Hedges for Florida

Material Information

Hedges for Florida
Series Title:
Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Mowry, Harold
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla
University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
20 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Hedges -- Florida ( lcsh )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


General Note:
Cover title.
This collection includes items related to Florida’s environments, ecosystems, and species. It includes the subcollections of Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit project documents, the Florida Sea Grant technical series, the Florida Geological Survey series, the Howard T. Odum Center for Wetland technical reports, and other entities devoted to the study and preservation of Florida's natural resources.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Harold Mowry.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
027174361 ( ALEPH )
18171554 ( OCLC )
AEN3331 ( NOTIS )

Full Text

Bulletin 172

Agricultural Experiment Station



Fig. 1.-Hedge group on horticultural grounds of Florida Experiment

Bulletins will be sent free upon application to the Experiment Station,

July, 1924

P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola
W. B. DAVIS, Perry
J. C. COOPER, JR., Jacksonville
A. H. BLENDING, Leesburg
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee
J. G. KELLUM, Auditor, Tallahassee

WILMON NEWELL, D. Sc., Director
JOHN M. SCOTT, B. S., Vice Director and Animal Industrialist
J. R. WATSON, A. M., Entomologist
R. W. RUPRECHT, Ph. D., Chemist
0. F. BURGER, D. Sc., Plant Pathologist
G. H. BLACKMON, B. S. A., Pecan Culturist
W. B. TISDALE, Ph. D., Associate Plant Pathologist, Tobacco Ex-
periment Station (Quincy)
G. F. WEBER, Ph. D., Associate Plant Pathologist
J. H. JEFFERIES, Superintendent Citrus Experiment Station
(Lake Alfred)
A. H. BEYER, M. S., Assistant Entomologist
C. E. BELL, M. S., Assistant Chemist
W. E. STOKES, M. S., Grass and Forage Crops Specialist
J. M. COLEMAN, B. S., Assistant Chemist
HAROLD MOWRY, Assistant Horticulturist
L. O. GRATZ, Ph. D., Assistant Plant Pathologist (Hastings)
A. F. CAMP, Ph. D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
ED L. AYERS, B. S., Agriculturist
A. S. RHOADS, Ph. D., Assistant Plant Pathologist (Cocoa)
GEO. E. TEDDER, Foreman, Everglades Experiment Station
(Belle Glade)
A. W. LELAND, Farm Foreman
JESSE REEVES, Foreman, Tobacco Experiment Station (Quincy)
J. G. KELLY, B. S. A., Lab. Asst. in Plant Pathology (Quincy)
ROBERT E. NOLEN, B. S. A., Lab. Asst. in Plant Pathology
MARY E. Roux, Mailing Clerk

K. H. GRAHAM, Auditor
RETTA MCQUARRIE, Assistant Auditor

By Harold Mowry.
Assistant Horticulturist
Ornamental hedges under some conditions are desirable, and.
should be given due consideration in the planting plan thruout
Florida. They can often be substituted for unsightly fences,
which are frequently seen where no actual barrier is needed.
The very low hedges are decidedly more ornamental than the
larger ones, but the latter can be used on larger properties, and
to enclose playgrounds, gardens, clothes-drying yards, etc., as
well as to screen unsightly objects.
Few states are so favored as Florida with a climate that
will permit the growing of such a wide assortment of plants
for hedge planting. Realizing this splendid opportunity for
utilizing hedge plants in Florida, and their possibilities to the
landscape gardener Dr. P. H. Rolfs, former Director of this
Experiment Station, instituted several years ago a series of ex-
periments with hedge plants on the Horticultural grounds at
Gainesville. These experiments have been continued and the
results secured form the basis for a large part of the present
A wide range of varieties are suited to Florida conditions.
Not only can many of the plants grown farther north be
used, but also many others that are found only in tropical and
sub-tropical climates. The range of varieties includes, besides
those with the usual green foliage, shrubs which during the sea-
son of bloom are a mass of color, and others with foliage of
various hues. .There is also a wide range in the 'size and habit
of growth of the plants available. Some of the more dwarfed
varieties can be trimmed to one foot or less, while the heavier
growing ones can be trained to almost any desired height.

Careful consideration should be given to the individual lo-
cation, the variety of plants to be used, and the type of hedge
to be grown. If the lot is small, a low hedge can be used ef-
fectively. Or, if the lot is larger, one or more hedges in com-
bination with other plantings can be used to an advantage.
On properties where ample room is available, the informal
or unsheared hedge should be given preference. Such a hedge
fits in well with the present tendency toward a more natural

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

grouping of materials instead of the old formal dr "geometrical"
method of planting. Hedges planted in the front, or on the
sides toward the front, of a lot should usually be of the smaller
sizes. The taller and larger kinds should be reserved for use
toward the rear.
In selecting plants for hedge planting, the following points
with regard to soils, location, etc. should be considered:
Hardiness of the plant in question in the locality where plant-
ing is to be made. Tender or sub-tropical varieties should not
be selected for planting in the northern portions of the state.
Type of soil-whether high or low, well drained or wet, sand
or muck. Plants should be suited to the soils on which they are
to be set. The possibility of increasing soil fertility makes
this of minor importance, except in regard to moisture condi-
tions. Some varieties thrive on light, dry soils where others
would require irrigation.
Location-whether in the sun or partial shade, or whether
exposed to winds from salt water or not. Some varieties will
thrive in shade where others would perish, and few will with-
stand exposure to salt winds or spray.
Size of hedge desired. Plants which will normally attain the
height desired should be selected. A thrifty, large growing
type can be kept pruned down to the desired size, but a natur-
ally dwarfed plant may not reach the height wanted.

The age and size of plants best suited to hedge planting differ
somewhat as to moisture and soil conditions. The use of
young thrift plants is recommended in that the cost of plants
is less and also better results are usually obtained. However,
if special attention can be given, the use of larger plants may
be advisable. The planting of larger plants does not always
hasten the growth of the hedge to the desired size because it is
necessary to cut back severely, and some large plants, when
so treated, are slow in recovering. This results in an unequal
growth along the hedge row. The use of old hardened plants
should generally be avoided.

Most varieties of hedge plants may be set at any time during
the year except during periods of drought. The cooler months,
however, are preferable because at this time the plants are in

Bulletin 172, Hedges for Florida

a more dormant condition and the danger of loss from trans-
planting is less. Deciduous plants should be moved during the
winter months only.

A good way to prepare the soil for planting is to thoroly cul-
tivate a strip four or five feet in width and incorporate in it
a heavy application of well-rotted stable manure. Another
method, which can be used where it is not feasible to cultivate
a strip of this width, is to dig a trench from eighteen inches
to two feet in depth and width and fill it with a mixture of top
soil and stable manure. Fresh manure is undesirable for this
purpose as it is likely to heat and injure the plants. If possible
humus in the form of leaves, dead grass or straw should be
mixed with the soil that is used in filling the trench. The fer-
tility of the soil on which the planting is made should serve
as a guide to the size of the trench and the amount of fertiliz-
ing materials used.

Soil preparation should be completed prior to the receipt of
the plants so that setting can begin immediately upon their
arrival. In setting the plants, dig a trench in the center of the
previously prepared strip large enough to hold the roots with-
out bending or breaking them. Then trim off all long or broken
root tips with a sharp knife. Exposure to the wind or to the
direct rays of the sun is injurious to the roots.
Set the plants in a straight line at the same depth that they
were in the nursery row, being careful to see that the roots
are well spread out. Soil should be well packed about the roots
and the plants should be thoroly watered after planting.
After setting the plants should be cut back to within five or
six inches of the ground. This will tend to cause more side
branching and give a denser hedge from the ground up. A
mulch of leaf mold, straw or rotted manure completes the plant-
ing. To insure against loss of plants and to stimulate early
growth regular watering should not be neglected until the
plants become well established. Periodical fertilization and
cultivation should be given. An annual application of stable
manure, in addition to other fertilizers, should be made. The
vigor and beauty of the plants are largely dependent on the
amount of care given them.

Florida Agricultuiral Experiment Station

No set rule can be given as to the exact distance apart to set
the plants, because of their varied nature and the height of
hedge desired. A good rule for a very low, compact hedge is
to space the plants six inches. The average distance of spac-
ing is about twelve inches. The higher the hedge is to be the
more space there should be between the plants.
It is not the best practice to set shrubbery immediately ad-
jacent to the hedge line because eventually one of the two will
suffer. A narrow strip on each side of the hedge should be
kept cultivated to conserve moisture and permit the hedge to
have full benefit of all plant food within this area.

Pruning or shearing should be done annually, or more often
if needed, altho with some plants, shaping is necessary for only
the first two or three years. Those of the flowering type
should be pruned after they have bloomed. Summer pruning
is usually accomplished with less labor as the plants are in the
flush of growth and the parts to be removed are young and
tender. Frequent pruning or shearing will reduce the amount
of bloom. The bloom, however, in most sheared hedges is of
secondary importance, since the growing of a heavy mass of
foliage is the primary objective. The plants do not suffer as
severely from frequent shearing as they do when a large por-
tion of the plant is cut off. This becomes necessary when the
hedge has been allowed to grow entirely out of bounds. When
large twigs or branches are removed, the cutting should be
made well inside the sheared lines of the hedge. This puts the

Rectangular Trianagular COurvilinear
Fig. 2.-Diagram showing outlines for trimmed hedges.

stubs well out of the way and leaves only the finer growth to
make up the outlines of the hedge. The desired condition is
a soft outline of foliage from end to end. By shearing regularly
during the growing season this is easily secured and retained.

Bulletin 172, Hedges for Florida

Types of outline generally used in sheared or formal hedges
are the rectangular, triangular and curvilinear, as shown in
figure 2.
Choosing the outline is a matter of personal taste. Advocates
of the triangular and curvilinear forms argue that by use of
these outlines the foliage will better cover the ground and that
sunlight can more easily penetrate to the interior and base of
the plant consequently causing less dying out. The rectangular
and curvilinear forms are giving satisfaction and are not diffi-
cult to maintain.
A hedge should not be trimmed in varied, fantastic shapes
even tho the effect may at first be considered pleasing. A
novelty soon wears itself out and a hedge so treated can easily
ruin the effect of an otherwise well kept and well arranged
Of the plants suitable for hedge planting in Florida, the fol-
lowing list covers most of the varieties. No attempt, how-
ever, has been made to include in this list all of the plants which
may be used as subjects for hedging.
The Abelia grandiflora (Glossy
abelia) is a hardy evergreen, with
small, dark green, glossy leaves and
small, white flower clusters. It
blooms thruout the summer months,
is a vigorous grower, and will suc-
ceed anywhere with ordinary care.
It is especially suited to low formal
hedges, but is also very attractive
when grown with but little pruning.
More bloom is obtained when little
pruning is done, but less foliage will
result, and if a compact hedge is de-
sired this pruning must be continued
regularly. Fig. 3.-Abelia Grandiflora
showing leaves and blos-
(Note. Nomenclature used herein, as far as possible, has been made
to conform with "Standardized Plant Names" as published by the American
Joint Committee on Horticultural Nomenclature.)

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

SThuja occidentalis (American arborvitae) : Altho less de-
sirable for hedges than some of the broad leafed evergreens,
this arborvitae can frequently be used to an advantage on large
properties, and as a windbreak. The plants are attractive when
small but become more ragged as size increases.


Fig. 4.-Left, Rosedale arborvitae; right, cherry laurel.
Thuja orientalis (Oriental arborvitae. Biota) : A smaller,
thicker growing, usually pyramidal-shaped type which is gen-
erally preferable to the common or American arborvitae.
Rosedale hybrid (Biota rosedale): This is one of the smaller
varieties having delicate blue-green foliage, which turns more
or less to bronze during the winter months. Where ample
room is available, and a hedge of this kind is wanted, Biota
rosedale is perhaps one of the best to use.
All of these arborvitae are hardy and relatively slow in
growth. After becoming well established, however, they will
withstand long periods of drought and require little care. They
can be sheared or trimmed but are more attractive in their
natural shapes. Trimming tends to give them an unnatural
or artificial appearance. With such a large variety of other
plants to choose from, arborvitae should seldom be used for
hedge purposes in this state as there are many other plants
less common in latitudes further north and which are more
beautiful and suggestive of a tropical and sub-tropical Florida.

Bulletin 172, Hedges for Florida


Casuarina cunninghamiana (Cunningham pine or beefwood) :
This so-called "pine" is fairly hardy and can be shaped to suit
the grower's desires, as it is not injured by severe pruning. It
has withstood a temperature of 20 degress Fahrenheit at Gaines-
ville, is a rapid grower, thrives on the sandy soils, but will not
withstand salt spray.
Another variety, Casuarina equisetifolia (Horsetail tree), is
a much less hardy type adapted to planting only in the southern
portion of the peninsula. It is not injured by winds and salt

Fig. 5.-Bamboo (Arundinaria nitida)

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Arundinaria 'nitida is a dwarf bamboo having slender dark
canes and a luxuriant mass of foliage. This variety stands
trimming well and makes a very dense growth from ground to
top. It is hardy and a vigorous grower. With care and shaping
it makes a hedge that is decidedly attractive. However, like
other bamboos, it is a voracious feeder and cannot be planted
close to other plants without injuring them. Its root system
can be kept within bounds by annually digging a trench be-
tween the hedge and the plants to be protected. This severs
all roots, but they are vigorous growers and this operation must
be repeated yearly.
The bougainvillea, altho hardly a true hedge, is strikingly
'effective if trained along a wall, fence or trellis. It flowers
profusely in winter, until late spring, and can be obtained in
several shades of pink, red and purple. The plants are usually
vigorous growers, but are only semi-hardy and can be grown
only in the central and southern portions of the State.
The more common variety, Bougainvillea glabra sandariana,
is more of a shrub in habit than the others and will form a low
hedge when planted close together and pruned frequently.
CAMPHOR-TREE (Cinnamomum camphora)
The camphor-tree is a hardy, broad-leafed evergreen, which
forms a dense hedge when properly pruned. It grows well on
poor soils. As a hedge, this plant is attractive during the active
growing season but presents a rather poor appearance during
the late winter months.
CATTLEY GUAVA (Psidium cattleianum)
The Cattley or strawberry guava is a broad-leafed evergreen
plant that can be used to advantage for hedging material. It
should be allowed to grow naturally with the exception of
enough pruning to prevent a rangy appearance. The leaves are
dark glossy green, and the plant makes a heavy, dense growth.
It will succeed in dry locations, but, being only semi-hardy, its
general use is restricted to the lower half of the peninsula.
CHERRY-LAUREL (Laurocerasus caroliniana)
Cherry-laurel is a native, hardy, broad-leafed evergreen
suitable for medium or high hedges. It thrives in nearly all
soils and situations and seems to be practically immune to dis-

Bulletin 172, Hedges for Florida

ease and insect injury. It is usually trimmed into a formal
hedge and will stand heavy shearing. These advantages make
it one of the desired varieties. It is slow growing but vigorous
when once established.
Citrus trifoliata is a hardy, deciduous plant of truly defen-
sive type. Its branches are heavily armed with strong sharp
spines. The leaves are trifoliate and dark green in color.
When kept pruned it makes an almost impenetrable barrier.
Altho it cannot be recommended as a plant for ornamental
purposes, it is not undesirable during the summer months when
in foliage.

Fig. 6.-Left, crapemyrtle; right, Myrtus communis var. microphylla.

CRAPEMYRTLE (Lagerstroemia indica)
Crapemyrtle is a rapid growing, hardy, deciduous plant
which, when not pruned back too severely, flowers profusely
for several weeks during the early summer. Flower types are
available in white, purple, scarlet or crimson, and pink. Ow-
ing to its vigorous nature, it cannot be used for low plantings
and is not suited for use in small areas.
FLAME VINE (Bignonia venusta)
The "Flame vine" or "Flaming trumpet" requires support
like the bougainvillea. It is a semi-hardy vigorous grower

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

which is strikingly attractive when in bloom. Tubular, orange-
red flowers, from which it derives its name "Flame vine" are
produced in abundance. The blooming period is from mid-
winter to early spring.
The Carissa acuminata (Hedge-thorn) and Carissa grandi-
flora (Natal-plum), make splendid hedges in south Florida.
Both are evergreen, spiny shrubs, bearing white flowers.
They thrive in sunny, protected locations where plenty of
moisture is available. Carissa grandiflora has the larger leaves.
HIBISCUS (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis)
For central and southern Florida the hibiscus, a broad-leafed
evergreen, will make a beautiful informal hedge of the larger
type. It
should not be
sheared to
formal shape,
as with the
smaller foli-
aged plants,
but should be
cut back just
enough to
keep the
plants dense
and well
shaped. It
grows vigor-
ously and
flowers free-
ly, the blos-
Fig. 7.-American holly (Ilex opaca) soms being
from three to five inches in diameter. Several shades of color,
in both single and double bloom, are obtainable.
HOLLY (Ilex spp.)
By heading back moderately low and with a small amount of
pruning, the American holly (Ilex opaca) will make a hedge of
unusual type. The plant is a hardy native and has few trouble-
some insect pests or diseases. The red berries, which hang for
several .months, and the dark green, glossy leaves make a pleas-

Bulletin 172, Hedges for Florida

ing combination. Another variety, Chinese holly (Ilex cor-
nuta) can also be used to good advantage. Its chief difference
lies in the attractive quadrangular shape of the leaves.
The Yaupon (Ilex vomitoria) makes a dense formal hedge
which, after becoming established, is one of the most desirable
grown from native stock. Close trimming does not injure it,
and, when so treated, it will make a solid bank of green. As
on the American holly, red berries hang during the fall and
winter months. All of the hollies are slow growing.

The dwarfed varieties of lantana spp. are very satisfactory
for use where a flowering border is wanted. They are ever-
green and bloom almost the
entire year. Flower colors
in red, white, yellow and
combinations are obtainable.
The weeping lantana (Lan-
tana sellowiana) has deep
lilac flowers and is a vigor-
ous grower and profuse
bloomer. All of them are
half-hardy, and if killed
back by frosts will come
again from the roots. They
should be cut back annually
in late winter to prevent
the plants from becoming
coarse and straggly in ap-
Fig. 8.-Yaupn (Ilex vomitoria)
OLEANDER (Nerium oleander)
The oleander is another flowering plant which can be used
for informal hedge planting where ample room is available.
It is semi-hardy and thrives in almost any soil. Numerous
varieties, including a wide range in the character and color of
bloom, are available. Careful pruning will overcome its rangy
nature to a marked extent.

Pittosporum tobira is a hardy evergreen which is one of the
best of plants for hedge planting if given proper trimming and

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

fertilization. It thrives in either sunny or shaded locations and
can be used for planting near the coast since salt air does not
seem to injure it. The leaves are a dark glossy green in color
and grow in clusters or rosettes.

Pittosporum tobira variegatum (Whitespot




'' r

~c,~ ~

Fig. 9.-Lantana hedge.

right habit of growth which results in a leggy
pruning is neglected.

tobira) : This
variety has a
light green
foliage with
white varie-
gation and
can be used
to an advan-
tage where a
contrast is
desired, o r
i n brighten-
ing up a
shaded loca-
The pitto-
sporums are
rather slow
in growth but
their attract-
iveness amply
repays for the
time required
i n growing
them. Prun-
ing should be
started early
with these
plants in or-
der to force
near the
ground. Their
natural ten-
dency is to-
ward an up-
appearance if

Bulletin 172, Hedges for Florida

POMEGRANATE (Punica granatum)

The pomegranate has '
attractive foliage with red-
dish orange colored blos-
soms. It is hardy and
bears trimming fairly well.
However, it is at its best
when grown as an informal
hedge with only a small
amount of pruning. It
cannot be particularly rec-
ommended as a hedge plant,
but when planted in the
heavier clay soils, it makes
a fairly attractive in-
formal planting.
Fig. 10.-Pittosporum (Pittosporum

PRIVET (Ligustrum spp.)
The privets have long been
regarded as the dominant hedge
plants because of their rapid
growth, large mass of foliage
and ability to withstand heavy
shearing, as well as neglect. All
of them are hardy and thrifty
Amoor river south (Ligus-
trum amurense): This variety
is possibly the most widely
planted 'of any of the privets in
the south. The leaves are small
and the plants-make a dense foli-
age from the ground to the top
of the hedge. It can be shaped
as desired since it is not injured
by clipping. It is particularly
adapted to the northern part of
the state, and to heavy clay
Fig. 11.-Amoor river privet
(Ligustrum amurense) California privet (Ligustrum

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

ovalifolium) and Quihou privet (Ligustrum quihoui) are others
of the smaller leafed varieties that may be used for hedges.
They are not, however, considered quite as satisfactory as the
Amoor river.
Wax leaf or glossy privet (Ligustrum lucidum) and nepal
privet (Ligustrum nepalense) are broad-leafed and make effec-
tive hedges. They should not be trimmed to as formal a shape
as the varieties with smaller leaves. They are evergreen with
thick, glossy green leaves and are less susceptible to the white-
fly than are the smaller-leafed varieties.
RED CEDAR (Juniperus virginiana)
For a formal hedge the red cedar can be used effectively
since it shears well and makes a dense wall 'of foliage. With-
out pruning or
shearing i t
serves well as
a windbreak
or large screen.
The growth is
slow. Like the
thujas its use
should be re-
stricted as
much as pos-
sible for rea-
sons mentioned
under that
The sever-
inia is an at-
tractive plant
for a low and
informal type
Fig. 12.-Wax privet (Lignstrum lucidum) of hedge. It
belongs to the
citrus group but bears little resemblance to them. The plant,
somewhat dwarfed in growth, is armed with short spines and
has small dark green leaves. It is fairly hardy and somewhat
reclining in habit of growth.

Bulletin 172, Hedges for Florida

SNOWBUSH (Phyllanthus nivosus)

For the warmer sections, the snowbush makes an attractive
low hedge. The leaves which are from one to two inches in
length, are broad with white and green variegations. The Khe-
dive snowbush (Phyllanthus nivosus atropurpureus) has dark
purplish leaves. Another variety, roseo-pictus, has a pink mot-
tling in the foliage, in addition to the white and green of the
first mentioned type.

SURINAM-CHERRY (Eugenia uniflora)

The surinam-cherry is especially adapted to south Florida
since it is subject to injury by heavy frosts. The leaves are
small and are a light glossy green color. It is well suited to
formal hedge planting as continued shearing does not injure it.

Fig. 13.-Sweet myrtle (Myrtus communis)

MYRTLE (Myrtus communis)
The foliage of the myrtle is small, dark green, dense and fra-
grant. It is a fairly rapid grower and shears perfectly. The
plant is a hardy evergreen. It is not suited to shade, but rather
prefers full sunlight. The variety microphylla, which has very

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

small foliage, is particularly suitable for growing as a very
small formal hedge.

WAXMYRTLE (Myrica cerifera)
The waxmyrtle is a vigorous growing native evergreen,
which can be utilized for hedge planting. The foliage is not
large and it shears well. It is of value for planting in
proximity to the coasts as salt winds do not seem to injure it.
BANANA-SHRUB (Michelia fuscata)
The banana-shrub is a broad-leafed evergreen with magnolia-
like leaves and flowers having a strong banana fragrance. The
plant is shrubby in nature and may be sheared to formal shape.
It cannot be satisfactorily used for small hedges. It is of slow
growth but is hardy and will thrive in most any section of
BUTTERFLYBUSH (Buddleia officinalis)
The butterflybush is a vigorous growing hardy evergreen
shrub. It is very desirable for use as a screen or informal
hedge of large size. The lilac-like flowers are borne in pro-
fusion and are very attractive to butterflies. It cannot be
trimmed to formal shape. In early spring before growth starts
the plants should be pruned back to within 12 to 18 inches of
the ground. This results in a more dense and finer growth of
foliage and prevents the plant from assuming a tree shape.
Summer pruning should consist in pinching back tips to en-
courage lateral branching.
SYDNEY WATTLE (Acacia longifolia)
This acacia is a hardy evergreen willowy plant suitable for
a large informal hedge or screen. It succeeds well under ad-
verse conditions such as exposed locations and poor soils.
Owing to the nature of the plant it cannot be trimmed to formal
shape but some pruning can be given to advantage. The flowers
are golden yellow in color, blooming in late winter.
LAURUSTINUS (Viburnum tinus)
The laurustinus is a winter-blooming evergreen with very
attractive foliage that can be utilized effectively as a hedge
plant. Too much pruning should be avoided, so that the large
fragrant white flowers will not be lost. The growth is rela-
tively slow.

Bulletin 172, Hedges for Florida

TEA (Thea sinensis)
The tea plant with its evergreen foliage and white or pink
flowers will make a good hedge of pleasing appearance. The
season of bloom is mid-winter. Formal shaping" may be prac-
ticed as the plant stands pruning well.
EVERGREEN BURNINGBUSH (Euonymus japonicus)
The hardy evergreen burningbush with its thick leathery
green leaves may be used as a hedge plant but cannot be
trimmed to formal shape. The plants, being upright in habit
of growth, should be planted rather close and enough pruning
given to keep to the desired height. Plants are also obtainable
with a yellow border or variegation in the leaves.
-BOTTLEBRUSH (Callistenmon spp.)
Several species of bottlebrush are suitable for hedge planting,
and when in bloom make a hedge of unusual attractiveness.
The flower clusters are scarlet or crimson in color and resemble
bottle-brushes in shape, from which the plants derive their
common name. They cannot be cut to formal shape but should
be pruned enough to keep within bounds. Early fall pruning
will tend to increase the quantity of bloom the following sea-
son. After becoming established they succeed well with little
attention and are adapted to a variety of soils.
CAPE PLUMBAGO (Plumbago capensis)
The plumbago is a flowering plant with small light-green
foliage that will make a desirable informal hedge of medium
height. The small flowers, light blue in color, are in evidence
most of the year. No attempt should be made to trim to formal
shape and little pruning is required. If severely damaged by
frosts the plants should be cut to the ground. They will quickly
recover and within a few months attain their normal size.
When planted as a high informal hedge or screen and ample
room is available the duranta will be found satisfactory. In
such instances rather close planting is required as the plants
will help to support each other. This plant is a strong grower
and very attractive but cannot be trimmed to formal shape.
The lilac flowers, borne in raceme:. and yellow berries are in
evidence several months of the year.

20 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Additional plants that may be planted in hedge formation
include the Acalypha or Copperleaf (Acalypha wilkesiana);
Anthony Waterer Spirea (var. Bumalda Spirea), Cape-jasmine
(Gardenia florida); Chaste-tree or Blue Vitex (Vitex agnus-
castus); Indica Azalea (Azalea indica); Orange-jasmine (Chal-
cas exotica); and Turk's Cap or Waxmallow (Malvaviscus ar-
boreus). All of these should be grown informally; that is,
without shearing and with just enough pruning to keep well
shaped. With exception of the Anthony Waterer Spirea which
should not exceed two feet in height, all require considerable
space and should not be grown as hedges on small properties.