Citation
Aunt Charlotte's stories of English history for the little ones

Material Information

Title:
Aunt Charlotte's stories of English history for the little ones
Spine title:
English history
Creator:
Yonge, Charlotte Mary, 1823-1901
Marcus Ward & Co
Royal Ulster Works
Place of Publication:
London
Publisher:
Marcus Ward & Co.
Belfast Royal Ulster Works
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1875
Language:
English
Edition:
2nd ed. -- with questions.
Physical Description:
ix, 286, [6] p., [2] leaves of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 17 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Kings and rulers -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
History -- Juvenile literature -- Great Britain ( lcsh )
Publishers' catalogues -- 1875 ( rbgenr )
Biographies -- 1875 ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1875
Genre:
Publishers' catalogues ( rbgenr )
Biographies ( rbgenr )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
collective biography ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London
Ireland -- Belfast
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

General Note:
Added t.p. and frontispiece printed in color.
General Note:
Publisher's catalogue follows text and on endpapers.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Charlotte M. Yonge.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
ALJ0715 ( NOTIS )
16214585 ( OCLC )
027030596 ( AlephBibNum )

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9 Author of The Heir of Redclyffe, &c.





a
AUNT CHARLOTTE’

STORIES OF

ENGLISH HISTORY

FOR THE LITTLE ONES.

hY
CHARLOTTE M. YONGE,

AuTHOR oF ‘‘THE HEIR OF REDCLYFFE,” ‘STORIES OF BIBLE History,” &c.

SECOND EDITION, WITH QUESTIONS.





London:
MARCUS WARD & CO., CHANDOS STREET, W.C.;
AND ROYAL ULSTER WORKS, BELFAST.
M.DCCC.LXXV.









Marcus Warp ann Co.
Printers

Royat Utster Works, BELFAST





PRB WAC Es



a's History is intended for very little children.
It seems to be the experience of all families,
\ Pp all fa
that the exigencies of modern education require the
. names of the sovereigns of England, and some idea
connected with them, to be acquired long before there
is any possibility of really understanding history. I
had hoped to supply this need by “ The Kings of Eng-
land,” but it is found too difficult for the very first age ;
and I never yet found a nursery history that was cor-
rect in the facts it attempted to give. Whether the
present will answer the purpose can only be proved by
experience as to whether the little ones take interest
in it.
It has been made as easy as the nature of things
would permit, and it is hoped: to follow it up with a
few other little histories, such as, with the carefully
drawn illustrations, may lay the foundation with toler-
able correctness, and not much to unlearn.

CHARLOTTE M. YONGE.

May 2nd, 1873.



—
|







CONTENTS.



CHAP.

I.—Julius Caesar. B.C. 55 5
IJ.—The Romans in Britain. A.D. 41—418 .
III.—The Angle Children. A.D. 597
IV.—The Northmen. A.D. 858—958 .

V.—The Danish Conquest. A.D. 958—1035
VI.—The Norman Conquest. A.D. 1035—1066
VII.—William the Conqueror. A.D. 1066—1087 .

VIII.—William II., Rufus. A.D. 1087—1100
1X.—Henry I.; Beau-Clerc. A.D. 1100—I1135
X.—Stephen. A.D. 1135—I11I54 f
XI.—Henry II., Fitz-Empress. A.D. 1154—1189
XII.—Richard I., Lion-Heart. A.D. 1189—1199
XIII.—John, Lackland. A.D. 1199—1216 . é
XI1V.—Henry III., of Winchester. A.D. 1216—1272
XV.—Edward I., Longshanks. A.D. 1272—1307 .

XVI.—Edward II., of Caernarvon. A.D, 1307—1327 .

XVII.—Edward III.
XVIII.—Richard II.

A.D, 1327—1377
A.D. 1377—1399

X1X.—Henry IV. A.D. 1399—1413 :
XX.—Henry V., of Monmouth. A.D. 14131423
XXI.—Henry VI., of Windsor. A.D. 1423—1461 .

XXII.—Edward IV.

A.D. 1461—1483

XXIII.—Edward V. A.D. A.D. 1483.

XXIV.—Richard III.

A.D. 1483—1485

PAGE

13
18
23
28
32
37
4I
45
50
55
61
66
72
78
83
89
95
IOI
106

113











vi Contents.

CHAP.

XXV.—Henry VII. A.D. 1485—1509

XXVI.—Henry VIII. and Cardinal Wolsey. A.D. 1509—1529

XXVII.—Henry VIII. and his Wives. a.D. 1528—1547 .
XXVIII.—Edward VI. A.D. 1547—1553
XXIX.—Mary I. A.D. 1553—1558
XXX.—Elizabeth. A.D. 1558—1587 .
XXXI.—Elizabeth (continued). A.D. 1587—1602.
XXXII.—James I. A.D. 1602—1625
XXXIII.—Charles I. a.D. 1625—1649
XXXIV.—The Long Parliament. A.D. 1649
XXXV.—Death of Charles I. A.D. 1649 .
XXXVI.—Oliver Cromwell. A.D. 1649—1660 .
XXXVII.—Charles II. A.D. 1660—1685
XXXVIII.—James II. a.p. 1685—1688 . t
XXXIX.—William III. and Mary II. a.p. 1689—1702
XL—Anne. A.D. 1702—1714
XLI.—George I. A.D. 1714—1725
XLII.—George II. A.D. 1725—1760
XLIII.--George III. A.D. 1760—1785
XLIV.—George III. (continued). a.D. 1785—1810 .
XLV.—George II].—The Regency. A.D. 1810—1820 .
XLVI.—George IV. A.D. 1820—1830
XLVII.—William IV. a.p. 1830—1837
XLVIII.—Victoria. A.D. 1837—1855
XLIX.—Victoria (continued). A.D. 1857—1860 .
L.—Victoria (continued), A.D. 1860—1872

Questions for Examination



PAGE
128

134
139
145
150
155
161
167
173
178
183
189
194
200
206
212
218
223
229
234
240
245
250
255
260
265
269







LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



PA
King Edward III. receiving the Black Prince after the Battle of Crecy

—From a painting by H. S. Marks, Esq., A.R.A.—Frontispiece.

* Queen Victoria at the Age of Eight

Ceesar receiving Tribute from the Britons .

The Romans Building the Wall.

Augustine’s Mission to Ethelbert

Edgar on the Dee

Crossing the Ice at Ely

Edward and the Thief .

William the Conqueror and his Sons

Peter the Hermit preaching the Crusade

Homage to Maude ;

Maude’s Escape from Oxford

Prince Henry receiving his Father’s Ring .

Richard I. turning aside from the sight of Jerusalem .

John Escaping from the Wash

Henry III. Crowned with his Mother’s Bracelet

Edward I. presenting his Son to the Welsh Princes

Edward II. Crowned with Hay .

Queen Philippa and the Burghers of Calais.

Death of Wat Tyler

GE

ix

13
18
23
28
32
37
4I
45
50
55
61
66 .
72
78
83
89









List of Illustrations.





Henry IV. addressing his Son at his death .

Henry V. Knighting Whittington

Joan of Arc led to Execution

Elizabeth Woodville entreating Edward IV.

Archbishop Morton taking the Duke of York from the nen
Lady Bessee writing the Letter to Henry Tudor

Perkin Warbeck in the Stocks

The Field of the Cloth of Gold :

Henry VIII. looking at Anne of Cleves’ Picture .
Edward VI. shown at the Window

Children playing at Hanging the King of Ss
Elizabeth sitting on the steps at Traitors’ Gate

Sir Philip Sydney and the wounded Soldier

Prince Charles Climbing over the Wall to see the Infanta
The Pilgrim Fathers Embarking

Cromwell’s Soldiers Shooting at Stained Glass Windows
Princess Henrietta Escaping, disguised as a Boy.
Cromwell Expelling the Long Parliament

Lord Wilmot writing the Epigram on the King’s bed-room door
The Queen’s Escape with her Child (James II.)

The Apprentice Boys of Derry Shutting the Gates

The Duchess of Marlborough Scolding Queen Anne .
The Earl of Nithsdale’s Escape

Prince Charles Shaking Hands with the Highlanders
Death of Chatham .

Death of Nelson





List of Illustrations.







1X

he a ’ oe PAGE

Bonaparte on board the Bellerophon 240
George IV.’s Reception in Scotland 245
Rick-burners : ewan: 250
Florence Nightingale in the Crimea 255
Cashmere Gate, Delhi—Lighting the Fuse 26c
Marriage of the Prince of Wales 265





HER MAJESTY QUEEN VICTORIA, AT THE AGE OF EIGHT.

From a Portrait tn the possession of Vere Foster, Esq.

“The Queen thinks the picture from which this small engraving was taken was painted

in 1826 or 1827.—Osborne, April Ist, 1868.”









PRES WHRD ECO



CAESAR RECEIVING TRIBUTE.

a ce poxsee. _

STORIES OF ENGLISH HISTORY.

CHAP. I—JULIUS CAESAR.
B.C. 55.
EARLY two thousand years ago there was a
brave captain whose name was Julius Cesar.
The soldiers he led to battle were very strong, and
conquered the people wherever they went. They had
no guns or gunpowder then ; but they had swords and
spears, and, to prevent themselves from being hurt,
they had helmets or brazen caps on their heads, with



















6 Stories of English History.





long tufts of horse-hair upon them, by way of orna-
ment, and breast-plates of brass on their breasts, and
on their arms they carried a sort of screen, made of
strong leather. One of them carried a little brass
figure of an eagle on a long pole, with a scarlet flag
flying below, and wherever the eagle was seen, they
all followed, and fought so bravely that nothing could
long stand against them.

When Julius Cesar rode at their head, with his
keen, pale hook-nosed face, and the scarlet cloak that
the general always wore, they were so proud of him,
and so fond of him, that there was nothing they would
not do for him.

Julius Ceesar heard that a little way off there was
a country nobody knew anything about, except that
the people were very fierce and savage, and that a
sort of pearl was found in the shells of mussels which
lived in the rivers. He could not bear that there
should be any place that his own people, the Romans,
did not know and subdue. So he commanded the
ships to be prepared, and he and his soldiers embarked,
watching the white cliffs on the other side of the sea
grow higher and higher ‘as he came nearer and nearer.

When he came quite up to them, he found the
savages were there in earnest. They were tall men,







Fultus Cesar. 7



with long red streaming hair, and such clothes as they
had were woollen, checked like plaid; but many had
their arms and breasts naked, and painted all over
in blue patterns. “They had spears and darts, and the
-chief men among them were in basket-work chariots,
with a scythe in the middle of each wheel to cut down
their enemies. They yelled and brandished their darts,
to make Julius Cesar and his Roman soldiers keep
away; but he only went on to a place where the shore
was not quite so steep, and there commanded his sol-
diers to land. The savages had run along the shore
too, and there was a terrible fight; but, at last, the
man who carried the eagle jumped down into the
middle of the natives, calling out to his fellows that
they must come after him, or they would lose their
eagle. They all came rushing and leaping down, and
thus they managed to force back the savages, and
make their way to the shore.

There was not much worth having when they had
made their way there. Though they came again the
next year, and forced their way a good deal farther into
the country, they saw chiefly bare downs, or heaths, or
thick woods.. The few houses were little more than
piles of stones, and the people were rough and wild,
and could do very little. The men hunted wild boars,









8 Stories of English Fistory.



and wolves and stags, and the women dug the ground,
and raised a littlé corn, which they ground to. flour
between two stones to make bread ; and they spun the
wool of their sheep, dyed it with bright colours, and
wove it into dresses. They had some strong places in
the woods, with trunks of trees, cut down .to shut them
in from the enemy, with all their flocks and cattle ;
but Cesar did not get into any of these. He only
made the natives give him some of their pearls, and
call the Romans their masters, and then he went back
to his ships, and none of the set of savages who were
alive when he came saw him or his Romans any more.
Do you know who these savages were who fought
with Julius Cesar? They were called Britons. And
the country he came to see? That was our very own
island, England, only it was not called so then. And
the place where Julius Cesar landed is called Deal,
and, if you look at the map, where England and
France most nearly touch one another, I think you will
see the name Deal, and remember it was there that
Julius Czesar landed, and fought with the Britons.
‘It was fifty-five years before our blessed Saviour
was born that the Romans came. So at the top of
this chapter stands z.c. (Before Christ) 55.















ROMANS BUILDING THE WALL.



CHAP. IIl.—THE ROMANS IN BRITAIN.
A.D. 41—418.
ft was nearly a hundred years before any more
JL of the Romans came to Britain; but they were
people who could not hear of a place without wanting
to conquer it, and they never left off trying till they
had done what they undertook.

One of their emperors, named Claudius, sent his
soldiers to conquer the island, and then came to see it
himself, and called himself Britannicus in honour of the
victory, just as if he had done it himself, instead of his
generals. One British chief, whose name was Caradoc,



B







10 Stories of English History.



who had fought very bravely against the Romans, was
brought to Rome, with chains on his hands and feet,
and set before the emperor. , As he stood there, he
said that, when he looked at all the grand buildings of
stone and marble in the streets, he could not think
why the Romans should want ‘to take away the poor
rough stone huts of the Britons. .Claudius was kind to
Caradoc; but the Romans went on conquering Britain
till they had won all the part of it that lies south of the
river Tweed; and, as the people beyond that point
were more fierce and savage still, a very strong wall,
with a bank of earth and deep ditch was made to
keep them out, and always watched by Roman soldiers.

The Romans made beautiful straight roads all over
the country, and they built towns. Almost all the towns
whose names end in chester were begun by the Romans,
and bits of their walls are to be seen still, built of very
small bricks. Sometimes people dig up a bit of the
beautiful pavement of coloured tiles, in patterns, which
used to be the floors of their houses, or a piece of their
money, or one of their ornaments.

For the Romans held Britain for four hundred years,
and tamed the wild people in the South, and taught
them to speak and dress, and read and write like
themselves, so that they could hardly be known from





bios, ph a aL ee eee







The Romans in Britain. II



Romans. Only the wild ones beyond the wall, and in
the mountains, were as savage as ever, and, now and
then, used to come and steal the cattle, and burn the
houses of their neighbours who had learnt better.

Another set of wild people used to come over in
boats across the North Sea and German Ocean. These
people had their home in the country that is called
Holstein and Jutland. They were tall men, and had
blue eyes and fair hair, and they were very strong, and
good-natured in a rough sort of way, though they were
fierce to their enemies. There was a great deal more
fighting than any one has told us about; but the end of
it all was that the Roman soldiers were wanted at
home, and though the great British chief we call King
Arthur fought very bravely, he could not drive back
the blue-eyed men in the ships; but more and more
came, till, at last, they got all the country, and drove
the Britons, some up into the North, some into the
mountains that rise along the West of the island, and
some out into its west point.

The Britons used to call the blue-eyed men
Saxons; but they called themselves Angles, and the
country was called after them Angle-land. Don’t you
know what it is called now? England itself, and the
people English; for these were our own forefathers—









12 Stories of English History.



our great-great-great-great-great-great-great-grandfa-
thers! They spoke much the same language as we do,
only more as untaught country people, and they had
not so many words, because they had not so many
things to see and talk about.
_ .As to the Britons, the English went on driving
them back till they only kept their mountains. There
they have gone on living ever since, and talking their
own old language. The English called them Welsh, a
name that meant strangers, and we call them Welsh
still, and their country Wales. They made a great
many grand stories about their last brave chief, Arthur,
till, at last, they turned into a sort of fairy tale. It was
said that, when King Arthur lay badly wounded after
his last battle, he bade his friend fling his sword into
the river, and that then three lovely ladies came in a
boat, and carried him away to a secret island. The
Welsh kept on saying, for years and years, that one
day King Arthur would wake up again, and give them
back all Britain, which used to be their own before the
English got it for themselves; but the English have
had England now for thirteen hundred years, and may
God, in His mercy, keep it for us still.

It was about 400 years after our Lord was born that
the Romans were going and the English coming. Ke

















0 ee

CHAP. III—THE ANGLE CHILDREN.

A.D. 597.
EYSHE old English who had come to Britain were
*& heathen, and believed in many false gods: the
Sun, to whom they made Sunday sacred, as Monday
was to the Moon, Wednesday to a great, terrible
god, named Woden, and Thursday to a god called
Thor, or Thunder. They thought a clap of thunder
was the sound of the great hammer he carried in
his hand. They thought their gods cared for peo-
ple being brave, and that the souls of those who
died fighting gallantly in battle were the happiest of







14 Stories of English Flistory.



all ; but they did not care for kindness or gentleness.

Thus they often did very cruel things, and one of
the worst that, they did was the stealing of men,
women, and children from their homes, and selling
them to strangers, who made slaves of them. All.
England had not one king. There were generally
about seven kings, each with a different part- of the
island; and, as they were often at war with one
another, they used to steal one another’s subjects, and
sell them to merchants who came from. Italy and
Greece for them.

Some English children were made slaves, and
carried to Rome, where they were set in the market-
place to be sold. was walking by. He saw their fair faces, blue eyes,
and long light hair, and, stopping, he asked who they
were. “Angles,” he was told, “from the isle of Bri-
tain.’ “Angles?” he said, “they have angel. faces,
and they ought to be heirs with the angels in heaven.”
From that time this good man tried to find means to
send teachers to teach the English the Christian faith.
He had to wait for many years, and, in that time, he
- was made Pope, namely, Father-Bishop of Rome. At
last he heard that one of the chief English kings,
Ethelbert of Kent, had married Bertha, the daughter













_ The Angle Children. 15



of the King of Paris, who was a Christian, and that
she was to be allowed to bring a priest with her, and
have a church to worship in.

Gregory thought this would make a beginning : so
he sent a priest, whose name was Augustine, with a
letter to King Ethelbert and Queen Bertha, and asked
_ the king to listen to him. Ethelbert met Augustine
in the open air, under a tree at Canterbury, and heard
him tell about the true God, and Jesus Curist, whom
He has sent ; and, after some time, and a great deal of
teaching, Ethelbert gave up worshipping Woden and
Thor, and believed in the true God, and was baptised,
and many of his people with him. Then Augustine
was made Archbishop of Canterbury; and, one after
another, in the course of the next hundred years, all
the English kingdoms learnt to know God, and broke
down their idols, and became Christian.

Bishops were appointed, and churches were built,
and parishes were marked off—a great many of them
the very same that we have now. Here and there,
when’men or women wanted to be very good indeed,
and to give their whole lives to doing nothing but
serving God, without any of the fighting and feasting,
the buying and selling of the outer world, they built
houses, where they might live apart, and churches,











16 Stories of English Flistory.



where there might be services seven times a-day.
These houses were named abbeys. Those for men
were, sometimes, also called monasteries, and the men
in them were termed monks, while the women were
called nuns, and their homes convents or nunneries.
They had plain dark dresses, and hoods, and the
women always had veils. The monks used to promise
that they would work as well as pray, so they used to
build their abbeys by some forest or marsh, and bring
it all into order, turning the wild place into fields, full
of wheat. Others used to copy out the Holy Scrip-
tures and other good books upon parchment—because
there was no paper in those days, nor any printing—
drawing beautiful painted pictures at the beginning of
the chapters, which were called illuminations. The
nuns did needlework and embroidery, as hangings for
the altar, and garments for the priests, all bright with
beautiful colours, and stiff with gold. The English
nuns’ work was the most beautiful to be seen anywhere.

There were schools in the abbeys, where boys were
taught reading, writing, singing, and Latin, to prepare
them for being clergymen; but not many others
thought it needful to have anything to do with books.
Even the great men thought they could farm and
feast, advise the king, and consent to the laws, hunt









The Angle Children. 17



or fight, quite as well without reading, and they did
not care for much besides; for, though they were
Christians, they were still rude, rough, ignorant men,
who liked nothing so well as a‘hunt or a feast, and
slept away all the evening, especially when they could
get a harper to sing to them.

The English men used to wear a long dress like a
carter’s frock, and their legs were wound round with
strips of cloth by way of stockings. Their houses were
only of one storey, and had no chimneys—only a hole
at the top for the smoke to go out at; and no glass
in the windows. The only glass there was at all had
been brought from Italy to put into York Cathedral,
and it was thought a great wonder. So the windows
had shutters to keep out the rain and wind, and the
fire was in the middle of the room. At dinner-time,
about twelve o'clock, the lord and lady of the house
sat upon cross-legged stools, and their children and
servants sat on benches; and square bits of wood, cal-
led trenchers, were put before them for plates, while
the servants carried round the meat on spits, and
everybody cut off a piece with his own knife and ate it
without a fork. They drank out of cows’ horns, if they
had not silver cups. But though they were so rough
they were often good, brave people.



















































































































































































WRElUS NS ES

EDGAR ON THE DEE—SEE PAGE 23.



CHAP. IV.—THE NORTHMEN.
A.D. 858—958.

EYSHERE were many more of the light-haired, blue-

eyed people on the further side of the North Sea
who worshipped Thor and Woden still, and thought
that their kindred in England had fallen from the old
ways. Besides, they liked to make their fortunes by
getting what they could from their neighbours. No-
body was thought brave or worthy, in Norway or
Denmark, who had not made some voyages in a “long
keel,” as a ship was called, and fought bravely, and
brought home gold cups and chains or jewels to show
ier ee











The Northmen. 19

Â¥



where he had been. Their captains were called Sea
Kings, and some of them went a great way, even into
the Mediterranean Sea, and robbed the beautiful shores
of Italy. So dreadful was it to see the fleet of long
ships coming up to the shore, with a serpent for the
figure-head, and a raven as the flag, and crowds of

r fierce warriors with axes in their hands longing for

prey and bloodshed, that where we pray in church that
God would deliver us from lightning and tempest, and
battle and murder, our forefathers used to add, “ From
the fury of the Northmen, good Lord deliver us.”

To England these Northern men came in great
swarms, and chiefly from Denmark, so that they were
generally called “the Danes.” They burnt the houses,
drove off the cows and sheep, killed the men, and took
away the women and children to be slaves; and they
were always most cruel of all where they found an
Abbey with any monks or nuns, because they hated
the Christian faith. By this time those seven English
kingdoms I told you of had all fallen into the hands of
one king. Egbert, King of the West Saxons, who
reigned at Winchester, is counted as the first king of
all England. His four grandsons had dreadful battles

‘with the Danes all their lives, and the three eldest all

died quite young. The youngest was the greatest and









20 Stories of English History.



best king we ever had—Alfred the Truth-teller. He
was only twenty-two years old when he came to the
throne, and the kingdom was overrun everywhere with
the Danes. In the northern part some had even
settled down, and made themselves at home, as the
English had done four hundred years before, and more
and more kept coming in their ships: so that, though
Alfred beat them in battle again and again, there was
no such thing as driving them away. At ldst he had
so very few faithful men left with him, that he thought
it wise to send them away, and hide himself in the
Somersetshire marsh country. There is a pretty story
told of him that he was hidden in the hut of a poor
herdsman, whose wife, thinking he was a poor wander-
ing soldier as he sat by the fire mending his bow and
arrows, desired him to turn the cakes she had set to
bake upon the hearth. Presently she found them
burning, and cried out angrily, “Lazy rogue! you can’t
turn the cakes, though you can eat them fast enough.”

However, that same spring, the brave English
gained more victories; Alfred came out of his hiding
place and gathered them all together, and beat the:
Danes, so that they asked for peace. He said he
would allow those who had settled in the North of
England to stay there, provided they would become









The Northmen. 21



Christians; and he stood godfather to their chief, and
gave him the name of Ethelstane. After this, Alfred
had stout English ships built to meet the Danes at sea
before they could come and land in England; and thus
he kept them off, so that for all the rest of his reign,
and that of his son and grandsons, they could do very
little mischief, and for a time left off coming at all, but
went to rob other countries that were not so well
guarded by brave kings.

But Alfred was not only a brave warrior. He was
a most good and holy man, who feared God above all
things, and tried to do his very best for his people.
He made good laws for them, and took care that every
one should be justly treated, and that nobody should
do his neighbour wrong without being punished. So
many Abbeys had been burnt and the monks killed by
the Danes, that there were hardly any books to be
had, or scholars to read them. He invited learned
men from abroad, and wrote and translated books
himself for. them; and he had a school in his house,
_ where he made the young nobles learn with his own
sons. He built up the churches, and gave alms to the
, poor; and he was always ready to hear the troubles
of any poor man. Though he was always working
so hard, he had a disease that used to cause him









22 Stories of English Flistory.



terrible pain almost every day. His last years were
less peaceful than the middle ones of his reign, for the
Danes tried to come again; but he beat them off by
his ships at sea, and when he died at fifty-two years
old, in the year got, he left England at rest and quiet,
and we always think of him as one of the greatest
and best kings who ever reigned in England, or in any
other country. As long as his children after him and
his people went on in the good way he had taught
them, all prospered with them, and no enemies hurt
them; and this was. all through the reigns of his son,
his grandson, and great-grandsons. Their council of
great men was called by a long word that is in our
English, “Wise Men’s Meeting,” and there they set-
tled the affairs of the kingdom. The king’s wife was
not called queen, but lady ; and what do you think lady
means? It means “loaf-giver”—giver of bread to her
household and the poor. So a lady’s great work is to
be charitable.











CROSSING THE ICE AT ELY.



CHAP. V.—THE DANISH CONQUEST.
A.D. 958—1035.

KY SHE last very prosperous king was Alfred’s great

grandson, Edgar, who was owned as their over-
lord by all the kings of the remains of the Britons in
Wales and Scotland. Once eight of these kings came
to meet him at Chester, and rowed him in his barge
along the river Dee. It was the grandest day a king
of England enjoyed for many years. Edgar was
called the peaceable, because there were no attacks by
the Danes at all throughout his reign. In fact, the
Northmen and Danes had been fighting among them-









24 Stories of English F1istory.



selves at home, and these fights generally ended in
some one going off as a Sea-King, with all his friends,
and trying to gain a new home in some fresh country.
One great party of Northmen, under a very tall and
mighty chief named Rollo, had, some time before, thus
gone to France, and forced the king to give them a
great piece of his country, just opposite to England,
which was called after them Normandy. There they
learned to talk French, and grew like Frenchmen,
though they remained a great deal braver, and more
spirited than any of their neighbours.

There were continually fleets of Danish ships
coming to England; and the son of Edgar, whose
name was Ethelred, was a helpless, cowardly sort of
man, so slow and tardy, that his people called him
Ethelred the Unready. Instead of fitting out ships
to fight against the Danes, he took the money the
ships ought to have cost to pay them to go away
without plundering; and as to those who had come
into the country without his leave, he called them his
guard, took them into his pay, and let them live in the
houses of the English, where they were very rude,
and gave themselves great airs, making the English
feed them on all their best meat, and bread, and beer,
and always call them Lord Danes. He made friends









The Danish Conquest. 25



himself with the Northmen, or Normans, who had set-
tled in France, and married Emma, the daughter of
their duke; but none of his plans prospered: things
grew worse and worse, and his mind and his people’s
grew so bitter against the Danes, that at last it was
agreed that, all over the South of England, every |
Englishman should rise up in one night and murder
the Dane who lodged in his house.

Among those Danes who were thus wickedly killed
was the sister of the King of Denmark. Of course
’ he was furious when he heard of it, and came over to
England determined to punish the cruel, treacherous
king and people, and take the whole island for his
own. He did punish the people, killing, burning, and
plundering wherever he went; but he could never get
the king into his hands, for Ethelred went off in the
height of the danger to Normandy, where he had
before sent his wife Emma, and her children, leaving
his eldest son (child of his first wife), Edmund Iron-
side, to fight for the kingdom as best he might.

This King of Denmark died in the midst of his
English war; but his son Cnut went on with the
conquest he had begun, and before long Ethelred the
Unready died, and Edmund Ironside was murdered,
and Cnut became King of England, as well as of

Cc







26 Stories of English History.

Denmark. He became a Christian, and married
Emma, Ethelred’s widow, though she was much older
than himself. He had been a hard and cruel man, but
he now laid aside his evil ways, and became a noble
and wise and just king, a lover of churches and good
men; and the English seem to have been as well off
under him as if he had been one of their own kings.
There is no king of whom more pleasant stories are
told. One is of his wanting to go to church at Ely
Abbey one cold Candlemas Day. Ely was on a hill,
in the middle of a great marsh. The marsh was frozen
over; but the king’s servants told him that the ice was
not strong enough to bear, and they all stood looking -
at it. - Then out stepped a stout countryman, who was
so fat, that his nickname was The Pudding... “ Are
you all afraid?” he said, “I will go over at once before
the king.” “Will you so,” said the king, “then I will
come after you, for whatever bears you will bear me.”
Cnut was a little, slight man, and he got easily over,
and Pudding got a piece of land for his reward.

These servants of the king used to flatter him.
They told him he was lord of land and sea, and that
every thing would obey him. “Let us try,” said Cnut,
who wished to show them how foolish and profane
they were; “bring out my chair to the sea-side.” He








The Danish Conquest. a7



‘was at Southampton at the time, close to the sea, arid
the tide was coming in. ‘Now sea,” he said, as he sat
down, “I am thy lord, dare not to come near, nor to
wet my feet.” Of course the waves rolled on, and
splashed over him; and he turned to his servants, and
bade them never say words that took away from the
honor due to the only Lord of heaven and earth. He
never put on his crown again after this, but hung it up
in Winchester Cathedral. He was a thorough good
king, and there was much grief when he died, stranger
though he was.

A great many Danes had made their homes in York-
shire and Lincolnshire, ever since Alfred’s time, and
some of their customs are still left among us, and some
of their words. The worst of them was that they were
great drunkards, and the English learnt this bad cus-
tom of them.











ANG

A oa



ml

EDWARD AND THE THIEF.



CHAP. VI—THE NORMAN CONQUEST.
A.D. 1035—1066.

A NUT left three sons; but one was content to be
very soon. Soa great English nobleman, called Earl
Godwin, set up as king, Edward, one of those sons of
Ethelred the Unready who had been sent away to
Normandy. He was a very kind, good, pious man,
who loved to do good. He began the building of our
grand church at Westminster Abbey, and he was so
holy that he was called the Confessor, which is a word
for good men not great enough to be called saints.

only King of Denmark, and the other two died,







7"
The Norman Conquest. 29



He was too good-natured,.as you will say when you
hear that one day, when he was in bed, he saw a thief
come cautiously into his room, open the chest where
his treasure was, and take out the money-bags. Instead
of calling anyone, or seizing the man, the king only
said, sleepily, “ Take care, you rogue, or my chancellor
will catch you and give you a good whipping.”
You can fancy that nobody much minded such a king
_as this, and so there were many disturbances in his
time. Some of them rose out of the king—who had
been brought up in Normandy—liking the Normans
better than the English, They really were much
cleverer and more sensible, for they had learnt a great
deal in France, while the English had forgotten much
of what Alfred and his sons had taught them, and all
through the long, sad reign of Ethelred had been get-
ting more dull, and clumsy, and rude. Moreover, they
had learnt of the Danes to be sad drunkards; but both
they and the Danes thought the Norman French fine
gentlemen, and could not bear the sight of them.
Think, then, how angry they all were when it began
to be said that King Edward wanted to leave his
kingdom of England to his mother’s Norman nephew,
Duke William, because all his own near relations were
still little boys, not likely to be grown up by the time











30 Stories of English History.



the old king died. Many of the English wished for
Harold, the son of Earl Godwin, a brave, spirited man;
but Edward sent him to Normandy, and there Duke
William made him swear an oath not to do anything to
hinder the kingdom from being given to Duke William.
Old King Edward died soon after, and Harold said
at once that his promise had been forced and cheated
from him, so that he need not keep it, and he was
crowned King of England. This filled William with
anger. He called all his fighting Normans together,
fitted out ships, and sailed across the English Channel
to Dover. The figure-head of his own ship was a
likeness of his second little boy, named William. He
landed at Pevensey, in Sussex, and set up his camp
while Harold was away in the North, fighting with a
runaway brother of his own, who had brought the Nor-
wegians to attack Yorkshire. Harold had just won a
great battle over these enemies when he heard that
William and his Normans had landed, and he had to
hurry the whole length of England to meet them.
Many of the English would not join him, because
they did not want him for their king. But though his
army was not large, it was very brave. When he
reached Sussex, he placed all his men on the top of a
low hill, near Hastings, and caused them to make a













The Norman Conquest. 31



fence all round, with a ditch before it, and in the
middle was his own standard, with a fighting man
embroidered upon it. Then the Normans rode up on
their war-horses to attack him, one brave knight going
first, singing. The war-horses stumbled in the ditch,
and the long spears of the English killed both men and
horses. Then William ordered his archers to shoot
their arrows high in the air. They came down like
hail into the faces and on the heads of the English.
Harold himself was pierced by one in the eye. The
Normans charged the fence again, and broke through;
and, by the time night came on, Harold himself and all
his brave Englishmen were dead. They did not flee
away; they all staid, and were killed, fighting to the
last; and only then was Harold’s standard of the
fighting man rooted up, and William’s standard—a
cross, which had been blessed by the Pope—planted
instead of it. So ended the battle of Hastings, in the
year 1066.

We have had a great many “conquests” hitherto—
the Roman conquest, the English conquest, the Danish
conquest, and now the Norman conquest. But there
have been no more since; and our kings and queens
have gone on in one long line ever since, from William
of Normandy down to Queen Victoria.





























































































































































































: NSS aes SS
WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR AND HIS SONS.

io or

CHAP. VII.—WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR.
A.D. 1066—1087.
KYSHE king who had conquered England was a
brave, strong man, who had been used to fighting
and struggling ever since he was a young child.

He really feared God, and was in many ways a good
man; but it had not been right of him to come and
take another people’s country by force; and the having
done one wrong thing often makes people grow worse
and worse. Many of the English were unwilling to
have William as their king, and his Norman friends
were angry that he would not let them have more of





I he te
William the Conqueror. 33



the English lands, nor break the English laws. So they
were often rising up against him; and each time he had
to put them down he grew more harsh and stern. He
did not want to be cruel; but he did many cruel things,
because it was the only way to keep England.

When the people in Northumberland rose against
him, and tried to get back the old set of kings, he had
the whole country wasted with fire and sword, till
hardly a town or village was left standing. He did .
this to punish the Northumbrians, and frighten the
rest. But he did another thing that was worse, because
it was only for his own amusement.. In Hampshire,
near his castle of Winchester, there was a great space
of heathy ground, and holly copse and beeches and
oaks above it, with deer and boars running wild in
the glades—a beautiful place for hunting, only that
there were so many villages in it that the creatures
were disturbed and killed. William liked hunting more
than anything else—his people said he loved the high
deer as if he was their father,—and to keep the place
clear for them, he turned out all the inhabitants, and
pulled down their houses, and made laws against any-
one killing his game. The place he thus cleared is
still called the New Forest, though it is a thousand
years old.











34 Stories of English Frstory.





An old Norman law that the English grumbled
about very much was, that as soon as a bell was rung
at eight o'clock every evening, everyone was to put out
candle and fire, and go to bed. The bell was called -
the curfew, and many old churches ring it still.

William caused a great list to be made of all the
lands in the country, and who held them. We have
this list still, and it is called Domesday Book. It
shews that a great deal had been taken from the
English and given to the Normans. The king built
castles, with immensely thick, strong walls, and loop-
hole windows, whence to shoot arrows; and here he
placed his Normans to keep the English down. But
the Normans were even more unruly than the English,
and only his strong hand kept them in order. They
rode about in armour—helmets on their heads,.a shirt
of mail, made of chains of iron linked together, over
their bodies, gloves and boots of iron, swords by their
sides, and lances in their hands—and thus they could
bear down all before them. They.called themselves
knights, and were always made to take an oath to be-’
friend the weak, and poor, and helpless; but they did
not often keep it towards the poor English.

William had four sons—Robert, who was called
Court-hose or Short-legs; William, called Rufus, be-









William the Conqueror. 35
cause he had red hair; Henry, called Beau-clerc, or
the fine scholar; and Richard, who was still a lad when
he was killed by a stag in the New Forest.

Robert, the eldest, was a wild, rude, thoughtless
youth ; but he fancied himself fit to govern Normandy,
and asked his father to give it up to him. King
William answered, “I never take my clothes off before
I go to bed,” meaning that Robert must wait for his
death. Robert could not bear to be laughed at, and
was very angry. Soon after, when he was in the castle
court, his two brothers, William and Henry, grew
riotous, and poured water down from the upper win-
dows on him and his friends. He flew into a passion,
dashed up-stairs with his sword in his hand, and might
have killed his brothers if their father had not come in
to protect them. Then he threw himself on his horse
and galloped away, persuaded some friends to join him,
and actually fought a battle with his own father, in
which the old king was thrown off his horse, and hurt
in the hand. Then Robert wandered about, living on
money that his mother, Queen Matilda, sent him,
though his father was angry with her for doing so, and
this made the first quarrel the husband and wife had
ever had.

Not long after, William went to war with the King







lee oe



36 Stories of English History.



of France. -He had caused a city to be burnt down,
and was riding through the ruins, when his horse trod
on some hot ashes, and began to plunge. The king
was thrown forward on the saddle, and, being a very
heavy, stout man, was so much hurt, that, after a few
weeks, in the year 1087, he died at a little monastery,
a short way from Rouen, the chief city of his dukedom
of Normandy.

He was the greatest man of his time, and he had
much good in him; and when he lay on his death-bed
he grieved much for all the evil he had brought upon
the English; but that could not undo it. He had
been a great church-builder, and so were his Norman
bishops and. barons. _ You may always know their
work, because it has round pillars, and round arches,
with broad borders of zig-zags, and all manner of
patterns round them.

In the end, the coming of the Normans did the
English much good, by brightening them up and mak-
ing them less dull and heavy; but they did not like
having a king and court who talked French, and cared
more for Normandy than for England.





















eee OTT

PETER THE HERMIT PREACHING THE CRUSADE,



CHAP. VIII.—WILLIAM II, RUFUS.
A.D. 1087—1II00,

UAQILLIAM the Conqueror was obliged to let

Normandy fall to Robert, his eldest son; but
he thought he could do as he pleased about England,
which he had won for himself. So he had sent off his
second son, William, to England, with his ring to
Westminster, giving him a message that he hoped the
English people would have him for their king. And
they did take him, though they would hardly have done
so if they had known what he would be like when he
was left to himself. -But while he was kept under by















38 Stories of English History.



his father, they only knew that he had red hair and a
ruddy face, and had more sense than his brother
Robert. He is sometimes called the Red King, but
more commonly William Rufus. Things went worse
than ever with the poor English in his time ; for at least
William the Conqueror had made everybody mind the
law, but now William Rufus let his cruel soldiers do
just as they pleased. They would come into the farms,
have the best of everything set before them, beat and
misuse the people, carry off whatever they pleased, and
spoil what they did not want. It was of no use to com-
plain, for the king would only laugh and make jokes.
He did not care for God or man; only for being
powerful, for feasting, and for hunting.

Just at this time there was a great stir in Europe.
Jerusalem—that holy city, where our blessed Lord
- had taught, where He had been crucified, and where
He had risen from the dead—was a place where
everyone wished to go and worship, and this they
called going on pilgrimage. A beautiful church had
once been built over the sepulchre where our Lord
had lain, and enriched with gifts. But for a long
time past Jerusalem had been in the hands of an East- |
ern people, who think their false prophet, Mahommed,
greater than our blessed Lord. These Mahomme-











Witham [f., Rufus. 39

dans used to rob and ill-treat the pilgrims, and make
them pay great sums of money for leave to come into
Jerusalem. At last a pilgrim, named Peter the Her-
mit, came home, and got leave from the Pope to try
to waken up all the Christian princes and knights
to go to the Holy Land, and fight to get the Holy
Sepulchre back into Christian hands again., He used
to preach in the open air, and the people who heard
him were so stirred up that they all shouted out, “ It is
God’s will! It is God’s will!’ And each who under-
took to go and fight in the East received a cross cut
out in cloth, red or white, to wear on his shoulder.
Many thousands promised to go on this crusade, as
they called it, and among them was Robert, Duke of
Normandy. But he had wasted his money, so that he
could not fit out an army to take with him. So he of-
fered to give up Normandy to his brother William while
he was gone, if William would let him have the money
he wanted. The Red King was very ready to make
such a bargain, but he laughed at the Crusaders, and
thought that they were wasting their time and trouble.

They had a very good man to lead them, named
Godfrey de Bouillon; and, after many toils and
troubles, they did gain Jerusalem, and could kneel,
weeping, at the Holy Sepulchre. It was proposed to











40 _ Stories of English Ftrstory.



make Robert King of Jerusalem, but he would not
accept the offer, and Godfrey was made king instead,
and staid to guard the holy places, while Duke Robert
set out on his return home.

In the meantime, the Red King had gone on in as
fierce and ungodly a way as ever, laughing good advice
to scorn, and driving away the good Archbishop of
Canterbury, St. Anselm, and everyone else who tried
to warn him or withstand his wickedness. One day, in
the year 1100, he went out to hunt deer in the New
Forest, which his father had wasted, laughing and jest-
ing in his rough way. By and by he was found dead
under an oak tree, with an arrow through his heart ;
and a wood-cutter took up his body in his cart, and car-
ried it to Winchester Cathedral, where it was buried.

Who shot the arrow nobody knew, and nobody ever
will know. Some thought it must be a knight, named
Walter Tyrrell, to whom the king had given three long
good arrows that morning. He rode straight away
to Southampton, and went off to the Holy Land; so
it is likely that he knew something about the king’s
death. But he never seems to have told anyone,
whether it was only an accident, or a murder, or who
did it. Anyway, it was a fearful end, for a bad man to
die in his sin, without a moment to repent and pray.































HOMAGE TO MAUDE.



> e—_____-

CHAP. IX.—HENRY I, BEAU-CLERC.
A.D. ITIOO—II35.

“yo ENRY, the brother of William Rufus, was one
Th of the hunting party; and as soon as the cry
spread through the forest that the king was dead, he
rode off at full speed to Winchester, and took posses-
sion of all his brother’s treasure. William Rufus had
never been married, and left no children, and Henry
was much the least violent and most sensible of the
brothers; and, as he promised to govern according to
the old laws of England, he did not find it difficult to
persuade the people to let him be crowned king.



D







42 Stories of English History.



He was not really a good man, and he could be very
cruel sometimes, as well as false and cunning; but he
kept good order, and would not allow such horrible
things to be done as in his brother’s time. So the
English were better off than they had been, and used to
say the king would let nobody break the laws but him-
self. They were pleased, too, that Henry married a
lady who was half English—Maude, the daughter of
Malcolm Greathead, King of Scotland, and of a lady
of the old English royal line. They loved her greatly,
and called her good Queen Maude.

Robert came back to Normandy, and tried to make
himself King of England; but Henry soon drove
him back. The brothers went on quarrelling for some
years, and Robert managed Normandy miserably, and
wasted his money, so that he sometimes had no clothes
to wear, and lay in bed for want of them.

Some of the Normans could not bear this any longer,
and invited Henry to come and take the dukedom.
He came with an army, many of whom were English,
and fought a battle with Robert and his faithful Nor-
mans at Tenchebray, in Normandy. They gained a
great victory, and the English thought it made up for
Hastings. Poor Robert was made prisoner by his
brother, who sent him off to Cardiff Castle, in Wales,











flenry I., Beau-clerc. 43



where he lived for twenty-eight years, and then died,
and was buried in Gloucester Cathedral, with his figure
made in bog oak over his monument. I

Henry had two children—William and Maude. The
girl was married to the Emperor of Germany, and the
boy was to be the husband of Alice, daughter to the
Count of Anjou, a great French prince, whose lands
were near Normandy. It was the custom to marry
children very young then, before they were old enough
to leave their parents and make a home for themselves.
So William was taken by his father to Anjou, and
there married to the little girl, and then she was left
behind, while he was to return to England with his
father. Just as he was going to embark, a man came
to the king, and begged to have the honour of taking
him in his new vessel, called the. White Ship, saying
that his father had steered William the Conqueror’s
ship. Henry could not change his own plans; but, as
the man begged so hard, he ‘said his son, the young
bridegroom, and his friends might go in the White
Ship. They sailed in the evening, and there was great
merry-making on board, till the sailors grew so drunk
that they did not know how to guide the ship, and ran
her against a rock. She filled with water and began to
sink. A boat was lowered, and William safely placed











44 Stories of English History.



in it; but, just as he was rowed off, he heard the cries
of the ladies who were left behind, and caused the
oarsmen to turn back for them. So many drowning
wretches crowded into it, as soon as it came near, that
it sank with their weight, and all were lost. Only the
top-mast of the ship remained above water, and to it
clung a butcher and the owner of the ship all night
long. When daylight came, and the owner knew that
the king’s son was really dead, and by his fault, he lost
heart, let go the mast and was drowned. Only the
butcher was taken off alive; and for a long time no
one durst tell the king what had happened. At last a
boy was sent to fall at his feet, and tell him his son was
dead. He was a broken-hearted man, and never knew
gladness again all the rest of his life.

His daughter Maude had lost her German husband,
and come home. He made her marry Geoffrey of
Anjou, the brother of his son’s young wife, and called
upon all his chief noblemen to swear that they would
take her for their queen in England and their duchess
in Normandy after his own death.

He did not live much longer. His death was caused,
in the year 1135, by eating too much of the fish called
lamprey, and he was buried in Reading Abbey.















Se ae

MAUDE’S ESCAPE FROM OXFORD.



CHAP. X.—STEPHEN.
A.D. I135—I154.
pELTHER English nor Normans had ever been
ruled by a woman, and the Empress Maude, as
she still called herself, was a proud, disagreeable, ill-
tempered woman, whom nobody liked. So her cousin,
Stephen de Blois—whose mother, Adela, had been a
daughter of William the Conqueror—thought to obtain
the crown of ’England by promising to give everyone
what they wished. It was very wrong of him; for he,
like all the other barons, had sworn that Maude should
reign. But the people knew he was a kindly, gra-





46 Stories of English History.



cious sort of person, and greatly preferred him to her.
So he was crowned; and at once all the Norman
barons, whom King. Henry had kept down, began to
think they could have their own way. They built
strong castles, and hired men, with whom they made
war upon each other, robbed one another's tenants,
| and, when they saw a peaceable traveller on his way,
they would dash down upon him, drag him into the
castle, take away all the jewels or money he had about
him, or, if he had none, they would shut him up and
torment him till he could get his friends to pay them a
sum to let him loose.

Stephen, who was a kind-hearted man himself, tried to
stop these cruelties ; but then the barons turned round
on him, told him he was not their proper king, and
invited Maude to come and be crowned in his stead.
She came very willingly; and her uncle, King David
of Scotland, set out with an army to fight for her;
but all the English in the north came out to drive him
back; and they beat him and his Scots at what they
called the Battle of the Standard, because the English
had a holy standard, which was kept in Durham
Cathedral. Soon after, Stephen was taken prisoner
at a battle at Lincoln, and there was nothing to pre-
vent Maude from being queen but her own bad tem-



L__









Stephen. 47



per. She went to W inchester, and was there pro-
claimed; but she would not speak kindly or gently
to the people; and when her friends entreated her to
reply more kindly, she flew into a passion, and it is
even said that she gave a box on the ear to her uncle
—the good King of Scotland, who had come to help
her—for reproving her for her harsh answers. When
Stephen’s wife came to beg her to set him free, pro-
-mising that he should go away beyond the seas, and
never interfere with her again, she would not listen,
and drove her away. But she soon found how foolish
she had been. Stephen’s friends would have been
willing that he should give up trying to be king, but
they could not leave him in prison for life; and so
they went on fighting for him, while more and more of
_ the English joined them, as they felt how bad and un-
kind a queen they had in the Empress. Indeed, she
was so proud and violent, that her husband would not
come over to England.to help her, but staid to govern
Normandy. She was soon in great distress, and had
to flee from Winchester, riding through the midst of
the enemy, and losing almost all her friends by the
way, as they were slain or made prisoners. Her best
helper of all—Earl Robert of Gloucester—was taken
while guarding her; and she could only get to his town











48 Stories of English History.



of Gloucester by lying down in a coffin, with holes for
air, and being thus carried through all the country,
where she had made everyone hate her.

Stephen’s wife offered to set the Earl free, if the
other side would release her husband; and this ex-
change was brought about. Robert then went to
Normandy; to fetch Maude’s little son Henry, who was
ten years old, leaving her, as he thought, safe in
Oxford Castle; but no sooner was he gone than
Stephen brought his army, and besieged the castle—
that is, he brought his men round it, tried to climb up
the walls, or beat them down with heavy beams, and
hindered any food from being brought in. Everything
in the castle that could be eaten was gone; but Maude
was determined not to fall into her enemy’s hands. It
was the depth of winter ; the river below the walls was
frozen over, and snow was on the ground. One dark
night, Maude dressed herself and three of her knights
all in white, and they were, one by one, let down by
ropes from the walls. No one saw them in the snow.
They crossed the river on the ice, walked a great part
of the night, and at last came to Abingdon, where
horses were waiting for them, and thence they rode to
Wallingford, where Maude met her little son.

There was not much more fighting after this.











Stephen. 49



Stephen kept all the eastern part of the kingdom, and
Henry was brought up at Gloucester till his father sent
for him, to take leave of him before going on a crusade.
Geoffrey died during this crusade. He was fond of
hunting, and was generally seen with a spray of broom
blossom in his cap.. The French name for this plant
is genet; and thus his nickname was “ Plantagenet ;”
and this became a kind of surname to the kings of
England.

Henry, called Fitz-empress—or “the Empress’s son”
—came to England again as soon as he was grown up;
but, instead of going to war, he made an agreement
with Stephen. Henry would not attack Stephen any
more, but leave him to reign all the days of his life,
provided Stephen engaged that Henry should reign
instead of his own son after his death. This made
Stephen’s son, Eustace, very angry, and he went away
in a rage to raise troops to maintain his cause; but he
died suddenly in the midst of his wild doings, and the
king, his father, did not live long after him, but died in
the year 1154.

Maude had learnt wisdom by her misfortunes. She
had no further desire to be queen, but lived a retired
life in a convent, and was much more respected there
than as queen.















uo (a

CI
i Mi



HENRY RECEIVING HIS FATHER’S RING.



CHAP. XIL—HENRY II., FITZ-EMPRESS.

A.D. 1154—1189.

JOR ENRY FITZ-EMPRESS is counted as the

LA first king of the Plantagenet family, also called
the House of Anjou. He was a very clever, brisk,
spirited man, who hardly ever sat down, but was
always going from place to place, and who would let
nobody disobey him. He kept everybody in order,
pulled down almost all the Castles that had been built
in Stephen's time, and would not let the barons illtreat
the people. Indeed, everyone had been so mixed up
together during the wars in Stephen’s reign, that the









Flenry I1., Fiitz-empress, St



grandchildren of the Normans who had come over
with William the Conqueror were now quite English
in their feelings. French was, however, chiefly spoken
at court. The king was really a Frenchman, and he
married a French wife, Eleanor, the lady of Aquitaine,
a great dukedom in the South of France; and, as
Henry had already Normandy and Anjou, he really
was lord of nearly half France. He ruled England
well; but he was not a good man, for he cared for
power and pleasure more than for what was right; and
sometimes he fell into such rages that he would roll on
the floor, and hite the rushes and sticks it was strewn
with. He made many laws. One was that, if a priest
or monk was thought to have committed any crime, he
should be tried by the king’s judge, instead of by the
bishop. The Archbishop:of Canterbury, Thomas a
Becket, did not think it right to consent to this law;
and, though he and the king had once been great
friends, Henry was so angry with him that he was
forced to leave England, and take shelter with the’
King of France. Six years passed by, and the king
pretended to be reconciled to him, but still, when they
met, would not give him the kiss of peace. The arch-
bishop knew that this showed that the king still hated
him; but his flock had been so long without a shep-



errr











52 Stories of English History.



herd that he thought it his duty to go back to them.
Just after his return, he laid under censure some
persons who had given offence. They went and com-
plained to the king, and Henry exclaimed in a passion,
“Will no one rid me of this turbulent priest?” Four
of his knights who heard these words set forth for
Canterbury. The archbishop guessed why they were
come; but he would not flee again, and waited for
them by the altar in the cathedral, not even letting the
doors be shut. There they slew him; and thither, in
great grief at the effect of his own words, the king
came—three years later—to show his penitence by
entering barefoot, kneeling before Thomas’s tomb, and
causing every priest or monk in turn to strike him
with a rod. We should not exactly call Thomas a
martyr now, but he was thought so then, because he
died for upholding the privileges of the Church, and
he was held to be a very great saint.

While this dispute was going on, the Earl of
Pembroke, called Strongbow, one of Henry’s nobles,
had gone over to Ireland, and obtained a little king-
dom there, which he professed to hold of Henry; and
thus the Kings of England became Lords of Ireland,
though for a long time they only had the Province of
Leinster, and were always at war with the Irish around.









flenry Il., fitz-empress. 53



Henry was a most powerful king; but his latter
years were very unhappy. His wife was not a good
woman, and her sons were all disobedient and rebelli-
ous. Once all the three eldest, Henry, Richard, and
Geoffrey, and their mother, ran away together from his
court, and began to make war upon him. He was
much stronger and wiser than they, so he soon forced
them to submit; and he sent Queen Eleanor away,
and shut her up in a strong castle in England as long
as he lived. Her sons were much more fond of her
than of their father, and they thought this usage so
hard, that they were all the more ready to break out
against him. The eldest son, Henry, was leading an
army against his father, when he was taken ill, and felt
himself dying. He sent an entreaty that his father
would forgive him, and come to see him; but the
young man had so often been false and treacherous,
that Henry feared it was only a trick to get him as a
prisoner, and only sent his ring and a message of
pardon; and young Henry died, pressing the ring to
his lips, and longing to hear his father’s voice.

Geoffrey, the third son, was killed by a fall from
his horse, and there were only two left alive, Richard
and John. Just at this time, news came that the
Mahommedans in the Holy Land had won Jerusalem

:











54 ss of English Flistory.

back again; and the pope called on all Christian
princes to leave off quarrelling, and go on a crusade to
recover the Holy Sepulchre.

The kings of England and France, young Richard,
and many more, were roused to take the cross; but
while arrangements for going were being made, a fresh
dispute about them arose, and Richard went away in a
rage, got his friends together, and, with King Philip of
mere to help him, began to make war. His father
was feeble, and worn out, and could not resist as in
former times. He fell ill, and gave up the struggle,
saying he would grant all they asked. The list of
Richard’s friends whom he was to pardon was brought
to him, and the first name he saw in it was that of
John, his youngest son, and his darling, the one who
had never before rebelled. That quite broke his heart,
his illness grew worse, and he talked about an old
eagle being torn to pieces by his eaglets. And so, in
the year 1189, Henry II. died the saddest. death, per- »
haps, that an old man can die, for his sons had brought
down his grey hairs with sorrow to the grave.

















RICHARD I. TURNING ASIDE FROM THE SIGHT OF JERUSALEM.

—_—_——_-— > o —____

CHAP. XII—RICHARD I., LION-HEART.
~ A.D. 1189—1199.

YO ICHARD was greatly grieved at his father’s

4% death, and when he came and looked at the
dead body, in Fontevraud Abbey Church, he cried out,
“Alas! it was I who killed him!” But it was too late
now : he could not make up for what he had done, and
he had to think about the Crusade he had promised to
make. Richard was so brave and strong that he was
called Lion-heart; he was very noble and good in some
ways, but his fierce, passionate temper did him a great
deal of harm. He, and King Philip of France, and













50 Stories of English Fistory.



several other great princes, all met in the Island of
Sicily in the Mediterranean Sea, and thence sailed for
the Holy Land. The lady whom Richard was to
marry came to meet him in Sicily. Her name was
Berengaria; but, as it was Lent, he did not marry her
then. She went on to the Holy Land in a ship with
his sister Joan, and tried to land in the island of
Cyprus; but the people were inhospitable, and would
not let them come. So Richard, in his great anger,
conquered the isle, and was married to Berengaria
there.

The Mahommedans who held Palestine at that time
were called Saracens, and had a very brave prince at
their head named Saladin, which means Splendour of
Religion. He was very good, just, upright, and truth-
telling, and his Saracens fought so well, that the Crusa-
ders would hardly have won a bit of ground if the
Lion-heart had not been so brave. At last, they did
take one city on the coast named Acre; and one of the
princes, Leopold, Duke of Austria, set up his banner
on the walls. Richard did not think it ought to be
there : he pulled it up and threw it down into the ditch,
asking the duke how he durst take the honours of a
king. Leopold was sullen and brooded over the insult,
and King Philip thought Richard so overbearing, that





Richard 1., Lion-heart. 57



he could not bear to be in the army with him any
longer. In truth, though Philip had pretended to be
his friend, and had taken his part against his father,
that was really only to hurt King Henry; he hated
Richard quite as much, or more, and only wanted to
get home first in order to do him as much harm as he
could while he was away. So Philip said it was too
hot for him in the Holy Land, and made him ill. He
sailed back to France, while Richard remained, though
the climate really did hurt his health, and he often had
fevers there.z When he was ill, Saladin used to send
him grapes, and do all he could to show how highly he
thought of so brave a man. Once Saladin sent him a
beautiful horse; Richard told the Earl of Salisbury to
try it, and no sooner was the earl mounted, than the
horse ran away with him to the Saracen army. Saladin
was very much vexed, and was afraid it would be taken
for a trick to make the English king prisoner, and he
gave the earl a quieter horse to ride back with.
Richard fought one terrible battle at Joppa with the
Saracens, and then he tried to go on to take Jerusalem;
but he wanted to leave a good strong castle behind him
at Ascalon, and set all his men to work to build it up.
When they grumbled, he worked with them, and asked
the duke to do the same; but Leopold said gruffly that











58 Stories of English History.



he was not a carpenter or a mason. Richard was so
provoked that he struck him a blow, and the duke
went home in a rage.

So many men had gone home, that Richard found
‘ his army was not strong enough to try to take Jerusa-
lem. He was greatly grieved, for he knew it was his
own fault for not having shewn the temper of a Crusa-
der ; and when he came to the top of a hill, whence the
Holy City could be seen, he would not look at it, but
turned away, saying, “ They who are not worthy to win
it are not worthy to behold it.” It was of no use for
him to stay with so few men; besides, tidings came from
home that King Philip and his own brother, John, were
doing all the mischief they could. So he made a peace
for three years between the Saracens and Christians,
hoping to come back again after that to rescue Jerusa-
lem. But on his way home there were terrible storms ;
his ships were scattered, and his own ship was driven up
into the Adriatic Sea, where he was robbed by pirates,
or sea robbers, and then was ship-wrecked. There was
no way for him to get home but through the lands of
Leopold of Austria; so he pretended to be a merchant,
and set out attended only by a boy. He fell ill at a
little inn, and while he was in bed the boy went into
the kitchen with the king’s glove in his belt. It was









Richard I., Lion-heart. 59



an embroidered glove, such as merchants never used,
and people asked questions, and guessed that the boy’s
master must be some great man. The Duke of Aus-
tria heard of it, sent soldiers to take him, and shut him
up as a prisoner in one of his castlesy Afterwards, the
duke gave him up for a large sum of money to the
Emperor of Germany. All this time Richard’s wife
and mother had been in great sorrow and fear, trying
to find out what had become of him. It is said that he
was found at last by his friend, the minstrel Blondel.
A minstrel was a person who made verses and sung
them. Many of the nobles and knights in Queen
Eleanor’s Duchy of Aquitaine were minstrels—and
Richard was a very good‘ one himself, and amused
himself in his captivity by making verses. This is cer-
tainly true—though I cannot answer for it that the
pretty story is true, which says that Blondel sung at all
the castle courts in Germany, till he heard his master’s
voice take up and reply to his song.

The Queens, Eleanor and Berengaria, raised a ran-
som—that is, a sum of money to buy his freedom—
though his brother John tried to prevent her, and the —
King of France did his best to hinder the emperor
from releasing him; but the Pope insisted that the
brave crusader should be set at liberty: and Richard











60 Stories of English Htrstory.



came home, after a year and a-half of captivity. He
freely forgave John for all the mischief he had done
or tried to do, though he thought so ill of him as to
say, “I wish I may forget John’s injuries to me as soon
as he will forget my pardon of him.”

Richard only lived two years after he came back.
He was beseiging a castle in Aquitaine, where there
was some treasure that he thought was unlawfully kept
from him, when he was struck in the shoulder by a
bolt from a cross-bow, and the surgeons treated it so
unskilfully that in a few days he died. The man who
had shot the bolt was made prisoner, but the Lion-
heart’s last act was to command that no harm should
be done to him. The soldiers, however, in their grief
and rage for the king, did put him to death in a cruel
manner. ;

Richard desired to be buried at the feet of his father,
in Fontevraud Abbey, where he had once bewailed his
undutiful conduct, and now wished his body for ever to
lie in penitence. The figures, in stone, of the father,
mother, and son, who quarrelled so much in life, all
lie on one monument now, and with them Richard’s
youngest sister, Joan, who died nearly at the same time
as he died, partly of grief for him.





















































































— =
SG

JOHN. ESCAPING FROM THE WASH.

$e oe —_—_

CHAP. XIII.—JOHN, LACKLAND.
A.D. I199—I216.
Be a kind of joke, John, King Henry’s youngest
AM son, had been called Lackland, because he had
nothing when his brothers each had some great duke-
dom. The name suited him only too well before the
end of his life. The English made him king at once.
They always did take a grown-up man for their king, if
the last king’s son was but a child. Richard had never
had any children, but his brother Geoffrey, who was
older than John, had left a son named Arthur, who was
about twelve years old, and who was rightly the Duke









62 Stories of English History:



of Normandy and Count of Anjou. King Philip, who
was always glad to vex whoever was king of England,
took Arthur under his protection, and promised to get
Normandy out of John’s hands. However, John hada
meeting with him and persuaded him to desert Arthur,
and marry his son Louis to John’s own niece, Blanche,
who had a chance of being queen of part of Spain.
Still Arthur lived at the French King’s court, and
when he was sixteen years old, Philip helped him to
raise an army and go to try his fortune against his
uncle. He laid siege to Mirabeau, a town where his
grandmother, Queen Eleanor, was living. John, who
was then in Normandy, hurried to her rescue, beat
Arthur’s army, made him prisoner and carried him off,
first to Rouen, and then to the strong castle of Falaise.
Nobody quite knows:what was done to him there. The
governor, Hubert de Burgh, once found him fighting
hard, though with no weapon but a stool, to defend
himself from some ruffians who had been sent to put
out his eyes.» Hubert saved him from these men, but
shortly after this good man was sent elsewhere by the
king, and John came himself to Falaise.. Arthur was
never seen alive again, and it is believed that John
took him out in a boat in the river at night, stabbed
him'with his own hand, and threw his body into the









Fohn, Lackland. 63



river. There was, any way, no doubt that John was
guilty of his nephew’s death, and he was fully known
to be one of the most selfish and cruel men who ever
lived ; and so lazy, that he let Philip take Normandy
from him, without stirring a finger to save the grand
old dukedom of his forefathers ; so that nothing is left
of it to us now but the four little islands, Guernsey,
Jersey, Alderney, and Sark.

Matters became much worse in England, when he
quarrelled with the Pope, whose name was Innocent,
about who should be archbishop of Canterbury. The
Pope wanted a man named Stephen Langton to be
archbishop, but the king swore he should never come
into the. kingdom. Then the Pope punished the king-
dom, by forbidding all church services in all parish
churches. This was termed putting the kingdom under
an interdict. John was not much distressed by this,
though his people were; but when he found that
Innocent was stirring up the King of France to come
to attack him, he thought it time-to make his peace
with the Pope. So he not only consented to receive
Stephen Langton, but he even knelt down before the
Pope’s legate, or messenger, and took off his crown,
giving it up to the legate, in token that he only held
the kingdom from the Pope. It was two or three days











64. Stories of English History.



before it was given back to him; and the Pope held
himself to be lord of England, and made the king and
people pay him money whenever he demanded it.

All this time John’s cruelty and savageness were
making the whole kingdom miserable; and at last the
great barons could bear it no longer. They met toge-
ther and agreed that they would make John swear to
govern by the good old English laws that had pre-
vailed before the Normans came. The difficulty was to
be sure of what these laws were, for most of the copies
of them had been lost. However, Archbishop Langton
and some of the wisest of the barons put together a
set of laws—some copied, some recollected, some old,
‘some new—but all such as to give the barons some
control of the king, and hinder him from getting sav-
age soldiers together to frighten people into doing
whatever he chose to make them.» These laws they
called Magna Carta, or the great charter; and they
all came in armour, and took John by surprise at
Windsor. He came to meet them in a meadow named
Runnymede, on the bank of the Thames, and there
they forced him to sign the charter, for which all Eng-
lishmen are grateful to them.

But he did not mean to keep it! No, not he! He
had one of his father’s fits of rage when he got back to





Fohn, Lackland. 65



Windsor Castle—he gnawed the sticks for rage, and
swore he was no king. Then he sent for more of the
fierce soldiers, who went about in bands ready to be
hired, and prepared to take vengeance on the barons.
They found themselves not strong enough to make
head against him; so they invited Louis, the son of
Philip of France and husband of John’s niece, to come
and be their king. He came, and was received in Lon-
don, while John and his bands of soldiers were roam-
ing about the eastern counties, wasting and burning
everywhere till they came to the Wash—that curious
bay between Lincolnshire and Norfolk, where so
many rivers run into the sea. There is a safe way
across the sands in this bay when the tide is low, but
when it is coming in and meets the rivers, the waters
rise suddenly into a flood. So it happened to King
John; he did get out himself, but all the carts with his
goods and treasures were lost, and many of his men.
He was full of rage and grief, but he went on to the
abbey where he meant to sleep. He supped on
peaches and new ale, and soon after became very ill.
He died in a few days, a miserable, disgraced man,
with half his people fighting against him and London

in the hands of his worst enemy.









ON

HENRY III. CROWNED WITH HIS MOTHER'S BRACELET.





CHAP. XIV.—HENRY III, OF WINCHESTER.
A.D. 1216—I1272.

Ie IN? John left two little sons, Henry and Richard,

nine and seven years old, and all the English
barons felt that they would rather have Henry as their
king than the French Louis, whom they had only cal-
led in because John was such a wretch. So when little ©
Henry had been crowned at Gloucester, with his
mother’s bracelet, swearing to rule according to Magna
Carta, and good Hubert de Burgh undertook to
govern for him, one baron after another came back to
him. Louis was beaten in a battle at Lincoln; and













flenry I11., of Winchester. 67



when his wife sent him more troops, Hubert de Burgh
got ships together and sunk many vessels, and drove
the others back in the Straits of Dover; so that Louis
was forced to go home and leave England in peace.
Henry must have been too young to understand
about Magna Carta when he swore to it, but it was
the trouble of all his long reign to get him to observe
it. It was not that he was wicked like. his father—for
he was very religious and kind-hearted—but he was
too good-natured, and never could say No to anybody.
Bad advisers got about him when he grew up, and per-
suaded him to let them take good Hubert de Burgh
and imprison him. When they seized him, they took
him to a blacksmith to have chains put on his feet, but
the smith said he would never forge chains for the
man who had saved his country from the French. He
was afterwards set free, and died in peace and honor.
Henry was a builder of beautiful churches. West-
minster Abbey, as it is now, was one. And he was so
charitable to the poor that, when he had his children
weighed, he gave their weight in gold and silver in
alms. But he gave to everyone who asked, and so
always wanted money ; and sometimes his men could
get nothing for the king and queen to eat, but by going
and taking sheep and poultry from the poor farmers









68 Stories of English History.



around; so that things were nearly as bad as under
William Rufus—because the king was so foolishly
good-natured. The Pope was always sending for
money, too; and the king tried to raise it in ways that,
~ according to Magna Carta, he had sworn not to do.
His foreign friends told him that if he minded Magna
Carta he would be a poor creature—not like a king
who might do all he pleased; and whenever he list-
ened to them he broke the laws of Magna Carta.
Then, when his barons complained and frightened him,
he swore again to keep them; so that nobody could
trust him, and his weakness was almost as bad for the
kingdom as John’s wickedness. When they could bear
it no longer, the barons all met him at the council
which was called the Parliament, from a French word
meaning talk. This time they came in armour, bring-
ing all their fighting men, and declared that he had
broken his word so often that they should appoint —
some of their own number to watch him, and hinder
his doing anything against the laws he had sworn to
observe, or from getting money from the people with-
out their consent. He was very angry; but he was in
their power, and had to submit to swear that so it
should be; and Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester,
who had married his sister, was appointed among the





Flenry I1L., of Winchester. 6

9



lords who were to keep watch over him. Henry could
not bear this; he felt himself to be less than ever a
king, and tried to break loose. He had never cared for
his promises ; but his brave son Edward, who was now
grown up, cared a great deal: and they put the ques-
tion to Louis, King of France, whether the king was
bound by the oath he had made to be under Montfort
and his council. This Louis was'son to the one who
had been driven back by Hubert de Burgh. He was
one of the best men and kings that ever lived, and he
tried to judge rightly; but he scarcely thought how
much provocation Henry had given, when he said that
subjects had no right to frighten their king, and so that
Henry and Edward were not obliged to keep the oath.

Thereupon they got an army together, and so did
Simon de Montfort and the barons; and they met at a
place called Lewes, in Sussex. Edward got the ad-
vantage at first, and galloped away, driving his ene-
mies before him; but when he turned round and came
back, he found that Simon de Montfort had beaten the
rest of the army, and made his father and uncle
Richard prisoners. Indeed the barons threatened to
cut off Richard’s head if Edward went on fighting with

them ; and to save his uncle’s life he, too, gave himself
up to them.













ie Stories of English History.



Simon de Montfort now governed all the kingdom.
He still called Henry king, but did not let him do any-
thing, and watched him closely that he might not get
away; and Edward was kept a prisoner—first in one
castle, then in another. . Simon was a good and high-
minded man himself, who only wanted to do what was
best for everyone; but he had a family of proud and
overbearing sons, who treated all who came in their
way so ill, that most of the barons quarrelled with
them. One of these barons sent Edward a beautiful
horse; and one day when he was riding out from Here-
ford Castle with his keepers, he proposed to them to
ride races, while he was to look on and decide which
was the swiftest. Thus they all tired out their horses,
and as soon as he saw that they could hardly get them
along, Edward spurred his own fresh horse, and gal-
loped off to meet the friends who were waiting for him.
All who were discontented with the Montforts joined
him, and he soon had a large army. He marched
against Montfort, and met him at Evesham. The
poor old king was in Montfort’s army, and in the battle
was thrown down, and would have been killed if he
had not called out—“ Save me, save me, I am Henry
of Winchester.” His son heard the call, and, rushing
to his side, carried him to a place of safety. His army









flenry I11., of Winchester. 71



was much the strongest, and Montfort had known from
the first that there was no hope for him. “God have
mercy on our souls, for our bodies are Sir Edward’s,”
he had said; and he died bravely on the field of battle.

Edward brought his father back to reign in all
honor, but he took the whole management of the
kingdom, and soon set things in order again—taking
care that Magna Carta should be properly observed.
When everything was peaceful at home, he set out
upon a Crusade with the good King of France, and
while he was gone his father died, after a reign of
fifty-six years. There were only three English kings
who reigned more than fifty years, and these are easy
to remember, as each was the third of his name—
Henry III., Edward III.,and George III. In the reign
of Henry III. the custom of having Parliaments was
established, and the king was prevented from getting
money from the people unless the Parliament granted
it. The Parliament has, ever since, been made up of
great lords, who are born to it : and, besides them, of
men chosen by the people in the counties and towns,
to speak and decide for them. The clergy have a meet-
ing of their own called Convocation ; and these three
—Clergy, Lords, and Commons—are called the Three
Estates of the Realm.













ih i
:

i

1 =

it i , :

I if =



































































EDWARD I. PRESENTING HIS SON TO THE WELSH PRINCES.



CHAP. XV.—EDWARD I., LONGSHANKS.
A.D, 1272—I1307.

er son of Henry III. returned from the Holy

Land to be one of our noblest, best, and wisest
kings. Edward I.—called Longshanks in a kind of
joke, because he was the tallest man in the Court—was
very grand-looking and handsome ; and could leap, run,
ride, and fight in his heavy armour better than anyone
else. He was brave, just, and affectionate; and his
sweet wife, Eleanor of Castille, was warmly loved by
him and all the nation. He built as many churches
and was as charitable as his father, but he was much





Edward I., Longshanks. . 73



—+——

more careful only to make good men bishops, and he
allowed no wasting or idling. He faithfully obeyed
Magna Carta, and made everyone else obey the law
—indeed many good laws and customs have -begun
from his time. Order was the great thing he cared
for, and under him the English grew prosperous and
happy, when nobody was allowed to rob them.

The Welsh were, however, terrible robbers. You
remember that they are the remains of the old Britons,
who used to have all Britain. They had never left off
thinking they had a right to it, and coming down out
of their mountains to burn the houses and steal the |
cattle of the Saxons, as they still called the English. ~
Edward tried to make friends with their princes—
Llewellyn and David—and to make them keep their
people in order. He gave David lands in England, and
let Llewellyn marry his cousin, Eleanor de Montfort.
But they broke their promises shamefully, and did such
savage things to the English on their borders that he
was forced to put a stop to it, and went to war. David
was made prisoner, and put to death as a traitor; and
Llewellyn was met by some soldiers near the bridge of
Builth and killed, without their knowing who he was.
Edward had, in the meantime, conquered most of the
country; and he told the Welsh chiefs that, if they





74 Stories of English History.





would come and meet him at Caernarvon Castle, he
would give them a prince who had been born in their
country—had never spoken a word of any language but
theirs. They all came, and the king came down to
them with his own little baby son in his arms, who had
lately been born in Caernarvon Castle, and, of course,
had never spoken any language at all. The Welsh
were obliged to accept him; and he had a Welsh nurse,
that the first words he spoke might be Welsh. They

e thought he would have been altogether theirs, as he
then had an elder brother; but in a year or two the
oldest boy died; and, ever since that time, the eldest
son of the King of England has always been Prince of
Wales.

There was a plan for the little Prince Edward of
Caernarvon being married to a little girl, who was
grand-daughter to the King of Scotland, and would
be Queen of Scotland herself—and this would have led
to the whole island being under one king—but, unfor-
tunately, the little maiden died. It was so hard to de-
cide who ought to reign, out of all her cousins, that
they asked King Edward to choose among them—
since everyone knew that a great piece of Scotland be-
longed to him as over-lord, just as his own dukedom of
Aquitaine belonged to the King of France over him;

ev ie ene











Edward I., Longshanks. 75



and the Kings of Scotland always used to pay homage
to those of England for it.

Edward chose John Balliol, the one who had the
best right; but he made him understand that, as over-
lord, he meant to see that as good order was kept in
Scotland as in England. Now, the English kings had
never meddled with Scottish affairs before, and the
Scots were furious at finding that he did so. They said
it was insulting them and their king: and poor Balliol
did not know what to do among them, but let them
defy Edward in his name. This brought Edward and
his army to Scotland. The strong places were taken
and filled with English soldiers, and Balliol was made
prisoner, adjudged to have rebelled against his lord and
forfeited his kingdom, and was sent away to France.

Edward thought it would be much better for the
whole country to join Scotland to England, and rule it
himself. And so, no doubt, it would have been; but
many of the Scots were not willing,—and in spite of all

-the care he could take, the soldiers who guarded his
castles often behaved shamefully to the people round
them. One gentleman, named William Wallace, whose
home had been broken up by some soldiers, fled to the
woods and hills, and drew so many Scots round him
that he had quite an army. There was a great fight











76 Stories of English History.



at the Bridge of Stirling; the English governors were
beaten, and Wallace led his men over the Border into
Northumberland, where they plundered and burnt
wherever they went, in revenge for what had been
done in Scotland.

Edward gathered his forces and came to Scotland.
The army that Wallace had drawn together could not
stand before him, but was defeated at Falkirk, and
Wallace had to take to the woods. Edward promised
pardon to all who would submit,—and almost all did;
but Wallace still lurked in the hills, till one of his own
countrymen betrayed him to the English, when he was
sent to London, and put to death.

All seemed quieted, and English garrisons—that is,
guarding soldiers—were in all the Scottish towns and
castles, when, suddenly, Robert Bruce, one of the half
English, half Scottish nobles between whom Edward
had judged, ran away from the English court, with his
horse’s shoes put on backwards. The next thing that
was heard of him was, that he had quarrelled with one
of his cousins in the church at Dumfries, and stabbed _
him to the heart, and then had gone to Scone and had
been crowned King of Scotland.

Edward was bitterly angry now. He sent on an
army to deal unsparingly with the rising, and set out







Edward I., Longshanks. 77



to follow with his son, now grown to man’s estate.
Crueller things than he had ever allowed before were
done to the places where Robert Bruce had been ac-
knowledged as king, and his friends were hung as trai-
tors wherever they were found; but Bruce himself could
not be caught. He was living a wild life among the
lakes and hills ; and Edward, who was an old man now,
had been taken so ill at Carlisle, that he could not
come on to keep his own strict rule among his men.
All the winter he lay sick there; and in the spring he
heard that Bruce, whom he thought quite crushed, had
suddenly burst upon the English, defeated them, and
was gathering strength every day.

Edward put on his armour and set oug for Scotland;
but at Burgh-on-the-Sands his illness came on again,
and he died there, at seventy years old.

He was buried in Westminster Abbey, under a great
block of stone, and the inscription on it only says,
“Edward I., 1308—The Hammer of the Scots—Keep
Treaties.” His good wife, Queen Eleanor, had. died
many years before him, and was also buried at West-
minster. All the way from Grantham, in Lincolnshire
—where she died—to London, Edward set up a beau-
tiful stone cross wherever her body rested ‘for the night
—fifteen of them—but only three are left now.



















EDWARD II, CROWNED WITH HAY.



CHAP. XVI.—EDWARD II., OF CAERNARVON.
A.D. 1307—1327.

NLIKE his father in everything was the young
Edward, who was just come to manhood when
he became king. Nay, he never did come to manhood
in mind, for he was as silly and easily led as his grand-
father, Henry IIL, had been. He had a friend—a gay,
handsome, thoughtless, careless young man—named
Piers Gaveston, who had often led him into mischief
His father had banished this dangerous companion,
and forbidden, under pain of his heaviest displeasure,
the two young men from ever meeting again; but the











Edward IT., of Caernarvon. 79



moment the old king was dead, Edward turned back
from Scotland, where he was so much wanted, and sent
for Piers Gaveston again. At the same time his bride
arrived—Isabel, daughter to the King of France, a
beautiful girl—and there was a splendid wedding feast;
but the king and Gaveston were both so vain and con-
ceited, that they cared more about their own beauty
and fine dress than the young queen’s, and she found
herself quite neglected.. The nobles, too, were angered
at the airs that Gaveston gave himself; he not only
dressed splendidly, had a huge train of servants, and
managed the king as he pleased, but he was very inso-
lent to them, and gave them nick-names. He called
the king’s cousin, the Earl-of Lancaster, “the old hog ;”
the Earl of Pembroke, “Joseph, the Jew;” and the
Earl of Warwick, “the black dog.” Meantime, the king
and he were wasting the treasury, and doing harm of
all kinds, till the barons gathered together and forced
the king to send his favorite into banishment. Gaves-
ton went, but he soon came back again and joined the
king, who was at last setting out for Scotland.

The nobles, however, would not endure his return.
They seized him, brought him to Warwick Castle, and
there held a kind of Court, which could hardly be
called of Justice, for they had no right at all to sentence









80 Stories of E. nglish Fistory.



him. He spoke them fair now, and begged hard for
his life ;. but they could not forget the names he had
called them, and he was beheaded on Blacklow Hill.

Edward was full of grief and anger for the cruel
death of his friend ; but he was forced to keep it out of
sight, for all the barons were coming round him for the
Scottish war. While he had been wasting his time,
Robert Bruce had obtained every strong place in Scot-
land, except Stirling Castle, and there the English
governor had promised to yield, if succour did not comé
from England within a year and a day.

The year was almost over when Edward came into
Scotland with a fine army of English, Welsh, and Gas-
cons from Aquitaine; but Robert Bruce was a great
and able general, and he was no general at all; so
when the armies met at Bannockburn, under the walls
of Stirling, the English were worse beaten than ever
they had been anywhere else, except at Hastings.
Edward was obliged to flee away to England, and
though Bruce was never owned by the English to be
King of Scotland, there he really reigned, having driven
every Englishman away, and taken all the towns and
castles. Indeed, the English had grown so much afraid

of the Scots, that a hundred would flee at sight of two.
| The king comforted himself with a new friend—









Ss





Lidward I1., of Caernarvon, 81



| Hugh le Despencer—who, with his old father, had his

own way, just like Gaveston. Again the barons rose,
and required that they should be banished. They went,
but the Earl of Lancaster carried his turbulence too far,
and, when he heard that the father had come back,
raised an army, and was even found to have asked
Robert Bruce to help him against his own king. This
made the other barons so angry that they joined the
king against him, and he was made prisoner and put to
death for making war on the king, and making friends
with the enemies of the country.

Edward had his Le Despencers back again, and very
discontented the sight made the whole country—and
especially the queen, whom he had always neglected,
though she now had four children. He had never tried |
to gain her love, and she hated him more and more,
There was some danger of a quarrel with her brother,
the King of France, and she offered to go with her son
Edward, now about fourteen, and settle it. But this
was only an excuse. She went about to the princes

, abroad, telling them how ill she was used by her hus-

band, and asking for help. A good many knights be-
lieved and pitied her, and came with her to England to
help. All the English who hated the Le Despencers
joined her, and she led the young prince against his













82 Stories of English History.



father. Edward and his friends were hunted. across
into Wales; but they were tracked out one by one, and
the Despencers were put to a cruel death, though
Edward gave himself up in hopes of saving them.

The queen and her friends made him own that he
did not deserve to reign, and would give up the crown
to his son, Then they kept him in prison, taking him
from one castle to another, in great misery. The rude
soldiers of his guard mocked him and crowned him
with hay, and gave him dirty ditch water to shave with;
and when they found he was too strong and healthy to
die only of bad food and damp lodging, they murdered
him one night in Berkeley Castle. He lies buried in
Gloucester Cathedral, not far from that other foolish
and unfortunate prince, Robert of Normandy, He had
reigned twenty years, and was dethroned in 1 B27:

The queen then wanted to get rid of Edmund, Earl
of Kent, the poor king’s youngest brother. Soa report
was spread that Edward was alive, and Edmund was
allowed to peep into a dark prison room, where he saw
a man who he thought was his brother. He tried to stir.
up friends to set the king free; but this was called rebel-
ling, and he was taken and beheaded at Winchester bya
criminal condemned to die, for it was such a wicked sen-
tence that nobody else could be found to carry it out.

























QUEEN PHILIPPA AND THE BURGHERS OF CALAIS.



CHAP. XVIL—EDWARD III.
A.D. 1327—1377.
GOR about three years, the cruel Queen Isabel and
~ her friends managed all the country ; but as soon
as her son—Edward III., who had been crowned in-
stead of his father—understood how wicked she had
been, and was strong enough to deal with her party, he
-made them prisoners, put the worst of them to death,
and kept the queen shut up in a castle as long as she
lived. He had a very good queen of his own, named
Philippa, who brought cloth-workers over from her own
country, Hainault (now part of Belgium), to teach the







|
|



















84 Stories of English Flistory.



English their trade, and thus began to render England
the chief country in the world for wool and cloth.
Queen Isabel, Edward’s mother, had, you remember,
been daughter of the King of France. All her three
brothers died without leaving a son, and their cousin,
whose name was Philip, began to reign in their stead.
Edward, however, fancied that the crown of France
properly belonged to him, in right of his mother; but
he did not stir about it at once, and, perhaps, never
would: have done so at all, but for two things. One
was, that the King of France, Philip VI., had been so
foolish as to fancy that one of his lords, named Robert
of Artois, had been bewitching him—by sticking pins
into a wax figure and roasting it before a fire. So this
Robert was driven out of France, and, coming to Eng-
land, stirred Edward up to go and overthrow Philip.
The other was, that the English barons had grown so
restless and troublesome, that they would not stay
peacefully at home and mind their own estates ;—but
if they had not wars abroad, they always gave the king
trouble at home; and Edward liked better that they
should fight for him than against him. So he called
himself King of France and England, and began a war
which lasted—with short spaces of quiet—for full 100
years, and only ended in the time of the great grand-











Edward Ii. 85



children of the men who entered upon it. There was one
great sea-fight off Sluys, when the king sat in his ship,
in a black velvet dress, and gained a great victory; but
it was a good while before there was any great battle by
land—so long, that the king’s eldest son, Edward Prince
of Wales, was sixteen years old.» He is generally called
the Black Prince—no one quite knows why, for his
hair, like that of all these old kings of ours, was quite
light, and his eyes were blue. * He was such a spirited
young soldier, that when the French army under King
Philip came in sight of the English one, near the vil-
lage of Crecy, King Edward said he should have the
honor of the day, and stood under a windmill on a hill
watching the fight, while the prince led the English
army. He gained a very great victory, and in the
evening came and knelt before his father, saying the
praise was not his own but the king’s, who had ordered
all so wisely. Afterwards, while Philip had fled away,
Edward besieged Calais, the town just opposite to
Dover. The inhabitants were very brave, and held
out for a long time; and while Edward was absent, the
Scots under David, the son of Robert Bruce, came over
the Border, and began to burn and plunder in North-
umberland. However, Philippa could be brave in time
of need. She did not send for her husband, but called











86 Stories of English Fistory.



an army together, and the Scots were so well beaten |
at Neville’s Cross, that their king, David himself, was

obliged to give himself up to an English squire. The

man would not let the queen have his prisoner, but

rode day and night to Dover, and then crossed to

Calais to tell the king, who'bade him put King David

into Queen Philippa’s keeping. She came herself to

the camp, just as the brave men of Calais had been

starved out; and Edward had said he would only con-

sent not to burn the town: down, if six of the chief
townsmen would bring him the keys of the gates, kneel-

ing, with sackcloth on, and halters.round their necks,

ready to be hung. Queen Philippa wept when she saw

them, and begged that they might be spared ; and when

the king granted them to her she had them led away,

and gave each a good dinner and a fresh suit of clothes.

‘The king, however, turned all the French people out

of Calais, and filled it with English, and it remained

quite an English town for more than 200 years.

King Philip VI. of France died, and his son John
became king, while still the war went on. The Black
Prince and John had a terrible battle at a place called
Poitiers, and the English gained another great victory.
King John and one of his sons were made prisoners,
but when they were brought to the tent where the











Ledward [1T, 87



Black Prince was to sup, he made them sit down at
the table before him, and waited on them as if they had
been his guests instead of his prisoners. He did all he
could to prevent captivity being a pain to them; and
when he brought them to London, he gave John a tall
white horse to ride, and only rode a small pony himself
by his side. There were two kings prisoners in the
Tower of London at once, and they were treated as if
they were visitors and friends. John was allowed to
go home, provided he would pay a ransom by degrees,
as he could get the money together; and, in the mean-
time, his two eldest sons were to be kept at Calais in
his stead. But they would not stay at Calais, and
King John could fot obtain the sum for his ransom ;
so, rather than cheat King Edward, he went back to
his prison in England again. He died soon after sand
his son Charles was a cleverer and wiser man, who
knew it was better not to fight battles with the English,
but made a truce, or short peace.

Prince Edward governed that part of the south of
France that belonged to his father; but he went on
‘a foolish expedition into Spain, to help a very bad king
whom his subjects had driven out; and there caught an
illness from which he never quite recovered. While he
was ill King Charles began the war again; and, though











| 88 — Stories of English History.



there was no battle, he tormented the English, and took
the castles and towns they held. The Black Prince
tried to fight, but he was too weak and ill to do much,
and was obliged to go home, and leave the government
to his brother John, Duke of Lancaster. He lived
about six years after he came home, and then died,
to the great sorrow of everyone. His father, King
Edward, was now too old and feeble to attend to the
affairs of the country. Queen Philippa was dead, too,
and as no one took proper care of the poor old king, he
fell into the hands of bad servants, who made them-
selves rich and neglected him. When, at length, he
lay dying, they stole the ring off his finger before he
had breathed his last, and left him all alone, with the
doors open, till a priest came by, and stayed and prayed
by him till his last moment. He had reigned exactly
fifty years. You had better learn and remember the
names of his sons, as you will hear more about some of
them. They were Edward, Lionel, John, Edmund,
and Thomas. Edward was Prince of Wales; Lionel,
Duke of Clarence; John, Duke of Lancaster ; Edmund,
Duke of York; and Thomas, Duke of Gloucester.
Edward and Lionel both died before their father.
Edward had left a son named Richard; Lionel had left

_ a daughter named Philippa.

be























DEATH OF WAT TYLER.



CHAP. XVIII.—RICHARD II.
A.D. 1377—1399.

EYSHESE were not very good times in England. The

new king, Richard, was only eleven years old, and
his three uncles did not care much for his good or the
good of the nation. There was not much fighting going
on in France, but for the little there was a great deal
_ of money was wanting, and the great lords were apt to
be very hard upon the poor people on their estates.
They would not let them be taught to read; and if a
poor man who belonged to an estate went away toa
town, his lord could have him brought back to his old



G









90 Stories of English History.



home. Any tax, too, fell more heavily on the poor
than the rich. One tax, especially, called the poll tax,
which was made when Richard was sixteen, vexed
them greatly. Everyone above fifteen years old had
to pay fourpence, and the collectors were often very
rude and insolent. A man named Wat Tyler, in Kent,
was so angry. with a rude collector as to strike him
dead. All the villagers came together with sticks, and
scythes, and flails; and Wat Tyler told them they
would all go to London, and tell the king how his poor
commons were treated. More people and more joined
them on the way, and an immense multitude of wild- .
looking men came pouring into London, where the
Lord Mayor and Aldermen were taken by surprise, and
could do nothing to stop them. They did not do much
harm then; they lay on the grass all night round the
Tower, and said they wanted to speak ‘to the king. In |
the morning he came down to his barge, and meant to
have spoken to them; but his people, seeing such a
host of wild men, took fright, and carried him back
again. He went out again the next day on horseback ;
but while he was speaking to some of them, the worst
of them broke into the Tower, where they seized Arch-
bishop Simon of Canterbury, and fancying he was one
of the king’s bad advisers, they cut off his head.





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9 Author of The Heir of Redclyffe, &c.


a
AUNT CHARLOTTE’

STORIES OF

ENGLISH HISTORY

FOR THE LITTLE ONES.

hY
CHARLOTTE M. YONGE,

AuTHOR oF ‘‘THE HEIR OF REDCLYFFE,” ‘STORIES OF BIBLE History,” &c.

SECOND EDITION, WITH QUESTIONS.





London:
MARCUS WARD & CO., CHANDOS STREET, W.C.;
AND ROYAL ULSTER WORKS, BELFAST.
M.DCCC.LXXV.






Marcus Warp ann Co.
Printers

Royat Utster Works, BELFAST


PRB WAC Es



a's History is intended for very little children.
It seems to be the experience of all families,
\ Pp all fa
that the exigencies of modern education require the
. names of the sovereigns of England, and some idea
connected with them, to be acquired long before there
is any possibility of really understanding history. I
had hoped to supply this need by “ The Kings of Eng-
land,” but it is found too difficult for the very first age ;
and I never yet found a nursery history that was cor-
rect in the facts it attempted to give. Whether the
present will answer the purpose can only be proved by
experience as to whether the little ones take interest
in it.
It has been made as easy as the nature of things
would permit, and it is hoped: to follow it up with a
few other little histories, such as, with the carefully
drawn illustrations, may lay the foundation with toler-
able correctness, and not much to unlearn.

CHARLOTTE M. YONGE.

May 2nd, 1873.



—
|




CONTENTS.



CHAP.

I.—Julius Caesar. B.C. 55 5
IJ.—The Romans in Britain. A.D. 41—418 .
III.—The Angle Children. A.D. 597
IV.—The Northmen. A.D. 858—958 .

V.—The Danish Conquest. A.D. 958—1035
VI.—The Norman Conquest. A.D. 1035—1066
VII.—William the Conqueror. A.D. 1066—1087 .

VIII.—William II., Rufus. A.D. 1087—1100
1X.—Henry I.; Beau-Clerc. A.D. 1100—I1135
X.—Stephen. A.D. 1135—I11I54 f
XI.—Henry II., Fitz-Empress. A.D. 1154—1189
XII.—Richard I., Lion-Heart. A.D. 1189—1199
XIII.—John, Lackland. A.D. 1199—1216 . é
XI1V.—Henry III., of Winchester. A.D. 1216—1272
XV.—Edward I., Longshanks. A.D. 1272—1307 .

XVI.—Edward II., of Caernarvon. A.D, 1307—1327 .

XVII.—Edward III.
XVIII.—Richard II.

A.D, 1327—1377
A.D. 1377—1399

X1X.—Henry IV. A.D. 1399—1413 :
XX.—Henry V., of Monmouth. A.D. 14131423
XXI.—Henry VI., of Windsor. A.D. 1423—1461 .

XXII.—Edward IV.

A.D. 1461—1483

XXIII.—Edward V. A.D. A.D. 1483.

XXIV.—Richard III.

A.D. 1483—1485

PAGE

13
18
23
28
32
37
4I
45
50
55
61
66
72
78
83
89
95
IOI
106

113








vi Contents.

CHAP.

XXV.—Henry VII. A.D. 1485—1509

XXVI.—Henry VIII. and Cardinal Wolsey. A.D. 1509—1529

XXVII.—Henry VIII. and his Wives. a.D. 1528—1547 .
XXVIII.—Edward VI. A.D. 1547—1553
XXIX.—Mary I. A.D. 1553—1558
XXX.—Elizabeth. A.D. 1558—1587 .
XXXI.—Elizabeth (continued). A.D. 1587—1602.
XXXII.—James I. A.D. 1602—1625
XXXIII.—Charles I. a.D. 1625—1649
XXXIV.—The Long Parliament. A.D. 1649
XXXV.—Death of Charles I. A.D. 1649 .
XXXVI.—Oliver Cromwell. A.D. 1649—1660 .
XXXVII.—Charles II. A.D. 1660—1685
XXXVIII.—James II. a.p. 1685—1688 . t
XXXIX.—William III. and Mary II. a.p. 1689—1702
XL—Anne. A.D. 1702—1714
XLI.—George I. A.D. 1714—1725
XLII.—George II. A.D. 1725—1760
XLIII.--George III. A.D. 1760—1785
XLIV.—George III. (continued). a.D. 1785—1810 .
XLV.—George II].—The Regency. A.D. 1810—1820 .
XLVI.—George IV. A.D. 1820—1830
XLVII.—William IV. a.p. 1830—1837
XLVIII.—Victoria. A.D. 1837—1855
XLIX.—Victoria (continued). A.D. 1857—1860 .
L.—Victoria (continued), A.D. 1860—1872

Questions for Examination



PAGE
128

134
139
145
150
155
161
167
173
178
183
189
194
200
206
212
218
223
229
234
240
245
250
255
260
265
269




LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



PA
King Edward III. receiving the Black Prince after the Battle of Crecy

—From a painting by H. S. Marks, Esq., A.R.A.—Frontispiece.

* Queen Victoria at the Age of Eight

Ceesar receiving Tribute from the Britons .

The Romans Building the Wall.

Augustine’s Mission to Ethelbert

Edgar on the Dee

Crossing the Ice at Ely

Edward and the Thief .

William the Conqueror and his Sons

Peter the Hermit preaching the Crusade

Homage to Maude ;

Maude’s Escape from Oxford

Prince Henry receiving his Father’s Ring .

Richard I. turning aside from the sight of Jerusalem .

John Escaping from the Wash

Henry III. Crowned with his Mother’s Bracelet

Edward I. presenting his Son to the Welsh Princes

Edward II. Crowned with Hay .

Queen Philippa and the Burghers of Calais.

Death of Wat Tyler

GE

ix

13
18
23
28
32
37
4I
45
50
55
61
66 .
72
78
83
89






List of Illustrations.





Henry IV. addressing his Son at his death .

Henry V. Knighting Whittington

Joan of Arc led to Execution

Elizabeth Woodville entreating Edward IV.

Archbishop Morton taking the Duke of York from the nen
Lady Bessee writing the Letter to Henry Tudor

Perkin Warbeck in the Stocks

The Field of the Cloth of Gold :

Henry VIII. looking at Anne of Cleves’ Picture .
Edward VI. shown at the Window

Children playing at Hanging the King of Ss
Elizabeth sitting on the steps at Traitors’ Gate

Sir Philip Sydney and the wounded Soldier

Prince Charles Climbing over the Wall to see the Infanta
The Pilgrim Fathers Embarking

Cromwell’s Soldiers Shooting at Stained Glass Windows
Princess Henrietta Escaping, disguised as a Boy.
Cromwell Expelling the Long Parliament

Lord Wilmot writing the Epigram on the King’s bed-room door
The Queen’s Escape with her Child (James II.)

The Apprentice Boys of Derry Shutting the Gates

The Duchess of Marlborough Scolding Queen Anne .
The Earl of Nithsdale’s Escape

Prince Charles Shaking Hands with the Highlanders
Death of Chatham .

Death of Nelson


List of Illustrations.







1X

he a ’ oe PAGE

Bonaparte on board the Bellerophon 240
George IV.’s Reception in Scotland 245
Rick-burners : ewan: 250
Florence Nightingale in the Crimea 255
Cashmere Gate, Delhi—Lighting the Fuse 26c
Marriage of the Prince of Wales 265





HER MAJESTY QUEEN VICTORIA, AT THE AGE OF EIGHT.

From a Portrait tn the possession of Vere Foster, Esq.

“The Queen thinks the picture from which this small engraving was taken was painted

in 1826 or 1827.—Osborne, April Ist, 1868.”






PRES WHRD ECO



CAESAR RECEIVING TRIBUTE.

a ce poxsee. _

STORIES OF ENGLISH HISTORY.

CHAP. I—JULIUS CAESAR.
B.C. 55.
EARLY two thousand years ago there was a
brave captain whose name was Julius Cesar.
The soldiers he led to battle were very strong, and
conquered the people wherever they went. They had
no guns or gunpowder then ; but they had swords and
spears, and, to prevent themselves from being hurt,
they had helmets or brazen caps on their heads, with
















6 Stories of English History.





long tufts of horse-hair upon them, by way of orna-
ment, and breast-plates of brass on their breasts, and
on their arms they carried a sort of screen, made of
strong leather. One of them carried a little brass
figure of an eagle on a long pole, with a scarlet flag
flying below, and wherever the eagle was seen, they
all followed, and fought so bravely that nothing could
long stand against them.

When Julius Cesar rode at their head, with his
keen, pale hook-nosed face, and the scarlet cloak that
the general always wore, they were so proud of him,
and so fond of him, that there was nothing they would
not do for him.

Julius Ceesar heard that a little way off there was
a country nobody knew anything about, except that
the people were very fierce and savage, and that a
sort of pearl was found in the shells of mussels which
lived in the rivers. He could not bear that there
should be any place that his own people, the Romans,
did not know and subdue. So he commanded the
ships to be prepared, and he and his soldiers embarked,
watching the white cliffs on the other side of the sea
grow higher and higher ‘as he came nearer and nearer.

When he came quite up to them, he found the
savages were there in earnest. They were tall men,




Fultus Cesar. 7



with long red streaming hair, and such clothes as they
had were woollen, checked like plaid; but many had
their arms and breasts naked, and painted all over
in blue patterns. “They had spears and darts, and the
-chief men among them were in basket-work chariots,
with a scythe in the middle of each wheel to cut down
their enemies. They yelled and brandished their darts,
to make Julius Cesar and his Roman soldiers keep
away; but he only went on to a place where the shore
was not quite so steep, and there commanded his sol-
diers to land. The savages had run along the shore
too, and there was a terrible fight; but, at last, the
man who carried the eagle jumped down into the
middle of the natives, calling out to his fellows that
they must come after him, or they would lose their
eagle. They all came rushing and leaping down, and
thus they managed to force back the savages, and
make their way to the shore.

There was not much worth having when they had
made their way there. Though they came again the
next year, and forced their way a good deal farther into
the country, they saw chiefly bare downs, or heaths, or
thick woods.. The few houses were little more than
piles of stones, and the people were rough and wild,
and could do very little. The men hunted wild boars,






8 Stories of English Fistory.



and wolves and stags, and the women dug the ground,
and raised a littlé corn, which they ground to. flour
between two stones to make bread ; and they spun the
wool of their sheep, dyed it with bright colours, and
wove it into dresses. They had some strong places in
the woods, with trunks of trees, cut down .to shut them
in from the enemy, with all their flocks and cattle ;
but Cesar did not get into any of these. He only
made the natives give him some of their pearls, and
call the Romans their masters, and then he went back
to his ships, and none of the set of savages who were
alive when he came saw him or his Romans any more.
Do you know who these savages were who fought
with Julius Cesar? They were called Britons. And
the country he came to see? That was our very own
island, England, only it was not called so then. And
the place where Julius Cesar landed is called Deal,
and, if you look at the map, where England and
France most nearly touch one another, I think you will
see the name Deal, and remember it was there that
Julius Czesar landed, and fought with the Britons.
‘It was fifty-five years before our blessed Saviour
was born that the Romans came. So at the top of
this chapter stands z.c. (Before Christ) 55.












ROMANS BUILDING THE WALL.



CHAP. IIl.—THE ROMANS IN BRITAIN.
A.D. 41—418.
ft was nearly a hundred years before any more
JL of the Romans came to Britain; but they were
people who could not hear of a place without wanting
to conquer it, and they never left off trying till they
had done what they undertook.

One of their emperors, named Claudius, sent his
soldiers to conquer the island, and then came to see it
himself, and called himself Britannicus in honour of the
victory, just as if he had done it himself, instead of his
generals. One British chief, whose name was Caradoc,



B




10 Stories of English History.



who had fought very bravely against the Romans, was
brought to Rome, with chains on his hands and feet,
and set before the emperor. , As he stood there, he
said that, when he looked at all the grand buildings of
stone and marble in the streets, he could not think
why the Romans should want ‘to take away the poor
rough stone huts of the Britons. .Claudius was kind to
Caradoc; but the Romans went on conquering Britain
till they had won all the part of it that lies south of the
river Tweed; and, as the people beyond that point
were more fierce and savage still, a very strong wall,
with a bank of earth and deep ditch was made to
keep them out, and always watched by Roman soldiers.

The Romans made beautiful straight roads all over
the country, and they built towns. Almost all the towns
whose names end in chester were begun by the Romans,
and bits of their walls are to be seen still, built of very
small bricks. Sometimes people dig up a bit of the
beautiful pavement of coloured tiles, in patterns, which
used to be the floors of their houses, or a piece of their
money, or one of their ornaments.

For the Romans held Britain for four hundred years,
and tamed the wild people in the South, and taught
them to speak and dress, and read and write like
themselves, so that they could hardly be known from





bios, ph a aL ee eee




The Romans in Britain. II



Romans. Only the wild ones beyond the wall, and in
the mountains, were as savage as ever, and, now and
then, used to come and steal the cattle, and burn the
houses of their neighbours who had learnt better.

Another set of wild people used to come over in
boats across the North Sea and German Ocean. These
people had their home in the country that is called
Holstein and Jutland. They were tall men, and had
blue eyes and fair hair, and they were very strong, and
good-natured in a rough sort of way, though they were
fierce to their enemies. There was a great deal more
fighting than any one has told us about; but the end of
it all was that the Roman soldiers were wanted at
home, and though the great British chief we call King
Arthur fought very bravely, he could not drive back
the blue-eyed men in the ships; but more and more
came, till, at last, they got all the country, and drove
the Britons, some up into the North, some into the
mountains that rise along the West of the island, and
some out into its west point.

The Britons used to call the blue-eyed men
Saxons; but they called themselves Angles, and the
country was called after them Angle-land. Don’t you
know what it is called now? England itself, and the
people English; for these were our own forefathers—






12 Stories of English History.



our great-great-great-great-great-great-great-grandfa-
thers! They spoke much the same language as we do,
only more as untaught country people, and they had
not so many words, because they had not so many
things to see and talk about.
_ .As to the Britons, the English went on driving
them back till they only kept their mountains. There
they have gone on living ever since, and talking their
own old language. The English called them Welsh, a
name that meant strangers, and we call them Welsh
still, and their country Wales. They made a great
many grand stories about their last brave chief, Arthur,
till, at last, they turned into a sort of fairy tale. It was
said that, when King Arthur lay badly wounded after
his last battle, he bade his friend fling his sword into
the river, and that then three lovely ladies came in a
boat, and carried him away to a secret island. The
Welsh kept on saying, for years and years, that one
day King Arthur would wake up again, and give them
back all Britain, which used to be their own before the
English got it for themselves; but the English have
had England now for thirteen hundred years, and may
God, in His mercy, keep it for us still.

It was about 400 years after our Lord was born that
the Romans were going and the English coming. Ke














0 ee

CHAP. III—THE ANGLE CHILDREN.

A.D. 597.
EYSHE old English who had come to Britain were
*& heathen, and believed in many false gods: the
Sun, to whom they made Sunday sacred, as Monday
was to the Moon, Wednesday to a great, terrible
god, named Woden, and Thursday to a god called
Thor, or Thunder. They thought a clap of thunder
was the sound of the great hammer he carried in
his hand. They thought their gods cared for peo-
ple being brave, and that the souls of those who
died fighting gallantly in battle were the happiest of




14 Stories of English Flistory.



all ; but they did not care for kindness or gentleness.

Thus they often did very cruel things, and one of
the worst that, they did was the stealing of men,
women, and children from their homes, and selling
them to strangers, who made slaves of them. All.
England had not one king. There were generally
about seven kings, each with a different part- of the
island; and, as they were often at war with one
another, they used to steal one another’s subjects, and
sell them to merchants who came from. Italy and
Greece for them.

Some English children were made slaves, and
carried to Rome, where they were set in the market-
place to be sold. was walking by. He saw their fair faces, blue eyes,
and long light hair, and, stopping, he asked who they
were. “Angles,” he was told, “from the isle of Bri-
tain.’ “Angles?” he said, “they have angel. faces,
and they ought to be heirs with the angels in heaven.”
From that time this good man tried to find means to
send teachers to teach the English the Christian faith.
He had to wait for many years, and, in that time, he
- was made Pope, namely, Father-Bishop of Rome. At
last he heard that one of the chief English kings,
Ethelbert of Kent, had married Bertha, the daughter










_ The Angle Children. 15



of the King of Paris, who was a Christian, and that
she was to be allowed to bring a priest with her, and
have a church to worship in.

Gregory thought this would make a beginning : so
he sent a priest, whose name was Augustine, with a
letter to King Ethelbert and Queen Bertha, and asked
_ the king to listen to him. Ethelbert met Augustine
in the open air, under a tree at Canterbury, and heard
him tell about the true God, and Jesus Curist, whom
He has sent ; and, after some time, and a great deal of
teaching, Ethelbert gave up worshipping Woden and
Thor, and believed in the true God, and was baptised,
and many of his people with him. Then Augustine
was made Archbishop of Canterbury; and, one after
another, in the course of the next hundred years, all
the English kingdoms learnt to know God, and broke
down their idols, and became Christian.

Bishops were appointed, and churches were built,
and parishes were marked off—a great many of them
the very same that we have now. Here and there,
when’men or women wanted to be very good indeed,
and to give their whole lives to doing nothing but
serving God, without any of the fighting and feasting,
the buying and selling of the outer world, they built
houses, where they might live apart, and churches,








16 Stories of English Flistory.



where there might be services seven times a-day.
These houses were named abbeys. Those for men
were, sometimes, also called monasteries, and the men
in them were termed monks, while the women were
called nuns, and their homes convents or nunneries.
They had plain dark dresses, and hoods, and the
women always had veils. The monks used to promise
that they would work as well as pray, so they used to
build their abbeys by some forest or marsh, and bring
it all into order, turning the wild place into fields, full
of wheat. Others used to copy out the Holy Scrip-
tures and other good books upon parchment—because
there was no paper in those days, nor any printing—
drawing beautiful painted pictures at the beginning of
the chapters, which were called illuminations. The
nuns did needlework and embroidery, as hangings for
the altar, and garments for the priests, all bright with
beautiful colours, and stiff with gold. The English
nuns’ work was the most beautiful to be seen anywhere.

There were schools in the abbeys, where boys were
taught reading, writing, singing, and Latin, to prepare
them for being clergymen; but not many others
thought it needful to have anything to do with books.
Even the great men thought they could farm and
feast, advise the king, and consent to the laws, hunt






The Angle Children. 17



or fight, quite as well without reading, and they did
not care for much besides; for, though they were
Christians, they were still rude, rough, ignorant men,
who liked nothing so well as a‘hunt or a feast, and
slept away all the evening, especially when they could
get a harper to sing to them.

The English men used to wear a long dress like a
carter’s frock, and their legs were wound round with
strips of cloth by way of stockings. Their houses were
only of one storey, and had no chimneys—only a hole
at the top for the smoke to go out at; and no glass
in the windows. The only glass there was at all had
been brought from Italy to put into York Cathedral,
and it was thought a great wonder. So the windows
had shutters to keep out the rain and wind, and the
fire was in the middle of the room. At dinner-time,
about twelve o'clock, the lord and lady of the house
sat upon cross-legged stools, and their children and
servants sat on benches; and square bits of wood, cal-
led trenchers, were put before them for plates, while
the servants carried round the meat on spits, and
everybody cut off a piece with his own knife and ate it
without a fork. They drank out of cows’ horns, if they
had not silver cups. But though they were so rough
they were often good, brave people.
















































































































































































WRElUS NS ES

EDGAR ON THE DEE—SEE PAGE 23.



CHAP. IV.—THE NORTHMEN.
A.D. 858—958.

EYSHERE were many more of the light-haired, blue-

eyed people on the further side of the North Sea
who worshipped Thor and Woden still, and thought
that their kindred in England had fallen from the old
ways. Besides, they liked to make their fortunes by
getting what they could from their neighbours. No-
body was thought brave or worthy, in Norway or
Denmark, who had not made some voyages in a “long
keel,” as a ship was called, and fought bravely, and
brought home gold cups and chains or jewels to show
ier ee








The Northmen. 19

Â¥



where he had been. Their captains were called Sea
Kings, and some of them went a great way, even into
the Mediterranean Sea, and robbed the beautiful shores
of Italy. So dreadful was it to see the fleet of long
ships coming up to the shore, with a serpent for the
figure-head, and a raven as the flag, and crowds of

r fierce warriors with axes in their hands longing for

prey and bloodshed, that where we pray in church that
God would deliver us from lightning and tempest, and
battle and murder, our forefathers used to add, “ From
the fury of the Northmen, good Lord deliver us.”

To England these Northern men came in great
swarms, and chiefly from Denmark, so that they were
generally called “the Danes.” They burnt the houses,
drove off the cows and sheep, killed the men, and took
away the women and children to be slaves; and they
were always most cruel of all where they found an
Abbey with any monks or nuns, because they hated
the Christian faith. By this time those seven English
kingdoms I told you of had all fallen into the hands of
one king. Egbert, King of the West Saxons, who
reigned at Winchester, is counted as the first king of
all England. His four grandsons had dreadful battles

‘with the Danes all their lives, and the three eldest all

died quite young. The youngest was the greatest and






20 Stories of English History.



best king we ever had—Alfred the Truth-teller. He
was only twenty-two years old when he came to the
throne, and the kingdom was overrun everywhere with
the Danes. In the northern part some had even
settled down, and made themselves at home, as the
English had done four hundred years before, and more
and more kept coming in their ships: so that, though
Alfred beat them in battle again and again, there was
no such thing as driving them away. At ldst he had
so very few faithful men left with him, that he thought
it wise to send them away, and hide himself in the
Somersetshire marsh country. There is a pretty story
told of him that he was hidden in the hut of a poor
herdsman, whose wife, thinking he was a poor wander-
ing soldier as he sat by the fire mending his bow and
arrows, desired him to turn the cakes she had set to
bake upon the hearth. Presently she found them
burning, and cried out angrily, “Lazy rogue! you can’t
turn the cakes, though you can eat them fast enough.”

However, that same spring, the brave English
gained more victories; Alfred came out of his hiding
place and gathered them all together, and beat the:
Danes, so that they asked for peace. He said he
would allow those who had settled in the North of
England to stay there, provided they would become






The Northmen. 21



Christians; and he stood godfather to their chief, and
gave him the name of Ethelstane. After this, Alfred
had stout English ships built to meet the Danes at sea
before they could come and land in England; and thus
he kept them off, so that for all the rest of his reign,
and that of his son and grandsons, they could do very
little mischief, and for a time left off coming at all, but
went to rob other countries that were not so well
guarded by brave kings.

But Alfred was not only a brave warrior. He was
a most good and holy man, who feared God above all
things, and tried to do his very best for his people.
He made good laws for them, and took care that every
one should be justly treated, and that nobody should
do his neighbour wrong without being punished. So
many Abbeys had been burnt and the monks killed by
the Danes, that there were hardly any books to be
had, or scholars to read them. He invited learned
men from abroad, and wrote and translated books
himself for. them; and he had a school in his house,
_ where he made the young nobles learn with his own
sons. He built up the churches, and gave alms to the
, poor; and he was always ready to hear the troubles
of any poor man. Though he was always working
so hard, he had a disease that used to cause him






22 Stories of English Flistory.



terrible pain almost every day. His last years were
less peaceful than the middle ones of his reign, for the
Danes tried to come again; but he beat them off by
his ships at sea, and when he died at fifty-two years
old, in the year got, he left England at rest and quiet,
and we always think of him as one of the greatest
and best kings who ever reigned in England, or in any
other country. As long as his children after him and
his people went on in the good way he had taught
them, all prospered with them, and no enemies hurt
them; and this was. all through the reigns of his son,
his grandson, and great-grandsons. Their council of
great men was called by a long word that is in our
English, “Wise Men’s Meeting,” and there they set-
tled the affairs of the kingdom. The king’s wife was
not called queen, but lady ; and what do you think lady
means? It means “loaf-giver”—giver of bread to her
household and the poor. So a lady’s great work is to
be charitable.








CROSSING THE ICE AT ELY.



CHAP. V.—THE DANISH CONQUEST.
A.D. 958—1035.

KY SHE last very prosperous king was Alfred’s great

grandson, Edgar, who was owned as their over-
lord by all the kings of the remains of the Britons in
Wales and Scotland. Once eight of these kings came
to meet him at Chester, and rowed him in his barge
along the river Dee. It was the grandest day a king
of England enjoyed for many years. Edgar was
called the peaceable, because there were no attacks by
the Danes at all throughout his reign. In fact, the
Northmen and Danes had been fighting among them-






24 Stories of English F1istory.



selves at home, and these fights generally ended in
some one going off as a Sea-King, with all his friends,
and trying to gain a new home in some fresh country.
One great party of Northmen, under a very tall and
mighty chief named Rollo, had, some time before, thus
gone to France, and forced the king to give them a
great piece of his country, just opposite to England,
which was called after them Normandy. There they
learned to talk French, and grew like Frenchmen,
though they remained a great deal braver, and more
spirited than any of their neighbours.

There were continually fleets of Danish ships
coming to England; and the son of Edgar, whose
name was Ethelred, was a helpless, cowardly sort of
man, so slow and tardy, that his people called him
Ethelred the Unready. Instead of fitting out ships
to fight against the Danes, he took the money the
ships ought to have cost to pay them to go away
without plundering; and as to those who had come
into the country without his leave, he called them his
guard, took them into his pay, and let them live in the
houses of the English, where they were very rude,
and gave themselves great airs, making the English
feed them on all their best meat, and bread, and beer,
and always call them Lord Danes. He made friends






The Danish Conquest. 25



himself with the Northmen, or Normans, who had set-
tled in France, and married Emma, the daughter of
their duke; but none of his plans prospered: things
grew worse and worse, and his mind and his people’s
grew so bitter against the Danes, that at last it was
agreed that, all over the South of England, every |
Englishman should rise up in one night and murder
the Dane who lodged in his house.

Among those Danes who were thus wickedly killed
was the sister of the King of Denmark. Of course
’ he was furious when he heard of it, and came over to
England determined to punish the cruel, treacherous
king and people, and take the whole island for his
own. He did punish the people, killing, burning, and
plundering wherever he went; but he could never get
the king into his hands, for Ethelred went off in the
height of the danger to Normandy, where he had
before sent his wife Emma, and her children, leaving
his eldest son (child of his first wife), Edmund Iron-
side, to fight for the kingdom as best he might.

This King of Denmark died in the midst of his
English war; but his son Cnut went on with the
conquest he had begun, and before long Ethelred the
Unready died, and Edmund Ironside was murdered,
and Cnut became King of England, as well as of

Cc




26 Stories of English History.

Denmark. He became a Christian, and married
Emma, Ethelred’s widow, though she was much older
than himself. He had been a hard and cruel man, but
he now laid aside his evil ways, and became a noble
and wise and just king, a lover of churches and good
men; and the English seem to have been as well off
under him as if he had been one of their own kings.
There is no king of whom more pleasant stories are
told. One is of his wanting to go to church at Ely
Abbey one cold Candlemas Day. Ely was on a hill,
in the middle of a great marsh. The marsh was frozen
over; but the king’s servants told him that the ice was
not strong enough to bear, and they all stood looking -
at it. - Then out stepped a stout countryman, who was
so fat, that his nickname was The Pudding... “ Are
you all afraid?” he said, “I will go over at once before
the king.” “Will you so,” said the king, “then I will
come after you, for whatever bears you will bear me.”
Cnut was a little, slight man, and he got easily over,
and Pudding got a piece of land for his reward.

These servants of the king used to flatter him.
They told him he was lord of land and sea, and that
every thing would obey him. “Let us try,” said Cnut,
who wished to show them how foolish and profane
they were; “bring out my chair to the sea-side.” He





The Danish Conquest. a7



‘was at Southampton at the time, close to the sea, arid
the tide was coming in. ‘Now sea,” he said, as he sat
down, “I am thy lord, dare not to come near, nor to
wet my feet.” Of course the waves rolled on, and
splashed over him; and he turned to his servants, and
bade them never say words that took away from the
honor due to the only Lord of heaven and earth. He
never put on his crown again after this, but hung it up
in Winchester Cathedral. He was a thorough good
king, and there was much grief when he died, stranger
though he was.

A great many Danes had made their homes in York-
shire and Lincolnshire, ever since Alfred’s time, and
some of their customs are still left among us, and some
of their words. The worst of them was that they were
great drunkards, and the English learnt this bad cus-
tom of them.








ANG

A oa



ml

EDWARD AND THE THIEF.



CHAP. VI—THE NORMAN CONQUEST.
A.D. 1035—1066.

A NUT left three sons; but one was content to be
very soon. Soa great English nobleman, called Earl
Godwin, set up as king, Edward, one of those sons of
Ethelred the Unready who had been sent away to
Normandy. He was a very kind, good, pious man,
who loved to do good. He began the building of our
grand church at Westminster Abbey, and he was so
holy that he was called the Confessor, which is a word
for good men not great enough to be called saints.

only King of Denmark, and the other two died,




7"
The Norman Conquest. 29



He was too good-natured,.as you will say when you
hear that one day, when he was in bed, he saw a thief
come cautiously into his room, open the chest where
his treasure was, and take out the money-bags. Instead
of calling anyone, or seizing the man, the king only
said, sleepily, “ Take care, you rogue, or my chancellor
will catch you and give you a good whipping.”
You can fancy that nobody much minded such a king
_as this, and so there were many disturbances in his
time. Some of them rose out of the king—who had
been brought up in Normandy—liking the Normans
better than the English, They really were much
cleverer and more sensible, for they had learnt a great
deal in France, while the English had forgotten much
of what Alfred and his sons had taught them, and all
through the long, sad reign of Ethelred had been get-
ting more dull, and clumsy, and rude. Moreover, they
had learnt of the Danes to be sad drunkards; but both
they and the Danes thought the Norman French fine
gentlemen, and could not bear the sight of them.
Think, then, how angry they all were when it began
to be said that King Edward wanted to leave his
kingdom of England to his mother’s Norman nephew,
Duke William, because all his own near relations were
still little boys, not likely to be grown up by the time








30 Stories of English History.



the old king died. Many of the English wished for
Harold, the son of Earl Godwin, a brave, spirited man;
but Edward sent him to Normandy, and there Duke
William made him swear an oath not to do anything to
hinder the kingdom from being given to Duke William.
Old King Edward died soon after, and Harold said
at once that his promise had been forced and cheated
from him, so that he need not keep it, and he was
crowned King of England. This filled William with
anger. He called all his fighting Normans together,
fitted out ships, and sailed across the English Channel
to Dover. The figure-head of his own ship was a
likeness of his second little boy, named William. He
landed at Pevensey, in Sussex, and set up his camp
while Harold was away in the North, fighting with a
runaway brother of his own, who had brought the Nor-
wegians to attack Yorkshire. Harold had just won a
great battle over these enemies when he heard that
William and his Normans had landed, and he had to
hurry the whole length of England to meet them.
Many of the English would not join him, because
they did not want him for their king. But though his
army was not large, it was very brave. When he
reached Sussex, he placed all his men on the top of a
low hill, near Hastings, and caused them to make a










The Norman Conquest. 31



fence all round, with a ditch before it, and in the
middle was his own standard, with a fighting man
embroidered upon it. Then the Normans rode up on
their war-horses to attack him, one brave knight going
first, singing. The war-horses stumbled in the ditch,
and the long spears of the English killed both men and
horses. Then William ordered his archers to shoot
their arrows high in the air. They came down like
hail into the faces and on the heads of the English.
Harold himself was pierced by one in the eye. The
Normans charged the fence again, and broke through;
and, by the time night came on, Harold himself and all
his brave Englishmen were dead. They did not flee
away; they all staid, and were killed, fighting to the
last; and only then was Harold’s standard of the
fighting man rooted up, and William’s standard—a
cross, which had been blessed by the Pope—planted
instead of it. So ended the battle of Hastings, in the
year 1066.

We have had a great many “conquests” hitherto—
the Roman conquest, the English conquest, the Danish
conquest, and now the Norman conquest. But there
have been no more since; and our kings and queens
have gone on in one long line ever since, from William
of Normandy down to Queen Victoria.


























































































































































































: NSS aes SS
WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR AND HIS SONS.

io or

CHAP. VII.—WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR.
A.D. 1066—1087.
KYSHE king who had conquered England was a
brave, strong man, who had been used to fighting
and struggling ever since he was a young child.

He really feared God, and was in many ways a good
man; but it had not been right of him to come and
take another people’s country by force; and the having
done one wrong thing often makes people grow worse
and worse. Many of the English were unwilling to
have William as their king, and his Norman friends
were angry that he would not let them have more of


I he te
William the Conqueror. 33



the English lands, nor break the English laws. So they
were often rising up against him; and each time he had
to put them down he grew more harsh and stern. He
did not want to be cruel; but he did many cruel things,
because it was the only way to keep England.

When the people in Northumberland rose against
him, and tried to get back the old set of kings, he had
the whole country wasted with fire and sword, till
hardly a town or village was left standing. He did .
this to punish the Northumbrians, and frighten the
rest. But he did another thing that was worse, because
it was only for his own amusement.. In Hampshire,
near his castle of Winchester, there was a great space
of heathy ground, and holly copse and beeches and
oaks above it, with deer and boars running wild in
the glades—a beautiful place for hunting, only that
there were so many villages in it that the creatures
were disturbed and killed. William liked hunting more
than anything else—his people said he loved the high
deer as if he was their father,—and to keep the place
clear for them, he turned out all the inhabitants, and
pulled down their houses, and made laws against any-
one killing his game. The place he thus cleared is
still called the New Forest, though it is a thousand
years old.








34 Stories of English Frstory.





An old Norman law that the English grumbled
about very much was, that as soon as a bell was rung
at eight o'clock every evening, everyone was to put out
candle and fire, and go to bed. The bell was called -
the curfew, and many old churches ring it still.

William caused a great list to be made of all the
lands in the country, and who held them. We have
this list still, and it is called Domesday Book. It
shews that a great deal had been taken from the
English and given to the Normans. The king built
castles, with immensely thick, strong walls, and loop-
hole windows, whence to shoot arrows; and here he
placed his Normans to keep the English down. But
the Normans were even more unruly than the English,
and only his strong hand kept them in order. They
rode about in armour—helmets on their heads,.a shirt
of mail, made of chains of iron linked together, over
their bodies, gloves and boots of iron, swords by their
sides, and lances in their hands—and thus they could
bear down all before them. They.called themselves
knights, and were always made to take an oath to be-’
friend the weak, and poor, and helpless; but they did
not often keep it towards the poor English.

William had four sons—Robert, who was called
Court-hose or Short-legs; William, called Rufus, be-






William the Conqueror. 35
cause he had red hair; Henry, called Beau-clerc, or
the fine scholar; and Richard, who was still a lad when
he was killed by a stag in the New Forest.

Robert, the eldest, was a wild, rude, thoughtless
youth ; but he fancied himself fit to govern Normandy,
and asked his father to give it up to him. King
William answered, “I never take my clothes off before
I go to bed,” meaning that Robert must wait for his
death. Robert could not bear to be laughed at, and
was very angry. Soon after, when he was in the castle
court, his two brothers, William and Henry, grew
riotous, and poured water down from the upper win-
dows on him and his friends. He flew into a passion,
dashed up-stairs with his sword in his hand, and might
have killed his brothers if their father had not come in
to protect them. Then he threw himself on his horse
and galloped away, persuaded some friends to join him,
and actually fought a battle with his own father, in
which the old king was thrown off his horse, and hurt
in the hand. Then Robert wandered about, living on
money that his mother, Queen Matilda, sent him,
though his father was angry with her for doing so, and
this made the first quarrel the husband and wife had
ever had.

Not long after, William went to war with the King







lee oe
36 Stories of English History.



of France. -He had caused a city to be burnt down,
and was riding through the ruins, when his horse trod
on some hot ashes, and began to plunge. The king
was thrown forward on the saddle, and, being a very
heavy, stout man, was so much hurt, that, after a few
weeks, in the year 1087, he died at a little monastery,
a short way from Rouen, the chief city of his dukedom
of Normandy.

He was the greatest man of his time, and he had
much good in him; and when he lay on his death-bed
he grieved much for all the evil he had brought upon
the English; but that could not undo it. He had
been a great church-builder, and so were his Norman
bishops and. barons. _ You may always know their
work, because it has round pillars, and round arches,
with broad borders of zig-zags, and all manner of
patterns round them.

In the end, the coming of the Normans did the
English much good, by brightening them up and mak-
ing them less dull and heavy; but they did not like
having a king and court who talked French, and cared
more for Normandy than for England.


















eee OTT

PETER THE HERMIT PREACHING THE CRUSADE,



CHAP. VIII.—WILLIAM II, RUFUS.
A.D. 1087—1II00,

UAQILLIAM the Conqueror was obliged to let

Normandy fall to Robert, his eldest son; but
he thought he could do as he pleased about England,
which he had won for himself. So he had sent off his
second son, William, to England, with his ring to
Westminster, giving him a message that he hoped the
English people would have him for their king. And
they did take him, though they would hardly have done
so if they had known what he would be like when he
was left to himself. -But while he was kept under by












38 Stories of English History.



his father, they only knew that he had red hair and a
ruddy face, and had more sense than his brother
Robert. He is sometimes called the Red King, but
more commonly William Rufus. Things went worse
than ever with the poor English in his time ; for at least
William the Conqueror had made everybody mind the
law, but now William Rufus let his cruel soldiers do
just as they pleased. They would come into the farms,
have the best of everything set before them, beat and
misuse the people, carry off whatever they pleased, and
spoil what they did not want. It was of no use to com-
plain, for the king would only laugh and make jokes.
He did not care for God or man; only for being
powerful, for feasting, and for hunting.

Just at this time there was a great stir in Europe.
Jerusalem—that holy city, where our blessed Lord
- had taught, where He had been crucified, and where
He had risen from the dead—was a place where
everyone wished to go and worship, and this they
called going on pilgrimage. A beautiful church had
once been built over the sepulchre where our Lord
had lain, and enriched with gifts. But for a long
time past Jerusalem had been in the hands of an East- |
ern people, who think their false prophet, Mahommed,
greater than our blessed Lord. These Mahomme-








Witham [f., Rufus. 39

dans used to rob and ill-treat the pilgrims, and make
them pay great sums of money for leave to come into
Jerusalem. At last a pilgrim, named Peter the Her-
mit, came home, and got leave from the Pope to try
to waken up all the Christian princes and knights
to go to the Holy Land, and fight to get the Holy
Sepulchre back into Christian hands again., He used
to preach in the open air, and the people who heard
him were so stirred up that they all shouted out, “ It is
God’s will! It is God’s will!’ And each who under-
took to go and fight in the East received a cross cut
out in cloth, red or white, to wear on his shoulder.
Many thousands promised to go on this crusade, as
they called it, and among them was Robert, Duke of
Normandy. But he had wasted his money, so that he
could not fit out an army to take with him. So he of-
fered to give up Normandy to his brother William while
he was gone, if William would let him have the money
he wanted. The Red King was very ready to make
such a bargain, but he laughed at the Crusaders, and
thought that they were wasting their time and trouble.

They had a very good man to lead them, named
Godfrey de Bouillon; and, after many toils and
troubles, they did gain Jerusalem, and could kneel,
weeping, at the Holy Sepulchre. It was proposed to








40 _ Stories of English Ftrstory.



make Robert King of Jerusalem, but he would not
accept the offer, and Godfrey was made king instead,
and staid to guard the holy places, while Duke Robert
set out on his return home.

In the meantime, the Red King had gone on in as
fierce and ungodly a way as ever, laughing good advice
to scorn, and driving away the good Archbishop of
Canterbury, St. Anselm, and everyone else who tried
to warn him or withstand his wickedness. One day, in
the year 1100, he went out to hunt deer in the New
Forest, which his father had wasted, laughing and jest-
ing in his rough way. By and by he was found dead
under an oak tree, with an arrow through his heart ;
and a wood-cutter took up his body in his cart, and car-
ried it to Winchester Cathedral, where it was buried.

Who shot the arrow nobody knew, and nobody ever
will know. Some thought it must be a knight, named
Walter Tyrrell, to whom the king had given three long
good arrows that morning. He rode straight away
to Southampton, and went off to the Holy Land; so
it is likely that he knew something about the king’s
death. But he never seems to have told anyone,
whether it was only an accident, or a murder, or who
did it. Anyway, it was a fearful end, for a bad man to
die in his sin, without a moment to repent and pray.




























HOMAGE TO MAUDE.



> e—_____-

CHAP. IX.—HENRY I, BEAU-CLERC.
A.D. ITIOO—II35.

“yo ENRY, the brother of William Rufus, was one
Th of the hunting party; and as soon as the cry
spread through the forest that the king was dead, he
rode off at full speed to Winchester, and took posses-
sion of all his brother’s treasure. William Rufus had
never been married, and left no children, and Henry
was much the least violent and most sensible of the
brothers; and, as he promised to govern according to
the old laws of England, he did not find it difficult to
persuade the people to let him be crowned king.



D




42 Stories of English History.



He was not really a good man, and he could be very
cruel sometimes, as well as false and cunning; but he
kept good order, and would not allow such horrible
things to be done as in his brother’s time. So the
English were better off than they had been, and used to
say the king would let nobody break the laws but him-
self. They were pleased, too, that Henry married a
lady who was half English—Maude, the daughter of
Malcolm Greathead, King of Scotland, and of a lady
of the old English royal line. They loved her greatly,
and called her good Queen Maude.

Robert came back to Normandy, and tried to make
himself King of England; but Henry soon drove
him back. The brothers went on quarrelling for some
years, and Robert managed Normandy miserably, and
wasted his money, so that he sometimes had no clothes
to wear, and lay in bed for want of them.

Some of the Normans could not bear this any longer,
and invited Henry to come and take the dukedom.
He came with an army, many of whom were English,
and fought a battle with Robert and his faithful Nor-
mans at Tenchebray, in Normandy. They gained a
great victory, and the English thought it made up for
Hastings. Poor Robert was made prisoner by his
brother, who sent him off to Cardiff Castle, in Wales,








flenry I., Beau-clerc. 43



where he lived for twenty-eight years, and then died,
and was buried in Gloucester Cathedral, with his figure
made in bog oak over his monument. I

Henry had two children—William and Maude. The
girl was married to the Emperor of Germany, and the
boy was to be the husband of Alice, daughter to the
Count of Anjou, a great French prince, whose lands
were near Normandy. It was the custom to marry
children very young then, before they were old enough
to leave their parents and make a home for themselves.
So William was taken by his father to Anjou, and
there married to the little girl, and then she was left
behind, while he was to return to England with his
father. Just as he was going to embark, a man came
to the king, and begged to have the honour of taking
him in his new vessel, called the. White Ship, saying
that his father had steered William the Conqueror’s
ship. Henry could not change his own plans; but, as
the man begged so hard, he ‘said his son, the young
bridegroom, and his friends might go in the White
Ship. They sailed in the evening, and there was great
merry-making on board, till the sailors grew so drunk
that they did not know how to guide the ship, and ran
her against a rock. She filled with water and began to
sink. A boat was lowered, and William safely placed








44 Stories of English History.



in it; but, just as he was rowed off, he heard the cries
of the ladies who were left behind, and caused the
oarsmen to turn back for them. So many drowning
wretches crowded into it, as soon as it came near, that
it sank with their weight, and all were lost. Only the
top-mast of the ship remained above water, and to it
clung a butcher and the owner of the ship all night
long. When daylight came, and the owner knew that
the king’s son was really dead, and by his fault, he lost
heart, let go the mast and was drowned. Only the
butcher was taken off alive; and for a long time no
one durst tell the king what had happened. At last a
boy was sent to fall at his feet, and tell him his son was
dead. He was a broken-hearted man, and never knew
gladness again all the rest of his life.

His daughter Maude had lost her German husband,
and come home. He made her marry Geoffrey of
Anjou, the brother of his son’s young wife, and called
upon all his chief noblemen to swear that they would
take her for their queen in England and their duchess
in Normandy after his own death.

He did not live much longer. His death was caused,
in the year 1135, by eating too much of the fish called
lamprey, and he was buried in Reading Abbey.












Se ae

MAUDE’S ESCAPE FROM OXFORD.



CHAP. X.—STEPHEN.
A.D. I135—I154.
pELTHER English nor Normans had ever been
ruled by a woman, and the Empress Maude, as
she still called herself, was a proud, disagreeable, ill-
tempered woman, whom nobody liked. So her cousin,
Stephen de Blois—whose mother, Adela, had been a
daughter of William the Conqueror—thought to obtain
the crown of ’England by promising to give everyone
what they wished. It was very wrong of him; for he,
like all the other barons, had sworn that Maude should
reign. But the people knew he was a kindly, gra-


46 Stories of English History.



cious sort of person, and greatly preferred him to her.
So he was crowned; and at once all the Norman
barons, whom King. Henry had kept down, began to
think they could have their own way. They built
strong castles, and hired men, with whom they made
war upon each other, robbed one another's tenants,
| and, when they saw a peaceable traveller on his way,
they would dash down upon him, drag him into the
castle, take away all the jewels or money he had about
him, or, if he had none, they would shut him up and
torment him till he could get his friends to pay them a
sum to let him loose.

Stephen, who was a kind-hearted man himself, tried to
stop these cruelties ; but then the barons turned round
on him, told him he was not their proper king, and
invited Maude to come and be crowned in his stead.
She came very willingly; and her uncle, King David
of Scotland, set out with an army to fight for her;
but all the English in the north came out to drive him
back; and they beat him and his Scots at what they
called the Battle of the Standard, because the English
had a holy standard, which was kept in Durham
Cathedral. Soon after, Stephen was taken prisoner
at a battle at Lincoln, and there was nothing to pre-
vent Maude from being queen but her own bad tem-



L__






Stephen. 47



per. She went to W inchester, and was there pro-
claimed; but she would not speak kindly or gently
to the people; and when her friends entreated her to
reply more kindly, she flew into a passion, and it is
even said that she gave a box on the ear to her uncle
—the good King of Scotland, who had come to help
her—for reproving her for her harsh answers. When
Stephen’s wife came to beg her to set him free, pro-
-mising that he should go away beyond the seas, and
never interfere with her again, she would not listen,
and drove her away. But she soon found how foolish
she had been. Stephen’s friends would have been
willing that he should give up trying to be king, but
they could not leave him in prison for life; and so
they went on fighting for him, while more and more of
_ the English joined them, as they felt how bad and un-
kind a queen they had in the Empress. Indeed, she
was so proud and violent, that her husband would not
come over to England.to help her, but staid to govern
Normandy. She was soon in great distress, and had
to flee from Winchester, riding through the midst of
the enemy, and losing almost all her friends by the
way, as they were slain or made prisoners. Her best
helper of all—Earl Robert of Gloucester—was taken
while guarding her; and she could only get to his town








48 Stories of English History.



of Gloucester by lying down in a coffin, with holes for
air, and being thus carried through all the country,
where she had made everyone hate her.

Stephen’s wife offered to set the Earl free, if the
other side would release her husband; and this ex-
change was brought about. Robert then went to
Normandy; to fetch Maude’s little son Henry, who was
ten years old, leaving her, as he thought, safe in
Oxford Castle; but no sooner was he gone than
Stephen brought his army, and besieged the castle—
that is, he brought his men round it, tried to climb up
the walls, or beat them down with heavy beams, and
hindered any food from being brought in. Everything
in the castle that could be eaten was gone; but Maude
was determined not to fall into her enemy’s hands. It
was the depth of winter ; the river below the walls was
frozen over, and snow was on the ground. One dark
night, Maude dressed herself and three of her knights
all in white, and they were, one by one, let down by
ropes from the walls. No one saw them in the snow.
They crossed the river on the ice, walked a great part
of the night, and at last came to Abingdon, where
horses were waiting for them, and thence they rode to
Wallingford, where Maude met her little son.

There was not much more fighting after this.








Stephen. 49



Stephen kept all the eastern part of the kingdom, and
Henry was brought up at Gloucester till his father sent
for him, to take leave of him before going on a crusade.
Geoffrey died during this crusade. He was fond of
hunting, and was generally seen with a spray of broom
blossom in his cap.. The French name for this plant
is genet; and thus his nickname was “ Plantagenet ;”
and this became a kind of surname to the kings of
England.

Henry, called Fitz-empress—or “the Empress’s son”
—came to England again as soon as he was grown up;
but, instead of going to war, he made an agreement
with Stephen. Henry would not attack Stephen any
more, but leave him to reign all the days of his life,
provided Stephen engaged that Henry should reign
instead of his own son after his death. This made
Stephen’s son, Eustace, very angry, and he went away
in a rage to raise troops to maintain his cause; but he
died suddenly in the midst of his wild doings, and the
king, his father, did not live long after him, but died in
the year 1154.

Maude had learnt wisdom by her misfortunes. She
had no further desire to be queen, but lived a retired
life in a convent, and was much more respected there
than as queen.












uo (a

CI
i Mi



HENRY RECEIVING HIS FATHER’S RING.



CHAP. XIL—HENRY II., FITZ-EMPRESS.

A.D. 1154—1189.

JOR ENRY FITZ-EMPRESS is counted as the

LA first king of the Plantagenet family, also called
the House of Anjou. He was a very clever, brisk,
spirited man, who hardly ever sat down, but was
always going from place to place, and who would let
nobody disobey him. He kept everybody in order,
pulled down almost all the Castles that had been built
in Stephen's time, and would not let the barons illtreat
the people. Indeed, everyone had been so mixed up
together during the wars in Stephen’s reign, that the






Flenry I1., Fiitz-empress, St



grandchildren of the Normans who had come over
with William the Conqueror were now quite English
in their feelings. French was, however, chiefly spoken
at court. The king was really a Frenchman, and he
married a French wife, Eleanor, the lady of Aquitaine,
a great dukedom in the South of France; and, as
Henry had already Normandy and Anjou, he really
was lord of nearly half France. He ruled England
well; but he was not a good man, for he cared for
power and pleasure more than for what was right; and
sometimes he fell into such rages that he would roll on
the floor, and hite the rushes and sticks it was strewn
with. He made many laws. One was that, if a priest
or monk was thought to have committed any crime, he
should be tried by the king’s judge, instead of by the
bishop. The Archbishop:of Canterbury, Thomas a
Becket, did not think it right to consent to this law;
and, though he and the king had once been great
friends, Henry was so angry with him that he was
forced to leave England, and take shelter with the’
King of France. Six years passed by, and the king
pretended to be reconciled to him, but still, when they
met, would not give him the kiss of peace. The arch-
bishop knew that this showed that the king still hated
him; but his flock had been so long without a shep-



errr








52 Stories of English History.



herd that he thought it his duty to go back to them.
Just after his return, he laid under censure some
persons who had given offence. They went and com-
plained to the king, and Henry exclaimed in a passion,
“Will no one rid me of this turbulent priest?” Four
of his knights who heard these words set forth for
Canterbury. The archbishop guessed why they were
come; but he would not flee again, and waited for
them by the altar in the cathedral, not even letting the
doors be shut. There they slew him; and thither, in
great grief at the effect of his own words, the king
came—three years later—to show his penitence by
entering barefoot, kneeling before Thomas’s tomb, and
causing every priest or monk in turn to strike him
with a rod. We should not exactly call Thomas a
martyr now, but he was thought so then, because he
died for upholding the privileges of the Church, and
he was held to be a very great saint.

While this dispute was going on, the Earl of
Pembroke, called Strongbow, one of Henry’s nobles,
had gone over to Ireland, and obtained a little king-
dom there, which he professed to hold of Henry; and
thus the Kings of England became Lords of Ireland,
though for a long time they only had the Province of
Leinster, and were always at war with the Irish around.






flenry Il., fitz-empress. 53



Henry was a most powerful king; but his latter
years were very unhappy. His wife was not a good
woman, and her sons were all disobedient and rebelli-
ous. Once all the three eldest, Henry, Richard, and
Geoffrey, and their mother, ran away together from his
court, and began to make war upon him. He was
much stronger and wiser than they, so he soon forced
them to submit; and he sent Queen Eleanor away,
and shut her up in a strong castle in England as long
as he lived. Her sons were much more fond of her
than of their father, and they thought this usage so
hard, that they were all the more ready to break out
against him. The eldest son, Henry, was leading an
army against his father, when he was taken ill, and felt
himself dying. He sent an entreaty that his father
would forgive him, and come to see him; but the
young man had so often been false and treacherous,
that Henry feared it was only a trick to get him as a
prisoner, and only sent his ring and a message of
pardon; and young Henry died, pressing the ring to
his lips, and longing to hear his father’s voice.

Geoffrey, the third son, was killed by a fall from
his horse, and there were only two left alive, Richard
and John. Just at this time, news came that the
Mahommedans in the Holy Land had won Jerusalem

:








54 ss of English Flistory.

back again; and the pope called on all Christian
princes to leave off quarrelling, and go on a crusade to
recover the Holy Sepulchre.

The kings of England and France, young Richard,
and many more, were roused to take the cross; but
while arrangements for going were being made, a fresh
dispute about them arose, and Richard went away in a
rage, got his friends together, and, with King Philip of
mere to help him, began to make war. His father
was feeble, and worn out, and could not resist as in
former times. He fell ill, and gave up the struggle,
saying he would grant all they asked. The list of
Richard’s friends whom he was to pardon was brought
to him, and the first name he saw in it was that of
John, his youngest son, and his darling, the one who
had never before rebelled. That quite broke his heart,
his illness grew worse, and he talked about an old
eagle being torn to pieces by his eaglets. And so, in
the year 1189, Henry II. died the saddest. death, per- »
haps, that an old man can die, for his sons had brought
down his grey hairs with sorrow to the grave.














RICHARD I. TURNING ASIDE FROM THE SIGHT OF JERUSALEM.

—_—_——_-— > o —____

CHAP. XII—RICHARD I., LION-HEART.
~ A.D. 1189—1199.

YO ICHARD was greatly grieved at his father’s

4% death, and when he came and looked at the
dead body, in Fontevraud Abbey Church, he cried out,
“Alas! it was I who killed him!” But it was too late
now : he could not make up for what he had done, and
he had to think about the Crusade he had promised to
make. Richard was so brave and strong that he was
called Lion-heart; he was very noble and good in some
ways, but his fierce, passionate temper did him a great
deal of harm. He, and King Philip of France, and










50 Stories of English Fistory.



several other great princes, all met in the Island of
Sicily in the Mediterranean Sea, and thence sailed for
the Holy Land. The lady whom Richard was to
marry came to meet him in Sicily. Her name was
Berengaria; but, as it was Lent, he did not marry her
then. She went on to the Holy Land in a ship with
his sister Joan, and tried to land in the island of
Cyprus; but the people were inhospitable, and would
not let them come. So Richard, in his great anger,
conquered the isle, and was married to Berengaria
there.

The Mahommedans who held Palestine at that time
were called Saracens, and had a very brave prince at
their head named Saladin, which means Splendour of
Religion. He was very good, just, upright, and truth-
telling, and his Saracens fought so well, that the Crusa-
ders would hardly have won a bit of ground if the
Lion-heart had not been so brave. At last, they did
take one city on the coast named Acre; and one of the
princes, Leopold, Duke of Austria, set up his banner
on the walls. Richard did not think it ought to be
there : he pulled it up and threw it down into the ditch,
asking the duke how he durst take the honours of a
king. Leopold was sullen and brooded over the insult,
and King Philip thought Richard so overbearing, that


Richard 1., Lion-heart. 57



he could not bear to be in the army with him any
longer. In truth, though Philip had pretended to be
his friend, and had taken his part against his father,
that was really only to hurt King Henry; he hated
Richard quite as much, or more, and only wanted to
get home first in order to do him as much harm as he
could while he was away. So Philip said it was too
hot for him in the Holy Land, and made him ill. He
sailed back to France, while Richard remained, though
the climate really did hurt his health, and he often had
fevers there.z When he was ill, Saladin used to send
him grapes, and do all he could to show how highly he
thought of so brave a man. Once Saladin sent him a
beautiful horse; Richard told the Earl of Salisbury to
try it, and no sooner was the earl mounted, than the
horse ran away with him to the Saracen army. Saladin
was very much vexed, and was afraid it would be taken
for a trick to make the English king prisoner, and he
gave the earl a quieter horse to ride back with.
Richard fought one terrible battle at Joppa with the
Saracens, and then he tried to go on to take Jerusalem;
but he wanted to leave a good strong castle behind him
at Ascalon, and set all his men to work to build it up.
When they grumbled, he worked with them, and asked
the duke to do the same; but Leopold said gruffly that








58 Stories of English History.



he was not a carpenter or a mason. Richard was so
provoked that he struck him a blow, and the duke
went home in a rage.

So many men had gone home, that Richard found
‘ his army was not strong enough to try to take Jerusa-
lem. He was greatly grieved, for he knew it was his
own fault for not having shewn the temper of a Crusa-
der ; and when he came to the top of a hill, whence the
Holy City could be seen, he would not look at it, but
turned away, saying, “ They who are not worthy to win
it are not worthy to behold it.” It was of no use for
him to stay with so few men; besides, tidings came from
home that King Philip and his own brother, John, were
doing all the mischief they could. So he made a peace
for three years between the Saracens and Christians,
hoping to come back again after that to rescue Jerusa-
lem. But on his way home there were terrible storms ;
his ships were scattered, and his own ship was driven up
into the Adriatic Sea, where he was robbed by pirates,
or sea robbers, and then was ship-wrecked. There was
no way for him to get home but through the lands of
Leopold of Austria; so he pretended to be a merchant,
and set out attended only by a boy. He fell ill at a
little inn, and while he was in bed the boy went into
the kitchen with the king’s glove in his belt. It was






Richard I., Lion-heart. 59



an embroidered glove, such as merchants never used,
and people asked questions, and guessed that the boy’s
master must be some great man. The Duke of Aus-
tria heard of it, sent soldiers to take him, and shut him
up as a prisoner in one of his castlesy Afterwards, the
duke gave him up for a large sum of money to the
Emperor of Germany. All this time Richard’s wife
and mother had been in great sorrow and fear, trying
to find out what had become of him. It is said that he
was found at last by his friend, the minstrel Blondel.
A minstrel was a person who made verses and sung
them. Many of the nobles and knights in Queen
Eleanor’s Duchy of Aquitaine were minstrels—and
Richard was a very good‘ one himself, and amused
himself in his captivity by making verses. This is cer-
tainly true—though I cannot answer for it that the
pretty story is true, which says that Blondel sung at all
the castle courts in Germany, till he heard his master’s
voice take up and reply to his song.

The Queens, Eleanor and Berengaria, raised a ran-
som—that is, a sum of money to buy his freedom—
though his brother John tried to prevent her, and the —
King of France did his best to hinder the emperor
from releasing him; but the Pope insisted that the
brave crusader should be set at liberty: and Richard








60 Stories of English Htrstory.



came home, after a year and a-half of captivity. He
freely forgave John for all the mischief he had done
or tried to do, though he thought so ill of him as to
say, “I wish I may forget John’s injuries to me as soon
as he will forget my pardon of him.”

Richard only lived two years after he came back.
He was beseiging a castle in Aquitaine, where there
was some treasure that he thought was unlawfully kept
from him, when he was struck in the shoulder by a
bolt from a cross-bow, and the surgeons treated it so
unskilfully that in a few days he died. The man who
had shot the bolt was made prisoner, but the Lion-
heart’s last act was to command that no harm should
be done to him. The soldiers, however, in their grief
and rage for the king, did put him to death in a cruel
manner. ;

Richard desired to be buried at the feet of his father,
in Fontevraud Abbey, where he had once bewailed his
undutiful conduct, and now wished his body for ever to
lie in penitence. The figures, in stone, of the father,
mother, and son, who quarrelled so much in life, all
lie on one monument now, and with them Richard’s
youngest sister, Joan, who died nearly at the same time
as he died, partly of grief for him.


















































































— =
SG

JOHN. ESCAPING FROM THE WASH.

$e oe —_—_

CHAP. XIII.—JOHN, LACKLAND.
A.D. I199—I216.
Be a kind of joke, John, King Henry’s youngest
AM son, had been called Lackland, because he had
nothing when his brothers each had some great duke-
dom. The name suited him only too well before the
end of his life. The English made him king at once.
They always did take a grown-up man for their king, if
the last king’s son was but a child. Richard had never
had any children, but his brother Geoffrey, who was
older than John, had left a son named Arthur, who was
about twelve years old, and who was rightly the Duke






62 Stories of English History:



of Normandy and Count of Anjou. King Philip, who
was always glad to vex whoever was king of England,
took Arthur under his protection, and promised to get
Normandy out of John’s hands. However, John hada
meeting with him and persuaded him to desert Arthur,
and marry his son Louis to John’s own niece, Blanche,
who had a chance of being queen of part of Spain.
Still Arthur lived at the French King’s court, and
when he was sixteen years old, Philip helped him to
raise an army and go to try his fortune against his
uncle. He laid siege to Mirabeau, a town where his
grandmother, Queen Eleanor, was living. John, who
was then in Normandy, hurried to her rescue, beat
Arthur’s army, made him prisoner and carried him off,
first to Rouen, and then to the strong castle of Falaise.
Nobody quite knows:what was done to him there. The
governor, Hubert de Burgh, once found him fighting
hard, though with no weapon but a stool, to defend
himself from some ruffians who had been sent to put
out his eyes.» Hubert saved him from these men, but
shortly after this good man was sent elsewhere by the
king, and John came himself to Falaise.. Arthur was
never seen alive again, and it is believed that John
took him out in a boat in the river at night, stabbed
him'with his own hand, and threw his body into the






Fohn, Lackland. 63



river. There was, any way, no doubt that John was
guilty of his nephew’s death, and he was fully known
to be one of the most selfish and cruel men who ever
lived ; and so lazy, that he let Philip take Normandy
from him, without stirring a finger to save the grand
old dukedom of his forefathers ; so that nothing is left
of it to us now but the four little islands, Guernsey,
Jersey, Alderney, and Sark.

Matters became much worse in England, when he
quarrelled with the Pope, whose name was Innocent,
about who should be archbishop of Canterbury. The
Pope wanted a man named Stephen Langton to be
archbishop, but the king swore he should never come
into the. kingdom. Then the Pope punished the king-
dom, by forbidding all church services in all parish
churches. This was termed putting the kingdom under
an interdict. John was not much distressed by this,
though his people were; but when he found that
Innocent was stirring up the King of France to come
to attack him, he thought it time-to make his peace
with the Pope. So he not only consented to receive
Stephen Langton, but he even knelt down before the
Pope’s legate, or messenger, and took off his crown,
giving it up to the legate, in token that he only held
the kingdom from the Pope. It was two or three days








64. Stories of English History.



before it was given back to him; and the Pope held
himself to be lord of England, and made the king and
people pay him money whenever he demanded it.

All this time John’s cruelty and savageness were
making the whole kingdom miserable; and at last the
great barons could bear it no longer. They met toge-
ther and agreed that they would make John swear to
govern by the good old English laws that had pre-
vailed before the Normans came. The difficulty was to
be sure of what these laws were, for most of the copies
of them had been lost. However, Archbishop Langton
and some of the wisest of the barons put together a
set of laws—some copied, some recollected, some old,
‘some new—but all such as to give the barons some
control of the king, and hinder him from getting sav-
age soldiers together to frighten people into doing
whatever he chose to make them.» These laws they
called Magna Carta, or the great charter; and they
all came in armour, and took John by surprise at
Windsor. He came to meet them in a meadow named
Runnymede, on the bank of the Thames, and there
they forced him to sign the charter, for which all Eng-
lishmen are grateful to them.

But he did not mean to keep it! No, not he! He
had one of his father’s fits of rage when he got back to


Fohn, Lackland. 65



Windsor Castle—he gnawed the sticks for rage, and
swore he was no king. Then he sent for more of the
fierce soldiers, who went about in bands ready to be
hired, and prepared to take vengeance on the barons.
They found themselves not strong enough to make
head against him; so they invited Louis, the son of
Philip of France and husband of John’s niece, to come
and be their king. He came, and was received in Lon-
don, while John and his bands of soldiers were roam-
ing about the eastern counties, wasting and burning
everywhere till they came to the Wash—that curious
bay between Lincolnshire and Norfolk, where so
many rivers run into the sea. There is a safe way
across the sands in this bay when the tide is low, but
when it is coming in and meets the rivers, the waters
rise suddenly into a flood. So it happened to King
John; he did get out himself, but all the carts with his
goods and treasures were lost, and many of his men.
He was full of rage and grief, but he went on to the
abbey where he meant to sleep. He supped on
peaches and new ale, and soon after became very ill.
He died in a few days, a miserable, disgraced man,
with half his people fighting against him and London

in the hands of his worst enemy.






ON

HENRY III. CROWNED WITH HIS MOTHER'S BRACELET.





CHAP. XIV.—HENRY III, OF WINCHESTER.
A.D. 1216—I1272.

Ie IN? John left two little sons, Henry and Richard,

nine and seven years old, and all the English
barons felt that they would rather have Henry as their
king than the French Louis, whom they had only cal-
led in because John was such a wretch. So when little ©
Henry had been crowned at Gloucester, with his
mother’s bracelet, swearing to rule according to Magna
Carta, and good Hubert de Burgh undertook to
govern for him, one baron after another came back to
him. Louis was beaten in a battle at Lincoln; and










flenry I11., of Winchester. 67



when his wife sent him more troops, Hubert de Burgh
got ships together and sunk many vessels, and drove
the others back in the Straits of Dover; so that Louis
was forced to go home and leave England in peace.
Henry must have been too young to understand
about Magna Carta when he swore to it, but it was
the trouble of all his long reign to get him to observe
it. It was not that he was wicked like. his father—for
he was very religious and kind-hearted—but he was
too good-natured, and never could say No to anybody.
Bad advisers got about him when he grew up, and per-
suaded him to let them take good Hubert de Burgh
and imprison him. When they seized him, they took
him to a blacksmith to have chains put on his feet, but
the smith said he would never forge chains for the
man who had saved his country from the French. He
was afterwards set free, and died in peace and honor.
Henry was a builder of beautiful churches. West-
minster Abbey, as it is now, was one. And he was so
charitable to the poor that, when he had his children
weighed, he gave their weight in gold and silver in
alms. But he gave to everyone who asked, and so
always wanted money ; and sometimes his men could
get nothing for the king and queen to eat, but by going
and taking sheep and poultry from the poor farmers






68 Stories of English History.



around; so that things were nearly as bad as under
William Rufus—because the king was so foolishly
good-natured. The Pope was always sending for
money, too; and the king tried to raise it in ways that,
~ according to Magna Carta, he had sworn not to do.
His foreign friends told him that if he minded Magna
Carta he would be a poor creature—not like a king
who might do all he pleased; and whenever he list-
ened to them he broke the laws of Magna Carta.
Then, when his barons complained and frightened him,
he swore again to keep them; so that nobody could
trust him, and his weakness was almost as bad for the
kingdom as John’s wickedness. When they could bear
it no longer, the barons all met him at the council
which was called the Parliament, from a French word
meaning talk. This time they came in armour, bring-
ing all their fighting men, and declared that he had
broken his word so often that they should appoint —
some of their own number to watch him, and hinder
his doing anything against the laws he had sworn to
observe, or from getting money from the people with-
out their consent. He was very angry; but he was in
their power, and had to submit to swear that so it
should be; and Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester,
who had married his sister, was appointed among the


Flenry I1L., of Winchester. 6

9



lords who were to keep watch over him. Henry could
not bear this; he felt himself to be less than ever a
king, and tried to break loose. He had never cared for
his promises ; but his brave son Edward, who was now
grown up, cared a great deal: and they put the ques-
tion to Louis, King of France, whether the king was
bound by the oath he had made to be under Montfort
and his council. This Louis was'son to the one who
had been driven back by Hubert de Burgh. He was
one of the best men and kings that ever lived, and he
tried to judge rightly; but he scarcely thought how
much provocation Henry had given, when he said that
subjects had no right to frighten their king, and so that
Henry and Edward were not obliged to keep the oath.

Thereupon they got an army together, and so did
Simon de Montfort and the barons; and they met at a
place called Lewes, in Sussex. Edward got the ad-
vantage at first, and galloped away, driving his ene-
mies before him; but when he turned round and came
back, he found that Simon de Montfort had beaten the
rest of the army, and made his father and uncle
Richard prisoners. Indeed the barons threatened to
cut off Richard’s head if Edward went on fighting with

them ; and to save his uncle’s life he, too, gave himself
up to them.










ie Stories of English History.



Simon de Montfort now governed all the kingdom.
He still called Henry king, but did not let him do any-
thing, and watched him closely that he might not get
away; and Edward was kept a prisoner—first in one
castle, then in another. . Simon was a good and high-
minded man himself, who only wanted to do what was
best for everyone; but he had a family of proud and
overbearing sons, who treated all who came in their
way so ill, that most of the barons quarrelled with
them. One of these barons sent Edward a beautiful
horse; and one day when he was riding out from Here-
ford Castle with his keepers, he proposed to them to
ride races, while he was to look on and decide which
was the swiftest. Thus they all tired out their horses,
and as soon as he saw that they could hardly get them
along, Edward spurred his own fresh horse, and gal-
loped off to meet the friends who were waiting for him.
All who were discontented with the Montforts joined
him, and he soon had a large army. He marched
against Montfort, and met him at Evesham. The
poor old king was in Montfort’s army, and in the battle
was thrown down, and would have been killed if he
had not called out—“ Save me, save me, I am Henry
of Winchester.” His son heard the call, and, rushing
to his side, carried him to a place of safety. His army






flenry I11., of Winchester. 71



was much the strongest, and Montfort had known from
the first that there was no hope for him. “God have
mercy on our souls, for our bodies are Sir Edward’s,”
he had said; and he died bravely on the field of battle.

Edward brought his father back to reign in all
honor, but he took the whole management of the
kingdom, and soon set things in order again—taking
care that Magna Carta should be properly observed.
When everything was peaceful at home, he set out
upon a Crusade with the good King of France, and
while he was gone his father died, after a reign of
fifty-six years. There were only three English kings
who reigned more than fifty years, and these are easy
to remember, as each was the third of his name—
Henry III., Edward III.,and George III. In the reign
of Henry III. the custom of having Parliaments was
established, and the king was prevented from getting
money from the people unless the Parliament granted
it. The Parliament has, ever since, been made up of
great lords, who are born to it : and, besides them, of
men chosen by the people in the counties and towns,
to speak and decide for them. The clergy have a meet-
ing of their own called Convocation ; and these three
—Clergy, Lords, and Commons—are called the Three
Estates of the Realm.










ih i
:

i

1 =

it i , :

I if =



































































EDWARD I. PRESENTING HIS SON TO THE WELSH PRINCES.



CHAP. XV.—EDWARD I., LONGSHANKS.
A.D, 1272—I1307.

er son of Henry III. returned from the Holy

Land to be one of our noblest, best, and wisest
kings. Edward I.—called Longshanks in a kind of
joke, because he was the tallest man in the Court—was
very grand-looking and handsome ; and could leap, run,
ride, and fight in his heavy armour better than anyone
else. He was brave, just, and affectionate; and his
sweet wife, Eleanor of Castille, was warmly loved by
him and all the nation. He built as many churches
and was as charitable as his father, but he was much


Edward I., Longshanks. . 73



—+——

more careful only to make good men bishops, and he
allowed no wasting or idling. He faithfully obeyed
Magna Carta, and made everyone else obey the law
—indeed many good laws and customs have -begun
from his time. Order was the great thing he cared
for, and under him the English grew prosperous and
happy, when nobody was allowed to rob them.

The Welsh were, however, terrible robbers. You
remember that they are the remains of the old Britons,
who used to have all Britain. They had never left off
thinking they had a right to it, and coming down out
of their mountains to burn the houses and steal the |
cattle of the Saxons, as they still called the English. ~
Edward tried to make friends with their princes—
Llewellyn and David—and to make them keep their
people in order. He gave David lands in England, and
let Llewellyn marry his cousin, Eleanor de Montfort.
But they broke their promises shamefully, and did such
savage things to the English on their borders that he
was forced to put a stop to it, and went to war. David
was made prisoner, and put to death as a traitor; and
Llewellyn was met by some soldiers near the bridge of
Builth and killed, without their knowing who he was.
Edward had, in the meantime, conquered most of the
country; and he told the Welsh chiefs that, if they


74 Stories of English History.





would come and meet him at Caernarvon Castle, he
would give them a prince who had been born in their
country—had never spoken a word of any language but
theirs. They all came, and the king came down to
them with his own little baby son in his arms, who had
lately been born in Caernarvon Castle, and, of course,
had never spoken any language at all. The Welsh
were obliged to accept him; and he had a Welsh nurse,
that the first words he spoke might be Welsh. They

e thought he would have been altogether theirs, as he
then had an elder brother; but in a year or two the
oldest boy died; and, ever since that time, the eldest
son of the King of England has always been Prince of
Wales.

There was a plan for the little Prince Edward of
Caernarvon being married to a little girl, who was
grand-daughter to the King of Scotland, and would
be Queen of Scotland herself—and this would have led
to the whole island being under one king—but, unfor-
tunately, the little maiden died. It was so hard to de-
cide who ought to reign, out of all her cousins, that
they asked King Edward to choose among them—
since everyone knew that a great piece of Scotland be-
longed to him as over-lord, just as his own dukedom of
Aquitaine belonged to the King of France over him;

ev ie ene








Edward I., Longshanks. 75



and the Kings of Scotland always used to pay homage
to those of England for it.

Edward chose John Balliol, the one who had the
best right; but he made him understand that, as over-
lord, he meant to see that as good order was kept in
Scotland as in England. Now, the English kings had
never meddled with Scottish affairs before, and the
Scots were furious at finding that he did so. They said
it was insulting them and their king: and poor Balliol
did not know what to do among them, but let them
defy Edward in his name. This brought Edward and
his army to Scotland. The strong places were taken
and filled with English soldiers, and Balliol was made
prisoner, adjudged to have rebelled against his lord and
forfeited his kingdom, and was sent away to France.

Edward thought it would be much better for the
whole country to join Scotland to England, and rule it
himself. And so, no doubt, it would have been; but
many of the Scots were not willing,—and in spite of all

-the care he could take, the soldiers who guarded his
castles often behaved shamefully to the people round
them. One gentleman, named William Wallace, whose
home had been broken up by some soldiers, fled to the
woods and hills, and drew so many Scots round him
that he had quite an army. There was a great fight








76 Stories of English History.



at the Bridge of Stirling; the English governors were
beaten, and Wallace led his men over the Border into
Northumberland, where they plundered and burnt
wherever they went, in revenge for what had been
done in Scotland.

Edward gathered his forces and came to Scotland.
The army that Wallace had drawn together could not
stand before him, but was defeated at Falkirk, and
Wallace had to take to the woods. Edward promised
pardon to all who would submit,—and almost all did;
but Wallace still lurked in the hills, till one of his own
countrymen betrayed him to the English, when he was
sent to London, and put to death.

All seemed quieted, and English garrisons—that is,
guarding soldiers—were in all the Scottish towns and
castles, when, suddenly, Robert Bruce, one of the half
English, half Scottish nobles between whom Edward
had judged, ran away from the English court, with his
horse’s shoes put on backwards. The next thing that
was heard of him was, that he had quarrelled with one
of his cousins in the church at Dumfries, and stabbed _
him to the heart, and then had gone to Scone and had
been crowned King of Scotland.

Edward was bitterly angry now. He sent on an
army to deal unsparingly with the rising, and set out




Edward I., Longshanks. 77



to follow with his son, now grown to man’s estate.
Crueller things than he had ever allowed before were
done to the places where Robert Bruce had been ac-
knowledged as king, and his friends were hung as trai-
tors wherever they were found; but Bruce himself could
not be caught. He was living a wild life among the
lakes and hills ; and Edward, who was an old man now,
had been taken so ill at Carlisle, that he could not
come on to keep his own strict rule among his men.
All the winter he lay sick there; and in the spring he
heard that Bruce, whom he thought quite crushed, had
suddenly burst upon the English, defeated them, and
was gathering strength every day.

Edward put on his armour and set oug for Scotland;
but at Burgh-on-the-Sands his illness came on again,
and he died there, at seventy years old.

He was buried in Westminster Abbey, under a great
block of stone, and the inscription on it only says,
“Edward I., 1308—The Hammer of the Scots—Keep
Treaties.” His good wife, Queen Eleanor, had. died
many years before him, and was also buried at West-
minster. All the way from Grantham, in Lincolnshire
—where she died—to London, Edward set up a beau-
tiful stone cross wherever her body rested ‘for the night
—fifteen of them—but only three are left now.
















EDWARD II, CROWNED WITH HAY.



CHAP. XVI.—EDWARD II., OF CAERNARVON.
A.D. 1307—1327.

NLIKE his father in everything was the young
Edward, who was just come to manhood when
he became king. Nay, he never did come to manhood
in mind, for he was as silly and easily led as his grand-
father, Henry IIL, had been. He had a friend—a gay,
handsome, thoughtless, careless young man—named
Piers Gaveston, who had often led him into mischief
His father had banished this dangerous companion,
and forbidden, under pain of his heaviest displeasure,
the two young men from ever meeting again; but the








Edward IT., of Caernarvon. 79



moment the old king was dead, Edward turned back
from Scotland, where he was so much wanted, and sent
for Piers Gaveston again. At the same time his bride
arrived—Isabel, daughter to the King of France, a
beautiful girl—and there was a splendid wedding feast;
but the king and Gaveston were both so vain and con-
ceited, that they cared more about their own beauty
and fine dress than the young queen’s, and she found
herself quite neglected.. The nobles, too, were angered
at the airs that Gaveston gave himself; he not only
dressed splendidly, had a huge train of servants, and
managed the king as he pleased, but he was very inso-
lent to them, and gave them nick-names. He called
the king’s cousin, the Earl-of Lancaster, “the old hog ;”
the Earl of Pembroke, “Joseph, the Jew;” and the
Earl of Warwick, “the black dog.” Meantime, the king
and he were wasting the treasury, and doing harm of
all kinds, till the barons gathered together and forced
the king to send his favorite into banishment. Gaves-
ton went, but he soon came back again and joined the
king, who was at last setting out for Scotland.

The nobles, however, would not endure his return.
They seized him, brought him to Warwick Castle, and
there held a kind of Court, which could hardly be
called of Justice, for they had no right at all to sentence






80 Stories of E. nglish Fistory.



him. He spoke them fair now, and begged hard for
his life ;. but they could not forget the names he had
called them, and he was beheaded on Blacklow Hill.

Edward was full of grief and anger for the cruel
death of his friend ; but he was forced to keep it out of
sight, for all the barons were coming round him for the
Scottish war. While he had been wasting his time,
Robert Bruce had obtained every strong place in Scot-
land, except Stirling Castle, and there the English
governor had promised to yield, if succour did not comé
from England within a year and a day.

The year was almost over when Edward came into
Scotland with a fine army of English, Welsh, and Gas-
cons from Aquitaine; but Robert Bruce was a great
and able general, and he was no general at all; so
when the armies met at Bannockburn, under the walls
of Stirling, the English were worse beaten than ever
they had been anywhere else, except at Hastings.
Edward was obliged to flee away to England, and
though Bruce was never owned by the English to be
King of Scotland, there he really reigned, having driven
every Englishman away, and taken all the towns and
castles. Indeed, the English had grown so much afraid

of the Scots, that a hundred would flee at sight of two.
| The king comforted himself with a new friend—






Ss





Lidward I1., of Caernarvon, 81



| Hugh le Despencer—who, with his old father, had his

own way, just like Gaveston. Again the barons rose,
and required that they should be banished. They went,
but the Earl of Lancaster carried his turbulence too far,
and, when he heard that the father had come back,
raised an army, and was even found to have asked
Robert Bruce to help him against his own king. This
made the other barons so angry that they joined the
king against him, and he was made prisoner and put to
death for making war on the king, and making friends
with the enemies of the country.

Edward had his Le Despencers back again, and very
discontented the sight made the whole country—and
especially the queen, whom he had always neglected,
though she now had four children. He had never tried |
to gain her love, and she hated him more and more,
There was some danger of a quarrel with her brother,
the King of France, and she offered to go with her son
Edward, now about fourteen, and settle it. But this
was only an excuse. She went about to the princes

, abroad, telling them how ill she was used by her hus-

band, and asking for help. A good many knights be-
lieved and pitied her, and came with her to England to
help. All the English who hated the Le Despencers
joined her, and she led the young prince against his










82 Stories of English History.



father. Edward and his friends were hunted. across
into Wales; but they were tracked out one by one, and
the Despencers were put to a cruel death, though
Edward gave himself up in hopes of saving them.

The queen and her friends made him own that he
did not deserve to reign, and would give up the crown
to his son, Then they kept him in prison, taking him
from one castle to another, in great misery. The rude
soldiers of his guard mocked him and crowned him
with hay, and gave him dirty ditch water to shave with;
and when they found he was too strong and healthy to
die only of bad food and damp lodging, they murdered
him one night in Berkeley Castle. He lies buried in
Gloucester Cathedral, not far from that other foolish
and unfortunate prince, Robert of Normandy, He had
reigned twenty years, and was dethroned in 1 B27:

The queen then wanted to get rid of Edmund, Earl
of Kent, the poor king’s youngest brother. Soa report
was spread that Edward was alive, and Edmund was
allowed to peep into a dark prison room, where he saw
a man who he thought was his brother. He tried to stir.
up friends to set the king free; but this was called rebel-
ling, and he was taken and beheaded at Winchester bya
criminal condemned to die, for it was such a wicked sen-
tence that nobody else could be found to carry it out.






















QUEEN PHILIPPA AND THE BURGHERS OF CALAIS.



CHAP. XVIL—EDWARD III.
A.D. 1327—1377.
GOR about three years, the cruel Queen Isabel and
~ her friends managed all the country ; but as soon
as her son—Edward III., who had been crowned in-
stead of his father—understood how wicked she had
been, and was strong enough to deal with her party, he
-made them prisoners, put the worst of them to death,
and kept the queen shut up in a castle as long as she
lived. He had a very good queen of his own, named
Philippa, who brought cloth-workers over from her own
country, Hainault (now part of Belgium), to teach the







|
|
















84 Stories of English Flistory.



English their trade, and thus began to render England
the chief country in the world for wool and cloth.
Queen Isabel, Edward’s mother, had, you remember,
been daughter of the King of France. All her three
brothers died without leaving a son, and their cousin,
whose name was Philip, began to reign in their stead.
Edward, however, fancied that the crown of France
properly belonged to him, in right of his mother; but
he did not stir about it at once, and, perhaps, never
would: have done so at all, but for two things. One
was, that the King of France, Philip VI., had been so
foolish as to fancy that one of his lords, named Robert
of Artois, had been bewitching him—by sticking pins
into a wax figure and roasting it before a fire. So this
Robert was driven out of France, and, coming to Eng-
land, stirred Edward up to go and overthrow Philip.
The other was, that the English barons had grown so
restless and troublesome, that they would not stay
peacefully at home and mind their own estates ;—but
if they had not wars abroad, they always gave the king
trouble at home; and Edward liked better that they
should fight for him than against him. So he called
himself King of France and England, and began a war
which lasted—with short spaces of quiet—for full 100
years, and only ended in the time of the great grand-








Edward Ii. 85



children of the men who entered upon it. There was one
great sea-fight off Sluys, when the king sat in his ship,
in a black velvet dress, and gained a great victory; but
it was a good while before there was any great battle by
land—so long, that the king’s eldest son, Edward Prince
of Wales, was sixteen years old.» He is generally called
the Black Prince—no one quite knows why, for his
hair, like that of all these old kings of ours, was quite
light, and his eyes were blue. * He was such a spirited
young soldier, that when the French army under King
Philip came in sight of the English one, near the vil-
lage of Crecy, King Edward said he should have the
honor of the day, and stood under a windmill on a hill
watching the fight, while the prince led the English
army. He gained a very great victory, and in the
evening came and knelt before his father, saying the
praise was not his own but the king’s, who had ordered
all so wisely. Afterwards, while Philip had fled away,
Edward besieged Calais, the town just opposite to
Dover. The inhabitants were very brave, and held
out for a long time; and while Edward was absent, the
Scots under David, the son of Robert Bruce, came over
the Border, and began to burn and plunder in North-
umberland. However, Philippa could be brave in time
of need. She did not send for her husband, but called








86 Stories of English Fistory.



an army together, and the Scots were so well beaten |
at Neville’s Cross, that their king, David himself, was

obliged to give himself up to an English squire. The

man would not let the queen have his prisoner, but

rode day and night to Dover, and then crossed to

Calais to tell the king, who'bade him put King David

into Queen Philippa’s keeping. She came herself to

the camp, just as the brave men of Calais had been

starved out; and Edward had said he would only con-

sent not to burn the town: down, if six of the chief
townsmen would bring him the keys of the gates, kneel-

ing, with sackcloth on, and halters.round their necks,

ready to be hung. Queen Philippa wept when she saw

them, and begged that they might be spared ; and when

the king granted them to her she had them led away,

and gave each a good dinner and a fresh suit of clothes.

‘The king, however, turned all the French people out

of Calais, and filled it with English, and it remained

quite an English town for more than 200 years.

King Philip VI. of France died, and his son John
became king, while still the war went on. The Black
Prince and John had a terrible battle at a place called
Poitiers, and the English gained another great victory.
King John and one of his sons were made prisoners,
but when they were brought to the tent where the








Ledward [1T, 87



Black Prince was to sup, he made them sit down at
the table before him, and waited on them as if they had
been his guests instead of his prisoners. He did all he
could to prevent captivity being a pain to them; and
when he brought them to London, he gave John a tall
white horse to ride, and only rode a small pony himself
by his side. There were two kings prisoners in the
Tower of London at once, and they were treated as if
they were visitors and friends. John was allowed to
go home, provided he would pay a ransom by degrees,
as he could get the money together; and, in the mean-
time, his two eldest sons were to be kept at Calais in
his stead. But they would not stay at Calais, and
King John could fot obtain the sum for his ransom ;
so, rather than cheat King Edward, he went back to
his prison in England again. He died soon after sand
his son Charles was a cleverer and wiser man, who
knew it was better not to fight battles with the English,
but made a truce, or short peace.

Prince Edward governed that part of the south of
France that belonged to his father; but he went on
‘a foolish expedition into Spain, to help a very bad king
whom his subjects had driven out; and there caught an
illness from which he never quite recovered. While he
was ill King Charles began the war again; and, though








| 88 — Stories of English History.



there was no battle, he tormented the English, and took
the castles and towns they held. The Black Prince
tried to fight, but he was too weak and ill to do much,
and was obliged to go home, and leave the government
to his brother John, Duke of Lancaster. He lived
about six years after he came home, and then died,
to the great sorrow of everyone. His father, King
Edward, was now too old and feeble to attend to the
affairs of the country. Queen Philippa was dead, too,
and as no one took proper care of the poor old king, he
fell into the hands of bad servants, who made them-
selves rich and neglected him. When, at length, he
lay dying, they stole the ring off his finger before he
had breathed his last, and left him all alone, with the
doors open, till a priest came by, and stayed and prayed
by him till his last moment. He had reigned exactly
fifty years. You had better learn and remember the
names of his sons, as you will hear more about some of
them. They were Edward, Lionel, John, Edmund,
and Thomas. Edward was Prince of Wales; Lionel,
Duke of Clarence; John, Duke of Lancaster ; Edmund,
Duke of York; and Thomas, Duke of Gloucester.
Edward and Lionel both died before their father.
Edward had left a son named Richard; Lionel had left

_ a daughter named Philippa.

be




















DEATH OF WAT TYLER.



CHAP. XVIII.—RICHARD II.
A.D. 1377—1399.

EYSHESE were not very good times in England. The

new king, Richard, was only eleven years old, and
his three uncles did not care much for his good or the
good of the nation. There was not much fighting going
on in France, but for the little there was a great deal
_ of money was wanting, and the great lords were apt to
be very hard upon the poor people on their estates.
They would not let them be taught to read; and if a
poor man who belonged to an estate went away toa
town, his lord could have him brought back to his old



G






90 Stories of English History.



home. Any tax, too, fell more heavily on the poor
than the rich. One tax, especially, called the poll tax,
which was made when Richard was sixteen, vexed
them greatly. Everyone above fifteen years old had
to pay fourpence, and the collectors were often very
rude and insolent. A man named Wat Tyler, in Kent,
was so angry. with a rude collector as to strike him
dead. All the villagers came together with sticks, and
scythes, and flails; and Wat Tyler told them they
would all go to London, and tell the king how his poor
commons were treated. More people and more joined
them on the way, and an immense multitude of wild- .
looking men came pouring into London, where the
Lord Mayor and Aldermen were taken by surprise, and
could do nothing to stop them. They did not do much
harm then; they lay on the grass all night round the
Tower, and said they wanted to speak ‘to the king. In |
the morning he came down to his barge, and meant to
have spoken to them; but his people, seeing such a
host of wild men, took fright, and carried him back
again. He went out again the next day on horseback ;
but while he was speaking to some of them, the worst
of them broke into the Tower, where they seized Arch-
bishop Simon of Canterbury, and fancying he was one
of the king’s bad advisers, they cut off his head.


Richard IT. gl



Richard had to sleep in the house called the Royal
Wardrobe that night, but he went out again on horse-
back among the mob, and began trying to understand
what they wanted. Wat Tyler, while talking, grew
violent, forgot to whom he was speaking, and laid his
hand on the king’s bridle, as if to threaten(or take him
prisoners Upon this, the Lord Mayor, with his mace
—the large crowned staff that is carried before him—
dealt the man such a blow that he fell from his horse,
and an attendant thrust him through with a sword.
The people wavered, and seemed not to know what to
do: and the young king, with great readiness, rode for-
ward and said—*“Good fellows, have ye lost your
leader? This fellow was but a traitor, ] am your king,
and will be your captain and guide.” Then he rode at
their head out into the fields, and the gentlemen, who
had mustered their men by this time, were able to get
between them and the city. The people of each county
were desired to state their grievances ; the king engaged
to do what he could for them, and they went home.
Richard seems to have really wished to take away
some of the laws that were so hard upon them, but his
lords would not let him, and he had as yet very little
power—being only a boy—and by the time he grew
up his head was full of vanity and folly. He was very






92 Stories of English History.





handsome, and he cared more for fine .clothes and
amusements than for business ; and his youngest uncle,
the Duke of Gloucester, did all he could to keep him
back, and hinder him from taking his affairs into his
own hands. Not till he was twenty-four did Richard
begin to govern for himself; and then the Duke of
Gloucester was always grumbling and setting the peo-
ple to grumble, because the king chose to have peace
with France. Duke Thomas used to lament over the
glories of the battles of Edward III., and tell the peo-
ple they had taxes to pay to keep the. king in ermine
robes, and rings, and jewels, and to let him give feasts
and tilting matches—when the knights, in beautiful, gor-
geous armour, rode against one another in sham fight,
and the king and ladies looked on and gave the prize.
Now, Richard knew very well that all this did not
cost half so much as his grandfather's wars, and he
said it did not signify to the people what he wore, or
how he amused himself, as long as he did not tax them
and take their lambs and sheaves to pay for it. But
the people would not believe him, and Gloucester was
always stirring them up against him, and interfering
with him in council. At last, Richard went as if ona.
visit to his uncle at Pleshy Castle, and there, in his
own presence, caused him to be seized and sent off to


Richard IT, 93



Calais. Ina few days’ time Thomas, Duke of Glou-
cester, was dead; and to this day nobody knows
whether his grief and rage brought on a fit, or if he
was put to death., It is certain, at least, that Richard’s
other two uncles do not seem to have treated the king
as if he had been to blame. The elder of these uncles,
the Duke of Lancaster, was called John of Gaunt—be-
cause he had been born at Ghent, a town in Flanders.
He was becoming an old man, and only tried to help
the king and keep things quiet; but Henry, his eldest
son, was a fine high-spirited young man—a favourite
with everybody, and was always putting himself for-
ward—and the king was very much afraid of him. ©
One day, when Parliament met, the king stood up,
and commanded Henry of Lancaster to tell all those
present what the Duke of Norfolk had said when they
__ were riding together. Henry gave in a written paper,
” saying that the duke had told him that they should all
be ruined, like the Duke of Gloucester, and that the
king would find some way to destroy them. Norfolk
angrily sprang up, and declared he had said no such
thing. In those days, when no one could tell which
spoke truth, thé two parties often would offer to fight,
and it was believed that God would show the right, by
giving the victory to the sincere one. So Henry and






7 904 _ Stories of English History.



Norfolk were to fight; but just as they were mounted
on their horses, with their lances in their hands, the king
threw down his staff before them, stopped the combat,
and sentenced Norfolk to be banished from England
for life, and Henry for ten years.

Not long after Henry had gone, his old father—
John of Gaunt—died, and the king kept all his great
dukedom of Lancaster. Henry would not bear this,
and knew that many people at home thought it very
unfair; so he came to England, and as soon as he
landed at Ravenspur in Yorkshire, people flocked to
him so eagerly, that he began to think he could do
more than make himself duke of Lancaster. King
Richard was in Ireland, where his cousin, the governor
—Roger Mortimer—had been killed by the wild Irish.
He came home in haste on hearing of Henry’s arrival, .
but everybody turned against him: and the Earl of
Northumberland, whom he had chiefly trusted, made
him prisoner and carried him to Henry. He was taken
to London, and there set before Parliament, to confess
that he had ruled so ill that he was unworthy to reign,
and gave. up the crown to his dear cousin Henry of
Lancaster, in the year 1399. Then he was sent away
to Pontefract Castle, and what happened to him there
nobody knows, but he never came out of it alive.


















1
nee
a

ny

i







HENRY IV. ADDRESSING HIS SON AT HIS DEATH.



CHAP. XIX.—HENRY IV.
: ; A.D. 1399—I413.
EYSHE English people had often chosen their king
out of the Royal Family in old times, but from
John to Richard II., he had always been the son and
heir of the last king. Now, though poor Richard had
no child, Henry of Lancaster was not the next of kin
to him, for Lionel, Duke of Clarence, had come be-
tween the Black Prince and John of Gaunt; and his
great grandson, Edmund Mortimer, was thought by
many to have a better right to be king than Henry.
Besides, people did not know whether Richard was










96 Stories of English History.



alive, and they thought him hardly used, and wanted
to set him free. So Henry had a very uneasy time.
Everyone had been fond of him when he was a bright,
friendly, free-spoken noble, and he had thought that he
would be a good king and much loved; but he had
gained the crown in an evil way, and it never gave him
any peace or joy. The Welsh, who always had loved
Richard, took up arms for him, and the Earl of North-
umberland, who had betrayed Richard, expected a
great deal too much from Henry. The earl had a _
brave son—Henry Percy—who was so fiery and eager
that he was commonly called Hotspur. He was set to
fight with the Welsh : and with the king’s son, Henry,
Prince of Wales—a brave boy of fifteen or sixteen—
under his charge, to teach him the art of war; and
they used to climb the mountains and sleep in tents
together as good friends.

But the Scots made an attack on England. Henry
Percy went north to fight with them, and beat them in
a great battle, making many prisoners. The king sent
to ask to have the prisoners sent to London, and this
made the proud Percy so angry that he gave up the
cause of King Henry, and went off to Wales, taking
his prisoners with him; and there—being by this time
nearly sure that poor Richard must be dead—he joined




flenry TV. 97



the Welsh in choosing, as the only right king of Eng-
land, young Edmund Mortimer. Henry IV. and his
. sons gathered an army easily—for the Welsh were so
savage and cruel, that the English were sure to fight
against them if they broke into England. The battle
was fought near Shrewsbury. It was a very fierce one,
and in it Hotspur was killed, the Welsh put to flight,
and the Prince of Wales fought so well that everyone
saw he was likely to be a brave, warlike king, like
Edward I. or Edward III. cai
The troubles were not over, however, for the Earl
of Northumberland himself, and Archbishop Scrope of
York, took up arms against the king; but they were
put down without a battle. The earl fled and hid him-
self, but the archbishop was taken and beheaded—the
first bishop whom a king of England had ever put to
death. The Welsh went on plundering and doing
harm, and Prince Henry had to be constantly on the
watch against them; and, in fact, there never was a
reign so full of plots and conspiracies. The king never
knew whom to trust: one friend after another turned
against him, and he became soured and wretched ; he
was worn out with disappointment and guarding
against everyone, and at last he grew even suspicious
of his brave son Henry, because he was so bright and

en i


98 _ Stories of English History.



bold, and was so much loved. The prince was ordered
home from Wales, and obliged to live at Windsor, with
nothing to do, while his younger brothers were put be-
fore him-and trusted by their father—one of them even
sent to command the army in France. But happily the
four’ brothers—Henry, Thomas, John, and Humfrey—
all loved each other so well that nothing could make
them jealous or at enmity with one another. © At
Windsor, too, the king kept young Edmund Mortimer
—whom the Welsh had tried to make king,—and also
the young Prince of Scotland, whom an English ship
had caught as he was sailing for France to be educated.
It was very dishonourable of the king to have taken
him; but he was brought up with. the young English
princes, and they all led a happy life together.

There are stories told of Henry—Prince Hal, as he ©
- was called—leading a wild, merry life, as a sort of
madcap ; playing at being a robber, and breaking into
the waggons that were bringing treasure for his father,
and then giving the money back again. Also, there is
a story that, when one of his friends was taken before
the Lord Chief Justice, he went and ordered him to be
released, and that when the justice refused he drew his
sword, upon which the justice sent him to prison; and
he went quietly, knowing it was right. The king is








flenry IV. 99



said to have declared himself happy to have a judge
who maintained the law so well, and a son who would
submit to it; but there does not seem to be good rea-
son for believing the story; and it seems clear that
young Henry, if he was full of fun and frolic, took care
never to do anything really wrong. —

The king was an old man before his time. He was
always ill, and often had fits, and one of these came on
when he was in Westminster Abbey. He was taken
to the room called the Jerusalem chamber, and Henry
watched him there. Another of the stories is that the
king lay as if he were dead, and the prince took the
crown that was by his side and carried it away. When
the king revived, Henry brought it back, with many
excuses. “Ah, fair son,” said the king, “what right
have you to the crown? you know your father had
none.”

“Sir,” said Henry, “with your sword you took it,
and with my sword I will keep it.”

“May God have mercy on my soul,” said the king.

We cannot be quite certain about the truth of this
conversation, for many people will write down stories
they have heard, without making sure of them. One
thing we are certain of which Henry told his son, which
seems less like repentance. It was that, unless he made












100 Stories of English Frstory.



war in France, his lords would never let him be quiet
on his throne in England; and this young Henry was
quite ready to believe. There had never been a real
peace between France and England since Edward III.
had begun the war—only truces, which are short rests
in the middle of a great war—and the English were
eager to begin again; for people seldom thought then
of the misery that comes of a great war, but only of the
honor and glory that were to be gained, of making pri-
soners and getting ransoms from them.

So Henry IV. died, after having made his own life
very miserable by taking the crown unjustly, and, as
you will see, leaving a great deal of harm still to come
to the whole country, as well as to France.

He died in the year 1399. His family is called the
House of Lancaster, because his father had been Duke
of Lancaster. You will be amused to hear that Richard
Whittington really lived in his time. I cannot answer
for his cat, but he was really Lord Mayor of London,
and supplied the wardrobe of King Henry’s daughter,
when she married the King of Denmark.
















Y V. KNIGHTING WHITTINGTON.



CHAP. XX.—-HENRY V., OF MONMOUTH.
A.D. 1413—1423.

EYSHE young King Henry was full of high, good

4 thoughts. He was most devout in going to
church, tried to make good bishops, gave freely to the
poor, and was so kindly, and hearty, and merry in all
his words and ways, that everyone loved him. Still,
he thought it was his duty to go and make war in
France. He had been taught to believe the kingdom
belonged to him, and it was in so wretched a state that
he thought he could do it good. The poor king,
Charles VI., was mad, and had a wicked wife besides ;








102 Stories of English History.



and his sons, and uncles, and cousins were always
fighting, till the streets of Paris often ran red with
blood, and the whole country was miserable. Henry
hoped to set all in order for them, and, gathering an
army together, crossed to Normandy. He called on
the people to own him as their true king, and never
let any harm be done to them, for he hung any soldier
who was caught stealing, or misusing anyone. He
took the town of Harfleur, on the coast of Normandy,
but not till after a long siege, when his camp was in so
wet a place that there was much illness among his
men. The store of food was nearly used up, and he
was obliged to march his troops across to Calais, which
you know belonged to England, to get some more.
But on the way the French army came up to meet him
—a very grand, splendid-looking army, commanded by
the king’s eldest son, the dauphin. Just as the English
kings’ eldest son was always Prince of Wales, the
French kings’ eldest son was always called Dauphin of
Vienne, because Vienne, the county that belonged to
him, had a dolphin on its shield. The French army
was very large—quite twice the number of the English
—but, though Henry’s men were weary and_half-
starved, and many of them sick, they were not afraid,
but believed their king when he told them that there






flenry V., of Monmouth. 103



were enough Frenchmen to kill, enough to run away,
and enough to make prisoners.s At night, however,
the English had solemn prayers, and made themselves
ready, and the king walked from tent to tent to see
that each man was in his place; while, on the other
hand, the French were feasting and revelling, and
settling what they would do to the English when they
had made them prisoners. They were close to a little
village which the English called Agincourt, and, though
that is not quite its right name, it is what we have
called the battle ever since. The French, owing to
the quarrelsome state of the country, had no order or
obedience among them. Nobody would obey any
other; and when their own archers were in the way,
the horsemen began cutting them down as if they were
the enemy. Some fought bravely, but it was of little
use; and by night all the French were routed, and
King Henry’s banner waving in victory over the field,
He went back to England in great glory, and all the
aldermen of London came out to meet him in red
gowns and gold chains, and among them was Sir
Richard Whittington, the great silk mercer.

Henry was so modest that he would not allow the
helmet he had worn at Agincourt, all knocked about
with terrible blows, to be carried before him when he




\

104 Stories of English Ftstory.



rode into London, and he went straight to church, to
give thanks to God for his victory. He soon went
back to France, and went on conquering it till the
queen came to an agreement with him that he should
marry her daughter Catherine, and that, though poor,
crazy Charles VI. should reign to the end of his life,
when he died Henry and Catherine should be king
and queen of France. So Henry and Catherine were
married, and he took her home to England with great
joy and pomp, leaving his brother Thomas, Duke of
Clarence, to take care of his army in France. For, of
course, though the queen had made this treaty for her
mad husband, most brave, honest Frenchmen could not
but feel it a wicked and unfair thing to give the king-
dom away from her son, the Dauphin Charles.« He.
was not a good man, and had consented to the murder
of his cousin, the Duke of Burgundy, and this had
turned some against him; but still he was badly treated,
and the bravest Frenchmen could not bear to see their
country given up to the English. So, though he took
no trouble to fight for himself, they fought for him, and
got some Scots to help them; and by and by news
came to Henry that his army had been beaten, and his
brother killed.

He came back again in haste to France, and his pre-





























flenry V., of Monmouth. 105



sence made everything go well again; but all the win-
ter he was besieging the town of Meaux, where there
was a very cruel robber, who made all the roads to
Paris unsafe, and by the time he had taken it his health
was much injured. His queen came to him, and they
kept a very grand court at Paris, at Whitsuntide; but
soon after, when Henry set out to join his army, he
found himself so ill and weak that he was obliged to
turn back to the Castle of Vincennes, where he grew
much worse. He called for all his friends, and begged
them to be faithful to his little baby son, whom he had
‘never even seen; and he spoke especially to his bro-
ther John, Duke of Bedford, to whom he left the
charge of all he had gained. He had tried to be a
good man, and though his attack on France was really
wrong, and caused great misery, he had meant to do
right. So he was not afraid to face death, and he died
| when only thirty-four years old, while he was listening
| to the 51st Psalm. Everybody grieved for him—even
the French—and nobody had ever been so good and
dutiful to poor old King Charles, who sat in a corner
lamenting for his good son Henry, and wasting away
- till he died, only three weeks later, so that he was buried
the same day, at St. Denys Abbey, near Paris, as Henry
was buried at Westminster Abbey, near London.

H










CHAP. XXI.—HENRY VI, OF WINDSOR.
A.D. 1423—1461. '

KYSHE poor little baby, Henry VI., was but nine

| ~=months old when—over the grave of his father in
England, and his grandfather in France—he was pro-
claimed King of France and England. The crown of
England was held over his head, and his lords made
their oaths to him : and when he was nine years old he
was sent to Paris, and there crowned King of France.
He was a very good, little, gentle boy, as meek and
obedient as possible; but his friends, who knew that a
king must be brave, strong, and firm for his people’s




flenry VT., of Windsor. 107



sake, began to be afraid that nothing would ever make
him manly. The war in France went on all the time:
the Duke of Bedford keeping the north and the old
lands in the south-west for little Henry, and the French
doing their best for their rightful king—though he was
so lazy and fond of pleasure that he let them do it all
alone. Yet a wonderful thing happened in his favour.
The English were besieging Orleans, when a young
village girl, named Joan of Arc, came to King Charles
and told him that she had had a commission from Hea-
ven to save Orleans, and to lead him to Rheims, where
French kings were always crowned. And she did! She
always acted as one led by Heaven. She never let
anything wrong be done in her sight—no bad words
spoken, no savage deeds done; and she never fought
herself, only led the French soldiers). The English
thought her a witch, and fled like sheep whenever they
saw her; and the French common men were always
brave with her to lead them. And so she really saved
Orleans, and brought the king to be crowned at Rheims.
But neither Charles nor his selfish bad nobles liked her.
She was too good for them; and so, though they would
not let her go home to her village as she wished, they
gave her no proper help; and once, when there was a
(ees going on outside the walls of a town, the French






\





108 Stories of English History.



all ran away and left her outside, where she was taken
by the Englishs And then, I grieve to say, the court
that sat to judge her—some English and some French
of the English party—sentenced her to be burnt to
death in-the market place at Rouen as a witch, and her
own king never tried to save her.

But the spirit she had stirred up never died away.
The French went on winning back more and more;
and there were so many quarrels among the English
that they had little chance of keeping anything. The
king’s youngest uncle, Humfrey, Duke of Gloucester,
was always disputing with the Beaufort family. John
of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster—father to Henry 1V.—
had, late in life, married a person of low birth, and her
children were called Beaufort, after the castle where
they were born—not Plantagenet—and were hardly
reckoned as princes by other people; but they were
very proud, and thought themselves equal to anybody.
The good Duke of Bedford died quite worn out with
trying to keep the peace among them, and to get pro-
per help from England to save the lands his brother
had won in France. All this time, the king liked the
Beauforts much better than Duke Humfrey, and he fol- -
lowed their advice, and that of their friend, the Earl of
Suffolk, in marrying Margaret of Anjou—the daughter






flenry VI1., of Windsor. 109



of a French prince, who had a right to a great part of
the lands the English held. All these were given back
to her father, and this made the Duke of Gloucester and
all the English more angry, and they hated the young
queen as the cause. She was as bold and high-spirited
as the king was gentle and meek. He loved nothing
so well as praying, praising God, and reading; and he
did one great thing for the country—which did more
for it than all the fighting kings had done—he founded
Eton College, close to Windsor Castle ; and there many
of our best clergymen, and soldiers, and statesmen, have
had their education. But while he was happy over
rules for his scholars, and in plans for the beautiful
chapel, the queen was eagerly taking part in the quar-
rels, and the nation hated her the more for interfering.
And very strangely, Humfrey, Duke of Gloucester, was,
at the meeting of Parliament, accused of high treason
and sent to prison, where, in a few days, he was found
dead in his bed—just like his great-uncle, Thomas,
Duke of Gloucester; nor does anyone understand the
mystery in one case better than in the other, except
that we are more sure that gentle Henry VI. had
nothing to do with it than we can be of Richard II.

_ These were very bad times. There was a rising like
Wat Tyler’s, under a man named Jack Cade, who held








110 Stories of English History.



London for two or three days before he was put down ;
and, almost at the same time, the queen’s first English
friend, Suffolk, was exiled by her enemies, and taken at
sea and murdered by some sailors. Moreover, the last
of the brave old friends of Henry V. was killed in
France, while trying to save the remains of the old
duchy of Aquitaine, which had belonged to the English
kings ever since Henry II. married Queen Eleanor.
That was the end of the 100 years’ war, for peace was
made at last, and England kept nothing in France but
the one city of Calais.

Still things were growing worse. Duke Humfrey
left no children, and as time went on and the king had
none, the question was who should reign. If the Beau-
forts were to be counted as princes, they came next; but
everyone hated them, so that people recollected that
Henry IV. had thrust aside the young Edmund Mor-
timer, grandson to Lionel, who had been next eldest
to the Black Prince. Edmund was dead, but his sister
Anne had married a son of the Duke of York, youngest
son of Edward III.; and her son Richard, Duke of
York, could not help feeling that he had a much better
right to be king than any Beaufort. There was a great
English noble named Richard Nevil, Earl of Warwick,
who liked to manage everything—just the sort of baron








Flenry VT1., of Windsor. 111



that was always mischievous at home, if not fighting in
France—and he took up York’s cause hotly» York’s
friends used to wear white roses, Beaufort’s friends red
roses, and the two parties kept on getting more bitter ;
but as no one wished any ill to gentle King Henry—
who, to make matters worse, sometimes had fits of mad-
. ness, like his poor grandfather in France—they would
hardly have fought it out in his lifetime, if he had not
at last had a little son, who was born while he was so
mad that he did not know of it. Then, when York
found it was of no use to wait, he began to make war,
backed up by Warwick, and, after much fighting, they
made the king prisoner, and forced him to make an
agreement that he should reign as long as he lived, but
that after that Richard of York should be king, and his
son Edward be only Duke of Lancaster. This made
the queen furiously angry. She would not give up her
son's rights, and she gathered a great army, with which.
she came suddenly on the Duke of York near Wake-
field, and destroyed nearly his whole army. He was
killed in the battle; and his second son, Edmund, was
met on Wakefield bridge and stabbed by Lord Clifford;
and Margaret had their heads set up over the gates
of York, while she went on to London to free her
husband.








112 Stories of English History.



But Edward, York’s eldest son, was a better captain
than he, and far fiercer and more cruel. He made the
war much more savage than it had been before ; and,
after beating the queen’s friends at Mortimer’s Cross,
he hurried on to London, where the people—who had
always been very fond of his father, and hated Queen
Margaret—greeted him gladly. He was handsome
and stately looking; and though he was really cruel
when offended, had easy, good-natured manners, and
everyone in London was delighted to receive him
and own him as king. But Henry and Margaret were
in the north with many friends, and he followed them
thither to Towton Moor, where, in a snow storm,
began the most cruel and savage battle of all the war.
Edward gained the victory, and nobody was spared, or
made prisoner—all were killed who could not flee.
Poor Henry was hidden among his friends, and Mar-
garet went to seek help in Scotland and abroad, taking
her son with her. Once she brought another army and
fought at Hexham, but she was beaten again; and
before long King Henry was discovered by his enemies,
earried to London, and shut up a prisoner in the Tower.
His reign is reckoned to have ended in 1461. —




















= 5 WM

ELIZABETH WOODVILLE ENTREATING EDWARD IV.





CHAP. XXII.—EDWARD IV.
, A.D. 1461—1483.

bYSHOUGH Edward IV. was made king, the wars

L of the Red and White Roses were not over yet.
Queen Margaret and her friends were always trying to
get help for poor King Henry. Edward had been so
base and mean as to have him led into London, with
his feet tied together under his horse, while men struck
him on the face, and cried out, “ Behold the traitor!”
But Henry was meek, patient, and gentle throughout ;
and, when shut up in the Tower, spent his time in
reading and praying, or playing with his little dog.




4

| 114 Stories of English History.
























Queen Margaret.and her son Edward were living
with her father in France, and she was always trying
to have her husband set free and brought back to his
throne. In’the meantime, all England was exceedingly
surprised to find that Edward IV. had been secretly
married to a beautiful lady named Elizabeth Woodville
——Lady Grey. Her first husband had been killed fight-
ing for Henry, and she had stood under an oak tree,

‘when King Edward was passing, to entreat that his
lands might not be taken from her little boys. The
king fell in love with her and married her, but fora
long time he was afraid to tell the Earl of Warwick;
and when he did, Warwick was greatly offended —and
all the more because Elizabeth’s relations were proud
and gay in their dress, and tried to set themselves
above all the old nobles. Warwick himself had no son,
but he had two daughters, whom he meant to marry to
the king’s two brothers—George, Duke of Clarence,
and Richard, Duke of Gloucester. Edward thought
this would make Warwick too powerful, and though he
could not prevent George from marrying Isabel Nevil,
the eldest daughter, the discontent grew. so strong that
Warwick persuaded George to fly with him, turn against
his own brother, and offer Queen Margaret their help !
No wonder Margaret did not trust them, and was very








Ledward IV. 115



hard to persuade that Warwick could mean well by her; |
but at last she consented, and gave her son Edward—
a fine lad of sixteen—to marry his daughter, Anne
Nevil ; after which, Warwick—whom men began to call
the king-maker—went back to England with Clarence,
to raise their men, while she was to follow with her son
and his young wife. Warwick came so suddenly that
he took the Yorkists at unawares. Edward had to flee
for his life to Flanders, leaving his wife and her babies
to take shelter in Westminster Abbey—since no one
durst take any one out of a holy place—and_ poor
Henry was taken out of prison and set on the throne
again. However, Edward soon got help in Flanders,
where his sister was married to the Duke of Burgundy.
He came back again, gathered his friends, and sent
messages to his brother Clarence that he would forgive
him if he would desert the earl. No one ever had less
faith or honour than George of Clarence. He did
desert Warwick, just as the battle of Barnet Heath
was beginning ; and Warwick’s king-making all ended,
for he was killed, with his brother and many others, in-
the battle.

And this was the first news that met Margaret when,
after being long hindered by foul weather, she landed
at Plymouth. She would have done more wisely a





&




116 Stories of English History.



have gone back, but her son Edward longed to strike a °
blow for his inheritance, and they had friends in Wales
whom they hoped to meet.: So they made their way
into Gloucestershire; but there King Edward, with
both his brothers, came down upon them at Tewkes-
bury, and there their army was routed, and the young
prince taken and killed—some say by the king himself
and his brothers. Poor broken-hearted Queen Mar-
garet was made prisoner too, and carried to the Tower,
where she arrived a day or two after the meek and
crazed captive, Henry VI, had been slain, that there
might be no more risings in his name. And so ended
the long war of York and Lancaster—though not in
peace or joy to the savage, faithless family who had
conquered.

Edward was merry and good-natured when not an-
gered, and had quite sense and ability enough to have
_ been a very good king, if he had not been lazy, selfish,
and full of vices. He actually set out to conquer
France, and then let himself be persuaded over and
paid off by the cunning King of France, and went
home again, a laughing-stock to everybody. As to
George, the king had never trusted him since’ his
shameful behaviour when Warwick rebelled ; besides,
he was always abusing the queen’s relations, and






Edward IV. 117



Richard was always telling the king of all the bad and
foolish things he did or said. At last there was a great
outbreak of anger, and the king ordered the Duke of
Clarence to be imprisoned in the Tower; and there,
before long, he too was killed. The saying was that
he was drowned in a butt of Malmsey wine, but this is
not at all likely to be true. He left two little children,
a boy and a girl.

So much cruel slaughter had taken place, that most
of the noble families in England had lost many sons,
and a great deal of their wealth, and none of them ever
became again so mighty as the king-maker had been.
His daughter, Anne, the wife of poor Edward of Lan-
caster, was found by Richard, Duke of Gloucester, hid-
ing as a cook-maid in London, and she was persuaded
to marry him—as, indeed, she had always been intended
for him. He was a little, thin, slight man, with one
shoulder higher than the other, and keen, cunning dark
eyes; and as the king was very tall, with a handsome,
blue-eyed, fair face, people laughed at the contrast,
called Gloucester Richard Crookback, and were very
much afraid of him.

It was in this reign that books began to be printed
in England instead of written. Printing had been found
out in Germany a little before, and books had been
Hite ee ee ee he ee








oe Stories of English Hrstory.





shown to Henry VI., but the troubles of his time kept
him from attending to them. Now, however, Edward’s
sister, the Duchess of Burgundy, much “encouraged a
printer named Caxton, whose books she sent her bro-
ther, and other presses were set up in London. Another
great change had now come in. Long ago, in the time
of Henry ITI., a monk named Roger Bacon had made .
gunpowder; but nobody used it much until, in the reign
-of Edward IIL. it was found out how cannon might be
fired with it; and some say it was first used in the bat-
tle of Crecy. But it was not till the reign of Edward
IV. that smaller guns, such as each soldier could carry
one of for himself, were invented—harquebuses, as they
were called ;—and after this the whole way of fighting
was gradually altered. Printing and gunpowder both
made very great changes in everything, though not all
at once.

King Edward did not live to see the changes. He

. had hurt his health with his revellings and amusements,



and died quite in middle age, in the year 1483: seeing,
perhaps, at last, how much better a king he might
have been. —














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- = ABET
ARCHBISHOP MORTON TAKING THE DUKE OF YORK FROM THE QUEEN,

CHAP. XXIII—EDWARD V.
A.D. 1483.

ee DWARD IV. left several daughters and two sons
AD —Edward, Prince of Wales, who was fourteen
years old, and'Richard, Duke of York, who was eleven.
Edward was at Ludlow Castle—where the princes of
Wales were always brought up—with his mother's bro-
ther, Lord Rivers; his half-brother, Richard Grey; and
other gentlemen. When the tidings came of his father’s
death, they set out to bring him to London to be
crowned king.

But, in the meantime, the Duke of Gloucester and






120 Stories of English History.



several of the noblemen, especially the Duke of Buck-
ingham, agreed that it was unbearable that the queen
and her brothers, should go on having all the power,
as they had done in Edward’s time. Till the king was |
old enough to govern, his father’s brother, the Duke of
Gloucester, was the proper person to rule for him, and
they would soon put an end: to the Woodvilles. The.
long wars had made everybody cruel and regardless of
the laws, so that no one made much objection when
Gloucester and Buckingham met the king and took him
from his uncle and half-brother, who were sent off to
Pontefract Castle, and in a short time their heads were
cut off there. Another of the late king’s friends was
Lord Hastings; and as he sat at the council table in
the Tower of London, with the other lords, Richard
came in, and, showing his own lean, shrunken arm, de-
clared that Lord Hastings had bewitched him, and
made it so. The other lords began to say that zf he
had done so it was horrible. But Richard would listen
to no 7f, and said he would not dine till Hastings’s
head was off. And his cruel word was done.

The queen saw that harm was intended, and went
with all her other children to her former refuge in
the sanctuary at Westminster; nor would she leave it
when her son Edward rode in state into London and


Edward V.



was taken to the Tower, which was then a palace as
well as a prison.

The Duke of Gloucester and the Council said that
this pretence at fear was very foolish, and-was only in-
tended to do them harm, and that the little Duke of
‘York ought to be with his brother; and they sent the
Archbishop of Canterbury to desire her to give the
boy up. He found the queen sitting desolate, with all
her long light’ hair streaming about her, and her chil-
dren round her; and he spoke kindly to her at first.
and tried to persuade her of what he really believed
himself— that it was all her foolish fears and fancies
that the Duke of Gloucester could mean any ill to his
little nephew, and that the two brothers ought to be
together in his keeping.

Elizabeth cried, and said that the boys were better
apart, for they quarrelled when they were together, and
that she could not give up little Richard. In truth, she
guessed that their uncle wanted to get rid of them and
to reign himself; and she knew that while she had
Richard, Edward would be safe, since it would not
make him king to destroy one without the other. Arch-
bishop Morton, who believed Richard’s smooth words,
and was a very good, kind man, thought this all a
woman’s nonsense, and told her that if she would not



I
122 Stories of English Festory.



give up the boy freely, he would be taken from her by
force. If she had been really a wise, brave mother,
she would have gone to the Tower with her boy, as
queen and mother, and watched oyer her children her-
self. But she had always been a silly, selfish woman,
and she was afraid for herself. So she let the arch-
bishop lead her child away, and only sat crying in the
sanctuary instead of keeping sight of him.

The next thing that happened was, that the Duke of
Gloucester caused one Dr. Shaw to preach a sermon to
the people of London in the open air, explaining that
King Edward IV. had been a very bad man, and had
never been properly married to Lady Grey, and so that
she was no queen at all, and her children had no right
to reign. The Londoners liked Gloucester and hated
the Woodvilles, and all belonging to them, and after
some sermons and speeches of this sort, there were so
many people inclined to take as their king the man
rather than the boy, that the Duke of Buckingham led
a deputation to request Richard to accept the crown in
his nephew's stead. He met it as if the whole notion
was quite new to him, but, of course, accepted the
crown, sent for his wife, Anne Nevil, and her son, and
was soon crowned as King Richard III. of England.

As for the two boys, they were never seen out of the






: Ledward V. 123



Tower again. They were sent into the prison part of
it, ‘and nobody exactly knows what became of them
there; but there cannot be much doubt that they, must
have been murdered. Some years later, two men con-
fessed that they had been employed to smother the
two brothers with pillows, as they slept; and though
they added some particulars to the story that can hardly
be believed, it is most likely that this was true. Full
two hundred years later, a chest was found under a
staircase, in what is called the White Tower, containing
bones that evidently had belonged to boys of about
fourteen and eleven years old; and these were placed
in a marble urn among the tombs of the kings in West-
minster Abbey. But, even to this day, there are some
people who doubt whether Edward V. and Richard of
York were really murdered, or if Richard were not a
person who came back to England and tried to make
himself king.














































LADY BESSEE WRITING THE LETTER TO HENRY TUDOR.

CHAP. XXIV.—RICHARD III.
A.D. 1483—1485.

YO) ICHARD III. seems to have wished to be a

»& good and great king; but he had made his way
to the throne in too evil a manner to be likely to pros-
per. How many people he had put to death we do
not know, for when the English began to suspect that
he had murdered his two nephews, they also accused
him of the death of everyone who had been secretly
slain ever since Edward IV. came to the throne, when
he had been a mere boy. He found he must be always
on the watch ; and his home was unhappy, for his son,




























Richard Ill. 125



for whose sake he had striven so hard to be king, died
while yet a boy, and Anne, his wife, not long after.
Then his former staunch friend, the Duke of Buck-
ingham, began to feel that though he wanted the sons |
of Elizabeth Woodville to be set aside from reigning,
it was-quite another thing to murder them. He was a
vain, proud man, who had a little royal blood—being
descended from Thomas, the first Duke of Gloucester,
son of Edward III.—and he bethought himself that,
now all the House of Lancaster was gone, and so many
of the House of York, he might possibly become king.
But he had hardly begun to make a plot, before the
keen-sighted, watchful Richard found it out, and had
him seized and beheaded.
There was another plot, though, that Richard did not
find out in time. The real House of Lancaster had
_ ended when poor young Edward was killed at Tewkes-
bury; but the Beauforts—the children of that younger
family of John of Gaunt, who had first begun the quar-
rel with the Duke of York—were not all dead. Lady
Margaret Beaufort, the daughter of the eldest son, had
married a Welsh gentleman named Edmund Tudor,
and had a son called Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond.
Edward IV. had always feared that this youth might
rise against him, and he ‘had been obliged to wander




126 Stories of English History.





about in France and Brittany since the death of his
father; but nobody was afraid of Lady Margaret, and
she had married a Yorkist nobleman, Lord Stanley.

Now, the eldest daughter of Edward 1V.—Elizabeth,
or Lady Bessee, as she was called—was older than her
poor young brothers; and she heard, to her great hor-
ror, that her uncle wanted to commit the great wicked-
ness of making her his wife, after poor Anne Nevil’s
death. There is a curious old set of verses, written by
Lord Stanley’s squire, which says that Lady Bessee
called Lord Stanley to a secret room, and begged him
to send to his stepson, Richmond, to invite him to come
to England and set them all free.

Stanley said he could not write well enough, and
that he could not trust a scribe; but Lady Bessee
said she could write as well as any scribe in England.
So she told him to come to her chamber at nine that
evening, with his trusty squire; and there she wrote
letters, kneeling by the table, to all the noblemen likely
to be discontented with Richard, and appointing a place
of meeting with Stanley; and she promised herself
that, if Henry Tudor would come and overthrow the
cruel tyrant Richard, she would marry him: and she
sent him a ring in pledge of her promise.

Henry was in Brittany when he received the letter.




; .
Richard Ill. 127



He kissed the ring, but waited long before he made up
his mind to try his fortune. At last he sailed in a French
ship, and landed at Milford Haven—for he knew the
Welsh would be delighted to see him; and, as he was
really descended from the great old British chiefs, they
seemed to think that to make him king of England
would be almost like having King Arthur back again.

They gathered round him, and so did a great many
English nobles and gentlemen. But Richard, though
very angry, was not much alarmed, for he knew Henry
Tudor had never seen a battle. He marched out to
meet him, and a terrible fight took place at Redmore
Heath, near Market Bosworth, where, after long and
desperate struggling, Richard was overwhelmed and
slain, his banner taken, and his men either killed or
driven from the field. His body was found gashed,
bleeding, and stripped: and thus was thrown across a
horse and carried into Leicester, where he had slept
the night before. The crown he had worn over his
helmet was picked up from the branches of a hawthorn,
and set-on the head of Henry Tudor. Richard was
the last king of the Plantagenet family, who had ruled
over England for more than three hundred years. This
battle of Bosworth likewise finished the whole bloody
war of the Red and White Roses.



















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PERKIN WARBECK IN THE STOCKS.



CHAP. XXV.—HENRY VII.
A.D. 1485—1509.

YR ENRY Tudor married the Lady Bessee as soon

tA, as he came to London, and by this marriage the
causes of the Red and White Roses were united: so
that he took for his badge a great rose—half red and
half white. You may see it carved all over the beau-
tiful chapel that he built on to Westminster Abbey to
be buried in.

He was not a very pleasant person ; he was stiff, and
cold, and dry, and very mean and covetous in some
ways—though he liked to make’a grand show, and








Flenry VII. | 129

dress all-his court in cloth of gold and silver, and the
very horses in velvet housings, whenever there was any
state occasion. Nobody greatly cared for him; but the
whole country was so worn out’ with the troubles of the
Wars of the Roses, that there was no desire to interfere
with him; and people only grumbled, and said he did
not treat his gentle, beautiful wife Elizabeth as he
ought to do, but was jealous of her being a king’s
daughter. There was one person who did hate him
most bitterly, and that was the Duchess of Burgundy,
the sister of Edward IV. and Richard III. : the same
who, as I told you, encouraged printing so much. She
felt as ifa mean upstart had got into the place of her
brothers, and his having married her niece did not
make it seem a bit the better to her. There was one
‘nephew left—the poor young orphan son of George,
Duke of Clarence—but he had always been quite silly,
and Henry VII. had him watched carefully, for fear
some one should set him up to claim the crown. He
was called Earl of Warwick, as heir to his grandfather,
the king-maker.

Suddenly, a young man came to Ireland and pre-
tended to be this Earl of Warwick. He deceived a
good many of the Irish, and the Mayor of Dublin actu-
ally took him to St. Patrick’s Cathedral, where he was


pees

130 = Stories of English History.





crowned as King Edward the Sixth; and then he was
carried to the banquet upon an Irish chieftain’s back.
He came to England with some Irish followers, and
some German soldiers hired by the duchess ; and a few,
but not many, English joined him. Henry met him at
a village called Stoke, near Newark, and all his Ger-
mans and Irish were killed, and he himself made pri-
soner. Then he confessed that he was really a baker’s
son, named Lambert Simnel; and, as he turned out
to be a poor weak lad, whom designing people had
made to do just what they pleased, the king took him
into his kitchen as a scullion; and, as he behaved well
there, afterwards. set him to look after the falcons,
that people used to keep to go out with to catch part-
ridges and herons. ~

But after this, a young man appeared under the pro-
tection of the Duchess of Burgundy, who said he was
no other than the poor little Duke of York, Richard,
who had escaped from the Tower when his brother
was murdered. Englishmen, who came from Flanders,
said that he was a clever, cowardly lad of the name of
Peter (or Perkin) Warbeck, the son of a townsman of
Tournay; but the duchess persuaded King James IV.
of Scotland-to believe. him a real royal Plantagenet.
He went to Edinburgh, married a beautiful lady, cousin












: Flenry VII. 131

to the king, and James led him into England at the
head of an army to put forward his claim. But nobody
would join him, and the Scots did not care about him ;
so James sent him away to Ireland, whence he went to
Cornwall. However, he soon found fighting was of no
use, and fled away to the New Forest, where he was
taken prisoner. He was set in the stocks, and there
made to confess that he was really Perkin Warbeck and
no duke, and then he was shut up in the Tower. But
there he made friends with the real Earl of Warwick,
and persuaded him into a plan for escape; but this was
found out, and Henry, thinking that he should never
have any peace or safety whilst either of them was
alive, caused Perkin to be hanged, and poor innocent
Edward of Warwick to be beheaded.

It was thought that this cruel deed was done because
Henry found that foreign kings did not think him safe
upon the throne while one Plantagenet was left alive,
and would not give their children in marriage to his
sons and daughters. He was very anxious to make
grand marriages for his children, and made peace with
Scotland by a wedding between King James and his
eldest daughter, Margaret. For his eldest son, Arthur,
Prince of Wales, he obtained Katharine, the daughter
of the King of Aragon and Queen of Castille, and she




ee

132 Stories of English History.



was brought to England while both were mere children.
Prince Arthur died when only eighteen years old; and
King Henry then said that they had been both such
children, that they could not be considered as really
married, and so that Katharine had better marry his
next son, Henry, although everyone knew that no mar- -
riage between a man and his brother’s widow could be
lawful. The truth was that he did not like to give up
all the money and jewels she had brought; and the
matter remained in dispute for some years—nor was it
settled when King Henry himself died, after an illness
that no one expected would cause his death. Nobody
was very sorry for him, for he had been hard upon
everyone, and had encouraged two wicked judges,
named Dudley and Empson, who made people pay
most unjust demands, and did everything to fill the
king’s treasury and make themselves rich at the same
time.

It was a time when many changes were going on
peacefully. The great nobles had grown much poorer
and less powerful; and the country squires and chief
people in the towns reckoned for much more in the
State. Moreover, there was much learning and study
going on everywhere. Greek began to be taught as
well as Latin, and the New Testament was thus read




flenry VII, 133



in the language in which the apostles themselves wrote;

and that led people to think over some of the evil ways -

that had grown up in their churches and abbeys, during
those long, grievous years, when no one thought of

much but fighting, or of getting out of the way of the ,

enemy.

The king himself, and all his family, loved learning,
and nobody more than his son Henry, who—f his elder
brother had lived—was to have been arenbieteD of
Canterbury.

It was in this reign, too, that America was discovered
—though not by the English, but by Christopher
Columbus, an Italian, who went out in ships that were
lent to him by Isabel, the Queen of Spain, mother to
Katharine, Princess of Wales. Henry had been very
near sending Columbus, only he did not like spending
so much money. However, he afterwards did send out
some ships, which discovered Newfoundland. Henry
died in the year 1509.












THE FIELD OF THE CLOTH OF GOLD.



CHAP. XXVI.—HENRY VIII. AND CARDINAL WOLSEY.
A.D. 1509—1529.

SHE new king was very fond of the Princess

Katharine, and he married her soon after his
father’s death, without asking any more questions
about the right or wrong of it. He began with very
gallant and prosperous times. He was very handsome,
and skilled in all sports and games, and had such
frank, free manners, that the people felt as if they had
one of their best old Plantagenets back again. They
were pleased, too, when he quarrelled with the King
of France, and, like an old Plantagenet, led an army








Henry VIL. and Cardinal Wolsey. 135



across the sea and besieged the town of Tournay.
Again, it was like the time of Edward III., for James
IV. of Scotland was a friend of the French king, and
came across the Border with all the strength of Scot-
land, to ravage England while Henry was away. But
there were plenty of stout Englishmen left, and, under
the Earl of Surrey, they beat the Scots entirely at the
battle of Flodden field: and King James himself was
not taken, but left dead upon the field, while his king-
dom went to his poor little baby son. Though there
had been a battle in France it was not another Crecy,
for the French ran away so fast that it was called the
battle of the Spurs. However, Henry’s expedition did
not come to much, for he did not get all the help he
was promised; and he made peace with the French
king, giving him in marriage his beautiful young sister
Mary—though King Louis was an old, helpless, sickly
man. Indeed, he only lived six weeks after the wed-
ding, and before there was time to fetch Queen Mary
home again, she had married a gentleman named
Charles Brandon. She told her brother that she had
married once to please him, and now she had married
to please herself. But he forgave her, and made her
husband Duke of Suffolk.

Henry’s chief adviser, at this time, was Thomas


136 Stories of English History.



Wolsey, Archbishop of York : a very able man, and of
most splendid tastes and habits—outdoing even the
Tudors in love of show. The pope had made him a
cardinal—that is, one of the clergy, who are counted as
parish priests in the diocese of Rome, and therefore
have a right to choose the pope. They wear scarlet
hats, capes, and shoes, and are the highest in rank of
all the clergy except the pope. Indeed, Cardinal
Wolsey was in hopes of being chosen pope himself,
and setting the whole Church to rights—for there had
been several very wicked men reigning at Rome, one
after the other, and they had brought things to such a
“pass that everyone feltthere would be some great judg-
ment from God if some improvement were not made.
Most of Wolsey’s arrangements with foreign princes
had this end in view. The new king of France, Francis
I., was young, brilliant, and splendid, like Henry, and
the two had a conference near Calais, when they brought
their queens and their whole Court, and put up tents of
velvet, silk, and gold—while everything was so extra-
ordinarily magnificent, that the meeting has ever since _
been called the Field of the Cloth of Gold.
However, nothing came of it all. Cardinal Wolsey
thought Francis’s enemy—the Emperor, Charles V.—
more likely to help him to be pope, and made his mas-






Fleury VIII, and Cardinal Wolsey. 137



ter go over to that side; but after all an Italian was
chosen in his stead. And there came a new trouble in
his way. The king and queen had been married a good
many years, and they had only one child alive, and that
was a girl, the Lady Mary—all the others had died as
soon as they were born—and statesmen began to think
that if there never was a son at all, there might be fresh
wars when Henry died; while others said that the loss
of the children was to punish them for marrying un-
lawfully. Wolsey himself began to wish that the pope
- would: say that it had never been a real marriage, and
so set the king free to put Katharine away and take
another wife—some grand princess abroad. This was
thinking more of what seemed prudent than of the
right ; and it turned out ill for Wolsey and all besides,
for no sooner had the notion of setting aside poor
Katharine come into his mind, than the king cast his
eyes on Anne Boleyn, one of her maids of honor—a
lively lady, who had been to France with his sister
Mary. He was bent on marrying her, and insisted on
the pope’s giving sentence against Katharine. But the
pope would not make any answer at all; first, because
he was enquiring, and then because he could not well
offend Katharine’s nephew, the Emperor. _ Time went
on, and the king grew more impatient, and at last a

kK


138 Stories of English History.



clergyman, named Thomas Cranmer, said that he
might settle the matter by asking the learned men at
the universities whether it was lawful for a man to
marry his brother’s widow. “He has got the right
sow by the ear,” cried Henry, who was not choice in.
his words, and he determined that the universities
should decide it. But Wolsey would not help the king
here. He knew that the pope had been the only per-
son to decide such questions all over the Western
Church for many centuries; and, besides, he had never
intended to assist the king to lower himself by taking
a wife like Anne Boleyn. But his secretary, Thomas
Crumwell, told the king all of Wolsey’s disapproval,
and between them they found out something that the
cardinal had done by the king’s own wish, but’ which
did not agree with the old disused laws. He was put
down from all his offices of state, and accused of trea-
son against the king; but while he was being brought
to London to be tried, he became so ill at the abbey at
Leicester that he was forced to remain there, and in a
few days he died, saying, sadly—“ If I had served my |
God as I have served my king, He would not have
forsaken me in my old age.”

With Cardinal Wolsey ended the first twenty years
of Henry’s reign, and all that had ever been good in it.









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HENRY VIII. LOOKING AT ANNE OF CLEVES’ PICTURE.



CHAP. XXVIJ.—HENRY VIII. & HIS WIVES.
A.D. 1528—1547.

ees Henry VIII. had so ungratefully treated
Cardinal Wolsey, there was no one to keep him

in ne He would have no more to do with the pope,
but said he was head of the Church of England him-
self, and could settle matters his own way. He really
was a very learned man, and had written a book to up-
hold the doctrines of the Church, which had caused the
pope to call him the Defender of the Faith. After the
king’s or queen’s name on a coin you may see F. D.—
Fidei Defensor. This stands for that name in Latin.

I








140 Stories of English History.

But Henry used his learning now against the pope. . He
declared that his marriage with Katharine was good for
nothing, and sent her away to a house in Huntingdon-
shire, where, in three years’ time, she pined away and
died. In the meantime, he had married Anne Boleyn,
taken Crumwell for his chief adviser, and had made
Thomas Cranmer archbishop of Canterbury. Then,
calling himself head of the Church, he insisted that
all his people should own him as such; but the good
ones knew that our Lord Jesus Christ is the only real
Head of the Church, and they had learnt to believe
that the pope is the father bishop of the west, though
he had sometimes taken more power than he ought,
and no king could ever be the same as a patriarch
or father bishop. So they refused, and Henry cut off
the heads of two of the best—Bishop Fisher and Sir
Thomas More—though they had been his great
friends. Sir Thomas More’s good daughter, Margaret,
came and kissed him on his way to be executed; and
afterwards, when his head was placed on a spike on
London Bridge, she came by night in a boat and took
it home in her arms.

There were many people, however, who were glad
to break with the pope, because so much had gone
amiss in the Church, and they wanted to set it to
Flenry VIII. and his Wives. 141 |



rights. There was so much more reading, now that
printing had been invented, that many persons could
read who had never learnt Latin, and so a translation
of the Bible was to be made for them; and there
was a great desire that the Church Services—many
of which had also been in Latin—should likewise be
put into English, and the litany was first translated,
but no more at present. The king and Crumwell had
taken it upon them to go on with what had been
begun in Wolsey’s time—the looking into the state
of all the monasteries. Some were found going on
badly, and the messengers took care to make the
worst of everything. So all the worst houses were
broken up, and the monks sent to their homes, with
a small payment to maintain them for the rest of
their lives.

As to the lands that good men of old had given
to keep up the convents, that God might be praised
there, Henry made gifts of them to the lords about
Court. Whoever chose to ask for an abbey could get
it, from the king’s good nature; and, as they wanted
more and more, Henry went on breaking up the
monasteries, till the whole of them were gone. A
good deal of their riches he kept for himself, and two
new bishoprics were endowed from their spoils, but








142 Stories of English Hrstory.



most of them were bestowed on the courtiers. The
king, however, did not at all intend to change the
teaching of the Church, and whenever a person was
detected in teaching anything contrary to her doc-
trines, as they were at that time understood, he was
tried by a court of clergymen and lawyers before the
bishop, and, if convicted, was—according to the cruel
custom of those times—burnt to death at a stake in
the market place of the next town.

Meantime, the new queen, Anne Boleyn, ind not
prospered. She had one little daughter, named Eliza-
beth, and a son, who died; and then the king began to
admire one of her ladies, named Jane Seymour. Seeing
this, Anne’s enemies either invented stories against
her, or made the worst of some foolish, unlady-like, and
unqueen-like things she had said and done, so that the
king thought she wished for his death. She was accused
of high treason, sentenced to death, and beheaded: thus
paying a heavy price for the harm she had done good
Queen Katharine.

The king, directly after, married Jane Seymour; but
she lived only a very short time, dying immediately
after the christening of her first son, who was named
Edward.

Then the king was persuaded by Lord Crumwell to




FHlenry VIII. and his Wives. 143



marry a foreign princess called Anne of Cleves. A
great painter was sent to bring her picture, and made
her very beautiful in it; but when she arrived, she
proved to be not only plain-featured but large and
clumsy, and the king could not bear the sight of her,
and said they had sent him a great Flanders mare by
way of queen. So he made Cranmer find some foolish
excuse for breaking this marriage also, and was so
angry with Thomas Crumwell for having led him into
it, that this favorite was in his turn thrown into prison
and beheaded.

The king chose another English wife, named Katha-
rine Howard; but, after he had married her, it was
found out that she had been very ill brought up, and
the bad people with whom she had been left came and
accused her of the evil into which they had led her.
So the king cut off her head likewise, and then wanted
to find another wife; but no foreign princess would take
~a husband who had put away two wives and beheaded
two more, and one Italian lady actually answered that
she was much obliged to him, but she could not venture
to marry him, because she had only one neck.

At last he found an English widow, Lady Latimer,
whose maiden name was Katharine Parr, and married
her. He was diseased now, lame with gout, and very






144 Stories of English History.



large and fat; and she nursed him kindly, and being a
good-natured woman, persuaded him to be kinder to
his daughters, Mary and Elizabeth, than he had ever
been since the disgrace of their mothers; and she did
her best to keep him in good humour, but he went on
doing cruel things, even to the end of his life; and, at
the very last, had in prison the very same Duke of

Norfolk who had won the battle of Flodden, and would ‘|:

have put him to death in a few days’ time, only that
his own death prevented it.

Yet, strange to say, Henry VIII. was not hated as
might have been expected. His cruelties were chiefly
to the nobles, not to the common people; and he would
do good-natured things, and speak with a frank, open
manner, that was much liked. England was prosperous,
too, and shopkeepers, farmers, and all were well off;
there was plenty of bread and meat for all, and the
foreign nations were afraid to go to war with us. So
the English people, on the whole, loved “ Bluff King
Hal,” as they called him, and did not think much about
his many wickednesses, or care how many heads he
cut off. He died in the year 1547. The changes in
his time are generally called the beginning of the
Reformation.




































DWARD VI. SHOWN AT



& WINDOW.

tooo

CHAP. XXVIII—EDWARD VI.
A.D. 1547—1553.

pe little son of Henry VIII. and Jane Seymour

of course reigned after him as Edward VI. He
was a quiet, gentle boy, exceedingly fond of learning
and study, and there were great expectations of him ;
but, as he was only nine years old, the affairs of state
were managed by his council.

The chief of the council were his two uncles—his
mother’s brothers, Edward and Thomas Seymour, the
elder of whom had been made Duke of Somerset—to-
gether with Archbishop Cranmer; but if was not long




146 Stories of English History.



before the duke quarrelled with his brother Thomas,
put him into the Tower, and cut off his head, so that it
seemed as if the sad days of Henry VIII. were not
yet over.

The Duke of Somerset and Archbishop Cranmer
wanted to make many more changes in the Church of
England than Henry VIII. had ever allowed. They
had all the Prayer-book Services translated into Eng-
lish, leaving out such parts as they did not approve ;
the Lessons were read from the English Bible, and peo-
ple were greatly delighted at being able to worship and
to listen to God’s Word in their own tongue. The first
day on which the English Prayer-book was used was
the Whitsunday of 1548. The Bibles were chained to
the desks as being so precious and valuable; and crowds
would stand, or sit, and listen for hours together to any
one who would read to them, without caring if he were a
clergyman or not; and men who tried to explain, without
being properly taught, often made great mistakes.

Indeed, in Germany and France a great deal of the
same kind had been going on for some time past,
though not with any sort of leave from the kings or
bishops, as there was in England, and thus the reform-
ers there broke quite off from the Church, and fancied
they could do without bishops. This great break was




Edward VT. 147



called the Reformation, because it professed to set mat-
ters of religion to rights; and in Germany the reformers
called themselves Protestants, because they protested —
against some of the teachings of the Church of Rome.

Cranmer had at one time been in Germany, and had
made friends with some of these German and Swiss
Protestants, and he invited them to England to consult
and help him and his friends. Several of them came,
and they found fault with our old English Prayer-book
—though it had never been the same as the Roman
one—and it was altered again to please them and their
friends, and brought out as King Edward’s second
book. Indeed, they tried to persuade the English to
be like themselves—with very few services, no orna-
ments in the churches, and no bishops; and things
seemed to be tending more and more to what they de-
sired, for the king was too young not to do what his
tutors and governors wished, and his uncle and Cran-
mer were all on their side.

However, there was another great nobleman, the
Duke of Northumberland, who wanted to be as power-
ful as the Duke of Somerset. He was the son of Dud-
ley, the wicked judge under Henry VII., who had made
himself so rich, and he managed to take advantage of
the people being discontented with Somerset to get the






148 Stories of English Ffistory.



king into his own hands, accuse Somerset of treason, .
send him to the Tower, and cut off his head.

The king at this time was sixteen. He had never
been strong, and he had learnt and worked much more
than was good for him. He wrote a journal, and though
he never says he grieved for his uncles, most likely he
did, for he had few near him who really loved or cared
for him, and he was fast falling into a decline, so that
it became quite plain that he was not likely ever to be
a grown-up king. There was a great difficulty as to
who was to reign after him. The natural person would
have been his eldest sister, Mary, but King Henry had
forbidden her and Elizabeth to be spoken of as prin-
cesses or heiresses of the crown; and, besides, Mary
held so firmly to the Church, as she had learnt to be-
lieve in it in her youth, that the reformers knew she
would undo all their work.

There was a little Scottish girl, also named Mary—
the grand-daughter of Margaret, eldest daughter of
Henry VII. Poor child, she had been a queen from
babyhood, for her father had died of grief when she
was but a week old; and there had been some notion
of marrying her to King Edward, and so ending the
wars, but the Scots did not like this, and sent her away
to be married to the Dauphin, Frangois, eldest son of




Edward V1. 149



the king of France. If Edward’s sisters were not to
reign, she came next; but the English would not have
borne to be joined on to the French; and there were
the grand-daughters of Mary, that other sister of Henry
VIII., who were thorough Englishwomen. Lady Jane
Grey, the eldest of them, was a good, sweet, pious, and
diligent girl of fifteen, wonderfully learned. But it was
not for that reason, only for the sake of the royal blood,
that the Duke of Northumberland asked her in mar-
riage for his son, Guildford Dudley. When they were
married, the duke and Cranmer began to persuade the
poor, sick, young king that it was his duty to leave his
crown away from his sister Mary to Lady Jane, who
| would go on with the Reformation, while Mary would
try to overthrow it. In truth, young Edward had no
right to will away the crown; but he was only sixteen,
and could only trust to what the archbishop and _ his
council told him. So he signed the parchment they
brought him, and after that he quickly grew worse.

The people grew afraid that Northumberland was
shutting him up and misusing him, and once he came
to the window of his palace and looked out at them, to
show he was alive; but he died only a fortnight later,
and we cannot guess what he would have been when
he was grown up.
























CHILDREN PLAYING AT HANGING THE KING OF SPAIN.





CHAP. XXIX.—MARY I.
A.D. 1553—1558.

ee Duke of Northumberland kept King Edward’s
* death a secret till he had proclaimed Jane queen
of England. The poor girl knew that a great wrong
was being done in her name. She wept bitterly, and
begged that she might not be forced to accept the
crown; but she could do nothing to prevent it, when
her father and husband, and his father, all were bent
on making her obey them; and so she had to sit asa
queen in the royal apartments in the Tower of London.

But as soon as the news reached Mary, she set off




aay

Mary I. 151
riding towards London; andyas everyone knew her to
be the right queen, and no one would be tricked by
Dudley, the whole of the people joined her, and even
Northumberland was obliged to throw up his hat and
cry “God save Queen Mary.” Jane and her husband
were safely kept, but Mary meant no harm by them
if their friends would have been quiet. However,
the people became discontented when Mary began to
have the Latin service used again, and put Archbishop
Cranmer fn prison for having favoured Jane. She
showed in every way that she thought all her brother's
advisers had done very wrong. She wanted to be
under the Pope again, and she engaged herself to
marry the King of Spain, her cousin, Philip II. This
was very foolish of her, for she was a middle-aged
woman, pale, and low-spirited; and he was much
younger, and of a silent, gloomy temper, so that every-
one was afraid of him. All her best friends advised
her not, and the English hated the notion so much, that
the little children played at the queen’s wedding in their
games, and always ended by pretending to hang the
King of Spain. Northumberland thought this discontent
gave another chance for his plan, and tried -to raise the
people in favour of Jane; but so few joined him that

Mary very soon put them down, and beheaded North-






152 Stories of English History.



umberland. She thought, too, that the quiet of the
country would never be secure while Jane lived, and so |
she consented to her being put to death. Jane behaved
with beautiful firmness and patience. Her husband
was led out first and beheaded, and then she followed.
She was most good and innocent in herself, and it was
for the faults of others that she suffered. Mary’s sister,
Elizabeth, was suspected, and sent to the Tower. She
came in a boat on the Thames to the Traitor’s Gate ;
but, when she found where she was, she sat down on the
stone steps, and said, “ This is a place for traitors, and
Iam none.” After a time she was allowed to live in
the country, but closely watched.

Philip of Spain came and was married to Mary. She
was very fond of him, but he was not very kind to her,
and he had too much to do in his other kingdoms to
spend much time with her, so that she was always
pining after him. Her great wish in choosing him was
to be helped in bringing the country back to the old
obedience to the Pope; and she succeeded in having
the English Church reconciled, and received again to
communion with Rome. But this displeased many of
her subjects exceedingly. They thought they should
be forbidden to read the Bible—they could not endure
the Latin service—and those who had been taught by


Mary Tf. 153



the foreigners fancied that all proper reverence and
beauty in church was a sort of idolatry. Some fled
away into Holland and Germany, and others, who
staid, and taught loudly against the doctrines that were
to be brought back again, were seized and thrown into
prison.

Those bishops who had been foremost in the changes
of course were the first to be tried for their teaching.
The punishment was the dreadful one of being burnt
alive, chained to a stake. Bishop Hooper died in this
way at Gloucester, and Bishop Ridley and Bishop
Latimer were both burnt at the same time at Oxford,
encouraging one another to die bravely as martyrs for
the truth, as they held it. Cranmer was in prison al-
ready for supporting Jane Grey, and he was condemned
to death; but he was led to expect that he would be

| spared the fire if he would allow that the old faith, as

Rome held it, was the right one. Paper after paper was
brought, such as would please the queen and his judges,
_and he signed them all; but after all, it turned out that
none would do, and that he was to be burnt in spite of
them. - Then he felt what a base part he had acted,
and was ashamed when he thought how bravely his
brethren had died on the same spot : and when he was
chained to the stake and the fire lighted, he held his



L
154 Stories of English History.

right hand over the flame to be burnt first, because it
A signed what he did not really believe, and he cried
out, “ This unworthy hand !”

Altogether, about three hundred people were burnt
in Queen Mary’s reign for denying one or other of tke
doctrines that the Pope thought the right ones. It’was
a terrible time; and the queen, who had only longed
to do right and restore her country to the Church,
found herself hated and disliked by everyone. Even
the Pope, who had a quarrel with her husband, did not
treat her warmly; and the nobles, who had taken pos-
session of the abbey lands, were determined never to
let her restore them. Her husband did not love her,
or like England. However, he persuaded her to help
him in a war with the French, with which England
ought to have had nothing to do, and the consequence
was that a brave French duke took the city of Calais,
the very last possession of the English in France.
Mary was so exceedingly grieved, that she said that
when she died the name of Calais would be found writ-
ten on her heart.

She was already ill, and there was a bad fever at the
time, of which many of those she most loved and
trusted had fallen sick. She died, in 1558, a melancholy
and sorrowful woman, after reigning only five years.














ra
il
i

a ios















































ELIZABETH SITTING ON T: STEPS AT TRAITOR’S GATE—p. 152.



CHAP. XXX.—ELIZABETH.
A.D. 1558—1587..

Laks eee Queen Mary’s time, her sister Eliza-
Lf ., beth, Anne Boleyn’s daughter, had been in
trouble. Those who held by Queen Mary, and main-
tained’ Henry’s first marriage, said that his wedding
with Anne was no real one, and so that Elizabeth
ought not to reign; but then theré was no one else to
take in her stead, except the young Queen Mary of
Scotland, wife to the French dauphin. All who wished
for the Reformation, and dreaded Mary’s persecutions,
had hoped to see Elizabeth queen, and this had made




156 Stories of English Frstory.



Mary much afraid of her; and she was so closely
watched and guarded that once she even said she
wished she was a milkmaid, to be left in peace. While
she had been in the Tower she had made friends with
another prisoner, Robert Dudley, brother to the hus-
band of Lady Jane Grey, and she continued to like him
better than any other person as long as he lived.
When Mary died, Elizabeth was twenty-five, and the
English were mostly willing to have her for their
queen. She had read, thought, and learnt a great deal;
and she took care to have the advice of wise men, es-
pecially of the great Thomas Cecil, whom she made
Lord Burleigh, and kept as her adviser as long as he
lived. She did not always follow even his advice, how-
ever; but, whenever she did, it was the better for her.
She knew Robert Dudley was not wise, so, though she
was so fond of him, she never let him manage her
affairs for her. She would have wished to marry him,
but she knew her subjects would think this disgraceful,
so she only made him Earl of Leicester: and her liking
for him prevented her from ever bringing herself to
accept any of the foreign princes who were always mak-
ing proposals to her. Unfortunately he was not a good
man, and did not make a good use of her favour, and
he was much disliked by all the queen’s best friends.




Elizabeth. 157



She was very fond of making stately journeys
through the country. All the poor people ran to see
her and admire her; but the noblemen who had to
entertain her were almost ruined, she brought so many
people who ate so much, and she expected such pre-
sents. These journeys were called Progresses. The
most famous was to Lord Leicester’s castle of Kenil-
worth, but he could quite afford it. He kept the
clock’s hands at twelve o'clock all the time, that it
might always seem to be dinner time!

Elizabeth wanted to keep the English Church a pure
and true branch of the Church, free of the mistakes
that had crept in before her father’s time. So she re-
stored the English Prayer-book, and cancelled all that
Mary had done; the people who had gone into exile
returned, and all the Protestants abroad reckoned her
as on their side. But, on the other hand, the Pope
would not regard her as queen at all, and cut her and
her country off from the Church, while Mary of Scot-
land and her husband called themselves the true queen
and king of England; and such of the English as be-
lieved the Pope to have the first right over the Church,
held with him and Mary of Scotland. They were
called Roman Catholics, while Elizabeth and her
friends were the real Catholics, for they-held with the




158 Stories of English History.



Church Universal of old: and it was the Pope who
had broken off with them for not accepting his doc-
trines, not they with the Pope. The English who had
lived abroad in Mary’s time wanted to have much ©
more altered, and to have churches and services much
‘less beautiful and more plain than they were. But
Elizabeth never would consent to this; and these peo-
ple called themselves Puritans, and continued to object
to whatever had been done in the old times—as if that
made it wrong in itself.

Mary of Scotland was two years queen of France,
and then her husband died, and she had to come back
to Scotland. There most of the people had taken up ©
doctrines that made them hate the sight of the clergy
and services she had brought home from France; they
called her an idolater, and would hardly bear that she |
should hear the old service in her own chapel. She
was one of the most beautiful and charming women
who ever lived, and if she had been as true and good
‘as she was lovely, nobody could have done more good;
but the court of France at that time was a wicked place,
and she had learnt much of the wickedness. She mar-
ried a young nobleman named Henry Stewart, a cousin
of her own, but he turned out foolish, selfish, and head-
strong, and made her miserable; indeed, he helped to








Elizabeth. 159



kill her secretary in her own bedroom before her eyes. |
She hated him so much at last, that there is only too
much reason to fear that she knew of the plot, laid by
some of her lords, to blow the poor man’s house up with
gunpowder, while he lay in his bed ill of smallpox. At
any rate, she very soon married one of the very worst
of the nobles who had committed the murder. Her
subjects could not bear this, and they rose against her
and made her prisoner, while her husband fled the
country. They shut her up in a castle in the middle
of a lake. and obliged her to give up her crown to her
little son, James VI.—a baby not a year old. How-_
ever, her sweet words persuaded a boy who waited on
her to steal the keys, and row her across the lake, and
she was soon at the head of an army of her Roman
Catholic subjects. They were defeated, however, and
she found no place safe for her in Scotland, so she fled
across the Border to England. Queen Elizabeth hardly
knew what todo. She believed that Mary had really
had to do with Henry Stewart’s death, but she could not
bear to make such a crime known in a cousin and
queen; and what made it all more difficult to judge
was, that the kings of France and Spain, and all the
Roman Catholics at home, thought Mary ought to be
queen instead of Elizabeth, and she might have been
[Ct CE ee ea ee ee eee eee eee eet |








16¢ Stories of English History.



set up against England if she had gone abroad, or been
left at large, while in Scotland she would have been
murdered. The end of it was, that Elizabeth kept her
shut up in different castles. There she managed to in-
terest the English Roman Catholics in her, and get
them to lay plots, which always were found out. Then
the nobles were put to death, and Mary was more
closely watched. This went on for nineteen years,
and at last a worse plot than all was found out—for
actually killing Queen Elizabeth. Her servants did
not act honourably, for when they found out what was
going on they pretended not to know, so that Mary
might go on writing worse and worse things, and then,
at last, the whole was made known. Mary was tried
and sentenced to death, but Elizabeth was a long time
making up her mind to sign the order for her execu-
tion, and at last punished the clerks who sent it off, as
if it had been their fault.

So Queen Mary of Scotland was beheaded at
Fotheringay Castle, showing much bravery and piety.
There are many people who still believe that she was
really innocent of all that she was accused of, and
that she only was ruined by the plots that were laid
against her.










SIR PHILIP SYDNEY AND THE WOUNDED SOLDIER.



CHAP. XXXI.—ELIZABETH’S REIGN.
A.D. 1587—1602.

FO reign ever was more glorious or better for the
| people than Queen Elizabeth’s. It was a time
when there were many very great men living—soldiers,
sailors, writers, poets—and they all loved and looked
up to the queen as the mother of her country. There
really was nothing she did love like the good of her
people, and somehow they all felt and knew it, and
“Good Queen Bess” had their hearts—though she was

not always right, and had some very serious faults.
The worst of her faults was not telling truth. Some-

: t




| 162 Stories of E nglish History.



how kings and rulers had, at that time, learnt to be-
lieve that when they were dealing with other countries
anything was fair, and that it was not wrong to tell
falsehoods to hide a secret, nor to make promises they
never meant to keep. People used to do so who would ©
never have told a lie on their own account to their
neighbour, and Lord Burleigh and Queen Elizabeth
did so very often, and often behaved meanly and shab-
bily to people who had trusted to their promises. Her
other fault was vanity. She was a little woman, with
bright eyes, a rather hooked nose, and sandy hair, but
she managed to look every inch a queen, and her eye,
when displeased, was like a lion’s. She had really been
in love with Lord Leicester, and every now and then
. he hoped she would marry him; indeed, there is reason
to fear that he had ‘his wife secretly killed, in order that
he might be able to wed the queen; but she saw that
the people would not allow her to do so, and gave it
up. But she liked fo be courted. She allowed foreign
princes to send her their portraits, rings, and jewels,
and sometimes to come and see her, but she never
made up her mind to take them. And as to the gen-
tlemen at her own court, she liked them to make the
most absurd and ridiculous compliments to her, calling
her their sun and goddess, and her hair golden beams

es ia ee








Elizabeth's Reign. 163



of the morning, and the like; and the older she grew
the more of these fine speeches she required of them.
Her dress—a huge hoop, a tall ruff all over lace, and
jewels in the utmost profusion—was as splendid as it
could be made, and in wonderful variety. She is said
to have had three hundred gowns and thirty wigs.
Lord Burleigh said of her that she was sometimes
more than a man, and sometimes less than a woman.
And so she was, when she did not like her ladies to
wear handsome dresses.

One of the people who had wanted to marry her
was her brother-in-law, Philip of Spain, but she was
far too wise, and he and she were bitter enemies all the
rest of their lives. His subjects in Holland had become
Protestants, and he persecuted them so harshly that
they broke away from him. They wanted Elizabeth
to be their queen, but she would not, though she sent
Lord Leicester to help them with an army. With him |
went his nephew, Sir Philip Sydney, the most good,
and learned, and graceful gentleman at court. There
was great grief when Sir Philip was struck by a
cannon ball on the thigh, and died after nine days
pain. It was as he was riding from the field, faint
and thirsty, that some one had just brought him a cup
of water, when he saw a poor soldier, worse hurt than




164 Stories of English History.







himself, looking at it with longing eyes. He put it
from him untasted, and said, “Take it, thy necessity is
greater than mine.”

After the execution of Mary of Scotland, Philip of
Spain resolved to punish Elizabeth and the English,
and force them back to obedience to the pope. He
fitted out an immense fleet, and filled it with fighting
men. So strong was it that, as armada is the Spanish
for a fleet, it was called the Invincible Armada. It sailed
for England, the men expecting to burn and ruin all
before them. But the English ships were ready. Little
as they were, they hunted and tormented the big
Spaniards all the way up the English Channel; and,
just as the Armada had passed the Straits of Dover,
there came on such dreadful storms that the ships were
driven and broken before it, and wrecked all round the
| coasts—even in Scotland and Ireland—and very few
ever reached home again. The English felt that God
had protected them with His wind and storm, and had
fought for them.

Lord Leicester died not long after, and the queen
became almost equally fond of his stepson, the Earl of
Essex, who was a brave, high-spirited young man, only
too proud.

The sailors of Queen Elizabeth’s time were some of
Lilizabeth'’s Reign. 165



the bravest and most skilful that ever lived. Sir
Francis Drake sailed round the world in the good ship
Pelican, and when he brought her into the Thames the
queen went to look at her. Sir Walter Raleigh was
another great sailor, and a most courtly gentleman be-
sides. He took out the first English settlers to North
America, and named their new home Virginia—after
the virgin queen—and he brought home from South
America our good friend the potato root; and, also, he
learnt there to smoke tobacco. The first time his ser-
vant saw this done in England, he thought his master
must be on fire, and threw a bucket of water over him
to put it out.

The queen valued these brave men much, but she
liked none so well as Lord Essex, till at last he dis-
pleased her, and she sent him to govern Ireland. There
he fell into difficulties, and she wrote angry letters,
which made him think his enemies were setting her
against him. So he came back without leave; and one
morning came straight into her dressing chamber,
where she was sitting, with her thin grey hair being
combed, before she put on one of her thirty wigs, or
painted her face. She was very angry, and would not
forgive him, and he got into a rage, too; and she heard
he had said she was an old woman, crooked in temper






166 Stories of Eng olish History.



as in person. ‘What was far worse, he raised the Lon-
doners to break out in a'tumult to uphold him. He
was taken and sent to the Tower, tried for treason, and
found guilty of death. But the queen still loved him,
and waited and waited for some message or token to
ask her pardon. None came, and she thought he was
_too proud to beg for mercy. She ‘signed the death
warrant, and Essex died on the block. But soon she
found that he had really sent a ring she once had given
him to a lady, who was to show it to her, in token that
he craved her pardon. The ring had been taken by
mistake to a cruel lady who hated him, and kept it
back. But by-and-by this lady was sick to death.
Then she repented, and sent for the queen and gave
her the ring, and confessed her wickedness. Poor
Queen Elizabeth—her very heart was broken. She
‘said to the dying woman, “God may forgive you, but
I cannot.” She said little more after that. She was
old, and her strength failed her. Day after day she sat
on a pile of cushions, with her finger on her lip, still
growing weaker, and begging for the prayers the arch-
bishop read her. And thus, she who had once been so
great and spirited, sank into death, when seventy eS
old, in the year 1602.
























































































































PRINCE CHARLES CLIMBING OVER THE WALL TO SEE THE INFANTA.



CHAP. XXXII.—JAMES I.
A.D. 1602—1625.
Av.F TER Queen Elizabeth’s death, the next heir
Ade, was James, the son of Mary of Scotland and of
Henry Stewart. He was the sixth James who had
been king of Scotland, and had reigned there ever
since his mother had been driven away. He had been
brought up very strictly by the Scottish Reformers,
who had made him very learned, and kept him under
great restraint; and all that he had undergone had
tended to make him very awkward and strange in his
manners. He was very timid, and could not bear to




ey Stories of English Flistory.



see a drawn sword ; and he was so much afraid of being
murdered, that he used to wear a dress padded and
stuffed out all over with wool, which made him look
even more clumsy than he was by nature.

The English did not much admire their new king,
though it really was a great blessing that England and
Scotland should be under the same king at last, so as
to end all the long and bloody wars that had gone on
_ for so many years. Still, the Puritans thought that, as
James had been brought up in their way of thinking,
they would be allowed to make all the changes that
Queen Elizabeth had stopped; and the Roman Catholics
recollected that he was Queen Mary’s son, and that his
reformed tutors had not made his life very pleasant to
him as a boy, so they had hopes from him.

But they both were wrong. James had really read
and thought much, and was a much wiser man at the
bottom than anyone would have thought who had seen
his disagreeable ways, and heard his silly way of talk-
ing. He thought the English Church was much more
in the right than either of them, and he only wished
that things should go on the same in England, and
that the Scots should be brought to have bishops, and
to use the prayers that Christians had used from the
very old times, instead of each minister praying out of






Fames [.. 169



his own head, as had become the custom. But though
he could not change the ways of the Scots at once, he
caused all the best scholars and clergymen in his king-
dom to go to work to make the translation of the Bible
as right and good as it could be.

Long before this was finished, however, some of the
Roman Catholics had formed a conspiracy for getting
rid of all the chief people’ in the kingdom; and so, as
they hoped, bringing the rest back to the pope. There
were good men among the Roman Catholics who knew
that such an act would be horrible; but there were
some among them who had learnt to hate everyone
that they did not reckon as of the right religion, and
to believe that everything was right that was done for
the cause of their Church. So these men agreed that
on the day of the meeting of Parliament, when the
king, with the queen and Prince of Wales, would all
be meeting the lords and commons, they would blow
the whole of them up with gunpowder ; and, while the
country was all in confusion, the king dead, and almost
all his lords and the chief country squires, they would
take the king’s younger children—Elizabeth or Charles,
who were both quite littk—and bring one up as a
Roman Catholic to govern England.

They bought some cellars under the Houses of Par-



M








170 Stories of English FH. istory.



liament, and stored them with barrels of gunpowder,
hidden by faggots; and the time was nearly come,
when one of the lords, called Monteagle, received a
letter that puzzled him very much, advising him not to
attend the meeting of Parliament, since a sudden de-
struction would come upon all who would there be pre-
sent, and yet so that they would not know the doer of
it. No one knows who wrote the letter, but most likely
it was one of the gentlemen who had been asked to
join in the plot, and, though he would not betray his
friends, could not bear that Lord Monteagle should
perish. Lord Monteagle took the letter to the council,
and there, after puzzling over it and wondering if it
were a joke, the king said gunpowder was a means of
sudden destruction; and it was agreed that, at any rate,
it would be safer to look into the vaults. A party was
sent to search, and there they found all the powder
ready prepared, and, moreover, a man with a lantern,
one Guy Fawkes, who had undertaken ‘to be the one .
to set fire to the train of gunpowder, hoping to escape
before the explosion. However, he was seized in time,
and was forced to make confession. Most of the gen-
tlemen concerned fled into the country, and shut them-
selves up ina fortified house ; but there, strange to say,
a barrel of gunpowder chanced to get lighted, and thus






Fames L. 171



many were much hurt in the very way they had meant
to hurt others.

There was a great thanksgiving all over the country,
and it became the custom that, on the 5th of Novem-
ber—the day when the gunpowder plot was to have
taken effect—there should be bonfires and fireworks,
and Guy Fawkes’ figure burnt; but people are getting
wiser now, and think it better not to keep up the
memory of old crimes and hatreds. ;

Henry, Prince of Wales, was a fine lad, fond of all
that was good, but a little too apt to talk of wars, and
of being like Henry V. He was very fond of ships
and sailors, and delighted in watching the building of
a grand vessel that was to take his sister Elizabeth
across the sea, when she was to marry the Count Pala-
tine of the Rhine. Before the wedding, however, Prince
Henry fell suddenly ill and died.

King James was as fond of favorites as ever Eliza-
beth had been, though not of the same persons. One
of the worst things he ever did was the keeping Sir
Walter Raleigh in the Tower for many years, and at
last cutting off his head. Sir Walter had tried, when
first James came, to set up a lady named Arabella
Stewart to be queen; but if he was to be punished for
that, it ought to have been directly, instead of keeping












172, Stories of English History.



the sentence hanging over his head for years. The
truth was that Sir Walter had been a great enemy to
the Spaniards, and James wanted to please them, for
he wished his son Charles to marry the daughter of the
King of Spain. Charles wanted to see her first, and
set off for Spain, in disguise, with the Duke of Buck-
ingham, who was his friend, and his father’s greatest
favourite. But when he reached Madrid, he found that.
the princesses were not allowed to speak to any gentle-
man, nor to show their faces; and though he climbed
over a wall to speak to her when she was walking in
the garden, an attendant begged him to go away, or all
her train would be punished. Charles went back dis-
appointed, and, on his way through Paris, saw Henrietta
Maria, the bright-eyed sister of the King of France,
and set his heart on marrying her.

Before this was settled, however, King James was
seized with an ague and died, in the year 1625. He was
the first king of the family of Stewart, and a very strange
person he was—wonderfully learned and exceedingly
conceited ; indeed, he liked nothing better than to be
called the English Solomon. The worst of him was
that, like Elizabeth, he thought kings and rulers might
tell falsehoods and deceive. He called this kingcraft,
and took this very bad sort of cunning for wisdom.














THE PILGRIM FATHERS EMBARKING.

CHAP. XXXIII.—CHARLES I.
A.D. 1625—1649.

Ss many of the great nobles had been killed in the
) Wars of the Roses, that the barons had lost all
that great strength and power they had gained when
they made King John sign Magna Carta. The kings
got the power instead; and all through the reigns of
the five Tudors, the sovereign had very little to hinder
him from doing exactly as he pleased. But, in the
meantime, the country squires and the great merchants
who sat in the House of Commons had been getting
richer and stronger, and read and thought more. As








174 Stories of English Fistory.



long as Queen Elizabeth lived they were contented, for
they loved her and were proud of her, and she knew
how to manage them. She scolded them sometimes, but
when she saw that she was really vexing them she always
changed, and she had smiles and good words for them,
so that she could really do what she pleased with them.

But James I. was a disagreeable man to have to do
with ; and, instead of trying to please them, he talked
a great deal about his own power as a king, and how
they ought to obey him: so that they were angered,
and began to read the laws, and wonder how much
power properly belonged to him. Now, when he died,
his son Charles was a much pleasanter person ; he was
a gentleman in all his looks and ways, and had none of
his father’s awkward, ungainly tricks and habits. He
was good and earnest, too, and there was nothing to
take offence at in himself; so for some years all went on
quietly, and there seemed to be a great improvement.
But several things were against him. His friend, the
Duke of Buckingham, was a proud, selfish man, who
affronted almost everyone, and made a bad use of the
king’s favour; and the people were also vexed that the
king should marry a Roman Catholic princess, Henrietta
Maria, who would not go to church with him, nor even
let herself be crowned by an English archbishop.


Charles T. 175



You heard that, in Queen Elizabeth’s time, there
were Puritans who would have liked to have the
Prayer-book much more altered, and who fancied that
every pious rule of old times must be wrong. They
would not bow their heads at our blessed Lord’s name ;
they did not like the cross in baptism, nor the ring in
marriage; and they could not bear to see a clergy-
man ina surplice. In many churches they took their
own way, and did just as they pleased. But under
James and Charles matters changed. Dr. Laud, whom
Charles made archbishop of Canterbury, saw that if
things went on in this way people would forget all
their reverence, and all the outward visible signs of the
inward spiritual graces would be left off, and then how
could the grace be received? So he had all the churches
visited, and insisted on the parishioners setting them
in order; and if a clergyman would not wear a sur-
plice, nor make a cross on the baptized child’s fore-
head, nor obey the other laws of the Prayer-book, he
was punished.

The Puritans were greatly displeased. They fancied
the king and Dr. Laud wanted to make them all Roman
Catholics again; and a great many so hated these
Church rules, that they took ship and went off to North
America to found a colony, where they might set up








176 Stories of English History.



their own religion as they liked it. Those who staid
continued to murmur and struggle against Laud.

There was another great matter of displeasure, and
that was the way in which the king raised money. The
right way is that he should call his Parliament together,
and the House of Commons should grant him what he
wanted. But there were other means. One was that
every place in England should be called on to pay so
much for ship money. This had begun when King
Alfred raised his fleet to keep off the Danes; but it
had come not to be spent on ships at all, but only to be
money for the king to use. Another way that the
kings had of getting money was from fines. People
who committed some small offence, that did not come
under the regular laws, were brought before the Coun-
cil in a room at Westminster, that had a ceiling painted
with stars—and so was called the Star Chamber—and
there were sentenced, sometimes to pay heavy sums of
money, sometimes to have their ears cut off. This
Court of the Star Chamber had been begun in the days
of Henry VIL, and it is only a wonder that the Eng-
lish had borne it so long.

One thing Charles I. did that pleased his people,
and that was sending help to the French Protestants,
who were having their town of Rochelle besieged. But








Charles Tf. 177



the English were not pleased that the command of the
army was given to the Duke of Buckingham, his proud,
insolent favourite. But Buckingham never went. As
he was going to embark at Portsmouth, he was stabbed
to the heart by a man named Felton; nobody clearly
knows why.

Charles did not get on much better even when Buck-
ingham was dead. Whenever he called a Parliament,
fault was always found with him and with the laws.
Then he tried to do without a Parliament; and, as he,
of course, needed money, the calls for ship money came
more often, and the fines in the Star Chamber became
heavier, and more cases for them were hunted out.
Then murmurs arose. Just then, too, he and Arch-
bishop Laud were trying. to make the Scots return to
the Church, by giving them bishops and a Prayer-book.
But the first time the Service was read in a church at
Edinburgh, a fishwoman, named Jenny Geddes, jumped
up in a rage and threw a three-legged stool at the
clergyman’s head. Some Scots fancied they were being
brought back to Rome; others hated whatever was
commanded in England. All these leagued together,
and raised an army to resist the king; and he was
obliged to call a Parliament once more, to get money
enough to resist them.










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TaN Em

PRINCESS HENRIETTA ESCAPING DISGUISED AS A BOY.



CHAP. XXXV.—DEATH OF CHARLES I.

9
>

A.D. 1649—I1651.

SHE Long Parliament did not wish to have no
| king, only to make him do what they pleased ;

and they went on trying whether he would come back

to

reign according to their notions. He would have

given up a great deal, but when they wanted him to
declare that there should be no bishops in England he
would never consent, for he knew that there could be
no real Church without bishops, as our Lord Himself
had appointed.



At last, after there had. been much debating, and it










184 Stories of English Flistory.

was plain that it would never come to an end, Oliver
Cromwell sent some of his officers to take King Charles
into their hands, instead of the persons appointed by
Parliament. So the king was prisoner to the army in-
stead of to the Parliament.

Cromwell was a very able man, and he saw that no-
body could settle the difficulties about the law and the
rights of the people but himself. No one can tell
whether he wished to do right or to make himself
great; but his heart could not have been set right or
he would not have done so terrible an act as he did.
He saw that things never would be settled while the
king lived, nor by the Parliament, so he sent one of his
officers, named Pryde, to turn out all the members of
Parliament who would not do his will, and then the
fifty who were left appointed a court of officers and
lawyers to try the king. Charles was brought before
them; but, as they had no right to try him, he would
not say a word in answer to them. Nevertheless, they
sentenced him to have his head cut off. He had borne
all his troubles in the most meek and patient way, for-
giving all his enemies and praying for them: and he
was ready to die in the same temper. His queen was
in France, and all his children were safe out of Eng-
land, except his daughter Elizabeth, who was twelve






Death of Charles Tf. 185



years old, and little Henry, who was five. They were
brought to Whitehall Palace for him to see the night
before he was to die. He took the little boy on his
knee, and talked a long time to Elizabeth, telling her
what books to read and giving her his messages to her
mother and brothers; and then he told little Henry to
mark what he said, and to mind that he must never be
set up as a king while his elder brothers, Charles and
James were alive. The little boy said, among his tears,
“J will be torn in pieces first.” His father kissed and
blessed the two children, and left them.

The next day was the 30th of January, 1649. The
king was allowed to have Bishop Juxon to read and
pray with him, and to give him the holy communion.
After that, forgiving his enemies, and praying for them,
he was led to the Banqueting House at Whitehall, and
out through a window, on to a scaffold hung with black
cloth. He said his last prayers, and the executioner
cut off his head with one blow, and held it up to the
people. He was buried at night, in St. George’s Chapel
at Windsor, by four faithful noblemen, but they were
not allowed to use any service over his grave.

The Scots were so much shocked to find what their
selling of their king had come to, that they invited his
eldest son, Charles, a young man of nineteen, to come








186 Stories of English History.





and reign over them, and offered to set him on the
English throne again. Young Charles came; but they
were so strict that they made his life very dull and
weary, since they saw sin in every amusement. “How-
-ever, they kept their promise of marching into Eng-
land, and some of the English cavaliers joined them ;
but Oliver Cromwell and his army met them at Wor-
cester, and they were entirely beaten. Young King
Charles had to go away with a few gentlemen, and he
was so closely followed that they had to put him in
charge of some woodmen named Penderel, who lived
in Boscobel Forest. They dressed him’ in a rough
leather suit like their own, and when the Roundhead
soldiers came to search, he was hidden among the
branches of an oak tree above their heads. Afterwards,
a lady named Jane Lane helped him over another part
of his journey, by letting him ride on horseback before
her as her servant; but, when she stopped at an inn,
he was very near being found out, because he did not
know how to turn the spit in the kitchen when the cook
asked him. However, he got safely to Brighton, which
was only a little village then, and a boat took him to
France, where his mother was living.

In the meantime, his young sister and_ brother,
Elizabeth and Henry, had been sent to the fsle of




Death of Charles Tf. 187





Wight, to Carisbrook Castle. Elizabeth was pining
away with sorrow, and before long she was found
dead, with her cheek resting on her open Bible.
After this, little Henry was sent to be with his mother
in France.

The eldest daughter, Mary, had been married just
as the war began to the Prince of Orange, who lived in
Holland, and was left a widow with one little son.
James, Duke of York, the second brother, had at first
been in the keeping of a Parliamentary nobleman, with
his brother and sister, in London; but, during a game
of hide-and-seek, he crept out of the gardens and met
some friends, who dressed him in girls’ clothes and
took him toa ship in the Thames, which carried him
to Holland. Little Henrietta, the youngest, had been
left, when only six weeks old, to the care of one of her
mother’s ladies. When she was nearly three, the lady
did not think it safe to keep her any longer in Eng-
land. So she stained her face and hands brown, with
walnut juice, to look like a gipsy, took the child upon
her back, and trudged to the coast. Little Henrietta
could not speak plain, but she always called herself by
a name she meant to be princess, and the lady was
obliged to call her Piers, and pretend that she was a
little boy, when the poor child grew angry at being


188 Stories of English Frstory.



treated so differently from usual, and did all she pos-
sibly could to make the strangers understand that she
was no beggar boy. However, at last she was safe
across the sea, and was with her mother at Paris, where
the king of France, Queen Henrietta’s nephew, was
very kind to the poor exiles. The misfortune was, that
the queen brought up little Henrietta as a Roman
Catholic, and tried to make Henry one also; but he
was old enough to be firm to his father’s Church, and
he went away to his sister in Holland. James, how-
ever, did somewhat later become a Roman Catholic;
and Charles would have been one, if he had cared
enough about religion to do what would have lessened
his chance of getting back to England as king. But
these two brothers were learning no good at Paris,
and were growing careless of the right and fond of
pleasure. James and Henry, after a time, joined the
French army, that they might learn the art of war.
They were both very brave, but it was sad that when
France and England went to war, they should be in
the army of the enemies of their country.


















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CROMWELL’S SOLDIERS SHOOTING AT STAINED GLASS WINDOWS.



CHAP. XXXIV.—THE LONG PARLIAMENT.
A.D. 164I—1649.

’ HEN Charles I. was obliged to call his Parlia-

ment, the House of Commons met, angered at
the length of time that had passed since they had been
called, and determined to use their opportunity. They
speedily put an end both to the payment of ship money
and to the Court of the Star Chamber ; and they threw
into prison the two among the king’s friends whom
they most disliked, namely, Archbishop Laud and the
Earl of Strafford. The earl had been governor of Ire-
land, and had kept great order there, but severely; and

sta)




Lhe Long Parliament. 179
he thought that the king was the only person who
ought to have any power, and was always advising the
king to put down all resistance by the strong hand. He
was thought a hard man, and very much hated; and
when he was tried the Houses of Parliament gave sen-
tence against him that he should be beheaded. Still,
this could not be done without: the king’s warrant; and
Charles at first stood out against giving up his faithful
friend. But there was a great tumult, and the queen
and her mother grew frightened, and entreated the
king to save himself by giving up Lord Strafford, until
at last he consented, and signed the paper ordering the
execution. It was asad act of weakness and cowardice,
and he mourned over it all the days of his life.

The Parliament only asked more and more, and at
last the king thought he must put a check on them.
So he resolved to go down to the House and cause the
five members who spoke most against his power to be
taken prisoners in his own presence. But he told his
wife what he intended, and Henrietta Maria was so
foolish as to tell Lady Carlisle, one of her ladies, and
she sent warning to the five gentlemen, so that they
were not in the House when Charles arrived ; and the
Londoners rose up in a great mob, and showed them-
selves so angry with him, that he took the queen and










180 Stories of English F1tstory.

his children away into the country. The queen took
her daughter Mary to Holland, to marry the Prince of
Orange; and there she bought muskets and gunpowder
for her husband’s army—for things had come to such a
pass now that a civil war began. A civil war is the worst
of all wars, for it is one between the people of the same
country. We had two civil wars before. There were the
Barons’ wars, between Henry III. and Simon de Mont-
fort, about the keeping of Magna Carta; and there were
the wars of the Roses, to settle whether York or Lan-
caster should reign. This war between Charles I. and
the Parliament was to decide whether the king or the
House of Commons should be most powerful. Those
who held with the king called themselves Cavaliers,
but the friends of the Parliament called them Malig-
nants; and they in turn nicknamed the Parliamentary
party Roundheads, because they often chose not to
wear their hair in the prevailing fashion, long and
flowing on their shoulders, but cut short round their
heads. Most of the Roundheads were Puritans, and
hated the Prayer-book, and all the strict rules for
religious worship that Archbishop Laud had brought
in; and the Cavaliers, on the other hand, held by the
bishops and the Prayer-book. Some of the Cavaliers
were very good men indeed, and led holy and Christian






The Long Parliament. 181



lives, like their master the king, but there were others
who were only bold, dashing men, careless and full of
mirth and mischief; and the Puritans were apt to think
all amusements and pleasures wrong, so that they made
out the Cavaliers worse than they really were.

I do not think you would understand about all the
battles, so I shall only tell you now that the king's
army was chiefly led by his nephew, Prince Rupert,
the son of his sister Elizabeth. Rupert was a fiery,
brave: young man, who was apt to think a battle was
won before it really was, and would ride after the
people he had beaten himself without waiting to see
whether his help was wanted by the other captains ;
and so he did his uncle’s cause as much harm as good.

The king’s party had been the most used to war,
and they prospered the most at first; but as the sol-
diers of the Parliament became more trained, they
gained the advantage. One of the members of Parlia-
ment, a gentleman named Oliver Cromwell, soon shewed
himself to be a much better captain than: anyone else
in England, and from the time, he came to the chief
command the Parliament always had the victory. The
places of the three chief battles were Edgehill, Marston
Moor, and Naseby. The first was doubtful, but the
other two were great victories of the Roundheads.






182 Stories of English History.



Just after Marston Moor, the Parliament put to death
Archbishop Laud, though they could not find anything
he had done against the law; and, at the same time,
they forbade the use of the Prayer-book, and turned
out all the parish priests from the churches, putting in
their stead men chosen after their own fashion, and not
ordained by bishops. They likewise destroyed all they
disliked in the churches—the painted glass, the organs,
and the carvings; and when the Puritan soldiers took
possession of a town or village, they would stable their
horses in the churches, use the font for a trough, and
shoot at the windows as marks.

After the battle of Naseby, King Charles was in such
distress that he thought he would go to the Scots, re-
membering that, though he had offended them by try-
ing to make them use the Prayer-book, he had been
born among them, and he thought they would prefer
him to the English. But when he came, the Scottish
army treated him like a prisoner, and showed him very
few honors; and at last they gave him up to the Eng-
lish Parliament for a great sum of money.

So Charles was a prisoner to his own subjects. This
Parliament is called the Long Parliament, because it sat
longer than any other Parliament ever did: indeed it
had passed a resolution that it could not be dissolved.




















CROMWELL EXPELLING THE LONG PARLIAMENT.



CHAP. XXXVI.—OLIVER CROMWELL.
A.D. 1649—1660.,

EPLIVER Cromwell felt, as has been said, that there
was no one who could set matters to rights as he
could in England. He had shewn that the country
could not do without him, if it was to go on without
the old government. Not only had he conquered and
slain Charles I., and beaten that king’s friends and
those of his son in Scotland, but he had put down a
terrible rising of the Irish, and suppressed them with
much more cruelty than he generally showed.
He found that the old Long Parliament did nothing










190 Stories of English History.

but blunder and talk, so he marched into the House
one day with a company of soldiers, and sternly ordered
the members all off, calling out, as he pointed to the
mace that lay before the Speaker’s chair, “ Take away
that bauble.” After that he called together a fresh
Parliament; but there were very few members, and
those only men who would do as he bade them, The
Speaker was a leather-seller named Barebones, so that
this is generally known as Barebones’ Parliament. By
these people he was named Lord Protector of England ;
and, as his soldiers would still do anything for him, he
reigned for five years, just as a king might have done,
and a good king too.

It is hard for children to understand how a person
can go on doing wrong, and really meaning to do right
all the time, and thinking it is doing God’s service ; but
there have been many people like that, and, as far as
we can understand, Oliver Cromwell was one of them.
He was a religious man; but he chose to make out his
religion from the Bible for himself, instead of being
taught by the Church, and so the very root of the mat-
- ter was likely to be wrong with him; and when he felt
within himself the understanding how to rule better
than king or Parliament, he went on to make himself
ruler, thinking he was doing God’s work—even though


Oliver Cromwell. 19]



it led him through such sins as making war on the king,
and putting him to death at last. He prayed often,
and spoke much about religion; but he was very apt
to make long speeches, that so confused the people who
heard him that they let him have his own way, because
they did not know what he was talking about. How-
ever, when he wanted to be obeyed, he was sharp and
direct enough. He was by no means a cruel or unmer-
ciful man, and he did not persecute the Cavaliers more
than he could help, if he was to keep up his power;
though, of.course, they suffered a great deal, since they
had fines laid upon them, and some forfeited their
estates for having resisted the Parliament. Many had
to live in Holland or France, because there was no
safety for them in England, and their wives went back-
wards and forwards to their homes to collect their rents,
and obtain something to live upon. The bishops and
clergy had all been driven out, and in no church was
it allowable to use the Prayer-book ; so there used to
be secret meetings in rooms, or vaults, or in woods,
where the prayers could be used as of old, and the holy
sacrament administered.
For five years Cromwell was Lord Protector, but in
the year 1658 he died, advising that his son Richard
should be: chosen Protector in his stead. Richard
|









192 Stories of English ffistory.





Cromwell was a kind, aimable gentleman, but not
clever or strong like his tather, and he very soon found
that to govern England was quite beyond his power ;
so he gave up, and went to live at his own home again,
while the English people gave him the nick-name of
Tumble-down-Dick.

No one seemed well to know what was to be done
next; but General Monk, who was now at the head of
the army, thought the best thing possible would be to
bring back the king. A new Parliament was elected,
and sent an invitation to Charles II. to come back

.again and reign like his forefathers. He accepted it;
the fleet was sent to fetch him, and on the 29th of May,
1660, he rode into London between his brothers, James
and Henry. The streets were dressed with green
boughs, the windows hung with tapestry, and everyone
shewed such intense joy and delight, that the king said
he could not think why he should have stayed away so
long, since everyone was so glad to see him back again.

But the joy of his return was clouded by the deaths
of his sister Mary, the Princess of Orange, and of his
brother Henry, who was only just twenty. Mary left
a son, William, Prince of Orange, of whom you will
hear more.

The bishops were restored, and, as there had been


SS eer

Oliver Cromwell. : 193





























no archbishop since Laud had been beheaded, good
Juxon, who had attended King Charles at his death,
was made archbishop in his room. The persons who
had been put into the parishes to act as clergymen,
were obliged to give place to the real original parish
priest ; but if he were dead, as was often the case, they
were told that they might stay, if they would be or-
dained by the bishops and obey the Prayer-book.
Some did so, some made an arrangement for keeping
the parsonages, and paying a curate to take the service
in church; but those who were the most really in
earnest gave up everything, and were turned out—but
only as they had turned out the real clergymen ten or
twelve years before.

All Oliver Cromwell's army was broken up, and the
men sent to their homes, except one regiment which
came from Coldstream in Scotland. These would not
disband, and when Charles II. heard it, he said he
would take them as his guards. This was the begin-
ning of there being always a regular army of men,
whose whole business it is to be soldiers, instead of any
man being called from his work when he is wanted.

Charles II. promised pardon to all the rebels, but he
did try and execute all who had been actually con-
cerned in condemning his father to death.












































LORD WILMOT WRITING THE EPIGRAM ON THE KING'S BEDROOM DOOR.





CHAP. XXXVII—CHARLES II.
A.D. 1660—1685.
io is sad to have to say that, after all his troubles,
J Charles II. disappointed everybody. Some of
these disappointments could not be helped, but others
were his own fault. The Puritan party thought, after
they had brought him home again, he should have been
more favorable to them, and grumbled at the restora-
tion of the clergymen and of the Prayer-book. The
Cavaliers thought that, after all they had gone through
for him and his father, he ought to have rewarded
them more; but he said truly enough, that if he had




Charles IT. 195

made a nobleman of everyone who had deserved well
of him, no place but Salisbury Plain would have been
big enough for the House of Lords to meet upon.
Then those gentlemen who had got into debt to raise
soldiers for the king’s service, and had paid fines, or
had to sell their estates, felt it hard not to have them
again ; but when a Roundhead gentleman had honestly
bought the property, it would have been still more un-
just to turn them out. These two old names of Cava-
liers and Roundheads began to turn into two others
even more absurd. The Cavalier set came to be called
Tories, an Irish name for a robber, and the Puritans
got the Scotch name of Whigs, which means buttermilk.

It would have taken a very strong, wise, and good
man to deal rightly with two such different sets of peo-
ple; but though Charles II. was a very clever man, he
was neither wise nor good. He could not bear to vex
himself, nor anybody else; and, rather than be teased,
would grant almost anything that was asked of him.
One of his witty courtiers once wrote upon his bed-
room door—

“ Here lies our sovereign lord, the king,
Whose word no man relies on ;
Who never said a foolish thing,
And never did a wise one.”




196 Stories of English Frstory.



He was so bright and lively, and made such droll,
good-natured answers, that everyone liked him who
came near him; but he had no steady principle, only
to stand easy with everybody, and keep as much power
for himself as he could without giving offence. He
loved pleasure much better than duty, and kept about
him a set of people who amused him, but were a dis-
grace to his court. They even took money from the
French king to persuade Charles against helping the
Dutch in their war against the French. The Dutch —
went to war with the English upon this, and there were
many terrible sea-fights, in which James, Duke of York,
the king’s brother, shewed himself a good and brave
sailor.

The year 1665 is remembered as that in which there
was a dreadful sickness in London, called the plague.
People died of it often after a very short illness, and it
was so infectious that it was difficult to escape it.
When a person in a house was found to have it, the
door was fastened up and marked with a red cross in
chalk, and no one was allowed to go out or in; food
was set down outside to be fetched in, and carts came
round to take away the dead, who were all buried to-
gether in long ditches. The plague was worst in the
summer and autumn; as winter came on more recovered






Charles IT. 197





and fewer sickened, and at last this frightful sickness
was ended; and, by God’s good mercy, it has never
since that year come to London.

The next year, 1666, there was a fire in London,
which burnt down whole streets, with their churches,
andeven destroyed St. Paul’s Cathedral. Perhaps it
did good by burning down the dirty old houses and
narrow streets where the plague might have lingered,
but it was a fearful misfortune. It was only stopped
at last by blowing up a space with gunpowder all round
it, so that the flames might have no way to pass on.
The king and his brother came and were very helpful
in giving orders about this, and in finding shelter for
the many poor, homeless people.

There was a good deal of disturbance in Scotland
when the king wanted to bring back the bishops and
the Prayer-book. Many of the Scots would not go to
church, and met on hills and moors to have their
prayers in their own way. Soldiers were sent to dis-
perse them, and there was much fierce, bitter feeling.
Archbishop Sharpe was dragged out of his carriage and
killed, and then there was a civil war, in which the
king’s men prevailed; but the Whigs were harshly
treated, and there was great discontent.

The country was much troubled because the king


198 Stories of English History.



and queen had no children: and the Duke of York
was a Roman Catholic. A strange story was got up
that there was what was called a popish plot for killing
the king, and putting James on the throne. Charles
himself laughed at it, for he knew everyone liked him
and disliked his brother: “No one would kill me to
make you king, James,” he said ; but in his easy, selfish
way, when he found that all the country believed in
it, and wanted to have the men they fancied guilty put
to death, he did not try to save their lives.

Soon after this false plot, there was a real one called
the Rye-house Plot. Long ago, the king had pretended
to marry a girl named Lucy Waters, and they had a
son whom he had made Duke of Monmouth, but who
could not reign because there had been no right mar-
riage. However, Lord Russell and some other gentle-
men, who ought to have known better, so hated the
idea of the Duke of York being king, that they joined
in the Rye-house Plot for killing the duke, and forcing
the king to make Monmouth his heir. Some of the
‘worser sort, who had joined them, even meant to shoot
Charles and James both together, on the way to the
Newmarket races. However, the plot was found out,
and the leaders were put to death. Lord Russell’s wife,
Lady Rachel, sat by him all the time of his trial, and






Charles LT, 199

was his great comfort to the last. Monmouth was par-
doned, but fled away to Holland.

The best thing to be said of Charles II. was that he
made good men bishops, and he never was angry when
they spoke out boldly about his wicked ways ; but then,
he never tried to leave them off, and he spent the very
last Sunday of his life among his bad companions, play-
ing at cards and listening to idle songs. Just after this
came a stroke of apoplexy, and, while he lay dying on
his bed, he sent for a Roman Catholic priest, and was
received into the Church of Rome, in which he had
really believed most of his life—though he had never
dared own it, for fear of losing his crown. So, as he
was living a lie, of course the fruits showed themselves
in his selfish, wasted life.

It was in this reign that two grand books were writ-
ten. John Milton, a blind scholar and poet, who, before
he lost his sight, had been Oliver Cromwell’s secretary,
wrote his Paradise Lost, or rather dictated it to his
daughters; and John Bunyan, a tinker, who had been
a Puritan preacher, wrote the Pilgrim’s Progress.




















THE QUEEN'S ESCAPE WITH HER CHILD,

CHAP. XXXVIII.—JAMES II.
A.D. 1685—1688,
see II. had, at least, been honest in openly
OQ) joining the Church in which he believed; but the
people disliked and distrusted him, and he had not the
graces of his brother to gain their hearts with, but was
grave, sad, and stern.

The Duke of Monmouth came across from Holland,
and was proclaimed king in his uncle’s stead at Exeter.
Many people in the West of England joined him, and
at Taunton, in Somersetshire, he was received by rows of

little girls standing by the gate in white frocks, strewing






Fames LI. 201



flowers before him. But at Sedgemoor he was met by
the army, and his friends were routed; he himself fled
away, and at last was caught hiding in a ditch, dressed
in a labourer’s smock frock, and with his pockets full of
peas from the fields) He was taken to London, tried,
and executed. He did not deserve much pity, but
James ought not to have let the people who had
favoured him be cruelly treated. Sir George Jeffreys,
the chief justice, was sent to try all who had been con-
cerned; from Winchester to Exeter; and he hung so
many, and treated all so savagely, that his progress was
called the Bloody Assize. Even the poor little maids
at Taunton were thrown into a horrible, dirty jail, and
only released on their parents paying a heavy sum of
money for them.

. This was a bad beginning for James’s reign: and the
English grew more angry and suspicious when they
saw that he favoured Roman Catholics more than any-
one else, and even put them into places that only
clergymen of the Church of England could fill. Then
he put forth a decree, declaring that a person might be
chosen to any office in the State, whether he were a
member of the English Church or no; and he com-
manded that every clergyman should read it from: his
pulpit on Sunday mornings. Archbishop Sancroft did






Stories of English Flistory.







not think it a right thing for clergymen to read, and he
and six more bishops presented a petition to the king
against being obliged to read it. One of these was
Thomas Ken, Bishop of Bath and Wells, who wrote
the morning hymn, “Awake, my soul, and with the
sun,” and the evening hymn, “All praise to Thee, my
God, this night.” Instead of listening to their petition,
the king had all the seven bishops sent to the Tower,
and tried for libel—that is, for malicious writing. All
England was full of anxiety, and when at last the jury
gave a verdict of “not guilty,” the whole of London
rang with shouts of joy, and the soldiers in their camp
shouted still louder.

This might have been a warning to the king: for he
had thought that, as he paid the army, they were all on
his side, and would make the people bear whatever he
pleased. The chief comfort people had was in thinking
their troubles would only last during his reign: for his
first wife, an Englishwoman, had only left him two
daughters, Mary and Anne, and Mary was married to ©
her cousin, William, Prince of Orange, who was a great
enemy of the King of France and of the Pope; and
Anne’s husband, Prince George, brother to the King
of Denmark, was a Protestant. He was a dull man,
and people laughed at him—because, whenever he
Fames Ll. 203





heard any news, he never said anything but “Zs¢ z/
possible?” is it possible? But he had a little son, of
whom there was much hope.
But James had married again, Mary Beatrice d’Este,
an Italian princess; and, though none of her babies had
lived before, at last she had a little son who was healthy
and life-like, and who was christened James. Poor little
‘boy! Everyone was so angry and disappointed that
he should have come into the world at all, that a story
was put about that he was not the son of the king and
queen, but a strange baby who had been carried into
the queen’s room in a warming-pan, because James was
resolved to prevent Mary and William from reigning. |
Only silly people could believe such a story as this;
but all the Whigs, and most of the Tories, thought in
earnest that it was a sad thing for the country to have
a young heir to the throne brought up to be a Roman.
Catholic, and to think it right to treat his subjects as
James was treating them. Some would have been
patient, and have believed that God would bring it
right, but others, who had never thought much of the
rights of kings and.duties of subjects, were resolved to
put a stop to the evils they expected; and, knowing
what was the state of people’s minds, William of Orange
set forth from Holland, and landed at Torbay. Crowds




204 Stories of English Frstory.



of people came to meet him, and to call on him to de-
liver them. It was only three years since the Bloody
Assize, and they had not forgotten it in those parts.
King James heard that one person after another had
gone to the Prince of Orange, and he thought it not
safe for his wife and child to be any longer in England.
So, quietly, one night he put them in charge of a French
nobleman who had been visiting him, and who took
them to the Thames, where, after waiting in the dark
under a church wall, he brought them a boat, and they
reached a ship which took them safely to France.
King James staid a little longer. He did not mind
when he heard that Prince George of Denmark had
gone to the Prince of Orange, but only laughed, and
said “Est zl possible ?” but when he heard his daughter
Anne, to whom he had always been kind, was gone
too, the tears came into his eyes, and he said, “God
help me, my own children are deserting me.” He would
have put himself at the head of the army, but he found
that if he did so he was likely to be made prisoner and
carried to William. So he disguised himself and set off
for France; but at Faversham, some people who took
_ him for a Roman Catholic priest seized him, and he
was sent back to London. However, as there was
nothing the Prince of Orange wished so little as to






Fames L!. » 205



keep him in captivity, he was allowed to escape again,
and this time he safely reached’ France, where he was
very kindly welcomed, and had the palace of St. Ger-
main given him for a dwelling-place.

It was on the 4th of November, 1688, that William
landed, and the change that now took place is com- |
monly called the English Revolution. |

We must think of the gentlemen, during these reigns,
as going about in very fine laced and ruffled coats, and
the most enormous wigs. You know the Roundheads
had short hair and the Cavaliers long: so people were
ashamed to have short hair, and wore wigs to hide it if
it would not grow, till everybody came to have shaven
heads, and monstrous wigs in great curls on their
- shoulders; and even little boys’ hair was made to look
as like a wig as possible. The barber had the wig
every morning to fresh curl, and make it white with
hair powder, so that everyone might look like an old
man, with a huge quantity of white hair.












CHAP. L.—VICTORIA.
; A.D. 1860—1872.
E}NE more chapter, which, happily for us, does not
finish the history of our good Queen Victoria, and
these Stories of the History of England will be over.
All the nation rejoiced very much when the queen’s
eldest son, Albert Edward, the Prince of Wales, mar-
ried Alexandra, daughter to the king of Denmark.
Her father and mother brought her to England, and
the prince met her on board ship in the mouth of the
Thames; and there was a most beautiful and joyous
procession through London. When they were married








266

\



the next deed in St. George’s Chapel at Windsor, the
whole of England made merry, and there were bon-
fires on every hill, and illuminations in every town, so
that the whole island was glowing with brightness all
that Spring evening. And we might well rejoice and
be thankful, for we love our Princess of W Bea Oe is
as good as she is beautiful.

There is a country in Africa called Abyssinia, south
of Egypt. The people there are Christians, but they
have had very little to do with other nations, and have
grown very dull and half savage; indeed they have
many horrid and disgusting customs, and have for-
gotten all the teaching that would have made them
better. Of late years there had been some attempt
to wake them up and teach them; and they had
a clever king named Theodore, who seemed pleased
and willing to improve himself and his nation. He
allowed missionaries to come and try to teach his peo-
ple what Christianity means a little better than they
knew before, and invited skilled workmen to come and
teach his people. They came; but not long after
Theodore was affronted by the English Government,
and shut them all up in prison. Messages were sent
to insist upon his releasing them, but he did not attend
or understand; and at last an army was sent to land

a
Sines of English History.

|


















rg. ag Se a> et ae ee eee a ee EES eee eo ee
Victoria. 267



on the coast from the east, under General Napier, and
march to his capital, which was called Magdala, and
stood on a hill.

General Napier managed so well that there was no
fighting on the road. He came to the gates of Mag-
dala, and threatened to fire upon it if the prisoners
were not given up to him. He waited till the time was
up, and then caused his troops to begin the attack.
The Abyssinians fled away, and close by one of the
gates Theodore was found lying dead, shot through.
No one is quite sure whether one of his servants killed
him treacherously, or whether he killed himself in his
rage and despair. We did not try to keep Abyssinia,
though it was conquered ; but it was left to the Royal
Family whom Theodore had turned out, and Theo-
dore’s little son, about five years old, was brought to
England; but, as he could not bear the cold winters,
he was sent to a school in India.

This, which was in the year 1868, was the last war
the English have had. There has been fighting all
round and about in Europe, especially a great war be-
tween France and Prussia in 1870; but the only thing
the English had to do with that, was the sending out
doctors and nurses, with all the good things for sick
people that could be thought of, to take care of all the






268 Stories of English History.





poor wounded on both sides, and lessen their sufferings
as much as possible. They all wore red crosses on
their sleeves, and put up a red-cross flag over the
houses where they were taking care of the sick and
wounded, and then no one on either side fired upon
them.

An Act of Parliament has given the right to vote, at
the election of a member of the House of Commons, to
much poorer men than used to have it. It is to be hoped
that they will learn to use wisely this power of helping
to choose those who make the laws and govern the coun-
try. To give them a better chance of doing so, a law
has been made that no child shall be allowed to grow up
without any teaching at all, but that those who are too
poor to pay for their own schooling shall be paid for by
the State, and that their parents shall be obliged to send
them. The great thing is to learn to know and do one’s
duty. If one only learns to be clever with one’s head,
without trying to be good at the same time, it is of very
little use. But I hope you will try to mind your duty—
first to God and then to man; and if you do that, God
will prosper you and bless you. And may you live to-
be a good and loyal subject to our good Queen Victoria,
and her son after her, and a faithful member of Christ’s
own holy Church.










. THE APPRENTICE BOYS OF DERRY SHUTTING THE GATES,



CHAP. XXXIX.—WILLIAM III. & MARY II.
A.D. 1689—1702.
NAP HEN James II. proved to be entirely gone,
f the Parliament agreed to offer the crown to
William of Orange—the next heir after James’s chil-
dren—and Mary, his wife, James’s eldest daughter ; but
not until there had been new conditions made, which
would prevent the kings from ever being so power-
ful again as they had been since the time of Henry
VII. Remember, Magna Carta, under King John,
gave the power to the nobles. They lost it by the
wars of the Roses, and the Tudor kings gained it; but






eae
William ITl. and Mary IT, 207



the Stewart kings could not keep it, and the House of
Commons became the strongest power in the kingdom,
by the Revolution of 1688. The House of Commons,
you know, is made up of persons chosen—whenever
there is a general election—by the men who have a
certain amount of property in each county and large
town. There must be a fresh election, or choosing,
again every seven years; also, whenever the sovereign
dies; and the sovereign can dissolve the Parliament—
that is, break it up—and have a fresh election when-
ever itis thought right. But above the House of Com-
mons stands the House of Lords, or Peers. These
are not chosen, but the eldest son, or next heir of each
lord, succeeds to his seat upon his death; and fresh
peerages are given as rewards to great generals, great
lawyers, or people who have deserved well of their
country. When a law has to be made, it has first to be
agreed to by a majority—that is, the larger number—
of the Commons, then by a majority of the Lords, and
lastly, by the king or queen. The sovereign’s council
are called the ministers, and if the Houses of Parliament
do not approve of their way of carrying on the govern-
ment they vote against their proposals, and this gene-
rally makes them resign, that others may be chosen in
their place who may please the country better.




208 Stories of English Htstory.



This arrangement has gone on ever since William
and Mary came in. However, James II. still had many
friends, only they had been out of reach at the first
alarm. The Latin word for James is Jacobus, and,
therefore, they were called Jacobites. All Roman
Catholics were, of course, Jacobites; and there were
other persons who, though grieved at the king’s con-
duct, did not think it right to rise against him and drive
him away; and, having taken an oath to obey him,
held that it would be wrong to swear obedience to any-
one else while he was alive. Archbishop Sancroft was
one of these. He thought it wrong in the new queen,
Mary, to consent to take her father’s place; and when
she sent to ask his blessing, he told her to ask her
father’s first, as, without that, his own would do her little
good. Neither he nor Bishop Ken, and some other
bishops, nor a good many more of the clergy, would
take the oaths to William, or put his name instead of
that of James in the prayers at church. They rather
chose to be turned out of their bishoprics and parishes,
and to live in poverty. They were called the non-jurors,
or not-swearers.

Louis, King of France, tried to send James back,

and gave him the service of his fleet; but it was beaten
by Admiral Russell, off Cape La Hogue. Poor James




\





\ William ITT. and Mary I. 209



could not help crying out, “See my brave English
sailors!” One of Charles’s old officers, Lord Dundee,
raiséd an army of Scots in James’s favour, but he was
killed just as he had won the battle of Killiecrankie ;
and there was no one to take up the cause just then,
and the Scotch Whigs were glad of the change.

Most of James’s friends, the Roman Catholics, were
in Ireland, and Louis lent him an army with which to
go thither and try to win his crown back. He got on
pretty well in the South, but in the North—where
Oliver Cromwell had given lands to many of his old
soldiers—he met with much more resistance. At Lon-
donderry, the apprentice boys shut the gates of the
town and barred them against him. A clergyman
named George Walker took the command of the city,
and held it out for a hundred and five days against
him, till everyone was nearly starved to death—and at
last help came from England. William himself came
to Ireland, and the father and son-in-law met in battle

on the banks of the Boyne, on the 1st of July, 1690.

James was routed; and large numbers of the Irish
Protestants have ever since kept the 1st of July as a
great holiday—commemorating the victory by wearing
orange lilies and orange-coloured scarfs.

James was soon obliged to leave Ireland, and his








Stories of English History.

























friends there were severely punished. In the mean-
time, William was fighting the French in Holland—as
he had done nearly all. his life—while Mary governed
the kingdom at home. She was a handsome, stately
lady, and was much respected; and there was great
grief when she died of the small-pox, never having had
any children. It was settled upon this that William
should go on reigning as long as he lived, and then that
Princess Anne should be queen; and if she left no
children, that the next after her should be the youngest
daughter of Elizabeth, daughter of James I. Her name
was Sophia, and she was married to Ernest of Bruns-
wick, Elector of Hanover. It was also settled that no
Roman Catholic, nor even anyone who married a Roman
Catholic, could ever be on the English throne.

Most of the Tories disliked this Act of Settlement ;
and nobody had much love for King William, who was
a thin, spare man, with a large, hooked nose, and very
rough, sharp manners—perhaps the more sharp because
he was never in good health, and suffered terribly from
the asthma. However, he managed to keep all the
countries under him in good order, and he was very 4
active, and always at war with the French. ‘Towards -

the end of his reign a fresh quarrel began, in which all
Europe took part. The King of Spain died without






Witham IIT, and Mary 1, 211







children, and the question was who should reign after
him. The King of France had married one sister of
this king, and the Emperor of Germany was the son of
her aunt. One wanted to make his grandson king of
Spain, the other his son, and so there was a great war.
William III. took part against the French—as he had
always been their enemy; but just as the war was going
to begin, as he was riding near his palace of Hampton
Court, his horse trod into a mole-hill, and he fell,
breaking his collar bone: and this hurt his weak chest
so much that he died in a few days, in the year 1702.
The Jacobites were very glad to be rid of him, and
used to drink the health of the “little gentleman in a
black velvet coat,” meaning the mole which had caused
his death.


























CHAP. XL.—ANNE.

A.D. 1702—I1714. p

Coa Anne, the second daughter of James IL,
4, began to reign on the death of William III. She

was a well-meaning woman, but very weak and silly ;
and any person who knew how to manage her could
make her have no will of her own. The person
who had always had such power over her was Sarah
Jennings, a lady in her train, who had married an
officer named John Churchill. As this gentleman had
risen in the army, he proved to be one of the most
able generals who ever lived. He was made a peer,








Anne. 213



and, step by step, came to be Duke of Marlborough.
It was he and his wife who, being Whigs, had per-
suaded Anne to desert her father; and, now she was
queen, she did just as they pleased. The duchess was
mistress of the robes, and more queen at home than
Anne was: and the duke commanded the army which
was sent to fight against the French, to decide who
should be king of Spain. An expedition was sent to
Spain, which gained the rock of Gibraltar, and this has
been kept by the English ever since.

Never were there greater victories than were gained
by the English and German forces together, under the
Duke of Nadbercivh and Prince Eugene of Savoy,
who commanded the Emperor's armies. The first and
greatest battle of them all was fought at Blenheim, in
Bavaria, when the French were totally defeated, with
great loss. Marlborough was rewarded by the queen
and nation buying an estaté for him, which was called
Blenheim, where woods were planted so as to imitate
the position of his army before the battle, and a
grand house built and filled with pictures record-
ing his adventures. The other battles were all in
the Low Countries—at Ramillies, Oudenarde, and
Malplaquet. The city of Lisle was taken after a om |

siege, and not a summer went by without tidings com-
214 Stories of English Fiistory.





ing of some great victory, and the queen going in
a state coach to St. Paul’s Cathedral to return thanks
for it.

But all this glory of her husband made the Duchess
of Marlborough more and more proud and overbearing.
She thought the queen could not do without her, and
so she left off taking any trouble to please her; nay,
she would sometimes scold’ her more rudely than any.
real lady would do to any woman, however much below
her in rank. Sometimes she brought the poor queen
to tears; and on the day on which Anne went in state
to St. Paul’s, to return thanks for the victory of Oude-
narde, she was seen to be crying all the way from St.
James's Palace in her coach, with the six cream-
‘coloured horses, because the duchess had been scolding
her for putting on her jewels in the way she liked best,
- instead of in the duchess’s way.

Now, Duchess Sarah had brought to the palace, to
help to wait on the queen, a poor cousin of her own,
named Abigail Masham, a much more smooth and
gentle person, but rather deceitful. When the mistress
of the robes was unkind and insolent, the queen used
to complain to Mrs. Masham; and by-and-by Abigail
told her how to get free. There was a gentleman,
well known to Mrs. Masham—Mr. Harley, a member




Anne. 215



of Parliament and a Tory, and she brought him in by
the back stairs to see the queen, without the duchess
knowing it. He undertook, if the queen would stand by
him, to be her minister, and to turn out the Churchills
and their Whig friends, send away the tyrant duchess,
and make peace, so that the duke might not be wanted
any more. In fact, the war had gone on quite long
enough ; the power of the King of France was broken,
and he was an old man, whom it was cruel to press
further; but this was not what Anne’ cared about so
much as getting free of the duchess. There was great
anger and indignation among all the Whigs at the
breaking off the war in the midst of so much glory; and,
besides, the nation did not keep its engagements to the
others with whom it had allied itself. Marlborough
himself was not treated as a man deserved who had
won:'so much honour for his country, and he did not
keep his health many years after his fall. Once, when
he felt his mind getting weak, he looked up at his own
picture at Blenheim, taken when he was one of the
handsomest, most able, and active men in Europe, and
said sadly, “Ah! that was a man.”

Mr. Harley was made Earl of Oxford, and managed
the queen’s affairs for her. He and the Tories did not
at all like the notion of the German family of Bruns-









216 Stories of English History.





wick—Sophia and her son George—who were to reign
next, and they allowed the queen to look towards her
own family a little more. Her father had died in exile,
but there remained the young brother whom she had
disowned, and whom the French and the Jacobites
called King James III. If he would have joined the
English Church Anne would have gladly invited him,
and many of the English would have owned him as
the right king; but he was too honest to give up his
faith, and the queen could do nothing for him.

Till her time the Scots—though since James I. they
had been under the same king as England—had hada
separate Parliament, Lords and Commons, who sat at
Edinburgh ; but in the reign of Queen Anne the Scot-
tish Parliament was united to the English one, and the
members of it had to come to Westminster. This made
many Scotsmen so angry that they became Jacobites ;
but as everybody knew that the queen was a gentle,
old, well-meaning lady, nobody wished to disturb her,
and all was quiet as long as she lived, so that her reign
was an unusually tranquil one at home, though there
were such splendid victories abroad. It was a time,
too, when there were almost as many able writers as
in Queen Elizabeth’s time. The two books written at
that day, which you are most likely to have heard of,








Anne. 217



are Robinson Crusoe, written by Daniel Defoe, and
Alexander Pope’s translation of Homer’s Iliad.

Anne’s Tory friends did not make her happy; they
used to quarrel among themselves and frightened her :
and after one of their disputes she had a stroke, and
soon died of it, in the year 1714.

It was during Anne’s reign that it became the
fashion to drink tea and coffee. One was brought
from China, and the other from Arabia, not very long
before, and they were very dear indeed. The ladies
used to drink tea out of little cups of egg-shell china,
and the clever gentlemen, who were called the wits,
used to meet and talk at coffee-houses, and read news-
papers, and discuss plays and poems; also, the first
magazine was then begun. ' It was called “ The Spec-
tator,’ and was managed by Mr. Addison. It came
out once a week, and laughed at or blamed many of
the foolish and mischievous habits of the time. Indeed
it did much to draw people out of the bad ways that
had come in-with Charles II.























QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION.

oo

CuapTer I.—1. What were the people called who used to live
here? 2. Who were the fiercer natives who came and made war on
them? 3. What was the General of the Romans called? 4. Where
did Julius Cesar land? 5. In what year? 6. How often did Julius
Ceesar land in Britain? 7. What did he make the Britons give him? -
8. How did the old Britons dress? 9. What did they eat? 10. What
sort of houses had they? 11. How did they fight?



CHAPTER I].—z. When did any more Romans come to Britain?
2. Who was the Emperor under whom it was conquered? 3. What
brave British chief resisted Claudius. 4. How far north did the
Romans gain Britain? 5. What did they do to keep back the north-
people? 6. How may you know what towns were built by Romans?
7. How long did the Romans keep Britain? 8. What did they teach
the Britons? 9. What enemies had the Britons beyond sea? 10. What
were their two names? .11. What became of the Romans? 12. Who
was, King Arthur? 13. Who gained possession of the country? 14.
What did they call it? 15. What became of the Britons? 16. What
do we call their descendants ?

CuaPtTer III.—1. Can you tell me any of the old English idols?
2. What days of the week are called after them? 3. How many
kings were there at once in England? 4. What cruel things did they
do? 5. Who saw some little English slave children? 6. What did

-———_—}


Beye) Stories of English History.

Gregory say about the little Angles? 7. Whom did he send to Eng-
land? 8. Who received Augustine? 9. Where was the first English
Church? 10. What is the chief English Bishop called? 11. What
were the men called who lived apart from the world. 12. What were
the women called? 13. What were their houses called ?

CHAPTER IV.—1. Who were the enemies of the old English. 2.
Where did the Northmen and Danes come from? 3. What mischief
did they do? 4. Who was the first king of all England. 5. Who
- was the greatest and best king? 6. With whom did Alfred fight ?
7. What good did he do his people? 8. How did he teach them?
g. When did he die? 10. What was the Council of the old English
called ?

CHAPTER V.—1. What was the name of the king who reigned
peaceably? 2. What honour was done to Edgar the Peaceable? 3.
What were the Northmen and Danes about? 4. What were their
leaders called? 5. What sea-king settled in France? 6. What was
the part of France called where Rollo settled? 7. What was the name
of Edgar’s son? 8. How did Ethelred the Unready try to make the
Danes go away? 9. How did he treat those that stayed in England?
10. How was he punished? 11. What became of his children? 12.
Who reigned in England? 13. What sort of king was Cnut? 14.
What parts of England were settled by the Danes?

CHAPTER VI.—1. What great nobleman managed English affairs ?
2. Whom did he make king? 3. Why was Edward called Confessor ?
4. Of whom was the Confessor most fond? 5. Who were the Nor-
mans? 6. To whom did Edward want to leave England? 7. Whom









Questions for Examination. 271



did the English wish to have as king? 8. What did Harold promise ?
g. Did he keep his promise? 10. Who fought with him? 411. Where
did William land? 12. Where was the battle fought between William
and Harold? 13. What came of the battle of Hastings? 14. In
what year was it fought? 15. Tell me the four conquests of England.

CuarTer VII.—1. When did William I. begin to reign? 2. Who
rose up against him? 3. What did he do to Northumberland? 4.
What did he do in Hampshire? 5. What is his hunting-ground called ?
6. What is the curfew? 7.' What is Doomsday-book? 8. What
were knights? 9. How were men dressed when they went to battle?
to. How many sons had William? 11. What were their names? 12.
What was the quarrel with Robert? 13. What was the cause of
William’s death? 14. Where did he die? 15. In what year did he
die? 16. What possessions had he besides England?



Cuaprer VIII.—1. When did William II. begin to reign? 2.
What was his nickname, and what did it mean? 3. Was he the eldest
son? 4. So howcame he to reign? 5. What did Robert have? 6.
What enterprise did Robert undertake? 7. What were the Crusades?
8. What city did the Crusaders want to win back. 9. Why were they
called Crusaders? 1o. Who preached the first Crusade? 11. Who
led the first Crusade? 12. What sort of king was William Rufus?
13. Who was the Archbishop in his time? 14. Where was William
Rufus killed? 15. How had the New Forest been made? 16. Who
was thought to have shot the arrow? 17. In what year did William
II. die?

CHAPTER IX.—1. In what year did Henry I. begin to reign? 2.
What was his nickname, and what did it mean? 3. Whose son was







272 Stories of English History.



he? 4. How did he make himself king? 5. Whom did he marry?
6. Whom did he make prisoner? 7. Where was Robert imprisoned ?
8 How long was Robert in captivity? 9. Who were Henry’s two
children? 10. What became of William? 11. What was the name
of the ship in which he was drowned? 12. Whom did Henry wish to
make queen? 13. Whom did Maude marry? 14. What sort of king
. was Henry? 15. What caused his death? 16. In what year did
Henry I. die?

CHAPTER X.—1. When did Stephen’s reign begin? 2. Who was
Stephen? 3. What relation was he to William the Conqueror? 4.
Ought Stephen to have been king? 5. Who ought to have reigned? 6.
What harm came of Stephen’s reign? 7. What happened when he tried
to keep order? 8. Who fought for Maude? 9. Where were the Scots
beaten? 1o. Where was Stephen made prisoner? 11. How did
Maude behave? 12. How did she escape from Oxford? 13. What
agreement was made between Stephen and Maude’s son? 14. What
name was given to Maude’s husband? 15. Who was Maude’s son?
16. When did Stephen die? 17. What became of Maude?

CHAPTER XI.—1. When did Henry II. begin to reign? 2. What
family began with him? 3. Why were they called Plantagenet? 4.
What sort of man was Henry II.? 5. Who was his wife? 6. What
were Henry’s possessions in France? 7. Who was Archbishop? 8.
What law did the King and Archbishop dispute about? 9. Where
was the Archbishop obliged to go? 10. How long did Becket stay
away? 11. What was done as soon ashe came home? 12. How did
the King show his sorrow? 13. What island was gained in Henry’s
time? 14. Who gained part of Ireland? 15. What were Henry’s










Questions for Examination. 273



troubles? 16. What were the names of his sons? 17. Which of his
sons died before him? 18. But what was his greatest grief? 19.
When did he die?

CuHaptTer XIJ.—z. When did Richard I. come to the throne? 2.
What was he called? 3. On what expedition did he go? 4. Who
went with him? 5. What island did he conquer on his way? 6.
Who was the great Prince of the Saracens? 7. What city was taken
by the Crusaders? 8. With whom did Richard quarrel? 9. Why did
Philip return? 10. What great battle did Richard fight? 11. What
fresh quarrel had he with Leopold? 12. Why was he obliged to come
home? 13. What happened to him as he came home? 14. How
was he set free? 15. Who had tried to rebel in his absence? 16.
What caused his death? 17. In what year did he die?

CuapTeR XIII.—z. When did John come to the throne? 2.
What was his nickname? 3. Whose son was he? 4. Who was his
nephew? 5. What possessions were Arthur’s proper inheritance? 6.
Who took his part? 7. What became of Arthur? 8. What did John
lose? 9. What is all that is left to us of Normandy? 10. What do
you mean by the Pope? 11. What quarrel had John with the Pope?
12. What is an interdict? 13. How did John make peace? 14.
How did the legate treat him? 15. How did John use the kingdom?
16. What was he made to sign? 17. Where was Magna Charta
signed? 18. Who was invited from France? 19. What caused
John’s death? 20. In what year?

CHAPTER XIV.—1. When did Henry III. begin to reign? 2. In
what state was the kingdom? 3. Who saved it? 4. What was
Henry’s great fault? 5. What beautiful church was built in his time ?








274 Stories of English History.



6. Why were his people discontented with him? 7. What is the great
council of the nation called? 8. Who led the opposition against
Henry? 9. In what battle was Montfort victorious? 10. In what
battle was he defeated? 11. What custom was established in Henry’s
time? 12. What are the three estates of the realm? 13. How long
did Henry III. reign? 14. When did he die?

CHAPTER XV.—1. When did Edward I. begin to reign? 2. What
was his nickname? 3. How did he rule England? 4. What country
did he conquer? 5. Who were the Welsh? 6. Whom did he make
Prince of Wales? 7. Who is always called Prince of Wales? 8.
What country did Edward try to gain? 9. What warrior defended
Scotland? 1o. Where was Wallace defeated? 11. Who made himself
King of Scotland? 12. Where did Edward I. die? 13. In what year?

CHAPTER XVI.—r. When did Edward II. come to the throne? 2.
Who was his first favourite? 3. Who was his wife? 4. How did
Gaveston affront the nobles? 5. What became of him? 6. What
battle did Edward fight with the Scots? 7. Who was Edward’s second
favourite? 8. Who rose against the King? 9. Who was made king
in his stead? 10. What became of Hugh le Despenser? 11. What
became of Edward II.? 12. Where was he murdered? 13. In what
year ?

CuapTeR XVII.—z. When did Edward III. begin to reign? 2.
Who was his Queen? 3. What was the great war in Edward’s time?
4. What was the cause of it? 5. Why did Edward think he had a
right to be King of France? 6. What were the four great battles of
the reign of Edward III.? 7. Which of these was by sea? 8. Which
was with the Scots? 9. Which was fought by the Black Prince? 10.






pale te A.
Questions for Examination. 275



Who was the Black Prince? x11. What town was taken after the
battle of Crecy.. 12. What kings were prisoners to Edward III? 13.
What expedition did the Black Prince make? 14. Who were the
sons of Edward III.? 15. Which of them died before him? 16. In
what year did Edward III. die?



CHAPTER XVIII.—1. When did Richard II. come to the throne?
2. How old was he? 3. Who governed for him? 4. Who rose up
against their lords? 5. What became of Wat Tyler? 6. Which
uncle was Richard’s enemy? 7. How was the Duke of Gloucester
removed? 8. What great quarrel broke out? 9. What was the
King’s sentence? 10. Whoreturned? 11. What befel Richard II. ?
12. To whom did he give up his crown? 13. Where was he sent?
14. In what year was he deposed ?



CHAPTER XIX.—r. When did Henry IV. come to the crown? 2.
Whose son was he? 3. What relation was he to Edward III.? 4.
Who was Edward III.’s second son? 5. Who, then, was his nearest
heir? 6. Who, rose against Henry IV.? 7 Where was Hotspur
killed? 8. Where did the war go on? 9. Who were Henry’s four
sons? ro. Who were the prisoners at Windsor? 11. What did
Henry IV. tell his son on his deathbed? 12. In what year did Henry
IV. die? 13. What is his family called ?



CHAPTER XX.—1. Whén did Henry V. come to the throne? 2.
What war did he undertake? 3. Who had begun the war with
France? 4. Why did the Kings of England think they ought to be
Kings of France? 5. What was the state of the kingdom of France ?



a






276 Stories of English History.



6. What town did Henry take? 7. What battle did he fight? 8.
What is the eldest son of the King of France called? 9. What made
the French more easily beaten? 10. Whom did Henry marry? 11.
What agreement was made? 12. Where did Henry die? 13. In
what year ? ;

CHAPTER XXI.—1. When did Henry VI. come to the throne? 2.
How old was he? 3. Of what kingdom was he called king? 4.
Who governed his part of France? 5. Who rose up to help the
French? 6. Why was she called the Maid of Orleans? 7. What
became of her? 8. Who were quarrelling at home? 9. Who were the
Beauforts? 10. Who was John of Gaunt? 11. Whom did Henry
VI. marry? 12. What became of Duke Humfrey? 13. What city
was left to England in France? 14. What terrible war broke out in
England? 15. Why was it called the War of the Roses? 16. Why did
the Duke of York think he ought to be king? 17. From which son
of Edward III. did his right come? 18. From which son did Henry’s?
19. In what battle was the Duke of York killed? 20. Who took the
command of the Yorkists? 21. What battles were fought in the
north? 22. What became of the king? 23. When did Henry VI.
cease to reign?

CHAPTER XXIJ.—1. When did Edward IV. become king? 2.
What was the War of the Roses? 3. What was Earl Warwick called?
4. How did Edward affront Warwick? 5. Whom did Warwick bring
back? 6. What became of Edward? 7. What battles did he win?
8. What cruel murders were done on the House of Lancaster? 9.
Who were Edward’s brothers? 10. What happened to George? 11.
What invention was brought into England? 12. How were people
beginning to fight? 13. When did Edward IV. die?






Questions for Examination. gy5



CHAPTER XXIII.—1. What was the year of Edward V.’s reign?
2. Who was his brother? 3. Who were his uncles on his mother’s
side? 4. Who was his uncle on his father’s side? 5. What great
quarrel was there? 6. Which got the keeping of the king? 7. How
did the Duke of Gloucester get rid of the king’s friends? 8. Where
did the Queen go? 9. How was she made to give up the Duke of
York? 1o. Who made himself king? 11. Where were Edward and
Richard shut up? 12. What is thought to have become of them ?

CHAPTER XXIV.—1. When did Richard III. begin to reign? 2.
Why could he not be a great king? 3. Who turned against him? 4.
What was done to Buckingham? 5. Who also plotted against him?
6. Who was the mother of Henry Tudor? 7. Who was the father of
Margaret Beaufort? 8. Who was the father of the Beauforts? 9.
Who was the father of John of Gaunt? 10. Who wrote letters to
Henry Tudor? 11. Where did Henry Tudor land? 12. Where was
the battle fought? 13. Who was killed there? 14. In what year?
15. How long had the Plantagenets reigned? 16. Who was the first
Plantagenet king?

CuaprerR XXV.—1. When did Henry VII. begin to reign? 2.
Whom did he marry? 3. What were thus ended? 4. What family
began to reign? 5. Who were the two pretenders who rose up? 6.
Who did Lambert Simnel pretend to be? 7. What became of him ?
8. Who did Perkin Warbeck pretend to be? 9. What became of him?
to. Who was put to death at the same time? 11. Whose son was the
Earl of Warwick? 12. What were the names of Henry’s sons? 13.
Who was to be Arthur’s wife? 14. Which son died young? 15. Who
were Henry VII.’s wicked judges? 16. What learning was coming
in? 17. When did Henry VII. die.








278 Stories of English History.



CHAPTER XXVI.—1. When did Henry VIII. begin to reign? 2.
What battle did he fight in France? 3. What battle was fought with
the Scots? 4. Who was his Prime Minister? 5. What grand meeting
’ had Henry with the King of France? 6. Who was Henry’s wife? 7.
What objection had there been to his marrying her? 8. Who was
their only child? 9. What did Wolsey want to have done? tro.
Whom did the king want to marry? 11. Who was asked to decide?
12. Why did not. the Pope make an answer? 13. What proposal did
Cranmer make? 14. What became of Wolsey? 15. What sad words
did he say?

CHAPTER XXVII.—1. Why did Henry VIII. quarrel with the Pope?
2. What did he call himself? 3. Whom did he put to death for deny-
ing his headship? 4. What changes did he make in the Church? 5.
What was done with the monks and nuns? 6. But what was done
with those who wanted to make changes? 7. How many wives had
Henry? 8. Who was the king’s first wife? 9. What became of
Katharine of Aragon? 10. Who was her child? rz. Who was
Henry’s second wife? 12. Who was Anne Boleyn’s child? 13. What
became of Anne Boleyn? 14. Who was Henry’s third wife? 15.
Who was Jane Seymour’s child? 16, What became of Jane Seymour?
17. Who was Henry’s fourth wife? 18. What became of Anne of
Cleves? 19. Who was Henry’s fifth wife? 20. What became of
Katharine Howard? 21. Who was his sixth wife? 22. Now tell me
the names of the six wives? 23. In what year did Henry VIII. die?

CHAPTER XXVITI.—1z. When did Edward VI. come to the crown ?
2. How old was he? 3. Whoruled for him? 4. What was done to
the Prayer-Book? 5. What was the Reformation? 6. What name
was given to the reformers? 7. What further change was made? 8.








Questions for Examination. 279



Who was Archbishop of Canterbury? 9. Who overthrew the Duke
of Somerset? 10. To whom did the Duke of Northumberland want
Edward to leave his throne? 11. Whose grand-daughter was Jane
Grey? 12. Who was his right heiress? 13. Why did Northumberland
wish to hinder Mary from reigning? 14. How old was Edward when
he died? 15. In what year did Edward VI. die?

CHAPTER XXIX.—1. When did Mary I. come to the crown? 2.
Who was at first proclaimed Queen? 3. Why was Mary’s a better
right than Jane’s? 4. What became of Jane? 5. Whom did Mary
mairy? 6. What did they try to restore? 7. What was done to those
who would not return to the Roman Catholic doctrine? 8. What
four bishops were burnt? 9. Where did Bishop Hooper die? ro.
Where did Bishops Ridley and Latimer and Archbishop Cranmer die?
17. How many were burnt altogether? x2. Into what war was Mary
drawn? 13. What city was lost? 14. When did Mary I. die?



CHAPTER XXX.—1. When did Elizabeth come to the crown? 2.
What did she do for the Church? 3. Who was the first favourite ?
4. Who was her wise minister? 5. Who was the heiress to the crown?
6. What was Mary of Scotland’s right to England? 7. Of what was
Mary of Scotland accused? 8. Whither was she forced to flee? 9.
What was done with her? 10. How long was she kept in prison? - 11.
What was her end? 12. Why was she put to death? 13. Where was
she put to death ?

CHAPTER XXXI.—-1. Who was Queen Elizabeth’s chief foreign
enemy? 2. What subjects of his did he persecute? 3. Whom did
Elizabeth send to help them? 4. What was Sir Philip Sydney’s gene-
rosity? 5. What great fleet was sent from Spain against Elizabeth?












280 Stories of English Fistory.



6. What became of the Armada? 7. Who were Elizabeth’s great
sailors? 8, What settlement was made in her time? 9. Who was
Elizabeth’s second favourite? 10. What was the end of Lord Essex?
11. What was the Queen’s great grief? 12. When did Elizabeth die?
13. What family ended with her?

CHAPTER XXXII.—1z. When did James I. come to the crown?
2. Who was his mother? 3. From which English king was he de-
scended? 4. What kingdom had he already? 5. So what kingdoms
were joined together? 6. What good work was done in his time?
7. What conspiracy was made against him? 8. Where was the gun-
powder hidden? 9. How was the plot found out? 10. Who was
going to fire the powder? 11. Who was James’s great favourite? 12.
What became of Sir Walter Raleigh? 13. When did James I. die?
14. What family had begun with him?

CHAPTER XXXIII.—1. When did Charles I. come to the crown?
2. Who had been made powerful by Magna Carta? 3. How did the
barons grow weak? 4. Who had the power then? 5. But who had
grown strong? 6, How ought money for government to be raised? 7.
Who was the king’s friend? 8. Who was Archbishop of Canterbury ?
9. What rules did he enforce? ro. Who were the Puritans? 11.
Where did some of them go? 12. How did the king try to raise
money? 13. What was ship money? 14. What was the Star Chamber?
1s. What became of Buckingham? 16. How had Charles offended
the Scots? 17. Why was he obliged to call a parliament ?

CHAPTER XXXIV.—1. Why was the parliament angry with Charles
I.? 2. What friends of his did they imprison? 3. What noble did they

a




Questions for L:xamination. 281





behead? 4. How did Charles try to check the Parliament? 5. What
prevented his arresting the five members? 6. What war broke out?
4. What is a civil war? 8. What were the king’s friends called? 9.
What were the friends of the parliament called? 10. Who was the
king’s general? 11. What general rose to power among the Round-
heads? x12. What were the three great battles? 13. Who was put to
death by the parliament ? 14. What did the Puritans do? 15. Whose
protection did the king seek? 16. But what did the Scots do with
him? 17. What is this parliament called ?

CHAPTER XXXV.—1. Who was prisoner to the Long Parliament ?
2. How came Charles I. to be a prisoner? 3. What did the parlia-
ment ask ofhim? 4. Who took him out of the-hands of the parliament?
5. Who.had become the chief power? 6. How did Cromwell treat the
Long Parliament? 7. What did he then do to the king? 8. When was
the king beheaded? 9. Where was he buried? 10. Whom did the
Scots invite to reign? 11. Where were they beaten? 12. Where was
Charles hidden? 13. Where did he go and live? 14. What harm
came of their living there ?

CHapreR XXXVI.—1. Who ruled in England? 2. How did he
put an end to the Long Parliament? 3. What was Oliver Cromwell’s
parliament called? 4. What was Oliver Cromwell called? 5. How
long was he Protector? 6. Who was Protector after him? 7. What
did Richard Cromwell do? 8. Who was at the head of the army ?. 9.
What did General Monk decide on doing? 10. On what day did
Charles II. return? “11. What is the return of Charles II. called?
12. Whom did he bring back? 13. What regiment did he retain?
14. What was thus begun ?



,




282 Stories of English History.



CHAPTER XXXVII.—1. When did the reign of Charles II. begin ?
2. Why were the Puritans displeased? 3. Why were the Cavaliers
displeased? 4. What name came to be given to the Puritans? 5.
What name was given to the Cavaliers? 6. What war took place in
Charles II.’s time? 7. What great disasters befel London? 8. What
disturbances were there in Scotland? 9. Who was the next heir to the
crown? 10. What was the false plot? x11. What was the true plot?
12. Who was to be made king by the Rye House plot? 13. Who
were concerned in it? 14. What was the sentence on Lord Russell?
15. When did Charles IT. die?

CHAPTER XXXVIII.—1. When did James IT. come to the crown ?
2. To what church did he belong? 3. Who tried to become king in
his stead? 4. Where was Monmouth defeated? 5. What was his
punishment? 6. How was the revolt punished? 7. Why did the
people dislike James? 8. What command did he give the clergy?
g. How many bishops refused? 10. What was done to them? 11.
Why were the people vexed when the king’s son was born? 12. What

story did they tell? 13. Who came over to England? 14. Where
did William of Orange land? 15, What did King James do? 16.
Where did he live? 17. In what year did he flee away? 18. What
is this called? 19. Tell me the difference between the Reformation,
the Rebellion, the Restoration, and the Revolution ?

CHAPTER XXXIX.—1. When was William III. made king? 2.
Who was his wife? 3. Who was his mother? 4. So who were king
and queen together? 5. Who were now the strongest power? 6.
Who are the Commons? - 7. How often must they be chosen? 8.
Who are the House of Lords? 9. Who begin considering of a law?






Questions for Examination. 283



10. Who pass the law afterwards? 11. Who consents to it afterwards ?
12. What is the Council called? 13. Who were the Jacobites? 14.
Who were the Non-Jurors? 15. Who fought for James in Scotland ?
16. Where was there a sea-fight in his cause? 17..To what place did
he come himself? 18. Where were the gates shut against him? 1g. In
what battle was he defeated? 20. What was the Act of Settlement ?
21. What great war began at the end of his reign? 22. What caused
his death? 23. In what year?

CHAPTER XL.—1. When did Queen Anne begin to reign? 2.
Whose daughter was she? 3. Who were her favourites? 4. What
battles did the Duke of Marlborough gain? 5. What was the cause
of the war? 6. What place in Spain was gained by England? 7.
Who overthrew Marlborough? 8. What ministry came in? 9g. What
union took place in Anne’s time? 10. In what year did Anne die?

CHAPTER XLI.—1. In what year did George I. begin to reign? 2.
Whose son was he? 3. Whose daughter was the Electress Sophia?
4. Whose daughter was Elizabeth Stewart? 5. How came George I.
to be made King of England? 6. Who did the Jacobites think ought
to reign? 7. Why was not James Stewart allowed to reign? 8. What
did the Whigs call him? 9. What did the Tories call him? 10.
Where was there a rising for him? 11. In what year? 12. What two
battles were fought for him? 13. What noblemen were beheaded ?
14. Where did George I. generally live? 15. In what year did he die?

CHAPTER XLII.—1. When did George II. come to the throne?
. What great war was going on? 3. What was the last battle where

ae aoe ee eee see


284 Stories of English Flistory.

the kings of England and France were present? 4. Who came to try
to regain the crown of England? 5. What is the war with Charles
Edward called? 6. Who jommed him? 7. What battle did he gain?
8. How far south did he march? 9g. Where was he beaten? 10. What
strange adventures had they? x1. What are colonies? 12. Where
had the English colonies? 13. What was the great battle in Canada?
14. Who was killed there? 15. What was the Black Hole of Calcutta?
16. Who were George II.’s ministers? 17. When did George II.
die ?

Cuaprer XLIII.—1. When did George III. begin to reign? 2.
What relative was he to George II.? 3. Who was his father? 4.
What colony revolted from him? 5. What made the American
colonies revolt? 6. What were Franklin’s inventions? 7. What are
they now called? 8. Who was the great American leader? 9. Who
died when opposing their independence? 10. Who allied himsélf
with the Americans? 11. How many children had George III. ?

CuapTER XLIV.—1. Who were the three eldest sons of George
III? 2. Which of them was a grief and sorrow to him? 3. Who
was his great minister? 4. What Bill did Mr. Pitt want to bring in?
5. Why did George III. object? 6. What was the effect on him? 7.
What horrible things happened in France? 8. Who came to be the
great French leader? 9. Whom did he defeat in battle? 10. What
did he threaten to do in England? 11. Who was a great commander
by sea? 12. What were Nelson’s three great victories? 13. Where
was he killed? 14. What had Bonaparte risen to be? 15. How did
the English go on resisting him? 16. What was the sadness of the
king’s old age ?




Questions for Examination. 285



CuarprerR XLV.—1. What was the matter with George III.? 2.
Who governed the kingdom? 3. What great war was going on? 4.
Where did the English fight? 5. Who'was sent first to Spain? 6.
Where was Sir John Moore killed? 7. Who commanded afterwards ?
8. Where did he drive the French? 9. What was the war called?
ro. What were his great victories? 11. What was done with
Napoleon? 12. How soon did he escape? 13. Where was he
defeated? 14. To whom did he give himself up? 15. Where was he
kept? 16. In what year did George III. begin to reign? 17. In
what year did he die?

CHAPTER XLVI.—1. When did George IV. come to the crown?
2. Whom had he married? 3. How had she behaved? 4. Who was
their daughter? 5. What did George IV. try todo? 6. What parts
of his dominions did he visit? 7. What Bill was passed in his time?
8. What discoveries were made? 9. What towns grew large and rich?
to, Who were George IV.’s ministers? 11. When did George IV. die?

CHAPTER XLVII.—1. When did William IV. come to the throne ?
2. Whose son was he? 3. Which party were his friends? 4. What
Bill was passed in his time? 5. What riots took place? 6. What
change did the Reform Bill make? 7. What cruel thing used to be
done in the West India Islands? 8. Who tried to put an end to
slavery? 9. When was the slave trade forbidden? x10. When were
the slaves set free? 11. When did William IV. die?

CHAPTER XLVIII.—1. When did Queen Victoria begin to reign ?
2. Whose daughter is she? 3. Whose grand-daughter? 4. Who was








286 Stories of English History.



her husband ? 5. What was the first great war in her time? 6, Where
was it fought out? 7. Who commanded the English? 8. What town
was besieged? 9g. What were the three great battles of the Crimean war ?

CHAPTER XLIX.—1. What terrible disaster happened in India?
2. Who were the Sepoys? 3. What made the Sepoys angry? 4.
What was their mutiny? 5. Where did they make the most horrible
murders? 6. What city held out against the Sepoys? 7. What city
was besieged by the English? 8. Who put down the mutiny? 9. In
what year did the Prince Consort die ?

CuarTeR L.—1. Who is the Princess of Wales? 2. In what
African country was there a war? 3. What was the name of the king?
4. What was the name of his capital? 5. Who was the English general ?
6. What became of Theodore? 7. What great war was there in 1870?
8. What had the English to do with that ?





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THE EARL OF NITHSDALE’S ESCAPE.





CHAP. XLI.—GEORGE I.
A.D. 1714-1725.
oie Electress. Sophia, who had always desired to
be queen of England, had died a few months be-
fore Queen Anne; and her son George, who liked his
own German home much better than the trouble of
reigning in a strange country, was in no hurry to come,
and waited to see whether the English would not pre-
fer the young James Stewart. But as no James arrived
George set off, rather unwillingly, and was received in
London in a dull kind of way. He hardly knew any
English, and was obliged sometimes to talk bad Latin
George I. 219



and sometimes French, when he consulted with his
ministers, He did not bring a queen with him, for he’
had quarrelled with his wife, and shut her up in a castle
in Germany; but he had a son, also named George,
who had a very clever, handsome wife—Caroline, of
Anspach, a German princess ; but the king was jealous
of them, and generally made them live abroad.

Just when it was too late, and George I. had
thoroughly settled into his kingdom, the Jacobites in
the North of England and in Scotland began to make
a stir, and invited James-Stewart over to try to gain
the kingdom. The Jacobites used to call him James
III., but the Whigs called him the Pretender; and the
Tories used, by way of a middle course, to call him the
Chevalier—the French word for a knight, as that he
certainly was, whether he were king or pretender. A
white rose was the Jacobite mark, and the Whigs still
held to the orange lily and orange ribbon, for the sake
of William of Orange.

The Jacobite rising did not come to any good. Two

‘battles were fought between the king’s troops and the
Jacobites—one in England and the other in Scotland
—on the very same day. The Scottish one was at
Sheriffmuir, and was so doubtful, that the old Scottish
song about it ran thus—


Stories of English History.



Some say that we won,
And’some say that they won,
Some say that none won

At a’, man ;

But of one thing I’m sure,
That at Sheriff-muir
A battle there was,

Which I saw, man.

And we ran, and they ran,

And they ran, and we ran,

And we ran, and they ran—
Awa, man.

The English one was at Preston, and in it the Jacobites
were all defeated and made prisoners; so that when
their friend the Chevalier landed in Scotland, he found
that nothing could be done, and had to go back again
to Italy, where he generally lived, under the Pope’s
protection; and where he married a Polish princess,
and had two sons, whom he named Charles Edward
and Henry. ;
This rising of the Jacobites took place in the year
1715, and is, therefore, generally called: the Rebellion
of the Fifteen. The chief noblemen who were engaged
in it were taken to London to be tried. Three were
beheaded ; one was saved upon his wife’s petition ; and
one, the Earl of Nithsdale, by the cleverness of his




George I. 221

wife.. She was allowed to go and see him in the Tower,
and she took a tall lady in with her, who contrived
to wear a double set of outer garments. The friend
went away, after a time; and then, after waiting till
the guard was changed, Lady Nithsdale dressed her
husband in the clothes that had been brought in: and
he, too, went away, with the hood over his face and a
handkerchief up’to his eyes, so that the guard might
take him for the other lady, crying bitterly at parting
with the earl. The wife, meantime, remained for some
time, talking and walking up and down as heavily as
she could, till the time came when she would naturally
be obliged to leave him—when, as she passed by his
servant, she told him that “My lord would not be
ready for the candles just yet,’—and then left the
Tower, and went to a little lodging in a back street,
where she found her husband, and where they both lay
hid while the search for Lord Nithsdale was going on,
and where they heard the knell tolling when his friends,
~ the other lords, were being led out to have their heads
cut off. Afterwards, they made their escape to France,
where most of the Jacobites who had been concerned
in the rising were living, as best they could, on small _
means—and some of them by becoming soldiers of the
King of France.


Stories of English History.



England was prosperous in the time of George [.,
and the possessions of the country in India were grow-
ing, from a merchant’s factory here and there, to large
lands and towns. But the English never liked King
George, nor did he like them; and he generally spent
his time in his own native country of Hanover. He
was taking a drive there in his coach, when a letter
was thrown in at the window. As he was reading it,
a sudden stroke of apoplexy came on, and he died in a
few hours’ time. No one ever knew what was in the
letter, but some thought it was a letter reproaching
him with his cruelty to his poor wife, who had died in
her prison about eight months before. He died in the
year 1725.

Gentlemen were leaving off full-bottomed wigs now,
and wearing smaller ones; and younger men had their
own hair powdered, and tied up with ribbon in a long
tail behind, called a queue. Ladies powdered their hair,
and raised it to an immense height, and also wore
monstrous hoops, long ruffles, and high-heeled shoes.
Another odd fashion was that ladies put black patches
on their faces, thinking they made them look hand-
somer. Both ladies and gentlemen took snuff, and car-
ried beautiful snuff-boxes.












































CHAP. XLII.—GEORGE II.
A.D. 1725—1760.,

EYSHE reign of George II. was a very warlike one.
% Indeed he was the last king of England who ever
“was personally in a battle; and, curiously enough, this
battle—that of Fontenoy—was the last that a king of
France was also present in. It was, however, not a
very interesting battle, and it was not clear who really
won it, nor are the wars of this time very easy to, un-

derstand. -
The battle of Fontenoy was fought in the course
of a great war to decide who should be emperor of








224 Stories of English Flistory.



Germany, in which France and England took different
sides; and this made Charles Edward Stewart, the
eldest son of James, think it was a good moment for
trying once again to get back the crown of his fore-
fathers. He was a fine-looking young man, with win-
ning manners, and a great deal more spirit than his
father: and when he landed in Scotland with a very
few followers, one Highland gentleman after another
- was so delighted with him that they all brought their
clans to join him, and he was at the head of quite a
large force, with which he took. possession of the town
of Edinburgh; but he never could take the castle.
The English army was most of it away fighting in Ger-
many, and the soldiers who met him at Prestonpans,
close to Edinburgh, were not well managed, and were
easily beaten by the Highlanders. Then he marched
straight on into England: and there was great terror,
for the Highlanders—with their plaids, long swords, and
strange language—were thought to be all savage rob-
bers, and the Londoners expected to have every house
and shop ruined and themselves murdered : though on
_ the whole the Highlanders behaved very well. They
would probably have really entered London if they had
gone on, and reached it before the army could come
home, but they grew discontented and frightened at |






George IT. 225



being so far away from their own hills; and at Derby,
Charles Edward was obliged to let fem turn back to
Scotland.

The English army had come back by this time, and
the Scots were followed closely, getting more sad and
forlorn, and losing men in every day’s march, till at last,
after they had reached Scotland again, they made a
stand against the English under the king’s second son,
William, Duke of Cumberland, at the heath of Cul-
loden. There they were entirely routed, and the prince
had to fly, and hide himself in strange places and dis-
guises, much as his great uncle, Charles II., had done
before him. A young lady named Flora Macdonald
took him from one of the Western Isles to another in
a boat as her Irish maid, Betty Bourke ; and, at another
time, he was hid in a sort of bower, called the cage,
woven of branches of trees on a_ hill side, where he
lived with three Highlanders, who used to go out by
turns to get food. One of them once brought him a
piece of ginger-bread as a treat—for they loved him
heartily for being patient, cheerful, and thankful for all
they did for him; and when at last he found a way of
reaching France, and shook hands with them on bidding
them farewell, one of them tied up his right hand, and
vowed that no meaner person should ever touch it.


226 Stories of English History.



His friends suffered as much as he did. The Duke
of Cumberland and his soldiers cruelly punished all the
places where he had been received, and all the gentle-
men who had supported him were, if they were taken,
tried and put to death as traitors—mostly at Carlisle.
This, which was called the Rebellion of the Forty-five
—hbecause it happened in the year 1745—-was the last
rising in favour of the Stewarts. Neither Charles
Edward nor his brother Henry had any children, and
so the family came to an end.

The Empress Maria Theresa, of Geniany had a
long war with Frederick, King of Prussia, who was
nephew to George II., and a very clever and brave
man, who made his little kingdom of Prussia very war-
like and brave. But he was not a very good man, and
these were sad times among the great people, for few
of them thought much about being good: and there
were clever Frenchmen’ who laughed at all religion.
You know one of the Psalms says, “ The fool hath said
in his heart, There is no God.” There were a great
many such fools at that time, and their ways, together
with the selfishness of the nobles, soon brought terrible
times to France, and all the countries round.

The wars under George II. were by sea as well as
by land: and, likewise, in the distant countries where -






George IT. 227



Englishmen, on the one hand, and Frenchmen, on the

other, had made those new homes that we call colonies.

In North America, both English and French had large

settlements ; and when the kings at home were at war,

there were likewise battles in these distant parts, and

the wild Red Indians were stirred up to take part with

the one side or the other. They used to attack the

homes of the settlers, burn them, kill and torment the

men, and keep the children to bring up among their
own. The English had, in general, the advantage,

especially in Canada, where the brave young General

Wolfe led an attack, on the very early morning, to the

Heights of Abraham, close to the town of Quebec. He
was struck down by a shot early in the fight, and lay”
on the ground with a few officers round him. “They
run, they run!” he heard them cry. “Who run?” he
asked. “The French run.” “Then I die happy,” he
said ; and it was by this battle that England won Lower
Canada, with many French inhabitants, whose descen-

dants still speak their old language.

In the East Indies, too, there was much fighting.
The English and French both had merchants there;
and these had native soldiers to guard them, and made

friends with the native princes. When these princes
quarrelled they helped them, and so obtained a larger




228 = Stories of English History.







footing. But in this reign the English power was
nearly ended in a very sad way. A native Indian came
suddenly down on Calcutta. Many English got on
board the ships, but those who could not—146 in num-
ber—were shut up all night in a small room, in the
hottest time of the year, and they were so crushed to-
gether and suffocated by the heat that, when the morn- |
ing came, there were only twenty-three of them alive.
This dreadful place was known as the Black Hole of
Calcutta. The next year Calcutta was won back again ;
and the English, under Colonel Clive, gained so much
ground that the French had no power left in India, and
the English could go on obtaining more and more land,
riches, and power.

George II. had lost his eldest son, Frederick, Prince
of Wales, and his lively and clever wife, Queen Caroline,
many years before his death. His chief ministers were,
first, Sir Robert Walpole, and afterwards the Earl of
Chatham—able men, who knew how to manage the
country through all these wars. The king died at last,
quite suddenly, when sixty-eight years old, in the year
1760. ;








i

i













DEATH OF CHATHAM.



CHAP. XLIII—GEORGE III.
A.D. 1760—1785.

4wX.FTER George II. reigned his grandson, George

sd III., the son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, who
had died before his father. The Princess of Wales was
a good woman, who tried to bring up her children
well; and George III. was a dutiful son to her, anda
good, faithful man—always caring more to do right
than for anything else. He had been born in England,
and did not feel as if Hanover were his home, as his
father and grandfather had done, but loved England,
and English people, and-ways. When he was at Wind-






230 Stories of English Flistory.



sor, he used to ride or walk about like a country squire,
and he had a ruddy, hearty face and manner, that made
him sometimes be called Farmer George; and he had
an odd way of saying “What? what?” when he was
spoken to, which made him be laughed at; but he was
as good and true as any man who ever lived: and:
when he thought a thing was right, he was as firm as
a rock in holding to it. He married a German princess
named Charlotte, and they did their very utmost to
make all those about them good. They had a very
large family—no less than fourteen children—and some
old people still remember what a beautiful sight it was
when, after church on Sunday, the king and queen and
their children used to walk up and down the stately
terrace at Windsor Castle, with a band playing, and
everyone who was respectably dressed allowed to come
and look at them.

Just after George III. came to the crown, a great
war broke out in the English colonies in America. A
new tax had been made. A tax means the money that
has to be given to the Government of a country to pay
the judges and their officers, the soldiers and the sailors,
to keep up ships and buy weapons, and do all that is
wanted to protect us and keep us in order. Taxes are
sometimes. made by calling on everybody to pay money
George III. 231





in proportion to what they have—say threepence for
every hundred pounds; sometimes they are made by
putting what is called a duty on something that is
bought and sold—making it sell for more than its
natural price—so that the Government gets the money
above the right cost. This is generally done with things
that people could live without, and had better not buy
too much of—such as spirits, tobacco, and hair-powder.
And as tea was still a new thing in England, which
only fine ladies drank, it was thought useless, and there
was a heavy duty laid upon it when the king wanted
money. Now, the Americans got their tea straight from
China, and thought it was unfair that they should pay
tax on it. So, though they used it much more than
the English then did, they gave it up, threw whole
ship-loads of it into the harbour at Boston, and resisted
the soldiers. A gentleman named George Washington
took the command, and they declared they would fight
for freedom from the mother country. The French
were beginning to think freedom was a fine thing, and
at first a few French gentlemen came over to fight
among the Americans, and then the king, Louis XVI,
quarrelled with George I11., and helped them openly.

There was a very clever man among the Americans
named Benjamin Franklin, a printer by trade, but who


232 Stories of English History.



made very curious discoveries. One of them was that
lightning. comes from the strange power men call elec-
tricity, and that there are some substances which it will
run along, so that it can be brought down to the ground
without doing any mischief—especially metallic wires.
He made sure of it by flying a kite, with such an iron
wire, up to the clouds when there was a thunder-storm.
The lightning was attracted by the wire, ran right down
the wet string of the kite, and only glanced off when it
came to a silk ribbon—because electricity will not go
along silk. After this, such wires were fastened to build-

_ ings, and carried down into the ground, to convey away

the force of the lightning. Perhaps you have seen them
on the tops of churches or tall buildings; they are called
conductors. Franklin was a plain-spoken, homely-dres-
sing man; and when he was sent to Paris on the affairs
of the Americans, all the great ladies and gentlemen
went into raptures about his beautiful simplicity, and
began to imitate him, in a very affected, ridiculous way.

In the meantime, the war went on between America
and England, year after year; and the Americans be-
came trained soldiers and got the better, so that George
III. was advised to give up his rights over them. Old
Lord Chatham, his grandfather's minister, who had long
been too sick and feeble to undertake any public busi-






George Il. 233



ness, thought it so bad for the country to give anything
up, that he came down to the House of Lords to make
a speech against doing so; but he was not strong
enough for the exertion, and had only just done speak-
ing when he fainted away, and his son, William Pitt,
was called out of the House of Commons to help to
carry him away to his coach. He was taken home, and
died in a few days’ time.

The war went on, but when it had lasted seventeen
years, the English felt that peace must be made; and
so George III. gave up his rights to all that country
that is called the United States of America. The
United States set up a Government of their own, which
has gone on ever since, without a king, but with a Pre-
sident, who is freshly chosen every five years, and for
whom every man in the country has a vote.

As if to make up for what was lost in the West, the
English were winning a great deal in the East Indies,
chiefly from a great prince called Tippoo Sahib, who was
very powerful, and at one time took a number of Eng-
lish officers prisoners, and drove them to his city of
Seringapatam, chained together in pairs, and kept them
half starved in a prison, where several died ; but he was
defeated and killed. They were set free by their country-
men, after nearly two years of grievous hardship.














DEATH OF NELSON,





CHAP. XLIV.—GEORGE III.

A.D. 1785—18I0.

KY SHE chief sorrow of George III. was that his eldest

sons were wild, disobedient young men. George,
Prince of Wales, especially, was very handsome, and
extremely proud of his own beauty. He was called
the First Gentleman in Europe, and set the fashion in
every matter of taste; but he spent and wasted money
to a shameful amount, and was full of bad habits; be-
sides which, he used to set himself in every way in his
power to vex and contradict his father and mother,
whom he despised for their plain simple ways and their
George ILI. 235



love of duty. The next two brothers—Frederick, Duke
of York, and William, Duke of Clarence—had also very
bad habits; but they went astray from carelessness,
and did not wilfully oppose their father, like their
eldest brother.

William Pitt, son of Lord Chatham, was Prime Minis-
ter. He thought that the Roman Catholics in England
ought to have the same rights as the king’s other sub-
jects, and not be hindered from being members of Par-
liament, judges, or, indeed, from holding any office; and
he wanted to bring a bill into Parliament for this pur-
pose. But the king thought that for him to consent
would be contrary to the oath he had sworn when he
was crowned, and which had. been drawn up when
William of Orange came over. Nothing would make
George III. break his word, and he remained firm,
though he was so harassed and distressed that he fell
ill, and lost the use of his reason for a time. There
_ were questions whether the regency—that is, the right
to act as king—should be given to the son, who, though
his heir, was so unlike him, when he recovered; and
there was a great day of joy throughout the nation,
when he went in state to St. Paul’s Cathedral to return
thanks.

In the meantime, terrible troubles were going on in








236 Stories of English History.



France. Neither the kings nor the nobles had, for ages
past, had any notion of their proper duties to the people
under them, but had ground them down so hard that
at last they could bear it no longer; and there was a
|. great rising up throughout the country, which is known °
as the Great French Revolution.. The king who was
then reigning was a good and kind man, Louis XVI.,
who would gladly have put things in better order; but
he was not as wise or firm as he was good, and the peo-
ple hated him for the evil doings of his forefathers. So,
while he was trying to make up his mind what to do,
the power was taken out of his hands, and he, with his
wife, sister, and two children, were shut up in prison.
An evil spirit came into the people, and made them be-
lieve that the only way to keep themselves free would
be to get rid of all who had been great people in the
former days. So they set up a machine for cutting off
heads, called the. guillotine; and there, day after day,
nobles and priests, gentlemen and ladies—even the
king, queen, and princess, were brought and slain.
The -two children were not guillotined, but the poor
little boy, only nine years old, was worse off than if he
had been, for the cruel wretches who kept him called
him the wolf-cub, and said he was to be got rid of ; and
they kept him alone in a dark, dirty room, and used
George Il. 237



him so ill that he pined to death. His sister remained
in prison till better days came. Many French gentry
and clergymen fled to England, and there were kindly
treated and helped to live; and the king’s brother, now
the rightful king himself, found a home there too. 7

At last the French grew weary of this horrible blood-
shed; but, as they could not manage themselves, a
soldier named Napoleon Bonaparte, by his great clever-
ness and the victories he gained over other nations,
succeeded in getting all the power. His victories were
wonderful. He beat the Germans, the Italians, the Rus-
sians, and conquered wherever he went. There was
only one nation he never could beat, and that was the
English; though he very much wanted to have come
over here with a great fleet and army, and have con-
quered our island. All over England people got ready.
All the men learnt something of how to be soldiers,
and made themselves into regiments of volunteers ; and
careful watch was kept against the quantities of flat-
bottomed boats that Bonaparte had made ready to bring
his troops across the English Channel. But no one had
ships and sailors like the English; and, besides, they had
the greatest sea-captain who ever lived, whose name was
Horatio Nelson. When the French went under Napoleon
to try to conquer Egypt and all the East, Nelson went


238 Stories of English History.



after them with his ships, and beat the whole French
fleet, though it was a great deal larger than his own, at
the mouth of the Nile, blowing up the Admiral’s ship,
and taking or burning many more. Afterwards, when
the King of Denmark was being made to take part
against England, Nelson’s fleet sailed to Copenhagen,
fought a sharp battle, and took all the Danish ships.
And lastly, when Spain had made friends with France,
and both their fleets had joined together against Eng-
land, Lord Nelson fought them both off Cape Trafalgar,
and gained the greatest of all his victories; but it was
his last, fora Frenchman on the mast-head shot him
through the backbone, and he died the same night. No
one should ever forget the order he gave to all his sai-
lors in all the ships before the battle—“ England expects
every man to do his duty.”

After the battle of Trafalgar the sea was cleared of
the enemy’s ships, and there was no more talk of invad-
ing England. Indeed, though Bonaparte overran nearly
all the Continent of Europe, the smallest strip of sea
was enough to stop him, for his ships could not stand
before the English ones.

yj . All this time English affairs were managed by Mr.

Pitt, Lord Chatham’s son; but he died the very same
year as Lord Nelson was killed, 1805, and then his




George III. 239

great rival, Mr. Fox, was minister in his stead : but he,
too, died very soon, and affairs were managed by less
clever men, but who were able to go on in the line that
Pitt had marked out for them : and that was, of stand-
ing up with all our might against Bonaparte—though
he now called himself the Emperor, Napoleon I., and
was treading down every country in Europe.

The war time was a hard one at home in England,
for everything was very dear and the taxes were high ;
but everyone felt that the only way to keep the French
away was to go on fighting with them, and trying to
help the people in the countries they seized upon. So
the whole country stood up bravely against them.

Sad trouble came on the good old king in his later
years. He lost his sight, and, about the same time,
died his youngest child, the Princess Amelia, of whom
he was very fond. His grief clouded his mind again,
and there was no recovery this time. He was shut up
in some rooms at Windsor Castle, where he had music
to amuse him, and his good wife, Queen Charlotte,
watched over him carefully as long as she lived.



won














































































NAPOLEON ON BOARD THE BELLEROPHON,.

CHAP. XLV.—GEORGE III.—THE REGENCY.
A.D, 1810—1820,

AAQHEN George III. lost his senses, the govern-

WM! ment was given to his son, the Prince of Wales
—the Prince Regent as he was called. Regent means.a
person ruling instead of the king. Everyone expected
that, as he had always quarrelled with his father, he
would change everything and have different ministers ;
but instead of that, he went on just as had been done
before, fighting with the French, and helping every
country that tried to lift up its head against Bonaparte.

Spain was one of these countries. Napoleon had
























George IlI.—The Regency. 241



wickedly managed to get the king, and queen, and
eldest son, all into his hands together, shut them up as
prisoners in France, and made his own brother king.
But the Spaniards were too brave to bear this, and
they rose up against him, calling the English to help
them. Sir John Moore was sent first, and he marched
an army into Spain; but, though the Spaniards were
brave, they were not steady, and when Napoleon sent
more troops he was obliged to march back over steep
hills, covered with snow, to Corunna, where he had left
the ships. The French followed him, and he had to
fight a battle to drive them back, that his soldiers might
embark in quiet. It was a great victory; but in the
midst of it Sir John Moore was wounded by a cannon
shot, and only lived long enough to hear that the battle
was won. He was buried at the dead of night on the
ramparts of Corunna, by his officers, wrapped in his
cloak, just before they embarked for England. + a

However, before the year was over, Sir Arthur Wel-
lesley was sent out to Portugal and Spain. He never
once was beaten, and though twice he had to retreat
into Portugal, he soon won back the ground he had
lost ; and in three years’ time he had driven the French
quite out of Spain, and even crossed the Pyrenéan
mountains after them, forcing them back into their own




242 Stories of English History.



country, and winning the battle of Toulouse on their
own ground. This grand war had more victories in it
than you will easily remember. The chief of them were
at Salamanca, Vittoria, Orthes, and Toulouse; and the
whole war was called the Peninsular War, because it
was fought in the Peninsula of France and Spain. Sir
Arthur Wellesley had been made Duke of Wellington,
to reward him, and he set off across France to meet
the armies of the other European countries. For, while
the English were fighting in Spain, the other states of
Europe had all joined together against Napoleon, and
driven him away from robbing them, and hunted him
at last back to Paris, where they made him give up all
his unlawful power. The right king of France, Louis
XVIII., was brought home, and Napoleon was sent to
a little island named Elba, in the Mediterranean Sea,
where it was thought he could do no harm.

But only the next year he managed to escape, and
came back to France, where all his old soldiers were
delighted to see him again. The king was obliged to
fly, and Napoleon was soon at the head of as large and
fierce an army as ever. The first countries that were
ready to fight with him were England and Prussia. The
Duke of Wellington with the English, and Marshal
Blucher with the Prussian army, met him on the field




of Waterloo, in Belgium; and there he was so entirely
defeated that he had to flee away from the field. But
he found no rest or shelter anywhere, and at last was
obliged to give himself up to the captain of an English
ship named the Bellerophon. He was taken to Ply-
mouth harbour, and kept in the ship while it was being
determined what should be done with him: and at
length it was decided to send him to St. Helena, a very
lonely island far away in the Atlantic Ocean, whence he
would have no chance of escaping. There he was kept
for five years, at the end of which time he died.

The whole of Europe was at peace again; but the
poor old blind King George did not know it, nor how
much times had changed in his long reign. The war
had waked people up from the dull state they had been
in so long, and much was going on that began greater
changes than anyone thought of. Sixty years before,
when he began to reign, the roads were so bad that it
took three days to go by coach to London from Bath ;
now they were smooth and good, and fine swift horses
were kept at short stages, which made the coaches take
only a few hours on the journey. Letters came much
quicker and more safely; there were a great many

newspapers, and everybody was more alive.» Some_

great writers there were, too: the Scottish poet, Walter

George I1I.—The Regency. 243




244 Stories of English History.



Scott, who wrote some of the most delightful tales there
are in the world; and three who lived at the lakes—
Wordsworth, Southey, and Coleridge. It was only in
this reign that people cared to write books for children.
Mrs. Trimmer’s “ Robins,” Mr. Day’s “Sandford and
Merton,” and Miss Edgeworth’s charming stories were
being written in those days. Mrs. Trimmer, and
another good lady called Hannah More, were trying to
get the poor in villages better taught; and there was a
very good Yorkshire gentleman—William Wilberforce
—who was striving to make people better.

As to people’s looks in those days, they had quite
left off wigs—except bishops, judges, and lawyers, in
their robes. Men had their hair short and curly, and
wore coats shaped like evening ones—generally blue,
with brass buttons—buff waistcoats, and tight trousers
tucked into their boots, tight stocks round their necks,
and monstrous shirt-frills. Ladies had their gowns and
pelisses made very short-waisted, and as tight and nar-
row as they could be, though with enormous sleeves in
them, and their hair in little curls on their foreheads.
Old ladies wore turbans in evening dress; and both
they and their daughters had immense bonnets and
hats, with a high crown and very large front.

In the year 1820, the good old king passed away.






CHAP. XLVI.—GEORGE IV.

A.D. 1820—1830.

8 EORGE IV. was not much under sixty years old

when he came to the throne, and had really been
king in all but the name for eight years past. He had
been married to the Princess Caroline of Brunswick,
much against his will, for she was, though a princess,
far from being a lady in any of her ways, and he dis-
liked her from the first moment he saw her; and
though he could not quite-treat her as Henry VIII.
had treated Anne of Cleves, the two were so unhappy
together that, after the first year, they never lived in


















246 Stories of English History.



the same house. They had had one child, a daughter,
named Charlotte—a good, bright, sensible, high-spirited

girl—on whom all the hopes of the country were fixed ;
but as she grew up, there were many troubles between
her love and her duty towards her father and mother.
As soon as the peace was made, the Princess of Wales
went to Italy and lived there, with a great many people

_of bad characters about her. Princess Charlotte was mar-
ried to’ Prince Leopold of Saxe-Cobourg, and was very :
happy with him; but, to the great grief of all England,
she died in the bloom of her youth, the year before her
grandfather.

George IV., though he was so much alone in the
world, prepared to have a most splendid coronation ;
but as soon as his wife heard that he was king, she set
off to come to England and be crowned with him. He
was exceedingly angry, forbade her name to be put
into the Prayer-books as queen, and called on the House
of Lords to break his marriage with one who had
proved herself not worthy to be a wife. There was a
great uproar about it, for though the king’s friends
wanted him to be rid of her, all the country knew that
he had been no better to her than she had been to him,
and felt it unfair that the weaker one should have all
the shame and disgrace, and the stronger one none.




- George IV. 247 ©



One of Caroline’s defenders ‘said that if her name were
left out of the Litany, yet still she was prayed for there
as one who was desolate and oppressed. People took
up her cause much more hotly than she deserved, and
the king was obliged to give up the enquiry into her
behaviour, but still he would not let her be crowned.
In the midst of all the splendour and solemnity in
Westminster Abbey, a carriage was driven to the door
and entrance was demanded for the queen ; but she was
kept back, and the people did not seem disposed to in-
terrupt the show by doing anything in her favour, as
she and her friends had expected. She went back to her
rooms, and, after being more foolish than ever in her
ways, died, of fretting and pining. It is a sad history,
where both were much to blame; and it shows how hate-
ful to the king she must have been, that, when Napoleon
died he was told his greatest enemy was dead, he an-
swered, “ When did se die?” But if he had been a good
man himself, and not selfish, he would have borne with
the poor, ill brought up, giddy girl, when first she came,
and that would have prevented her going so far astray.

George IV. made two journeys—one to Scotland,
and the other to Ireland. He was the first of the House
of Brunswick who ever visited these other two king-
doms, and he was received in both with great splen-


248 Stories of English History.



dour and rejoicing; but after this his health began to
fail, and he disliked showing himself. He spent most
of his time at a house he had built for himself at Brigh-
ton, called the Pavilion, and at Windsor, where he
used to drive about in the park. He was kind and
gracious to those with whom he associated, but they
were as few as possible.

He was vexed and angry at having to consent to the
Bill for letting Roman Catholics sit in Parliament, and
hold other office—the same that his father had stood
out against. It was not that he cared for one religion
more than another, for he had never been a religious
man, but he saw that it would be the beginning of a
great many changes that would altér the whole state of
things. His next brother, Frederick, Duke of York,
died before him; and the third, William, Duke of Clar-
ence, who had been brought up as an officer in the
navy, was a friend of the Whigs, and of those who were
ready to make alterations.

Changes were coming of themselves, though—for in-
ventions were making progress in this time of peace.
People had begun to find out the great power of steam,
and had made it move the ships, which had hitherto
depended upon the winds, and thus it became much
easier to travel from one country to another and to send


George IV. 249







goods. Steam was also being used to work engines for
' spinning and weaving cotton, linen, and wool, and for
working in metals ; so that what had hitherto been done
by hand, by small numbers of skilful people, was now
brought about by large machines, where the labour was
done by steam; but quantities of people were needed
to assist the engine. And as steam cannot, be had
without fire, and most of the coal is in the Northern
parts of England, almost all of these works were set up
in them, and people flocked to get work there, so that
the towns began to grow very large. Manchester was
one, with Liverpool as the sea-port from which to send
its calico and get its cotton. Sheffield and Birmingham
grew famous for works in iron and steel, and so on;
and all this tended to make the manufacturers as rich
and great as the old lords and squires, who had held
most of the power in England ever since, at the Revo-
lution, they had got it away from the king. Everyone
saw that some great change would soon come; but
before it came to the point George IV. fell ill, and died —
after a reign of twenty years in reality, but of only ten
in name, the first five of which were spent in war, and
the last fifteen in peace. The Duke of Wellington and
Sir Robert Peel were his chief ministers—for the duke
was as clear-headed in peace as he was in war.








RICK-BURNERS,



CHAP. XLVIIL—WILLIAM IV.
A.D, 1830—1837. ;
(8 EORGE IV. had, as you know, no child living at
I? the time of his death. His next brother, Frederick
Duke of York, died before him, likewise without chil-
dren, so the crown went to William, Duke of Clarence,
third son of George III. He had been a sailor in his
younger days, but was an elderly man when he came to
the throne. He was a dull and not a very wise man,
but good-natured and kind, and had an open, friendly,
sailor manner ;-and his wife, Queen Adelaide, of Saxe-
Meiningen, was an excellent woman, whom everyone




William IV. 251



respected. They never had any children but two.
daughters who died in infancy:,and everyone knew that
the next heir must be the Princess Victoria, daughter to
the next brother, Edward, Duke of Kent, who had died
the year after she was born.

King William IV. had always been iene with the
Whigs, who wanted power for the people. Those who
went furthest among them were called Radicals, be-
cause they wanted a radical reform—that is, going to
the root. In fact, it was time to altar the way of send-
ing members to the House of Commons, for some of
the towns that had once been big enough to choose one
were now deserted and grown very small, while on the
other hand, others which used to be little villages, like
Birmingham and Brighton, had now become very large,
and full of people.

The Duke of Wellington and his friends wanted to
consider of the best way of setting these things to
rights, but the Radicals wanted to do much more and
much faster than he was-willing to grant. The poor
fancied that the new rights proposed would make them
better off all at once, and that every man would get a
fat pig in his stye and as much bread as he wanted ;
and they were so angry at any delay, that they went
about in bands burning the hay-ricks and stacks of corn,


252s Stories of English Flistory.



to frighten their landlords. And the Duke of Welling-
ton’s great deeds were forgotten in the anger of the
mob, who gathered round him, ready to abuse and pelt
him as he rode along; and yet, as they saw his quiet,
calm way of going on, taking no heed to them, and
quite fearless, no one raised a hand. They broke the
windows of his house in London, though, and he had
iron blinds put up to protect them. He went out of
office, and the Whigs came in, and then the Act of Par-
liament was passed which was called the Reform Bill
—hbecause it set to rights what had gone wrong as to
which towns should have members of their own, and,
besides, allowed everyone in a borough town, who
rented a house at ten pounds a year, to vote for the
member of Parliament. A borough, remember, is a
town that has a member of Parliament, and a city is one
that is large enough to have a mayor and aldermen to
manage its affairs at home.

Several more changes were made under King Wil-
liam. Most of the great union workhouses were built
then, and it was made less easy to get help from the
parish without going to live in one. This was meant
to cure people of being idle and liking to live on other
folk’s money—and it has done good in that way; but
workhouses are sad places for the poor aged people


William IV. 253



who cannot work, and it is a great kindness to help
them to keep out of them.

The best thing that was done was the setting the
slaves free. Look at the map of America, and you will
see a number of islands—beautiful places, where sugar-
canes, and coffee, and spices grow. Many of these be-
long to the English, but it is too hot for Englishmen to
work there. So, for more than a hundred years, there
had been a wicked custom that ships should go to
Africa, and there the crews would steal negro men,
women, and. children, or buy them of tribes of fierce
negroes who had made them captive, and carry them off
to the West Indian Islands, where they were sold to
work for their masters, just as cattle are bought and
sold. An English gentleman—William Wilberforce—
worked half his life to get this horrible slave trade for-
bidden; and at last he succeeded, in the year 1807,
‘whilst George III. was still reigning. But though no
more blacks were brought from Africa, still the people
in the West Indies were allowed to keep, and buy and
sell the slaves they already had. So-Wilberforce and
his friends still worked on until the time of William

IV.,when, in 1834, all the slaves in the British dominions
were set free. ;

This reign only lasted seven years, and there were


254 Stories of English Fiistory.



no wars in it; so the only other thing that I have to
tell you about it is, that people had gone on from find-
ing that steam could be made to work their ships to
making it draw carriages. Railways were being made
for trains of carriages and vans to be drawn by one
steam engine. The oldest of all was between Man-
chester and Liverpool, and was opened in 1830, the
very year that William IV. began to reign, and that
‘answered so well that more and more began to be
made, and the whole country to be covered with a net-
work of railways, so that people and goods could be
carried about much quicker than ever was dreamt of in
old times; while steam-ships were made larger and
larger, and to go greater distances.

Besides this, many people in England found there
was not work or food enough for them at home, and
went to settle in Canada, and Australia, and Van Die-
man’s Land, and New Zealand, making, in all these
distant places, the new English homes called colonies ;
and thus there have come to be ee people
wherever the sun shines.

William IV. died in the year 1837. He was the last
English king who had the German State of Hanover. |
It cannot belong to a woman, so it went to his brother
Ernest, instead of his niece Victoria.
























, EXmaeusennec

FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE IN THE CRIMEA.

CHAP. XLVIII.—VICTORIA.
A.D. 1837—1855.

HE Princess Victoria, daughter of the Duke of
| Kent, was but eighteen years old when she was
waked early one morning to hear that she was Queen
of England.

She went with her mother, the Duchess of Kent,
to live, sometimes at Buckingham Palace and some-
times at Windsor Castle, and the next year she was
crowned in state at Westminster Abbey. Everyone
saw then how kind she was, for when one of the lords,
who was very old, stumbled on the steps as he came



e
>

7iN


236 Stories of English Flistory.



to pay her homage, she sprang up from her throne to
help him.

Three years later she was married to Prince Albert
of Saxe-Coburg, a most excellent man, who made it
his whole business to help her in all her duties as sove-
reign of this great country, without putting himself for-
ward. Nothing ever has been more beautiful than the
way those two behaved to one another : she never for-
getting that he was her husband and she only his wife,
and he always remembering that she was really the
queen, and that he had no power at all. He had a
clear head and good judgment that everyone trusted
to, and yet he always kept himself in the background,
that the queen might have all the credit of whatever
was done.

He took much pains to get all that was good and
beautiful encouraged, and to turn people’s minds to
doing things not only in the quickest and cheapest, but
in the best and most beautiful way possible. One of
these plans that he carried out was to set up what he
called an International Exhibition, namely—a great
building, to which every country was invited to send
specimens of all its arts and manufactures. It was
called the World’s Fair. The house was of glass, and
was a beautiful thing in itself. It was opened on the
Victoria. 257

ist of May, 1851; and, though there have been many
great International Exhibitions since, not one has come
up to the first.

People talked as if the World’s Fair was to make all
nations friends; but it is not showing off their laces
and their silks, their ironwork and brass, their pictures
and statues, that can keep them at peace: and, only
two years after the Great Exhibition, a great war broke
out in Europe—only a year after the great Duke of
Wellington had died, full of years and honours.

The only country in Europe that is not Christian is
Turkey; and the Russians have always greatly wished
to conquer Turkey, and join it on to their great empire.
The Turks have been getting less powerful for a long
time past, and finding it harder to govern the country ;
and one day the Emperor of Russia asked the English
ambassador, Sir Hamilton Seymour, if he did not think
the Turkish power a very sick man who would soon be
dead. Sir Hamilton Seymour knew what this meant ;
and he knew the English did not think it right that the
Russians should drive out the Sultan of Turkey—even
though he is not a Christian ; so he made the emperor
understand that if the sick man did die, it would not be
for want of doctors.

Neither the English nor the French could bear that






258 Stories of English FHrstory.



the Russians should get so much power as they would
have, if they gained all the countries down to the
Mediterranean Sea; so, as soon as ever the Russians
began to attack the Turks, the English and French
armies were sent to defend them; and they found the
_ best way of doing this was to go and fight the Russians
in their own country, namely—the Crimea, the penin-
sula which hangs, as it were, down into the Black Sea.
So, in the autumn of the year 1854, the English and
French armies, under Lord Raglan and Marshal St.
Arnaud, were landed in the Crimea, where they gained
a great victory on their first landing, called the battle
of the Alma, and then besieged the city of Sebastopol.
It was a very long siege, and in the course of it the two
armies suffered sadly from cold and damp, and there
was much illness; but a brave English lady, named
Florence Nightingale, went out with a number of nurses
to take care of the sick and wounded, and thus she
saved a great many lives. There were two more famous
battles. One was when six hundred English horsemen
were sent by mistake against a whole battery of Rus-
sian cannon, and rode on as bravely as if they were not
seeing their comrades shot down, till scarcely half were
left. This was called the Charge of Balaklava. The
other battle was when the Russians crept out, late in


Victoria. 259



the evening of November 5, to attack the English camp;
and there was a dreadful fight by night and in the early
morning, on the heights of Inkerman; but at last the
English won the battle, and gave the day a better
honour than it had had before. Then came a terrible
winter of watching the city and firing at the walls; and
when at last, on the 18th of June, 1855, it was assaulted,
the defenders beat the attack off: and Lord Raglan,
worn out with care and vexation, died a few days after. .
- However, soon another attack was made, and in Sep-
tember half the city was won. The Emperor of Russia
had died during the war, and his son made peace, on
condition that Sebastopol should not be fortified again,
and that the Russians should let the Turks alone, and
keep no fleet in the Black Sea.

In this war news flew faster than ever it had done
before. You heard how Benjamin Franklin found that
electricity—that strange power of which lightning is the
visible sign—could be carried along upon metal wire.
It had since been made out how to make the touch of a
magnet at one end of these wires make the other end
move, so that letters can be pointed to, words spelt
out, and messages sent to any distance with really the
speed of lightning. This is the wonderful electric tele-
graph, of which you sée the wires upon the railway.


















CASHMERE GATE, DELHI—LIGHTING THE FUSE,

CHAP. XLIX.—VICTORIA.
A.D. 1857—1860.
SYOEACE had been made after the Crimean war, and
& everybody hoped it was going to last, when very .
sad news came from India. You know I told you that
English people had gone to live in India, and had
gradually gained more and more lands there, so that
they were making themselves rulers and governors over
all that great country. They had some of the regiments
of the English army to help them to keep up their
power, and a great many soldiers besides—Hindoos, or
natives of India, who had English officers, and were




Victoria. ee



taught to fight in the English manner. These Hindoo
soldiers were called Sepoys. They were not Christians,
_ but were some of them Mahommedans, and some be- -
lieved in the strange religion of India, which teaches
people to believe in a great many gods—some of them
very savage and cruel’ ones, according to their stories,
and which forbid them many very simple things. One
of the things it forbids is the killing a cow, or touching
beef, or any part of it.

Now, it seems the Sepoys had grown Deiseonieneee
with the English; and, besides that, there came out a
new sort of cartridge—that is, little parcels of powder
and shot with which to load firearms. The Sepoys
took it into their heads that these cartridges had grease
in them taken from cows, and that it was a trick on the
part of the English to make them break the rules of
their religion, and force them to become Christians. In
their anger they made a conspiracy together; and, in
many of the places in India, they then suddenly turned
upon their English officers, and shot them down on
their parade ground, and then they went to the houses
and killed every white woman and child they could
meet with. ‘Some few had very wonderful escapes, and
were kindly protected by native friends; and many
showed great bravery and piety in their troubles. After






262 Stories of English Ffistory.



that the Sepoys marched away to the city of Delhi,
where an old man lived who had once been king, and
they set him up to be king, while every English person
left in the city was murdered.

The English regiments in India made haste to come
into Bengal, to try to save their country-folk who had
shut themselves up in the towns or strong places, and
were being besieged there by the Sepoys. A great
many were in barracks in Cawnpore. It was not a
\ strong place, and only had a mud wall round ; but there
was a native prince called the Nana Sahib, who had
always seemed a, friend to the officers—had gone out
hunting with them, and invited them to his house.
They thought themselves safe near him; but, to their
horror, he forgot all this, and joined the Sepoys. The
cannon were turned against them, and the Sepoys
watched all day the barrack yard where they were shut
in, and shot everyone who went for water. At last,
after more pain and misery than we can bear to think
of, they gave themselves up to the Nana, and, horrible
to tell, he killed them all. The men were shot the first
day, and the women and little children were then shut
up in a house, where they were kept for a night. Then
the Nana heard that the English army was coming,
and in his fright and rage he sent in his men, who killed
Victoria. 263



everyone of them, and threw their bodies into a deep
well. The English came up the next day, and were
nearly mad with grief and anger. They could not lay
hands on the Nana, but they punished all the people
he had employed; and they were so furious that they
hardly showed mercy to another Sepoy after that
dreadful sight.

There were some more English holding out in the
city of Lucknow, and they longed to go to their relief ;
but first Delhi, where the old king was, had to be taken;
and, as it was a very strong place, it was a long time
before it was conquered; but at last the gates of the
city were blown up by three brave men, and the whole
army made their way in. More troops had been sent
out from England to help their comrades, and they
were able at last to march to Lucknow. There, week
after week, the English soldiers, men of business, ladies,
soldiers’ wives, and little children, had bravely waited,
with the enemy round, and shots so often coming
through the buildings that they had chiefly to live in
the cellars; and the food was so scanty and bad, that
the sickly people and the little babies mostly died ; and
no one seemed able to get well if once he was wounded.
Help came at last. The brave Sir Colin Campbell, who
had been sent out from home, brought the army to their


264 _ Stories of English. History.





rescue, and they were saved. The Sepoys were beaten
in every fight; and at last the terrible time of the
mutiny was over, and India quiet again.

In 1860, the queen and all. the nation had a grievous
loss in the death of the good Prince Consort, Albert,
who died of a fever at Windsor Castle, and was
mourned for by everyone, as if he had been a relation
or friend. He left nine children, of whom the eldest,
Victoria, the Princess Royal, was married to the Prince
of Prussia. He had done everything to help forward
improvements; and the country only found out how
wise and good he was after he was taken away.

Pains began to be taken to make our great towns
healthier. It is true that the plague has never come
to England since the reign of Charles II., but those
sad diseases, cholera and typhus fever, come where
people will not attend to cleanliness. The first time
the cholera came was in the year 1833, under William
IV.; and that was the worst time of all, because it was
a new disease, and the doctors did not know what to
do to cure it. But now they understand it much better
—hboth how to treat it, and, what is better, how to keep
it away; and that is by keeping everything sweet and
clean. If we do that, we may trust that God in His
mercy will keep deadly sickness away.


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Four Books, each with Seven large Pictures (One Double Page), mounted in
Japanese Screen, or Panorama fashion, with new Versions of the Stories in Rhyme.
1. ALADDIN ; or, The Wonderful Lamp. 3. ALI BABA; or, The Forty Thieves.
2. Apou HASSAN; or, Caliph fora Day. | 4. SINDBAD; or, Seven Strange Voyages.

Marcus Ward’s Royal Illuminated Legends.

New Edition—Eight Books, each with a set of six brilliant Pictures, designed in
the quaint spirit of Medizeval times, and printed in Colours and Gold. The
Stories are related in Antient Ballad form, with appropriate Music, arranged in
an easy style, for Voice and Pianoforte, suited to little folks or great folks, and
minstrels of all degrees.

. CINDERELLA AND THE LITTLE 5. KinG ALFRED AND OTHERE (with
GLAss SLIPPER. Longfellow’s Words, by permission

. THE FAIR ONE WITH THE GOLDEN of Messrs. Osgood & Co., for the
Locks. United States). ‘

. LADY OUNCEBELLE AND LORD 6. THE MARQUIS OF CARABAS; or,
LOVELLE. Puss in Boots.

. THE SLEEPING BEAUTY; or, The En- | 7. POCAHONTAS; or, La Belle Sau-
chanted Palace (with Tennyson's vage. ,
Words, by permission of Messrs. | 8. THE HIND OF THE FOREST; or,
Strahan & Co.). The Enchanted Princess.

Marcus Ward's Picture Fables from sop.

Pictures of Animals and their Masters—suggested by the time-honoured Parables
of AZsop—drawn in the Medizeval manner, and with all its effective colouring.
With New Version of the Fables in Rhyme, by J. HAIN FRISWELL.
1, THE WOLF AND THE LaAmgp, and | 3. THE JACKDAW AND PEACOCK, and
other five Fables. other five Fables.
2. THE HARE AND ToRTOISE, and | 4. THE DoG IN THE MANGER, and
other five Fables. other five Fables.

Foolscap Quarto, Cloth Extra, Bevelled Boards, Gilt Edges, Price 5s.
Illuminating: A Practical Treatise on the Art.

With Twenty-six Examples of the styles prevailing at different periods, from the
sixth century to the present time (Chromographed in Facsimile and in Outline).
By Marcus WARD, Illuminator to the Queen.


Educational Publications.







SUITABLE FOR SCHOOL PRIZES OR GIFT BOOKS.



Vere Foster's Complete Course of Drawing.
Eleven Handy Volumes of Drawing Copies on a good scale, in a free manner, with
Blank Paper to Draw on, and SIMPLE AND PRACTICAL Lessons, for Teaching or
Self-instruction. Paper Covers, 1s. 6d. ; Cloth Extra, 2s. 6d. Each volume is
complete in itself,

1, ELEMENTARY DRAWING. 6. ANIMALS (2nd Series). By H. Weir.

2. LANDSCAPE AND TREES. ByJ. Need- gz. FREEHAND ORNAMENT. By F. E.
ham. HULME, &c.

3. ANIMALS (rst Series), By Harrison 8. FLOWERS (Outline). By F. Edward
Weir. Hulme, W. H. Fitch, &c.

4. PRACTICAL GEOMETRY. By John | 9. HUMAN FIGURE.



Mangnall. ro. MARINE. By John Callow, Edward
5. MECHANICAL DRAWING. By John Duncan, &c.
Mangnall, 11. ORNAMENT AND FIGURE (Shaded).

Vere Foster's Complete Course of Water-Colour Paint-

ing. Seven Handy Volumes—each containing Twelve Chromograph Facsimiles of
Original Water-colour Studies, by eminent Artists, and SIMPLE AND PRACTICAL
INSTRUCTIONS for copying each Plate. In Paper Covers, 1s. 6d. and 2s. each ;
or, in Cloth Extra, 3s. Each volume is complete in itself.

1, FLoweks. By Hulme, Coleman, 4. ANIMALS. By Harrison Weir.
French, &c. 1s. 6d. and 3s. 2s. and 35.

2. LANDSCAPE (Introductory). By John | 5. MARINE. By Edward Duncan.
Callow. 1s. 6d. and 3s. 2s. and 3s.

3. LANDSCAPE (Advanced). By John | 6. FLowers (2nd Series). By Fitch,
Callow. 1s. 6d. and 3s. Hulme, &c. as, and 3s.

7. ILLUMINATING. By Marcus Ward, Illuminator to the Queen, Paper Cover, 2s.



JUST PUBLISHED,

New Book of Design in Colours, for Decorators, Designers, Manufacturers, and Amateurs,
Large Impl. Quarto—Cloth Extra, Bevelled Boards, Price One Guinea,

Plants: Their Natural Growth and Ornamental

Treatment. By F. Epwarp HuLmEgE, F.L.S., F.S.A., of Marlborough College,
Author of ‘‘ Plant Form.” This important work will consist of Forty-four Plates,
printed in Colours, in Facsimile of Original Drawings made by the Author. It
shows how the common Plants and Flowers of the Field may be used to produce
endless variety of inventive form, for all manner of decorative purposes. The
Plates are accompanied by a careful Treatise on the whole subject, as embraced
in the Title of the work.

Marcus Ward & Co., Chanaos Street, London,
And Royal Ulster Works, Bebfast.





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