Title: Evaluation of the Brahman breed as straightbred and crossbred for beef production in south central Florida
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026868/00001
 Material Information
Title: Evaluation of the Brahman breed as straightbred and crossbred for beef production in south central Florida
Physical Description: Book
Publisher: Agricultural Experiment Stations, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: 1977
Copyright Date: 1977
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026868
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aep0688 - LTUF
18435006 - OCLC
000929880 - AlephBibNum

Table of Contents
        Historic note
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
Full Text


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.

Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida

Bulletin 790 V August 1977





F. M. Peacock, W. G. Kirk, M. Koger, J. W. Carpenter
and J. R. Crockett

Agricultural Experiment Stations
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida. Gainesville


F. M. Peacock, W. G. Kirk, M. Koger, J. W. Carpenter
and J. R. Crockett

Mr. Peacock is Animal Husbandman and Dr. Kirk is Animal Scientist
Emeritus, Agricultural Research Center, Ona. Dr. Koger is Animal Ge-
neticist and Dr. Carpenter is Meat Scientist, Animal Science Department,
University of Florida, Gainesville. Dr. Crockett is Associate Animal Ge-
neticist, Agricultural Research and Education Center, Belle Glade.

This public document was promulgated at an annual cost of
$1,038.28, or a cost of 13 cents per copy, to present results
from research on the Brahman breed conducted at the Uni-
versity of Florida Agricultural Research Center, Ona,



INTRODUCTION ........................ ....... .......-........- .............. 1

REVIEW OF LITERATURE ..-..-..--.........-....-------........-...---- 1

Reproduction ....---................------ .... ..---- .. ...---- . 1

Weaning Traits .--..---..............-.........--....--------------.. 2

Post Weaning Performance .---.....---.--....-.--...--...-..--..-- 3

MATERIALS AND METHODS .-..--.....--..........----- ....-..---- .. 3

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ..-...........--..-........--- --......-... 5

Reproduction .----.. ---....... --------------....-- 5

Birth rate --.......-..... .. --- --------....... .........-..... 5

Survival rate .............---...----......-- .-- .....-........ 5

Weaning rate ....................----------....----... ................ 5

Production Traits .-------.........------ ..... .-......-.. 7

Condition score ....---.---.-- ..... .....-...------ ...... 7

Weaning weights --........--....................--.. -..---..... .. 9

Annual production per cow -............-..----- ........ ........ 9

Post weaning performance ..............-- .....--............----. 10

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS ...............-.........-............. 11

LITERATURE CITED ............. -----........................................ .... 12

The American Brahman breed was developed in the southern
part of the United States from various, strains of humped cattle
originating in India. Thus, Brahman had its beginning in areas
where the specialized European breeds were not adapted and the
indigeneous cattle were not sufficiently productive. The Brahman
is classified in the genus and species Bos indicus, whereas breeds
originating in the British Isles and Continental Europe are Bos
The Brahman's unusual appearance sets it apart from all
European breeds. Distinctive characteristics of the breed are the
hump over the shoulders, long legs, large pendulous ears, abun-
dance of loose folds of skin under the neck, and smooth hair
Bonsma (2) stated that the thick, muscular hide of the Zebu
aids in resisting attacks of external parasites, and the high vas-
cularity of the hide (profuse blood flow) make it well adapted to
high temperatures. Research in Missouri (3) showed that the
European breeds were most comfortable at temperatures
ranging between 300 and 600F, whereas the Brahman were
most comfortable at 500 to 800F. The higher heat tolerance of
the Brahman, compared with European breeds, is primarily be-
cause of its lower basal heat production (3, 6).
The purpose of this bulletin is to present results from re-
search on the Brahman breed conducted at the Agricultural
Research Center, (ARC), Ona, Florida.

Reproductive performance of Brahman cows at the ARC, Ona
generally has been low, but higher than contemporary Shorthorn
cows (14). Research in Louisiana (19) showed that Brahman
cows compared favorably with Angus and Hereford cows, where-
as Texas (5), Brooksville Beef Cattle Research Station (4), and
AREC, Belle Glade, Florida (7) research showed that reproduc-
tion was lower in the Brahmans than in the British breeds.
A study (17) at the ARC, Ona, on reproductive behavior of
Brahman females indicated that low pregnancy rates were due


mainly to lack of sexual maturity of two-year-olds when put in
the breeding herd and to a tendency for cows less than 5 years
of age not to rebreed while nursing a calf.
Higher reproductive performance among crossbred Brahman
x British cows than among their parental straightbreds has
been generally observed throughout the Gulf Coast Region.
Texas (5) reported advantages of 9.5% in calving, 10.4% in
survival, and 20.3% in weaning for Fi Brahman x Hereford
cows over their parental breeds, while Louisiana (19) reported
heterosis levels of 18.2% in calving for Fi Brahman x Angus
cows and 28.1% for Fi Brahman x Hereford cows. Research in
Florida (15) showed that levels increased with improvement in
forage systems. Heterosis for weaning rate for all crossbreds in-
creased linearly with improved pasture conditions, being 11.6%
on native range; 15.8% on a combination of native and improved
pasture; and 18.2% on a highly improved grass-clover pasture.

Weaning Traits
Weaning traits of calves are measures of production which
reflect the genes inherited from both the sire and dam, plus an
expression of the maternal influence of the dam. Weaning
weights of Brahman calves at the ARC, Ona have been higher
than weaning weights of Shorthorn calves (16). A report from
Louisiana (8) clearly demonstrated the superior mothering
ability of females possessing Brahman breeding. Research at
Belle Glade, Florida, (7) showed that Brahman, Angus, and
Brahman-Hereford rotational crosses weaned calves that
weighed from 17.2% to 18.2% above the average of their pa-
rental breeds. Similar results (16%) have been reported from
Texas (5) for production of the Fi Hereford x Brahman cow.
Crossbreeding research (16) at the Ona Center showed het-
erosis levels for weaning weight of calves from Shorthorn-
Brahman crossbreds to be 21% for the Fi calves, 32% for re-
ciprocal backcross calves from Fi (SB) cows, 25% for second
backcross calves (3/4-1/4 reciprocal cows), and 14% for (7/8-1/8)
calves from reciprocal 3/-1/4 cows. The Fi (BS) calves weighed
84 pounds more than straightbred Shorthorn, and Fi (SB)
calves were 63 pounds heavier than straightbred Brahman.
Brahman sired calves from S3Bi cows weighed 55 pounds
heavier than Shorthorn sired calves, and Shorthorn sired calves
from B3S1 cows were 24 pounds heavier than Brahman sired
calves. Heterosis levels for condition score of calves were 9%
for Fi calves, 14% for backcross calves from Fi dams, 8% for

second backcross calves from 3-1/4 dams, and 5% for 7/8-1/
calves from %/4-1 dams. Level of hybrid vigor observed in dif-
ferent mating groups for all production traits was approxi-
mately linear with breed heterozygosity (11).
Higher production was not restricted to crossbred cows of
specific breeding but also included cows with Brahman breeding
regardless of the other composition. Peacock et al. (13) showed
that commercial cows with 1/ Brahman breeding weaned calves
that were heavier than calves from cows with either more or
less than 1/2 Brahman.

Post Weaning Performance
Research at Belle Glade (6) on feedlot performance and car-
cass characteristics of Angus, Brahman, Hereford, and criss-
crosses of the breeds showed the Angus to grade highest, Brah-
man lowest, and the crosses intermediate.
Research at the Ona Center with Brahman and Shorthorn-
Brahman crosses (13) showed that feed efficiency for weight
gain was positively related to percent Brahman breeding, while
carcass grade was positively related with Shorthorn breeding.
Results from a recent study (18) on the Shorthorn and Brahman
breeds from a crossbreeding design that produced reciprocal FI
calves, reciprocal backcross calves (S3B1 and B3S1), and recipro-
cal second backcross calves (B5S3 and SsB3), showed similar
trends for both feed efficiency and carcass grade.

Breed groups including Angus, Brahman, Charolais, and re-
ciprocal Fi Brahman x Angus and Brahman x Charolais were
.evaluated for reproduction, production traits, and postweaning
The Center is located at latitude 27025' north, longitude 81-
55' west on a low-fertility sandy soil. Average rainfall is 54
inches with 75% falling from May to October. The climate is
semi-tropical with temperate intrusions in the winter. These
intrusions are characterized by repeated frosts with tempera-
tures at 280 to 340F with lower temperatures occurring at less
frequent intervals.
Herds were maintained on improved grass pastures, mostly
Pangola digitgrass (Digitaria decumbens.), moderately ferti-
lized, and the cattle were supplemented with 5 pounds of either
molasses or citrus pulp- cottonseed meal (4:1 ratio) per head
per day for approximately 90 days during late winter and early

The Angus and Brahman cows were purebreds, while the
Charolais were high grades (three-fourths to purebred). Cows
were culled from the herd annually for unsoundness or failure
to raise a calf. The breeding season was restricted to 90 days
(March 1 to June 1, 1967-1973).
The criteria for evaluating cow reproductive! performance
were pregnancy rate, calf survival, and weaning rate. Measure-
ments used for evaluating weaning traits were condition score,
205-day weight, weaning weight, and annual production per
cow. Sires of both parent breeds were backcrossed to Fi cows
to determine heterosis levels for maternal performance of Fi
Postweaning performance studies of breed groups were con-
ducted for comparative feedlot performance and carcass charac-
teristics. Weanling steer calves were fullfed in drylot for ap-
proximately 174 days.
Angus, Brahman, Charolais, and reciprocal BA and BC cross
steer calves were randomized by breed across pens and fed ra-
tions averaging 15 parts of 41% cottonseed meal, 50 parts dried
citrus pulp, 29 parts corn, 5 parts alfalfa, and 1 part of mineral,
plus 3 pounds Pangolagrass hay daily per steer. Approximate
protein and total digestible nutrient (TDN) content of rations
were 13% and 72%, respectively.
The finished steers were slaughtered at the University of
Florida Meats Laboratory, Gainesville, where slaughter and car-
cass data were collected. Cold carcass weights were obtained
after chilling for 48 hours at 20 to 30 C. The estimated percent
yield expresses the percent of boned and closely trimmed major
cuts from the round, rump, loin, rib, and chuck; the components
of percent kidney, fat over the eye, rib eye area, and cold carcass
weight were used in estimating the formula. Carcass grade was
based on grade standards prior to April 14, 1975.
Average daily gains for breed comparisons were computed
from actual weight of calves when put on feed and final weight
adjusted to a 60% chilled dressing percentage. This was ob-
tained by dividing the chilled carcass weight by 60 and multi-
plying by 100 (1). Measurements for evaluating breed of steers
were adjusted daily gain, federal carcass grade (old), fat over
the eye, ribeye area, and estimated percent yield.
All data were analyzed by least squares methods for dispropor-
tionate subclass frequencies as outlined by Harvey (9). Repro-
duction and production traits were adjusted for years and age
of dam, whereas postweaning t ril were adjusted for years and
age of steers.


Means for birth rate, survival and weaning rate, and the ad-
vantage of crossbreds over straightbreds in units and percentage
increase are given in Table 1.
Birth rate.- Birth rates for the straightbred Angus (A),
Brahman (B), and Charolais (C) were 75.3%, 89.9% and
79.7%, respectively. The B x A and B x C matings resulted in
pregnancy rates of 92.4 and 82.5%, respectively. The advantage
for the crossbred matings was 17.1 for Brahman bulls on Angus
cows over the straightbred Angus matings and 2.8 for Brahman
bulls on Charolais cows over the straightbred Charolais.
Average pregnancy rates for the BA and BC F1 cows were
92.9% and 93.0%, respectively. The advantage for F1 cows over
the average of their parental breeds was 10.3 for BA cows and
8.2 for BC cows.

Survival rate. Calving rate and survival are the two factors
which determine net reproductive performance. Calf survival
incorporates genotype of the calf, which partially determines its
vigor, as well as the cow's ability to give birth normally and
raise a calf. Calf survival rates of the straightbred were 89.2%,
90.8%, and 95.0%, respectively, for the Angus, Brahman and
Charolais. Survival rate of B x A calves was 84.1% compared
to 96.8% for B x C calves. The relatively low survival rate of
straightbred Brahman calves (90.8%) may indicate a slight lack
of vigor, while the low survival rate of Fi Brahman x Angus
calves was due possibly to heterosis in size of calf. Montana re-
search (12) showed survival rate of calves to be influenced by
size or birth weight of calves relative to cow size.
Survival rate of calves produced by Fi BA cows was 96.2%,
which was an increase of 6.2% units over the straightbred aver-
age, or a heterosis level of 6.9%. The low 90.5% calf survival
rate of F1 BC cows cannot be explained. Peacock et al. (15) re-
ported a 96.0% survival rate of straightbred Brahman calves
compared to 95.0% for Shorthorn calves. Calf survival rates of
reciprocal crosses of the Brahman and Shorthorn as well as
survival rate of calves of Fi BS cows were similar to the aver-
age of the straightbreds.
Weaning rate. Weaning rates for straightbreds were 67.2,
81.6, and 75.7%, respectively, for the Angus, Brahman, and
Charolais. For the crossbred matings, weaning rates were 77.7 %

Table 1. Reproduction traits of Angus (A), Brahman (B), Charolais (C), and Fi BA and BC cows.

Breed of Sire A B C B B A, B C, B
Breed of Dam A B C A C BA BC
Number 81 84 95 71 73 140 117
Birth Rate % 75.3 89.9 79.7 92.4 82.5 92.9 93.0
C Survival Rate % 89.2 90.8 95.0 84.1 96.8 96.2 90.5
Weaning Rate % 67.2 81.6 75.7 77.7 79.9 89.4 84.1
Advantage of crossbreds over straightbred average--units and %
Weaning %, units 3.3 1.2 15.0 5.4
% 4.4% 1.5% 20.2% 6.9%

and 79.9% for B x A and B x C matings and 89.4% and 84.1%
for F1 BA and BC cows. Brahman cows were the highest of the
straightbreds. However, Fi BA cows were highest and F1 BC
were next in order of all matings.
The advantage in units for crossbred matings over the average
of straightbred parents was 3.3% for B x A, 1.2% for B x C,
15.0% for Fi BA cows, and 5.4% for Fi BC cows. Heterosis
estimates for weaning rates were 20.2% for Fi BA cows and
6.9% for BC cows.

Production Traits
Means for condition score, 205 day weight, weaning weight,
and annual production per cow are presented in Table 2.
Condition score. Condition score is a subjective evaluation
of the degree of fatness and is the result of both genotype and
environment and their interaction. The genotype of a calf is a
combination of the genotype of both sire and dam and for full
expression is dependent upon optimum environment. The pre-
weaning environment of a calf is furnished primarily by the
cow, expressed as mothering ability, and largely determines the
condition score. However, a calf with a high growth potential
could have a comparatively low condition score even though the
cow is a high producer, because it utilizes the available nutrients
for growth rather than for fattening.
Condition scores at weaning were 9.2 for the Angus and
Charolais calves and 8.8 for Brahman calves, lowest of the
straightbred. The 9.6 for F1 BA calves nursing Angus cows
compared to 9.2 for straightbred Angus calves indicates genetic
adaptability of the hybrid calf to the environment. The low con-
dition score for Fi BC (7.4) calves indicates a high growth rate
in the calf with the cow's milk production not sufficient to com-
pensate for the calf's growth potential.
The F1 BA cows produced calves averaging 10.6 in condition
score. This shows the superior mothering ability in this cross
as well as the genetic adaptability of the calf to its environment
and heterosis for condition score. The 9.7 condition score of
calves from Fi BC cows showed milk production to be sufficient
for growth in the calf but not sufficient to permit expression of
the high growth potential in the calf and still have an energy
surplus to allow the calf to deposit much fat. Percent advantage
of crossbred calves over straightbreds for condition score was
6.7 for B x A, -17.8 for B x C, 17.8 for BA cows, and 7.8 for
BC cows.

Table 2. Production of Angus (A), Brahman (B), Charolais (C) and F1 BA and CB cows.

Breed of Sire A B C B B A, B C, B
Breed of Dam A B C A C BA BC
Number 56 69 73 54 60 127 98
Condition Score 9.2 8.8 9.2 9.6 7.4 10.6 9.7
205 day wt., Ibs. 367 385 465 413 455 453 469
Wean wt., Ibs. 404 399 492 428 464 492 504
Prod/cow., Ibs. 271 326 372 332 371 440 423
Advantage crossbreds over straightbred average units and %.
00 Cond. score, units .6 -1.6 1.6 .7
% 6.7% -17.8% 17.8% 7.8%
205 day wt., units 43 30 83 44
% 11.6% 7.1% 22.4% 10.4%
Wean wt., units 26 18 90 58
% 6.5% 4.0% 22.5% 13.1%
Prod'/cow, units 34 22 142 74
% 11.4% 6:3% 47.4% 21.2%

Weaning weights. Weaning weight of calves is a measure
of production and reflects the genotype of both sire and dam, plus
the maternal influence of dam.
The 205-day weaning weight is a measure of growth rate,
while weaning weight reflects a combination of growth rate and
age at weaning. Since the two factors were similar in this study,
only weaning weight will be discussed.
Average weaning weights were 404, 399, and 492 pounds, re-
spectively, for the straightbred Angus, Brahman, and Charolais
calves. The heavier weaning weight of the Charolais as com-
pared to the Angus and Brahman reflects primarily the large
additive effects of the Charolais breed for growth.
Average weaning weights of F1 B x A and B x C calves were
428 and 464 pounds, respectively. The 428 pound weaning weight
of the Fi B x A calf not only was higher than the average of the
parental breeds but was higher than the better of the two breeds.
This is a prime example of the level of heterosis derived from
crossing the Bos taurus and Bos indicus, especially when the Bo's
taurus breed used is the Angus. The 464-pound weaning weight
of calves from B x C matings expressed heterosis, being 4.0%
above the average of the parental breeds, and also reflected the
additive breed effects for size in the Charolais.
Average weaning weights of calves produced by F1 BA cows
were 492 pounds and by Fi BC cows were 504 pounds. The Fi
BA cows produced calves 64 pounds heavier than the Fi BA
calf, expressing maternal heterosis of the dam as well as heter-
osis in the calf. Weaning weights of calves from BA cows were
90 pounds heavier than the average of the parental breeds, with
a combined level (both calf and dam) of 22.5%.
The 504-pound weaning weight of calves produced by BC
cows was 58 pounds (13.1%) heavier than the average of the
parental breeds and was also 12 pounds heavier than the
straightbred Charolais calves.
Annual production per cow. Production per cow is the prod-
uct of weaning rate and weaning weight. Annual production per
cow averages were 271, 326, and 372 pounds, respectively for the
Angus, Brahman and Charolais. Net production was lowest for
the Angus and highest for the Charolais.
Crossing Brahman bulls on Angus cows resulted in an annual
production per cow of 332 pounds, 61 pounds more than the
straightbred Angus and six pounds more than the straightbred
Brahman. Mating Brahman bulls to Charolais cows resulted in
an annual production per cow of 371 pounds, essentially the

same as the straightbred Charolais, but 45 pounds more than
the straightbred Brahman.
Annual production per cow for the Fi BA was highest for all
matings (440 pounds), with the BC cow being next (423
The average percentage increases in annual production per
cow of crossbreds over the straightbred parental averages were:
Brahman x Angus, 11.4%; Brahman x Charolais, 6.3%; Fi BA
cows, 47.4%; Fi BC cows, 21.2%.
Post weaning performance. The Charolais steers made the
highest daily gain of the straightbreds, averaging 2.33 pounds
daily compared to 1.88 and 1.81 pounds, respectively, for Angus
and Brahman steers (Table 3). These results express the com-
paratively high additive breed effects for growth of the Cha-
rolais. Both crossbred groups (BA and BC) averaged 2.26
pounds daily. Observed heterosis for daily gains of the cross-
breds was 22.5% for BA and 9.2% for BC steers.
The Angus graded highest of all breed groups (15.7), with the
BA next (14.9). Brahman, Charolais, and BC steers graded
lowest at 13.8, 13.5 and 14.0 respectively. These results show
that breed effects for carcass grade were additive with no ap-
parent heterosis present.
Fat over the eye for the Angus and BA carcasses was 0.39
inches; Brahman, 0.25 inches; BC, 0.23 inches; Charolais, 0.16
inches. The BA carcasses had 21.9% and BC carcasses 12.2%
more fat over the eye than the average of their parental breeds,
emphasizing the contribution of the Angus for fattening ability.

Table 3. Means for components related to feedlot performance and
carcass characteristics of Angus (A), Brahman (B), Charo-
lais (C), and F, Brahman crosses.
Number 16 30 27 53 62
Adjusted final wt.1 (Ibs) 728 757 918 884 928
Chilled carcass wt. (Ibs) 437 454 551 530 556
Adjusted Daily Gain (Ibs) 1.88 1.81 2.33 2.26 2.26
Carcass Grade2 15.7 13.8 13.5 14.9 14.0
Fat Over Eye (in.) .39 .25 .16 .39 .23
Ribeye Area 9.07 8.84 11.11 9.98 10.72
Estimated Yield (%)3 50.27 50.79 52.35 49.99 51.34
1(Chilled Carcass Weight 60) x 100 = Adjusted final weight.
"213, Low Good; 14, Good; 15, High Good; 16, Low Choice.
3Estimated % Yield and Corresponding Yield Grade: 52.35, 2.0; 51.34, 2.4;
50.79, 2.7; 50.27, 2.9; 49.99, 3.0.

Ribeye areas in descending order were 11.11, 10.72, 9.98, 9.07,
and 8.84 square inches for the Charolais, BC, BA, Angus, and
Brahman, respectively. Ribeye area for the BA was 11% and
BC 7% above the parental breed average.
Estimated percent yield was 52.35, 50.79 and 50.27 for the
Charolais, Brahman and Angus, respectively. The BC carcasses
yielded 51.34% and BA carcasses 49.99%. Crossbreds were aver-
age of their parental breeds, indicating no heterosis for that
Research data have been presented on reproduction, produc-
tion, and postweaning performance traits of Brahman, Angus,
Charolais, and reciprocal Brahman x Angus and Brahman x
Charolais cattle. This research has shown the Brahman to com-
pare favorably with the other straightbreds in reproduction.
Heterosis for weaning precent exhibited by F1 females was
20.2% for BA and 6.9% for BC crosses.
Condition scores of calves were 9.2, 8.8, 9.2, 9.6, 7.4, 10.6, and
9.7 for Angus, Brahman, Charolais, B x A, B x C, Fi AB cows,
and Fi BC cows, respectively. The B x C calves were 17.8%
below and calves from Fi BA cows 17.8% above their straight-
bred parental average. Weaning weights were similar for the
straightbred Angus (404 pounds) and Brahman (399 pounds),
with the Charolais calves being highest of the straightbreds
(492 pounds). Crossing Brahman bulls on Angus cows resulted
in heterosis for weaning weight of 6.5%, and Brahman on
Charolais, 4.0%. Heterosis values for Fi BA cows was 22.5%,
and for BC cows, 13.1%. Heterosis for average calf production
was 11.4% for Angus cows mated to Brahman bulls, 6.3% for
Charolais cows bred to Brahman bulls, 47.4% for Fi BA cows,
and 21.2% for F1 BC cows.
Daily feedlot gains were similar for Angus (1.88 pounds) and
Brahman (1.81 pounds) steers, with Charolais (2.33 pounds)
having the highest gain among the straightbreds. The BA and
BC steers made the same daily gains (2.26 pounds), resulting
in heterosis levels of 22.2% for BA steers and 9.2% for BC
Carcass grades in descending order were 15.7, 14.9, 14.0, 13.8,
and 13.5 for Angus, BA, BC, Brahman, and Charolais, respec-
tively, with no heterosis effects for this trait.
Fat over the eye in descending order was 0.39 inches for the
Angus and BA carcasses, 0.25 inches for the Brahman, 0.23
inches for BC crosses, and 0.16 inches for Charolais carcasses.

Heterosis for external fat was 21.9% for BA and for BC car-
casses, 12.2%.
Ribeye area in descending order was 11.11, 10.72, 9.98, 9.07,
and 8.84 square inches for Charolais, BC, BA, Angus, and Brah-
man carcasses, respectively. The BA carcasses were 11% above
and BC 7% above the parental breed average.
Estimated percent yield was 52.35, 51.34, 50.79, 50.27, and
49.99 for Charolais, BC, Brahman, Angus, and BA carcasses,
respectively. Crossbreds were intermediate between the parent
The Brahman compared favorably with the Angus and Cha-
rolais for reproduction. The major advantage from combining
the Brahman and Charolais was for production of the Fi Charo-
lais x Brahman cow. Combining the Brahman with the Angus re-
sulted in improved production from the first cross with maxi-
mum production obtained from the Ft cow. The Brahman and
Angus combination resulted in cattle that gained well in feedlot
with the ability to obtain a desirable grade.

1. Baker, F. S. 1967. Procedure for weighing cattle in and out
of feedlot and pasture experiments at North Florida Station.
NFES Memo, Nov. 28, 1967.
2. Bonsma, J. C. 1967. Climatology and breeding for adaptation.
Factors Affecting Calf Crop. p. 146. Univer. of Fla. Press.
Gainesville, Fla. Ed. by T. J. Cunha, A. C. Warnick, and M.
3. Brody, Samuel. 1956. Climatic physiology of cattle. J. Dairy
Science. 39:715.
4. Burns, W. C. 1963. Adaptation to Florida. Crossbreeding
Beef Cattle. 131. Univ. of Fla. Press. Gainesville, Fla. Ed.
by T. J. Cunha, M. Koger, and A. C. Warnick.
5. Cartwright, T. C. 1973. Comparisons of Fi cows with purebred
and other crosses. Crossbreeding Beef Cattle, Series 2:49. Univ.
of Fla. Press. Gainesville, Fla. Ed. by M. Koger, T. J. Cunha,
and A. C. Warnick.
6. Crockett, J. R. 1973. Finishing calves from a crisscross
breeding system. Crossbreeding Beef Cattle, Series 2:285. Univ.
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