from me, or, as I
thought, had been dead; and I heard no more tidings of her, till, to my
astonishment, she came home about the end of August with three kittens.
This was the more strange to me, because, though I had killed a wild cat (as
I called it) with my gun, yet I thought it was a quite different kind from our
European cats; but the young cats were the same kind of house-breed as the
old one, and both my cats being females, I thought it very strange. But from
these three cats I afterwards came to be so pestered with cats that I was forced
to kill them like vermin, or wild beasts, and to drive them from my house as
much as possible.

From the 14th of August to the 26th, incessant rain, so that I could not
stir, and was now very careful not to be much wet. In this confinement I
began to be straitened for food; but venturing out twice, I one day killed a
goat. And the last day, which was the 26th, found a very large tortoise,
which was a treat to me; and my food was regulated thus:—I ate a bunch of
raisins for my breakfast; a piece of the goat's flesh, or of the turtle, for my

68 ’









“The rainy season and the dry season began. now to appear regular to me.”





ROBINSON CRUSOE.



dinner, broiled (for, to my great misfortune, I had no vessel to boil or stew
anything); and two or three of the turtle’s eggs for my supper.

During this confinement in my cover by the rain, I worked daily two or
three hours at enlarging my cave, and by degrees worked it on towards one
side till I came to the outside of the hill, and made a door or way out, which
came beyond my fence or wall; and so I came in and out this way. But I
was not perfectly easy at lying so open, for, as I had managed myself before,
I was in a perfect enclosure; whereas now, I thought I lay exposed, and open
for anything to come in upon me; and yet I could not perceive that there was
any living thing to fear, the biggest creature that I had yet seen upon the
island being a goat.

Sept. 3O.—I was now cone to the unhappy anniversary of my landing. I
cast up the notches on my post, and found I had been on shore three hundred
and sixty-five days. I kept this day as a solemn fast, setting it apart for
religious exercise, prostrating myself on the ground with the most serious
| humiliation, confessing my sins to God, acknowledging his righteous judg-
\ ments upon me, and praying to him to have mercy on me through Jesus
Christ; and not having tasted the least refreshment for twelve hours, even till
the going down of the sun, I then ate a biscuit-cake and a bunch of grapes,
and went to bed, finishing the day as I began it. Thad all this time observed
no Sabbath-day; for as at first I had no sense of religion upon my mind, I
had, after some time, omitted to distinguish the wecks by making a longer
\ notch than ordinary for the Sabbath-day, and so did not really know what
any of the days were; but now, having cast up the days as above, I found I
had been there a year, so I divided it into weeks, and set apart every seventh
day for a Sabbath, though I found, at the end of my account, T had lost a day
| or two inmy reckoning. A little after this ink began to fail me, and so I con-
tented myself to use it more sparingly; to write down only the most remarkable
events of my life, without continuing a daily memorandum of other things.

The rainy season and the dry season began now to appear regular to me,
and I learned to divide them, so as to provide for them accordingly ; but I
bought all my experience before I had it, and this I am going to relate was
| one of the most discouraging experiments that I made.

L have mentioned that I had saved the few ears of barley and rice, which I
had so surprisingly found spring up, as I thought, of themselves, and I believe
there were about thirty stalks of rice, and about twenty of barley; and now I
thought it a proper, time to sow it, after the rains, the sun being in its southern
position, going from me. Accordingly, I dug up a piece of ground as well as
as I could with my wooden spade, and dividing it into two parts, I sowed my
grain ; but as I was sowing, it casually occurred to my thoughts that I would
not sow it all at first, because I did not know when was the proper time for
it, so I sowed about two-thirds of the seed, leaving about a handful of each.
69











eS aso"







LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



































It was a great comfort to me afterwards that I did so, for not one grain of
what I sowed this time came to anything; for the dry months following, the
earth having had no rain after the seed was sown, it had no moisture to assist
its growth, and never came up at all till the wet season had come again, and then
it grew as if it had been but newly sown. Finding my first seed did not
grow, which I easily imagined was by the drought, I sought for a moister
piece of ground to make another trial in, and I dug up a piece of ground near
my vew bower, and sowed the rest of my seed in February, a little before the
vernal equinox; and this having the rainy months of March and April to
water it, sprung up very pleasantly, and yielded a very good crop; but having
part of the seed left only, and not daring to sow all that I had, I had buta
small quantity at last, my whole crop not amounting to above halfa peck of each
kind. But by this experiment I was made master of my business, and knew
exactly when the proper season was to sow, and that I might expect two
seed-times and two harvests every year.

When this corn was growing, I made a little discovery, which was of use to
me afterwards. As soon as the rains were over, and the weather began to
settle, which was about the month of November, I made a visit up the country
to my bower, where, though I had not been some months, yet I found all
things just as I left them. The circle or double hedge that I had made was not
only firm and entire, but the stakes which I had cut out of some trees that
grew thereabouts were all shot out, and grown with long branches, as much as
a willow-tree usually shoots the first year after lopping its head. I could not
tell what tree to call it that these stakes were cut from. I was surprised, and
yet well pleased, to see the young trees grow, and I pruned them, and led them
up to grow as much alike as I could; and it is scarce credible how beautiful
a figure they grew into in three years. So that though the hedge made a
circle of about twenty-five yards in diameter, yet the trees, for such I might
now call them, soon covered it, and it was a complete shade, sufficient to lodge
under all the dry season. This made me resolve to cut some more stakes, and
make me a hedge like this in a semi-circle round my wall (I mean that of my
first dwelling), which I did; and placing the trees or stakes in a double row,
at about eight yards distant from my first fence, they grew presently, and
were at first a fine cover to my habitation, and afterwards served for a defence
also, as I shall observe in its order.

I found now that the seasons of the year might generally be divided, not
into summer and winter, as in Europe, but into the rainy seasons and the
dry seasons, which were generally thus :—

The half of February, the whole of March, and the half of April—rainy,
the sun being then on or near the equinox.

The half of April, the whole of May, June, and July, and the half of
August—dry, the sun being then to the north of the Line,

70

























ROBINSON CRUSOE.



The half of August, the whole of September, and the half of October—
rainy, the sun being then come back.

The half of October, the whole of November, December, and January, and
the half of February,—dry, the sun being then to the south of the Line.

The rainy seasons sometimes held longer or shorter as the winds happened
to blow, but this was the general observation I made. After I had found, by
experience, the ill consequences of being abroad in the rain, I took care to
furnish myself with provisions beforehand, that I might not be obliged to go
out, and I sat within doors as much as possible during the wet months. This
time I found much employment, and very suitable also to the time, for I
found great occasion for many things which I had no way to furnish myself
with but by hard labour and constant application. Particularly I tried many
ways to make myself a basket, but all the twigs I could get for the purpose
proved so brittle that they would donothing. It proved of excellent advantage
to me now, that when I was a boy, I used to take great delight in standing at
a basket-maker’s, in the town where my father lived, to see them make their
wicker-ware; and being, as boys usually are, very officious to help, ahd a
great observer of the manner in which they worked those things, and some-
times lending a hand, I had by these means full knowledge of the methods of it,
and I wanted nothing but the materials, when it came ito my mind that the
twigs of that tree from whence I cut my stakes that grew might possibly be
as tough as the sallows, willows, and osiers in England, and I resolved to try.
Accordingly, the next day I went to my country-house, as I called it, and
cutting some of the smaller twigs, I found them to my purpose as much as I
could desire ; whereupon I camie the next time prepared with a hatchet to cut
down a quantity, which I soon found, for there was great plenty of them.
These I set up to dry within my circle or hedge, and when they were fit for
use I carried them to my cave: and here, during the next season, I employed
myself in making, as well as I could, a great many baskets, both to carry
earth or to carry or lay up anything, as I had occasion; and though I did not
finish them very handsomely, yet I made them sufficiently serviceable for my
purpose; and thus, afterwards, I took care never to be without them: and as my
wicker-ware decayed I made more, especially strong deep baskets to place my
corn in, instead of sacks, when I should come to have any quantity of it.

Having mastered this difficulty, and employed a world of time about it, I
bestirred myself to see, if possible, how to supply two wants. I had no vessel
to hold anything that was liquid, except two runlets, which were almost full
of rum, and some glass bottles, some of the common size, and- others which
were case-bottles, square, for the holding of waters, spirits, etc. I had
not so much asa pot to boil anything, except a great kettle, which I saved.
out of the ship, and which was too big for such use as I desired it, viz., to
make broth, and stew a bit of meat by itself. “The second thing I gr would

1















LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



have had was a tobacco-pipe, but it was impossible for me to make one;
however, I found a contrivance for that, too, at last. I employed myself in
planting my second rows of stakes or piles and in this wicker-working all the
summer or dry season, when another business took me up more time than it
could be imagined I could spare.

I mentioned before that I had a great mind to see the whole island, and
that I had travelled up the brook, and so on to where I built my bower,
and where I had an opening quite to the sea, on the other side of the island.
I now resolved to travel quite across to the sea-shore on that side; so, taking
my gun, a hatchet, and my dog, and a larger quantity of powder and shot
than usual, with two biscuit-cakes and a great bunch of raisins in my pouch
for my store, I began my journey. When I had passed the vale where my
bower stood, as above, I came within view of the sea to the west, and it being
a very clear day, I fairly descried land,—whether an island or continent I
could not tell; but it lay very high, extending from the W. to the W.S.W. at
a very great distance; by my guess, it could not be less than fifteen or twenty
leagues off.

IT could not tell what part of the world this might be, otherwise than that I
knew it must be part of America, and, as I concluded, by all my observations,
must be near the Spanish dominions, and perhaps was all inhabited by savages,
where, if I had landed, I had been in a worse condition than I was now; and
therefore I acquiesced in the disposition of Providence, which I began now to
own and to believe ordered everything for the best; I say I quieted my mind
with this, and left off afflicting myself with fruitless wishes of being there.

Besides, after some thought upon this affair, I considered that if this land
was the Spanish coast, I should certainly, one time or other, see some vessel
pass or repass one way or other; but if not, then it was the savage coast,
between the Spanish country and Brazils, where are found the worst of
savages; for they are cannibals or men-eaters, and fail not to murder and
devour all the human bodies that fall into their hands.

With these considerations, I walked very leisurely forward; I found that
, side of the island where I now was much pleasanter than mine,—the open or

savannah fields sweet, adorned with flowers and grass, and full of very fine
woods. I saw abundance of parrots, and fain I would have caught one, if
possible, to have kept it to be tame, and taught it to speak to me. .I did,
after some painstaking, catch a young parrot, for I knocked it down with a
stick, and having recovered it, I brought it home; but it was some years
before I could make him speak; however, at last I taught him to call me by
my name very familiarly. But the accident that followed, though it be a
trifle, will be very diverting in its place.

I was exceedingly diverted with this journey. I found in the low ground
hares ies I thought them to be) and foxes; but they differed greatly from all

2













“T caught a young parrot which I knocked down with a stick.”









ROBINSON CRUSOE.

the other kinds I had met with, nor could I satisfy myself to eat them, though
I killed several. But I had no need to be venturous, for I had no want of
food, and of that which was very good, too, especially these three sorts, viz.,
goats, pigeons, and turtle, or tortoise, which, added to my grapes, Leadenhall
market could not have furnished a table better than I, in proportion to the
company; and though my case was deplorable enough, yet 1 had great cause
for thankfulness that I was not driven to any extremities for food, but had
rather plenty, even to dainties.

I never travelled in this journey above two miles outright in a day, or
thereabouts; but I took so many turns and returns to see what discoveries I
could make, that I came weary enough to the place where I resolved to sit
down all night; and then I either reposed myself in a tree, or surrounded
myself with a row of stakes set upright in the ground, either from one tree
to another, or so as no wild creature could come at me without waking me.

As soon as I came to the sea-shore, I was surprised to see that I had taken
up my lot on the worst side of the island, for here, indeed, the shore was
covered with innumerable turtles, whereas, on the other side I had found but
three in a year and a half. Here was also an infinite number of fowls of
many kinds, some which I had seen, and some which I had not seen before,
and inany of them very good meat, but such as I knew not the names of,
except those called penguins.

I could have shot as many as I pleased, but was very sparing of my powder
and shot, and therefore had more mind to kill a she-goat, if I could, which I
could better feed on; and though there were many goats here, more than on
my side the island, yet it was with much more difficulty that I could come
near them, the country being flat and even, and they saw me much sooner than
when I was on the hill.

I confess this side of the country was much pleasanter than mine; but yet
I had not the least inclination to remove, for, as I was fixed in my habitation,
it became natural to me; and I seemed all the while I was here to be as it
were upon a journey, and from home. However, I travelled along the shore
of the sea towards the east, I suppose about twelve miles, and then setting up
a great pole upon the shore for a mark, I concluded I would home again, and
that the next journey I took should be on the other side of the island east from
my dwelling, and so round till I came to my post again.

I took another way to come back than that I went, thinking I could easily
keep all the island so much in my view, that I could not miss finding my
first dwelling by viewing the country. But I found myself mistaken, for,
being come about two or three miles, I found myself descended into a very
large valley, but so surrounded with hills, and those hills covered with wood,
that I could not see which was my way by any direction but that of the sun,
nor even then, unless I knew very well the position of the sun at thay ine of

4

















LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



the day. It happened, to my further misfortune, that the weather proved
hazy for three or four days while I was in the valley, and, not being able to
see the sun, I wandered about very uncomfortably, and at last was obliged to
find the sea-side, look for my post, and come back the same way I went. And
then, by easy journeys, I turned homeward, the weather being exceeding hot,
and my gun, ammunition, hatchet, and other things, very heavy.

In this j journey my dog surprised a young kid, “and seized upon it; and I,
running in to take hold ‘of it, caught it and saved it alive from the ‘dog. I
had a creat mind to bring it home if I could, for I had often been musing
whether it might not be possible to get a kid or two, and so raise a breed of
tame goats, which might supply me when my powder and shot should be
all spent. I ade a collar for this little creature; and with a string, which I
made of some rope-yarn, which I always carried about me, I led him along,
though with some difficulty, till I came to my bower, and there I enclosed
him and left him, for I was very impatient to be at home, from whence I had
been absent above a month.

I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me to come into my old hutch,
and lie down in my hammock-bed. This little wandering journey, without
settled place of abode, had been so unpleasant to me, that my own house, as I
called it to myself, was a perfect settlement to me, compared to that; and it
rendered everything about me so comfortable, that I resolved I would never go
a great way from it again, while it should be my lot to stay on the island.

I reposed myself here a week, to rest and regale myself after my long
journey, during which most of the time was taken up in the weighty affair of
making a cage for my Poll, who began now to be a mere domestic, and to be
well acquainted with me. Then I began to think of the poor kid which I had
penned in within my little circle, and resolved to go and fetch it home, or give
it some food. Accordingly I went, and found it where I left it, for indeed it
could not get out, but was almost starved for want of food. I went and cut
boughs of trees, and branches of such shrubs as I could find, and threw it
over; and having fed it, I tied it as I did before, to lead it away. But it was
so tame with being hungry that I had no need to have tied it, for it followed
me like a dog. And as I continually fed it, the creature became so loving, so
gentle, and so fond, that it became from that time one of my domestics also,
and would never leave me afterwards.

The rainy season of the autumnal equinox was now come; and I kept the
30th of September in the same solemn manner as before (being the anniversary
of my landing on the island), having now been there two years, and no more
prospect of being delivered than the first day Icame there. I spent the whole
day in humble and thankful acknowledgments of the many wonderful mercies
which my solitary condition was attended with, and without which it might
have been infinitely more miserable. I gave humble and hearty thanks that

74















ROBINSON CRUSOE.



God had been pleased to discover to me that it was possible I might be more
happy in this solitary condition than I should have been in the liberty of
society, and in all the pleasures of the world—that He could fully make up to
me the deficiencies of my solitary state, and the want of human society, by

is presence, and the communications of His grace to my soul, supporting,
comforting, and encouraging me to depend upon His providence here, and
hope for His eternal presence hereafter.

It was now that I began sensibly to feel how much more happy this life I
now led was—with all its miserable circumstances—than the wicked, cursed,
abominable life I led all the past part of my days. And now I changed
both my sorrows and my joys—my very desires altered; my affections
changed their gusts, and my delights were perfectly new from what they
were at my first coming, or indeed for the two years past.

Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting, or for viewing the country,
the anguish of my soul at my condition would break out upon me on a
sudden, and my very heart would die within me, to think of the woods, the
mountains, the deserts I was in, and how I was a prisoner, locked up with the
eternal bars and bolts of the ocean, in an uninhabited wilderness, without
redemption. In the midst of the greatest composure of my mind this would
break out upon me like a storm, and make me ring my hands, and weep like
a child. Sometimes it would take me in the middle of my work, and I would
immediately sit down and sigh, and look upon the ground for an hour or two
together ; and this was still worse to me, for if I could burst out into tears, or
vent myself by words, it would go off, and the grief having exhausted itself,
would abate.

But now I began to exercise myself with new thoughts. I daily read the
Word of God, and applied all the comforts of it to my present state. One
morning, being very sad, I opened the Bible upon these words, “I will never,
never leave thee, nor forsake thee.” Immediately it occurred that these words
were tome. Why else should they be directed in such a manner, just at the
moment when I was mourning over my condition, as one forsaken of God and
man? “Well, then,” said I, “if God does not forsake me, of what ill conse-
quence can it be, or what matters it, though the world should all forsake me,
seeing on the other hand, if I had all the world, and should lose the favour
and blessing of God, there would be no comparison in the loss ?”

From this moment I began to conclude in my mind that it was possible
for me to be more happy in this forsaken, solitary condition, than it was
probable I should ever have been in any other particular state in the world ;
and with this thought I was going to give thanks to God. for bringing me to
this place. I knew not what it was, but something shocked my mind at that
thought, and I durst not speak the words. “How canst thou become such a
hypocrite,” said I, even audibly, “to pretend to be thankful for a condition,

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LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



which, however thou mayest endeavour to be contented with, thou wouldst
rather pray heartily to be delivered from?” so I stopped there, but though I could
not say I thanked God for being there, yet I sincerely gave thanks to God for
opening my eyes, by whatever afilicting providences, to see the former
condition of my life, and to mourn for my wickedness, and repent. I never
opened the Bible or shut it but my very soul within me blessed God for direct-
ing my friend in England, without any order of mine, to pack it up among my
goods, and for assisting me afterwards to save it out of the wreck of the ship.

Thus, and in this disposition of mind, I began my third year; and though
I have not given the reader the trouble of so particular an account of my
works this year as the first, yet in general it may be observed that I was very
seldom idle, but having regularly divided my time according to the several
daily employments that were before me, such as, first, my duty to God, and
the reading the Scriptures, which I constantly set apart some time for
thrice every day; secondly, the going abroad with my gun for food, which
generally took me up three hours in every morning, when it did not
rain; thirdly, the ordering, cutting, preserving, and cooking, what I had
killed or caught for my supply: these took up gveat part of the day; also, it
is to be considered, that in the middle of the day, when the sun was in the
zenith, the violence of the heat was too great to stir out; so that about four
hours in the evening was all the time I could be supposed to work in, with
this exception, that sometimes I changed my hours of hunting and working,
and went to work in the morning, and abroad with my gun in the afternoon.

To this short time allowed for labour, I desire may be-added the exceeding
laboriousness of my work; the many hours which for want of tools, want of
help, and want of skill, everything I did took up out of my time; for example,
I was two and forty days in making a board for a long shelf, which I wanted
in my cave; whereas, two sawyers, with their tools and a saw-pit, would have
eut six of them out of the same tree in half a day.

My case was this: it was to be a large tree which was to be cut down,
because my board was to be a broad one. This tree I was three days in
cutting down, and two more cutting off the boughs, and reducing it to a log,
or piece of timber. With inexpressible hatching and hewing I reduced both
the sides of it into chips till it began to be light enough to move; then I
turned it, and made one side of it smooth and flat as a board from end to end;
then turning that side downward, cut the other side, till I brought the plank
to be about three inches thick, and smooth on both sides. Any one may
judge the labour of my hands in sucha piece of work, but labour and patience
carried me through that, and many other things; I only observe this in
particular, to show the reason why so much of my time went away with so
little work, viz. that what might be a little to be done with help and tools,

was a vast labour and required a prodigious time to do alone, and by hand. But
76























ROBINSON CRUSOE.



notwithstanding this, with patience and labour I got through everything that
my circumstances made necessary to me to do, as will appear by what follows.

I was now, in the months of November and December, expecting my crop
of barley and rice. The ground I had manured and dug up for them was not
great ; for, as I observed, my seed of each was not above the quantity of half
a peck, for I had lost one whole crop by sowing in the dry season ; but now
my crop promised very well, when on a sudden I found I was in danger of
losing it all again by enemies of several sorts, which it was scarcely possible
to keep from it; as, first the goats, and wild creatures which I called hares,
who, tasting the sweetness of the blade, lay in it night and day, as soon as it
came up, and eat it so close that it could get no time to shoot up into stalk.

This I saw no remedy for but by making an enclosure about it with a hedge ;
which I did with a great deal of toil, and the more, because it required speed.
However, as my arable land was but small, suited to my crop, I got it totally
well fenced in about three weeks’ time, and, shooting some of the creatures in
the day-time, I set my dog to guard it in the night, tying him un to a stake
at the gate, where he would stand and bark all night long; so in a little time
the enemies forsook the place, and the corn grew very strong and well, and
began to ripen apace.

But as the beasts ruined me before while my corn was in the blade, so the
birds were as likely to ruin me now when it was in the ear; for going along
by the place to see how it throve, I saw my little crop surrounded with fowls
of I know not how many sorts, who stood, as it were, watching till I should
be gone. I immediately let fly among them, for I always had my gun with
me. I had no sooner shot but there rose up a little cloud of fowls, which I
had not seen at all, from among the corn itself.

This touched me sensibly, for I foresaw that in a few days they would devour
all my hopes; that I should be starved, and never be able to raise a crop at all,
and what to do I could not tell; however, I resolved not to lose my corn, if
possible, though I should watch it night and day. In the first place, I went
among it to see what damage was already done, and found they had spoiled a
good deal of it; but that as it was yet too green for them, the loss was not so
great, but that the remainder was likely to be a good crop, if it could be saved.

I stayed by it to load my gun, and then coming away, I could easily see the
thieves sitting upon all the trees about me, as if they only waited till I was
gone away. And the event proved it to be so, for as I walked off, as if I was
gone, I was no sooner out of their sight than they dropt down one by one into
the corn again. I was so provoked that I could not have patience to stay till
more came on, knowing that every grain that they eat now was, as it might
be said, a peck-loaf to me in the consequence, but coming up to the hedge, I
fired again and killed three of them. This was what I wished for. So I took
them up, and served them as we serve notorious thieves in England—hanged

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LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

them in chains, for a terror to others. It is impossible to imagine that this
should have such an effect as it had; for the fowls would not only not come at
the corn, but, in short, they forsook all that part of the island; and I could
never see a bird near the place as long as my scarecrows hung there. This I
was very glad of, you may be sure; and about the latter end of December,
which was our second harvest of the year, I reaped my corn.

I was sadly put to it for a scythe or sickle to cut it down; and all I could
do was to make one, as well as I could, out of one of the broad-swords, or
eutlasses, which I saved among the arms out of the ship. However, as my
first crop was but small, I had no great difficulty to cut it down. In short, I
reaped it my way; for I cut nothing off but the ears, and carried it away in a
great basket which I had made, and so rubbed it out with my hands. And
at the end of all my harvesting, I found that out of my half peck of seed I
had near two bushels of rice, and about two bushels and a half of barley—that
is to say, by my guess, for I had no measure at that time.

However, this was a great encouragement to me, and I foresaw that, in time,
it would please God to supply me with bread. And yet here I was perplexed
again, for I neither knew how to grind or make meal of my corn, or, indeed,
how to clean it and part it; nor, if made into meal, how to make bread of it;
and if how to make it, yet [ knew not how to bake it. These things being
added to my desire of having a good quantity for store, and to secure a constant
supply, I resolved not to taste any of this crop, but to preserve it all for seed
against the next season; and, in the meantime, to employ all my study and
hours of working to accomplish this great work of providing myself with corn
and bread.

It might be truly said that now I worked for my bread. I believe few
people have thought much upon the strange multitude of little things necessary
in the providing, producing, curing, dressing, faking, and finishing, this one
article of bread.

I, that was reduced te a mere state of nature, found this to my daily dis-
couragement, and was made more sensible of it every hour, even after I had
got the first handfal of seed- corn, which, as I have said, came up unexpectedly,
and indeed to a surprise.

First—I had no plough to turn up the earth—no spade or shovel to dig it.
Well, this I conquered by making me a wooden spade, as I observed before.
But this did my work but in a w ooden manner; and though it cost mea great
many days to make it, yet, for‘want of iron, it not only wore out soon, but made
my work the harder, and made it be performed much worse. However, this I
bore with, and was content to work it out with patience, and bear with the
badness of the performance. When the corn was sown I had no harrow, but
was forced to go over it myself, and drag a great heavy bough of a tree over

it, to scratch it, as it may be called, rather than rake or harrow it. When it was
78





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“T was no sooner out of sight than they dropped down into the corn again, I
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ROBINSON CRUSOE.



growing, and grown, I have observed already how many things I wanted to
fence it, secure it, mow or reap it, cure and carry it home, thrash, part it from
the chaff, and save it. Then I wanted a mill to grind it, sieves to dress it,
yeast and salt to make it into bread, and an oven to bake it; but all these
things I did without, as shall be observed. And yet the corn was an
inestimable comfort and advantage to ‘me too. All this, as I said, made
everything laborious and tedious to me, but that there was no help for.
Neither was my time so much less to me, because, as I had divided it, a
certain part of it was every day appointed to these works; and as I had
resolved to use none of the corn for bread till I had a greater quantity by me,
T had the next six months to apply myself wholly, by labour and invention, to
furnish myself with utensils proper for the performing all the operations
necessary for making the corn, when I had it, fit for my use.

But, first, I was to prepare more land, for I had now seed enough to sow
above an acre of ground. Before I did this, I had a week’s work at least to
make me a spade, which, when it was done, was but a sorry one, indeed, and
very heavy, and required double labour to work with it. However, I got
through that, and sowed my seed in two large flat pieces of ground, as near
my house as I could find them to my mind, and fenced them in with a good
hedge, the stakes of which were all cut off that wood which I had set before,
and knew it would grow; so that in one year’s time I knew I should have a
quick or living hedge, that would want but little repair. This work did not
take me up less than three months, because a great part of that time was the
wet season, when I could not go abroad. Within doors—that is, when it
rained, and I could not go out—I found employment in the following occu-
pations—always observing that all the while I was at work, I diverted myself
with talking to my parrot, and teaching him to speak. And I quickly taught
him to know his own name, and at last to speak it out pretty loud—Poll!
which was the first word I ever heard spoken in the island by any mouth but
my own. This, therefore, was not my work, but an assistance to my work;
for now, as I said, I had a great employment upon my hands, as follows:—
I had long studied to make, by some means or other, some earthen vessels,
which, indeed, I wanted sorely, but knew not where to come at them.
However, considering the heat of the climate, I did not doubt but if I could
find out any clay, I might make some pots that might, being dried in the sun,
be hard enough and strong enough to bear handling, and to hold anything
that was dry, and required to be kept so. And as this was necessary in the
preparing corn, meal, etc., which was the thing I was doing, I resolved to
make some as large as I.could, and fit only to stand like jars, to hold what
should be put into them.

It would make the reader pity me, or rather laugh at me, to tell how many
awkward ways I took to raise this paste; what odd, misshapen, ugly things I

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LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



made; how many of them fell in, and how many fell out, the clay not being
stiff enough to bear its own weight; how many cracked by the over-violent
heat of the sun, being set out too hastily; and how many fell in pieces with
only removing, as well before as after they were dried; and, in a word, how,
after having laboured hard to find the clay—to dig it, to temper it, to bring it
home and work it—I could not make above two large earthen ugly things (I
cannot call them jars) in about two months’ labour.

However, as the sun baked these two very dry and hard, I lifted them very
gently up, and set them down again in two great wicker baskets which I had
made on purpose for them, that they might not break; and as between the
pot and the basket there was a little room to spare, I stutted it full of the rice
and barley straw; and these two pots being to stand always dry, I thought
would hold my dry corn, and perhaps the meal, when the corn was bruised.

Though I miscarried so much in my design for large pots, yet I made
several smaller things with better success; such as little round pots, flat
dishes, pitchers, and pipkins, and any things my hand turned to; and the
heat of the sun baked them quite hard.

But all this would not answer my end, which was to get an earthen pot to
hold what was liquid and bear the fire, which none of these could do. It
happened after some time, making a pretty large fire for cooking my meat,
when [ went to put it out after I had done with it, 1 found a broken piece of
one of my earthenware vessels in the fire, burnt as hard as a stone and red as
a tile. Iwas agreeably surprised to see it, and said to myself that certainly
they might be made to burn whole if they would burn broken.

This set me to study how to order my fire, so as to make it burn some pots.
Thad no notion of a kiln, such as the potters burn in, or of glazing them with
lead, though I had some lead to do it with; but I placed three large pipkins,
and two or three pots on a pile, one upon another, and placed my firewood all
round it with a great heap of embers under them. I plied the fire with fresh
fuel round the outside and upon the top till I saw the pots in the inside red-
hot quite through, and observed that they did not crack at all; when I saw
them clear red, I let them stand in that heat about five or six hours, till I
found one of them, though it did not crack, did melt or run; for the sand
which was mixed with the clay melted by the violence of the heat, and would
have run into glass if I had gone on; so I slacked my fire gradually till the
pots began to “abate of the red colour, and watching them all night, that I
might not let the fire abate too fast, in the morning “T had three very good
(I will not say handsome) pipkins, and two other earthen pots, as hard burnt
as could be desired, and one of them perfectly glazed with the running of
the sand.

After this experiment, I need not say that I wanted no sort of earthenware
for my use; but I must needs say as to the shapes of them, they were very

80





Full Text
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“ Having learned to know the value of retirement, and the blessing of
g f : &
ending our days in peace.”
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— ADVENTURES

o BINSON (RUSop

BY



"wy : BO Ay’

LONDON
S.W. PARTRIDGE &C°














4 ®

MEMOIR OF DANIEL DE FOR.”

How seldom it happens that great men are born in great towns. Some
secluded spot, where the influence of nature rather than of human society is
felt, is commonly the nursery of genius. Great cities seem to have a depres-
sing influence upon the human mind. The high pressure of an artificial
competition, while forcing it into a premature activity, leaves its finest
faculties dormant. City life thus favours the production of a crowd of
mediocrities; and amid a surrounding of narrow but keenly polished wits, the
dawn of a new intellectual life is exposed to the friction of a minute and
sterile criticism which damps enthusiasm and crushes out the early spark of
originality. Conformity to a pattern of conventional acquirements takes the
place of the unfettered development of the individual nature, and a perpetual
round of petty activities keeps alive a semblance of intellectual excitement
which completes the absorption of the individual in the collective life.

How strange that the author of Robinson Crusoe, a man distinguished above
all things for individuality, and the masterpiece of whose genius is the
description of a solitary life in a desert island, should have been born in
London. We must regard this striking exception as a bold assertion of the
sovereignty of nature over the strongest combinations of those conventional
barriers by which men endeavour to restrict her sway.

Daniel De Foe was born in London, in the parish of St. Giles’, Cripplegate,
in 1661. He died in the same parish in April, 1731. During his life of

seventy years he saw, seated on the throne of England, six successive monarchs,
from Charles IT. to George IL, and he witnessed the final phases of the greatest
revolution in our history.

Let no one imagine that in these stirring days the author of Robinson
Crusoe lived the life of a contemplative recluse. His mind was not of a kind
to be satisfied even with the activities of city life; and from about the age of
twenty-one to that of fifty-four, he was incessantly engaged in the fiercest
political strife of that stormy period.

Daniel’ De Foe was the son of James Foe, a butcher, in the parish of St Giles’;
his grandfather, Daniel Foe, was a yoeman of Elton, in Huntingdonshire, It

a 3 i*














MEMOIR OF DANIEL DE FOE.



is not known at what time he adopted the prefix “De,” which distinguishes
his name from that of his ancestors. His grandfather is said to have been a
cavalier; his father, it is certain, was a round-head and a dissenter. Daniel
received an excellent education at a dissenting academy, being intended for the
ministry, which, for some reason unknown, he did not enter. That he profited
by his education appears not only by his works, but from his own testimony.
When taunted by an opponent with his want of learning, he, on one occasion,
replied, “As to my little learning and his great capacity, I fairly challenge him
to translate with me any Latin, French, or Italian author, and after that to re-
translate them, crossways, for twenty pounds each book.” He was also well
read in the theological controversies of the day.

He began life as a merchant hosier, and continued this occupation up till
1695. His place of business was in Freeman’s Court, Cornhill. His business
transactions during this period were considerable.

It was not long till his political activity began to show itself. In 1682-3
he published his first tracts, one of them upon the invasion of Austria by the
Turks. He did not include these early publications in the editions he after-
wards prepared of his collected works.

In 1685 he joined the rebellion under the Duke of Monmouth. Being at
this time a young man, and comparatively unknown, he seems to have escaped
notice, and, on the failure of the enterprise, he came quietly back to London
and resumed his occupations.

On the 26th of January, 1688, he was admitted a livery man, his name being
entered in the Chamberlain’s book as Daniel Foe. Towards the close of the
same year he had the gratification of meeting the Prince of Orange at Henley,
and marching with him to London; and in the following year he formed one
of a guard of honour who attended King William on the occasion of his dining
at the Guildhall with the Lord Mayor.

He had now become a considerable trader, and his business took him on
one occasion to Spain, where he resided for some time, and learned the lang-
uage. He also on different occasions visited France and Germany. The turning
point in De Foe’s career, however, came in the form of business disasters. In
1692 he was obliged to abscond from his creditors; but during his temporary
flight, a composition was arranged on his own bond, which he faithfully dis-
charged, and afterwards made considerable efforts to pay his creditors in full.
About the causes of his want of success in business there appears to be little
doubt. He, himself, explains them with sufficient clearness. Being of a san-
guine disposition, he speculated beyond his means, and trusted people who
were unworthy of credit. That he neglected his business for literary pursuits,
is an assumption of some of his biographers which seems to be both un-
necessary and groundless. His debts amounted to £17,000, which he says he
afterwards reduced to £5,000.

n
















MEMOIR OF DANIEL DE FOE.

Lest his flight from his creditors should be supposed to reflect upon his
honour, it may be well to advert to the state of the bankruptcy law at the
time, which he was afterwards instrumental in getting changed. His own
statement of it is: —“The cruelty of our law against debtors, without distinction
of honest or dishonest, is the shame of our nation. I am persuaded the
honestest man in England, when by circumstances he is compelled to break,
will fly out the kingdom rather than submit. To stay here, this is the conse-
quence : as soon as he breaks he is proscribed as a criminal, and has thirty or
sixty days to surrender both himself and all that he has to his creditors. If
he fails to do so, he has nothing before him but the gallows, without benefit of
clergy; if he surrenders, he is not sure but he shall be thrown into jail for life
by the commissioners, only on pretence that they doubt his oath. It is
certainly,” he adds, “the interest of the creditor that when a debtor has failed
he should come and throw himself into the creditor’s hands, and there be safe.”

His friends now wished to establish him as a factor in Cadiz, but “Providence
placed a secret aversion in his mind to quitting England.”

He obtained, in 1695, the appointment of accomptant to the commissioners,
for managing the duties on glass; which he held till 1699, when the duty was
abolished.

In 1697 he published an “ Essay upon Projects,” which contains, among other
suggestions, one for the formation of a society for the cultivation of literature,
and the improvement of the English language, on the plan of the French
Academy, a project which has since been advocated by Swift and others, up to
the present day. From this time he became a constant writer on all the social
and political topics of the day.

In 1701 appeared a work on which De Foe always highly valued himself,
and of which it was his practice to cite himself as the author in-his subsequent
publications. This was, “The True-born Englishman.”

William III. had been placed on the throne by a coalition of whigs and tories.
The strong attachment of the latter to the principle of legitimacy was not, how-
ever, overcome by their well-founded distrust of James, and the sympathies of
the nation were largely on their side. Hence dreams and projects of a restora-
tion began to be entertained, and many would gladly have welcomed James
back under conditions which would have secured constitutional liberty, and
the ascendency of the Protestant religion. In the mouths of the reactionaries
the phrase, “a true-born Englishman,” had acquired a significance which
reflected upon William as an alien. Against this use of the phrase, which he
adopted as his title, De Foe directed a satire.

Here it may be observed that while De Foe was partial to verse, and fre-
quently used it as 2 means of conveying his sentiments, he never took any pains
to cultivate a style and mode of expression suitable to the most refined medium
of communication for human thought. He wrote poetry like a pamphleteer;

zs im










MEMOIR OF DANIEL DE FOR



and the English language, though it admits of a very elevated diction, is not
favourable to improvisatori. Otherwise there are touches of vigour in his
style that might almost justify one in holding, contrary to the common
opinion, that with leisure and inclination he might have been as highly dis-
tinguished as a poet as he is as a prose writer.

Take for example such distichs as this from “The True-born English-
man :”—

“Who their old monarch eagerly undo,
And yet uneasily obey the new.”

“Fools out of favour grudge at knaves in place,
And men are always honest in disgrace.”

It was somewhat daring in Pope to place a man who could bite like
this in the “Dunciad;” yet, it is true, we are much oftener favoured with
couplets like the following :—

Search, satire, search ; a deep incision make:
The poison’s strong, the antidote’s too weak.”

This poem admitted De Foe to the favour of King William, who though not
so great a patron of literature as his rival Louis XIV., was sensible to the muses
when they espoused his cause. He consulted and employed De Foe; yet this
did not prevent the bold and honest poet from writing in favour of peace with
France, when the king had determined on war.

Satire was De Foe’s favourite weapon, and early in the following reign he
found an admirable occasion for using it. During the reign of Queen Anne
sectarian intolerance, with the least possible excuse, reached the highest point
it has ever been known to attain. The common dangers from which all Pro-
testants had escaped might have been expected to dispose them to feelings of
charity and brotherhood towards each other; but this was not the view of the
High Churchmen. _A dissenter with them was more to be despised, if less to
be dreaded, than a Romanist. Conformity to the church was the only condi-
tion on which either state or civic dignities were to be held. This had led to a
practice among the dissenters of occasional conformity, for the sake of holding
office, which was defended by men of high reputation, both lay and clerical, on
the plea of moderation, until, in 1711, it was put a stop to, not by the scruples
of the dissenters themselves, but by the rising intolerance of churchmen, who
succeeded in passing, by a coalition of whigs and tories, a bill making a single
attendance at a conventicle the cause of deprivation of office.

On this subject De Foe took up a position offensive to all parties, and which
was the occasion of a great part of the sacrifices and sufferings of his life. He

steadily opposed the practice of occasional conformity as inconsistent and sac-
iv
















MEMOIR OF DANIEL DE FOE.



rilegious. He had already written against it in the reign of King William.
At the same time the further designs of the High Church party filled him with
disgust and indignation, and he employed against them the powerful weapon
of his satire.

In a tract entitled “The Shortest Way with the Dissenters,” he assumed the
character of a High Churchman, and gravely parodied the intolerance of the
zealots of the party. So well had he studied his models that he was only in
advance of them in time. Extreme adherents of the party actually commended
his views, and some of his predictions came afterwards to be verified; but in
the meantime they aroused the rage of all parties, and especially of the
dissenters, who were offended with his scrupulousness, and could not compre-
hend the delicacy of his satire. They treated him as a disturber of the peace,
and called his tract scurrilous. ,

The matter was taken up by the House of Commons, and some parts of the
book being read in the House, 25th February, 1702-3, it was resolved, “That
this book being full of false and scandalous reflections on this Parliament, and
tending to promote sedition, be burnt by the hands of the common hangman
to-morrow in New Palace Yard.”

A reward of £50 was offered for the apprehension of De Foe, who
surrendered, in order to relieve his printers from the responsibility. He was
sentenced to pay a fine of 200 marks to the Queen, to stand three times in the
pillory, to be imprisoned during the Queen’s pleasure, and to find sureties for
his good behaviour for seven years. De Foe was attended to the pillory by a
guard of honour provided by the mob, which protected him from insult, and
crowned the instrument with garlands.

It is a sufficient comment upon this affair to say that De Foe was ultimately
released from prison by the intervention of Harley, afterwards Eatl of Oxford,
the leader of the tory party, at whose instance the Queen paid his fine, and sent
a sum of money to his wife.

Previous to his imprisonment he had been engaged in a brick and tile kiln
work in Essex, and he complains it cost him the destruction of his business, with
the loss of £8,500, and upset his plans for paying his creditors, which were
progressing satisfactorily. He also laments the loss to his country of an industry
which he was successfully striving to introduce, this manufacture having been
previously carried on in Holland.

While in prison he was not idle. He projected a periodical paper which he
began, six months before his release, in February, 1704. This paper, which
was continued for nine years, forms one of the most considerable of his works.
It was one of the earliest British newspapers, and to render it attractive he
added to it the feature of a Scandal Club, which discussed all manner of topics,
social, political, and literary. It was written wholly by himself, and was con-
tinued without interruption during protracted absences from England, one of

v
















MEMOIR OF DANIEL DE FOE.



them of sixteen months’ duration, when he was engaged in important trans-
actions in Scotland. During another protracted visit to Scotland, he was
asked by the corporation of Edinburgh to edit the Edinburgh Courant, which
he did in 1710-11, for forty-five numbers, without relinquishing the Review.
During all this time he never ceased issuing new books and pamphlets.

On his release from prison he was first employed by Harley on a secret
mission to the Continent, and then, in 1706, after being admitted to an inter-
view with the Queen, and permitted to kiss her hand, he was sent to Scotland to
promote the Union, which he had already zealously advocated. For his services
in this negotiation, which were dictated by the most enlightened patriotism,
and conducted in a manner which made him many warm friends in the
Scottish nation, he deserves the highest praise. Hazlitt says that, “As a
public advocate, when their religion or their liberties were attacked, the Scots,
perhaps, had not a more zealous or sincere friend among the English,” and of
his “History of the Union,” published in 1709, he says, “It had alone preserved
his name, had his Crusoe pleased us less.”

On his return from Scotland he was rewarded with an appointment, which
was continued through subsequent changes of ministry, but his salary does not
seem to have been regularly paid. He constantly enjoyed, however, the
confidence and private friendship of Harley; and on this account, as well as
from some differences of opinion with them, he became an object of suspicion
and dislike to the whigs.

They had a second opportunity of shewing the blindness of their malignity
on the occasion of another satirical pamphlet of De Foe’s, which this time was
directed against the Jacobites. Pretending again to take his words in a literal
sense, they instituted a prosecution against him, but before the trial came on
the Earl of Oxford again rescued him by a pardon under the Great Seal.

Changes of party were common in those days, as they are in ours, but it is
without ground that De Foe has been accused of political tergiversation. As
a statesman he was more enlightened than most of the placemen, either whig
or tory, by whom he was surrounded. He differed from the whigs on many
important points, and their narrowness and intolerance of his independence
alienated him, while the more generous treatment of his political opponents
had the natural effect of inducing him to moderate his opposition.

There can be no doubt that during the later years of the Review he gave an
independent support to the ministry of the Earl of Oxford, and advocated a
union of moderate whigs and tories. Even Hazlitt, who strenuously contends
against the idea of De Foe’s being considered‘a supporter of the ministry, is
constrained to admit that one of his pamphlets was artfully intended to prepare
the dissenters for further severities. But in all this De Foe acted not as a
tory but as an ill-used whig, and he never forsook his principles, even when

unable to co-operate with his former associates. His independence is
vi
















MEMOIR OF DANIEL DE FOE.





sufficiently attested by the fact that he wrote against the peace of Utrecht, and
after Harley and Bolingbroke had quarreled, defended an unpopular measure
of the latter, Free trade with France, in which the Earl of Oxford had no
concern.

His last political publication was a vindication of his character from ‘the
vituperation and incessant calumnies to which he was subjected, and which had
always had a powerful effect on his sensitive mind, in an “Appeal to the
Honour and Justice of his Enemies.”

While engaged in this work, in 1715, he was seized with apoplexy. His
friends, after waiting some time for his recovery, thought it advisable to
publish it unfinished.

It was this battered old dissenter, retired to nurse the wounds received in
political conflict, who astonished the world with “ Robinson Crusoe,” and other
equally brilliant, though less known works of fiction. To enter on a critical
examination of De Foe’s genius in this brief Memoir, the whole space covered
by which would not suffice for a catalogue of his works, would be unreason-
able. As an illustration of his extraordinary energy, it may be proper to
enumerate a few of his later productions, warning the reader that it is a
sample only, and not a complete list, even of the works of his declining years
that is here presented. i

Robinson Crusoe was published in 1719. From this time till 1728,
appeared Life and Piracies of Captain Singleton; History of Duncan Campbell;
Fortunes and Misfortunes of Moll Flanders; Life of Colonel Jaque; A Journal
of the Plague; Memoirs of a Cavalier (of which the Earl of Chatham used to
speak as the best history of the civil war extant); Tours through England
and Scotland; The Fortunate Mistress, or Adventures of Roxana; Political
History of the Devil; Complete Tradesman; and Plan of English Commerce.

Of seventy years spent in such activities this Memoir does not profess to
give even an outline. If the few incidents it presents suffice to give some idea
of the spirit of the man, its purpose will be served.





























LIFE AND ADVENTURES

OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE.

though not of that country, my father being a foreigner of Bremen,

who settled first at Hull. He got a good estate by merchandise, and
leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at York; from whence he had married
my mother, whose relations were named Robinson, a very good family in
that country, and from whom 'I was called Robinson Kreutznaer; but, by the
usual corruption of words in England, we are now called,—nay, we call
ourselves, and write our name, Crusoe; andso my companions always called me.

Thad two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-colonel to an English
regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly commanded by the famous Colonel
Lockhart, and was killed at the battle near Dunkirk against the Spaniards.
What became of my second brother I never knew, any more than my father
or mother did know what was become of me.

Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade, my head
began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts. My father, who was
very ancient, had given me a-competent share of learning, as far as house-
education and a country free-school generally go, and designed me for. the
law; but I would be satisfied with nothing but going to sea; and my inclina-
tion to this led me so strongly against the will, nay, the commands of my
father, and against all the entreaties and persuasions of my mother and other
friends, that there seemed to be something fearful in that propensity of nature
tending directly to the life of misery which was to befal me. :

My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excellent counse
against what he foresaw was my design. He called me one morning: into his
chamber, where he was confined by the gout, and expostulated very vamnily

A

| WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good family,



eee












LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

with me upon this subject. He asked me what reasons, more than a mere
wandering inclination, I had for leaving my father’s house and my native
country, where I might be well introduced, and had a prospect of raising my
fortune by application and industry, with a life of ease and pleasure. He
told me that it was men of desperate fortunes on one hand, or of aspiring,
superior fortunes on the other, who went abroad upon adventures, to rise by
enterprise, and make themselves famous in undertakings of a nature out of
the common road; that these things were all either too far above me, or too
far below me; that mine was the middle state, or what might be called the
upper station of low life, which he had found, by long experience, was the best
state in the world, the most suited to human happiness, not exposed to the
misery and hardships, the labour and sufferings of the mechanic part of
mankind, and not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of the
upper part of mankind. He told me I might judge of the happiness of this state
by one thing, viz., that this was the state of life which all other people envied;
that kings have frequently lamented the miserable consequence of being born to
great things, and wished they had been placed in the middle of the two extremes
—between the mean and the great; that the wise man gave his testimony to
this, as the standard of felicity, when he prayed to have neither poverty nor
riches.

He bade me observe it, and I should always find, that the calamities of life
were shared among the upper and lower part of mankind; but that the
middle station had the fewest disasters, and was not exposed to so many
vicissitudes as the higher or lower part of mankind; nay, they were not
subjected to so many distempers and uneasiness, either of body or mind, as
those were who, by vicious living, luxury, and extravagances on one hand, or
by hard labour, want of necessaries, and mean or insufficient diet on the other
hand, bring distempers upon themselves by the natural consequences of their
way of living; that the middle station of life was calculated for all kind of
virtues and all kind of enjoyments; that peace and plenty were the handmaids
of a middle fortune; that temperance, moderation, quietness, health, society,
all agreeable diversions, and all desirable pleasures, were the blessings attending
the middle station of life; that this way men went silently and smoothly
through the world, and comfortably out of it, not embarrassed with the labours
of the hands or of the head, not sold to a life of slavery for daily bread, or
harrassed with perplexed circumstances, which rob the soul of peace and
the body of rest; nor enraged with the passion of envy, or the sacred
burning lust of ambition for great things; but in easy circumstances, sliding
gently through the world, and sensibly tasting the sweets of living without
the bitter; feeling that they are happy, and learning by every day’s experience
to know it more sensibly.

After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affectionate manner,
2
















ROBINSON CRUSOE.



not to play the young man, nor to precipitate myself into miseries which
nature, and the station of life I was born in, seemed to have provided against;
that I was under no necessity for seeking my bread; that he would do well
for me, and endeavour to enter me fairly into the station of life which he had
just been recommending to me; and that if I was not very easy and happy in
the world, it must be my mere fate or fault that must hinder it; and that he
should have nothing to answer for, having thus discharged his duty in warning
me against measures which he knew would be to my hurt ; in a word, that as
he would do very kind things for me if I would stay and settle at home as he
directed, so he would not have so much hand in my misfortunes, as to give
me any encouragement to go away: and, to close all, he told me I had my
elder brother for an example, to whom he had used the same earnest per-
suasions to keep him from going into the Low Country wars, but could not
prevail, his young desires prompting him to run into the army, where he was
killed; and though he said he would not, cease to pray for me, yet he would
venture to say to me, that if I did take this foolish step, God would not bless
me, and I should have leisure hereafter to reflect upon having neglected his
counsel, when there might be none to assist in my recovery.

I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was truly prophetic,
though I suppose my father did not know it to be so himself; I say, I
observed the tears run down his face very plentifully, especially when he
spoke of my brother who was killed; and that when he spoke of having
leisure to repent, and none to assist me, he was so moved that he broke off the
discourse, and told me his heart was so full he could say no more to me.

I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as indeed who could he other-
wise? and I resolved not to think of going abroad any more, but to settle at
home according to my father’s desire. But, alas! a few days wore it all off ;
and, in short, to prevent any of my father’s further importfinities, in a few
weeks after I resolved to run quite away from him. However, I did not act
quite so hastily as the first heat of my resolution prompted, but I took my
mother, at a time when I thought her a little pleasanter than ordinary, and
told her that my thoughts were so entirely bent upon seeing the world, that I
should never settle to anything with resolution enough to go through with it,
and my father had better give me his consent than force me to go without it ;
and I was now eighteen years old, which was too late to go apprentice toa
trade, or clerk to an attorney; that I was sure if I did, I should never serve
out my time, but I should certainly run away from my master before my time
was out, and go to sea; and if she would speak to my father to let me go one
voyage abroad, if I came home again, and did not like it, I would go no more ;
ad I would promise, by a double diligence, to recover the time that I had
ost.

This put my mother into a great passion. She told me she knew it sh be














LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



to no purpose to speak to my father upon any such subject; that he knew too
well what was my interest to give his consent to anything so much for my
hurt; and that she wondered how I could think of any such thing after the
discourse I had had with my father, and such kind and tender expressions as
she knew my father had used to me; and that, in short, if I would ruin
myself, there was no help for me; but I might depend I should never have
their consent to it; that for her part, she would not have so much hand in
my destruction; and I should never have it to say that my mother was willing
when my father was not.

Though my mother refused to name it to my father, yet I heard afterwards
that she reported all the discourse to him, and that my father, after showing
a great concern at it, said to her, with a sigh:—“That boy might be happy if
he would stay at home; but if he goes abroad he will be the most miserable
wretch that ever was born; I can give no consent to it.”

It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose, though, in the
meantime, I continued obstinately deaf to all proposals of settling to business,
and frequently expostulated with my father and mother about their being so
positively determined against what they knew my inclinations prompted me
to. But being one day at Hull, whether I went casually; and without any
purpose of making an elopement at that time; but, I say, being there, and one
of my companions being going by sea to London in his father’s ship, and
prompting me to go with them, with the common allurement of a sea-faring
man, that it should cost me nothing for my passage, I consulted neither father
nor mother any more, nor so much as sent them word of it; but leaving
them to hear of it as they might, without asking God’s blessing or my
father’s, without any consideration of circumstances or consequences, and in
an ill hour, God knows, on the Ist of September, 1651, I went on board a
ship bound for London. Never any young adventurer’s misfortunes, I believe,
began sooner or continued longer than mine. The ship was no sooner got
out of the Humber, than the wind began to blow and the sea to rise in a most
frightful manner; and as I had never been at sea before, I was most inexpres-
sibly sick in body, and terrified in mind. I began now seriously to reflect
upon what I had done, and how justly I was overtaken by the judgment of
Heaven for my wicked leaving my father’s house, and abandoning my duty. +
All the good counsels of my parents, my father’s tears and my mother’s
entreaties, came now fresh into my mind; and my conscience, which was not
yet come to the pitch of hardness to which it has come since, reproached me
with the contempt of advice, and the breach of my duty to God and my father.

All this while the storm increased, and the sea went. very high, though
nothing like what I have seen many times since; no, nor what I saw a few
days after; but it was enough to affect me then, who was but a young sailor,

and had never known anything of the matter. I expected every wave would
4





SSS
|

‘
4


My first storm! “A mere capful of wind.”










ROBINSON CRUSOE,



have swallowed us up, and that every time the ship fell down, as I thought it
did, in the trough or hollow of the sea, we should never rise more. In this
agony of mind I made many vows and resolutions, that if it would please God
to spare my life in this one voyage, if ever I got once my foot upon dry land
again, I would go directly home to my father, and never set it in a ship again
while I lived; that I would take his advice, and never run myself into such
miseries as these any more. Now I saw plainly the goodness of his observa-
tions about the middle station of life—how easy, how comfortably he had
lived all his days, and never had been exposed to tempests at sea, or troubles
on shore; and, in short, I resolved that I would, like a true repenting prodigal,
go home to my father.

These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the storm lasted, and,
indeed, some time after; but the next day the wind was abated, and the sea
calmer, and I began to be a little inured to it: however, I was very grave for
all that day, being also a little sea-sick still; but towards night the weather
cleared up, the wind was quite over, and a charming fine evening followed.
The sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so the next morning; and having
little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun shining upon it, the sight was, as
I thought, the most delightful that ever I saw.

I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick, but very cheerful,
looking with wonder upon the sea that was so rough and terrible the day before,
and could be so calm and so pleasant in so little a time after. And now, lest
my good resolutions should continue, my companion, who had enticed me
away, comes to me: “Well, Bob,” says he, clapping me upon the shoulder,
“how do you do after it? I warrant you were frighted, wer’n’t you, last night,
when it blew but acapful of wind?”—“A capful d’you call it?” said I;
“twas a, terrible storm.”—“A storm, you fool you!” replies he; “do you call
that a storm? why, it was nothing at all; give us but a good ship and sea-
room, and we think nothing of such a squall of wind as that; but you’re but
a fresh water sailor, Bob. Come, let us make a bowl of punch, and we'll
forget all that: d’ye see what charming weather ’tis now?” To make short
this sad part of my story, we went the way of all sailors: the punch was
made, and I was made half-drunk with it; and, in that one night’s wickedness,
I drowned all my repentance, all my reflections upon my past conduct, all my
resolutions for the future. Ina word, as the sea was returned to its smooth-
ness of surface and settled calmness by the abatement of that storm, so the
hurry of my thoughts being over, my fears and apprehensions of being
swallowed up by the sea being forgotten, and the current of my former
desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows and promises that I made in my
distress. I found, indeed, some intervals of reflection ; and the serious thoughts
did, as it were, endeavour to return again sometimes; but I shook them off,
and roused myself from them as it were from a distemper, and, applying

5
















LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



myself to drinking and company, soon mastered the return of those fits—for
so I called them; and I had in five or six days as complete a victory over my
conscience as any young fellow that resolved not to be troubled with it could
desire. But I was to have another trial for it still; and Providence, as in
such cases generally it does, resolved to leave me entirely without excuse; for
if I would not take this for a deliverance, the next was to be such a one as the
worst and most hardened wretch among us would confess both the danger and
the mercy of.

The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth Roads; the wind
having been contrary, and the weather calm, we had made but little way since
the storm. Here we were obliged to come to an anchor,.and here we lay, the
wind continuing contrary, viz. at south-west for seven or eight days, during
which time a great many ships from Newcastle came into the same roads, as
the common harbour where the ships might wait for a wind for the river.

We had not, however, rid here so long, but we should have tided it up the
river, but that the wind blew too fresh, and, after we had lain four or five
days, blew very hard. However, the roads being reckoned as good as a
harbour, the anchorage good, and our ground-tackle very strong, our men
were unconcerned, and not in the least apprehensive of danger, but spent the
time in rest and mirth, after the manner of the sea; but the eighth day, in the
morning, the wind increased, and we had all hands at work to strike our top-
masts, and make everything snug and close, that the ship might ride as easy
as possible. By noon the sea went very high indeed, and our ship rid fore-
castle in, shipped several seas, and we thought once or twice our anchor
had come home; upon which our master ordered out the sheet anchor, so
that we rode with two anchors a-head, and the cables veered out to the better
end.

By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I began to see terror
and amazement in the faces even of the seamen themselves. The master,
though vigilant in the business of perserving the ship, yet, as he went in and
out of his cabin by me, I could hear him softly to himself say several times,
“Lord, be merciful to us! we shall be all lost; we shall be all undone!” and
the like. During these first hurries I was stupid, lying still in my cabin,
which was in the steerage, and cannot describe my temper. I could ill resume
the first penitence which I had so apparently trampled upon and hardened
myself against. I thought the bitterness of death had been past, and that this
would be nothing like the first; but when the master himself came by me, as
I said just now, and said we should be all lost, I was dreadfully frightened. I
got up out of my cabin and looked out, but such a dismal sight I never saw:
the sea ran mountains high, and broke upon us every three or four minutes.
When I could look about, I could see nothing but distress round us. Two
ships that rid near us, we found, had cut their masts by the board, being deep

6


















ROBINSON CRUSOE.



laden ; and our men cried out that a ship which rid about a mile a-head of us
was foundered. Two more ships being driven from their anchors, were run
out of the roads to sea, at all’ adventures, and that not with a mast standing.
The light ships fared the best, as not so much labouring in the sea; but
two or three of them drove, and came’close by us, running away with only
their spritsail out before the wind.

Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the master of our ship to
let them cut away the foremast, which he was very unwilling to do; but the
boatswain protesting to him that if he did not, the ship would founder, he
consented ; and when they had cut away the foremast, the mainmast stood
so loose, and shook the ship so much, they were obliged to cut that away
also, and make a clear deck.

Any one must judge what a condition I must be in at all this, who was
but a young sailor, and who had been in such a fright before at but a little.
But if I can express at this distance the thoughts I had. about me at that
time, I was in tenfold more horror of mind upon account of my former
couvictions, and the having returned from them to the resolutions I had
wickedly taken at first, than I was at death itself! and these, added to the
terror of the storm, put me into such a condition that I can by no words
describe it. But the worst was not come yet; the storm.continued with such
fury that the seamen themselves acknowledged they had never seen a worse.
We had a good ship, but she was deep laden, and wallowed in the sea, so
that the seamen every now and then cried out she would founder. It was
my advantage in one respect that I did not know what they meant by
founder, till I inquired, However, the storm was so violent that I saw
what is not often seen, the master, the boatswain, and some others more
sensible than the rest, at their prayers, and expecting every moment when
the ship would go to the bottom. In the middle of the night, and under all
the rest of our distresses, one of the men that had been down to see, cried
out we*had sprung a leak; another said, there was four feet water in the hold.
Then all hands were called to the pump. At that word my heart, as I
thought, died within me; and I fell backwards upon the side of my bed
where I sat, into the cabin. However, the men roused me, and told me that
I, that was able do nothing before, was as well able to pump as another; at
which I stirred up, and went to the pump, and worked very heartily. While
this was doing, the master, seeing some light colliers, who, not able to ride
out the storm, were obliged to slip and run away to the sea, and would come
near us, ordered to fire a gun as a signal of distress. I, who knew nothing
what they meant, thought the ship had broken, or some dreadful thing
happened. In a word, I was so surprised that I fell down in a swoon. As
this was a time when everybody had his own life to think of, nobody minded
me, or what was become of me; but another man stepped up to Wg PUR














LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



and, thrusting me aside with his foot, let me lie, thinking I had been dead;
and it was a great while before I came to myself.

We worked on; but, the water increasing in the hold, it was apparent that
the ship would founder; and though the storm began to abate a little, yet as
it was not possible she could swim ‘till we might run into any port, so the
master continued firing guns for help; and a light ship, who had rid it out
just a-head of us, ventured a boat out to help us. It was with the utmost
hazard the boat came near us, but it was impossible for us to get on board,
or for the boat to lie near the ship’s side, till at last the men rowing very
heartily, and venturing their lives to save ours, our men cast them a rope
over the stern with a buoy to it, and then veered it out a great length, which
they, after much labour and hazard, took hold of, and we hauled them close
under our stern, and got all into their boat. It was to no purpose for them
or us, after we were in the boat, to think of reaching to their own ship; so all
agreed to let her drive, and only to pull her in towards shore as much as we
could; and our master promised them that if the boat was staved upon shore,
he would make it good to their master; so partly rowing, and partly driving,
our boat went away to the northward, sloping towards the shore almost as far
as Winterton Ness.

We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of our ship till we
saw her sink, and then I understood for the first time what was meant by a
ship foundering in the sea. I must acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look up
when the seamen told me she was sinking; for from the moment that they
rather put me into the boat, than that I might be said to go in, my heart was,
as it were, dead within me, partly with fright, partly with horror of mind, and
the thoughts of what was’ yet before me.

While we were in this condition—the men yet labouring at the oar to bring
the boat near the shore—we could see (when, our boat mounting the waves,
we were able to see the shore) a great many people running along the strand
to assist us when we should come near; but we made but slow way towards
the shore; nor were we able to reach the shore till, being past the lighthouse
at Winterton, the shore falls off to the westward towards Cromer, and so the
land broke off a little the violence of the wind. Here we got in, and, though
not without much difficulty, got all safe on shore, and walked afterwards on
foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we were used with great
humanity, as well by the magistrates of the town, who assigned us good
quarters, as by particular merchants and owners of ships, and had money
given us sufficient to carry us either to London or back to Hull, as we
thought fit.

Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and have gone home,
I had been happy, and my father, as in our blessed Saviour’s parable, had even
Killed the fatted calf for me; for hearing the ship I went away in was cast

8












ROBINSON CRUSOE.



away in Yarmouth Roads, it was a great while before he had any assurances
that I was not drowned.

But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that nothing could
resist, and though I had several times loud calls from my reason and my more
composed judgment to go home, yet I had no power to do it. I know not
what to call this, nor will I urge that it isa secret overruling decree that
hurries us on to be the instruments of our own destruction, even though it be
before us, and that we rush upon it with our eyes open. Certainly, nothing
but some such decreed unavoidable misery, which it was impossible for me to
escape, could have pushed me forward against the calm reasonings and
persuasions of my most retired thoughts, and against. two such visible
instructions as I had met with in my first attempt.

My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who was the
master’s son, was now less forward than I. The first time he spoke to me
after we were at Yarmouth, which was not till two or three days, for we were
separated in the town to several quarters ; I say, the first time he saw me, it
appeared his tone was altered ; and, looking very melancholy, and shaking his
head, he asked me how I did, and telling his father who I was, and howI had
come this voyage only for a trial, in order to go further abroad; his father,
turning to me with a very grave and concerned tone, “ Young man,” says he,
“you ought never to go to sea any more; you ought to take this for a plain
and visible token that you are not to be a seafaring man.” “Why, sir,” said
I; “will you go to sea no more?” “That is another case,” said he; “it
is my calling, and therefore my duty; but as you made this voyage for a
trial, you see what a taste Heaven has given you of what you.are. tO expect if
you persist. Perhaps this has all befallen us on your account, like Jonah in
the ship of Tarshish. Pray,” continues he, “what are you, and on what
account did you go to sea?” Upon that I told him some of my story, at the
end of which he burst out in a strange kind of passion: “ What had I done,”
says he, “that such an unhappy wretch should come into my ship? I would
not set my foot in the same ship with thee again for a thousand pounds.”
This indeed was, as I had said, an excursion of his spirits, which were yet
agitated by the sense of his loss, and was farther than he could have authority
to go. However, he afterwards talked very gravely to me, exhorting me to go
back to my father, and not tempt Providence to my ruin;- telling me I
might see a visible hand of Heaven against me. “And, young man,” said he,
“depend upon it, if you do not go back, wherever you go you will meet with
nothing but disasters and disappointments, till your father’s words are
fulfilled upon you.”

We parted soon after; for I made him little answer, and I saw him no
more. Which way he went I knew not. As for me, having some money in
my pocket, I travelled to London by land ; and there, as well as on the road,

9














LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

had many struggles with myself, what course of life I should take, and
whether I should go home or go to sea.

As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that offered to my
thoughts; and it immediately occurred to me how I should be laughed at
among the neighbours, and should be ashamed to see, not my father and
mother only, but even everybody else; from whence I have since often
observed how incongruous and irrational the common temper of mankind is,
especially of youth, to that reason which ought to guide them in such cases,
viz., that they are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent; not
ashamed of the action for which they ought justly to be esteemed fools, but
are ashamed of the returning, which only can make them be esteemed wise
men.

In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncertain what measures
to take, and what course of life to lead. An irresistible reluctance continued
to going home; and, as I stayed awhile, the remembrance of the distress I had
been in wore off; and as that abated, the little motion I had in my desires to
return wore off with it, till at last I quite laid aside the thoughts of it, and
looked out for a voyage.

That evil influence which carried me first away from my father’s house,—
which hurried me into the wild and indigested notion of raising my fortune,
and that impressed those conceits so forcibly upon me, as to thake me deaf to
all good advice, and to the entreaties and even the commands of my father: I
say, the same influence, whatever it was, presented the most unfortunate of all
enterprises to my view; and I went on board a vessel bound to the coast of
Africa, or,'as our sailors vulgarly called it, a voyage to Guinea.

It was my great misfortune that in all these adventures I did not ship
myself as a sailor; when, though I might indeed have worked a little harder
than ordinary, yet at the same time I should have learnt the duty and office
of a foremast man; and, in time, might have qualified myself for a mate or
lieutenant, if not fora master. But, as it was always my fate to choose for
the worse, so I did here; for having money in my pocket, and good clothes
upon my back, I would always go on board in the habit of a gentleman; and
so I neither had any business in the ship, nor learned-to do any.

It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good company in London, which
does not always happen to such loose and misguided young fellows as I then
was: the devil generally not omitting to lay some snares for them very early;
but it was not so with me. I first got acquainted with the master of a ship
who had been on the coast of Guinea, and who, having had very good success
there, was resolved to go again. This captain taking a fancy to my conversa-
tion, which was not at all disagreeable at. that time, hearing me say I had a
mind to see the world, told me if I would go the voyage with him I should be

at no expense; I should be his messmate and his companion; and if I could
10














ROBINSON CRUSOE.

carry anything with me, I should have all the advantage of it that the trade
would admit; and perhaps I might meet with some encouragement.

I embraced the offer; and, entering into a strict friendship with this captain,
who was an honest, plain-dealing man, I went the voyage with him, and
carried a small adventure with me, which, by the disinterested honesty of my
friend the captain, I increased very considerably; for I carried about £40 in
such toys and trifles as the captain directed me to buy. This £40 I had
mustered together by the assistance of some of my relations whom I corres-
ponded with; and who, I believe, got my father, or at least my mother, to
contribute so much as that to my first adventure.

This was the only voyage which I may say was successful in all my
adventures, which I owe to the integrity and honesty of my friend the captain;
under whom also I got a competent knowledge of the mathematics and the
rules of navigation, learned how to keep an account of the ship’s course, take
an observation, and, in short, to understand some things that were needful to
be understood by a sailor; for, as he took delight to instruct me, I took
delight to learn; and, in a word, this voyage made me both a sailor and a
merchant: for I brought home five pounds nine ounces of gold-dust for my
adventure, which yielded me in London, at my return, almost £300, and this
filled me with those aspiring thoughts which have since so completed my ruin.

Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too; particularly, that I was
continually sick, being thrown into a violent calenture by the excessive heat
of the climate; our principal trading being upon the coast, from the latitude
of fifteen degrees north even to the line itself.

I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to my great misfor-
tune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go the same voyage again, and
I embarked in the same vessel with one who was his mate in the former
voyage, and had now got the command of the ship. This was the unhappiest
voyage that ever man made; for though I did not carry quite £100 of my
new-gained wealth, so that I had £200 left, which I had lodged with my
friend’s widow, who was very just to me, yet I fell into terrible misfortunes.
The first was this—our ship, making her course towards the Canary Islands,
or rather between those Islands and the African shore, was surprised in the
grey of the morning by a Turkish rover of Sallee, who gave chase to us with
all the sail she could make. We crowded also as much canvas as our yards
would spread, or our masts carry, to get clear; but, finding the pirate gained
upon us, and would certainly come up with us in a few hours, we prepared to
fight; our ship having twelve guns and the rogue eighteen. About three in
the afternoon he came up with us, and bringing to, by mistake, just athwart
our quarter, instead of athwart our stern, as he intended, we brought eight cf
our guns to bear on that side, and poured in a broadside upon him which
made him sheer off again, after returning our fire, and pouring in also his

il














LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



small shot from near two hundred men which he had on board. However, we
had not a man touched, all our men keeping close. He prepared to attack us
again, and we to defend ourselves; but laying us on board the next time upon
our other quarter, he entered sixty men upon our decks, who immediately fell
to cutting and hacking the sails and rigging. We plied them with small-shot,
half-pikes, powder-chests, and such like, and cleared our deck of them twice.
However, to cut short this melancholy part of our story, our ship being disabled,
and three of our men killed, and eight wounded, we were obliged to yield,
and were carried all prisoners into Sallee, a port belonging to the Moors.

The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first [ apprehended; nor
was I carried up the country to the emperor’s court, as the rest of our men
were, but was kept by the captain of the rover as his proper prize, and made
his slave, being young and nimble, and fit for his business. At this surprising
change of my circumstances, from a merchant to a miserable slave, I was per-
fectly overwhelmed; and now I looked back upon my father’s prophetic
discourse to me, that I should be miserable and have none to relieve me,
which I thought was now so effectually brought to pass, that I could not be
worse; for now the hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and I was undone
without redemption. But, alas! this was but a taste of the misery I was to
go through, as will appear in the sequel of this story.

As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his house, so I was
in hopes that he would take me with him when he went to sea again, believing
that it would some time or other be his fate to be taken by a Spanish or
Portugal man-of-war; and that then I should be set at liberty. But this hope
of mine was soon taken away; for when he went to sea, he left me on shore
to look after his little garden, and do the common drudgery of slaves about
his house; and when he came home again from his cruise, he ordered me to lie
in the cabin to look after the ship.

Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method I might take to
effect it, but found no way that had the least probability in it. Nothing
presented to make the supposition of it rational; for I had nobody to com-
municate it to that would embark with me, no fellow-slave, no Englishman,
Irishman, or Scotchman there but myself; so that for two years, though I
often pleased myself with the imagination, yet I never had the least encourag-
ing prospect of putting it in practice.

After about two years an odd circumstance presented itself which put the
old thought of making some attempt for my liberty again in my head
My patron lying at home longer than usual without fitting out his ship,
which, as I heard, was for want of money, he used, constantly, once or twice a
week, sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the ship’s pinnace,
and go out into the road a-fishing; and, as he always took me and young
Maresco with him to row the boat, we made him very merry, and I proved

12


















ROBINSON CRUSOE.



very dexterous in catching fish; insomuch that sometimes he would send me
with a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth—the Maresco, as they called
him, to catch a dish of fish for him.

It happened one time that, going a-fishing in a calm morning, a fog rose
so thick that, though we were not half a league from the shore, we lost sight
of it; and rowing we knew not whither or which way, we laboured all day,
and all the next night, and when the morning came, we found we had pulled
off to sea instead of pulling in for the shore; and that we were at least two
leagues from the shore. However, we got well in again, though with a great
deal of labour and some danger; for the wind began to blow pretty fresh in
the morning; but we were all very hungry. ;

But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more care of
himself for the future; and having lying by him the long-boat of our English
ship that he had taken, he resolved he would not go a-fishing any more
without a compass and some provision ; so he ordered the carpenter of his ship,
who also was an English slave, to build a littie state-room, or cabin, in the
middle of the long-boat, like that of a barge, with a place to stand behind it
to steer, and haul home the main-sheet; and room before for a hand or two
to stand and work the sails. She sailed with what we call a shoulder-of-
mutton sail; and the boom gibed over the top of the cabin, which lay very
snug and low, and had in it room for him to lie, with a slave or two, and a
table to eat on, with some small lockers to put in some bottles of such liquor
as he thought fit to drink; and his bread, rice, and coffee.

We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing, and, as I was most
dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went without me. It happened that
he had appointed to go out in this boat, either for pleasure or for fish, with two
or three Moors of some distinction in that place, and for whom he had pro-
vided extraordinarily, and had therefore sent on board the boat over-night a
larger store of provisions than ordinary; and had ordered me to get ready
three fusees with powder and shot, which were on board his ship, for that
they designed some sport of fowling as well as fishing.

I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited the next morning
with the boat washed clean, her ancient and pendants out, and everything to
accommodate his guests; when by-and-by my patron came on board alone,
and told me his guests had put off going, from some business that fell out,
and ordered me, with the man and boy, as usual, to go out with the boat and
catch them some fish, for that his friends were to sup at his house, and
commanded that as soon as I got some fish I should bring it home to his
house ; all which I prepared to do.

This moment, my former notions of deliverance darted into my thoughts,
for now I found I was likely to have a little ship at my command ; and my
master being gone, I prepared to furnish myself, not for fishing business, but

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LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



for a voyage, though I knew not, neither did I so much as consider, whither
I should steer—anywhere to get out of that place was my desire.

My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to this Moor, to get
something for our subsistence on board ; for I told him we must not presume
to eat of our patron’s bread. He said that was true; so he brought a large
basket of rusk or biscuit, and three jars of fresh water, into the boat. I knew
where my patron’s case of bottles stood, which it was evident, by the make,
were taken out of some English prize, and I conveyed them into the boat
while the Moor was on shore, as if they had been there before for our master.
I conveyed also a great lump of bees-wax into the boat, which weighed about
half a hundredweight, with a parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw, anda
hammer, all of which were of great use to us afterwards, especially the wax to
make candles. Another trick I tried upon him, which he innocently came
into also—his name was Ismael, which they call Muley, or Moley; so I called
to him,—* Moley,” said I, “ our patron’s guns are on board the boat; can you
not get a little powder and shot? It may be we may kill some alcamies (a
fowl like our curlews) for ourselves, for I know he keeps the gunner’s stores
in the ship.” “Yes,” says he, “I'll bring some;”and accordingly he brought a
great leather pouch, which held a pound and a half of powder, or rather more;
and another with shot, that had five or six pounds, with some bullets, and put
allinto the boat. At the same time, I had found some powder of my master’s
in the great cabin, with which I filled one of the large bottles in the case,
which was also empty, pouring what was in it into another; and thus
furnished with everything needful, we sailed out of the port to fish. The
castle, which is at the entrance of the port, knew who we were, and took no
notice of us; and we were not above a mile out of the port before we hauled
in our sail, and set us down to fish. The wind blew from the N.N.E., which
was contrary to my desire, for had it blown southerly, I had been sure to have
made the coast of Spain, and at least reached to the bay of Cadiz; but my
resolutions were, blow which way it would, I would be gone from that horrid
place where I was, and leave the rest to fate.

After we had fished some time and caught nothing ; for when I had fish on
my hook, I would not pull them up, that he might not see them, I said to the
Moor, “This will not do; our master will not be thus served; we must stand
farther off’ He, thinking no harm, agreed, and being in the head of the
boat, set the sails; and, as I had the helm, I run the boat out near a league
farther, and then brought her to, as if I would fish; when, giving the boy the
helm, I stepped forward to where the Moor was, and making as if I stooped
for something behind him, I took him by surprise with my arm under his
waist, and tossed him clean overboard into the sea. He rose immediately, for
he swam like a cork, and called to me, begged to be taken in, told me he

would go over all the world with me. He swam so strong after the boat,
14


















ROBINSON CRUSOE.

that he would have reached me very quickly, there being but little wind;
upon which I stepped into the cabin, and, fetching one of the fowling pieces,
I presented it at him, and told him I had done him no hurt, and if he would
be quiet I would do him none. “But,” said I, “you swim well enough to
reach to the shore, and the sea is calm; make the best of your way to shore, and
I will do you no harm; but, if you come near the boat, I'll shoot you through
the head, for I’m resolved to have my liberty ;” so he turned himself about,
and swam for the shore; and I make no doubt but he reached it with ease,
for he was an excellent swimmer.

T could have been content to have taken this Moor with me, and have
drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to trust him. When he was
gone, I turned to the boy, whom they called Xury, and said to him, “ Xury, if
you will be faithful to me, I'll make you a great man ; but if you will not
stroke your face to be true to me,” that is, swear by Mahomet and his
father’s beard, “I must throw you into the sea too.” The boy smiled in my
face, and spoke so innocently, that I could not distrust him, and swore to be
faithful to me, and go all over the world with me.

While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, I stood out directly to
sea with the boat, rather stretching to windward, that they might think me
gone towards the Straits’ mouth (as, indeed, any one that had been in their
wits must have been supposed to do); for who would have supposed we were
sailed on to the southward to the truly Barbarian coast, where whole nations
of negroes were sure to surround us with their canoes, and destroy us; where
we could not go onshore but we should be devoured by savage beasts, or more
merciless savages of human kind. .

But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening I changed my course, and
steered directly south and by east, bending my course « little towards the
east, that I might keep in with the shore ; and having a fair, fresh gale of wind,
and a smooth, quiet sea, I made such sail that I believed by the next day at
three o’clock in the afternoon, when I first made the land, I could not be less
than 150 miles south of Sallee; quite beyond the Emperor of Morocco’s
dominions, or indeed of any other king thereabouts, for we saw no people.

Yet such was the fright I had taken of the Moors, and the dreadful
apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that I would not stop, or go
on shore, or come to an anchor. The wind continuing fair till I had sailed in
that manner five days; and then the wind shifting to the southward, I
concluded also that if any of our vessels were in chase of me, they also would
now give over; so I ventured to make to the coast, and came to an anchor
in the mouth of a little river, 1 knew not what, or where; neither what
latitude, what country, what nation, or what river. I neither saw, or desired
to see, any people: the principal thing I wanted’ was fresh water. We came
into this creek in the evening, resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was

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LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



dark, and discover the country; but as soon as it was quite dark we heard
such dreadful noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of wild creatures, of
we knew not what kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die with fear, and
begged of me not to go on shore till day. “ Well, Xury,” said I, “ then I won't;
but it may be we may see men by day who will be as bad to us as those
lions.” —‘ Then we give them the shoot gun,” says Xury, laughing; “make |
them run wey.” Such English Xury spoke by conversing among us slaves.
However, I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him a dram (out
of our patron’s case of bottles) to cheer him up. After all, Xury’s advice was
good, and I took it; we dropped our little anchor, and lay still all night; I
say still, for we slept none, for in two or three hours we saw vast great
creatures (we knew not what to call them) of many sorts come down to the
sea-shore and run into the water, wallowing and washing themselves for the
pleasure of cooling themselves; and they made such hideous howlings and
yellings, that I never indeed heard the like.

Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too; but we were both
more frighted when we heard one of these mighty creatures come swimming
towards our boat. We could not see him, but we might hear him by his
blowing to be a monstrous huge and furious beast. Xury said it was a lion,
and it might be so for aught 1 know; but poor Xury cried to me to weigh
the anchor and row away. “No,” says I, “Xury; we can slip our cable, with
the buoy to it, and go off to sea; they cannot follow us far.” I had no sooner
said so, but I perceived the creature (whatever it was) within two oars’ length,
which something surprised me; however, I immediately stepped to the cabin-
door, and taking up my gun, fired at him; upon which he immediately turned |
about, and swam towards the shore again.

But it is impossible to describe the horrid noises and hideous cries and
howlings, that were raised, as well upon the edge of the shore as higher within
the country, upon the noise or report of the gun, a thing I have some reason
to believe those creatures had never heard before. This convinced me that |
there was no going on shore for us in the night on that coast, and how to
venture on shore in the day was another question too ; for to have fallen into the |
hands of any of the savages had been as bad as to have fallen into the hands
of lions and tigers; at least we were equally apprehensive of the danger of it.

Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore somewhere or other
for water, for we had not a pint left in the boat—when or where to. get it, was
the point. Xury said if I would let him go on shore with one of the jars, he
would find if there was any water, and bring some to me. I asked him why
he would go? why I should not go, and he stay in the boat? The boy
answered with so much affection, as made me love him ever after. Says he,
“Tf wild mans come, they eat me, you go wey.”—‘“ Well, Xury,” said I, “we
will pee go, and if the wild mans come, we will kill them ; they shall eat





























ROBINSON CRUSOE.

neither of us.” So I gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to eat, and a dram out
of our patron’s case of bottles which I mentioned before; and we hauled the
boat in as near the shore as we thought was proper, and so waded on shore,
carrying nothing but our arms and two jars for water.

I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the coming of canoes
with savages down the river; but the boy, seeing a low place about a mile up
the country, rambled to it,and by-and-by I saw him coming running towards me.
I thought he was pursued by some savage, or frighted with some wild beast,
and I ran forwards towards him to help him; but when I came nearer him I
saw something hanging over his shoulders, which was a creature that he had
shot, like a hare, but different in colour, and longer legs. However, we were
very glad of it, and it was very good meat; but the great joy that poor
Xury came with, was to tell me he had found good water, and seen no
wild mans.

But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains for water, for a
little higher up the creek where we were we found the water fresh when ‘the
tide was out, which flowed but a little way up; so we filled our jars, and
feasted on the hare we had killed, and prepared to go on our way, having seen
no footsteps of any human creature in that part of the country.

As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very well that the
islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de Verd Islands also, lay not far off from
the coast. But as I had no instruments to take an observation to know what
latitude we were in, and not exactly knowing, or at least remembering, what
latitude they were in, I knew not where to look for them, or when to stand off
to sea towards them ; otherwise I might now easily have found some of these
Islands. But my hope was that if I stood along this coast till I came to that
part where the English traded, I should find some of their vessels upon their
usual design of trade that would relieve and take us in.

By the “best of my calculation, that place where I now was must be that
country which, lying between the Emperor of Morocco’s dominions and the
negroes, lies waste and uninhabited, except by wild beasts, the negroes having
abandoned it and gone farther south, for fear of the Moors, and the Moors not
thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason of its barrenness ; and, indeed, both
forsaking it because of the prodigious numbers of tigers, lions, leopards, and
other furious creatures which harbour there ; so that the Moors use it for their
hunting only, where they go like an army, "two or three thousand men at a
time ; and, indeed, for near a hundred miles together upon this coast, we
saw nothing but a waste uninhabited country by day, and heard nothing but
howlings and roaring of wild beasts by night.

Once or twice in the day-time I thought I saw the Pico of Teneriffe, being
the high top of the Mountain Teneriffe in the Canaries ; and had a great mind
to venture out, in hopes of reaching thither ; but having tried twice, I was

3B 17














LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

forced in again by contrary winds, the sea also going too high for my little
vessel; so I resolved to pursue my first design, and keep along the shore.

Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water after we had left this
place, and once in particular, being early in the morning, we came to an
anchor under a little point of land, “which was pretty high ; and the tide be-
ginning to flow, we lay still to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more
about him than it seems mine were, calls softly to me, and tells me that we
had best go farther off the shore; “ for,” says he, “ look, yonder lies a dreadful
monster on the side of that hillock, fast asleep.” I looked where he pointed,
and saw a dreadful monster indeed, for it was a terrible great lion that lay on
the side of the shore, under the shade of a piece of the hill that hung as it were
a little over him. “ Xury,” says I, “you shall go on shore and kill him.”
Xury looked frighted, and said, “Me kill! he eat me at one mouth;” one
mouthful he meant. However, I said no more to the boy, but bade him lie
still, and I took our biggest gun, which was almost musket-bore, and loaded
it with a good charge of powder, and with two slugs, and laid it down; then
I loaded another gun with two bullets; and the third (for we had three pieces)
I loaded with five smaller bullets. I took the best aim I could with the first
piece to have shot him on the head, but he lay so, with his leg raised a little
above his nose, that the slugs hit his leg about the knee, and broke the bone.
He started up, growling at first, but finding his leg broke fell down again; and
then got up upon three legs and gave the most hideous roar that ever I heard.
I was a little surprised that I had not hit him on the head; however, I took
up the second piece immediately, and though he began to move off, fired again,
and shot him in the head, and had the pleasure to see him drop, and make
but little noise, but lie struggling for life. Then Xury took heart, and would
have me let him go on shore. “ Well, go,” said I; so the boy jumped into the
water, and, taking a little gun in one hand, swam to shore with the other
hand, and coming close to the creature, put the muzzle of the piece to his ear,
and shot him in the head again, which despatched him quite.

This was game indeed to us, but this was no food; and I was very sorry to
lose three charges of powder and shot upon a creature that was good for no-
thing to us. However, Xury said he would have some of him; so he comes on
board, and asked me to give him the hatchet. “For what, Xury?” said I.
“Me cut off his head,” said he. However, Xury could not cut off his head,
but he cut off a foot, and brought it with him, and it was a monstrous
great one.

I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of him might, one way
or other, be of some value to us; and I resolved to take off his skin if I could.
So Xury and I went to work with him ; but Xury was much the better work-
man at it, for I knew very ill how to do it. Indeed, it took us both up the
whole day, but at last we got off the hide, and spreading it on the top of our

18




















ROBINSON CRUSOE.





cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two days’ time, and it afterwards served
me to lie upon. - :

After this, we made on to the southward continually for ten or twelve days,
living very sparingly on our provisions, which began to abate very much, and
going no oftener to the shore than we were obliged for fresh water. My design
in this was, to make the River Gambia or Senegal, that is to say, anywhere
about the Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes to meet with some European
ship; and if I did not, I knew not what course I had to take, but to seek for
the islands, or perish there among the negroes. I knew that all the ships from
Europe, which sailed either to the coast of Guinea or to Brazil, or to the East
Indies, made this Cape, or those islands; and, in a word, I put the whole of
my fortune upon this single point, either that I must meet with some ship, or
must perish.

When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer, as I have said,
I began to see that the land was inhabited; and in two or three places, as we
sailed by, we saw people stand upon the shore to look at us. We could also
perceive they were quite black, and naked. I was once inclined to have gone
on shore to them; but Xury was my better counsellor, and said to me, “ No
go, no go.” However, I hauled in nearer the shore that I might talk to them,
and I found they ran along the shore by me a good way. I observed they
had no weapons in their hands, except one, why had a long slender stick,
which Xury said was a lance, and that they could throw them a great way
with good aim; so I kept at a distance, but talked with them by signs as well
as I could, and particularly made signs for something to eat. They beckoned
to me to stop my boat, and they would fetch me some meat. Upon this, I
lowered the top of my sail, and lay by, and two of them ran up into the coun-
try, and in less than half an hour came back, and brought with them two
pieces of dry flesh, and some corn, such as is the produce of their country ;
but we neither knew what the one or the other was. However, we were will-
ing to accept it. But how to come at it was our next dispute : for I would
not venture on shore to them, and they were as much afraid of us. But they
took a safe way for us all; for they brought it to the shore and laid it down,
and went and stood a great way off till we fetched it on board, and then came
close to us again.

We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to make them amends,
but an opportunity offered that very instant to oblige them wonderfully ; for
while we were lying by the shore, came two mighty creatures, one pursuing the
other (as we took it) with great fury from the mountains towards the sea.
Whether it was the male pursuing the female, or whether they were in sport or
in rage, we could not tell, any more than we could tell whether it was usual or
strange; but I believe it was the latter; because, in the first place, those ravenous
creatures seldom appear but in the night; and, in the second place, we found the

19














LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



people terribly frighted, especially the women. The man that had the lance or
dart did not fly from them, but the rest did. However, as the two creatures ran
directly into the water, they did not offer to fall upon any of the negroes, but
plunged themselves into the sea, and swam about, as if they had come for their
diversion. At last one of them began to come nearer our boat than at first I
expected; but I lay ready for him, for I had loaded my gun with all possible
expedition, and bade Xury load both the others. As soon as he came fairly
within my reach, I fired, and shot him directly in the head. Immediately he
sank down into the water, but rose instantly, and plunged up and down, as if he
was struggling for life, and so indeed he was. He immediately made to the
shore; but between the wound, which was his mortal hurt, and the strangling of
the water, he died just before he reached the shore.

It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor creatures at the
noise and fire of my gun. Some of them were even ready to die for fear, and
tell down as dead with the very terror; but when they saw the creature dead,
and sunk in the water, and that I made signs to them to come to the shore, they
took heart and came, and began to search for the creature. I found him by his
blood staining the water; and by the help of a rope which I slung round him,
and gave the negroes to haul, they dragged him on shore, and found that it was
a most curious leopard, spotted, and fine to an admirable degree; and the
negroes held up their hands with admiration, to think what it was I had
killed him with.

The other creature, frighted with the flash of-fire and the noise of the gun,
swam on shore, and ran up directly to the mountains, from whence they came;
nor could I, at that distance, know what it was. I found quickly the negroes
wished to eat the flesh of this creature, so I was willing to have them take 3 as
a favour from me: which, when I made signs to them that they might take him,
they were very thankful for. Immediately they fell to work with him ; and
though they had no knife, yet, with a sharpened piece of wood, they took off his
skin as readily, and much more readily, than we could have done with a knife.
They offered me some of the flesh, which I declined, pointing out that I would
giveit them; but made signs for the skin, which they gave me very freely, and
brought me a great deal more of their provisions, which, though I did not
understand, yet I accepted. I then made signs to them for some water, and
held out one of my jars to them, turning it bottom upward to show that it was
empty, and that I wanted to have it filled. They called immediately to some
of their friends, and there came two women, and brought a great vessel made of

earth, and burnt, as I supposed, in the sun ; this they set down to me, as before,

and I sent Xury on shore with my jars, and filled them all three. The women

were as naked as the men.

I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and water; and,

leaving my friendly negroes, I made forward for about eleven days more, ‘with-
30








“They dragged the dead leopard on shore.”








ROBINSON CRUSOE.



out offering to go near the shore, till I saw the land run out a great length into

the sea, at about the distance of four or five leagues before me, and the sea being
very calm, I kept a large offing to make this point. At length, doubling the
point, at about two leagues from the land, I saw plainly land on the other side, to
seaward; then I concluded, as it was most certain, indeed, that this was the Cape
de Verd, and those the islands, called, from thence, Cape de Verd Islands. How-
ever, they were at a great distance, and I could not well tell what I had best to
do; for ifI should be taken with a fresh of wind, I might neither reach one or
other.

In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the cabin, and sat
down, Xury having the helm, when, on a sudden, the boy cried out, “ Master,
master, a ship with a sail!” and the foolish boy was frighted out of his wits,
thinking it must needs be some of his master’s ships sent to pursue us; but I
knew we were far enough out of their reach. I jumped out of the cabin, and
immediately saw, not only the ship, but that it was a Portuguese ship; and, as
I thought, was bound to the coast of Guinea, for negroes. But, when I ob-
served the course she steered, I was soon convinced they were bound some
other way, and did not design to come any nearer to the shore; upon which I
stretched out to sea as much as I could, resolving to speak with them, if
possible.

With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able to come in their
way, but that they would be gone by before I could make any signal to them ;
but after I had crowded to the utmost, and began to despair, they, it seems,
saw, by the help of their glasses, that it was some European boat, which they
supposed must belong to some ship that was lost, so they shortened sail to let me
comeup. I was encouraged with this, and as I had my patron’s ancient on
board, I made a waft of it to them for a signal of distress, and fired a gun, both
which they saw ; for they told me they saw the smoke, though they did not
hear the gun. Upon these signals they very kindly brought to, and lay by for
me, and in about three hours’ time I came up with them.

They asked me what I was in Portuguese, in Spanish, and in French, but [
understood none of them; but at last a Scots sailor, who was on board, called
to me, and I answered him, and told him I was an Englishman ; that I had
made my escape out of slavery from the Moors, at Sallee. They then bade me
come on board, and very kindly took me in, and all my goods.

It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will believe, that I was thus
delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable and almost hopeless condition
as I was in, and I immediately offered all I had to the captain of the ship, as a
return for my deliverance; but he generously told me he would take nothing
from me, but that all I had should be delivered safe to me, when I came to the
Brazils. “For,” says he, “I have saved your life on no other terms than I
would be glad to be saved myself; and it may one time or other be my lot to be

21














LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

taken up in the same condition. Besides,” said he, “when I carry you to the :
Brazils, so great a way from your own country, if I should take from you what
you have, you will be starved there, and then I only take away that life I have
given. No, no,” says he, “ Seignor Inglese (Mr. Englishman), I will carry you
thither in charity, and those things will help to buy your subsistence there, and
your passage home again.”

‘As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the performance to a
tittle; for he ordered the seamen that none should touch anything that I had.
Then he took everything into his own possession, and gave me back an exact in-
ventory of them, that I might have them, even to my three earthen jars.

As to my boat, it was a very good one, and that he saw, and told me he would
buy it off me for his ship’s use, and asked me what I would have for it? I told
him he had been so generous to me in everything, that I could not offer to make
any price of the boat, but left it entirely to him; upon which he told me he
would give me a note of hand to pay me eighty pieces of eight for it at Brazil;
and, when it came there, if any one offered to give more, he would make it up.
He offered me also sixty pieces of eight more for my boy Xury, which I was
loath to take, not that 1 was unwilling to let the captain have him, but I was
very loath to sell the poor boy’s liberty, who had assisted me so faithfully in
procuring my own. However, when I let him know my reason, he owned it
to be just, and offered me this medium, that he would give the boy an obliga-
tion to set him free in ten years, if he turned Christian : upon this, and Xury
saying he was willing to go to him, I let the captain have him.

We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and I arrived in the Bay de
Todos los Santos, or All Saints’ Bay, in about twenty-two days after. And
now I was once more delivered from the most miserable of all conditions of
life; and what to do next with myself I was to consider.

The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never enough remember.
He would take nothing of me for my passage; gave me twenty ducats for the
leopard’s skin, and forty for the lion’s skin, which I had in my boat, and
caused everything I had in the ship to be punctually delivered to me; and
what I was willing to sell he bought of me; such as the case of bottles, two
of my guns, and a piece of the lump of bees’-wax,—for I had made candles of
the rest: in a word, I made about two hundred and twenty pieces of eight of
all my cargo ; and with this stock I went on shore in the Brazils.

I had not been long here before I was recommended to the house of a good
honest man, like himself, who had an ingento, as they call it (that is, a planta-
tion and a sugar-house). I lived with him some time, and acquainted myself,
by that means, with the manner of planting and making of sugar ; and seeing
how well the planters lived, and how they got rich suddenly, I resolved, if I
could get a licence to settle there, I would turn planter among them: resolv-
ing, in the meantime, to find out some way to get my money, which I had left

22














: ROBINSON CRUSOE.



in London, remitted tome. To this purpose, getting a kind of letter of natu-
ralisation, I purchased as much land that was uncured as my money would
reach, and formed a plan for my plantation and settlement; such a one as
might be suitable to the stock which I proposed to myself to receive from
England.

T had a neighbour, a Portuguese, of Lisbon, but born of English parents,
whose name was Wells, and in much such circumstances as I was. I call him
my neighbour, because his plantation lay next to mine, and we went on very
sociably together. My stock was but low, as well as his; and we rather planted
for food than anything else for about two years. However, we began to increase,
and our land began to come into order, so that the third year we planted some
tobacco, and made each of usa large piece of ground ready for planting canes
in the year to come; but we both wanted help ; and now I found, more than
before, I had done wrong in parting with my boy Xury.

But, alas! for me to do wrong that never did right, was no great wonder.
I had no remedy but to go on. I had got into an employment quite remote
to my genius, and directly contrary to the life I delighted in, and for which I
forsook my father’s house, and broke through all his good advice ; nay, I was
coming into the very middle station, or upper degree of low life, which my
father advised me to before; and which, if I resolved to go on with, I might
as well have stayed at home, and never have fatigued myself in the world, as I
had done ; and I used often to say to myself, I could have done this as well in
England, among my friends, as have gone five thousand miles off to do it among
strangers and savages in a wilderness, and at such a distance as never to hear
from any part of the world that had the least knowledge of me.

In this manner I used to look upon my condition with the utmost regret. I
had nobody to converse with, but now and then this neighbour ; no work to
be done but by the labour of my hands; and I used to say, I lived just like a
man cast away upon some desolate island, that had nobody there but himself.
But how just has it been; and how should all men reflect, that when they
compare their present conditions with others that are worse, Heaven may
oblige them to make the exchange, and be convinced of their former felicity
by their experience ; I say, how just has it been, that the truly solitary life I
reflected on, in an island of mere desolation, should be my lot, who had so
often unjustly compared it with the life which I then led, in which, had I
continued, I had, in all probability, been exceeding prosperous and rich.

I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carrying on the plantation,
before my kind friend, the captain of the ship that took me up at sea, went
back ; for the ship remained there, in providing his lading, and preparing for
his voyage, nearly three months ; when, telling him what little stock I had left
behind me in London, he gave me this friendly and sincere advice :—“ Seignor
Inglese,” says he (for so he always called me), “ if you will give me letters, and

23












LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



a procuration in form to me, with orders to the person who has your money
in London, to send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as I shall direct,
and in such goods as are proper for this country, I will bring you the produce
of them, God willing, at my return; but, since human affairs are all subject to
changes and disasters, I would have you give orders but for one hundred pounds
sterling, which, you say, is half your stock, and let the hazard be run for the
first ; so that if it come safe, you may order the rest the same way ; and, if it
miscarry, you may have the other half to have recourse to for your supply.”

This was so wholesome an advice, and looked so friendly, that I could not
but be convinced it was the best course I could take; so I accordingly pre-
pared letters to the gentlewoman with whom I had left my money, and a pro-
curation to the Portuguese captain, as he desired.

I wrote the English captain’s widow a full account of all my adventures—
my slavery, escape—and how I had met with the Portugal captain at sea, the
humanity of his behaviour, and what condition I was now in, with all other
necessary directions for my supply ; and when this honest captain came to
Lisbon, he found means, by some of the English merchants there, to send over,
not the order only, but afull account of my story to a merchant at London, who
represented it effectually to her: whereupon she not only delivered the money,
but, out of her own pocket, sent the Portugal captain a very handsome present
for his humanity and charity to me.

The merchant in London, vesting this hundred pounds in English goods, such
as the captain had written for, sent them directly to him at Lisbon, and he
brought them all safe to me to the Brazils; among which, without my direction
(for I was too young in my business to think of them), le had taken care to have
all sorts of tools, iron work, and utensils necessary for my plantation, and
which were of great use to me.

When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortunes made, for I was surprised
with the joy of it; and my good steward, the captain, had laid out the five
pounds which my friend had sent him for a present for himself, to purchase
and bring me over a servant, under bond for six years’ service, and would not
accept of any consideration, except a little tobacco, which I would have him
accept, being of my own produce.

Neither was this all; for my goods being all English manufacture, such as
cloths, stuffs, baize, and things particularly valuable and desirable in the coun-
try, I found means to sell them to a very great advantage ; so that I might say
Thad more than four times the value of my first cargo, and was now infinitely
beyond my poor neighbour—I mean in the advancement of my plantation; for
the first thing I did, I bought me a negro slave, and an European servant also;
I inean another besides that which the captain brought me from Lisbon.

But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means of our greatest

adversity, so was it with me. I went on the next year with great success in
24








ROBINSON CRUSOE.



my plantation. I raised fifty great rolls of tobacco on my own ground, more
than I had disposed of for necessaries among my neighbours; and these fifty
rolls, being each of above a hundred weight, were well cured, and laid by against
the return of the fleet from Lisbon. And now, increasing in business and in
wealth, my head began to be full of projects and undertakings beyond my
reach: such as are, indeed, often the ruin of the best heads in business. Had
T continued in the station I was now in, I had room for all the happy things to
have yet befallen me, for which my father so earnestly recommended a quiet,
retired life, and of which he had so sensibly described the middle station of life
to be full of. But other things attended me, and I was still to be the wilful
agent of all my own miseries ; and particularly, to increase my fault, and
double the reflections upon myself, which in my future sorrows I should
have leisuré to make, all these miscarriages were procured by my apparent
obstinate adhering to my foolish inclination of wandering abroad, and pursuing
that inclination in contradiction to the clearest views of doing myself good in
a fair and plain pursuit of those prospects and those measures of life which
nature and providence concurred to present me with, and to make my duty.

As I had once done thus in my breaking away from my parents, so I could
not be content now, but I must go and leave the happy view I had of being a
rich and thriving man in my new plantation, only to pursue a rash and im-
moderate desire of rising faster than the nature of the thing admitted; and’
thus I cast myself down again into the deepest gulf of human misery that ever
man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent with life and a state of health
in the world.

To come, then, by the just degrees, to the particulars of this part of my
story :—You may suppose, that having now lived almost four years in the
Brazils, and beginning to thrive and prosper very well upon my plantation, I
had not only learned the language, but had contracted acquaintance and friends
ship among my fellow-planters, as well as among the merchants at St. Salva-
dor, which was our port; and that, in my discourses among them, I had
frequently given them an account of my two voyages to the coast of Guinea,
the manner of trading with the negroes there, and how easy it was to purchase
upon the coast for trifles—such as beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits of
glass, and the like—not only gold dust, Guinea grains, elephants’ teeth, etc.,
but negroes, for the service of the Brazils, in great numbers.

They listened always very attentively to my discourses on these heads, but
especially to that part which related to the buying negroes, which was a trade
at that time, not only not far entered into, but, as far as it was, had been
carried on by the assientos, or permission of the kings of Spain and Portugal,
and engrossed in the public stock, so that few negroes were brought, and those
excessively dear.

It happened, being in company with some merchants and pare of my

oO
















LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



acquaintance, and talking of those things very earnestly, three of them came
to me the next morning and told me they had been musing very much upon
what I had discoursed with them of the last night, and they came to make a
secret proposal to me; and, after enjoining me secrecy, they told me that they
had a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea; that they had all plantations as
well as I, and were straitened for nothing so much as servants ; that as it was
a trade that could not be carried on, because they could not publicly sell the
negroes when they caine home, so they desired to make but one voyage to
bring the negroes on shore privately, and divide them among their own planta-
tions ; and, in a word, the question was, whether I would go their supercargo
in the ship, to manage the trading part upon the coast of Guinea; and they
offered me that I should have my equal share of the negroes, without provid-
ing any part of the stock.

This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been made to any one
that had not had a settlement and a plantation of his own to look after, which
was in a fair way of coming to be very considerable, and with a good stock
upon it. But for me, that was thus entered and established, and had nothing
to do but go on as I had begun, for three or four years more, and to have sent
for the other hundred pounds from England ; and who in that time, and with
that little addition, could scarce have failed of being worth three or four thousand
pounds sterling, and that increasing, too—for me to think of such a voyage
was the most preposterous thing that ever man in such circumstances could
be guilty of.

Bué I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no more resist the offer
than I could restrain my first rambling designs, when my father’s good counsel
was lost upon me. Ina word, I told them I would go with all my heart if they
would undertake to look after my plantation in my absence, and would dispose
of it to such as I would direct, if I miscarried. This they all engaged to do, and
entered into writings or covenants to do so; and I made a formal will, dispos-
ing of my plantation and effects in case of my death, making the captain of the
ship that had saved my life, as before, my universal heir, but obliging him to
dispose of my effects as I had directed in my will; one-half of the produce
being to himself, and the other to be shipped in England.

In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects, and to keep up
my plantation. Had I used half as much prudence to have looked into my
own interest, and have made a judgment of what I ought to have done and not
to have done, I had certainly never gone away from so prosperous an under-
taking, leaving all the probable views of a thriving circumstance, and gone upon
a voyage to sea, attended with all its common hazards, to say nothing of the
reasons I had to expect particular misfortunes to myself.

But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my fancy rather

than my reason; and, accordingly, the ship being fitted out, and the cargo
26


















ROBINSON CRUSOE.



furnished, and all things done, as by agreement, by my partners in the voyage,
I went on board in an evil hour, the 1st of September, 1659—being the same
day eight years that I went from my father and mother at Hull, in order to
act the rebel to their authority, and the fool to my own interest.

Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons burden, carried six guns,
and fourteen men, besides the master, his boy, and myself. We had on board
no large cargo of goods, except of such toys as were fit for our trade with the
negroes—such as beads, bits of glass, shells, and other trifles, especially little
looking-glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets, and the like. =

The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away to the northward
upon our own coast, with design to stretch over for the African coast, when we
came about ten or twelve degrees of northern latitude, which, it seems, was the
manner of course in those days. We had very good weather, only excessively
hot, all the way upon our own coast till we came to the height of Cape St.
Augustina; from whence, keeping further off at sea, we lost sight of land, and
steered as if we were bound for the isle Fernando de Noronha, holding our
course N.E. by N., and leaving those isles on the east. In this course we
passed the line in about twelve days’ time, and were, by our last observation,
in seven degrees twenty-two minutes northern latitude, when a violent tornado,
or hurricane, took us quite out of our knowledge. It began from the south-
east, came about to the north-west, and then settled in the north-east; from
whence it blew in such a terrible manner, that for twelve days together we
could do nothing but drive, and scudding away before it, let it carry us
whither ever fate and the fury of the winds directed; and, during these twelve
days, I need not say that I expected every day to be swallowed up; nor, indeed,
did any in the ship expect to save their lives.

In this distress we had, besides the terror of the storm, one of our men die
of the calenture, and one man and the boy washed overboard. About the
twelfth day, the weather abating a little, the master made an observation as
well as he could, and found that he was in about eleven degrees north latitude,
but that he was twenty-two degrees of longitude difference west from Cape St.
Augustina, so that he found he was upon the coast of Guiana, or the north
part of Brazil, beyond the river Amazons, towards that of the river Oroonoque,
commonly called the Great River; and began to consult with me what course
he should take, for the ship was leaky, and very much disabled, and he was
going directly back to the coast of Brazil.

I was positively against that ; and looking over the charts of the sea coast
of America with him, we concluded there was no inhabited country for us to
have recourse to till we came within the circle of the Caribbee islands, and
therefore resolved to stand away for Barbadoes, which, by keeping off at sea, to
avoid the in-drift of the bay or gulf of Mexico, we might easily perform, as we
hoped, in about fifteen days’ sail; whereas we could not possibly make our

27












LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

voyage to the coast of Africa without some assistance both to our ship and
to ourselves.

With this design we changed our course, and steered away N.W. by W., in
order to reach some of our English islands, where I hoped for relief. But our
voyage was otherwise determined; for, being in the latitude of twelve degrees
eighteen minutes, a second storm came upon us, which carried us away with
the same impetuosity westward, and drove us so out of the way of all human
commerce, that had all our lives been saved as to the sea, we were rather
in danger of being devoured by savages, than returning to our own country.

In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our men, early in the
morning, cried out, “Land!” and we had no sooner run out of he cabin to
look out, in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the world we were, than the ship
struck upon a sand, and, ina moment, her motion being so stopped, the sea
broke over her in such a manner that we expected we should all have perished
immediately; and we were immediately driven into our close quarters, to shelter
us from the very foam and spray of the sea.

It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like condition to describe
or conceive the consternation of men in such circumstances. We knew no-
thing where we were, or upon what land it was we were driven; whether an
island or the main—whether inhabited or not inhabited ; and as the rage of
the wind was still great, though rather less than at first, we could not so much
as hope to have the ship hold many minutes without breaking into pieces, un-
less the winds, by a kind of miracle, should turn immediately about. In a
word, we sat looking upon one another and expecting death every moment,
and every man, accordingly, preparing for another world ; for there was little
or nothing more for us to do in this. That which was our present comfort,
and all the comfort we had, was that, contrary to our expectation, the ship did
not break yet, and that the master said the wind began to abate.

Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate, yet the ship hav-
ing thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast for us to expect her get-
ting off, we were in a dreadful condition indeed, and had nothing to do but to
think of saving our lives as well as we could. We had a boat at our stern
just before the storm, but she was first staved by dashing against the ship’s
rudder, and, in the next place, she broke away, and either sunk or was driven
off to sea; so there was no hope from her. We had another boat on board ;
but how to get her off into the sca was a doubtful thing. However, there was
no time to debate; for we fancied the ship would break in pieces every minute,
and some told us she was actually broken already.

In this distress the mate of our vessel laid hold of the boat, and, with the
help of the rest of the men, got her slung over the ship’s side; and, getting ali
into her, let go, and committed ourselves, being eleven in number, to God’s
mercy and the wild sea; for though the storm was abated considerably, yet

28












ROBINSON CRUSOE.



the sea ran dreadfully high upon the shore, and might be well called den wild
zee, as the Dutch call the sea in a storm. ;

And now our case was very dismal indeed ; for we all saw plainly that the
sea went so high that the boat could not live, and that we should be inevitably
drowned. As to making sail, we had none, nor, if we had, could we have done
anything with it; so we worked at the oar towards the land, though with
heavy hearts, like men going to execution; for we all knew that when the
boat came nearer the shore she would be dashed ina thousand pieces by the
breach of the sea. However, we committed our souls to God in the most
earnest manner; and the wind driving us towards the shore, we hastened our
destruction with our own hands, pulling as well as we could towards land.

What the shore was—whether rock or sand, whether steep or shoal—we
knew not. The only hope that could rationally give us the least shadow of
expectation was, if we might find some bay or gulf, or the mouth of some
river, where by great chance we might have run our boat in, or got under the
lee of the land, and perhaps made smooth water. But there was nothing like
this appeared ; but as we made nearer and nearer the shore, the land looked
more frightful than the sea.

After we had rowed, or rather driven about a league and a half, as we
reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came rolling astern of us, and
plainly bade us expect the coup de grace. In a word, it took us with such a
fury that it overset the boat at once; and separating us as well from the boat
as from one another, gave us not time to say, “O God!” for we were all
swallowed up in a moment.

Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt wher I sunk
into the water; for though I swam very well, yet I could not deliver myself
from the waves so as to draw breath, till that wave having driven me, or rather
carried me, a vast way on towards the shore, and having spent itself, went
back, and left me upon the land almost dry, but half-dead with the water I
took in. I had so much presence of mind, as well as breath left, that, seeing
myself nearer the mainland than I expected, I got upon my feet and endea-
voured to make on towards the land as fast as I could before another wave
should return and take me up again. But I soon found it was impossible to
avoid it; for I saw the sea come after me as high as a great hill, and as furious
as an enemy, which I had no means or strength to contend with. My business
was to hold my breath, and raise myself upon the water, if I could; and so,
by swimming, to preserve my breathing, and pilot myself towards the shore,
if possible, my greatest concern now being that the sea—as it would carry me
a great way towards the shore when it came on—might not carry me back
again with it when it gave back towards the sea.

The wave that came upon me again buried me at once twenty or thirty feet
deep in its own body, and I could feel myself carried with a mighty force and

29










LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

swiftness towards the shore a very great way; but I held my breath, and.
assisted myself to swim still forward with all my might. Iwas ready to burst
with holding my breath, when, as I felt myself raising up, so, to my immediate
relief, I found my head and hands shoot out above the surface of the water;
and though it was not two seconds of time that I could keep myself so, yet it
relieved me greatly—gave me breath and new courage. I was covered again
with water a good while, but not so long but I held it out; and finding the
water had spent itself, and began to return, I struck forward against the return
of the waves, and felt ground again with my feet. I stood still a few moments,
to recover breath, and till the waters went from me, and then took to my heels
and ran, with what strength I had, further towards the shore. But neither
would this deliver me from the fury of the sea, which came pouring in after me
again, and twice more I was lifted up by the waves and carried forwards as
before, the shore being very flat.

The last time of these two had well nigh been fatal tome; for the sea having
hurried me along as before, landed me, or rather dashed me, against a piece of
rock, and that with such force as it left me senseless, and indeed helpless, as to
my own deliverance ; for the blow taking my side and breast, beat the breath,
as it were, quite out of my body, and had it returned again immediately, I
must have been strangled in the water; but I recovered a little before the return
of the waves, and seeing I should be covered again with the water, I resolved to
hold fast by a piece of the rock, and so to hold my breath, if possible, till the
wave went back. Now, as the waves were not so high as at first, being nearer
land, I held my hold till the wave abated, and then fetched another run, which
brought Mme so near the shore that the next wave, though it went over me, yet
did not so swallow me up as to carry me away; and the next run I took I got
to the mainland, where, to my great comfort, I clambered up the cliffs of the
shore, and sat me down upon the grass, and quite out of the reach of the water.

I was now landed,,and safe on shore, and began to look up and thank God
that my life was saved, in a case wherein there was, some minutes before, scarce
any room to hope. I believe it is impossible to express to the life what the
ecstacies and transports of the soul are when it is so saved, as I may say,
out of the very grave ; and I do not wonder now at the custom when a
malefactor, who has the halter about his neck, is tied up, and just going
to be turned off, and has a reprieve brought to him—I say I do not wonder
that they bring a surgeon with it, to let him blood that very moment they
tell him of it, that the surprise may not drive the animal spirits from the
heart, and overwhelm him.

For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.

I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands; and my whole being,
as I may say, wrapt up in a contemplation of my deliverance; making a
30
















ROBINSON CRUSOE.



thousand gestures and motions, which I cannot describe ; reflecting upon all
my comrades that were drowned, and that there should not be one soul saved
but myself; for, as for them, I never saw them afterwards, or any sign of them,
except three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes that were not fellows.

I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when, the breach and froth of the sea
being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far off; and considered, Lord!
how was it possible I could get on shore ?

After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my condition, I
began to look round me, to see what kind of place I was in, and what was
next to be done; and I soon found my comforts abate, and that, in a word, I
had a dreadful deliverance; for I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor
anything either to eat or drink, to comfort me. Neither did I see any prospect
before me, but that of perishing with hunger, or being devoured by wild
beasts; and that which was particularly afflicting to me was, that I had no
weapon either to hunt and kill any creature for my sustenance, or to defend
myself against any other creature that might desire to kill me for theirs. Ina
word, I had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco
in a box. This was all my provision; and this threw me into terrible agonies
of mind, that, for a while, I ran about like a madman. Night coming upon
me, I began, with a heavy heart, to consider what would be my lot if there
were any ravenous beasts in that country, a6 at night they always come abroad
for their prey.

All the remedy that offered to my thoughts, at that time, was to get up into
a thick bushy tree, like a fir, but thorny, which grew near me, and where I
resolved to sit all night, and consider the next day what death I should die ;
for as yet I saw no prospect of life. I walked about a furlong from the shore,
to see if I could find any fresh water to drink, which I did to my great joy;
and having drank, and put a little tobacco in my mouth to prevent hunger, I
went to the tree, and getting up into it, endeavoured to place myself so that if
I should sleep I might not fall. And having cut me a short stick, like a
truncheon, for my defence, I took up my lodging ; and having been excessively
fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I believe, few could have
done in my condition, and found myself more refreshed with it than I think I
ever was on such an occasion.

When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the storm abated,
so that the sea did not rage and swell as before. But that which surprised me
most was, that the ship was lifted off in the night from the sand where she
lay, by the swelling of the tide, and was driven up almost as far as the rock
which I at first mentioned, where I had been so bruised by the wave dashing
me against it. This being within about a mile from the shore where I was,
and the ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished myself on board, that at
least I might save some necessary things for my use.

31












LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

When I came down from my apartnyent in the tree, I looked about me again,
and the first thing I found was the boat, which lay, as the wind and sea had
tossed her up, upon the land, about two miles on my right hand. I walked as
far as I could upon the shore to have got to her; but found a neck, or inlet,
of water between me and the boat, which was about half a mile broad; so I
came back for the present, being more intent upon getting at the ship, where I
hoped to find something for my present subsistence.

A little after noon, I found the sea very calm, and the tide ebbed so far ont
that I could come within a quarter of a mile of the ship. And here I found a
fresh renewing of my grief; for I saw evidently that if we had kept on
board, we had been all safe: that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and
T had not been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all comfort
and company, as I now was. This forced tears to my eyes again; but as
there was little relief in that, I resolved, if possible, to get to the ship; so I
pulled off my clothes, for the weather was hot to extremity, and took the
water, But when I came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater te know
how to get on board; for, as she lay aground, and high out of the water, there
was nothing within my reach to lay hold of. I swam round her twice, and the
second time I spied a small piece of rope, which T wondered I did not see at
first, hung down by the forechains so low, that with great difficulty I got hold
of it, and by the help of that rope I got up into the forecastle of the ship.
Here I found that the ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water in her
hold ; but that she lay so on the side of a bank of hard sand, or rather earth,
that her stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head low, almost to the
water. By this means all her quarter was free, and all that was in that part
was dry; for you may be sure my first work was to search and to see what
was spoiled and what was free. And, first, I found that all the ship’s provi-
sions were dry and untouched by the water, and being very well disposed to
eat, I went to the bread-room, and filled my pockets with biscuit, and eat it as
I went about other things, for I had no time to lose. I also found some rum
in the great cabin, of which I took a large dram, and which I had, indeed, need
enough of to spirit me for what was before me. Now I wanted nothing but a
loat to furnish myself with many things which I foresaw would be very
necessary to me.

It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be had; and this
extremity roused my application, We had several spare yards, and two or
three la.ge spars of wood, and a spare top-mast or two in the-ship. I resolved
to fallto work with these, and I flung as many of them overboard as I could
manage for their weight, tying every one with a rope, that they might not drive
away. When this was done, I went down the ship’s side, and pulling them to
me, I tied four of them together at both ends, as well as I could, in the form
of a raft, and laying two or three short pieces of plank upon them cross-ways,

32








Pe

Se

i)
"



“T tied them together in the form of a raft.”








ROBINSON CRUSOE,

IT found I could walk upon it very well, but that it was not able to bear any
great weight, the pieces being too light. So I went to work; and with the
carpenter’s saw I cut a spare top-mast into three lengths, and added them to
my raft, with a great deal of labour and pains. But the hope of furnishing
myself with necessaries encouraged me to go beyond what I should have been
able to have done upon another occasion.

My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable weight. My next
care was what to load it with, and how to preserve what I laid upon it from
the surf of the sea: but I was not long considering this. I first laid all the
plank or boards upon it that I could get, and having considered well what I
most wanted, I first got three of the seamen’s chests, which I had broken open
and emptied, and lowered them down upon my raft. The first of these I filled
with provisions, viz., bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried goat’s
flesh (which we lived much upon), and a little remainder of European corn,
which had been laid by for some fowls which we brought to sea with us; but
the fowls were killed. There had been some barley and wheat together ; but,
to my great disappointment, I found afterwards that the rats had eaten or
spoiled it all. As for liquors, I found several cases of bottles belonging to our
skipper, in which were some cordial waters; and, in all, about five or six gal-
lons of rack. These I stowed by themselves, there being no need to put them
into the chest, nor any room for them. While I was doing this, I found the
tide began to flow, though very calm; and I had the mortification to see my
coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left on the shore upon the sand, swim
away. As for my breeches, which were only linen and open-knee’d, I swam on
board in them and my stockings. However, this set me on rummaging for
clothes, of which I found enough, but took no more than I wanted for present
use, for I had other things which my eye was more upon—as, first, tools to
work with on shore. And it was after long searching that I found out the
carpenter’s chest, which was indeed a very useful prize to me, and much more
valuable than a ship-lading of gold would have been at the time. I got it
down to my raft, whole as it was, without losing time to look into it, for I knew
in general what it contained.

My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There were two very
good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two pistols. These I secured first,
with some powder-horns and a small bag of shot, and two old rusty swords. I
knew there were three barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not where our
gunner had stowed them; but with much search I found them, two of them
dry and good, the third had taken water. These two I got to my raft, with
the arms. And now I thought myself pretty well freighted, and began to
think how I should get to shore with them, having neither sail, oar, or rudder ;
and the least cap-full of wind would have overset all my navigation.

I had three encouragements: Ist, a smooth, calm sea; 2ndly, the tide rising,

c 33


















LIFE AND ADVENTURES QE |

and setting in to the shore; 3rdly, what little wind there was blew me towards
the land. And thus, having found two or three broken oars belonging to the
boat, and besides the tools which were in the chest, two saws, an axe, and a
hammer: with this cargo I put to sea. For a mile, or thereabouts, my raft
went very well, only that I found it drive a little distant from the place where
I had landed before, by which I perceived that there was some indraft of the
water, and, consequently, I hoped to find some creek or river there, which I
might make use of as a port to get to land with my cargo.

As I imagined, so it was. There appeared before me a little opening of the
land, and I found a strong current of the tide set into it; so I guided my raft,
as well as I could, to keep in the middle of the stream.

But here I had like to have suffered a second shipwreck, which, if I had, I
think verily would have broke my heart, for, knowing nothing of the coast,
my raft ran aground at one end of it upon a shoal, and not being aground at
the other end, it wanted but a little that all my cargo had slipped off towards
the end that was afloat, and so fallen into the water. I did my utmost, by
setting my back against the chests, to keep them in their places, but could not
thrust off the raft with all my strength; neither durst I stir from the posture I |
was in; but holding up the chests with all my might, I stood in that manner
near half an hour, in which time the rising of the water brought me a little
more upon a level; and, a little after, the water still rising, my raft floated
again, and I thrust her off with the oar I had into the channel, and then driving
up higher, I at length found myself in the mouth of a little river, with land on
both sides, and a strong current or tide running up. I looked on both sides
for a proper place to get to shore ; for I was not willing to be driven too high
up the river, hoping, in time, to see some ship at sea, and therefore re-
solved to place myself as near the coast as I could. |

At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek, to which,
with great pain and difficulty, I guided my raft, and at last got so near |
that, reaching ground with my oar, I could thrust her directly in. But |
here I had liked to have dipped all my cargo into the sea again; for that
shore lying pretty steep—that is to say, sloping—there was no place to land,
but where one end of my float, if it ran on shore, would lie so high, and the
other sink lower, as before, that it would endanger my cargo again. All I
could do was to wait till the tide was at the highest, keeping the raft with
my oar like an anchor to hold the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat
piece of ground, which I expected the water would flow over; and so it did. |
As soon as I found water enough—for my raft drew about a foot of
water—I thrust her on upon that flat piece of ground, and there fastened
or moored her, by sticking my two broken oars into the ground—one on one
side, near the end, and one on the other side, near the other end; and thus I
lay till the water ebbed away, and left my raft and all my cargo safe on shore.

34 |
















ROBINSON CRUSOE.



My next work was to view the country and seek a proper place for my
habitation, and where to stow my goods, to secure them from whatever might
happen. WhereI was, I yet knew not; whether on the continent or on at
island ; whether inhabited or not inhabited ; whether in danger of wild beasts
or not. There was a hill not above a mile from me, which rose up very steep
and high, and which seemed to overtop some other hills, which lay as ina
ridge from it, northward. I took out one of the fowling-pieces, and one of
the pistols, and a horn of powder ; and thus armed I travelled for discovery
up to the top of that hill, where, after I had with great labour and difficulty
got to the top, I saw my fate, to my great affliction, viz., that I was in an island
environed on every side by the sea. No land to be seen except some rocks,
which lay a great way off, and two small islands, less than this, which lay
about three leagues to the west.

I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I saw good reason
to believe, uninhabited except by wild beasts, of whom, however, I saw none.
Yet I saw abundance of fowls, but knew not their kinds; neither, when I
killed them, could I tell what was fit for food, and what not. At my coming
back I shot at a great bird, which I saw sitting upon a tree, on the side of a
ereat wood. I believe it was the first gun that had been fired there since the
creation of the world. I had no sooner fired, than from all the parts of the
wood there arose an innumerable number of fowls, of many sorts, making a,
confused screaming and crying, every one according to his usual note, but not
one of them of any kind that I knew. As for the creature I killed, I took it
to be akind of a hawk, its colour and beak resembling it, but it had no talons
or claws more than common. Its flesh was carrion, and fit for nothing.

Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and fell to work to
bring my cargo on shore, which took me up the rest of that day. What to do
with myself at night I knew not, nor, indeed, where to rest ; for I was afraid
to lie down on the ground, not knowing but some wild beast might devour me,
though, as I afterwards found, there was really no need of those fears.

However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself round with the chests and
boards tlgt I had brought on shore, and made a kind of hut for that night’s
lodging. As for food, I yet saw not which way to supply myself, except that
T had seen two or three-creatures, like hares, run out of the wodd where I shot
the fowl.

I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many things out of the
ship which would be useful to me, and particularly some of the rigging and
sails, and such other things as might come to land; and I resolved to make
another voyage on board the vessel, if possible. And as I knew that the first
storm that blew must necessarily break her all to pieces, I resolved to set all
other things apart till I had got every thing out of the ship that I could get.
Then I called a council—that is to say, in my thoughts—whether I should take

35










LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

back the raft ; but this appeared impracticable : so I resolved to go as before,
when the tide was down; and I did so, only that I stripped before I went
from my hut, having nothing on but a chequered shirt, a pair of linen drawers,
and a pair of pumps on my feet.

IT got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second raft; and, having
had experience of the first, I neither made this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so
hard. But yet I brought away several things very useful to me; as, first, in
the carpenter’s stores, I found two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a great
screw-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and, above all, that most useful thing
called a grindstone. All these I secured, together with several things belong-
ing to the gunner; particularly two or three iron crows, and two barrels of
musket bullets, seven muskets, and another fowling piece, with some smail
quantity of powder more; a large bagful of small shot, and a great roll of
sheet lead; but this last was so heavy I could not hoist it up to get it over
the ship’s side.

Besides these things, I took all the men’s clothesthat I could find, and a spare
fore-top sail, a hammock, and some bedding; and with this I loaded my
second raft, and brought them all safe on shore, to my very great comfort.

Iwas under some apprehension, during my absence from the land, that at
least my provisions might be devoured on shore: but when I came back, I

_ found no sign of any visitor; only there sat a creature like a wild cat upon
one-of the chests, which, when I came towards it, ran away a little distance,
and then stood still. She sat very composed and unconcerned, and looked full
in my face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted with me. I presented my
gun to her, but, as she did not understand it, she was perfectly unconcerned
at it, nor did she offer to stir away ; upon which I tossed her a bit of biscuit
—though, by the way, I was not very free of it, for my store was not great.
However, I spared her a bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled at it, and ate it,
and looked (as if pleased) for more; but I thanked her, and could spare no
more: so she marched off.

Having got my second cargo on shore—though I was obliged to open the
barrels of powder, and bring them by parcels, for they were too heavy, being
large casks—I went to work to make me a little tent, with the sail and some
poles which I cut for that purpose ; and into this tent I brought everything
that I knew would spoil either with rain or sun; and I piled all the empty
chests and casks up in a circle round the tent, to fortify it from any sudden
attempt either from man or beast.

When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent with some boards
within, and an empty chest set up on end without; and spreading one of my.
beds upon the grouud, laying my two pistols just at my head, and my gun at
length by me, I went to bed for the first time, and slept very quietly all night,
for I was very weary and heavy; for the night before I had slept little, and

36








Bey
Lp

a Mr
ef Neia fh ‘af

Sie UFO 85 7
eye A



“Tt blew hard all night, and in the morning no ship was to be seen.”


ROBINSON CRUSOE.



had laboured very hard all day to fetch all those things from the ship, and to
get them on shore.

IT had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was laid up, I believe,
for one man. But I was not satisfied still; for while the ship sat upright in
that posture, I thought I ought to get everything out of her that I could: so
every day, at low water, I went on board and brought away something or
other : but particularly the third time I went and brought away as much of
the rigging as I could, as also the small ropes and rope twine I could get, with
a piece of spare canvas, which was to mend the sails upon occasion, and the
barrel of wet gunpowder. Ina word, I brought away all the sails first and
last; only that I was obliged to cut them in pieces, and bring as much at a
time as I could, for they were no more useful to be sails, but as mere canvas only.

But that which comforted me more still, was, that last of all, after I had
made five or six such voyages as these, I thought I had nothing more to ex-
pect from the ship that was worth my meddling with,—I say, after all this, I
found a great hogshead of bread, three large runlets of rum or spirits, and a
box of sugar, and a barrel of fine flour. This was surprising to me, because
T had given over expecting any more provisions, except what was spoiled by
the water. I soon emptied the hogshead of the bread and wrapped it up, par-
cel by parcel, in pieces of the sails which I cut out; and, in a word, I got all
this safe on shore also.

The next day I made another voyage. And now, having plundered the ship
of what was portable and fit to hand out, I began with the cables, cutting the
great cable into pieces such as I could move. I got two cables and a hawser
on shore, with all the iron-work I could get ; and having cut down the sprit-
sail-yard and the mizen-yard, and everything I could to make a large raft, I
loaded it with all these heavy goods, and came away ; but my good luck began
now to leave me, for this raft was so unwieldy and so overladen, that after I
was entered the little cove, where I had landed the rest of my goods, not being
able to guide it so handily as I did the other, it overset, and threw me and
all my cargo into the water. As for myself, it was no great harm, for I was
near the shore; but as to my cargo, it was a great part of it lost, especially
the iron, which I expected would have been of great use to me. However,
when the tide was out, I got most of the pieces of cable ashore, and some of
the iron, though with infinite labour, for I had to dip for it into the water—
a work which fatigued me very much. After this I went every day on board,
and brought away what I could get.

I had been now thirteen days on shore, and had been eleven times on board
the ship, in which time I had brought away all that one pair of hands could
well be supposed capable to bring, though I believe verily, had the calm
weather held, I should have brought away the whole ship, piece by piece; but
preparing the twelfth time to go on board, I found the wind began to rise.

37

oO










LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



However, at low water, I went on board, and though I thought I had rammaged
the cabin so effectually that nothing more could be found, yet I discovered a
locker with drawers in it, in one of which I found two or three razors, and
one pair of large scissors, with some ten or a dozen of good knives and forks.
In another I found about thirty-six pounds value in money, some European
coin, some Brazil, some pieces-of-eight, some gold, and some silver.

I smiled to myself at the sight of this money. “O drug!” said I, aloud,
“what art thou good for? Thou art not worth to me—no, not the taking off
the ground; one of those knives is worth all thisheap. I have no manner of
use for thee, e’en remain where thou art, and go to the bottom, asa creature
whose life is not worth saving.” However, upon second, thoughts, I took it
away ; and wrapping all in a piece of canvas, I began to think of making
another raft ; but while I was preparing this, I found the sky overcast, and the
wind began to rise, and in a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale from the
shore. It presently occurred to me that it was in vain to pretend to make a
raft with the wind offshore, and that it was my business to be gone before the
tide of flood began, otherwise I might not be able to reach the shore at all.
Accordingly, I let myself down into the water, and swam across the channel
which lay between the ship and the sands, and even that with difficulty enough,
partly with the weight of the things I had about me, and partly from the
roughness of the water, for the wind rose very hastily, and before it was quite
high water it blew a storm.

But I had got home to my little tent, where I lay, with all my wealth about
me, very secure. It blew very hard all that night, and in the morning when
I looked out, behold no more ship was to be seen! I wasa little surprised,
but recovered myself with this satisfactory reflection, that I had lost no time,
nor abated any diligence, to get everything out of her that could be useful to
me, and that, indeed, there was little left in her that I was able to bring away
if I had had more time.

I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of anything out of her,
except what might drive on shore from her wreck; as, indeed, divers pieces of
her afterwards did, but those things were of small use to me.

My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing myself against either
savages, if any should appear, or wild beasts, if any were in the island; and I
had many thoughts of the method how to do this, and what kind of dwell-
ing to make,—whether I should make me a cave in the earth, or a tent upon
the earth; and, in short, I resolved upon both—the manner and description of
which it may not be improper to give an account of.

I soon found the place I was in was not fit for my settlement, because it was
upon alow, moorish ground, near the sea, and I believed it would not be whole-
some, and more particularly because there was no fresh water near it; so I
resolved to find a more healthy and more convenient spot of ground.

38






a eae Ne Ne LE es Re OR



“In this half circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes.”






ROBINSON CRUSOE.



I consulted several things in my situation, which I found would be proper
for me,—lIst, health and fresh water, I just now mentioned; 2ndly, shelter from
the heat of the sun; 3rdly, security from ravenous creatures, whether men or
beasts; 4thly, a view to the sea, that if God sent any ship in sight, I might not
lose any advantage for my deliverance, of which I was not willing to banish all
my expectation yet.

In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain on the side of a
rising hill, whose front towards this little plain was steep as a house-side, so
that nothing could come down upon me from the top. On the side of the rock
there was a hollow place, worn a little way in, like the entrance or door of a
cave; but there was not really any cave or way into the rock at all.

On the flat of the green just before this hollow place I resolved to pitch my
tent. This plain was not above a hundred yards broad, and about twice as
long, and lay like a green before my door, and, at the end of it, descended
irregularly every way down into the low ground by the sea-side. It was on
the N.N.W. side of the hill, so that it was sheltered from the heat every day, till
it came to a W. and by S. sun, or thereabouts, which in those countries is
near the setting.

Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle before the hollow place, which
took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter, from the rock, and twenty yards
in its diameter, from its beginning and ending.

In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving them into
the ground till they stood very firm like piles, the biggest end being out of the
eround above five feet and a-half and sharpened on the top. The two rows did
not stand above six inches from one another.

Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship, and laid them in
rows, one upon another, within the circle, between these two rows of stakes, up
to the top, placing other stakes in the inside, leaning against them, about two
feet and a-half high, like a spur toa post; and this fence was so strong that
neither man nor beast could get into it or over it. This cost mea great deal
of time and labour, especially to cut the piles in the woods, bring them to the
place, and drive them into the earth.

The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a door, but by a short lad-
der to go over the top; which ladder, when I was in, T lifted over after me;
and so I was completely fenced in and fortified, as I thought, from all the world,
and, consequently, slept secure in the night, which otherwise I could not have

‘ done; though, as it appeared afterwards, there was no need of all this caution

from the enemies that I apprehended danger from.

Into this fence or fortress, with infinite labour, I carried all my riches, all
my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which you have the account above;
and I made a large tent, which, to preserve me from the rains, that in one part
of the year are very violent there, I made double, one smaller tent within, and

39










LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



one larger tent above it; and covered the uppermost with a large tarpaulin,
which I had saved among the sails.

And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which I had brought on shore,
but in a hammock, which was indeed a very good one, and belonged to the
mate of the ship.

Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything that would spoil
by the wet; and having thus enclosed all my goods, I made up the entrance,
which till now I had left open, and so passed and repassed, as I said, by a
short ladder.

When I had done this, I began to work my way into the rock; and bringing
all the earth and stones that I dug down out through my tent, I laid them up
within my fence, in the nature of a terrace, so that it raised the ground within
about a foot and a-half; and thus I made me a cave, just behind my tent,
which served me like a cellar to my house.

It cost me much labour and many days before all these things were brought
to perfection; and therefore I must go back to some other things which took
up some of my thoughts. At the same time it happened, after I had laid my
scheme for the setting up my tent and making the cave, that a storm of rain
falling from a thick, dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning happened, and,
after that, a great clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect of it. Iwas not so
much surprised with the lightning, as I was with a thought which darted into
my mind as swift as the lightning itself; O my powder! My very heart sank
within me when I thought that, at one blast, all my powder might be destroyed;
on which, not my defence only, but the providing me food, as I thought, en-
tirely depended. I was nothing near so anxions about my own danger,
though, had the powder took fire, I should never have known who had
hurt me.

Such impression did this make upon me, that after the storm was over, I
laid aside all my works, my building and fortifying, and applied myself to make
bags and boxes, to separate the powder, and to keep it a little and a little in a
parcel, in hope that whatever might come, it might not all take fire at once ;
and to keep it so apart, that it should not be possible to make one part fire
another. I finished this work in about a fortnight ; and I think my powder,
which in all was about two hundred and forty pounds weight, was divided into
not less than a hundred parcels. As to the barrel that had been wet, I did not
apprehend any danger from that; soI placed it in my new cave, which,
in my fancy, I called my kitchen; and the rest I hid up and down in holds
among the rocks, so that no wet might come to it, marking very carefully
where I laid it.

In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out once at least every
day with my gun, as well to divert myself as to see if I could kill anything fit
for food; and, as near as I could, to acquaint myself with what the island pro-

4














ROBINSON CRUSOL.





duced. The first time I went out, I presently discovered that there were goats
in the island, which was a great satisfaction to me; but then it was attended
with this misfortune to me, viz., that they were so shy, so subtle, and so swift
of foot, that it was the difficultest thing in the world to come at them. But I
was not discouraged at this, not doubting but I might now and then shoot
one, as it soon happened ; for after I had found their haunts a little, I laid
wait in this manner for them : I observed if they saw me in the valleys, though
they were upon the rocks, they would run away, as in a terrible fright; but
if they were feeding in the valleys, and I was upon the rocks, they took no
notice of me; from whence I concluded that, by the position of their optics,
their sight was so directed downward, that they did not readily see
objects that were above them; so afterwards, I took this method, —I
always climbed the rocks first, to get above them, and then had frequently
a fair mark.

The first shot I made among these creatures, I killed a she-goat, which had
a little kid by her, which she gave ‘suck to, which grieved me heartily ; for,
when the old one fell, the kid stood stock still by her, till I came and took her
up; and not only so, but when I carried the old one with me, upon my
shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my enclosure; upon which I laid down
the dam and took the kid in my arms, and carried it over my pale, in hopes
to have bred it up tame ; but it would not eat; so I was forced to kill it, and
eat it myself, These two supplied me with flesh a great while; for I
ate sparingly, and saved my provisions, my bread especially, as much as
possibly I could.

Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely necessary to provide
a place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn; and what I did for that, as also
how I enlarged my cave, and what conveniences I made, I shall give a full ac-
count of in its place; but I must now give some little account of myself, and
of my thoughts about living, which it may well be supposed were not a few.

JT had a dismal prospect of my condition ; for as I was not cast away upon
that island without being driven, as is said, by a violent storm, quite out of the
course of our intended voyage, and a great way—viz., some hundreds of leagues
out of the ordinary course of the trade of mankind—I had great reason to
consider it as a determination of Heaven that, in this desolate place, and in this
desolate manner, I should end my life. The tears would run plentifully down
my face when I made these reflections ; and sometimes I would expostulate
with myself why Providence should thus completely ruin its creatures, and
render them so absolutely miserable, so without help, abandoned, so entirely
depressed, that it could hardly be rational to be thankful for such a life.

But something always returned swift upon me to check these thoughts, and
to reprove me; and particularly one day, walking with my gun in my hand by
the sea side, I was very pensive upon the subject of my present condition, when

41












LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



reason, as it were, expostulated with me the other way. Thus,—« Well, you
are in a desolate condition, it is true ; but, pray remember, where are the rest
of you? Did not you come eleven of you into the boat? Where are the ten ?
Why were they not saved and you lost? Why were you singled out? Is it
better to be here or there?” And then I pointed to the sea. All evils are
to be considered with the good that is in them, and with what worse
attends them.

Then it occurred to me again how well I was furnished for my subsistence,
and what would have been my case if it had not happened (which was a hun-
dred thousand to one) that the ship fleated from the place where she first struck,
and was driven so near to the shore that I had time to get all these things out
of her; what would have been my case if I had been forced to have lived in
the condition in which I at first came on shore, without necessaries of life, or
necessaries to supply and procure them? “Particularly,” said I, aloud (though
to myself), “what should I have done without a gun, without ammunition,
without any tools to make anything, or to work with, without clothes, bedding,
a tent, or any manner of covering ?”—and that now I had all these to sufficient
quantity, and was in a fair way to provide myself in such a manner as to live
without my gun when my ammunition was spent; so that I had a tolerable
view of subsisting, without any want, as long as I lived; for I considered from
the beginning how I would provide for the accidents that might happen, and
for the time that was to come, even not only after my ammunition should be
spent, but even after my health and strength should decay.

I confess I had not entertained any notion of my ammunition being de-
stroyed at one blast—I mean my powder being blown up by lightning ; and
this made the thoughts of it so surprising to me when it lightened and thun-
dered, as I observed just now.

And now, being to enter into a melancholy relation of a scene of silent life,
such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the world before, I shall take it from
its beginning, and continue it in its order. It was, by my account, the 30th of
September, when, in the manner as above said, I first set foot upon this horrid
island; when the sun, being to us in its autumnal equinox, was almost just over
my head; for I reckoned myself, by observation, to be in the latitude of nine
degrees twenty-two minutes north of the line.

After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came into my thoughts
that I should lose my reckoning of time for want of books, and pen, and ink,
and should even forget the Sabbath days; but to prevent this, I cut with my
knife upon a large post, in capital letters; and making it into a great cross,
I set up on the shore where I first landed, “I came on shore here on the 30th
of September, 1659.”

Upon the sides of this square post I cut every day a notch with my knife,
and every seventh notch was as long again as the rest, and every first day of

42
















ROBINSON CRUSOE.



the month as long again as that long one; and thus I kept'my calendar, or
weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning of time.

In the next place, we are to observe that among the many things which I
brought out of the ship in the several voyages which, as above meutioned, I
made to it, I got several things of less value, but not at all less useful to me,
which I omitted setting down before: as, in particular, pens, ink, and paper ;
several parcels in the captain’s, mate’s, gunner’s, and carpenter’s keeping, three
or four compasses, some mathematical instruments, dials, perspectives, charts,
and books of navigation ; all which I huddled together, whether I might want
them orno. Also, I found three very good Bibles, which came to me in my
cargo from England, and which I had packed up among my things; some
Portuguese books also, and among them two or three Popish prayer-books, and
several other books, all which I carefully secured. And I must not forget that
we had in the ship a dog and two cats—of whose eminent history I may have
occasion to say something in its place, for I carried both the cats with me; and
as for the dog, he jumped out of the ship of himself, and swam on shore to me
the day after I went on shore with my first cargo, and was a trusty servant to
me many years. I wanted nothing that he could fetch me, nor any company
that he could make up to me—I only wanted to have him talk to me, but that
would not do. AslI observed before, I found pens, ink, and paper,and I
husbanded them to the utmost; and I shall show that while my ink lasted, I
kept things very exact; but after that was gone I could not, for I could not
make any ink by any means that I could devise.

And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, notwithstanding all that
Thad amassed together ; and of these, ink was one, as also a spade, pick-axe,
and shovel, to dig or remove the earth; needles, pins, and thread. As for linen,
I soon learned to want that without much difficulty.

This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily; and it was near
a whole year before I had entirely finished. my little pale, or surrounded my
habitation. The piles or stakes, which were as heavy as I could well lift, were
a long time in cutting and preparing in the woods, and more, by far, in bringing
home; so that I spent sometimes two days in cutting and bringing home one
of those posts, and a third day in driving it into the ground; for which purpose
I got a heavy piece of wood at first, but at last bethought myself of one of the
iron crows, which, however, though I found it, made driving those posts or piles
very laborious and tedious work. But what need I have been concerned at
the tediousness of anything I had to do, seeing I had time enough to do it in?
nor had I any other employment, if that had been over, at least that I could
foresee, except the ranging the island to seek for food, which I did, more or
less, every day. ie

I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the circumstances I was
reduced to; and I drew up the state of my affairs in writing, not so much to

43












LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



leave them to any that were to come after me; for I was likely to have but
few heirs, as to deliver my thoughts from daily poring upon them, and afflicting
my mind: and as my reason began now to master my despondency, I began
to comfort myself as well as I could, and to set the good against the evil, that
I might have something to distinguish my case from worse; and I stated very
impartially, like debtor and creditor, the comforts I enjoyed against the miseries
I suffered. Thus :-—

EvIL. Goop.
Iam east upon a horrible desolate But I am alive, and not drowned, as
island, void of all hope of recovery. all my ship’s company were.

T am singled out and separated, as But I am singled out, too, from all
it were, from all the world, to bemiser- the ship’s crew, to be spared from
able. death; and he that miraculously saved

me from death, can deliver me from
this condition.

T am divided from mankind—a soli- But I am not starved, and perish-
taire ; one banished from human _ ing ina barren place, affording no sus-
society. tenance.

I have not clothes to cover me. But I am in a hot climate, where, if

I had clothes, I could hardly wear
them.

Tam without any defence, or means But I am cast on an island where
to resist any violence of man or beast. I see no wild beast to hurt me, as I
saw on the coast of Africa; and what
if I had been shipwrecked there ?
T have no soul to speak to, or relieve But God wonderfully sent the ship
me. in near enough to the shore, that I
have got out as many necessary things
as will either supply my wants, or
enable me to supply myself, even as
long as I live.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony that there was scarce
any condition in the world so miserable, but there was something negative, or
something positive, to be thankful for in it: and let this stand as a direction,
from the experience of the most miserable of all conditions in this world—that
we may always find in it something to comfort ourselves from, anf to set, in
the description of good and evil, on the credit side of the account.

Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition, and given over
looking out to sea, to see if I could spy a ship; I say, giving over these things,
I began to apply myself to arrange my way of living, and to make things as
easy to me as IJ could.

44








“T made a table and a chair out of the short boards brought from the wreck.”




ROBINSON CRUSOE.

T have already described my habitation, which was a tent under the side of
arock, surrounded with a strong pale of posts and cables; but I might now
rather call it a wall, for I raised a kind of wall up against it of turfs, about two
feet thick on the outside; and, after some time (I think it was a year and a-
half), I raised rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and thatched or covered it
with boughs of trees, and such things as I could get, to keep out the rain,
which I found at some times of the year very violent.

T have already observed how I brought all my goods into this pale, and into
the cave which I had made behind me. But I must observe, too, that at first
this was a confused heap of goods, which, as they lay in no order, so they took
up all my place. Ihad no room toturn myself; so I set myself to enlarge my

. cave and work farther into the earth ; for it was a loose, sandy rock, which

yielded easily to the labour I bestowed on it: and so, when I found I was
pretty safe as to beasts of prey, [ worked sideways, to the right hand into the
rock; and then turning to the right again, worked quite out, and made me a
door to come out on the outside of my pale or fortification.

This gave me not only egress and reeress, as it was a back-way to my tent
and to my storehouse, but gave me room to store my goods.

And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary things as I found
I most wanted, particularly a chair and a table; for without these I was not
able to enjoy the few comforts I had in the world. I could not write, or eat,
or do several things with so much pleasure, without a table, so I went to work.
And here I must needs observe that as reason is the substance andorigin of the
mathematics, so by stating and squaring everything by reason, and by making
the most rational judgment of things, every man may be, in time, master of
every inechanic art. J had never handled a tool in my life; and yet, in time,
by labour, application, and contrivance, I found, at last, that I wanted nothing
but I could have made it, especially if I had had tools. However, I made
abundance of things, even without tools ; and some with no more tools than
an adze and a hatchet, which, perhaps, were never made that way before, and
that with infinite labour. For example, if I wanted a board, I had no other
way but to cut down a tree, set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on either
side with my axe, till I had brought it to be thin as a plank, and then dub it
smooth with my adze. It is true, by this method I could make but one board
out of a whole tree; but this I had no remedy for but patience, any more
than I had for the prodigious deal of time or labour which it took me up to
make a plank or board; but my time or labour was little worth, and so it was
as well employed one way as another.

However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed above, in the first
place; and this I did out of the short pieces of boards that I brought on my
raft from the ship. But when I had wrought out some boards as above, I
made large shelves, of the breadth of a foot and a half, one over another all

45
















LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



along one side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and iron-work on; and, in
a word, to separate everything at large into their places, that I might come
easily at them. I knocked pieces into the wall of the rock to hang my guns
and all things that would hang up; so that had my cave been to be seen, it
looked like a general magazine of all necessary things; and I had everything
so ready at my hand, that it was a great pleasure to me to see all my goods in
such order, and especially to find my stock of all necessaries so great.

And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every day’s employment ;
for indeed, at first, I was in too much hurry—and not only hurry as to labour,
but in too much discomposure of mind, and my journal would have been full
of many,dull things. For example, I must have said thus, “ Sept. 30th.—After
Thad got to shore, and had escaped drowning, instead ‘of being thankful to
God for my deliverance, having first vomited ‘with the great quantity of salt
water which had got into my stomach, and recovering myself a little, I ran
about the shore, wringing my hands, and beating my head and face, exclaiming
at my misery, and crying out, ‘I was undone, undone!’ till, tired and faint, I
was forced to lie down on the ground to repose; but durst not sleep, for fear
of being devoured.”

Some days after this, and after I had been on board the ship and got all that
I could out of her, yet I could not forbear getting up to the top of a little
mountain, and looking out to sea, in hopes of seeing a ship; then fancy at a
vast distance I spied a sail, please myself with the hopes of it, and then, after
looking steadily, till I was almost blind, lose it quite, and sit down and weep
like a child, and thus increase my misery by my folly.

But having gotten over these things in some measure, and having settled
my household stuff and habitation, made me a table and a chair, and all as
handsome about me as I could, I began to keep my journal, of which I shall
here give you the copy (though in it will be told all these particulars over again)
as long as it lasted; for having no more ink, I was forced to leave it off.

THE JOURNAL.

September 30, 1659.—TI, poor, miserable Robinson Crusoe, being ship-
wrecked during a dreadful storm in the offing, come on shore on this dismal,
unfortunate island, which I called “ The Island of Despair;” all the rest of
the ship’s company being drowned, and myself almost dead.

All the rest of the day I spent in afflicting myself at the dismal circum-
stances I was brought to—viz., I had neither food, house, clothes, weapon, nor
place to fly to; and, in despair of any relief, saw nothing but death before me
—cither that I should be devoured by wild beasts, murdered by savages, or
starved to death for want of food. At the approach of night i slept
in a tree, for fear of wild creatures; but slept soundly, though it rained
all night.

46










ROBINSON CRUSOE.



October 1—In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the ship had floated
with the high tide, and was driven on shore again much nearer the island,
which, as it was some comfort, on one hand, for seeing her sit upright, and
not broken to pieces, I hoped, if the wind abated, I might get on board, and
get some food and necessaries out of her for my relief; so, on the other hand,
it renewed my grief at the loss of my comrades, who, I imagined, if
we had all stayed on board; might have saved the ship, or at least
that they would not have been all drowned, as they were, and that had
the men been saved, we might perhaps have built us a boat out of the
ruins of the ship to have carried us to some other part of the world. I
spent great part of this day in perplexing myself on these things; but at
length, seeing the ship almost dry, I went upon the sand as near as I could, and
then swam on board. This day, also, it continued raining, though with no
wind at all. ;

From the st of October to the 24th.—All these days entirely spent in many
several voyages to get all I could out of the ship, which I brought on shore,
every tide of flood, upon rafts. Much rain also in the days, though with some
intervals of fair weather; but it seems this was the rainy season.

October 20.—I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got upon it; but
being in shoal water, and the things being chiefly heavy, I recovered many of
them when the tide was out.

Oct. 25.—It rained all night and all day, with some, gusts of wind, during
which time the ship broke in pieces, the wind blowing a little harder than be-
fore, and was no more to be seen, except the wreck of her, and that only at low
water. I spent this day in covering and securing the goods. which I had saved,
that the rain might not spoil them.

Oct. 26.—I walked about the shore almost all day, to find out a place to fix
my habitation, greatly concerned to secure myself from any attack in the night
either from wild beasts or men. Towards night I fixed upon a proper place
under a rock, and marked out a semi-circle for my encampment, which I re-
solved to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortification made of double piles,
. lined within with cables, and without with turf.

From the 26th to the 30th I worked very hard‘in carrying all my
goods to my new habitation, though some part of the time it rained
exceedingly hard.

The 31st.—In the morning I went out into the island with my gun to see
for some food, and discover the country, when I killed a she-goat, and
her kid followed me home, which I afterwards killed also, because it would
not feed.

November 1.—I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there for the first
night, making it as large as I could, with stakes driven in to swing my
hammock upon. .












LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

Nov. 2.—I set up all my chests and boards, and the pieces of timber which
made my rafts, and with them formed a fence round me—a little within the
place I had marked out for my fortification.

Nov. 3.—I went out with my gun and killed two fowls like ducks, which
were very good food. In the afternoon went to work to make me a table.

Nov. 4.—This morning I began to order my times of work, of going out
with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diversion—viz., every morning I
walked out with my eun for two or three hours, if it did not rain; then em-
ployed myself to work till about eleven o’clock; then ate what I had to live

on; and from twelve till two I lay down to sleep, the weather being ex-

cessively hot ; and then, in the evening, to work again. The working part of
this day and of the next were wholly employed in making my table, for I was
yet but a very sorry workman, though time and necessity made me a complete
natural mechanic soon after, as I believe they would do any one else.

Nov. 5.—This day went abroad with my gun and my dog, and killed a wild
cat ; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good for nothing. Every creature that
I killed I took off the skins and preserved them. Coming back by the sea-
shore, I saw many sorts of sea-fowls which I did not understand ; but was
surprised, and almost frightened, with two or three seals, which, while I was
gazing at, not well knowing what they were, got into the sea, and escaped me
tor that time.

You. 6.-—After my morning walk, I went to work with my table again
and finished it, though not to my liking; nor was it long before I learned
to mend it.

Nov. 7—Now it began to be settled fair weather. The 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th,
and part of the 12th (for the 11th was Sunday), I took wholly up to make me
a chair, and, with much ado, brought it to a tolerable shape, but never to
please me ; and even in the making I pulled it in pieces several times.

Note.—I soon neglected my keeping Sundays ; for, omitting my mark for
them on my post, I forgot which was which.

Nov. 13.—This day it rained, which refreshed me exceedingly, and cooled
the earth; but it was accompanied with terrible thunder and lightning, which
frighted me dreadfully, for fear of my powder. As soon as it was over, I re-
solved to separate my stock of powder into as many little parcels as possible,
that it might not be in danger.

Nov. 14, 15, 16.—These three days I spent in making little square chests,
or boxes, which might hold about a pound, or two pounds at most, of powder;
and so, putting the powder in, I stowed it in places as secure and remote from
one another as possible. On one of these three days I killed a large bird that
was good to eat, but I knew not what to call it.

Nov. 17,—This day I began to dig behind my tent into the rock, to make

room for my further conveniency.
48










ROBINSON CRUSOE.



Note.—Three things I wanted exceedingly for this work—viz., a pickaxe, a
shovel, and a wheelbarrow, or basket ; so I desisted from my work, and began
to consider how to supply that want and make me some tools. As for the
pickaxe, I made use of the iron crows, which were proper enough, though
heavy; but the next thing was a shovel, or spade. This was so absolutely
necessary that, indeed, I could do nothing effectually without it; but what kind
of one to make I knew not.

Nov. 18.—The next day, in searching the woods, I found a tree of: that wood,
or like it, which in the Brazils they call the iron-tree, for its exceeding hard-
ness. Of this, with great labour, and almost spoiling my axe, I cut a piece
and brought it home, too, with difficulty enough, for it was exceeding heavy.
The excessive hardness of the wood, and my having no other way, made me a
long while upon this machine, for I worked it effectually, by little and little,
into the form of a shovel or spade; the handle exactly shaped like ours in
England, only that the board part having no iron shod upon it at bottom, it
would not last me so long. However, if served well enough for the uses which
T had occasion to put it to; but never was a shovel, I believe, made after that
fashion, or so long in making.

I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket, or a wheelbarrow. A basket I
could not make by any means, having no such things as twigs that would bend
to make wicker-ware—at least, none yet found out ; and as to a wheelbarrow,
I fancied I could make all but the wheel; but that I had no notion of, neither
did I know how to go about it. Besides, I had no possible way to make the
iron gudgeons for the spindle or axis of the wheel to run in; so I gave
it over, and so, for carrying away the earth which I dug out of the cave,
I made me a thing like a hod, which the labourers carry mortar in when they
serve the bricklayers. This was not so difficult to me as the making the shovel;
and yet this and the shovel, and the attempt which I made in vain to make a
wheelbarrow, took me up no less than four days—I mean always excepting my
morning walk with my gun, which I seldom failed, and very seldom failed also
bringing home something fit to eat.

Nov. 23.—My other work having now stood ‘still, because of my making
these tools, when they were finished, I went on, and working every day as my
strength and time allowed. I spent eighteen days entirely in widening and
deepening my cave, that it might hold my goods commodiously.

Note.—During all this time, I worked to make this room or cave spacious
enough to accommodate me as a warehouse or magazine, a kitchen,.a dining-
room, and a.cellar. As. for my lodging, I kept to the tent; excepting that some-
times, in the wet season of the year, it rained so hard that I could not keep
myself dry, which caused me afterwards to cover all my place within my pale
with long poles, in the form of rafters, leaning against the rock, and load them
with flags and large leaves of trees, like a thatch.

D 49










LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



December 10.—I began now to think my cave or vault finished, when on a
sudden (it seems I had made it too large) a great quantity of earth fell down
from the top and one side; so much that, in short, it frighted me, and not
without reason, too; for if I had been under it, I had never wanted a
grave-digger. I had now a great deal of work to do over again; for
I had the loose earth to carry out; and, which was of more import-
ance, I had the ceiling to prop up, so that I might be sure no more would
come down.

Dec. 11.— This day I went to work with it accordingly, and got two
shores or posts pitched upright to the top, with two pieces of boards across
over each post. This I finished the next day; and setting more posts up
with boards, in about a week more I had the roof secured ; and the posts,
standing in rows, served me for partitions to part off the house.

Dec. 17—From this day to the 20th I placed shelves, and knocked up
nails on the posts, to hang everything up that could be hung up; and now I
began to be in some order within doors.

Dec. 20.—Now I carried everything into the cave, and began to furnish
my house, and set up some pieces of boards like a dresser, to order my
victuals upon; but boards began to be very scarce with me. Also, I made
me another table.

Dec. 24.—Much rain all night and all day; no stirring out.

Dee. 25.—Rain all day.

Dec. 26.—No rain, and the earth much cooler than before, and pleasanter.

Dec. 27.—Killed a young goat, and lamed another, so that I caught it, and
led it home in a string. When I had it at home, I bound and splintered up
its lee, which was broke.

N.B.—I took such care of it that it lived, and the leg grew well and as
strong as ever; but by my nursing it so long it grew tame, and fed upon the
little green at my door, and would not go away. This was the first time that
T entertained a thought of breeding up some tame creatures, that I might have
food when my powder and shot was all spent.

Dec. 28, 29, 80, 31—Great heats, and no breeze, so that there was no
stirring abroad, except in the evening, for food. This time I spent in putting
all my things in order within doors.

January 1.—Very hot still; but I went abroad early and late with my gun,
and lay still in the middle of the day. This evening, going farther into the
valleys which lay towards the centre of the island, I found there were plenty
of goats, though exceedingly shy, and hard to come at. However, I resolved
to try if I could not bring my dog to hunt them down.

Jan. 2.—Accordingly, the next day I went out with my dog, and set him
upon the goats; but I was mistaken, for they all faced about upon the dog, and
he knew his danger too well, for he would not come near them.

50






ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Jan. 3.—I began my fence, or wall, which, being still jealous of my being
attacked by somebody, I resolved to make very thick and strong.

N.B.—This wall being described before, I purposely omit what was said in
the Journal. It is sufficient to observe that I was no less time than from the
3rd of January to the 14th of April working, finishing, and perfecting this
wall, though it was no more than about twenty-four yards in length, being a
half-circle, from one place in the rock to another place, about eight yards from
it; the door of the cave being in the centre behind it.

All this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering me mauy days, nay,
sometimes weeks, together; but I thought I should never be perfectly secure
till this wall was finished; and it is scarcely credible what inexpressible labour
everything was done with, especially the bringing piles out of the woods, and
driving them into the ground; for I made them much bigger than I needed
to have done.

When this wall was finished, and the outside double-fenced, with a turf
wall raised up close to it, I pursuaded myself that if any people were to come
on shore there they would not perceive anything like a habitation; and it was
very well I did so, as may be observed hereafter, upon a very remarkable
occasion.

During this time I made my rounds in the woods for game every day, when
the rain permitted me, and made frequent discoveries in these walks of some-
thing or other to my advantage. Particularly I found a kind of wild pigeons,
which build, not as wood-pigeons in a tree, but rather as house-pigeons, in the
holes of the rocks; and taking some young ones, I endeavoured to breed them
up tame, and did so; but when they grew older they flew away, which perhaps
was at first for want of feeding them, for I had nothing to give them. How-
ever, I frequently found their nests, and got their young ones, which were very
good meat. And now, in the managing my household affairs, I found myse!f
wanting in many things, which I thought at first it was impossible for mc to
make; as, indeed, with some of them it was. For instance, I could never make
a cask to be hooped. I had a small runlet or two, as I observed before, but I
could never arrive at the capacity of making one by them, though I spent
many weeks about it. I could neither put in the heads, or join the staves so
true to one another as to make them hold water; so I gave that also over. In
the next place, I was at a great loss for candles; so that as soon as ever it was
dark, which was generally by seven o'clock, I was obliged to goto bed. I
remembered the lump-of bees’-wax with which I made candles in my African
adventure; but I had none of that now. The only remedy I had was that
when I had killed a goat I saved the tallow, and with a little dish made of
clay, which I baked in the sun, to which I added a wick of some oakum, I
made me a lamp; and this gave me light, though not a clear, steady light like
acandle, In the middle of all my labours it happened that, rummaging my

51
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LIFE AND ADVENTURES OP



things, I found a little bag, which, as I hinted before, had been filled with corn
for the feeding of poultry—not for this voyage, but before, as I suppose, when
the ship came from Lisbon. The little remainder of corn that had been in the
bag was all devoured with the rats, and I saw nothing in the bag but husks
and dust; and being willing to have the bag for some other use (I think it was
to put powder in, when I divided it for the fear of the lightning, or some such
use), I shook the husks of corn out of it on one side of my fortification,
under the rock. :

It was a little before the great rains juss now mentioned that I threw this
stuff away, taking no notice; and not so much as remembering that I had
thrown anything there, when about a month after, or thereabouts, I saw some
few stalks of something green shooting out of the ground, which I fancied
might be some plant I had not seen; but I was surprised and perfectly
astonished when, after a little longer time, I saw about ten or twelve ears come
out, which were perfect green barley, of the same kind as our European—nay,
as our English barley.

It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion of my thoughts
on this occasion. I had hitherto acted upon no religious foundation at all.
Indeed, I had very few notions of religion in my head, nor had entertained
any sense of anything that had befallen me, otherwise than as chance, or, as we
lightly say, what pleases God, without so much as inquiring into theend of
Providence in these things, or his order in governing events for the world.
But after I saw barley grow there, in a climate which I knew was not proper
for corn, and especially that I knew not how it came there, it startled me
strangely; and I began to suggest that God had miraculously caused his grain
to grow without any help of seed sown, and that it was so directed purely for
my sustenance on that wild, miserable place.

This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out of my eyes; and I
Lexan to bless myself that such a prodigy of nature should happen upon my
account. And this was the more strange to me, because I saw near it still, all
along by the side of the rock, some other straggling stalks, which proved to be
stalks of rice, and which I knew, because I had seen it grow in Africa, when I
was ashore there.

I not only thought these the pure productions of Providence for my support,
but not doubting that there was more in the place, I went all over that part
of the island where I had been before, peering in every corner, and under
every rock, to see for more of it, but I could not find any. At last it accurred
to my thoughts that I shook a bag of chickens’ meat out fn that place, and
then the wonder began to cease; and, I must confess, my religious thankfulness
to God’s Providence began to abate, too, upon the discovering that all this was
nothing but what was common, though I ought to-have been as thankful for

so strange and unforeseen a providence as if it had been miraculous; for it was
52





Hee










ROBINSON CRUSOE.



really the work of Providence to me that should order or appoint that ten or
twelve grains of corn should remain unspoiled, when the rats had destroyed all
the rest, as if it had been dropped from heaven. As also, that I should throw
it out in that particular place, where, it being in the shape ofa high rock, it
sprang up immediately; whereas, if I had thrown it anywhere else, at that time,
it had been burnt up and destroyed.

I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in their season,
which was about the end of June; and, laying up every corn, I resolved to
sow them all again, hoping, in time, to have some quantity sufficient to supply
me with bread. But it was not till the fourth year that I could allow myself
the least grain of this corn to eat, and even then but sparingly, as I shall say
afterwards, in its order; for I lost all that I sowed the first season by not
observing the proper time; for I sowed it just before the dry season, so that it
never came up at all; at least not as it would have done—of which in its place.

Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty stalks of rice,
which I preserved with the same care and for the same use, or to the same
purpose, to make me bread, or rather food; for I found ways to cook it with-
out baking, though I did that also after some time.

But to return to my Journal :—

I worked excessively hard these three or four months to get my wall done,
and the 14th of April I closed it up, contriving to go into it, not by a door,
but over the wall, by a ladder, that there might be no sign on the outside of
my habitation.

April 16.—I finished. the ladder. So I went up the ladder to the top, and
then pulled it up after me, and let it down in the inside. _ This was a complete
enclosure to me; for within I had room enough, and nothing could come at me
from without, unless it could first mount my wall.

The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost had all my
labour overthrown at once, and myself killed. The case was thus :—As I was
busy in the inside, behind my tent, just at the entrance into my cave, I was
terribly frighted with a most dreadful surprising thing indeed: for, all on a
sudden, I found the earth come crumbling down from the roof of my cave,
and from the edge of the hill over my head, andtwo of the posts I had set up
in the cave cracked in a frightful manner. I was heartily scared; but thought
nothing of what was really the cause, only thinking that the top of my cave
was fallen in, as some of it had,done before; and for fear I should be buried
in it, I ran forward to my ladder, and not thinking myself safe there neither,
I got over my wall for fear of the pieces of the hill, which I expected might
roll down upon me, JI had no sooner stepped down upon the firm ground, .-
than I plainly saw it was a terrible earthquake; for the ground I stood on ©
shook three times at about eight minutes’ distance, with three such shocks as
would have overturned the strongest building that could be supposed i. have

5
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LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



stood on the earth, and a great piece of the top ofa rock, which stood about
half a mile from me, next the sea, fell down with such a terrible noise as I
never heard in all my life. I perceived also the very sea was put into violent
motion by it; and I believe the shocks were stronger under the water than on
the island.

I was so much amazed with the thing itself, having never felt the like, nor
discoursed with any one that had, that I was like one dead or stupified; and
the motion of the earth made my stomach sick, like one that was tossed at sea;
but the noise of the falling of the rock awaked me, as it were, and rousing me
from the stupified condition I was in, filled me with horror, and I thought of
nothing then but the hill falling upon my tent and all my household goods,
and burying all at once; and this sunk my very soul within me a second time.

After the third shock was over—and I felt no more for some time—lI began
to take courage; and yet I had not heart enough to go over my wall again, for
fear of being buried alive, but sat still upon the ground greatly cast down and
disconsolate, not knowing what todo. All this while I had not the least serious
religious thought; nothing but the common “Lord, have mercy on me!” and
when it was over, that went away too.

WhileI sat thus, Ifound the air overcast and grow cloudy, as if it would rain.
Soon after that the wind arose by little and little, so that in less than half an
hour it blew a most dreadful hurricane. The sea was all on a sudden covered
over with foam and froth—the shore was covered with the breach of the water
—the trees were torn up by the roots; and a terrible storm it was. This held
about three hours, and then began to abate; and in two hours more it was
quite calm, and began to rain very hard. All this while I sat upon the ground,
very much terrified and dejected, when, on a sudden, it came into my thoughts
that these winds and rain, being the consequences of the earthquake, the earth-
quake itself was spent and over, and I might venture into my cave again. With
this thought my spirits began to revive, and the rain also helping to persuade
me, I went in and sat down in my tent; but the rain was so violent that my
tent was ready to be beaten down with it, and I was forced to go into my cave,
though very much afraid and uneasy, for fear it should fall onmy head. This
violent rain forced me to a new work—viz., to cut a hole through my new for-
tification, like a sink, to let the water go out, which would else have flooded my
cave. After I had been in my cave for some time, and found still no more
shocks of the earthquake follow, I began to be more composed. And now, to
support my spirits—which, indeed, wanted it very much—lI went to my little
store and took a small sup of rum, which, however, I did then and always, very
sparingly, knowing I could have no more when that was gone. It continued
raining all that night and great part of the next day, so that I could not stir
abroad; but my mind being more composed, I began to think of what I had best
do, concluding that, if the island was subject to these earthquakes, there would

b4
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ROBINSON CRUSOE.

be no living for me in a cave, but I must consider of building a little hut in an
open place, which I might surround with a wall, as I had done here, and so
make myself secure from wild beasts or men; for I concluded if I stayed where
I was, I should certainly, one time or other, be buried alive. ;

With these thoughts, I resolved to remove my tent from the place where it
now stood, which was just under the hanging precipice of the hill, and which,
if it should be shaken again, would certainly fall upon my tent; and I spent
the two next days, being the 19th and 20th of April, in contriving where and
how to remove my habitation. The fear of being swallowed up alive made me
that I never slept in quiet; and yet the apprehension of lying abroad without
any fence was almost equal to it. But still, when I looked about and saw
how everything was put in order—how pleasantly concealed I was, and how
safe from danger, it made me very loath to remove. In the meantime, it oc-
curred to me that it would require a vast deal of time for me to do this, and
that I must be contented to venture where I was till I had formed a camp for
myself, and had secured it so as to remove to it. So, with this resolution, I
composed myself for a time, and resolved that I would go to work with all speed
to build me a wall with piles and cables, etc., in a circle, as before, and set my
tent up in it when it was finished, but that I would venture to stay where I
was till it was finished and fit to remove. This was the 21st.

April 22—The next morning I began to consider of means to put this
resolve into execution; but I was at a great loss about my tools. I had three
large axes and abundance of hatchets (for we carried the hatchets for traffic
with the Indians), but with much chopping and cutting knotty, hard wood,
they were all full of notches, and dull; and though I had a grindstone, I could
not turn it and grind my tools too. This cost me as much thought as a states-
man would have bestowed upon a grand point of politics, or a judge upon the
life and death of aman. At length I contrived a wheel witha string, to turn
it with my foot, that I might have both my hands at liberty.

Note.—I had never seen any such thing in England, or at least not to take
notice how it was done, though since I have observed it is very common there.
Besides that, my grindstone was very large and heavy. This machine cost me
a full week’s work to bring it to perfection.

April 28, 29.—These two whole days I took up in grinding my tools; my
machine for turning my grindstone performing very well.

April 30.—Having perceived my bread had been low a great while, now I
took a survey of it, and reduced myself to one biscuit-cake a day, which made
my heart very heavy. ;

May 1.—In the morning, looking toward the sea-side (the tide being low),
I saw something lie on the shore bigger than ordinary, and‘it looked like a
cask. When I came to it, I found a small barrel and two or three pieces of

the wreck of the ship, which were driven on shore by the late hurricane. And

55










LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



looking towards the wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie higher out of the
water than it used to do. I examined the barrel which was driven on shore,
and soon found it was a barrel of gunpowder; but it had taken water, and the
powder was caked as hard asa stone. However, I rolled it farther on shore
for the present, and went on upon the sands as near as I could to the wreck
of the ship, to look for more. ;

When I came down to the ship I found it strangely removed. The fore-
castle, which lay before buried in sand, was heaved up at least six feet;
and the stern, which was broke in pieces, and parted from the rest by the
force of the sea soon after I had left rummaging her, was tossed, as it were,
up and cast on one side, and the sand was thrown so high on that side next
her stern, that whereas there was a great place of water before, so that I
could not come within a quarter of a mile of the wreck without swimming, I
could now walk quite up to her when the tide was out. I was surprised with
this at first, but soon concluded it must be done by the earthquake; and as
by this violence the ship was more broke open than formerly, so many things
came daily on shore which the sea had loosened, and which the winds and
water rolled by degrees to the land.

This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of removing my habi-
tation; and I busied myself mightily, that day especially, in searching whether
T could make any way into the ship, but I found nothing was to be expected
of that kind, for all the inside of the ship was choked up with sand. How-
ever, as I had learned not to despair of anything, I resolved to pull everything
to pieces that I could of the ship, concluding that everything I could get from
her would be of some use or other to me.

May 3.—I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam through, which
I thought held some of the upper part or quarter deck together, and when I had
cut it through, I cleared away the sand as well as I could from the side which
lay highest; but the tide coming in, I was obliged to give over for that time.

May 4.—I went a fishing, but caught not one fish that I durst eat of, till
I was weary of my sport; when, just going to leave off, I caught a young
dolphin. I had made me a long line of some rope-yarn, but I had no hooks;
yet I frequently caught fish enough, as much as I cared to eat; all which
I dried in the sun, and ate them dry.

May 5.—Worked on the wreck ; cut another beam asunder, and brought
three great fir planks off from the decks, which I tied together, and made to
float on shore when the tide of flood came on. "

May 6.—Worked on the wreck ; got several iron bolts out of her, and other
pieces of iron-work ; worked very hard, and came home very much tired, and
had thoughts of giving it over.

May 7—Went to the wreck again, not with an intent to work, but found

the weight of the wreck had broke itself down, the beams being cut; that
58










The wreck of the ship cast up by the earthquake,




ROBINSON CRUSOE.

several pieces of the ship seemed to lie loose, and the inside of the hold lay so
open that I could see into it, but it was almost full of water and sand.

May 8—Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow to wrench up the
deck, which lay now quite clear of the water or sand. I wrenched open two
planks, and brought them on shore also with the tide. I left the iron crow in
the wreck for next day.

May 9.—Went to the wreck, and with the crow made way into the body of
the wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened them with the crow, but could
not break them up. I felt also a roll of English lead, and could stir it, but it
was too heavy to remove.

May 10-14.—Went every day to the wreck, and got a great many pieces
of timber, and boards, or plank, and two or three hundred weight of iron.

May 15.—I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not cut a piece off the
roll of lead, by placing the edge of one hatchet, and driving it with the
other; but as it lay about a foot and a half in the water, I could not make
any blow to drive the hatchet.

May 16.—It had blown hard in the night, and the wreck appeared more
broken by the force of the water; but I stayed so long in the woods, to
get pigeons for food, that the tide prevented my going to the wreck that day.

May 17.—1 saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore, at a great
distance, near two miles off me, but resolved to see what they were, and
found it was a piece of the head, but too heavy for me to bring away.

May 24.—Every day, to this day, I worked on the wreck; and with hard
labour I loosened some things so much with the crow, that the first blowing
tide several casks floated out, and two of the seamen’s chests; but the wind
blowing from the shore, nothing came to land that day but pieces of timber,
and a hogshead, which had some Brazil pork in it, but the salt water and the
sand had spoiled it. I continued this work every day to the 15th of June,
except the time necessary to get food, which I always appointed, during this
part of my employment, to be when the tide was up, that I might be ready
when it was ebbed out: and by this time I had got timber, and plank, and iron-
work, enough to have built a good boat, if I had known how; and also I got,
at several times, and in several pieces, near one hundred weight of the sheet-lead.

June 16.—Going down to the sea-side, I found a large tortoise, or turtle.
This was the first I had seen, which it seems was only my misfortune, not any
defect of the place, or scarcity ; for had I happened to be on the other side of
the island, I might have had hundreds of them every day, as I found atter-
wards; but perhaps had paid dear enough for them.

June 17—I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her threescore eggs ;
and her fiesh was to me, at that time, the most savoury and pleasant that ever
I tasted ‘n my life, having had no flesh, but of goats and fowls, since I landed
in this horrid place.

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LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



June 18.—Rained all day; stayed within. I thought, at this time, the rain felt
cold, and I was something chilly, which I knew was not usual in that latitude.

June 19.—Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had been cold.

June 20.—No rest all night; violent pains in my head, and feverish.

June 21.—Very ill; frighted almost to death with the apprehensions of my
sad condition—to be sick, and no help. Prayed to God, for the first time
since the storm off Hull, but scarce knew what I said, or why, my thoughts
being all confused.

June 22.—A little better; but under dreadful apprehensions of sickness.

June 23.—Very bad again; cold and shivering, and then a violent headache.

June 24.—Much better.

June 25—An ague very violent: the fit held me seven hours; cold fit,
and hot, with faint sweats after it.

June 26.—Better ; and having no victuals to eat, took my gun, but found
myself very weak; however, I killed a she-goat, and with much difficulty got
it home, and broiled some of it, and ate. I would fain have stewed it, and
made some broth, but had no pot.

June 27—The ague again so violent that I lay a-bed all day, and neither
ate nor drank. I was ready to perish for thirst; but so weak, I had not
strength to stand up, or to get myself any water to drink. Prayed to God
again, but was light-headed ; and when I was not, I was so ignorant that I
knew not what to say, only I lay and cried, “Lord, look upon me! Lord, pity
me! Lord, have mercy upon me!” I suppose I did nothing else for two or
three hours, till the fit wearing off, I fell asleep, and did not wake till far in
the night. When I awoke, I found myself much refreshed, but weak, and ex-
ceeding thirsty. However, as I had no water in my habitation, I was forced to
lie till morning, and went to sleep again. In this second sleep I had this
terrible dream: I thought that I was sitting on the ground, on the outside of
my wall, where I sat when the storm blew after the earthquake, and that I saw
a man descend from a great black cloud, in a bright flame of fire, and light
upon the ground. He was all over as bright as a flame, so that I could but
just bear to look towards him. His countenance was most inexpressibly dread-
ful, impossible for words to describe. When he stepped upon the ground with
his feet, I thought the earth trembled, just as it had done before in the earth-
quake, and all the air looked, to my apprehension, as if it had been filled with
flashes of fire. He was no sooner landed upon the earth, but he moved
forward towards me, with a long spear or weapon in his hand, to kill me;
and when he came to a rising ground, at some distance, he spoke to me,—or
I heard a voice so terrible that it is impossible to express the terror of it. All
that I can say I understood, was this:—‘“Seeing all these things have not
brought thee to repentance, now thou shalt die;” at which words, I thought
he lifted up the spear that was in his hand to kill me.

58














ROBINSON CRUSOE.



No one that shall ever read this account will expect that I should be able
to describe the horrors of my soul at this terrible vision. I mean, that even
while it was a dream, I even dreamed of those horrors. Nor is it any more
possible to describe the impression that remained upon my mind when I
awaked, and found it was but a dream. :

I had, alas! no divine knowledge. What I had received by the good
instruction of my father was then worn out by an uninterrupted series, for
eight years, of seafaring wickedness, and a constant conversation with none
but such as were, like myself, wicked and profane to the last degree. I do
not remember that I had, in all that time, one thought that so much as tended
either to looking upwards towards God, or inwards towards a reflection upon
my own ways; but a certain stupidity of soul, without desire of good, or
conscience of evil, had entirely overwhelmed me, and I was all that the most
hardened, unthinking, wicked creature among our common sailors can be
supposed to be: not having the least sense, either of the fear of God in danger,
or of thankfulness to God in deliverance.

In the relating what is already past of my story, this will be the more
easily believed when I shall add that through all the variety of miseries that
had to this day befallen me, I never had so much as one thought of it being
the hand of God, or that it was a just puvishment for my sin: my rebellious
behaviour against my father; or my present sins, which were great; or so
much as a punishment for the general course of my wicked life. When I was
on the desperate expedition on the desert shores of Africa, I never had so
much as one thought of what would become of me, or one wish to God to
direct me whither I should go, or to keep me from the danger which apparently
surrounded me, as well from voracious creatures as cruel savages. But I was
merely thoughtless of a God or a Providence, acted like a mere brute, from
the principles of nature, and by the dictates of common sense only, and,
indeed, hardly that. When I was delivered and taken up at sea by the
Portugal captain, well used, and dealt justly and honourably with, as well as
charitably, I had not the least thankfulness in my thoughts. When, again,
I was shipwrecked, ruined, and in danger of drowning, on this island, I was
as far from remorse, or looking on it as a judgment. I only said to myself
often, that I was an unfortunate dog, and born to be always miserable.

It is true, when I got on shore first here, and found all my ship's crew
drowned, and myself spared, I was surprised with a kind of ecstacy, and some
transports of soul, which, had the grace of God assisted, might have come up
to true thankfulness; but it ended where it began, in a mere common flight of
joy, or, as I may say, being glad I was alive, without the least reflection upon
the distinguished goodness of the hand which had preserved me, and had
singled me out to be preserved when all the rest were destroyed, or an inquiry
why Providence had been thus merciful unto me. Even just the same common

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LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



sort of joy which seamen generally have, after they are got safe ashore from a
shipwreck, which they drown all in the next bowl of punch, and forget almost
as soon as it is over; and all the rest of my life was like it. Even when I was,
afterwards, on due consideration, made sensible of my condition—how I was
cast on this dreadful place, out of the reach of human kind—out of all hope of
relief or prospect of redemption; as soon as I saw but a prospect of living,
and that I should not starve and perish for hunger, all the sense of my afflic-
tion wore off, and I began to be very easy, applied myself to the works proper
for my preservation and supply, and was far enough from being afflicted at
my condition, as a judgment from Heaven, or as the hand of God against me.
These were thoughts which very seldom entered my head.

The growing up of the corn, as is hinted in my Journal, had, at first, some
little influence upon me, and began to affect me with seriousness, as long as I
thought it had something miraculous in it; but as soon as ever that part of
the thought was removed, all the impression that was raised from it wore off
also, as I have noted already. Even the earthquake, though nothing could be
more terrible in its nature, or more immediately directing to the invisible
power whichalone directs such things, yet no sooner was the first fright over
but the impression it had made went off also. I had no more sense of God or
His judgments, much less of the present affliction of my circumstances being
from His hand, than if I had been in the most prosperous condition of life.
But now, when I began to be sick, and a leisurely view of the miseries of
death came to place itself before me—when my spirits began to sink under
the burden of a strong distemper, and nature was exhausted with the violence
of the fever—conscience, that had slept so loyg, began: to awake, and I began
to reproach myself with my past life, in which I had so evidently, by uncom-
mon wickedness, provoked the justice of God to lay me under uncommon
strokes, and to deal with me in so vindicative a manner. These reflections
oppressed me for the second or third day of my distemper; and in the violence,
as well of the fever as of the dreadful praying to God, though I cannot say
they were either a prayer attended with desires or with hopes. It was rather
the voice of mere fright and distress) My thoughts were confused, the con-
victions great upon my mind, and the horror of dying in such a miserable
condition raised vapours into my head with the mere apprehension; and in
these hurries of my soul, I knew not what my tongue might express. But it
was rather exclamation, such as, “ Lord, what a miserable creature am I! If
I should be sick, I shall certainly die for want of help, and what will become
of me?” Then the tears burst out of my eyes, and I could see no more for
a good while. In this interval the good advice of my father came to my
mind ; and presently his prediction, which I mentioned at the beginning of
this story—viz., that if I did take this foolish step, God would not bless me,

and I would have leisure hereafter to reflect upon having neglected his counsel
60














ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Se SS SSS SS SS

when there might be none to assist in my recovery. “Now,” said I, aloud,
“my dear father’s words are come to pass; God’s justice has overtaken me,
and I have none to help or hear me. I rejected the voice of Providence,
which had mercifully put me in a posture or station of life wherein I might
have been happy and easy; but I.would neither see it myself or learn to
know the blessing of it from my parents ; I left them to mourn over my folly,
and now I am left to mourn under the consequences of it; I refused their help
and assistance who would have lifted me in the world, and would have made
everything easy to me; and now I have difficulties to struggle with too great
for even nature itself to support, and no. assistance, no help, no comfort, no
advice.” Then I cried out, “Lord, be my help, for I am in great distress.”
This was the first prayer, if I may call it so, that I had made for many years.

But to return to my Journal :—

June 28.—Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep I had had, and
the fit being entirely off, I got up; and though the fright and terror of my
dream was very great, yet I considered that the fit of the ague would return
again the next day, and now was my time to get something to refresh and
support myself when I should beill. And the first thing I did I filled a large
square case-bottle with water, and set it upon my table, in reach of my bed;
and to take off the chill or aguish disposition of the water, I put about a
quarter of a pint of rum into it, and mixed them together. Then I got mea
piece of the goat’s flesh and broiled it on the coals, but could eat very little.
I walked about, but was very weak, and withal very sad and heavy-hearted
under a sense of my miserable condition, dreading the return of my distemper
the next day. At night I made my supper of three of the turtle’s eggs, which
I roasted in the ashes, and ate (as we call it) in the shell. And this was the
first bit of meat I had ever asked God’s blessing to, that I could remember, in
my whole life. After I had eaten, I tried to walk, but found myself so weak
that I could hardly carry a gun (for I never went out without that), so I went
but a little way, and sat down upon the ground, looking out upon the sea, which
was just before me, and very calm and smooth. As I sat here, some such
thoughts as these occurred to me: What is this earth and sea of which I have
seen so much ?—whence is it produced ?—and what am I and all the other
creatures, wild and tame, human and brutal? Whence are we? Sure we are
all made by some secret power, who formed the earth and sea, the air and
sky. And whois that? Then it followed most naturally—it is God that has
made all. ‘Well, but then it came on strangely, if God has made all these
things, He guides and governs them all, and all things that concern them; for
the power that could make all things must certainly have power to-guide and
direct them. If so, nothing can happen in the great circuit of His works,
either without His knowledge or appointment.
And if nothing happens without His knowledge, He knows that I mn here,










LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

and am in this dreadful condition; and if nothing happens without His
appointment, He has appointed all this to befal me. Nothing occurred to my
thought to contradict any of these conclusions ; and therefore it rested upon
me with the greater force that it must needs be that God had appointed all
this to befal me—that I was brought into this miserable circumstance by His
direction, He having the sole power, not of me only, but of everything that
happened in the world. Immediately it followed: why has God done this to
me ?—what have I done to be thus used? My conscience presently checked
me in that inquiry, as if I had blasphemed, and methought it spoke to me
like a voice, “ Wretch, dost thou ask what thou hast done? Look back upon
a dreadful mis-spent life, and ask thyself what hast thou not done? Ask why
is it that thou wert not long ago destroyed? Why wert thou not drowned in
Yarmouth Roads—killed in the fight when the ship was taken by the Sallee
man-of-war—devoured by the wild beasts on the coast of Africa—or drowned
here, when all the crew perished but thyself? Dost thou ask, What have I
done?” I was struck dumb with these reflections, as one astonished, and had
not a word to say—no, not to answer to myself, but rose up pensive and sad,
walked back to my retreat, and went over my wall, as if I had been going to
bed. But my thoughts were sadly disturbed, and I had no inclination to
sleep; so I sat down in my chair and lighted my lamp, for it began to be dark.
Now as the apprehension of the return of my distemper terrified me very much,
it occurred to my thought that the Brazilians take no physic but their tobacco
for almost all distempers; and I had a piece of a roll of tobacco in one of the
chests which was quite cured, and some also that was green, and not quite cured.

I went, directed by heaven, no doubt, for in this chest I found a cure both
for soul and body. I opened the chest and found what I looked for—the
tobacco. And as the few books I had saved lay there too, I took out one of the
Bibles, which I mentioned before, and which to this time I had not found
leisure or inclination to look into. I say I took it out, and brought both that
and the tobacco with me to the table. What use to make of the tobacco I
knew not, in my distemper, or whether it was good for it or no; but I tried
several experiments with it, as if I was resolved it should hit one way or other.
T first took a piece of leaf, and chewed it in my mouth, which, indeed, at first,
almost stupified my brain, the tobacco being green and strong ; and that I had
not been much used to. Then I took some and steeped it an hour or two in
some rum, and resolved to take a dose of it when I lay down; and, lastly,
I burnt some upon a pan of coals, and held my nose close over the
smoke of it as long as I could bear it, as well for the heat, as almost for
suffocation. In the interval of this operation, I took up the Bible, and
began to read, but my head was too much disturbed with the tobacco
to bear reading, at least at that time; only, having opened the book casually,
the first words that occurred to me were these: “Call on me in the day

62








“TY killed a sea-fowl, something like a brand goose.”




ROBINSON CRUSOE.

of trouble, and I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me.” These words
were very apt to my case, and made some impression upon my thoughts
at the time of reading them, though not so much as they did afterwards; “for,
as for being deliver ed, the word had no sound, as I may say, to me. The
thing was so remote, so impossible in my apprehension of things, that I began
to say, as the children of Israel did when they were promised flesh to eat,
“Can God spread a table in the wilderness?” so I began to say, “Can God
himself deliver me from this place?” And as it was not for many years that
any hopes appeared, this prevailed very often upon my thoughts; but, how-
ever, the words made a great impression upon me, and I mused upon them
very often. It grew now late, and the tobacco had, as I said, dozed my head
so much that I inclined to sleep; so I left my lamp burning in the cave lest I
should want anything in the night, and went to bed. But before I lay down
I did what I never had done in all my life—kneeled down and prayed to God
to fulfil the promise to me, that if I called upon him in the day of trouble he
would deliver me. After my broken and imperfect prayer was over, I drank
the rum in which I had steeped the tobacco; which was so strong and rank of
the tobacco, that I could scarcely get it down. Immediately upon this I went
to bed. I found presently it flew up into my head violently; but I fell into a
sound sleep, and waked no more till, by the sun, it must necessarily be near
three o’clock in the afternoon the next day. Nay, to this hour I am partly of
opinion that I slept all the next day and night, and till almost three the day
after, for otherwise I know not how I should lose a day out of my reckoning
in the days of the week, as it appeared some ycars after I had done; for if I
had lost it by crossing and recrossing the line, I should have lost more than
one day; but certainly I lost a day in my account, and never knew which way.
Be that, however, one way or the other, when I awaked I found myself exceed-
ingly refreshed, and my spirits lively and cheerful. When I got up I was
stronger than I was the day before, and my stomach better, for I was hungry;
and, in short, I had no fit the next day, but continued much altered for the
better. This was the 29th.

The 30th was my well day, of course, and I went abroad with my gun, but
did not care to travel too far. I killed a sea-fowl or two, something like a
brand goose, and brought them home, but was not very forward to eat them,
so I ate some more of the turtle’s eggs, which were very good. This evening
I renewed the medicine, which I had supposed did me good the day before—
the tobacco steeped in rum; only I did not take so much as before, nor did I
chew any 6f the leaf, or hold my head over the smoke. However, I was not
so well the next day, which was the Ist of July, as I hoped I should have been,
for I had a little spice of the cold fit, but it was not much.

July 2.-—I renewed the medicine all the three ways, and dosed myself with
it as at first, and doubled the quantity which I drank.

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LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

July 3.—I missed the fit for good and all, though I did not recover my full
strength for some weeks after. While I was thus gathering strength, my
thoughts ran exceedingly upon this Scripture, “I will deliver “thee; »“and the
impossibility of my deliverance Jay much upon my mind, in bar of my ever
expecting it. But as I was discouraging myself with such thoughts, it
occurred to my mind that I pored so much upon my deliverance from the
main aftliction, that I disregarded the deliverance I had received; and I was,
as it were, made to ask myself such questions as these, viz.—Have I not been
delivered, and wonderfully too, from sickness—from the most distressed con-
dition that could be, and that was so frightful to me——and what notice had I
taken of it? Had I done my part? God had delivered me, but I had not
glorified Him—that is to say, I had not owned and been thankful for that as
a deliverance. And how could I expect greater deliverance? This touched
my heart very much; and immediately I knelt down, and gave God thanks
aloud for my recovery from my sickness.

July 4—In the morning I took the Bible, and beginning at the New
Testament, I began seriously to read it, and imposed upon myself to read
awhile every morning and every night; not tying myself to the number of
chapters, but as long as my thoughts should engage me. It was not long
after I set seriously to this work till I found my heart more deeply and
sincerely affected with the wickedness of my past life. The impression of my
dream revived, and the words, “All these things have not brought thee to
repentance,” ran seriously in my thoughts. I was earnestly begging of God
to give me repentance, when it happened providentially, the very “day that,
reading the Scripture, I came to these words, “He is exalted a Prince and a
Savicur, to give repentance and to give remission.” I threw down the book,
and with my heart as well as my hands lifted up to heaven, in a kind of
ecstasy of joy, I cried out aloud, “Jesus, thou son of David !—Jesus, thou
exalted Prince and Saviour! give me repentance!” This was the first time I
could say, in the true sense of the words, that I prayed in all my life; for now
I prayed with a sense of my condition, and with a true Scripture view of hope,
founded on the encouragement of the Word of God; and from this time, I
may say, I began to have hope that God would hear me.

Now I began to construe the words mentioned above, “Call on me, and I
will deliver thee,” in a different sense from what I had ever done before; for
then I had no notion of anything being called deliverance, but my being
delivered from the captivity I was in; for though I was indeed at large in the
place, yet the island was certainly a prison to me, and that in the worst sense
in the world. But now I learned to take it in another sense. Now I looked
back upon my past life with such horror, and my sins appeared so dreadful,
that my soul sought nothing of God but deliverance from the load of guilt
that bore down all my comfort, As for my solitary life, it was nothing; I

64












, ROBINSON CRUSOE.



did not so much as pray to be delivered from it, or think of it; it was all of no
consideration, in comparison to this. And I add this part here, to hint to who-
ever shall read it, that whenever they come to a true sense of things, they will find
deliverance from sin a much greater blessing than deliverance trom affliction.

But, leaving this part, I return to my Journal:—

My condition began now to be, though not less miserable as to my way of
living, yet much easier to my mind; and my thoughts being directed, by a
constant reading the Scripture and praying to God, to things of a higher
nature, I had a great deal of comfort within, which, till now, I knew nothing
of; also, my health and strength returned, I bestirred myself to furnish myself
with everything that I wanted, and make my way of living as regular as I could.

From the 4th of July to the 14th, I was chiefly employed in walking about
with my gun in my hand, a little and a little at a time, as a man that was
gathering up his strength after a fit of sickness: for it is hardly to be
imagined how low I was, and to what weakness I was reduced. The appli-
cation which I made use of was perfectly new, and perhaps which had never
cured an ague before. Neither can I recommend it to any one to practise by
this experiment; and though it did carry off the fit, yet it rather contributed
to weakening me, for I had frequent convulsions in my nerves and limbs for
some time. I learned from. it also this, in particular, that being abroad in
the rainy season was the most pernicious thing to my health that could be,
especially in those rains which came attended with storms and hurricanes of
wind; for as the rain which came in the dry season was almost always accom-
panied with such storms, so I found that rain was much more dangerous than
the rain which fell in September and October.

I had now been in this unhappy island above ten months. All possibility
of deliverance from this condition seemed to be entirely taken from me; and
I firmly believed that no human shape had ever set foot upon that place.
Having now secured my habitation, as I thought, fully to my mind, I had a
great desire to make a more perfect discovery of the island, and to see what
other productions I might find, which I yet knew nothing of.

It was on the 15th of July that I began to make a more particular survey of
the island itself, I went up the creek first, where, as I hinted, I brought my
rafts on shore. I found, after I came about two miles up, that the tide did
not flow any higher, and that it was no more than a little brook of running
water, very fresh and good; but this being the dry season, there was hardly
any water in some parts of it, at least not enough to run in any stream, so as
it could be perceived. On the banks of this brook, I found many pleasant
savannahs or meadows, plain, smooth, and covered with grass; and on the
rising parts of them, next to the higher grounds, where the water, as might
be supposed, never overflowed, I found a great deal of tobacco, green, and
growing to a great and very strong stalk. There were divers other plants,

E 65














LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



which I had no notion of or understanding about, that might, perhaps, have
virtues of their own, which I could not find out. I searched for the cassava
root, which the Indians, in all that climate, make their bread of, but I could
find none. I saw large plants of aloes, but did not understand them. I saw
several sugar-canes, but wild, and for want of cultivation, imperfect. I
contented myself with these discoveries for this time, and came back, musing
with myself what course I might take to know the virtue and goodness of any
of the fruits or plants which I should discover; but could bring it to no
conclusion ; for, in short, I had made so little observation while I was in the
Brazils, that I knew little of the plants in the field, at least very little that
might serve me to my purpose now in my distress.

The next day, the 16th, I went up the same way again; and after going
somewhat further than I had gone the day before, I-found the brook and
savannahs cease, and the country became more woody than before. In this
part I found different fruits, and particularly I found melons upon the ground,
in great abundance, and grapes upon the trees. The vines had spread, indeed,
over the trees, and the clusters of grapes were just now in their prime, very
ripe and rich. This was a surprising discovery, and I was exceeding glad
of them; but I was warned by my experience to eat sparingly of them,
remembering that when I was ashore in Barbary, the eating of grapes killed
several of our Englishmen, who were slaves there, by throwing them into
flukes and fevers. But I found an excellent use for these grapes, and that
was to cure or dry them in the sun, and keep them as dried grapes or raisins
are kept, which I thought would be, as indeed they were, wholesome and
agreeable to eat, when no grapes could be had.

I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my habitation, which,
by the way, was the first night, as I might say, I had lain from home. In
the night I took my first contrivance, and got up into a tree, where I slept
well; and the next morning proceeded upon my discovery, travelling nearly
four iniles, as I might judge by the length of the valley, keeping still due
north, with a ridge of hills on the south and north side of me. At the end
of this march I came to an opening, where the country seemed to descend to
the west, and a little spring of fresh water, which issued out of the side of the
hill by me, ran the other way, that is, due east ; and the country appeared so
fresh, so green, so flourishing, everything being in a constant verdure, or
flourish of spring, that it looked like a planted garden. I descended a little on
the side of that delicious vale, surveying it with a secret kind of pleasure,
though mixed with my other afflicting thoughts, to think that this was all my
own ; that I was king and lord of all this country indefeasibly, and had a
right of possession ; and, if I could convey it, I might have it in inheritance
as completely as any lord of a manor in England. I saw here abundance of
cocoa trees, orange, and melon, and citron trees; but all wild, and very few

66








ROBINSON CRUSOE.



bearing any fruit, at least, not then. However, the green limes that I
gathered were not only pleasant to eat, but very wholesome, and I mixed their
juice afterwards with water, which made it very wholesome, and very cool and
refreshing. I found now I had business enough to gather and carry home;
and I resolved to lay up a store, as well of grapes as limes and lemons, to
furnish myself for the wet season, which I knew was approaching. In order
to do this, I gathered a great heap of grapes in one place, a lesser heap in
another place, and a great parcel of limes and lemons in another place; and
taking a few of each with me, I travelled homewards, and resolved to come
again, and bring a bag or sack, or what I could make, to carry the rest home.
Accordingly, having spent three days in this journey, I came home (so I must
now call my tent and my cave); but before I got thither the grapes were
spoiled—the richness of the fruit and the weight of the juice having broken
them and bruised them, they were good for little or nothing. As to the
limes, they were good, but I could bring but a few.

The next day, being the 19th, I went back, having made me two small bags
to bring home my harvest. But I was surprised when, coming to my heap of
grapes, which were so rich and fine when I gathered them, I found them all
spread about, trod to pieces, and dragged about—some here, some there, and
abundance eaten and devoured. By this I concluded there were some wild
creatures thereabouts, which had done this; but what they were I knew not.
However, as I found there was no. laying them up on heaps, and no carrying
them away in a sack—but that one way they would be destroyed, and the other
way they would be crushed with their own weight—lI took another course,
for I gathered a large quantity of the grapes, and hung them upon the out-
branches of the trees, that they might cure and dry in the sun. And as for
the limes and lemons, I carried as many back as I could well stand under.

When I came home from this journey I contemplated with great pleasure
the fruitfulness of that valley, and the pleasantness of the situation—the
security from storms on that side the water, and the wood—and concluded
that I had pitched upon a place to fix my abode, which was by far the worst
part of the country. Upon the whole, I began to consider of removing my
habitation; and looking out for a place equally safe as where* now I was
situate—if possible, in that pleasant, fruitful part of the island. “

This thought ran long in my head, and I was exceeding fond of it for some
time, the pleasantness of the place tempting me. But when I came to a
nearer view of it, I considered that I was now by the sea-side, where it was at
least possible that something might happen to my advantage, and, by the same
ill fate that brought me hither, might bring some other unhappy wretches to
the same place. And though it was scarce probable that any such thing
should ever happen, yet to enclose myself among the hills and woods in the
centre of the island, was to anticipate my bondage, and to render such an

67

,












LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



aflair not only improbable, but impossible; and that therefore I ought not by
any means to remove. However, I was so enamoured of this place, that I
spent much of my time there for the whole of the remaining part of the month
of July. And though, upon second thoughts, I resolved not to remove, yet I
built me a little kind of a bower, and surrounded it at a distance with a strong
fence, being a double hedge, as high as I could reach, well staked, and filled
between with brushwood. And here I lay very secure, sometimes two or three
nights together, always going over it with a ladder, so that I fancied now I
had my country house and my sea-coast house; and this work took me up to
the beginning of August.

T had but newly finished my fence, and began to enjoy my labour, when the
rains came on, and made me stick close to my first habitation. For though I
had made me a tent like the other, with a piece of a sail, and spread it very
well, yet I had not the sheiter of a hill to keep me from storms, nor a cave
behind me to retreat into when the rains were extraordinary.

About the beginning of August, as I said, I had finished my bower, and
began to enjoy myself. The 3d of August I found the grapes I had hung up
perfectly dried, and indeed were excellent good raisins of the sun; so I began
to take them down from the trees; and it was very happy that I did so, for
the rains which followed would have spoiled them, and I had lost the best
put of my winter food; for I had above two hundred large bunches of them.
No sooner had I taken them all down, and carried most of them home to my
cave, but it began to rain. And from hence, which was the 14th of August,
it rained, more or less every day, till the middie of October, and sometimes so
violently that I could not stir out of my cave for several days.

In this season I was much surprised with the increase of my family. I had
been concerned for the loss of one of my cats who ran away from me, or, as I
thought, had been dead; and I heard no more tidings of her, till, to my
astonishment, she came home about the end of August with three kittens.
This was the more strange to me, because, though I had killed a wild cat (as
I called it) with my gun, yet I thought it was a quite different kind from our
European cats; but the young cats were the same kind of house-breed as the
old one, and both my cats being females, I thought it very strange. But from
these three cats I afterwards came to be so pestered with cats that I was forced
to kill them like vermin, or wild beasts, and to drive them from my house as
much as possible.

From the 14th of August to the 26th, incessant rain, so that I could not
stir, and was now very careful not to be much wet. In this confinement I
began to be straitened for food; but venturing out twice, I one day killed a
goat. And the last day, which was the 26th, found a very large tortoise,
which was a treat to me; and my food was regulated thus:—I ate a bunch of
raisins for my breakfast; a piece of the goat's flesh, or of the turtle, for my

68 ’






“The rainy season and the dry season began. now to appear regular to me.”


ROBINSON CRUSOE.



dinner, broiled (for, to my great misfortune, I had no vessel to boil or stew
anything); and two or three of the turtle’s eggs for my supper.

During this confinement in my cover by the rain, I worked daily two or
three hours at enlarging my cave, and by degrees worked it on towards one
side till I came to the outside of the hill, and made a door or way out, which
came beyond my fence or wall; and so I came in and out this way. But I
was not perfectly easy at lying so open, for, as I had managed myself before,
I was in a perfect enclosure; whereas now, I thought I lay exposed, and open
for anything to come in upon me; and yet I could not perceive that there was
any living thing to fear, the biggest creature that I had yet seen upon the
island being a goat.

Sept. 3O.—I was now cone to the unhappy anniversary of my landing. I
cast up the notches on my post, and found I had been on shore three hundred
and sixty-five days. I kept this day as a solemn fast, setting it apart for
religious exercise, prostrating myself on the ground with the most serious
| humiliation, confessing my sins to God, acknowledging his righteous judg-
\ ments upon me, and praying to him to have mercy on me through Jesus
Christ; and not having tasted the least refreshment for twelve hours, even till
the going down of the sun, I then ate a biscuit-cake and a bunch of grapes,
and went to bed, finishing the day as I began it. Thad all this time observed
no Sabbath-day; for as at first I had no sense of religion upon my mind, I
had, after some time, omitted to distinguish the wecks by making a longer
\ notch than ordinary for the Sabbath-day, and so did not really know what
any of the days were; but now, having cast up the days as above, I found I
had been there a year, so I divided it into weeks, and set apart every seventh
day for a Sabbath, though I found, at the end of my account, T had lost a day
| or two inmy reckoning. A little after this ink began to fail me, and so I con-
tented myself to use it more sparingly; to write down only the most remarkable
events of my life, without continuing a daily memorandum of other things.

The rainy season and the dry season began now to appear regular to me,
and I learned to divide them, so as to provide for them accordingly ; but I
bought all my experience before I had it, and this I am going to relate was
| one of the most discouraging experiments that I made.

L have mentioned that I had saved the few ears of barley and rice, which I
had so surprisingly found spring up, as I thought, of themselves, and I believe
there were about thirty stalks of rice, and about twenty of barley; and now I
thought it a proper, time to sow it, after the rains, the sun being in its southern
position, going from me. Accordingly, I dug up a piece of ground as well as
as I could with my wooden spade, and dividing it into two parts, I sowed my
grain ; but as I was sowing, it casually occurred to my thoughts that I would
not sow it all at first, because I did not know when was the proper time for
it, so I sowed about two-thirds of the seed, leaving about a handful of each.
69











eS aso"




LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



































It was a great comfort to me afterwards that I did so, for not one grain of
what I sowed this time came to anything; for the dry months following, the
earth having had no rain after the seed was sown, it had no moisture to assist
its growth, and never came up at all till the wet season had come again, and then
it grew as if it had been but newly sown. Finding my first seed did not
grow, which I easily imagined was by the drought, I sought for a moister
piece of ground to make another trial in, and I dug up a piece of ground near
my vew bower, and sowed the rest of my seed in February, a little before the
vernal equinox; and this having the rainy months of March and April to
water it, sprung up very pleasantly, and yielded a very good crop; but having
part of the seed left only, and not daring to sow all that I had, I had buta
small quantity at last, my whole crop not amounting to above halfa peck of each
kind. But by this experiment I was made master of my business, and knew
exactly when the proper season was to sow, and that I might expect two
seed-times and two harvests every year.

When this corn was growing, I made a little discovery, which was of use to
me afterwards. As soon as the rains were over, and the weather began to
settle, which was about the month of November, I made a visit up the country
to my bower, where, though I had not been some months, yet I found all
things just as I left them. The circle or double hedge that I had made was not
only firm and entire, but the stakes which I had cut out of some trees that
grew thereabouts were all shot out, and grown with long branches, as much as
a willow-tree usually shoots the first year after lopping its head. I could not
tell what tree to call it that these stakes were cut from. I was surprised, and
yet well pleased, to see the young trees grow, and I pruned them, and led them
up to grow as much alike as I could; and it is scarce credible how beautiful
a figure they grew into in three years. So that though the hedge made a
circle of about twenty-five yards in diameter, yet the trees, for such I might
now call them, soon covered it, and it was a complete shade, sufficient to lodge
under all the dry season. This made me resolve to cut some more stakes, and
make me a hedge like this in a semi-circle round my wall (I mean that of my
first dwelling), which I did; and placing the trees or stakes in a double row,
at about eight yards distant from my first fence, they grew presently, and
were at first a fine cover to my habitation, and afterwards served for a defence
also, as I shall observe in its order.

I found now that the seasons of the year might generally be divided, not
into summer and winter, as in Europe, but into the rainy seasons and the
dry seasons, which were generally thus :—

The half of February, the whole of March, and the half of April—rainy,
the sun being then on or near the equinox.

The half of April, the whole of May, June, and July, and the half of
August—dry, the sun being then to the north of the Line,

70






















ROBINSON CRUSOE.



The half of August, the whole of September, and the half of October—
rainy, the sun being then come back.

The half of October, the whole of November, December, and January, and
the half of February,—dry, the sun being then to the south of the Line.

The rainy seasons sometimes held longer or shorter as the winds happened
to blow, but this was the general observation I made. After I had found, by
experience, the ill consequences of being abroad in the rain, I took care to
furnish myself with provisions beforehand, that I might not be obliged to go
out, and I sat within doors as much as possible during the wet months. This
time I found much employment, and very suitable also to the time, for I
found great occasion for many things which I had no way to furnish myself
with but by hard labour and constant application. Particularly I tried many
ways to make myself a basket, but all the twigs I could get for the purpose
proved so brittle that they would donothing. It proved of excellent advantage
to me now, that when I was a boy, I used to take great delight in standing at
a basket-maker’s, in the town where my father lived, to see them make their
wicker-ware; and being, as boys usually are, very officious to help, ahd a
great observer of the manner in which they worked those things, and some-
times lending a hand, I had by these means full knowledge of the methods of it,
and I wanted nothing but the materials, when it came ito my mind that the
twigs of that tree from whence I cut my stakes that grew might possibly be
as tough as the sallows, willows, and osiers in England, and I resolved to try.
Accordingly, the next day I went to my country-house, as I called it, and
cutting some of the smaller twigs, I found them to my purpose as much as I
could desire ; whereupon I camie the next time prepared with a hatchet to cut
down a quantity, which I soon found, for there was great plenty of them.
These I set up to dry within my circle or hedge, and when they were fit for
use I carried them to my cave: and here, during the next season, I employed
myself in making, as well as I could, a great many baskets, both to carry
earth or to carry or lay up anything, as I had occasion; and though I did not
finish them very handsomely, yet I made them sufficiently serviceable for my
purpose; and thus, afterwards, I took care never to be without them: and as my
wicker-ware decayed I made more, especially strong deep baskets to place my
corn in, instead of sacks, when I should come to have any quantity of it.

Having mastered this difficulty, and employed a world of time about it, I
bestirred myself to see, if possible, how to supply two wants. I had no vessel
to hold anything that was liquid, except two runlets, which were almost full
of rum, and some glass bottles, some of the common size, and- others which
were case-bottles, square, for the holding of waters, spirits, etc. I had
not so much asa pot to boil anything, except a great kettle, which I saved.
out of the ship, and which was too big for such use as I desired it, viz., to
make broth, and stew a bit of meat by itself. “The second thing I gr would

1












LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



have had was a tobacco-pipe, but it was impossible for me to make one;
however, I found a contrivance for that, too, at last. I employed myself in
planting my second rows of stakes or piles and in this wicker-working all the
summer or dry season, when another business took me up more time than it
could be imagined I could spare.

I mentioned before that I had a great mind to see the whole island, and
that I had travelled up the brook, and so on to where I built my bower,
and where I had an opening quite to the sea, on the other side of the island.
I now resolved to travel quite across to the sea-shore on that side; so, taking
my gun, a hatchet, and my dog, and a larger quantity of powder and shot
than usual, with two biscuit-cakes and a great bunch of raisins in my pouch
for my store, I began my journey. When I had passed the vale where my
bower stood, as above, I came within view of the sea to the west, and it being
a very clear day, I fairly descried land,—whether an island or continent I
could not tell; but it lay very high, extending from the W. to the W.S.W. at
a very great distance; by my guess, it could not be less than fifteen or twenty
leagues off.

IT could not tell what part of the world this might be, otherwise than that I
knew it must be part of America, and, as I concluded, by all my observations,
must be near the Spanish dominions, and perhaps was all inhabited by savages,
where, if I had landed, I had been in a worse condition than I was now; and
therefore I acquiesced in the disposition of Providence, which I began now to
own and to believe ordered everything for the best; I say I quieted my mind
with this, and left off afflicting myself with fruitless wishes of being there.

Besides, after some thought upon this affair, I considered that if this land
was the Spanish coast, I should certainly, one time or other, see some vessel
pass or repass one way or other; but if not, then it was the savage coast,
between the Spanish country and Brazils, where are found the worst of
savages; for they are cannibals or men-eaters, and fail not to murder and
devour all the human bodies that fall into their hands.

With these considerations, I walked very leisurely forward; I found that
, side of the island where I now was much pleasanter than mine,—the open or

savannah fields sweet, adorned with flowers and grass, and full of very fine
woods. I saw abundance of parrots, and fain I would have caught one, if
possible, to have kept it to be tame, and taught it to speak to me. .I did,
after some painstaking, catch a young parrot, for I knocked it down with a
stick, and having recovered it, I brought it home; but it was some years
before I could make him speak; however, at last I taught him to call me by
my name very familiarly. But the accident that followed, though it be a
trifle, will be very diverting in its place.

I was exceedingly diverted with this journey. I found in the low ground
hares ies I thought them to be) and foxes; but they differed greatly from all

2










“T caught a young parrot which I knocked down with a stick.”






ROBINSON CRUSOE.

the other kinds I had met with, nor could I satisfy myself to eat them, though
I killed several. But I had no need to be venturous, for I had no want of
food, and of that which was very good, too, especially these three sorts, viz.,
goats, pigeons, and turtle, or tortoise, which, added to my grapes, Leadenhall
market could not have furnished a table better than I, in proportion to the
company; and though my case was deplorable enough, yet 1 had great cause
for thankfulness that I was not driven to any extremities for food, but had
rather plenty, even to dainties.

I never travelled in this journey above two miles outright in a day, or
thereabouts; but I took so many turns and returns to see what discoveries I
could make, that I came weary enough to the place where I resolved to sit
down all night; and then I either reposed myself in a tree, or surrounded
myself with a row of stakes set upright in the ground, either from one tree
to another, or so as no wild creature could come at me without waking me.

As soon as I came to the sea-shore, I was surprised to see that I had taken
up my lot on the worst side of the island, for here, indeed, the shore was
covered with innumerable turtles, whereas, on the other side I had found but
three in a year and a half. Here was also an infinite number of fowls of
many kinds, some which I had seen, and some which I had not seen before,
and inany of them very good meat, but such as I knew not the names of,
except those called penguins.

I could have shot as many as I pleased, but was very sparing of my powder
and shot, and therefore had more mind to kill a she-goat, if I could, which I
could better feed on; and though there were many goats here, more than on
my side the island, yet it was with much more difficulty that I could come
near them, the country being flat and even, and they saw me much sooner than
when I was on the hill.

I confess this side of the country was much pleasanter than mine; but yet
I had not the least inclination to remove, for, as I was fixed in my habitation,
it became natural to me; and I seemed all the while I was here to be as it
were upon a journey, and from home. However, I travelled along the shore
of the sea towards the east, I suppose about twelve miles, and then setting up
a great pole upon the shore for a mark, I concluded I would home again, and
that the next journey I took should be on the other side of the island east from
my dwelling, and so round till I came to my post again.

I took another way to come back than that I went, thinking I could easily
keep all the island so much in my view, that I could not miss finding my
first dwelling by viewing the country. But I found myself mistaken, for,
being come about two or three miles, I found myself descended into a very
large valley, but so surrounded with hills, and those hills covered with wood,
that I could not see which was my way by any direction but that of the sun,
nor even then, unless I knew very well the position of the sun at thay ine of

4














LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



the day. It happened, to my further misfortune, that the weather proved
hazy for three or four days while I was in the valley, and, not being able to
see the sun, I wandered about very uncomfortably, and at last was obliged to
find the sea-side, look for my post, and come back the same way I went. And
then, by easy journeys, I turned homeward, the weather being exceeding hot,
and my gun, ammunition, hatchet, and other things, very heavy.

In this j journey my dog surprised a young kid, “and seized upon it; and I,
running in to take hold ‘of it, caught it and saved it alive from the ‘dog. I
had a creat mind to bring it home if I could, for I had often been musing
whether it might not be possible to get a kid or two, and so raise a breed of
tame goats, which might supply me when my powder and shot should be
all spent. I ade a collar for this little creature; and with a string, which I
made of some rope-yarn, which I always carried about me, I led him along,
though with some difficulty, till I came to my bower, and there I enclosed
him and left him, for I was very impatient to be at home, from whence I had
been absent above a month.

I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me to come into my old hutch,
and lie down in my hammock-bed. This little wandering journey, without
settled place of abode, had been so unpleasant to me, that my own house, as I
called it to myself, was a perfect settlement to me, compared to that; and it
rendered everything about me so comfortable, that I resolved I would never go
a great way from it again, while it should be my lot to stay on the island.

I reposed myself here a week, to rest and regale myself after my long
journey, during which most of the time was taken up in the weighty affair of
making a cage for my Poll, who began now to be a mere domestic, and to be
well acquainted with me. Then I began to think of the poor kid which I had
penned in within my little circle, and resolved to go and fetch it home, or give
it some food. Accordingly I went, and found it where I left it, for indeed it
could not get out, but was almost starved for want of food. I went and cut
boughs of trees, and branches of such shrubs as I could find, and threw it
over; and having fed it, I tied it as I did before, to lead it away. But it was
so tame with being hungry that I had no need to have tied it, for it followed
me like a dog. And as I continually fed it, the creature became so loving, so
gentle, and so fond, that it became from that time one of my domestics also,
and would never leave me afterwards.

The rainy season of the autumnal equinox was now come; and I kept the
30th of September in the same solemn manner as before (being the anniversary
of my landing on the island), having now been there two years, and no more
prospect of being delivered than the first day Icame there. I spent the whole
day in humble and thankful acknowledgments of the many wonderful mercies
which my solitary condition was attended with, and without which it might
have been infinitely more miserable. I gave humble and hearty thanks that

74












ROBINSON CRUSOE.



God had been pleased to discover to me that it was possible I might be more
happy in this solitary condition than I should have been in the liberty of
society, and in all the pleasures of the world—that He could fully make up to
me the deficiencies of my solitary state, and the want of human society, by

is presence, and the communications of His grace to my soul, supporting,
comforting, and encouraging me to depend upon His providence here, and
hope for His eternal presence hereafter.

It was now that I began sensibly to feel how much more happy this life I
now led was—with all its miserable circumstances—than the wicked, cursed,
abominable life I led all the past part of my days. And now I changed
both my sorrows and my joys—my very desires altered; my affections
changed their gusts, and my delights were perfectly new from what they
were at my first coming, or indeed for the two years past.

Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting, or for viewing the country,
the anguish of my soul at my condition would break out upon me on a
sudden, and my very heart would die within me, to think of the woods, the
mountains, the deserts I was in, and how I was a prisoner, locked up with the
eternal bars and bolts of the ocean, in an uninhabited wilderness, without
redemption. In the midst of the greatest composure of my mind this would
break out upon me like a storm, and make me ring my hands, and weep like
a child. Sometimes it would take me in the middle of my work, and I would
immediately sit down and sigh, and look upon the ground for an hour or two
together ; and this was still worse to me, for if I could burst out into tears, or
vent myself by words, it would go off, and the grief having exhausted itself,
would abate.

But now I began to exercise myself with new thoughts. I daily read the
Word of God, and applied all the comforts of it to my present state. One
morning, being very sad, I opened the Bible upon these words, “I will never,
never leave thee, nor forsake thee.” Immediately it occurred that these words
were tome. Why else should they be directed in such a manner, just at the
moment when I was mourning over my condition, as one forsaken of God and
man? “Well, then,” said I, “if God does not forsake me, of what ill conse-
quence can it be, or what matters it, though the world should all forsake me,
seeing on the other hand, if I had all the world, and should lose the favour
and blessing of God, there would be no comparison in the loss ?”

From this moment I began to conclude in my mind that it was possible
for me to be more happy in this forsaken, solitary condition, than it was
probable I should ever have been in any other particular state in the world ;
and with this thought I was going to give thanks to God. for bringing me to
this place. I knew not what it was, but something shocked my mind at that
thought, and I durst not speak the words. “How canst thou become such a
hypocrite,” said I, even audibly, “to pretend to be thankful for a condition,

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LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



which, however thou mayest endeavour to be contented with, thou wouldst
rather pray heartily to be delivered from?” so I stopped there, but though I could
not say I thanked God for being there, yet I sincerely gave thanks to God for
opening my eyes, by whatever afilicting providences, to see the former
condition of my life, and to mourn for my wickedness, and repent. I never
opened the Bible or shut it but my very soul within me blessed God for direct-
ing my friend in England, without any order of mine, to pack it up among my
goods, and for assisting me afterwards to save it out of the wreck of the ship.

Thus, and in this disposition of mind, I began my third year; and though
I have not given the reader the trouble of so particular an account of my
works this year as the first, yet in general it may be observed that I was very
seldom idle, but having regularly divided my time according to the several
daily employments that were before me, such as, first, my duty to God, and
the reading the Scriptures, which I constantly set apart some time for
thrice every day; secondly, the going abroad with my gun for food, which
generally took me up three hours in every morning, when it did not
rain; thirdly, the ordering, cutting, preserving, and cooking, what I had
killed or caught for my supply: these took up gveat part of the day; also, it
is to be considered, that in the middle of the day, when the sun was in the
zenith, the violence of the heat was too great to stir out; so that about four
hours in the evening was all the time I could be supposed to work in, with
this exception, that sometimes I changed my hours of hunting and working,
and went to work in the morning, and abroad with my gun in the afternoon.

To this short time allowed for labour, I desire may be-added the exceeding
laboriousness of my work; the many hours which for want of tools, want of
help, and want of skill, everything I did took up out of my time; for example,
I was two and forty days in making a board for a long shelf, which I wanted
in my cave; whereas, two sawyers, with their tools and a saw-pit, would have
eut six of them out of the same tree in half a day.

My case was this: it was to be a large tree which was to be cut down,
because my board was to be a broad one. This tree I was three days in
cutting down, and two more cutting off the boughs, and reducing it to a log,
or piece of timber. With inexpressible hatching and hewing I reduced both
the sides of it into chips till it began to be light enough to move; then I
turned it, and made one side of it smooth and flat as a board from end to end;
then turning that side downward, cut the other side, till I brought the plank
to be about three inches thick, and smooth on both sides. Any one may
judge the labour of my hands in sucha piece of work, but labour and patience
carried me through that, and many other things; I only observe this in
particular, to show the reason why so much of my time went away with so
little work, viz. that what might be a little to be done with help and tools,

was a vast labour and required a prodigious time to do alone, and by hand. But
76




















ROBINSON CRUSOE.



notwithstanding this, with patience and labour I got through everything that
my circumstances made necessary to me to do, as will appear by what follows.

I was now, in the months of November and December, expecting my crop
of barley and rice. The ground I had manured and dug up for them was not
great ; for, as I observed, my seed of each was not above the quantity of half
a peck, for I had lost one whole crop by sowing in the dry season ; but now
my crop promised very well, when on a sudden I found I was in danger of
losing it all again by enemies of several sorts, which it was scarcely possible
to keep from it; as, first the goats, and wild creatures which I called hares,
who, tasting the sweetness of the blade, lay in it night and day, as soon as it
came up, and eat it so close that it could get no time to shoot up into stalk.

This I saw no remedy for but by making an enclosure about it with a hedge ;
which I did with a great deal of toil, and the more, because it required speed.
However, as my arable land was but small, suited to my crop, I got it totally
well fenced in about three weeks’ time, and, shooting some of the creatures in
the day-time, I set my dog to guard it in the night, tying him un to a stake
at the gate, where he would stand and bark all night long; so in a little time
the enemies forsook the place, and the corn grew very strong and well, and
began to ripen apace.

But as the beasts ruined me before while my corn was in the blade, so the
birds were as likely to ruin me now when it was in the ear; for going along
by the place to see how it throve, I saw my little crop surrounded with fowls
of I know not how many sorts, who stood, as it were, watching till I should
be gone. I immediately let fly among them, for I always had my gun with
me. I had no sooner shot but there rose up a little cloud of fowls, which I
had not seen at all, from among the corn itself.

This touched me sensibly, for I foresaw that in a few days they would devour
all my hopes; that I should be starved, and never be able to raise a crop at all,
and what to do I could not tell; however, I resolved not to lose my corn, if
possible, though I should watch it night and day. In the first place, I went
among it to see what damage was already done, and found they had spoiled a
good deal of it; but that as it was yet too green for them, the loss was not so
great, but that the remainder was likely to be a good crop, if it could be saved.

I stayed by it to load my gun, and then coming away, I could easily see the
thieves sitting upon all the trees about me, as if they only waited till I was
gone away. And the event proved it to be so, for as I walked off, as if I was
gone, I was no sooner out of their sight than they dropt down one by one into
the corn again. I was so provoked that I could not have patience to stay till
more came on, knowing that every grain that they eat now was, as it might
be said, a peck-loaf to me in the consequence, but coming up to the hedge, I
fired again and killed three of them. This was what I wished for. So I took
them up, and served them as we serve notorious thieves in England—hanged

77
















LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

them in chains, for a terror to others. It is impossible to imagine that this
should have such an effect as it had; for the fowls would not only not come at
the corn, but, in short, they forsook all that part of the island; and I could
never see a bird near the place as long as my scarecrows hung there. This I
was very glad of, you may be sure; and about the latter end of December,
which was our second harvest of the year, I reaped my corn.

I was sadly put to it for a scythe or sickle to cut it down; and all I could
do was to make one, as well as I could, out of one of the broad-swords, or
eutlasses, which I saved among the arms out of the ship. However, as my
first crop was but small, I had no great difficulty to cut it down. In short, I
reaped it my way; for I cut nothing off but the ears, and carried it away in a
great basket which I had made, and so rubbed it out with my hands. And
at the end of all my harvesting, I found that out of my half peck of seed I
had near two bushels of rice, and about two bushels and a half of barley—that
is to say, by my guess, for I had no measure at that time.

However, this was a great encouragement to me, and I foresaw that, in time,
it would please God to supply me with bread. And yet here I was perplexed
again, for I neither knew how to grind or make meal of my corn, or, indeed,
how to clean it and part it; nor, if made into meal, how to make bread of it;
and if how to make it, yet [ knew not how to bake it. These things being
added to my desire of having a good quantity for store, and to secure a constant
supply, I resolved not to taste any of this crop, but to preserve it all for seed
against the next season; and, in the meantime, to employ all my study and
hours of working to accomplish this great work of providing myself with corn
and bread.

It might be truly said that now I worked for my bread. I believe few
people have thought much upon the strange multitude of little things necessary
in the providing, producing, curing, dressing, faking, and finishing, this one
article of bread.

I, that was reduced te a mere state of nature, found this to my daily dis-
couragement, and was made more sensible of it every hour, even after I had
got the first handfal of seed- corn, which, as I have said, came up unexpectedly,
and indeed to a surprise.

First—I had no plough to turn up the earth—no spade or shovel to dig it.
Well, this I conquered by making me a wooden spade, as I observed before.
But this did my work but in a w ooden manner; and though it cost mea great
many days to make it, yet, for‘want of iron, it not only wore out soon, but made
my work the harder, and made it be performed much worse. However, this I
bore with, and was content to work it out with patience, and bear with the
badness of the performance. When the corn was sown I had no harrow, but
was forced to go over it myself, and drag a great heavy bough of a tree over

it, to scratch it, as it may be called, rather than rake or harrow it. When it was
78


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“T was no sooner out of sight than they dropped down into the corn again, I
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ROBINSON CRUSOE.



growing, and grown, I have observed already how many things I wanted to
fence it, secure it, mow or reap it, cure and carry it home, thrash, part it from
the chaff, and save it. Then I wanted a mill to grind it, sieves to dress it,
yeast and salt to make it into bread, and an oven to bake it; but all these
things I did without, as shall be observed. And yet the corn was an
inestimable comfort and advantage to ‘me too. All this, as I said, made
everything laborious and tedious to me, but that there was no help for.
Neither was my time so much less to me, because, as I had divided it, a
certain part of it was every day appointed to these works; and as I had
resolved to use none of the corn for bread till I had a greater quantity by me,
T had the next six months to apply myself wholly, by labour and invention, to
furnish myself with utensils proper for the performing all the operations
necessary for making the corn, when I had it, fit for my use.

But, first, I was to prepare more land, for I had now seed enough to sow
above an acre of ground. Before I did this, I had a week’s work at least to
make me a spade, which, when it was done, was but a sorry one, indeed, and
very heavy, and required double labour to work with it. However, I got
through that, and sowed my seed in two large flat pieces of ground, as near
my house as I could find them to my mind, and fenced them in with a good
hedge, the stakes of which were all cut off that wood which I had set before,
and knew it would grow; so that in one year’s time I knew I should have a
quick or living hedge, that would want but little repair. This work did not
take me up less than three months, because a great part of that time was the
wet season, when I could not go abroad. Within doors—that is, when it
rained, and I could not go out—I found employment in the following occu-
pations—always observing that all the while I was at work, I diverted myself
with talking to my parrot, and teaching him to speak. And I quickly taught
him to know his own name, and at last to speak it out pretty loud—Poll!
which was the first word I ever heard spoken in the island by any mouth but
my own. This, therefore, was not my work, but an assistance to my work;
for now, as I said, I had a great employment upon my hands, as follows:—
I had long studied to make, by some means or other, some earthen vessels,
which, indeed, I wanted sorely, but knew not where to come at them.
However, considering the heat of the climate, I did not doubt but if I could
find out any clay, I might make some pots that might, being dried in the sun,
be hard enough and strong enough to bear handling, and to hold anything
that was dry, and required to be kept so. And as this was necessary in the
preparing corn, meal, etc., which was the thing I was doing, I resolved to
make some as large as I.could, and fit only to stand like jars, to hold what
should be put into them.

It would make the reader pity me, or rather laugh at me, to tell how many
awkward ways I took to raise this paste; what odd, misshapen, ugly things I

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LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



made; how many of them fell in, and how many fell out, the clay not being
stiff enough to bear its own weight; how many cracked by the over-violent
heat of the sun, being set out too hastily; and how many fell in pieces with
only removing, as well before as after they were dried; and, in a word, how,
after having laboured hard to find the clay—to dig it, to temper it, to bring it
home and work it—I could not make above two large earthen ugly things (I
cannot call them jars) in about two months’ labour.

However, as the sun baked these two very dry and hard, I lifted them very
gently up, and set them down again in two great wicker baskets which I had
made on purpose for them, that they might not break; and as between the
pot and the basket there was a little room to spare, I stutted it full of the rice
and barley straw; and these two pots being to stand always dry, I thought
would hold my dry corn, and perhaps the meal, when the corn was bruised.

Though I miscarried so much in my design for large pots, yet I made
several smaller things with better success; such as little round pots, flat
dishes, pitchers, and pipkins, and any things my hand turned to; and the
heat of the sun baked them quite hard.

But all this would not answer my end, which was to get an earthen pot to
hold what was liquid and bear the fire, which none of these could do. It
happened after some time, making a pretty large fire for cooking my meat,
when [ went to put it out after I had done with it, 1 found a broken piece of
one of my earthenware vessels in the fire, burnt as hard as a stone and red as
a tile. Iwas agreeably surprised to see it, and said to myself that certainly
they might be made to burn whole if they would burn broken.

This set me to study how to order my fire, so as to make it burn some pots.
Thad no notion of a kiln, such as the potters burn in, or of glazing them with
lead, though I had some lead to do it with; but I placed three large pipkins,
and two or three pots on a pile, one upon another, and placed my firewood all
round it with a great heap of embers under them. I plied the fire with fresh
fuel round the outside and upon the top till I saw the pots in the inside red-
hot quite through, and observed that they did not crack at all; when I saw
them clear red, I let them stand in that heat about five or six hours, till I
found one of them, though it did not crack, did melt or run; for the sand
which was mixed with the clay melted by the violence of the heat, and would
have run into glass if I had gone on; so I slacked my fire gradually till the
pots began to “abate of the red colour, and watching them all night, that I
might not let the fire abate too fast, in the morning “T had three very good
(I will not say handsome) pipkins, and two other earthen pots, as hard burnt
as could be desired, and one of them perfectly glazed with the running of
the sand.

After this experiment, I need not say that I wanted no sort of earthenware
for my use; but I must needs say as to the shapes of them, they were very

80










ROBINSON CRUSOE,



indifferent, as any one may suppose, when I had no way of making them, but
as the children make dirt pies, or as a woman would make pies that never
learned to raise paste.

No joy at a thing of so mean a nature was ever equal to mine, when I
found I had made an earthen pot that would bear the fire; and I had hardly
patience to stay till they were cold before I set one on the fire again with
some water in it, to boil me some meat, which it did admirably well; and
with a piece of a kid I made some very good broth, though I wanted oatmeal
and several other ingredients requisite to make it as good as I would have
had it been. :

My next concern was to get me a stone mortar to stamp or beat some corn
in; for as to the mill there was no thought of arriving at that perfection of
art with one pair of hands. To supply this want, I was at a great loss; for,
of all the trades in the world, I was as perfectly unqualified for a stone-cutter
as any whatever; neither had I any tools to go about it with. I spent many
a day to find out a great stone big enough to cut hollow, and make fit for a
mortar, and could find none at all, except what was in the solid rock, and which
T had no way to dig or cut out; nor indeed were the rocks in the island of hard-
ness sufficient, but were all of a sandy crumbling stone, which neither would
bear the weight of a heavy pestal, nor would break the corn without filling it
with sand; so, after a great deal of time lost in searching for a stone, I gave
it over, and resolved to look out for a great block of hard wood, which I found
indced much easier; and getting one as big as I had strength to stir, I
rounded it, and formed it on the outside with my axe and hatchet, and then,
with the help of fire and infinite labour, made a hollow place in it, as the
Indians in Brazil make their canoes. After this, I made a great heavy pestal
or beater of the wood called the iron-wood; and this I prepared and laid by
against my next crop of corn, which I proposed to myself to grind, or rather
pound, into meal to make bread.

My next difficulty was to make a sieve or search to dress my meal, and to
part it from the bran and the husk; without which I did not see it possible I
could have any bread. This was a most difficult thing even to think on, for
to be sure I had nothing like the necessary thing to make it; I mean fine
thin canvas or stuff to search the meal through. And here I was at a full
stop for many months; nor did I really know what to do. Linen I had none
left, but what was mere rags; I had goats’-hair, but neither knew how to
weave it or spin it; and had I known how, here were no tools to work it with.
All the remedy that I found for this was, that at last I did remember I had
among the seamen’s clothes which were saved out of the ship, some neckcloths
of calicé or muslin; and with some pieces of these I made three small sieves,
proper enough for the work; and thus I made shift for some years: how I
did afterwards I shall show in its place.

F 81














LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



The baking part was the next thing to be considered, and how I should
make bread when I came to have corn; for, first, 1 had no yeast; as to that
part, there was no supplying the want, so I did not concern myself much about
it. But for an oven, I was indeed in great pain. At length I found out an
experiment for that also, which was this: I made some earthen vessels very
broad, but not deep, that is to say, about two feet diameter, and not above nine
inches deep; these I burned in the fire, as I had done the other, and laid them
by. And when I wanted to bake I made a great fire upon my hearth, which
T had paved with some square tiles, of my own baking and burning also; but
I should not call them square.

When the firewood was burned pretty much into embers, or live coals, I
drew them forward upon this hearth, so as to cover it all over, and there I
let them lie till the hearth was very hot; then sweeping away all the embers,
I set down my loaf, or loaves, and whelming down the earthen pot upon them,
drew the embers all round the outside of the pot, to keep in and add to the
heat. And thus, as well as in the best oven in the world, I baked my barley-
loaves, and became in little time a good pastry cook into the bargain; for I
made myself several cakes and puddings of the rice; but I made no pies,
neither had I anything to put into them, supposing I had, except the flesh
either of fowls or goats.

It need not be wondered at if all these things took me up most part of the
third year of my abode here; for it is to be observed that in the intervals of
these things I had my new harvest and husbandry to manage; for I reaped my
corn in its season, and carried it home as well as I could, and laid it up
in the ear in wy large baskets till I had time to rub it out, for I had no floor
to thrash it on, or instrument to thrash it with. :

And now, indeed, my stock of corn increasing, I really wanted to build my
barns bigger. I wanted a place to lay it up in, for the increase of the corn
now yielded me so much, that I had of the barley about twenty bushels, and
of the rice as much, or more, insomuch that now I resolved to begin to use it
freely; for my bread had been quite gone a great while; also, I resolved to see
what quantity would be sufficient for me a whole year, and to sow but once a year.

Upon the whole, I found that the forty bushels of barley and rice were
much more than I could consume in a year, so I resolved to sow just the same
quantity every year that I sowed the last, in hopes that such a quantity would
tully provide me with bread, ete.

All the while these things were doing, you may be sure my thoughts ran
many times upon the prospect of land which I had seen from the other side
of the island; and I was not without secret wishes that I were on shore there,
fancying that, seeing the mainland, and an inhabited country, I might find
some way or other to convey myself farther, and perhaps at last find some
means of escape.

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ROBINSON CRUSOE.



But all this while I made no allowance for the dangers of such an under-
taking, and how I might fall into the hands of savages, and perhaps such as I
might have reason to think far worse than the lions and tigers of Africa; that
if I once came in their power, I should run a hazard of more than a thousand
to one of being killed, and perhaps of being eaten ; for I had heard that the
people of the Carribean coast were cannibals, or man-eaters, and I knew by
the latitude that I could not be far from that shore. Then, supposing they
were not cannibals, yet they might kill me, as many Europeans who had fallen
into their hands had been served, even when they had been ten or twenty
together—much more I, that was but one, and could make little or no defence.
All these things, I say, which I ought to have considered well, and did come
into my thoughts afterwards, yet gave me no apprehensions at first, and my
head ran mightily upon the thought of getting over to the shore.

Now I wished for my boy Xury, and the long-boat with the shoulder-of-
mutton sail, with which I sailed above a thousand miles on the coast of Africa;
but this was in vain. Then I thought I would go and look at our ship’s boat,
which, as I have said, was blown up upon the shore a great way in the storm,
when we were first cast away. She lay almost where she did at first, but not
quite; and was turned, by the force of the waves and the winds, almost
bottom upward, against a high ridge of beachy, rough sand, but no water
about her. If I had had hands to have refitted her, and to have launched her
into the water, the boat would have done well enough, and I might have gone
back into the Brazils with her easily enough; but I might have foreseen that
T could no more turn her and set her upright upon her bottom than I could
remove the island. However, I went to the woods and cut levers and rollers,
and brought them to the boat, resolving to try what I could do, suggesting to ’
myself that if I could but turn her down, I might repair the damage she had
received, and thus I might go to sea in her very easily.

I spared no pains, indeed, in this piece of fruitless toil, and spent, I think,
three or four weeks aboutit. At last, finding it impossible to heave it up with
my little strength, I fell to digging away the sand, to undermine it, and so to
make it fall down, setting pieces of wood to thrust and guide it right in the fall.

But when I had done this I was unable to stir it up again, or to get under it,
much less to move it forward towards the water, so I was forced to give it over;
and yet, though I gave over the hopes of the boat, my desire to venture over the
main increased, rather than decreased, as the means for it seemed impossible.

This at length put me upon thinking whether it was not possible to make
myself a canoe, or periagua, such as the natives of’ those climates make, even
without tools, or, as I might say, without hands, of the trunk of a great tree.
This I not only thought pdssible, but easy, and pleased myself extremely with
the thoughts of making it, and with my having much more convenience for
it than any of the negroes or Indians; but not at all considering the particular

83
(SS














LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



inconveniences which I lay under more than the Indians did—viz., want of
hands to move it, when it was made, into the water—a difficulty much harder
for me to surmount than all the consequences of want of tools could be to
them; for what was it to me, if when I had chosen a vast tree in the woods,
and with much trouble cut it down, if I had been able with my tools to hew
and dub the outside into the proper shape of a boat, and burn or cut out the
inside to make it hollow, so to make a boat of it—if, after all this, I must
leave it just there where I found it, and not be able to launch it into the water.

One would have thought I could not have had the least reflection upon my
mind of my circumstances while I was making this boat, but should have
immediately thought how I should get it into the sea; but my thoughts were
so intent upon my voyage over the sea in it, that I never once considered
how I should get it off of the land; and it was really, in its own nature, more
easy for me to guide it over forty-five miles of sea, than forty-five fathoms of
land, where it lay, to set it afloat in the water.

I went to work upon this boat the most like a fool that ever man did, who
had his senses awake. I pleased myself with the design, without determining
whether I was able to undertake it, not but that the difficulty of launching
my boat came often into my head; but I put a stop to my inquiries into it,
by this foolish answer, which I gave myself, “Let me first make it; I will
find one way or other to get it along.”

This was a preposterous method ; but the eagerness of my fancy prevailed,
and to work I went. I felled a cedar tree, and I question whether Solomon
ever had such a one for the building of the Temple of Jerusalem. It was five
feet ten inches diameter at the lower part, and four feet eleven inches
diameter at the end of twenty-two feet, after which it lessened for a
while, and then parted into branches. It was not without infinite labour
that I felled this tree. I was twenty days hacking and hewing it at
the bottom. I was fourteen more getting the branches and limbs and the
head cut off. After this, it cost me a month to shape it to a proportion, and
to something like the bottom of a boat, that it might swim upright as it
ought to do. It cost me near three months more to clear the inside, and
work it out so as to make an exact boat of it. This I did without fire, by
mere mallet and chisel, and by the dint of hard labour, till I brought it to be
a very handsome periagua, and big enough to have carried six and twenty
men, consequently big enough to have carried me and all my cargo.

When I had gone through this work, I was extremely delighted with it.
The boat was much bigger than ever I saw a canoe or periagua, that was
made of one tree, in my life. Many a weary stroke it had cost, and had I
gotten it into the water, I should have begun the maddest voyage, and the
most unlikely to be performed, that ever was undertaken.

But all my devices to get it into the water failed me. It lay about one

84 A
— |








MYh ‘cs ao he a
Va My One

Le



“The boat, made of one tree, was bigger than any canoe; but all my devices
to get it into ‘the water failed.”






ROBINSON CRUSOE.

hundred yards from the water; but the first inconvenience was, it was up hill
towards the creek. To take away this discouragement, I resolved to dig into
the surface of the earth, and so make a declivity. This I began, and it cost
me a prodigious deal of pains; but when this was worked through, it’ was
still much the same, for I could no more stir the canoe than I could the other
boat. Then I measured the distance of ground, and resolved to cut a dock
or canal, to bring the water up to the canoe, seeing I could not bring the
canoe down to the water. I began this work; but when I began to enter
upon it, and calculate how deep it was to be, I found that by the number of
hands I had, being none but my own, it must have been ten or twelve years
before I could have gone through with it; for the shore lay so high, that at
the upper end it must have been at least twenty feet deep. So at length I
gave this attempt over also.

This grieved me heartily; and now I saw, though too late, the folly of
beginning a work before we count the cost. ;

In the middle of this work, I finished my fourth year in this place, and
kept my anniversary with the same devotion, and with as much comfort as
before; for, by a constant study and serious application to the Word of God,
and by the assistance of His grace, I gained a different knowledge from what
I had before. I entertained different notions of things. I looked now upon
the world as a thing remote, which I had nothing to do with, no expectation
from, and, indeed, no desires about.

In the first place, I was removed from all the wickedness of the world here.
T had neither the lusts of the flesh, the lusts of the eye, nor the pride of life.
T had nothing to covet, for I had all that I was now capable of enjoying—I
was lord of the whole manor, or, if I pleased, I might call myself king over the
whole country. there were no rivals, none to dispute sovereignty or command
with me. I might have raised ship-loadings of corn, but I had no use for it.
So I let as little grow as I thought enough for my occasion. I had tortoise
or turtle enough, but now and then one was as much as I could put to any
use. I had timber enough to have built a fleet of ships, and grapes enough to
have made wine, or to have cured into raisins, to have loaded that fleet when
it had been built.

But all I could make use of was all that was valuable : I had enough to eat
and supply my wants, and what was all the rest to me?

In a word, the nature and experience of things dictated to me, upon just
reflection, that all the good things of this world are no farther good to us than

- they are for our use; and that, whatever we may heap up to give others, we

enjoy just as much as we can use, and no more. I had, as I hinted before, a

parcel of money, as well gold as silver, about thirty-six pounds stérling.

Alas! there the sorry, useless stuff lay ; I had no manner of business for it ;

and I often thought with myself, that I would have given a handful of it fora
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LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



gross of tobacco-pipes; or for a hand-mill to grind my corn; nay, I would
have given it all for a sixpenny-worth of turnip and carrot seed out of England,
or for a handful of peas and beans, and a bottle of ink. As it was, I had not
the least advantage by it; there it lay in a drawer, and grew mouldy with the
damp of the cave in the wet seasons; and if I had had the drawer full of
diamonds, they had been of no manner of value to me, because of no use.

T had now brought my state of life to be easier in itself than it was at first,
and easier to my mind, as well as to my body. I frequentlysat down to meat with
thankfulness, and admired the hand of God’s providence, which had thus spread
my table in the wilderness. I learned to look more upon the bright side of
my condition, and to consider what I enjoyed rather than what I wanted; and
this gave me sometimes such secret comforts, that I cannot express them.

Another reflection was of great use to me, and doubtless would be so to any
one that should fall into such distress as mine was; and this was, to compare
wy present condition with what I at first expected it would be; nay, with
what it would certainly have been, if the good providence of God had not
ordered the ship to be cast up nearer to the shore, where I not only could come
at her, but could bring what I got out of her to the shore, without which I
had wanted for tools to work, weapons for defence, and gunpowder and shot
for getting my food.

I spent whole hours, I may say whole days, in representing to myself, how
I must have acted if I had got nothing out of the ship. How I could not have
got any food, except fish and turtles; and that, as it was long before I
found any of these, I must have perished; that I should have lived, if I had
not perished, like a savage; that if I had killed a goat or a fowl, by any con-
trivance, I had no way to flay or open it, but must gnaw it with my teeth, and
pull it with my claws, like a beast.

These reflections made me very sensible of the goodness of Providence, and
very thankful for my present condition, with all its hardships and misfortunes;
and this part also I cannot but recommend to the reflection of those who are
apt, in their misery, to say, “Is any affliction like mine?” Let them consider
how much worse the cases of some people are, and their case might have been,
if Providence had thought fit.

I had lived a dreadful life, perfectly destitute of the knowledge and fear of
God. I had been well instructed by father and mother. But, alas! falling
early into the seafaring life, which, of all lives, is the most destitute of the fear
of God, though his terrors are always before them; all that little sense of
religion which I had entertained was laughed out of me by my messmates; by a
hardened despising of dangers, and the views of death, which grew habitual to
me; by my long absence from all manner of opportunities to converse with
anything but what was like myself, or to hear anything that was good} or
tended towards it.

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ROBINSON CRUSOE.



So void was I of everything that was good, that, in the greatest deliverances
I enjoyed—such as my escape from Sallee; my being taken up by the Portu-
guese master of the ship ; my being planted so well in the Brazils; my receiving
the cargo from England, and the like—I never had once the words, “Thank
God,” on my mind, or in my mouth; nor in the greatest distress had I so much
as a thought to pray to him, or to say, “Lord, have mercy upon me!” no, nor
to mention the name of God, unless it was to swear by, and blaspheme it.

I had terrible reflections upon my mind for many months, on account of my
wicked and hardened life past; and when I looked about me, and considered
what particular providences had attended me since my coming into this place,
and how God had dealt bountifully with me—had not only punished me less
than my iniquity had deserved, but had so plentifully provided for me—this
gave me great hopes that my repentance was accepted, and that God had yet
mercy in store for me.

With these reflections, I worked my mind up, not only to a resignation*to-
the will of God in the present disposition of my circumstances, but even to a
sincere thankfulness for my condition ; and that I who was yet a living man,
ought not to complain, seeing that I enjoyed so many mercies which I had no
reason to have expected in that place. I had now been here so long, that many
things which I brought on shore for my help were either quite gone, or very
much wasted.

My ink, as I observed, had been gone some time, all but a very little, which
T eked out with water, a little and a little, till it was so pale it scarce left any
appearance upon the paper. As long as it lasted, I made use of it to minute
down the days of the month on which any remarkable thing happened to me;
and, by casting up times past, I remembered that there was a strange concur-
rence of days in the various providences which befel me, and which, if I had
been superstitiously inclined to observe days as fatal or fortunate, I might have
had reason to look upon with a great deal of curiosity.

I had observed that the same day that I broke away from my friends, and
ran away to Hull, in order to go to sea, the same day afterwards I was taken
by the Sallee man-of-war, and made a slave. The same day of the year that
I escaped out of the wreck of that ship in Yarmouth Roads, that same
day-year afterwards I made my escape from Sallee in a boat. The same day
of the year I was born on, viz. the 30th of September, that same day I had
my life so miraculously saved twenty-six years after, when I was cast on this.
island. So that my wicked life and my solitary life began both on a day.

The next thing to my ink being wasted was that of my bread, I mean the
biscuit which I brought out of the ship. This I had husbanded to the last
degree, allowing myself but one cake of bread a day for above a year; and
yet I was quite without bread for near a year before I got any corn of my own.

-My clothes, too, began to decay. As to linen, I had none a good while,

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LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

except some chequered shirts which I found in the chests of the other seamen.
I began to consider about putting the few rags I had, which I called clothes,
into some order. I had worn out all the waistcoats I had, and my business
was now to try if I could make jackets out of the great watch-coats which
I had by me, and with such other materials as I had. So I set to work
tailoring, or rather, indeed, botching, for I made most piteous work of it.

I have mentioned that I saved the skins of all the creatures that I killed,
I mean four-footed ones, and I had them hung up stretched out with sticks in
the sun to dry. The first thing I made of these-was a great cap for my head,
with the hair on the outside, to shoot off the rain; and this I performed so
well, that after 1 made me a suit of clothes wholly of these skins—that is
to say, a waistcoat, and breeches open at the knees, and both loose, for they
were rather wanting to keep me cool than to keep me warm. They were
wretchedly made; for if I was a bad carpenter, I was a worse tailor. However,
they were such as I made very good shift with, and when I was out, if it
happened to rain, the hair of my waistcoat and cap being outermost, I
was kept very dry.

After this, I spent a great deal of time and pains to make an umbrella.
I had seen them made in the Brazils, and as 1 was obliged to be much abroad,
it was a most useful thing to me, as well for the rains as the heats. I took a
world of pains with it, and was a great while before I could make anything
likely to hold; nay, I spoiled two or three before I made one to my mind.
The main difficulty I found was to make it let down. At last I made one to
answer, and covered it with skins, the hair upwards, so that it cast off the
rain like a penthouse, and kept off the sun so effectually, that I could walk
out in the hottest weather with greater advantage than I could before in the
coolest, and when I had no need of it, could close it, and carry it under my arm.

Thus I lived mighty comfortably, my mind being entirely composed by
resioning myself to the will of God, and throwing myself wholly upon the
disposal of His providence. This made my life better than sociable, for when
I began to regret the want of conversation, I would ask myself, whether thus
conversing mutually with my own thoughts, and (as I hope I may say) with
even God himself, was not better than the utmost enjoyment of human society
in the world?

I cannot say that after this, for five years, any extraordinary thing happened
to me, but I lived on in the same course, and in the same place as before.
The chief things I was employed in, besides my yearly labour of planting my
barley and rice, and curing my raisins, of both which I always kept up just
enough to have sufficient stock of one year’s provision beforehand ;—I say,
besides this yearly labour, and my daily pursuit of going out with my- gun, I
had one labour, to make a canoe, which at last I finished—so that by digging

a canal to it of six feet wide and four feet deep, I brought it into the creek,
88














ROBINSON CRUSOE.



almost half a mile. As for the first, which was so vastly big, I was obliged to let
it lie where it was, as a memorandum to teach me to be wiser the next time.

However, though my little periagua was finished, the size of it was not at
all answerable to the design which I had in view when I made the first—I
mean of venturing over to the terra firma, where it was above forty miles
broad; the smallness of my boat assisted to put an end to that design, and
now I thought no more of it. My next design was to make a cruise round
the island; for as I had been on the other side in one place, crossing, as I
have already described it, over the land, the discoveries I made in that little
journey made me eager to see other parts of the coast; and, now I had a boat,
I thought of nothing but sailing round the island.

For this purpose I fitted up a little mast in my boat, and made a sail, too,
out of some of the pieces of the ship’s sails whith lay in store, and of
which I had a great stock by me. Having fitted my mast and sail, and tried
the boat, I found she would sail very well; then I made little lockers or
boxes, at each end of my hoat, to put provisions, ammunition, ete, into; and
a little, long hollow place I cut in the inside of the boat, where I could lay
my gun, making a flap to hang down over it, to keep it dry.

I fixed my umbrella in a step at the stern, like a mast, to stand over my
head, and keep the heat of the sun off me, like an awning; and thus I every
now and then took a little voyage upon the sea, but never went far out, nor
far from the little creek. At last, being eager to view the circumference of
my little kingdom, I resolved upon my cruise; and accordingly I victualled
my ship for the voyage, putting in two dozen of loaves (cakes I should rather
call them) of barley bread, an earthen pot full of parched rice (a food I ate a
great deal of), a little -bottle of rum, half a goat, and powder and shot for
killing more, and two large watchcoats, of those which, as I mentioned before,
I had saved out of the seamen’s chests—these I took, one to lie upon, and the
other to cover me in the night.

It was the 6th of November, in the sixth year of my reign, or my captivity,
that I set out on this voyage. I found it longer than I expected, for though
the island itself was not large, yet when I came to the east side of it, I found,
a great ledge of rocks lie out about two leagues into the sea—some above water,
some under it; and beyond that a shoal of sand, lying dry half a league more,
so that I was obliged to go a great way out to sea to double the point.

When first I discovered them, I was going to give over my enterprise, not
knowing how far it might oblige me to go out to sea, and doubting how I
should get back again, so’I came to an anchor; for I had made me a kind of
an anchor with a piece of broken grappling which I got out of the ship.

Having secured my boat, I took my gun and went on shore, climbing up a
hill; which seemed to overlook that point where I saw the full extent of it, and
* resolved to venture. 7
8











































LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF





In my viewing the sea from that hill where I stood, I perceived a strong and
furious current, which ran to the east, and even came close to the point; and I
took the more notice of it, because I saw there might be some danger that when
I came into it I might be carried out to sea by the strength of it, and not be
able to make the island again. And, indeed, had I not got first upon this hill, I
believe it would have been so, for there was the same current on the other side
the island, and I saw there was a strong eddy under the shore, so I had nothing
to do but to get out of the first current, and I shonld presently be in an eddy.

IT lay here, however, two days, because the wind blowing pretty fresh at
ES.E, and that being just contrary to the current, made a great breach of the
sea upon the point, so that it was not safe for me to keep too close to the shore
for the beach, nor to go too far off, because of the stream.

The third day, in the morning, the wind having abated overnight, the sea
was calm, and I ventured ; but no sooner was I come to the point but I found
myself in a great depth of water, and a current like the sluice of a mill. It
carried my boat along with it with such violence that all I could do could not
keep her so much as on the edge of it, but hurried me farther and farther out
from the eddy, which was on my left hand. There was no wind stirring to
help me, and now I began to give myself over for lost ; for as the current was
on both sides of the island, I knew in a few leagues’ distance they must join
again, and then I was irrecoverably gone; nor did I see any possibility of
avoiding it, so that I had no prospect before me but of perishing, not by the
sea, for that was calm enough, but of starving from hunger. I had, indeed,
found a tortoise on the shore, as big almost as I could lift, and had tossed it
into the boat, and I had a great jar of fresh water. But what was all this to
being driven into the vast ocean, where there was no shore, no mainland or
island, for a thousand leagues at least ?

And now I saw how easy it was for the providence of God to make even the
most miserable condition of mankind worse. Now I looked back upon my
desolate, solitary island as the most pleasant place in the world, and all the
happiness my heart could wish for was to be but there again. I stretched
out my hands to it, with eager wishes, “O happy desert !” said I, “I shall never
see thee more. O miserable creature! whither am I going?” Then I
reproached myself with my unthankful temper, and that I had repined at my
solitary condition ; and now what would I give to be on shore there again !
It is scarcely possible to imagine the consternation I was now in, being driven
from my beloved island (for so it appeared to me now to be) into the wide
ocean, almost two leagues, and in the utmost despair of ever recovering it
again. However, I worked hard, till my strength was almost exhausted, and
kept my boat as much to the northward as possibly I could. When about
noon, as the sun passed the meridian, I thought I felt a little breeze of wind in
my face, springing up from $.S.E. This cheered my heart a little, and especi- -

90














\

ROBINSON CRUSOE.

ally when, in about half an hour more, it blew a pretty gentle gale. By this
time, I had got at a frightful distance from the island, and had the least cloudy
or hazy weather intervened, I had been undone another way; for I had no
compass on board, and should never have known how to steer towards the
island, if I once had lost sight of it. But the weather continuing clear, I got
up my mast again and spread my sail, standing away to the north as much as
possible, to get out of the current.

Just as I had set my mast and sail, and the boat began to stretch away, I
saw by the clearness of the water some alteration of the current was near ; for
where the current was strong the water was foul; but perceiving the water
clear, I found the current abate, and presently I found to the-east, at about
half a mile, a breach of the sea upon some rocks. These rocks I found caused
the current to part again, and made a strong eddy, which ran back again to
the north-west, with a very sharp stream.

They who know what it is to have been in such extremities may guess what
my present surprise of joy was, and how gladly I put my boat into the stream
of this eddy ; and the wind also freshening, how gladly I spread my sail to it,
running cheerfully before the wind, and with a strong tide under foot.

This eddy carried me about a league in my way back again, directly towards
the island, but about two leagues more to the northward than the current
which carried me away at first. So that when I came near the island, I found
myself open to the northern shore of it, that is to say, the other end of the
island, opposite to that which I went out from.

When I had made something more than a league of way by the help of this
current or eddy, I found it was spent, and served me no farther. However, I
found that being between two great currents, viz., that on the south side, which
had hurried me away, and that on the north, which lay about a league on the
other side, I found the water at least still, and running no way; and having
still a breeze of wind fair for me, I kept on steering directly for the island,
though not making such fresh way as I did before. :

About four o’clock in the evening, being within a league of the island, I
found the point of the rocks which occasioned this disaster, stretching out to
the southward, and casting off the current more southerly, had, of course,
made another eddy to the north; and this I found very strong, but not setting
the way my course lay. Having a fresh gale, I stretched across this eddy,
slanting north-west; and in about an hour came within a mile of the shore,
where, it being smooth water, I soon got to land. “

When I was on shore, I fell on my knees and gave God thanks for my
deliverance, and refreshing myself with such things as I had, I brought my boat
close to the shore, in a little cove that I had spied under some trees, and laid me
down to sleep, being quite spent with the labour and fatigue of the voyage.

I was now at a loss which way to get home with my boat. I had run so

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LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



much hazard, and knew too. much of the case, to think of attempting it by the
way I went out; and what might be at the other side I knew not, nor had I
a mind torun any more ventures. So I resolved on the next morning to
make my way westward, and to see if there was no creek where I might lay
up my frigate in safety, so as to have her again, if I wanted her. In about
three miles, coasting the shore, I came to a very good inlet or bay, about a
mile over, which narrowed till it came to a brook, where I found a very’
convenient harbour for my boat, and where she lay as if she had been ina
little dock made on purpose for her. Here I putin, and having stowed my -
boat very safe, I went on shore to look about me, and see where I was.

I found I had but a little passed by the place where I had been before, when I
travelled on foot to that shore. So taking nothing out of my boat but my
gun and umbrella, I began my march. The way was comfortable enough
after such a voyage as I had been upon, and I reached my old bower in the
evening, where I found everything standing as I left it.

I got over the fence, and laid me down in the shade to rest, for I was very
weary, and fell asleep; but judge what a surprise I must be in, when I was
awakened out of my sleep by a voice calling me by my name several times,
“Robin, Robin, Robin Crusoe; poor Robin Crusoe! Where are you, Robin
Crusoe? Where are you? Where have you been?”

I was so dead asleep at first, being fatigued with paddling the first part of
the day, and with walking the latter part, that I did not wake thoroughly;
but, dozing between sleeping and waking, thought I dreamed that somebody
spoke to me; but as the voice continued to repeat “Robin Crusoe, Robin
Crusoe,” at last I began to wake more perfectly, and was at first dreadfully
frightened, and started up in the utmost consternation; but no sooner were
my eyes open, than I saw my Poll sitting on the top of the hedge; and
immediately knew that it was he that spoke to me ; for just in such bemoaning
language I had used to talk to him, and teach him; and he had learned it so
perfectly that he would sit upon my finger, and lay his bill close to my face,
and cry, “ Poor Robin Crusoe! Where are you? Where have you been?
How came you here ?” and such things.

I was amazed how the creature got thither, and how he should just keep
about the place and nowhere else; and holding out my hand, and calling him
by his name, “Poll,” the sociable creature came to me, and sat upon my
thumb, as he used to do, and continued talking to me.

I had now had enough of rambling to sea for some time, and was content
for many days to sit still, and reflect upon the danger I had been in. I would
have been very glad to have had my boat again on my side of the island; but
I knew not how it was practicable to get it about. As to the east side of the
island, I knew there was no venturing that way ; my very heart would shrink,
and my blood run chill, to think of it; and as to the other side of the island,

92






“TI found a very convenient harbour for my boat, where she lay as if in a
little dock made on purpose for her.”










ROBINSON CRUSOE,



I did not know how it might be there; but supposing the current ran with
the same force against the shore at the east as it passed by it on the other, I
might run the same risk of being driven down the stream and carried by the
island, as I had been before of being carried away from it; so I contented
myself to be without any boat, though it had been the product of so many
months’ labour to make it, and of so many nore to get it into the sea.

In this government of my temper, I remained nearly a year; and lived a
very sedate, retired life, and my thoughts being very much composed, as to
my condition, and fully comforted in resigning myself to the dispositions of
Providence, I lived really very happily in all things, except that of society.

I improved myself in this time in the mechanical exercises which my
necessities put me upon applying myself to; and I believe I made a very good
carpenter, considering how few tools I had.

Besides this, I arrived at an unexpected perfection in my earthen-wares, and
contrived to make them with a wheel, which I found infinitely easier and
better; because I made things round and shaped, which before were ugly
things to look on. But I think I was never more vain of my performance,
or more joyful for anything I found out, than for being able to make a tobacco-
pipe; and though it was a very clumsy thing when it was done, and only
burned red like other earthenware, yet as it was hard and firm, and would
draw the smoke, I was exceedingly comforted with it, for I had been always
used to smoke; and there were pipes in the ship, but I forgot them at first,
not thinking that there was tobacco in the island; and afterwards, when I
searched the ship again, I could not come at any pipes.

In my wickerwork, also, I improved much, and made abundance of necessary
baskets, as well as my invention showed me; though not very handsome,
they were such as were handy and convenient for laying things up in, or
fetching things home. Also, large deep baskets were the receivers of my
corn, which I rubbed out as soon as it was dry, and cured.

I began now to perceive my powder abated considerably; this was a want
which it was impossible for me to supply, and I began seriously to consider
what I must do when I should have no more powder; that is to say, how I
should kill any goats. I had, in the third year of my being here, kept a young
kid, and bred her up tame, and as I could never find in my heart to kill her,
she died at last of mere age.

Being now in the eleventh year of my residence, and my ammunition
growing low, I set myself to study some art to trap and snare the goats, to
see whether I could not catch some of them alive. For this purpose I made
snares to hamper them; and I do believe they were more than once taken in
them; but my tackle was not good, for I had no wire, and I always found
them broken, and my bait devoured.: At length I resolved to try a pitfall :

so Isdug several large pits in the earth, in places where I had observed the
93














LIFE AND ADVENTURES OP



goats used to feed, and over those pits I placed hurdles, of my own making
too, with a great weight upon them; and several times I put ears of barley
and dry rice, without setting the trap, and I could easily perceive that the
goats had gone in and eaten up the corn, for I could see the marks of their
feet. At length I set three traps in one night; and going the next morning
T found them all standing, and yet the bait eaten and gone. This was very
discouraging. However, I altered my traps; and, not to trouble you with
particulars, going one morning to see my traps, I found in one of them a large
old he-goat, and in one of the others three kids, a male and two females.

As to the old one, I knew not what to do with him; he was so fierce, I
durst not go into the pit to him to bring him away alive, so I let him out, and
he ran away as if he had been frightened out of his wits.

Then I went to the three kids, and, taking them one by one, I tied them
with strings together, and with some difficulty brought them all home.

It was a good while before they would feed, but throwing them some sweet
corn, it tempted them, and they began to be tame. And now I found that if
I expected to supply myself with goats’ flesh when I had no powder or shot
left, breeding some up tame was my only way, when I might have them about
my house like a flock of sheep. But then it occurred to me that I must keep
the tame from the wild, or else they would always run wild when they grew
up; and the only way for this was to have some enclosed piece of ground,
well fenced either with hedge wr pale, to keep them in so effectually that those
within might not break out, or those without break in.

This was a great undertaking for one pair of hands; yet, as I saw there
was an absolute necessity for it, my first work was to find out a proper piece
of ground, where there was likely to be herbage for them to eat, water for
them to drink, and cover to keep them from the sun.

J pitched upon a plain open piece of meadow land, or savannah, which had
two or three little drills of fresh water in it, and at one end was very woody.
IT began by enclosing this piece of ground in such a manner that my hedge or
pale must have been at least two miles about; but if it was ten miles about, I
was like to have time enough to do it in; but I did not consider that my
goats would be as wild in so much compass as if they had the whole island,
and I should have 80 much room to chase them in that I should never catch them.

My hedge was begun and carried on, I believe about fifty yards, when this
thought occurred to me, so I presently stopped short, and for the beginning, I
resolved to enclose a piece of about 150 yards in length, and 100 yards in
breadth, which, as it would maintain as many as I should have in any
reasonable time, so as my stock increased, I could add more ground to my
enclosure.

This was acting with some prudence, and I went to work with courage.

I was about three months in hedging in the first piece, and till I had done it,
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I tethered the three kids in the best part of it, and used them to feed as near
me as possible, to make them familiar; and very often I would go and carry
them some ears of barley, or a handful of rice, and feed them out of my hand;
so that after my enclosure was finished, and I let them loose, they would
follow me up and down, bleating after me for a handful of corn.

This answered my purpose, and in about a year and a half I had a flock of
twelve goats, kids and all; and in two years more I had three-and-forty,
besides several that I took and killed for my food. After that I enclosed five
several pieces of ground to feed them in, with little pens to drive them into,
to take them as I wanted, and gates out of one piece of ground into another.

Now I not only had goats’ flesh to feed on when I pleased, but milk too, a
thing which, in the beginning, I did not so much as think of, and which, when
it came into my thoughts, was really an agreeable surprise, for now I set up
my dairy, and had sometimes a gallon or two of milk ina day. After a great
many essays and miscarriages, I made both butter and cheese, also salt
(though I found it partly made to my hand by the heat of the sun upon some
of the rocks of the sea), and never wanted it afterwards. How mercifully can
our Creator treat His creatures, even in those conditions in which they seemed
to be overwhelmed in destruction! What a table was here spread for me in
the wilderness, where I saw nothing at first but to perish for hunger.

It would have made a stoic smile to have seen me and my little family sit
down to dinner. There was my majesty, the prince of the whole island; I
had the lives of all my subjects at my absolute command; I could hang,
draw, give liberty, and take it away. Then, to see how like a king I dined,
too, all alone, attended by my servants! . Poll, as if. he had been my favourite,
was the only person permitted to talk to me. My dog, who was now grown
very old and crazy, and had found no species to multiply his kind upon, sat
always at my right hand, and two cats, one on one side of the table, and
one on the other, expecting now and then a bit from my hand, aswa mark
of special favour.

With this attendance, and in this plentiful manner, I lived. Neither could
I be said to want anything but society; and of that, some time after this, I
was likely to have too much.

I was impatient, as I have observed, to have the use of wy boat, though
loath to run any more hazards. And therefore sometimes I sat contriving
ways to get her about the island, and at other times I sat myself down
contented enough without her. But I had a strange uneasiness in my mind
to go down to the point of the island, where, in my last ramble, I went up the
hill to see how the shore lay. This inclination increased upon me every
day, and at length I resolved to travel thither by land, following the edge of
the shore. I did so; but had any one in England met such a man as I was,

it must either have frightened him, or raised a great deal of laughter. And as
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I frequently stood still to look at myself, I could not but smile at the notion
of my travelling through Yorkshire with such an equipage, and in such a
dress. Be pleased to take a sketch of my figure, as follows :—

Thad a great high shapeless cap, made of a goat’s skin, with a flap hanging
down behind, as well to keep the sun from me as to shoot the rain off from
running into my neck, nothing being so hurtful in these climates as the rain
upon the flesh under the clothes.

T had a short jacket of goat’s skin, the skirts coming down to about the
middle of the thighs, and a pair of open-kneed breeches of the same. The
breeches were made of the skin of an old goat, whose hair hung down such
a length on either side, that, like pantaloons, it reached to the middle of my
legs. Stockings and shoes I had none, but had made me a pair of somethings,
like buskins, to flap over my legs, and lace on either side like spatterdashes,
but of a most barbarous shape, as indeed were all the rest of my clothes.

Thad on a broad belt of goat’s skin dried, which I drew together with two
thongs of the same instead of buckles, and in a kind of frog on either side of
this, instead of a sword and dagger, hung a little saw, and a hatchet, one on
one side, and one on the other. I had another belt fastened in the same
manner, which hung over my shoulder, and at the end of it under my left
arm, hung two pouches, both made of goat’s skin too, in one of which hung
my powder, in the other my shot. At my back I carried my basket, and on
my shoulder my gun, and over my head a great clumsy goat’s skin umbrella,
but which, after all, was the most necessary thing I had about me, next to my
gun. As for my face, the colour of it was really not so mulatoo-like as one
might expect from a man not at all careful of it, and living within nine or ten
degrees of the equinox. My beard I had once suffered to grow till it was
about a quarter of a yard long; but as I had both scissors and razors, I had
cut it pretty short, except what grew on my upper lip, which I had trimmed
into a large pair of Mahometan whiskers, such as I had seen worn by some
Turks at Sallee. Of these moustachios, or whiskers, I will not say they were
long enough to hang my hat upon them, but they were of a length and shape
monstrous enough, and such as in England would have passed for frightful.

In this kind of dress I went my new journey, and was out five or six days.
I travelled first along the sea-shore, directly to the place where I first broyght
my boat to an anchor to get upon the rocks. And having no boat now to take
care of, 1 went over the land a nearer way to the same height that I was
upon before, when, looking forward to the points of the rocks which lay out,
I was surprised to see the sea all smooth and quiet—no rippling, no motion,
no current, any more than in any other place. I was at a loss to understand
this, and resolved to spend some time in observing it, to see if nothing from
the sets of the tide had occasioned it. But I was presently convinced how it

was, viz., that the tide of ebb setting from the west, and joining with the
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current of waters from some great river on the shore, must be the occasion of
this current, and that, according as the wind blew from the west or from the
north, this current came nearer, or went farther from the shore.. For, waiting
thereabouts till evening, I went up to the rock again, and then the tide of ebb
being made, I plainly saw the current again as before, only that it ran farther
off, being near half a league from the shore, whereas in my case it set close upon
the shore, and hurried me and my canoe along with it, which at another time
it would not have done. .

This observation convinced me that I had but to observe the ebbing and
the flowing of the tide, and I might very easily bring my boat about the island
again; but when I began to think of putting it in practice, I had such terror
upon my spirits at the remembrance of the danger I had been in, that I could
not think of it again with any patience. _ I took up another resolution, which
was more safe, though more laborious~and this was, that I would make me
another perigua or canoe, and so have one for one side of the island, and one
for the other.

I now had, as I may call it, two plantations in the island—one my little
fortification or tent, with the wall about it, under the rock, with the cave
behind me, which by this time I had enlarged into several apartments or
caves, one within another. One of these, which was the driest and largest,
had a door out beyond my wall or fortification, and was all filled up with the
large earthen pots, of which I have given an account, and with fourteen or
fifteen great baskets, which would hold five or six bushels each. In these I
laid up my stores of provisions, especially my corn, some in the ear cut off
short from the straw, and the other rubbed out with my hand.

As for my wall, made with long stakes or piles, those piles grew like trees,
and were by this time so big, and spread so much, that there was not the least
appearance of any habitation behind them.

Near this dwelling of mine, but a little farther within the land, and upon
lower ground, lay my two pieces of corn land, which I kept duly cultivated
and sowed, and which yielded me their harvest in its season ; and whenever I
had occasion for more corn, I had more land adjoining as fit as that.

Besides this, I had my country seaf, and a tolerable plantation there also;
first, I had my little bower, as I called it, which I kept in repair—that is to
say, I kept the hedge, which encircled it, constantly fitted up in its usual height,
the ladder standing always in the inside. I kept the trees, which at first were
no more than stakes, always cut, sé that they might spread and grow thick and
wild, and make the more agreeable shade. In the middle of this I had my
tent always standing, being a piece of a sail spread over poles, set up for that
purpose, and which never wanted any renewing; and under this I had made
me a couch, with the skins of the creatures I had killed, and a blanket laid on
them, such as belonged to our sea-bedding, which I had saved ; a great

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LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

watch-coat to cover me. And here, whenever I had occasion to be absent
from my chief seat, I took up my habitation.

Adjoining this, I had enclosures for my goats; and I had taken an
inconceivable deal of pains to fence and enclose this ground. I was so anxious
to see it kept entire, lest the goats should break through, that I never left off
till, with infinite labour, I had stuck the outside of the hedge so full of small
stakes, and so near to one another, that it was rather a pale than a hedge, and.
there was scarce room to puta hand through between them ; which afterwards,
when those stakes grew, as they did in the next rainy season, made the
enclosure strong like a wall.

This will testify for me that I was not idle, and that I spared no pains to
bring to pass whatever appeared necessary for my comfortable support. I
considered the keeping up a breed of tame creatures thus at my hand would
be a living magazine of flesh, milk, butter, and cheese for me as long as I
lived in the place, if it were to be forty years.

In this, place also I had my grapes growing, which I principally depended
on for my winter store of raisins, and which I never failed to preserve very
carefully, as the best and most agreeable dainty of my whole diet; and indeed
they were not only agreeable, but medicinal, wholesome, nourishing, and
refreshing to the last degree.

As this was also about half-way between my other habitation and the place
where I had laid up my boat, I generally stayed here in my way thither, for
T used frequently to visit my boat; and kept all things belonging to her in
very good order. Sometimes I went out in her to divert myself, but no more
hazardous voyages would I go, scarcely ever above a stone’s cast or two from
the shore, I was so apprehensive of being hurried out of my knowledge again
by the currents or winds, or any other accident. But now I come toa new
scene of my life.

One day, about noon, going towards my boat, I was exceedingly surprised
with the print of a man’s naked foot on the shore. I stood like one thunder-
struck, or as if I had seen an apparition. I listened, I looked round me, but
T could hear nothing, nor see anything; I went up to a rising ground, to look
farther; I went up the shore, and down the shore, but I could see no other
impression but that one. I went to it again to see if there were any more, and
to observe if it might not be my fancy; but there was exactly the print of a
foot—toes, heel, and every part. How it came thither I could not in the
lest imagine; but after innumerable fluttering thoughts, like a man confused
and out of myself, I came home to my fortification, not feeling the ground I
went on, but terrified to the last degree, looking behind me at every two or
three steps, mistaken every bush and tree, and fancying every stump at a
distance to be a man.

When I came to my castle (for so I think I called it ever after this), I fled
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“Going towards the boat T was exceedingly surprised with the print of a man’s
naked foot on the shore.”





































ROBINSON CRUSOE.






into it like one pursued. Whether I went over by the ladder, as first contrived,
or went in at the hole im the rock, which I: had called a door, I cannot
yemember; nor could I remember the next morning, for never frightened
hare fled to cover, or fox to earth, with more terror of mind than I to this retreat.

I slept none that night; the farther I was from the occasion of my fright,
the greater my apprehensions were. Sometimes I fancied it must be the devil,
and reason joined in with me in this supposition, for how should any other
thing in human shape come into the place? But then, to think that Satén
should take human shape upon him, where there could be no occasion for it,
but to leave the print of his foot behind him, and that even for no purpose, for
he could not be sure I should see it. I considered that the devil might have
found out abundance of other ways to have terrified me than this of the single
print of a foot; that as I lived quite on the other side of the island, he would
never have been so simple as to leave a mark in a place where it was ten
thousand chances to one whether I should ever see it, and in the sand too,
which the first surge of the sea, upon a high wind, would have defaced entirely.
All this seemed inconsistent with the notions we usually entertain of the
subtilty of the devil.

I presently concluded, then, that it must be some of the savages of the
main-land opposite, who had wandered out to sea in their canoes, and, either
driven by the cwrrents or by contrary winds, had made the island, and had
been on shore, but were gone away again to sea; being as loath, perhaps, to
stay in this desolate island as I would have been to have had them.

While these reflections were rolling in my mind, I was very thankful that I
was not thereabouts at that time, or that they did not see my boat, by which
they would have concluded that some inhabitants had been in the place, and
perhaps have searched farther for me. Then terrible thoughts racked my
imagination about their having found out my boat, and that, if so, I should
certainly have them come again in greater numbers, and devour me; that if
they should not find me yet they would find my enclosure, destroy my corn,
and carry away my flock of tame goats, and I should perish at last for want.

Thus my fear banished all my religious hope, all that former confidence in
God, which was founded upon such wonderful experience as I had had of His
goodness; as if He that had fed me by miracle hitherto could not preserve, by
His power, the provision which He had made for me by His goodness. I re-
proached myself with my laziness, that would not sow any more corn one year
than would just serve me till the next season, as if no accident could intervene
to prevent my enjoying the crop that was upon the ground; and this I thought
so just a reproof, that I resolved for the future to have two or three years’
corn beforehand; so that, whatever might come, I might not perish for want
of bread.

I now trembled at the very apprehensions of secing a man, and was meal to

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LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

sink into the ground at but the shadow or silent appearance of a man having
set his foot in the island.

One morning early, lying in my bed, and filled with thoughts about my
danger from the appearances of savages, I found it discomposed me very much;
upon which these words of the Scripture come into my thoughts: “Call upon
me in the day of trouble, and I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me.”
Upon this, rising cheerfully out of my bed, my heart was not only comforted,
but I was guided and encouraged to pray earnestly to God for deliverance;
when I had done praying, I took up my Bible, and opening it to read, the first
words that presented to me were, “Wait on the Lord, and be of good cheer,
and he shall strengthen thy heart; wait, I say, on the Lord.” It is impossible
to express the comfort this gave me. In answer, I thankfully laid down the
book, and was no more sad, at least on that occasion.

In the middle of these cogitations, apprehensions, and reflections, it came
into my thoughts one day that all this might be a mere chimera of my own,
and that this foot might be the print of my own foot, when I came on shore
from my boat; this cheered me up a little, and I began to persuade myself it
was all a delusion; that it was nothing else but my own foot; and why might
I not come that way from the boat, as well as I was going that way to the boat?

Now I began to take courage, and to peep abroad again, for I had not stirred
out of my castle for three days and nights, so that I began to starve for provi-
sions; for I had little or nothing within doors but some barley-cakes and water;
then I knew that my goats wanted to be milked too, which usually was my
evening diversion; and the poor creatures were in great pain and inconvenience
for want of it; and, indeed, it almost spoiled some of them, and almost dried
up their milk. Encouraging myself, therefore, with the belief that this was
nothing but the print of one of my own feet, and that I might be truly said to
start at my own shadow, I began to go abroad again, and went to my country-
house to milk my flock: but to see with what fear I went forward, how often I
looked behind me, how I was ready, every now and then, to lay down my basket,
and run for my life, it would have made any one think I was haunted with an
evil conscience, or that I had been lately most terribly frightened; and so,
indeed, I had. However, I went down thus two or three days, and having seen
nothing, I began to be a little bolder, and to think there was nothing in it but
my own imagination; but I could not persuade myself fully of this till I should
go down to the shore again, and see this print of a foot, and measure it by my
own, and see if there was any similitude or fitness, but when I came to the
place—first, it appeared evident to me, that when I laid up my boat, I could
not possibly be on shore any where thereabouts; secondly, when I came to
measure the mark with my own foot, I found my foot not so large by a great
deal. Both these things filled my head with new imaginations, and gave me
the vapours again to the highest degree, so that I shook with cold like one in an

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ROBINSON CRUSOE.

ague; and I went home again, filled with the belief that some man or men had
been on shore there: or, that the island was inhabited, and I might be surprised
before I was aware; and what course to take for my security I knew not.

The first thing I proposed to myself was, to throw down my enclosures, and
turn all my tame cattle wild into the woods, lest the enemy should find them,
and frequent the island in prospect of the like booty: then the simple thing of
digging up my two corn-fields, lest they should find grain there, then to de-
molish my bower and tent, that they might not see any vestiges of habitation,
and be prompted to look farther, in order to find out the persons inhabiting.

These were the subject of the first night’s cogitations after I was come home
again, while the apprehensions which had so overrun my mind were fresh upon
me, and my head was full of vapours. I looked, I thought, like Saul, who
complained not only that the Philistines were upon him, but that God had
forsaken him; for I did not now take due ways to compose my mind, by
crying to God in my distress, and resting upon His providence, as I had done
before, for my defence and deliverance; which, if I had done, I had at least
been more cheerfully supported under this new surprise, and perhaps carried
through it with more resolution.

The confusion of my thoughts kept me awake all night; but in the morning
T fell asleep; and waked much better composed than I had ever been before.
And now I began to think sedately; and, upon debate with myself, I concluded
that this island, so exceedingly pleasant and fruitful, was not so entirely
abandoned as I might imagine; that although there were no stated inhabitants
who lived on the spot, yet that there might sometimes come boats off from the
shore, who, either with design, or perhaps never but when they were driven
by cross winds, might come to this place; that I had lived here fifteen years
now, and had not met with the least shadow or figure of any people yet; and
that, if at any time they should be driven here, it was probable they went
away again as soon as ever they could; that the most I could suggest any
danger from was, from any casual accidental landing of straggling people from
the main, who, as it was likely, if they were driven hither, were here against
their wills, and went off again with all possible speed, seldom staying one night
on shore, lest they should not have the help of the tides and daylight back
again; and that, therefore, I had nothing to do but to consider of some safe
retreat, in case I should see any savages land upon the spot.

Now I began to repent that I had dug my cave so large as to bring a door
through again, which door, as I said, came out beyond where my fortification
joined to the rock: upon considering this, therefore, I resolved to draw me a
second fortification, in the same manner of a semi-circle, at a distance from my
wall, just where I had planted a double row of trees about twelve years before.
These trees having been planted so thick, they wanted but a few piles to be
driven between them, that they might be thicker and stronger, oe my wall












LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



would be soon finished. I had now a double wall; and my outer wall was
thickened with pieces of timber, old cables, and everything I could thiuk of,
to make it strong; having in it seven little holes, about as big as I could put
my arm out at. In the inside of this, I thickened my wall to about ten feet
thick, continually bringing earth out of my cave, and laying it at the foot of
the wall, and walking upon it; and through the seven holes I contrived to
plant the muskets which I had got on shore out of the ship; these I planted
like cannon, and fitted them into frames, that held them like a carriage, so
that I could fire all the seven guns in two minutes’ time. This wall I was
many a weary month in finishing, and never thought myself safe till it was done.

Then I stuck all the ground without my wall, for a great length every way,
full with stakes of the osier-like wood, which I found so apt to grow. I believe
I might set in near twenty thousand of them, leaving a pretty large space
between them and my wall, that I might have room to see an enemy, and they
might have no shelter from the young trees, if they attempted to approach my
outer wall.

Thus, in two years’ time, I had a thick grove; and in five or six years’ time I
had a wood before my dwelling, growing so monstrously thick and strong that
it was indeed perfectly impassable; and no man could ever imagine that there
was anything beyond it, much less a habitation. The way which I proposed
myself to go in and out was by setting two ladders, one to a part of the rock
which was low, and then broke in, and left room to place another ladder upon
that, so when the two ladders were taken down, no man living could come
down to me without doing himself mischief; and if they had come down, they
were still on the outside of my outer wall.

Thus I took all the measures human prudence could suggest for my own
preservation; and it will be seen that they were not altogether without just
reason, though I foresaw nothing at that time more than my fear suggested to me.

While this was doing, I was not altogether careless of my other affairs; for
I had a great concern upon me for my little herd of goats. They were not
only a ready supply to me on every occasion, and began to be sufficient for me,
without the expense of powder and shot, but also without the fatigue of hunting
after the wild ones; and I was loath to lose the advantage of them, and to have
them all to nurse up over again.

After long consideration, I could think of but two ways to preserve them.
One was, to find another convenient place to dig a cave under ground, and to
drive them into it every night; and the other was, to enclose two or three little
bits of land, remote from one another, and as much concealed as I could, where
I might keep about half dozen young goats in each place, so that if any disaster
happened to the flock in general, I might be able to raise them again with
little trouble and time; and this, though it would require a good deal of time
and labour, I thought was the most rational design.

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ROBINSON ORUSOE.

. C cvOOO NN





Accordingly I spent some time to find out the most retired parts of the island,
and pitched upon one, which was as private as my heart could wish for. It was
a little damp piece of ground, in the middle of the hollow and thick woods, where
T almost lost myself once before, endeavouring to come back that way from the
eastern part of the island. Here I found a clear piece of land, nearly three
acres, so surrounded with woods, that it was almost an enclosure by nature.

I immediately went to work with this piece of ground; and, in less than a
month’s time, I had so fenced it round, that my flock were secured in it.
Without any further delay, I removed ten young she-goats, and two he-goats,
to this piece; and, when they were there, I continued to perfect the fence till
Thad made it as secure as the other. All this labour I was at purely from
my apprehensions on the account of the print of a man’s foot; for, as yet, I
had never seen any human creature come near the island, and I had now lived
two years under this uneasiness, which made my life much less comfortable
than it was before. I must observe, with grief, too, that the discomposure of
my mind had made great impression upon the religious part of my thoughts;
for the dread and terror of falling into the hands of savages and cannibals lay
so upon my spirits, that I seldom found myself in a due temper for application
to my Maker, at least, not with the sedate calmness and resignation of soul
which I was wont to do.

But to go on. After I had thus secured one part of my living stock, I
went about the whole island searching for another private place to make such
another deposit; when, wandering more to the west point of the island than I
had ever done yet, and looking out to sea, I thought I saw a boat upon the sea at
a great distance. I looked at it till my eyes were not able to look any longer;
but as I descended from the hill I could-see no more of it. When I was come
down the hill to the end of the island, where I had never been before, I was
presently convinced that the seeing the print of a man’s foot was not such a
strange thing in the island as imagined. And but that it was a special
providence that I was cast upon the side of the island where the savages never
came, I should easily have known that nothing was more frequent than for
the canoes from the main, when they happened to be a little too far out at sea,
to shoot over to that side of the island for harbour. Likewise, as they often
met and fought in their canoes, the victors, having taking any prisoners, would
bring them over to this shore, where, according to their dreadful customs,
being all cannibals, they would kill and eat them; of which hereafter.

‘When I was come down to the shore, being the 8.W..point of the island, T
was perfectly confounded and amazed at seeing the shore spread with skulls,
hands, feet, and other bones of human bodies; and particularly, I observed a
place where there had been a fire made, and a circle dug in the earth, like a
cockpit, where I supposed the savage wretches had sat down to their inhuman

feastings upon the bodies of their fellow-creatures. ae










LIFE. AND ADVENTURES OF



I was so astonished with the sight of these things, that I entertained no
notions of any danger to myself from it for a long while: all my apprehensions
were buried in the thoughts of such a pitch of inhuman brutality, and the
horror of the degeneracy of human nature, which I never had so near a view
of before. I turned away my face from the horrid spectacle; my stomach
grew sick, and I was just at the point of fainting, when nature discharged the
disorder from my stomach: and having vomited with uncommon violence, I
was a little relieved, but could not bear to stay in the place a moment; so I
got up the hill again with all the speed I could, and walked on towards my
own habitation.

J had been here now almost eighteen years, and never saw the least footsteps
of human creature there before; and I might be eighteen years more as en-
tirely concealed as I was now, if I did not discover myself to them. Yet I
entertained such an abhorrence of the savage wretches that I have been
speaking of, and of the wretched, inhuman custom of their devouring and
eating one another up, that I continued pensive and sad, and kept close within
my own circle for almost two years after this: when I say my own circle, I
mean my three plantations, viz., my castle, my country seat (which I called
my bower), and my enclosure in the woods; nor did I look after this for any
other use than as an enclosure for my goats; for the aversion which nature
gave me to these hellish wretches was such, that I was as fearful of seeing
them as of seeing the devil himself. I did not go to look after my boat all
this time, but began rather to think of making another: for I could not think
of making any more attempts to bring the other boat round the island, lest I
should meet with some of these creatures at sea; in which case, if I had
happened to have fallen into their hands, I knew what would have been my lot.

Time, however, and the satisfaction I had that I was in no danger of being
discovered by these people, began to wear off my uneasiness about them; and
I began to live in the same composed manner as before, only with this differ-
ence, that I used more caution, and kept my eyes more about me lest I should
be seen by any of them; and particularly, I was more cautious of firing my
gun, lest any of them, being on the island, should happen to hear it. It was
a very good providence to me that I had furnished myself with a tame breed
of goats, and that I had no need to hunt any more about the woods, or shoot
at them; so that for two years after this, I believe I never fired my gun once
off, though I never went out without it; and, what was more, as I had saved
three pistols out of the ship, I always carried them out with me, or at least
two of them, sticking them in my goatskin belt. I also furbished up one of the
great cutlasses that I had out of the ship, and made me a belt to hang it on also;
so that I was now a most formidable fellow to look at when I went abroad, if
you add to the former description of myself, the particular of two pistols and

a great broad-sword hanging at my side in a belt, but without a scabbard.
104
















. ROBINSON CRUSOE.



I made my tour every morning to the top of the hill, which was from my
castle, as I called it, about three miles, or more, to see if I could observe any
boats upon the sea, coming near the island, or standing over towards it; but I
began to tire of this duty, after I had, for two or three months, constantly
kept my watch, but came always back without any discovery; there having
not, in all that time, been the least appearance, not only on or near the shore,
but on the whole ocean, so far as my eyes or glass could reach every way.

I went and removed my boat, which I had on the other side, and carried it
down to the east end of the island, where I ran it into a little cove, which I
found under some high rocks, and where I knew, by reason of the currents,
the savages durst not, at least would not come with their boats upon any
account whatever. With my boat I carried away everything that I had left
there belonging to her, viz., a mast and a sail which I had made for her, and a
thing like an anchor, but which indeed could not be called either anchor or
grapnel; however, it was the best I could make of its kind. All these I
removed, that there might not be the least shadow for discovery, or ap-
pearance of any boat, or of any human habitation upon the island. Besides
this, 1 kept myself more retired than ever, and seldom went from my cell
except upon my constant employment, to milk my she-goats, and manage
my little flock in the wood, which, as it was quite on the other part of the
island, was out of danger; for certain it is that these savage people, who
sometimes haunted this island, never came with any thoughts of finding any-
thing here, and consequently never wandered off from the coast, and I
doubt not but they might have been several times on shore after my appre-
hensions of them had made me cautious, as well as before.

I believe the reader of this will not think it strange if I confess that these
anxieties, these constant dangers I lived in, and the concern that was now
upon me, put an end to all invention, and to all the contrivances that I had laid
for my future accommodations and conveniences. I had the care of my safety
more now upon my hands than that of my food. I cared not to drive a nail,
or chop a stick of wood, for fear the noise should be heard; much less would
I fire a gun for the same reason ; and, above all, I was intolerably uneasy at
making any fire, lest the smoke, which is visible at a great distance in the day,
should betray me. For this reason I removed that part of my business which
required fire, such as burning of pots and pipes, etc., into any new apartment
in the woods; where, after I had been some time, I found to my unspeakable
consolation, a mere natural cave in the earth, which went in a vast way, and
where, I dare say, no savage, had he been at the mouth of it, would be so
hardy as to venture in; nor, indeed, would any man else, but one who, like
me, wanted nothing so much as a safe retreat.

The mouth of this hallow was at the bottom of a great rock, where I was
cutting down some thick branches of trees, to make charcoal. I was afraid of

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LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



making a smoke about my habitation, and yet I could not live without baking
my bread, cooking my meat, ete.; so I contrived to burn some wood here, as
T had seen done in England, under turf, till it became chark or dry coal; and
then putting the fire out, I preserved the coal to carry home, and perform the
other services for which fire was wanting, without danger of smoke. While I
was cutting down some wood here, I perceived that, behind a very thick
branch of brushwood, there was a kind of hollow place. I was curious to look
in, and getting with difficulty into the mouth of it, I found it was pretty large,
that is to say, sufficient for me to stand upright in, and perhaps another with
me; but I must confess that I made more haste out than I did in, when,
looking farther into the place, which was perfectly dark, I saw two broad shin-
ing eyes of some creature, whether devil or man I knew not, which twinkled
like two stars ; the dim light from the cave’s mouth shining directly in, and
making the reflection. After some pause, I recovered myself, and began to
call myself a thousand fools, and to think that he that was afraid to see the
devil, was not fit to live twenty years in an island all alone; and that I might
well think there was nothing in this cave more frightful than myself Upon
this, plucking up my courage, I took up a firebrand, and in I rushed again. I
had not gone three steps, before I was almost as much frightened as before ;
for I heard a very loud sigh, like that of a man in pain, and it was followed
by a broken noise as of words half expressed, and then a deep sigh again. I
stepped back, and was indeed struck with such a surprise that it put me into
a cold sweat, and if I had had a hat on my head, I will not answer for it that
my hair might not have lifted it off But plucking up my spirits as well as I
could, and encouraging myself with considering that the power and presence
of God was everywhere, and was able to protect me, I stepped forward again,
and by the light of the firebrand, holding it over my head, I saw lying on the
ground a monstrous, frightful, old he-goat, just making his will, as we say,
and gasping for life, and dying, indeed, of mere old age. I stirred him a little
to sce if I could get him out, and he essayed to get up, but was not able to
raise himself; and I thought with myself he might even lie there,—for if he
had frightened me, so he would certainly fright the savages, if any one of them
should be so hardy as to come in there while he had life in him.

Iwas now recovered from my surprise, and began to look round me I
found the cave was very small,—that is to say, it might be about twelve feet
over, but in no manner of shape, no hands having ever been employed in
making it but those of Nature. I observed also that there was a place at the
farther side of it that went in further, but was so low that it required me to
creep upon my hands and knees to go into it, and whither it went I knew not;
so, having no candle, I gave it over for that time, but resolved to come again
the next day provided with candles, and a tinder-box, which I had made of the
lock of one of the muskets, with some wildfire in the pan.

106












ROBINSON CRUSOE.
eee

Accordingly, the next day I came provided with six large candles of my
own making (for I made very good candles now of goats’ tallow, for candle-
wick, using sometimes rags or rope-yarn, and sometimes the dried rind of a
weed like nettles); and going into this low place I was obliged to creep upon
all fours, almost ten yards. When I had got through the strait, I found the
roof rose higher up, I believe near twenty feet; but never was such a glorious
sight seen in the island, I dare say, as it was to look round the sides and roof
of this vault or cave—the wall reflected a hundred thousand lights to me from
my two candles. What it was in the rock—whether diamonds or any other
precious stones, or gold—which I rather supposed it to be—I knew not. The
place I was in was a most delightful cavity, or grotto, though perfectly dark ;
the floor was dry and level, and had a sort of a small loose gravel upon it, so
that there was no nauseous or venomons creature to be seen, neither was there
any damp or wet on the sides or roof; the only difficulty in it was the entrance,
—which, however, as it was a place of security, and such aretreat as I wanted,
I thought was a convenience. I was rejoiced at the discovery, and resolved,
without any delay, to bring some of those things which I was most anxious
about to this place, particularly my magazine of powder, and my spare arms,
viz. two fowling pieces and three muskets. I kept in my castle only five,
which stood ready mounted like pieces of cannon on my outmost fence, and
were ready also to take out upon any expedition. Upon this occasion of re-
moving my ammunition I happened to open the barrel of powder which I took
up out of the sea, and which had been wet. I found that the water had
penetrated about three or four inches into the powder on every side, which,
caking and growing hard, had preserved the inside like a kernel in the shell,
so that I had nearly sixty pounds of very good powder in the centre of the
cask, This was a very agreeable discovery to me at that time; so I carried
all away thither, never keeping above two or three pounds of powder with me
in my castle, for fear of a surprise of any kind; I also carried thither all the
lead I had left for bullets.

I fancied myself now like one of the ancient giants who were said to live in
caves and holes in the rocks, where none could come at them; for I persuaded
myself, while I was here, that if five hundred savages were to hunt me, they
could never find me out—or if they did, they would not venture to attack me.
The old goat whom I found expiring died in the mouth of the cave the day
after I made this discovery; and I found it much easier to dig a great hole
there, and throw him in and cover him with earth, than to drag him out; so
I interred him there, to prevent offence to my nose.

I was now in the twenty-third year of my residence in this island, and was so
naturalized to the place and the manner of living, that, could I but have en-
joyed the certainty that no savages would come to the place to disturb me, I

could have been content to spend the rest of my time there, even to the last
10








LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



|
|
|
|
| moment, till I had laid me down and diced, like the old goat in the cave. I
had also some little diversions and amusements, which made the time pass
more pleasantly with me than it did before:—first, I had taught my Poll to
speak; and he did it so familiarly, and talked so articulately, that it was very
| pleasant to me. I believe no bird ever spoke plainer,—and_ he lived with me
no less than six-and-twenty years. My dog was a pleasant and loving com-
| panion to me for no less than sixteen years of my time, and then died of old
1, age. My cats multiplied to that degree that I was obliged to shoot several of
them to keep them from devouring me and all I had; but, at length, after
some time continually driving them from me, and letting them have no pro-
vision with me, they all ran wild into the woods, except two or three favourites,
which I kept tame. Besides these I always kept two or three household kids
about ine, whom I taught to feed out of my hand; and I had two more parrots,
| which talked pretty well, and would all call “Robinson Crusoe,” but none like
my first; nor, indeed, did I take the pains with any of them that I had done
i with him. I had also several tame sca-fowls, whose names I knew not, that I
caught upon the shore, and cut their wings; and the little stakes which I had
i planted before my castle wall being now grown up to a good thick grove, these
fowls all lived among the low trees, and bred there, which was very agreeable
to me,—so that I began to be very well contented with the life I led, if I could
i have been secured from the dread of the savages. But it was otherwise
directed; and it may not be amiss for all people who shall mect with my story
to make this observation from it:—How frequently, in the course of our lives,
| the evil which in itself we seek most to shun, and which, when we are fallen
into, is the most dreadful to us, is oftentimes the very means of our deliverance.
I could give many examples of this in the course of my life; but in nothing
was it more remarkable than in the circumstances of my last years of solitary
residence in this island.

Tt was now the month of December, in my twenty-third year. And this,
being the southern solstice (for winter I cannot call it), was the particular
time of my harvest, and required me to be pretty much abroad in the fields,
when, going out early in the morning even before it was thorough daylight, I
was surprised with seeing a light of some fire upon the shore, at a distance
from me of about two miles, and, to my great affliction, it was on my side of
the island.

I stopped short within my grove, not daring to go out, lest I might be sur-
prised. And yet I had no more peace within, from the-apprehensions I had
that if these savages, in rambling over the island, should find my corn standing
or cut, or any of my works and improvements, they would immediately conclude
that there were people in the place, and would never rest till they had found
me out. In this extremity I went back directly to my castle, pulled up the ladder
after me, and made all things without look as wild and natural as I could.

108














“Putting myself in a posture uf defence, I loaded my muskets, which were
mounted upon my fortification, resolved to defend myself to the last.”








ROBINSON CRUSOE.
—. SS

Then I prepared myself within, putting myself in a posture of defence. I
loaded all my muskets, which were mounted upon my new fortification, and
all my pistols, and resolved to defend myself to the last gasp—not forgetting
seriously to commend myself to the Divine protection, and earnestly to pray to
God to deliver me out of the hands of the barbarians. I continued in this
posture about two hours, and then began to be impatient for intelligence,
After sitting awhile, and musing what I should do in this case, I was not able
to bear sitting in ignorance any longer. So setting up my ladder to the side
of the hill, where there was a flat place, and then pulling. the ladder after me,
I set it up again, and mounted the top of the hill, and pulling out my perspec-
tive-glass, I laid me down flat-on my belly on the ground, and began to look
for the place. I presently found there were no less than nine naked savages
sitting round a small fire they had made, not to warm them, for they had
no need of that, the weather being extremely hot, but, as I supposed, to dress
some of their barbarous diet of human flesh which they had brought with them.

They had two canoes, which they had hauled up upon the shore; and as it
was then ebb of tide, they seemed to me to wait for the return of the flood to
go away again. It is not easy to imagine what confusion this sight put me
into, especially seeing them come on my side of the island, and so near to me;
but when I considered their coming must be always with the current of the
ebb, I began afterwards to be more sedate in my mind, being satisfied that I
might go abroad with safety all the time of the flood of tide, if they were not
on shore before; and having made this observation, I went abroad about my
harvest work with the more composure.

As I expected, so it proved; for, as soon as the tide made to the westward,
I saw them all take boat and paddle away. I observed that for an hour or
more before they went off, they were dancing, and I could easily discern their
postures and gestures by my glass. I could perceive that they were naked,
but whether they were men or women I could not distinguish.

As soon as I saw them gone, I took two guns upon my shoulders, and two
pistols in my girdle, and my great sword by my side without a scabbard, and
with all the speed I was able to make, went away to the hill where I had dis-
covered the first appearance of all. And as soon as I got thither, I perceived
there had been three canoes of the savages at that place; and looking out
farther, I saw they were all at sea together, making over for the main, This
was a dreadful sight to me, especially as, going down to the shore, I could see
the marks of horror which the dismal work they had been about had left behind
it, viz, the blood, the bones, and -part of the flesh of human bodies eaten and
devoured by those wretches with merriment and sport. I was so filled with
indignation at the sight, that I now began to premeditate the destruction of
the next that I saw there, let them be whom or how many-soever. It seemed
evident to me that the visits which they made to this island were not very

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LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



frequent, for it was above fifteen months before any more of them came on
shore there again—that is, I neither saw them or any footsteps or signals of

them in all that time. Yet all this while I lived uncomfortably, by reason of

the constant apprehensions of their coming upon me by surprise.

I spent my days now in great perplexity and anxiety of mind, expecting |
that I should one day or other fall into the hands of these merciless creatures;
and if I did at any time venture abroad, it was not without looking round me |
with the greatest caution imaginable. And now I found, to my comfort, how
happy it was that I had provided a tame flock of goats; for I durst not upon
any account fire my gun, especially near that side of the island where they
usually came, lest I should alarm the savages; and if they had fled from me
now, I was sure to have them come again with perhaps two or three hundred
canoes, and then I knew what to expect. I wore out a year and three months
before I saw any more of the savages. It is true they might have been there
once or twice; but I did not see them.

The perturbation of my mind, during this fifteen or sixteen months’ interval,
was very great. I slept unquietly, dreamed frightful dreams, and often started .
out of my sleep in the night. In the day, great troubles overwhelmed my
mind; and in the night, I dreamed often of killing the savages. But to wave
all this for a while—in the middle of May, on the sixteenth day, I think, as
well as my poor wooden calendar would reckon, it blew a very great storm of
wind, with a great deal of lightning and thunder, and avery foul night it was
atter it. I was reading in the Bible, and taken up with serious thoughts about
my present condition, when I was surprised with the noise of a gun, as I
thought, fired at sea. This was a surprise quite of a different nature from any
I had met with before. I started up in the greatest haste imaginable; clapped
my ladder to the middle place of the rock, and pulled it after me; and,
niounting it the second time, got to the top of the hill the very moment that a
flash of fire bid me listen for the second gun, which, in about half a minute, I
lieard; and, by the sound, knew that it was from that part of the sea where
Iwas driven down the current in my boat. I immediately considered that
this must be some ship in distress, and that they had some other ship in
company, and fired these for signals of distress, and to obtain help. I had the
presence of mind to think that, though I could not help them, it might be they
might help me; so I brought together all the dry wood I could get at hand,
and, making a good handsome pile, I set it on fire upon the hill The wood
was dry, and blazed freely; and, though the wind blew very hard, yet it
burned fairly out, so that I was certain, if there was any such thing as a ship,
they must see it, and no doubt they did; for as soon as ever my fire blazed up,

I heard another gun, and after that several others, all from the same quarter.
I plied my fire all night long, till daybreak; and when it was broad day, and
the air cleared up, I saw something at a great distance at sea, full east of the












ROBINSON CRUSOE.



island,—whether a sail or a hull I could not distinguish, not even with my
glass, the distance was so great, and the weather something hazy.

I looked frequently at it all that day, and soon perceived that it did not
move; so I concluded that it was a ship at anchor; and being eager to be
satisfied, I took my gun and ran towards the south side of the island, to the
rocks where I had formerly been taken away by the current. The weather by
this time being perfectly clear, I could plainly see, to my great sorrow, the
wreck of a ship, cast away in the night upon those concealed rocks which I
found when I was out in my boat; and which rocks, as they checked the
violence of the stream, and made a kind of counter-stream, were the occasion
of my recovering from the most hopeless condition that ever I had been in in
ny life. Thus, what is one man’s safety is another man’s destruction; for it
seems these men, whoever they were, being out of their knowledge, and the
rocks being wholly under water, had been driven upon them in the night, the
wind blowing hard at E.N.E. Had they seen the island, as I suppose they
did not, they must, as I thought, have endeavoured to save themselves on
shore by the help of their boat; but their firing off guns for help, especially
when they saw, as I imagined, my fire, filled me with many thoughts. First,
I imagined that upon seeing my light, they might have put themselves into
their boat, and endeavoured to make the shore; but that the sea running very
high, they might have been cast away. Other times, I imagined they had
some ship or ships in company, who, upon the signals of distress they made,
had taken them up, and carried them off to sea in their boat, and being hurried
away by the current that I had been formerly in, were carried out into the
great ocean, where there was nothing but misery and perishing.

As all these were but conjectures, so, in the condition I was in, I could do
no more than look upon the misery of the poor men, and pity them; which
had this good effect upon my side, that it gave me more and more cause to
give thanks to God, who had so happily and comfortably provided for me in
my desolate condition; when, of two ships’ companies, now cast away upon
this part of the world, not one life was spared but mine. I learned here again
to observe, that it is very rarely the providence of God casts us into any
condition of life so low, or any misery so great, but we may see something
or other to be thankful for, and may see others in worse circumstances than
our own. Such certainly was the case of these men, of whom I could not so
much as see room to suppose any of them were saved; nothing could make it
rational to expect that they did not all perish there, except the possibility of
their being taken up by another ship in company; and this was but mere
possibility indeed, for I saw not the least sign or appearance of any such thing,
I cannot explain, by any possible words, what a strange longing I felt in my
soul, breaking out sometimes thus:—“O that there had been but one soul
saved out of this ship, to have escaped to me, that I might have had one
, ill














LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



companion, one fellow-creature, to have spoken to me and to have conversed
with!” In all the time of my solitary life I never felt so earnest, so strong a
desire after the society of my fellow-creatures, or so deep a regret at the
want of it.

I believe I repeated the words, “O that it had been but one!” a thousand
times; and my desires were so moved by it, that when I spoke the words my
hands would clinch together, and my fingers would press the palms of my
hand, so that if I had had any soft thing in my hand, I would have crushed it
involuntarily; and the teeth in my head would strike together, and set against
one another so strong, that for some time I could not part them again. Some
days after, the corpse of a drowned boy come on shore at the end of the
island, which was next the shipwreck. He had no clothes on but a seaman’s
waistcoat, a pair of open-kneed linen drawers, and a blue linen shirt; but
nothing to direct me so much as to guess what nation he was of. He had
nothing in his pockets but two pieces-of-eight and a tobacco-pipe—the last was
to me of ten times more value than the first.

It was now calm, and I had a great mind to venture out in my boat to this
wreck, not doubting but I might find something on board that might be useful
tome. But that did not altogether press me so much as the possibility that
there might be some living creature on board, whose life I might not only
save, but might, by saving that life, comfort my own to the last degree; and
this thought clung so to my heart that I could not be quiet night or day, but
I must venture out in my boat to this wreck; I thought the impression was so
strong upon my mind that it must come from some invisible direction, and
that I should be wanting to myself if I did not go.

Under the power of this impression, I hastened back to my castle; prepared
everything for my voyage, took a quantity of bread, a great pot of fresh water,
a compass to steer by, a bottle of rum (for I had still a great deal of that left),
and a basket of raisins; and thus, loading myself with everything necessary, I
went down to my boat, got the water out of her, got her afloat, loaded all my
cargo in her, and then went home again for more. My second cargo was a
great bag of rice, the umbrella to set up over my head for a shade, another
large pot of fresh water, and about two dozen small loaves, or barley cakes,
more than before, with a bottle of goat’s milk, and a cheese: all which, I
carried to my boat; and praying to God to direct my voyage, I put out, and
paddling the canoe along the shore, came at last to the utmost point of the
island on the north-east side. And now I was to launch out into the ocean.
venture or not to venture. I looked on the rapid currents which ran con-
stantly on both sides of the island at a distance, and which were very terrible
to me, from the remembrance of the hazard I had been in before, and my heart
began to fail me; for I foresaw that if I was driven into either of those currents

I should be carried a great way out to sea, and perhaps out of my reach, or
112 :










ROBINSON CRUSOE.



sight of the island again; and that then, as my boat was but small, if any little
gale of wind should rise, I should be inevitably lost.

These thoughts so oppressed my mind that I began to give over my enter-
prise; and having hauled my boat into a little creek on the shore, I stepped
out, and sat down upon a rising bit of ground, very pensive and anxious,
between fear and desire about my voyage; when, as I was musing, I could
perceive that the tide was turned, and the flood came on; upon which my
going was impracticable for so many hours. Presently it occurred to me that
I should go up to the highest piece of ground I could find, and observe, if
I could, how the sets of the tide or currents lay when the flood came in, that
I might judge whether, if I was driven one way out, I might not expect to be
driven another way home, with the same rapidity of the currents. I cast my
eye upon a little hill, which sufficiently overlooked the sea both ways, and
whence I had a clear view of the currents, and which way I was to guide
myself in my return. Here I found that as the current of ebb set out close by
the south point of the island, so the current of the flood set in close by the
shore of the north side; and that I had nothing to do but to keep to the north
side of the island in my return, and I should do well enough.

Encouraged with this observation, I resolved to set out the next morning
with the first of the tide, reposing myself for the night in my canoe under the
great watch-coat. In the morning I launched out. I made a little out to
sea, full north, till I began to feel the benefit of the current, which set -east-
ward, and which carried me at a great rate; and yet did not so hurry me as
the current on the south side had done before, so as to take from me all
government of the boat; but having a strong steerage with my paddle, I went,
at a great rate, directly for the wreck, and in less than two hours I came up
to it. It was a dismal sight to look at: the ship, which by its building was
Spanish, stuck fast, jammed in between two rocks. The stern and quarter. of
her were beaten to pieces by the sea; and as her forecastle, which stuck in the
rocks, had run on with great violence, her mainmast and foremast were brought
by the board, that is, broken short off; but her bowsprit was sound, and the
head and bow appeared firm. When I came close to her, a dog appeared
upon her. I took him into the boat, but found him almost dead with hunger
and thirst. I gave him a cake of my bread, and some fresh water. After this
I went on board. The first sight I met with was two men drowned in the

cook-room, or forecastle of the ship, with their arms fast about one another.
I concluded, that when the ship struck, it being in a storm, the sea broke so
high, and so continually over her, that the men were not able to bear it, and
were strangled with the constant rushing in of the water. Besides the dog,
there was nothing left in the ship that had life; nor any goods, that I could
see, but what were spoiled by the water. There were some casks of liquor,

which lay lower in the hold, and which, the water being ebbed out, I could
Il 113














LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



see; but they were too big to meddle with. I saw several chests, which I
believe belonged to some of the seamen; and I got two of them into the boat,
without examining what was in them. Had the stern of the ship been fixed,
and the forepart broken off, I am persuaded I might have made a good voyage;
for, by what I found in these two chests, I had room to suppose the ship had
a great deal of wealth on board; and, if I may guess from the course she
steered, she must have been bound from Buenos Ayres, or the Rio de la Plata,
in the south part of America, beyond the Brazils to the Havannah, in the gulf of
Mexico, and so perhaps to Spain. She had, no doubt, great treasure in her, but
of no use, at that time, to anybody. What became of the crew I then knew not.

I found, besides these chests, a little cask full of liquor, of about twenty
gallons, which I got into my boat with much difficulty. There were several
muskets in the cabin, and a great powder-horn, with about four pounds
of powder in it. As for the muskets, I had no occasion for them, so I left
them, but took the powder-horn. I took a fire-shovel and tongs, which I
wanted extremely; also two little brass kettles, a copper pot to make chocolate,
and a gridiron; and with this cargo, and the dog, I came away, the tide
beginning to make home again; and the same evening I reached the island,
weary and fatigued to the last degree. I reposed that night in the boat; and
in the morning I resolved to harbour what I had got in my new cave, and
not carry it home to my castle. After refreshing myself, I got my cargo on
shore, and began to examine the particulars. The cask of liquor I found to
be a kind of rum, and not at all good; but when I came to open the chests,
I found several things of great use to me. I found in one a fine case of
bottles, of an extraordinary kind, and filled with cordial waters, fine, and very
good. The bottles held about three pints each, and were tipped with silver.
I found two pots of very good suceades, or sweetmeats, so fastened on the top
that the salt water had not hurt them; and two more of the same, which the
water had spoiled. I found some good shirts, which were very welcome to
me; and about a dozen and a half of white linen handkerchiefs and coloured
neckcloths. Besides this, when I came to the till in the chest, I found there
three great bags of pieces-of-eight, which held about eleven hundred pieces in
all; and in one of them, wrapped up in a paper, six doubloons of gold, and
some small bars or wedges of gold. I suppose they might all weigh nearly a
pound. In the other chest were some clothes, but of little value. Upon the
whole, I got very little by this voyage that was of any use to me; for, as to
the money, I had no occasion for it. It was to me as the dirt under my feet,
and I would have given it all for three or four pair of English shoes and
stockings, which were things I greatly wanted, but had none on my fect for
many years. I had, indeed, got two pair of shoes now, which I took off the
feet of the two drowned men whom I saw in the wreck, and I found two pair

more in one of the chests; but they were not like our English shoes, either
1lt












_ ROBINSON CRUSOE,



for ease or service, being rather what we call pumps than shoes. I found in
this seaman’s chest about fifty pieces-of-eight, in rials, but no gold. I suppose
this belonged to a poorer man than the other, which seemed to belong to some
officer. Well, however, I lugged this money home to my cave, and laid it up,
as I had done that before which I had brought from our own ship; but it was
a pity that the other part of this ship had not come to my share; for I am
satisfied I might have loaded my canoe several times over with money; and,
thought I, if I ever escape to England, it might lie here safe enough till I
come again and fetch it.

Having now brought all my things on shore, and secured them, I went back
to my boat, and paddled her along the shore to her old harbour, where I laid
her up, and made the best of my way to my old habitation, where I found
everything safe and quict. I began now to repose myself, live after my old
fashion, and take care of my family affairs. And for a while I lived easily
enough, only that I was more vigilant than I used to be, looked out oftener,
and did not go abroad so much. And if, at any time, I did stir with any
freedom, it was always to the east part of the island, where I was pretty well
satisfied the savages never came, and where I could go without so many pre-
cautions, and such a load of arms and ammunition as I carried with me if I
went the other way. I lived in this condition nearly two years more; but my
unlucky head was all these two years filled with projects and designs, how I
might get away from this island. Sometimes I was for making another voyage
to the wreck, though my reason told me that there was nothing left there
worth the hazard of my voyage; sometimes for a ramble one way, sometimes
another: and I believe verily, if I had had the boat that I went from Sallee
in, I should have ventured to sea, bound anywhere, I knew not whither.

I now retired into my castle, after my late voyage to the wreck, my frigate
laid up and secured under water, as usual, and my condition restored to what
it was before. I had more wealth, indeed, than I had before, but was not at
all the richer; for I had no more use for it than the Indians of Peru had
before the Spaniards came there.

It was one of the nights in the rainy season in March, the four-and-twentieth
year of my first setting foot in this island of solitude, I was lying in my
hammock, awake, very well in health, no uneasiness of body, nor any un-
easiness of mind more than ordinary, but I could by no means close my eyes,
so as to sleep. It is impossible to set down the crowd of thoughts that
whirled through that great thoroughfare of the brain—the memory, in this
night’s time. I ran over the whole history of my life, to my coming to this
island, and also of part of my life since I came to this island. In my
reflections upon the state of my case since I came on shore on this island, [
was comparing the happy posture of my affairs in the first years of my
habitation here, with the life of anxiety, fear, and care, which I Se in



eee ee

‘










LIFE AND ADVENTURES 0?

ever since I had seen the print of a foot in the sand; not that I did not be-
lieve the savages had frequented the island all the while, and might have been
several hundreds of them at times on shore there, but I had never known it.

I came to-reflect seriously upon the real danger I had been in for so many
years in this very island, and how I had walked about in the greatest security,
and with all possible tranquillity, even when perhaps nothing but the brow of
a hill, a great tree, or casual approach of night, had been between me and the
worst kind of destruction, viz. that of falling into the hands of cannibals and
savages, who would have seized on me with the same view as I would on a
goat or a turtle, and have thought it no more crime to kill and devour me,
than I did a pigeon or a curlew. I was sincerely thankful to my great
Preserver, to whose singular protection I acknowledged, with great humility,
all these unknown deliverances were due, and without which I must inevitably
have fallen into their merciless hands. .

Then it occurred to me to inquire what part of the world these wretches
lived in? how far off the coast was whence they came? what they ventured
so far from home for? what kind of boats they had? and why I might not
order myself and my business so, that I might be as able to go over thither,
as they were to come to me.

I never troubled myself to consider what I should do with myself when I
went thither; what would become of me if I fell into the hands of the savages;
or how I should escape them if they attacked me; my mind was wholly bent
upon the notion of my passing over in my boat to the mainland. I looked
upon my present condition as the most miserable that could possibly be; that
I was not able to throw myself into anything but death, that could be called
worse. All this was the fruit of a disturbed mind, an impatient temper, made
desperate, as it were, by the long continuance of my troubles, and the disap-
pointments I had met in the wreck T had been on board of, and where I had
been so near obtaining what I so earnestly longed for, somebody to speak to,
and to learn some knowledge from them of the place where I was, and of the
probable means of my deliverance. All my calm of mind, in my resignation
to Providence, and waiting the issue of the dispositions of Heaven, seemed to
be suspended; and I had, as it were, no power to turn my thoughts to any-
thing but to the project of a voyage to the main, which came upon me with
such force, and such an impetuosity of desire, that it was not to be resisted.

When this had agitated my thoughts for two hours or more, with such
violence that it set my very blood into a ferment, and my pulse beat as if I
had been in a fever, Nature, fatigued and exhausted, threw me into a sound
sleep. I dreamed that as I was going out in the morning as usual, from my
castle, I saw upon the shore two canoes and eleven savages coming to land,
and that they brought with them another savage, whom they were going to
kill, in order to eat him; on a sudden, the savage that they were going to kill

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ROBINSON CRUSOE.

jumped away, and ran for his life; and I thought, in my sleep, that he came
running into my little thick grove, before my fortification, to hide himself;
and that I, seeing him alone, and not perceiving that the others sought him
that way, showed myself to him, and smiling upon him, encouraged him; that
he kneeled down to me, seeming to pray me to assist him; upon which I
showed him my ladder, made him go up, and carried him into my cave, and
he became my servant: and that as soon as I had got this man, I said to my-
self, “ Now I may certainly venture to the mainland, for this fellow will serve
me as a pilot, and will tell me what to do, what places to venture into, and
what to shun.” I waked with this thought; and was under such inexpressible
impressions of joy at the prospect of my escape in my dream, that the
disappointments which I felt upon coming to myself, and finding that it was
no more than a dream, were equally extravagant the other way, and threw me
into a very great dejection of spirits.

I made this conclusion, however, that. my only way to attempt an escape
was, if possible, to get a savage into my possession; and, if possible, it should
be one of their prisoners, whom they had condemned to be eaten, and should
bring hither to kill. My next thing was to contrive how to do it, and this
indeed was very difficult to resolve on. I could pitch upon no probable means
for it, so I resolved to put myself upon the watch, to see them when they came
on shore, and leave the rest to the event; taking such measures as the oppor-
tunity should present, let what would be.

With these resolutions in my thoughts, I set myself upon the scout as often
as possible; indeed, so often that I was heartily tired of it, for it was above a
year and a half that I waited; and for great part of that time went out to the
west end, and to the south-west corner of the island almost every day, to look
for canoes, but none appeared. This was very discouraging, but the longer it
seemed to be delayed, the more eager I was for it. In a word, I was not at
first so careful to shun the sight of these savages, and avoid being seen by
them, as I was now eager to be upon them. Besides, I fancied myself able to
manage two or three savages, if I had them, so as to make them entirely slaves
to me to do whatever I should direct them, and to prevent their being able to
do me any- hurt.

About a year and a half after I entertained these notions, I was surprised
one morning by seeing no less than five canoes all on shore together on my
side the island, and the people who belonged to them all landed and out of
sight. The number of them broke all my measures; for seeing so many, and
knowing that they always came four or six, or sometimes more in a boat, I
could not tell what to think of it, or how to take my measures, to attack
twenty or thirty men single-handed; so’I lay still in my castle, perplexed and
discomforted. However, I put myself into the same position for an attack that
I had formerly provided, and was ready for action, if anything presented. Hav-

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LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

ing waited a good while, listening to hear if they made any noise, at length,
being very impatient, I set my guns at the foot of my ladder, and clambered
up to the top of the hill, standing so, however, that they could not perceive me
by any means. Here I observed, by the help of my perspective glass, that they
were no less than thirty in number; that they had a fire kindled, and that they
had meat dressed. How they had cooked it I knew not, or what it was; but
they were all dancing, in barbarous gestures and figures, round the fire.

While I was thus looking on them, I perceived two miserable wretches
dragged from the boats, and brought out for slaughter. I perceived one of
them immediately fall, knocked down with a club, or wooden sword; and two
or three others were at work immediately, cutting him open for their cookery,
while the other victim was left standing by himself, till they should be ready
for him. In that very moment, this poor wretch, seeing himself a little at
liberty, and unbound, and inspired with hopes of life, he started away from
them, and ran with incredible swiftness along the sands, directly towards that
part of the coast where my habitation was. I was dreadfully frightened, when
I perceived him run my way; and especially when, as I thought, I saw him
pursued by the whole body; and now I expected that part of my dream was
coming to pass, and that he would certainly take shelter in my grove; but I
could not depend, upon my Gdreain, that the other savages would not pursue
him thither, and find him. However, I kept my station, and my spirits began
to recover when I found that there was not above three men that followed him;
and still more was I encouraged, when I found that he outstripped them exceed-
ingly in running, and gained ground on them; so that, if he could but hold out
for half an hour, I saw he-would fairly get away from them all.

There was between them and my castle, the creek, which I mentioned in the
first part of my story, and this he must necessarily swim over, or the poor wretch
would be taken there; but he made nothing of it, though the tide was then up;
but plunging in, swam through in about thirty strokes, or thereabouts, landed,
and ran with exceeding strength and swiftness. When the three persons came
to the creek, I found that two of them could swim, but the third could not; he
looked at the others, and soon after went softly back again, which was very
well for him in the end. I observed that the two who swam were more than
twice as long swimming over the creek as the fellow was that fled from them.
It came upon my thoughts, that now was the time to get’ me a servant, and
perhaps a companion; and that I was plainly called by Providence to save this
poor creature’s life. I immediately ran down the ladders with all possible
expedition, fetched my two guns, and getting up again with the same haste to
the top of the hill, I crossed towards the sea; and having a very short cut, and
all down hill, placed myself in the way between the pursuers and the pursued,
hallooing aloud to him that fled, who, looking back, was at first perhaps as

much frightened at me as at them; but I beckoned with my hand to him to
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“T clambered to the top of the hill, and perceived two miserable wretches
dragged from the boats for slaughter.”




ROBINSON CRUSOL.

come back; and, in the meantime, I slowly advanced towards the two that
followed; then rushing at once upon the foremost, I knocked him down with
the stock of my piece. I was loath to fire, because I would not have the rest
hear; though, at that distance, it would not have been easily heard, and being
out of sight of the smoke, too, they would not have known what to make of it.
Having knocked this fellow down, the other who pursued him stopped, as if
he had been frightened, and I advanced towards him: but as I came nearer, I
perceived he had a bow and arrow, and was fitting it to shoot at me; so I was
then obliged to shoot at him first, which I did, and killed him at the first shot.
The poor savage who fled, though he saw both his enemies fallen and killed,
as he thought, was so frightened with the fire and noise of my piece, that he
stood stock still, though he seemed rather inclined still to fly than come on,
I hallooed again to him, and made signs to come forward, which he understood,
and came a little way; then stopped again, and then a little farther, and stopped
again; and I could perceive that he stood trembling, as if he had been taken
prisoner, and had just been to be killed as his two enemies were. I beckoned
to him again to come to me, and gave him all the signs of encouragement that
T could think of; and he came nearer and nearer, kneeling down every ten or
twelve steps, in token of acknowledgment for saving his life. I smiled at
him, and looked pleasantly, and beckoned to him to come still nearer; at
length he came close to me, and then he knecled down again, kissed the
ground, and laid his head upon the ground, and, taking me by the foot, set my
foot upon his head; this, it seems, was in token of swearing to be my slave for
ever. I took him up and made much of him, and encouraged him all I could.
But there was more work to do yet; for I perceived the savage whom I knocked
down was not killed, but stunned with the blow, and began to come to himself.
So I pointed to him, and showed him the savage, that he was not dead. Upon
this he spoke some words to me, and though I could not understand them, yet
T thought they were pleasant to hear, for they were the first sound of a man’s
voice that I had heard, my own excepted, for above twenty-five years. But
there was no time for such reflections now. The-savage who was knocked
down recovered ‘himself so far as to sit wp upon the ground, and I perceived
that my savage began to be afraid; but when I saw that, I presented my other
piece at the man, as if I would shoot him. Upon this, my savage, for so I
call him now, made a motion to me to lend him my sword, which hung naked
in a belt by my side. He no sooner had it, but he ran to his enemy, and at
one blow cut off his head so cleverly—no executioner in Germany could have
Gone it sooner or better—which I thought very strange for one who, I had
reason to believe, never saw a sword in his life before, except their own
wooden swords. However, it seems, as I learned afterwards, they make their
wooden swords so sharp and heavy, and the wood is so hard, that they will
even cut off heads with them, ay, and arms, with one blow. When he had
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LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

done this, he comes laughing to me in sign of triumph, and brought me the
sword again, and with abundance of gestures which I did not understand, laid
it down, ’ with the head of the savage that he had killed, just before me. But
that which astonished him most was to know how I killed the other Indians
so far off. Pointing to him, he made signs to me to let him go to him; andI
bade him go as well as I could. When he came to him, he stood like one
amazed, looking at him, turning him first on one side then on the other; looked
at the wound the bullet had made, which it seems was just in his breast, where
it had made a hole; no great quantity of blood had followed, but he had bled
inwardly, for he was quite dead. He took up his bow and arrows and came
back. So I turned to go away, and beckoned him to follow me, making signs
to him that more might come after them. Upon this he made signs to me
that he should bury them with sand, that they might not be seen by the rest.
if they followed, and so I made signs to him again to do so. He fell to work,
and in an instant he had scraped a hole in the sand with his hands, big enough
to bury the first in, and then dragged him into it, and covered him; and did
so by the other also. I believe he had buried them both in a quarter of an hour.
Then calling him away, I carried him, not to my castle, but quite away to my
cave on the farther part of the island. So I did not let my dream come to
pass in that part, that he came in to my grove for shelter. Here I gave
him bread and a bunch of raisins to cat, and a draught of water,
which I found he was indeed in great distress for from his running. And
having refreshed him, I made signs for him to go and lie down to sleep,
showing him a place where I had laid some rice-straw, and a blanket to lie
upon it, which I used to sleep upon myself sometimes. So the poor creature
lay down, and went to sleep.

He was a comely, handsome fellow, perfectly well made, with straight strong
limbs, not too large, tall and well shaped; and, as I reckon, about twenty-six
years of age. He had a very good countenance, not a fierce and surly aspect,
but seemed to have something very manly in his face; and yet he had all the
sweetness and softness of a European, too, especially when he smiled. His
hair was long and black, not curled like wool; his forehead very high and
large; and a great vivacity and sparkling sharpness in his eyes. The colour
of his skin was not quite black, but tawny; not an ugly, yellow, nauseous
tawny, as the Brazilians and Virginians, and other natives of America are,
but of a bright dun olive-colour, that had in it something very agreeable,
though not easy to describe. His face was round and plump; his nose small,
not flat like the negroes; a very good mouth, thin lips, and his fine teeth
well set, and as white as ivory.

After he had slumbered, rather than slept, about half an hour, he awoke
again, and came out of the cave to me; for I had been milking my goats,

which I had in the enclosure just by. When he espied me, he came running
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ROBINSON CRUSOE.

to me, laying himself down again upon the ground, with all the possible signs
of an humble, thankful disposition, making a great many antic gestures to
show it. At last he lays his head flat upon the ground, close to my foot, and
sets my other foot upon his head, as he had done before, and made all the
signs of servitude and submission imaginable, to let me know how he would
serve me so long as he lived. I understood him in many things, and let him
know I was very well pleased with him: In a little time I began to speak to
lim, and teach him to speak to me. And, first, E let him know his name
should be Fray, which was the day I saved his life. I likewise taught him to
say Master; and then let him know that was to be my name. I likewise taught
him to say Yes and No, and to know the meaning of them. I gave him some milk
in an earthen pot, and let him see me drink it before him, and sop my bread
in it; and gave him a cake of bread to do the like, which he quickly complied
with, and made signs that it was very good for him. I kept there with him
all that night; but, as soon as it was day, I beckoned to him to come with me,
and let him know I would give him some clothes, at which he seemed very
glad, for he was stark naked. As we went by the place where he had buried
the two men, he pointed to the place, and showed me the marks that he had
made to find them again, making signs to me that we should dig them up and
eat them. At this I appeared very angry, expressed my abhorrence of it, and
beckoned with my hand to him to come away, which he did immediately, with
great’ submission. I then led him up to the top of the hill, to see if his
enemies were gone; and, pulling out my glass, I looked and saw plainly the
place where they had been, but no appearance of them or their canoes. So
that it was plain they were gone, and had left their two comrades behind
them, without any search after them.

T was not content with this discovery; but having now more courage, and
consequently more curiosity, I took my man Friday with me, giving him the
sword in his hand, with the bow and arrows at his back, which I found he
could use very dexterously, making him carry one gun for me, and I two for
myself; and away we marched to the place where these creatures had been,
for I had a mind now to get some further intelligence of them. When I came
to the place, my very blood ran chill in my veins, and my heart sunk within
me, at the horror of the spectacle; it was a dreadful sight, at least to me,
though Friday made nothing of it. The place was covered with human bones,
the ground dyed with their blood, and great pieces of flesh left here and there,
half-eaten, mangled, and scorched; and, in short, all the tokens of a triumphant
feast they had been making there, after a victory over their enemies. I saw
three skulls, five hands, and the bones of three or four legs and feet, and
abundance of other parts of the bodies; and Friday, by his signs, made me
understand that they brought over four prisoners to feast upon; that three of

them were eaten up, and that he, pointing to himself, was the fourth; that
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LIFE AND ADÂ¥ENTURES OF



there had been a great battle between them and their next king, of whose
subjects, it seems, he had been one, and that they had taken a great number
of prisoners; all which were carried to several places, by those who had taken
them in fight in order to feast upon them. I caused Friday to gather all the skulls,
bones, flesh, and whatever remained, and lay them together in a heap, and make
a great fire upon it, and burn them all to ashes. I found Friday had still a hanker-
ing stomach after some of the flesh, and was still a cannibal in his nature; but I
showed so much abhorrence at the very thoughts of it,that he durst not discover it.

When he had done this, we came back to our castle; and there I fell to
work for my man Friday; and first of all, I gave him a pair of linen drawers,
which I had out of the poor gunner’s chest which I found in the wreck, and
which, with a little alteration, fitted him very well; and then I made him a
jerkin of goat’s skin, and I gave him a cap which I made of hare’s skin, and
thus he was clothed, for the present, and was mighty well pleased to see him-
self almost as well clothed as his master. It is true he went awkwardly in
these clothes at first: wearing the drawers was very awkward to him, and the
sleeves of the waiscoat galled his shoulders and the inside of his arms; but a
little easing them where he complained they hurt him, and using himself to
them, he at length took to them very well.

The next day, after I came home to my hutch with him, I began to consider
where I should lodge him, and, that I might do well for him, and yet be
perfectly easy myself. I made a little tent for him in the vacant place between
my two fortifications. As there was a door there into my cave, I made a
framed doorcase, and a door to it of boards, and set it up in the passage,
a little with the entrance; and, causing the door to open in the inside,
I barred it up in the night, taking in my ladders too, so that Friday
could no way come at me in the inside of my innermost wall, without making
so much noise in getting over that it must needs awaken me; for my first wall
had now a complete roof over it of long poles, covering all my tent, and leaning
up to the side of the hill; which was again laid across with sticks, instead of
laths, and then thatched over a great thickness with the rice-straw, which was
strong like reeds; and at the place which was left to go in or out by the ladder,
Thad placed a kind of trap-door, which, if it had been attempted on the out-
side, would not have opened at all, but would have fallen down and made a
great noise. As to weapons, I took them all in to my side every night. But
I needed none of all this precaution; for never man had a more faithful, loving,
sincere servant than Friday was to me. Without passions, sullenness, or
designs, perfectly obliged and engaged, his affections were tied to me like those
of a child to a father; and I daresay he would have sacrificed his life to save
mine; the many testimonies he gave me of this put it out of doubt, and soon
convinced me that I needed to use no precautions for my safety on his account,

I was greatly delighted with my new companion, and made it my business

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ROBINSON CRUSOE.



to teach him everything that was proper to make him handy and helpful; but
especially to make him speak, and understand me when I spoke. He was the
aptest scholar that ever was; and particularly was so merry, so constantly
diligent, and so pleased when he.could but understand me, or make me under-
stand him, that it was very pleasant for me to talk tohim. Now my life began
to be so easy, that could I but have been safe from more savages, I cared not
if I was never to remove from the place where I lived. ; :

After I had been two or three days returned to my castle, I thought that,
in order to bring Friday off from his horrid way of feeding, and from the relish
of a cannibal’s stomach, I ought to let him taste other flesh; so I took
him out with me one morning to the woods. I went intending to kill a kid
out of my flock, and bring it home and dress it; but as I was going; I saw a she-
goat lying down in the shade, and two young kids sitting by her. I caught hold
of Friday. “Hold,” said I, “stand still;’ and made signs to him not to stir.
Immediately I presented my piece, shot, and killed one of the kids. The poor
creature, who had, at a distance, indeed, seen me kill the savage, his enemy,
but did not know, nor could imagine how it was done, was surprised, trembled,
and shook, and looked so amazed that I thought he would have sunk down.
He did not see the kid I shot at, or perceive I had killed it, but ripped up his
waistcoat, to feel whether he was not wounded; and, as I found presently,
thonght I was resolved to kill him; for he came and kneeled down to me, and
embracing my knees, said a great many things I did not understand; but I
could easily see the meaning was, to pray me not to kill him.

I soon found a way to convince him that I would do him no harm; and
taking him up by the hand, laughed at him, and pointing to the kid which I
had killed, beckoned to him to run and fetch it, which he did: and while he
was wondering, and looking to see how the creature was killed, I loaded my
gun again. By-and-by I saw a great fowl, like a hawk, sitting upon a tree
within shot; so, to let Friday understand a little what I would do, I called him
to me again, pointed at the fowl—which was a parrot, though I thought it had
been a hawk—pointing to the parrot and to my gun, and to the ground under
the parrot, to let him see I would make it fall, I made him understand that I
would shoot and kill that bird; accordingly, I fired, and bade him look, and
immediately he saw the parrot fall. He stood like one frightened again, not-
withstanding all I had said to him; and I found he was the more amazed,
because he did not see me put anything into the gun, but thought that there
must have been some wonderful fund of death and destruction in that thing,
able to kill man, beast, bird, or anything near or far off; and the astonishment
this created in him was such as could not wear off for a long time; and, I
believe, if I would have let him, he would have worshipped me and my gun. As
for the gun itself, he would not so much as touch it for several days after; but
he would speak to it and talk to it, as if it had answered him, when he was by

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himself; which, as I afterwards learned of him, was to desire it not to kill him.
After his astonishment was a little over, I pointed to him to run and fetch the
bird I had shot, which he did, but stayed some time; for the parrot not being
quite dead, had fluttered away a good distance from the place where she fell:
however, he found her, took her up, and brought her to me; and as I had per-
ceived his ignorance about the gun before, I took this advantage to charge the
gun again, and not to let him see me do it, that I might be ready for any other
mark that might present; but nothing more offered at that time: so I brought
home the kid, and the same evening I took the skin off, and cut it out as well
as I could; and having a pot fit for that purpose, I boiled some of the flesh,
and made some very good broth. After I had begun to eat, I gave some to
my man, who seemed very glad of it, and liked it very well; but that which
was strangest to him was to see me eat salt with it. He made a sign to me
that the salt was not good to eat: and putting a little into his own mouth, he
seemed to nauseate it, and would spit and sputter at it, washing his mouth
with fresh water after it: on the other hand, I took some meat into my mouth
without salt, and I pretended to spit and sputter for want of salt, as much as
he had done at the salt; but it would not do; he would never care for salt
with his meat or in his broth; at least, not for a great while, and then
but a very little.

Having thus fed him with boiled meat and broth, I was resolved to feast
him the next day by roasting a piece of the kid. this I did by hanging it
before the fire on a string, as I had seen many people do in England, setting
two poles up, one on each side of the fire, and oe across on the top, and tying
the string to the cross stick, letting the meat turn continually. This Friday
admired very much ; but when he came to taste the flesh, he took so many
ways to tell me how well he liked it, that I could not but understand him: and
at last he told me, as well as he could, he would never eat man’s flesh any more,
which I was very glad to hear.

The next day I set him to work to beating some corn out, and sifting it in
the manner I used to do, and he soon understood how to do it as well as I:
after that, I let him see me make my bread, and in a little time Friday was
able to do all the work for me, as well as I could do it myself.

I began now to consider, that having two mouths to feed instead of one, I
must provide more ground for my harvest, and plant a larger quantity of corn;
so I marked out a larger piece of land, and began the fence in the same
manner as before. Friday worked very willingly and very hard, and I told
him that it was for corn to make more bread, because he was now with me,
and that I might have enough for him and myself too. He appeared very
sensible of that part, and let me know that he thought I had much more labour
on his account, than I had for myself; and that he would work the harder for
me, if I would tell him what to do.

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ROBINSON CRUSOE.



This was the pleasantest year of all the life I led in this place. Friday be-
gan to talk pretty well, and understand the names of almost everything I had
occasion to call for, and of every place I had to send him to, and talked a
great deal to me; so that, in short, I began now to have some use for my
tongue again. Besides the pleasure of talking to him, I had a singular satis-
faction in the fellow himself; his simple, unfeigned honesty appeared to me
more and more every day, and I began really to love the creature; and, on his
side, I believe he loved me more than it was possible for him ever to love
anything before.

T had a mind once to try if he had any inclination for his own country again;
and having taught him English so well that he could answer me almost any
question, I asked him whether the nation that he belonged to never conquered
in battle? At which he smiled, and said, “Yes, yes, we always fight the
better;” that is, he meant, always get the better in fight; and so we began
the following discourse :— °

Master—You always fight the better; how came you to be taken prisoner
then, Friday ? .

Friday—My nation beat much for all that.

Master.—How beat? If your nation beat them, how came you to
be taken ?

Friday—They more many than my nation, in the place where me was;
they take one, two, three, and me; my nation over-beat them in the yonder
place, where me no was; there my nation take one, two, great thousand.

Master—But why did not your side recover you from the hands of your
enemies, then ?

Friday.—They run one, two, three, and me, and make go in the canoe; my
nation have no canoe that time.

Master—Well, Friday, and what does your nation do with the men they
take? Do they carry them away and eat them, as these did ?

Friday.—Yes, my nation eat mans too: eat all up.

Master.—Where do they carry them ?

Friday.—Go to other place, where they think.

Master.—Do they come hither ?

Friday.—Yes, yes, they come hither; come other else place.

Master—Have you been here with them ?

Friday—vYes, I have been here (points to the N.W. side of the island,
which, it seems, was their side).

By this, I understood that my man Friday had formerly been among the
savages who used to come on shore on the farther part of the island, on the
same man-eating occasions he was now brought for: and some time after, when
I took courage to carry him to that side, he presently knew the place, and told
me he was there once, when they eat up twenty men, two nome one














LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



child. Te could not tell twenty in English, but he numbered them, by laying
so many stones in a row, and pointing to me to tell them over.

After this discourse I had with him, I asked him how far it was from our
island to the shore, and whether the canoes were not often lost. He told me
there was no danger—no canoes ever lost; but that after a little way out to
sea, there was a current and wind, always one way in the morning, the other ,
in the afternoon. ‘This I undersood to be no more than the sets of the tide,
as going out or coming in; but I afterwards understood it was occasioned by
the ereat draft and reflux of the mighty river Oroonoko, in the mouth or
gulph of which river, as I found afterwards, our island lay; and that this
land which I perceived to the W. and N.W. was the great island Trinidad,
on the north point of the river. I asked Friday a thousand questions about
the country, the inhabitants, the sea, the coast, and what nations were
near, He told me all he knew, with the greatest openness imaginable. I
asked him the names of the several nations of his sort of people, but could
get no other name than Caribs: from whence I easily understood that
these were the Caribbees,’ which our maps place on the part of America
which reaches from the mouth of the river Oroonoko to Guiana, and
onwards to St Martha. He told me, that up a great way beyond the
moon, that was, beyond the setting of the moon, there dwelt white bearded
men, like me, and that they had killed much mans, that was his word; by all
which I understood he meant the Spaniards, whose cruelties in America had
been spread over the whole country, and were remembered by all the nations
from father to son.

I inguired if he could tell me how I might go from this island and get
among those white men: he told me, “Yes, yes, you may go in two canoe.”
I could not understand or make him describe to me what he meant by two
canoe, till at last I found he meant a large boat, as big as two canoes. This
part of Friday's discourse I began to relish very well; and from this time I
entertained some hopes that one time or other I might find an opportunity to
make my escape from this place, and that this poor savage might be a means
to help me.

During the long time that Friday had now been with me, and that he
began to speak to me, and understand me, I was not wanting to lay a
foundation of religious knowledge in his mind; particularly I asked him
one time, who made him. The poor creature did not understand me at
all, but thought I had asked him who was his father. I took it up by
another handle, and asked him who made the sea, the ground we walked on,
and the hills and woods. He told me, “It was one Benamuckee, that lived
beyond all” He could describe nothing of this great person, but that he was
very old, “much older,” he said, “than the sea or the land, than the moon or
the stars.” I asked him then, if this old person had made all things, why
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ROBINSON CRUSOE.

did not all things worship him? He looked very grave, and, with a perfect
look of innocence, said, “All things say O to him.” I asked him if the
people who die in the country went away anywhere? He said, “Yes; they
all went to Benamuckee.” Then I asked him whether those they eat up went

- thither too? He said, “ Yes.”

From these things I began to instruct him in the knowledge of the true
God. I told him that the great Maker of all things lived up there, point-
ing up towards heaven; that He governed the world by the same power
and providence by which He made it; that He was omnipotent, and could do
everything for us, give everything to us, take everything from us; and thus,
by degrees, I opened his eyes. He listened with great attention, and received
with pleasure the notion of Jesus Christ being sent to redeem us, and of the
manner of inaking our prayers to God, and His being able to hear us, even in
heaven. He told me one day, that if our God could hear us, up beyond the
sun, he must needs be a greater God than their Benamuckee, who lived but a
little way off, and yet could not hear till they went up to the great mountains
where he dwelt to speak to him. I asked him if ever he went thither to
speak to him? He said, “No; they never went that were young men; none
went thither but the old men,” whom he called their Oowokakee ; that is, as
I made him explain it to me, their religious, or clergy; and that they went to
say O (so he called saying prayers), and then came back and told them what
Benamuckee said.

I endeavoured to clear up this fraud to my man Friday ; and told him that
the pretence of their old men going up to the mountains to say O to their
god Benamuckee was a cheat; and their bringing word thence what he said
was much more so; that if they met with any answer, or spake with any one
there, it must be with an evil spirit: and then I entered into a long discourse
with him about the devil, his rebellion against God, his enmity to man, his
setting himself up in the dark parts of the world to be worshipped instead of

. God, and the many stratagems he made use of to delude mankind to their

ruin; how he had a secret access to our passions and to our affections, and to
adapt his snares to our inclinations, so as to cause us even to be our own
tempters, and run upon our destruction by our own choice.

I found it was not so easy to imprint right notions in his mind about the
devil as it was about the being of a God. Nature assisted all my arguments
to evidence to him the necessity of a great First Cause—an overruling,
governing Power, but there appeared nothing of this kind in the notion of an
evil spirit; of his origin, his being, his nature, and, above all, of his inclina-
tion to do evil, and to draw us in to do so too: and the poor creature puzzled
me once in such a manner, by a question merely natural and innocent, that
I scarce knew what to say to him. I had been telling him how the devil

was God’s enemy in the hearts of men, and used all his malice and eh to
12












LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

defeat the good designs of Providence, and to ruin the kingdom of Christ in
the world, and the like. “Well,” says Friday, “you say God is so strong, so
great; is he not much strong, much might as the devil?”

“Yes, yes, Friday ; God is stronger than the devil: and therefore we pray
to tread him down under our feet, and enable us to resist his temptations and
quench his fiery darts.”

“But if God much stronger, much might as the wicked devil, why God no
kill the devil, so make him no more do wicked?”

I was strangely surprised at this question, and at first I could not tell what
to say ; so I pretended not to hear him, and asked him what he said; but he
was too earnest for an answer to forget his question, so that he repeated it in
the very same broken words as above. By this time I had recovered myself
a little, and I said, “God will at last punish him severely ; he is reserved for
the judgment, and is to be cast into the bottomless pit, to dwell with ever-
lasting fire.” This did not satisfy Friday ; he returned upon me, repeating
my words, “‘ Reserved at last!’ me no understand: why not kill the devil
now; not kill great ago?” “You may as well ask me,” said I, “ why God
does not kill you or me, when we do wicked things here that offend him: we
are preserved to repent and be pardoned.” He mused some time on this:
“ Well, well,” says he, mightily affectionately, “that well: so you, I, devil, all
wicked, all preserve, repent, God pardon all.” Here I was run down again by
him to the last degree; and it was a testimony to me how the mere notions
of nature, though they will guide reasonable creatures to the knowledge of a
God, and of a worship or homage due to the supreme being of God, yet
nothing but divine revelation can form the knowledge of Jesus Christ, and of
redemption purchased for us; of a Mediator of the new covenant, and of an
Intercessor at the footstool of God’s throne—nothing but a revelation from
heaven can form these in the soul; and therefore the gospel of our Lord and
Saviour Jesus Christ, and the Spirit of God, are the absolutely necessary
instructors of the souls of men in the saving knowledge of God, and thi
means of salvation.

I diverted the present discourse between me and my man, rising up hastily,
as upon some sudden occasion of going out; then sending him for something
a good way off, I seriously prayed to God that he would enable me to instruct
this poor savage; assisting by His Spirit, the heart of the poor ignorant
creature to receive the light of the knowledge of God in Christ, reconciling
him to Himself.

T had, God knows, more sincerity than knowledge in all the methods I took
for this poor creature’s instruction, and must acknowledge, what I believe
all that act upon the same principle will find, that in laying things open to
him, I really informed and instructed myself in many things that either I did
not know, or had not fully considered before, but which occurred naturally to

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ROBINSON CRUSOE.



my mind upon searching into them, for the information of this poor savage.
When I reflected that in this solitary life I had not only been moved to look
up to heaven myself, and to seek the hand that had brought me here, but was
now made an instrument, under Providence, to save the life, and, for aught I
knew, the soul ofa poor savage, and bring him to the true knowledge of religion,
and of the Christian doctrine, that he might know Christ Jesus, in whom is
life eternal; when I reflected upon all these things, a secret joy ran through
my soul. :

I continued in this thankful frame all the remainder of my time, and the
conversation which employed the hours between Friday and me was such as
made the three years which we lived there together completely happy, if any
such thing as complete happiness can be formed in a sublunary state. This
savage was now a good Christian; a much better than I. I applied myself,
in reading the Scriptures, to let him know, as well as I could, the meaning of
what I read; and he, by his serious inquiries and questionings, made me a
much better scholar in Scripture knowledge than I should ever have been by
my own private reading.

As to all the disputes, wrangling, strife, and contention which have happened
in the world about religion, whether niceties in doctrines, or schemes of church
government, they were all perfectly useless to us; and, for aught I can yet see,
they have been so to the rest of the world. We had the sure guide to heaven,
viz., the Word of God; and we had, blessed be God, comfortable views of the
Spirit of God teaching and instructing by His word, leading us into all truth,
and making us both willing and obedient to the instruction of His word.

After Friday and I became more intimately acquainted, I acquainted him
with my own history, or at least so much of it as related to my coming to this
place ; how I had lived there, and how long; I let him into the mystery, for
such it was to him, of gunpowder and bullet, and taught’ him how to shoot.
I gave him a knife, which he was wonderfully delighted with ; and I made him
a belt, with a frog hanging to it, such as in England we wear hangers in; and
in the frog, instead of a hanger, I gave him a hatchet, which was not only as
good a weapon in some cases, but much more useful upon other occasions.

I described to him the country of Europe, particularly England, which I
came from ; how we lived, how we worshipped God, how we behaved to one
another, and how we traded in ships to all parts of the world. I gave him an
account of the wreck which I had been on board of, and showed him, as near
as I could, the place where she lay; but she was all beaten in pieces before,
and gone. I showed him the ruins of our boat, which we lost when I escaped,
and which I could not stir with my whole strength then; but was now fallen
almost to pieces. Upon seeing this boat, Friday stood musing a great while,
and said nothing. I asked him what it was he studied upon. At last, says
he, “Me see such boat like come to place at my nation.” I did not understand

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LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



him a good while; but, when I had examined further into it, I understood by
him, that a boat, such as that had been, came on shore upon the country where
he lived, driven thither by stress of weather. I imagined that some European
ship must have been cast away upon their coast, and the boat might get loose
and drive ashore; but was so dull that I never once thought of men making
their escape from a wreck thither, so I only inquired after a description
of the boat. ;

Friday described the boat to me well enough; but brought me better to
understand him when he added with some warmth, “We save the white mans
from drown.” Then I asked if there were any white mans, as he called them,
in the boat. “Yes,” he said; “the boat full of white mans.” I asked him
how many. He told upon his fingers seventeen. I asked him then what be-
came of them. He told me, “They live, they dwell at my nation.” This put
new thoughts into my head, for I imagined that these might be the men be-
longing to the ship that was cast away in the sight of my island, and who had
saved themselves in their boat, and were landed upon that wild shore among
the savages. Upon this I inquired of him more critically what was become of
them. He assured me they lived still there; that they had been there about
four years; that the savages left them alone, and gave them victuals to live on.
T asked him how it came to pass they did not kill them and eat them. He said,
“No, they make brother with them,” that is, as I understood him, a truce;
and then he added, “They no eat mans but when make the war fight;” that
is to say, they never eat any men but such as come to fight with them, and are
taken in battle.

It was after this some considerable time, that being upon the top of the hill,
at the east side of the island, whence I had in a clear day discovered the con-
tinent of America, Friday looks very earnestly towards the mainland, and, in
a kind of surprise, falls a jumping and dancing, and calls out to me. I asked
him what was the matter. “O joy!” sayshe; “O glad! there see my country,
there my nation!” I observed an extraordinary sense of pleasure appeared in
his face; his eyes sparkled, and his countenance discovered a strange eager-
ness, as if he had a mind to be in his own country again. This observation
put a great many thoughts into me, which made me, at first, not so easy about
my new man Friday as I was before ; and I made no doubt but that, if Friday
could get back to his own nation again, he would not only forget all his religion,
but all his obligation to me, and would be forward enough to give his country-
men an account of me, and come back, perhaps, with a hundred or two of them,
and make a feast upon me, at which he might be as merry as he used to be
with those cf his enemies, when they were taken in war. But I wronged the
poor, honest creature very much, for which I was sorry afterwards. However,
as my jealousy increased, and held me some weeks, I was a little more cireum-
spect, and not so familiar and kind to him as before, in which I was certainly
in the wrong, the honest, grateful creature having no thought but what con-

130






“ Friday looks earnestly towards the mainland: ‘Oh joy!’ says he, ‘Oh glad!
there see my country, my nation!’ ”












ROBINSON CRUSOE.



sisted with the best principles, both as a religious Christian, and as a grateful
friend, as appeared afterwards to my full satisfaction.

While my jealousy of him lasted, I was every day pumping him, to see if
he would discover any of the new thoughts which I suspected were in him; but
everything he said was so honest and so innocent, that I could find nothing to
nourish my suspicion; and, in spite of all my uneasiness, he made me at last
entirely his own again; nor did he in the least perceive that I was uneasy, and
therefore I could not suspect him of deceit.

One day, while walking up the same hill, but the weather being hazy at
sea, so that we could not see the continent, I called to him, and said, “ Friday,
do not you wish yourself in your own country, your own nation?” “Yes,” he
said, “I be much O glad to be at my own nation.” “What would you do
there?” said I: “would you turn wild again, eat men’s flesh again, and be a
savage, as you were before?” He looked full of concern, and shaking his head,
said, “ No, no; Friday tell them to live good; tell them to pray God; tell them
to eat corn-bread, cattle-flesh, milk ; no eat man again.” “Why, then,” said I
to him, “they will kill you.” He looked grave at that, and then said, “No,
no, they no kill me, they willing love learn.” He meant by this they would
be willing to learn. He added, they learned much of the bearded mans that
came in the boat. Then I asked him if he would go back to them. He
smiled at that, and told me that he could not swim so far. I told him, I
would make a canoe for him. He told me he would go, if I would go with
him. “Igo!” said I; “why, they will eat me ifI go there.” “No, no,” said
he, “me make they no eat you; me make they much love you.” He meant,
he would tell them how I had killed his enemies, and saved his life, and so he
would make them love me. Then he told me, as well as he could, how kind
they were to seventeen white men, or bearded men, as he called them, that
came on shore there in distress.

From this time I had a mind to venture over, and see if I could possibly
join with these bearded men, who I made no doubt were Spaniards and
Portuguese ; not doubting but we might find some method to escape thence,
better than I could from an island forty miles off the shore, alone and without
help. So after some days, I took Friday to work again, by way of discourse,
and told him I would give him a boat to go back to his own nation. I carried
him to my frigate, which lay on the other side of the island, and having cleared
it of water, I brought it out, showed it him, and we both went into it. I found
he was a most dexterous fellow at managing it, and would make it go almost
as swift again as I could. So when he was in, I said to him, “Well, now,
Friday, shall we go to your nation?” He looked very dull at my saying so,
which it seems was because he thought the boat too small to go so far. I
then told him I hada bigger ; so the next day I went to the place where the
first boat lay which I had made, but which I could not get into the water. He
said that was big enough: but then, as I had taken no care of it, and it had

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lain two or three and twenty years there, the sun had split and dried it, that
it was rotten. Friday told me such a boat would do very well, and would
carry “much enough vittle, drink, bread ;” that was his way of talking.

I was by this time so fixed upon my design of going over with him to the
continent, that I told him we would go and make one as big as that, and he
should go home in it. He answered not one word, but looked very grave and
sad. I asked him what was the matter with him. He asked me again, “Why
you angry mad with Friday ?—what me done?” I asked him what he meant.
I told him I was not angry with him at all. “No angry!” said he, repeating
the words several times, “why send Friday home away to my nation ?” “Why,
Friday, did not you say you wished you were there ” «Yes, yes, wish we
both there; no wish Friday there, no master there.” In a word, he would
not think of going there without me. “I go there, Friday; what shall I do
there?” He turned very quick upon me at this. “You do great deal much
good; you teach wild mans be good, sober, tame mans; you tell them know
God, pray God, and live new life.” ‘Alas! Friday,” said I, “thou knowest
not what thou sayest; I am but an ignorant man myself.”—“Yes, yes,” said
he; “teachee me good, you teachee them good.” “No, no, Friday,” said I;
“you shall go without me ; leave me here to live by myself, as I did before.”
He looked confused again at that; and running to one of the hatchets which
he used to wear, he took it up hastily, and gave it to me. “What must I do
with this?” said I again. He returned very quick—* What you send Friday
away for? Take kill Friday, no send Friday away.” This he spoke so
earnestly that tears stood in his eyes. In a word, I so plainly discovered the
utmost affection in him to me, that I told him then, and often after, that I
would never send him away from me, if he was willing to stay.

‘As I found by all his discourse a settled affection to me, and that nothing
could part him from me, so I found all the foundation of his desire to go to
his own country was laid in his ardent affection to the people, and his. hopes
of my doing them good—a thing which, as I had no notion of myself, so I had
not the least thought or desire of undertaking it. But still I found a strong
inclination to attempting my escape; and therefore, without more delay, I went
to work with Friday to find out a great tree proper to fell, and make a large
periagua, or canoe, to undertake the voyage. There were trees enough in the
island to have built a little fleet of good large vessels; but the main thing I looked
at was, to get one so near the water that we might launch it when it was made,
to avoid the mistake I committed at first. At last Friday pitched upon a tree;
for I found he knew much better than I what kind of wood was fittest for it.
Nor can I tell, to this day, what wood to call the tree we cut down. Friday
wished to burn the hollow or cavity of this tree out, to make it for a boat, but
I showed him how to cut it with tools, which he did very handily; and in
about a month’s hard labour, we finished it and made it very handsome with
our axes, which I showed him how to handle; we cut and hewed the outside

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ROBINSON CRUSOE,

into the true shape of a boat. After this, however, it cost us near a fort-
night’s time to get her along, as it were, inch by inch, upon great rollers into
the water; but when she was in, she would have carried twenty men
with great ease. :

It amazed me to sce with what dexterity, and how swiftly, my man Friday
could manage her, turn her, and paddle her along. I asked him if we might
venture over in her. “Yes,” he said, “we venture over in her very well,
though great blow wind.” However, I had a farther design, and that was to
make a mast and a sail, and to fit her with an anchor anda cable. As toa
mast, that was easy enough to get. I pitched upon a straight young cedar
tree, which I found near the place, and set Friday to work to cut it down, and
gave him directions how to shape and order it. The sail was my particular
care. I had old sails, or rather pieces of old sails, enough; but as I had had
them now six-and-twenty years by me, and had not been very careful to pre-
serve them, I did not doubt but they were all rotten, and, indeed, most of
them were so. However, I found two pieces, which appeared pretty good,
and with these I went to work; and with a great deal of pains, and awkward
stitching, for want of needles, I at length made a three-cornered ugly thing,
like what we call in England a shoulder-of-mutton sail, to go with a boom at
bottom, and a little short sprit at the top, such as our ship’s longboats sail
with, and such as I best knew how to manage.

I was nearly two'months performing this last work, viz., rigging and fitting
my mast and sails; for I finished them very complete, making a small stay
and a foresail to it, to assist if we should turn to windward; and what was
more than all, I fixed a rudder to the stern to steer with.

After all this was done, I had my man Friday to teach as to what belonged
to the navigation of my boat; for, though he knew very well how to paddle
a canoe, he knew nothing of what belonged to a sail and a rudder, and was
most amazed when he saw me work the boat by the rudder, and how the sail
gibbed, and filled this way or that way, as the course we sailed changed.
However, with a little use, I made all these things familiar to him, and he
became an expert sailor; except that of the compass, I could make him
understand very little.

I was now entered on the seven-and-twentieth year of my captivity in this
place; though the three last years that I had this creature with me ought
rather to be left out of the account, my habitation being quite of another
kind than in all the rest of the time. I kept the anniversary of my landing
here with the same thankfulness to God for his mercies as at first; and if I
had cause of acknowledgment at first, I had much more now, having such
additional testimonies of the care of Providence over me, and the great
hopes I had of being effectually and speedily delivered; for I had an invin-
cible impression upon my thoughts that my deliverance was at hand, and that
I should not be another year in this place. I went on, however, with my

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husbandry ; digging, planting, and fencing, as usual. I gathered and cured
my grapes, and did every necessary thing as before.

The rainy season was, in the meantime, upon me, when I kept more within
doors than at other times. We had stowed our new vessel as securely as we
could, bringing her up into the ereck, and hauling her up to the shore at high-
water mark. I made my man Friday dig a little dock, just big enough to
hold her, and deep enough to give her water to flow in; and then, when the
tide was out, we made a strong dam across the end of it, to keep the water
out, and so she lay dry as to the tide and sea; and to keep the rain off, we
laid a great many boughs of trees, so thick that she was as well thatched as a
house; and thus we waited for the months of November and December, in
which I designed to make my adventure.

When the settled season began to come in, as the thought of my design
returned with the fair weather, Iwas preparing daily for the voyage. The first
thing I did was to lay by a certain quantity of provisions, being the stores for
our voyage, and intended in a week or a fortnight’s time to open the dock and
launch out our boat. I was busy one morning upon something of this kind,
when I called to Friday, and bid him go to the sea-shore, and see if he could
find a turtle, a thing which we generally got once a week, for the sake of the
eges as well as the flesh. Friday had not been long gone when he came
running back, and flew over my outer wall, like one that felt not the ground
he set his feet on, and before I had time to speak to him, he cries out to me,
“O master! O master! O sorrow! O bad !”—* What's the matter, Friday ?”
said I—*O yonder there; one, two, three canoes; one, two, three?” By
this way of speaking, I concluded there were six; but on inquiry I found there
were but three, “Well, Friday,” said I, “do not be frightened.” So I
heartened him up as well as I could. However, I saw the poor fellow was
most terribly scared, for nothing ran in his head but that they were come to
look for him, and would ent him in pieces and eat him, and the poor fellow
trembled so that I scarcely knew what to do with him. I comforted him as
yell as I could, and told him I was in as much danger as he, and that they
would eat me as well as him. “But,” said I, “Friday, we must resolve to
fight them. Can you fight, Friday ?”—‘“ Me shoot; but there come many
great number.” No matter for that,” said T, again; “our guns will fright
them that we do not kill” I asked him whether, if I resolved to defend him,
he would defend me, and stand by me, and do just as I bid him. He said, “ Me
die when you bid die, master.” So I went and fetched a good dram of rum
and gave him, for I had been so good a husband of my rum, that I hada
great deal left. When he had drank it, I made him take the two fowling-
picees, which we always earried, and loaded them with large swan-shot, as big
as small pistol bullets. Then I took four muskets, and loaded them with two
slugs, and five small bullets cach; and my two pistols I loaded with a brace

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ROBINSON CRUSOE.



of bullets each. I hung my great sword, as usual, naked by my side, and
gave Friday his hatchet. When I had thus prepared myself, I took my
perspective-glass and went up to the side of the hill, to see what I could dis-
cover; I found that there were one-and-twenty savages, three prisoners, and
three canoes ; and that their whole business seemed to be the triumphant ban-
quet upon these three human bodies. I observed also that they had landed,
not where they had done when Friday made his escape, but nearer to my creek,
where the shore was low, and where a thick wood came almost close down to
the sea. This, with the abhorrence of the inhuman errand these wretches
came about, filled me with such indignation that I came down again to Friday,
and told him I was resolved to go down to them, and kill them all; if he
would stand by me. He had now got over his fright, and his spirits being a
little raised with the dram I had given him, he was very cheerful, and told me,
as before, he would die when I bid die.

In this fit of fury I divided the arms between us. I gave Friday one pistol
to stick in his girdle, and three guns upon his shoulder, and I took one pistol
and the other three guns myself; and in this posture we marched out. I took
a small bottle of rum in my pocket, and gave Friday a large bag with more
powder and bullets. I charged him to keep close behind me, and not to stir,
or shoot, or do anything till I bade him, and in the meantime not to speak a
word. In this posture I fetched a compass to my right hand of near a mile,
as well to get over the ercek as to get into the wood, so that I could come
within shot of them before I should be discovered.

I entered the wood with all possible wariness and silence, Friday following
close at my heels. I marched till I came to the skirt of the wood on the side
which was next to them, only that one corner of the wood lay between me and
them. Here I called softly to Friday, and, showing him a great tree which
was just at the corner of the wood, I bade him go to the tree, and bring me
word if he could see there what they were doing. He did so, and came
immediately back to me, and told me they might be plainly viewed there—
that they were all about their fire eating the ficsh of one of their prisoners,
and that another lay bound upon the sand a little from them, whom he said
they would kill next, and this fired the very soul within me. He told me it
was not one of their nation, but one of the bearded men he had told me of
that came to their country in the boat. I was filled with horror at the very
naming of the white bearded man; and going to the tree I saw plainly by my
glass a white man, who lay upon the beach of the sea with his hands and feet
tied with flags, and that he was a European, and had clothes on.

There was another tree, and a little thicket beyond it, about fifty yards
nearer.to them than the place where I was, which, by going a little way about,
I saw I might come at undiscovered, and that then I should be within half a
shot of them; so I withheld my passion, though I was indeed enraged to the

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highest degree ; and going back about twenty paces, I got behind some bushes,
which held all the way till I came to the other tree, and then came to a little
rising ground, which gave me a full view of them at the distance of about
cighty yards. T had now not a moment to lose, for nineteen of these wretches sat
upon the ground, all close huddled together, and had just sent the other two
to butcher the poor Christian, and bring him to their fire; they were stooping
dlown to untie the bands at his feet. 1 turned to Friday:—* Now, Friday,”
said I, “do as 1 bid thee. Do exactly as you see me do; fail in nothing.” So
I set down one of the muskets and the fowling-piece upon the ground, and
Friday did the like by his, and with the other musket I took my aim at the
savages, bidding him do the like; then asking him if he was ready, he said,
“Ves.— Then fire at them,” said I; and at the same moment I fired also.

Friday took his aim so much better thau [, that on the side that he shot he
killed two of them, and wounded three more; and on my side I killed one,
and wounded two. They were, you may be sure, in a dreadful consternation ;
and all ef them that were not hurt jumped upon their fect, but did not im-
mediately know which way to run, or which way to look, for they knew not
whence their destruction came. Friday kept his eyes close upon me, that, as
T had bid him, he might observe what I did; so, as soon as the first shot was
made, | threw down the piece, and took up the fowling-piece, and Friday did
the like; he saw me cock and present; he did the same again. “Are you
ready, Friday?” said L—“ Yes.”—* Let fly, then, in the name of God!” and
with that L fired again among the amazed wretches, and so did Friday; and as
our picees were now loaded with small pistol bullets, we found only two drop;
but so many were wounded, that they ran about yelling and screaming like
mad creatures, all bloody, and most of them miserably wounded; three more
fell quickly after, though not quite dead.

“Now, Friday,” said I, laying down the discharged picees, and taking up
the musket which was yet loaded, “follow me;” upon which I rushed out of
the wood and showed myself, and Friday close at my foot. As soon as I per-
ceived they saw me, | shouted as loud as 1 could, and bade Friday do so too;
and running as fast as 1 could, 1 made directly towards the poor victim, who
was lying upon the beach. ‘The two butchers who were going to work with
him had left him at the surprise of our first fire, and fled in a terrible fright to
the sea-side, and had jumped into a canoe, and three more of the rest made
the same way. I turned to Friday, and bade him step forwards and fire at
them; he understood me immediately, and running about forty yards, to be
nearer them, he shot at them; he killed two of them, and wounded the third,
so that he lay down in the bottom of the boat as if he had been dead.

While my man Friday-fired at them, I pulled out my knife and cut the flags
that bound the poor victim; and loosing his hands and feet, I lifted him up,
and asked him in the Portuguese tongue what he was. He answered in Latin,

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“Friday fired at them; I pulled out my knife and cut the flags that bound
the poor victim.”

om,








ROBINSON CRUSOE.



Christianus; but was so weak and faint that he could scarce stand or speak.
I took my bottle out of my pocket, and gave it him, making signs that he
should drink, which he did; and I gave him a piece of bread, which he ate.
Then I asked him what countryman he was; and he said Espagniole; and
being a little recovered, let me know, by all the signs he could possibly make,
how much he was in my debt for his deliverance. “Seignior,” said I, with
as much Spanish as I could make up, “ we will talk afterwards, but we must
fight now: if you have any strength left, take this pistol and sword, and lay
about you.” He took them very thankfully ; and no sooner had he the arms
in his hands, but, as if they had put new vigour into him, he flew upon his
murderers like a fury, and had cut two of them in pieces in an instant; for the
truth is, as the whole was a surprise to them, so the poor creatures were so
much frightened with the noise of our pieces that they fell down for mere
amazement and fear, and had no more power to attempt their own escape than
their flesh had to resist our shot: and that was the case with those five that
Friday shot at in the boat, for as three fell with the hurt they received, so the
other two fell with the fright.

I kept my piece in my hand still without firing. I called to Friday and
bade him run up to the tree whence we first fired, and fetch the arms which
lay there, which he did with great swiftness. I sat down myself to load all
the rest again, and bade them come to me when they wanted. While I was
loading these pieces, there happened a fierce engagement between the Spaniard
and one of the savages, who made at him with one of their great wooden
swords, the weapon that was to have killed him before, if I had not prevented
it. The Spaniard, who was as bold and brave as could be imagined, though
weak, had fought the Indian a good while, and had cut two great wounds on
his head; but the savage being a stout, lusty fellow, closing in with him, had
thrown, him down, and was wringing my sword out of his hand, when the
Spaniard, though undermost, wisely quitting the sword, drew the pistol from
his girdle, shot the savage through the body, and killed him upon the spot
before I, who was running to help him, could come near him.

Friday, being now left to his liberty, pursued the flying wretches, with no
weapon in his hand but his hatchet ; and with that he despatched those three
who were wounded at first, and all the rest he could come up with; and the
Spaniard coming to me for a gun, I gave him one of the fowling-pieces, with
which he pursued two of the savages, and wounded them both ; but, as he was
not able to run, they both got from him into the wood, where Friday pursued
them, and killed one of them, but the other was too nimble for him; and
though he was wounded, he plunged himself into the sea, and swam with all
his might to those two who were left in the canoe, which three, with one
wounded, were all that escaped our hands of one-and-twenty.

Those that were in the canoe worked hard to get out of gunshot, and though

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LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

Friday made two or three shots at them, I did not find that he hit any of them.
Friday would fain have had me take one of their canoes, and pursue them ;
and, indeed, I was very anxious about their escape, lest carrying the news
home to their people, they should come back perhaps with two or three
hundred of the canoes and devour us; so I consented to pursue them by sea,
and running to one of their canoes, I jumped in, and bade Friday follow me ;
but when I was in the canoe, I was surprised to find another poor creature lie
there, bound hand and foot, as the Spaniard was, for the slaughter, and almost
dead with fear, not knowing what was the matter; for he had not been able to
look up over the side of the boat, he was tied so hard neck and heels, and had
been tied so long, that he had really but little life in him.

T immediately cut the twisted flags which bound him, and would have helped
him up, but he could not stand or speak, but groaned most piteously, believing,
it seems, still, that he was only unbound in order to be killed. When Friday
came to him I bade him speak to him, and tell him of his deliverance; and
pulling out my bottle, made him give the poor wretch a dram ; which, with
the news of his being delivered, revived him, and he sat up in the boat. But
when Friday came to hear him speak, and look in his face, it would have moved
any one to tears to have seen how Friday kissed him, embraced him, hugged
him, cried, laughed, hallooed, jumped about, danced, sung; then cried again,
wrung his hinds, beat his own face and head, and then sung and jumped again,
like a distracted creature. It was a good while before I could make him speak
to me, or tell me what was the matter, but when he came a little to himself, he
told me that it was his father. p

It is not easy for me to express how it moved me to see what ecstasy and
filial affection had worked in this poor savage at the sight of his father, and of
his being delivered from death; nor, indeed, can I describe half the extrava-
gances of his affection after this; for he went into the boat, and out of the
boat, a great many times. When he went in to him, he would sit down by
him, open his breast, and hold his father’s head close to his bosom for many
minutes together, to nourish it, then he took his arms and ankles, which were
numbed and stiff with the binding, and chafed and rubbed them with his
hands; and I, perceiving what the case was, gave him some rum out of my
bottle to rub them with, which did them a great deal of good.

This affair put an end to our pursuit of the canoe with the other savages,
who were now almost out of sight; and it was happy for us that we did not,
for it blew so hard within two hours after, and before they could be got a
quarter of their way, and continued blowing so hard all night, and that from
the north-west, which was against them, that I could not suppose their boat
could live, or that they ever reached their own coast.

But to return to Friday. He was so busy about his father, that I could not

find in my heart to take him off for some time; but after I thought he could
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ROBINSON CRUSOE,

leave him a little, I called him to me, and he came jumping and laughing, and
pleased to the highest extreme; then I asked him if he had given his father
any bread. He shook his head, and said, “None; ugly dog eat all up self.”
I then gave him a cake of bread, ont of a little pouch I carried on
purpose. I also gave him a dram for himself, but he would not taste
it, but carried it to his father. I had in my pocket two or three bunches
of raisins, so I gave him a handful of them for his father. He had
no sooner given his father these raisins, but I saw him come out of
the boat, and run away as if he had been bewitched, for he was the swiftest
fellow on his feet that everI saw. He ran at such a rate that he was out of
sight in an instant; and though I called and hallooed after him, it was all
one—away he went; and in a quarter of an hour afterwards I saw him come
back again. When he had came up to me, I found he had been home for an
earthen pot, to bring his father some fresh water, and that he had got two
more cakes or loaves of bread. The bread’he gave me, but the water he carried
to his father; however, as I was very thirsty too, I took a little of it. The
water revived his father more than all the rum or spirits.I had given him, for
he was fainting with thirst.

When his father had drank, I called to him to know if there was any water
left; he said “ Yes,” and I bid him give it to the poor Spaniard, who was in
as much want of it as his father; and I sent one of the cakes that Friday
brought, to the Spaniard too, who was indeed very weak, and was reposing
himself upon a green place under the shade of a tree. His limbs were also
very stiff, and very much swelled with the rude bandage he had been tied
with. When I saw that upon Friday’s coming to him with the water he sat
up and drank, and took the bread and began to eat, I went to him and gave
him a handful of raisins. He looked up in my face with all the tokens of
gratitude and thankfulness that could appear in any countenance, but was so
weak notwithstanding, he had so exerted himself in the fight, that he could
not stand up upon his feet; he tried to do it two or three times, but was
really not able, his ankles were so swelled and so painful to him; soI bade
him sit still, and caused Friday to rub his ankles, and bathe them with rum, as
he had done his father’s.

I observed the poor affectionate creature, every two minutes, all the time he
was here, turn his head about, to see if his father was in the same place and
posture as he left him sitting. At last he found he was not to be seen, at
which he started up, and, without speaking a word, flew with such swiftness
to him that one could scarce perceive his feet touch the ground as he went;
but when he came he found he had only laid himself down to ease his limbs,
so Friday came back to me presently ; and then I spoke to the Spaniard to let
Friday help him up, if he could, and lead him to the boat, and-then he should
carry him to our dwelling, where I would take care of him. But Friday took

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LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



the Spaniard upon his back, and carried him away to the boat, and set him
down softly upon the gunnel of the canoe, with his feet in the inside of it; and
then lifting him quite in, he set him close to his father; and presently stepping
out again, launched the boat off, and paddled it along the shore faster than I
could walk, though the wind blew pretty hard. He brought them both safe
into our creek, and, leaving them in the boat, ran away to fetch the other
canoe. As he passed me I spoke to him, and asked him whether he went.
He told me, “Go fetch more boat;” so away he went like the wind, for sure
never man or horse ran like him; and he had the other canoe in the creek
almost as soon as I got to it by land; so he wafted me over, and then went to
help our new guests out of the boat; but they were neither of them able to
walk, so that poor Friday knew not what to do.

To remedy this, I went to work in my thought, and calling to Friday to bid
them sit down on the bank while he came to me, I soon made a kind of hand-
barrow to lay them on, and Friday and I carried them both up together upon
it between us.

But when we got them to the outside of our fortification, we were at a worse
loss than before, for it was impossible to get them over, and I was resolved not
to break it down, so I set to work again; and Friday and I, in about two
hours’ time, made a tent, covered with old sails, and above that with bows of
trees, in the space without our outward fence, between that and the grove of
young wood which I had planted; and here we made them two beds of such
things as I had, viz., of good rice-straw, with blankets laid upon it, to lie on,
and another to cover them, on each bed.

My island was now peopled. I had three subjects, and they were of three
different religions. My man Friday was a Protestant, his father was a Pagan
and a cannibal, and the Spaniard was a Papist.

As soon as I had secured my two rescued prisoners, and given them shelter,
T began to think of making some provision for them. I ordered Friday to
take a yearling goat, out of my particular flock, to be killed. I cut off the
hinder-quarter, and chopping it into small pieces, I set Friday to work to
boiling and stewing, and made them a very good dish of flesh and broth. I
cooked it without doors, and carried it all into the new tent, and having set a
table there for them, I sat down, and ate my own dinner with them, and, as
well as I could, cheered and encouraged them. Friday was my interpreter to
his father, and, indeed, to the Spaniard too; for the Spaniard spoke the
language of the savages pretty well.

After we had supped, I ordered Friday to take one of the canoes, and go
and fetch our muskets and other fire-arms, which for want of time we had left
upon the place of battle; and, the next day, I ordered him to bury the dead
bodies of the savages, which lay open to the sun, and would presently be

offensive. I also ordered him to bury the horrid remains of their barbarous
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ROBINSON CRUSOE.





feast; all which he punctually performed, and effaced the very appearance of
the savages being there, so that when I went again, I could scarce know where
it was, otherwise than by the corner of the wood pointing to the place.

I began to enter into a little conversation with my two new subjects. I sent
Friday to inquire of his father what he thought of the escape of the savages in
that canoe, and whether we might expect a return of them, with a power too
great for us to resist. His opinion was, that the savages in the boat never
could live out the storm which blew that night they went off, but must, of
necessity, be drowned, or driven south to those other shores, where they were
sure to be devoured; but, as to what they would do, if they came safe on
shore, it was his opinion that they were so dreadfully frightened with the
manner of their being attacked, that he believed they would tell the people
their companions were all killed by thunder and lightning, not by the hand
of man; and that the two which appeared, viz, Friday and I, were two
heavenly spirits or furies come down to destroy them, and not men with
weapons. This, he said he knew, because he heard them all cry out so in their
language, one to another; it was impossible for them to conceive that a man
could dart fire, and speak thunder, and kill at a distance, without lifting up
the hand: and this old savage was in the right, for, I understood since, by
other hands, the savages never attempted to go over to the island afterwards,
they were so terrified with the accounts given by those four men (for it seems
they did escape the sea), that they believed whoever went to that enchanted
island would be destroyed with fire from the gods. I was under continual
apprehensions for a good while, and kept always upon my guard; for, as there
were now four of us, I would have ventured upon a hundred of them in the
open field at any time.

In time, however, no more canoes appearing, the fear of their coming wore
off, and I began to take my former thoughts of a voyage to the main into con-
sideration, being likewise assured by Friday’s father that I might depend upon
good usage from their nation, on his account, if I would go. But my thoughts
were a little suspended when I had a serious discourse with the Spaniard, and
when I understood that there were sixteen more of his countrymen and Portu-
guese, who, having been cast away and made their escape to that side, lived
there at peace, indeed, with the savages, but were very sore put to it for
necessaries, and, indeed, for life. I asked him all the particulars of their
voyage, and found they were a Spanish ship bound from the Rio de la Plata
to the Havana, being directed to leave their loading there, which was chiefly
hides and silver, and to bring back what European goods they could meet with
there; that they had five Portuguese seamen on board whom they took out of
another wreck; that five of their own men were drowned when first the ship
was lost, and that these escaped through infinite dangers and hazards, and
arrived, almost starved, on the cannibal coast, where they expected to have

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LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



been devoured every moment. He told me they had some arms with them,
but they were perfectly useless, for that they had neither powder nor ball, the
washing of the sea having spoiled all their powder but a little, which they used
at their first landing, to provide themselves some food.

T asked him what he thought would become of them there, and if they had
formed any design of making their escape. He said they had many consul-
tations about it; but that, having neither vessel nor tools to build one, nor
provisions of any kind, their councils always ended in tears and despair. I
asked him how he thought they would receive a proposal from me which might
tend towards an escape ; and whether, if they were all here, it might be done.
I told him I feared most their treachery and ill-usage of me if I put my life in
their hands; for that gratitude was no inherent virtue in the nature of man,
nor did men always square their dealings by the obligations they had received,
so much as they did by the advantages they expected. I told him it would be
very hard that I should be the instrument of their deliverance, and that they
should afterwards make me their prisoner in New Spain, where an Englishman
was certain to be made a sacrifice, what necessity or what accident soever
brought him thither; and that I had rather be delivered up to the savages,
and be devoured alive, than fall into the merciless claws of the priests, and be
carried into the Inquisition. I added that, otherwise, I was persuaded, if they
were all here, we might, with so many hands, build a barque large enough to
carry us all away, either to the Brazils southward, or to the islands or Spanish
coast, northward, but that if, in requital, they should, when I had put weapons
into their hands, carry me by force among their own people, I might be ill-used
for my kindness to them, and make my case worse than it was before.

Iie answered, with a great deal of candour and ingenuousness, that their
condition was so miserable, and that they were so sensible of it, that he
believed they would abhor the thought of using any man unkindly that should
contribute to their deliverance; and that, if I pleased, he would go to them,
with the old man, and discourse with them about it and return again, and
bring me their‘answer; that he would make conditions with them, upon their
solemn oath, that they should be absolutely under my direction, as their com-
mander and captain: and they should swear upon the holy sacraments and
gospel to be true to me, and go to such Christian country as I should agree to,
and no other; and to be directed wholly and absolutely by my orders, till they
were landed safely in such country as I intended; and that he would bring a
contract from them, under their hands, for that purpose. Then he told me he
would first swear to me himself, that he would never stir from me as long as
he lived, till I gave him orders; and that he would take my side to the last
drop of his blood, if there should happen the least breach of faith among his
countrymen. He told me they were all of them very civil, honest men, and
they were under the greatest distress imaginable, having neither weapons or

12






ROBINSON CRUSOE.



clothes, nor any food, but at the mercy and discretion of the savages, out of all
hopes of ever returning to their own country ; and that he was sure, if I would
undertake their relief, they would live and die by me.

Upon these assurances I resolved to relieve them, if possible, and to send
the old savage and this Spaniard over to them to treat. But when we had got
all things in readiness to go, the Spaniard himself started an objection which
had so much prudence in it on one hand, and so much sincerity on the other
hand, that T could not but be very well satisfied in it; and, by his advice, put
off the deliverance of his comrades for at least half a year. The case was
thus:—He had been with us now about a month, during which time I had let
him sce in what manner I had provided, with the assistance of Providence, for
my support; and he saw evidently what stock of corn and rice I had laid up,
which, though it was more than sufficient for myself, yet it was not sufficient,
without good husbandry, for my family, now it was increased to four; but much
less would it be sufficient if his countrymen should come over, and, least of all,
would it be sufficient to victual our vessel, if we should build one, fora voyage
to any of the Christian colonies of America. He thought it would be advisable
to let him and the other two dig and cultivate some more land, as much as I could
spare seed to sow, and that we should wait another harvest, that we might have a
supply of corn for his countrymen when they should come; for want might be
a temptation to them to disagree, or not to think themselves delivered, other-
wise than out of one difficulty into another. “You know,” said he, “the
children of Israel, though they rejoiced at first for their being delivered out of
Egypt, yet rebelled even against God himself that delivered them, when they
came to want bread in the wilderness.”

His caution was so seasonable, and his advice so good, that I could not but
be very well pleased with his proposal, as well as I was satisfied with his
fidelity. So we fell to digging, all four of us, and, in about a month’s time,
we had got as much land cured and trimmed up, as we sowed two and twenty
bushels of barley on, and sixteen jars of rice, which was, in short, all the seed
we had to spare. Indeed, we left ourselves barely suflicient for our own food,
for the six months that we had to expect our crop, that is to say, reckoning
from the time we set our seed aside for sowing; for it is not to be supposed it
is six months in the ground in that country.

Having now society enough, and our number being sufficient to put us out
of fear of the savages, if they had come, unless their number had been very
great, we went freely all over the island, whenever we found occasion; and as
we had our escape upon our thoughts, it was impossible, at least to me, to
have the means of it out of mine. For this purpose I marked out several trees,
which I thought fit for our work, and I set Friday and his father to cut them
down; and then I caused the Spaniard, to whom I imparted my thoughts on
that affair, to oversee and direct their work. I showed them with what

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indefatigable pains I had hewed a large tree into single planks, and I caused
them to do the like, till they had made about a dozen large planks of good
oak, near two feet broad, thirty-five feet long, and from two inches to four
inches thick.

At the same time I contrived to increase my little flock of tame goats as
much as I could. We got about twenty young kids to breed up with the rest;
for whenever we shot the dam we saved the kids, and added them to our flock.
But, above all, the season for curing the grapes coming on, I caused such a
prodigious quantity to be hung up in the sun, that, I believe, had we been at
Alicant, where the raisins of the sun are cured, we could have filled sixty or
cighty barrels; and these, with our bread, formed a great part of our food
—very good living, too, I assure you, for they are exceedingly nourishing.

It was now harvest, and our crop in good order. From twenty-two bushels
of barley, we brought in and thrashed out above two hundred and twenty
bushels; and the like in proportion of the rice, which was store enough for our
food to the next harvest, though all the sixteen Spaniards had been on shore
with me; or, if we had been ready for a voyage, it would very plentifully have
yictualled our ship to have carried us to any part of America. When we had
housed and secured our magazine of corn, we fell to work to make more
baskets, in which we kept it. The Spaniard was very handy and dexterous at
this kind of work.

And now, having a full supply of food for all the guests I expected, I gave
the Spaniard leave to go over to the main, to see what he could do with those
he had left behind them there. I gave him a strict charge not to bring any
man with him who would not first swear, in the presence of himself and the
old savage, that he would no way injure, fight with, or attack the person he
should find in the island, who was so kind as to send for them in order to
their deliverance; but that they would stand by him and defend him against
all such attempts, and wherever they went, would be entirely under his com-
mand, and that this should be put in writing, and signed in their hands. How
they were to have done this, when I knew they had neither pen or ink, was a
question which we never asked. Under these instructions, the Spaniard and
the old savage, the father of Friday, went away in one of the canoes which
they were brought in when they came as prisoners to be devoured by the
savages. I gave cach of them a musket, with a firelock on it, and about eight
charges of powder and ball, charging them to be very good husbands of both,
and not to use them but upon urgent occasions.

I gave them provisions of bread, and of dried grapes sufficient for themselves
for many days, and sufficient for all the Spaniards for about eight days’ time;
and wishing them a good voyage, I saw them go, agreeing with them about a
signal they should hang out at their return, by which I should know them
again before they came on shore. They went away, with a fair gale, on the

Lit






ROBINSON CRUSOE.



day that the moon was at full, by my account in the month of October.
It was no less than eight days I had waited for them, when a strange and
unforeseen accident intervened, of which the like has not perhaps been heard
of in history. I was fast asleep in my hutch one morning, when my man
Friday came running to me, and called aloud, “ Master, master, they are come,
they are come!” I jumped up, and, regardless of danger, I went out as soon
as I could get my clothes on, through my little grove, which, by the way, was
by this time grown to be a very thick wood. I was surprised, when, turning
my eyes to the sea, I saw a boat at about half a league and a half distance,
standing in for the shore, with a shoulder-of-mutton sail, and the wind blow-
ing pretty fair to bring them in; also I observed that they did not come from
that side which the shore lay on, but from the southermost end of the island.
Upon this I called Friday in, and bade him lie close, for these were not the
people we looked for, and that we might not know yet whether they were friends
or enemies. Then I went in to fetch my perspective glass; and, having
taken the ladder out, I climbed to the top of the hill, as I used to do
when I was apprehensive of anything, and to take my view the plainer,
without being discovered. I had scarce set my foot upon the hill, when
my eye plainly discovered a ship lying at anchor about two leagues and a half
distance from me, 8.S.E., but not above a league and a half trom the shore.
By my observation, it appeared to be an English ship, and the boat appeared
to be an English long-boat.

The joy of seeing a ship, and one that I had reason to believe was manned
by my own countrymen, and consequently friends, was such as I cannot
describe ; but yet I had some secret doubts about me, bidding me keep on my
euard. In the first place, it occurred to me to consider what business an
English ship could have in that part of the world, since it was not the way to
or from any part where the English had traffic, and I knew there had been no
storms to drive them in there in distress ; and that if they were really English
it was most probable that they were here upon no good design, and that I had
better continue as I was, than fall into the hands of thieves and murderers.

Thad not kept myself long in this posture till I saw the boat draw near the
shore, as if they looked for a creek to thrust in at for the convenience of
landing. However, as they did not come quite far enough, they did not see
the little inlet where I formerly landed my rafts, but run their boat on shore
upon the beach at about half a mile from me, which was very happy for me.
When they were on shore, I was fully satisfied they were Englishmen, at least
most of them. One or two I thought were Dutch. There were in all eleven
men, whereof three of them I found were unarmed, and, as I thought, bound ;
and when the first four or five of them were jumped on shore, they took those
three out of the boat as prisoners. One of the three I could perceive using
the most passionate gestures of entreaty, affliction, and despair, even to a kind

K 145










LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



of extravagance. The other two lifted up their hand sometimes, and appeared
concerned, indeed, but not to such a degree as the first. I was perfectly con-
founded at the sight, and knew not what the meaning of it should be. Friday
called out to me in English, as well as he could, “O master! you see English
mans eat prisoner as well as savage mans.”—‘ Why, Friday,” says I, “do you
think they are going to eat them, then ?”—“ Yes,” says Friday, “ they will eat
them.”— No, no,” says I, “Friday; I am afraid they will. murder them,
indeed; but you may be sure they will not eat them.”

All this while I had no thought of what the matter really was, but stood
trembling with the horror of the sight, expecting every moment when the three
prisoners should be killed; nay, once I saw one of the villains lift up his arm
with a great cutlass to strike one of the poor men; and I expected to see him
fall every moment. I wished heartily now for the Spaniard and the savage
that was gone with him, or that I had any way to have come undiscovered
within shot of them, that I might have secured the three men, for I saw no
fire-arms they had among them. After I had observed the outrageous usage
of the three men by the seamen, I observed the fellows run scattering about
the island as if they wanted to see the country. I observed that the three
other men had liberty to go also where they pleased; but they sat down all
three upon the ground, very pensive, and looked like men in despair. This
put me in mind of the first time when I came on shore and began to look
about me; how I gave myself over for lost; how wildly I looked round me;
what dreadful apprehensions I had; and how I lodged in the tree all night,
for fear of being devoured by wild beasts. ;

It was at high water when these people came on shore, and while they
rambled about to see what kind of a place they were in, they had carelessly
stayed till the tide was spent, and the water was ebbed considerably away,
leaving their boat aground. They had left two men in the boat, who, as I
found afterwards, having drank a little too much brandy, fell asleep; however,
one of them waking a little sooner than the other, and finding the boat too
fast aground for him to stir it, hallooed out for the rest, who were straggling
about, upon which they all came to the boat; but it was past their strength to
launch her, the boat being very heavy, and the shore on that side being a soft
oozy sand, almost like a quicksand. In this condition, like true seamen, who
are, perhaps, the least of all mankind given to forethought, they gave it over,
and away they strolled about the country again; and I heard one of them say
aloud to another, calling them off from the boat, “Why, let her alone, Jack,
can’t you? she'll float next tide;” by which I was fully confirmed of what
countrymen they were. All this while I kept myself close, not once daring to
stir out of my castle, any farther than to my place of observation, near the top
of the hill; and very glad I was to think how well it was fortified. I knew it

was no less than ten hours before the boat could float again, and by that time
146








“*What are ye, gentlemen? They started, but were more confounded
when they saw me.”






ROBINSON CRUSOE.



it would be dark, and I might be at more liberty to see their motions, and to
hear their discourse. In the meantime I fitted myself up for a battle, as
before, though with more caution, knowing I had to do with another kind of
enemy than I had at first. I ordered Friday also, whom I had made an
excellent marksman with his gun, to load himself with arms.. I took myself two
fowling-pieces, and I gave him three muskets. My figure, indeed, was very fierce.
Thad my formidable goat-skin coat on, with the great cap I have mentioned, a
naked sword by my side, two pistols in my belt, and a gun upon each shoulder.
It was my design not to have made any attempt till it was dark; but about
two o'clock, being the heat of the day, I found that they were all gone strag-
gling into the woods, and, as I thought, laid down to sleep. The three poor
distressed nen, too anxious for their condition to get any sleep, had, however,
sat down under the shelter of a great tree, at about a quarter of a mile from
me, and out of sight of any of the rest. I resolved to discover myself to them,
and lcarn something of their condition. Immediately I marched as above, my
man Friday at a good distance behind me, as formidable for his arms as I, but
not making quite so staring a spectre-like figure as I did. I came as near them
undiscovered as I could, and then, before any of them saw me, I called aloud to
them in Spanish, “What are ye, gentlemen? They started up at the noise, but
were ten times more confounded when they saw me, and the uncouth figure that I
made. They made no answer atall. I perceived them just going to fly from me,
when I spoke to them in English: “Gentlemen,” said I, “do not be surprised at
me; perhaps you may have a friend near when you did not expect it.”—* He must
be sent directly from Heaven then,” said one of them very gravely to me, and
pulling off his hat at the same time to me ; “for our condition is past the help
of man.”’—* All help is from Heaven, sir,’ said I; “but can you put a
stranger in the way to help you? for you seem to be in some great distress.
I saw you when you landed; dnd when you seemed to make application to the
brutes that came with you, I saw one of them lift up his sword to kill you.”
The poor man, with tears running down his face, and trembling, looked like
one astonished, returned, “Am I talking to God or man? Is it a real man,
or an angel?”—“ Be in no fear about that, sir,” said I; “if God had sent an
angel to relieve you, he would have come. better clothed, and armed after
another manner than you sec me. Pray lay aside your fears. I am a man,
an Englishman, and disposed to assist you. You see I have one servant only;
we have arms and ammunition; tell us freely, can we serve you? What is
your case ?”——“QOur case, sir,” said he, “is too long to tell you, while our
murderers are so near us; but, in short, sir, I was commander of that ship ;
my men have mutinied against me; they have been hardly prevailed on not to
murder me, and at last have set me on shore in this desolate place, with these
two men with me,—one my mate, the other a passenger. We expected to
perish, believing the place to be uninhabited, and know not yet what = think
14






LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

of it.’—“ Where are these brutes your enemies?” said I; “do you know where
they are gone ?”—“ There they lie, sir,” said he, pointing to a thicket of trees;
“my heart trembles for fear they have scen us, and heard you speak; if they
have, they will certainly murder us all.”—‘“ Have they any fire-arms?” said I.
He answered, “ They had only two pieces, one of which they left in the boat.”
— Well, then,” said I, “leave the rest to me. I see they are all asleep ; it is
an easy thing to kill them all, but shall we rather take them prisoners?” He
told me there were two desperate villuins among them that it was scarce safe
to show any mercy to, but if they were secured, he believed all the rest would
return to their duty. I asked him which they were? He told me he could
not at that distance distinguish them, but he would obey my orders in any-
thing I would direct. ‘ Well,” said I, “let us retreat out of their view or
hearing, lest they awake, and we will resolve further.” So they willingly went
back with me, till the woods covered us from them.

“Look you, sir,” said I, “if I venture upon your deliverance, are you
willing to make two conditions with me?” He anticipated my proposals by
telling me that both he and the ship, if recovered, should be directed and
commanded by me in everything ; and if the ship was not recovered he would
live and die with me in what part of the world soever I would send him; and
the two other men said the same. “ Well,” said I, “my conditions are but
two: first,—that while you stay in this island with me, you will not pretend
to any authority here; and if I put arms in your hands, you will, upon all
oceasions, give them up to me, and do no prejudice to me or mine upon this
island, and in the meantime be governed by my orders; secondly,—that if the
ship is recovered, you will carry me and my man to England, passage free.”

He gave me all the assurances ‘that he would comply with these most
reasonable demands, and, besides, would owe his life to me, and acknowledge
it upon all occasions as long as he lived. “Well, then,” said I, “here are
three muskets for you, with powder and ball; tell me next what you think is
proper to be done.” He showed all the testimonies of his gratitude that he
was able, but offered to be wholly guided by me. I told him I thought it was
hard venturing anything, but the best method I could think of was to fire on
them at once as they lay, and if any were not killed at the first volley, and
offered to submit, we might save them, and so put it wholly upon God's
providence to direct the shot. He said that he was loath to kill them, if he
could help it; but that those two were incorrigible villains, and had been the
authors of the mutiny in the ship, and if they escaped we should be undone
still, for they would go on board and bring the whole ship’s company, and
destroy us all. “Well, then,” said I, “necessity legitimates my advice, for it
is the only way to save our lives.” However, seeing him still cautious of
shedding blood, I told him they should go themselves, and manage as they
found convenient.

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ROBINSON CRUSOE.

In the middle of this discourse we heard some of them awake, and soon
after we saw two of them on their feet. I asked him if either of them were
the heads of the mutiny? THe said, “No.” “Well, then,” said I, “you may
let them escape ; and Providence seems to have awakened them on purpose to
save themselves; if the rest escape you, it is your fault.’ Animated with
this, he took the "musket I had given him in his hand, and a pistol in his belt,
and his two comrades, each with a piece in his hand; the two men made some
noise, at which one of the seamen, who was awake, turned about, and seeing
them coming cried out to the rest; but it was too late then, for the moment
he cried out the two men fired, the captain wisely reserving his own piece.
They had so well aimed their shot that one of the men was killed on the spot,
and the other very much wounded. He started up on his feet, and called
eagerly for help to the other; but the captain, stepping to him, told him it was
too late to cry for help, he should call upon God to forgive his villainy, and
with that word knocked him down with the stock of his musket, so that he
| never spoke more. There were three more in the company, and one of them
was slightly wounded. By this time I was come; and when they saw their

danger, and that it was in vain to resist, they begged for mercy. The captain
| told them he would spare their lives if they would give him an assurance of
their abhorrence of the treachery they had been guilty of, and would swear to
\ be faithful to him in recovering the ship, and afterwards in carrying her back
to Jamaica, whence they came. They gave him all the protestations of their
sincerity that could be desired. He was willing to believe them, and spare
their lives, only I obliged him to keep them bound hand and foot while they
were on the island.

While this was doing, I sent Friday with the captain’s mate to the boat with
orders to secure her, and bring away the oars and sails; and by-and-bye three
straggling men, that were (happily for them) parted from the rest, came back
upon hearing the guns fired; and seeing the captain, who was before their
prisoner, now their conqueror, they submitted to be bound also; and so our
victory was complete.

It now remained that the captain and I should inquire into one another's
circumstances. I began first, and told my whole history, which he heard with
an attention even to amazement,—and particularly at the wonderful manner
of my being furnished with provisions and ammunition; and, indeed, as my
story is a whole collection of wonders, it affected him deeply. But when he
reflected thence upon himself, and how I seemed to have been preserved there
on purpose to save his life, the tears ran down his face, and he could not speak
aword more. After this communication was at an end, I carried him and his
two men into my apartment, leading them in at the top of the house, I re-
freshed him with such provisions as I had, and showed them all the contri-
vances I had made during my long inhabiting that place,









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LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



Above all, the captain admired my fortification, and how perfectly I had
concealed my retreat. I told him this was my castle, but that I had a seat in
the country, as most princes have, whither I could retreat upon occasion, and
I would show him that too another time; but at present our business was to
consider how to recover the ship. He agreed with me as to that, but told me
he was perfectly at a loss what measures to take, for that there were still six-
and-twenty hands on board, who, having entered into a cursed conspiracy, by
which they had all forfeited their lives to the law, would be hardened in it now
by desperation, and would carry it on, knowing that if they were subdued they
would be brought to the gallows as soon as they came to England, or to any
of the English colonies, and that therefore there would be no attacking them
with so small a number as we were.

T mused for some time upon what he had said, and found it was a very
rational conclusion, and that therefore something was to be resolved on speed-
ily, as well to draw the men on board into some snare for their surprise, as to
prevent their landing upon us, and destroying us. It occurred to me that in
a little while the ship’s crew, wondering what was become of their comrades
and of the boat, would certainly come on shore in their other boat to look for
them, and that then perhaps they might come armed, and be too strong for
us. This he allowed to be rational. Upon this, I told him the first thing we
had to do was to stave the boat, which lay upon the beach, so that they might
not carry her off, and taking everything out of her, leave her so far useless as
not to be fit to swim. Accordingly we went on board, took the arms which
were left on board out of her, and whatever else we found there, which was a
bottle of brandy, and another of rum, a few biscuit-cakes, a horn of powder, and
a great lump of sugar in a piece of canvas, all which was very welcome to me,
especially the brandy and sugar, of which I had had none left for many years.

When we had carried all these things on shore, we knocked a great hole in
her bottom, that if they had come strong enough to master us, yet they could
not carry off the boat. Indeed, it was not much in my thoughts that we could
be able to recover the ship; but my view was, that if they went away without
the boat, I did not much question to make her again fit to carry us to the
Leeward Islands, and call upon our friends the Spaniards in my way, for I had
them still in my thoughts.

While we were thus preparing our designs, we heard the ship fire a gun,
and make a waft with her ensign as a signal for the boat to came on board,
but no boat stirred ; and they fired several times, making other signals for the
boat. At last, when all their signals and firing proved fruitless, and they found
the boat did not stir, we saw them, by the help of my glasses, hoist another
boat out, and row towards the shore; and we found, as they approached, that
there were no less than ten men in her, and that they had fire-arms with them.

As the ship lay almost two leagues from the shore, we had a full view of -

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ROBINSON CRUSOE.

them as they came, and a plain sight even of their faces. The captain knew
the persons and characters of all the men in the boat, of whom, he said, there
were three very honest fellows, who were led into this conspiracy by the rest,
being overpowered and frightened ; but that as for the boatswain, who was the
chief officer among them, and all the rest, they were as outrageous as any of
the ship’s crew, and were no doubt desperate in their new enterprise; and
terribly apprehensive he was that they would be too powerful for us. I smiled
at him, and told him that men in our circumstances were past the operation of
fear ; that seeing almost every condition that could be was better than that
which we were in, we ought to expect that the consequence, whether death or
life, would be sure to be a deliverance, I asked him what he thought of the
circumstances of my life, and whether a deliverance were not worth venturing
for? “And where, sir,” said I, “is your belief of my being preserved here on
purpose to save your life, which elevated you a little while ago? For my
part,” said I, “there seems to be but one thing amiss in all the prospect of it.”
“What is that?” asked he. “Why,” said I, “itis, that you say there are three
or four honest fellows among them which should be spared. Had they been
all of the wicked part of the crew, I should have thought God’s providence had -
singled them out to deliver them into your hands; for depend upon it, every
man that comes ashore is our own, and shall die or live as they behave to us.”
As I spoke this with a raised voice and cheerful countenance, I found it greatly
encouraged him, so we set vigorously to our business.

We had, upon the first appearance of the boats coming from the ship,
considered of separating our prisoners, and we had, indeed, secured them
effectually. Two of them, of whom the captain was less assured than ordinary,
T sent with Friday, and one of the three delivered men, to my cave, where
they were remote enough, and out of danger of being heard or discovered, or
of finding their way out of the woods if they could have delivered themselves.
Here they left them bound, but gave them provisions, and promised them, if
they continued there quietly,.to give them their liberty in a day or two, but
that if they attempted their escape they should be put to death without mercy.
They promised faithfully to bear their confinement with patience, and were
thankful that they had such good usage as: to have provisions and light left
them ; for Friday gave them candles for their comfort, and they did not know
but that he stood sentinel over them at the entrance. 4

The other prisoners had better usage. Two of them were kept pinioned,
indeed, because the captain was not able to trust them; but the other two
were taken into my service, upon the captain’s recommendation, and upon.
their solemnly engaging to live and die with us; so with them and the three
honest men we were seven men, well armed ; and I made no doubt we should
be able to deal well enough with the ten that were coming, considering that
the captain had said there were three or four honest men among fiers also.

15







ee
LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

As soon as they got to the place where their other boat lay, they ran their
boat into the beach and came all on shore, hauling the boat up after them,
which I was glad to see, for I was afraid they would rather have left the boat
at an anchor some distance from the shore, with some hands in her to guard
her, and so we should not be able to seize the boat. Being on shore, the first
thing they did, they ran all to their other boat; and it was easy to see they
were under a great surprise to find her stripped, as above, of all that was in
her, and a great hole in her bottom. After they had mused awhile upon this,
they set up two or three great shouts, hallooing with all their might, to try if
they could make their companions hear; but all was to no purpose. Then
they came all close in a ring, and fired a volley of their small arms, which,
indeed, we heard, and the echoes made the woods ring; but it was all one.
Those in the cave, we were sure, could not hear, and those in our keeping,
though they heard it well enough, yet durst give no answer to them. They
were so astonished at this that, as they told us afterwards, they all resolved to
go on board again to their ship, and let them know that the men were all
murdered, and the long-boat staved; accordingly, they immediately launched
their boat again, aud got all of them on board.

The captain was confounded at this, believing they would go on board the
ship again, and set sail, giving their comrades over for lost, and so he should
still lose the ship, which he was in hopes we should have recovered ; but he
was quickly as much frightened the other way.

They had not been long put off with the boat when we perceived them
{ coming on shore again; but with this new measure in their conduct, which it
| seems they consulted together upon, viz., to leave three men in the boat, and
| the rest to go on shore, and go up into the country to look for their fellows,
This was a great disappointment to us, for now we were at a loss what to do,
as our seizing those seven men on shore would be no advantage to us if we
let the boat escape, because they would row away to the ship, and then the
rest of them would be sure to weigh and set sail, and so our recovering the
ship would be lost. However, we had no remedy but to wait and see what
the issue of things might present. The seven men came on shore, and the
three who remained in the boat put her off to a great distance from the shore,
and came to an anchor to wait for them; so that it was impossible for us to
come at them in the boat. Those that came on shore kept close together,
marching towards the top of the little hill under which my habitation lay;
and we could see them plainly, though they could not perceive us, Weshould
have been very glad if they would have come nearer to us, so that we might
have fired at them, or that they would have gone farther off, that we might
come aboard. But when they were come to the brow of the hill, where they
could see a great way into the valleys and woods, which lay towards the
north-east part, and where the island lay lowest, they shouted and hallooed

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“ They set up two or three great shouts, hallooing with all their might, to
try if they could make their companions hear.”




ROBINSON CRUSOE.

till they were weary; and not caring, it seems, to venture far from the shore,
nor far from one another, they sat down together under a tree to consider it,
Had they thought fit to have gone to sleep there, as the other part of them
had done, they had done the job for us; but they were too full of apprehen-
sions of danger to venture to go to sleep, though they could not tell what the
danger was they had to fear.

The captain made a proposal to me upon this consultation of theirs, viz,
that perhaps they would all fire a volley again, to endeavour to make their
fellows hear, and that we should all sally upon them just at the juncture when
their pieces were discharged, and they would certainly yield, and we should
have them without bloodshed. I liked this proposal, provided it was done
while we were near enough to come up to them before they could load their
pieces again. But this event did not happen, and we lay still a long time,
irresolute what course to take. We waited a great while, very impatient for
their removing ; and were very uneasy when, after long consultation, we saw
them all start up, and march down towards the sea. It seems they had such
dreadful apprehensions of the danger of the place that they resolved to go on
board the ship again, give their companions over for lost, and so go on with
their intended voyage with the ship.

As soon as I perceived them go towards the shore, I imagined it to be as it
really was, that they had given over their search, and were going back again ;
and the captain, as soon as I told him my thoughts, was ready to sink at the
apprehensions of it; but I presently thought of a stratagem to, fetch them back
again. I ordered Friday and the captain’s mate to go over the little creek west-
ward towards the place where the savages came on shore when Friday was
rescued, and so soon as they came to a little rising ground, at about half a
mile distance, I bade them halloo out as loud as they could, and wait till they
found the seamen heard them; that as soon as ever they heard the seamen
answer them, they should return it again; and then keeping out of sight, take
a round, always answering when the others hallooed to draw them as far into
the island, and among the woods, as possible, and then wheel about again to
me by such ways as I directed them.

They were just going into the boat when Friday and the mate hallooed.
They heard them, and, answering, ran along the shore westward, towards the
voice they heard, when they were stopped by the creek, where, the water being
up, they could not get over, and called for the boat to come up and set them
over; as, indeed, I expected. When they had set themselves over, I observed
that the boat being gone a good way into the creek, they took one of the three
men out of her to go along with them, and left only two in the boat, having
fastened her to the stump of a tree on the shore. This was what I wished for;
and immediately leaving Friday and the captain’s mate to their business, I
took the rest with me, and crossing the creek out of their sight, we surprised

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LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

the two men before they were aware; one of them lying on shore and the
other being in the boat. The fellow on shore was between sleeping and wak-
ing, and going to start up; the captain, who was foremost, ran in upon him
and knocked him down, and then called out to him in the boat to yield, or he
was a dead man. There necded very few arguments tc persuade a single man
to yield, when he saw five men upon him, and his comrade knocked down;
besides, this was, it seems, one of the three who were not so hearty in the
mutiny as the rest of the crew, and therefore was easily persuaded not only to
yield, but afterwards to join very sincerely with us. In the meantime,
Friday and the captain’s mate so well managed their business with the rest,
that they drew them, by hallooing and answering, from one hill to another,
and from one wood to another, till they not only heartily tired them, but
left them where they were sure they could not reach back to the boat before
it was dark; and, indeed, they were heartily tired themselves by the time they
came back to us.

We had nothing now to do but to watch for them in the dark, and to fall
upon them, so as to make sure work with them. It was several hours after
Friday came back to me before they came back to their boat; and we could
hear the foremost of them, long before they came up, calling to those behind
to come along; and could also hear them answer, and complain how lame and
tired they were, and not able to come any faster, which was very welcome
news to us. It is impossible to express their confusion when they found the
boat fast aground in the creck, the tide ebbed out, and their men gone. We
could hear them calling to one another in a lamentable manner, telling one
another they were got into an enchanted island; that either there were inhabi-
tants in it, and they should be all murdered, or else there were devils and
spirits in it, and they should be all carried away and devoured. They hallooed
again, and called their two comrades by their names a great many times, but
got no answer, After some time we could see them run about wringing their
hands like men in despair, and sometimes they would go and sit down in the
boat to rest themselves, then come ashore again and walk about again, and do
the same thing over again. My men would fain have had me give them leave
to fall upon them in the dark; but I was willing to take them at some advan-
tage, so as to spare them, and kill as few of them as I could; and especially I
was unwilling to hazard the killing any of our men, knowing the others were
very well armed. I resolved to wait to see if they did not separate; and
therefore, to make sure of them, I drew my ambuscade nearer, and ordered
Friday and the captain to creep upon their hands and feet close to the ground
that they might not be discovered, and get as near them as they possibly could
before they offered to fire.

They had not been long in that posture when the boatswain, who was the
principal ringleader of the mutiny, and had now shown himself the most

154






ROBINSON CRUSOE.

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dejected and dispirited of all the rest, came walking towards them, with two
more of the crew. The captain was so eager at having this principal rogue so
much in his power that he could hardly have patience to let him eome 50 near
as to be sure of him, for they only heard his tongue before; but when they
came nearer, the captain and Friday, starting up on their feet, let fly at them.
The boatswain was killed upon the spot, the next man was shot in the body,
and fell just by him, though he did not die till an hour or two after, and the
third ran for it. At the noise of the fire I immediately advanced with my
whole army, which was now eight men, viz, myself, generalissimo; Friday,
my lieutenant-general; the captain and his two men, and the three prisoners
of war whom we had trusted with arms. We came upon them, indeed, in the
dark, so that they could not see our number; and I made the man they had left
in the boat, who was now one of us, call them by name, to try if I could bring
them to a parley, and so perhaps might reduce them to terms. So he called out
as loud as he could to one of them, “Tom Smith! Tom Smith!” Tom Smith
answered immediately, “Is that Robinson?” for he knew the voice. The
other answered, “ Ay, ay; for God’s sake, Tom Smith, throw down your arms
and yield, or you are all dead men this moment.”——“ Whom must we yield to?
Where are they!” said Smith again.—* Here they are,” said he; “here’s our
captain, and fifty men with him, have been hunting you these two hours; the
boatswain is killed, Will Fry is wounded, and I am a prisoner, and if yon do
not yield you are all lost.’—* Will they give us quarter, then?” said Tom
Smith, “and we will yield.,—* Tl go and ask,” said Robinson; so he asked
the captain, and the captain himself then called out, “You, Smith, you know
my voice; if you lay down your arms immediately and submit, you shall have
your lives, all but Will Atkins.”

Upon this Will Atkins cried out, “For God’s sake, captain, give me
quarter; what have I done? ‘They have all been as bad as I,” which, by
the way, was not true; for this Will Atkins was the first man that laid
hold of the captain when they mutinied, and used him barbarously, tying
his hands, and giving him injurious language.. However, the captain
told him he must lay down his arms at discretion, and trust to the governor's
mercy; by which he meant me, for they all called me governor. In a word,
they all laid down their arms and begged their lives; and I sent the man that
had parleyed with them, and two more, who bound them ; and then my great
army of fifty men, which, with those three, were in all but eight, came up and
seized upon them, and upon their boat; only I kept myself and one more out
of sight for reasons of state.

Our next work was to repair the boat and seize the ship. As for the
captain, now he had leisure to parley with them, he expostulated with them
upon the villany of their practices with him, and upon the further wickedness

of their design, and how certainly it must bring them to misery and distress
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LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



in the end, and perhaps to the gallows. They all appeared very penitent, and
begged hard for their lives. As for that, he told them they were not his
prisoners, but the commander’s of the island; that they thought they had set
him on shore in a barren uninhabited island, but it pleased God so to direct
them that it was inhabited, and that the governor was an Englishman, that he
might hang them all there, if he pleased; but as he had given them quarter,
he supposed he would send them to England, to be dealt with as justice
required, except Atkins, whom he was commanded by the governor to advise
to prepare for death, for that he would be hanged in the morning.

Though this was all a fiction of his own, it had its desired effect. Atkins
fell upon his knees to beg the captain to intercede with the governor for his
life; and the rest begged of him, for God’s sake, that they might not be sent
to England.

It now occurred to me that the time of our deliverance was come, and that
it would be a most easy thing to bring these fellows in to be hearty in getting
possession of the ship. So I retired in the dark from them, that they might
not see what kind of a governor they had, and called the captain to me.
When I called at a distance, one of the men was ordered to speak again, and
say to the captain, “Captain, the commander calls for you;” and presently
the captain replied, “Tell his Excellency I am coming.” This more perfectly
amaged them, and they all believed that the commander was just by with his
fifty men. Upon the captain coming to me, I told him my project for seizing
the ship, which he liked wonderfully well, and resolved to put it in execution
the next morning. But, in order to execute it with more art, and to be secure
of success, I told him we must divide the prisoners, and that he should go and
take Atkins, and two more of the worst of them, and send them pinioned to
the cave where the others lay. This was committed to Friday and the two
men who came on shore with the captain. They conveyed them to the cave
as to a prison; and it was, indeed, a dismal place to men in their condition.
The others I ordered to my bower, and as it was fenced in, and they pinioned,
the place was secure enough, considering they were upon their behaviour.

To these in the morning I sent the captain, who was to enter into a parley
with them to try them, and tell me whether he thought he might be trusted
to go on board and surprise the ship. He talked to them of the injury done
him, of the condition they were brought to, and that though the governor had
given them quarterfor their lives as to the-present action, yet if they were sent
to England, they would all be hanged in chains; but that if they would join in
so just an attempt as to recover the ship, he would have the governor’s engage-
ment for their pardon.

They fell down on their knees to the captain, and promised that they would
be faithful to him, and would go with him all over the world; that they would
own him as a father to them as long as they lived. “Well,” said the captain,

156 .


















ROBINSON CRUSOE.



“JT must go and tell the governor what you say, and see what I can do to bring
him to consent to.” So he brought me an account of the temper he found
them in, and that he verily believed they would be faithful. However, that
we might be secure, I told him he should go back again and choose out those
five, and tell them that they might see he did not want men, that he would
take out those five to be his assistants, and that the governor would keep the
other two, and the three that were sent prisoners to the castle (my cave), as
hostages for the fidelity of those five; and that if they proved unfaithful in
the execution, the five hostages should be hanged in chains alive on the shore.
This looked severe, and convinced them that the governor was in earnest.
However, they had no way left them but to accept it; and it was now the
business of the prisoners, as much as of the captain, to persuade the other five
to do their duty.

Our strength was now ordered for the expedition. First, the captain,
his mate, and passenger; second, the two prisoners of the first gang, to whom,
having their character from the captain, I had given their liberty, and trusted
them with arms; third, the other two that I had kept in my bower pinioned,
but, on the captain’s motion, had now released; fourth, these five released at
last, so that they were twelve in all, besides five we kept prisoners in the cave
for hostages.

I asked the captain if he was willing to venture with these hands on board
the ship. As for me and my man Friday, I did not think it was proper for
us to stir, having seven men left behind; and it was employment enough for
us to keep them asunder, and supply them with victuals. As to the five in
the cave, I resolved to keep them fast, but Friday went in twice a day to them,
to supply them with necessaries; and I made the other two carry provisions
to a certain distance, where Friday was to take it.

When I showed myself to the two hostages, it was with the captain, who
told them I was the person the governor had ordered to look after them, and
that it was the governor’s pleasure they should not stir anywhere but by my
direction; that if they did, they would be fetched into the castle and laid in
irons. So that as we never suffered them to see me as governor, I now
appeared as another person, and spoke of the governor, the garrison, the castle,
and the like, upon all occasions. é

The captain now had no difficulty before him, but to furnish his two boats,
stop the breach of one, and man them. He made his passenger captain of
one, with four of the men, and himself, his mate, and five more went in the
other ; and they contrived their business very well, for they came up to the
ship about midnight. As soon as they came within call of the ship, he made
Robinson hail them, and tell them they had brought off the men and the boat,
but that it was a long time before they had found them, and the like, holding
them in a chat till they came to the ship’s side, when the captain and the mate

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LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



entering first, immediately knocked down the second mate and carpenter with
the butt-end of their muskets, being faithfully seconded by their men; they
secured all the rest that were upon the main and quarter-decks, and began to
fasten the hatches, to keep them down that were below; when the other boat
and their men, entering at the fore-chains, secured the forecastle of the ship,
and the scuttle which went down into the cook-room, making three men they
found there prisoners. When this was done, and all safe upon deck, the cap-
tain ordered the mate, with three men, to break into the round-house, where
the new rebel captain lay, who, having taken the alarm, had got up, and with
two men and a boy had got fire-arms in their hands; and when the mate, with
a crow, split open the door, the new captain and his men fired boldly among
them, and wounded the mate with a musket-ball, which broke his arm, and
wounded two more of the men, but killed nobody. The mate calling for help,
rushed into the round-house, wounded as he was, with his pistol, shot the new
captain through the head, the bullet entering at his mouth, and came out
again behind one of his cars, so that he never spoke a word more. The rest
yielded, and the ship was taken effectually, without any more lives lost.

As soon as the ship was secured the captain ordered seven guns to be fired,
which was the signal agreeil upon with me to give me notice of his success,
which, you may be sure, I was very glad to hear, having sat watching upon
the shore for it till near two o'clock in the morning. Having heard the signal
plainly, I laid me down, and it having been a day of great fatigue to me, I slept
very soundly, till I was surprised with the noise of a gun, and starting up, I
heard a man call me by the name of “Governor! Governor!” I knew the
captain's voice; when climbing up to the top of the hill, there he stood, and,
pointing to the ship, he embraced me in his arms. ‘My dear friend and
deliverer,” said he, ‘there’s your ship, for she is all yours, and so are we, and
all that belong to her.” I cast my eyes to the ship, and there she rode within
little more than half-a-mile of the shore. I was at first ready to sink down
with the surprise, for I saw my deliverance visibly put into my hands, all things
easy, and a large ship just ready to carry me away whither I pleased to go. At
first L was not able to answer him one word, but as he had taken me in his
arms, I held fast: by him, or I should have fallen to the ground. He perceived
the surprise, and pulled a bottle out of his pocket and gave me a dram of
cordial, which he had brought on purpose for me. After I had drank it I sat
down upon the ground, and though it brought me to myself, yet it was a good
while before I could speak a word to him. All this time the poor man was in
as great an ecstasy as |. He said a thousand kind and tender things to me to
compose and bring me to myself; but such was the flood of joy in my breast,
that it put all my spirits into confusion. At last I broke out into tears, and,
in a little while after, I recovered my speech. I then embraced him as my
dcliverer, and we rejoiced together. I told him I looked upon him as sent from

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ROBINSON CRUSOE.



heaven to deliver me, and that the whole transaction seemed to be a chain of
wonders; that such things as these were the testimonies we had of a secret
hand of Providence governing the world, and an evidence that the eye of an
infinite power could search into the remotest corner of the world, and send
help to the miserable whenever He pleased. I forgot not to lift up my heart
in thankfulness to Heaven; and what heart could forbear to bless Him, who
had not only in a miraculous manner provided for me in such a wilderness,
and in such a desolate condition, but from whom every deliverance must
always be acknowledged to proceed.

When we had talked a while the captain told me he had brought me some little
refreshment, such as the ship afforded, and such as the wretches that had been
so long his masters had not plundered him of. Upon this he called aloud to
the boat, and bade his men bring the things ashore that were for the governor;
and, indeed, it was a present as if I had been to dwell upon the island still.
First, he had brought me a case of bottles full of cordial waters, six large
bottles of Maderia wine, two pounds of excellent tobacco, twelve good pieces
of the ship’s beef, and six pieces of pork, with a bag of peas, and about an
hundred weight of biscuit; he also brought me a box of sugar, a box of flour,
a bag full of lemons, and two bottles of lime juice, and abundance of other
things. But besides these, and what was more useful to me, he brought me
six new shirts, six very good neckcloths, two pair of gloves, one pair of shoes,
a hat, and one pair of stockings, with a very good suit of clothes of his own,
which had been worn but very little; in a word, he clothed me from head to
foot. It was a very kind and agreeable present to one in my circumstances,
but never was anything in the world so awkward and uneasy as it was for me
to wear such clothes at first.

After these ceremonies were passed, and after all his good things were
brought into my little apartment, we began to consult what was to be done
with the prisoners, for it was worth considering whether we might venture to
take them away with us or no, especially two of them, whom he knew to be
incorrigible and refractory to the last degree. The captain said he knew they
were such rogues that if he did carry them away it must be in irons, as male-
factors, to be delivered over to justice at the first English colony he could come
to. Upon this, I told him that, if he desired it, I would undertake to bring the
two men he spoke of to make it their own request that he should leave
them upon the island. “TI should be very glad of that,” says the captain,
“with all my heart.” “Well,” says I, “I will send for them up, and talk with
them for you.” So I caused Friday and the two hostages to go to the cave,
and bring up the five men, pinioned as they were, to the bower, and keep them
there till I came. After some time, I came thither, dressed in my new habit,
and now I was called governor again. Being all met, and the captain with me,
I caused the men to be brought before me. I told them I had got a full

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LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



account of their villanous behaviour to the captain, and how they had run
away with the ship, and were preparing to commit farther robberies, but that
Providence had ensnared them in their own ways, and that they were fallen
into the pit which they had dug for others. I let them know that by my
direction the ship had been seized; that she lay now in the road; that their
new captain had received the reward of his villany, and that they would see
him hanging at the yard-arm. That, as to them, I wanted to know what they
had to say why I should not execute them as pirates, taken in the fact, as by
my commission they could not doubt but I had authority so to do.

One of them answered in the name of the rest, that they had nothing to say
but this, that when they were taken, the captain promised them their lives,
and they humbly implored my merey. But I told them I knew not what
mercy to show them; for as for myself, I had resolved to quit the island with
all my men, and had taken passage with the captain to go for England; and
as the captain could not carry them to England, otherwise than as prisoncrs,
to be tried for mutiny, the consequence of which, they must needs know, would
be the gallows, so I could not tell what was best for them, unless they had a
mind to take their fate in the island. If they desired that, as I had liberty to
leave the island, I had some inclination to give them their lives if they
thought they could shift on shore. They seemed very thankful for it, aud said
they would much rather venture to stay there than be carried to England to
be hanged.

However, the captain seemed to make some difficulty of it, as if he durst
not leave them there. Upon this, I seemed a little angry with the captain,
and told him that they were my prisoners, not his, and that seeing I had
offered them favour, I would be as good as my word; and that if he did not
think fit to consent to it, I would set them at liberty, and he might take them
again if he could catch them. Upon this they appeared very thankful, and I
accordingly set them at liberty, and bade them retire into the woods, to the
place whence they came, and [ would leave them some fire-arms, some am-
munition, and some directions how they should live very well if they thought
fit. Upon this I prepared to go on board the ship, but told the captain I
would stay that night to prepare my things, and desired him to go on board
in the meantime, and keep all right in the ship, and send the boat on shore
next day for me, ordering him to cause the new captain, who was killed, to be
hanged at the yard-arm, that these men might see him.

When the captain was gone, I sent for the men up to me to my apartment,
and entered seriously into discourse with them on their circumstances. I told
them I thought they had made a right choice; that if the captain had carried
them away, they would certainly be hanged. I showed them the new captain
hanging at the yard-arm of the ship, and told them they had nothing less
to expect.

160






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ROBINSON CRUSOE.



When they had all declared their willingness to stay, I then told them I
would let them into the story of my living there, and put them into the way
of making it easy to them. Accordingly, I gave them the whole history of
the place, and of my coming to it, showed them my fortifications, the way I
made my bread, planted my corn, cured my grapes, and, in a word, all that
was necessary to make them easy. I told them the story also of the seventeen
Spaniards that were to be expected, for whom I left a letter, and- made them
promise to treat them in common with themselves. Here it may be noted
that the captain had ink on board. He was greatly surprised that I never hit
upon a way of making ink of charcoal and water, or of something else, as I
had done things much more difficult.

IT left them my fire-arms, viz., five muskets, three fowling-pieces, and three
swords. I had above a barrel and a half of powder left, for after the first year
or two [ used but little, and wasted none. I gave them a description of the
way I managed the goats, and directions to milk and fatten them, and to make
both butter and cheese. In a word, I gave them every part of my own story,
and told them I should prevail with the captain to leave them two barrels of
eunpowder more, and some garden seeds, which I told them I would have been
very glad of. Also, I gave them the bag of peas which the captain had
brought me to cat, and bade them be sure to sow and increase them.

Having done all this, I left them the next day, and went on board the ship.
We prepared to sail, but did not weigh that night. The next morning early,
two of the five men came swimming to the ship’s side, and, making the most
lamentable complaint of the other three, begged to be taken into the ship for
God’s sake, for they should be murdered, and begged the captain to take them
on board, though he hanged them immediately. Upon this the captain pre-
tended to have no power without me; but after some difficulty, and after their
solemn promises of amendment, they were taken on board, and were soundly
whipped and pickled, after which they proved very honest and quiet fellows.

Some time after this the boat was ordered on shore with the things promised
to the men, to which the captain, at my intercession, caused their chests and
clothes to be added, which they took and were very thankful for. I also
encouraged them, by telling them that if it lay in my power to send any vesscl
to take them in, I would not forget them.

When I took leave of this island, I carried on board, for reliques, the great
goat-skin cap I had made, my umbrella, and one of my parrots, also the money
formerly mentioned, which had lain by me so long useless that it was grown
rusty, and could hardly pass for silver till it had been rubbed up. And thus
I left the island the 19th of December, in the year 1686, after I had been
upon it eight-and-twenty years, and two months, and nineteen days, being
delivered from this second captivity the same day of the month that I
first made my escape in the long-boat from among the Moors of Salee. In

L 161










LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

this vessel, after a long voyage, I arrived in England the 11th of June, in
the year 1687, having been thirty-five years absent.

When I came to England I was as perfect a stranger as if I had never been
known there. My benefactor and faithful steward whom I had left my money
in trust with was alive, but had had great misfortunes; was become a widow the
second time, and very low in the world. I made her easy as to what she
owed me, assuring her I would give her no trouble; but, on the contrary, in
gratitude for her former care and faithfulness to me, I relieved her as my
little stock would afford, which at that time would allow me to do but very
little for her; but I assured her I would never forget her former kindness to
me, nor did I forget her when I had sufficient to help her. I went down
afterwards into Yorkshire, but my father was dead, and my mother and all the
family extinct except two sisters and two of the children of one of my brothers;
and as I had been long ago given over for dead, there had been no provision
made for me, so that I found nothing to assist me, and that the little money
I had would not do much for me as to settling me in the world.

I ct with one piece of gratitude which I did not expect. The master of the
ship which I had so happily delivered, and by the same means saved the ship and
cargo, having given a very handsome account to the owners of the manner how I
had saved the lives of the men and the ship, they invited me to meet them
and some other merchants concerned, and altogether made me a very hand-
some compliment upon the subject, and a present of almost £200 sterling.

After making several reflections upon the circumstances of my life, and how
little way this would go towards settling me in the world, I resolved to go to
Lisbon, and sce if I might not come at some information of the state of my
plantation in the Brazils, and of what was become of my partner, who, I had
reason to suppose, had some years past given me over for dead. With this
view I took shipping for Lisbon, where I arrived in April following, my man
Friday accompanying me in all these rambles, and proving a most faithful
servant upon all occasions. When I came to Lisbon I found out my old
friend the captain of the ship who first took me up at sea off the shore of
Africa. He was now grown old, and had left off going to sea, having put his
son into his ship, and who still used the Brazil trade. The old man did not
know me, and indeed I hardly knew him. But I soon brought him to my
remembrance, and brought myself to his remembrance, when I told him who
I was.

I inquired after my plantation and my partner. The old man told me he
had not been in the Brazils for about nine years, but that when he came away
iny partner was living, but the trustees whom I had joined with him to take
cognizance of my part, were both dead; that, however, he believed I would
have a very good account of the improvement of the plantation ; for that, upon

the general belief of my being cast away and drowned, my trustees had given
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| ROBINSON CRUSOE.

in the account of the produce of my part of the plantation to the procurator-fiscal
who had appropriated it, in case I never came to claim it, one-third to the king,
and two-thirds to the monastery of St Augustine, to be expended for the benefit
of the poor, and for the conversion of the Indians to the Catholic faith ; but that
if I appeared, or any.one for me, to claim the inheritance, it would be restored,
only that the improvement or annual production being distributed to charitable
uses, could not be restored ; but he assured me that the steward of the king’s
revenue from lands, and the providore or steward of the monastery, had taken
great care all along that the incumbent, that is to say, my partner, gave
every year a faithful account of the produce, of which they had duly received
my moiety. I asked him if he knew to what height of improvement he had
brought the plantation, and whether he thought it might be worth looking
after; or whether, on my going thither, I should meet with any obstruction
to my possessing my just right in the moiety. He could not tell exactly to
what degree the plantation was improved, but he knew that my partner was
grown exceeding rich upon his part of it; and that, to the best of his re-
membrance, he had heard that the king’s third of my part, which was granted
away to some other monastery or religious house, amounted to above two
hundred moidores a year; that as to my being restored to a quiet possession
of it, there was no question of that, my partner being alive to witness my
title, and my name being enrolled in the register of the country ; also he told
me that the survivors of my two trustees were very fair, honest people, and
very wealthy; and he believed I would not only have their assistance for
putting me in possession, but would find a very . considerable sum of
money in their hands for my account, being the produce of the farm while
their fathers held the trust, which, as he remembered, was for about twelve
years,

: I showed myself a little concerned at this account, and inquired of the old
captain how it came to pass that the trustees should thus dispose of my effects,
when he knew that I had made my will, and had made him, the Portuguese
captain, my universal heir, ete.

He told me that as there was no proof of my being dead, he could not act
as executor, until some certain account should come of my death ; and, besides,
he was not willing to intermeddle with a thing so remote; that it was true he
had registered my will, and put in his claim, and could he have given any
account of my being dead or alive, he would have acted by procuration, and
taken possesion of the ingenio (so they call the sugar-house), and have given
his son, who was now at the Brazils, orders to do it. “But,” said the old
man, “I have one piece of news to tell you, which perhaps may not be so
acceptable to you as the rest; and that is, believing you were lost, and all the
world believing so also, your partner and trustees did offer to account with
me, in your name, for the first six or eight years’ profits, which I received.

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LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

There being at that time great disbursements for increasing the works,
building an ingenio, and buying slaves, it did not amount to near so much as
afterwards it produced. However, I shall give you a true account of what I
have received in all, and how I have disposed of it.”

After a few days’ farther conference with this ancient friend, he brought me
an account of the first six years’ income of my plantation, signed by my
partner and the merchant-trustees, being always delivered in goods, viz,
tobacco in roll, and sugar in chests, besides rum, molasses, cte., which is the
consequence of a sugar-work; and I found by this account, that every year
the income considerably increased. The old man let me sce that he was
debtor to me four hundred and seventy moidores of gold, besides sixty chests
of sugar, and fifteen double rolls of tobacco, which were lost in his ship, he
having been shipwrecked coming home to Lisbon, about cleven years after my
leaving the place. The good man then began to complain of his misfortunes,
and how he had been obliged to make use of my money to recover his losses,
and buy him a share in a new ship. “However, my old friend,” said he,
“you shall not want a supply in your necessity, and as soon as my son returns,
you shall be fully satisfied.” Upon this he pulled out an old pouch, and gave
me one hundred and sixty Portugal moidores in gold; and giving the writings
of his titie to the ship, which his son was gone to the Brazils in, of which he
was quarter-part owner, and his son another, he put them both into my hands
for security of the rest.

T was too much moved with the honesty and kindness of the poor man to
bear this ; and remembering what he had done for me, I could hardly refrain
weeping, therefore I asked him if his circumstances admitted him to spare so
much money at that time, and if it would not straiten him? He told me he
could not say but it might straiten him a little; but, however, it was my
money, and [ might want it more than he.

T took one hundred of the moidores, then returned him the rest, and told
him if ever I had possessian of the plantation I would return the other to
him also (as, indeed, I afterwards did). As to the bill of sale of his part in
his son’s ship, I would not take it by any means.

When this was passed, the old man asked me if he should put me into a
method to make my claim to my plantation. I told him I thought to go over
to it myself. He said I might do so if I pleased; but that, if I did not,
there were ways cnough to secure my right, and immediately to appropriate
the profits to my use. And as there were ships in the river of Lisbon just
ready to go away to Brazil, he made me enter my name in a public register,
with his affidavit, affirming, upon oath, that I was alive, and that I was the
same person who took up the land for the planting the said plantation at first.
This being regularly attested by a notary, and a procuration affixed, he directed
me to send it, with a letter of his writing, to a merchant of his acquaintance

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ROBINSON CRUSOE.

at the place; and then proposed my staying with him till an account came of
the return.

Tn less than seven months I received a large packet form the survivors of
my trustees, the merchants for whose account I went to sea, in which were the
following particular letters and papers enclosed :—

First, there was the account-current of the produce of my plantation, from
the year when their fathers had balanced with my old Portugal captain, bein
for six years. The balance appeared to be one thousand one hundred an
seventy-four moidores in my favour.

Secondly, there was the account of four years more, while they kept the
effects in their hands, before the government claimed the administration, as
being the effects of a person not to be found, which they called civil death ;
and the balance of this, the value of the plantation increasing, amounted to
nineteen thousand four hundred and forty-six crusadoes, being about three
thousand two ‘hundred and forty moidores.

Thirdly, there was the Prior of St Augustine’s account, who had received
the profits for above fourteen years; but not being to account for what was
disposed of by the hospital, very honestly declared he had eight hundred and
seventy-two moidores not distributed, which he acknowledged to my account.
As to the king’s part, that refunded nothing.

There was a letter of my partner’s congratulating me very affectionately
upon my being alive, giving me an account how the estate was improved, and
what it produced a year, with the particulars of the number of acres that it
contained, how planted, and how many slaves there were upon it. And

' making two-and-twenty crosses for blessings, told me he had said so many
Ave Marias to thank the Blessed Virgin that I was alive. Inviting me very
passionately to come over and take possession of my own, and, in the mean-
time, to give him orders to whom he should deliver my effects, if I did not
come myself, concluding with a hearty tender of his friendship, and that of
his family ; and sent me, as @ present, seven fine leopards’ skins, which he had
received from Africa, by some other ship that he had sent thither, and which,
it seems, had made a better voyage than I. He sent me also five chests of
excellent sweetmeats, and a hundred pieces of gold uncoined, not quite so
large as moidores. By the same fleet my two merchant-trustees shipped ‘me
one thousand two hundred chests of sugar, eight hundred rolls of tobacco,
and the rest of the whole account in gold.

I might well say now that the latter end of Job was better than the begin.
ning. Tt i is impossible to express the flutterings of my heart when I found

all my wealth about me; for as the Brazil ships come all in fleets, the safe

ships which brought my "letters brought my goods, and the effects were safe
in the river before the letters came to my hand. In a word, I turned pale,

and grew sick; and, had not the old man run and fetched me a cordial, I

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LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

believe the sudden surprise of joy had overset nature, and I had died upon
the spot; nay, after that I continucd very ill, and was so some hours, till a
physician being sent for, and something of the real cause of my illness being
known, he ordered me to be let blood; after which I had relief, and grew
well, but I verily believe if I had not been cased by a vent given in that
manner to the spirits, I should have died.

T was now master, all on a sudden, of above five thousand pounds sterling
in money, and had an estate, as | might well call it, in the Brazils, of above a
thousand pounds a year, as sure as an estate of lands in England. The first
thing I did was to recompense my original benefactor, my good old captain,
who had been first charitable to me in my distress, kind to me in my begin-
ning, and honest to me at the end. I showed him all that was sent to me. T
told him that, next to the Providence of heaven, which disposed all things, it
was owing to him, and that it now lay on me to reward him, which I would
do a hundred-fold; so I first returned to him the hundred moidores I had
received of him; then 1 sent for a notary and caused him to draw up a general
discharge from the four hundred and seventy moidores which he had acknow-
ledged he owed me. After which I caused a procuration to be drawn,
empowering him to be the receiver of the annual profits of my plantation,
and appointing my partner to account with him, and make the returns, by the
usual fleets, to him in my name; and, by a clause in the end, made a grant of
one hundred moidores a year to him during his life, out of the effects, and
fifty moidores a year to his son after him, for his life.

1 had now to consider which way to steer my course next, and what to do
with the estate that Providence had thus put into my hands. My interest in
the Brazils seemed to summon me thither, but I could not think of going
thither till L had settled my affairs, and left my effects in some safe hands
behind me. At first I thought of my old friend the widow, who I knew was
honest, and would be just to me; but then she was in years, and poor, and,
for aught | knew, might be in debt; so that, in a word, I had no way but to
go back to England myself, and take my effects with me.

It was some months before I resolved upon this; and, as I had rewarded
the old captain, I began to think of the poor widow whose husband had been
my first benefactor, The first thing I did, I got a merchant in Lisbon to
write to his correspondent in London to find her out, and carry her, in money,
a hundred pounds from me, and to comfort her in her poverty by telling her
she should, if I lived, have a further supply. At the same time I sent my
two sisters in the country a hundred pounds each, they being, though not in
want, yet not in very good circumstances ; one having been married and left
a widow, and the other having a husband not so kind to her as he should
be. But, among all my relations or acquaintances, I could not yet pitch
upon one to whom I durst commit the gross of my stock, that I might

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ROBINSON CRUSOF.



go away to the Brazils, and leave things safe behind me, and this greatly
perplexed me.

I had once a mind to go to the Brazils, and settle myself there, for I was,
| as it were, naturalized to the place; but I had some little scruple in my mind
about religion which insensibly drew me back.

I resolved at last to go to England, where, if I arrived, I concluded I should
make some acquaintance, or find some relations, that would be faithful to me ;
and, accordingly, I prepared to go to England with all my wealth.

In order to prepare things for my going home, I first (the Brazil fleet being
just going away) resolved to give answers suitable to the just and faithful
account of things I had from thence. To the Prior of St Augustine I wrote
a letter full of thanks for his just dealings, and the offer of the eight hundred
and seventy-two moidores which were undisposed of, which I desired might
be given, five hundred to the monastery, and three hundred and seventy-two
to the poor, as the prior should direct, desiring the good padre’s prayers for
me, and the like. I wrote next a letter of thanks to my two trustees, with all
the acknowledgment that so much justice and honesty called for; as for
sending them any present, they were far above having any occasion for it.
| Lastly, I wrote to my partner, acknowledging his industry in improving the

plantation, and his integrity in increasing the stock of the works, giving him
instructions for his future government of my part, according to the powers I
had left with my old patron, to whom I desired him to send whatever became
| due to me, till he should hear from me more particularly, assuring him that it
was my intention not only to come to him, but to settle myself there for the
| remainder of my life. To this I added a very handsome present of some
| Italian silks for his wife and two daughters—for such the captain’s son
informed me he had—with two pieces of fine English broad cloth, the best I
| could get in Lisbon, five pieces of black baize, and some Flanders lace of a
good value.
1 Having thus settled my affairs, sold my cargo, and turned all my effects
| into bills of exchange, my next difficulty was which way to go to England. I
|
|
{



had been accustomed enough to the sea, and yet I had a strange aversion to
go to England by sea at that time; and though I could give no reason for it,
yet the difficulty increased upon me so much that though I had once shipped
my baggage in order to go, yet I altered my mind, and that not once, but two
or three times.

It is true I had been very unfortunate by sea, and this might be one of the
| reasons; but let no man slight the strong impulses of his own thoughts in
cases of such moment. Two of the ships which I had singled out to go in
miscarried, viz, one was taken by the Algerines, and the other was cast away
on the Start, near Torbay, and all the people drowned except three, so that in
either of those vessels I had been made miserable.





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LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



Ilaving been thus harassed in my thoughts, my old pilot, to whom T com-
municated everything, pressed me not to go by sea, but cither to go by land
to the Groyne, and cross over the Bay of Biscay to Rochelle, whence it was
but an casy and safe journey by land to Paris, and so to Calais and Dover ;
or to go up to Madrid, and so all the way by land through France. In a
word, | was so prepossessed against going by sea at all, except from Calais to
Dover, that T resolved to travel all the way by land, which, as T was not in
haste, and did not value the charge, was by much the pleasanter way, and to
make it more so, my old captain brought an Mnglish gentleman, the son of a
merchant in Lisbon, who was willing to travel with me; after which we
picked up two more English merchants also, and two young Portuguese
gentlemen, the last going to Paris only; so that, in all, there were six of us,
and five. servants—the two merchants and the two Portuguese contenting
themselves with one servant between two, to save the charge; and as for me,
T got an English sailor to travel with me as a servant, besides my man Friday,
who was too much a stranger to be capable of supplying the place of a servant
on the road.

In this manner 1 set out from Lisbon, and our company being very well
mounted and armed, we made a little troop, whereof they did me the honour
to call me captain, as well because I was the oldest man, as because Thad
tavo servants, and, indeed, was the origin of the whole journey.

When we came to Madrid, we, being all of us strangers to Spain, were
willing to stay some time to see the court of Spain, and what was worth
observing; but, it being the latter part of the summer, we hastened away, and
set out from Madrid about the middle of October; but when we came to
Navarre we were alarmed at several towns on the way, with an account that
so much snow was fallen on the French side of the mountains that several
travellers were obliged to come back to Pampeluna, after haying attempted, at
an extreme hazard, to pass on,

When we came to Pampeluna itself, we found it so indeed ; and to me, that
had been always used to a hot climate, and to countries where [ could searee
bear any clothes on, the cold: was insutferable ; nor was it more painful than
surprising, to como but ten days before out of Old Castile, where the weather
was very hot, and immediately to feel a wind from the Pyrencan mountains so
keen as to endanger benumbing and perishing of our fingers and toes.

Poor Friday was really frightened when he saw the mountains all covered
with snow, and felt cold weather, which he had never scen or felt before in
his life. .To mend. the matter, when we came to Pampeluna, it continued
snowing with so much violence and so long, that the roads, which were difficult
before, were now quite impassable, for the snow lay in some places too thick
for us to travel, and being not hard frozen, as is the case in the northern

countries, there was no going without being in danger of being buried alive
168






“The roads were now quite impassable, for the snow lay in some
places too thick for us to travel.”








‘ROBINSON CRUSOE.



every step. We stayed no less than twenty days at Pampeluna; when
(seeing the winter coming on, and no likelihood of its being better, for it was
the severest winter all over Europe that had been known in the memory of
u.an) I proposed that we should go away to Fontarabia, and there take ship-
ping for Bordeaux, which was a very little village. But while I was considering
this, there came in four French gentlemen, who, having been stopped on the
PF nehside of the passes, as we were on the Spanish, had found out a guide,

10, traversing the country near the head of Languedoc, had brought them over
the mountains by such ways that they were not much incommoded with the
snow ; for when they met with snow in any quantity, they said it was frozen
hard enough to bear them and their horses. We sent for this guide, who told

she would undertake to carry us the same way, with no hazard from the snow,

ovided we were armed sufficiently to protect ourselves from wild beasts; for,
ho said, in these great snows it was frequent for wolves to show themselves at
we foot of the mountains, being made ravenous for want of food. We told him
we were well enough prepared for such creatures as they were, ifhe would ensure
us from a kind of two-legged wolves, which, we are told, we are in danger
from, especially on the French side of the mountains. He satisfied us that
tere was no danger of that kind in the way that we were to go. So we
; areed to follow him, as did also twelve other gentlemen, with their servants,
some French, some Spanish, who, as I said, had attempted to go, and were
obliged to come back again.

Accordingly, we set out from Pampeluna with our guide on the 15th of
November. I was surprised, when, instead of going forward, he came directly
back with us on the same road that we came from Madrid, about twenty miles,
when, having passed two rivers, and came into the plain country, we found
ourselyes in a warm climate again, where the country was pleasant, and no
snow to be seen, but, on a sudden, turning to his left, he approached the
mountains another way ; and though it is true the hills and precipices looked
dreadful, yet he made so many tours, such meanders, and led us by such wind-
ing ways, that we insensibly passed the height of the mountains without being
much encumbered with the snow; and, all on a sudden, he showed us the
pleasant and fruitful provinces of Languedoc and Gascony, all green and flourish-
ing, though at a great distance, and we had some rough way to pass still.

We were a little uneasy, however, when we found that it snowed one whole
day and night so fast that we could not travel; but he bid us be easy, we
should soon be past it-all. We found, indeed, that we began to descend every
day, and to come more north than before, and so, depending upon our guide,
we went on.

It was about two hours before night, when, our guide being something
before us, and not just in sight, out rushed three monstrous wolves, and after
them a bear, from a hollow way adjoining a thick wood. Two of the wolves

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LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



made at the guide, and had he been far before us, he would have been
devoured before we could have helped him. One of them fastened upon his
horse, and the other attacked the man with such violence, that he had not
time or presence of mind enough to draw his pistol, but hallooed and cried
out to us most lustily. My man Friday being next me, I bade him ride up
and sce what was the mattcr. As soon as Friday came in sight of the man,
he hallooed out as loud as the other, “O master, O master!” but like a bold
fellow, rode directly up to the poor man, and with his pistol shot the wolf that
attacked him on the head. ;

Tt was happy for the poor man that it was my man Friday ; for, having
been used to such creatures in his country, he had no fear upon him, but
went close up to him and shot him; whereas any other of us would have
fired at a farther distance, and have perhaps either missed the wolf or
endangered shooting the man.

But it was enough to have terrified a bolder man than I, and, indeed, it
alarmed all our company, when, with the noiso of Friday’s pistol, we heard
on both sides the most dismal howling of wolves; and the noise, redoubled
by the echo of the mountains, appeared to us as if there had been a prodigious
number of them. ILowever, as Friday had killed this wolf, the other that had
fastened upon the horse left him immediately and fled, without doing him any
damage, having happily fastened upon his head, where the bosses of the bridle
had stuck in his tecth. But the man was most hurt; for the raging creature
had bit him twice, once in the arm, and the other time a little above his knee,
and though he had made some defence, he was tumbling down by the disorder
of his horse, when Friday came up and shot the wolf.

It is easy to suppose that at the noise of Friday’s pistol we all mended our
pace, and rode up as fast as the way, which was very difficult, would give us
leave, to see what was the matter. As soon as we came clear of the trees,
which blinded us before, we saw clearly what had been the case, and how
Friday had disengaged the poor guide, though we did not presently discern
what kind of creature it was he had killed.

Vriday had delivered our guide, and when we came up to him was helping
him off from his horse, when on a sudden we espied the bear come out of the
wood—and a monstrous one it was, the biggest by far that ever I saw. We
were all a little surprised when we saw him; but when Friday saw him, it
was easy to see joy and courage in the fellow’s countenance. “O, O, O!”
says Friday, three times, pointing to him; “O master! you give me te leave,
me shakee te hand with him; me makee you good laugh.”

I was surprised to see the fellow so well pleased: “You fool!” says I, “he
will eat you up.”—“ Eatee me up! eatee me up!” says Friday, twice over
again; “me eatec him up; me makee you good laugh ; you all stay here; me

show you good laugh.” So down he sits, and gets off his boots in a moment,
170
















































ROBINSON CRUSOE.



and puts ona pair of pumps, which he had in his pocket, gives my other
servant his horse, and with his gun away he flew, swift like the wind.

The bear was walking softly on, and offered to meddle with nobody, till Friday
coming pretty near, calls to him, as if the bear could understand him, “Hark
ye, hark ye, me speakee with you.” We followed at a distance, for now being
come down on the Gascony side of the mountains, we were entered a vast
forest, where the country was plain and pretty open. Friday, who had, as we
say, the heels of the bear, came up with him quickly, and took up a great
stone, and: threw it at him, and hit him just on the head, but did him no
| more harm than if he had thrown it against a wall; but it answered Friday’s
end, for the rogue was so void of fear that he did it purely to make the bear
| follow him, and show us some laugh, as he called it. As soon as the bear felt
the blow, and saw him, he turns about, and comes after him, taking very long
strides, and shuffling on at a strange rate, so as would have put a horse to a
middling gallop. Away runs Friday, and takes his course as if he ran towards
us for help ; so we all resolved to fire at once upon the bear, and deliver my
man; though I was heartily angry at him for bringing the bear back upon us,
when he was going about his own business another way, and I called out,
“You dog! is this your making us laugh? Come away and take your horse,
that we may shoot the creature.” He heard me, and cried out, “No shoot, no
shoot; stand still, and you get much laugh ;” and as the nimble creature ran
two feet for the bear’s one, he turned on a sudden on one side of us, and
seeing a great oak-tree fit for his purpose, he beckoned to us to follow; and
doubling his pace, he got nimbly up the tree, laying his gun down upon the
ground, at about five or six yards from the bottom of the tree. The bear
soon came to the tree, and we followed at a distance. The first thing he did,
he stopped at the gun, smelled at it, but let it lie, and up he scrambles into
the tree, climbing like a cat, though so monstrous heavy. I was amazed at
the folly, as I thought it, of my man, and could not for my life see anything
to laugh at yet, till seeing the bear get up the tree, we all rode near to him.

When we came to the tree, there was Friday got out to the small end of a
large branch, and the bear got about half way to him. As soon as the bear
got out to that part where the limb of the tree was weaker,—“Ha!” says he to
us, “now you see me teachee the bear dance:” so he began jumping and
shaking the bough, at which the bear began to totter, but stood still, and began
to look behind him, to see how he should get back; then, indeed, we did laugh
heartily. But Friday had not done with him yet by a great deal; when seeing
him stand still, he called out to him again, as if he had supposed the bear
could speak English, “What you no come farther? pray you come farther;” so
he left jumping and shaking the tree; and the bear, just as if he understood
what he said, did come a little farther; then he began jumping again, and the

bear stopped again, We thought now was a good time to knock or on the










LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

head, and called to Friday to stand still, and we would shoot at the bear; but
he cried out earnestly, “O pray! O pray! no shoot, me shoot by and then:”
he would have said by-and-bye. However, to shorten the story, Friday danced
so much, and the bear stood so ticklish, that we had laughing enough, but still
could not imagine what the fellow would do: for first, we thought he depended
upon shaking the bear off; and we found the bear was too cunning for that
too, for he would not go out far enough to be thrown down, but clung fast
with his great broad claws and feet, so that we could not imagine what would
be the end of it, and what the jest would be at last. But Friday put us out
of doubt quickly, for seeing the bear cling fast to the bough, and that he would
not be persuaded to come any farther, “Well, well,” says Friday, “you no come
farther, me go; you no come to me, me come to you;” and upon this he went
out to the smaller end of the bough, where it would bend with his weight, and
gently let himself down by it, sliding down the bough till he came near enough
to jump down on his feet, and away he ran to his gun, took it up, and stood still.
“Well,” said I to him, “Friday, what will you do now? Why don’t you shoot
him?”—‘“No shoot,” says Friday, “no yet; me shoot now, me no kill; me shall
give you one more laugh ;” and, indeed, so he did, for when the bear saw his
cnemy gone, he came back from the bough where he stood, but very cautiously,
looking behind him every step, and coming backward till he got into the body
of the tree; then, with the same hinder end foremost, he came down the tree,
grasping it with his claws, and moving one foot at a time, very leisurely. At
this juncture, and just before he could set his hind foot on the ground, Friday
stepped up close to him, and clapped the muzzle of his piece into his ear, and
shot him dead. Then the rogue turned about to see if we did not laugh ; and
when he saw we were pleased, by our looks, he began to laugh very loud.
“So we kill bear in my country,” says Friday. “So you kill them?” says I;
“why, you have no guns.’—* No,” says he, “no gun, but shoot great much
long arrow.” This was a good diversion to us; but we were still in a wild
place, and our guide very much hurt, and what to do we hardly knew ; the
howling of wolves ran much in my head ; and, indeed, except the noise I once
heard on the shore of Africa, of which I have said something already, I never
heard anything’ that filled me with so much horror.

These things, and the approach of night, called us off, or else, as Friday
would have had us, we should certainly have taken the skin of this monstrous
creature off, which was worth saving, but we had near three leagues to go, and
our guide hastened us; so we left him, and went forward on our journey.

The ground was still covered with snow, though not so deep and dangerous
as on the mountains; and the ravenous creatures, as we heard afterwards,
were come down into the forest and plain country, pressed by hunger to seek
for food, and had done a great deal of mischief in the villages, where they

surprised the country people, killed a great many of their sheep and horses,
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ROBINSON CRUSOE.



and some people too. We had one dangerous place to pass, and our guide
told us if there were more wolves in the country we should find them there ;
and this was a small plain surrounded with woods on every side, and a long
narrow defile, or lane, which we were to pass to get through the wood, and
then we should come to the village where we were to lodge. It was within
half an hour of sunset when we entered the wood, and a little after sunset
when we came-into the plain. We met with nothing in the first wood, except
that in a little plain within the wood, which was not above two furlongs over,
we saw five great wolves cross the road, full speed, one after another, as if they
had some prey in view. They took no notice of us, and were gone out of sight
in a few moments. Upon this our guide, who was but a faint-hearted fellow,
bid us keep in a ready posture, for he believed there were more wolves
a-coming. We kept our arms ready, and our eyes about us; but we saw no
more wolves till we came through that wood, which was near half a league,
and entered the plain. As soon as we came into the plain, the first object we
met with was a horse which the. wolves had killed, and at least a dozen of
them at work picking his bones. We did not think fit to disturb them at
their feast, neither did they take much notice of us. Friday would have let
fly at them, but I would not suffer him by any means; for I found we were
like to have more business upon our hands than we were aware of. We had
not gone half over the plain, when we began to hear the wolves howl in the
wood on our left in a frightful manner, and presently after we saw about a
hundred coming on directly towards us, all in a body, and most of them in a
line, as regularly as an army drawn up by experienced officers. I scarce knew
in what manner to receive them, but found to draw ourselves in a close line
was the only way. So we formed in a moment; but that we might not have
too much interval, I ordered that only every other man should fire, and that
the others, who had not fired, should stand ready to give them a second volley
immediately, if they continued to advance upon us; and then that those who
had fired at first should not load their fusees again, but stand ready, every one
with a pistol, for we were all armed with a fusee and a pair of pistols each.
However, upon firing the first volley, the enemy made a full stop, being
terrified as well with the noise as with the fire; four of them being shot in the
head, dropped; several others were wounded, and went bleeding off, as we
could see by the snow. I found they stopped, but did not immediately retreat.
Whereupon, remembering that I had been told that the fiercest creatures were
terrified at the voice of a man, I caused all the company to halloo as loud as
we could, and I found the notion not altogether mistaken; for upon our shout
they began to turn about. I then ordered a second volley to be fired in their
rear, which put them to the gallop, and away they went to the woods. This
gave us leisure to charge our pieces again; and that we might lose no time,
we kept going; but we had but little more than loaded our fusees, and put
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LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF



ourselves in readiness, when we heard a terrible noise in the same wood on
our left, only that it was farther onward, the same way we were to go.

The night was coming on, which made it worse on our side; but the noise
increasing, we could easily perceive that it was the howling and yelling of
those hellish creatures; and, on a sudden, we perceived two or three troops of
wolves, one on our left, one behind us, and one in our front, so that we seemed
to be surrounded with them. However, as they did not fall upon us, we kept
our way forward, as fast as we could make our horses go, which, the way being
very rough, was only a good hard trot. In this manner we came in view of
the entrance of a wood, through which we were to pass, at the farther side of
the plain; ‘but we were greatly surprised, when coming nearer the lane or pass,
we saw a confused number of wolves standing just at the entrance. On a
sudden, at another opening of the wood, we heard the noise of a gun, and
looking that way, out rushed a horse, with a saddle and a bridle on him, flying
like the wind, and sixteen or seventeen wolves after him full speed. The horse
had the advantage of them; but as we supposed that he could not hold it at
that rate, we doubted not but they would get up with him at last: no question
but they did.

But here we had a most horrible sight; for, riding up to the entrance where
the horse came out, we found the carcases of another horse and of two men
devoured by the ravenous creatures, and one of the men was no doubt the
same whom we heard fire the gun, for there lay a gun just by him fired off;
but as to the other man, his head and the upper part of his body were eaten
up. This filled us with horror, and we knew not what course to take; but the
creatures resolved us soon, for they gathered about us presently in hopes of
prey, and I verily believe there were three hundred of them. It happened very
much to ow advantage, that at the entrance into the wood, but a little way
from it, there lay some large timber trees, which had been cut down the sum-
mer before, and I suppose lay there for carriage. I drew my little troop in
among those trees, and placing ourselves in a line behind one long tree, I
advised them all to alight, and keeping that tree before us for a breastwork,
to stand in a triangle, or three fronts, enclosing our horses in the centre. We
did so, and it was well we did; for never was a more furious charge than the
creatures made upon us in this place. They came on with a growling kind of
noise, and mounted the piece of timber, which, as I said, was our breastwork,
as if they were only rushing upon their prey; and this fury of theirs, it seems,
was principally occasioned by their seeing our horses behind us, I ordered
our men to fire as before, every other man, and they took their aim so sure
that they killed several of the wolves at the first volley; but there was a
necessity to keep a continual firing, for they came on like devils, those behind
pushing on those before. .

When we had fired a second volley of our fusees we thought they stopped a

174






Robinson and his party attacked by wolves,






ROBINSON CRUSOE.

little, and T hoped they would have gone off but it was but a moment, for
others came forward again; so we fired two volleys of our pistols, and I believe
in these four firings we had killed seventeen or cightcen of them, and lamed
twice as many, yet they came on again. Twas loath to spend our shot too
hastily, so 1 called my servant, not my man Friday, for he was better employed,
for, with the greatest dexterity imaginable, he had charged my fusee and’ his
own while we were engaged,—but, as 1 said, 1 called my other man, and
giving him a horn of powder, L bade him lay a trainall along the piece of
timber, and let it be a large train. Ie did so, and had but just time to get
away when the wolves came up to it, and some got upon it, when I, snapping
an uncharged pistol close to the powder, set it on fire. ‘Those that were upon
the timber were scorched with it, and six or seven of them fell, or rather





Jjemped in among us with the force and fright of the fire. We despatched

these in an instant, and the rest were so frightened with the light, which the
night—for it was now very near dark—made more terrible, that they drew
back a little; upon which L ordered our last pistols to. be fired off in one volley,
and after that we gave a shout; upon this the wolves turned tail, and we
sallicd immediately upon near twenty lame ones that we found strugeling on
the ground, and fell to cutting them with our swords, which answered our
expectation, for the erying and howling they made was better understood by
their fellows, so that they all fled and left us,

We had, first and last, killed about three-seore of them, and had it been
daylight we had killed many more. The field of battle being thus cleared, we
made forward again, for we had still near a league to wo. We heard the raven-
ous creatures howl and yell in the woods as we went several times, and some-
times we fancied we saw some of them; but the snow dazzling our eycs, we
were not certain. In about an hour more we came to the town where we were
to lodge, which we found in a terrible fright, and all in arms; for, it seems,
the night before the wolves and some bears had broke into the village, and
put them in such terror, that they were obliged to keep guard night and day,
but especially in the night, to preserve their cattle, and indeed their people.

The next morning our guide was so ill, and his limbs swelled so much with
the rankling of his wounds, that he could go no farther; so we were obliged
to take a new guide here, and go to Thoulouse, where we found a warm
climate, a fruitful, pleasant country, and no snow, no wolves, nor anything
like them; but when we told our story at Thoulouse, they told us it was
nothing but what was ordinary in the great forest at the foot of the mountains,
especially when the snow lay on the ground; but they inquired much what
kind of a guide we had got, who would venture to bring us that way in such a
severe season, and told us it was surprising we were not all devoured. When
we told them how we placed ourselves and the horses in the middle, they
blamed us exceedingly, and told us it was fifty to one but we had been all

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LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

destroyed, for it was the sight of the horses which made the wolves so furious,
secing their prey, and that at other times they are really afraid of a gun,—but
being excessively hungry, and raging on that account, the eagerness to come at
the horses had made them senseless of danger—and that if we had not by the
continued fire, and at last by the stratagem of the train of powder, mastered
them, it had been great odds but that we had been torn to pieces; whereas,
had we been content to have sat still on horseback, and fired as horsemen, they
would not have taken the horses so much for their own, when men were on
their backs ; and, withal, they told us that if we had stood altogether, and left
our horses, they would have been so cager to have devoured them, that we
might have come off safe, especially having our fire-arms in our hands, and
being so many in number. For my part, I was never so sensible of danger in
my life—for, seeing above three hundred devils come roaring and open-
mouthed to devour us, and having nothing to shelter us or retreat to, I gave
inyself over for lost. I believe I shall never care to cross those mountains
again. I would much rather go a thousand leagues by sea, though I was sure
to meet with a storm once a week,

T was now come to the centre of my travels, and had in a little time all my
new-discovered estate safe about me, the bills of exchange which I brought
with me having been currently paid.

My principal guide and privy-counsellor was my good, ancient widow, who,
in gratitude for the moncy I had sent her, thought no pains too much
nor care too great to employ for me; and I trusted her so entirely with
everything, that I was perfectly easy as to the security of my effects; and,
indeed, I was very happy from the beginning, and now to the end, in the
unspotted integrity of this good gentlewoman.

And now, having resolved to dispose of my plantation in the Brazils, I wrote
to my old friend at Lisbon, who offered it to the two merchants, the survivors
of my trustees, who lived in the Brazils. They accepted the offer, and remitted
thirty-three thousand picces-of-eight to pay for it.

In return, I signed the instrument of sale in the form which they sent from
Lisbon, and sent it to my old man, who sent me the bills of exchange for
thirty-two thousand cight hundred pieces-of-eight for the estate, reserving the
payment of one hundred moidores a year to him (the old man) during his life,
and fifty moidores afterwards to his son for his life, which I had promised them,
and which the plantation was to make good as a rent-charge. And thus I
have given the first part of a life of fortune and adventure,—a life of chequer-
work which the world will seldom be able to show the like of;—beginning
foolishly, but closing much more happily than any part of it ever gave me
leave to hope for.

Any one would think that in this state of complicated good fortune I was
past running any more hazards, but I was inured to a wandering life, had no

176






ROBINSON CRUSOE,



family, nor many relations, nor, however rich, had I contracted much acquaint-
ance; and though I had sold my estate in the Brazils, I could not keep that
country out of my head, and had a great mind to be upon the wing again.
Especially I could not resist the strong inclination I had to see my island, and
to know if the poor Spaniards were in being there. My true friend, the
widow, earnestly dissuaded me from it, and so far prevailed with me, that for
almost seven years she prevented my running abroad, during which time I
took my two nephews, the children of one of my brothers, into my care. The
eldest having something of his own, I bred up as a gentleman, and gave him
a settlement of some addition to his estate after my decease. The other I
placed with the captain of a ship. And after five years, finding him a sensible,
bold, enterprising young fellow, I put him into a good ship and sent him to
sea; and this young fellow afterwards drew me in, as old as I was, to further
adventures myself.

In the meantime I in part settled myself here. For, first of all, I married,
and that not either to my disadvantage or dissatisfaction, and had three
children, two sons and one daughter; but ‘my wife dying, and my nephew
coming home with good success from a voyage to Spain, my inclination to go
abroad and his importunity prevailed, and engaged me to go in his ship as a
private trader to the East Indies. This was in the year 1694.

In this voyage I visited my new colony in the island—saw my successors
the Spaniards—had the whole story of their lives, and of the villains I left
there—how at first they insulted the poor Spaniards—how they afterwards
agreed, disagreed, united, separated, and how at last the Spaniards were obliged
to use violence with them—how they were subjected to the Spaniards—how
honestly the Spaniards used them. A history, if it were entered into, as full
of variety and wonderful accidents as my own part—particularly, also, as to
their battles with the Caribbeans, who landed several times upon the island,
and as to the improvement they made upon the island itself—and how five of
them made an attempt upon the mainland, and brought away eleven men and
five women prisoners, by which, at my coming, I found about twenty young
children on the island.

Here I stayed about twenty days, left them supplies of all necessary things,
and particularly of arms, powder, shot, clothes, tools, and two workmen, which
I brought from England with me, viz., a carpenter and a smith.

Besides this, I shared the lands into parts with them, reserved to myself the
property of the whole, but gave them such parts respectively as they agreed
on; and having settled all things with them, and engaged them not to leave
the place, I left them there.

I touched at the Brazils, whence I sent a barque, which I bought there,
with more people to the island; and in it, besides other supplies, I sent seven
women, being such as I found proper for service, or for wives to such . would

M 17







[ee ee

_—— ee es








LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

take them. As to the Englishmen, I promised to send them some women
from England, with a good cargo of necessaries, if they would apply themselves
to planting—which I afterwards could not perform. The fellows proved very
honest and diligent after they were mastered, and had their properties set
apart for them. I sent them, also, from the Brazils, five cows, three of them
being big with calf, some sheep, and some hogs, which when I came again
were considerably increased.

But all these things, with some very surprising incidents in some new
adventures of my own, for ten years more, I shall give a farther account of in
the second part of my history.


PART IT.

—_—>+—

Tat homely proverb, used in England, viz, “That.what is bred in the bone
will not go out of the flesh,” was never more verified than in the story of my
life. Any one would think that after thirty-five years’ affliction, and a variety
of unhappy circumstances, the native propensity to rambling, which I gave an
account of in my first. setting out in the world, should be worn out, and I
might, at sixty-one years of age, have been a little inclined to stay at home,
and have done venturing life and fortune any more.

Nay, farther, the common motive of foreign adventures was taken away in
me, for I had no fortune to make; I had nothing to seek. If I had gained
ten thousand pounds, I had been no richer; for I had already sufficient for
me, and for those I had to leave it to; for, having no great family, I could
not spend what I had, unless I would set up for an expensive way of living,
such as servants, equipage, gaiety, and the like, which were things I had no
inclination to; so that I had nothing, indeed, to do but to sit still, and fully
enjoy what I got, and see it increase upon my hands. Yet these things had no
effect upon me, or at least not enough to resist the strong inclination I had to
go abroad again, which hung about me like a chronical distemper. In
particular, the desire of seeing my new plantation in the island, and the
colony I left there, ran in my head continually. I dreamed of it all night,
and my imagination ran upon it all day; it was uppermost in all my thoughts ;
and my fancy worked so strongly upon it, that I talked of it in my sleep; in
short, nothing could remove it out of my mind. It even broke so violently
into all my diseourses that it made my conversation tiresome, for I could talk
of nothing else; all my discourse ran into it, even to impertinence; and I
saw it myself.

My imagination worked up to such a height, and brought me into such
excess of vapours, that I actually supposed myself often upon the spot, at my
old castle, behind the trees; saw my old Spaniard, Friday’s father, and the
reprobate sailors I left upon the island; nay, I fancied I talked with them,
and looked at them steadily, though I was broad awake, as at persons before
me; and this I did till I often frightened myself with the images my fancy
represented to me. One time, in my sleep, I had the villany of the three
pirate sailors related to me by the first Spaniard and Friday’s father. They
told me how they barbarously attempted to murder all the Spaniards, and
that they set fire to the provisions they had laid up, on purpose to distress
and starve them; things that I had never heard of, and that, indeed, were
never all of them true in fact; but it was so warm in my imagination, and:
so realised to me, that, to the hour I saw them, I could not’ be renee but

17








that it was, or would be, true. Also, how TI resented it when the Spaniard
complained to me; and how T brought them to justice, tried them, and
ordered them all three to be hanged. In this kind of temper I lived some
years, T had no enjoyment of my life, no pleasant hours, no agreeable diver-
sion, but what had something or other of this in it; so that my wife, who saw
my mind wholly bent upon it, told me very seriously one night, that she believed
there was some sccret impulse of Providence upon me, which had determined
me to go thither again; and that she found nothing hindered my going, but
my being engaged to a wife and children. She told me that it was true she
could not think of parting with me; but as she was assured that if she was
dead it would be the first thing I would do; so, as it seemed to her that the
thing was determined above, she would not be the obstruction ; for, if |
thought fit and resolved to go—[Here she found me very intent upon her
words, and that I looked very earnestly at her, so that it a little disordered
her, and she stopped. I asked her why she did not go on, and say out what
she was going to say? But I perceived that her heart was too full, and tears
stood in her eyes.] “Speak out, my dear,” said [; “are you willing I should
go ?"—"“No,” said she, very affectionately, “I am far from willing; but if
you are resolved to go, rather than I would be the only hindrance, I will go
with you; for though I think it a most preposterous thing for one of your
years, and in your condition, yet, if it must be, I would not leave you; for, if
it be of Heaven, you must do it; there is no resisting it, And if Heaven
make it your duty to go, He will also make it mine to go with you, or other-
wiso dispose of me, that I may not obstruct it.”

This affectionate behaviour of my wife’s brought me a little out of the
vapours, and I began to consider what I was doing. I corrected my wander-
ing fancy, and began to argue with myself sedately what business I had after
three-score years, and after such a life of tedious sufferings and disasters,
closed in so happy and easy a manner: I say, what business had I to rash
into new hazards, and put myself upon adventures fit only for youth and
poverty to run into?

So I resolved to divert myself with other things, and to engage in some
business that might effectually tie me up from any more excursions of this
kind; for [ found that thing return upon me chiefly when I was idle, and had
nothing of moment immediately before me. I bought a little farm in the
county of Bedford, and resolved to remove myself thither. I had a convenient
little house upon it; and the land about it, I found, was capable of great
improvement. It was many ways suited to my inclination, which delighted
in cultivating, managing, planting, and improving of land; and particularly,
being an inland country, [ was removed from conversing among sailors, and
things relating to the remote parts of the world.

I went down to my farm, settled my family, bought ploughs, harrows,

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ROBINSON ORUSOE,





cart, waggon, horses, cows, and sheep, and, setting seriously to work, became
in one half-year a country gentleman. My thoughts were entirely taken up
in managing my servants, cultivating the ground, enclosing, planting, ete. ;
and I lived, as I thought, the most agreeable life that nature was capable of
directing, or that a man bred to misfortunes was capable of retreating to,

I farmed upon my own land, I had no rent to pay, was limited by no
articles; I could pull up or cut down as I pleased—what I planted was for
myself, and what I improved was for my family ; and having thus left off the
thoughts of wandering, I had not the least discomfort in any part of life as to
this world. Now I thought indeed that I enjoyed the middle state which my
father so earnestly recommended to me, and lived a kind of heavenly life, some-
thing like what is described by the poet, upon the subject of a country life :—



“Free from vices, free from care,
Age has no pain, and youth no snare.”

But in the middle of all this felicity, one blow from unseen Providence
unhinged me at once, and not only made a breach upon me inevitable, but
drove me, by its consequences, into a deep relapse of the wandering disposi-
tion, which, as I may say, being born in my blood, soon recovered its hold of
me; and, like the returns of a violent distemper, came on with an irresistible
force upon me. This blow was the loss of my wife. It is not my business
here to write an elegy upon my wife, to give a character of her particular «
virtues, and make my court to the sex by the flattery of a funeral sermon.
She was, in few words, the stay of all my affairs, the centre of all my enter-
prises, the engine that, by her prudence, reduced me to that happy compass I
was in, from the most extravagant and ruinous project that filled my head,
and did more to guide my rambling genius than a mother’s tears, a father’s
instructions, a friend’s counsel, or all my own reasoning powers could do. I was
happy in listening to her, and in being moved by her entreaties; and to the
last degree desolate in the world by the loss of her.

When she was gone I was as much alone, except for the assistance of ser-
vants, as I was in my island. I neither knew what to think nor what to do. I
saw the world busy around me; one part labouring for bread, another part
squandering in vile excesses, or empty pleasures, equally miserable, because
the end they proposed still fled from them ; for the men of pleasure every day
surfeited of their vice, and heaped up work for sorrow and repentance; and
the men of labour spent their strength in daily struggling for bread to main-
tain the vital strength they laboured with—so living in a daily circulation of
sorrow, living but to work, and working but to live, as if daily bread were the
only end of wearisome life, and a wearisome life the only occasion of daily bread.

This put me in mind of the life I lived in my island, where I suffered no
more corn to grow, because I did not want it, and bred no more goats, because

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LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

T had no more use for them; where the money lay in the drawer till it grew
niouldy, and had séarce the favour to be looked upon in twenty years.

All these things, had I improved them as I ought to have done, and as
reason and religion had dictated to me, would have taught me to search
farther than human enjoyments for a full felicity; and that there was some-
thing which certainly was the reason and end of life superior to all these things.

But my sage counsellor was gone. I was like a ship without a pilot—my
thoughts ran all away again into the old affair. My head was quite turned
with the whimseys of foreign adventures; and all the pleasant, innocent
amusements of my farm, my garden, my cattle, and my family, which before
entirely possessed me, were nothing to me. I resolved to leave off housekeep-
ing, let my farm, and return to London; and in a few months after I did so.

When I came to London, I was still as uneasy as I was before. I had no
relish for the place, no employment in it, nothitig to do but to saunter about
like an idle person, useless in God’s creation. This was the thing which, of
all circumstances of life, was the most my aversion, who had been all my days
used to an active life; and I would often say to myself, “A state of idleness
is the very dregs of life.” And, indeed, I thought I was much more suitably
employed when I was twenty-six days making a deal board.

It was now the beginning of the year 1693, when my nephew, whom, as I
have observed before, I had brought up to the sea, and had made him com-
“mander of a ship, was come home from a short voyage to Bilboa. He came
to me, and told me that some merchants of his acquaintance had been pro-
posing to him to go a voyage for them to the East Indies, and to China, as
private traders. “And now, uncle,” said he, “if you will go to sea with me,
I will engage to land you upon your old habitation in the island, for we are
to touch at the Brazils.”

Nothing can be a greater demonstration of a future state, and of the exist-
ence of an invisible world, than the concurrence of second causes with the
ideas of things which we form in our minds, perfectly reserved, and not com-
municated to any in the world.

My nephew knew nothing how far my distemper of wandering was returned
upon me, and I knew nothing of what he had in his thought to say, when
that very morning, before he came to me, I had, in a great confusion of
thought, and revolving every part of my circumstances in my mind, come to
this resolution, that I would go to Lisbon and consult with my old sea-
captain ; and if it was rational and practicable, I would go and see the island
again, and what was become of my people there. I had pleased .myself with
the thoughts of peopling the place, and carrying inhabitants from hence,
getting a patent for the possession, and I knew not what, when, in the middle
of all this, in comes my nephew, with his project pf carrying me thither in



182



his way to the Kast Indies.






ROBINSON CRUSOE.

I paused awhile at his words, and looking steadily at him, “What devil,”
said I, “sent you on this unlucky errand?” My nephew stared as.if he had
been frightened at first; but perceiving that I was not displeased with the
proposal, he recovered himself. “TI hope it may not be an unlucky proposal,
sir,” said he ; “I daresay you would be pleased to see your new colony there,
where you once reigned with more felicity than most of your brother monarchs
in the world.”

In a word, the scheme hit so exactly with the prepossession I was under,
and of which I have said so much, that I told him, in a few words, if he agreed
with the merchants, I would go with him; but I told him I would not promise
to go any farther than my own island. “Why, sir,” said he, “you don’t want
to be left there again, I hope?” “Why,” said I, “can you not take me up
again on your return?” He told me it would not be possible to do so; that
the merchants would never allow him to come that way with a laden ship of
such value, it being a month’s sail out of his way, and might be three or four.
“ Besides, sir, if I should miscarry,” said he, “and not return at all, then you
would be just reduced to the condition you were in before.”

This was very rational; but we found out a remedy for it, which was to
carry a framed sloop on board the ship, which being taken in pieces, and
shipped on board, might by the help of some carpenters, whom we agreed to
carry with us, be set up again in the island, and finished fit to go to sea im
a few days.

I was not long in resolving; for, indeed, the importunities of my nephew
joined so effectually with my inclination, that nothing could oppose me. .On
the other hand, my wife being dead, nobody concerned themselves so much for
me as to persuade me to one way or the other, except my ancient good friend
the widow, who earnestly struggled with me tc consider my years, my easy
circumstances, and the needless hazards of a long voyage, and, above all, my
young children. But it was all to no purpose, I had an irresistible desire
for the voyage; and I told her I thought there was something so uncommon
in the impressions I had upon my mind, that it would be a kind of resisting
Providence if I should attempt to stay at home. After which she ceased her
expostulations, and -joined with me, not only in making provision for my
voyage, but also in settling my family affairs for my absence; and providing
for the education of my children. :

I made my will, and settled the estate I had in such a manner for my
children, and placed in such hands, that I was perfectly easy and satisfied they
would have justice done them, whatever might befall me; and for their
education, I left it wholly to the widow, with a sufficient maintenance to
herself for her care, which she richly deserved; for no mother could ‘have
taken moye care in their education or understood it better, and as she lived tilk
I came home, I also lived to thank her for it. 2

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My nephew was ready to sail about the beginning of January, 1694-5; and
I, with my man Friday, went on board, in the Downs, the 8th, having, besides
that sloop, which I mentioned above, a very considerable cargo of all kinds of
necessary things for my colony; which, if I did not find in good condition, 1
resolved to leave so. .

I carried with me some servants, whom I purposed to place there as
inhabitants, or at least to set on work there, upon my account, while I stayed,
and either to leave them there or carry them forward, as they should appear
willing; particularly I carried two carpenters, a smith, and a very ingenious
fellow, a cooper by trade, and also a general mechanic; for he was dexterous
at making wheels, and hand-mills to grind corn, was a good turner, and a
good pot-maker; in a word, we called him our Jack-of-all-trades. With these
T carried a tailor, who had offered himself to go a passenger to the East Indies
with my nephew, but afterwards consented to stay on our new plantation; and
who proved a most handy fellow in many other businesses besides that of
his own.

My cargo consisted of a sufficient quantity of linen, and some English thin
stuffs, for clothing the Spaniards that I expected to find there; and enough of
them, as, by my calculation, might comfortably supply them for seven years:
the materials I carried for clothing them, with gloves, hats, shoes, stockings,
and all such things as they could want for wearing, amounted to above two
hundred pounds, including some beds, bedding, and household stuff, particularly
kitchen utensils, with pots, kettles, pewter, brass, etc, and near a hundred
pounds more in iron-work, nails, tools of every kind, staples, hooks, hinges,
and every necessary thing I could think of.

I carried also a hundred spare arms, muskets, and fusees, besides some
pistols, a considerable quantity of shot of all sizes, three or four tons of lead,
and two pieces of brass cannon, and, because I knew not what time and what
extremities I was providing for, I carried a hundred barrels.of powder, besides
swords, cutlasses, and the iron part of some pikes and halberts, so that we had
a large magazine of all sorts of stores; and I made my nephew carry two
small quarter-deck guns more than he wanted for his ship, to leave behind if
there was occasion; that when we came there, we might build a fort, and man
it against all sorts of enemies; and, indeed, I thought there would be need
enough for all, and much more, if we hoped to maintain our possession of
the island.

I had not such bad luck in this voyage as I had been used to meet with;
yet some odd accidents, cross winds, and bad weather, happened on first setting
out, which made the voyage longer than I expected, and I began to think the
same ill fate attended me; and that I was born to be never contented with
being on shore, and yet to be always unfortunate at sea.

Contrary winds first put us to the northward, and we were obliged to put

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ROBINSON CRUSOE.

in at Galway, in Ireland, where we lay wind-bound two-and-twenty days; but
we had this satisfaction with the disaster, that provisions were here exceeding
cheap, and in the utmost plenty; so that while we lay here, we never touched
the ship’s stores, but rather added to them. Here, also, I took in several live
hogs, and two cows with their calves; which I resolved, if I had a good
passage, to put on shore in my island; but we found occasion to dispose
otherwise of them.

We set out on the fifth of February from Ireland, and had a very fair gale
of wind for some days. As I remember, it might be about the 20th of
February, late in the evening, when the mate, having the watch, came into the
round-house, and told us he saw a flash of fire, and heard a gun fired; and
while he was telling us of it, a boy came in, and told us the boatswain heard
another. This made us all run out upon the quarter-deck, where, for a while,
we heard nothing; but in a few minutes we saw a very great light, and found
that there was some terrible fire at a distance. Immediately we had recourse
to our reckonings, in which we all agreed that there could be no land that
way in which the fire showed itself, no, not for five hundred leagues, for it
appeared at W.N.W. Upon this, we concluded it must be some ship on fire
at sea; and as, by our hearing the noise of guns just before, we concluded
that it could not be far off, we stood directly towards it, and were presently
satisfied we should discover it, because the. farther we sailed, the greater the
light appeared; though, the weather being hazy, we could not perceive anything
but the light for a while. In about half-an-hour’s sailing, the wind being fair
for us, and the weather clearing up a little, we could plainly discern that it
was a great ship on fire in the middle of the sea.

I was most sensibly touched with this disaster. I recollected my former
circumstances, and in what condition I was in when taken up by the Portuguese
captain; and how much more deplorable the circumstances of the poor creatures
belonging to that ship must be, if they had no other ship in company with them.
Upon this, I immediately ordered that five guns should be fired, one after
another; that, if possible, we might give notice to them that there was help
for them at hand, and that they might endeavour to save themselves in their
boat; for thowzh we could see the flames of the ship, yet they, it being night,
could see nothing of us.

We lay by some time upon this, only driving as the burning ship drove,
waiting for daylight; when, on a sudden, to our great terror, though we had
reason to expect it, the ship blew up in the air; and in a few minutes all the
fire was out—that is to say, the rest of the ship sunk. This was a terrible
sight, for the sake of the poor men, who, I concluded, must be either destroyed
in the ship, or be in the utmost distress in their boat, in the middle of the
ocean, which, at present, I could not see. However, to'direct them as well as
I could, I caused lights to be hung out in all the parts of the ship, ae kept

5
















LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

firing guns all the night long, letting them know by this that there was a ship
not far off.

About eight o’clock in the morning we discovered the ship’s boats by the
help of our perspective glasses, and found there were two of them, both
thronged with people, and decp in the water. We perceived they rowed, the
wind being against them. They saw our ship, and did their utmost to make
us see them. :

We immediately spread our ancient to let them know we saw them, and
hung a waft out, as a signal for them to come on board, and then made more
sail, standing directly to them. In little more than half an hour we came up
with them, and took them all in, being no less than sixty-four men, women,
and children, for there were a great many passengers.

Upon inquiry, we found it was a French merchant ship of three hundred
tons, home bound from Quebec, in the river of Canada. The master gave us
a long account of the distress of his ship, how the fire began in the steerage
by the negligence of the steersman; but, on his erying for help, was, as
everybody thought, entirely put out; but they soon found that some sparks
had got into some part of the ship so difficult to come at that they could not
effectually quench it; and afterwards getting in between the timbers, and
within the ceiling of the ship, it proceeded into the hold, and mastered all the
skill and application they were able to exert.

They had no more to do then but to get into their boats, which, to their
great comfort, were pretty large, being their long-boat, and a great shallop,
besides a small skiff, which was of service to them, to get some fresh water
and provisions into her, after they had secured their lives from the fire. They
had, indeed, small hope of their lives by getting into these boats at that
distance from any land, only that they thus escaped from the fire, and there
was a possibility that some ship might happen to be at sea and might take
them in. They had sails, oars, and a compass; and were preparing to make
the best of their way back to Newfoundland, the wind blowing pretty fair at
S.E. by E. They had as much provision and water as, with sparing it so as
to be next door to starving, might support them about twelve days, in which,
if they had no bad weather and no contrary winds, the captain said he hoped
he might get to the Banks of Newfoundland, and might perhaps take some
fish to sustain them till they might go on shore. But there were so many
chances against them in all these cases, such as storms to oversct and founder
them, rains and cold to benumb and perish their limbs, contrary winds to
keep them out and starve them, that it must have been next to miraculous if
they had escaped.

In the midst of their consternation, every one being hopeless and ready to
despair, the captain, with tears in his eyes, told me they were on a sudden

surprised with the joy of hearing a gun fire, and after that four more. These
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ROBINSON CRUSOE.



were the five guns which I caused to be fired at first seeing the light. This
revived their hearts, and gave them the notice, which, as above, I desired it
should, that there was a ship at hand for their help. It was upon the hearing
of these guns that they took down their masts and sails—the sound comine
from the windward, they resolved to lie by till morning. Some time after
this, hearing no more guns, they fired three muskets, one a considerable while
after another; but these, the wind being contrary, we never heard.

Some time after that again they were still more agreeably surprised with
seeing our lights, and hearing the guns which, as I have said, I caused to be
fired all the rest of the night. This set them to work with their oars, to keep
their boats ahead, that we might the sooner come up with them; and, at last,
to their inexpressible joy, they found we saw them.

. _ It is impossible for me to express the several gestures, the strange ecstasies,

the variety of postures which these poor delivered people ran into, to express
the joy of their souls at so unexpected a deliverance. Grief and fear are
easily described; sighs, tears, groans, and a very few motions of the head and
hands, make up the sum of its variety; but an excess of joy, a surprise of
joy, has a thousand extravagances in it. There were some in tears; some
raging and tearing themselves, as if they had been in the greatest agonies of
sorrow; some stark raving and downright lunatic; some ran about the ship
stamping with their feet, others ringing their hands; some were dancing, some
singing, some laughing, more crying; many quite dumb, not able to speak a
word; others sick and vomiting; several swooning and ready to faint; anda
few were crossing themselves, and giving God thanks.

There were two priests among them. One an old man, and the-other a
young man: and that which was strangest was, the oldest man was the worst.
As soon as he set his foot on board our ship, and saw himself safe, he dropped
down stone dead to all appearance; not the least sign of life could be perceived
in him. Our surgeon immediately applied proper remedies to recover him,
and was the only man in the ship that believed he was not dead. At length
he opened a vein in his arm, having first chafed and rubbed the part, so as to
warm it as much as possible. Upon this, the blood, which only dropped at
first, flowing freely, in three minutes after the man opened his eyes; anda
quarter of an hour after that he spoke, grew better, and in a little time, quite
well. After the blood was stopped, he walked about, told us he was perfectly
well, took a dram of cordial which the surgeon gave him, and had come to
himself. About a quarter of an hour after this they came running into the
cabin to the surgeon, who was bleeding a French woman that had fainted, and
told him the priest was gone stark mad. It seems he had begun to resolve
the change of his circumstances in his mind, and again this put him into an
ecstasy of joy. His spirits whirled about faster than the vessels could convey
them, the blood grew- hot and feverish; and the man was as fit for Bedlam as

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LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

any ercature that ever was in it. The surgeon would not bleed him again in that
condition, but gave him something to put him to sleep, which after some time
operated upon him, and he awoke next morning perfectly composed and well.

The younger priest behaved with great command of his passions, and was
really an example of a serious, well-governed mind. At his first coming on
board the ship, he threw himself flat on his face, prostrating himself in thank-
fulness for his deliverance, in which [ unseasonably disturbed him, really thinking
he had been in a swoon; but he spoke calmly, thanked me, told me he was
eiving God thanks for his deliverance; begged me to leave him a few moments,
and that, next to his Maker, he would give me thanks also.

| was heartily sorrow that L disturbed him, and not only left him, but kept
others from interrupting him also. Ile continued in that posture about three
minutes, or little more, after T left him, then came to me, as he had said he
would, and, with a great deal of seriousness and affection, with tears in his
eyes, thanked me that had, under God, given him and so many miscrable
creatures their lives.

After this, the young priest applicd himself to his countrymen, laboured to
compose them; persuaded, entreated, argued, reasoned with them, and did his
utmost to keep them within the exercise of their reason; and with some he
had success, though others were for a time out of all government of themselves.

We were somewhat disordered by these extravagances among our new
eucsts, for the first day, but after they had retired to lodgings, provided for
them as well as our ship would allow, and they had slept heartily—as most of
them did, they were quite another sort of people the next day.

Nothing of good manners, or civil acknowledgments for the kindness shown
them, was wanting. The French, it is known, are naturally apt enough to
exceed that way. The captain and one of the priests came to me the next day,
and desired to speak with me and my nephew. The commander began to
consult with us what should be done with them; and, first, they told us we had
saved their lives, so all they had was little enough for a return to us for that
kindness received. The captain said they had saved some money and some
things of value in their boats, caught hastily out of the flames, and if we would
accept it, they were ordered to make an offer of it all to us; they only desired
to be set on shore somewhere in our way, where, if possible, they might get a
passage to France. My nephew wished to accept. their money at-first_ word,
and to consider what to do with them afterwards, but I overruled him in that
part, for I knew what it was to be set on shore in a strange country; and if
the Portuguese captain that took me up at sea had served me so, and taken all
1 had for my deliverance, [ must have starved, or have been as much a slave
at the Brazils as I had been at Barbary, the mere being sold to a Mahometan
excepted; and perhaps a Portuguese is not a much better master than a Turk,
if not, in some cases, much worse.

Iss






“As soon as the old priest set foot on board our ship, and saw himself
safe, he dropped down stone dead to all appearance.”






ROBINSON CRUSOE.

I therefore told the French captain that we had taken them up in their
distress, but that it was our duty to do so, as we were fellow-creatures; and
we would desire to be so delivered, if we were in the like, or any other
extremity; that we-had done nothing for them but what he believed they
would have done for us, if we had been in their case, and they in ours; but
that we took them up to save them, not to plunder them; and it would be a
most barbarous thing to take that little from them which they had saved out
of the fire, and then set them on shore and leave them; that this would be
first to save them from death, and then kill them ourselves; save them from
drowning, and abandon them to starving; and, therefore, I would not let the
least thing be taken from them. As to setting them on shore, I told them,
indeed, that was an exceeding difficulty to us, for that the ship was bound to
the East Indies; and though we were driven out of our course to the westward
a very great way, and perhaps were directed by Heaven on purpose for their
deliverance, yet it was impossible for us wilfully to change our voyage on their
particular account; nor could my nephew, the captain, answer it to the
freighters, with whom he was under charter to pursue his voyage by the way
of Brazil; and all I knew we could do for them was, to put ourselves in the
way of meeting with other ships homeward bound from the West Indies, and
get them a passage, if possible, to England or France.

The first part of the proposal they could not but be thankful for, but they
were in very great consternation, especially the passengers, at the notion of
being carried away to the East Indies. They entreated me, that as I was
driven so far to the westward before I met with them, I would at least keep
on the same course to the Banks of Newfoundland, where it was probable I
might meet with some ship or sloop that they might hire to carry them back
to Canada, whence they came.

I thought this was but a reasonable request on their part, and therefore I
inclined to agree to it; for, indeed, I considered that to carry this whole
company to the East Indies would not only be an intolerable severity upon the
poor people, but would be ruining ow whole voyage, by devouring all our
provisions. So I consented that we would carry them to Newfoundland, if
wind and weather would permit; and if not, that I would carry them to
Martinico, in the West Indies.

The wind continued fresh easterly, but the weather pretty good; and as the
winds had continued in the points between N.E. and S.E. a long time, we
missed several opportunities of sending them to France; for we met several
ships bound to Europe, whereof two were French, from St Christopher’s; but
they had been so long beating up against the wind that they durst take in no
passengers, for fear of wanting provisions for the voyage, as well for themselves
as for those they should take in; so we were obliged to go on. It was about
a week after this that we made the Banks of Newfoundland, where eBay all

1








LIFE AND ADVENTURES OP



our French people on board a bark, which they hired at sea, to carry them to
France, if they could get provisions to victual themselves with. The young
priest I spoke of, hearing we were bound to the East Indies, desired to go the
voyage with us, and to be sct on shore on the coast of Coromandel; which I
readily agreed to, for I wonderfully liked the man, also four of the seamen
entered themselves on our ship, and proved very useful fellows.

From hence we directed our course for the West Indies, steering away S.
and 8. by E. for about twenty days together, sometimes little or no wind at
all; when we met with another subject for our humanity to work upon, almost
as deplorable as that before.

It was in the latitude of 27 degrees 5 minutes north, on the 19th day of
March, 1694-5, when we spied a sail, our course §.E. and by 8. We soon
perceived it was a large vessel, and that she bore up to us, but could not at
first know what to make of her, till, after coming a little nearer, we found she
had lost her main-topmast, foremast, and bowsprit; presently she fired a gun,
as a signal of distress. The weather was pretty good, wind at N.N.W. a fresh
gale, and we soon came to speak with her.

We found her a ship of Bristol, bound home from Barbadoes, but had been
blown out of the road at Barbadoes a few days before she was ready to sail, by
a terrible hurricane, while the captain and chief mate were both gone on shore;
so that, besides the terror of the storm, they were in an indifferent case for good
artists to bring the ship home. They had been already nine weeks at sea, and
had met with another terrible storm, after the hurricane was over, which had
blown them quite out of their knowledge to the westward, and in which they
lost their masts. They told us they expected to have seen the Bahama Islands,
but were driven away again to the south-east, by a strong gale of wind at
N.N.W., the same that blew now; and having no sails to work the ship with
but a maincourse, and a kind of square sail upon a jury foremast, they could
not lie near the wind, but were endeavouring to stand away for the Canaries.

But that which was worst of all, was that they were almost starved for want
of provisions. Their bread and flesh were quite gone; they had not one ounce
left in the ship, and had had none for eleven days. The only relief they had
was their water was not all spent, and they had about half a barrel of flour
left; they had sugar enough, and seven casks of rum.

There was a youth, and his mother, and a maid-servant on board, who were ,
passengers, and thinking the ship was ready to sail, unhappily came on board
the evening before the hurricane began; and having no provisions of their own
left, they were in a more deplorable condition than the rest; for the seamen
being reduced to such an extreme necessity themselves, had no compassion for
the poor passengers; and they were indeed in such a condition that their
misery is very hard to describe.

I had perhaps not known this part, if my curiosity had not led me to go on
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ROBINSON CRUSOE.

board the ship. The second mate, who upon this occasion commanded the
ship, had been on board our ship, and he told me they had three passengers in
the great cabin that were in a deplorable condition. “Nay,” said he, “I
believe they are dead, for I have heard nothing of them for above two days,
and I was afraid to inquire after them, for I had nothing to relieve them with.”

We immediately applied ourselves to give them relief; and, indeed, I had
so far overruled things with my nephew, that I would have victualled them,
though we had gone to Virginia, or any other part of the coast of America, to
have supplied ourselves; but there was no necessity for that.

But now they were in a new danger, for they were afraid of eating too much
even of that little we gave them. The mate, or commander, brought six men
with him in his boat, but these poor wretches looked like skeletons, and were
so weak that they could hardly sit to their oars. The mate himself was very
ill, and half-starved, for he declared he had reserved nothing from the men,
and went share and share alike with them in every bit they ate.

I cautioned him to eat sparingly, but set meat before him immediately; and
he had not eaten three mouthfuls before he began to be sick and out of order;
so he stopped awhile, and our surgeon mixed him up something with some
broth, which he said would be to him both food and physic; and after he had
taken it he grew better. In the meantime I forgot not the men, I ordered
victuals to be given them, and the poor creatures rather devoured than ate it.
They were so exceeding hungry that they were in a manner ravenous, and had
no command of themselves; and two of them ate with so much greediness, that
they were in danger of their lives the next morning.

The sight of these people’s distress was very moving to me, and brought to
mind what I had a terrible prospect of at my first coming on shore in my
island, where I had never the least mouthful of food, or any prospect of pro-
curing any, besides the hourly apprehensions I had of being made the food of
other creatures, But all the while the mate: was thus relating to me the miser-
a