Front Cover
 Half Title
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Chapter I
 Chapter II
 Chapter III
 Chapter IV
 Chapter V
 Chapter VI
 Chapter VII
 Chapter VIII
 Chapter IX
 Chapter X
 Chapter XI
 Chapter XII
 Chapter XIII
 Chapter XIV
 Chapter XV
 Chapter XVI
 Chapter XVII
 Chapter XVIII
 Chapter XIX
 Chapter XX
 Chapter XXI
 Chapter XXII
 Chapter XXIII
 Back Cover

Title: The pleasant history of Reynard the Fox
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026969/00001
 Material Information
Title: The pleasant history of Reynard the Fox
Uniform Title: Reynard the Fox
Physical Description: xv, 2, 134 p., 13 leaves of plates : ill. ; 21 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Roscoe, Thomas, 1791-1871 ( Translator )
Cooper, James D ( Engraver )
Elwes, Alfred Thomas ( Illustrator )
Jellicoe, John ( Illustrator )
Sampson Low, Marston, Low & Searle ( Publisher )
Scribner, Welford & Armstrong ( Publisher )
James Burn & Company ( Binder )
Publisher: Sampson Low, Marston, Low, and Serle
Scribner, Welford, and Armstrong
Place of Publication: London
New York
Publication Date: 1873
Subject: Foxes -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Kings and rulers -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Animals -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Adventure and adventurers -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Sin -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
James Burn & Company -- Binders' tickets (Binding) -- 1873   ( rbbin )
Bldn -- 1873
Genre: Binders' tickets (Binding)   ( rbbin )
novel   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
United States -- New York -- New York
Statement of Responsibility: translated by the late Thomas Roscoe ; illustrated with nearly one hundred designs by A.T. Elwes and John Jellicoe.
General Note: Illustration engraved by Cooper after Elwes and Jellicoe.
General Note: Bound by James Burn & Company.
Funding: Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026969
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002236543
notis - ALH7018
oclc - 05638045

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Half Title
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
    Title Page
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
    List of Illustrations
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
    Chapter I
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 2a
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Chapter II
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Chapter III
        Page 10
        Page 10a
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Chapter IV
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 16a
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Chapter V
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Chapter VI
        Page 30
        Page 30a
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Chapter VII
        Page 34
        Page 34a
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 36a
    Chapter VIII
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Chapter IX
        Page 42
        Page 42a
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Chapter X
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Chapter XI
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 56a
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Chapter XII
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
    Chapter XIII
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Chapter XIV
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    Chapter XV
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
    Chapter XVI
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 84a
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
    Chapter XVII
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
    Chapter XVIII
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 98a
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 106a
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
    Chapter XIX
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
    Chapter XX
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 120a
    Chapter XXI
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
    Chapter XXII
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 134a
    Chapter XXIII
        Page 135
        Page 136
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text


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CIIHAPTERl I. How the Lion proclaimed a solemn feast at his
court, and how Isegrim the Wolf and his wife, and Curtise
the IIound made complaints against Reynard the Fox 1
CHIAPTER II. How Grimbard the Goat spoke in favour of Reynard be-
fore the King. .
CHAPTER III. HIow Chanticleer the Cock complained of Reynard the
Fox .
CHAPTER IV. How Bruin the Bear sped with Reynard the Fox 15
CHAPTER V. How the King sent Tibert the Cat for Reynard the Fox 2l
CHAPTER VI. How Tibert the Cat was deceived by Reynard the Fox l)
CHAPTER VII. fHow Grimbard the Goat was sent to bid the Fox a third
time to the King's Court 31
CHAPTER VIII. HIow Reynard was shrived by Grimbard thle Goat 37
CIAPTER IX. How the Fox came to the Court, and how lie fared 42
CHAPTER X. How the Fox was arrested and :..1,i. i.1. to Death. 45
CHAPTER XI. How Reynard made his Confession before the King 49
CHlAPTER XII. How Reynard the Fox was honoured above all other
beasts by the King's express command 60
CHAPTER XIII. fHow Kaywardthe Hare was slain by the Fox, who sent
him by tlhe Ram as a present to the King. .

CHAPTER XIV. How Bellin the Ram and his Linenge were given up o1
the Bear and the Wolf 7
CHAPTERt XV. Jlow tile King took conlisl For revenge, and how Rvy-
nard was forewarned by (irimbard the Brock 77
"CiuAritti XVI. allow the Fox, repenting his sins, makes his Confessio
and is absolved by the Goat 83
CHAPTER XV11. HIow l.eyvnard the Fox made his defence before the
King, and the King's answer .
C(iraP XVIII. ITow Reynard apologized for Kavward's deatb, and
answered all other imputations 97
(ii.AT'IPE XIX. How Reynard made his peace with the King, and low
Isegrim the Wolf accused ]imn again 11
CIIAPTER XX. How Isegrim proffered his glove to Reynard to fight
with him, which Reynard accepted, and how Rukenard advised the
Fox to bear himself in tle ight 115
CrTr\TER XXT. The fierce Encounter between the Wolf and tlhe Fox,
the event, passages, and victory 121
CHAITEI XXII. How tie King pardoned Sir Reynard in dll things,
made him the greatest lord in the land, and how lie returned in
triumph home', attended by all his kindred. 131
C('ltErr XXIII. Reynard returns to Malepardus. 1



11E, Challenge A. T. ]Elwcs. 1rontispicce
HIeading to Chapter 1. John Jellicoe 1
Assembling of the Lion's Court A. 'T. Elwes 2
Curtise the Hound loses his pud-
ding .
Kayward the Hare sings his credo 5
Grimbard the Goat turns advocate 6
Isegrim the Wolf and his Wife .
Reynard forswears the World .,,
Funeral obsequies of Coppel the lien ,, 0o
Initial to Chapter III. )
Reynard among the Chickens 1,, 2
Bruin rejoicing ,, 1
Initial to Chapter IV. 15
Bruin visits Malepardus. ,, 16
Bruin pays for his Honey .,, .
Pursuit of Bruin by the V d! .i John Jellicoe 20


I)aime bullockk in jeopardy Jlcoe 22
Blruin rolls himself back to Cort 1. T. Elres 2
Sir Tibert the Cat is commissioned 26
Sir Tibert on his mission 27
\fouse listening .. ,, 29
Initial to Chapter VI. .,, 30
Tiblert assaults the Priest's legs n Jlicroc 31
Revynard laughling J/'ies 33
Initial to (hapnter VI. .
lReynard amusing himself at hlii 34
Family Grief 3
Initial to Chapter VI l. 37
Grilmbard absolves Reynard 37
Reynard teaches Isegrim to Ring the Bell ,, 38
Reynard doing Penance 40
Coming events cast their shadows before 41
Initial to Chapter IX ,, 42
The Lion rebukes leynard .,, .
Reynard arrested 44
Initial to Chapter X. ,, 45
Sir Tibert anticipates .,, 47
The Terrors of Suspense ,, 48
IReynard and the Kids ,, .
(rimbard and his Wife Slopard ,, 2
Reynard detects his Father ,, 4
Reynard forgiven .,, 7
On to Rome .h .l/. .icoi )
Initial to Chapter XII. Elves 6.
Tisellen the Rook counsels his friends ,, 61
lsetrim loses his Shoes. ,, 63
Initial to Chapter XIII. ,, (;
Kayward finds hiss mistalie 67
Reynard deceives Bellin the Ram ,, (
The Discovery at Court. ,, 70
I'ettrs 72

AnRTIS. Page
Initial to Chapter XIV. A. 7. Elves 73
Firapel the Leopard visits the Prison ., 74
Corbant the Rook deceived by Reynard ,, 75
Reynard Blacking his Boots ,, 76
Initial to Chapter XV.. ,, 77
Reynard receives Grimbard's warning 80
Reynard watching Mallard ,, 82
Initial to Chapter XVI.. 83
Sir Isegrim's curiosity satisfied ,, 85
Reynard amongst his Friends and Enemies ,, 88
Initial to Chapter XVII. 89
Martin the Ape meets Reynard ,, 91
The Coney and the Rook alarmed 95
The Ape's Wife 96
Initial to Chapter XVIII. 97
Alkarin the Magician John Jllicoe 98
Reynard and the Mirror A. T. Elwes 99
Crampart and the Magic Horse John Jllicoe 102
Tibert deserts Reynard A. T. Elwes 104
Isegrim and the Crane 105
Reynard's Father as a Physician John Jcllico 106
Reynard and Isegrim with the Swine A. T. Elwes 108
The Herdsman and Horse ,, 110
Initial to Chapter XIX. .,, 111
A nice condition ,, 112
Better to let the Well alone 114
Initial to Chapter XX. 115
The Otter visits Reynard ,, 118
Amen, said the Ape 120
Initial to Chapter XXI. .,, 121
Throwing Dust in his Eyes ,, 121
The Victory of Reynard 126
The Cook scalds the Hound Jon Jellicoe 128
The unlucky Dog .. A. T. Eles 130
Initial to Chapter XXII. ,, 131


Reynard as Lord Iigh Chancellor .. A AbEws .132
Sir Isegrim attended by his Friends 133
Reynard takes leave of the King 131
Initial to Chapter XX II. .,, 13
Reynard returns to Malepardus 135
Safe at Home ,, 3
Vignette on Title .

*- ,- : ,



, HE real origin of this very curious comic and
V, satirical production is involved, like most fables of
the kind, in considerable doubt and perplexity. The
earliest printed German copy would appear to have been that of
the year 1498, written in the dialect of Lower Saxony; though
there was a Dutch romance, in prose, bearing the same title,
"Historie van Reynaert de Vos," published at Delft, in 1485.
The former one, of 1498, was afterwards translated into High
German, and also into Latin. It has been referred to various
individuals as the author; most commonly to Henry Von
Alkmar ; but that his was not the first story of the kind, would
appear from his preface, in which he merely assumes the merit
of its translation. Nicholas Baumann, who is stated to have
written it as a satire upon the Chancellor of the duke of Juliers,
is another author to whom it has, with less authority, however,
been attributed, his edition bearing no earlier a date than 1 .-2
In the translation it is stated to have been borrowed from the


Italian and French tongues, but its individual origin is not
pointed out. It is so far left in doubt, whether ihe GeIrman
author copied from the ]Dutch publication at Delft, where the
solo remaining copy is still preserved, or whether both were
translated or imitated from the French and Italian, or some
more hidden materials, of which the .I.-.- Itrve now perished.
At all events, the Lubec edition of 1498 is a work so superior
in point of power and skill, as well as in its comic incidents and
delineations, as to confer upon it the style and character of an
original composition. Its allegorical scenes are well supported;
exhibiting under a picture of the court of beasts, the various
intrigues and interests of a human court, where everything is
thrown into confusion, and the most dangerous plans are
adopted, at the instigation of a wily favorite. By such means
the Lion risks the loss of his dominions, while Reynard (who is
supposed by some to represent the dnke of Lorraine), and some
other personages, doubtless imitated from real life, carry their
obnoxious measures. There is an old English translation, pub-
lished by Caxton, which was executed, it is said, from the Flemish
version or original.
Goithe's version is an imitation of the work of Alkmar, from
the Lower Saxon, composed in hexameter verse, and in modern
From the number of editions enumerated by the learned
Fligel, in his History of Comic Literature," the German Fox
would appear to have been a singular favourite with most
nations. Upwards of forty editions are mentioned, among which
three were published in England, besides others which do not
appear to have come within the scope of the ('ermnan writer.
The English prose version of 16 01,, from which the followiine


specimen of the work has been abridged, is one of them, con-
sisting of a free translation and occasional abridgment of the
edition of 1498, upon which most of the subsequent editions,
indeed, both in Germany and elsewhere, seem to be founded.
The German edition of 1498 appeared at Lubee in small 4to.
accompanied by woodcuts in a rude style of illustration, and
with a preface of four pages from the pen of Henry Von Alkmar,
the work itself consisting of two hundred and forty-one pages.
It is composed in common heroic metre, the heroic metre of low
Dutch; a copy is still preserved in the Ducal Library at
Wolfenbiittel, with the following motto:

Ut vulpis adulatio,
Nun in der Werlde blyket,
Sic hominis est ratio
Gelyk dem vosse geschicket.

At the close is found the date, Anno Domini, 1498, Lubek.
It was first made known by Professor Hackmann, in 1709, who
printed an edition of it at Wolfenbiittel, 1711. In the Preface,
Henry Von Alkmar announces himself as a schoolmaster, who
had borrowed his translation from the French tongue, but without
throwing any light upon the real author, or noticing any Dutch
writers or commentators among his contemporaries. His name
has by some been conjectured to be a mere fabrication, and
among others by Henry Lackman, and by Biisching. Most
probably, however, says PlFgel, Alkmar was born in the city of
that name in Holland; he represents himself as Hofmeister to
the duke of Lothringen (Lorraine), who died in 1508, at whose
request the Flemish work was first composed. The Dutch
writer expressly disclaims all title to its production, though no


prior French and Italian materials, from which be professes to
have taken it, have been discovered.
Gottsched, in his edition, is inclined to think Alkmar the real
original author, and that be merely feigned its version from
other tongues. Thus some dispute his word, and others his
existence; learned opinions clash with still more learned
opinions, and conjectures are heaped upon conjectures.
These unfortunately do not appear to have brought the learned
speculators much nearer to the truth: the obscure fables of
Reynard the Fox belong, in some form or other, to most nations;
their peculiar origin losing itself in the mists of antiquity.
Neither do they add anything to the value of the work under
discussion, at all commensurate to the abundance and ingenuity
of the researches it has elicited. What degree of certainty,
indeed, can be expected, when the only true guide, that of com-
parison of dates, and the local intrinsic evidence of the work,
has been doubtless.mystified by the wily sir Reynard, who chose
to leave us only vague hypothetical conjectures. Without pre-
suming to enter into the mazes of antiquarian research, which
fortunately for the readers of a work of entertainment, lies as
far beyond the editor's ambition as his skill, he may be allowed
to deduce, from the arguments set before him, the probability of
sir Reynard having brought his learned pursuers to fault by his
usual ruse lco gfirr, ; returning to his original seat, on finding'
himself hard pressed, so slily and softly as to render it impossible
for the best trained scent to track him back to his native spot,
whether in French Flanders, Holland, Italy, Germany, or in the
East. He may probably have had his origin in the ancient
Kelila and D)imnna in these last regions; the nurse of oral
animals, more especially of a long race of eloquent and politic


foxes, called Choes, celebrated for the wisdom of their maxims
over all India. In justice to our own country, we must assign
to it the priority of the printed editions of sir Reynard's histories
and exploits, inasmuch as M. Fligel himself places Caxton's
edition the earliest in his long' series.
In addition to the early Dutch editions, and some among the
French and English, without any author's names, the most
esteemed are those of Hackmann, Gottsched, and Suhl, with the
criticisms of other German scholars, all of whom have vied with
each other in national zeal to illustrate the traditionary relics of
their country.
Swedish and Danish translations are likewise enumerated by
M. Fl5gel, some of which are founded upon the more modern
German editions of the same work. Nor are Hebrew and Latin
versions wanting to crown the reputation of its favourite hero,
who appears to have been viewed, during successive generations,
as a model of moral and political sagacity. To what prince or
minister it was intended to apply, and whether as a compliment
or a satire, must remain doubtful. The various suppositions
on this head are rejected by the best German editors, who,
however, have not attempted to substitute any others in their



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.i..i .il; l. ,1 NVlii -i trle, w hen
". ....I .1 .. i ......l 1., son gs of
N 1 t t l.. d in its

\. r l* l. ,n... ,'. .v,-- in,.] sw eet-

I' i,. ... '.. I. i ti.,. .i-.i covered

i" r I l. ...I !.. c -,. .i A l the birds
SI entertain her with the delights of their melodious
songs; even at this joyous period of the lusty spring, the lion,
that royal king of beasts, the monarch of the ancient woods,
thought to celebrate this holy festival, and to keep open court at
his great palace of Sanden, with all triumphant ceremony and
magnificence. To this end he made solemn proclamation over


all his kingdom to all manner of beasts whatsoever, that upon
pain of being held in contempt, every one should resort to the
approaching celebration of the grand festival. Within a few
days, at the time prefixed, all beasts, both great and small, came
in infinite numbers crowding to the court, with the exception of
Reynard the Fox, who did not appear. Conscious as he was of so
many trespasses, and transgressions against the lives and fortunes
of other beasts, he knew that his presence might have put his
life into great jeopardy, and he forbore.
Now when the royal monarch had assembled his whole court,
there were few beasts who had not some complaint to make
against the fox; but especially Isegrim the wolf, who being the
first and principal complainant, came with all his lineage and
kindred. Standing uncovered before the king, he said, Most
dread and dearest sovereign lord the king! Humbly I beseech
you, that from the height and strength of your great power, and
the multitude of your mercies, you will graciously take compassion
upon the insufferable trespasses and injuries which that unworthy
creature Reynard the Fox has lately committed against me and
my wife, and my whole family. To give your majesty some idea
of these wrongs, know that this Reynard broke into my house
in my absence, against the will of me and my wife, where, finding
my children laid in their quiet couch, he maltreated them in so
vile a manner, especially about the eyes, that with the sharpness
of the crime they fell instantly blind. Now for this offence a
day was set apart, wherein Reynard should appear to justify
himself, and make solemn oath that he was guiltless of that foul
injury; but as soon as the holy book was tendered to him, he,
well knowing his own enormity, refused to swear, or rather
evaded it, by instantly running into his hole; in contempt both

I ,1i $ 4 84

'. ..,

-ov, when the royil noiy I rch had assembled his whole court, thero were few b)eats
who had not, sinc tcomplaiit t, maike against mlie fox.
Pig 2.


of your majesty and your laws. This, perhaps, my dread lord,
some of the noblest beasts resident at your court did not know :
yet this was not enough to satiate his malice, and lie continued
to trespass against me in many other things, which,
S however, neither your majesty's time nor patience
," '"- would suffice to hear. Enough that my injuries
S are so great that nothing can exceed them,
and the shame and villany that he has shown
'r, my wife is such that I can no longer suffer
i it to go unrevenged. From him I am come
1 to demand reparation, and from your majesty
Ih,- thb .. ....lf]h ,.1 ...1:,.. it..... ...,rds
...h ,_ -t...,,,i ,- h ., I I t.. I I..,, -, 1, %. It0 s
I I .... .'. i! I_ L *, .. lI*... rf.'.'g l i
I, A. .. .:.,, .. int

".,I.. I k ,._.-', ._. I. ,~ t cold
\iIIt.I ....l l. ".!l t l t~lh. I-;L was
"I,. 11,. w I.'.- 1. i r. tin ,_vedt

I. .. JI -. _IL i ttin

-- -_- ----

--+ r- -
-X.,,f- -


one poor piece of pudding, that vile Reynard ran upon him from
ambush, and unjustly seized it.
Scarcely had these words escaped the hound's lips, before in
sprang Tibert the cat, with a fierce and angry countenance, and
falling down at his majesty's feet, exclaimed: Oh, my lord the
king, though I must confess that the fox is here grievously ac-
cused; yet were other beasts' actions searched, each would find
enough to do to clear himself. Touching the complaint of
Curtise the hound, it was an offence committed many years
ago: and though I myself complain of no injury, yet was the
pudding mine and not his; for I got it one night out of a mill,
when the miller lay asleep. If Curtise could challenge any
share thereof, it must be derived solely from me." When Panther
heard Tibert's words, he stood forth and said, Do you imagine,
oh Tibert, that it would be just or good that Reynard should not
be accused. Why, the whole world knows he is a murderer, a
ravisher, and a thief; that he loves not any creature, no, not
his majesty himself; and would suffer his highness to lose both
honour and renown, if he thought he could thus obtain so much
as the leg of a fat pullet. Let me tell you what I saw
him do only yesterday to Kayward the hare, now standing in
the king's presence. Under pretence of teaching poor Kayward
his creed, and making a good chaplain of him, he persuaded him
to come and sit between his legs, and sing aloud Credo, Credo.
I happened to pass that way, and heard the song; and upon
going nearer, I found that Mr. Reynard had left his first note,
and began to play in his old key, for he had caught Kayward by
the throat, and had I not at that moment come, he had certainly
taken his life, as you may see by Kayward's fresh wound under
his throat. If my lord the king should suffer such conduct to


go unpunished, the peace broken, the royal dignity profaned,
and the just laws violated, your princely children, many years
to come, shall bear the slander of this evil." Doubtless,
Panther," cried Isegrim, "you say well and true ; it is only fit
that they should receive the benefit of justice, who wish to live
in peace."

"--- .. .,A' ,.

N' ? ,

1 11 IL tI. I Ise-
",II '',.l .:,. Ii. it is
/. ..... .... ..n O ,. ., tL ,i r Iti- icesk,
*, .t l. k ', 11 ,' *,,1 v i can
S_,,, ., ., .. x.. s..._ ,..m I ,,;. -.... ,h ,Pt, vii-rd ?

.:. I I-P.' 1 I,1 ,, ., -I. ,, h. ,, I J iL' the
other, was to be hanged, and die a felon's death; for I tell you,
were he here in court, and as much in our monarch's favour
as you are, it would be but small satisfaction for you to beg
mercy. You have many times bitten and torn my kinsman with
your venomous teeth, and much oftener than I can reckon;


though I will recall some instances to your shame. Can you
have forgotten how you cheated him in regard to the plaice
which he threw down from the cart, while you followed aloof
for fear? Yet you devoured the good plaice alone, and left
him nothing but the bones, which you could not eat your-
self. You played the same trick with the fat flitch of bacon,
which was so good, that you took care to devour the whole
of it yourself. When my uncle entreated his share, you re-
torted with scorn: Fair young man, you shall surely have
your share,' and yet you gave him nothing, although he won
it at great hazard, inasmuch as the owner contrived to catch
my kinsman in a sack, from which he with difficulty, got
away with life. Such injuries hath this Isegrim done to
Reynard; and I beseech your lordships to judge if they are
sufferable. Again he complains, that my kinsman hath wronged
him in his wife; and true it is, that Reynard could boast her
favour seven years before friend Isegrim did wed her. But
if my uncle, out of courtesy, did pay her attentions, what is
that to him? he took her for better and worse; nor ought
he to complain of any foregoing transaction not belonging to
him. Wisdom, indeed, would have concealed it, for what
credit can he get by the slander of his own "wife, especially
when she is not aggrieved !
Next comes Kayward the hare, with his complaint in his
throat, which seems to me a mere trifle. If he will learn to
read and sing, and read not his lesson aright, who will blame
the schoolmaster for giving him a little wholesome correction:
for if scholars are not sometimes beaten and chastised, depend
upon it, they will never learn. Lastly, Curtise complains, that
he had stolen a pudding with infinite pains out of the window,
at a season when victuals are scarce. Would not silence better


have become such a transaction? for he stole it: 'Male quaesisti,
et male perdidisti;' it was evil won, and evil lost; and who
shall dare to blame Reynard for the seizure of stolen goods from
a thief ? It is reasonable, that he who understands law, and can


.5 '--- *^ --'

discern equity, being also of high birth as my kinsman is, should
do justice to the law. Nay, had he hanged up the hound when
he took him in the fact, he could have offended none but the
king in doing justice without leave. Yet, out of respect to his
majesty he did it not, though he reaps small thanks for his labour;
thus subjected to the vilest calumnies, which greatly affect him.
For my uncle is a true and loyal gentleman, nor can he endure
falsehood ; he does nothing without the counsel of the priest,
and I assert, that since our lord the king proclaimed peace, he
never dreamed of injuring any man. Hle lives like a recluse;


only eats one meal a day, and it is now a year since he tasted
flesh, as I have been truly informed by some of his friends who
saw him only yesterday. He has moreover left his castle Male-
pardus, and abandoned his princely establishment, confining all
his wishes to a poor hermitage. IIe has forsworn hunting, and
scattered abroad his wealth, living alone by alms and good
men's charities ; doing infinite penance for his sins, so that he
is become pale and lean with praying and fasting, for lie would
fain be with God."
Thus while Grimbard stood ... 1i,,_., they perceived coming
down the hill towards them, stout Chanticleer the cock, who
brought upon a bier a dead hen, whose head Reynard had
bitten clean off, and it was brought before the king to take
cognizance thereof.

IHANTICLEER marching fore-
most, hung his wings and smote
his feathers piteously, whilst on
.the other side the bier went two
of his fairest hens, the fairest
.. between Holland and Arden.
Each of them bore a straight
bright burning taper, for they
"were sisters to Coppel that lay
dead upon the bier; and as they
marched, they cried, Alack,
alack, and well-a-day, for the death of Coppel, our sister dear."
Two young pullets bore the bier, and cackled so heavily and wept
so loud for the death of Coppel, their mother, that the very hills
echoed to their clamour. On reaching the presence of the king,
Chanticleer, kneeling down, spake as follows: Most merciful
dread lord the king! vouchsafe, I do beseech you, to hear and
redress the injuries which the fox Reynard hath done me and
my children, whom you here behold weeping, as well they may.

Chanticleer, marching Pirei!ot, lhtu i i ii winlg a nd title hi6
feathers pt 'ously.
: ., : 5=

Cl'ilin mhn I'e ol ugh \ n md t i


For it was in the beginning of April, when the weather was fair,
I being then in the height of my pride and plumage, sprung from
great stock and lineage, with eight valiant sons and seven fair
daughters by my side, all of whom my wife had brought me at
a single hatch, all of whom were strong and fat, strutting in a
yard well fenced round about. Here they had several sheds,
besides six stout mastiff dogs for their guard, which had torn the
skins of many wild beasts; so that my children felt secure from
any evil that might happen to those more exposed to the snares
of the world; but Reynard, that false and dissembling traitor,
envying their happy fortune, many times assailed the walls in
such desperate manner, that the dogs were obliged to be loosed,
and they hunted him away. Once, indeed, they overtook and
bit him, making him pay the price of his theft, as his torn skin
bore witness. Nevertheless he escaped, the more the pity, bat we
lived more quietly some time after; until at last, he came in the
likeness of a hermit, and brought me a letter to read. It was
sealed with your majesty's royal seal; and in it I found written, that
you had proclaimed peace throughout all your realm, and that
no manner of beasts or fowl were longer to injure one another.
Reynard affirmed that, for his own part, he was become a monk,
a cloistered recluse, and had vowed to perform daily penance for
his sins. He next showed me and counted his beads ; he had his
books, and wore a hair shirt next to his skin, while in a very
humble tone lie said, "You see, sir ( I. i,,. .y, you have never
need to be afraid of me henceforward; for I have vowed never
more to eat flesh. I am now waxed old, and would only re-
member my soul: I have yet my noon and my evening prayers
to say; I must therefore take my leave." He departed, singing
his credo as lie went, and I saw him lie down under a hawthorn.

These tidings made me exceedingly glad; I took no further heed,
but chuckling my family together, I went to ramble outside the
wall, a step I shall for ever rue. For that same devout Reynard,
lying under the bush, came creeping
between us and the gate ; then suddenly
surprised one of my children, which he
thrust into his maw, and to my great
sorrow bore away. For having tasted .
the sweetness of our flesh, neither hunter

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fallen, after her mother, a victim to his arts. This is my just
complaint, which I refer to your highness's mercy to have
compassion upon, and upon my many slaughtered children."
Then spake the king: Sir Grimbard, hear you this of your
uncle, the recluse ? He seems to have fasted and prayed with a
vengeance; but if I live another year he shall dearly abide it.
For you, Chanticleer, your complaint is heard, and shall be
repaired. We will bestow handsome obsequies upon your
daughter dead, laying her in the earth with solemn dirge and
worship due. This done, we will consult with our lords how to
do you right, and bring the murderer to justice."
Then began the Placedo Domino, with all the verses belonging
to it, too many to recite; the dirge being done, the body was
interred, and over it was placed a fair marble stone, polished as
bright as glass, upon which was inscribed the fi.. .... ;!. epitaph
in large letters : Coppel, Chanticleer's daughter, whom Reynard
the fox has slain, lieth here interred !-Mourn, reader, mourn;
for her death was violent and lamentable."
The monarch next sent for his lords and wisest counsellors, to
consult how best this foul murder committed by Reynard might
be punished. In the end it was concluded that he should be sent
for, and without any excuse be made to appeal. before the king,
to answer these charges, and the message be delivered by Bruin
the bear. The king gave consent, and calling him before him,
said, Sir Bruin, it is our pleasure that you deliver this message,
yet in so doing, have a good eye to yourself; for Reynard is full
of policy, and knows well how to dissemble, flatter, and betray.
He has a world of snares to entangle you withal, and without
great exercise of judgment will make a mock and scorn of the
most consummate wisdom."


My lord," answered sir Bruin, let me alone with Reynard;
I am nut such a truant to discretion as to become a mock for his
knavery." And thus full of jollity the bear took his departure to
fetch Reynard: if his return be as jovial, there is no fear of his
well speeding.

O '

~ ,, m.----.


SHE next morning away went sir
.Bruin the bear in quest of the fox,
', f A,.., -armed against all kinds of plots and
S, I deceit whatsoever: and as lie went
S' along through a dark forest in which
i Reynard had a by-path which he
usedd when he was out hunting, or
being hunted, he saw a high moun-
tain, over which he must pass to
Reach Malepardus. For though Rey-
nard had many houses, Malepardus is
his chief and most ancient castle, and there lie resorted both
for defence and pleasure. When Bruin at length came to the
place, lie found the gates close shut; at which, after he had
knocked, sitting upon his tail, he called aloud, Sir Reynard,
are you at home? I am Bruin, your kinsman, sent by the
king to summon you to court, to answer the many foul ac-
cusations laid at your door. His nimjesty hath taken a great
vow, that if you fail to appear to the summons, your life


shall answer for your contempt, and your whole goods and
honours become confiscated to the crown. Therefore, fair kins-
man, be advised by your friend, and come with me to court,
in order to shun the fate that will otherwise overtake you:"
so said the bear. Reynard, who was lying near the gate,
as was his custom, basking in the sun, hearing these words,
departed into one of his holes, Malepardus being full of many
intricate and curious apartments, through which he could pass
in case of danger or for objects of prey, where he determined
to commune with himself awhile how best lie might counterplot,
and bring the bear into disgrace, while lie added to his own
credit. For he detested the bear; and at last coming forth, said,
" Is it you, dear uncle Bruin ? you are exceeding welcome, and
excuse my delay in saying so; but the truth is, that when you
began to speak I was saying my vespers, and devotion must not he
neglected for any worldly concerns. Yet I believe he hath done
you no good service, nor do I thank him who hath sent you hither,
a long and weary journey, in which your sweat and toil far exceed
the worth of the labour performed. It is certain that had you
not come, I had to-morrow attended the court of mine own accord.
As it is, however, my regret is much diminished, because your
counsel just at this time may turn to my double benefit. Alas !
uncle, could his majesty find no meaner a messenger than your
noble self to employ in these trivial affairs ? Truly it appears
strange to me, especially since, next his royal self, you are of
greatest renown, both in point of blood and riches. For my part,
I would that we were both at court, as I fear our journey will be
exceedingly troublesome. To say truth, since my entire absti-
nence from flesh, I have lived upon strange new meats, which


, i ..

rl / i

"Is it you, diear uncle Bruin ? yi are exe-lAing weleomv, and excuse
my delay- in saYin, g -
Paie 11
'r/ "i :


have very much disagreed with me, and swelled my body as if it
was about to burst." Alas dear cousin," said the bear, "what
kind of meat can it be that makes you so ill?" "Uncle," he
replied, what will it avail you to know ? The food was simple
and mean, we poor gentry are no lords, you know, but are glad
to eat from necessity what others taste for mere wantonness.
Yet not to delay you, that which I eat was honeycombs, large,
full, and very pleasant. But, impelled by hunger, I eat so very
immoderately that I was afterwards infinitely distempered."
"Aye 1" quoth Bruin, "honeycombs, do you say ? Hold you
them in such slight respect, nephew ? Why, sir, it is food for the
greatest emperors in the world: help me, fair nephew, to some of
these honeycombs, and command me while I live; for only a
small share I will be your servant everlastingly." You are
jesting with me, surely, uncle;" replied the fox. "Jest with you,"
cried Bruin beshrcw my heart, then; for I am in such serious
good earnest, that for a single lick of the same, you shall count
me among the most faithful of your kindred." Nay, if you be,"
returned Reynard, I will bring you where ten of you would not
be able to eat the whole at a meal. This I do out of friendship,
for I wish to have yours in return, which above all things I desire."
" Not ten of us !" cried the bear, not ten of us it is impossible;
for had I all the honey between Hybla and Portugal, I could eat
the whole of it very shortly myself." Then know, uncle, that
near at hand there dwells a husbandman, named Lanfert, who is
master of so much that you could not consume it in seven years,
and this, for your love and friendship's sake, I will put into your
possession." Bruin, now mad for the honey, swore, that for one
good meal, he would stop the mouths of all Roynard's enemies.


Smiling at his easy credulity, the latter said: If you would
wish for seven ton, uncle, you shall have it;" and these words
pleased the bear so much, and made it so pleasant, that he could
not actually stand for laughing. Well," thought the fox, this
is good fortune; though I will assuredly lead him where he shall
laugh more in reason." IIe then said: Uncle, we must lose no
time, and I will spare no pains; such as I would not undertake
for any of my kin." The bear gave him thanks, and away they
went together, the fox promising as much honey as he could carry;
but meaning as many stripes as he could undergo. At length
they came to Lanfert's house, the sight of which made the bear
caper for joy. This Lanfert was a stout brawny carpenter, who
the other day had brought into his yard a large oak, which he
had begun to cleave, and struck into it two wedges, so that the
cleft lay a great way open, at which the fox rejoiced, as it was
just what lie wished. Then, with a smiling countenance, turning
to the bear: Behold now," he said, dear uncle, and be careful
of yourself; for within this tree is contained so much honey, that
if you can get to it, you will find it immeasurable; yet be cautious,
good uncle, and eat moderately. The combs are sweet and good,
but a surfeit is always dangerous, and may prove troublesome on
your journey, which I would not for the world, as no harm can
happen to you but must redound to my dishonour." Concern
not yourself for me, faith, nephew Reynard: I am not such a fool
but I can temper my appetite if I can only get at the honey."
" True, I was perhaps too bold to say what I did, my best uncle;
so I pray you enter in at the end, and you shall there find what
you want." With all haste the bear entered the tree with his
fore feet forward, and thrust his head into the hole quite over
the ears. When the fox saw this, lie instantly ran and pulledd


the wedges out of the tree, so that the bear remained locked last.
Neither flattery nor anger now availed the hier; for his uephew
had got him in so fast a prison, that it was impossible to free
himself by any mant uvre. What

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uncle! I fear you will not like the honey; is it good ? Do not
eat too much; pleasant things are apt to surfeit, and you will
delay your journey back to court. If your belly be too full,
Lanfert will give you drink to
/ digest it:" having said which,
.' he set off towards his castle again.
Lanfert finding that the bear was
Stake fast, ran to his neighbours
and desired them to come. The
..;,, tidings spreading through the
SI.. .. there was neither man.
,*.' i" \'...n. nor child, but ran to see,
"r' ; 1'\ ....
S1 ,,Ii. with one weapon, and some
I, ,i another; goads,rakes,broom-
-, and whatever they could
';. I y hands on. The priest
Iore the handle of a large
TA .,' -, cross, the clerk had holy
,41,. "water, and the priest's
wife, dame Jullock,
Brought her distaff, as
SI she happened to be spin-

Vt -
-, .


ning. Nay, the old beldames came, that had never a tooth in
their heads. Hearing the approach of this army, Bruin fell into
great fear, there being none but himself to withstand them; and
as they came thundering down upon him, he struggled so
fiercely, that he contrived to get his head out of jeopardy, by
leaving behind the best part of the skin, along with his ears,
insomuch that never age beheld a more foul ugly beast. For the
blood covered his face and hands, leaving his claws and skin
behind him, so that he could hardly move or see. It was an ill
market he came to, for in spite of this torment, Lanfert and his
crew came upon him, and so belabored him with staves and
hooks and rakes, that it might well be a warning to every one
taken in misery, showing how the weakest must evermore go
to the wall. This Bruin cruelly experienced, every one venting
their fury upon his hide, even Houghlin, with his crooked leg, and
Ludolf with the long broad nose; the one armed with a leaden
mall, and the other with an iron scourge. None lashed so hard
as sir Bertolf with the long fingers, and none annoyed him more
than Lanfert and Ortam, one being armed with a sharp Welsh
hook, and the second with a crooked,staff heavily leaded at the
end, with which he used to play at stab-ball. There was Burkin
and Armes Ablequack, Bane the priest, with his cross-handle, and
Jullock his wife. All these so belaboured the poor bear, that his
life was in extreme jeopardy; he sat and sighed sadly during
the massacre; but the thundering weight of Lanfert's fierce
blows was the most cruel to bear. For Dame Podge, at Casport,
was his mother, and his father was Marob, the staple-maker,
a passing stout man when he was alone. From him Bruin re-
ceived sich a shower of stones, at the same time that Lanfert's
brother wielded him a savage blow upon the pate, that he could


no longer see nor hear; but made a desperate plunge into the
adjoining river, through a cluster of old wives standing by, many
of whom he threw into the water, which was broad and deep,
among whom was the parson's wife. Seeing her floating there
like a sea-mew, the holy man left off striking the bear, crying

out, Help, oh help; dame Jullock is in the water I absolve
the man, woman, or child that saves her, from all their sins and
transgressions, past and to come; and I remit all penance."
Hearing this, all left the pursuit of the bear to succour Dame
Jullock, upon which irLuin cut the stream with fresh strength,
and swam away. The priest only pursued him, crying in great
rage, Turn, villain, turn, that I may be revenged upon thee."
But the bear having the advantage of the stream, heeded not his


calling, for he was proud of the triumph of having escaped from
them. He bitterly cursed the honey tree, and more bitterly the
fox, who had not only betrayed him, but made him lose his hood
from his face, and his leather gloves from his fingers. In this
condition he swam about three miles down the stream, when he
grew so very weary that he was obliged to seek a landing. The
blood trickled down his face: he sighed and drew his breath so
short, that it seemed as if his last hour was come.
Meanwhile the fox, on his way home, had stolen a fat pullet,
and running through a by-path to elude pursuit, he now came
towards the river with infinite joy. For he never doubted
but the bear was slain, and he therefore said; "My fortune
is made, for my greatest enemy at the court is dead, and no one
can suspect me." But as he spoke, looking towards the river
side, he espied the bear lying down to ease his grievous wounds.
At this sight Reynard's heart misgave him, and he railed
bitterly against Lanfert the carpenter; cursing him for a
silly fool, that did not know how to kill a bear in a trap.
" What madman," he cried, "would have lost such good veni-
son; so fat and wholesome, and which lay taken to his hand ?
A wise man would have been proud of the fortune which thou,
like a fool, hast neglected." Thus fretting and chiding he
came to the river, where he found the bear covered with
wounds, which Reynard alone had caused. Yet he said in
scorn as he passed, Monsieur, Dieu vous garde!" thou
foul red villain," said the bear to himself, what impudence
can equal thine?" But the fox continued his speech; What,
uncle, have you forgotten every thing at Lanfert, or have you
paid for the honeycombs you stole ? I would rather pay for
themI myself, than that you should incur any disgrace. If the


honey was good, you may have plenty more at the same price.
Good uncle, tell me before I go, into what order do you mean
to enter, that you. wear this new-fashioned hood? Will you
be a monk, an abbot, or a friar ? He that shaved your crown,
seems also to have crept your ears; your forelock is lost, and
your leather gloves are gone. Fie, sloven! go not bare-headed!
They say you can sing peccavi rarely." These taunts made
Bruin mad with rage; but because he could not take revenge,
he was obliged to let him talk on. At last, to avoid him, he
plunged again into the river and landed on the other side,
where he began to meditate how best he might reach the court;
for he had lost both his ears and his talons, and could scarcely
walk. Yet of necessity he must move forward, which lie
could only do by setting his buttocks upon the ground, and
tumbling his body over and over. In this manner he first
rolled about half a mile, then rested, and rolled another half
mile, until by dint of perseverance he tumbled his way to
court. Witnessing his strange method of approach, a number
of courtiers gazed upon him as a sort of prodigy, little deeming
that it was the famous sir Bruin the bear.
The king himself was the first who recognized him, and he
said: It is sir Bruin my servant: what villains have wounded
him thus ? Where can he have been, that he could contrive
it-to bring his death as it were back with him ? let us hear
what tidings he has got." O, my dread sovereign lord the
king," cried out the bear, "I have to complain grievously.
Behold how I am massacred; a massacre I humbly beseech
you to revenge on that false, malignant Reynard, who hath
wrought me this foul disgrace and slaughter, merely because
I have done your royal pleasure in conveying him a summons


to court." His majesty then said, How durst lie do this thing ?
Now, by my crown, I swear, I will take such revenge as shall
make the traitor tremble, and remember the foul deed." So
forthwith the king summoned his whole council, and consulted
how and in what way to proceed most efficaciously against the
wily fox. At length, after much discussion, it was unanimously
concluded, that he should be again summoned to appear and
answer his transgressions in person. The party now appointed
to execute the summons was Tibert the cat, being equally re-
commended for his gravity and his wisdom; an appointment
likewise well pleasing to the king.




S' 1 *' 1" I" *! Other

.1 1 11. t I i ir 1.. 1.1 su m -
on, that I w I. take so edfor

S a o :

lord they were my foes which thus advised jou, for there is
nothing I can do that can frce him to come orwill to sevetarry. I do

terrifyy all offenders." Then said Tibert theeat "y dread
lord, they were my foes h thus advised you, .for there is

beseech your majesty send some one of greater power; I am
*oreaiis iadhspstrl, ta i sml hl


small and feeble; for if noble sir Bruin, who was so strong and
mighty, could not compel him, what will my weakness avail ?"
The king replied: "It is your wisdom, sir Tibert, that I employ,
and not your strength; many prevail with art, when violence

returns home with labour lost." "Well," said Tibert, since it
is your pleasure, it must be accomplished, and Heaven make
my fortune better than my heart presages !"
Tibert then made things in readiness and went to Malepardus.
In his journey he saw come flying towards him one of St.
Martin's birds, to whom the cat cried aloud, "Hail! gentle



bird I beseech thee turn thy wings and fly on my right hand."
But the bird, alas, flew on the left side, at which sight the
cat grew very heavy, for he was well skilled in augury, and
knew the sign to be ominous. Nevertheless, as many do,
he armed himself with better hopes, and went to Malepardus,
where he found the fox standing before the castle gates, to
whom Tibert said : Health to my fair cousin Reynard ; the
king by me summons you to the court, in which if you fail or
delay, there is nothing that can prevent your sudden and cruel
death." The fox answered, "Welcome, dear cousin Tibert;
I obey your command, and wish the king my lord infinite days
of happiness. Only let me entreat you to rest with me to-
night, and accept such cheer as my simple house affords. To-
morrow as early as you will, we will proceed towards the
court, for I have no kinsman whom I trust so nearly as your-
self. There came hither the other day that treacherous knight
sir Bruin, who looked upon me with that tyrannous cruelty,
that I would not for the wealth of an empire hazard my person
with him; but with you, dear cousin, I will go, were a thou-
sand diseases eating up my vitals." Tibert replied: You
speak like a noble gentleman, and it will now perhaps be
best to move forward, for the moon shines as bright as day."
" Nay, dear cousin," said the fox, let us take day before
us, so that we may know our friends when we meet; the
night is full of dangers and suspicions." Well," said the
other, "if it be your pleasure, I am content; what shall we
eat?" Reynard said, "Truly my store is small, the best I
have is a honeycomb too pleasant and sweet, what think you
of it yourself!" Tibert replied, It is meat I little care for,
and seldom eat: I had rather have a single mouse than all the


honey in Europe." "A mouse, dear cousin," said Reynard,
" why, here dwells hard by a priest, who has a barn so full
of mice, that I believe half the wains in the parish would not
carry them away." Then, dear Reynard," cried the eat,
" do but you le'd me thither, and make me your servant
for ever." "But," said the fox, "do you love mice so much
as that comes to?" "Beyond expression, I do," quoth the
other, a mouse is better than any venison, or the best cates
on a prince's table. Conduct me therefore thither and command
me afterwards in any of your affairs. Had you slain my father,
my mother, and all my kin, I would freely forgive you now."

'i URELY," said Reynard, "you do but
Sjest "No, by my life," replied the
Scat. "Well, then, if you be in ear-
nest, I will so contrive this very night,
that you shall have your fill." Is it
S.. possible?" said the cat. Only fol-
K'.'' "j. low me," said Reynard, "I will bring
S. you to the place presently." So away
they went with all speed towards the
",'-. p priest's barn, well fenced about with a mud
: wall, where, but the night before, the fox had broken in,
Sand stolen an exceeding fat pullet from the jolly priest.
Now the priest was so angry, that he had set a trap before
the hole to catch the thief at his next coming, which the fox
well knew, and therefore he said to the cat: "Sir Tibert, here
is the hole, creep in It will not take you a minute before you
find more mice than you are able to devour: hear you how they
squeak ? But come back when you are full and I will wait
here for you, that we may then proceed together towards court.


.ir Tibert muale t dcjpqite effort, ait d jumping between the prionn
legs, fastened there.
e at. thete


Stay not long, for I know my wife is expecting us." But
think you I may safely enter in at this hole?" inquired the
cat; "these priests are very wily and subtle, and often conceal
their snares very close; making the rash fool sorely repent."
"Why, cousin Tibert," said Reynard, are you turning coward?
What, man, fear you a shadow ?" Quite ashamed, the cat
sprang quickly in, and was caught fast by the neck in the gin.
lie tried to leap back, which only brought the snare closer,
so that he was half strangled, and struggled and cried out
piteously. Reynard stood before the hole and heard all, at
which he greatly rejoiced, and cried in scorn, Cousin Tibert,
love you mice? I hope they are fat for your sake. Did the
Priest or Martinet know of your feasting, I know them so well,
they would bring you sauce to your meat very quickly. What,
you sing at your meat: is that the court fashion now? If
so, I only wish, that Isegrim the wolf bore you company,
that all my friends might feast together.
Meanwhile the poor cat was fast, and mewed so sadly,
that Martinet leaped out of his bed and cried to his people,
" Up, up for the thief is taken that caught our hens." At
these words the priest unluckily rose, awaking his whole
household, and crying, The fox is taken the fox is taken "
Not half dressed, he handed his wife the sacred taper, and
running first, he smote Tibert a blow with a huge staff, while
many others followed his example. The cat received many
deadly blows; for the anger of Martinet was so great, that
he struck out one of the cat's eyes, which he did to please
the priest, intending to dash out the poor Tibert's brains at
a blow. Beholding death so near, sir Tibert made a desperate
effort, and jumping between the priest's legs, fastened there


in a style that caused him the most excruciating pain. When
dame Jullock, his wife, saw this, she cried out, and swore in
the bitterness of her heart, and withal cursed the gin, which
she wished, along with its inventor, at the devil.
All this while Reynard stood before the hole, and seeing
what passed, laughed so excessively that he was ready to burst;
but the poor priest fell down in a swoon, and every one left
the cat, in order to revive the priest. During this last scene,
the fox set off back again to Malepardus, for he believed that
it was now all over with sir Tibert. But he, seeing his foes
so busy about the priest, began to gnaw his cord, until he bit it
quite asunder. He then leaped out of the hole, and went
roaring and tumbling like his predecessor, the bear, back to the
court. Before he reached it, it was wide day, and the sun being
risen, he entered the king's court in a most pitiful plight.
For his body was beaten and bruised to a jelly, owing to the
fox's craft; his bones were shivered and broken, one of his
eyes lost, and his skin rent and mangled. This when the king
beheld, he grew a thousand times more angry than before.
He summoned his council, and debated upon the surest means
of revenging such injuries upon the head of the fox. After
long consultation Grimbard the goat, Reynard's sister's son,
said to the rest of the king's council, Good my lords, though
my uncle were twice as bad as he is represented, yet there is
remedy enough against his mischiefs, and it is fit you do him
the justice due to a man of his rank, by summoning him a
third time, and then it will be time to pronounce him guilty
of all that is laid to his charge." But," said his majesty,
" who will now be found so desperate as to hIzard his hands,
his ears, nay, his very life, with one so tyrannical and irre-


ligious?" Truly," answered the goat, "if it please your
majesty, I am that desperate person who will venture to carry
the message to my most subtle kinsman, if your highness but
command me."



~~ -

'HEN said the king, Go, Grimbard,
: .1 .:- for I command you; yet take good
S 4" i o heed of Reynard, for le is subtle and
-. malicious." Grimbard thanked his ma-
jesty; and so taking his humble leave,
S lie went to Malepardus, where lie found
S. Reynard. and Ermelin, his wife, amusing
Themselves with their children. Having
first saluted his aunt and uncle, he said,
S"Take heed, fair uncle, lest your ab-
sence from court cause more mischief than the offence deserves.
Indeed, it is high time to appear, for delay brings only greater
danger and punishment. The complaints against you are in-
finite, and this is your third summons. Your wisdom may
therefore tell you, that no hope of mercy can longer remain
for you and yours; within three days your castle will be be-
leaguered and demolished, your kindred made slaves, and you

it5. i

(. riiiird llnds R fliy ii, d tul n Erm -tlin, his ,ift, turnisinmg thietiselves
with th'ir h rn.
Pyge :1.


yourself reserved for a public example. Do, my dear uncle,
then, I beseech you, recall your better wisdom, and return
with me forthwith to the court. 'I doubt not but your discre-
tion will find words to excuse you; for you have surmounted
many wonderful perils, and brought your foes to shame, whibst
the innocence of your cause hath often borne you spotless
from the tribunal." Reynard answered and said, Nephew,
you say true; I will be advised, and go with you; not to
answer for offences,' but because I know that the court stands
in need of my counsel. Nor do I doubt the king's mercy if
I can once gain his ear, though mine offences were double,
and my sins as red as scarlet; for I know the court cannot
stand without me, and that his majesty shall truly understand.
Though I know I have many enemies, yet it troubles me not,
for my innocence shall confound their inquiries, and they shall
learn to their cost, that in high matters of state and policy
Reynard cannot be dispensed with. They may harp upon
injuries as long as they please, but the pith of the affair must
rest upon my relation. Their envy made me leave the court;
for though their shallow wits cannot disgrace me, their multi-
tudes may at last oppress me. Still, nephew, I will go with
you to the court, and beard my enemies to their face, for I
will not hazard the welfare of my wife and children by opposing
the king, he is too powerful ; and though he do me great in-
jury, I will ever bear it patiently." Having thus spoken, lie
turned to his wife, and said, Dame Ermclin, take care of my
children, especially Reynikin, my youngest boy, for he has
much of my love, and I hope he will follow in my steps.
Rossel too promises well, and I love them both truly. There-
fore have an eye upon them, and if I should escape, doubt


not but my love shall requite you." At these words Ermelin
wept, and could not say farewell, and her children howled to
see their mother's sorrow; for their lord and provider was
gone, and Malepardus left unvictualled.

4 '1? *
*^ L ^ ff, ,''

K --

"if 1 ,n ,vill hrive to mt do it im E'glihh. I tat I may tuderst nd i i .

,' 7. ..
-7 -,| :'- ; --'

S. .' I t' rr,: -"' 1 9 -- r ..: ..-' .

HEIN Roynard and Crimbard had pro-
/ dcd some way on their journey,
\ he former stopped and said, "Fair
ll nephew, blame me not if I say my
bj' heart is very heavy, for my life is in
'great jeopardy. Would that, to blot
out my manifold sins and cast off' so
greatt a burden, I might here repent
', .. ._ and be shriven by you. I know
"you are holy; and having received
penance for my sin, my soul will
be more quiet within me." Grimbard bid him proceed. "Then,"
said the fox, Confitebor tib;, pater." Nay," interrupted the
Brock, if you will shrive to me, do it in English, that I
may understand you." Then," resumed Reynard, I have
grievously offended against all the beasts that live, and especi-
ally against mine uncle I1ruin the bear, whom I lately almost
massacred, and Tibert the cat, whom I no less cruelly en-
snared in a gin. I have trespassed against Chanticleer and
his children, and have devoured many of them. Nay, the
king has not been safe fiom my malice; for I have slandered
him, and not respected the name of the queen. I have betrayed
Isegrim the wolf, while I called him uncle, though no part


of his blood ran in my veins. I made him a monk of Esinano
where I became also one of the order, only to do him open
mischief. I made him bind his foot to the bell rope to teach
him to ring; but the peal had like to have cost him his life,
the parishioners beat and wounded him so very sorely. After
this I taught him to catch fish; but he got soundly beaten for
it, and beareth the stripes to this moment. I led him into a

I \

C 2-

rich priest's house to steal bacon, where he eat so much, that
unable to get out where he came in, I raised all the town upon
him; and while the priest ran from table, I seized upon a
fat fowl, while the priest and his people were busy cudgelling
the sides of Isegrim. At last the wolf fell down as if he had
been dead, and they dragged his body over rocks and stones
until they came to an old ditch, where they threw him in.
There he lay groaning all night, and how he ever got thence I
know not. Another time I led him to a place, where I told
him there were seven cocks and hens perched together all in


excellent condition, and hard by stood a false door, upon which
we climbed. I said that if he could contrive to creep in, he
should have the fowls. Isegrim with much joy went laughing
to the door, and pushing forward, hoe said, 'Reynard, you
deceive me; for here is nothing.' Then,' replied I, 'uncle,
they must be farther in; and if you will have them, you must
venture for them.' At this the wolf going a little farther, I
gave him a push forward, so that he fell down into the house
with such an infernal noise and clatter, that all who were asleep
in the house awoke, and cried out, 'What dreadful noise was
that? what has fallen from the trap-door?' So they rose,
one and all, lighted a candle, and espying him, took such
measures that they wounded him almost to death. Thus I
brought the wolf into many hazards of his life, more than I
can well remember; but I will repeat them to you hereafter,
as they occur to me. I have also most grievously offended
against dame Ersewinde, his wife, of which I much repent
me, as it was highly to her discredit." "Uncle," said Grim-
bard, "you make your shrift imperfect; I hardly understand
you." Pardon me, sweet nephew; but you know I dislike cast-
ing aspersions on women; it is simply that she liked me, and
preferred my company to that of Isegrim. Thus I have told
you all my wickedness; and now order my penance as shall
seem best." Now Grimbard being both learned and wise,
broke a switch from a tree, and said, Nephew, you shall
three times strike your body with this rod: then lay it down
upon the ground, and spring three times over it without
stumbling or bending your legs. This done, you shall take
it up and kiss it gently, in sign of your meekness and obedience
to your penance, when you will be absolved of your sins com-
mitted to this day; for I pronounce you a clear remission."

'- -- -


At this the fox was exceedingly glad, and then Grimbard said,
" See that henceforth, uncle, you do good works; read your
psalter, go to church, fast, and keep vigils, all holidays;
give alms, and abandon your- sinful life. Avoid theft and
treason; so that by doing these things, no doubt you shall
obtain mercy from the king." All these the fox promised,
and so they went journeying together towards the court.

Not far from the roadside there stood a dwelling of holy
nuns, where many geese and capons were seen wandering
without the walls. As they were (,- i, ... the fox gradu-
ally drew Grimbard out of the right path, and finding the
pullets picking near the barn, among which was a fine fat
capon that had strayed a little way from the rest, he made
a sudden spring and caught him by the feathers which flew
about his ears; yet the capon escaped. At this sight Grim-
bard cried out, "Accursed wretch, what would you do ? will


you for a silly pullet again fall into all your sins ? To which
Reynard answered, Pardon me, dear nephew; but I had
forgotten myself: I do entreat your forgiveness, and my eye
shall not wander." They then went over a little bridge, the
fox still glancing his eye towards the pullets as if it were
impossible for him to refrain; for the evil was bred in his
bones, and it stuck fast to his flesh; his heart carried his
eyes that way as long as he could see them. The goat, aware
of this, again said, For shame, dissembler, why wander
your eyes after the fowl ?" The fox replied, "Nay, nephew,
you do me wrong, you mistake my looks; for I was merely
saying a paternoster for the souls of all the pullets and geese
which I have slain before my piety interfered." Well," said
Grimbard, "it may be so; but your glances are very suspicious."
Now by this time they had regained the highway, and pushed
on more speedily to the court, which the fox no sooner saw
than his heart began to quake for fear. He knew too well
the crimes he had to answer for; they were indeed infinite
and heinous.

S.- .- .. ..-'V .. .

S soon as the tidings spread, that Rey-
nard the Fox and his kinsman Grimbard,
were arrived at court, all ranks, from
S the highest to the lowest, prepared
accusations against the fox. His heart
S' quaked within him, but his countenance
was, as usual, calm and confident, and
"' J' he bore himself as proudly as before.
".H is nephew attended him through the
streets, and he walked as gallantly into
the court as if he had been the king's
son, and free from every imputation whatsoever. When he
came opposite the chair of state in which the king sat, he
stopped and said: "Heaven long give your majesty glory and
renown, above all princes of the earth. I assure your majesty
that no monarch had ever a more faithful servant than I have
been ; than I now am, and so, in spite of my enemies, will die.
For, my dread liege lord, I know that many are plotting my de-
struction in this court, if they could prevail with your majesty;
but you scorn the slanders of malice; and though in these days
flatterers succeed in princes' courts, it is not so with you, nor will

7 _


A r' .,. .....

,I ''i '

"Peace, treacherous Reynard I know 3our dissimulation, and can expound y"ur
flattery, yet both shall now fail you at your nee Ilt e l:i.


they reap anything but shame for their reward." But the king
cut him short at these words, and cried, "Peace, treacherous
Reynard! I know your dissimulation, and can expound your
flattery, yet both shall now fail you at your need. Think
you I will be taken with the music of smooth words? No, it
has but too often deceived me. The peace which I have
proclaimed and sworn to, that have you broken!" And as
the king was proceeding, Chanticleer cried out: Oh, how
I have lost the benefit of that noble peace Be still, Chanti-
cleer," cried the king, "let me proceed. Thou devil among
the innocent, with what face canst thou say thou lovest me,
and seest all these wretched creatures ready to disprove thy
words; yea, whose wounds yet spit bloody defiance at thee; and
for which thy dearest life shall soon answer." In nominee
Patris," cried the fox; "what, my dread lord, if Bruin's crown
be bloody, what is that to me? If your majesty employed
him in a message, which he neglected, to steal honey at the
carpenter's house, where he got his wounds, am I to blame?
If revenge he sought why did he not take it himself; he is
strong and puissant; it was not to be considered as my weak-
ness. As for Tibert the cat, whom I received with all friend-
ship, if he would steal into the priest's barn against my advice,
and there lose his eyes, nay his life, in what have I offended?
Was I Tibert's keeper? or the guardian of the great bear?
Oh, my dread lord you may do your royal pleasure; notwith-
standing my perfect innocence, you may adjudge me to die;
for I am your poor vassal, and look only for your mercy.
I know your strength and my own weakness; my death would
yield you small satisfaction, yet whatever your good will and
pleasure be, that to me shall prove most acceptable."


While he thus spoke, Bellin the ram stepped forth, along with
his ewe-dam Oloway, and besought the king to hear their
complaint; and next Bruin the bear with all his lineage, fol-
lowed by Tibert the cat, Isegrim the wolf, Kayward the hare.
Panlter the boar, and nearly all the other beasts of the court,
who rose with one accord, crying for vengeance upon the fox,
with such clamour that the king was induced to order the fox
to be there secured and arrested.

1' i:'l. Ci "

Y-. .i V. o.

"" PON this arrest a cabinet council
was summoned, and every voice
"a '' was in favour of Reynard's execu-
tion; though he answered every
t I' accusation seriatim, with a won-
Sderful degree of art, to the admi-
ration of all the court. Witnesses
ib however were examined, the proofs
established; the foxwas condemned
Ii and judgment recorded. He was
to be hanged up by the neck till
he was dead; at which sentence the fox cast down his head, all his
jollity was fled, and no flattery or smooth words any longer availed.
This being resolved, Grimbard his nephew, and several others
nearest him in blood, unable to endure the sight of his death,
took leave of the king and left the court. When the monarch
saw so many gallant gentlemen depart, all sad and weeping,
being near in blood and alliance to the prisoner, he said to
himself, It behoves me to take good counsel what I am about,
for though Reynard has faults, he has many friends and
more virtues." As the king was thus pondering, Tibert said to
sir Bruin, Why are you so slow in the execution of your
sentence, and you sir Isegrim ? See you not there are many


bushes and hedges; it is near evening, and if the prisoner escape,
his subtlety is so great, that all the art in the world will never
again entangle him. If you mean to execute him, proceed
quickly.-It will be night before the gallows can be made." At
these words Isegrim exclaimed, suddenly recollecting himself,
"There is a pair of gallows hard by;" at the same time he
fetched a deep sigh! What, are you afraid, sir Isegrim; or is
this execution against your mind !" said Tibert, remember the
hanging of both your kinsmen was his work. Had you now a
proper sense of justice, you would hang him for the same and
not stand trifling thus." Isegrim, half angry, answered, Your
anger puts out the eye of your better reason, though if we had
a halter that would fit his neck, we would soon despatch him."
Reynard, who had long remained silent, said; Yes, I beseech
you to shorten my pain; sir Tibert has a cord strong enough, in
which he himself was hanged at the priest's house, when lie got
between the holy man's legs and bit him so dreadfully. Besides,
he can climb well; let him mount and be my executioner; for it
would be a discredit both to sir Bruin and sir Isegrim, thus to
treat their own nephew. I am sorry I live to see it; but since
you are resolved to be my hangmen, play your parts and delay
not. Go before, uncle Bruin, and lead the way: follow me,
Isegrim, my cousin, and beware I escape not." You say well,"
said Bruin, it is the best counsel I ever heard you give."
So forth they went, and Isegrim and all his friends guarded
Reynard, leading him by the neck and other parts of his body,
at which usage the fox felt quite dismayed. Yet he said meekly,
Why put yourself to all this trouble, my best kinsman ?
Believe me, I could well entreat your forgiveness, though you
rejoice in my sufferings. Still I know, that did my aunt, your
wife, see what was passing, she would not see me thus cruelly


tormented, were it only for old affection's sake. But do with me
as you will; I must endure the worst: as for Bruin and Tibert,
I leave my revenge to justice, and to you the reward of traitors.
I know my worst, fortune and death can come but once. I wish
it were already past, for to me it is no terror. I saw my brave
father die, and how quickly he vanished The worst of death is


therefore familiar to me." Then," said sir Isegrim, let us
make haste, for his curse shall not light upon me by delaying ;"
so he on one side, and sir Bruin on the other, they led the fox to
the gallows ; Tibert skipping before them with the halter.
On reaching the place of execution, the king, the queen, and
all the nobility took their place, to behold, the fox die. Reynard,
though full of sorrow and dismay, was still busy thinking how
he might escape, and again triumph over his proud enemies, by
drawing the king over to his party. Though the king," he


said to himself, be offended with me, as he has reason enough,
Heaven knows, yet I may perhaps live to become his bosom
friend." While thus cogitating, the wolf said, "Now, sir Bruin,
remember your injuries; revenge yourself well; for the day is
come we have so long looked for. Go, Tibert, and mount the
gallows-tree with the rope, and make a running noose, for
you shall have your will of your enemy. Take heed, good sir
Bruin, that he eludes us not, and I will now place the ladder;
when every thing will be complete." This being done the fox
spoke: Now well may my heart be heavy, for death stands in
all his naked horrors before my eyes, and I cannot escape. Oh,
my dread lord the king, and you, my sovereign lady the queen,
and all you, my lords and gentlemen here assembled to see me
die, I beseech you grant me this one charitable boon. Let me
unburthen my heart before you, and cleanse my soul of its
manifold sins, so that hereafter no man may be unjustly accused
or executed for my secret misdeeds. This done, death will come
more easy to me, and the assistance of your prayers will lift my
soul, I doubt not, to the skies."


f' Ai ,. --

LL now took compassion on the fox, and beseeched
the king to grant his request; which was done.
And then the fox spake: Help me, Heaven for I see no man here
whom I have not offended. Yet this was not from evil inclination ;
for in my youth I was accounted as virtuous as any breathing; I
played with the lambs all day long, and took delight in their pretty
bleating. But once in my play I bit one, and the taste of its blood
was so sweet, that ever since I could not forbear. This evil humour
drew me into the woods among the goats; where, hearing the
bleating of the young kids, I slew one, and after two more,
which made me so hardy, that I began to murder geese and pullets.
Thus my crime growing by habit, the fancy so possessed me, that
all was fish that was caught in my net. In the winter season I
met with Isegrim, as he lay under a hollow tree, and he unfolded


unto me how he was my uncle, and laid the pedigree down so
plain, that from that day forth we became companions. A friend-
ship I have reason to curse; for then, indeed, began the history
of our thefts and slaughters. He stole the great prizes and I
the small; he murdered nobles and I the meanest subjects; and
in all these actions his share was ever the greatest. When he
caught a calf, a ram, or a wether, his voracity would hardly
afford me the bones to pick. When he mustered an ox or a cow,
he first served himself, his wife, and all his family, nothing
remaining, I say, for me but the bare bones. I state not this as
having been in want, it being well known that I have more plate,
jewels, and coin, than twenty carts would carry; but only to
show his vile ingratitude." When the king heard him speak of
this infinite wealth, his heart grew inflamed with avarice; and,
interrupting the prisoner, he said: Reynard, where is that
treasure you speak of ?" The fox answered: My lord, I will
gladly inform you; though it be true the wealth was stolen, and
had it not been so stolen it would have cost your majesty his
life, which Heaven long preserve." The queen here started, and
said in great dismay, What are these dangers you speak of,
Reynard ? I do command ye to unfold these doubtful speeches,
and to keep nothing concealed that affects the life of my dread
lord; go on."
The fox, with a sorrowful countenance, replied: Oh, my
dread sovereign lady, I would that I might now die, did not
your commands and the health of my own soul so prevail
with me, that I must discharge my conscience, and yet speak
nothing but what I will make good at the hazard of damna-
tion. True it is, that the king was to have been cruelly des-
patched by his own people: yea, I must confess, by some of


my nearest kindred, whom I would not accuse, did not the
health of my soul, and my fealty to the king command me
to do so." The king, much perplexed at this discovery, said,
" Can it be true, Reynard, what you say ? The fox answered,
"Alas, my dread lord, you see the case in which I stand;
how small a sand is left in my poor glass to run. I will
dissemble not; what dissembling can avail me, if my soul
perish ?" and saying this he trembled and looked so pitifully,
that the queen took pity upon him. She humbly besought
the king for the safety of his royal person to take compassion
on the fox, and to command all his subjects to hold their peace,
till he had revealed all lie knew. This was done, and the fox
proceeded as follows: Since it is the pleasure of my dread
lord the king, and that his royal life lies in the balance with
my present breath, I will freely unfold this foul and capital
treason, sparing no guilty person for any respect whatsoever,
however high in greatness, blood, or authority. Know then,
my dread lord, that my father, by accident turning up the
earth, found king Ermetick's treasure ; an infinite and in-
calculable mass of riches, with which he became so vain and
haughty, that he looked down upon all the beasts of the forest
with contempt, even upon his kinsmen and companions. At
length he caused Tibert the cat to go into the forest of Arden
to Bruin the bear, and to render him his homage and fealty;
saying, that if it would please him to be king, he must come
into Flanders, where my father received him nobly. Next
he sent for his wife, Grimbard my nephew, and for Isegrim
the wolf, with Tibert the cat. These five coming between
Gaunt and the village called Elfe, they held solemn council
for the space of one night, in which, instigated by the devil,


and confident in my father's riches, it was concluded, that
your majesty should be murdered. They took a solemn oath
to this effect in the following way: sir Bruin, my father, Grim-
bard, and Tibert, laid their hands on Isegrim's crown, and
swore to make Bruin their king; to place him in the chair of

should any oppose the scheme, my father was to hire assassins
that should utterly chase and root them out of the forests.
After this it happened, that my nephew Grimbard being one day

heated with wine, made a discovery of this damnable plot to
Dame Slopard his wife, commanding her also to keep it secret.
But she too, as women will, only kept it until she met with me,
charging me to reveal it to no one! She moreover gavmeme such


proofs of its truth, as to cause the very hairs of my head to start
upright, while my heart sunk cold and heavy within me, like a
piece of lead. Indeed it led me to call to mind the story of the
frogs, who complained to Jupiter that they had no king to govern
them, and he presently sent them a stork, which cat and devoured
them up; and by whose tyranny they became the most miserable
of all creatures. Then they cried unto Jupiter for redress, but it
was too late; for those that will not be content with their free-
dom, must consequently be subjected to thraldom. Even so I
feared it might happen to us; and I grieved for the fate of your
majesty, though you respect not my sorrows. The ambition of
the bear is such that should the government come into his hands,
the commonwealth would fall a sacrifice to his tyranny. Besides,
I know your majesty is of that royal and lofty lineage, so mighty,
gracious, and merciful withal, that it would have been a
damnable exchange, to have seen a ravenous bear sit in the
throne of the royal lion; for in sir Bruin and his whole genera-
tion there is more prodigal looseness and inconstancy than in
any beast whatsoever. I therefore began to meditate how I
might foil my father's false and treacherous designs, who sought
to elevate a traitor and a slave to the height of your imperial
throne. I was aware that as long as he held the treasure, your
majesty was in danger, and I grew exceedingly troubled and
perplexed. So I resolved, if possible, to find where the treasure
was concealed; and I watched him night and day, in the woods,
in the hedges, and in the open fields. To whatever spot my
father turned his eyes, there was I, sure of detecting him one
time or other in the fact.
One day, as I was lying flat down upon the ground, I spied
him coming out of a hole, with a very thievish look; he gazed


round about him to see if he was observed, and thinking the
coast clear, he stopped up the hole with sand so even and
smoothly that the most curious eye could discern no difference
between it and the other earth. Then, where the print of his
foot remained, he stroked it over with his tail, and smoothed it

with his mouth so that no person could perceive it. Indeed, that
and many other subtleties I learned from him at that time.
When he had thus finished, he went away towards the village
about his private affairs, while I proceeded towards the hole, and
in spite of all his cunning I quickly found the entrance. Then I
entered the cavern, where I found an innumerable quantity of
treasure; and taking Ermelin, my wife, along with me, we both
laboured day and night in conveying it to another place, where



we deposited it safe from every human eye. During the time we
were thus employed, my father was in deep consultation with
the rest of the traitors to compass his majesty's death. It was
concluded that Isegrim the wolf should traverse all the kingdom,
and promise to all the beasts that would take wages, and
acknowledge Bruin for their sovereign and defend his title, a
full year's pay beforehand. In this journey my father accom-
panied him, bearing letters patent signed to that purport, little
suspecting that he was deprived of all the wealth with which to
promote his scheme. When this negotiation was concluded
between Elge and Seam, and a vast body of soldiers raised for
action against the next spring, they returned to Bruin and his
party, to whom they declared the many perils they had escaped
in the dukedom of Saxony, where they were pursued by hounds
and huntsmen. They next showed Bruin the muster-rolls, which
pleased him exceedingly; for here he found about twelve hun-
dred of Isegrim's lineage, all sworn for action, besides the bear's
kindred, the cats and the dassens, all which would be in readiness
at an hour's notice. All this I discovered from good authority;
and the plot becoming ripe for execution, my father went to the
cave for his treasure. What was his infinite agony and trouble
to find the place open and ransacked! Ile became desperate, and
soon afterwards went to the next tree, and hanged himself.
Thus, by my skill, Bruin's treason was defeated, and for
this I now suffer, while those two false traitors, Bruin and
Isegrim, sit in the king's privy council, with great authority,
procure my disgrace, and trample me under foot. I have lost
my father in your majesty's cause, and what stronger proof can
be tendered of my loyalty ? I have lost my life in defending


The king and queen, indulging a hope of possessing these
inestimable treasures, ordered Reynard down from the gibbet,
and entreated him farther to unfold its place of concealment.
" What," replied the fox, "shall I make my worst enemies my
heirs ? Shall these traitors, who take away my life, and attempt
your majesty's, become possessed of the fortune I enjoy ?" "Then,"
said the queen, fear not, Reynard, the king shall save your life,
and you shall henceforth swear faith and true allegiance to his
majesty." The fox answered, Sovereign lady, if the king, out
of his royal nature, will give credit to my truth, and forgive my
offences, there was never king so rich as he will be." Then the
king interrupting the queen, said, Fair consort, will you
believe the fox ? Know that it is his chief excellence to lie, to
steal, and to impose upon others." But the queen said, Yet
now, my dear lord, you may freely believe him; for, however
full of deceit he may have been in his prosperity, you see he is
now changed. Why, he accuses his own father, and Grimbard,
his dearest nephew and kinsman Were he dissembling, he
might have laid his imputation upon other beasts, and not on
those he loves best." Well, madam," replied the king, "you
shall, for this time, rule me; I will give free pardon to the fox,
yet under this condition, that if he be ever found tripping again,
though in the smallest offence, both he and his shall be utterly
rooted out of my dominions." The fox looked sadly when the
king spake thus; withal he rejoiced within himself, and he said,
" Most dread lord, it were a huge shame in me, should I dare to
speak any untruths in this august presence." Then the king
taking a straw from the ground, pardoned the fox for all the
transgressions which either he or his father before him had
committed. No wonder the fox now began to smile, for life


,, .
,T r -

The Kinog received the straw, and smiling, gave the fox great thanks; at which the
latter chuckled heartily to think of the grossness of the lnposture.
l je e 7.
Th igrci dte4aal iiiil a h o ra hns thc h
lattr cuckld hartiy t thik o thegrosu-,of he ipisure

P-ge -,7


was most.sweet to him; and he fell down before the king and
queen, humbly thanking them for all their mercies, and pro-
testing that he would make them the richest princes in the world.
At these words the fox took up a straw, and proffering it the
king, said to him, My dread lord, I beseech your majesty to
receive this pledge of entire surrender unto your majesty of the
great king Ermetick's treasure, with which I freely present you
out of my free will and pleasure." The king received the straw,
and smiling, gave the fox great thanks: at which the latter
chuckled heartily to think of the grossness of the imposture.
From that day forward no one's counsel so much prevailed with
the king as that of the fox ; and confiding in this he said, "My
gracious lord, you must understand that on the west side of
Flanders there stands a wood called Husterloe, near which runs
a river named Crekenpit: this is a wilderness so vast and im-
passable, that hardly throughout the year there crosses a man
or woman over the place. In it I have hid this treasure, and
thither I should wish your majesty and the queen to go ; for I
know of none besides your highnesses whom I dare trust in so
great a design. When your majesty reaches it, you will see two
birchen trees growing by the pit, and there you shall find the
treasure, consisting of coin, precious jewels, and the crown
which king Ermetick wore. With this crown Bruin the bear
was to have been crowned, if his treason had succeeded according
to expectation; there too you will find many costly stones, of
which; when you are possessed, then remember the love of your
poor servant, Reynard." The king answered, Sir Reynard,
you must yourself help to dig up this treasure, for else I see I
shall never find it. I have heard of such places as Paris,
London, Aeon, and Cullen, but Crekenpit I never heard of;


therefore I fear you dissemble." The fox blushed, at these
words; yet with a bold countenance he said, "Is your majesty
still so doubtful of my faith? nay, then, I will approve my
words by public testimony;" and with that he called forth
Kayward the hare, commanding him to come before the king
and queen, to answer truly to such questions as he should ask
him. The hare answered, "I will answer truly in all things,
though I die for the same." Then Reynard said, "Know you
not where Crekenpit stands ?" Yes," replied Kayward, "I
have known it these dozen years; it stands in a wood called
Husterloe to be sure, amidst a vast and wild wilderness, where
I have endured much torment both of hunger and cold. Besides,
it was there where father Simony, the friar, made false coin for
the benefit of himself and his brethren; yet that was before
I and Ring the hound became companions." Well," said the
fox, "you have spoken sufficiently; go to your place again:" so
away went the hare. Then said the fox, "My sovereign lord
the king, what is your opinion ? am I worthy of your confidence
or no?" The king said, "Yes, Reynard, and pray excuse
my suspicion; it was my ignorance which did thee wrong.
Therefore make speedy preparation to accompany us to the pit
where this treasure lies." The fox answered, Alas my lord,
do you imagine that I would not fain go with you, if I could
venture without your dishonour, which I cannot do. For you
must understand, though it be to my disgrace, that when Isegrim
the wolf, in the devil's name, would needs grow religious, and
play the monk, the portion of meat which was for six monks was
too little for him alone. He complained so piteously, that, being
my kinsman, I compassionate his case, and advised him to run
away, which he did. For this reason I at present stand accursed


and excommunicated under the pope's sentence, and am deter-
mined to-morrow at sunrise to journey towards Rome, and from
Rome I intend to cross the seas for Holyland, and will never
return again into my native country till I have done so much
good, and so far expiated my sins, that I may attend on your
majesty's person with honour and reputation." The king,
hearing this pious design, said, "Since you stand accursed
by the censures of the church, I must not have you about me;
and therefore I will take Kayward the hare and some others
with me to Crekenpit; only I command you, Reynard, as you
value our favour, to clear yourself of his holiness's curse."
" That is the reason, my lord, of my going to Rome; neither
will I rest, night or day, till I have obtained absolution."
"The course you take is good," said the king, "go on and
prosper in your fair intent, and return home better than you

p~c~; 4J)

SS soon as the conference was
S -' ended, the royal king mounted
t'h'e upon his high throne, raised in
the form of a scaffold, made of fair
square stone; and commanded thence
'' a general silence among all his sub-
S' f i jects. Every one was to take his
place according to his birth or dignity
in office; except the fox, who
K i sat 'between the king and the
q' een. The king then spoke:
"Hear all you noblemen,
knights, gentlemen, and others of inferior quality Sir Reynard,
one of the supreme officers of my household, whose misdeeds
had brought him to his final account, standing between those
two quarrelsome mistresses, law and justice, hath this day
recovered our best grace and favour. He hath done that noble
and worthy service to the state, that both myself and my queen


are bound to hlim for ever. Henceforth I do command all of
you, upon pain aind hazard of your dearest lives, that you hence-
forward fail not, from this day, to show all reverence and
honour, not only to Reynard himself, but to his whole family,

wherever you may happen by night or day to meet with them.
Nor let any one hereafter be so audacious as to trouble my ears
with complaints against him, for he will no more be guilty of
doing wrong. To-morrow very early he sets out on a pilgrimage
to Rome, where he means to purchase a free pardon and
indulgence from the pope, and afterwards to proceed to the holy
land." Now when Tisellen the raven heard this speech, he


flew to sir Bruin, Isegrim, and Tibert, and said: "Wretched
creatures, how are your fortunes changed; how can you. endure
to hear these tidings ? Why, Reynard is now a courtier, a
chancellor, nay, prime minister and favourite: his offences are
forgiven; and you are all betrayed and sold unto bondage."
Isegrim answered: "Nay, it is impossible, Tisellen, nor can
such an abuse be suffered." "I tell you it can! Do not deceive
yourselves, it is as true as that I now speak it." Then went
the wolf and the bear to the king, but the cat refused, and was
so sore afraid at what she heard, that to have purchased the fox's
favour once more, she would have forgiven not only the injuries
she had received, but have run a second hazard. But Isegrim,
with much confidence and pride, appeared before the king and
queen, and with the most bitter words inveighed against the fox;
and in so passionate and impudent a manner withal, that the
king was roused to anger, and ordered both the wolf and the
bear to be arrested for high treason. This was forthwith done
with every mark of violence and indignity; the prisoners were
bound hand and foot, that they could not stir a limb nor a step
from the place where they were couched. For the fox having
thus entangled them, he so far prevailed with the queen as to
obtain as much of the bear's skin as would make him a large
scrip for his journey. This being put in force, he wanted nothing
but a strong pair of shoes to defend his feet from the stones
while he travelled. Again, therefore, he said to the queen:
" Madam, I am your poor pilgrim; and if it would please your
majesty but to take it into your consideration, you will perceive
that sir Isegrim wears a pair of excellent long lasting ones,
which would you vouchsafe to bestow upon me, I would pray
for your majesty's soul during my travels upon my charitable


mission. Also mine aunt, dame Ersewind, hath other two
shoes, which would your majesty bestow upon me, you would
be doing her little injury, as she seldom ventures abroad." The
queen replied, "Yes, Reynard, I believe you will want such
shoes for your journey; it is full of labour and difficulty, both
respecting the stony hills and the gravelly highways. Therefore,


X 4

be sure you shall have, though it touch their life never so nearly,
a pair of shoes from each of them, the better to speed and
accomplish your journey." So Isegrim was taken, and his
shoes pulled off in the most cruel manner. After being thus
tormented, dame Ersewind, his wife, was treated in the same
manner as her husband; and had the cat been there, he would
doubtless have experienced the same fate, in addition to the
cruel mockery of the fox. The next morning early Reynard


caused his shoes to be well oiled, so as to make them fit well,
and then he went before the king and queen, and said, My
dread lord and lady, your poor subject bows himself down before
you, humbly beseeching your majesties to permit me to take my
scrip and staff according to the custom of pilgrims." The king
then sent for Bellin the ram, and commanded him to say solemn
mass before the fox, and to deliver him his staff and mail; but
Bellin refused, saying, My lord, I dare not, for he is under the
pope's curse." But the king said, "What of that? have not
our doctors told us that if a man commit all the sins in the
world, yet if he repent, be shriven, do penance, and walk as the
priests shall instruct him, that all is clearly forgiven him ? and
hath not Reynard done all this ?" Bellin answered, "Sire, I
am loth to meddle with such points; yet if your majesty will
protect me against the bishop of Preudelor and against the arch-
deacon of Loofwind, I will execute your commandment." At
this the king grew wrath, and said, Sir, I scorn to be beholden
to you." And when Bellin saw his majesty so offended, he
shook with fear, and ran quickly to the altar, and sung mass,
using many ceremonies over the fox, who had little respect for
them beyond his wish to enjoy the honour. When Bellin the
ram had finished, he hung his mail round Reynard's neck, made
of the bear's skin, and presented him with the staff. Thus
equipped, sir Reynard looked sadly towards the king, as if he
had been loth to go; he feigned to weep, though all his sorrow
was that the whole court were not in as bad a predicament as
the wolf and the bear. He took leave, with requesting that
each and every one would pray for his soul, as he would for
Theirs; for in fact he was so sensible of his own knavery that
he was eager to be gone. The king said, Tn truth, sir Reynard,


I am sorry we must part thus suddenly." But the fox replied,
"There is no remedy, my lord; we ought not to be slow in
fulfilling holy vows." Then the king commanded all the lords
present, except the bear and the wolf, to attend Reynard some
part of his journey. Though lie cut a very gallant figure, he
was inwardly smiling at his own villany, while he affected the
utmost demureness. For his enemies were now become his
attendants, and the king, whom he had most grossly deceived
with wicked lies, now also accompanied him like his familiar
After proceeding some way, the fox said, "I beseech your
majesty, trouble yourself no farther; consult your ease and the
safety of your royal person; for you have arrested two capital
traitors, who, should they recover their liberty, the danger would
be great." This said, he stood upon his hinder feet, and en-
treated the lordly beasts who were in his company once more to
pray for him; after which he took leave of the king with an
exceeding sad and heavy countenance. Then turning towards
Kayward the hare, and Bellin the ram, with a smiling coun-
tenance, he said, My best friends, must we part thus soon ?
Surely you will not leave me yet? With you I was never
offended: your conversation is agreeable to me; for you are mild,
loving, and courteous, religious withal, and full of wise counsel,
just as I myself was when I led the life of a recluse. If you
have a few green leaves and herbs, you are as well contented as
with all the bread and fish in the world, for you are temperate
and modest." Thus, with a profusion of the same flattering
words, he enticed these two to accompany him.


T HE three friends journeyed on
together until they came to
"the gates of Reynard's own
-" house. Then he said to the
Sram, Pray, cousin, keep
watch here without, while I
"and Kayward go in: I wish
him to witness my pleasure
atmeetingmy family." Bellin
,"\ said he would; and the fox
and the hare went into Male-
"pardus,where they found lady
Ermelin sorrowing exceedingly for the absence of her husband.
But when she saw him, her joy knew no bounds; and she
expressed her astonishment on beholding his mail, his staff, and
his shoes. Dearest husband," she cried, how have you fared? "
Reynard then related his adventures at court, adding that he was
going a pilgrimage, having left Bruin and Isegrim in pledge for


him till his return. As for Kayward, he added, turning towards
him, the king had bestowed him upon him to do with as he
pleased, as Kayward had been the first to complain of him, for
which he vowed deadly revenge. Hearing these words, Kayward
was quite appalled, and tried to fly; but the fox had placed him-


self between him and the door, and soon seized him by the neck.
Kayward cried to Bellin for help, but the fox had cut his throat
with his sharp tooeeth before hlie could be heard. This done, the
traitor and his family began to feast upon him merrily, and drank
his blood to the king's health. Ermelin then said, I fear,
Reynard, you mock me; as you lovo me, tell me how you sped
at the king's court." When he told her the pleasant story, how


he had imposed upon the king and queen with a false promise of
treasures that did not exist. Bat when the king finds out the
truth, he will take every means of destroying us; therefore, dear
wife," said he, there is no remedy; we must steal from hence
into some other forest, where we may live in safety, and find
more delicate fare, clear springs, fresh rivers, cool shades, and
wholesome air. Here there is no abiding: and now I have got
my thumb out of the king's mouth, I will no more come within
reach of his talons." "Yet here," said his wife, "we have all
we desire, and you are lord over all you survey; and it is dan-
gerous to exchange a certain good for better hopes. Should the
king here besiege us ever so closely, we have a thousand passages
and side holes, so that he can neither catch, nor deprive us of our
liberty. Why then fly beyond seas ? but you have sworn it, and
that vexes me." Nay, madam," cried Reynard, "grieve not at
that: the more forsworn, the less forlorn; you know; therefore I
will be forsworn, and remain, in spite of his majesty, where I am.
Against his power I will array my policy. I will guard myself
well, insomuch that, being compelled to open my stock, let him
not blame me if he hurt himself with his own fury."
Meanwhile Bellin stood waiting at the gate, exceedingly wroth
and impatient; and swearing both at the fox and the hare, he
called loudly for sir Reynard to come. So at last he went and
said softly: Good Bellin, be not offended Kayward is con-
versing with his aunt; and he bids me say, that if you will walk
forward, he will overtake you; for he is light of foot, and speedier
than you." True but I thought," said Bellin, that I heard
Kayward cry for help." "What! cry for help, forsooth! do you
imagine he can meet with any injury in my house?" No."
"But I will tell you how you were deceived. Happening to


inform my wife of my intended pilglrimnage, she swooned away,
and Kayward, in great alarm, cried out; 3ellin, come help my
aunt; she dies she dies ''' Then I mistook the cry," said
Bollin. "You did," said Reynard; and now let us talk of

business, good Blliii. You may recollect that the king and
council intreated me to write before I set out for the pilgrimage,
upon some matters important to the state." "In what shall [
"carry these papers most safely ? required Iellin. That is
already provided for you," replied Reynard; for you shall have
my serip which you may hang round your neck; and take care


of it, they are matters of great importance." Then Reynard
returned into the house, and taking Kayward's head, he thrust it
into the scrip, and enjoined the ram not to look into it, as he
valued the king's favour, until he reached the court; adding,
that he might rest assured that his presentation of the letters to
the king would pave the way to his great preferment.

4 -.,

-.- '2l' 4?S,..

Bellin thanked the fox, and being informed that he had other
affairs to impart to Kayward, set out on his journey alone. When
lie arrived at court, he found the king in his palace, seated
amidst his nobility. The king wondered when he saw Bellin
come in with the scrip made of Brnin's skin, and he said: How
now, Bellin where is sir Reynard, that you have got his scrip


with you ? My dread lord," said Bellin, I have escorted the
noble fox to his castle, when, after short repose, he desired me to
bear certain letters to your majesty, of vast importance, which he
enclosed in his own scrip." The king commanded the letters to
be delivered to his secretary, Bocart, an excellent linguist, who
understood all languages, that he might read them publicly. So
he and sir Tibert the cat took the scrip from Bellin's neck, and
opening the same, instead of letters, drew out the bloody head of
Kayward, at which sight they cried out in huge dismay: "Woe,
and alas what letters call you these ? Oh, dread lord, behold !
here is nothing but the head of poor murdered Kayward." See-
ing this, the monarch cried: Unhappy king that I am, ever to
have given credit to the traitor fox !" And overwhelmed with
anger, grief, and shame, he held down his head a good space, as
well as the queen likewise. At last shaking his royal locks, he
made such a tremendous noise, that all the lords of the forest
trembled with fear. Then spake sir Firapel the leopard, the
king's nearest kinsman, and said: Why is your majesty thus
troubled ? such sorrow might become the queen's funeral: I do
beseech you assuage your anguish. Are not you king and master?
arc not all subject to your power?" The king replied, "Yes,
cousin, but such mischief is beyond endurance. I am betrayed
by a false villain, who has made me oppress my best friends and
subjects, even those of my council and my blood: the stout sir
Bruin, and sir Isegrim the wolf. Yet had I not heaped upon
myself this foul dishonour, but for the queen's tenderness, which
wrought upon me, and for which I shall evermore grieve."
"What of all this ?" replied the leopard; you are seated above
all injuries, and one smile can salve the greatest wound upon
your honour. You have power to recompense and to punish, and


you can destroy or restore reputation as you please. What if the
bear lost his skin, the wolf and dame Ersewind their shoes, you
may in recompense, since Bellin has confessed himself a party to
this foul murder, bestow him and his substance upon the party
aggrieved. As for Reynard, we can go and besiege his castle,
and having arrested his person, hang him up by law of arms
without further trial, and there is an end."

"[lit %

q l' I ffI ..

..--.. "'. -' '"

/ liHE king consented to this motion,
I' I1 and despatched Firapel to the prison,
"r'r vlwhere the bear and the wolf were
S in durance. "1ly lords," lie said,
"'.':" "r: I bring a free and general pardon
S' from his majesty, as well as his good
wishes, and recognition of your injuries.
As some recompence he is pleased to
'I. j!,* bestow upon you out of his princely
bounty, both Bellin the ram, and his
whole generation with all they possess.
These you are to hold with full commission to slay, kill, and
devour them wherever you meet them, in woods, fields, or
mountains, until doomsday. The same power is granted you
over Reynard and the whole of his lineage. Letters patent will
shortly be forwarded to you, and Bellin now awaits your plea-
sure." Peace being thus restored between the king and his
nobles, Bellin was forthwith slain, (the wolf following up his


enmity to him and his race in perpetuity;) and afterwards, the
king proclaimed a grand feast, which was held with all due
solemnity during twelve days.
When these princely festivities, attended by the lords both of

earth and air, had reached the eighth day, about high noon came
Laprcl the coney, before the king and queen as they sat at feast,
and with a lamentable voice he said: Great king, have pity on
my misery, and attend my complaint of the force and murder
which Reynard the fox had nearly committed, as I passed by the
castle of Malepardus. He stood outside his gates, attired like a
pilgrim, and thinking I might pass quietly, he crossed my way,

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