-*--..............* II I I i = I i_The Baldwuin LUbrary- I erheq!Rjnq fl
HARRY AND LUCY[Front.
IARRY AND LUCY.MAIlIA EDGEWORT(ILONDON:GEORGE ROUTLEDGE & SONS,THE BROADWAY. LUDGATE.
HARRY AND LUCYTO WHICI ARE ADDEDTHE LITTLE DOG TRUSTY, THE CHERRY ORCHARD,AND THE ORANGE MANBY MARIA EDGEWORTHAUTHORESS OF"ROSAMOND," " FRANK," ETC.LONDONGEORGE ROUTLEDGE AND SONSBROADWAY, LUDGATE HILLNEW YORK: 416 BROOME STREET
BY MISS EDGEWORTH.Price 2s. 6d. each, cloth, with Illustrations;or with Six Coloured Plates, and cloth extra, 3s. 6d.EARLY LESSONS.MORAL TALES.POPULAR TALES.THE PARENT'S ASSISTANT.
PUBLISHERS' PREFACE.IN Harry and Lucy, Miss Edgeworth has treated ofmore scientific subjects than in either Bosamond orFrank ; and, in spite of the difficulty of the task, hasrendered many pleasing experiments intelligible tochildren.Science wears an attractive or a repulsive aspect tothe young, according to the form in which it is pre-sented to their minds. 'Familiar illustration, and anearnest desire to communicate knowledge, will excitethe curiosity of learners of the tenderest age. Inthese pages this result has been accomplished.These tales have amused and instructed successivegenerations; and the high estimation in which theyare held has induced the publishers to issue thisedition.In this volume The Little Dog Trusty, The CherryOrchard, and The Orange Man, are added to Harryand Lucy, and they have all been carefully revisedand corrected.London, May, 1856.A2
CONTENTS.f AG.7,A FEW WORDS TO PARENTS .. .... 7HARRY AND LUCY . ... 11THE LITTLE DOG TRUSTY OR, THE LIAR ANDTHE BOY OF TRUTH . ... 105THE ORANGE MAN; OR, THE HONEST BOY ANDTHE THIEF . . 172THE CHERRY ORCHARD . ... 178
A FEW WORDS TO PARENTS.WE are afraid that the following pages should appeartoo difficult for children of eight or ten years of age, iftheir thoughts have not been turned to subjects ofthe sort which are here introduced to their attention.We therefore most earnestly deprecate the use of thefollowing book till the understandings of the pupilsinto whose hands it may be put shall have been pre-viously accustomed to the terms, and to the objects,which are mentioned in the following part of this littlevolume.The intention of the writers is to prepare the mindfor more difficult studies; and the end which theyhave in view will be completely frustrated if this littlebook is crammed into the minds of children. It isintended to be used in very short portions, and not tobe formed into necessary tasks; but to be read whenthe child's mind has been prepared, by what it hasalready seen and heard, to wish to hear and see more.That these lessons (not tasks) are in themselves in-telligible to children, we are certain; because theyhave been readily comprehended by several youngchildren, and, in particular, by a boy of four years andtwo months old. All the experiments herein related
8 TO PARENTS.were shown to him, at different times, within a fort-night. lie was much entertained. His lessons wereshort, but his attention was engaged, and he seemed towish for their return with eagerness. That he did,and does understand them thoroughly, and that he hasnot been taught certain answers to certain questionsby rote, we assert. In making this assertion, we donot mean to claim any superiority for this child overother children; because we believe him to be no pro-digy, but a child of good abilities, without any peculiarcleverness. So far from making any such claim, wemust acknowledge that this boy scarcely knows hisletters; and that he shows no extraordinary quicknessin learning them. He is, however, lively and obedient;indeed, the most lively children are, if well treated,usually the most obedient. The names of variousobjects, of common and of uncommon use, are familiarto him; he has seen a variety of tools, and has beenaccustomed to handle a few of them. In short, in hiseducation nothing extraordinary has been said, ortaught, or done. Every governess, and every motherwho acts as governess to her own children, may easilyfollow the same course. Where mothers have nottime, and where they cannot obtain the assistance of agoverness, it were to be wished that early schoolscould be found for early education. To learn to readis to acquire a key to knowledge: but, alas! it is akey that is not always used to advantage. There isnot an hour in the day when something useful maynot be taught, before boos can be read or understood:Perhaps parents may pity the father and mother, inHarry cand Lucy, as much as they pity the children 3
TO PARENTS. 9and may consider them as the most hard-worked andhard-working people that ever existed, or that wereever fabled to exist. They may say that these childrennever had a moment's respite, and that the poor fatherand mother never had anything to do, or never didanything, but attend to these children, answer theirquestions, and provide for their instruction or amuse-ment. This view of what is expected from parentsmay alarm many, even of those who have much zealand ability in education. But we beseech them not totake this false alarm. Even if they were actually todo all that the father and mother of Harry and Lucyare here represented to have done, they would no$ inpractice, feel it so very laborious, or find that it takesup so preposterous a portion of their lives as theymight apprehend. In fact, however, there is no neces-sity for parents doing all this in any given time,though there was a necessity for the authors' bringinginto a small compass, in a reasonable number of pages,a certain portion of knowledge.Be it therefore hereby declared, and be it now andhenceforward understood, by all those whom it mayconcern, that fathers or mothers (as the case may be)are not expected to devote the whole of their days, oreven two hours out of the four-and-twenty, to thetuition or instruction of their children; that no fatheris expected, like Harry's father, to devote an hourbefore breakfast to the trying of experiments for hischildren; that no mother is required to suspend hertoilet-no father to delay shaving-while their chil-dren blow bubbles, or inquire into the construction ofbellows, windmill, barometer, or pump. And be it
10 TO PARENTS.further understood, that no mother is required, likeLucy's mother, to read or find, every evening, enter-taining books, or passages from books, for her children.Provided always, that said fathers and mothers do,at any and all convenient times, introduce or suggest,or cause to be introduced or suggested, to their pupils,the simple elementary notions of science, contained inthe following pages; and provided always, that theydo at all times associate, or cause to be associated,pleasure in the minds of their children with the acqui-sition of knowledge.RICHARD LOVELL EDGEWORTH and"' /MARIA EDGEWORTH.
HARRY AND LUCY.PART I.LITTLE children who know the sounds of all letterscan read words, and can understand what is told inthis book.Harry and Lucy were brother and sister. Harryhad just come home to his father's house. He hadbeen left at his uncle's when an infant, and had alwayslived at this relative's house.Lucy slept in a little bed in a clot near hermother's room; and Harry in a little bed in anothercloset.Early in the morning, whilst Lucy was in bed, thesun shone through the window upon her face, andaroused her; when she was quite awake, she knewthat it was -.....i ri, because it was daylight, and shecalled to her mother, and said, " Mamma, may I get,p ?" But her mother did not answer her, for she didnot hear what she said, because she was asleep. WhenLucy knew that her mother was asleep, she lay still,that she might not disturb her. At length she heardher mother stir; and then she asked her again if shemight get up; and her mother said she might.
12 IIAR:Y AND LUCY.So Lucy got up, and put on her stockings and shoes,and finished dressing herself, and then went to hermother, and asked for some breakfast. But her mothertold her to make her bed, before she should have anybreakfast. Little Lucy began to make her bed, andher mother went into her other closet, to call Harry,and she said, "Harry! get up!" And Harry jumpedout of bed in an instant, and put on his trousers, andhis jacket, and his shoes; and then he combed hishair, and washed his hands; and whilst he was wipinghis hands, his mother went down stairs.Little Lucy hearing her brother Harry walkingabout in tho;loset, called him, and asked him if liehad made his bed. Harry said he had not." Oh then," says Lucy, "mamma will give you nobreakfast.""Yes," says Harry, "she will. I never made mybed at my uncle's, and I always had my breakfast."As they were talking, he heard his father call him,and he ran down-stairs to the parlour, where hisfather and mother were at breakfast. Lucy's mothercalled her down, too, and said to her, "Well, Lucy,have you made your bed neatly V"Lucy. Yes, mamma; I made it as well as I could.Mother. You shall have some breakfast, then.Harry's father asked whether he had made hisbed. Harry answered, that he did not know how tomake it."I will show you," said his mother; and taking
HARRY AND LUCY. 13him by the hand, she led him up stairs, and showedhim how to make his bed.When Harry came down to his father, he said thathe did not know that boys or men ever made beds;for at his uncle's nobody ever made beds but thehousemaid.His father told him, that in some countries* thebeds are made by men; and that in ships, which sailon the sea, and carry men from one country to an-other, the beds in which the sailors sleep are alwaysmade by men.Lucy's mother observed that she had not eaten herbreakfast, and asked her why she had not eaten it.Lucy said, that she waited for her brother. Hermother then gave Harry a basin of milk, and a largepiece of bread; and she set a little table for him andhis sister under a shady tree that was opposite to theopen window of the room where she breakfasted.Lucy was a good little girl, and always minded whatwas said to her, and was very attentive whenever herfather or mother had taught her anything. So hermother taught her to read and to work, and when shewas six years old she could employ herself, withoutbeing troublesome to anybody. She could work forherself, and for her brother, and sometimes, when Lucybehaved very well, her mother let her do a little work* Here the child, if at a distance from the coast, should be toldwhat is meant by different countries; what a ship is, and what ismeant by a sailor, &c.
14 HARRY AND LUCY.for her, or for her father. Her mother had given hera little thimble, to put upon her finger, and a littlehousewife, to keep her needles and thread in, and alittle pair of scissors, to cut her thread with, and alittle work-bag, to put her work in; and Lucy's fatherhad given her a little book, to read in, whenever shepleased, and she could read in it by herself, and under-stand all she read, and learn everything that was in it.As soon as Lucy had eaten the breakfast which hermother had given her, she sat down on her stool, andtook her work out of her work-bag, and worked sometime. Presently her mother told her that she hadworked an hour, and that she did not choose that sheshould work any more. Lucy got up, and broughther work to her mother, and asked her if it was doneas it ought to be done. And her mother said, "Lucy,it is done pretty well for a little girl that is but sixyears old, and I am pleased to see that you have triedto avoid the fault of which I told you yesterday."Then Lucy's mother kissed her, and said to her, " Putyour work into your work-bag, and put your work-bag into its place, and then come back to me."Lucy did as she was desired; and then her motherasked her if she would rather go out of doors andwalk, or stay with her. Lucy preferred staying withher mother, who very soon afterwards went to her dairy.Lucy followed her, and took a great deal of care not
HARRY AND LUCY. 15to be troublesome, for she loved to be with her mother.She observed whatever she saw, and did not meddlewith anything. She noticed that the dairy was veryclean; the floor was a little damp, which made herthink that it had been washed that morning, and therewere not any cobwebs or dust upon the walls; andshe perceived that the room smelt very sweet. Shethen looked about, to discover if there were anyflowers from which that pleasant smell might proceed;but she could not see anything but a great many cleanempty vessels of different shapes, and a great manyround, wide, and sh4low pans full of milk. She wentnear to them, and thought the smell came from them.When she had looked at a good many of them, shethought they were not all alike; the milk in some ofthe pans was a little yellowish, and looked thick, likethe cream that she saw every morning at her mother'sbreakfast; and the milk in the other pans of a blueshade, and looked thin, like the milk that was oftengiven to her and her brother to drink. Whilst Lucywas thinking on this, she saw one of her mother'smaids go to one of the pans, that had the yellowishmilk in it. The maid had a wooden saucer in herhand, and she put the wooden saucer very gently intothe pan; she did not put it down to the bottom of thepan, but took up that part of the milk which was atthe top, and poured it into another vessel, and thenLucy saw that the milk that was left in the pan wasnot at all like that which the maid had taken out, butwas very thin, and a little blue.When Lucy's mother went out of the dairy, shetook her little daughter out into the fields, to walk
16 HARRY AND LUCY.with her. Soon after they set out, Lucy said, " Mother,when I was in your dairy, just now, I saw the maidtake some milk out of a milk-pan, and it looked likewhat I see you put into your tea-I believe it iscalled cream; but she left some milk in the pan, andthat was not at all like cream, but like very thin milk.Pray, mother, will you tell me why all that was in thepan was not cream V"Then her mother said, " Yes, Lucy, I will answerany questions you like to ask me, when I haveleisure, because, whenever I talk to you, you mindwhat I say, and remember whatever your father or Iteach you."" I believe you know that the kind of milk which 1give you very often for your breakfast and supper, istaken out of the udders of cows. Did you never seethe maids, with milk-pails, going .--uliiliLug ? Theywere then going to take the milk from my cows; theycall that milking them, and it is done twice every day-once in the morning, and once in the evening. Whenthey have got the milk in the pails, they carry it intothe dairy, and put it into such milk-pans as you saw,"and they let the milk-pans stand still, in the sameplace, for several hours, that the milk may not beshaken. During that time, the heaviest part of themilk falls as low as it can, towards the bottom of thepan, and the liglitest part of the milk remains aboveit, at the top of the pan, and that thick light part iscalled cream, as you thought it was. When the milkhas stood long enough, the cream is taken from the
HARRY AND LUCY. 17other part of the milk-and doing this is called skim-ming the milk; but it must be done very carefully, orelse the cream and milk would be all mixed togetheragain."Lucy told her mother, that when she was in thedairy, she had walked all round it, and that she saw agreat deal of cream; more, she thought, than cameevery day into the parlour; and she wished to knowwhat other use was made of it, besides mixing it withtea, and fruit, or sweetmeats.Lucy's mother was going to answer her, but shelooked towards the other side of the field, and said,"Lucy, I think I see some pretty flowers there, willyou run, and gather me a nosegay, before I talk anymore to you " Lucy said, "Yes, mother;" and ranaway to do what her mother requested. When shecame to the place where the flowers were, she lookedabout for the prettiest, and gathered two or three ofthem, but when she had them in her hand, she per-ceived that they had not any smell; so she went to agreat many more, and at last she found some that hada sweet smell. These, however, were not pretty, andshe gathered some of them, intending to take them toher mother. As she passed near a hedge, she saw somehoneysuckles, growing in it, and she remembered thatshe had smelt honeysuckles that were very sweet andvery pretty too, so she was glad that she had foundsome, because she thought that her mother would likethem, When she came close to the hedge, she sawthat they were so high from the ground that she couldnot reach them. Lucy did not like to go away with-B
18 HARRY AND LUCY.out taking some honeysuckles to her mother, so shewalked slowly by the side of the hedge, till she cameto a place where there was a large stone, upon whichshe climbed, and gathered as many honeysuckles as sheliked."Whilst she was getting down she held the flowersfast, for fear she should drop them into the ditch, andshe felt something prick her finger very sharply. Shelooked and saw a bee drop off one of the honeysucklesthat she had squeezed in her hand; so she thoughtthat she had hurt the bee, and that the bee had stungher to make her release him, and that it was the beewhich she had felt pricking her. Lucy was afraidthat she had hurt the bee very much, for she remem-bered that when she opened her hands the bee did notfly away, but dropt down; so she looked for it on theground, and she soon found it struggling in some water,and trying with its little legs and wings to get out, butit was not strong enough. Lucy was very sorry forthe bee, but she was afraid to touch it, lest she shouldhurt it again, or that it should hurt her. She thoughtfor a little while what she could do, and then she gota large stalk of a flower and put it close to the bee.As soon as ever the bee felt it, he clasped his legsround it, and Lucy gently raised the stalk with thebee upon it from the wet ground, and laid it upon alarge flower that was near her. The bee was coveredwith dirt, but as soon as he felt that he was standingupon his legs again, he began to stretch his wings andto clean himself, and to buzz a little upon the flower.
IHARRY AND LUCY. 19Lucy was glad to see that the bee did not seem to bevery much hurt, and she took up her nosegay and ranas fast as she could towards her mother; but the fingerthat the bee had stung began to be very sore.She met her mother coming to her, who wonderedwhat had made her stay so long; and when Lucytold her what had happened, she said, " I thank you,my dear, for getting me so sweet a nosegay, and I amvery sorry you have been pricked in doing it. I amsure you did not intend to hurt the poor little bee; andwe will walk home now, and I will put some hartshornto your finger, which will lessen the pain you feel."Lucy said, "Indeed, mother, I did not mean to hurtthe bee, for I did not know that it was in my hand;but when I am going to gather flowers another time, Iwill look to see if there are any bees upon them."When Lucy's mother got home, she put some harts-horn to Lucy's finger, and soon after it grew easier;and Lucy's mother said to her, "Now I am going tobe busy, and, if you like, you may go into the gardentill dressing time." Lucy thanked her, and said "shedid like it, but she hoped that some time when she wasnot busy, her mother would answer what she had askedher about cream."After breakfast, Harry's father took him out a walk-ing; and they came to a field where several men wereat work. Some were .;_ i,- clay out of a pit in theground; some were wetting that which had been dugout with water, and others were making the clay intou2
20 HARRY AND LUCY.a great number of pieces, of the same size and shape.Harry asked his father, what the men were about?His parent told him that they were making bricks forbuilding houses. "Yes," says Harry, "but I can runmy finger into these; they are quite soft and brown,and the bricks of your house are red and hard, andthey don't stick together as the bricks of your housedo." Saying this, he pushed down a whole hack ofbricks. The man who was making them called out todesire he would pay for those he had spoiled. LittleHarry had no money, and did not know what to do;but said to the man, "indeed, sir, I did not intend todo any harm." The man answered, "whether youintended it or not, you have spoiled the bricks, andmust pay me for them; I am a poor man, and buy allthe bread that I have with the money which I get forthese bricks, and I shall have less bread if I have asmaller number of bricks to sell."Poor Harry was very sorry for what he had done,and at last thought of asking his father to pay forthem. But his father said, " I have not spoiled them,and therefore it is not necessary that I should pay forthem." The man, seeing that Harry had not intendedto do mischief, told him, " if he would promise to makeamends at some future time for the mischief which hehad done, he would be satisfied." Harry promised thathe would. " Now you find, Harry," said his father," that you must not meddle with what does not belongto you."During their walk they came to a blacksmith's shop,and as it began to rain, Harry's father stood under the
HARRY AND LUCY. 21shed before the door. A farmer rode up to the shop.and asked the blacksmith to put a shoe upon his horse,which, he said, had lost one a little way off, and whichwould be lamed if he went over any stony road withouta shoe. " Sir," says the blacksmith, " I cannot shoeyour horse, as I have not iron enough. I have sent fora supply to the next town, and the person whom I sentcannot be back before evening."" Perhaps," said the farmer, "you have an old shoethat may be made to fit my horse."The smith had no iron, except a bit of small nail-rod, which was only fit for making nails : but he saidthat, if the farmer looked on the road, perhaps he mightfind the shoe which had fallen from his horse. LittleHarry, hearing what had passed, told his father thathe thought he could find a shoe for the farmer's horse.His father asked him where he thought he could finda shoeHe said, that, as they walked along the road, hehad observed something lying in the dirt, which hethought was like a horse-shoe. His father begged thatthe farmer would wait a little while; and then hewalked back with Harry on the road by which theycame to the blacksmith's. Harry looked very care-fully, and after some time he found the horseshoe, andbrought it back to the smith's shop ; but it was not fitto be put upon the horse's foot again, as it had beerbent by a waggon-wheel which had passed over it.The farmer thanked Harry,. _- the blacksmith said,that he wished every little boy was as attentive and as
22 HARRY AND LUCY.useful. He now began to blow his large bellows, whichmade a roaring noise, and the wind came out of thepipe of the bellows among the coals upon the hearth, andthe coals grew red, and by degrees they became brighterand brighter, the fire became hotter, and the smith putthe old iron horse-shoe into the fire, and after sometime it became red and hot like the coals. When thesmith thought that the iron was hot enough, he took"it out of the fire with a pair of tongs, and put it uponthe anvil, and struck it with a heavy hammer. Harrysaw that the iron became soft by being made red hot;and he noticed that the smith could hammer it intowhatever shape he pleased.When the smith had made the shoe of a proper sizeand shape, he took a piece of nail-rod, and heated itred hot in the fire, by the help of the large bellows,which he blew with his right hand, whilst he held thetongs in his left.Harry was going to examine the horseshoe that thesmith had just made, but he would not meddle withit without leave, as he recollected what had happenedin the brick-field.Whilst he was looking at the shoe, another littleboy came into the shop, and after lounging about forsome time, stooped down and took up the horse-shoein his hand. He suddenly let it drop,-roared out vio-lently, and said that he was burnt. Whilst he was cry-ing, and blowing his fingers, and squeezing and pinchingthem, to lessen the pain, the smith turned him out ofthe shop, and told him, that if he had not meddled with
HARRY AND LUCY. 23what did not belong to him, he would not have beenhurt. The little boy went away whimpering and mut-tering that he did not know that black iron wouldburn him.The smith now took the nail-rod out of the fire, andit was hotter than the other iron, and it was of a glow-ing white colour. When the smith struck it upon theanvil, a number of bright sparks flew off the iron, onevery side about the shop, and they appeared verybeautiful.The smith then made some nails, and began to fastenthe shoe on the horse's foot with these. Harry, whohad never before seen a horse shod, was much surprisedthat the horse did not seem to be hurt by the nailswhich were driven into his foot; for the horse did notdraw away his foot or show any signs of feeling pain.Harry's father asked him whether his nails had everbeen cut.Harry said that they had.Papa. Did cutting your nails hurt you?Harry. No.Papa. A horse's hoof is of horn, like your nails, andthat part of it that has no flesh fastened to it is notsensible to pain. The outside of the hoof may be cut,and may have nails driven into it, without giving anypain to the horse.The blacksmith, who was paring the horse's foot,gave Harry a piece of the horn that he had cut off.Harry perceived that it was neither so hard as bonenor so soft as flesh; and the blacksmith told him, that
24 HARRY AND LUCY.the hoof of a horse grows in the same manner as thenails of a man, and requires, like them, to be some-times pared.And when the blacksmith had finished shoeing thehorse, he showed Harry the hoof of a dead horse, thathad been separated from the foot, and Harry saw howthick it was in that part where the nails were driven in.Harry's father now told him that it was time to gohome, as they had two miles to walk, and it wanted butan hour of dinner time. Harry asked his father, howmuch time it would take up to walk two miles, if theywalked as fast as they usually did? His father showedhim his watch, and told him he might see, when theygot home, how long they had been returning. Harrysaw that it was four minutes after two o'clock, andwhen they got home it was forty-eight minutes aftertwo; so Harry counted, and found how many minuteshad passed from the time they left the blacksmith's shopuntil they got home."When Harry came into the garden, he ran to hissister Lucy to tell her all that had happened to him,and she left what she was about, and ran to meet him.She thought he had been away a great while, and wasvery glad to see him; but just then the bell rang, andthey knew they must go in directly to make them-selves ready for dinner.When dinner was over, Harry and Lucy were allowedto go into the garden, and then Lucy begged her brother
HARRY AND LUCY. 25to tell her all that had happened whilst he was out inthe morning. Harry then told her how he had spoiledthe bricks, and what the brickmaker had said to him;and he told her that he had promised to make amendsfor the mischief which he had done.He told her, that to make bricks men dug clay andbeat it with a spade, and mixed it with water to makeit soft and sticky, and that then they made it into theshape of bricks, and left it to dry; and when it washard enough to be carried without breaking, it was putinto large heaps and burnt so as to become of a red-dish yellow colour, and almost as hard as a stone."Then, brother," says Lucy, " if you will make somebricks we can build a house in the little garden mammalent me." So they went to the little garden, and Harrydug some earth with a little spade which his father hadgiven him, and endeavoured to make it stick togetherwith some water, but he could not make it sticky likethe clay that he saw the brickmakers use. He ran in,and asked his father why he could not make it stickywith water? And his father asked him whether it wasthe same kind of earth that he had seen at the brick-field? And Harry said, he did not know what hisfather meant by the same kind of earth: he saw a mandig earth, and he dug it in the same manner.Papa. But is the earth in the garden the same colouras that in the brickfield iHarry. No: that in the garden is almost black, andthat in the field is yellow.Papa. Then they are not the same kinds of earth.
26 HARRY AND LUCY.Harry. I thought all earth was alike.Papa. You find that it is not; for you see that allearth cannot be made to stick together with water.Harry went back into the garden, and after havinglooked into a great many places for yellow earth, atlast he saw some in the bottom of a hole that had beendug some time before. He ran back and asked hisfather's leave to dig some of it; and after he had ob-tained leave, he dug some of the yellow clay, and foundthat when it was mixed with water it became verysticky and tough; and that the more it was mixed, andsqueezed, and beaten with the spade, the tougher itbecame. He now endeavoured to make it into theshape of bricks, but he found that he could not do this,and Lucy asked him whether the brickmakers were aslong making a brick as he was ? "No," said he, "theyhave a little box made in the shape of a brick withouttop or bottom, into which they put the clay upon atable, and with a straight stick like a ruler they scrapethe clay even with the top of the box, and then liftingup the box, they find the clay in the shape of a brickupon the table."" Harry," says Lucy, "there is a carpenter in thehouse at work for my mother; I will go and ask her toget a box made for you. Do you know by what namesuch a box is called, brother?"" It is called a mould."Lucy's mother ordered the carpenter to make a brick-maker's mould for Harry; but the man could not begin
HARRY AND LUCY. 27until he knew what size it should be that is, howmany inches long, how many inches broad, and howmany inches thick. Harry did not know what thecarpenter meant; but Lucy, having always lived withher mother, who had been very kind to her, and whohad taught her a great many things, understood verywell. As she wished to have bricks of the size of thosewith which her father's house was built, she went andmeasured some of the bricks in the wall, and findingthat a great number of them were all of the same length,she said to her brother that she supposed that theywere all alike. Harry told her that as the brickmakersused but one mould whilst he saw them at work, hesupposed that they made a great number of bricks ofthe same size, and that the wall would not look so re-gular as it did if the bricks were of different sizes.Lucy therefore thought if she could measure onebrick it would be sufficient. She easily found thelength and the depth of a brick in the wall, but she didnot at first know how to find the breadth, as the brickswere lying upon each other, and this prevented herfrom seeing their breadth. Harry showed her at thecorner of the wall how the breadth of the bricks couldbe seen. She measured very carefully, and found thelength to be nine inches, the breadth four inches, andthe depth two inches and a quarter. So the carpenter,when he knew the dimensions of the mould, made it;and Harry placed a flat stone upon two other largestones, to serve for a table, and he and Lucy made severalbricks. They were a great while before they could
28 HARRY AND LUCY.make them tolerably smooth, as they stuck to the mouldunless the mould was wetted. They were very happymaking their bricks, but they did not know how theyshould burn them, so as to make them hard, althoughthey determined to try.It was eight o'clock in the evening before they hadfinished ten bricks, and they were called in, and theirmother gave them some bread-and-milk for supper, andsent them to bed.The next morning, Harry and Lucy got up as usual;and their father and mother gave them permission to goto look at the bricks they had made. Harry found thatthey were a little harder than they were the night be-fore; and Lucy thought that burning them would makethem softer; for she had seen butter, and wax, andpomatum, and sealing-wax, all made soft by heat, butshe did not remember to have seen anything madehard by heat. But Harry put her in mind of thecrust of pies, which is soft and tough, like clay, beforeit is baked, and which grows hard and brittle by theheat of the oven. He also told her, that the iron ofwhich the blacksmith made the horse's shoe, when heblew the bellows, was hard and black, before it wasput into the fire, but that it became red, when it wassufficiently heated, and so soft that the smith couldhammer it into what shape he pleased.Lucy believed what her brother said, but was re-solved to ask her mother to take her to see red hotiron, and a brick-kiln, which Harry told her was thename of the place in which bricks were burnt.Whilst they were eating the breakfast which their
HARRY AND LUCY. '29mother gave them, Harry asked his sister what shehad been doing the day before, when he was out withhis father; and Lucy told him all she had seen in thedairy, and when she was out walking. When theyhad done breakfast, his mother lent Harry one of Mrs.Barbauld's little books for children, and made himread the story of the poor Blind Fiddler, with whichHarry was very much pleased 3 and then she told Lucyto read the following story." A MAN riding near the town of Reading, saw a littlechimney-sweeper lying in the dirt. The poor ladseemed to be in great pain, so he asked him what wasthe matter; and the chimney-sweeper said that he hadfallen down, and broken his arm, and hurt his leg, sothat he was not able to walk. The man, who was verygood-natured, got off his horse, and put the chimney-sweeper upon it, and walked beside the horse, and heldthe boy on till he came to Reading. When he cameto Reading, he put the boy under the care of an oldwoman whom he knew there, and he paid a surgeonfor setting his arm. He also gave the woman moneyfor the trouble which she would have in taking care ofthe boy, and the expense which she would incur infeeding him, till he should be able to work again, toearn money for himself. Then the man continued hisjourney, till he got to his own house, which was at agreat distance. The boy soon recovered, and earnedhis bread by sweeping chimneys at Reading."Several years after that time, this same good-naturedman was riding through Reading, and his horse took
30 IIARRY AND LUCY.fright upon a bridge, and jumped, with the man uponhis back, into the water. The man could not swim,and the people who were on the bridge, and saw himtumble in, were afraid to jump into the water, to pullhim out ; but just as he was about to sink, a chimney-sweeper who was going by saw him, and without stoppinga moment, threw himself into the river, and seizing holdof him, dragged him out of the water, and saved himfrom being drowned. When the man was safe uponthe bank, and was going to thank the man who hadpulled him out of the water, he recollected that it wasthe same chimney-sweeper whom he had taken care ofseveral years before, and who now hazarded his ownlife to save that of his benefactor."When Lucy had done reading, her mother askedHarry which he liked best, the man who had takencare of the chimney-sweeper, whom he did not know,or the chimney-sweeper, who had saved the life of theman whom he knew, and who had taken care of himwhen his arm was broken.Harry said, he liked the chimney-sweeper best, be-cause he was grateful, and because he ventured hisown life to save that of the man who had been kind tohim: but Lucy said, she liked the other man the best,because he was humane, and took care of a poor littleboy who had nobody to take care of him, and fromwhom he could never expect to receive any benefit.This is the history of Harry and Lucy for two days.The next part will consist of the history of another day,when Harry and Lucy were a year older.
PART II.AFTER the summer was over, and the autumn andwinter had passed away, another spring came.Harry and Lucy were now each of them a yvarolder.And during the year that had elapsed, they hadgrown taller and stronger, and had learnt a greatmany things that they did not know before.They had learnt to read fluently ; and they weretherefore able to entertain themselves a little, duringthe winter's evenings, by reading short stories in bookswhich their mamma gave them; and they had learnta little arithmetic, and could cast up sums in addition,and subtract.And they had each of them a little garden. Harrydug the ground when it was necessary, and Lucypulled up weeds, and helped to wheel them awayin her little wheelbarrow, and assisted in sowingseeds of different sorts, and in planting the roots offlowers.In the summer she and Harry carried water, towater the plants and flowers which they had set andsown in the spring. And they had not only plantedflowers, and sown small salad, but Harry-had also acrop of peas, and a crop of potatoes, in his garden; forhis father had seen that he was industrious, and for
'2 HARRY AND LUCY.that reason he gave him a piece of good ground, to beadded to his garden. As it had been grass-ground forsome time, it was so hard that Harry was not able to"dig it. But his father had it dug roughly for him, anda cart-load of dung laid upon it. Harry had observedvery attentively how his father's labourers set potatoes;and in the beginning of the month of February he dughis ground over again, and marked it out into ridges,with stakes and a line, and spread the dung upon theridges, leaving sufficient space between the ridges forthe furrows. He then cut some potatoes, which hisfather had given him, into small pieces, to plant inthe ground for sets. He took care to cut them sothat each piece had an eye in it; that is to say,that each piece should have one of those little blackspots in it which contain the root of the potato.After the piece of potato has been some time in theground, it rots away, and the root unfolds, and longfibres spread into the earth.He scattered these pieces upon the dung, at eight orten inches from each other; and then he dug earthout of the furrows that lay between the ridges, andcovered the bits of potato and the dung with it,laying it over them both to the depth of three or fourinches.When lie had made any mistake, or had not donethe work well, his father assisted him, and showed himhow to do it better.The rain in the following spring, and the heat ofthe sun in the beginning of summer, had contributedto the growth of Harry's crop, and in the middle ofJune he had some fine young potatoes fit to eat.
HARRY AND LUCY. 33About this time of the year the weather is generallyvery hot; and one day, as Harry and his sister weresitting under the shady tree which was mentioned inthe former chapter, picking some cowslips for theirmamma, Harry observed that the shadow of the treereached almost round the stem. He had noticed in themorning, when he was at breakfast, that the shadow ofthe tree fell only at one side of it. He asked his father,who was passing by, the reason of this, and hisfather took him to the door of the house, and desiredhim to look where the sun was ; and he saw that itwas opposite the door, and very high in the sky." Take notice, Harry, where you see the sun now, andobserve where you see it this evening, when the sun issetting."Harry said he knew where the sun set; that he couldnot see it from the hall-door; but that he could see itfrom that end of the house, which was at the righthand of the hall-door as he went' out.Father. Did you ever observe where it rises?Harry. Yes; it rose this morning at the other enof the huuse.Father. It did so. Now, do you know where arethe south, and the north, and the east, and the west!Harry. No; but I believe that part of the sky inwlich the sun rises is called the east.Father. It is; and the part in which it sets is calledthe west. Now you may always know the south andthe north, wherever you are, if you know where the suneither rises or sets. If you know where it rises, standwith your left hand towards that part of the sky, andthen the part of the sky before your face will be thea
34 HARRY AND LUCY.south, and that part of the sky behind your back willbe the north.In the same manner, if you know where the sunsets, turn your right hand towards that place, and thepart of the sky opposite to you will be the south. But,Harry, you must remember that there are only twodays in the year when the sun sets exactly in thewest and rises exactly in the east.HIrry. What days are those, papa?Father. It would be of no use now to tell you thenames of those days; but when one of them comes Iwill let you know it. On that day the sun rises exactlyat six o'clock in the morning, and sets exactly at sixclock in the evening." Papa," said Harry, " I have observed several timesthat my shadow in the morning and in the evening isvery long; but in the middle of the day I can scarcelysee it at all."Father. You must think about it yourself, Harry;or if I tell you everything that you want to know,without your taking the trouble to think, you will noti;cquire the habit of thinking for yourself; and with-but being able to think for yourself, you will neverhave good sense.The bricks, which Harry aid Lucy had made theyear before, all melted away (as the workmen say) bythe rain, or broke because they had not been burnt.In the month of November, before the usual frosts ofthe winterhad begun, Harry dug some tough yellow clay,of a proper sort, and he mixed it well with hi> spade,
HARRY AND LUCY. 35and Lucy picked out the little pebbles with a smallpaddle, and the frost made the clay mellow, as theworkmen call it. In the spring, Harry made nearly sixhundred bricks, and built them into stacks, and coveredthem with turf, which his father had allowed him topare off the surface of the ground. And Harry's father,who had been much pleased with his good behaviourand industry, came to the tree where he was at work,and asked him if he would like to go to the brick-field,to see how bricks were burnt. Lucy wished to gowith them, and she ran and asked her mother to lether go. Her mother very cheerfully consented, and saidshe would accompany her.Whilst Lucy and her mother were getting ready togo, Harry ran to his garden and dug some of his fineyoung potatoes, and put them into a basket which hehad of his own, and returned to the house; and hisfather asked him what he intended to do with them."Father," said Harry, "last year when I had spoiledthe poor man's bricks, I promised that I would make himamends, and I determined, when I set my potatoes, tolet him have the first of them that were fit to be dug up,as I was told that early potatoes are more valuablethan those that come in later.Father. But you will not be able to carry such aheavy load so far."I will try," said Harry.He was able to proceed but a little way with hisload without resting.What could he do ?uc2
36 HARRY AND LUCY.His father was willing to assist him, as he had shownhonesty and truth in keeping his promise, and goodsense in the means which he had taken to make thebrickmaker amends for the injury which he had doneto him. He asked a farmer whom he knew, and whowas passing at the time with a cart, to take the basketinto his vehicle, and to leave it in the brick-field whichwas at the roadside.By the time they had reached the brick-field, by apleasant walk through the fields, the farmer, who keptto the road, had arrived with his cart at the sameplace.Harry thanked him, took up his basket, and marchedboldly into the place where the brickmaker was atwork.The man knew him again, and was much pleasedwith Harry's punctuality. He took the potatoes outof the basket, and said that they were worth full asmuch as the bricks that had been spoilt.Harry's father asked the man to show him how heburnt his bricks, in order to make them hard; andthe man said he was just going to set fire to a kilnof bricks, and that he would show them how it wasdone.The kiln was made of the bricks that were to beburnt. These bricks were built up one upon another,and one beside the other, not quite close, but in such amanner as to leave a little room on every side of each
HARRY AND LUCY. 37brick; and in the middle of the kiln, near the bottom,there were large holes filled with furze bushes.The whole kiln was as large as a good-sized room.The man went to his house for a few lighted coals, andhe put them under the furze, which soon took fire andblazed, and the smoke came through the openings thatwere left between the bricks, and the heat of the firecame through them also, and heated the bricks. Theman told Harry's father that he should supply the kilnwith furze and keep the fire strong for six days andsix nights, and that then the bricks would be sufficientlyburnt.Harry now said that he was afraid that he shouldnot be able to build a kiln for his bricks. He hadgrown wise enough to know that it required time tolearn how to do things which we have not been usedto do. And he asked the brickmaker whether hethought he could build his bricks so as to be able toburn them. And the man told him that he believedhe could not; but he said that on some holiday hewould go to the place where Harry's bricks were, andwould show him how to build a nice little kiln, ifHarry's father would give him leave.Harry's father accepted this good-natured offer; andHarry plainly perceived that good conduct makesfriends, and that a poor brickmaker may be of useeven to persons who are not obliged to work for theirbread."Whilst they were talking, Lucy was looking about,and examining everything in the brick-field; and
38 HARRY AND LUCY.she observed that at the farthest part of the fieldsome white linen was stretched upon the grass to dry,and she noticed several bits of black dirt lying uponthe linen. They did not stick to the linen, but wereblown about by the wind, as they were very light.Lucy picked up some of these black things; andwhen she showed them to her mother, her mother toldher that they were bits of soot, which had been carriedby the wind from the brick-kiln." But, mamma," said Lucy, " I don't see any chimneybelonging to the brick-kiln, and soot, I believe, is al-ways found in chimneys."AMother. No, my dear, soot is smoke cooled; andwherever there is smoke there is soot. A great quan-tity of thick smoke rises from a brick-kiln; or, to speakmore properly, a great quantity of smoke is carried up-wards by the hot air that rises from a brick-kiln, andwhen this smoke cools, parts of it stick together andmake what we call soot, which falls slowly to theground. This is some of it that has fallen upon thewhite linen; and you see it because it is black, and thelinen upon which it has fallen is white.Lucy. Why does it fall slowly ?Mother. Because it is light; if it were heavier, itwould fall faster.Lucy. What do you mean by light and heavy ?Mother. You cannot yet understand all that I meanby those words ; but if you take two things which arenearly of the same size in your hands, and if one ofthem presses downwards the hand in which it is heldmore than the other does, that may be called heavy,and the other may be called light. You must observe,
HARRY AND LUCY. 39Lucy, that they can be called heavy or light only ascompared together or weighed in your hands. Forinstance, if you take a large wafer in one hand, and awooden button-mould of the same size in the other,you will readily perceive that the button-mould is theheavier. You might, therefore, say that the button-mould is heavy, and the wafer is light.But if you were to take the button-mould again inone hand, and take a shilling in the other, you wouldcall the shilling heavy, and the button-mould light.And if you were to lay down the button-mould, andwere to take a guinea into your hand instead of it, youwould find the shilling would appear light when com-pared with the guinea.Lucy. But, mamma, what do you compare the sootwith when you say it is light ?_/ I '. I compare it in my mind with other thingsof nearly the same size, as bits of saw-dust, or coal-dust, or bits of gravel but I cannot yet make youentirely understand what I mean. When you havelearnt the uses and properties of more things, andtheir names, I shall be better able to answer the ques-tions you have asked me upon subjects which I cannotexplain to you now.As they returned home, they saw a poor little girlcrying sadly, and she seemed to be very unhappy.Lucy's mother said to her: "Poor girl! what is thematter with you ? What makes you cry so ?"" Oh, madam," said the little girl, " my mother sentme to market with a basket of eggs, and I tumbled
40 HARRY AND LUCY.down, and the eggs are all broken to pieces, and I amvery sorry for it. My mother trusted them to me, asshe thought I would take care of them; and indeed,I minded what I was about, but a man with a sackupon his back was coming by, and he pushed me andmade me tumble down."Mother. Will your mother be angry with you whenshe knows it ?Little girl. I shall tell my mother, and she will notbe angry with me; but she will be very sorry, and shewill cry, because she is very poor, and she will wantthe bread which I was to have bought with the moneyfor which I ought to have sold the eggs; and mybrothers and sisters will have no supper.When the little girl had done speaking, she satdown again upon the bank, and cried very bitterly.Little Lucy pulled her mother's gown, to make herlisten to her, and then she said softly, "Mamma, mayI speak to the poor little girl ?"Mother. Yes, Lucy.Lucy. Little girl, I have some eggs at home, and Iwill give them to you, if my mamma will let me gofor them." My dear," said Lucy's mother to her, "our houseis at a distance; and if you were to try to go back byyourself, you could not find the way. If the littlegirl will come to-morrow to my house, you may giveher the eggs; she is used to go to market, and knowsthe road. In the mean time, my poor little girl, comewith me to the baker's at the top of the hill, and Iwill give you a loaf to carry home to your mother;you are a good girl to tell the truth."
HARRY AND LUCY. 41So Lucy's mother took the little girl to the baker'sshop, and bought a loaf, and gave it to her; and thelittle girl thanked her, and put the loaf under herarm, and walked homewards, very happy.As he was going over a stile, Harry dropped hishandkerchief out of his pocket, and it fell into somewater, and was made quite wet. He was forced tocarry it in his hand, until they came to a house, wherehis father told him he would ask leave to have it driedfor him. And he asked the mistress of the house tolet Harry go to the fire to dry his handkerchief. Andwhile he held it at the fire, Lucy said she saw a greatsmoke go from the handkerchief into the fire; and hermother asked her how she knew it was smoke ?Lucy. Because it looks like smoke.Mother. Hold this piece of paper in what you thinklike smoke, and try if you can catch any of those blackthings that were in the smoke you saw in the brick-field.Lucy. No, mamma, it does not blacken the paper inthe least; but it wets the paper.Mother. Hold this cold plate in what you 'allsmoke, that comes from the handkerchief.Lucy. Mamma, I find the plate is wet.lMother. What is it, then, that comes from thehandkerchief?Lucy. Water-the water with which it was wettedwhen it fell into the ditch.Mother. What makes the water come out of it ?Lucy. The heat of the fire, I believe.
42 ITARRY AND LUCY.Mother. At tea-time, to-night, remind me to showyou how water is turned into steam, and how steamis turned into water.When they reached home, Harry and Lucy wentimmediately, without losing any time, to cast uptwo sums in arithmetic, which they were accustomedto do every day.Harry could cast up sums in common additionreadily; and Lucy understood the rule called subtrac-tion; and she knew very well what was meant by thewords borrowing and paying, though it is not easy tounderstand them distinctly. But she had been taughtcarefully by her mother, who was a woman of goodsense, and who was more desirous that her daughtershould understand what she did, than that she shouldmerely be able to go on as she was told to do, withoutknowing the reason of what she was about.And after they had shown the sums which they hadzast up to their mother, they sat down to draw.Lucy was learning to draw the outlines of flowers,and she took a great deal of pains, and looked atten-tively at the print she was copying. And she was notin a hurry to have done, or to begin another flower;but she minded what she was about, and attended toeverything that her mother had desired her the daybefore to correct. After she had copied a print ofperiwinkle, she attempted to draw it from the floweritself, which she had placed in such a manner as tohave the same appearance as the print had, that shemight be able to compare her drawing from the printwith her dra ving from the flower.
HARRY AND LUCY. 43She found it was not so easy to draw from the latteras from the former; but every time that she tried itbecame easier. And she was wise enough to know that itwas better to be able to draw from things themselves, orfrom nature, as it is called, than from other drawings;because everybody may everywhere have objects beforethem which they may imitate. By practice they maylearn to draw or delineate objects so well as to be ableto express upon paper, &c., to other people, whatevercurious things they meet with.The habit of drawing is particularly useful to thosewho study botany; and it was her love of botany thatmade Lucy fond of drawing flowers.She had a number of dried plants, the names ofwhich she knew; and she took great pleasure in thespring, and in the beginning of summer, in gatheringsuch plants as were in flower, and in discovering, bythe rules of botany, to what class, order, genus, andspecies they belonged.Harry, also, knew something of botany; but he didSnot learn to draw flowers. He was endeavouring,with great care, to trace a map of the fields about hisfather's house. He had made several attempts, andhad failed several times; but he began again, andevery time he improved.He understood very well the use of a map. iHeknew that it was a sort of picture of ground, by whichhe could measure the size of every yard, or garden, orfield, or orchard, after it had been drawn upon paper,as well as it could be measured upon the ground itself.He could also draw a little with a rule and compasses;he could describe a circle, and make an eauilateral
44 HARRY AND LUCY.triangle, and a right angle, and he had begun to learnto write.After they had drawn and written for one hour, itwas time for them to go and dress for dinner.Harry's walk to the brick-field had made him veryhungry, so that he ate heartily.Whilst he was eating, his mother told him that sheintended to send him into the garden, after dinner, forsome strawberries, that were just ripe; and she ad-vised him not to eat so much pudding, if he wished toeat strawberries.Now, Harry had learnt, from experience, that if heate too much it would make him sick; he thereforeprudently determined not to have another spoonful ofpudding.A little while after dinner, Harry and Lucy wentwith their mother into the garden; and Lucy wasdesired to gather six strawberries, and Harry wasdesired to gather four strawberries. Andwhen theywereput together, Harry counted them, and found that theymade ten. Lucy was not obliged to count them, forshe knew by rote, or by heart, as it is sometimescalled, that six and four make ten.Each of them then brought five strawberries; andHarry knew, without counting, that when they wereput together, they would make ten. And Lucy knewthat the parcel of strawberries which they gatheredfirst, which made ten, would, when added to the secondparcel, which also consisted of ten, make twenty.They now went and gathered ten more. One
HARRY AND LUCY. 45gathered three, and the other gathered seven; and thisten, added to the former number, made thirty. Andthey went again, and bought ten more to theirmother. This ten was made up of eight and two; andthis ten, added to the thirty they had gathered before,made forty.Whilst they were eating them, Harry asked hissister if she knew what was meant by ty in twentyand thirty. Lucy laughed at him for supposing thatshe did not know it, and said her father had told her.Harry said that he knew before that teen, in the wordsthirteen, fourteen, &c., meant ten; but he did notknow that ty, in twenty and thirty, &c., meant ten.And he said he did not know why ten should havethree names-ten, teen, and ty.Lucy said she could not tell. They asked theirfather; and he told them that ten meant ten by itself,without any other number joined to it; but that teenmeant ten with some other number joined to it; andhe asked Harry what thirteen meant.Harry. I believe that it is three and ten, for threejoined or added to ten make thirteen. Fourteen isplainly four and tea; fifteen five and ten. But why,papa, is it not threeteen instead of being called thir-teen ?Papa. Because it is easier to say thirteen thanthreeteen.Lucy. But why is it called twelve ? It should betwo-teen.Harry. And eleven, papa, should be one-teen.
46 HARRY AND LUCY.Pacpa. I cannot now explain to you, my dear, thereason why we have not those names in English; butyou perceive that it is easy to remember the namesof fourteen, fifteen, sixteen, &c., because we rememberthat four, five, six, come after one another, and weperceive that all that is necessary is to add teen tothem. You see that fourteen means four and ten, fouradded to ten.Harry. But does ty in forty mean four added toten ?Lucy replied that it did not.Papa. No; it means four times ten; not ten addedto four, but ten added together four times; and fiftymeans ten added together five times. So you seethat it is useful to have three names for ten, whichdiffer a little from each other, but which are also some-thing like; for teen is like ten, and ty is like teen.Teen is always used when ten is added to any numberas far as nineteen; and ty is always used when moretens than one are counted, as far as a hundred.Harry. Then twenty should be two-ty; and thirtyshould be three-ty.Papa. I told you before, my dear, that thirteen isused instead of threeteen, because the former word ismore easily pronounced than the latter. Thirty isused instead of three-ty, for the same reason.Ilarry. But why is not twenty two-ty ?Papa. Twenty is made up of ty and of twain, a wordthat was formerly used for two. The word twain,joined to ty makes twainty, which when spoken quicklysounds like twenty.Harry. But, papa, will you tell me another thing
HARRY AND LUCY. 47'Papa. No, Harry, we have talked enough aboutnumbers at present; you will be tired by thinking anylonger with much attention, and I do not wish thatyou should be tired when you attend to what you areabout. Thinking without tiring ourselves is veryagreeable; but thinking becomes disagreeable if wetire ourselves: and as thinking with attention is usefuland necessary, we should take care not to make it dis-agreeable to ourselves.It was now tea-time. Harry and Lucy usuallysupped at the same time that their father and motherdrank tea. They thus had an opportunity of hearingmany useful and entertaining things that passed inconversation; and Lucy, recollecting that her motherhad promised to tell her at tea-time something moreabout smoke and steam, put her in mind of what shehad promised. Then her mother called for a lightedwax candle, and for a lighted tallow candle, and shedesired Lucy to hold a cold plate over the wax candle,and Harry to hold another cold plate over the tallowcandle, and in a short time a considerable quantity ofsmoke, or soot, was collected upon each of the plates.Another cold plate was held over the tea-urn, in whichwater was boiling, and from which there issued a largequantity of steam, or vapour of water. This steam wasstopped by the plate, which, by degrees, was coveredwith a number of very small drops, not so large as thehead of a minikin pin. After the plate had been heldover the steam a little longer, these drops becamelarger; they attracted one another, that is to say, one
48 HARRY AND LUCY.little drop was joined to another, and made a largedrop; and so on, till at length the drops ran so muchtogether as to lose their round shape, and to run overthe plate. Harry and Lucy were much entertainedwith this experiment. Harry observed that the vapourof water was very different from the vapour of a candle.Papa. I am veryglad to find that you have so readilylearnt something of the meaning of the word vapour,which I have purposely made use of in the place of theword steam; but you are mistaken, my dear, in sayingvapour of a candle. Lampblack, soot, and smoke, areformed from the vapour of the oily parts of burningbodies. Formerly people made use of lamps insteadof candles, and the soot of those lamps was calledlampblack, though it should properly be called oil-black. Now, pray, Harry, do you know the meaningof the word evaporate?Harry. I believe it means being turned into vapour.Papa. Did you observe anything else in the experi-ments which I have just shown to you?Harry. Yes, papa; I saw that the vapour of oil wassolid when it was cold.Papa. Condensed.Harry. Yes, condensed.Papa. And did you not observe, that the vapour ofwater, when condensed, was fluid? And what did youobserve, Lucy?Lucy. I thought, papa, that the soot, or lampblack,which you told me was the vapour of oil, did not seemto turn into oil again when it was condensed; butthat it had an entirely different appearance from thetallow and wax from which the oil came. Yet I
HARRY AND LUCY. 48noticed that the vapour of water, when it was con-densed, became water again.Papa. I do not think, my dear children, that mytime has been thrown away in showing you this experi-ment. And as I wish to make you like to attendto what is taught you, I will endeavour to make itagreeable to you, by joining the feeling of pleasure tothe feeling of attention in your mind ; by giving youpleasure, or the hope of pleasure, when you attend.Harry. I know what you mean, papa; for if we hadnot attended to what we were about, you would haveendeavoured to give us pain.Papa. No, Harry, you are a little mistaken. I don'twish to give you pain, unless when I want to preventyou from doing something that would be hurtful toyourself or to other people; and then I wish to asso-ciate, that is, join pain with such actions. But I donot expect that little boys and girls should be as wiseas men and women; and if you do not attend, I onlyabstain from giving you pleasure.Harry. But, papa, what pleasure were you going togive us?Pcap. I was not going to give you any immediateor present pleasure, but only the hope of some pleasure,to-morrow. Your mamma and I intend, to-morrow,to walk to breakfast with her brother, your uncle, whohas come to live at a very pretty place not quite threemiles from this house. He was formerly a physician,and he has several curious instruments-a microscope,an electrifying machine, an air-pump, and a collectionof fossils, and a few shells and prints; and he knowsvery wail how -o explain things to other people. AndI"
50 HARRY AND LUCY.the pleasure that your mamma and I meant to give youwas to take you with us to-morrow morning.Harry and Lucy were very happy, when they weregoing to bed, from the remembrance of the day thatthey had passed, and from the hope of being happyon the day which was to come.At six o'clock in the morning Harry awoke, andas they were to set out for Flower Hill at seven, he gotup and dressed himself with great alacrity, and Lucydid the same. But, alas! their hopes were disap-pointed; for a violent thunder-storm came on beforeseven o'clock, which prevented their walk to theiruncle's.Harry planted himself at the window, and examinedevery cloud as it passed by, and every quarter of thesky, in expectation of fair weather and sunshine. Hissister, who was older, knew that standing at thewindow would not alter the weather; and she pru-dently sat down to study botany before breakfast, andto examine some flowers which she had gathered inher walk the day before.When Harry had stood some time at the window,and could perceive no appearance of a change in thesky, he turned about, and looked wistfully round him,like a person who did not know what to do with him-self. His mother, who at that instant came into theroom, could not help smiling at the melancholy figurewhich she saw before her; and she asked Harry whatwas the matter. Harry owned that he felt sorry andsad, because he had been disappointed of the pleasurewhich his father had promised him.
HARRY AND LUCY. 51.Mother. But, Harry, my dear, your father did notpromise you fine weather.iHarry. (Laughing.) No, mamma, I know he did not;but I expected that it would be a fine day, and I amsorry that it is not.Mother. Well, Harry, that is all very natural, as itis called, or, to speak more properly, it is what happenscommonly. But though you cannot alter the weather,you may alter your own feelings, by turning your atten-tion to something else.Harry. To what else, mamma 1Mother. You have several different occupations thatyou are fond of; and if you turn your thoughts to anyof them, it will prevent you from feeling sad upon ac-count of the disappointment that you have met with.Besides, my dear Harry, the rain must, in some respects,be agreeable to you, and it is certainly useful.Harry. 0 yes, mamma, I know what you mean,-mygarden. It was indeed greatly in want of water, andit cost me a great deal of trouble to carry water to ittwice every day. My peas will come on now, and Ishall have plenty of radishes. Thank you, mamma, forputting me in mind of my garden; it has made memore contented.Harry's father now came in, and seeing that he wascheerful, and that he bore his disappointment prettywell, he asked him if he had ever seen a cork garden.Harry. No, papa; I remember having seen a corkmodel of a house, but I never saw the model of a gar-iden made of cork.Papa. But this is not the model of a garden, but a2ort of small garden made upon cork. Here it is.D2
62 HARRr AND LUCY.Harry. Why, this is nothing but the plate or saucerLAat commonly stands under a flowerpot, with a piece.( cork, like the hung of a barrel, floating in water.Papa. Notwithstanding its simplicity, it is capable,to a certain degree, of doing what a garden does. Itcan produce a sallad. Here are the seeds of cressesand mustard; sprinkle them thinly upon this cork, andlay it in the closet near the window that opens to-wards the south.Harry. When may I look at it again 1Papa. Whenever you please. But do not touch orshake it; for if you do, it will disturb the seeds fromthe places where they now rest, and that will preventthem from growing. In two or three days you willsee that creases and mustard plants have grown fromthese seeds.Harry. Pray, papa, will the seeds grow on the corkas they grow in the ground ?Papa. No, my dear; it is not the cork that nourishesthe plant, but it is the water which makes it grow.If you cover the bottom of a soup-plate with a pieceof flannel, and pour water into the plate, just highenough to touch the flannel, and scatter seeds on thesurface of the flannel, they will grow upon it in thesame manner that they grow upon cork.Harry. But if it is by the water only that the seedsare made to grow, would they not thrive as well ifthey were put upon the bottom of the plate withoutany cork or flannel ?Papa. No, my little friend, they would not; blecaus,if there were only enough water in the plate to coverhalf of each of the seeds, it would be so shallow as to
HARRY AND LUCY. 53,.e evaporated (you know what that means, Harry)before the seeds could grow. Perhaps, also, the surfaceof the plate may be so smooth as to prevent the fibresof the roots from taking hold of it. And there aremany more reasons which occur to me, why it is pro-bable that they would not grow.Harry. But we can try, papa.Papa. Yes, my dear, that is the only certain methodof knowing.Lucy's mother recollected that she had last year pro-mised to show her how butter was made; and as the rainin the morning had prevented Lucy from going to heruncle's, her mother thought it would be a good oppor-tunity for taking her into the dairy, where the dairymaidwas churning. Little Harry was permitted to go withhis sister.They remembered the wide shallow pans which theyhad seen the year before. They recollected that theirmother had told them that the cream, or oily part ofthe milk, which was the lightest, separated itself fromthe heaviest part; or, to speak more properly, that theheaviest part of the milk descended towards the bottomof the pans, and left the cream, or lightest part, upper-most; and that this cream was skimmed off twice every(lay, and laid by till a sufficient quantity, that is to say,five or six, or any larger number of quarts, was collected.They now saw twelve quarts, or three gallons ofcream, put into a common churn; and the dairymaidput the cream in motion, by means of the (Ir .- i,which she moved up and down with a regular motionfor seven or eight minutes. When she appeared tired,
54 HARRY AND LUCY.another of the maids took the churn-staff from her, andworked in her stead; and so on alternately for aboutthree-quarters of an hour, when the butter began tocome, as it is called, or to be collected in little lumpsin the cream. Harry and Lucy were much surprisedwhen the lid or cover of the churn was taken off, to seesmall lumps of butter floating in the milk. They sawthat the cream had changed its colour and consistency,and that several small pieces of butter were swimmingon its surface. These pieces of butter were collectedand joined together into one lump by the dairymaid,who poured some cold water into the churn to makethe butter harder, and to make it separate more easilyfrom the milk, which had become warm with the quickmotion that had been used to make the butter come.Then she carefully took it all out of the churn and putit into a wooden dish, and pressed and squeezed it soas to force all the milk out of it. She then washed itvery clean, in cold water, a great many times, and witha wooden thing called a slice, which is like a large flatsaucer, she cut the lump of butter that she had madeinto pieces, in order to pull out of it all the cow's hairsthat had fallen into the milk, of which the cream hadbeen made.Many of these hairs stuck to the slice, and otherswere picked out, which appeared as the butter was cutin pieces. The butter was then well washed, and thewater in which it had been washed, was squeezed outof it. The butter was now put into a pair of scales,and it weighed nearly three pounds. Some of it wasrolled into cylinders, of about half-a-pound weight each,and some of it was made into little pats, and stamped
HARRY AND LUCY. 55with wooden stamps, which had different figures carvedupon them; and the impression of these figures wa.marked upon the butter.Lucy asked N hat became of the milk, or liquor, whichwas left in the churn ? Her mother told her that itwas called butter-milk, and that it was usually givento the pigs.Lucy. Mamma, I have heard that in Ireland, andin Scotland, the poor drink butter-milk, and are veryfund of it.Mother. Yes, my dear; but the butter-milk in Ire-land is very different from the butter-milk here. Weseparate the thick part of the cream from the rest, forthe purpose of making butter; but in Ireland they layby the thinner part, which is only milk, as well as thethick cream, for churning, and they add to it the richestpart of the new milk, which is what comes last fromthe cow when she is milked; and what is left after thebutter is made, is, for this reason, not so sour, and ismore nourishing than the butter-milk in this country.Lucy. Do they not sometimes make whey of butter-milk and new milk ?Mother. Yes, my dear, whey is made of butter-milkand skimmed milk; but it is not thought so pleasantor useful in this kingdom, though it is much liked inIreland; probably because the butter-milk here is notso good as it is in Ireland. I am told that it is fre-quently preferred in that country to any other kind orwhey, even by those who are rich enough to have wine-whey. You see, my dear Lucy, that small circum-stances make a great difference in things. I haveheard it said that the Irish poor must be very wretched
G5 IIARRY AND LUCY.indeed, if they are forced to use butter-milk instead ofmilk; but the fact is, their butter-milk is so muchbetter than ours, that they frequently prefer it to newmilk. To judge wisely, we must be careful to makeourselves acquainted with the facts about which weare to judge.Harry. Pray, mamma, why does dashing about themilk with the churn-staff make butter ?Mother. The process of making butter is not yetexactly understood. Cream consists of oil, whey, andcurd, and an acid peculiar to milk. You know whatis meant by an acid.Lucy. Not very well. I know it means what is sour.Mother. Yes, my dear, sourness is one of the pro-perties of acids; and when you have acquired a know-ledge of a greater number of facts, that you can comparewith one another, I shall be better able to explain toyou what is meant by many terms that I cannot atpresent make you understand.Harry. But, mamma, you have not yet told us whychurning makes butter ?Mother. My dear, it does not make butter; it onlyseparates the oily or buttery parts of the cream fromthe curd, or cheesy part, and from the whey. We donot know exactly how this is done by churning; butit is probable that, by striking the cream with thechurn-staff, or by shaking it violently, the oily partsor particles are from time to time forced nearer toge-ther, which enables them to attract each other.Harry. Yes, mamma, I know what that is; just asglobules of quicksilver run together, when they arenear enough.
ITARRY AND LUCY. 57Mother. Globules Harry, where did you find thatnew word 1Harry. Papa told it to me the other day, when Iwas looking at some quicksilver that he had let fall.He told me the little drops of quicksilver, or mercury,which look like balls, were called globules, or littleglobes.Lucy. And, mamma, the drops of dew and rainstand on several leaves separate from one another. Ona nasturtium leaf I have seen drops of water almost asround as drops of quicksilver; and when I pushed two-f the drops near one another, they ran together andformed one larger drop.Mother. They were attracted together, as it iscalled.Lucy. But the larger drop, which was made of thetwo drops, was not twice as large as either of the twosmall ones ?Mother. Are you sure of that, Lucy?Lucy. No, mamma; but I thought so.Mother. Two drops of mercury of the same size, ortwo drops of any other fluid, when they join, do notform a drop that is twice as large in breadth or dia-meter as one of the small drops, but such a dropcontains exactly as much, and weighs as heavy, as thetwo small drops.Harry. I do not understand you, mamma.Mother. I will endeavour by degrees to make youunderstand me; but it cannot be done at once, and youhave attended enough now. Lucy, it is time to read;let us go on with the account of the insects, which youwere reading yesterday.
58 HARRY AND LUCY.Then Lucy, and Harry, and their mother, left thedairy, and returned to the drawing-room.Mother. Here, Harry, sit down, and listen to whatyour sister reads. You will soon be able to read to your-self without assistance; which, in time, will become anagreeable employment.Lucy now read in the Guardian, No. 157, a veryentertaining account of the industry and ingenuity ofants.*Both Harry and she wished that they could findsome ants' nests, that they might see how they carriedon their works. Their mother said that she couldshow them an ants' nest in the garden, and as it haddone raining, she took them into the garden, andshowed them two little holes in the ground, where tihants had formed cells, which served them for houses,to live in, and for store-houses to keep their eggs andfood. They were busily employed in making a road,or causeway, from one of these holes to the other.Great numbers were employed in carrying earth, torepair breaches which had been made in their work bythe rain.Harry laid some dead flies, and some small crumbsof bread, upon the track where the ants were at work;but they were not diverted from their labour by thistemptation. On the contrary, they pushed the dead* For many interesting particulars concerning animals, insects.kc., consult White's Natural History of Selborne, edited by theRev. J. G. Wood, and illustrated with above 200 illustrations.Price 5s. cloth. Also, A Tour Round mny Garden, by AlphonseKarr. Revised and edited by the Rev. J. G. Wood. 117 illustra-tions. Price 5s. Ask for Routledge's editions.
HABIY AND LUCY. 59flies and the crumbs out of their way, and went steadilyon with their business. Harry's mother told him shehad tried the same experiment before, and that,perhaps, another time the ants might choose to eat,instead of pushing away the food that was offered tothem.Harry and Lucy waited patiently watching the ants,till it was time to dress for dinner.After dinner, Harry's father told him that theweather was sufficiently line for their jaunt to FlowerHill. Harry now saw that it was not such a greatmisfortune, as he had thought it in the morning, tohave his walk deferred; and he and Lucy set out joy-fully with their father and mother, on a visit to theiruncle.Their way was through some pretty fields, and overstiles, and through a wood, and along a shady lane.As they passed through the fields, Harry, when theycame to a corn-field, was able to tell the name of thegrain which was growing in it, and Lucy told him thenames of several of the wild-flowers and weeds whichwere growing amongst the corn and under the hedges.During the last year Harry had learnt to be veryactive in body as well as in mind; and when he cameto a low stile, he put his hands upon the top rail, andvaulted nimbly over it. And Lucy ran almost as fastas her brother, and was very active in every exercisethat was proper for a little girl.They soon came to a windmill, which went roundwith great quickness. It was not necessary for hisfather to warn Harry not to go too near the arms orsails of the windmill, as he had read in a Present for
60 HARRY AND LUCY.a Little Boy how dangerous it is to go within the reachof a windmill's sails. He was not, however, foolishlyafraid, but wisely careful. He kept out of the reachof the sails, but he was not afraid of going to the door,or to the wheel and lever, by which the top was turnedround. He counted, with the assistance of his father,the number of turns which the sails made in aminute.His father looked at his watch during one minute;and Harry counted the number of revolutions, orturns, that the sails made in that time. He foundthat they went round forty-five times in a minute.Lucy observed that the middle of the sails movedround through a very small space, but that the ends,or tips of them, went very fast.Papa. My dear, you see a black spot in that part ofthe cloth of the sails, which is near the centre of thearms, goes as often round as the tips of the sails.What, then, do you mean by saying that the tips movevery fast?Lucy. I mean that they go a great way in a littletime.Papa. What do you mean by a great way?Lucy. I am afraid that I cannot explain myselfclearly. I mean, that the tips of the windmill sails gothrough a great way in the air; I believe I should saythat they describe a very large circle, and the part ofthe sails that is near the centre describes a small circle.Papa. Now I understand you distinctly: the circle,which the tips describe is very large, when comparedwith that described by the part near the centre. Ihave tried several times how fast the tips of windmill
HARRY AND LUCY. 61sails move; and when there was a brisk wind theymoved a mile in a minute.Harry. That is very fast, indeed! But how couldyou tell this, papa?Papa. I cannot explain to you now; but at somefuture time I will.They went through a wood, where they saw squir-rels jumping from tree to tree with great agility; andrabbits sitting up on their hind legs, looking aboutthem, and running from one hole to another as if theywere at play. Harry asked several questions aboutthe squirrels and rabbits, and about woodpeckers, andother birds that he saw. By these means, he and Lucygot some knowledge in their walk, and were amusedthe whole of the way to their uncle's.Harry. Papa, this walk puts me in mind of " Eyesand no Eyes," in Evenings at lHome. I feel very gladto find that things which I have read in that book are11:e real things, and that what I have read is of use to me.Neither Lucy nor Harry had ever seen their uncleBrown; and they expected, as he was called Doctor,that he must be a very grave old man, who would nottake the trouble to talk to little children. They were,however, much mistaken; for they found that hewas cheerful, and that lie talked to them a great deal.After tea, ho took them into his study, in which, be-side a great many books. there were several instru-ments and machines of different sorts.They had both seen a barometer and thermometer at
HARRY AND LUCY.home; but the barometer at Doctor Brown's was muchlarger than any Harry had seen before; and it wasnot fixed up against the wall, but was hung upon astand with three legs, in such a manner, that when itwas touched it swung about; and the shining quick-silver, withinside of it, rose and fell so as to show thatit did not stick to the tube which contained it. Therewere an air-pump, and a microscope, and a woodenorrery in the room, and a pair of very large globes.Doctor Brown let Harry examine them. And hewas so good as to answer all the questions that eitherLucy or Harry asked him.Harry asked him what that shining liquid was whichlie saw in the tube of the barometer?Doctor Brown. It is a metal called quicksilver; andit is found in mines under-ground.Harry. My papa showed me quicksilver the otherday, and it was liquid, and was spilt on the table, andon the floor; and how can that be a metal! I thoughtmetals were all solid.Doctor Brown. So they all are when they are suffi-ciently cold.Harry. Then is quicksilver hotter than iron ?Doctor Brown. I cannot explain to you at presentvhlat you want to know.IHarry. What is that globe made of ?Doctor Brown. Of pasteboard and plaster.Harry. How is it made round? I thought pas!.e-board was made of flat sheets of paper pasted upon oneanother.Doctor Brown. Flat pasteboard is; but the pasteboardupon this globe is made round by means of a round
HARRY AND LUCY. 63mould, upon which it is formed. You know, I suppose,what a mould is.lHarry. Yes, I do, pretty well. But how can thepasteboard, after it is all pasted together, be taken offa round mould ?Doctor Brown. After it is dry, it is cut all roundwith a knife; and then it will come off the mould in.two caps, as the shell of a nut, when it is opened witha knife, comes off the kernel.Harry. What is the use of this machine, which youcall an air-pump ?Doctor Brown. To pump air out of that glass vesselwhich you see.Harry. I do not quite understand you, uncle.Doctor- Brown. No, my dear, it is not probable thatyou can; but I will soon give you a little book, whichwill teach you the uses of several instruments of this sort.Harry. My dear uncle, I cannot tell you how muchI should be obliged to you.Harry and Lucy were much delighted with whatthey saw at their uncle's; and as they had not beentroublesome, he asked their father and mother to bringthem to Flower Hill when they next came to see him.They returned home that evening, just before it wasdark and went to bed by moonlight.Thus ends an account of three days passed by Harryand Lucy. One day when Harry was about five, andLucy six years old. And two days, a year afterwards,when Lucy was seven, and Harry six years of age.*" The Rev. J. G. Wood's Natural History may be read withadvantage to young children. It contains nearly 500 illustrations,and may be had of the publishers, bound in cloth, for six shillings.
PA T I111.IT was Lucy's business to call her father every morn-ing. She watched the clock, and when it was the righttime she used to go softly into her father's room, andto open the curtain of his bed, and to call him." Papa papa it is time for you to get up."Then she drew back the window curtains, andopened the shutters, and she put everything ready forhim to dress. She liked to do this for her father, andhe liked that she should do it for him, because theattending upon him taught her to be neat and orderly.Sho and her brother Harry both liked to be in theroom with their father when he was dressing, becausethen lie had leisure to talk to them. Every morninghe used to tell or teach them something that they didnot know before.One morning, in the beginning of winter, when theweather was cold, Lucy said, " It is much colder inthis room, to-day, papa, than it was when you got upyesterday.""Oh, no I think it is not nearly so cold to-day asit was yesterday, when my father was dressing," saidHarry. "What do you think, papa l"Their father went and looked at something thathung in his window, and then answered, " I think thatit is neither hotter nor colder in this room to-day thanit was yesterday, at the time when I was dressing."
HARRY AND LUCY. .j"Are you sine, papa 1" said Lucy." Quite sure, my dear."" How can you be quite sure, papa " said Lucy;'how do you know ?""I can tell how papa knows," cried Harry; "holookedd at the thermometer."" But how does he know by looking at the thermo-meter ?" said Lucy."Come here, and I will show you, for I know,"cried Harry. " Stand up on this chair beside me, andI will show you. My uncle told me all about it lastsummer, when I was looking at the thermometer athis house.""Look; do you see this glass tube ?"" Yes; I have seen that very often.""I know that; but do you see this part of the tube,at the top, seems to be empty; and this part of it here,at the bottom, and half way up the glass tube, is fullof something white. Do you know what it is ?""Yes; I remember very well my uncle told me thatis quicksilver; but what then?"" Stay, be patient, or I cannot explain it to you.Do you see these little marks, these divisions markedupon the edge here, upon the ivory, by the side of theglass tube ?""Yes; well.""And do you see these words printed 2"" Yes-freezing, temperate, blood-heat, boiling-waterheat. I have read those words very often, but I don'tknow what they mean."" When it is neither very hot nor very cold, peoplesay it is temperate: and then the quicksilver would beE
66 HARRY AND LUCY.just opposite to that division where temperate iswritten. When it freezes, the quicksilver would bedown here, at the freezing-point; and, if this thermo-meter were put into boiling water, the quicksilverwould rise up, and it would be just at the place whereboiling water is written. Blood-heat, I believe, meansthe heat that people's blood is generally, but I amnot sure about that. Look, here are the numbersof the degrees of heat or cold. Boiling water heatis 212 degrees; and when it is freezing, it is 32 de-grees."" And the heat of this room now is-look, what is4t, Lucy?"Lucy said it was above the long line marked 40." Count how many of the little divisions it is above40," said Harry.She counted, and said seven; and her father told herto add that number to 40, which made 47.Then Lucy asked how her father knew that itwas as cold, and no colder, in his room to-day than itwas yesterday morning." Because, yesterday morning, the quicksilver rosejust to the same place, namely, to 47 degrees, as it-does to-day. It always rises or falls, with the samedegree of heat or cold, to the same place; to the samedegree.""But look, look, it is moving The quicksilver isrising higher and higher in the glass!" cried Lucy." Look! now it is at fifty-fifty-two-fifty-five.""Yes; do you know the reason of that?" saidHarry.
HARRY AND LUCY. 67"No, I do not know," said Lucy; "for it is not inthe least degree warmer now in this room, I think,than it was when we first looked at the thermometer."" That is true; but you have done something, Lucy,to the thermometer, that has made the quicksilverrise."" I! What have I done ? I have not even touchedit !"" But you have put your face close to it, and yourwarm breath has warmed the glass. Now, look, whenI put my hand, which I have just warmed at the fire,upon the bottom of the thermometer, upon this littleround ball or bulb where the greatest portion of thequicksilver is-look how it rises in the tube And nowI will carry the thermometer near the fire, and youwill see how much more the quicksilver will rise."Lucy looked at it, and she saw that the quicksilverrose in the thermometer when it was brought near thefire.As Harry was putting it still closer to the fire, hisfather called to him, and begged that he would takecare not to break the thermometer." Oh yes, papa, I will take care. If you will giveme leave now, I will put it into this kettle of waterwhich is on the fire, and see whether the water isboiling or not. If it is boiling, the quicksilver willrise to boiling-water heat, will it not ? I will hold thethermometer by the string at the top, so I shall notburn my fingers."His father stood by, while Harry tried this experi-ment ; and Lucy saw that, when the water boiled, theE2
68 HARRY AND LUCY.quicksilver rose to boiling-water heat; that is, to 212degrees.Then Harry carried the thermometer back again tothe window, and left it to cool for some minutes; andthey saw that the quicksilver fell to the place where ithad been when they first looked at the thermometerthis morning; that is to say, to 47 degrees." Now, you see," said Harry, "the use of the ther-mometer. It shows exactly how hot or how cold it is."" It measures the degrees of heat," said their father,"and the name thermometer means measure of heat,from two Greek words; thermno means heat, metermeans measure, as you may observe in the words baro-meter, pyrometer, hygrometer, and many others."" But why, papa, does the quicksilver rise in thistube when it is hot, and fall when it is cold I donot understand that," said Lucy."That is a sensible question," said her father; " andI am not sure that I can answer it so as to make youunderstand me. It has been found from experience,my dear, that quicksilver expands; that is, spreads out-takes up more room-when it is heated than whenit is cold, and it always expands equally when it is inthe same heat. So that, by knowing how much moreroom it takes up, for instance, when it is held near thefire than it did when it was hanging in the window.we could know how much greater the heat is near thefire than at the window. Do you understand me,Lucy. my dear ?"" Yes, papa; I think I do. You say, that when thequicksilver is heated, it I forget the word."" Expands," cried Harry.
HARRY AND LUCY. 63"Yes, expands. When quicksilver is heated it ex-pands, papa."" But what do you mean by expands, my little girl ?""It spreads out every way; its size increases; it"*kes up more room.""Very well. And what then ?"" Why, then, as it expands when it is heated, peoplecan tell, by seeing or measuring the size of the quick-silver, how hot it is."" True : but how do you think they know exactlyhow much it increases in size or bulk, when it is heatedto different degrees of heat ? How do they measureand see at once the measure of this ?"" With a pair of compasses, papa l" said Lucy." Look at this little ball, or globe of quicksilver,"said her father, pointing to a little ball of quicksilverin the glass, at the bottom of the thermometer. " Wouldit not be difficult to measure this with a pair of com-passes, every time you applied heat to it ?"" That would be difficult, to be sure," said Lucy."There must be some other way. Some way, too,by which it can be measured without taking the quick-silver out of the glass every time."" I know the way !" cried Harry."Don't speak; don't tell her ; let your sister think,and find out for herself. And now I must shave; anddo not either of you talk to me, till I have done."Whilst her father was shaving, Lucy looked at thethermometer, and considered about it; and she observedthat the thin, tall line, or column of quicksilver, in thelittle glass tube, rose from the bulb, or globe of quick-silver, at the bottom of the thermometer; and when
70 HARRY AND LUCY.she put her warm hand upon this bulb, the quicksilverrose in the tube." I know it now 1" cried Lucy. " But I must nottell it till papa has done shaving, lest I should makehim cut himself."As soon as papa had done shaving, Lucy, who hadstood patiently at his elbow, stretched out her hand,and put the thermometer before his eyes."Here, papa now I will show you.""Not so near, my dear; do not put it so close to myeyes; for I cannot see it when it is held very nea'to me," said her father." There, papa; you can see it now," said Lucy, can-not you? and you see the quicksilver in this little glassglobe at the bottom of the thermometer ?""Yes, I see it," said her father."When it is heated, and when it expands," con-tinued Lucy, " it must have more room, and it cannotget out at the bottom, or sides, or any way, but up thislittle glass tube. There is an opening, you see, fromthe uppermost part of that little globe into this glasstube."" Very well," said her father. " Go on, my dear."" And when the quicksilver is made hotter andhotter,it rises higher and higher, in this tube, because it wantsmore and more room; and the height it rises to, showshow hot it is, because that is just the measure of howmuch the quicksilver has expanded-has grown larger.And by the words, that are written here; and by theselittle lines-these degrees, I believe, you call them, youcan know, and tell people exactly, how much the quick-silver rises or falls; and that shows how hot it is."
HARRY AND LUCY. 71"Pretty well explained, Lucy; I think you under-stand it."" But one thing she does not know," said Harry--"that, in making a thermometer, the air must be firstdriven out of the little tube, and the glass must bekept quite closed at both ends, so as to keep out theair. My uncle told me this. And now, papa," con-tinued Harry, " will you tell me something about thebarometer? I know that it is not the same as thethermometer; but I do not know the difference. Papa,will you explain it to me?"" Not now; you have had quite enough fur thismorning, and so have I. I must make haste and finishdressing, and go to breakfast.""Yes; for mamma is ready, I am sure," cried Lucy." Here are your boots, papa !""And here is your coat," said IHarry."Papa, to-morrow morning, will you let us blowbubbles, when you have done shaving?" said Lucy."No, no; I want to hear about the barometer, to-morrow," said Harry."We will settle this when to-morrow comes; andnow let us go to breakfast," said their father.*At breakfast, as their father was looking at the news-paper, he found an advertisement, which he read aloud,It was to the effect that a man had brought an ele-phant to a town in the neighbourhood, which he would" Many pleasing experiments and much useful information willbe found in the beautifully illustrated Every Boy's Book, price8s. 6d., to be had of Messrs. Routledge and Co. The work forma complete Encyclopedia of Sports and Amusements.
72 IHARRY AND LUCY.show to any persons who would pay a shilling apiecefor seeing it; and, that the elephant was to be seenevery day, for a week, between the hours of twelve andthree.Harry and Lucy wished very much to see an ele-phant; they said that they would rather see it thanany other animal, because they had heard and readmany curious anecdotes of elephants. Their fathersaid that he would take them during the morning to theneighboring town to see this elephant. Harry im-mediately went for his Sandford and Mferton,* andLucy jumped from her chair, and ran for her InstinctDisplayed. And they each found, in these books, anec-dotes, or stories of elephants, which they were eager toread to their father and mother. Lucy had not quitefinished breakfast, so Harry began first; and he readthe history of the tailor, who pricked the elephant'strunk with his needle; and he read of the manner inwhich the elephant punished him. Then he read theaccount of the enraged elephant, who, when his driver'schild was thrown in his path, stopped short, in themidst of his fury, and, instead of trampling upon theinfant, or hurting him, looked at him seemingly withcompassion, grew calm, and suffered himself to be led,without opposition, to his stable.When Harry had finished reading, Lucy said thatshe liked these stories of the elephant; but that she hadread that part of Sandford and Merton so often, thatshe had it almost by heart. " But now," said she, " Iwill read you something that will, I hope, be quite new,* An illustrated edition of this work, price 3s. 6d., may be hadof Messrs. Routledge and Co.
HARRY AND LUCY. 73even to papa and mamma; unless they have read myMrs. Wakefield's Instinct Displayed.Then Lucy read an account of Rayoba's favouriteelephants, which were almost starved by their keepersbefore it was discovered how their keepers cheated themof their food. When the prince saw that his elephantsgrew thin and weak, he appointed persons to see themfed every day; and these people saw the keepers givethe elephants the food, of which they were most fond-rich balls, called nmssazlla, composed of spices, sugar,and butter, &c. The elephants took these balls up intheir trunks and put them into their mouths, in thepresence of the persons who were to see them fed; butstill the elephants, though they seemed to eat so muchevery day, continued thin and weak." At length, the cheat was discovered; and it showsthe extraordinary influence the keepers had obtainedover these docile animals. They had taught them, inthe inspectors' presence, to receive the balls, and to putthem into their mouths with their trunks, but to ab-stain from eating them; and these tractable creaturesactually had that command over themselves, that theyreceived this food, of which they are so remarkablyfond, and placed it in their mouths, but never chewedit; and the balls remained untouched, until the in-spectors" (that is, the people who had been appointed tosee them fed) "withdrew. The elephants then tookthem out carefully, with their trunks, and presentedthem to the keepers; accepting such a share only, asthey were pleased to allow them."*"* Many entertaining stories will be found in the Rev. J. G.Wood's Sketches and Anecdotes of Animal Life, to be had of thepublishers. The Drice of this work is 3s. 6d.
74 HARRY AND LUCY.Lucy rejoiced at finding that this curious anecdotewas new to her brother, and even to her father andmother. After they had talked about it for sometime, and admired the docility of these poor elephants,Lucy told what she had read of another elephant, whoused to gather mangoes for his master, and to comeevery morning to his master's tent, when he was atbreakfast, and wait for a bit of sugar-candy. Lucy'smother then desired her to bring from the library-table the book which she had been reading on a formerevening-Mrs. Graham's Account of her Residence inIndia. When Lucy had brought the book, her mothershowed her an account of an elephant which had savedthe life of an officer who fell under the wheel of acarriage; and a description of the manner in whichelephants are tamed: she told Lucy that she andHarry, if they chose it, might read these passages.They liked to read, particularly at this time, accountsof this animal, that they might know as much as theycould of his history, before their father took them tosee the elephant. They were happy, reading togetherwhat their mother had given them leave to read ofthis book; and then they looked over the prints, andby the time they had done this, their mother calledLucy to her dressing-room, to write and to cast upsums, and Harry went to his father's study, to learnhis Latin lesson. Harry and Lucy employed them-selves regularly, for about an hour every morning,.after breakfast; and, in general, they attended closelyto what they were doing; therefore they made rapidprogress in their studies. Lucy was learning to write,and she wrote about two lines carefully every day;
HARRY AND LUCY. 75always trying to correct, each day, faults of which hermother had told her the preceding day. She wasalso learning arithmetic; and she could, with the helpof a dictionary, make out the meaning of half apage of French, without being much tired. Sheknew that nothing can be learnt without takingsome trouble; but when she succeeded in doing betterand better, this made her feel pleased with herself, andrepaid her for the pains she took. She now read Englishso well, that it was a pleasure to her to read; and toher mother it was a pleasure to hear her. So thereading English was always kept for the last of hermorning's employment. She was, at this time, readingsuch parts of Evenings at Home* as she could under-stand. This day she read the "Transmigrations ofIndur;" and after she had read this, in Evenings atHome, her mother let her read a little poem, on thesame subject, which was written by a young gentleman,a relation of hers. Lucy particularly liked the follow-ing description of the metamorphosis, or change, of thebee into an elephant?-"Now the lithe trunk, that sipp'd the woodland rose.With strange increase, a huge proboscis grows;His downy legs, his feather-cinctur'd thighs,Swell to the elephant's enormous size.Before his tusks the bending forests yield;Beneath his footsteps shakes th' astonished field ;* This entertaining work, so warmly recommended by MissEdgeworth, is published by Messrs. Routledge. Their edition isbeautifully illustrated, and sells at 3s. 6d.
76 IARRY AND LUCY.With astern majesty he moves along,Joins in unwieldy sport the monster throng.Roaming, regardless of the cultur'd soil,The wanton herd destroy a nation's toil.In swarms the peasants crowd, a clam'rous band,Raise the fierce shout, and snatch the flaming brand;Loud tramp the scared invaders o'er the plain,And reach the covert of their woods again."By the time Lucy had finished reading, and hadworked a little, and copied the outline of a foot and ofa hand, her mother told her to put by all her books,work, and drawings, and to get ready to go out; for itwas now the hour when her father had said that hewould take Lucy and her brother to see the elephant.Harry and Lucy walked with their father to theneighboring town, which was about a mile and a halfdistant from their home: they went, by pleasant paths,across the fields. It was frosty weather, so the pathswere hard; and the children had fine running andjumping, and they warmed themselves thoroughly.When she was very warm, Lucy said, " Feel my hand,papa I am sure, if I were to take the thermometer inmy hand now, the quicksilver would rise finely. Howhigh, papa? to how many degrees do you think itwould rise ?"" I think," answered her father, " to about seventydegrees of Fahrenheit's thermometer."" Fahrenheit's thermometer! Why do you call itFahrenheit's thermometer? I thought it was yourthermometer, papa '" said Lucy." So it is, my dear; that is, it belongs to me, but it
HARRY AND LUCY. 77is called Fahrenheit's, because a person of that namefirst divided the scale of the thermometer in themanner in which you saw mine divided. There areother thermometers, divided in a different manner;some of these are called Reaumur's thermometers,because they were first divided so by a person of thename of Reaumur."" But, papa, will you tell me," said Harry, " some-thing about the barometer ?"His father stopped him. "I cannot tell you any-thing about that now, my dear; run on, or we shallnot have time to see the elephant; for the keeper ofthe elephant shows him only till three o'clock eachday." Harry and Lucy ran on, as fast as they could,and they were quite in time to see the elephant.They were surprised at the first sight of this animal.Though they had read descriptions, and had seenprints of elephants, yet they had not formed an exactidea of the reality. Lucy said that the elephantappeared much larger; Harry said it was smaller thanwhat he had expected to see. Lucy said that, till shesaw it, she had no idea of the colour, or of the wrinkledappearance of the elephant's skin. The keeper of thiselephant ordered him to pick up a little bit of money,which he held upon the palm of his hand. Imme-diately the obedient animal picked it up, with the endof his proboscis, and gave it to his keeper. Lucy said,she had never had a clear notion how it moved itstrunk, or proboscis, nor how it could pick up suchsmall things with it, till she saw it done. Harry said,that he had never had an idea of the size or shape ofthe elephant's feet till he saw them. Lucy said the
78 HARRY AND LUCY.prints had given her no idea of the size of its ears, orof the breadth of its back. Both she and her brotheragreed that it is useful and agreeable to see real thingsand live animals, as well as to read or hear descriptionsof them.The keeper of this elephant was a little, weak-looking man. Harry and Lucy admired the obedienceand gentleness of this powerful animal, which did what-ever his master desired, though sometimes it appearedto be inconvenient and painful to it to obey. Forinstance, when the elephant was ordered to lie down,he bent his fore knees and knelt on them; though itseemed to be difficult and disagreeable to it to putitself into this posture, and to rise again from itsknees. Lucy asked what this elephant lived upon,and how much it ate every day. The man said thathe fed the elephant upon rice and vegetables, and heshowed a bucket which, he said, held several quarts.This bucketful the elephant had every day. Therewas, in one corner of the room, a heap of raw carrots,of which, the keeper said, the elephant was fond; heheld a carrot to the animal, which took it gently, andate it. When Lucy saw how gently the elephant tookthe carrot, she wished to give it one with her ownhand; and the man told her that she might. Butwhen Lucy saw the elephant's great trunk turningtoward the carrot, which she held out to him, she was.frightened; she twitched back her hand, and pulledthe carrot away from th< elephant, just as he wasgoing to take it. This disappointment made him veryangry; and he showed his displeasure by blowing airthrough his proboscis, with a sort of snorting noise,
HARRY AND LUCY. 7qwhich tightened Lucy. Harry, who was morecourageous, and who was proud to show his courage,took the carrot, marched up to the elephant, and gaveit to him. The animal was pacifie-l directly, andgently took the carrot with his proboscis, turned backthe proboscis, and put the carrot into his mouth.Harry, turning to his father, with a look of some self-satisfaction, said that "the great Roman general,Fabricius, was certainly a very brave man, not to havebeen terrified by the dreadful noise made by kingPyrrhus's elephant, especially as Fabricius had neverseen an elephant before." Lucy did not know whatHarry alluded to, or what he meant; because she hadnot yet read the Roman history. He said that hewould show her the passage in the Roman history, assoon as they reached home. And now, having lookedat the elephant as long as they wished, and havingasked all the questions they wanted to ask, they wentaway. They were glad to get out into the fresh airagain, for the stable in which the elephant lived, hada very disagreeable smell. Lucy pitied this animalfor being cooped up, as she said, in such a small room,instead of being allowed to go about, and to enjoy hisliberty. Harry then thought of horses, which liveshut up, for a great part of their lives, in stables. Heasked his father whether he thought that horses whichhave been tamed, or broken in, as it is called, andwhich are kept in stables and taken care of by men,are happier, or less happy, than wild horses. Histfther said, he thought this must depend upon themanner in which the horses are fed and treated: heobserved, that if horses which are tamed by man are
SO HARnRY AND LUCY.constantly well fed, and are protected from the incle-mencies of the weather, and are only worked withmoderation, it is probable that they are happy;because, in these circumstances, they are usually ingood health and fat, and their skins look sleek, smooth,and shining. From these signs we may guess thatthey are happy; but, as they cannot speak and tell uswhat they feel, we cannot be certain.During the walk home, Harry and Lucy tooknotice of many things. There was scarcely an hour intheir lives in which they did not observe and learnsomething. One subject of observation and of con-versation led to another; but it is impossible to givean account of all these things.When they got home, Lucy reminded her brotherof his promise about Fabricius and the elephant. Heshowed her the passage in the Roman history, whichhe had read; and that evening Lucy asked her motherif she might read the whole of her brother's Romanhistory. Her mother gave her a little History ofIRome,* with sixty-four prints in it; and she toldLucy, that when she knew all the facts told in thishistory, it would be time enough to read another,which might tell her more particulars of the Romanhistory.The next day being Sunday, Harry and Lucy went,with their father and mother, to church. The morninglesson for this day was a chapter of the Bible contain-ing a portion of the history of Joseph and his brethren.*Probably Mrs. Trimmer's
HARRY AND LUCY. V1Harry and Lucy listened attentively, and when theycame home from church they told their father thatthey wished very much to know the end of that history,of which they had heard the beginning read by the cler-gyman at church. Their father took down, from hisbook-case, the large family Bible, and lie read the wholeof the history of Joseph and his brethren, with whichthe children were very much interested and touched.In the evening they each read to their mother oneof Mrs. Barbauld's Hymns in Prose for Children.Harry and Lucy loved these hymns, and they showedtheir mother the passages thab they liked particularlyin those which they read this day." Mamma, this is the passage which I like the best,"said Lucy."' Look at the thorns, that are white with blossoms,and the flowers that cover the fields, and the plantsthat are trodden in the green path: the hand of manhath not planted them; the sower hath not scatteredthe seeds from his hand, nor the gardener digged aplace for them with his spade."'Some grow on steep rocks, where no man canclimb; in shaking bogs, and deep forests, and desertislands; they spring up everywhere, and cover thebosom of the whole earth."'Who causeth them to grow everywhere, and* *- *and giveth them colours and smells, and spreadeth outtheir thin, transparent leaves ?"' How doth the rose draw its crimson from thedark brown earth, or the lily its shining white ? Howcan a small seed contain a plant 1 *F
83 HARRY AND LUCY." 'Lo these are a part of his works, and a smallportion of his wonders." There is little need that I should tell you of God,for everything speaks of him.' "Harry was silent for a moment after he had heardthese passages read again, and then he said, "I likethat very much indeed, Lucy: but now let me read toyou, mamma, what I like better still:-"'Negro woman, who sittest pining in captivity,and weepest over thy sick child, though no one seeththee, God seeth thee; though no one pitieth thee, Godpitieth thee. Raise thy voice, forlorn and abandonedone call upon Him, from amidst thy bonds, for assu-redly He will hear thee." Monarch, that rulest over a hundred states, whosefrown is terrible as death, and whose armies cover theland, boast not thyself, as though there were noneabove thee. God is above thee; His powerful arm isalways over thee, and, if thou doest ill, assuredly Hewill punish thee.' "The next morning, when Harry and Lucy wentinto their father's room, Harry drew back the curtainof his father's bed, and said, " Father, you promised totell me something about the barometer, and it is timeto get up."His father answered, without opening his eyes, " Doyou see two tobacco pipes ?"Harry and Lucy laughed, for they thought thattheir father was dreaming of tobacco pipes, and talkingof them in his sleep. Lucy recollected that her mother
HARRY AND LUCY. 83said he had been writing letters late the night before,and she said to her brother, " We had better let himsleep a little longer.""Yes, do my dear," said her father, in a sleepyvoice; "and take the two tobacco pipes, and my soap,and my basin, and the hot water, Lucy, that youbrought for my shaving, and you may blow soapbubbles in the next room for half an hour, and, at theend of that time, come and arouse me again."Harry looked about the room, and lie found, on hisfather's table, the two tobacco pipes which lie had beenso good as to put there the night before. Taking careto move softly, and not to make any noise that shoulddisturb their father, they carried out of the room withthem the hot water, basin, soap, and tobacco pipes.During the next half-hour they were so happy, blow-ing bubbles, watching them swell and mount into theair, and float, and burst, trying which could blow thelargest bubbles, or the bubbles which would last thelongest, that the half-hour was gone before theythought that a quarter of an hour had passed. ButLucy heard the clock strike, and immediately sheknew that the half-hour was over, and that it wastime to go and call her father again. So she wentdirectly, for she was very punctual. Her father wasnow awake, and he got up; and, while he was gettingup, she began to talk to him of the pretty soapbubbles which they had been blowing; but Harry wasimpatient to ask his father something about the baro-meter."Now, Lucy, let us have done with the soapbubbles," said Harry " I want to learn somethingF2
84 HARRY AND LUCY.seriously. Papa, I want to understand the barometerperfectly before I go next week to my uncle's, that hemay find I am not so ignorant as I was the last timehe saw me; and, besides, my cousin Frederick will beat home, and he is only a year or two older than Iam; and my uncle says that Frederick understandsthe use of all the instruments in his room. I did notunderstand even the barometer. Father, will youexplain it to me this morning ?""Just let me first show papa this one large bubble,"said Lucy, " and then you may go to the barometer."Lucy blew a large bubble from the end of hertobacco pipe, but it burst before it had risen far.Then Lucy put down the tobacco pipe, and said, " NowI will not interrupt you any more with my bubbles."" But perhaps, my dear Lucy," said her father, " thebubbles may lead us to the knowledge of some thingsnecessary to be known, before I can explain a baro-meter. Do you know what a bubble is ?"" Oh, yes, papa," said she; "I remember you toldme, a great while ago,-a bubble is- "She was forced to pause, to think, however, beforeshe could describe it."I believe it is air, blown into a round case, orglobe, of something. A soap-bubble is air in a roundcase of soap and water. But, papa, I have often seenbubbles on the top of water; they are only air andwater. But how can the case be made of water 1 Ican conceive that a globe of soap and water mightstick together, because I know that soap is sticky; butI wonder at water's sticking together, so as to make ahollow globe."
HARRY AND LUCY. 85"When you look at water," said her father, " or atquicksilver, you perceive that they are very different,not only in colour, but in their other properties."" Properties, papa," said Lucy; "that is a word ofwhich you taught me the meaning. Properties arewhat belong to things."" One of the properties of water is fluidity," said herfather. "Sand, on the contrary, is not fluid. Sandmay be poured out, like water or quicksilver; but thegrains, of which it is composed, are separate, and haveno visible attraction for each other. The parts ofwater cohere, or stick together, but slightly; a smallforce divides them, but still they have an obvioustenacity.""!Papa, what is obvious tenacity ? Tenacity, Iknow, is stickiness; but what does obvious mean ?""Easily seen-plain-easy to be perceived. Byobvious tenacity I mean tenacity which you can easilyperceive ; though nothing viscid or sticky is added tothe water, you see that water can be spread by air soas to form the outer case of a bubble."" But, when soap is added to water," said Lucy,"larger bubbles can be made.""Yes. Why ?"" Because the soap makes the parts of the waterstick together more strongly; but, papa," continuedLucy, " what is the reason that a bubble bursts? forif the outside case is strong enough to hold it at first,why should not that hold it as well always? At lastit bursts; what is the reason of this ?"Her father said, that he believed there were severalcauses which might make a bubble burst; and that he
86 HARRY AND LUCY.was not sure either that he knew all of them, or thathe could explain them all, so as to make Lucy under-stand them. He mentioned some of the causes; forinstance, the wind blowing against the bubble mightbreak it; or the heat might expand the air inside it,and burst it; or, at other times, some of the water, ofwhich the outer skin of the bubble is made, may rundown from the top to the bottom, till it makes thebottom so heavy, and the top so thin, that it bursts.Here Harry was heard to utter a deep sigh. Hisfather smiled, and said-"Poor Harry thinks we shall never get to thebarometer; but have patience, my boy, we have notgone so far out of the way as you think we have.Now, Harry, run to my workshop, and bring me abladder, which you will find hanging up near the door.And Lucy, run for the little pair of bellows which isin your mother's dressing room."Harry brought the bladder, and Lucy brought thebellows. They were curious to see what their fatherwas going to show them ; but, just then, the breakfast-bell rang. Their father could not show or tell themanything more that morning, for he was forced tofinish dressing himself as fast as he could, and thechildren helped him eagerly. One reason why theyliked to come to their father every morning, and tobe taught by him was, that he never tired them byforcing them to attend for a long time together.Ten minutes at a time he thought quite sufficientat their age; but then he required complete attention.Whenever he found that they were not thinking ofwhat he was teaching them he would not say any
HARRY AND LUCY. 87more to them, but send them away. For this theywere always sorry; and this punishment, or ratherthis privation, was sufficient to make them attendbetter next day. It very seldom happened that theywere sent out of their father's room. Though henever taught them in play, as it is called, yet he madewhat they learned as interesting to them as he could;and he made work and play come one after the other,so as to refresh them. He and their mother took carethat Harry and Lucy should neither be made to dislikeknowledge, by having tiresome, long tasks, nor ren-dered idle, and unable to command their attention, byhaving too much amusement. Spoiled children arenever happy. Between breakfast and dinner they aska hundred times, " What o'clock is it ?" and wish forthe time when dinner will be ready, or when puddingor apple pie will come. And when dinner is over,they long for tea-time, and so on; or they must havesomebody to amuse them, or some new toys. Frommorning till night they never know what to do withthemselves; but the whole long day they are loungingabout, and troublesome to everybody, continuallywishing, or asking, or crying for something that theyhave not. Poor, miserable creatures Children whoare not spoiled will smile when they read this, andwill be glad that they are not like these, but thatthey are like Harry and Lucy. Harry and Lucyloved pudding and apple pie as well as most people do,but eating was not their only or their greatest plea-sure. Having acquired a love for reading and forknowledge of many sorts, they found continually anumber of employment, and of objects which enter-
88 HARRY AND LUCY.tainted and interested them ; so that they were neverin want of new toys, or of somebody to amuse them.If any extraordinary amusement was given to them-such, for instance, as seeing an elephant-they enjoyedit as much as possible; but, in general, Harry andLucy felt that they wanted nothing beyond theircommon, every-day occupations. Beside their ownoccupations and amusements, there was always some-thing going on in the house which entertained them.They were now able to understand their father andmother's conversation: living constantly with them(aHnd not with servants), they sympathized, that is, feltaloijg vith their parents, and made, to a certaindegree, a part of their society. Frequently theirmother read aloud in the evenings. On such occa-sions Harry and Lucy were never desired to listen;but sometimes they could understand what was read,and sometimes they found it entertaining.It happened, one winter evening, that their motherbegan to read a French book, which they could notunderstand, yet it seemed to amuse their father somuch, that they wished to know what it was about.All that they heard their father and mother saying toone another about it made them sure that it must beentertaining; they left their map of Europe, whichthey had been putting together, and Lucy went andlooked over her mother's shoulder at the book, andHarry leant on his elbows opposite to his mother, lis-tening eagerly, to try if he could make out any meaning;but lie could understand only a word, or a short sen-tence, now and then.Their mother observed their eagerness to know what
HARRY AND LvcY. 89she was reading, and she was so good as to translatefor them, and to read to them, in English, the passageswhich she thought most entertaining. She told them,first, what it was about.It was the account, given by a traveller, of a highmountain in Switzerland, and of the manner of livingof the people by whom it is inhabited. Harry andLucy turned to the map of Europe, which they hadbeen putting together, and pointed to Switzerland, astheir mother spoke. The name of the mountain ofwhich she was reading an account, was Mount Pilate.The name was taken, as their father told them, fromthe Latin word Pileus, a hat, the top of this mountainbeing almost always covered with what looks like ahat, or cap of clouds. Different points, or heights, ofthis mountain, are called by different names. Themost curious, difficult, and dangerous part of the ascent,lies between the point called the Ass, and another pointcalled the Shaking Stone." Oh, mother I read about the shaking stone," criedHarry."No, Harry, let mamma begin here, where there issomething about de tres belles fraises. I know theEnglish of that, very fine strawberries."Her mother began to read just where Lucy's fingerpointed."'At the bottom of this road, up to the shakingstone, is a bank, which is covered with very fine straw-berries, from the middle of summer till the 21st ofDecember, if the snow does not cover them before thattime. And they may be found, even under the snow,if people will take the trouble to look for them.
90 HARRY AND LUCY." All the fir trees near this spot are called storm-shelterers; because they seem to have been placed thereon purpose to shelter people from the storms. Some ofthem afford a shelter of fifty feet in circumference.The rain cannot penetrate through the thick branchesof these trees. The cattle are often seen gathered to-gether under them, even in the finest weather; but itgenerally happens that a storm comes on within aquarter of an hour after the cattle have taken shelterin this manner.'"" How do the cows or horses foresee the storm,mamma ?" said Lucy."I do not know, my dear."" Let my mother go on reading, and ask all yourquestions afterwards, Lucy," said Harry."If I can but remember them," said Lucy." From the foot of the mountain, to the point wherethere is the village called Brundlen, the road is tole-rably safe. The people can even drive their cows uphere, but with this precaution: two men go with the cow,one at the head, and the other at the tail, and theyhold in their hands a long pole, which they keep alwaysbetween the cow and the precipice, so as to make a sortof banister, or rail, to prevent her from falling."' People are forced to walk very slowly on this road.Half way up, you come to a curious fir tree. Fromits trunk, which measures eight feet in circumference,spread nine branches, each about three feet in circum-ference, and six feet long. From the end of each ofthese branches, which are about fifteen feet from theground, there rises, perpendicularly, a fir tree. Thistiee looks, in shape, something like a great chandelier,
HARRY AND LUCY. 91with all its candles ** *" The village of Brundlen is thehighest and last village on the mountain. It standsat the foot of a rock, from which enormous stones andfragments of rock frequently roll down; but the housesare so situated, under the / ,' *'. " part of the rock, thatall which falls from it, bounds over without touchingthem. The inhabitants of this village possess aboutforty cows. The peasants mow only those parts of themountain where the cattle cannot venture to go tofeed. The mowers are let down, or drawn up, to theseplaces by ropes, from the top of the rock; they put thegrass, when they have mowed it, into nets, which aredrawn up or let down by the same ropes wherever itis wanted. It is remarkable that the kinds of grassand herbs which are found in these mountainous placesare quite different from those which grow in the lowcountries.'"" My dear children, is it possible that you are inter-ested about these grasses ?" said their mother."No, mamma," said Lucy, "not much about thegrasses; but I like that part about the mowers letdown by ropes; and I like to hear it, just as you readit to papa.""' Round some of the stones which have partlyfallen, or mouldered away, grows a flower, which is avery dangerous poison. At four or five feet distancefrom this plant the cattle perceive its smell, and theyleave the grass round it untouched. The flowers ofthe different kinds of this plant are of a fine deep blue,yellow, or white. The white are the most uncommon;and the poison of these, it is said, is the moat danger-
92 HARRY AND LUCY.ous. Some years ago, a young man gathered some ofthese flowers, and held them in his hand while lie de-scended the mountain, to go to a dance. When he wasnear the place where the dancing was going on, he feltthat his hand was numbed, and he threw away the flowers.He danced, afterwards, for an hour or two, with ayoung woman, holding her hand all the time; he grewwarm; and it is supposed that the poison from thepoisonous flowers was communicated from his hand tohers; for they both died that night.' "Harry and Lucy were shocked at this story." But, mother," said Harry, "do you think it istrue ?"" That was the very thing I was considering," saidhis mother.Then his father and mother began to talk about theprobability of its being true or false.They looked back for the description of the flower,and for the Latin name, which their mother, knowingthat the children would not understand, had passedover. By comparing the name and description of thisflower with those in botanical books, where the de-scription and accounts of the properties of plants aregiven, they found that the plant of which they hadbeen reading, was a species of aconite, called in England,wolfs-bane, or monk's-hood; and, as several instanceswere mentioned of its poisonous and fatal effects, theywere inclined to believe that the story of the youngman and woman's death might be true.Lucy, seeing in some of the botanical books in whichher mother had been looking, pretty coloured draw-ings, or prints of flowers, asked whether she might
HARRY AND LUCY. 93look at them. Her mother said that she might, atsome other time, but not this evening; because Lucycould not attend both to looking at these prints andto what she heard read aloud. So Lucy shut thebooks, and she and Harry put them into their placesagain, in the book-case, resolving that they would lookat them together the next day." Now, mamma," said Harry, as they drew theirseats close to her, and settled themselves again tolisten-" now for the shaking stone, mamma."The kind mother began immediately, and read on,as follows:-"This stone is at the summit of the mountaincalled the Ober Alp; it overhangs the rock a little,and appears as if it would fall; but this is really im-possible, unless it were thrown down by a violentearthquake. The stone is as large as a moderate-sized house. When any one has the boldness to getupon it, to lie down, and let their head overhang thestone, they will feel the stone shake, so that it seemsas if it were going to fall that moment. In 1744, thestone ceased to shake. About six years afterwards,someoodv discoveredd that this arose from a littlepebble, which had fallen through a crack, and re-mained under the stone. A man fastened a greathammer to a pole, and after frequently striking thepebble with the hammer, he succeeded in dislodging it.Immediately the stone began to shake again, and hascontinued ever since to vibrate.""How glad the man who struck the pebble fromunder the stone must have been, when he saw it begin
94 HARRY AND LUCY.to shake again !" said Harry. "I should like to havebeen that man.""Now I," said Lucy, "could not have managed thegreat pole and hammer, and I would rather have beenthe person who first discovered that the pebble hadgot under the stone, and that it was the cause whichprevented the stone from shaking."" Oh, but anybody who had eyes could have seenthat," said Harry." And yet all those people who lived in that countryhad eyes, I suppose," said Lucy; " but they were sixyears before they saw it.""They had eyes and no eyes," said her mother,smiling."That is true; I understand what you mean,mamma," said Lucy. "I have read 'Eyes and noEyes,' in Evenings at Home, and I like it very much.But will you go on, mamma, if there is anything morethat is entertaining ?"" There is something more that, perhaps, wouldentertain you," said her mother; "but I will not readany more to you to-night, because it is time for you togo to bed."" To-morrow night, mamma, will yo,_ read somemore to us "" I will not promise, my dear. Perhaps I mayhave something else to do; or, perhaps, you may notdeserve it so well to-morrow. When to-morrow nightcomes, it will be time enough to give you an answer."The next morning, when Harry and Lucy went
HARRY AND LUCY. 95itio their father's room, they took care to have thebladder and the bellows ready by the time that hewas up, as he had promised to show them some experi-ments."Now," said he, " we will fill this bladder with air,by blowing air into it with the bellows."He put the end of the bellows into tl.s neck of thebladder, and bade Harry hold the bladder, and Lucyblow the bellows."It is now quite full, papa," said Lucy: I will tiethe air in, with a waxed string round the neck of thebladder; I know how to do that. Look, how full, andround, and tight it is."" So it is," said her father; " but now I want to letout some of the air that is in this bladder, withoutletting all of it out-how shall I do that ?"" I do not know," said Lucy; "for if I untie thisstring, I am afraid all the air that is in the bladdernow would come out.""That it certainly would," said her father."How shall we manage it ?" repeated Harry andLucy. After considering for some time, Harry ob-served, that beyond the place where the bladder wastied, there was enough of the neck of the bladder leftto admit the nose of the bellows: he proposed, thatthey should put in the end of the bellows, and tie thebladder round it, and then untie that string with whichthey had at first tied the neck of the bladder. Hisfather said that this would do, but that he could showhim what would do better. He gave him a little pipeof wood, about two inches long, that had a woodenstopver at one end, that could be easily put into the
96 HARRY AND LUCY.pipe, and easily taken out. He told Harry that thiikind of pipe aid stopper are called a spigot and jaeuct.He fastened the faucet into the neck of the bladder, sothat lie could stop the air from coming out of thebladder when it was full, and he could at any time letout the air by taking away the peg, or spigot. Thenhe let out a great part of the air that was in thebladder, till it was nearly empty, stopped the faucetagain with the spigot, and then carried the bladder tothe fire."Now you will see," said their father, "that theheat of the fire will swell the small quantity of airremaining in the bladder, till it will fill as great aspace as that which was filled by all the air which weforced into it at first with the bellows. Here, Harry,take this to the fire while I shave myself."The children held the bladder near the fire, but itdid not swell out immediately; and, after they hadheld it a few minutes, they began to think that itwould never do, as Harry said. His father told himthat he must not be so impatient if he intended to tryexperiments." If you are tired of holding the bladder," said he,"' put it down on the hearth. Leave it there, and goand do, or think of something else; and in about aquarter of an hour, perhaps, it will begin to swellout.""A quarter of an hour! that is a great while,indeed !" said Harry.However, the quarter of an hour passed while thechildren were putting some little drawers of theirfather's in order. When they returned to look at the
HARRY AND LUCY. 97bladder, they saw that it was beginning to swell, andthey watched it while it gradually swelled. First onefold of the bag opened, then another; till, at last, ithad again expanded into the shape of a globe."This is very extraordinary !" said Lucy, " that thelittle-the very little air which papa left in thebladder should have swelled out to this size, withoutanything being added to it.""Without anything being added to it " repeatedher father: " think again, my dear.""I have thought again, papa; but, I assure you,nothing was added to the air; for we never openedthe bladder after you put in the-what do you call it,which fastens it .""The spigot," said Harry." The spigot," said Lucy. "Well, papa, I say nothingwas added to the air.""I say, daughter, you are mistaken."" Why, papa, we did nothing in the world but holdthe bladder to the fire, and leave it before the fire,and nobody touched it, or put anything to it, ornear it !"Still her father said, "Think again, Lucy."She recollected herself, and exclaimed, " I knowwhat you mean, now, papa-heat. Heat was addedto it."" Yes," said her father, "heat mixed with the air inthe bladder; and, by separating the parts of the airTrom each other, caused them to take up more room.Now take the bladder into a cold place; hang it uphere, near the window, and let us see what willhappen."
98 HARRY AND LUCY." I know what will happen, papa," said Lucy." When the air in the bladder grows cold, it will takeup less room."" It will contract," interrupted Harry." And then," continued Lucy, "the bladder willshrink, and become less and less; and it will fall infolds, in a kind of loose bag, just as it was before wecarried it to the fire. I shall like to see whether thiswill happen just as I think it will."Lucy hung up the bladder in a cold place, andwatched it for a few minutes; but she did not perceiveany immediate alteration." It will be as long in shrinking as it was in swell-ing out," she said; "and breakfast will be ready, I amafraid, before it shrinks."" I know a way of making it shrink quickly," criedHarry." What is it ?""I will not tell you; but I will show you," saidHarry. "You shall see what you shall see."He ran out of the room, and soon returned, withhis little watering pot full of cold water." Now, Lucy," said he, " hold the basin for me underthe bladder, that we may not wet the floor. Hold itsteady."He poured cold water from the rose of the wateringpot, so as to sprinkle the water all over the bladder,and immediately the bladder began to collapse or shrink;and soon, to Lucy's delight, it had diminished to thesize of which it had been before it was carried to theire, and it hung like a loose, orflaccid bag.