Front Cover
 Table of Contents

Group Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Title: Swine production in Florida
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026457/00001
 Material Information
Title: Swine production in Florida
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 58 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Shealy, A. L
Sheely, W. J
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1931
Copyright Date: 1931
Subject: Swine -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: by A.L. Shealy and W.J. Sheely.
General Note: Cover title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026457
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AEN4691
oclc - 18204272
alephbibnum - 000924087

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Full Text

Bulletin 236 Junel931

Wilmon Newell, Director




Fig. 1.-Making hogs of themselves..

Bulletins will be sent free upon application to
the Agricultural Experiment Station,

P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola RAYMER F. MAGUIRE, Orlando
A. H. BLENDING, Bartow FRANK J. WIDEMAN, West Palm Beach
W. B. DAVIS, Perry J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President R. M. FULGHUM, B.S.A., Asst. Editor
H. HAROLD HUME, M.S., Asst. Dir., Re- RUBY NEWHALL, Secretary
search K. H. GRAHAM, Business Manager
S. T. FLEMING, A.B., Asst. Dir., Admin. RACHEL McQUARRIE, Accountanit

W. E. STOKES, M.S., Agronomist C. V. NOBLE, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist
W. A. LEUKEL, Ph.D., Associate BRUCE McKINLEY, A.B., B.S.A., Associate
G. E. RITCHEY, M.S.A., Assistant* M. A. BROOKER, Ph.D., Assistant
FRED H. HULL, M.S., Assistant
L. W. GADDUM, Ph.D., Biochemist
A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Veterinarian in ENTOMOLOGY
E. F. THOMAS, D.V.M., Asst. Veterinarian J. R. WATSON, A.M., Entomologist
R. B. BECKER, Ph.D., Associate in Dairy A. N. TISSOT, M.S., Assistant
Husbandry H. E. BRATLEY, M.S.A., Assistant
W. M. NEAL, Ph.D., Assistant in Animal L. W. ZIEGLER, B.S., Assistant
C. R. DAWSON, B.S.A., Assistant Dairy HORTICULTURE
Investigations A. F. CAMP, Ph.D., Horticulturist
HAROLD MOWRY, B.S.A., Associate
R. W. RUPRECHT, Ph.D., Chemist A. L. STAHL, Ph.D., Assistant
R. M. BARNETTE, Ph.D., Associate G. H. BLACKMON. M.S.A., Pecan Culturist
C. E. BELL, M.S., Assistant C. B. VAN CLEEF, M.S.A., Greenhouse
J. M. COLEMAN, B.S., Assistant Foreman
H. W. JONES, B.S., Assistant
W. B. TISDALE, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
E. F. GROSSMAN, M.A., Assistant K. W. LOUCKS, M.S., Assistant
P. W. CALHOUN, B.S., Assistant ERDMAN WEST, M.S., Mycologist

L. O. GRATZ, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist in charge, Tobacco Exp. Sta. (Quincye
R. R. KINCAID, M.S., Assistant Plant Pathologist (Quiney)
W. A. CARVER, Ph.D., Assistant Cotton Investigations (Quincy)
RAYMOND M. CROWN, B.S.A., Field Asst., Cotton Investigations (Quincy)
JESSE REEVES, Farm Superintendent, Tobacco Experiment Station (Quincy)
J. H. JEFFERIES, Superintendent, Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred)
GEO. D. RUEHLE, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist (Lake Alfred)
W. A. KUNTZ, A.M., Assistant Plant Pathologist (Lake Alfred)
B. R. FUDGE, Ph.D., Assistant Chemist (Lake Alfred)
W. L. THOMPSON, B.S., Assistant Entomologist (Lake Alfred)
R. V. ALLISON, Ph.D., Soils Specialist in charge Everglades Experiment Sta. (Belle Glade)
R. W. KIDDER, B.S., Foreman, Everglades Experiment Station (Belle Glade)
R. N. LOBDELL, M.S., Assistant Entomologist (Belle Glade)
F. D. STEVENS, B.S., Sugarcane Agronomist (Belle Glade)
H. H. WEDGEWORTH, M.S., Associate Plant Pathologist (Belle Glade)
B. A. BOURNE, M.S., Associate Plant Physiologist (Belle Glade)
J. R. NELLER, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist (Belle Glade)
A. DAANE, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist (Belle Glade)
FRED YOUNT, Office Assistant (Belle Glade)
M. R. BEDSOLE, M.S.A., Assistant Chemist (Belle Glade)
A. N. BROOKS, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist (Plant City)
"R. E. NOLEN, M.S.A., Field Assistant in Plant Pathology (Plant City)
A. S. RHOADS, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist (Cocoa)
C. M. TUCKER, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist (Hastings)
H. S. WOLFE, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist in charge, Sub-Trop. Exp. Sta. (Homestead)
L. R. TOY, B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist (Homestead)
STACY O. HAWKINS, M.A., Field Assistant in Plant Pathology (Homestead)
D. G. A. KELBERT, Field Assistant in Plant Pathology (Bradenton)
FRED W. WALKER, Assistant Entomologist (Monticello)
D. A. SANDERS, D.V.M., Associate Veterinarian (West Palm Beach)
M. N. WALKER, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist (Leesburg)
W. B. SHIPPY, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist (Leesburg)
C. C. GOFF, M.S. Assistant Entomologist (Leesburg)
J. W. WILSON, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist (Pierson)
*In cooperation with U. S. Department of Agriculture.


INTRODUCTION ..............- ..--- -......-...... .. ............. ..... 5
THE HERD ..... ----....... -- .............-.................-.... ..... ............... 5
MARKET TYPE ............---.......-..... -- ---------------------..................... 12
BREEDS .----......----....... .....--------.......................------ 16
What Breed to Choose ...........--- ..............- ............... 16
Duroc-Jersey ..................... ----- --........................................ 17
Poland China ....------------------...................... ....................... 17
H am pshire ...................................................................... 18
EQUIPMENT --.....---.--------...... ................. -- .......--- ............ 18
Portable Hog H house ...................................-............................ 18
Sanitary Hog Waterers ................---- --............. .------.... 19
Shelter of Tin Roofing ......-......................---- -- ..... -.....-- ..... 21
Brush Shades ......-- ..........-- -.............. ......................... ..... 21
Water Supply ...... --.........---... ....- ---- ..--- ................... 22
Pig Troughs ....----......-- ....-----..-..--- .......---.----.--. 22
Self-Feeder ........................ ..... ............--- -- .....-- ............. 23
Box for Mineral Mixture ....................--....---- .....--- ..--- ..-- 24
FEEDS FOR SWINE ....-.......................-.......... ----------- ---------..-- 24
Grazing Crops ............................ .............................--............. 27
Concentrates ................................. ........................... 31
FEEDING SWINE ............................--....... .. .......... -------------- 32
Feeding the Breeding Herd ........................... .. ..... ................... 32
Feeding Pigs Before and After Weaning ................................................ 33
Feeds for Fattening Shotes .................................... ................ 33
The Use of Mineral Mixtures ................................... ---.....---- 33
MARKETING ............ --.................. .-------..-------......... 34
HOG LOSSES IN TRANSIT ......................................................... -- 37
Loading ................................---..--- ----- ----.... ------- 38
CURING PORK ON THE FARM .......-................----.....-... .. -------------- 41
Slaughtering ................................... ... .. -- --- ------------ 42
Scalding .......................................------------- ------ --- ------ ----- 43
Removing the Internal Organs ..................-...---------------- 43
Cutting the Carcass ............-......-.....-..- --------------- 44
Methods of Curing ....................................------------ ---------- 44
COMMON DISEASES OF SWINE ....-..........---------------------- -- 46
Hog Cholera .....-..............---- ..------..- -----.. .--------- 46
Swine Plague ......................................----------------- 49
Necrotic Enteritis ............. ....... .. .... ... ---------------- 49
Necrotic Rhinitis or Bull-Nose .----................ ----- ------..----. 50
EXTERNAL PARASITES .............-..- ..- -------------....... 51
Lice .......................................----- --------------- 51
Mange ....................---.----- ------ ---------------- 52
INTERNAL PARASITES ......----------........ ---------------------- 53
Large Roundworm .-..........------. -------...... -----------. 53
The Kidney Worm ...-... ---------.............----..-------.. 57

Fig. 2.-A boar of good type. (Courtesy Am. Poland China Record Assn.)

Fig. 3.-A sow of good type. (Courtesy Am. Poland China Record Assn.)




There are many reasons why Florida farmers should produce
more hogs as a part of their general farming operations. At
the present time the hog producers of Florida raise only about
256% of the pork consumed within the state; such a situation is
a challenge to the farmers to produce more pork for local con-
sumption. Further, there is always a market for hogs, and
with the proper planning of feed crops, hogs can be economically
raised in Florida.
Since hogs are prolific, and mature early, returns can be ob-
tained more quickly than from other classes of livestock. A
brood sow will produce a litter of pigs at 12 months and should
produce two litters per year. Further, the pigs can be most
profitably marketed at six to ten months. It will be seen, there-
fore, that there is a more rapid "turn over" in swine production
than in almost any other line of livestock endeavor.
In hog raising less capital expenditure is necessary for stock
and equipment than is required for other kinds of livestock.
Hogs produce a pound of gain on less feed than do other farm
animals. Hogs reduce labor costs, since they can harvest their
own feed crops. Such crops as corn, peanuts, and chufas often
can be marketed to better advantage through hogs than other-
wise, and the hogs can be used as gleaners of crop remnants in
fields, thereby utilizing feed for pork production that would
otherwise go to waste. Swine production can be made practical
and profitable in this state if producers grow feed crops and
practice good herd management. The growing of hogs should
be well planned and should receive the same careful attention
as is given to other lines of business.

The question is often asked, "Does is pay to use purebred an-
imals in swine production?" This may be answered by giving a
"*A. L. Shealy, Veterinarian in charge, Animal Husbandry Department,
Florida Experiment Station; W. J. Sheely, Agent in Animal Husbandry,
Florida Extension Service and U.S.D.A. Bureau of Animal Industry.

6 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

few reasons for the use of good blood. In the first place, the law
of inheritance operates to a pronounced degree in swine breeding.
"Like begets like." Systematic breeding and selection through
many years have produced desirable characteristics in the stand-
ard breeds of hogs and as a result the purebred of today carries
excellent development in those parts of the body from which the
highest priced cuts are obtained, such as hams, bacon, shoulders,
and loin. Gilts and boars chosen for breeding purposes should
be selected from prolific sows and if careful selection is con-
tinued it is possible to develop a highly prolific herd of sows.
(Fig. 4.) The farmer will find hog raising very unprofitable if

S. "


Fig. 4.-Brood sows that bring prolific litters are desirable.
he does not begin with hogs of good type, possessing the de-
sirable characteristics of early maturity, high quality, prolific-
ness, and the ability to convert feed economically into high-grade
pork. Hogs belonging to any well recognized, standard breed
will mature earlier than scrubs and will produce pork at less
cost. Probably the greatest advantage of good blood is that it
helps to produce uniformity among both young and finished an-
imals in the herd. Packers will pay a premium for animals uni-
form in type, quality, and finish.

Since the herd boar transmits his characteristics to many off-
spring, he should be of good type and quality, showing pronounc-
ed masculinity and vigor, and possessing a strong constitution.
He should have strong bones which allow him to stand up well

Bulletin 236, Swine Production in Florida 7

on his pasterns, and should transmit this quality to his off-
spring. When shotes are fattened on grazing crops, as is the
common Florida practice, it is very important that they have
strong bones. The boar should have a well arched, strong back
carrying much width, especially over the loins, with hind quar-
ters well filled out, producing a well developed ham. The sides
should be both deep and long. The forequarters should be well
developed but free from coarseness, producing a well fleshed
shoulder. The breast should be wide, providing good chest ca-
pacity. (Fig. 2.)
The young boar should not be used for service to any great
extent before one year old unless he shows indications of early
maturity, and is vigorous. He should be isolated from the sows
except during the breeding season, and should be allowed only
one service to each sow during time of breeding. He should
breed only one sow daily, although if he is very strong and vig-
orous he might be permitted to serve two sows daily for a few
services. If the boar is called upon for too many services the
litters are likely to be small.
The brood sow should be of good breeding, quiet in tempera-
ment, not nervous, and possess those qualities which indicate
that she will make a good mother. Further, she should be pro-
lific, for her feed requirements will be but slightly greater with
large litters than with small ones. It means much to the owner
in a financial way whether or not she raises a small or a large
number of pigs per litter. The sow should possess a well arched,
strong, wide back. She should carry good development of fore
and hind quarters, and have sides of good length and depth. She
should have a wide breast, giving much chest capacity, thereby
denoting a strong constitution. There should be a large num-
ber of teats on each side of the belly, indicating sufficient mam-
mary development to supply milk for the young pigs. The sow
should be smooth, fine haired, and free from coarseness. (Fig. 3.)
The proper time of breeding the sows will depend in a large
measure upon the feed supply available for the pigs when they
reach the "feeder" stage. Since practically all shotes are fat-
tened in Florida by "hogging, off" such field crops as peanuts,
corn, chufas, and sweet potatoes, it is important to correlate the
time of breeding with the time when grazing crops will be avail-
able for fattening.

8 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

The period of gestation is from 112 to 115 days, which means
that the brood sow must be bred. the latter part of October
to furnish "feeders" for grazing early feed crops, as Spanish
peanuts and early corn. When shotes are finished on such early
grown crops they can be marketed during early fall when mar-
ket prices are usually highest. The sow should be bred again


Fig. 5.-Diagram showing breeding, farrowing, and marketing cycle. Outer
circle shows months, middle circle shows cycle for spring litter, and
inner circle shows cycle for fall litter.
from April 15 to May 15 to furnish "feeders" for late grazing
on such crops as runner peanuts, chufas, and sweet potatoes.
These crops will remain in the ground during the winter months
without sprouting, making it possible to defer grazing until
the latter part of December, and hogs turned on these crops at
that time should be finished for market in March. The sow
should produce two litters each year, thereby reducing the cost
per pig and giving greater returns on the investment.

Bulletin 236, Swine Production in Florida 9

If breeding to produce pigs for the show ring, the sows should
be bred to farrow as soon as possible after March 1 and Septem-
ber 1 to permit the pigs to be shown in their proper classes.
The age at which to breed the gilt will depend largely on her
development. If she has grown rapidly and is vigorous, showing
signs of early maturity, she may be bred at eight or nine months
of age, thereby allowing her to drop the first litter by the time
she is about a year old. Oftentimes when a young gilt is bred
too early, she does not develop into a good breeder but becomes
stunted, and a producer of inferior pigs.
The pregnant sow should be isolated from the rest of the herd
and kept quiet at all times. She should have shade in summer,
shelter in winter, plenty of clean, fresh water at all times, and
an abundance of succulent feed supplied by annual crops or per-
manent pasture. Grazing on cultivated fields reduces the pos-
sibility of heavy worm infestation and the exercise secured will
be very beneficial.

Toward the end of the gestation period the abdomen becomes
enlarged and the mammary glands swollen and congested. These
symptoms indicate that the sow will farrow at an early date.
The sow must have shelter; a portable A-shaped hog house
is very useful, since it is desirable that the brood sow farrow in
a field planted to some annual grazing crop. The floor of the
A-shaped hog house may consist of well packed clay or tempo-
rary flooring of boards, since holes are readily dug out in a sand
floor, thereby increasing the danger of mashing the pigs. Very
little bedding is needed at farrowing time; a large amount of
bedding increases the danger of the sow lying on the pigs. A
small amount of pine straw or leaves scattered over the floor
is all the bedding needed. Shortly after farrowing, a liberal
supply of bedding should be provided. The sow should be left
alone during farrowing, since in most cases she will farrow
normally and will need no assistance. Meddling will often be
injurious to both sow and pigs, whereas if the owner had only
relied on Nature to take its course no bad results would have

10 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

been experienced. However, if the owner definitely sees that
the brood sow is in difficult labor he should give her such assist-
ance as is possible for him to render in delivering the pigs.
The sow should receive all the fresh water she desires at far-
rowing time but should not be fed for 24 hours after farrowing,
due to her feverish condition. On the second day she should
receive about two single handfuls of shorts and one handful of
corn meal given in a thin slop. These amounts should be grad-
ually increased daily and at the end of the first week her ration
may consist of any one of the rations listed for brood sows under
the topic of "Feeding the Breeding Herd".
"Pig-eating" will be prevented if the sow has received plenty
of succulent feed in addition to a well-balanced ration during the
period of pregnancy. Fish meal or tankage should be included
in the ration, since "pig-eating" is largely prevented if either
of these protein feeds is supplied.
Young pigs should be given shelter and protection from cool
weather, and their sleeping quarters should be provided with
bedding. Shelter is best furnished by a portable A-shaped hog
house which should be placed in a cultivated field just a few
days prior to farrowing so that the sow and pigs will be kept on
clean land and supplied with succulent feed. Such measures are
essential in preventing losses from worms. Fresh water should
be available at all times and is best supplied by a sanitary hog
waterer described under "Equipment". When pigs are raised
under such conditions losses from worms are reduced, and the
pigs make more rapid gains. Pigs should be given access to a
grain ration when they are 10 days to two weeks old, receiving
the feeds outlined under "Feeding Pigs Before and After Wean-
ing". If lice are detected, applications of crude oil or waste oil
from garages are effective in destroying these parasites.
If there are several litters, the pigs in each litter should be
marked when only two or three days old by making a V-shape
cut in the edge or tip of their ears. A hand notcher can be pur-
chased at small cost, and this instrument will make a clean, well

Bulletin 236, Swine Production in Florida 11
defined notch usually 1/4" to /8" deep. Where herd records are
kept, it is essential to mark each litter. The marking system
shown in Fig. 6 is suggested.
Pigs are born with eight sharp teeth, four in the upper jaw
and four in the lower, these teeth being sometimes referred to
as "needle" teeth. These teeth often injure the teats of the
sow in nursing, causing udder trouble; for that reason they
should be removed. By using special forceps made for the pur-
pose or a small pair of pliers, the teeth may be broken or cut
off near the gums.


40 50 5 4

30 3

Fig. 6.-A method of marking pigs with ear notches. (After Day: Pro-
ductive Swine Husbandry, Lippincott.)
Young boars not chosen for breeding purposes should be cas-
trated when four or five weeks old, since at that age they can
be handled more easily, will lose less blood, and the wound heals
more quickly than in older shotes. The scrotum should be
washed with an antiseptic solution made preferably from some
of the coal tar preparations. A clean sharp knife should be used,
since infection is often introduced by using a dirty knife. The
incisions should be long, extending to the lower part of the scro-
tum and directed over each testicle. Never attempt to remove
both testicles through a single incision. After the testicle is
exposed it should be pulled slightly through the incision and the
cord severed by scraping briskly with the knife. There is prac-
tically no danger from hemorrhage when the cord is severed
by "scraping" rather than by cutting or jerking. After the tes-

12 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

tides are removed, zinc oxide powder, boric acid powder, or some
other antiseptic powder should be dusted into the wounds. The
pig should be kept in clean quarters until the wounds heal.
The age for weaning the pigs will depend largely on their size
and vigor. If they have made rapid growth and eat their sup-
plemental feed, they may be weaned at eight weeks, otherwise,
defer weaning until 10 weeks old. In weaning pigs, separate
them from their mother, feeding them three times daily and
giving skimmilk if possible. The feeds referred to under "Feed-
ing Pigs Before and After Weaning" should be used. Feed
troughs should be kept clean and any feed left in the trough
which might have become soured should be removed, since sour
feed often causes digestive troubles. The pigs should have an
abundance of green feed and plenty of good clean water.


Hogs are bought and sold according to grades based on type,
weight, quality, and finish. A novice considers a fat hog or one
exceptionally fat, as an animal weighing possibly from 150 to
300 pounds which will bring a certain price when sold without
taking into consideration the grade of the hog. The packer
and experienced buyer do not purchase hogs in that manner,
since hogs are graded according to type, weight, quality, and
finish by such buyers. These experienced buyers not only judge
hogs from their appearance in the stock pens but try to picture
the kind of dressed carcasses that will be produced when the
hogs are slaughtered. They judge the kind of cuts which will
be obtained from the carcasses by the size, conformation, and
degree of finish. If the buyers see that good quality hams,
bacon, and loin cuts will be obtained from the dressed carcasses
they will pay the highest market price for such hogs.
Progressive swine breeders and pork producers are interested
in the type of pig that will make the most economical gains in
the field or feed lot, that mature early, and sell for the highest
market price. Hogs are being bred today to furnish a type that
meets these requirements. There are three general types of
hogs, as follows:
1. The short, chuffy type, which is compact, low set, having
a tendency to put on excessive fat.

Bulletin 236, Swine Production in Florida 13

Fig. 7.-A gilt showing desirable market type. (Courtesy Am.
Poland China Record Assn.)

-, -

Fig. 8.-Barrows showing desirable market type. (Courtesy Inter-
national Live Stock Exposition.)

14 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

2. The rangy type, with extremely long narrow bodies, great-
ly arched backs, long legs, and carrying the bodies high off the
3. An intermediate type, falling between the two extreme
It is possible for any of these types of hogs to reach the de-
sirable weights of 165 to 225 pounds, yet the quality of the
carcasses may be inferior and not satisfy the demands of the
trade. The quality of the carcasses determines the real market
value of hogs. Hogs that dress out carcasses of low quality are
unprofitable both for farmer and packer.
The proper degree of "finish" is such that a uniform layer of
fat of medium thickness covers the forequarters, back, and hind-
quarters in such a manner that a smooth, even carcass is ob-
The short, chuffy hog is finished too frequently when it weighs
only 140 to 160 pounds, thus causing it to be graded in the light
class and bring less per pound. Further, should a hog of this
type be fed until the desired weights of 165 to 225 pounds are
reached, it is usually "over-finished", that is, carries excessive
fat. In such an over-finished; chuffy hog, the hams are too fat
to permit them to be graded as regulars, the sides are too fat
to make first class bacon, and too much internal fat, including
leaf fat, is present. The market does not want a chuffy hog,
carrying excessive fat, because the retail trade desires cuts with
very little fat present. The extra lard from a fat hog brings a
low price, since it has to meet the competition of cottonseed oil
and other vegetable compounds. Thus a lower price is offered
by the packer for the excessively fat hog. Because of this dis-
crimination, producers should no longer breed the short, chuffy,
compact type.
The extremely long, rangy hog grows rapidly and attains a
large size, but generally does not carry the proper finish at the
desirable market weights of 165 to 225 pounds. Such a hog if
slaughtered when it reaches the desired weights, produces a thin,
undesirable ham with a long shank. The carcass is too bony and
there is a general lack of finish in all parts of the body. Should
this type of hog be fed out to proper finish, it reaches heavier
weights than can be profitably utilized by the trade. In addition
to these criticisms, the cost per pound of gain is greater when
extremely large rangy hogs are finished.

Bulletin 236, Swine Production in Florida 15

Fig. 9.-Carcass of intermediate type hog. (Courtesy National
Live Stock and Meat Board.)
Live Stock and Meat Board.)

16 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

The most desirable market hog is of the intermediate type as
illustrated in Figs. 2, 3, 7, and 8. This intermediate type is most
profitable, since it has inherited the ability to attain the proper
degree of finish at the most desirable market weights, either
when turned in a field of grazing crops or fed a fattening ration
in the feed lot. Shotes of this type mature early, and when
slaughtered at 165 to 225 pound weights, produce a carcass of
high quality meat. In proportion to.its size, this carcass will cut
out the maximum amount of high quality meat in such high
priced cuts as the hams, loin cuts, shoulders, and sides, and will
yield a minimum amount of lard and bone waste. Hence, the
intermediate type is most desirable from the packer's standpoint
and most profitable for the farmer.
Well finished hogs of the desirable type weighing from 160
to 225 pounds bring the highest prices on the markets, while
those of lighter and heavier weights sell for less. It is evident
that both the chuffy and rangy types of hogs are not desirable
from the packers' and consumers' standpoint. Since it is more
profitable for the farmer to produce the type desired by the
packers, he should, therefore, keep himself informed regarding
the market demands. The most prominent breeds of swine have
animals of this, type and such animals should be used as foun-
dation breeding stock.

The choice of a breed is entirely a matter of personal prefer-
ence. The breed which the farmer likes best is the one with
which he will have the greatest success. It may be said, how-
ever, that white hogs generally do not prove successful in Flor-
ida, since they "sunscald" easily during the summer months.
The breeds most common in Florida are: Duroc-Jersey, Poland
China, and Hampshire. The matter of greatest importance is
not so much the breed chosen, as the definite use of some pure-
bred blood in the foundation breeding herd. By using good pure-
bred blood the pigs will mature earlier, will be of higher quality,
and will show uniformity in type when they reach the "feeder"
stage and when finished for market (Fig. 10). All of these char-
acteristics are important in swine production. The scrub hog
has no place in swine production.

Bulletin 236, Swine Production in Florida 17

The Duroc-Jersey breed originated in the United States dur-
ing the period from 1822 to 1885 and is well adapted to Florida.
Some of the characteristics of the breed are as follows: com-
paratively small head with straight or slightly dished face; outer
third of ears drooped over or pendent; body of good length and
depth, with good width across the loin; hams well filled out;
shoulders smooth and well developed. The color of the Duroc-
Jersey breed is solid red, varying from light to dark red. This
breed is noted for its large litters, early maturity, and grazing
qualities. In recent years breeders have followed the market de-
mands by developing the intermediate type of hog within this
The Poland China breed is also an American breed, having
originated in Ohio, and this breed is popular in Florida. It is
noted particularly for its good quality, refinement, and early ma-
turity. The color is black with white markings, the white usu-
ally being on the forehead, on all four feet and the tip of tail.
White spots on other parts of the body are permissible. The
ears are pendent, as with the Duroc-Jersey, and the nose is
straight or slightly dished. Good development is noted in the
hams and loin, and the back is well arched. In selecting hogs
for breeding purposes, only those animals which have strong
bones and a well arched back should be chosen. Only -brood
sows giving birth to large litters should be kept, since the Poland
China breed was criticised formerly for not being prolific. In
former years the conformation of this breed was inclined to-
wards the extreme lard type, the individuals being very com-
pact, low set, and chuffy, but in more recent years the inter-
mediate type has been developed through selection.

The Hampshire breed originated in England and was import-
ed first into the states of Massachusetts and Kentucky. They
may be classed intermediate between the lard and bacon types.
They are black in color, with a white belt or "list" which varies
from 4 to 12 inches in width extending around the chest and in-
cluding the fore-leg. The Hampshire is noted for its grazing

18 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Fig. 10.-A uniform lot of feeder shotes. (Courtesy Atlantic Coast
Line Railway.)

ability, and for that reason is gaining in popularity in this state.
The sows make good mothers, and are quite prolific.
The Berkshire breed is quite popular in other sections of the
southeastern states; however, very few are found in this state.
Since hogs of the Tamworth breed are very rangy and belong to
the so-called bacon type and do not mature as early as some of
the other breeds, hog producers of this state have not used the
Tamworth to any great extent. The Chester White breed is less
suitable for most sections of Florida, due to the fact that white
hogs often "sunscald" during the summer months.


Hogs can be raised successfully without expensive equipment.
Heavy overhead investments in expensive equipment, and extra
labor costs above the amount actually needed, have been respon-
sible for much of the financial loss experienced by many farmers
who raised hogs in past years. Adequate equipment must be
provided but the swine producer should attempt at all times to
keep such overhead cost at a minimum. In constructing much of
the equipment it is often possible to use odd pieces of board, tim-
bers, and other materials already available on many premises.
The portable A-shaped hog house is a most important piece
of equipment for successful swine production. It can be con-

Bulletin 236, Swine Production in Florida 19

structed cheaply and can be used as shelter for the brood sow at
farrowing time as well as for shade and shelter for the pigs and
sow after farrowing. Another advantage of the A-shaped hog
house is that if it is constructed on runners, it can be moved
from field to field as the grazing crops are ready to be "hogged
off". It is made of boards nailed together at the top, as illus-
trated in Fig. 11. The boards should be five to six feet in length
and nailed to 4" x 4" pieces at the bottom. The house should
be attached permanently to runners (see Fig. 11) so that it
can be moved from one field to another.


Fig. 11.-The A-shaped hog house is desirable for use with sow and
pigs and grazing shotes.
A sanitary hog waterer can be constructed at very little cost,
and will pay for itself many times in providing clean water free
from disease germs and parasite eggs, thereby preventing loss
in pigs. Filthy mudholes are often responsible for digestive dis-
orders in pigs and serve as a source from which they may become
infected with internal parasites. With a sanitary waterer such
ailments and infections are prevented in a large measure. Fur-

20 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

their, an adequate water supply can be maintained easily and
water may be provided in cultivated fields when the sanitary
waterer is used.
In making a waterer use an empty barrel with both ends still
intact. The barrel must be air tight. Use 2"x8" boards in con-
structing the trough which is built large enough so that the
barrel can be set directly in it, as shown in Fig. 12. A hole about


Fig. 12.-A sanitary hog waterer, such as is shown here, helps keep
the hogs healthy.

one-half inch in diameter is bored in the side of the barrel about
six inches from the bottom and through this hole the water
flows from the barrel into the trough, filling the trough with
water. The barrel is filled through a large bunghole in the top.
A tight fitting plug must be used in this hole, for if air gains
entrance into the barrel, all the water will flow out through the
hole near the bottom. In filling the barrel the small hole near
the bottom must be temporarily plugged, since the water would
flow through that hole and overflow the trough. The trough
is built on skids that it may be easily transported from one
field to another.

Bulletin 236, Swine Production in Florida 21


A shelter constructed of corrugated tin roofing can be pro-
vided quite cheaply and can be used by several hogs at one time.
It can be torn down and moved to other locations quite readily
and with little expense. In its construction four posts are set
in the ground with two cross-pieces of 2"x4" material nailed
from post to post in front and rear and the ends of the tin
roofing are nailed to the 2"x4" pieces. If further protection is

5 4

Fig. 13.-A plain shelter of tin roofing will provide shade for the hogs.

desired, boards may be nailed up for 3 to 31/2 feet on the north
and west sides. Such a shelter may furnish shade during the
summer months. (Fig. 13.)


Since it is essential to provide shade during the hot summer
days and since hogs will often be grazing in fields where no
shade trees are to be found, it is, therefore, necessary to provide
cheap shade. In addition to the A-shaped hog house or the
shed of tin roofing just described, sufficient shade can be pro-
vided by simply cutting brush and piling them over a frame
built of four posts with cross-pieces to support the brush proper-

22 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

ly. Such shade can be provided cheaply and the brush will
amply supply the need for shade in summer. (Fig. 14.)


Fig. 14.-A brush shade is satisfactory if no other is available. It is
easily and cheaply constructed.
An adequate and wholesome water supply is essential in swine
raising. It is best to obtain water from a well, the water being
kept in a sanitary waterer. However, if a spring or running
water is available such water is generally wholesome, provided
there is no contamination from drainage water. One should
determine if the water flows through a hog pasture farther
up the stream, since disease germs as hog cholera or swine
plague can be carried for miles by running water.
Where self-feeders are not used, the little pigs will need a
feeding trough soon after they are farrowed. An inexpensive
trough can be constructed by nailing two 1"x6" boards together
lengthwise making a V-shaped trough, then nailing a board at
each end. Cross strips should be tacked on top to prevent the
pigs from lying in the trough, and to keep one or two pigs
from eating all the feed. (Fig. 15.)

Bulletin 236, Swine Production in Florida 23

If there are several litters of pigs to be farrowed close to-
gether, a small self-feeder can be used to a decided advantage in
feeding the young pigs. When they are two to three weeks old
they will learn to eat from the self-feeder and one self-feeder will
hold sufficient feed for several pigs. Self-feeders save labor,
reduce waste in feed, and furnish the feed in a sanitary manner.

Fig. 15.-An inexpensive but satisfactory pig trough.

Fig. 16.-A small self-feeder for pigs.

24 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

The self-feeder can be used to advantage in furnishing supple-
mental grain mixtures for brood sows and boars on pasture and
in providing supplemental feeds, as fish meal or tankage, to
hogs grazing on corn, chufas, or sweet potatoes in fattening
(Figs. 16 and 17).
Mineral mixtures should be kept before the hogs at all times
in order that they may be kept in a thrifty condition. Supple-

Fig. 17.-A large self-feeder.

mental mineral mixtures are essential for bone development and
in maintaining a high state of nutrition in the hogs. A desirable
self-feeder or box for supplying the mineral supplement, may be
constructed cheaply as shown in Fig. 18.


The use of field crops for grazing in swine production is im-
portant for several reasons. Losses from intestinal parasites
are reduced to a minimum if the brood sow and young pigs are
kept in a cultivated field planted to some annual grazing crop,
and the pigs will make more rapid gains when succulent feed
is supplied. The breeding herd is kept in better physical con-
dition when provided with green feed. Shotes make more eco-

Bulletin 236, Swine Production in Florida 25

yet it. is always available.
chufas, 'and sweet potatoes than if fed in the dry lot. Labor

". ... $..z-' ,,:

Fig. 18-A box for the mineral mixture keeps the mixture sheltered and
yet it is always available.

nomical gains when turned on such crops as peanuts, corn,
chufas, 'and sweet potatoes than if fed in the dry lot. Labor
costs are reduced when grazing crops are provided, since the
hogs gather their own feed.
By systematic planning, it is possible to have some grazing
crop available every month in the year. The following outline
will suggest some of the more important crops suitable for this
purpose. Other crops may be added for different localities.


Month in
Which Graz- Grazing Crop Planting Date
ing Desired
Oats October and November
January Rye October and November
and Rape October and November
February Runner peanuts May and June
Chufas May and June

26 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Month in
Which Graz- Grazing Crop Planting Date
ing Desired

Oats October and November
Rye October and November
March Rape October and November
Austrian peas September, October and November
Vetch September, October and November

Austrian peas-
late grazing September, October and November
Vetch-late grazing September, October and November
April Oats-late grazing September, October and November
Rape November and December
Millet-early grazing March
Sorghum March

May Millet March and April
Sorghum March and April

Early corn March
June Spanish peanuts March
and Sorghum April and May
July Cowpeas April
Soybeans April

Corn March and April
August Spanish peanuts March and April
and Cowpeas April and May
September Soybeans. April and May
Chufas May and June

October Corn April
and Runner peanuts April and May
November Sweet potatoes May and June
Velvet beans April and May
Early oats October
Rye October
Corn April
December Runner peanuts April and May
Sweet potatoes May and June
Velvet beans April and May
Rape October

In addition to the above annual crops it is advantageous to
provide permanent pastures sodded to such grasses as carpet,
Bermuda, Dallis, and Bahia. A mixture of these grasses is often
used in establishing the permanent pasture. Lespedeza can be
added to the grass mixture in certain sections of the state. Per-
manent pastures can be used to advantage for the breeding
herd but should not be used for the young pigs, since the latter
are far more subject to worm infestation.

Bulletin 236, Swine Production in Florida 27

Corn:-Corn is one of the principal crops grown for swine pro-
duction. It is preeminently a fattening feed, being very high in
carbohydrates but low in protein and mineral matter. When
early maturing varieties are used, grazing can be, obtained as
early as the latter part of June and with the use of early corn
for fattening, shotes may be turned in the corn field sufficiently
early to enable them to be finished for marketing in early fall.
It is most economical to "hog off" the corn rather than to gather
it and feed in the dry lot.
Where corn alone is "hogged off" or fed in a feed lot it should
be supplemented with a small amount of fish meal or tankage.
Experiments have shown that where corn is supplemented with
fish meal or tankage considerable less corn is required to make
one pound of pork than where no protein supplement is added
to the ration. Many farmers follow the practice of interplanting
corn with peanuts, thereby obtaining grazing from both crops.
Peanuts:-Since many of the soils in this state are well adapt-
ed to growing peanuts the majority of farmers raise them to
furnish feed for fattening hogs for market. Hogs are turned
into the fields and allowed to "hog off" the peanuts. Since large
yields can be obtained and since they are high in fattening prop-
erties, due largely to the high content of fat, peanuts are con-
sidered the most economical and practical feed for finishing hogs
in Florida. The varieties of peanuts most widely used in pork
production are the Spanish and the Florida runner. The Spanish
peanut can be planted early in the spring to furnish an early fat-
tening feed. Very often it is possible to turn shotes onto Span-
ish peanuts the latter part of June and early July ard such shotes
will be finished for market early in the fall when market prices
are usually highest.
Florida runner peanuts are grown for grazing at a later period
than Spanish peanuts. The runner peanuts make larger yields
and will remain in the soil for several months before they sprout.
Many farmers use runner peanuts for fattening shots for the
early spring market, turning the hogs on the peanuts in Decem-
ber or early January.
The cured hams, bacon, and shoulders from peanut-fed hogs
have a characteristic sweet flavor.
Millet:-Cat-tail or pearl millet is an excellent crop to furnish
grazing for hogs during the spring months (Fig. 19). This crop

28 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

is especially useful for the brood sow and pigs. One acre of millet
of average production will furnish grazing for two to three brood
sows and their pigs for several weeks. Grazing should begin
when the millet is approximately eight inches high and may be

Fig. 19.-Millet provides good grazing for hogs.

continued for several weeks. The crop is planted in rows or
broadcast. Since millet furnishes bulky, succulent roughage, it
should be supplemented with a concentrate grain mixture such as
the following: Corn 60 pounds, shorts 30 pounds, and fish meal
10 pounds. Two to three pounds of the grain mixture should
be fed daily for each 100 pounds live weight.
Sorghum:--Sorghum is another crop often used for grazing
in raising hogs. Sorghum furnishes an abundance of feed, yet
the plants do not withstand grazing as closely as does pearl
millet. Sorghum is coarser and more fibrous than pearl millet,
and for that reason pigs do not thrive as well on sorghum as on
millet. This crop may be planted in rows or sown broadcast
for grazing purpose. In many cases, sorghum is used as a soil-
ing crop, to be cut and fed to hogs in the lot. The amount of
labor required should be considered in following such a practice.
Two varieties of sorghum commonly grown for grazing pur-
poses are the Early Amber and Orange. Where sorghum is
used for grazing purposes or as a soiling crop it must be sup-
plemented with a concentrate mixture the same as millet.
Cowpea Pasture:-Cowpeas make excellent pasture during the
late spring and summer months and may be planted in rows or
sown broadcast. Varieties of cowpeas best suited for Florida
are the Brabham and Iron. It is best to defer grazing until the
first peas begin to mature, in order to get the maximum feed
from the crop. The peas are high in protein, while the green
leaves and shoots furnish an abundance of succulent feed. Cow-
peas and other legumes furnish more mineral matter for good

Bulletin 26d, Swine Production in Florida 29

bone development than is supplied in grazing non-leguminous
crops. If hogs are grazed on cowpeas alone they should receive
a supplement of corn.
Soybean Pasture:-Excellent results have been obtained from
soybeans as a green grazing crop for hogs. The tender leaves
and vines furnish feed of high quality and may furnish grazing
during June and July. If the crop is not grazed too closely the
plants will continue to grow and put out new growth which will
furnish continuous grazing for several weeks. Hogs grazed on
soybeans should receive corn as a supplementary feed.
Rape Pasture:-The rape plant resembles the collard in many
respects. The seed may be planted any time from late summer
to early spring, thereby furnishing grazing over a long season.
It is best to plant rape in rows rather than broadcast, since when
sown broadcast much of the rape is destroyed by trampling.
Rape requires fertile soil to produce satisfactory yields and if
planted on poor land heavy applications of fertilizer are neces-
sary. Due to its growth habits this plant will not withstand
close grazing; if grazed too closely the plants will die. The
plants should be approximately one foot high when grazing is
commenced and a supplemental grain mixture is necessary.
Dwarf Essex is the variety used almost exclusively for swine
Sweet Potato Pasture:-Sweet potatoes are useful for fatten-
ing shotes but only shotes which have attained good size should
be turned onto this crop, since the tubers are too bulky for
small growing pigs. The plants may be set during May and
June, and grazing obtained from August until November or even
later. Since sweet potatoes are low in protein they should be
supplemented with fish meal, tankage, or other protein feed.
Chufas:-In certain sections of Florida, chufas are used ex-
tensively for fattening hogs and provide feed for a long graz-
ing period. Large yields of chufas are obtained per acre and
the crop can be grown cheaply. Chufas may be planted in May
and June and furnish grazing from September to March. This
crop requires an abundance of plant food, and, therefore, de-
pletes the soil of fertility quite rapidly, especially if grown on
the same land each year. Since chufas are exceptionally low in
protein they should be supplemented with a feed high in this
nutrient, such as fish meal or tankage. Unpublished data ob-
tained by the Animal Husbandry Department of the Florida

30 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Agricultural Experiment Station show definitely that it is not
economical to graze chufas unless a protein supplement is added.
Austrian Peas and Vetch:-Austrian peas and vetch are use-
ful as grazing crops for hogs and may be grown singly or to-
gether for swine grazing. Oats are sometimes used in the mix-
ture, especially where vetch is grown. Hogs often show a re-
luctancy at first towards grazing Austrian peas and vetch, but
in a few days they learn to eat these crops well and seem to
relish them very much. Austrian peas and vetch should be
planted from the latter part of September to the last of October
and will furnish grazing from the latter part of February to
April. A grain supplement should always be used when these
crops are being grazed.
Oats Pasture:-There is no crop used quite so extensively as
oats for winter pasture for hogs and, if not grazed too closely,

Fig. 20.-Sows and pigs like a winter pasture of oats.

they furnish grazing until late spring. Oats are often mixed
with rye for grazing, especially in those sections of the state
where rye grows well. When sown in October oats are ready for
grazing in December. Oats furnish succulent feed so essential
for best returns from the breeding.herd and for young pigs.
This crop is used advantageously to supply grazing for the pigs
farrowed in February (Fig. 20).

Bulletin 236, Swine Production in Florida 31

When grazing on oats the breeding herd and pigs require a
small amount of supplemental feed, such as corn, shorts, and
a small amount of fish meal.
Rye Pasture:-Rye can be used alone or mixed, with oats
when grown for swine grazing. It furnishes an abundance of
green feed for grazing during the winter months and is hardy
in growth. A small amount of supplemental feed should be given
hogs on rye pasture.
Shorts:-Wheat shorts is used to a considerable extent in
making up rations for swine, but should never be fed alone, since
the ration would be unbalanced. Due to its protein content,
shorts is used especially as a feed for young pigs, brood sows,
and the herd boar. Shorts is useful in balancing rations when-
ever corn is used and when used to supplement corn, one pound of
shorts should be used to approximately one and one-half pounds
of corn. If fish meal or tankage is added to the ration as an ad-
ditional supplement to shorts, the amount of shorts should be
reduced to one pound of shorts to two pounds of corn.
Skim-Milk:-Skim-milk is a very valuable feed for use in
swine production, especially for young pigs and brood sows. The
protein is easily digested and is complete, containing all the
amino-acids essential for growth. Skim-milk furnishes mineral
matter in a readily available form to build bone. This feed may
be used in supplying protein in the ration for fattening shotes,
especially when corn is used. In feeding skim-milk give two to
three pounds to one pound of grain mixture.
Tankage and Fish Meal:-Tankage is a high protein by-pro-
duct of the meat packing industry useful in feeding swine. It
is useful in supplying the protein supplement when hogs are
being fattened on corn, and should be given to young growing
pigs, since it furnishes much-needed muscle forming and bone
building material. When tankage is fed, it should comprise
from 5 to 10 percent of the ration.
Fish meal is used extensively as a protein supplement, es-
pecially near the coast. It is comparable to tankage as a protein
supplement and is used in an identical manner. In choosing
between these two products, their availability and cost will de-
termine which will be most practical for use on any particular

32 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station



The brood sow should have plenty of green feed every month
in the year. The pregnant sow should receive feeds that sup-
ply muscle and bone building material and are not conducive to
fattening, since during pregnancy the' sow has a natural ten-
dency to fatten. When sows receive a well balanced ration they
do not acquire the habit of "pig-eating" and will farrow stronger
pigs. The following feed mixtures are recommended for use
with brood sows.
1. Corn ...............---.......... 60 pounds 2. Corn ......---.................... 50 pounds
Shorts ....--...........-........ 30 pounds Ground oats ................ 25 pounds
Fish meal --.................. 10 pounds Shorts ........-................. 15 pounds
Fish meal .................... 10 pounds
3. Corn .............................. 60 pounds
Ground oats ................ 30 pounds
Fish meal .................... 10 pounds

Fig. 21.-A creep should be provided for the young pigs as soon as
they begin to eat.

The above mixtures are also recommended for sows suckling
pigs. Any of these mixtures will satisfy the feed requirement
for the herd boar as well. It is essential that the herd boar
receive a liberal amount of green feed in order to keep him in
the best breeding condition.

Bulletin 236, Swine Production in Florida 33

The pigs should run with the mother on some green crop such
as millet, sorghum, cowpeas, corn, oats, rye or any other suitable
crop which might be particularly adapted to the local conditions.
The little pigs will begin eating while very young-usually
around two weeks old-and in doing so they supplement their
mother's milk. At that time a "pig-creep" may be provided
(see Fig. 21) and the little pigs fed in a trough, or self feeder.
The following mixture is useful for feeding suckling pigs:
Cracked corn .... ..................... 60 pounds
Shorts .................................... 35 pounds
Fish meal .........- ................... 5 pounds
Corn meal can be substituted for cracked corn. This mixture
can be given in a slop or fed dry in the trough. Some pigs will
eat slop more readily than dry feed. When the feed is given in
a small self-feeder it will necessarily have to be given in the
dry form. Locate the "pig-creep" near the place where the
brood sow is to be fed, so as to allow the little pigs to "creep"
to themselves, thereby preventing the mother from robbing them
of their feed. As the pigs grow older, whole corn can be sub-
stituted for the cracked corn or corn meal, and the amount of
fish meal increased until they receive from 10 to 12 pounds of
this product per 100 pounds of grain mixture.

Such crops as corn alone, corn interplanted with peanuts,
peanuts alone, chufas, and sweet potatoes are used in fattening
hogs in Florida. These crops are "hogged off" and the hogs sent
from the field to market. Practically all hogs fattened in this
state are finished on some grazing crop or crops rather than by
being fed in a dry lot.

No feeds given to hogs furnish all the body requirements for
mineral matter. It is necessary to supply these minerals in
some manner to the hogs at all times. Some farmers put the
mineral supplements directly into the grain mixture, while
others put the mineral mixture in receptacles kept in a dry
place, to which the hogs have access at all times. They will
eat only as much of the mixture as they need. The latter method
is recommended as being more satisfactory. Wooden boxes

34 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

preferably should be constructed, and the mixture kept in these
receptacles at all times. (See Fig. 18.) The containers should
be placed under a shed or else covered in such manner that the
mineral mixture will be kept dry. The following are two desir-
able mineral mixtures used:
1. Steam bone meal .... 50 pounds 2. Charcoal ...................... 10 pounds
Air slacked lime .... 25 pounds Hardwood ashes ........ 10 pounds
Charcoal ...................... 10 pounds Air slacked lime ...... 10 pounds
Hardwood ashes ........ 10 pounds Common salt ............ 4 pounds
Common salt.............. 5 pounds
The following mixture is recommended by the Federal Bureau
of Animal Industry:
Steam bone meal .................... 50 pounds
Ground limestone or airslack-
ed lime .............................. 25 pounds
16 percent acid phosphate .... 25 pounds
Common salt ............................ 5 pounds
"Very often wood ashes are available and may be incorporated
in the mineral mixture to advantage. When added to the mix-
ture above they may be used to the extent of one-third of the
mixture by weight. Thus 35 pounds would be the correct quan-
tity to add to the ingredients listed."
The mineral mixture should by all means be kept before young
growing pigs at all times. All classes of hogs are more thrifty
if given access to a mineral supplement.


Hogs fit well into a diversified cropping system, thereby al-
lowing many farmers to engage in hog raising. Since the mar-
ket demands for cured and fresh pork of high quality have
steadily increased during past years, it has become necessary to
devise efficient methods of marketing small lots of hogs. Fur-
ther, the development of modern transportation systems and
improved methods of refrigeration and curing of meats have
been responsible for organizing efficient central livestock mar-
kets. When farmers raised only sufficient pork for their own
use, there was no need for a marketing system, but with the
continuous increase in urban population there has grown a de-
mand for cured and fresh pork at all seasons of the year. By
having proper cold storage facilities at the packing plants,
and by the use of refrigerator cars in distributing fresh pork,

Bulletin 236, Swine Production in Florida 35

the packing houses and killing plants can supply the demand
for pork at all seasons of the year if the hog producer furnishes
the hogs.
In supplying the needs of the market, the farmers can obtain
better prices if they have a definite organization through which
their hogs may be sold. The packer buys hogs in car lots, while
the average farmer who practices a diversified system of farm-
ing does not raise enough hogs to sell in car lots. Such a situ-
ation brought into existence the local buyer who assembled hogs
from many farmers and shipped them in car lots to the packers.
More recently farmers' cooperative hog marketing associations
have been organized, whereby the farmers now manage their
own shipping of hogs. In marketing through cooperative asso-
ciations, the farmers hold cooperative hog sales when the hogs
in that community are finished for market. In holding these
sales, certain days are set as sale days, and the members having
hogs ready for market will bring them to the station designated
as the shipping point. The hogs are hauled to the shipping point
in wagons, trucks, and automobiles (Fig. 22). When hogs reach
the shipping point they are graded according to type, weight,
quality, and finish. Representatives from packinghouses and
killing plants, having been previously notified of the sale, are
present to bid on the hogs, while others submit bids by wire or
telephone. The hogs are sold to the highest bidder. By mar-
keting hogs in this manner, the small producer with one or two

Fig. 22.-Hogs come in on wagons and trucks on cooperative sale days.

36 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

hogs receives the same consideration at the market as does the
man who produces hogs in large numbers. Greater net returns
are received through cooperative sales, since the farmers can
sell their hogs direct to the packing houses or killing plants.
Through cooperative hog sales farmers gain information con-
cerning market demands for hogs in regard to type, weight,
quality, and finish. Knowledge thus gained enables farmers
intelligently to select, breed, and grow the packers' desirable
type of hogs, and to feed them to the degree of finish the market
desires. Another advantage of the cooperative sales is that
they enable the farmers to meet on the sales days to exchange
ideas and compare results obtained by their methods of feeding
and.management of hogs.
The success of any cooperative hog sales association depends
largely upon the local manager elected to direct the affairs of
the association. It is imperative that the manager be a good
business man. He must gain the confidence of the producer, and
have a thorough knowledge of handling hogs through coopera-
tive sales, including the weighing, grading, loading, and proper
shipping. As a business man he must gain the confidence of
the packer, butcher, and meat dealer, and must know the market
conditions and demands at all times.
Cooperative marketing is an integral part of the federal and
state agricultural extension work and to carry out this program
the Agricultural College, Experiment Station, and Extension
workers furnish the farmers with information concerning bet-
ter methods of swine breeding, feeding, and crops to be used in
finishing out hogs for market. Cooperative marketing of hogs,
therefore, includes more than just the selling of hogs on certain
days. It means that the farmer must plan his farming oper.
nations to have a complete yearly cycle of feed and pasture.
When he markets his hogs on cooperative sales days, he is
marketing-through the hogs-crops raised during several
months of the year.
At the present time hogs are graded in Florida and other
Southern states as follows:
No. 1. Hogs weighing 165 pounds and over with good, smooth
No. 2. Hogs weighing 135 pounds to 165 pounds with good,
smooth finish.
No. 3. Hogs weighing 110 to 135 pounds with good, smooth

Bulletin 236, Swine Production in Florida 37

No. 4. Pigs weighing 80 pounds to 110 pounds.
Roughs, sows, stags, and piggy sows.
Stags are docked 70 pounds.
Piggy sows are docked 20 to 40 pounds, according to condition.
Thin, rough sows are discounted according to condition.
In holding a cooperative sale each farmer is given a ticket as
his hogs are weighed and graded, this ticket being his receipt,
showing the number and weight of hogs of each grade he fur-
nished for the sale.
After the weighing and grading is completed, hogs are sold
by the manager of the cooperative association. After the hogs
are sold, each farmer is given a ticket showing the price, value,
and net cash due him for his hogs. This ticket is a basis of
settlement and can be cashed at the bank. The following is a
sample of tickets that are made in duplicate for each farmer
furnishing hogs for the sale. Such a ticket also furnishes a good
method of keeping records of sales.

N o. ........... ... .........................19 N o. ... ............. ................... 19......

Name of Association

Received of: Pay to:

Grade No. Weight Dock Price Value

R ..................................... .......... ....- ..... .. ............... ....
4 - - - -. ._ .. . .. . .- - -- --- .-- - -- - -- - - - - - - -- --.. .... .... .. .-- - -- ... . .. . .... -- --.. . . .. . . .. .
R .-. ....... ............. .. ---.................. -- --- -....... -....-...-......- ...- .... .-- .....- ...............

S ............ .......... .......... ................................

............................. ................................. T O T A L .................................................
TOTAL.. .....................

I certify the above weights to be Less 1 percent ..................................
I certify the above weights to be
correct. Net cash ................................................

.......................... .............. Name of Association
By: .................................................
Sales Manager.

38 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

The cooperative hog marketing associations properly managed
can become a clearinghouse for not only finished hogs but for
feeder pigs and breeding stock as well.

Each year hog producers bear a large financial loss due to
the death of hogs in transit. In 1929, this loss for the United
States was estimated at four million dollars. In addition to dead
hogs, many crippled and bruised hogs reach the packinghouses,
and are responsible for considerable loss. Many deaths in transit
result from suffocation, congestion of the lungs from overheat-
ing, and from pneumonia. Many of these losses could be pre-
vented by exercising proper care and management on the farm
and during the time of loading and shipping.
The proper marketing and handling of hogs begins on the
farm. While on the farm hogs must have been fed a well bal-
anced ration supplemented with a mineral mixture so that when
the hogs have reached marketing weight they will be in the best
condition for shipping. Such feeding practices will produce good
strong bones. It is necessary that hogs have strong bones to
come through the shipping process in good condition. See sec-
tion on "Feeds for Hogs" for additional information on feeds
and feeding, and use of mineral supplements.
In addition to proper feeding as a means of preventing hog
losses in transit, the proper handling of hogs while they are
being loaded in trucks or wagons on the farm is a very important
consideration. The hogs should not be fed heavily prior to load-
ing. They should not be exercised to any great extent, especially
in hot weather. Many injuries and broken bones are the result
of rough handling of hogs at time of loading into wagons or
trucks. Careful and gentle handling avoids these losses.
Since it is so essential that hogs be handled in the proper man-
ner from the farm to the cars in order to reduce losses in ship-
ping, the following instructions are suggested:
1. Give only about one-half the regular amount of feed on the
night before hogs are to be loaded the following day. Allow
them to have all the fresh water they desire. On the morning
the shipment is to be made, give only a light feed and allow them
to have plenty of water. If there are boars and stags in the

Bulletin 236, Swine Production in Florida 39

shipment, clip off their tusks. This precaution often prevents
serious injury to other animals while in transit.
2. Cover the bottom of the truck or wagon with a layer of
sand about an inch deep.
3. Drive hogs into wagon or truck, using a loading chute
rather than catching them by their legs and lifting them into
the truck or wagon. Rough handling in loading often breaks
a leg, or otherwise injures the animal. A loading chute can be
constructed very cheaply.
4. Do not crowd the hogs in the truck or wagon. Provide for
good ventilation. Hogs easily become overheated if they are
overcrowded in the truck or wagon.
5. Deliver the hogs at the station in time to allow one or two
hours before they are loaded into the stock car. Such a practice
allows time for the hogs to cool off and become rested.
6. Have a chute provided for unloading hogs at station. Al-
low the hogs to take time in walking down the chute, since
hurrying and beating them causes unnecessary bruises. Handle
them carefully at all times, avoiding excitement and overexer-
When hogs are unloaded into the stock pens at the station
they should be allowed to drink all the water they desire, but
should not be fed. Feeding hogs immediately before loading
or feeding in cars at loading time often has increased the death
loss in transit as much as 25 to 30 percent. Hogs which have
been fed and handled roughly at loading time become exhausted
and hot. Many of them will suffocate while others are apt to
develop congestion of the lungs. This ailment is responsible for
more than 60 percent of the deaths of hogs in transit.
Before loading, inspect the car to see that the doors close se-
curely; that there are no nails projecting from floor or sides
of car; no protruding bolts present, or broken slats on the side
or in the floor of the car, since these objects are often responsible
for injuries in transit. Such injuries may be prevented if the
shipper exercises care. See that the car is bedded with four
inches of clean sand to furnish good footing for the hogs. In
hot weather wet the sand down before loading. Do not load
hogs in cars containing old bedding of organic material, since
such bedding heats, and becomes an extra source of losses.
The hogs should be loaded carefully by driving them slowly
up the loading chute, avoiding all the excitement possible. Never
force them up the loading chute hurriedly, for in doing so, some

40 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

hogs will be trampled upon, thereby causing bruises; the hogs
will become excited and hot, all of which add greatly to the risk
of loss in shipment. Hogs should never be beaten or prodded
with sticks, since such practices cause bruises which will often
result in crippling the animal. When hogs become crippled
and get down on the floor of the car they are often trampled to
Small hogs should be separated from the large ones by sub-
stantial partitions.
The load should not exceed 16,000 pounds when hogs are ship-
ped in standard 36-foot cars during warm weather. The over-
loading of cars is responsible for greatly increased losses of hogs
in transit. Table I shows the number of hogs of various weights
which might be loaded into cars of different lengths. When
double deck cars are used, do not put more than 40 percent of the
total weight on the upper deck. After loading into car, see that
all doors are properly closed. The use of common sense in load-
ing hogs is a great asset to all concerned in the shipment by
preventing losses, deaths, and claims.
Average weight per head Number of hogs per single deck car
(pounds) 36 ft. _40 ft.
100 130 145
125 115 127
150 100 110
175 89 98
200 79 88
225 73 82
250 68 76
275 62 69
300 59 65
325 56 62
350 53 59
400 .47 52

The losses in transit come mainly from two sources, from im-
proper feeding and handling on the part of the owner and from
improper handling on the part of the railroads. If the farmer
does not carry out his duties and responsibilities in attempting
to deliver the hogs to the railroads in a healthy condition, free
from bruises and broken bones, it is a certainty that the rail-
roads cannot deliver the hogs to the packer in good condition.
Further, if the farmer delivers his hogs to the railroads in good
condition and these carriers fail to meet their responsibilities,

Bulletin 236, Swine Production in Florida 41

the hogs will not reach the packer in good condition. Thus it
will be seen that it takes complete cooperation of all parties
interested in any shipment of hogs to insure them reaching the
packer in good condition. If all parties concerned cooperate
thoroughly, much of the losses of hogs in transit will be pre-

A good home cured ham is very much in demand at all seasons
of the year for home use and for marketing. The sides can be
sugar cured and made into breakfast bacon of high quality.
The shoulders can be cured in such manner that they will be
very palatable, and be relished almost as much as a ham. The
farmers in Florida can have cured meats of high quality by
giving attention to the few necessary details in the cutting and
curing operations.
The expense of such curing is small when compared to the pal-
atability and high food value of properly cured meats.

Fi. 23.-Showin roer position of knife in sticking a ho

Fig. 23.-Showing proper position of knife in sticking a hog.

42 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

If pork of the highest quality is desired it is necessary to have
the hog slaughtered in a proper manner. Feed should be with-
held from the hog for 24 hours before it is slaughtered. How-
ever, the animal may have access to fresh water during that
period. The hog should be well bled at the time of slaughtering,
to reduce the danger of spoilage when the meat is being cured.
Bleeding is more thorough when the hog is not stunned and since
the keeping quality of the meat depends very largely upon the
thoroughness of the bleeding operation it is important not to
stun the hog in slaughtering.


Fig. 24.-Showing proper positions of knife in bleeding hog; also loca-
tion of heart and arteries. (From Circular 119, La. State Universtiy.)
When possible to handle, the hog should be turned up on its
back -and the sticking knife should be directed at an angle
towards the chest cavity (Fig. 23). The knife should pass di-
rectly in front of the breast bone, then with a quick downward
thrust, an artery leading to the heart will be severed and the

Bulletin 236, Swine Production in Florida 43

knife should be removed at once (Fig. 24). After sticking let
the hog get up and move around, since more thorough bleeding
will be obtained. Do not attempt to pierce the heart in bleeding.
If the heart is punctured, the animal will not bleed thoroughly.
Do not exercise the animal to any great extent prior to bleeding.
If the hog cannot be handled without being stunned it should
be given a blow on the forehead with a hammer or light axe
or shot with a small caliber rifle, and then immediately bled.
After bleeding, the animal should be immediately scalded.
The proper temperature of the water for scalding hogs is from
145 degrees to 155 degrees Fahrenheit. Do not have the water
too hot, for it will "set" the hair, and much difficulty will be
experienced in removing it. The hair and scurf can be removed
quite easily by using bell-shaped scrapers designed particularly
for that purpose. These scrapers can be purchased very cheaply.
The scalding is best accomplished by using a wooden barrel at-
tached to an adjoining platform on which the hog is placed
after scalding. The rear end is scalded first, since it is much
easier to remove the hair from the hind parts if the water is
too hot and causes the hair to "set". After the hair and scurf
are removed, the carcass should be hung up and washed with
first warm water and then cold water. The entire skin surface
should then be scraped with a knife to insure thorough cleansing.
In removing the internal organs an incision is made along the
mid-line extending the entire length of the body. The incision
must be made through the skin and abdominal muscles, extend-
ing completely through these structures, thereby opening the
abdominal and chest cavities. The pelvic bones are cut through
at the mid-line. An incision is made around the rectum, de-
taching it from the surrounding structure, and it is pulled out
through the opening made in the pelvic bones. Then the intes-
tines, urinary bladder, stomach, liver, diaphragm, and pluck are
all removed from the carcass. After removal of the internal
organs the carcass should be split down the back, dividing it
into halves. By dividing the carcass into halves, it is possible
to obtain more thorough chilling.

44 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

After the carcass has been chilled it should be cut into the
following four main cuts: hams, loin and back cuts, sides, and
shoulders (Fig. 25). The head is generally removed before the
carcass is chilled; however, if it has not already been removed,
it should be severed from the carcass before these pieces are cut.
The ham should be trimmed as smooth as
u possible; the trimmings should be used for
sausage meat. The foot is cut off at the hock
joint or about one inch below this joint.
The ribs are removed from the sides or
ln middlings; in cutting out the ribs from the
nii miiddlings, trim them "spare", thereby leav-
L ing as much lean meat as possible on the
""sides. The sides should be cured into break-
fsst bacon, and for that reason it is desirable
to leave just as much lean meat on them as
is possible. After the ribs are removed, the
sides should be trimmed neatly, the lean
t meat trimmings being used in the sausage
2 \3 meat \ihile the fat should be rendered into
Slard. (Fig. 26.)
The back arid loin cuts are choice cuts. The
back fat should be removed, and the back
Sand loini cuts used as pork chops or cut into
pieces to be used as fresh pork
roasts. These pieces can be cured
similar to hams and shoulders.
The shoulders should be trim-
med as smoothly as possible and
tie feet removed at the knee joints or about
Si or e inch below.
y5 Immediately each piece is trimmed, it
W: should be covered with a thin layer of
Fig. 25.-Hog carcass, salt and laid aside until put in the cure
showing main cuts. mixture (Fig. 27).
1. Ham. 2. Back and
loin. 3. Sides. 4. METHODS OF CURING
Shoulder. 5. Head.
There are two methods of curing
meat, the brine or sweet-pickle method and the "dry cured"

Bulletin 236, Swine Production in Florida 45

The following formula for the sweet-pickle method of curing
meats has proven satisfactory:
For each 100 pounds of meat use
12 pounds of salt
3 pounds of brown sugar (or 3 pints of syrup)
3 ounces of saltpeter
6 gallons of water
Mix the above ingredients thoroughly. The solution should
be poured in a tub or barrel into which the meat is to be placed.
After the pieces are cut and trimmed they should be placed in

Fig. 26.-Hog carcass divided into main cuts. 1. Ham. 2. Back and loin.
3. Side or middling. 4. Shoulder.

'. . . . .

/ ii 4


Fig. 27.-The main cuts of a hog carcass trimmed and ready to be cured.
1. Ham. 2. Back and loin. 3. Side or middling. 4. Shoulder.

46 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

the curing solution. Put the hams and shoulders on the bottom
in packing the meat in the curing solution. Pack the meat with
the skin side down. Leave the hams and shoulders within
the sweet-pickle solution for three to four days for each pound
weight. For example, a 10-pound ham would remain in the so-
lution for 30 to 40 days. The sides should remain in the curing
solution for two to three days for each pound weight. After
remaining in the solution for the proper length of time the pieces
should then be taken out and smoked with smoke from hickory
The formula for the "dry cure" method is as follows:
For each 100 pounds of meat use:
8 pounds of salt
3 pounds of brown sugar (or 3 pints of syrup)
3 ounces of saltpeter
2 ounces of black pepper
3 ounces of red pepper
Mix all of the above ingredients thoroughly. The curing mix-
ture should be thoroughly rubbed into the meat and placed be-
tween the pieces as they are packed in a wooden tub or barrel.
The meat should be kept in the curing mixture for at least three
days for each pound weight of the pieces. For example, a ten-
pound ham should remain in the mixture for at least 30 days.
After the meat is cured it should then be smoked in hickory
In most sections of Florida, to obtain the best results, it is
necessary to keep the meat in cold storage during either of the
above curing processes.
After the meat is smoked it should be well wrapped in paper
and pult in muslin bags. The bags containing the meat should
be covered with a thick whitewash made by adding waterslacked
lime to water, making a thick paste. After the bags containing
the meat have been treated with the whitewash, the meat should
be stored in the coolest place on the farm.

Hog cholera causes a greater annual loss to the swine industry
than any other disease. It is very contagious and spreads rapid-
ly through the herd, causing the death of practically all hogs
infected. Quite often it appears in widespread epidemics and
in such outbreaks it is responsible for the death of large num-
bers of hogs. Such epidemics are especially apt to occur when

Bulletin 236, Swine Production in Florida 47

swine raisers decide to take a chance and do not vaccinate their
hogs against the disease. Such a choice is always accompanied
with great risk. The cost of vaccination is not very great
when done at the proper age, which is at weaning time. It will
be found that the cost of vaccination over a period of years is
far less than the financial loss resulting from hog cholera out-
breaks in herds not vaccinated (Fig. 28).
Cause: Hog cholera is caused by a specific germ technically
known as the filterable virus of hog cholera, and hogs must be-
come infected with this germ before they develop the disease.

Fig. 28.-Hogs infected with hog cholera. (Courtesy Bureau of
Animal Industry, USDA.)

The virus gains entrance into the body mainly through contam-
inated feed and water. Sick hogs discharge the virus through
the intestinal droppings, the urine, and discharges from the nose
and eyes. Usually, the symptoms are manifested within a week
or 10 days after exposure to the virus. The sick hog is the most
dangerous agent in spreading the virus. However, the virus may
be carried on the feet of persons, or wagon or truck wheels, and
by running water.
Symptoms: There are two types of hog cholera, acute and
chronic. In the acute type the following symptoms are present:
sluggishness, a desire to remain in the accustomed sleeping quar-
ters, loss of appetite, vomiting, coughing, labored and rapid
breathing, discharge from the eyes even causing eyelids to be
glued shut, high temperature, profound weakness, and consti-

48 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

pation at onset of disease followed by diarrhea. The mortality
rate is exceedingly high.
In the chronic type, the animal becomes greatly emaciated,
weak and unthrifty. A pronounced cough is present. The hair
may be shed in some cases and sore areas often develop over
parts of the body.

Fi. 29.-Vaccinatin a i inst cholera.

Fig. 29.-Vaccinating a pig against cholera.

Bulletin 236, Swine Production in Florida 49

Post-Mortem Changes: Upon a post-mortem examination a
hog which died of cholera will show the following changes: hem-
orrhages (small blood spots) on the heart, lungs, spleen, kidneys,
and inner lining of urinary bladder. The intestines are con-
gested. The lymph glands are also hemorrhagic.
Control: All hogs should be vaccinated against hog cholera.
The vaccination should be done when the pigs are eight to ten
weeks old (Fig. 29). If the disease is detected at its onset a
large dose of anti-hog cholera serum sometimes proves helpful,
but in the advanced stages of the disease, the serum is of no use
whatever in treatment. There is no medical agent useful in
treating the disease. When cholera is first observed in the herd
the well hogs should be separated from the sick ones. All hogs
that die of the disease should be buried deeply or burned, pref-
erably burned.
Cause: Swine plague is technically known as hemorrhagic
septicemia and is found present in some outbreaks of hog
cholera. The disease is caused by the germ, Pasteurella suisep-
ticus, which is often found in the respiratory passages of healthy
hogs. When some disease or other condition exists that lowers
the vitality of the hogs, the swine plague organism often be-
comes pathogenic, producing the disease.
Symptoms: It is quite impossible to distinguish between
symptoms of swine plague and hog cholera in the field. It
seems, however, that in swine plague the respiratory passages
are involved more pronouncedly than in cases of hog cholera.
Even on post-mortem examination the two diseases are indis-
tinguishable. Swine plague very rarely occurs as an independ-
ent disease.
Control: When vaccinating hogs against hog cholera it is well
to vaccinate them also against swine plague, since such vacci-
nation requires very little extra expense. At the first occurrence
of the disease within the herd, all well hogs should be isolated
from the sick ones. The hogs that die of swine plague should
be buried deeply or burned.
Necrotic enteritis is a disease which assumes somewhat of
a chronic form when it first occurs, but as the disease later
spreads through the herd it may cause quite acute symptoms.

50 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

It is found most frequently in hogs kept under insanitary con-
ditions as in filthy and wet pens, and where they have access
to filthy wallow-holes.
Cause: The cause of necrotic enteritis is a germ known as Sal-
monella suipestifer which invades the mucus membrane lining
the inner surface of the intestines, and then the Bacillus necro-
phorus attacks the injured mucus membrane and causes exten-
sive ulceration. Both of these organisms are responsible for the
Symptoms: The disease is found most frequently in pigs and
shotes under six months of age. The symptoms are unthrifti-
ness, weakness, staggering gait, loss of appetite, diarrhea, the
intestinal discharges having a very foul odor, and very rough
skin. The temperature is generally normal or very slightly
elevated. Death sometimes occurs within a few days after the
first symptoms are noticed, while in other cases the sick animal
may linger for several days and finally die.
Post-Mortem Changes: Upon a post-mortem examination an
animal dying of this disease shows marked changes in the in-
testines. Numerous ulcers of varying sizes will be detected on
the mucus membrane lining the intestine. These ulcers are
somewhat elevated from the surface of the mucus membrane and
have a pit in the center. The entire ulcer is composed of dead
tissue and large areas of such tissue can be scraped off easily
with a knife blade. The walls of the intestines are greatly
Control: Very little benefit is derived from the use of drugs
in treating necrotic enteritis. After the ulcers have already
formed in the intestines there is no drug that can restore the
diseased tissue to normal. The pigs should be changed to clean
quarters when the first indications of the disease appear. To
prevent infection, pigs should never be kept in dirty, filthy, wet
pens and lots, since such places often harbor the germs that
cause the disease.
Cause: The exact cause of necrotic rhinitis is probably the
Bacillus necrophorus, a germ often found in insanitary quarters.
The infection gains entrance through skin injuries of the nose
and face or through injured mucus membranes.
Symptoms: The first symptom observed is the occurrence of
numerous small ulcers in the region of the nose. The nasal

Bulletin 236, Swine Production in Florida 51

mucus membrane is congested and swollen. The infection con-
tinues to invade the deeper structures in the nasal region until
finally a pronounced swelling of the entire face is noted. Even
the facial bones become infected and in severe cases the nasal
discharge consists of a large amount of foul smelling pus which
is streaked with blood. The infection is quite fatal in young
pigs while older shotes will linger for several days, during which
time the infection continues to invade the bones of the face,
causing the face to become greatly disfigured.
Treatment: When the animal becomes so badly diseased that
the bones of the face are infected and disfigured the most hu-
mane treatment is to destroy such an animal. Preventive treat-
ment would consist in keeping pigs in clean quarters at all times.
In the early stages, medical treatment sometimes proves help-
ful. This consists of scraping off as much of the diseased tis-
sue as is possible and painting the areas with tincture of iodine'
or cauterizing them with lunar caustic.

The hog louse is the most troublesome external parasite in-
festing hogs. This parasite is a blood sucker and lowers the
vitality of infected hogs, making them more susceptible to other
diseases. Lice also produce skin eruptions which become serious
in severe cases.
The parasite is approximately one-fourth inch in length. The
female lays her eggs on the hair of the hog, laying from three
to six eggs daily. The eggs hatch in about 14 days. After
hatching, it requires from 10 to 14 days until sexual maturity
is reached, at which time the females begin laying eggs and the
cycle is repeated.
Lice can be observed quite readily as they move over the skin
and through the hair of infested hogs. They crawl from hair
to hair, and are found most abundantly in the region of the
flanks, at the base of the ears, and on the shoulders.
Treatment: Oily preparations are useful in killing lice. Crude
oil is inexpensive and is very useful. Waste oil from garages is
often used very effectively. A mixture of one part kerosene to
three parts lard or linseed oil is useful, though quite expensive.
The oil is best applied by hand, using a mop made by tying a
piece of cloth to the end of a stick. Another effective way is to

52 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

spray the oil on the hog with a hand sprayer. Rubbing or oil-
ing posts are somewhat useful in controlling lice, but they are
not as efficient as hand applications since the oil does not reach
the infested parts in many cases. Lice very rarely leave the
skin surface of infested hogs, yet in eradicating these parasites
from the premises all litter should be burned and fresh litter
added to the sleeping quarters at least once a week.
Mange is a very troublesome parasitic disease affecting swine.
There are two types of mange, the sarcoptic or common mange
and the red mange or demodectic type. Common mange is caused
by very minute mange mites which burrow into the layers of
skin, and produce small galleries in which the female mite lays
eggs. A female lays from 15 to 25 eggs, and then dies. The
eggs hatch within these galleries in about a week or 10 days.
The young mites undergo several molts and reach sexual ma-
turity in about two weeks. These newly hatched mites crawl
out of their galleries, move about over the skin surface of the
infested hog, and finally burrow into the skin on other parts of
the body. The cycle continues in that manner, and if the para-
sites are not destroyed they infest larger skin areas until finally
the entire skin surface will be infested. Such an infested hog
presents a very unsightly appearance.
Symptoms: The skin is very rough. Small pimple-like erup-
tions, reddish in color and covered with scabs, are found over
the infested areas. As the infestation spreads, the diseased
areas become larger and unite, forming large raw areas over the
body. The infested hog rubs these areas as a result of the severe
skin irritation, and in doing so the condition is aggravated. In
severe cases the skin becomes extremely scabby, crusty, and
will crack open in places.
In case of red mange the mange mites burrow into the hair
follicles. The infested areas are covered with numerous red
pimple-like eruptions containing pus, the hair falls out, and the
disease spreads rapidly to adjoining areas. This form of mange
is more serious than common mange since the mange mites bur-
row deeper into the tissues and this form is more difficult to
Treatment: Since the mange mites burrow into the skin and
hair follicles, it is very difficult to apply effective treatment. In
treating mange, the scabs over the diseased areas should be re-

Bulletin 236, Swine Production in Florida 53

moved by bathing the parts with an antiseptic solution, using a
stiff brush to remove the scabs. The coal tar products are very
effective in treating external parasites, hence these products
could be used advantageously in making up the antiseptic solu-
tion. Add three or four ounces of any reliable coal tar product
to one gallon of water in preparing the solution. After washing
the areas thoroughly, allow them to dry for a few hours, then
apply either of the following mixtures:
1. Sulphur .......................... 4 ounces 2. Sulphur .......................... 4 ounces
Kerosene ........................ 1 pint Kerosene ....................... 1 pint
Raw linseed oil ......... -- 1 quart Lard .............................. 2 pounds
Crude petroleum and waste oil from garages are used in treat-
ing mange, but these products are not as efficient as the mix-
tures above mentioned.
It may require three or
four treatments at inter-
vals of a week or 10 days
to cure mange. Red
mange is practically in-

The swine industry
bears a heavy financial
loss each year from the
ravages of internal para-
sites. It is possible to Fig. 30.-Large roundworms completely ob-
structing the intestinal tract of a pig.
prevent this loss if the (The rule is 6 inches long.)
swine breeders care to
do so. Planting of grazing crops is necessary, and perhaps a
little extra money for fences will be required, but the increased
returns from healthy hogs will more than repay for the cost of
these efforts. The large roundworm and the kidney worm are
largely responsible for these losses.
The large roundworm, technically known at Ascaris lumbri-
coides, is the most destructive internal parasite of swine (Fig.
30). The exact life history of this worm has been determined
within the past few years. It was discovered that the large
roundworm took a journey through the body of the pig, and in

54 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

this journey such vital organs as the liver and lungs were in-
fected by the larval forms of the parasite. It is essential to
know the life history in order to appreciate fully the importance
of the parasite (Fig. 31).
Life History: The adult worms are found in the small in-
testines. The adult females lay millions of eggs which pass out
with the droppings, contaminating the soil with worm eggs.
Such newly laid eggs are not capable of producing infection,

l .hAC'WO! sREy THROUGH 7/ PiQ.


Fig. 31.-Pictorial story of the life cycle of the roundworm.
since they require an incubation period of from three to six
weeks before they become infectious. During the incubation
period the young microscopic worms develop within the eggs,
producing what is technically known as embryonated eggs. When
the embryonated eggs are swallowed they pass to the small in-
testines where they hatch. Shortly after hatching the small
worms, microscopic in size, burrow through the mucus mem-
brane of the intestines and gain entrance to the blood stream.
The circulation of blood carries them to the liver where they
remain for three or four days, causing certain degenerating
changes in this organ. Then they leave the liver by means of

Bulletin 236, Swine Production in Florida 55

the outgoing blood and pass through the heart to the lungs.
They remain in the lungs for four or five days, during which
time they cause irritation within these organs and may even
produce pneumonia. Then they crawl up the bronchial tubes
and windpipe to the rear of the mouth. Upon reaching the rear
part of the mouth they are swallowed, passing down the gullet
to the stomach and intestines. When they reach the small in-
testines the parasites remain in that portion of the digestive
system and develop to maturity. It takes about 10 days to com-
plete the journey and in about 10 weeks after they reach the
small intestines they become sexually mature. Then the life
cycle is repeated. The late Dr. B. H. Ransom, former Chief of
the Zoological Division, Bureau of Animal Industry, deserves the
credit of having worked out the life history of the Ascaris lum-
bricoides in pigs.
How Pigs Become Infected: Pigs become infected with worms
from exposure to filthy hog wallows, mudholes, and from grazing
over pastures on which hogs have been kept continuously. If
the brood sow has access to a filthy hog wallow she will take a
mud bath in the dirty wallow hole. Such places are generally
heavily contaminated with worm eggs and the eggs contaminate
the teats of the brood sow when she is permitted to wallow in
such mudholes. Immediately after wallowing she often allows
the little pigs to nurse, and in doing so, they take numerous em-
bryonated eggs into their digestive systems where these eggs
hatch into worms. Thus when the little pigs are only a few days
old they become infected with worms when the brood sows have
access to insanitary surroundings. Pigs become infected also
from grazing over infected soil.
Symptoms of Worm Infection: The large roundworm infects
young pigs primarily; however, old sows sometimes harbor a
few of these parasites. When young pigs are infected they be-
come very stunted, unthrifty, and weak. They lose flesh, be-
come emaciated, and have a rough coat (Fig. 32). Diarrhea is
often present, and the abdomen sometimes enlarges, producing a
condition often called "pot bellied". At times the worms are so
numerous that they partially or even completely obstruct the
intestinal tract. Many pigs infected with the large roundworm
die, while those having resistance sufficient to withstand the in-
fection will always be runty, and never make good "feeders".
When pigs are stunted as a result of worms, they require much

56 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

more feed to produce satisfactory gains. It is, therefore, very
uneconomical to raise pigs infected with worrhs.
Control of the Large Roundworm: The Federal Government,
through experiments conducted in McLean County, Illinois, and
at Moultrie, Georgia, has shown that the large roundworm can
be controlled by using the following precautions: Wash the
teats, mammary glands, and feet of the brood sow and put her
on a clean pasture a week before she farrows. By clean pasture

Fig. 32.-Pig heavily infested with worms. (From Livestock and Poultry
Diseases. Courtesy The Macmillan Co.)

is meant land which has been planted to some annual crop. Such
land has been cultivated several times in growing the crop and
the cultivation destroys worm eggs, hence the reason for refer-
ring to such land as clean pasture. A portable A-shaped hog
house should be placed in the field where the sow is to farrow.
The pigs should remain on the cultivated land for at least four
months, for during that time they are very susceptible to worm
infection. The brood sow should be taken out of the field when
the pigs are from eight to ten weeks old, as the pigs are old
enough to be weaned at that age. This method of control is
being used very extensively throughout the corn belt and in
the south. Such practices have shown definitely that it pays to
raise pigs free of worms.

Bulletin 236, Swine Production in Florida 57

Advantage of Raising Pigs Free of Worms: The following
advantages are derived from raising pigs free of Worms:
1. Pigs will not be stunted in growth.
2. More pigs will be raised per litter.
3. Pigs will make far more economical gains.
"4. When the shots are fattened they will be uniform in size
and quality. The markets demand such uniformity.

The Kidney worm, technically known as Stephanurus dentatus,
is another destructive parasite of swine. This parasite infects
older hogs and when it attacks the brood sow much loss is ex-
perienced, since it is then infecting the foundation of the herd.
The kidney worm is from one inch to one and one-half inches
long. It is a mottled worm, having a semi-transparent covering
through which the internal structures of
the parasite can be seen. In the infected
hog the parasites are found most litiii-
dantly in the sublumbar region, clhiet-
ly in the tissue around the kidney y-. "
and along the course of the ure- .
ters (the two small tubes leaid-
ing from the kidneys to the :I
urinary bladder) (F i g.
33). They are often
present in other portions
of the body, including
the liver, lungs, and kid- "
neys. The presence of
the kidney worm gives
rise to numerous cysts
and abscess formations
varying from one-fourth
inch to over one inch in
diameter. Within these
cysts are usually found
a male and a female kid-
ney worm, although four Fig. 33.-Kidney worms often are found
Sf along the course of the ureters.
or five parasites may be
present in the same cyst. The parasites may likewise occur
within the recently formed abscesses. However, in the old
formations they are not present.

58 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

The cysts occurring along the course of the ureters have small
tubes or tracts leading into the ureters. The adult female para-
sites, being present within these cysts, lay eggs which pass
through these small tracts into the ureters, and as the urine
passes down the ureters the eggs are carried to the urinary blad-
der and pass out with the urine as it is voided. When cysts are
found along the course of the ureters the urine always contains
numerous eggs.
Recent investigations by the Zoological Division of the Federal
Bureau of Animal Industry show that the larvae pass from the
intestines to the liver by the blood circulation. They produce
certain degenerative changes in the liver and wander from the
liver to adjoining structures.
There is no medical treatment useful in controlling kidney
worm infection. If the breeding herd is kept on clean premises,
and allowed to graze in clean pastures as outlined under "Con-
trol of the Large Roundworm" it will be found that kidney worm
infection also will be controlled.

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