The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe

Material Information

The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Uniform Title:
Robinson Crusoe
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Lydon, A. F ( Illustrator )
Groombridge and Sons ( Publisher )
Place of Publication:
London (5 Paternoster Row)
Groombridge and Sons
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
xvi, 207 p., [11] leaves of plates : col. ill. ; 19 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Castaways -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1875 ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1875
Imaginary voyages ( rbgenr )
fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )


General Note:
Spine title: Robinson Crusoe.
General Note:
Added col. illustrated t.p.
General Note:
The University of Florida's copy is probably an 187- reissue of Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe, 481, dated [1862]. Lovett lists an 188-reissue (614) which matches the copy in hand, which is inscribed 1879.
General Note:
"Memoir of De Foe:" p. [v]-xvi.
General Note:
Part I of Robinson Crusoe.
Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
Statement of Responsibility:
by Daniel De Foe [sic] ; illustrated by A.F. Lydon.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections ( with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
028953868 ( ALEPH )
30019006 ( OCLC )
AJP3982 ( NOTIS )

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LIST OF PLATES.Robinson Crusoe with his dog and gun Vignette Title.Robinson Crusoe leaves home and is shipwrecked Page 7Robinson Crusoe by means of a raft saves many useful articlesfrom the ship 35Robinson Crusoe erects a post on the shore 4Robinson Crusoe taking a survey of the Island 67Robinson Crusoe awakened from sleep by his parrot 97Robinson Crusoe at dinner with his little family. (Frontispiece.) 101Robinson Crusoe frightened by a goat in a cave 121Robinson Crusoe rescuing Friday from the savages 139Robinson Crusoe and Friday attacking the savages 160Robinson Crusoe surprising the three Englishmen 173Friday teaching the bear to dance 201

MEMOIR OF DE FOE.DANIEL FOE, or, as he subsequently styled himself (though at what timeand on what occasion is not known,) De Foe, was born in the parish ofSt. Giles's, Cripplegate, London, in the year 1661. The earliest of hisancestors of whom there is any account, was Daniel Foe, a yeoman, whofarmed his own estate at Elton, in Northamptonshire. He maintained a packof hounds; from whence it may be reasonably inferred that his means wereabove competency. A custom of the times in bestowing party names onbrutes is thus mentioned by our author. "I remember," he says, "mygrandfather had a huntsman that used the same familiarity with his dogs;and he had his Roundhead, and his Cavalier, and his Goring, and hisWaller, and all the generals of both armies were hounds in his pack; tillthe times turning, the old gentleman was fain to scatter his pack, and makethem up of more dog-like surnames." It is from his grandfather that DeFoe is supposed to have inherited landed property: for in his "Review," awork we shall often have occasion to consult, he says, "I have both a nativeand an acquired right of election." Our author's father, James Foe, followedthe trade of butcher, in St. Giles's, Cripplegate: and these few barrenfacts are all that is to be gathered of the ancestors of Daniel De Foe."He had," says Mr. Wilson, in his excellent work, "The Life and Times ofDaniel De Foe," a work abounding with the most curious and minuteinformation on the period of which it treats-"He had some collateralrelatives, to whom he alludes occasionally in his writings, but with too muchbrevity to ascertain the degree of kindred."At an early age, De Foe is said to have shewn that vivacity of humour,and that indomitable spirit of independence, that remained with him throughafter life, "making a sunshine in the shady place" of a prison, and arminghim as the champion of truth in humanity in the most perilous times. Ananecdote related by our author is illustrative of the discipline that governedthe home of his boyhood. During that part of the reign of Charles II,when the nation feared the ascendency of Popery, and it was expected thatprinted Bibles would become rare, many honest people employed themselvesin copying the Bible into short-hand. To this task young De Foe appliedhimself; and he tells us that "he worked like a horse till he had writtenout the whole of the Pentateuch, when he grew so tired that he was willingto risk the rest." The parents of De Foe were nonconformists, and hiseducation was consonant to the practice of that faith. Family religionformed an essential part of its discipline; and it was made matter of

vi MEMOIR OF DE FOE.conscience to instruct the children of a family and its dependents in theirsocial, moral, and religious duties.Although the enemies of De Foe vainly endeavoured to sink his reputationby representing him as having been bred a tradesman, there is ampleevidence to prove that he was originally intended for one of the learnedprofessions.* When he had, therefore, sufficiently qualified under inferiortutors, he was, at about fourteen years of age, placed in an academy atNewington Green, under the direction of "that polite and profound scholar,"the Reverend Charles Morton, who was subsequently defended by his pupil,some aspersions having been cast upon the character of the master by anungrateful scholar who had deserted to the church. De Foe writes, "I mustdo that learned gentleman's memory the justice to affirm, that neither inhis system of politics, government, and discipline, nor in any other of theexercises of that school, was there anything taught or encouraged that wasantimonarchical or destructive to the constitution of England."Of De Foe's progress under Mr. Morton, it is impossible now to speakwith any certainty. He tells us in one of his "Reviews" that he had beenmaster of five languages, and that he had studied the mathematics, naturalphilosophy, logic, geography, and history. he was one of the few who, .inthose days, studied politics as a science. He went through a completecourse of theology, and his knowledge of ecclesiastical history was alsoconsiderable. He was, however, attacked by party malice as "an illiterateperson without education." To this he calmly makes answer:-"Thosegentlemen who reproach my learning to app aUd their own, shall have itproved that I have more learning than either of them-because I havemore manners." He adds, "I think I owe this justice to my excellentfather still living (1705,) and in whose behalf I fully testify, that if I ama blockhead, it is nobody's fault but my own." He proceeds to challengehis slanderer "to translate with me any Latin, French, and Italian author,and after that to retranslate them crossways, for twenty pounds each book;and by this he shall have an opportunity to shew the world how much DeFoe, the hosier, is inferior in learning to Mr. Tutchin, the gentleman."At one-and-twenty, De Foe commenced the perilous trade-most perilousin his day-of author; at which he laboured through good and throughevil report, with lasting honour to himself, and enduring benefit to mankind,for half a century. It is now ascertained that De Foe's first publicationwas a lampooning answer to "L'Estrange's Guide to the Inferior Clergy,"and bore the following quaint title:-"Speculum Crape-Gownorum; or, aLooking-Glass for the Young Academicks new Foyl'd; with Reflections onsome of the late High Flown Sermons: to which is added, an Essay towardsa Sermon of the Newest Fashion. By a Guide to the Inferiour Clergie.Ridentem discere Verum Quis Vetat. London: printed for E. Rydal. 1682."This title De Foe borrowed from the crape gowns then usually worn by theinferior clergy; and in the book, he fights the fight of the Dissenters againstwhat he terms the libels of the established clergy. "The fertility of thesubject," says Mr. Wilson, "soon produced a second part of the 'Speculum;'* "It is not often," says De Foe, in his Revsew, vi. 341, "that I trouble you with any of mydivinity; the pulpit is none of my office. It was my disaster first to be set apart for, and then tobe set apart from, the honour of that sacred employ."

MEMOIR OF DE FOE. Viiin which the author deals more seriously with the government, and by apractical view of the effect of persecution, exposed its absurdity."SWe have entered more at length into the nature and purpose of De Foe'sfirst book, than will be permitted to us by our limits to do with each ofthe works that now followed, in rapid profusion, from the pen of our author.All that we purpose to ourselves is, to give the strongest outlines of hischaracter,-the principal events of his career: and, avoiding on one handa jejune brevity, that confines itself to mere dates, attempt not, on the otherside, a minute description of events incompatible with our present object.When the duke of Monmouth landed at Lyme, De Foe was among thosewho joined the standard of the hapless nobleman. "A romantic kind ofinvasion," says Welwood, "and scarcely paralleled in history." At the ageof four-and-twenty, we see De Foe, the author of "Robinson Crusoe," asoldier; as ready with his sword as prompt with his pen, in the cause ofrational liberty. Of Monmouth, De Foe seems to have had some previousknowledge, having often seen him at Aylesbury races, where the duke rodehis own horses, a circumstance alluded to by our author in his "Tour."De Foe had the good fortune to escape the vengeance visited upon so manyof the duke's supporters, and returned in safety to London; where, leavingthe stormy region of politics, he now directed his attention to trade. Thenature of his business has been variously represented. In several pub-lications of the time, he is styled a hosierr;" but, if we may believe hisown account, he was a hose-factor, or the middle-man between the manufac-turer and the retail-dealer. This agency concern he carried on for someyears, in Freeman's-court, Cornhill; Mr. Chalmers says, from 1685 to 1695.On the 26th. of January, 1687-8, having claimed his freedom by birth, hewas admitted a liveryman of London. In the Chamberlain's book, his namewas written "Daniel Foe."When the Revolution took place, De Foe was a resident in Tooting, inSurrey, where he was the first person who attempted to form the Dissentersin the neighbourhood into a regular congregation. De Foe was for manyyears a resident in this part of Surrey; it is likely that he had a country-house there during the time that he carried on his hose-agency in Cornhill.De Foe was one of the most ardent worshippers of the Revolution: heannually commemorated the 4th. of November as a day of deliverance. "Aday," says he, "famous on various accounts, and every one of them dear toBritons who love their country, value the Protestant interest, or have anaversion to tyranny and oppression. On this day, he (King William) wasborn; on this day he married the daughter of England; and on this dayhe rescued the nation from a bondage worse than that of E ypt; a bondageof soul as well as bodily servitude; a slavery to the ambition and raginglust of a generation set on fire by pride, avarice, cruelty, and blood." Inorder to do honour to the king, and add to the splendour of the processionon the royal visit to Guildhall, many of the citizens volunteered to attendWilliam as a guard of honour on the occasion. Among these was DanielDe Foe.The commercial speculations of our author, though at the first prosperous,were ultimately unsuccessful. That they were of a various challuct.r, isevident from the fact of his having engaged with partners in the Spanish

Viii MEMOIR OF DE FOE,and Portuguese trade. It is very clear, from a passage in his "Review,"that he had been a merchant-adventurer. In the number for January 27,1711, he alludes to an old Spanish proverb, "which," says he, "I learntwhen I was in that country." It further appears, that while residing there,he made himself a master of the language. De Foe's losses by shipwreckappear to have been very considerable. The occupations of trade, however,according to De Foe's own confession, assort ill with literary feelings. "Awit turned tradesman!" he exclaims; no "apron-strings will hold him: 'tisin vain to lock him in behind the counter, he's gone in a moment." Heconcludes:-"A statute of bankrupt is his Exeunt Omnes, and he generallyspeaks the epilogue in the Fleet Prison or Mint."In allusion to the misfortunes of our author, Mr. Chalmers observes:-"With the usual imprudence of genius, he was carried into companies whowere gratified by his wit. He spent those hours with a small society forthe cultivation of polite learning, which he ought to have employed in thecalculations of the counting-house; and, being obliged to abscond from hiscreditors in 1692, he naturally attributed those misfortunes to the war, whichwere probably owing to his own misconduct. An angry creditor took outa commission of bankruptcy, which was soon superseded, on the petition ofthose to whom he was most indebted, who accepted a composition on hissingle bond. This he punctually paid, by the efforts of unwearied diligence;but some of these creditors, who had been thus satisfied, falling afterwardsinto distress themselves, De Foe voluntarily paid them their whole claim,being then in rising circumstances, in consequence of King William's favour."De Foe, being subsequently reproached by Lord Haversham for mercenaryconduct, he tells him, in 1705, that, "with a numerous family, and no helpbut his own industry, he had forced his way, with undiscouraged diligence,through a set of misfortunes, and reduced his debts, exclusive of composition,from seventeen thousand to less than five thousand pounds."It deserves to be remembered that, in the time of De Foe, our lawsagainst bankrupts were as inhuman as they were foolish. "The cruelty ofour laws against debtors," says De Foe, "without distinction of honest ordishonest, is the shame of our nation. I am persuaded, the honestest manin England, when by necessity he is compelled to break, will early fly outof the kingdom rather than submit. To stay here, this is the consequence:as soon as he breaks he is proscribed as a criminal, and has thirty to sixtydays to surrender both himself and all that he has to his creditors. Ifhe fails to do it, he has nothing before him but the gallows, without benefitof clergy; if he surrenders, he is not sure but he shall be thrown into gaolfor life by the commissioners, only on pretence that they doubt his oath!What must the man do?" We have reformed a great deal of this in ourday, yet something remains undone, for the bankrupt is still too much leftat the mercy of the malevolent or ignorant creditor.It is certain that De Foe, whilst under apprehension from his creditors,resided some time at Bristol. "A friend of mine in that city," says Mr.Wilson, "informs me that one of his ancestors remembered De Foe, andsometimes saw him walking in the streets of Bristol, accoutred in the fashionof the times, with a fine flowing wig, lace ruffles, and a sword by his side:also, that he there obtained the name of 'the Sunday gentleman,' because,

MEMOIR OF DE FOE. ixthrough fear of the bailiffs, he did not dare to appear in public upon anyother day." De Foe was wont to visit "The Red Lion," kept by one Mark"Watkins, who, in after times, used to entertain his company with an accountof a singular personage, who made his appearance in Bristol, clothed in goat-skins, in which dress he was in the habit of walking the streets, and wentby the name of Alexander Selkirk, or Robinson Crusoe! It was duringthis retreat from London that De Foe wrote his celebrated "Essay uponProjects," though he did not publish it until nearly five years afterwards.It appears that at this time De Foe was invited, by some merchants ofhis acquaintance residing in Cadiz, to settle in Spain, with the offer of agood commission: "but" says our author, "Providence, which had other workfor me to do, placed a secret aversion in my mind to quitting England uponany account, and made me refuse the best offer of that kind, to be concernedwith some eminent persons at home, in proposing ways and means to thegovernment for raising money to supply the occasion of the war, then newlybegun." De Foe suggested a general assessment of personal property, theamount to be settled by composition, under the inspection of commissionersappointed by the king. It was, doubtless, owing to these services, that DeFoe was appointed to the office of accountant to the commissioners of the glassduty, in 1695: the commission ceased in 1699. It was probably about thistime that De Foe became secretary to the tile-kiln and brick-kiln works atTilbury, in Essex. Pantiles had been hitherto a Dutch manufacture, andwere brought in large quantities to England. To supersede the necessityof their importation these works were erected. The speculation provedunsuccessful, De Foe himself losing by its failure no less than three thousandpounds. He continued the works, it is believed, until the year 1703, when,being deprived of his liberty for a libel, the undertaking came to an end.Towards the close of the war, in 1696-7, De Foe gave to the world his"Essay upon Projects;" a work alike admirable for the novelty of the subject,and the clearness and ingenuity with which it is treated. The projects ofour author may be classed under the heads of politics, commerce, and benev-olence; all having some reference to the public improvement. The firstrelates to banks in general, and to the royal or national bank in particular,which he wishes to be rendered subservient to the relief of the merchant,and the interests of commerce, as well as to the purposes of the state: hisnext project relates to highways; a third, to the improvement of the bankruptlaws; a fourth, to the plan of friendly societies, formed by mutual assurance,for the relief of the members in seasons of distress; a fifth, for the establish-ment of an asylum for "fools," or, more properly, "naturals," whom he des-cribes as "a particular rent-charge on the great family of mankind:" he nextsuggests the formation of academies, to supply some neglected branches ofeducation; one of these was for the English tongue, "to polish and refineit;" and this project combined a reformation of that "foolish vice," swearing:the next project of our author was an academy for military studies; and,under the head of "Academies," he suggested an institution for the educationof females:-"We reproach the sex every day," says he, "with folly andimpertinence, while, I am confident, had they the advantages of educationequal to us, they would be guilty of less than ourselves."In January, 1700-1, appeared De Foe's celebrated poem of "The Trueborn

S MEMOIR OF DE FOE.Englishman." It was composed in answer to "a vile, abhorred pamphlet,in very ill verse, written by one Mr. Tutchin, and called 'The Foreigners,in which the author-who he then was I knew not," says De Foe-"fellpersonally upon the king and the Dutch nation." How many thousandsfamiliar with the following now proverbial lines, know not that with themopens "The Trueborn Englishman!""Wherever God erects a house of prayer,The devil always builds a chapel there;And 't will be found upon examination,The latter has the largest congregation!"De Foe traces the rise of our ancient families to the Norman invader, whocantoned out the country to his followers, and "every soldier was a denizen."The folly of indulging this pride of ancestry is finely painted in the followinglines:-"These are the heroes who despise the Dutch,And rail at new-come foreign s so much;Forettine that themselves are all derivedF- om thie most scoundrel race that ever lived.A horrid crowd of rambling thieves and drones,W-ho ransacked kingdoms and dispeopled towns;The Pict and painted Briton, treacherous Scot,By hunger, theft, and rapine hither brought;iorwegian pirates, buccaneering Danes,W hose red-haired os.;,ri,*'if r, rJ, re ri nMains;"Who, joined with Norman-French, compound fte breedFrom whence your True-Born Englishmen pit.ed.And lest by length of time it be pretendedThe climate may the modern race have mended,Wise Providence, to keep us where we are,Mixes us daily with exceeding care."De Foe concludes with the following striking lines:-"Could but our ancestors retrieve their fate,And see their offspring thus degenerate:How we contend for birth and names unknown;And build on their past actions, not our own;They'd cancel records, and their tombs deface,And then disown the vile degenerae race;For fame of families is all a cheat,'T IS PERSONAL VIKITUB O.NLT MtAKES US GREATT""When I see the town full of lampoons and invectives against Dutchmen,"says De Foe, in his "Explanatory Preface," "only because they are foreigners,and the king reproached and insulted by insolent pedants and ballad-makingpoets, for employing foreigners, and being a foreigner himself, I confessmyself moved by it to remind our nation of their own original, therebyto let them see what a banter they put upon themselves; since, speakingof Englishmen ab origin, we are really all foreigners ourselves."It is to this poem that De Foe was indebted for a personal introductionto King William. Hie was sent for to the palace by His Majesty, conversedwith him, and had repeated interviews with him afterwards. The mannersand sentiments of De Foe appeared to have niade such a favourable impressionon the king, that he ever after regarded him with kindness; and conceivingthat his talents might be turned to a beneficial account, he employed him

MEMOIR OF DE FOE. xiin many secret services, to which he alludes occasionally in his writings.The effect produced upon the country by the satire was most beneficial.De Foe himself, nearly thirty years afterwards, writes, "National mistakes,vulgar errors, and even a general practice, have been reformed by a justsatire. None of our countrymen have been known to boast of being True-born Englishmen, or so much as use the word as a title or appellation, eversince a late satire upon that national folly was published, though almostthirty years before."In 1700-1, on the meeting of the fifth parliament of King William, we findDe Foe strenuously engaged advocating the necessity of settling the successionin the Protestant line; an important object with William, as the only meansof perpetuating the benefits which the nation had reaped from the Revolution.To this great end, De Foe devoted all his energies, labouring with unweariedzeal in the cause. His conduct on the imprisonment of the Kentish gentle-men, whose names are historically associated with the presentation of thefamous Kentish petition, was marked with all the intrepidity of his character.The Commons had imprisoned the petitioners, who prayed the house forthe settlement of the Protestant succession, for having presented a petition"scandalous, insolent, and seditious." On this, De Foe drew up his ccelebr'ted"Legion Paper." In what manner it was communicated to the house doesnot appear upon the journals. It was reported at the time that De Foe,disguised as a woman, presented it to the Speaker as he entered the Houseof Commons. The "Legion" petition rang like a tocsin throughout the king-dom. As, however, the author remained concealed, the Commons did notthink fit to pass any particular censure upon it. The Kentish petitionerswere discharged by the prorogation of parliament on the 24th. of June:they were subsequently feasted at Mercers' Hall, where De Foe attended."Next the Worthis," says a pamphlet of the time, "was placed their secretaryof state, the author of the 'Legion Paper;' and one might have read thedownfal of parliaments in his very countenance."By the death of King William, "more mortally wounded," says De Foe,"with the pointed rage of parties, and an ungrateful people, than by the fallfrom his horse," our author lost a kind friend and powerful protector.Toward the latter part of this reign, De Foe took up his abode at Hackney,and resided there many years. Here some of his children were born andburied. In the parish register is the following entry:-"Sophia, daughterto Daniel De Foe, by Mary his wife, was baptized, December 24, 1701."The next important work of De Foe-a work that excrci .--l the greatestinfluence on his fortunes-was the "Shortest Way with the Dissenters; or,Proposals for the Establishment of the Church; 1702." In this work, theauthor, assuming the character of an Ultra High Churchman, advocates theadoption of the severest measures against the Dissenters. "'T is vain," writesDe Foe, "to trifle in this matter. The light, foolish handling of them byfines, is their glory and advantage. If the gallows instead of the computer,and the galleys instead of the fines, were the reward of going to a conventicle,there wold not be so many sufferers." These arguments found high favourwith both the Universities. The High Church party never suspected thesincerity of their partizan, and charmed and won by the fierce doctrines oftheir champion, were unsuspicious of the satire of their extravagance. It

xil MEMOTR OF DE FOE.was, however, De Foe's hard fate to be misunderstood by both parties.Whilst the High Churchmen congratulated themselves on the addition ofanother advocate, the Dissenters treated him as a real enemy. The ChurchParty, however, fell into the trap laid for them by De Foe; for, by expressingtheir delight at the fiery sentiments of the author, they avowed them astheir own true feelings on the question. De Foe subsequently taunts theparty thus:-"We have innumerable testimonies," he says, "with which thatparty embraced the proposal of sending all the Dissenting ministers to thegallows and the galleys; of having all their meeting-houses demolished; andbeing let loose upon the people to plunder and destroy them." In anotherplace, De Foe characteristically portrays the common fate of the subtlety ofwit, when judged by the multitude. He says-"All the fault I can findwith myself as to these people (the Dissenters) is, that when I had drawnthe picture, I did not, like the Dutchman with his man and bear, write underthem, 'This is the man,' and 'This is the bear,' lest the people should mistakeme; and having in a compliment to their judgment shunned so sharp areflection upon their senses, I have left them at liberty to treat me like onethat put a value upon their penetration at the expense of my own." Thefirst detection of our author is said to have been owing to the industry ofthe Earl of Nottingham, one of the secretaries of state. When the author'sname was known people were at no loss to decipher his object; and thosewho had committed themselves by launching forth in his praises were stungwith madness at their own folly. It was at once resolved by the party inpower to crush De Foe by a state prosecution. In the height of the storm,our author sought concealment; when a proclamation was issued by theGovernment, offering 50 for the discovery of his retreat, and advertisedin "The London Gazette," for January 10, 1702-3. It was as follows:-"Whereas, Daniel De Foe, alias De Fooe, is charged with writing a scanda-lous and seditious pamphlet, entitled, 'The Shortest Way with the Dissenters.'He is a middle-sized, spare man, about forty years old; of a brown com-plexion, and dark brown coloured hair, but wears a wig; a hook nose, asharp chin, grey eyes, and a large mole near his mouth: was born in London,and for many years was a hose-factor in Freeman's Yard, Cornhill: and nowis owner of the brick and pantile works, near Tilbury Fort, in Essex: whoevershall discover the said Daniel De Foe to one of her Majesty's principalsecretaries of state, or any of her Majesty's justices of peace, so he may beapprehended, shall have a reward of 501., which her Majesty has orderedimmediately to be paid upon such discovery."In the House of Commons, it was resolved that the book "be burnt bythe hands of the common hangman in Palace Yard." The printer of thework and the bookseller being taken into custody, De Foe issued forth fromhis retirement, to brave the storm, resolving, as he expresses it, "to throwhimself upon the favour of government, rather than that others shouldbe ruined by his mistake." De Foe was indicted at the Old Bailey sessions,the 24th. of February, 1703, and proceeded to trial in the following July.It may be gathered from his own account of the prosecution, that when hisenemies had him in their power, they were at a loss to know what to dowith him. He was therefore advised to throw himself on the mercy of the

iEMOITR O DbE FO. xiliQueen, with a promise of protection; which induced him to quit his defence,and acknowledge himself as the author of the offensive work. On this, DeFoe was sentenced to pay a fine of 200 marks to the Queen; to stand threetimes in the pillory; to be imprisoned during the Queen's pleasure, and tofind sureties for his good behaviour for seven years.The people, however, were with De Foe. Hence, he was guarded to thepillory by the populace; and descended from it with the triumphant acclama-tions of the surrounding multitude. De Foe has himself related, that "thepeople, who were expected to treat him very ill, on the contrary, pitied him,and wished those who set him there were placed in his room, and expressedtheir affections by loud shouts and acclamations when he was taken down."Tradition reports that the pillory was adorned with garlands, it being in themiddle of summer. The odium intended for De Foe fell upon his persecutors,and the pillory became to him a place of honour.A triumphant evidence of the high spirit of De Foe-a spirit elevatedand strengthened by its unconquerable love of truth-is manifested by thefact, that on the very day of his exhibition to the people, he published "AHymn to tile Pillory!" This poem, which successively passed through severaleditions, being eagerly bought up by the people, opens nobly as follows:-"Hail! hieroglyphick state machine,Contrived to punish fancy in;Men that are men, in thee can feel no pain,And all thy insignificant disdain.Contempt, that false new word for shame,Is, without crime, an empty name;A shadow to amuse mankind,But never frights the wise or well-fixed mind;Virtue despises human scorn,And scandals innocence adorn."De Foe is now presented to us, stripped of his fortunes, and a prisoner.In consequence of his imprisonment, he could no longer attend to his pantileworks, which produced the chief source of his revenue, and they were con-sequently given up. By this affair he lost, as he himself informs us, 3,500;and he had now a wife and six children dependent upon him, with no otherresource for their support than the produce of his pen. Hence the leisureof De Foe, whilst in Newgate, was not that of idleness or dissipation. Someof his subsequent writings leave no doubt that he now stored his mind withthose facts relative to the habits and pursuits of the prisoners, which hehas detailed with so much nature as well as interest. A great part of histime was devoted to the composition of political works, which our limits willnot permit us to dwell upon. It was likewise whilst in Newgate that heprojected his "Review," a periodical work of four quarto pages, which waspublished for nine successive years without intermission; during the greaterpart of the time, three times a week, and without having received anyassistance whatever in its production. Throughout this work, he carried onan unsparing warfare against folly and vice in all their disguises: it pointedthe way to the "Tatlers," "Spectators," and "Guardians," and may be referredto as containing a vast body of matter on subjects of high interest, writtenwith all the author's characteristic spirit and vigour.The Tories vainly endeavoured to buy up De Foe: but Newgate had no

xrv MEMOIR OF DE FOM.terrors for him, and he continued at once their prisoner and their assailant.Upon the accession of Mr. Harley to office, his own politics not being dis-similar to those of De Foe, the minister made a private communication toour author, with the view of obtaining his support. No immediate arrange-ment, however, took place between them, as De Foe remained a prisonersome months afterwards. Notwithstanding, it is most likely that the Queenbecame acquainted with De Foe's real merits through the medium of theminister, and was made conscious of the injustice of our author's sufferings,which she now appeared desirous to mitigate. For this purpose, she sentmoney to his wife and family, at the same time transmitting to him a sufficientsum for the payment of his fine, and the expenses attending his dischargefrom prison.On his release from prison, De Foe retired to Bury St. Edmunds. Partyclamour, and party malice, however, pursued him there. On the miserablelibels issued at this time against him, he says, "I tried retirement, andbanished myself from the town. I thought, as the boys used to say, 'twasbut fair they should let me alone, while I did not meddle with them. Butneither a country recess, any more than a stone doublet, can secure a manfrom the clamour of the pen." In his elegy on the author of "The True-born Englishman," he alludes to the report that the Tories had exertedthemselves in his favour. He says, in answer:-"So I, by Whigs abandoned, bearThe Satyr's unjust lash;Dye with the scandal of their help,But never saw their cash."It appears that in 1705 De Foe was employed by Harley to execute somemission of a secret nature, which required his presence upon the continent.The mission, whatever it was, appears to have been attended with somedanger, and to have required his absence for about two months. Harleyseems to have been so well satisfied, that upon De Foe's return, he wasrewarded with an appointment at home. In 1706, De Foe wrote voluminouslyon the subject of the union with Scotland, which measure he advocated"with all the strength of his powers. This advocacy obtained for him aconfidential mission to Scotland, where he was received with great consider-ation. While in Edinburgh, he published his "Caledonia," etc., a poem inhonour of Scotland and the Scots nation. Of the union, he says, in his"Review," "I have told Scotland of improvement in trade, wealth, and ship-ing, that shall accrue to them on the happy conclusion of this affair; andSam pleased doubly with this, that I am likely to be one of the first menthat shall give them the pleasure of the experiment." In 1708, De Foe wasrewarded with an appointment and a fixed salary. When the union wascompleted, he published "The Union of Great Britain." In 1710, De Foeresided at Stoke-Newington, and appears to have been comfortable in hiscircumstances. In 1712 was closed the last volume of the "Review." In along preface to this volume, De Foe has a most eloquent defence of thiswork, and of the mode in which he had conducted it. Nothing can be finer,more manly, or more conclusive. In allusion to his sufferings during theprogress of the work, he says, "I have gone through a life of wonders, andam the subject of a vast variety of providence; I have been fed more by

OIV,,NfoR OF T)TI FO,. XVmiracle than Elijah when the ravens were his purveyors. I have some timeago summed up my life in this distich:-No man has tasted differing fortunes more,And thirteen times I have been rich and poor.In the school of affliction I have learnt more than at the academy, andmore divinity than from the pulpit; in prison, I have learnt to know thatliberty does not consist in open doors, and the free egress and regress oflocomotion. I have seen the rough side of the world as well as the smooth,and have, in less than half a year, tasted the difference between the closetof a king and the dungeon of Newgate." This preface may be consideredas a review,-a summing up of the events of De Foe's political life, and assuch is of the highest value for the noble spirit of conscious truth breathingin and animating every line of it. As a piece of English it is exquisitefor its innate strength-the beauty of its simplicity. De Foe, however, wasagain doomed to taste the dungeon sweets of Newgate, being committedthere upon the foolish charge of writing libels in favour of the Pretender.After the death of Queen Anne, De Foe, who had been a political writerfor thirty years, retired from the thorny field to the more pleasant pathsof instructive fiction. Whilst writing "An Appeal to Honour and Justice,"he was struck with apoplexy; he however recovered, and in the early partof 1715, committed to the press one of his most valuable treatises, "TheFamily Instructor." In 1719 appeared the immortal "Robinson Crusoe!"Nearly the whole circle of booksellers had in vain been canvassed for apublisher. William Taylor, the fortunate speculator, is said to have cleareda thousand pounds by the work, which rose into immediate popularity,despite the rancorous assaults of the petty, vulgar minds abounding amongstDe Foe's political enemies. There can be no doubt that the idea of thework was first suggested by the story of Alexander Selkirk, which hadbeen given to the public seven years before. The enemies of De Foecharged him with having obtained this man's journal, and from its contentsproducing "Robinson Crusoe." The truth is, De Foe was as much indebtedto Selkirk for the materials used in his immortal work, as was Vandykefor his portraits to the colourman who furnished him with pigments. Ina number of "The Englishman," Sir Richard Steele gave the true andparticular history of Selkirk. The place in which "Robinson Crusoe" wascomposed has been variously contested. It seems most probable (says Mr.Wilson) that De Foe wrote it in his retirement in Stoke-Newington, where heresided, during the principal part of Queen Anne's reign, in a large whitehouse, rebuilt by himself, and still standing in Church-street. The workhas been printed in almost every written lan guage,-has been the delightof men of all creeds and all distinctions-from the London apprentice inhis garret, to the Arab in his tent."Robinson Crusoe" was speedily followed by the "Account of DickoryCrooke," the "Life and Piracies of Captain Singleton," the "History ofDuncan Campbell," the "Fortunes and Misfortunes of Moll Flanders," the"Life of Colonel Jacque," the "Memoirs of a Cavalier," and that extraordinarywork, the "Account of the Plague." We might possibly have laid before thereader a correct list of the multifarious productions of our author, manyof them, until of late. most difficult to be obtained, had not the spirit of

vlV MEMOIR OF DE F08.the times called for complete editions of De Foe's works, most welcome ai dvaluable offerings to the reading part of the nation.The latter years of De Foe's life must have been those of competence, amost honourable competence, insured to him by his works, and the rapiditywith which editions followed editions. There is, however, a too miserableproof of his sufferings, inflicted upon him by the cruelty and undutifulnessof his son, who, to quote a letter of De Foe, written in his anguish, "hasboth ruined my family and broken my heart." De Foe adds,-"I dependedupon him, I trusted him, I gave up my two dear unprovided children intohis hands; but he has no compassion, and suffers them and their poordying mother to beg their bread at his door, and to crave, as if it werean alms, what he is bound under hand and seal, besides the most sacredpromises, to supply them with; himself, at the same time, living in aprofusion of plenty. It is too much for me."For some years before his death, De Foe was tormented with those dreadfulmaladies, the gout and the stone, occasioned, in part, most probably by hisclose application to study, whilst making posterity the heirs of undyingwisdom. De Foe expired on the 24th. of April, 1731, when he was aboutseventy years of age, having been born in the year 1661. The parish ofSt. Giles's, Cripplegate, in which he drew his first breath, was also destinedto receive his last. He was buried from thence, on the 26th. of April, inTindall's burial-ground, now most known by the name of Bunhill Fields. Hiswife died at the latter end of the following year. De Foe left six children,*wo sons and four daughters, whose descendants are living at the present time.The character of De Foe was but the practical example of his noblestwritings. As a citizen of the world, his love of truth, and the patience,the cheerfulness, with which he endured the obloquy and persecution of hisenemies, endear him to us as a great working benefactor to his race. Hismemory is enshrined with the memories of those who make steadfast ourfaith in the nobility and goodness of human nature. As a writer, De Foehas bequeathed to us imperishable stores of the highest and the most usefulwisdom. If he paint vice, it is to shew its hideousness; whilst virtue itselfreceives a new attraction at his hands. His poetry is chiefly distinguishedfor its fine common sense; it has no flights-it never wraps us by itsimagination, but convinces us by its terseness; by the irresistible eloquenceof its truth. De Foe's prose, though occasionally careless, is remarkablefor its simplicity and strength. What he has to say, he says in the shortestmanner, and in the simplest style. He does not-the vice of our day-hidehis thoughts under a glittering mass of words, but uses words as thepictures of things. It is owing to this happy faculty, this unforced power,that De Foe occasionally rises, as in many instances in the golden volumenow offered to the reader, almost to the sublime. In his picture of thedespair of Crusoe, we have, in words intelligible even to infancy, a wondrousdelineation of the soul of man in a most trying and most terrible hour.De Foe is, in the most emphatic sense of the word, an English writer.Cobbett has been compared to him; and in many of the minor parts ofauthorship there is, certainly, a similitude; but Cobbett was singularlydeficient of imagination, the power which gave a colour and a beauty to allthat De Foe touched, even though of the homeliest and most unpromisingmaterials.

LIFE AND ADVENTURESOPROBINSON CRUSOE.I was born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good family,though not of that country, my father being a foreigner of Bremen, whosettled first at Hull: he got a good estate by merchandise, and leavingoff his trade, lived afterwards at York; from whence he had marriedmy mother, whose relations were named Robinson, a very good familyin that country, and from whom I was called Robinson Kreutznaer; but,by the usual corruption of words in England, we are now called,-naywe call ourselves, and write our name, Crusoe; and so my companionsalways called me.I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-colonel to anEnglish regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly commanded by the famousColonel Lockhart, and was killed at the battle near Dunkirk against theSpaniards. What became of my second brother I never knew, any morethan my father and mother did know what was become of n:e.Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade, myhead began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts: my father,who was very ancient, had given me a competent share of learning, asfar as house-education and a country free-school generally go, and designedme for the law; but I would be satisfied with nothing but going to sea;and my inclination to this led me so strongly against the will, nay, thecommands of my father, and against all the entreaties and persuasionsof my mother and other friends, that there seemed to be something fatalin that propensity of nature, tending directly to the life of misery whichwas to befal me.My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excellent counselagainst what he foresaw was my design. He called me one morning intohis chamber, where he was confined by the gout, and expostulated verywarmly with me upon this subject: he asked me what reasons, more

2 xOBmoN CRrurOs.than a mere wandering inclination, I had for leaving my father's housoand my native country, where I might be well introduced, and had aprospect of raising my fortune by application and industry, with a lifeof ease and pleasure. He told me it was men of desperate fortunes onone hand, or of aspiring, superior fortunes on the other, who went abroadupon adventures, to rise by enterprise, and make themselves famous inundertakings of a nature out of the common road; and these things wereall either too far above me, or too far below me; that mine was themiddle state, or what might be called the upper station of low life,which he had found, by long experience, was the best state in the world,the most suited to human happiness, not exposed to the miseries andhardships, the labour and sufferings of the mechanic part of mankind, andnot embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of the upperpart of mankind. He told me, I might judge of the happiness of thisstate, by this one thing, viz., that this was the state of life which allother people envied; that kings have frequently lamented the miserableconsequence of being born to great things, and wished they had beenplaced in the middle of the two extremes, between the mean and thegreat; that the wise man gave his testimony to this, as the standard offelicity, when he prayed to have neither poverty nor riches.He bade me observe it, and I should always find, that the calamitiesof life were shared among the upper and lower part of mankind; butthat the middle station had the fewest disasters, and was not exposed toso many vicissitudes as the higher or lower part of mankind; nay, theywere not subjected to so many distempers, and uneasiness, either of bodyor mind, as those were who, by vicious living, luxury, and extravaganceson one hand, or by hard labour, want of necessaries, and mean or in-sufficient diet on the other hand, bring distempers upon themselves bythe natural consequences of their way of living; that the middle stationof life was calculated for all kind of virtues and all kind of enjoyments;that peace and plenty were the handmaids of a middle fortune; thattemperance, moderation, quietness, health, society, all agreeable diversions,and all desirable pleasures, were the blessings attending the middle stationof life; that this way men went silently and smoothly through the world,and comfortably out of it, not embarrassed with the labours of the handsor of the head, not sold to a life of slavery for daily bread, nor harassedwith perplexed circumstances, which rob the soul of peace, and the bodyof rest; nor enraged with the passion of envy, or the secret burning lustof ambition for great things; but, in easy circumstances, sliding gentlythrough the world, and sensibly tasting the sweets of living, without thebitter; feeling that they are happy, and learning by every day's experienceto know it more sensibly.After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affectionate manner,not to play the young man, nor to precipitate myself into miseries which

10BIfNSOY Ct1TSOi. 5nature, and the station of life I was born in, seemed to have providedagainst; that I was under no necessity of seeking my bread; that hewould do well for me, and endeavour to enter me fairly into the stationof life which he had just been recommending to me; and that if I wasnot very easy and happy in the world, it must be my mere fate orfault that must hinder it; and that he should have nothing to answer for,having thus discharged his duty in warning me against measures whichhe knew would be to my hurt; in a word, that as he would do verykind things for me if I would stay and settle at home as he directed,so he would not have so much hand in my misfortunes, as to give meany encouragement to go away; and to close all, he told me I had myelder brother for an example, to whom he had used the same earnestpersuasions to keep him from going into the Low Country wars, butcould not prevail, his young desires prompting him to run into the army,where he was killed; and though he said he would not cease to prayfor me, yet he would venture to say to me, that if I did take thisfoolish step God would not bless me, and I should have leisure hereafterto reflect upon having neglected his counsel, when there might be noneto assist in my recovery.I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was truly prophetic,though I suppose my father did not know it to be so himself; I say, Iobserved the tears run down his face very plentifully, especially whenhe spoke of my brother who was killed; and that when he spoke of myhaving leisure to repent, and none to assist me, he was so moved thathe broke off the discourse, and told me his heart was so full he couldsay no more to me.I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as indeed who could beotherwise? and I resolved not to think of going abroad any more, but tosettle at home according to my father's desire. But alas! a few days"wore it all off; and, in short, to prevent any of my father's furtherimportunities, in a few weeks after, I resolved to run quite away fromhim. However, I did not act quite so hastily as the first heat of myresolution prompted, but I took my mother at a time when I thoughther a little more pleasant than ordinary, and told her that my thoughtswere so entirely bent upon seeing the world, that I should never settle toanything with resolution enough to go through with it, and my fatherhad better give me his consent than force me to go without it; that Iwas now eighteen years old, which was too late to go apprentice to atrade, or clerk to an attorney; that I was sure if I did I should neverserve out my time, but I should certainly run away from my masterbefore my time was out, and go to sea; and if she would speak to myfather to let me go one voyage abroad, if I came home again, and didnot like it, I would go no more; and I would promise, by a doublediligence, to recover the time that I had lost.

4 3OBINSOT CRUSOl.This put my mother into a great passion; she told me sho knew itwould be to no purpose to speak to my father upon any such subject;that he knew too well what was my interest to give his consent toanything so much for my hurt; and that she wondered how I could thinkof any such thing after the discourse I had had with my father, andsuch kind and tender expressions as she knew my father had used tome; and that, in short, if I would ruin myself, there was no help forme; but I might depend I should never have their consent to it; thatfor her part, she would not have so much hand in my destruction; andI should never have it to say that my mother was willing when myfather was not.Though my mother refused to name it to my father, yet I heardafterwards that she reported all the discourse to him, and that my father,after shewing a great concern at it, said to her, with a sigh: "Thatboy might be happy if he would stay at home; but if he goes abroad,he will be the most miserable wretch that ever was born: I can giveno consent to it."It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose, though,in the mean time, I continued obstinately deaf to all proposals of settlingto business, and frequently expostulated with my father and mother abouttheir being so positively determined against what they knew my incli-nations prompted me to. But being one day at Hull, whither I wentcasually, and without any purpose of making an elopement at that time;but, I say, being there, and one of my companions being going by seato London in his father's ship, and prompting me to go with them,with the common allurement of a seafaring man, that it should cost menothing for my passage, I consulted neither father nor mother any more,nor so much as sent them word of it; but leaving them to hear of itas they might, without asking God's blessing or my father's, without anyconsideration of circumstances or consequences, and in an ill hour, Godknows, on the 1st. of September, 1651, I went on board a ship boundfor London. Never any young adventurer's misfortunes, I believe, begansooner or continued longer than mine. The ship was no sooner got outof the Humber, than the wind began to blow and the sea to rise in amost frightful manner; and, as I had never been at sea before, I wasmost inexpressibly sick in body, and terrified in mind. I began nowseriously to reflect upon what I had done, and how justly I was over-taken by the judgment of Heaven for my wicked leaving my father'shouse, and abandoning my duty. All the good counsels of my parents,my father's tears and my mother's entreaties, came now fresh into .mymind; and my conscience, which was not yet come to the pitch ofhardness to which it has come since, reproached me with the contemptof advice, and the breach of my duty to God and my father.All this while the storm increased, and the sea went very high, though

ROBINSON CRUSOE. 5nothing like what I have seen many times since; no, nor what I sawa few days after; but it was enough to affect me then, who was buta young sailor, and had never known anything of the matter. I expectedevery wave would have swallowed us up, and that every time the shipfell down, as I thought it did, in the trough or hollow of the sea, weshould never rise more: in this agony of mind, I made many vows andresolutions, that if it would please God to spare my life in this onevoyage, if ever I got once my foot upon dry land again, I would godirectly home to my father, and never set it into a ship again while Ilived; that I would take his advice, and never run myself into suchmiseries as these any more. Now I saw plainly the goodness of hisobservations about the middle station of life, how easy, how comfortablyhe had lived all his days, and never had been exposed to tempests atsea, or troubles on shore; and, in short, I resolved that I would, likea true repenting prodigal, go home to my father.These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the storm lasted,and indeed some time after; but the next day the wind was abated, andthe sea calmer, and I began to be a little inured to it: however, I wasvery grave for all that day, being also a little sea-sick still; but towardsnight the weather cleared up, the wind was quite over, and a charmingfine evening followed; the sun went down perfectly clear, and rose sothe next morning; and having little or no wind, and a smooth sea, thesun shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most delightfulthat ever I saw.I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick, butvery cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that was so rough andterrible the day before, and could be so calm and so pleasant in so littlea time after. And now, lest my good resolutions should continue, mycompanion, who had enticed me away, comes to me: "Well, Bob," sayshe, clapping me upon the shoulder, "how do you do after it? I warrantyou were frighted, weren't you, last night, when it blew but a capful ofwind?"-"A capful d'you call it?" said I; "'twas a terrible storm."-"A storm, you fool you," replies he; "do you call that a storm? why, itwas nothing at all; give us but a good ship and sea-room, and we thinknothing of such a squall of wind as that; but you're but a fresh-watersailor, Bob. Come, let us make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget allthat; d'ye see what charming weather 'tis now?" To make short thissad part of my story, we went the way of all sailors; the punch wasmade, and I was made half drunk with it; and in that one night'swickedness I drowned all my repentance, all my reflections upon my pastconduct, all my resolutions for the future. In a word, as the sea wasreturned to its smoothness of surface and settled calmness by the abatementof that storm, so the hurry of my thoughts being over, my fears andapprehensions of being swallowed up by the sea being forgotten, and the

6 ROBINSON CRUSOE.current of my former desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows andpromises that I made in my distress. I found, indeed, some intervals ofreflection; and the serious thoughts did, as it were, endeavour to returnagain sometimes; but I shook them off, and roused myself from them asit were from a distemper, and applying myself to drinking and company,soon mastered the return of those fits-for so I called them; and I hadin five or six days got as complete a victory over my conscience as anyyoung fellow that resolved not to be troubled with it could desire. ButI was to have another trial for it still; and Providence, as in such casesgenerally it does, resolved to leave me entirely without excuse; for if Iwould not take this for a deliverance, the next was to be such a oneas the worst and most hardened wretch among us would confess boththe danger and the mercy of.The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth Roads; thewind having been contrary, and the weather calm, we had made butlittle way since the storm. Here we were obliged to come to an anchor,and here we lay, the wind continuing contrary, viz., at south-west, forseven or eight days, during which time a great many ships from Newcastlecame into the same roads, as the common harbour where the ships mightwait for a wind for the river.We had not, however, rid here so long, but we should have tided itup the river, but that the wind blew too fresh, and, after we had lainfour or five days, blew very hard. However, the roads being reckonedas good as a harbour, the anchorage good, and our ground-tackle verystrong, our men were unconcerned, and not in the least apprehensive ofdanger, but spent the time in rest and mirth, after the manner of thesea; but the eighth day, in the morning the wind increased, and we hadall hands at work to strike our top-masts, and make everything snug andclose, that the ship might ride as easy as possible. By noon the seawent very high indeed, and our ship rode forecastle in, shipped severalseas, and we thought once or twice our anchor had come home; uponwhich our master ordered out the sheet-anchor, so that we rode withtwo anchors ahead, and the cables veered out to the better end.By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I began to seeterror and amazement in the faces even of the seamen themselves. Themaster, though vigilant in the business of preserving the ship, yet as hewent in and out of his cabin by me, I could hear him softly to himselfsay, several times, "Lord, be merciful to us! we shall be all lost; weshall be all undone!" and the like. During these first hurries I wasstupid, lying still in my cabin, which was in the steerage, and cannotdescribe my temper: I could ill resume the first penitence which I hadso apparently trampled upon, and hardened myself against: 1 thoughtthe bitterness of death had been past; and that this would be nothinglike the first; but when the master himself came by me, as 1 said just

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ROBINSON CRUSOE. 7now, and said we should be all lost, I was dreadfully frighted. 1 gotup out of my cabin, and looked out, but such a dismal sight I neversaw: the sea ran mountains high, and broke upon us every three orfour minutes; when I could look about, I could see nothing but distressround us; two ships that rode near us, we found, had cut their mastsby the board, being deep laden; and our men cried out, that a shipwhich rode about a mile ahead of us was foundered. Two more ships,being driven from their anchors, were run out of the roads to sea, atall adventures, and that not with a mast standing. The light ships faredthe best, as not so much labouring in the sea; but two or three of themdrove, and came close by us, running away with only their spritsail outbefore the wind.Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the master of ourship to let them cut away the fore-mast, which he was very unwillingto do; but the boatswain protesting to him, that if he did not, the shipwould founder, he consented; and when they had cut away the fore-mast,the main-mast stood so loose, and shook the ship so much, they wereobliged to cut that away also, and make a clear deck.And one must judge what a condition I must be in at all this, whowas but a young sailor, and who had been in such a fright before atbut a little. But if I can express at this distance the thoughts I hadabout me at that time, I was in tenfold more horror of mind upon accountof my former convictions, and the having returned from them to theresolutions I had wickedly taken at first, than I was at death itself! andthese, added to the terror of the storm, put me into such a condition,that I can by no words describe it. But the worst was not come yet;the storm continued with such fury, that the seamen themselves acknow-ledged they had never seen a worse. We had a good ship, but she wasdeep laden, and wallowed in the sea, so that the seamen every now andthen cried out she would founder. It was my advantage in one respectthat I did not know what they meant by founder, till I inquired. Howeverthe storm was so violent, that I saw, what is not often seen, the master,the boatswain, and some others more sensible than the rest, at theirprayers, and expecting every moment when the ship would go to thebottom. In the middle of the night, and under all the rest of our dis-tresses, one of the men that had been down to see, cried out we hadsprung a leak; another said, there was four feet water in the hold. Thenall hands were called to the pump. At that word, my heart, as I thought,died within me; and I fell backwards upon the side of my bed whereI sat, into the cabin. However, the men roused me, and told me, thatI, that was able to do nothing before, was as well able to pump asanother; at which I stirred up, and went to the pump, and workedvery heartily. While this was doing, the master seeing some lightcolliers, who, not able to ride out the storm, were obliged to slip, and

6 MOBTrxSON away to sea, and would come near us, ordered to fire a gun as asignal of distress. I, who knew nothing what they meant, thought theship had broken, or -me dreadful thing happened. In a word, I wasso surprised that I fell down in a swoon. As this was a time wheneverybody had his own life to think of, nobody minded me, or whatwas become of me; but another man stepped up to the pump, andthrusting me aside with his foot, let me lie, thinking I had been dead;and it was a great while before I came to myself.We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it was apparentthat the ship would founder; and though the storm began to abate alittle, yet it was not possible she could swim till we might run into anyport, so the master continued firing guns for help; and a light ship, whohad rid it out just ahead of us, ventured a boat out to help us. Itwas with the utmost hazard the boat came near us; but it was im-possible for us to get on board, or for the boat to lie near the ship'sside, till at last the men rowing very heartily, and venturing their livesto save ours, our men cast them a rope over the stern with a buoy toit, and then veered it out a great length, which they, after much labourand hazard, took hold of, and we hauled them close under our stern,and got all into their boat. It was to no purpose for them or us, afterwe were in the boat, to think of reaching to their own ship; so allagreed to let her drive, and only to pull her in towards shore as muchas we could; and our master promised them, that if the boat was stavedupon shore, he would make it good to their master: so partly rowing,and partly driving, our boat went away to the northward, sloping towardsthe shore almost as far as Winterton Ness.We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of our shiptill we saw her sink, and then I understood for the first time what wasmeant by a ship foundering in the sea. I must acknowledge I hadhardly eyes to look up when the seamen told me she was sinking; forfrom the moment that they rather put me in the boat, than that I mightbe said to go in, my heart was, as it were, dead within me, partly withfright, partly with horror of mind, and the thoughts of what was yetbefore me.While we were in this condition,-the men yet labouring at the oarto bring the boat near the shore,-we could see (when, our boat mountingthe waves, we were able to see the shore) a great many people runningalong the strand, to assist us when we should come near; but we madebut slow way towards the shore; nor were we able to reach the shore,till, being past the lighthouse at Winterton, the shore falls off to thewestward towards Cromer, and so the land broke off a little the violenceof the wind. Here we got in, and, though not without much difficulty,got all safe on shore, and walked afterwards on foot to Yarmouth, where,as unfortunate men, we were used with great humanity, as well by the

ROBINSON CRUSO. 9magistrates of the town, who assigned us good quarters, as by particularmerchants and owners of ships, and had money given us sufficient tocarry us either to London or back to Hull, as we thought fit.Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and have gonehome, I had been happy, and my father, as in our blessed Saviour'sparable, had even killed the fatted calf for me; for hearing the shipI went away in was cast away in Yarmouth Roads, it was a greatwhile before he had any assurances that I was not drowned.But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that nothingcould resist; and though I had several times loud calls from my reason,and my more composed judgment, to go home, yet I had no power todo it. I know not what to call this, nor will I urge that it is a secretoverruling decree, that hurries us on to be the instruments of our owndestruction, even though it be before us, and that we rush upon it withour eyes open. Certainly, nothing but some such decreed unavoidablemisery, which it was impossible for me to escape, could have pushed meforward against the calm reasoning and persuasions of my most retiredthoughts, and against two such visible instructions as I had met with inmy first attempt.My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who was themaster's son, was now less forward than I. The first time he spoke tome after we were at Yarmouth, which was not till two or three days,for we were separated in the town to several quarters; I say, the firsttime he saw me, it appeared his tone was altered; and, looking verymelancholy, and shaking his head, he asked me how I did, and. tellinghis father who I was, and how I had come this voyage only for a trial,in order to go farther abroad: his father, turning to me with a verygrave and concerned tone, "Young man," says he, "you ought never togo to sea any more; you ought to take this for a plain and visibletoken that you are not to be a seafaring man." "Why, sir," said I,"will you go to sea no more?" "That is another case," said he; "itis my calling, and therefore my duty; but as you made this voyage fora trial, you see what a taste Heaven has given you of what you are toexpect if you persist. Perhaps this has all befallen us on your account,like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish. Pray," continues he, "what areyou; and on what account did you go to sea?" Upon that I told himsome of my story; at the end of which he burst out into a strange kindof passion: "What had I done," says he, "that such an unhappy wretchshould come into my ship? I would not set my foot in the same shipwith thee again for a thousand pounds." This indeed was, as I said,an excursion of his spirits, which were yet agitated by the sense of hisloss, and was farther than he could have authority to go. However, heafterwards talked very gravely to me, exhorting me to go back to myfather, aid not tempt lProvidence to my ruin, telling me I might see a

10 ROBINSON CRUSOE.visible hand of Heaven against me. "And, young man," said he, "dependupon it, if you do not go back, wherever you go you will meet withnothing but disasters and disappointments, till your father's words arefulfilled upon you."We parted soon after; for I made him little answer, and I saw himno more; which way he went I knew not. As for me, having somemoney in my pocket, I travelled to London by land; and there, as wellas on the road, had many struggles with myself what course of life Ishould take, and whether I should go home or go to sea.As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that offered to mythoughts; and it immediately occurred to me how I should be laughedat among the neighbours, and should be ashamed to see, not my fatherand mother only, but even everybody else; from whence I have sinceoften observed, how incongruous and irrational the common temper ofmankind is, especially of youth, to that reason which ought to guidethem in such cases, viz., that they are not ashamed to sin, and yet areashamed to repent; not ashamed of the action for which they oughtjustly to be esteemed fools, but are ashamed of the returning, whichonly can make them be esteemed wise men.In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncertain whatmeasures to take, and what course of life to lead. An irresistible re-luctance continued to going home; and as I stayed awhile, the remembranceof the distress I had been in wore off; and as that abated, the little motionI had in my desires to return wore off with it, till at last I quite laidaside the thoughts of it, and looked out for a voyage.That evil influence which carried me first away from my father'shouse,-which hurried me into the wild and indigested notion of raisingmy fortune; and that impressed those conceits so forcibly upon me, asto make me deaf to all good advice, and to the entreaties and even thecommands of my father; I say, the same influence, whatever it was,presented the most unfortunate of all enterprises to my view; and Iwent on board a vessel bound to the coast of Africa; or, as our sailorsvulgarly called it, a voyage to Guinea.It was my great misfortune that in all these adventures I did notship myself as a sailor; when, though I might indeed have worked alittle harder than ordinary, yet at the same time I should have learntthe duty and office of a fore-mast man, and in time might have qualifiedmyself for a mate or lieutenant, if not for a master. But as it wasalways my fate to choose for the worse, so I did here; for having moneyin my pocket, and good clothes upon my back, I would always go onboard in the habit of a gentleman; and so I neither had any businessin the ship, nor learned to do any.It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good company in London,which does not always happen to such loose and misguided young fellows

ROBINSON CRUSOE. 11as I then was; the devil generally not omitting to lay some snare forthem very early; but it was not so with me. I first got acquainted withthe master of a ship who had been on the coast of Guinea; and who,having had very good success there, was resolved to go again. Thiscaptain taking a fancy to my conversation, which was not at all disa-greeable at that time, hearing me say I had a mind to see the world,told me if I would go the voyage with him I should be at no expense;I should be his messmate and his companion; and if I could carryanything with me, I should have all the advantage of it that the tradewould admit; and perhaps I might meet with some encouragement.I embraced the offer; and entering into a strict friendship with thiscaptain, who was an honest, plain-dealing man, I went the voyage withhim, and carried a small adventure with me, which, by the disinterestedhonesty of my friend the captain, I increased very considerably; for Icarried about 40 in such toys and trifles as the captain directed me tobuy. These 40 I had mustered together by the assistance of some ofmy relations whom I corresponded with; and who, I believe, got myfather, or at least my mother, to contribute so much as that to my firstadventure.This was the only voyage which I may say was successful in all myadventures, which I owe to the integrity and honesty of my friend thecaptain; under whom also I got a competent knowledge of the mathematicsand the rules of navigation, learned how to keep an account of the ship'scourse, take an observation, and, in short, to understand some thingsthat were needful to be understood by a sailor; for, as he took delightto instruct me, I took delight to learn; and, in a word, this voyage mademe both a sailor and a merchant; for I brought home five pounds nineounces of gold-dust for my adventure, which yielded me in London, atmy return, almost 300; and this filled me with those aspiring thoughtswhich have since so completed my ruin.Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too; particularly, thatI was continually sick, being thrown into a violent calenture by theexcessive heat of the climate; our principal trading being upon the coast,from the latitude of fifteen degrees north even to the line itself.I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to my greatmisfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go the same voyageagain, and I embarked in the same vessel with one who was his matein the former voyage, and had now got the command of the ship. Thiswas the unhappiest voyage that ever man made; for though I did notcarry quite 100 of my new-gained wealth, so that I had 200 left,which I had lodged with my friend's widow, who was very just to me,yet I fell into terrible misfortunes: the first was this-our ship makingher course towards the Canary Islands, or rather between those Islandsand the African shore, was surprised in the grey of the morning by a

12 fROBINSON CRUSOE.Turkish rover of Sallee, who gave chase to us with all the sail she couldmake. We crowded also as much canvass as our yards would spread, orour masts carry to get clear; but finding the pirate gained upon us,and would certainly come up with us in a few hours, we prepared tofight; our ship having twelve guns, and the rogue eighteen. About threein the afternoon he came up with us, and bringing to, by mistake, justathwart our quarter, instead of, athwart our stern, as he intended, webrought eight of our guns to bear on that side, and poured in a broadsideupon him, which made him sheer off again, after returning our fire, andpouring in also his small shot from near two hundred men which hehad on board. However, we had not a man touched, all our menkeeping close. He prepared to attack us again, and we to defend our-selves; but laying us on board the next time upon our other quarter,he entered sixty men upon our decks, who immediately fell to cuttingand hacking the sails and rigging. We plied them with small shot,half-pikes, powder-chests, and such like, and cleared our deck of themtwice. However, to cut short this melancholy part of our story, ourship being disabled, and three of our men killed, and eight wounded,we were obliged to yield, and were carried all prisoners into Sallee, aport belonging to the Moors.The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I apprehended;nor was I carried up the country to the emperor's court, as the rest ofour men were, but was kept by the captain of the rover as his properprize, and made his slave, being young and nimble, and fit for hisbusiness. At this surprising change of my circumstances, from a merchantto a miserable slave, I was perfectly overwhelmed; and now I lookedback upon my father's prophetic discourse to me, that I should bemiserable and have none to relieve me, which I thought was now soeffectually brought to pass, that I could not be worse; for now the handof Heaven had overtaken me, and I was undone without redemption;but, alas! this was but a taste of the misery I was to go through, aswill appear in the sequel of this story.As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his house, so Iwas in hopes that he would take me with him when he went to seaagain, believing that it would some time or other be his fate to betaken by a Spanish.or Portugal man-of-war; and that then I should beset at liberty. But this hope of mine was soon taken away; for whenhe went to sea, he left me on shore to look after his little garden, andto do the common drudgery of slaves about his house; and when hecame home again from his cruise, he ordered me to lie in the cabin tolook after the ship.Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method I mighttake to effect it, but found no way that had the least probability in it;nothing presented to make the opposition of it rational; for I had

ROBINSON CRUSOE. 53nobody to communicate it to that would embark with me-no fellow-slave,no Englishman, Irishman, or Scotsman, there but myself; so that fortwo years, though I often pleased myself with the imagination, yet Inever had the least encouraging prospect of putting it in practice.After about two years, an odd circumstance presented itself, whichput the old thought of making some attempt for my liberty again inmy head. My patron lying at home longer than usual without fittingout his ship, which, as I heard, was for want of money, he used, con-stantly, once or twice a week, sometimes oftener, if the weather wasfair, to take the ship's pinnace, and go out into the road a-fishing; and,as he always took me and young Maresco with him to row the boat,we made him very merry, and I proved very dexterous in catching fish;insomuch that sometimes he would send me with a Moor, one of hiskinsmen, and the youth-the Maresco, as they called him-to catch adish of fish for him.It happened one time, that going a-fishing in a calm morning, a fogrose so thick that, though we were not half a league from the shore,we lost sight of it; and rowing we knew not whither or which way, welaboured all day, and all the next night; and when the morning came,we found we had pulled off to sea instead of pulling in for the shore;and that we were at least two leagues from the shore. However, wegot well in again, though with a great deal of labour and some danger;for the wind began to blow pretty fresh in the morning; but we wereall very hungry.But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more careof himself for the future; and having lying by him the long-boat ofour English ship that he had taken, he resolved he would not go a-fishingany more without a compass and some provision; so he ordered thecarpenter of his ship, who also was an English slave, to build a littlestate-room, or cabin, in the middle of the long-boat, like that of abarge, with a place to stand behind it to steer, and haul home themain-sheet; and room before for a hand or two to stand and work thesails. She sailed with what we call a shoulder-of-mutton sail; and theboom gibed over the top of the cabin, which lay very snug and low,and had in it room for him to lie, with a slave or two, and a table toeat on, with some small lockers to put in some bottles of such liquoras he thought fit to drink; and his bread, rice, and coffee.We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing; and as I was mostdexterous to catch fish for him, he never went without me. It happenedthat he had appointed to go out in this boat, either for pleasure or forfish, with two or three Moors of some distinction in that place, and forwhom he had provided extraordinarily, and had therefore sent on boardthe boat over-night a larger store of provisions than ordinary; and hadordered me to get ready three fusees with powder and shot, which were

14 ROBINSON CRUSOE.on board his ship, for that they designed some sport of fowling as wellas fishing.I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited the nextmorning with the boat washed clean, her ancient and pendants out, andeverything to accommodate his guests; when by-and-by my patron cameon board alone, and told me his guests had put off going, from somebusiness that fell out, and ordered me, with the man and boy, as usual,to go out with the boat and catch them some fish, for that his friendswere to sup at his house; and commanded that as soon as I got somefish I should bring it home to his house: all which I prepared to do.This moment, my former notions of deliverance darted into my thoughts,for now I found I was likely to have a little ship at my command;and my master being gone, I prepared to furnish myself, not forfishing business, but for a voyage; though I knew not, neither did I somuch as consider, whither I should steer,-anywhere to get out of thatplace was my desire.My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to this Moor,to get something for our subsistence on board; for I told him we mustnot presume to eat of our patron's bread. He said that was true: sohe brought a large basket of rusk or biscuit, and three jars of freshwater into the boat. I knew where my patron's case of bottles stood,which, it was evident by the make, were taken out of some Englishprize, and I conveyed them into the boat while the Moor was on shore,as if they had been there before for our master. I conveyed also agreat lump of bees'-wax into the boat, which weighed above half ahundredweight, with a parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw, anda hammer, all of which were of great use to us afterwards, especiallythe wax to make candles. Another trick I tried upon him, which heinnocently came into also: his name was Ismael, which they call Muley,or Moely; so I called to him:-"Moely," said I, "our patron's guns areon board the boat; can you not get a little powder and shot? It maybe we may kill some alcamies (a fowl like our curlews) for ourselves,for I know he keeps the gunner's stores in the ship." "Yes," says he,"I'll bring some;" and accordingly he brought a great leather pouch,which held a pound and a half of powder, or rather more; and anotherwith shot, that had five or six pounds, with some bullets, and put allinto the boat. At the same time, I had found some powder of mymaster's in the great cabin, with which I filled one of the large bottlesin the case, which was almost empty, pouring what was in it intoanother; and thus furnished with everything needful, we sailed out ofthe port to fish. The castle, which is at the entrance of the port, knewwho we were, and took no notice of us; and we were not above amile out of the port before we hauled in our sail, and set us down tofish. The wind blew from the N.N.E, which was contrary to my desire,

tOBtNSON CRUSOI. 15for had it blown southerly, I had been sure to have made the coast ofSpain, and at least reached to the bay of Cadiz; but my resolutionswere, blow which way it would, I would be gone from that horrid placewhere I was, and leave the rest to fate.After we had fished some time and caught nothing, for when I hadfish on my hook I would not pull them up, that he might not see them,I said to the Moor, "This will not do; our master will not be thusserved; we must stand farther off." He, thinking no harm, agreed, andbeing in the head of the boat set the sails; and, as I had the helm, Irun the boat out near a league farther, and then brought her to as ifI would fish; when, giving the boy the helm, I stepped forward towhere the Moor was, and making as if I stooped for something behindhim, I took him by surprise with my arm under his waist, and tossedhim clear overboard into the sea. He rose immediately, for he swamlike a cork, and called to me, begged to be taken in, told me he wouldgo all over the world with me. He swam so strong after the boat,that he would have reached me very quickly, there being but little wind;upon which I stepped into the cabin, and fetching one of the fowling-pieces, I presented it at him, and told him I had done him no hurt,and if he would be quiet I would do him none: "But," said I, "youswim well enough to reach to the shore, and the sea is calm; make thebest of your way to shore, and I will do you no harm; but if youcome near the boat, I'11 shoot you through the head, for I am resolvedto have my liberty:" so he turned himself about, and swam for theshore, and I make no doubt but he reached it with ease, for he wasan excellent swimmer.I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me, and havedrowned the boy, but there was no venturing to trust him. When hewas gone, I turned to the boy, whom they called Xury, and said tohim, "Xury, if you will be faithful to me, I'll make you a great man;but if you will not stroke your face to be true to me," that is, swearby Mahomet and his father's beard, "I must throw you into the seatoo." The boy smiled in my face, and spoke so innocently, that Icould not distrust him, and swore to be faithful to me, and go all overthe world with me.While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, I stood outdirectly to sea with the boat, rather stretching to windward, that theymight think me gone towards the Straits' mouth (as indeed any one thathad been in their wits must have been supposed to do:) for who wouldhave supposed we were sailed on to the southward to the truly Barbariancoast, where whole nations of Negroes were sure to surround us withtheir canoes, and destroy us; where we could not go on shore but weshould be devoured by savage beasts, or more merciless savages ofhuman kind.

1^ OBSOflTro CRt7SOJ.But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my course,and steered directly south and by east, bending my course a littletowards the east, that I might keep in with the shore; and having afair fresh gale of wind, and a smooth, quiet sea, I made such sail thatI believe by the next day at three o'clock in the afternoon, when I firstmade the land, I could not be less than one hundred and fifty milessouth of Sallee: quite beyond the Emperor of Morocco's dominions, orindeed of any other king thereabouts, for we saw no people.Yet such was the fright I had taken of the Moors, and the dreadfulapprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that I would not stop,or go on shore, or come to an anchor; the wind continuing fair till Ihad sailed in that manner five days; and then the wind shifting to thesouthward, I concluded also that if any of our vessels were in chase ofme, they also would now give over; so I ventured to make to the coast,and came to an anchor in the mouth of a little river, I knew not what,nor where; neither what latitude, what country, what nation, or whatriver. I neither saw, nor desired to see any people; the principal thingI wanted was fresh water. We came into this creek in the evening,resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was dark, and discover thecountry; but as soon as it was quite dark, we heard such dreadful noisesof the barking, roaring, and howling of wild creatures, of we knew notwhat kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die with fear, and beggedof me not to go on shore till day. "Well, Xury," said I, "then Iwon't; but it may be we may see men by day, who will be as bad tous as those lions."-"Then we give them tL3 shoot gun," says Xury,laughing, "make them run wey.' Such English Xury spoke by conversingamong us slaves However, I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, andI gave him a dram (out of our patron's case of bottles) to cheer him up.After all, Xury's advice was good, and 1 took it; we dropped our littleanchor, and lay still all night, I say still, for we slept none; for in twoor three hours we saw vast great creatures (we knew not what to callthem) of many sorts, come down to the sea-shore, and run into thewater, wallowing and washing themselves for the pleasure of coolingthemselves; and they made such hideous cowlings and yelling, that Inever indeed heard the likeXury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too, but we wereboth more frighted when we heard one of these mighty creatures comeswimming towards our boat; we could not see him, but we might hearhim by his blowing to be a monstrous huge and furious beast. Xurysaid it was a lion, and it might be so for aught I know, but poorXury cried to me to weigh the anchor and row away: "No," says 1,"Xury; we can slip our cable with the buoy to it, and go off to sea;they cannot follow us far." I had no sooner said so, but I perceivedthe creature (whatever it was) within two oars' length, which something

1OBINSON CERUSO. 17surprised me; however, I immediately stepped to the cabin door, andtaking up my gun, fired at him; upon which he immediately turnedabout, and swam towards the shore again.But it is impossible to describe the horrid noises, and hideous criesand howling, that were raised, as well upon the edge of the shore ashigher within the country, upon the noise or report of the gun, a thingI have some reason to believe those creatures had never heard before: thisconvinced me that there was no going on shore for us in the night onthat coast, and how to venture on shore in the day was another questiontoo; for to have fallen into the hands of any of the savages, had beenas bad to have fallen into the hands of the lions and tigers; at least wewere equally apprehensive of the danger of it.Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore somewhere orother for water, for we had not a pint left in the boat; when or whereto get it was the point. Xury said, if I would let him go on shorewith one of the jars, he would find if there was any water, and bringsome to me. I asked him why he would go? why I should not go, andhe stay in the boat? The boy answered with so much affection, as mademe love him ever after. Says he, "If wild mans come, they eat me, yougo wey."-"Well, Xury," said I, "we will both go, and if the wildmans come, we will kill them, they shall eat neither of us." So I gaveXury a piece of rusk bread to eat, and a dram out of our patron's caseof bottles which I mentioned before; and we hauled the boat in as nearthe shore as we thought was proper, and so waded on shore; carryingnothing but our arms, and two jars for water.I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the coming ofcanoes with savages down the river; but the boy seeing a low placeabout a mile up the country, rambled to it, and by and by I saw himcome running towards me. I thought he was pursued by some savage,or frighted with some wild beast, and I ran forwards towards him tohelp him; but when I came nearer to him, I saw something hangingover his shoulders, which was a creature that he had shot, like a hare,but different in colour, and longer legs: however, we were very glad ofit, and it was very good meat; but the great joy that poor Xury cameWith, was to tell me he had found good water, and seen no wild mans.But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains for water,for a little higher up the creek where we were we found the water freshwhen the tide was out, which flowed but a little way up; so we filledour jars, and feasted on the hare we had killed, and prepared to go onour way, having seen no footsteps of any human creature in that partof the country.As I had been one voyage to this coast before. I knew very well thatthe Islands of the Canaries and the Cape de Yerd Islands also, lay notfar off from the coast. But as I had no instruments to take an observationc

ROBINSON know what latitude we were in, and not exactly knowing, or at leastremembering, what latitude they were in, I knew not where to look forthem, or when to stand off to sea towards them; otherwise I might noweasily have found some of these islands. But my hope was, that if Istood along this coast till I came to that part where the English traded,I should find some of their vessels upon their usual design of trade, thatwould relieve and take us in.By the best of my calculation, that place where I now was must bethat country which, lying between the Emperor of Morocco's dominionsand the Negroes, lies waste and uninhabited, except by wild beasts; theNegroes having abandoned it, and gone farther south, for fear of theMoors: and the Moors not thinking it worth inhabiting by reason of itsbarrenness, and, indeed, both forsaking it because of the prodigiousnumbers of tigers, lions, leopards, and other furious creatures which harbourthere; so that the Moors use it for their hunting only, where they golike an army, two or three thousand men at a time: and, indeed, fornear a hundred miles together upon this coast, we saw nothing but awaste uninhabited country by day, and heard nothing but howling androaring of wild beasts by night.Once or twice in the day-time, I thought I saw the Pico of Teneriffe,being the high top of the Mountain Teneriffo in the Canaries; and hada great mind to venture out, in hopes of reaching thither; but havingtried twice, I was forced in again by contrary winds, the sea also goingtoo high for my little vessel; so 1 resolved to pursue my first design,and keep along the shore.Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after we had leftthis place; and once in particular, being early in the morning, we cameto an anchor under a little point of land, which was pretty high; andthe tide beginning to flow, we lay still to go farther in. Xury, whoseeyes were more about him than it seems mine were, calls softly to me,and tells me that we had best go farther off the shore; "for," says he,"look yonder lies a dreadful monster on the side of that hillock, fastasleep." I looked where he pointed, and saw a dreadful monster indeed,for it was a terrible great lion that lay on the side of the shore, underthe shade of a piece of the hill that hung as it were a little over him."Xury," says I, "you shall go on shore and kill him." Xury lookedfrighted, and said, "Me kill! he eat me at one mouth;" one mouthfulhe meant. However, I said no more to the boy, but bade him lie still,and I took our biggest gun, which was almost musket bore, and loadedit with a good charge of powder, and with two slugs, and laid it down;then I loaded another gun with two bullets; and the third (for we hadthree pieces) I loaded with five smaller bullets. I took the best aim Icould with the first piece to have shot him in the head, but he lay sowith his leg raised a little above his nose that the slugs hit his leg

OBINSON CRUSOE. 19about the knee, and broke the bone. ITe started up, growling at first,but finding his leg broken, fell down again; and then got up upon threelegs, and gave the most hideous roar that ever I heard. I was a littlesurprised that I had not hit him on the head; however, I took up thesecond piece immediately, and though he began to move off, fired again,and shot him in the head, and had the pleasure to see him drop andmake but little noise, but lie struggling for life. Then Xury took heart,and would have me let him go on shore. "Well, go," said I: so theboy jumped into the water, and taking a little gun in one hand, swamto shore with the other hand, and coming close to the creature, put themuzzle of the piece to his ear, and shot him in the head again, whichdespatched him quite.This was game indeed to us, but this was no food; and I was verysorry to lose three charges of powder and shot upon a creature that wasgood for nothing to us. However, Xury said he would have some ofhim; so he comes on board, and asked me to give him the hatchet."For what, Xury?" said I. "Me cut off his head," said he. However,Xury could not cut off his head, but he cut off a foot, and brought itwith him, and it was a monstrous great one.I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of him might, oneway or other, be of some value to us; and I resolved to take off hisskin if I could. So Xury and I went to work with him; but Xurywas much the better workman at it, for I knew very ill how to do it.Indeed it took us both up the whole day, but at last we got off thehide, and spreading it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectually driedit in two days time, and it afterwards served me to lie upon.After this, we made on to the southward continually for ten or twelvedays, living very sparingly on our provisions, which began to abate verymuch, and going no oftener to the shore than we were obliged for freshwater. My design in this was, to make the River Gambia or Senegal,that is to say, anywhere about the Cape de Verd, where I was in hopesto meet with some European ship; and if I did not, I knew not whatcourse I had to take, but to seek for the islands, or perish there amongthe Negroes. I knew that all the ships from Europe, which sailed eitherto the coast of Guinea or Brazil, or to the East Indies, made this Cape,or those islands; and, in a word, I put the whole of my fortune uponthis single point, either that I must meet with some ship, or must perish.When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer, as I havesaid, I began to see that the land was inhabited; and in two or threeplaces, as we sailed by, we saw people stand upon the shore to lookat us; we could also perceive they were quite black and naked. wasonce inclined to have gone on shore to them; but Xury was my bettercounsellor, and said to me, "No go, no go." However, I hauled innearer the shore that I might talk to them, and I found they ran

20 RIOBINSON CIUSOEalong the shore by me a good way: I observed they had no weaponsin their hands, except one, who had a long slender stick, which Xurysaid was a lance, and that they could throw them a great way withgood aim; so I kept at a distance, but talked with them by signs aswell as I could; and particularly made signs for something to eat; theybeckoned to me to stop my boat, and they would fetch me some meat.Upon this, I lowered the top of my sail, and lay by, and two of themran up into the country, and in less than half an hour came back, andbrought with them two pieces of dry flesh and some corn, such as is theproduce of their country; but we neither knew what the one or theother was: however, we were willing to accept it, but how to come atit was our next dispute, for I would not venture on shore to them, andthey were as much afraid of us: but they took a safe way for us all,for they brought it to the shore and laid it down, and went and stooda great way off till we fetched it on board, and then came close to usagain.We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to make themamends; but an opportunity offered that very instant to oblige themwonderfully: for while we were lying by the shore, came two mightycreatures, one pursuing the other (as we took it) with great fury fromthe mountains towards the sea; whether it was the male pursuing thefemale, or whether they were in sport or in rage, we could not tell, anymore than we could tell whether it was usual or strange, but I believeit was the latter; because, in the first place, those ravenous creaturesseldom appear but in the night; and, in the second place, we found thepeople terribly frighted, especially the women. The man that had thelance or dart did not fly from them, but the rest did; however, as thetwo creatures ran directly into the water, they did not offer to fall uponany of the Negroes, but plunged themselves into the sea, and swamabout, as if they had come for their diversion: at last one of them beganto come nearer our boat than at first I expected; but I lay ready forhim, for I had loaded my gun with all possible expedition, and badeXury load both the others. As soon as he came fairly within my reach,I fired, and shot him directly in the head: immediately he sank downinto the water, but rose instantly, and plunged up and down, as if hewas struggling for life, and so indeed he was: he immediately made tothe shore; but between the wound, which was his mortal hurt, and thestrangling of the water, he died just before he reached the shore.It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor creatures atthe noise and fire of my gun; some of them were even ready to diefor fear, and fell down as dead with the very terror; but when theysaw the creature dead, and suihk in the water, and that I made signsto them to come to the shore, they took heart and came, and began tosearch for the creature. I found him by his blood staining the water:

BOBINSON CRUSO. 21and by the help of a rope, which I slung round him, and gave theNegroes to haul, they dragged him on shore, and found that it was amost curious leopard, spotted, and fine to an admirable degree; and theNegroes held up their hands with admiration, to think what it was I hadkilled him with.The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire and the noise of thegun, swam on shore, and ran up directly to the mountains from whencethey came; nor could I, at that distance, know what it was. I foundquickly the Negroes wished to eat the flesh of this creature, so I waswilling to have them take it as a favour from me; which, when I madesigns to them that they might take him, they were very thankful for.Immediately they fell to work with him; and though they had no knife,yet, with a sharpened piece of wood, they took off his skin as readily,and much more readily, than we could have done with a knife. Theyoffered me some of the flesh, which I declined, pointing out that I wouldgive it them; but made signs for the skin, which they gave me veryfreely, and brought me a great deal more of their provisions, which,though I did not understand, yet I accepted. I then made signs tothem for some water, and held out one of my jars to them, turning itbottom upward, to show that it was empty, and that I wanted to haveit filled. They called immediately to some of their friends, and therecame two women, and brought a great vessel made of earth, and burnt,as I supposed, in the sun; this they set down to me, as before, and Isent Xury on shore with my jars, and filled them all three. The womenwere as naked as the men.I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and water;and leaving my friendly Negroes, I made forward for about eleven daysmore, without offering to go near the shore, till I saw the land run outa great length into the sea, at about the distance of four or five leaguesbefore me; and the sea being very calm, I kept a large offing to makethis point. At length, doubling the point, at about two leagues fromthe land, I saw plainly land on the other side, to seaward: then Iconcluded, as it was most certain indeed, that this was the Cape de Verd,and those the islands called, from thence, Cape de Verd Islands. However,they were at a great distance, and I could not well tell what I hadbest to do; for if I should be taken with a fresh of wind, I might neitherreach one or other.In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the cabin, andsat down, Xury having the helm; when, on a sudden, the boy cried out,"Master, master, a ship with a sail"' and the foolish boy was frightedout of his wits, thinking it must needs be some of his master's shipssent to pursue us, but I knew we were far enough out of their reach.1 jumped out of the cabin, and immediately saw, not only the ship, butthat it was a Portuguese ship; and, as I thought, was bound to the

22 ROBINSON CRuSOE.coast of Guinea, for Kegroes. But, when I observed the course sesteered, I was soon convinced they were bound some other way, and didnot design to come any nearer to the shore: upon which 1 stretchedout to sea as much as I could, resolving to speak with them if possible.With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able to comein their way, but that they would be gone by before I could make anysignal to them: but after I had crowded to the utmost, and began todespair, they, it seems, saw, by the help of their glasses, that it wassome European boat, which they supposed must belong to some ship thatwas lost; so they shortened sail to let me come up. I was encouragedwith this, and as I had my patron's ancient on board, I made a waftof it to them, for a signal of distress, and fired a gun, both which theysaw; for they told me they saw the smoke, though they did not hearthe gun. Upon these signals they very kindly brought to, and lay byfor me; and in about three hours time I came up with them.They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish, and intrench, but I understood none of them; but, at last, a Scotch sailor,who was on board, called to me: and I answered him, and told him Iwas an Englishman, that I had made my escape out of slavery from theMoors, at Sallee; they then bade me come on board, and very kindlytook me in, and all my goods.It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will believe, that Iwas thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable and almosthopeless condition as I was in; and I immediately offered all I had tothe captain of the ship, as a return for my deliverance; but he generouslytold me he would take nothing from me, but that all I had should bedelivered safe to me when I came'to the Brazils. "For," says he, "Ihave saved your life on no other terms than I would be glad to besaved myself; and it may, one time or other, be my lot to be takenup in the same condition. Besides," said he, "when I carry you to theBirazils, so great a way from your own country, if I should take fromyou what you have, you will be starved thete, and then I only takeaway that life I have given. No, no," says lie; "Scignor Inglese" (Mr.Englishman,) "I will carry you thither in charity, and those things willhelp to buy your subsistence there, and your passage home again."As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the performanceto a tittle; for he ordered the seamen, that none should touch anythingthat I had: then he took everything into his own possession, and gaveme back an exact inventory of them, that I might have them, even to"my three earthen jars.As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he saw, and toldme he would buy it of me for his ship's use; and asked me what Iwould have for it? I told him, he had been so generous to me ineverything, that I could not offer to make any price of the boat, but

EOBiSON CnTTSOn. 23left it entirely to him: upon which he told me he would give me anote of hand to pay me eighty pieces of eight for it at Brazil; andwhen it came there, if any one offered to give more, he would make itup. He offered me also sixty pieces of eight more for my boy Xury,which I was loath to take; not that I was unwilling to let the captainhave him, but I was very loath to sell the poor boy's liberty, who hadassisted me so faithfully in procuring my own. However, when I lethim know my reason, he owned it to be just, and offered me this medium,that he would give the boy an obligation to set him free in ten years,if he turned Christian: upon this, and Xury saying he was willing togo to him, I let the captain have him.We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and I arrived in the Bayde Todos los Santos, or All Saints' Bay, in about twenty-two days after.And now I was once more delivered from the most miserable of allconditions of life; and what to do next with myself I was to consider.The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never enoughremember: he would take nothing of me for my passage, gave me twentyducats for the leopard's skin, and forty for the lion's skin, which I hadin my boat, and caused everything I had in the ship to be punctuallydelivered to me; and what I was willing to sell, he bought of me;such as the case of bottles, two of my guns, and a piece of the lumpof bees'-wax,-for I had made candles of the rest: in a word I mi.leabout two hundred and twenty pieces of eight of all my cargo; and withthis stock I went on shore in the Brazils.I had not been long here before I was recommended to the house ofa good, honest man, like himself, who had an ingenio, as they call it,(that is, a plantation and a sugar-house.) I lived with him some time,and acquainted myself, by that means, with the manner of planting andmaking of sugar; and seeing how well the planters lived, and how theygot rich suddenly, I resolved, if I could get a licence to settle there,I would turn planter among them; resolving, in the mean time, to findout some way to get my money, which I had left in London, remittedto me. To this purpose, getting a kind of letter of naturalization, Ipurchased as much land that was uncured as my money would reach,and formed a plan for my plantation and settlement; such a one asmight be suitable to the stock which I proposed to myself to receivefrom England.I had a neighbour, a Portugese, of Lisbon, but born of English parents,whose name was Wells, and in much such circumstances as I was. Icall him my neighbour, because his plantation lay next to mine, and wewent on very sociably together. My stock was but low, as well as his;and we rather planted for food than anything else, for about two years.However, we began to increase, and our land began to come into order;so that the third year we planted some tobacco, and made each of us

24 ROBIONSON CRUSOE.a large piece of ground ready for planting canes in the year to come;but we both wanted help; and now I found, more than before, I haddone wrong in parting with my boy Xury.But, alas! for me to do wrong that never did right, was no greatwonder. I had no remedy but to go on: I had got into an employmentquite remote to my genius, and directly contrary to the life I delightedin, and for which I forsook my father's house, and broke through all hisgood advice; nay, I was coming into the very middle station, or upperdegree of low life, which my father advised me to before, and which,if I resolved to go on with, I might as well have staid at home, andnever have fatigued myself in the world, as I had done; and I used oftento say to myself, I could have done this as well in England, among myfriends, as have gone five thousand miles off to do it among strangers andsavages, in a wilderness, and at such a distance as never to hear from anypart of the world that had the least knowledge of me.In this manner I used to look upon my condition with the utmostregret. I had nobody to converse with, but now and then this neighbour;no work to be done, but by the labour of my hands; and I used to say,I lived just like a man cast away upon some desolate island, that hadnobody there but himself. But how just has it been; and how shouldall men reflect, that when they compare their present conditions withothers that are worse, Heaven may oblige them to make the exchange,and be convinced of their former felicity by their experience: I say, howjust has it been, that the truly solitary life I reflected on, in an islandof mere desolation, should be my lot, who had so often unjustly comparedit with the life which I then led, in which, had I continued, I had,in all probability, been exceeding prosperous and rich.I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carrying on theplantation, before my kind friend, the captain of the ship that took meup at sea, went back; for the ship remained there, in providing hislading, and preparing for his voyage, nearly three months; when, tellinghim what little stock I had left behind me in London, he gave methis friendly and sincere advice:-"Seignor Inglese," says he (for so healways called me,) "if you will give me letters, and a procuration inform to me, with orders to the person that has your money in London,to send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as I shall direct, andin such goods as are proper for this country, I will bring you the produceof them, God willing, at my return; but, since human affairs are allsubject to changes and disasters, I would have you give orders but forone hundred pounds sterling, which, you say, is half your stock, andlet the hazard be run for the first; so that, if it come safe, you mayorder the rest the same way; and if it miscarry, you may have the otherhalf to have recourse to for your supply."This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that I could

ROBTNSON CRUSOE. 25not but be convinced it was the best course I could take; so I accordinglyprepared letters to the gentlewoman with whom I had left my money,and a procuration to the Portuguese captain, as he desired.I wrote the English captain's widow a full account of all my adventures;my slavery, escape, and how I had met with the Portuguese captain atsea, the humanity of his behaviour, and what condition I was now in,with all other necessary directions for my supply; and when this honestcaptain came to Lisbon, he found rreans, by some of the English merchantsthere, to send over, not the order only, but a full account of my storyto a merchant at London, who represented it effectually to her; whereuponshe not only delivered the money, but, out of her own pocket, sent thePortugal captain a very handsome present for his humanity and charityto me.The merchant in London, vesting this hundred pounds in Englishgoods, such as the captain had written for, sent them directly to him atLisbon, and he brought them all safe to me to the Brazils; amongwhich, without my direction (for I was too young in my business tothink of them,) he had taken care to have all sorts of tools, iron work,and utensils, necessary for my plantation, and which were of great useto me.When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortunes made, for I wassurprised with the joy of it; and my good steward, the captain, had laidout the five pounds, which my friend had sent him for a present forhimself, to purchase and bring me over a servant, under bond for sixyears' service, and would not accept of any consideration, except a littletobacco, which I would have him accept, being of' my own produce.Neither was this all; for my goods being all English manufacture, suchas cloths, stuffs, baize, and things particularly valuable and desirable inthe country, I found means to sell them to a very great advantage; sothat I might say, I had more than four times the value of my firstcargo, and was now infinitely beyond my poor neighbour-I mean in theadvancement of my plantation; for the first thing I did, I bought mea negro slave, and an European servant also: I mean another besidesthat which the captain brought me from Lisbon.But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means of ourgreatest adversity, so was it with me. I went on the next year withgreat success in my plantation: I raised fifty great rolls of tobacco onmy own ground, more than I had disposed of for necessaries among myneighbours; and these fifty rolls, being each of above a hundredweight,were well cured, and laid by against the return ot the fleet from Lisbon:and now increasing in business and in wealth, my head began to be fullof projects and undertakings beyond my reach; such as are, indeed, oftenthe ruin of the best heads in business. Had I continued in the stationI was now in, I had room for all the happy things to have yet befallen

26 ROBTINSON, for which my father so earnestly recommended a quiet, retired life,and of which he had so sensibly described the middle station of life tobe full of; but other things attended me, and i was still to be the wilfulagent of all my own miseries; and particularly, to increase my fault, anddouble the reflections upon myself, which in my future sorrows I shouldhTave leisure to make, all these miscarriages were procured by my apparentobstinate adhering to my foolish inclination of wandering abroad, andpursuing that inclination, in contradiction to the clearest views of doingmyself good in a fair and plain pursuit of those prospects, and thosemeasures of life, which nature and Providence concurred to present mewith, and to make my duty.As I had once done thus in my breaking away from my parents, so Icould not be content now, but I must go and leave the happy view Ihad of being a rich and thriving man in my new plantation, only topursue a rash and immoderate desire of rising faster than the nature ofthe thing admitted; and thus I cast myself down again into the deepestgulf of human misery that ever man fell into, or perhaps could beconsistent with life, and a state of health in the world.To come, then, by the just degrees, to the particulars of this part ofmy story:-You may suppose, that having now lived almost four yearsin the Brazils, and beginning to thrive and prosper very well upon myplantation, I had not only learned the language, but had contractedacquaintance and friendship among my fellow-planters, as well as amongthe merchants at St. Salvador, which was our port; and that, in mydiscourses among them, I had frequently given them an account of mytwo voyages to the coast of Guinea; the manner of trading with theNegroes there, and how easy it was to purchase upon the coast fortrifles-such as beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits of glass, andthe like-not only gold dust, Guinea grains, elephants' teeth, etc., butNegroes, for the service of the Brazils, in great numbers.They listened always very attentively to my discourses on these heads,but especially to that part which related to the buying Negroes; whichwas a trade, at that time, not only not far entered into, but, as far asit was, had been carried on by assientos, or permission of the kings ofSpain and Portugal, and engrossed in the public stock; so that fewNegroes were brought, and those excessively dear.It happened, being in company with some merchants and planters ofmy acquaintance, and talking of those things very earnestly, three ofthem came to me the next morning, and told me they had been musingvery much upon what I had discoursed with them of the last night,and they came to make a secret proposal to me; and, after enjoiningme secrecy, they told me they had a mind to fit out a ship to go toGuinea; that they had all plantations as well as I, and were straitenedfor nothing so much as servants; that as it was a trade that could

ROBINSON CRUSOE. 27not be carried on, because they. could not publicly sell the Negroes whenthey came home, so they desired to make but one voyage, to bring theN egroes on shore privately, and divide them among their own plantations,and, in a word, the question was, whether I would go their supercargoin the ship, to manage the trading part upon the coast of Guinea, andthey offered me that I should have my equal share of the Negroes,without providing any part of the stock.This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been made toany one that had not had a settlement and a plantation of his own tolook after, which was in a fair way of coming to be very considerable,and with a good stock upon it. But for me, that was thus enteredand established, and had nothing to do but to go on as 1 had begun,for three or four years more, and to have sent for the other hundredpounds from England; and who in that time, and with that littleaddition, could scarce have failed of being worth three or four thousandpounds sterling, and that increasing too-for me to think of such avoyage was the most preposterous thing that ever man in such circum-stances could be guilty of.But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no more resistthe offer, than I could restrain my first gambling designs, when myfather's good counsel was lost upon me. In a word, I told them Iwould go with all my heart, if they would undertake to look after myplantation in my absence, and would dispose of it to such as I shoulddirect, if I miscarried. This they all engaged to do, and entered intowritings or covenants to do so; and I made a formal will, disposingof my plantation and effects in case of my death, making the captain ofthe ship that had saved my life, as before, my universal heir, butobliging him to dispose of my effects as I had directed in my will;one half of the produce being to himself, and the other to be shipped inEngland.In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects, and to keepup my plantation: had I used half as much prudence to have looked intomy own interest, and have made a judgment of what I ought to havedone and not to have done, I had certainly never gone away from soprosperous an undertaking, leaving all the probable views of a thrivingcircumstance, and gone upon a voyage to sea, attended with all its commonhazards, to say nothing of the reasons I had to expect particularmisfortunes to myself.But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my fancyrather than my reason; and, accordingly, the ship being fitted out, andthe cargo furnished, and all things done, as by agreement, by my partnersin the voyage, I went on board in an evil hour, the 1st. of September,1659, being the same day eight years that I went from my father andmother at Hull, in order to act the rebel to their authority, and the foolto my own interests.

28 ROBINSON CRUSOE.Our ship was about one hundred and. twenty tons burden, carried sixguns and fourteen men, besides the master, his boy, and myself; we hadon board no large cargo of goods, except of such toys as were fit forour trade with the Negroes, such as beads, bits of glass, shells, and othertrifles, especially little looking-glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets, and thelike.The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away to thenorthward upon our own coast, with design to stretch over for theAfrican coast, when we came about ten or twelve degrees of northernlatitude, which, it seems, was the manner of course in those days. Wehad very good weather, only excessively hot, all the way upon our owncoast, till we came to the height of Cape St. Augustino; from whence,keeping further off at sea, we lost sight of land, and steered as if wewere bound for the isle Fernando de Noronha, holding our course N., and leaving those isles on the east. In this course we passedthe line in about twelve days time, and were, by our last observation,in seven degrees twenty-two minutes northern latitude, when a violenttornado, or hurricane, took us quite out of our knowledge. It beganfrom the south-east, came about to the north-west, and then settled inthe north-east; from whence it blew in such a terrible manner, that fortwelve days together we could do nothing but drive, and, scudding awaybefore it, let it carry us whither ever fate and the fury of the windsdirected; and, during these twelve days, I need not say that I expectedevery day to be swallowed up; nor, indeed, did any in the ship expectto save their lives.In this distress we had, besides the terror of the storm, one of ourmen die of the calenture, and one man and the boy washed overboard.About the twelfth day, the weather abating a little, the master madean observation as well as he could, and found that he was in abouteleven degrees north latitude, but that he was twenty-two degrees oflongitude difference west from Cape St. Augustino; so that he found hewas upon the coast of Guiana, or the north part of Brazil, beyond theriver Amazons, towards that of the river Oroonoque, commonly calledthe Great River; and began to consult with me what course he shouldtake, for the ship was leaky, and very much disabled, and he was goingdirectly back to the coast of Brazil.I was positively against that; and looking over the charts of thesea-coast of America with him, we concluded there was no inhabitedcountry for us to have recourse to, till we came within the circle ofthe Caribbee Islands, and therefore resolved to stand away for Barbadoes;which, by keeping off at sea, to avoid the in-draft of the bay or gulfof Mexico, we might easily perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen dayssail; whereas we could not possibly make our voyage to the coast ofAfrica without some assistance both to our ship and to ourselves."With this design, we changed our course, and steered away N.W. by

hlloInTsON CRuSO'. 29W., in order to reach some of our English islands, where I hoped forrelief; but our voyage was otherwise determined; for, being in the latitudeof twelve degrees eighteen minutes, a second storm came upon us, whichcarried us away with the same impetuosity westward, and drove us soout of the way of all human commerce, that had all our lives beensaved as to the sea, we were rather in danger of being devoured bysavages, than ever returning to our own country.In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our menearly in the morning cried out, "Land!" and we had no sooner run outof the cabin to look out, in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the worldwe were, than the ship struck upon a sand, and in a moment, hermotion being so stopped, the sea broke over her in such a manner, thatwe expected that we should all have perished immediately; and we wereimmediately driven into our close quarters, to shelter us from the veryfoam and spray of the sea.It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like condition todescribe or conceive the consternation of men in such circumstances. Weknew nothing where we were, or upon what land it was we were driven;whether an island or the main,-whether inhabited or not inhabited; asthe rage of the wind was still great, though rather less than at first,we could not so much as hope to have the ship hold many minuteswithout breaking into pieces, unless the winds, by a kind of miracle,should turn immediately about. In a word, we sat looking upon oneanother, and expecting death every moment, and every man, accordingly,preparing for another world; for there was little or nothing more for usto do in this; that which was our present comfort, and all the comfortwe had, was that, contrary to our expectation, the ship did not breakyet, and that the master said the wind began to abate.Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate, yet theship having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast for us toexpect her getting off, we were in a dreadful condition indeed, and hadnothing to do but to think of saving our lives as well as we could. Wehad a boat at our stern just before the storm, but she was first stavedby dashing against the ship's rudder, and in the next place, she brokeaway, and either sunk, or was driven off to sea; so there was no hopefrom her. We had another boat on board, but how to get her off intothe sea was a doubtful thing; however, there was no time to debate,for we fancied the ship would break in pieces every minute, and sometold us she was actually broken already.In this distress, the mate of our vessel laid hold.of the boat, and withthe help of the rest of the men, got her slung over the ship's side;and getting all into her, let go, and committed ourselves, being elevenin number, to God's mercy and the wild sea: for though the storm wasabated considerably, yet the sea ran dreadfully high upon the shore, and

30 ROBINSON CR'TSOV.might be well called den wild zee, as the Dutch call the sea in a storm.And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we all saw plainly, thatthe sea went so high, that the boat could not live, and that we shouldbe inevitably drowned. As to making sail, we had none, nor, if wehad, could we have done anything with it; so we worked at the oartowards the land, though with heavy hearts, like men going to execution;for we all knew that when the boat came nearer the shore, she wouldbe dashed in a thousand pieces by the breach of the sea. However, wecommitted our souls to God in the most earnest manner; and the winddriving us towards the shore, we hastened our destruction with our ownhands, pulling as well as we could towards land.What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether steep or shoal,we knew not; the only hope that could rationally give us the leastshadow of expectation, was, if we might find some bay or gulf, or themouth of some river, where by great chance we might have run ourboat in, or got under the lee of the land, and perhaps made smoothwater. But there was nothing like this appeared; but as we madenearer and nearer the shore, the land looked more frightful than the sea.After we had rowed or rather driven about a league and a half, as wereckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came rolling astern of us, andplainly bade us expect the coup de grace. In a word, it took us withsuch a fury, that it overset the boat at once; and separating us, as wellfrom the boat as from one another, gave us not time to say, "0 God!"for we were all swallowed up in a moment.Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt, when Isunk into the water: for though I swam very well, yet I could notdeliver myself from the waves so as to draw breath, till that wavehaving driven me, or rather carried me, a vast way on towards theshore, and having spent itself, went back, and left me upon the landalmost dry, but half dead with the water I took in. I had so muchpresence of mind, as well as breath left, that seeing myself nearer themain land than I expected, I got upon my feet, and endeavoured tomake on towards the land as fast as I could, before another wave shouldreturn and take me up again; but I soon found it was impossible toavoid it; for I saw the sea come after me as high as a great hill, andas furious as an enemy, which I had no means or strength to contendwith: my business was to hold my breath, and raise myself upon thewater, if I could; and so, by swimming, to preserve my breathing andpilot myself towards the shore, if possible, my greatest concern nowbeing, that the sea, as it would carry me a great way towards theshore when it came on, might not carry me back again with it when itgave back towards the sea.The wave that came upon me again, buried me at once twenty orthirty feet deep in its own body, and I could feel myself carried with a

ROBTNrON CRUTSOE. 81mighty force and swiftness towards the shore a very great way;, but Iheld my breath, and assisted myself to swim still forward with all mymight. I was ready to burst with holding my breath, when as I feltmyself raising up, so, to my immediate relief, I found my head andhands shoot out above the surface of the water; and though it was nottwo seconds of time that I could keep myself so, yet it relieved megreatly, gave me breath and new courage. I was covered again withwater a good while, but not so long but I held it out; and finding thewater had spent itself, and began to return, I struck forward "againstthe return of the waves, and felt ground again with my feet. I stoodstill a few moments, to recover breath, and till the waters went fromme, and then took to my heels and ran, with what strength I had,further towards the shore. But neither would this deliver me from thefury of the sea, which came pouring in after me again; and twice moreI was lifted up by the waves and carried forwards as before, the shorebeing very flat.The last time of these two had well nigh been fatal to me; for thesea having hurried me along, as before, landed me, or rather dashed me,against a piece of a rock, and that with such force, as it left mesenseless, and indeed helpless as to my own deliverance; for the blowtaking my side and breast, beat the breath, as it were, quite out ofmy body; and had it returned again immediately, I must have beenstrangled in the water; but I recovered a little before the return ofthe waves, and seeing I should be covered again with the water, Iresolved to hold fast by a piece of the rock, and so to hold my breath,if possible, till the wave went back. Now, as the waves were not sohigh as at first, being nearer land, I held my hold till the wave abated,and then fetched another run, which brought me so near the shore, thatthe next wave, though it went over me, yet did not so swallow meup as to carry me away; and the -next run I took, I got to the mainland; where, to my great comfort, I clambered up the cliffs of theshore, and sat me down upon the grass, free from danger, and quite outof the reach of the water.I was nw landed, and safe on shore, and began to look up and thankGod that my life was saved, in a case wherein there was, some minutesbefore, scarce any room to hope. I believe it is impossible to express,to the life, what the ecstacies and transports of the soul are, when it isso saved, as I may say, out of the very grave: and I do not wondernow at the custom, when a malefactor, who has the halter about hisneck, is tied up, and just going to be turned off, and has a reprievebrought to him; I say, I do not wonder that they bring a surgeon withit to let him blood that very moment they tell him of it, that thesurprise may not drive the animal spirits from the heart, and overwhelmhim.

32 iOBiTSON CcInSOr.For sudden joys, liko griefs, confound at first.I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands; and my wholebeing, as I may say, wrapt up in a contemplation of my deliverance;making a thousand gestures and motions, which I cannot describe;reflecting upon all my comrades that were drowned, and that there shouldnot be one soul saved but myself; for, as for them, I never saw themafterwards, or any sign of them, except three of their hats, one cap, andtwo shoes that were not fellows.I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when, the breach and froth ofthe sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far off; and con-sidered, Lord! how was it possible I could get on shore?After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my condition,I began to look round me, to see what kind of place I was in, andwhat was next to be done: and I soon found my comforts abate, andthat, in a word, I had a dreadful deliverance: for I was wet, had noclothes to shift me, nor anything to eat or drink, to comfort me; neitherdid I see any prospect before me, but that of perishing with hunger, orbeing devoured by wild beasts: and that which was particularly afflictingto me was, that I had no weapon, either to hunt and kill any creaturefor my sustenance, or to defend myself against any other creature thatmight desire to kill me for theirs. In a word, I had nothing about mebut a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco in a box. This was allmy provision; and this threw me into terrible agonies of mind, that fora while, I ran about like a madman. Night coming upon me, I began,with a heavy heart, to consider what would be my lot if there wereany ravenous beasts in that country, as at night they always come abroadfor their prey.All the remedy that offered to my thoughts, at that time, was to getup into a thick bushy tree, like a fir, but thorny, which grew near me,and where I resolved to sit all night, and consider the next day whatdeath I should die, for as yet I saw no prospect of life. I walkedabout a furlong from the shore, to see if I could find any fresh waterto drink, which I did to my great joy; and having drank, and put alittle tobacco in my mouth to prevent hunger, I went to the tree, andgetting up into it, endeavoured to place myself so that if I should sleepI might not fall. And having cut me a short stick, like a truncheon,for my defence, I took up my lodging; and having been excessivelyfatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I believe, fewcould have done in my condition, and found myself more refreshed withit than, I think, I ever was on such an occasion.When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the stormabated, so that the sea did not rage and swell as before; but that whichsurprised me most was, that the ship was lifted off in the night from

ROBTNSON CRUSOE. 83the sand where she lay, by the swelling of the tide, and was driven upalmost as far as the rock which I at first mentioned, where I had beenso bruised by the wave dashing me against it. This being within abouta mile from the shore where I was, and the ship seeming to standupright still, I wished myself on board, that at least I might savesome necessary things for my use.When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked aboutme again, and the first thing I found was the boat, which lay as thewind and the sea had tossed her up, upon the land, about two mileson my right hand. I walked as far as I could upon the shore to havegot to her; but found a neck or inlet of water between me and theboat, which was about half a mile broad; so I came back for the present,being more intent upon getting at the ship, where I hoped to findsomething for my present subsistence.A little after noon, I found the sea very calm, and the tide ebbedso far out, that I could come within a quarter of a mile of the ship.And here I found a fresh renewing of my grief; for I saw evidently,that if we had kept on board, we had been all safe: that is to say, wehad all got safe on shore, and I had not been so miserable as to beleft entirely destitute of all comfort and company, as I now was. Thisforced tears to my eyes again; but as there was little relief in that, Iresolved, if possible, to get to the ship; so I pulled off my clothes, forthe weather was hot to extremity, and took the water. But when Icame to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to know how to get onboard; for, as she lay aground, and high out of the water, there wasnothing within my reach to lay hold of. I swam round her twice, andthe second time I spied a small piece of rope, which I wondered I didnot see at first, hung down by the fore-chains so low, that with greatdifficulty I got hold of it, and by the help of that rope I got up intothe forecastle of the ship. Here I found that the ship was bulged, andhad a great deal of water in her hold; but that she lay so on the sideof a bank of hard sand, or rather earth, that her stern lay lifted upupon the bank, and her head low, almost to the water. By this meansall her quarter was free, and all that was in that part was dry; foryou may be sure my first work was to search, and to see what was spoiledand what was free. And, first, I found that all the ship's provisions weredry and untouched by the water, and being very well disposed to eat, Iwent to the bread-room, and filled my pockets with biscuit, and eat itas I went about other things, for I had no time to lose. I also foundsome rum in the great cabin, of which I took a large dram, and whichI had, indeed, need enough of to spirit me for what was before me.Now I wanted nothing but a boat, to furnish myself with many thingswhich I foresaw would be very necessary to me.It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be had; andP

84 fOWRTNSON CRUSO0.this extremity roused my an,'Lcation. We had several spare yards, andtwo or three large spars of wood, and a spare top-mast or two in theship: I resolved to fall to work with these, and I flung as many ofthem overboard as I could manage for their weight, tying every one witha rope, that they might not drive away. When this was done, I wentdown the ship's side and pulling them to me, I tied four of them togetherat both ends, as well as I could, in the form of a raft, and laying twoor three short pieces of plank upon them, cross-ways, I found I couldwalk upon it very well, but that it was not able to bear any greatweight, the pieces being too light. So I went to work, and with thecarpenter's saw I cut a spare top-mast into three lengths, and addedthem to my raft, with a great deal of labour and pains. But the hopeof furnishing myself with necessaries, encouraged me to go beyond whatI should have been able to have done upon another occasion.My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable weight. Mynext care was what to load it with, and how to preserve what I laidupon it from the surf of the sea: but I was not long considering this.I first laid all the plank or boards upon it that I could get, and havingconsidered well what I most wanted, I first got three of the seamen'schests, which I had broken open and emptied, and lowered them downupon my raft; the first of these I filled with provisions, viz., bread,rice, three Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried goat's flesh whichh we livedmuch upon,) and a little remailnder of European corn, which had beenlaid by for some fowls which we brought to sea with us, but the fowlswere killed. There had been some barley and wheat together; but, tomy great disappointment, I found al'terw\\nd that the rats had eaten orspoiled it all. As for liquors, I found several cases of bottles belongingto our skipper, in which were some;l walers; and, in all, aboutfive or six gallons of rack. These I stowed by tllcems(sllvcs, there being noneed to put them into the chest, nor any room for them. While I wasdoing this, I found the tide began to flow, tithoh very calm; and Ihad the mortification to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I hadleft on shore, upon the sand, swim away. As for my breeches, whichwere only linen, and open-klncd, I swam on board in them and mystockings. However, this set me on rummaging for clothes, of whichI found enough, but took no more than I wanted tor present use, for Ihad other things which my eye w;,s more upon;-as, first, tools to workwith on shore. And it was after long searching that I found out theCill'rnteitr's chest, which was, indeed, a very useful prize to me, andmucah more valua ble than a slip lading of gold would have been at thattime. I got it down to my raft, whole as it was, without losing timeto look into it, for I knew in general what it contained.My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There were twovery good tfowina-pieces in the great cabin, and two pistols. These I

U-,civ s ariclo

IOBINSON CRUSO. B5secured first, with some powder-horns and a small bag of shot, and twoold rusty swords. I knew there were three barrels of powder in theship, but knew not where our gunner had stowed them; but with muchsearch I found them, two of them dry and good, the third had taken"water. Those two I got to my raft, with the arms. And now I thoughtmyself pretty well freighted, and began to think how I should get toshore with them, having neither sail. oar, nor rudder; and the leastcap-full of wind would have overset all my navigation.-I had three encouragelments; Lst, a smooth, carn sea; 2ndly, the tiderising and setting in to the shore; 3rdly, what little wind there wasblew me tovwardsx the land. And thus, having found two or three brokenoars belonging to the boat, and besides the tools which were in the chest,two saws, an axe, and a hammer: with this cargo I put to sea. Fora mile, or thereabouts, my raft went very well, only that I found it drivea little dst;:t from the place where I had landed before; by which Iperceived that there -was some indraft of the warer, arid coniseijen!tly, Ihoped to find some creek or river there, which I might make use of asa port to get to land with my cargo.As I imagined, so it was. There appeared before me a little openingof the land, and I found a strong current of the tide set into it; so Iguided my raft, as well as I could, to keep in the middle of the stream.But here I had like to have suffered a second shipwreck, which, if [had, I think, verily, would have broken my heart; for, k"o wing nothingof the coast, my raft ran aground at one end of it upon a shoal, andnot being a;ground at the other end, it wanted but a little that all mycargo had slipped off towards the end that was afloat, and so fallen intothe water. I did my utmost, by setting my back against the chests, tokeep them in their places, but could not thrust off the raft with all mystrength; neither durst I stir from the posture I was in; but holding upthe chests with all my might, I stood in that manner near half an hour,in which time the rising of the \W ier brought me a little more upona level; and, a little after, the \v:'wer still rising, my raft floated again,and I thrust her off with the oar I had into the channel, and then drivingup higher, I at length found myself in the mouth of a little river, withland on both sides, and a strong current or tide running up. I lookedon both sides for a proper place to get to shore, for I was not willingto be driven too high up the river: hoping, in time, to see some shipat sea, and therefore resolved to place myself as near the coast as I could.At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek, towhich, with great pains and ditficulty I guided my raft, and at last gotso near, that reaching ground with my oar, I coult thrust her directlyin. But here I had like to have dipped all my cargo into the sea again;for that shore lying pretty steep-that is to say, sliping,-there was noplace to land, but where one end of my float, if it ran on shore, would

86 kOBINSON CRUSOe.lie so high, and the other sink lower, as before, that it would endangermy cargo again. All that I could do, was to wait till the tide was atthe highest, keeping the raft with my oar like an anchor, to hold theside of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of ground, which I expectedthe water would flow over; and s6 it did. As soon as I found waterenough, for my raft drew about a foot of water, I thrust her on uponthat flat piece of ground, and there fastened or moored her, by stickingmy two broken oars into the ground,-one on one side, near one end,and one on the other side, near the other end; and thus I lay till thewater ebbed away, and left my raft and all my cargo safe on shore.My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper placefor my habitation, and where to stow my goods, to secure them fromwhatever might happen. Where I was, I yet knew not; whether onthe continent or an island; whether inhabited or not inhabited; whetherin danger of wild beasts or not. There was a hill not above a milefrom me, which rose up very steep and high, and which seemed toovertop some other hills, which lay as in a ridge from it, northward.I took out one of the fowling-pieces, and one of the pistols, and a hornof powder; and thus armed, I travelled for discovery up to the top ofthat hill, where after I had with great labour and difficulty got to thetop, I saw my fate, to my great affliction, viz., that I was in an islandenvironed on every side by the sea: no land to be seen except somerocks, which lay a great way off; and two small islands, less than this,which lay about three leagues to the west.I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I saw goodreason to believe, uninhabited except by wild beasts, of whom, however,I saw none. Yet I saw abundance of fowls, but knew not their kinds;neither when I killed them, could I tell what was fit for food, and whatnot. At my coming back, I shot at a great bird, which I saw sittingupon a tree, on the side of a great wood. I believe it was the firstgun that had been fired there since the creation of the world. I hadno sooner fired, than from all parts of the wood there arose an innumerablenumber of fowls, of many sorts, making a confused screaming and crying,every one according to his usual note, but not one of them of any kindthat I knew. As for the creature I killed, I took it to be a kind of ahawk, its colour and beak resembling it, but it had no talons or clawsmore than common. Its flesh was carrion, and fit for nothing.Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and fell to workto bring my cargo on shore, which took me up the rest of that day:what to do with myself at night I knew not, nor indeed where to rest,for I was afraid to lie down on the ground, not knowing but some wildbeast might devour me, though, as I afterwards found, there was reallyno need for those fears.However, as well as 1 could, I barricaded myself round with the chests

ROBINSON CRUSOE. 87and boards that I had brought on shore, and made a kind of hut forthat night's lodging. As for food, I yet saw not which way to supplymyself, except that I had seen two or three creatures, like hares, runout of the wood where I shot the fowl.I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many things outof the ship, which would be useful to me, and particularly some of therigging and sails, and such other things as might come to land; and Iresolved to make another voyage on board the vessel, if possible. Andas I knew that the first storm that blew must necessarily break her allin pieces, I resolved to set all other things apart, till I had got every-thing out of the ship that I could get. Then I called a council-thatis to say, in my thoughts-whether I should take back the raft; butthis appeared impracticable: so I resolved to go as before, when the tidewas down; and I did so, only that I stripped before I went from myhut, having nothing on but a chequered shirt, a pair of linen drawers,and a pair of pumps on my feet.I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second raft; and,having had experience ofthe first, I neither made this so unwieldy, norloaded it so hard, but yet I brought away several things very useful tome; as, first, in the carpenter's stores, I found two or three bags fullof nails and spikes, a great screw-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and,above all, that most useful thing called a grindstone. All these I secured,together with several things belonging to the gunner, particularly two orthree iron crows, and two barrels of musket bullets, seven muskets, andanother fowling-piece, with some small quantity of powder more; a largebagful of small shot, and a great roll of sheet-lead; but this last wasso heavy I could not hoist it up to get it over the ship's side.Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes that I could find,and a spare fore-top sail, a hammock, and some bedding; and with thisI loaded my second raft, and brought them all safe on shore, to myvery great comfort.I was under some apprehension, during my absence from the land, thatat least my provisions might be devoured on shore: but when I cameback, I found no sign of any visitor; only there sat a creature like awild cat, upon one of the chests, which, when I came towards it, ranaway a little distance, and then stood still. She sat very composed andunconcerned, and looked full in my face, as if she had a mind to beacquainted with me. I presented my gun to her, but, as she did notunderstand it, she was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did she offer tostir away; upon which I tossed her a bit of biscuit, though, by theway, I was not very free of it, for my store was not great: however,I spared her a bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled at it, and ateit, and looked (as if pleased) for more; but I thanked her, and couldspare no more: so she marched off.

rEOIINSON CTrWOE.'Haing got my second cargo on shore,-though I was obliged to openthe barrels of powder, and bring them by parcels, for they were tooheavy, being large easks,-l went to work to make me a little tent,with the sail, and some poles which I cut for that purpose; and intothis tent I brought everything that I knew would spoil either with rainor sun; and I piled all the empty chests and casks up in a circle roundthe tent, to fortify it from any sudden attempt, either from man or beast.When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent with someboards within, and an empty chest set up on end without; and spreadingone of the beds up-'n the ground, laying my two pistols just at myhead, and my gun at length by me, I went to bed for the first time,and slept very quietly all night, for I was very weary and heavy; forthe night before I had slept little, and had laboured very hard all day,to fetch all those things from the ship, and to get them on shore.I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was laid up,I believe, for one man: but I was not satisfied still, for while the shipsat upright in that posture, I thought I ought to get everything outof her that I could: so every day, at low water, 1 went on board,and brought away something or other; but particularly the third time [went, I brought away as much of the rigging as I could, as also allthe small ropes and rope twine I could get, with a piece of spare canvass,which was to mend the sails upon occasion, and the barrel of wet gun.powder. In a word, I brought away all the sails, first and last; onl]that I was obliged to cut them in pieces, and bring as much at a timeas I could, for they were no more useful to be sails, but as mere canvassonly.But that which comforted me more still, was, that last of all, after Ihad made five or six such voyages as these, and thought I had nothingmore to expect from the ship that was worth my meddling with;-Isay, after all this, I found a great hogshead of bread, three large runletsof rum, or spirits, and a box of sugar, and a barrel of fine flour: thiswas surprising to me, because I had given over expecting any moreprovisions, except what was spoiled by the water. 1 soon emptied theliohshl eal of the bread, and wrapped it up, parcel by parcel, in piecesof the sails, which I cut out; and, in a word, I got all this safe onshore also.The next day I made another voyage, and now, having plundered theship of what was portable and fit to hand out, I began with the cables,cutting the great cable into pieces, such as I could move, I got twocables and a hawser on shore, with all the iron-work I could get; andhaving cut down the spritsail-yard, and the mizen-yard, and everythingI could, to make a large raft, I loaded it with all these heavy goods,and came away; but my good luck began now to leave me; for this raftwas so unwieldy, and so overladen, that after I was entered the little

ROBINSON CRvSOn. b9cove, where I had landed the rest of my goods, not being able to guide it sohandily as I did the other, it overset, and threw me and all my cargointo the water; as for myself, it was no great harm, for I was near theshore: but as to my cargo, it was a great part of it lost," especially theiron, which I expected would have been of great use to me: however,"when the tide was out, I got most of the pieces of cable ashore, andsome of the iron, though with infinite labour; for I had to dip for itinto the water, a work wh;eh fatigued me very much. After this, Iwent every day on board, and brought away what I could get.I had been now thirteen days oil shore, and had been eleven timeson board the ship, in which time I had brought away all that one pairof hands could well be supposed capable to bring, tough I believe verily,had the calm weather held, I should have brought away the whole ship,piece by piece; but preparing the twelfth time to go on board, I found,the wind began to rise: however, at low water I went on board, andthough I thought I had rummaged the cabin so effectually, that nothingmore could be found, yet I discovered a locker with dr.,vers in it, in oneof which I found two or three razors, and one pair of large scissors,with some ten or a dozen of good knives and forks; in another I foundabout thirty-six pounds value in money,-some European coin, someBrazil, some pieces-nf-eight, some gold, and some silver.I smiled to myself at the sight of this money: 'O() drlg !" said Ialoud, "what art thou good for" Thou art not worth to ne,-no, notthe taking off the ground: one of those knives is worth all this heap:I have no in.inner of use for thee; e'en remain where thou art, and goto the bottom, as a creature whose life is not worth saving." However,upon second thouligh!s, I took it away; and wr\lppig all in a piece ofcanvass, I began to think of making another raft; but while I waspreparing this, I found the sky veraCt, and the wind began to rise,and in a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale from the shore. Itpresently oei..nrl to me, that it was in vain to pretend to make a raftwith the wind off shore; anl that it was my business to be gone before thetide of flood began, otherwise I might not be able to reach the shoreat all. Accordingly, L let myself down into the water, and swamacross the channel which lay between the ship and the sands, and eventhat with difficulty eno',uh, partly with the weight of the things I hadabout me, and partly 'from tie roughness of the water; for the windrose very hastily, and before it was quite high water it blew a storm.But I had got home to my little tent, where I lay, with all mywealth about me very secure. It blew very hard all that night, and inthe morning, when I looked out, behold no more ship was to be seen!I was a little surprised, but recovered myself with this satisfactoryreflection, that I had lost no time-, nor abated any diligence, to geteverything out of her that could be useful to me; and that, indeed, there

40 ROBINSON CRUSOE.was little left in her that I was able to bring away, if I had hadmore time.I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of anything outof her, except what might drive on shore from her wreck; as, indeed,divers pieces of her afterwards did; but those things were of small useto me.My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing myself againsteither savages, if any should appear, or wild beasts, if any were in theisland; and I had many thoughts of the method how to do this, andwhat kind of dwelling to make,-whether I should make me a cave inthe earth, or a tent upon the earth; and, in short, I resolved upon both;the manner and description of which, it may not be improper to givean account of.I soon found the place I was in was not fit for my settlement,because it was upon a low, moorish ground, near the sea, and I believedit would not be wholesome, and more particularly because there was nofresh water near it; so i resolved to find a more healthy and moreconvenient spot of ground.I consulted several things in my situation, which I found would beproper for me: first, health and fresh water, I just now mentioned:secondly, shelter from the heat of the sun: thirdly, security from ravenouscreatures, whether men or beasts; fourthly, a view to the sea, that ifGod sent any ship in sight, I might not lose any advantage for mydeliverance, of which I was not willing to banish all my expectationsyet.In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain on theside of a rising hill, whose front towards this little plain was steep asa house-side, so that nothing could come down upon me from the top.On the side of the rock there was a hollow place, worn a little wayin, like the entrance or door of a cave; but there was not really anycave, or way'into the rock, at allOn the flat of the green, just before this hollow place, I resolved topitch my tent. This plain was not above a hundred yards broad, andabout twice as long, and lay like a green before my door; and, at theend of it, descended irregularly every way down into the low groundby the sea-side. It was on the N.N.W. side of the hill; so that it wassheltered from the heat every day, till it came to a W. and by S. sun,or thereabouts, which, in those countries, is near the setting.Before I set up my tent I drew a half-circle before the hollow place,which took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter, from the rock, andtwenty yards it its diameter, from its beginning and ending.In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving theminto the ground till they stood up very firm like piles, the biggest endbeing out of the ground above five feet and a half, and sharpened on

ROBINSON CRUSOE. 41the top. The two rows did not stand above six inches from one another.Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship, andlaid them in rows, one upon another, within the circle, between thesetwo rows of stakes, up to the top, placing other stakes in the inside,leaning against them, about two feet and a half high, like a spur to apost; and this fence was so strong, that neither man nor beast could getinto it or over it. This cost me a great deal of time and labour,especially to cut the piles in the woods, bring them to the place, anddrive them into the earth.The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a door, but by ashort ladder to go over the top; which ladder, when I was in, I liftedover after me; and so I was completely fenced in and fortified, as Ithought, from all the world, and consequently slept secure in the night,which otherwise I could not have done; though, as it appeared afterwards,there was no need of all this caution from the enemies that I apprehendeddanger from.Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labour, I carried all myriches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which you have theaccount above; and I made a large tent, which, to preserve me from therains, that in one part of the year are very violent there, I made double,one smaller tent within, and one larger tent above it; and covered theuppermost with a large tarpaulin, which I had saved among the sails.And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which I had broughton shore, but in a hammock, which was indeed a very good one, andbelonged to the mate of the ship.Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything that wouldspoil by the wet; and having thus enclosed all my goods, I made upthe entrance, which till now I had left open, and so passed and repassed,as I said, by a short ladder."When I had done this, I began to work my way into the rock, andbringing all the earth and stones that I dug down out through my tent,I laid them up within my fence, in the nature of a terrace, so that itraised the ground within about a foot and a half; and thus I made mea cave, just behind my tent, which served me like a cellar to my house.It cost me much labour and many days before all these things werebrought to perfection; and, therefore, I must go back to some other thingswhich took up some of my thoughts. At the same time it happened, after1 had laid my scheme for the setting up my tent, and making the cave,that a storm of rain falling from a thick, dark cloud, a sudden flash oflightning happened, and after that a great clap of thunder, as is naturallythe effect of it. I was not so much surprised with the lightning, as Iwas with a thought which darted into my mind as swift as the lightningitself: 0 my powder! My very heart sank within me when I thoughtthat, at one blast, all my powder might be destroyed; on which, not

42 ROBINSON defence only, but the providing me food, as I thought, entirelydepended. I was nothing near so anxious about my own danger, though,had the powder took fire. I should never have known who had hurt me.Such impression did this make upon me, that after the storm wasover, I laid aside all my works, my building and fortifying, and appliedmyself to make bags and boxes, to separate the powder, and to keep ita little and a little in a parcel, in hope that whatever might come, itmight not all take fire at once; and to keep it so apart, that it shouldnot be possible to make one part fire another. I finished this work inabout a fortnight; and I think my powder, which in all was about twohundred and forty pounds weight, was divided into not less than ahundred parcels. As to the barrel that had been wet, I did not apprehendany danger from that; so I placed it in my new cave, which, in myfancy, I called my kitchen; and the rest I hid up and down in holesamong the rocks, so that no wet might come to it, marking very carefullywhere I laid it.In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out once atleast every day with my gun, as well to divert myself, as to see ifI could kill anything fit for food; and as near as I could, to acquaintmyself with what the island produced. The first time I went out, Ipresently discovered that there were goats in the island, which was a greatsatisfaction to me; but then it was attended with this misfortune to me,viz., that they were so shy, so subtle, and so swift of foot, that it wasthe difficultest thing in the world to come at them; but I was notdi-eclliraged at this, not doubting but I might now and then shoot one,as it soon lhppened? for after I had found their haunts a little, I laidwait in this manner for them: I observed if they saw me in the valleys,though they were upon the rocks, they would run away, as in aterrible fright; but if they were feeding in the valleys, and I was uponthe rocks, they took no notice of me; from whence I concluded, that bythe position of their optics, their sight was so directed downward, thatthey did not readily see objcts that were above them; so afterwards, Itook this nlthod,-- always climbed the rocks first, to get above them,and then had frequently a fair mark.The first shot I made among these creatures, I killed a she-goat,which had i little kid by her, which she gave suck to, which grievedme heartily; for, when the old one fell, the kid stood stock still by her,till I came and took her up; and not only so, but when I carried theold one with me, upon my shoulders, the kid followed me quite to myenclosure; upon which, I laid down the dam, and took the kid in myarms, and c(;ried it over my pale, in hopes to have bred it up tame;but it would not eat; so 1 wc; forced to kill it, and ate it myself.These two supplied me with flesh a great while, for I eat sparingly,and saved my provisions, my bread especially, as much as possibly I could.

ROBINSON CRUSOR. 43Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely necessary topr.. ide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn; and what I did forthat. as also how I enlarged my cave, and what conveniences I made, Ishall give a full account of in its place; but I must now give somelittle account of myself, and of my thoughts about living, which, it maywell be supposed, were not a few.I had a prospect of my condition, tbr as I was not cast awayupon that island without being driven, as is said, by a violent storm,quite out of the course of our intended voyage, and a great way, viz., somehundreds of leagues, out of the ordinary course of the trade of mankind,1 had great reason to consider it as a determination of Heaven, that inthis de..liate place, and in this desolate manner, I should end my life.The tears would run plentifully down my face when I made theseret].(-t ion; and sometimes I would expostulate with myself why Providenceshould thus completely ruin its creatures, and render them so absolutelymiserable; so without help, abandoned, so entirely depressed, that it couldhardly be rational to be thankful for such a life.But soimethiiig always returned swift upon me to check these thoughts,and to reprove me; and particularly, one day, walking with my gun inmy hand by the sea-side, I was very pensive upon the subject of mypresent condit ion, when reason, as it were, expostulated with me the otherway, thus: "Well, you are in a desolate condition, it is true; but, prayrenlmmber, where are the rest of you? Did not you come eleven of youinto the boat? Where are the ten? Why were not they saved, and youlost? Why were you singled out? Is it better to be here or there?"And then I pointed to the sea. All evils are to be considered with thegood that is in them, and with what worse attends them.Then it occurred to me again, how well I was furnished for my subsistence,and what would have been my case if it had not happened (which was ahundred thousand to one) that the ship floated from the place where shefirst struck, and was driven so near to the shore, that I had time toget all these things out of her; what would have been my case, if Ihad been forced to have lived in the condition in which I at first cameon shore, without necessaries of life, or necessaries to supply and procurethem? "Particularly," said I, aloud (though to myself), "what shouldI have done without a gun, without ammunition, without any tools tomake anything, or to work with, without clothes, bedding, a tent, or anymanner of covering?" and that now I had all these to sufficient quantity,and was in a fair way to provide myself in such a manner as to livewithout my gun, when my ammunition was spent: so that I had atolerable view of subsisting, without any want, as long as I lived; forI considered, from the beginning, how I would provide for the accidentsthat might happen, and for the time that was to come, even not onlyafter my ammunition should be spent, but even after my health andstrength should decay.

44 ROBINSON CRUSOE.I confess, I had not entertained any notion of my ammunition uein,destroyed at one blast,-I mean my powder being blown up by lightning;and this made the thoughts of it so surprising to me, when it lightenedand thundered, as I observed just now.And now being to enter into a melancholy relation of a scene of silentlife, such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the world before, I shalltake it from its beginning, and continue it in its order. It was, by myaccount, the 30th. of September, when, in the manner as above said, Ifirst set foot upon this horrid island; when the sun being to us in itsautumnal equinox, was almost just over my head; for I reckoned myself,by observation, to be in the latitude of nine degrees twenty-one minutesnorth of the line.After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came into mythoughts that I should lose my reckoning of time for want of books,and pen and ink, and should even forget the Sabbath days; but toprevent this, I cut with my knife upon a large post, in capital letters;and making it into a great cross, I set up on the shore where I firstlanded, "I came on shore here on the 30th. of September, 1659."Upon the sides of this square post I cut every day a notch with myknife, and every seventh notch was as long again as the rest, andevery first day of the month, as long again as that long one; and thusI kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning of time.In the next place, we are to observe that among the many thingswhich I brought out of the ship, in the several voyages which, as abovementioned, I made to it, I got several things of less value, but not atall less useful to me, which I omitted setting down before; as, inparticular, pens, ink, and paper; several parcels in the captain's, mate's,gunner's, and carpenter's keeping; three or four compasses, some math-ematical instruments, dials, perspectives, charts, and books of navigation; allwhich I huddled together, whether I might want them or no: also I foundthree very good Bibles, which came to me in my cargo from England,and which I had packed up among my things; some Portuguese booksalso; and, among them, two or three Popish prayer-books, and severalother books, all which I carefully secured. And I must not forget, thatwe had in the ship a dog, and two cats, of whose eminent history Imay have occasion to say something in its place; for I carried both thecats with me; and as for the dog, he jumped out of the ship ofhimself, and swam on shore to me the day after I went on shore withmy first cargo, and was a trusty servant to me many years; I wantednothing that he could fetch me, nor any company that he could makeup to me; I only wanted to have him talk to me,. but that would notdo. As I observed before, I found pens, ink, and paper, and I husbandedthem to the utmost; and I shall show that while my ink lasted, I keptthings very exact, but after that was gone I could not, for I couldnot make any ink by any means that I could devise.

N.4tsRobinson Crusoe erects a post, on the shori.

1o01tTNcnN CtRsot. 45And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, notwithstandingall that I had amassed together; and of these, ink was one; as also aspade, pick-axe, and shovel, to dig or remove the earth; needles, pins,and thread: as for linen, I soon learned to want that without muchdifficulty.This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily; and it wasnear a whole year before I had entirely finished my little pale, orsurrounded my habitation. The piles or stakes, which were as heavyas I could well lift, were a long time in cutting and preparing in thewoods, and more, by far, in bringing home; so that I spent sometimestwo days in cutting and bringing home one of those posts, and a third dayin driving it into the ground; for which purpose, I got a heavy pieceof wood at first, but at last bethought myself of one of the iron crows;which, however, though I found it, made driving those posts or pilesvery laborious and tedious work. But what need I have been concernedat the tediousness of anything I had to do, seeing I had time enoughto do it in? nor had I any other employment, if that had been over,at least that I could foresee, except the ranging the island to seek forfood, which I did, more or less, every day.I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the circumstances Iwas reduced to; and I drew up the state of my affairs in writing,not so much to leave them to any that were to come after me, for Iwas likely to have but few heirs, as to deliver my thoughts from dailyporing upon them, and afflicting my mind: and as my reason began nowto master my despondency, I began to comfort myself as well as I could,and to set the good against the evil, that I might have something todistinguish my case from worse; and I stated very impartially, like debtorand creditor,-the comforts I enjoyed against the miseries I suffered, thus:-EVIL. GooD.I am cast upon a horrible desolate But I am alive; and not drowned,island, void of all hope of recovery, as all my ship's company were.I am singled out and separated, as But I am singled out, too, fromit were, from all the world, to be all the ship's crew, to be spared frommiserable, death; and he that miraculouslysaved me from death, can deliver mefrom this condition.I am divided from mankind,-a But I am not starved, andsolitaire; one banished from human perishing on a barren place, affordingsociety, no sustenance.I have not clothes to cover me. But I am in a hot climate, where,if I had clothes, I could hardly wearthem.

4A toBICsoN cuursot.I am without any defence, or means But I am cast on an island whereto resist any violence of man or beast. I see no wild beasts to hurt me, asI saw on the coast of Africa: andwhat if I had been shipwreckedthere?I have no soul to speak to or But God wonderfully sent the shiprelieve me. in near enough to the shore, thatI have got out as many necessarythings as will either supply my wantsor enable me to supply myself, evenas long as I live.Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony, that there wasscarce any condition in the world so miserable, but there was somethingnegative, or something positive, to be thankful for in it: and let this standas a direction, from the experience of the most miserable of all conditionsin this world: that we may always find in it something to comfort ourselvesfrom, and to set, in the description of good and evil, on the credit sideof the account.Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition, and givenover looking out to sea, to see if I could spy a ship,-I say, giving overthese things, I began to apply myself to arrange my way of living, andto make things as easy to me as I could.I have already described my habitation, which was a tent under theside of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of posts and cables; butI might now rather call it a wall, for I raised a kind of wall up againstit of turfs, about two feet thick on the outside: and after some time (Ithink it was a year and a half) I raised rafters from it, leaning, to therock, and thatched or covered it with boughs of trees, and such tliingsas I could get, to keep out the rain; which I found at some times of theyear very violent.I have already observed how I brought all my goods into this pale,and into the cave which I had made behind me. 1Bt I must olberve,too, that at first this was a confused heap of goods, which, as they layin no order, so they took up all my place; I had no room to turn my-self: so I set myself to enlarge my cave, and work farther into the earth;for it was a loose sandy rock, which yielded easily to the labour I bestow'ef lon it: and so when I found I was pretty safe as to beasts of prey, Iworked sideways, to the right hand into the rock; and then turningto the right again, worked quite out, and made me a door to come outon the outside of my pale or fortification.This gave me not only egress and regress, as it was a back way tomy tent and to my storehouse, but gave me room to store my goods.And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary things as

onpTN56N CRtSO^. 4TI found I most wanted, particularly a chair and a table; for without theseI was not able to enj y the few comforts I hlad in the world; I couldnot write, or eat, or do several things with so much pleasure, withouta table: so I went to work. An:l here I must needs observe, that asreason is the substance and origin of the mathematics, so by stating andsquaring everything by reason, and by making the most rational judgmentof things, every man may be, in time, master of every mechanic art. I hadnever handled a tool in my life; and yet, in time, by labour, application,and contrivance, I found, at last, that I wanted nothing but I could havemade it, especially if I had had tools. However, I made abundance ofthings, even without tools; and some with no more tools than an adze anda hatchet, which perhaps were never made that ;xay before, and thatwith infinite labour. For example, if I wanted a board, I had no otherway but to cut down a tree, set it on an edge before me, and hew itflat on either side with my axe, till I had brioi-ht it to be thin as aplank, and then dub it smooth with my adze. It is true, by this method Icould make but one board out of a whole tree, bit this I had no remedyfor but patience, any more than I had for the ipodigious deal of timeand labour which it took me up to make a plank or board: but my timeor labour was little worth, and so it was as weil employed one way as"another.However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed above, in thefirst place; and this I did out of the short pieces of boards that I broughton my raft from the ship.. But when I had wrought out some boards asabove, I made large shelves, of the ,ilth of a foot and a half, oneover another all along one side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails, andiron-work on; and, in a word, to separate everything at large into theirplaces, that I might come easily at them. I knocked pieces into thewall of the rock to hang my guns and all things that would hang up: sothat had my cave been to be seen, it looked like a general magazine ofall necessary things; and I had everything so ready at my hand, thatthis was a great pleasure to me to see all my goods in such order, andespecially to find my stock of all necessaries so great.And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every day's employment;for, indeed, at first, I was in too much hurry, not only hurry as to labour,but in too much discomposure of mind; and my journal would have beenfull of many dull things: for example, I must have said thus: "'Sept. 30th.-After I had got to shore, and had escaped drowning, instead of beingthankful to God for my deliverance, having first vomited, with the greatquantity of salt water which had got into my stomach, and recoveringmyself a little, I ran about the shore wringing my hands and beating myhead and face; exclaiming at my misery, and crying out, 'I was undone,undone!' till, tired and faint, I was thrced to lie down on the ground torepose; but durst not sleep, for fear of being devoured."

48 iOBIN SON CRUSOM.Some days after this, and after I had been on board the ship, and gotall that I could out of her, yet I could not forbear getting up to the topof a little mountain, and looking out to sea, in hopes of seeing a ship;then fancy, at a vast distance, I spied a sail, please myself with the hopesof it, and then after looking steadily, till I was almost blind, lose it quite,and sit down and weep like a child, and thus increase my misery by my folly.But having gotten over these things in some measure, and having settledmy household stuff and habitation, made me a table and a chair, and all ashandsome about me as I could, I began to keep my journal; of which Ishall here give you the copy (though in it will be told all these particularsover again) as long as it lasted; for having no more ink, I was forcedto leave it off.THE JOURNAL.September 30, 1659.-I, poor, miserable Robinson Crusoe, being ship-wrecked, during a dreadful storm, in the offing, came on shore on thisdismal, unfortunate island, which I called "The Island of Despair;" allthe rest of the ship's company being drowned, and myself almost dead.All the rest of the day I spent in afflicting myself at the dismal cir-cumstances I was brought to; viz., I had neither food, house, clothes,weapon, nor place to fly to: and, in despair of any relief, saw nothingbut death before me: either that I should be devoured by wild beasts,murdered by savages, or starved to death for want of food. At the approachof night I slept in a tree, for fear of wild creatures; but slept soundly,though it rained all night.October 1.-In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the ship hadfloated with the high tide, and was driven on shore again much nearer theisland; which as it was some comfort, on one hand, for seeing her situpright, and not broken to pieces, I hoped, if the wind abated, I mightget on board, and get some food and necessaries out of her for my relief;so, on the other hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my comrades,who, I. imagined, if we had all stayed on board, might have saved theship, or, at least, that they would not have been all drowned, as they were;and that, had the men been saved, we might perhaps have built us aboat out of the ruins of the ship, to have carried us to some other partof the world. I spent great part of this day in perplexing myself on thesethings; but, at length, seeing the ship almost dry, I went upon the sandas near as I could, and then swam on board. This day also it continuedraining, though with no wind at all.From the 1st. of October to the 24th.-All these days entirely spent inmany several voyages to get all I could out of the ship, which I broughton shore, every tide of flood, upon rafts. Much rain also, in the days,though with some intervals of fair weather; but it seems this was the rainyseason.

InBINSON cRtsoR. 49Oct. 20.-I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got upon it; butbeing in shoal water, and the things been chiefly heavy, I recovered manyof them when the tide was out.Oct 25.-It rained all night and all day, with some gusts of wind; duringwhich time the ship broke in pieces, the wind blowing a little harder thanbefore, and was no more to be seen, except the wreck of her, and thatonly at low water. I spent this day in covering and securing the goodswhich I had saved, that the rain might not spoil them.Oct. 26.-I walked about the shore almost all day, to find out a placeto fix my habitation, greatly concerned to secure myself from any attackin the night, either from wild beasts or men. Towards night, I fixed upona proper place, under a rock, and marked out a semicircle for my encamp-ment; which I resolved to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortification,made of double piles, lined within with cables, and without with turf.From the 26th. to the 30th., I worked very hard in carrying all mygoods to my new habitation, though some part of the time it rainedexceedingly hard.The 31st., in the morning, I went out into the island with my gun,to see for some food, and discover the country; when I killed a she-goat,and her kid followed me home, which 1 afterwards killed also becauseit would not feed.November 1.-I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there for thefirst night; making it as large as I could, with stakes driven in toswing my hammock upon.Nov. 2.-I set up all my chests and boards, and the pieces of timberwhich made my rafts, and with them formed a fence round me a littlewithin the place I had marked out for my fortification.Nov. 3.-I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls like ducks,which were very good food. In the afternoon went to work to makeme a table.Nov. 4.-This morning I began to order my times of work, of goingout with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diversion; viz., everymorning I walked out with my gun for two or three hours, if it didnot rain; then employed myself to work till about eleven o'clock; theneat what I had to live on; and from twelve till two I lay down tosleep, the weather being excessively hot; and then, in the evening, towork again. The working part of this day and of the next were whollyemployed in making my table, for I was yet but a very sorry workman,though time and necessity made me a complete natural mechanic soonafter, as I believe they would do any one else.Nov. 5.-This day, went abroad with my gun and my dog, and killeda wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good for nothing; everycreature that I killed I took off the skins and preserved them. Comingback by the sea-shore, I saw many sorts of sea-fowls, which I did notE

50 totmsoN Ctiso0 .understand; but was surprised, and almost frightened, with two or threeseals, which, while I was gazing at, not well knowing what they were,got into the sea, and escaped me for that time.Nov. 6.-After my morning walk, I went to work with my tableagain, and finished it, though not to my liking; nor was it long beforeI learned to mend it.jNov. 7.-Now it began to be settled fair weather. The 7th., 8th.,9th., 10th., and part of the 12th. (for the 11th. was Sunday,) I tookwholly up to make me a chair, and with much ado brought it to atolerable shape, but never to please me; and even in the making Ipulled it in pieces several times.Note.-I soon neglected my keeping Sundays; for, omitting my markfor them on my post, I forgot which was which.Nov. 1.3.-This day it rained, which refreshed me exceedingly, andcooled the earth; but it was accompanied with terrible thunder andlightning, which frighted me dreadfully, for fear of my powder. As soonas it was over, I resolved to separate my stock of powder into as manylittle parcels as possible, that it might not be in danger.Nov. 14, 15, 16.-These three days I spent in making little squarechests, or boxes, which might hold about a pound or two pounds, at most, ofpowder; and so, putting the powder in, I stowed it in places as secureand remote from one another as possible. On one of these three days, Ikilled a large bird that was good to eat, but I knew not what to call it.Nov. 17.-This day I began to dig behind my tent into the rock, tomake room for my further conveniency.Note.-Three things I wanted exceedingly for this work; viz., a pickaxe,a shovel, and a wheelbarrow, or basket; so I desisted from my work,and began to consider how to supply that want, and make me sometools. As for the pickaxe, I made use of the iron crows, which wereproper enough, though heavy; but the next thing was a shovel, or spade;this was so absolutely necessary, that, indeed, I could do nothing effectuallywithout it; but what kind of one to make I knew not.Nov. 18.-The next day, in searching the woods, I found a tree ofthat wood, or like it, which, in the Brazils, they call the iron-tree, forits exceeding hardness; of this, with great labour, and almost spoilingmy axe, I cut a piece, and brought it home, too, with difficulty enough,for it was exceeding heavy. The excessive hardness of the wood, andmy having no other way, made me a long while upon this machine, forI worked it effectually by little and little into the form of a shovel orspade; the handle exactly shaped like ours in England, only that theboard part having no iron shod upon it at bottom, it would not last meso long; however, it served well enough for the uses which I hadoccasion to put it to; but never was a shovel, I believe, made afterthat fashion, or so long in making.

ROBINSON CUISOE. 51T was still deficient, for I wanted a basket, or a wheelbarrow. Abasket I could not make by any means, having no such things as twigsthat would bend to make wickerware-at least, none yet found out; andas to a wheelbarrow, I fancied I could make all but the wheel; butthat I had no notion of; neither did I know how to go about it; besides,I had no possible way to make the iron gudgeons for the spindle or axisof the wheel to run in; so I gave it over, and so, for carrying away theearth which I dug out of the cave, I made me a thing like a hod, whichthe labourers carry mortar in, when they serve the bricklayers. This wasnot so difficult to me as the making the shovel; and yet this and the shovel,and the attempt which I made in vain to make a wheelbarrow, tookme up no less than four days, I mean always excepting my morningwalk with my gun, which I seldom failed, and very seldom failed alsobringing home something fit to eat.Nov. 23.-My other work having now stood still, because of my makingthese tools, when they were finished I went on, and working every day,as my strength and time allowed, I spent eighteen days entirely in wideningand deepening my cave, that it might hold my goods commodiously.Note.--During all this time, I worked to make this room, or cave,spacious enough to accommodate me as a warehouse, or magazine, a kitchen,a dining-room, and a cellar. As for my lodging, I kept to the tent;except that sometimes, in the wet season of the year, it rained so hard,that I could not keep myself dry, which caused me afterwards to coverall my place within my pale with long poles, in the form of rafters,leaning against the rock, and load them with flags and large leaves oftrees, like a thatch.December 10.-I began now to think my cave or vault finished, whenon a sudden (it seems I had made it too large) a great quantity of earthfell down from the top and one side; so much that, in short, it frighted me,and not without reason, too; for if I had been under it, I had never wanteda grave-digger. I had now a great deal of work to do over again, forI had the loose earth to carry out; and, which was of more importance,I had the ceiling to prop up, so that I might be sure no more would comedown.Dec. 11.-This day I went to work with it accordingly, and got twoshores or posts pitched upright to the top, with two pieces of boardsacross over each post; this I finished the next day; and setting moreposts up with boards, in about a week more I had the roof secured;and the posts, standing in rows, served me for partitions to part off thehouse.Dec. 17.-From this day to the 20th. I placed shelves, and knocked upnails on the posts, to hang everything up that could be hung up; andnow I began to be in some order within doors.Dec. 20.-Now I carried everything into the cave, and began to furnish

52 ttOIBI1iON house, and set up some pieces of boards like a dresser, to order myvictuals upon; but boards began to be very scarce with me: also I mademe another table.Dec. 24.-Much rain all night and all day: no stirring out.Dec. 25.-Rain all day.Dec. 26.-No rain, and the earth much cooler than before, and pleasanter.Dec. 27.-Killed a young goat, and lamed another so that I caught it,and led it home in a string; when I had it at home, I bound andsplintered up its leg, which was broke.N.B.-I took such care of it that it lived, and the leg grew well andas strong as ever; but by my nursing it so long it grew tame, and fed uponthe little green at my door, and would not go away. This was thefirst time that I entertained a thought of breeding up some tame creatures,that I might have food when my powder and shot was all spent.Dec. 28, 29, 30, 31.-Great heats, and no breeze, so that there was nostirring abroad, except in the evening, for food; this time I spent inputting all my things in order within doors.January 1.-Very hot still: but I went abroad early and late with mygun, and lay still in the middle of the day. This evening, going fartherinto the valleys which lay towards the centre of the island, I found therewere plenty of goats, though exceedingly shy, and hard to come at, however,I resolved to try if I could not bring my dog to hunt them down.-Jan. 2.-Accordingly, the next day I went out with my dog, and sethim upon the goats; but I was mistaken, for they all faced about uponthe dog, and he knew his danger too well, for he would not come nearthem.Jan. 3.-I began my fence, or wall; which, being still jealous of mybeing attacked by somebody, I resolved to make very thick and strong.N B.-This wall being described before, I purposely omit what wassaid in the journal; it is sufficient to observe that I was no less timethan from the 3rd. of January to the 14th. of April working, finishing,and perfecting this wall, though it was no more than about twenty-fouryards in length, being a half-circle, from one place in the rock toanother place, about eight yards from it, the door of the cave being inthe centre behind it.All this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering me many days,nay, sometimes weeks together; but I thought I should never be perfectlysecure till this wall was finished; and it is scarce credible what inex-pressible labour everything was done with, especially the bringing pilesout of the woods, and driving them into the ground; for I made themmuch bigger than I needed to have done.When this wall was finished, and the outside double-fenced, with aturf wall raised up close to it, 1 persuaded myself that if any peoplewere to come on shore there, they would not perceive anything like a

ROBINSO"N CRUSOE. 53habitation; and it was very well I did so, as may be observed hereafter,upon a very remarkable occasion.During this time I made my rounds in the woods for game every day,when the rain permitted me, and made frequent discoveries in thesewalks of something or other to my advantage; particularly I found akind of wild pigeons, which build, not as wood-pigeons in a tree, butrather as house-pigeons, in the holes of the rocks; and taking some youngones, I endeavoured to breed them up tame, and did so; but when theygrew older they flew away, which perhaps was at first for want offeeding them, for I had nothing to give them; however, I frequentlyfound their nests, and got their young ones, which were very goodmeat. And now, in the managing my household affairs, I found myselfwanting in many things, which I thought at first it was impossible forme to make; as, indeed, with some of them it was: for instance, Icould never make a cask to be hooped. I had a small runlet or two,as I observed before; but I could never arrive at the capacity of makingone by them, though I spent many weeks, about it; I could neither putin the heads, or join the staves so true to one another as to make themhold water; so I gave that also over. In the next place, I was at agreat loss for candles; so that as soon as, ever it was dark, which wasgenerally by seven o'clock, I was obliged to go to bed. I rememberedthe lump of bees'-wax with which I made candles in my African ad-venture; but I had none of that now; the only remedy I had was, thatwhen I had killed a goat I saved the tallow, and with a little dish madeof clay, which I baked in the sun, to which I added a wick of someoakum, I made me a lamp; and this gave me -a light, though not aclear steady light like a candle. In the middle of all my labours ithappened that, rummaging my things, I found a little bag, which, asI hinted before, had been filled with corn for the feeding of poultry,-not for this voyage, but before, as I suppose, when the ship came fromLisbon. The little remainder of corn that had been in the bag was alldevoured with the rats, and I saw nothing in the bag but husks anddust; and being willing to have the bag for some other use (I think itwas to put powder in, when I divided it for the fear of the lightning, orsome such use,) I shook the husks of corn out of it on one side of my-fortification, under the rock.It was a little before the great rains just now mentioned that I threwthis stuff away, taking no notice, and not so much as remembering thatI had thrown anything there, when, about a month after, or thereabouts,I saw some few stalks of something green shooting out of the ground,which I fancied might be some plant I had not seen; but I was surprised,and perfectly astonished, when, after a little longer time, I saw about tenor twelve ears come out, which were perfect green barley, of the samekind as our European-nay, as our English barley.

54 ROBINSON CRUSOE.It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion of my thoughtson this occasion; I had hitherto acted upon no religious foundation at all;indeed, I had very few notions of religion in my head, nor had entertainedany sense of anything that had befallen me, otherwise than as chance, or,as we lightly say, what pleases God, without so much as inquiring intothe end of Providence in these things, or his order in governing eventsfor the world. But after I saw barley grow there, in a climate whichI knew was not proper for corn, and especially that I knew not how itcame there, it startled me strangely, and I began to suggest that Godhad miraculously caused His grain to grow without any help of seedsown, and that it was so directed purely for my sustenance on thatwild, miserable place.This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out of my eyes,and I began to bless myself that such a prodigy of nature should happenupon my account; and this was the more strange to me, because I sawnear it still, all along by the side of the rock, some other stragglingstalks, which proved to be stalks of rice, and which I knew, becauseI had seen it grow in Africa, when I was ashore there.I not only thought these the pure productions of Providence for mysupport, but not doubting that there was' more in the place, I went allover that part of the island where 1 had been before, peering in everycorner, and under every rock, to see for more of it, but I could notfind any. At last it occurred to my thoughts, that I shook a bag ofchickens' meat out in that place; and then the wonder began to cease;and I must confess, my religious thankfulness to God's providence beganto abate, too, upon the discovering that all this was nothing but whatwas common; though I ought to have been as thankful for so strangeand unforeseen a providence, as if it had been miraculous; for it wasreally the work of Providence to me, that should order or appoint thatten or twelve grains of corn should remain unspoiled, when the ratshad destroyed all the rest, as if it had been dropped from heaven; asalso, that I should throw it out in that particular place, where, it beingin the shade of a high rock, it sprang up immediately; whereas, if Ihad thrown it anywhere else, at that time, it had been burnt up anddestroyed.I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in their season,which was about the end of June; and, laying up every corn, I resolvedto sow them all again, hoping, in time, to have some quantity, sufficientto supply me with bread. But it was not till the fourth year that Icould allow myself the least grain of this corn to eat, and even then butsparingly, as I shall say afterwards, in its order; for I lost all that Isowed the first season, by not observing the proper time; for I sowed itjust before the dry season, so that it never came up at all, at least notas it would have done: of which in its place.

EOBTNsoN CIXrsoz. 55Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty stalks ofrice, which I preserved with the same care and for the same use, or tothe same purpose, to make me bread, or rather food; for I found waysto cook it without baking, though I did that also after some time.But to return to my Journal:I worked excessively hard these three or four months, to get my walldone; and the 14th. of April, I closed it up, contriving to go into it,not by a door, but over the wall, by a ladder, that there might be nosign, on the outside, of my habitation.April 16.-I finished the ladder; so I went up the ladder to the top,and then pulled it up after me, and let it down in the inside: this wasa complete enclosure to me; for within I had room enough, and nothingcould come at me from without, unless it could first mount my wall.The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost had allmy labour overthrown at once, and myself killed. The case was thus: -As I was busy in the inside, behind my tent, just at the entrance into mycave, I was terribly frighted with a most dreadful surprising thing indeed;for, all on a sudden, I found the earth come crumbling down from theroof of my cave, and from the edge of the hill over my head, and two ofthe posts I had set up in the cave cracked in a frightful manner. I washeartily scared; but thought nothing of what was really the cause, onlythinking that the top of my cave was fallen in, as some of it had donebefore: and for fear I should be buried in it, I ran forward to my ladder,and not thinking myself safe there neither, I got over my wall for fearof the pieces of the hill, which I expected might roll down upon me. Ihad no sooner stepped down upon the firm ground, than I plainly sawit was a terrible earthquake; for the ground I stood on shook three timesat about eight minutes' distance, with three such shocks as would haveoverturned the strongest building that could be supposed to have stood onthe earth, and a great piece of the top of a rock, which stood about halfa mile from me, next the sea, fell down, with such a terrible noise as Inever heard in all my life. I perceived also the very sea was put intoviolent motion by it; and I believe the shocks were stronger under thewater than on the island.I was so much amazed with the thing itself, having never felt the like,nor discoursed with any one that had, that I was like one dead or stupified;and the motion of the earth made my stomach sick, like one that wastossed at sea; but the noise of the falling of the rock awaked me, as itwere, and rousing me from the stupified condition I was in, filled mewith horror, and I thought of nothing then but the hill falling upon mytent and all my household goods, and burying all at once; and this sunkmy very soul within me a second time.After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some time,I began to take courage; and yet I had not heart enough to go over my

56 ROBTNSON CRUSOE.wall again, for fear of being buried alive, but sat still upon the groundgreatly cast down and disconsolate, not knowing what to do. All thiswhile, I had not the least serious religious thought; nothing but the common"Lord have mercy upon me!" and when it was over, that went away too.While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grow cloudy, as if itwould rain; soon after that, the wind arose by little and little, so that inless than half an hour it blew a most dreadful hurricane: the sea was,all on a sudden, covered over with foam and froth; the shore was coveredwith the breach of the water; the trees were torn up by the roots; anda terrible storm it was. This held about three hours, and then began toabate; and in two hours more it was quite calm, and began to rain veryhard. All this while I sat upon the ground, very much terrified anddejected; when on a sudden it came into my thoughts, that these windsand rain being the consequences of the earthquake, the earthquake itselfwas spent and over, and I might venture into my cave again. With thisthought, my spirits began to revive; and the rain also helping to persuademe, I went in and sat down in my tent; but the rain was so violent,that my tent was ready to be beaten down with it; and I was forcedto go into my cave, though very much afraid and uneasy, for fear itshould fall on my head. This violent rain forced me to a new work,viz., to cut a hole through my new fortification, like a sink, to let thewater go out, which would else have flooded my cave. After I had beenin my cave for some time, and found still no more shocks of the earth-quake follow, I began to be more composed. And now to support myspirits, which indeed wanted it very much, I went to my little store,and took a small sup of rum; which, however, I did then and alwaysvery sparingly, knowing I could have no more when that was gone. Itcontinued raining all that night, and great part of the next day, so thatI could not stir abroad; but my mind being more composed, I began tothink of what I had best do; concluding, that if the island was subjectto these earthquakes, there would be no living for me in a cave, but Imust consider of building a little hut in an open place, which I mightsurround with a wall, as I had done here, and so make myself securefrom wild beasts or men; for I concluded if I stayed where I was, Ishould certainly, one time or other, be buried alive.With these thoughts, I resolved to remove my tent from the placewhere it now stood, which was just under the hanging precipice of thehill; and which, if it should be shaken again, would certainly fall uponmy tent: and I spent the two next days, being the 19th. and 20th. ofApril, in contriving where and how to remove my habitation. The fearof being swallowed up alive made me that I never slept in quiet; andyet the apprehension of lying abroad without any fence was almostequal to it: but still, when I looked about, and saw how everythingwas put in order, how pleasantly concealed I was, and how safe from

ROBINSON CBUSOE. 57danger, it made me very loath to remove. In the mean time, it occurredto me that it would require a vast deal of time for me to do this, and thatI must be contented to venture where I was, till I had formed a camp formyself, and had secured it so as to remove to it. So with this resolu-tion I composed myself for a time; and resolved that I would go towork with all speed to build me a wall with piles and cables, etc., ina circle, as before, and set my tent up in it, when it was finished; butthat I would venture to stay where I was till it was finished, and fit toremove. This was the 21st.April 22.-The next morning I began to consider of means to putthis resolve into execution; but I was at a great loss about my tools. Ihad three large axes, and abundance of hatchets (for we carried thehatchets for traffic with the Indians;) but with much chopping andcutting knotty hard wood, they were all full of notches, and dull; andthough I had a grindstone, I could not turn it and grind my tools too.This cost me as much thought as a statesman would have bestowedupon a grand point of politics, or a judge upon the life and death ofa man. At length, I contrived a wheel with a string, to turn it withmy foot, that I might have both my hands at liberty.Note.-I had never seen any such thing in England, or at least notto take notice how it was done, though since I have observed it is verycommon there; besides that, my grindstone was very large and heavy.This machine cost me a full week's work to bring it to perfection.April 28, 29.-These two whole days I took up in grinding my tools,my machine for turning my grindstone performing very well.April 30.-Having perceived my bread had been low a great while,now I took a survey of it, and reduced myself to one biscuit-cake aday, which made my heart very heavy.May 1.-In the morning, looking towards the sea-side, the tide beinglow, I saw something lie on the shore bigger than ordinary, and itlooked like a cask; when I came to it, I found a small barrel, and twoor three pieces of the wreck of the ship, which were driven on shoreby the late hurricane; and looking towaids the wreck itself, I thoughtit seemed to lie higher out of the water than it used to do. I examinedthe barrel which was driven on shore, and soon found it was a barrelof gunpowder; but it had taken water, and the powder was caked ashard as a stone: however, I rolled it farther on shore for the present,and went on upon the sands, as near as I could to the wreck of theship, to look for more.When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely removed. Theforecastle, which lay before buried in sand, was heaved up at least six feet,and the stern, which was broke in pieces and parted from the rest bythe force of the sea, soon after I had left rummaging her, was tossed,as it were, up, and cast on one side; and the sand was thrown so highon that side next her stern, that whereas there was a great place of

58 ROBINSON CRUSOE.water before, so that I could not come within a quarter of a mile ofthe wreck without swimming, I could now walk quite up to her whenthe tide was out. I was surprised with this at first, but soon concludedit must be done by the earthquake; and as by this violence the shipwas more broke open than formerly, so many things came daily onshore, which the sea had loosened, and which the winds and waterrolled by degrees to the land.This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of removing myhabitation, and I busied myself mightily, that day especially, in searchingwhether I could make any way into the ship; but I found nothing wasto be expected of that kind, for all the inside of the ship was chokedup with sand. However, as I had learned not to despair of anything,I resolved to pull everything to pieces that I could of the ship, con-cluding that everything I could get from her would be of some use orother to me.May 3.-I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam through,which I thought held some of the upper part or quarter-deck together,and when I had cut it through, I cleared away the sand as well as Icould from the side which lay highest; but the tide coming in I wasobliged to give over for that time.May 4.-I went a-fishing, but caught not one fish that I durst eatof, till I was weary of my sport; when, just going to leave off, I caughta young dolphin. I had made me a long line of some rope-yarn, butI had no hooks; yet I frequently caught fish enough, as much as Icared to eat; all which I dried in the sun, and eat them dry.May 5.-Worked on the wreck; cut another beam asunder, andbrought three great fir planks off from the decks, which I tied together,and made to float on shore when the tide of flood came on.May 6.-Worked on the wreck; got several iron bolts out of her, andother pieces of iron-work; worked very hard, and came home very muchtired, and had thoughts of giving it over.May 7.-Went to the wreck again, not with an intent to work, butfound the weight of the wreck had broke itself down, the beams beingcut; that several pieces of the ship seemed to lie loose, and the insideof the hold lay so open that I could see into it; but it was almostfull of water and sand.May 8.-Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow to wrench upthe deck, which lay now quite clear of the water or sand. I wrenchedopen two planks, and brought them on shore also with the tide. I leftthe iron crow in the wreck for next day.May 9.-Went to the wreck, and with the crow made way into the"body of the wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened them with the crow,but could not break them up. I felt also a roll of English lead, and couldstir it, but it was too heavy to remove.May 10-14.-Went every day to the wreck; and got a great many pieces

ROBINSON CRTSOE. 59of timber, and boards, or plank, and two or three hundredweight of iron.May 15.-I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not cut a piece offthe roll of lead, by placing the edge of one hatchet, and driving it withthe other; but as it lay about a foot and a half in the water, I couldnot make any blow to drive the hatchet.May 16.-It had blown hard in the night, and the wreck appeared morebroken by the force of the water; but I stayed so long in the woods, toget pigeons for food, that the tide prevented my going to the wreckthat day.May 17.-I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore, at a greatdistance, near two miles off me, but resolved to see what they were, andfound it was a piece of the head, but too heavy for me to bring away.May 24.-Every day, to this day, I worked on the wreck; and withhard labour I loosened some things so much with the crow, that the firstblowing tide several casks floated out, and two of the seamen's chests; but thewind blowing from the shore, nothing came to land that day, but piecesof timber, and a hogshead, which had some Brazil pork in it; but thesalt water and the sand had spoiled it. I continued this work every day tothe 15th. of June, except the time necessary to get food, which I alwaysappointed, during this part of my employment, to be when the tide was up,that I might be ready when it was ebbed out; and by this time I hadgot timber, and plank, and iron-work, enough to have built a good boat,if I had known how; and also I got, at several times, and in several pieces,near one hundredweight of the sheet-lead.June 16.-Going down to the sea-side, I found a large tortoise, or turtle.This was the first I had seen, which, it seems, was only my misfortune,not any defect of the place, or scarcity; for had I happened to be on theother side of the island, I might have had hundreds of them every day,as I found afterwards; but perhaps had paid dear enough for them.June 17.-I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her threescore eggs;and her flesh was to me, at that time, the most savoury and pleasant thatever I tasted in my life, having had no flesh, but of goats and fowls,since I landed in this horrid place.June 18.-Rained all day, and I stayed within. I thought, at this time,the rain felt cold, and I was something chilly; which I knew was notusual in that latitude.June 19.-Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had been cold.June 20.-No rest all night; violent pains in my head, and feverish.June 21.-Very ill; frighted almost to death with the apprehensions ofmy sad condition,-to be sick, and no help: prayed to God, for the firsttime since the storm off Hull, but scarce knew what I said, or why; mythoughts being all confused.June 22.-A little better; but under dreadful apprehensions of sickness.June 23.-Very bad again; cold and shivering, and then a violent headache.June 24.-Much better.

60 ROBTWSON CRUSOZ.June 25.-An ague very violent: the fit held me seven hours; cold fit,and hot, with faint sweats after it.June 26.-Better, and having no victuals to eat, took my gun, but foundmyself very weak; however, I killed a she-goat, and with much difficultygot it home, and broiled some of it, and ate. I would fain have stewedit, ard made some broth, but had no potJune 27.-The ague again so violent that I lay a-bed all day, andneither ate nor drank I was ready to perish for thirst; but so weak,I had not strength to stand up, or to get myself any water to drink.Prayed to God again, but was light-headed; and when I was not, I wasso ignorant that I knew not what to say; only I lay and cried,"Lord, look upon me! Lord, pity me! Lord, have mercy upon me!" Isuppose I did nothing else for two or three hours; till the fit wearingoff, I fell asleep, and did not wake till far in the night. When Iawoke, I found myself much refreshed, but weak, and exceedingthirsty; however, as I had no water in my habitation, I was forced tolie till morning, and went to sleep again In this second sleep I hadthis terrible dream: I thought that I was sitting on the ground, on theoutside of my wall, where 1 sat when the storm blew after the earth-quake, and that I saw a man descend from a great black cloud, in abright flame of fire, and light upon the ground: he was all over asbright as a flame, so that I could but just bear to look towards him:his countenance was most inexpressibly dreadful, impossible for words todescribe; when he stepped upon the ground with his feet, I thoughtthe earth trembled, just as it had done before in the earthquake, and allthe air looked, to my apprehension, as if it had been filled with flashesof fire. He was no sooner landed upon the earth, but he moved forwardtowards me, with a long spear or weapon in his hand, to kill me; andwhen he came to a rising ground, at some distance, he spoke to me,-or I heard a voice so terrible that it is impossible to express the terrorof it. All that I can say I understood, was this:-"Seeing all thesethings have not brought thee to repentance, now thou shalt die;"-atwhich words, I thought he lifted up the spear that was in his handto kill me.No one that shall ever read this account will expect that I shouldbe able to describe the horrors of my soul at this terrible vision. I mean,that even while it was a dream, I even dreamed of those horrors Noris it any more possible to describe the impression that remained uponmy mind when I awaked, and found it was but a dream.I had, alas! no divine knowledge. What I had received by the goodinstruction of my father was then worn out by an uninterrupted series,for eight years, of seafaring wickedness, and a constant conversation withnone but such as were, like myself, wicked and profane to the lastdegree, I do not remember that I had, in all that time, one thoughtthat so much as tended either to looking upwards towards God, or

ROBINSON CRUSOE. 61inwards towards a reflection upon my own ways; but a certain stupidityof soul, without desire of good, or conscience of evil, had entirely over-whelmed me; and I was all that the most hardened, unthinking, wickedcreature among our common sailors can be supposed to be; not havingthe least sense, either of the fear of God, in danger, or of thankfulnessto God, in deliverance.In the relating what is already past of my story, this will be themore easily believed, when I shall add, that through all the variety ofmiseries that had to this day befallen me, I never had so much as onethought of it being the hand of God, or that it was a just punishmentfor my sin. My rebellious behaviour against my father,-or my presentsins, which were great,-or so much as a punishment for the generalcourse of my wicked life. When I was on the desperate expedition onthe desert shores of Africa, I never had so much as one thought of whatwould become of me, or one wish to God to direct me whither I shouldgo, or to keep me from the danger which apparently surrounded me, aswell from voracious creatures as cruel savages. But I was merely thoughtlessof a God or a Providence, acted like a mere brute, from the principlesof nature, and by the dictates of common sense only, and, indeed, hardlythat. When I was delivered and taken up at sea by the Portugal captain,well used, and dealt justly and honourably with, as well as charitably,I had not the least thankfulness in my thoughts. When, again, I wasshipwrecked, ruined, and in danger of drowning, on this island, I wasas far from remorse, or looking on it as a judgment. I only said to myselfoften that I was an unfortunate dog, and born to be always miserable.It is true, when I got on shore first here, and found all my ship'screw drowned, and myself spared, I was surprised with a kind ofecstacy, and some transports of soul, which, had the grace of Godassisted, might have come up to true thankfulness; but it ended whereit began, in a mere common flight of joy, or, as I may say, beingglad I was alive, without the least reflection upon the distinguishedgoodness of the hand which had preserved me, and had singled me outto be preserved when all the rest were destroyed, or an inquiry whyProvidence had been thus merciful unto me. Even just the same commonsort of joy which seamen generally have, after they are got safe ashorefrom a shipwreck, which they drown all in the next bowl of punch,and forget almost as soon as it is over; and all the rest of my lifewas like it. Even when I was, afterwards, on due consideration, madesensible of my condition, how I was cast on this dreadful place, out ofthe reach of human kind, out' of all hope of relief, or prospect ofredemption, as soon as I saw but a prospect of living, and that I shouldnot starve and perish for hunger, all the sense of my affliction woreoff; and I began to be very easy, applied myself to the works properfor my preservation and supply, and was far enough from being afflicted

62 ROBINson my condition, as a judgment from Heaven, or as the hand of Godagainst me: these were thoughts which very seldom entered my head.The growing up of the corn, as is hinted in my Journal, had, at first,some little influence upon me, and began to affect me with seriousness,as long as I thought it had something miraculous in it; but as soonas ever that part of the thought was removed, all the impression thatwas raised from it wore off also, as I have noted already. Even theearthquake, though nothing could be more terrible in its nature, or moreimmediately directing to the invisible power which alone directs suchthings, yet no sooner was the first fright over, but the impression ithad made went off also. I had no more sense of God, or His judgments-much less of the present affliction of my circumstances being fromHis hand-than if I had been in the most prosperous condition of life.But now, when I began to be sick, and a leisurely view of the miseriesof death came to place itself before me; when my spirits began to sinkunder the burden of a strong distemper, and nature was exhausted withthe violence of the fever; conscience, that had slept so long, began toawake, and I began to reproach myself with my past life, in which Ihad so evidently, by uncommon wickedness, provoked the justice of Godto lay me under uncommon strokes, and to deal with me in so vindictivea manner. These reflections oppressed me for the second or third dayof my distemper; and in the violence, as well of the fever as of thedreadful reproaches of my conscience, extorted some words from me likepraying to God, though I cannot say they were either a prayer attendedwith desires or with hopes: it was rather the voice of mere frightand distress. My thoughts were much confused, the convictions greatupon my mind, and the horror of dying in such a miserable conditionraised vapours into my head with the mere apprehension; and in thesehurries of my soul, I knew not what my tongue might express. Butit was rather exclamation, such as, "Lord, what a miserable creature amI! If I should be sick, I shall certainly die for want of help; andwhat will become of me?" Then the tears burst out of my eyes, andI could say no more for a good while. In this interval, the good adviceof my father came to my mind, and presently his prediction, which Imentioned at the beginning of this story, viz., that if I did take thisfoolish step, God would not bless me, and I would have leisure hereafterto reflect upon having neglected his counsel, when there might be noneto assist in my recovery. "Now," said I, aloud, "my dear father's wordsare come to pass; God's justice has overtaken me, and I have none tohelp or hear me. I rejected the voice of Providence, which had merci-fully put me in a posture or station of life wherein I might have beenhappy and easy; but I would neither see it myself, or learn to knowthe blessing of it from my parents. I left them to mourn over my folly,and now I am left to mourn under the consequences of it. I refused

ROLisSON CRUSOE.their help and assistance, who would have lifted me in the world, andwould have made everything easy to me. And now I have difficultiesto struggle with, too great for even nature itself to support, and noassistance, no help, no comfort, no advice." Then I cried out, "Lord bemy help, for I am in great distress." This was the first prayer, if I maycall it so, that I had made for many years.But to return to my Journal:-June 28.-Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep I had had,and the fit being entirely off, I got up; and though the fright and terrorof my dream was very great, yet I considered that the fit of the aguewould return again the next day, and now was my time to get somethingto refresh and support myself when I should be ill: and the first thingI did, I filled a large square case-bottle with water, and set it upon mytable, in reach of my bed; and to take off the chill or aguish dispositionof the water, I put about a quarter of a pint of rum into it, and mixedthem together. Then I got me a piece of the goat's flesh, and broiledit on the coals, but could eat very little. I walked about, but was veryweak, and withal very sad and heavy-hearted under a sense of my miserablecondition, dreading the return of my distemper the next day. At night,I made my supper of three of the turtle's eggs, which I roasted in theashes, and eat, as we call it, in the shell, and this was the first bit ofmeat I had ever asked God's blessing to, that I could remember, in mywhole life. After I had eaten, I tried to walk, but found myself so weak,that I could hardly carry a gun, for I never went out without that; soI went but a little way, and sat down upon the ground, looking out uponthe sea, which was just before me, and very calm and smooth. As I sathere, some such thoughts as these occurred to me;-what is this earth andsea, of which I have seen so much? Whence is it produced? And whatam I, and all the other creatures, wild and tame, human and brutal?"Whence are we? Sure we are all made by some secret power, whoformed the earth and sea, the air and sky. And who is that? Thenit followed most naturally, it is God that has made all. Well, butthen, it came on strangely, if God has made all these things, Heguides and governs them all, and all things that concern them; for thepower that could make all things must certainly have power to guideand direct them. If so, nothing can happen in the great circuit of Hisworks, either without His knowledge or appointment.And if nothing happens without His knowledge, He knows that I amhere, and am in this dreadful condition; and if nothing happens withoutHis appointment, He has appointed all this to befal me. Nothing occurredto my thought to contradict any of these conclusions, and therefore itrested upon me with the greater force, that it must needs be that Godhad appointed all this to befal me; that I was brought into thismiserable circumstance by His direction, He having the sole power, not

64 ROBINSON CtUSOB.of me only, but of everything that happened in the world. Immediatelyit followed,-Why has God done this to me? What have I doneto be thus used? My conscience presently checked me in that inquiry,as if I had blasphemed, and methought it spoke to me like a voice,"Wretch! dost thou ask what thou hast done? Look back upon adreadful misspent life, and ask thyself, what thou hast not done? Ask,why is it that thou wert not long ago destroyed? Why wert thou notdrowned in Yarmouth Roads; killed in the fight when the shipwas taken by the Sallee man-of-war; devoured by the wild beasts onthe coast of Africa; or drowned here, when all the crew perished butthyself? Dost thou ask, What have I done?" I was struck dumb withthese reflections, as one astonished, and had not a word to say,-no, notto answer to myself, but rose up pensive and sad, walked back to myretreat, and went up over my wall, as if I had been going to bed;but my thoughts were sadly disturbed, and I had no inclination to sleep;so I sat down in my chair, and lighted my lamp, for it began to bedark. Now, as the apprehension of the return of my distemper terrifiedme very much, it occurred to my thought, that the Brazilians take nophysic but their tobacco for almost all distempers, and I had a piece ofa roll of tobacco in one of the chests, which was quite cured, and somealso that was green, and not quite cured.I went, directed by Heaven no doubt; for in this chest I found acure both for soul and body. I opened the chest, and found what Ilooked for, the tobacco; and as the few books I had saved lay theretoo, I took out one of the Bibles which I mentioned before, and whichto this time I had not found leisure, or inclination, to look into. I say,I took it out, and brought both that and the tobacco with me to thetable. What use to make of the tobacco I knew not, in my distemper,or whether it was good for it or no; but I tried several experimentswith it, as if I was resolved it should hit one way or other. I first tooka piece of leaf, and chewed it in my mouth, which, indeed, at first,almost stupified my brain, the tobacco being green and strong, and that Ihad not been much used to. Then I took some and steeped it an houror two in some rum, and resolved to take a dose of it when I laydown; and, lastly, I burnt some upon a pan of coals, and held mynose close over the smoke of it as long as I could bear it, as well forthe heat, as almost for suffocation. In the interval of this operation, Itook up the Bible, and began to read; but my head was too muchdisturbed with the tobacco to bear reading, at least at that time; only,having opened the book casually, the first words that occurred to mewere these, "Call on me in the day of trouble, and I will deliver thee,and thou shalt glorify me." These words were very apt to my case, andmade some impression upon my thoughts at the time of reading them,though not so much as they did afterwards, for, as for being delivered,

ROBINSON CRUSOL. 65the word had no sound, as I may say, to me; the thing was so remote,so impossible in my apprehension of things, that I began to say, as thechildren of Israel did when they were promised flesh to eat, "Can God spreada table in the wilderness?" so I began to say, "Can God himself deliverme from this place?" And as it was not for many years that any hopesappeared, this prevailed very often upon my thoughts; but, however,the words made a great impression upon me, and I mused upon themvery often. It grew now late, and the tobacco had, as I said, dozedmy head so much that I inclined to sleep; so I left my lamp burningin the cave, lest I should want anything in the night, and went tobed. But before I lay down, I did what I never had done in all mylife; I kneeled down, and prayed to God to fulfil the promise to me,that if I called upon Him in the day of trouble, He would deliver me.After my broken and imperfect prayer was over, I drank the rum inwhich I had steeped the tobacco, which was so strong and rank of thetobacco, that I could scarcely get it down; immediately upon this I wentto bed. I found presently it flew up into my head violently; but I fellinto a sound sleep, and waked no more till, by the sun, it must necessarilybe near three o'clock in the afternoon the next day: nay, to this hour Iam partly of opinion that I slept all the next day and night, and tillalmost three the day after; for otherwise, I know not how I shouldlose a day out of my reckoning in the days of the week, as it appearedsome years after I had done; for if I had lost it by crossing andrecrossing the Line, I should have lost more than one day; but certainlyI lost a day in my account, and never knew which way. Be that, how-ever, one way or the other, when I awaked I found myself exceedinglyrefreshed, and my spirits lively and cheerful; when I got up, I wasstronger than I was the day before, and my stomach better, for I washungry; and, in short, I had no fit the next day, but continued muchaltered for the better. This was the 29th.The 30th. was my well day, of course, and I went abroad with my gun,but did not care to travel too far. I killed a sea-fowl or two, somethinglike a brand goose, and brought them home; but was not very forwardto eat them; so I eat some more of the turtle's eggs, which were verygood. This evening I renewed the medicine, which I had supposed didme good the day before,-the tobacco steeped in rum; only I did nottake so much as before, nor did I chew any of the leaf, or hold myhead over the smoke; however, I was not so well the next day, whichwas the first of July, as I hoped I should have been; for I had a littlespice of the cold fit, but it was not much.July 2.-I renewed the medicine all the three ways; and dosed myselfwith it as at first, and doubled the quantity which I ,drank.July 3.-I missed the fit for good and all, though I did not recover myfull strength for some weeks after. While I was thus gathering strength,

6A ROBINSO0N thoughts ran exceedingly upon this scripture, "I will deliver thee;"and the impossibility of my deliverance lay much upon my mind, in barof my ever expecting it; but as I was discouraging myself with suchthoughts, it occurred to my mind that I pored so much upon my deliverancefrom the main affliction, that I disregarded the deliverance I had received;and I was, as it were, made to ask myself such questions as these; viz:Have I not been delivered, and wonderfully too, from sickness? from themost distressed condition that could be, and that was so frightful to me?and what notice had I taken of it? Had I done my part? God haddelivered me, but I had not glorified Him; that is to say, I had notowned and been thankful for that as a deliverance: and how could I expectgreater deliverance. This touched my heart very much; and immediately Iknelt down, and gave God thanks aloud for my recovery from my sickness.July 4.-In the morning, I took the Bible; and beginning at the NewTestament, I began seriously to read it, and imposed upon myself to readawhile every morning and every night; not tying myself to the numberof chapters, but as long as my thoughts should engage me. It was notlong after I set seriously to this work, till I found my heart more deeplyand sincerely affected with the wickedness of my past life. The impressionof my dream revived; and the words, "All these things have not broughtthee to repentance," ran seriously in my thoughts. I was earnestly beggingof God to give me repentance, when it happened providentially, the veryday, that, reading the Scripture, I came to these words:-"He is exalteda Prince and a Saviour, to give repentance and to give remission." I threwdown the book; and with my heart as well as my hands lifted up to heaven,in a kind of ecstasy of joy, I cried out aloud, "Jesus, thou son of David!Jesus, thou exalted Prince and Saviour! give me repentance!" This wasthe first time I could say, in the true sense of the words, that I prayedin all my life; for now I prayed with a sense of my condition, andwith a true scriptural view of hope, founded on the encouragement ofthe word of God; and from this time, I may say, I began to havehope that God would hear me.Now I began to construe the words mentioned above, "Call on me, andI will deliver thee," in a different sense from what I had ever done before;for then I had no notion of anything being called deliverance, but mybeing delivered from the captivity I was in: for though I was indeedat large in the place, yet the island was certainly a prison to me, andthat in the worst sense in the world. But now I learned to take it inanother sense; now I looked back upon my past life with such horror,and my sins appeared so dreadful, that my soul sought nothing of Godbut deliverance from the load of guilt that bore down all my comfort.As for my solitary life, it was nothing; I did not so much as pray to bedelivered from it, or think of it; it was all of no consideration, in comparisonto this. And I add this part here, to hint to whoever shall read it, that

Ah71Ir r4eltr;.: :Jvoli'AQ fOBnwSON CxrSOe. 67whenever they come to a true sense of things, they will find deliverancefrom sin a much greater blessing than deliverance from affliction.But, leaving this part, I return to my Journal:-My condition began now to be, though not less miserable as to myway of living, yet much easier to my mind: and my thoughts beingdirected, by a constant reading the Scripture and praying to God, to thingsof a higher nature, I had a great deal of comfort within, which, tillnow, I knew nothing of; also, my health and strength returned, I bestirredmyself to furnish myself with everything that I wanted, and make myway of living as regular as I could.From the 4th. of July to the 14th., I was chiefly employed in walkingabout with my gun in my hand, a little and a little at a time, as aman that was gathering up his strength after a fit of sickness: for it ishardly to be imagined how low I was, and to what weakness I wasreduced. The application which I made use of was perfectly new, andperhaps which had never cured an ague before; neither can I recommend itto any to practise, by this experiment: and though it did carry off thefit, yet it rather contributed to weakening me; for I had frequent con-vulsions in my nerves and limbs for some time; I learned from it alsothis, in particular, that being abroad in the rainy season was the mostpernicious thing to my health that could be, especially in those rains whichcame attended with storms and hurricanes of wind; for as the rain whichcame in the dry season was almost always accompanied with such storms,so I found that rain was much more dangerous than the rain which fellin September and October.I had now been in this unhappy island above ten months; all possibilityof deliverance from this condition seemed to be entirely taken from me;and I firmly believe that no human shape had ever set foot upon thatplace. Having now secured my habitation, as I thought fully to my mind,I had a great desire to make a more perfect discovery of the island, andto see what other productions I might find, which I yet knew nothing of.It was on the 15th. of July that I began to take a more particularsurvey of the island itself. I went up the creek first, where, as I hinted,I brought my rafts on shore. I found, after I came about two miles up,that the tide did not flow any higher; and that it was no more than alittle brook of running water, very fresh and good: but this being thedry season, there was hardly any water in some parts of it; at least,not enough to run in any'stream, so as it could be perceived. On thebanks of this brook, I found many pleasant savannahs or meadows, plain,smooth, and covered with grass; and on the rising parts of them, next tothe higher grounds, where the water, as might be supposed, never over-flowed, I found a great deal of tobacco, green, and growing to a greatand very strong stalk; there were divers other plants, which I had nonotion of or understanding about, that might, perhaps, have virtues of

68 IkOBINSON CRTUSO:.their own, which I could not find out. I searched for the cassava root,which the Indians, in all that climate, make their bread of, but I couldfind none. I saw large plants of aloes, but did not understand them. Isaw several sugar-canes, but wild, and for want of cultivation, imperfect.I contented myself with these discoveries for this time, and came back,musing with myself what course I might take to know the virtue andgoodness of any of the fruits or plants which I should discover; butcould bring it to no conclusion; for, in short, I had made so little ob-servation while I was in the Brazils, that I knew little of the plants inthe field; at least, very little that might serve me to any purpose now inmy distress.The next day, the 16th., I went up the same way again; and aftergoing something further than I had gone the day before, I found thebrook and savannahs cease, and the country became more woody thanbefore. In this part I found different fruits, and particularly I foundmelons upon the ground, in great abundance, and grapes upon the trees;the vines had spread indeed over the trees, and the clusters of grapeswere just now in their prime, very ripe and rich. This was a surprisingdiscovery, and I was exceeding glad of them; but I was warned bymy experience to eat sparingly of them, remembering that when I wasashore in Barbary, the eating of grapes killed several of our Englishmen,who were slaves there, by throwing them into fluxes and fevers. But Ifound an excellent use for these grapes; and that was, to cure or drythem in the sun, and keep them as dried grapes or raisins are kept,which I thought would be, as indeed they were, wholesome and agreeableto eat, when no grapes could be had.I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my habitation,which, by the way; was the first night, as I might say, I had lain fromhome. In the night, I took my first contrivance, and got up into atree, where I slept well; and the next morning, proceeded upon mydiscovery, travelling nearly four miles, as I might judge by the lengthof the valley, keeping still due north, with a ridge of hills on thesouth and north side of me. At the end of this march, I came to anopening, where the country seemed to descend to the west; and a littlespring of fresh water, which issued out of the side of the hill by me,ran the other way, that is, due east; and the country appeared so fresh,so green, so flourishing, everything being in a constant verdure, or flourishof spring, that it looked like a planted garden. I descended a little onthe side of that delicious vale, surveying it with a secret kind of pleasure,though mixed with my other afflicting thoughts, to think that this wasall my own; that I was king and lord of all this country indefeasibly,and had a right of possession; and, if I could convey it, I might haveit in inheritance as completely as any lord of a manor in England. Isaw here abundance of cocoa trees, orange, and lemon, and citron trees;

RORTNSON CRTTROE. 69but all wild, and very few bearing any fruit, at least, not then. However,the green limes that I gathered were not only pleasant to eat, but verywholesome; and I mixed their juice afterwards with water, which madeit very wholesome, and very cool and refreshing. I found now I hadbusiness enough, to gather and carry home; and I resolved to lay up astore, as well of grapes as limes and lemons, to furnish myself for thewet season, which I knew was approaching. In order to do this, Igathered a great heap of grapes in one place, a lesser heap in anotherplace, and a great parcel of limes and lemons in another place; andtaking a few of each with me, I travelled homewards: and resolved tocome again, and bring a bag or sack, or what I could make, to carrythe rest home. Accordingly, having spent three days in this journey, Icame home (so I must now call my tent and my cave;) but before I gotthither the grapes were spoiled; the richness of the fruit, and the weightof the juice, having broken them and bruised them, they were good forlittle or nothing: as to the limes, they were good, but I could bring buta few.The next day, being the 19th., I went back, having made me two smallbags to bring home my harvest; but I was surprised, when coming to myheap of grapes, which were so rich and fine when I gathered them, I foundthem all spread about, trod to pieces, and dragged about, some here, somethere, and abundance eaten and devoured. By this, I concluded there weresome wild creatures thereabouts, which had done this; but what they were,I knew not. However, as I found there was no laying them up on heaps,and no carrying them away in a sack, but that one way they would bedestroyed, and the other way they would be crushed with their own weight,I took another course; for I gathered a large quantity of the grapes, andhung them upon the out branches of the trees, that they might cure anddry in the sun; and as for the limes and lemons, I carried as many backas I could well stand under.When I came home from this journey, I contemplated with great pleasurethe fruitfulness of that valley, and the pleasantness of the situation; thesecurity from storms on that side the water, and the wood: and concludedthat I had pitched upon a place to fix my abode, which was by far theworst part of the country. Upon the whole, I began to consider of removingmy habitation; and looking out for a place equally safe as where now Iwas situate, if possible, in that pleasant, fruitful part of the island.This thought ran long in my head, and I was exceeding fond of itfor some time, the pleasantness of the place tempting me; but when Icame to a nearer view of it, I considered that I was now by the sea-side,where it was at least possible that something might happen to my advantage;and, by the same ill fate that brought me hither, might bring some otherunhappy wretches to the same place; and though it was scarce probablethat any such thing should ever happen, yet to enclose myself among the

o70 OBINSON CRUSOE.hills and woods in the centre of the island, was to anticipate my bondage,and to render such an affair not only improbable, but impossible; andthat therefore I ought not by any means to remove. However, I was soenamoured of this place, that I spent much of my time there for thewhole of the remaining part of the month of July; and though, upon secondthoughts, I resolved not to remove, yet I built me a little kind of a bower,and surrounded it at a distance with a strong fence, being a double hedge,as high as I could reach, well staked, and filled between with brushwood;and here I lay very secure, sometimes two or three nights together; alwaysgoing over it with a ladder; so that I fancied now I had my countryhouse and my sea-coast house; and this work took me up to the beginningof August.I had but newly finished my fence, and began to enjoy my labour,when the rains came on, and made me stick close to my first habitation;for though I had made me a tent like the other, with a piece of a sail,and spread it very well, yet I had not the shelter of a hill to keep mefrom storms, nor a cave behind me to retreat into when the rains wereextraordinary.About the beginning of August, as I said, I had finished my bower,and began to enjoy myself. The 3rd. of August, I found the grapes Ihad hung up perfectly dried, and indeed were excellent good raisins ofthe sun; so I began to take them down from the trees, and it was veryhappy that I did so, for the rains which followed would have spoiledthem, and I had lost the best part of my winter food; for I had abovetwo hundred large bunches of them. No sooner had I taken them alldown, and carried most of them home to my cave, but it began to rain;and from hence, which was the 14th. of August, it rained, more or less,every day till the middle of October; and sometimes so violently, that Icould not stir out of my cave for several days.In this season, I was much surprised with the increase of my family;I had been concerned for the loss of one of my cats, who ran awayfrom me, or, as I thought, had been dead, and I heard no more tidingsof her, till, to my astonishment, she came home about the end of August,with three kittens. This was the more strange to me, because, though I hadkilled a wild cat, as I called it, with my gun, yet I thought it wasa quite different kind from our European cats; but the young cats werethe same kind of house-breed as the old one; and both my cats beingfemales, I thought it very strange. But from these three cats, I afterwardscame to be so pestered with cats, that I was forced to kill them likevermin, or wild beasts, and to drive them from my house as much as possible.From the 14th. of August to the 26th., incessant rain, so that I couldnot stir, and was now very careful not to be much wet. In this con-finement, I began to be straitened for food: but venturing out twice, Ione day killed a goat; and the last day, which was the 26th., found a

ROTBNSCw CRTrSOR. 71very large tortoise, wnich was a treat to me, and my food was regulatedthus:-I eat a bunch of raisins for my breakfast; a piece of the goat'sflesh, or of the turtle, for my dinner, broiled; for, to my great misfortune,I had no vessel to boil or stew anything; and two or three of the turtle'seggs for my supper.During this confinement in my cover by the rain; I worked daily twoor three hours at enlarging my cave, and by degrees worked it on towardsone side, till I came to the outside of the hill, and made a door or way out,which came beyond my fence or wall; and so I came in and out this way.But I was not perfectly easy at lying so open; for, as I had managed myselfbefore, I was in a perfect enclosure; whereas now, I thought I lay exposed,and open for anything to come in upon me; and yet I could not perceivethat there was any living thing to fear; the biggest creature that I hadyet seen upon the island being a goat.Sep. 30.-I was now come to the unhappy anniversary of my landing. Icast up the notches on my post, and found I had been on shore three hundredand sixty-five days. I kept this day as a solemn fast, setting it apart forreligious exercise, prostrating myself on the ground with the most serioushumiliation, confessing my sins to God, acknowledging His righteous judg-ments upon me, and praying to Him to have mercy on me through JesusChrist; and not having tasted the least refreshment for twelve hours, eventill the going down of the sun, I then eat a biscuit-cake and a bunch ofgrapes, and went to bed, finishing the day as I began it. I had all this timeobserved no Sabbath-day; for as at first I had no sense of religion upon mymind, I had, after some time, omitted to distinguish the weeks, by makinga longer notch than ordinary for the Sabbath-day, and so did not really knowwhat any of the days were; but now, having cast up the days as above,I found I had been there a year; so I divided it into weeks, and set apartevery seventh day for a Sabbath; though I found at the end of my account,I had lost a day or two in my reckoning. A little after this, my ink beganto fail me, and so I contented myself to use it more sparingly, and to writedown only the most remarkable events of my life, without continuing adaily memorandum of other things.The rainy season and the dry season began now to appear regular to me,and I learned to divide them so as to provide for them accordingly; but Ibought all my experience before I had it, and this I am going to relate wasone of the most discouraging experiments that I made.I have mentioned that I had saved the few ears of barley and rice, whichI had so surprisingly found spring up, as I thought, of themselves, and Ibelieve there were about thirty stalks of rice, and about twenty of barley;and now I thought it a proper time to sow it, after the rains, the sun beingin its southern position, going from me. Accordingly, I dug up a piece ofground as well as I could with my wooden spade, and dividing it into twoparts, I sowed my grain; but as I was sowing, it casually occurred to my

72 ROBTIrTON CRTSOE.thoughts that I would not sow it all at first, because I did not know whenwas the proper time for it, so I sowed about two thirds of the seed, leavingabout a handful of each. It was a great comfort to me afterwards that Idid so, for not one grain of what I sowed this time came to anything: forthe dry months following, the earth having had no rain after the seed wassown, it had no moisture to assist its growth, and never came up at alltill the wet season had come again, and then it grew as if it had been butnewly sown. Finding my first seed did not grow, which I easily imaginedwas by the drought, I sought for a moister piece of ground to make anothertrial in, and I dug up a piece of ground near my new bower, and sowedthe rest of my seed in February, a little before the vernal equinox; andthis having the rainy months of March and April to water it, sprung upvery presently, and yielded a very good crop; but having part of the seedleft only, and not daring to sow all that I had, I had but a small quantityat last, my whole crop not amounting to above half a peck of each kind.But by this experiment I was made master of my business, and knew exactlywhen the proper season was to sow, and that I might expect two seedtimes and two harvests every year."While this corn was growing, I made a little discovery, which was ofuse to me afterwards. As soon as the rains were over, and the weatherbegan to settle, which was about the month of November, I made a visitup the country to my bower, where, though I had not been some months,yet I found all things just as I left them. The circle or double hedge thatI had made was not only firm and entire, but the stakes which I had cutout of some trees that grew thereabouts, were all shot out and grown withlong branches, as much as a willow tree usually shoots the first year afterlopping its head. I could not tell what tree to call it that these stakeswere cut from. I was surprised, and yet very well pleased, to see theyoung trees grow: and I pruned them, and led them up to grow as muchalike as I could: and it is scarce credible how beautiful a figure they grewinto in three years; so that though the hedge made a circle of about twenty-five yards in diameter, yet the trees, for such I might now call them,soon covered it, and it was a complete shade, sufficient to lodge under allthe dry season. This made me resolve to cut some more stakes, and makeme a hedge like this, in a semicircle round my wall (I mean that of myfirstt dwelling,) which I did; and placing the trees or stakes in a doublerow, at about eight yards distance from my first fence, they grew presently,and were at first a fine cover to my habitation, and afterwards served fora defence also, as I shall observe in its order.I found now that the seasons of the year might generally be divided,not into summer and winter, as in Europe, but into the rainy seasons andthe dry seasons, which were generally thus:-The half of February, the whole of March, and the half of April-rainy,the sun being then on or near the equinox.

ROTBINSON CRUSOE. 73The half of April, the wnole of May, June, and July, and the half ofAugust-dry, the sun being then to the north of the Line.The half of August, the whole of September, and the half of October-rainy, the sun being then come back.The half of October, the whole of November, December, and January,and the half of February-dry, the sun being then to the south of theLine.The rainy seasons sometimes held longer or shorter as the winds happenedto blow, but this was the general observation I made. After I had found,by experience, the ill consequences of being abroad in the rain, I tookcare to furnish myself with provisions beforehand, that I might not beobliged to go out, and I sat within doors as much as possible during thewet months. This time I found much employment, and very suitable alsoto the time, for I found great occasion for many things which I had noway to furnish myself with but by hard labour and constant application;particularly I tried many ways to make myself a basket, but all the twigsI could get for the purpose proved so brittle that they would do nothing.It proved of excellent advantage to me now, that when I was a boy, Iused to take great delight in standing at a basket-maker's, in the townwhere my father lived, to see them make their wickerware; and being, asboys usually are, very officious to help, and a great observer of the mannerin which they worked those things, and sometimes lending a hand, I hadby these means full knowledge of the methods of it, and I wanted nothingbut the materials, when it came into my mind that the twigs of that treefrom whence I cut my stakes that grew might possibly be as tough asthe sallows, willows, and osiers in England, and I resolved to try. Accord-ingly, the next day I went to my country house, as I called it, and cuttingsome of the smaller twigs, I found them to my purpose as much as I coulddesire; whereupon I came the next time prepared with a hatchet to cutdown a quantity, which I soon found, for there was great plenty of them.These I set up to dry within my circle or hedge, and when they were fitfor use, I carried them to my cave; and here, during the next season, Iemployed myself in making, as well as I could, a great many baskets,both to carry earth or to carry or lay up anything, as I had occasion; andthough I did not finish them very handsomely, yet I made them sufficientlyserviceable for my purpose; and thus, afterwards, I took care never to bewithout them; and as my wickerware decayed, I made more, especiallystrong deep baskets to place my corn in, instead of sacks, when I shouldcome to have any quantity of it.Having mastered this difficulty, and employed a world of time aboutit, I bestirred myself to see, if possible, how to supply two wants. Ihad no vessel to hold anything that was liquid, except two runlets, whichwere almost full of rum, and some glass bottles,-some of the commonsize, and others which were case-bottles, square, for the holding of water,

74 IOBITNSON CRUSOE.spirits, etc. I had not so much as a pot to boil anything, except a greatkettle, which I saved out pf the ship, and which was too big for suchas I desired it, viz., to make broth, and stew a bit of meat by itself. Thesecond thing I fain would have had was a tobacco-pipe, but it was impossibleto me to make one; however, I found a contrivance for that, too, at last.I employed myself in planting my second rows of stakes or piles, and inthis wicker-working all the summer or dry season, when another businesstook me up more time than it could be imagined I could spare.I mentioned before that I had a great mind to see the whole island,and that I had travelled up the brook, and so on to where I builtmy bower, and where I had an opening quite to the sea, on the otherside of the island. I now resolved to travel quite across to the sea-shoreon that side; so, taking my gun, a hatchet, and my dog, and a largerquantity of powder and shot than usual, with two biscuit-cakes and agreat bunch of raisins in my pouch for my store, I began my journey.When I had passed the vale where my bower stood, as above, I camewithin view of the sea to the west, and it being a very clear day, I fairlydescribed land,--whether an island or a continent I could not tell; butit lay very high, extending from the W. to the W.S.W. at a very greatdistance; by my guess, it could not be less than fifteen or twenty leaguesoff.I could not tell what part of the world this might be, otherwise thanthat I knew it must be part of America, and, as I concluded, by allmy observations, must be near the Spanish dominions, and perhaps wasall inhabited by savages, where, if I had landed, I had been in a worsecondition than I was now; and therefore I acquiesced in the dispositionsof Providence, which I began now to own and to believe ordered everythingfor the best; I say I quieted my mind with this, and left off afflictingmyself with fruitless wishes of being there.Besides, after some thought upon this affair, I considered that if thisland was the Spanish coast, I should certainly, one time or other, see somevessel pass or repass one way or other; but if not, then it was the savagecoast between the Spanish country and the Brazils, where are found theworst of savages; for they are cannibals, or men-eaters, and fail not tomurder and devour all the human bodies that fall into their hands.With these considerations, I walked very leisurely forward; I found thatside of the island where I now was much pleasanter than mine,-the openor savannah fields sweet, adorned with flowers and grass, and full of veryfine woods. I saw abundance of parrots, and fain I would have caughtone, if possible, to have kept it to be tame, and taught it to speak tome. I did after some painstaking, catch a young parrot, for I knockedit down with a stick, and having recovered it, I brought it home; but itwas some years before I could make him speak; however, at last, Itaught him to call me by my name very familiarly. But the accident

ROBINSON CRUSOE. 75that followed, though it be a trifle, will be very diverting in its place.I was exceedingly diverted with this journey. I found in the low groundshares (as I thought them to be) and foxes; but they differed greatly fromall the other kinds I had met with, nor could I satisfy myself to eat them,though I killed several. But I had no need to be venturous, for I hadno want of food, and of that which was very good, too, especially thesethree sorts, viz., goats, pigeons, and turtle, or tortoise, which, added tomy grapes, Leadenhall market could not have furnished a table betterthan I, in proportion to the company; and though my case was deplorableenough, yet I had great cause for thankfulness, that I was not driven to"any extremities for food, but had rather plenty, even to dainties.I never travelled in this journey above two miles outright in a day, orthereabouts; but I took so many turns and returns to see what discoveriesI could make, that I came weary enough to the place where I resolved tosit down all night; and then I either reposed myself in a tree, or surroundedmyself with a row of stakes set upright in the ground, either from onetree to another, or so as no wild creature could come at me without wakingme.As soon as I came to the sea-shore, I was surprised to see that I hadtaken up my lot on the worst side of the island, for here, indeed, theshore was covered with innumerable turtles, whereas, on the other sideI had found but three in a year and a half. Here was also an infinitenumber of fowls of many kinds, some which I had seen, and some whichI had not seen before, and many of them very good meat, but such asI knew not the names of, except those called penguins.I could have shot as many as I pleased, but was very sparing of mypowder and shot, and therefore had more mind to kill a she-goat, if Icould, which I could better feed on; and though there were many goatshere, more than on my side of the island, yet it was with much moredifficulty that I could come near them, the country being flat and even,and they saw me much sooner than when I was on the hill.I confess this side of the country was much pleasanter than mine; butyet I had not the least inclination to remove, for as I was fixed in myhabitation it became natural to me, and I seemed all the while I was hereto be as it were upon a journey, and from home. However, I travelledalong the shore of the sea towards the east, I suppose about twelve miles,and then setting up a great pole upon the shore for a mark, I concludedI would go home again, and that the next journey I took should be onthe other side of the island east from my dwelling, and so round till Icame to my post again.I took another way to come back than that I went, thinking I couldeasily keep all the island so much in my view, that I could not miss findingmy first dwelling by viewing the country; but I found myself mistaken,for, being come about two or three miles, I found myself descended into

76 ROBINSON CRUSOE.a very large valley, but so surrounded with hills, and those hills coveredwith wood, that I could not see which was my way by any direction butthat of the sun, nor even then, unless I knew very well the position ofthe sun at that time of the day. It happened, to my further misfortune,that the weather proved hazy for three or four days while I was in thevalley, and not being able to see the sun, I wandered about very uncom-fortably, and at last was obliged to find the sea-side, look for my post,and come back the same way I went: and then, by easy journeys, I turnedhomeward, the weather being exceeding hot, and my gun, ammunition,hatchet, and other things, very heavy.In this journey my dog surprised a young kid, and seized upon it, andI running in to take hold of it, caught it, and saved it alive from the dog.I had a great mind to bring it home if I could, for I had often been musingwhether it might not be possible to get a kid or two, and so raise a breedof tame goats, which might supply me when my powder and shot shouldbe all spent. I made a collar for this little creature, and with a string,which I made of some rope-yarn, which I always carried about me, Iled him along, though with some difficulty, till I came to my bower, andthere I enclosed him and left him, for I was very impatient to be at home,from whence I had been absent above a month.I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me to come into my oldhutch, and lie down in my hammock-bed. This little wandering journey,without settled place of abode, had been so unpleasant to me, that myown house, as I called it to myself, was a perfect settlement to me, comparedto that; and it rendered everything about me so comfortable, that I resolvedI would never go a great way from it again, while it should be my lot tostay on the island.I reposed myself here a week, to rest and regale myself after my longjourney; during which, most of the time was taken up in the weightyaffair of making a cage for my Poll, who began now to be a mere domestic,and to be well acquainted with me. Then I began to think of the poorkid which I had penned in within my little circle, and resolved to goand fetch it home, or give it some food; accordingly I went, and foundit where I left it, for indeed it could not get out, but was almost starvedfor want of food. I went and cut boughs of trees, and branches of suchshrubs as I could find, and threw it over, and having fed it, I tied itas I did before, to lead it away; but it was so tame with being hungry,that I had no need to have tied it, for it followed me like a dog; andas I continually fed it, the creature became so loving, so gentle, and sofond, that it became from that time one of my domestics also, and wouldnever leave me afterwards.The rainy season of the autumnal equinox was now come, and I keptthe 30th. of September in the same solemn manner as before, being theanniversary of my landing on the island, having now been there two years,

ROBINSON CRUSOE. 77and no more prospect of being delivered than the first day I came there.I spent the whole day in humble and thankful acknowledgments of themany wonderful mercies which my solitary condition was attended with,and without which it might have been infinitely more miserable. I gavehumble and hearty thanks that God had been pleased to discover to me,that it was possible I might be more happy in this solitary condition,than I should have been in the liberty of society, and in all the pleasuresof the world: that he could fully make up to me the deficiencies of mysolitary state, and the want of human society, by His presence, and thecommunications of His grace to my soul; supporting, comforting, and en-couraging me to depend upon His providence here, and hope for His eternalpresence hereafter.It was now that I began sensibly to feel how much more happy thislife I now led was, with all its miserable circumstances, than the wicked,cursed, abominable life I led all the past part of my days; and now Ichanged both my sorrows and my joys; my very desires altered, my affectionschanged their gusts, and my delights were perfectly new from what theywere at my first coming, or, indeed, for the two years past.Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting, or for viewing thecountry, the anguish of my soul at my condition would break out uponme on a sudden, and my very heart would die within me, to think of thewoods, the mountains, the deserts I was in, and how I was a prisoner,locked up with the eternal bars and bolts of the ocean, in an uninhabitedwilderness, without redemption. In the midst of the greatest composureof my mind, this would break out upon me like a storm, and make mewring my hands, and weep like a child: sometimes it would take me inthe middle of my work, and I would immediately sit down and sigh, andlook upon the ground for an hour or two together; and this was still worseto me, for if I could burst out into tears, or vent myself by words, itwould go off, and the grief having exhausted itself would abate.But now I began to exercise myself with new thoughts; I daily readthe word of God, and applied all the comforts of it to my present state.One morning, being very sad, I opened the Bible upon these words, "Iwill never, never leave thee, nor forsake thee." Immediately it occurredthat these words were to me; why else should they be directed in sucha manner, just at the moment when I was mourning over my condition,as one forsaken of God and man? "Well, then," said I, "if God doesnot forsake me, of what ill consequence can it be, or what matters it,though the world should all forsake me, seeing on the other hand, if Ihad all the world, and should lose the favour and blessing of God, therewould be no comparison in the loss?"From this moment, I began to conclude in my mind, that it was possiblefor me to be more happy in this forsaken, solitary condition, than it wasprobable I should ever have been in any other particular state in the world;

78 ROBIISON CRUSOE.and with this thought I was going to give thanks to God for bringing meto this place. I know not what it was, but something shocked my mindat that thought, and I durst not speak the words. "How canst thoubecome such a hypocrite," said I, even audibly, "to pretend to be thankfulfor a condition, which, however thou mayest endeavour to be contentedwith, thou wouldst rather pray heartily to be delivered from?" So I stoppedthere, but though I could not say I thanked God for being there, yet Isincerely gave thanks to God for opening my eyes, by whatever afflictingprovidence, to see the former condition of my life, and to mourn for mywickedness, and repent. I never opened the Bible, or shut it, but myvery soul within me blessed God for directing my friend in England,without any order of mine, to pack it up among my goods, and for assistingme afterwards to save it out of the wreck of the ship.Thus, and in this disposition of mind, I began my third year; andthough I have not given the reader the trouble of so particular an accountof my works this year as the first; yet in general it may be observed, thatI was very seldom idle, but having regularly divided my time accordingto the several daily employment that were before me, such as, first, myduty to God, and the reading the Scriptures, which I constantly set apartsome time for, thrice every day; secondly, the going abroad with my gunfor food, which generally took me up three hours in every morning, whenit did not rain; thirdly, the ordering, cutting, preserving, and cooking,what I had killed or caught for my supply: these took up great part ofthe day; also, it is to be considered, that in the middle of the day, whenthe sun was in the zenith, the violence of the heat was too great to stirout; so that about four hours in the evening was all the time I could besupposed to work in, with this exception, that sometimes I changed myhours of hunting and working, and went to work in the morning, andabroad with my gun in the afternoon.To this short time allowed for labour, I desire may be added the ex-ceeling laboriousness of my work; the many hours which for want oftools, want of help, and want of skill, everything I did took up out ofmy time; for example, I was full two and forty days in making a boardfor a long shelf, which I wanted in my cave; whereas, two sawyers, withtheir tools and a saw-pit, would have cut six of them out of the sametree in half a day.My case was this: it was to be a large tree which was to be cut down,because my board was to be a broad one. This tree I was three days incutting down, and two more cutting off the boughs, and reducing it toa log, or piece of timber. With inexpressible hacking and hewing, Ireduced both the sides of it into chips till it began to be light enough tomove; then I turned it, and made one side of it smooth and flat as aboard from end to end; then turning that side downward, cut the otherside till I brought the plank to be about three inches thick, and smooth