Citation
Selecting and using beef and veal

Material Information

Title:
Selecting and using beef and veal
Series Title:
Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Creator:
Pearson, A. M ( Albert Marchant ), 1916-
Kirk, W. Gordon ( William Gordon ), 1898-1979
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla
Publisher:
University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
36 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Beef ( lcsh )
Veal ( lcsh )
Cooking (Beef) ( lcsh )
Cooking (Veal) ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
Cover title.
Statement of Responsibility:
A.M. Pearson and W.G. Kirk.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier:
027108363 ( ALEPH )
18276369 ( OCLC )
AEN7057 ( NOTIS )

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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do not reflect current scientific knowledge or recommendations. These texts represent the historic publishing record of the Institute for Food and Agricultural Sciences and should be used only to trace the historic work of the Institute and its staff. Current WAS research may be found on the Electronic Data Information Source (EDIS)
site maintained by the Florida Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University of Florida







Bulletin 541

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
WiLLARD M. FIFIELD, Director GAINESVILLE. FLORIDA





Selecting and Using Beef and Veal


A. M. PEARSON and W. G. KIRK


June 1954


Fig. 1.-U. S. Choice wholesale beef rib. (Courtesy USDA Production
and Marketing Administration.)


Single copies free to Florida residents upon request to
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA









BOARD OF CONTROL
Hollis Rinehart, Chairman, Miami J. Lee Ballard, St. Petersburg Fred H. Kent, Jacksonville Win. H. Dial, Orlando Mrs. Alfred I. duPont, Jacksonville George W. English, Jr., Ft. Lauderdale W. Glenn Miller, Monticello J. B. Culpepper, Secretary, Tallahassee
EXECUTIVE STAFF John S. Allen, Acting Presidents J. Wayne Reitz, Ph.D., Provost for Agr.5 Willard M. Fifield, M.S., Director J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Asso. Director R. W. Bledsoe, Ph.D., Assistant Director Rogers L. Bartley, B.S., Admin. Mgr.s Geo. R. Freeman, B.S., Farm Superintendent

MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE
AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS H. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Agr. Economist 1 R. E. L. Greene, Ph.D., Agr. Economist 3 M. A. Brooker, Ph.D., Agr. Economist s Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Agr. Economist D. E. Alleger, M.S., Associate D. L. Brooke, M.S.A., Associate M. R. Godwin, Ph.D., Associate3 W. K. McPherson, M.S., Agr. Economist 3 Eric Thor, M.S., Asso. Agr. Economists Cecil N. Smith, M.A., Asso. Agr. Economist Levi A. Powell, Sr., M.S.A., Assistant' E. D. Smith, Ph.D., Asst. Agr. Economist N. K. Roberts, M.A., Asst. Agr. Economist
Orlando, Florida (Cooperative USDA) G. Norman Rose, B.S., Asso. Agri. Economist J. C. Townsend, Jr., B.S.A., Agr. Statistician2 J. B. Owens, B.S.A., Agr. Statistician 2 F. T. Calloway, M.S., Agr. Statistician C. L. Crenshaw, M.S., Asst. Agr. Economist B. W. Kelly, M.S., Asst. Agr. Economist
AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING Frazier Rogers, M.S.A., Agr. Engineer ' J. M. Myers, M.S.A., Asso. Agr. Engineer J. S. Norton, M.S., Asst. Agr. Engineer
AGRONOMY
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist 5 G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Agronomist H. C. Harris, Ph.D., Agronomist W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Agronomist Fred A. Clark, M.S., Associate 2 E. S. Horner, Ph.D., Assistant A. T. Wallace, Ph.D., Assistant D. E. McCloud, Ph.D., Assistants G. C. Nutter, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist 1. M. Wofford, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist E. 0. Burt, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist J. W. Edwardson, M.S., Asst. Agronomist s

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND NUTRITION T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., Animal Husbandman I G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist2 It. L. Shirley, Ph.D., Biochemist A. M. Pearson, Ph.D., Asso. An. Husb.3 John P. Feaster, Ph.D., Asst. An. Nutri. H. D. Wallace, Ph.D., Asso. An. Husb.3 M. Koger, Ph.D., An. Husbandman 2 J. F. Hentges, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. An. Hush. L. R. Arrington, Ph.D., Asst. An. Hush. A. C. Warnick, Ph.D., Asst. Physiologist
DAIRY SCIENCE
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist 's R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman s S. P. Marshall, Ph.D., Asso. Dairy Husb. W. A. Krienke, M.S., Asso. Dairy Tech.2 P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Asso. Dairy llush. 8 Leon Mull, Ph.D., Asso. Dairy Tech.2 H. H. Wilkowske, Ph.D., Asst. Dairy Tech.3 James M. Wing, Ph.D., Asst. Dairy Hush.


EDITORIAL
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor3 Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Associate Editor 3 William G. Mitchell, A.B.J., Assistant Editor Samuel L. Burgess, A.B.J., Assistant Editor

ENTOMOLOGY
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., EntomologistI L. C. Kuitert, Ph.D., Associate H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant F. A. Robinson, M.S., Asst. Apiculturist R. E. Waites, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist S. H. Kerr, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist J. R. Christie, Ph.D., Nematologist
HOME ECONOMICS
Ouida D. Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ.' R. B. French, Ph.D., Biochemist
HORTICULTURE
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist"' R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Hort. & Interim Head F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Horticulturists Albert P. Lorz, Ph.D., Horticulturist R. K. Showalter, M.S., Asso. Hort. R. H. Sharpe, M.S., Asso. Horticulturist V. F. Nettles, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Horticulturist2 R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Asso. Short. L. H. Halsey, M.S.A., Asst. Hort. C. B. Hall, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist Austin Griffiths, Jr., B.S., Asst. Hort. S. E. McFadden, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Hort. C. H. VanMiddelem, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist B. D. Thompson, M.S.A., Interim Asst. Hort. M. W. Hoover, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.

LIBRARY
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian
PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Phares Decker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist Erdman West, M.S., Botanist & Mycologist Robert W. Earhart, Ph.D., Plant Path.2 Howard N. Miller, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path. Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Asso. Botanist C. W. Anderson, Ph.D., Asst. Plant -Path.
POULTRY HUSBANDRY
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husb.' J. C. Driggers, Ph.D., Asso. Poultry Husb.
SOILS
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologist 3 Gaylord M. Volk, Ph.D., Soils Chemist J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Soils Chemist Nathan Gammon, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist Ralph G. Leighty, B.S., Asst. Soil Surveyor 2 G. D. Thornton, Ph.D., Microbiologist C. F. Eno, Ph.D., Asst. Soils Microbiologist H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist R. E. Caldwell, Ph.D., Asst. Chemists V. W. Carlisle, B.S., Asst. Soil Surveyor J. H. Walker, M.S.A., Asst. Soil Surveyor William K. Robertson, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
0. E. Cruz, B.S.A., Asst. Soil Surveyor W. G. Blue, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist J. G. A. Fiskel, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemists L. C. Hammond, Ph.D., Asst. Soil Physicist' H. L. Breland, Ph.D., Asst. Soils Chem. W. L. Pritchett, Ph.D., Soil Technologist
VETERINARY SCIENCE
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian 's M. W, Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarian 3 C. F. Simpson, D.V.M., Asso. Veterinarian L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist W. R. Dennis, D.V.M., Asst. Parasitologist E. W. Swarthout, D.V.M., Asso. Poultry
Pathologist (Dade City)
M. Ristic, D.V.M., Asso. Poultry Pathologist J. G. Wadsworth, D.V.M., Asst. Poul. Path.








BRANCH STATIONS

NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY
W. C. Rhoades, M.S., Entomologist in Charge R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist L. G. Thompson, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist W. H. Chapman, M.S., Agronomist Frank S. Baker, Jr., B.S., Asst. An. Husb. Frank E. Guthrie, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist
Mobile Unit, Monticello
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Associate Agronomist
Mobile Unit, Marianna
R. W. Lipscomb, M.S., Associate Agronomist
Mobile Unit, Pensacola
R. L. Smith, M.S., Associate Agronomist
Mobile Unit, Chipley
J. B. White, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist

CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge W. L. Thompson, B.S., Entomologist R. F. Suit, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist E. P. Ducharme, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path. J. W. Sites, Ph.D., Horticulturist H. 0. Sterling, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist H. J. Reitz, Ph.D., Horticulturist Francine Fisher, M.S., Asst. Plant Path. I. W. Wander, Ph.D., Soils Chemist J. W. Kesterson, M.S., Asso. Chemist R. Hendrickson, B.S., Asst. Chemist Ivan Stewart, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist IY. S. Prosser, Jr., B.S., Asst. Engineer R. W. Olsen, B.S., Biochemist F. W .Wenzel, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist Alvin H. Rouse, M.S., Asso. Chemist H. W. Ford, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist L. C. Knorr, Ph.D., Asso. Histologist R. M. Pratt, Ph.D., Asso. Ent.-Pathologist W. A. Simanton, Ph.D., Entomologist E. J. Deszyck, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist C. V. Leonard, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist W. T. Long, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist M. H. Mums, Ph.D., Asso. Entomologist F. J. Reynolds, Ph.D., Asso. Hort. W. F. Spencer, Ph.D., Asst. Chem. R. B. Johnson, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist W. F. Newhall, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist W. F. Grierson-Jackson, Ph.D., Asst. Chem. Roger Patrick, Ph.D., Bacteriologist M. F. Oberbacher, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Physiol Evert J. Elvin, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist R. C. J. Koo, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist J. R. Kuykendall, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist W. C. Price, Ph.D., Virologist


EVERGLADES STATION, BELLE GLADE
W. T. Forsee, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist in Charge R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Fiber Technologist Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Physiologist J. W. Randolph, M.S., Agricultural Engr. R. W. Kidder, M.S. Asso. Animal Husb. C. C. Seale, Associate Agronomist N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A. Asso. Entomologist E. A. Wolf, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist W. H. Thames, M.S., Asst. Entomologist W. G. Genung, M.S., Asst. Entomologist Robert J. Allen, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist V. E. Green, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist J. F. Darby, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path. V. L. Guzman, Ph.D., Asst. Hort. J. C. Stephens, B.S., Drainage Engineer 2 A. E. Kretschmer, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Soils Chem.
Charles T. Ozaki, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist Thomas L. Meade, Ph.D., Asst. An. Nutri. I. S. Harrison M.S., Asst. Agri. Engr. F. T. Boyd, Ph.D., Asso. Agronomist


M. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist J. N. Simons, Ph.D., Asst. Virologist D. W. Beardsley, M.S., Asst. Animal Hush. R. S. Cox, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist
SUB-TROPICAL STATION, HOMESTEAD
GCeo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Vice-Dir. in Charge D. 0. Wolfenbarger, Ph.D., Entomologist Francis B. Lincoln, Ph.D., Horticulturist Robert A. Conover, Ph.D., Plant Path. John L. Malcolm, Ph.D., Asso. Soils Chemist R. W. Harkness, Ph.Dt., Asst. Chemist R. Bruce Ledin, Ph.D., Asst. Hort. J. C. Noonan, M.S., Asst. Hort. M. H. Gallatin, B.S., Soil Conservationist 2 T. W, Young, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
WEST CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION,
BROOKSVILLE
Marian W. Hazen, M.S., Animal Husbandman in Charge 2
RANGE CATTLE STATION, ONA
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Agronomist D. W. Jones, M.S., Asst. Soil Technologist
CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION, SANFORD
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Vice-Dir. in Charge J. W. Wilson, ScD., Entomologist P. J. Westgate, Ph.D., Asso. Hort. Ben F. Whitner, Jr., B.S.A., Asst. Short.
WEST FLORIDA STATION, JAY
C. E. Hutton, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge H. W. Lundy, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist R. L. Jeffers. Ph.D., Asso. Agronomist

SUWANNEE VALLEY STATION,
LIVE OAK
G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Agronomist in Charge
GULF COAST STATION, BRADENTON E. L. Spencer, Ph.D., Soils Chemist in Charge E. G. Keisheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist David G. A. Kelbert, Asso. Horticulturist Robert 0. Magie, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist J. M. Walter, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist S. S. Woltz, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist Donald S. Burgis, M.S.A., Asst. Hort. C. M. Geraldson, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist G. Sowell, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Plant Pathologist


FIELD LABORATORIES
Watermelon, Grape, Pasture-Leesburg J. M. Cral, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path. in Chg. C. C. Helms, Jr., B.S., Asst. Agronomist L. H. Stover, Assistant in Horticulture
Strawberry-Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Vegetables-Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charge E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Horticulturist T. M. Dobrovsky, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist D. L. Myhre, B.S., Asst. Soils Chemist
Pecans-Monticello
A. M. Phillips, B.S., Asso. Entomologist John R. Large, M.S., Asso. Plant Path.
Frost Forecasting-Lakeland
Warren 0. Johnson, B.S., Meteorologist in
Charges
1 Head of Department In cooperation with U. S.
Cooperative, other divisions, U. of 1
4 On leave









CONTENTS
PAGE
SELECTION OF BEEF AND VEAL _ . ----------------- ----------------- ----------- ------- --- 5
Factors which Influence the Grade of Beef --------------- ---- __ --- ---------- _ 5
Grades of Beef Carcasses . . ------- ___ -------- -------- _ --------------- . 7
Grades of Veal and Calf Carcasses ----------- --- _ -------- ---------- -------- _ ------------- 9
F lavor in M eat --- ------------------ _ ------------------- ------------------------------------------- _ ----- 10
CUTTING OF M EAT ---- --- __ . -------------- --------- -------- _ ------ --- _ ----------------- _ ----------- 10
C uts of B eef -------------------- ------------ --------------------------- __ --------- _ ------ ------ 10
Cutting the Veal and Calf Carcass ------_------------ _ ---------------------------- 10
CARE OF M EAT IN THE: HOME ------------ ----------- ------ _ ----- ---------- ----- 31
M ethods of Preserving Beef and Veal ---- --- --------- --_----------------- --------- 32
C orned B eef ---- . -------- __ . . __ -------- __ --------- ----------------------- ------- 33
D ried B eef . . __ _ . _ -------------- _ ---------------------- -------- _ ------- ------ 34
PREPARATION OF MEAT FOR THE TABLE, -------- . ------------ __ ---------- ------------ 35
M ethods of Cooking M eat ------------- _ --- ----- -- ----------------------------------- - ----- 35
Other Methods of Preparing Less Tender Cuts ----------- ---------------- - -------- 36



REFERENCES

BELL, VIOLA M., and M. D. HELSER. Essentials in selection of meat. John
Wiley and Sons, Inc. 1930.
BULL, SLEETER. Meat for the table. McGraw-Hill. 1951. HELSFR, M. D. Farm meats. The Macmillan Co. 1929. National Livestock and Meat Board. Ten lessons on meat. 6th Ed. 1948. TomHAVE, W. H. Meat and meat products. J. B. Lippincott Co., 1930. U. S. Department of Agriculture. Official United States standards for
grades of dealers and slaughter calves. Service and Regulatory Announcements, No. 113. 1951.
U. S. Department of Agriculture. Official United States standards for
grades of veal and calf carcasses. Service and Regulatory Announcements, No. 114. 1951.
U. S. Department of Agriculture. Official United States standards for
grades of carcass beef. Service and Regulatory Announcements, No.
99. 1950.
U. S. Department of Agriculture. Official United States standards for
grades of slaughter cattle, Service and Regulatory Announcements,
No. 112. 1950.
ZIEGLER, P. T. The meat we eat. 3rd, Ed. Interstate Printers and Publishers. 1952.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors express their appreciation to Harold Mowry for making the pictures used in this bulletin. They also acknowledge the help of R. M. Crown, formerly Assistant Animal Husbandman, in the preparation of certain parts of this bulletin.







Selecting and Using Beef and Veal'

A. M. PEARSON and W. G. KIRK

Meat is a nutritious, palatable food that is largely digestible. It is an excellent dietary source of protein, containing all of the essential amino acids. It supplies most of the B-complex vitamins, being especially rich in niacin, which will prevent and cure pellagra. Recently, researchers have found meat to contain vitamin B12, which is important in red blood cell formation. Meat is also a good source of many minerals, especially iron, copper and phosphorus. Not only is meat nutritious but its flavor makes it one of the most appetite-satisfying foods.
In purchasing food, the housewife is a careful and critical buyer. This is especially true in purchasing fruits, vegetables and canned goods. Fruits and vegetables are selected upon a basis of quality and freshness, while canned goods are largely purchased by their brand name. However, meats, particularly beef and veal, are not so easily selected. Few housewives are able to recognize the various steaks and roasts, and the recognition of quality in the retail cuts is even more elusive.
This bulletin is designed to: (1) aid in identifying the various cuts of beef and veal, (2) serve as a guide in selecting meat from a quality standpoint, with special reference to the use of government grades, (3) present the various methods of preserving beef and veal, and (4) outline some standard methods of cookery used in preparing meats for the table.

SELECTION OF BEEF AN[) VEAL
FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE THE GRADE OF BEEF
The term "beef" has a rather comprehensive usage, which includes the meat obtained from all classes of cattle except dealers and calves. Frequently the terms "veal" and "calf" are used interchangeably to designate the meat from animals of the bovine species which are under one year of age. However, by definition of the United States Department of Agriculture, veal is the flesh of calves not under three weeks of age nor over 12 weeks of age at the time of slaughter. Calf carcasses are from animals which have passed the veal stages but have not taken on the characteristics of beef, or from animals between 12 weeks and one year of age at the time of slaughter. Beef, then, is the meat from all animals of the bovine species which are beyond one year of age at time of slaughterA revision of Bulletin 321 by W. G. Kirk and A. L. Shealy.






Flotida Agricultural Experiment Stations


ing. Sometimes a special classification known as baby beef is used, which is the meat from good type animals having a high degree -of finish that are marketed between 12 and 18 months of age.
The grade of a beef or veal carcass is determined by, three factors: (1) conformation or form, (2) finish or the amount and distribution of fat, and (3) quality.
Conforniation The term conformation refers to the general form and outline of the carcass. The ideal carcass has short shanks and a short neck, a well developed, thick round, a full, thick, heavily-muscled loin, and a well proportioned, thick chuck. In general, the ideal carcass has a high proportion of meat to bone and a large percentage of the high-priced cuts (loin, round and ribs) in relation to the low-priced cuts (chuck and plate). In contrast, a low-grade carcass has long shanks, a long, thin neck, prominent hip bones, heavy, coarse shoulders, along, thin, tapering round, a shallow loin and poorly arched ribs, showing lack of development in the high-priced cuts.
Finish.,-Finish refers to the amount, character and distribution of external and internal fat throughout the carcass. A well finished beef carcass has an even covering of fat over the chuck, rib, loin and round. Inside, the carcass shows abundant overflow or lining fat between the ribs, and the inside of the flank shows fat streaking in the large lean muscle. When the carcass is cut the fat is liberally streaked through the lean muscles. This ' intermixture of fat throughout the lean is called "marbling" and indicates quality as well as finish.
Fat makes the meat more attractive and a good external covering is necessary for aging, which is the process of holding the meat at temperatures of 320 to 3811 F. in the meat cooler for several days to three weeks while the enzymes break down the connective tissue. This renders the meat more tender and improves the flavor. Beef lacking an external covering of fat dries out rapidly and the surface begins to decompose with the development of slime and mold.
Fat makes the meat more palatable and increases the degree of tenderness. An external covering of fat prevents loss of moisture during the cooking process, bastes the meat while it is cooking and adds to the flavor. Although excess fat may be undesirable, fat is necessary to give the meat a full, rich flavor and to prevent drying out during cooking with the attendant toughness.







Selecting and Using Beef and Veal


Quality.-In meat, quality is determined by the size, color and texture of the bones; color, firmness and texture of muscle fibers; amount and appearance of connective tissue; and distribution and texture of the fat. The animal's age is considered under quality and is determined by the appearance of the bones. A young animal has soft, porous, moist, red bones. The cartilage buttons on the tip of the chine bones are unossified and soft in the young animal and gradually become hard and flinty as the animal matures. Poor quality beef contains a high proportion of bone which is white and flinty in character. Good quality is indicated by fine textured lean which is bright red in color, smooth and velvety in appearance, and well marbled. On the other hand, poor quality is evidenced by coarse-textured, dark-colored lean with a relatively large quantity of connective tissue. An even distribution of fat with abundant marbling indicates high quality; lack of finish, uneven distribution of fat and absence of marbling are indicative of poor quality.

GRADES OF BEEF CARCASSES
The United States Department of Agriculture has set up certain established grades for fresh beef and veal. This makes it



mamma



WORAW


WWWWW



WWWWW
USDA
PRIME
WORM,
Fig. 2-These are exact replicas of the grade stamps appearing on the upper five grades of beef carcasses. In applying the stamp to a carcass, it must appear on every wholesale cut. (Courtesy USDA Production Marketing Administration.)







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


possible to. purchase beef and veal by grade with assurance that the meat will come up to the specifications of the grade.
The grades of, beef set up by the USDA are as follows from highest to lowest: Prime, Choice, Good, Commercial, Utility, Cutter and Canner.
Under Office of Price Stablization regulations in effect during and following World War II, government grading was compulsory and many purchasers learned the advantages of buying by grade. Even though grading is no longer mandatory, it is usually possible to obtain government graded beef by asking your butcher. Government graded beef is stamped and the grade can be easily recognized by the consumer, as shown in Figure 2. Sometimes butchers take advantage of the uninformed by advertising U. S. graded AA or A grade meat, but such grades are not recognized as official.
The meat packers have their own systems of grading meat, which are largely patterned after government grades. However, the grades are placed on the meat by a representative of the packer and are thus more subject to variation, as the supervision is not so close. The packer grades do offer a step towards standardization and systematizing the selling of beef by name brands, but government grades have the advantage of being more comparable from one location to another and of being made by a grader free of packer pressure.
The following is a brief discussion of the government grades for beef carcasses:
Prime Grade.-As the -name denotes, meat bearing this grade approaches perfection. It comes only from steers and heifers which are blocky and compact and carry a considerable amount of finish. The Prime grade provides meat which approaches perfection in flavor and tenderness. Most Prime beef is used by restaurants, hotels, dining cars or steamships. In general, the meat is too expensive and carries too much fat to suit the average housewife.
Choice Grade.-Meats of this grade come from steers, heifers and, young cows not quite equal to those in the Prime grade in one or more of the grading factors, but are definitely superior in eating qualities. A large proportion of this grade goes into restaurants and public eating places. However, the select butcher trade handles large quantities of this grade. Although cutting waste is considerable, the superior flavor and tenderness of Choice beef make it a favorite of many housewives.






Selecting and Using Beef and Veal


Good Grade.-Most meat in this grade goes into the retail butcher shops where it is a universal favorite of those desiring to compromise between good eating qualities and economy of cost. It contains less fat than the higher grades but has a fair amount of exterior covering and a slight amount of marbling. It comes from steers, heifers and young cows.
Commercial Grade.-Beef qualifying for this grade is quite variable in conformation, finish and quality. Young cows, steers and heifers that are inferior in conformation and finish fall into this grade. Carcasses of older animals may carry plenty of finish and conformation for the higher grade but be graded Commercial because of their lack of quality as evidenced by maturity. Meat from Commercial carcasses should be cooked with moist heat or be ground to produce tender meat. However, the flavor is usually superior, and it is an economical source of lean meat.
Utility Grade.-Beef of Utility grade is decidedly inferior in conformation, finish and quality. Although some finds its way into retail channels, it is not suitable for oven-roasting or broiling. However, this grade produces excellent pot-roasts, stew meat and ground meat in which finish is not essential.
Cutter and Canner-These are the two bottom grades of beef and are not on the market in carcass form. Filet mignon (tenderloin muscle) and other boneless beef cuts are made from these grades. Most meat classifying as Cutter and Canner is used as ground beef, processed or canned.

GRADES OF VEAL AND CALF CARCASSES
Veal and calf carcasses are graded the same, although there is some difference in maturity. Differentiation is based primarily upon color of the lean, although appearance of bones, texture of lean, character of fat and carcass weight are considered.
The grades are Prime, Choice, Good, Commercial, Utility and Cull. The same grade factors, conformation, quality andfinish, used in grading beef carcasses are considered. The amount of finish and the relative importance of conformation and quality vary from veal to calves, but the same general principles hold true as in beef grading. Consequently, detailed grade specifications for calf and veal carcasses will not be discussed.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


FLAVOR IN MEAT
The flavor of meat is largely determined by the amount of meat extractives and fat-both internal and external. As the animal matures, meat extractives increase in the muscles, thereby'improving the flavor. Consequently, mature beef has a rich full flavor, whereas veal and calves have little flavor. On the other hand, meat from a mature animal lacks in tenderness because of the amount of connective tissue, while veal is extremely tender. In general, young steers and heifers from 15 to 30 months of age, of good conformation and well finished,, produce flavorful and comparatively tender meat.

CUTTING OF MEAT
The guiding principles in cutting meat are: (1) separation of the thin and thick cuts, (2) division of tender and less tender cuts, (3) size of cuts desired, and (4) the structure of the cut. Whenever possible, these principles should be followed.
Due to differences required in the cooking time, thin cuts are separated from the thick cuts. For example, the loin (a thick cut) is separated from the flank (a thin cut). As different methods of cookery are required for tender and less tender cuts, the rib (tender) is separated from. the chuck (less tender). The size of cuts desired necessarily influences the method of cutting. Structure is considered, because meat cut across the grain is more tender, more attractive and easier to carve.

CUTS OF BEEF
A side of beef is divided into fore and hind quarters. The division is usually made between the 12th and 13th ribs, which leaves one rib on the hindquarters. Although this practice varies somewhat according to local cutting procedures, a 12-rib forequarter will be used as standard in this bulletin. The following pictures illustrate the cuts and method of cutting.

CUTTING THE VEAL AND CALF CARCASS
Since both veal and calf are cut the same, they will be considered together. The same principles apply as in cutting beef carcasses.
The flesh of veal and calves, when exposed to air, dries out and turns dark more rapidly than beef. For this reason, the hide is left on the carcass at slaughtering time to be removed








Selecting and Usivg Beef and Veal


Fig. 3-Side of beef, outside and inside views, showing wholesale cuts.

Side of Beef.-The following wholesale and retail cuts are shown:


1. Round 2. Rump
3. Loin end 4. Short loin
5. Flank


6. Wholesale ribs
7. Navel make up 8. Brisket the plate,
9. Fore shank 10. Chuck rib roast


11. Chuck roast 12. Round bone pot
roast
13. Neck


According to USDA standard grades, the above side of beef would grade "Good." Note the fullness of the round and loin and the compactness of the carcass. The fat is uniformly distributed over the loin, ribs, chuck and the thicker part of the round. There is little fat, however, on the plate and lower part of the round.







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Fig. 4-Round steak, the least expensive steak of the hindquarter.



Round Steak.-Round steak is oval in shape with a small round bone in the center. It consists of several large muscles but lacks in exterior and interior fat. The cut shown, ho-,?vever, has more fat throughout the lean tissue than is found generally in round steak. The steak above is from the center of the wholesale round which is higher in quality than steaks cut from either the loin or shank end. The shank end of the round contains a relatively small amount of lean meat and a large amount of bone and connective tissue. It is used as pot roast, stew, or ground meat. The round steak is often divided into top and bottom round steaks by dividing along the natural seam. Top round contain-, the large muscle nearest the camera arid is most desirable, while the other portion is the bottom round and contains two major muscles.







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Fig. 5.-Rump roast.


Rump Roast.-The rump is a wedge-shaped piece of meat lying between the round and loin end (Fig. 3, No. 2). It has a moderate amount of fat and a relatively large portion of bone, as it contains the hip joint and part of the pelvic arch. This cut is suitable for roasting, but to facilitate carving it is frequently boned and rolled. The lean portion can be used as boneless steaks for broiling or pan frying if of good quality.








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Fig. 6-Round bone sirloin steak.


Round Bone Sirloin Steak.-Sirloin steaks are obtained from the wholesate loin end cut (Fig. 3, No. 3) and are characterized by being oblong in shape and containing sections of the backbone and hip bone. No two sirloin steaks are the same in -muscle and bone because of the changing positions of these structures. The steaks procured from the loin end are considered more tender and to have a more desirable flavor than those from the end towards the wholesale round cut.
The above steak is known as the round bone sirloin (note round bone in lower center of cut) and is one of the most desirable steaks from this section. The lean meat has been cut across the grain, since all of the muscle fibers run in one direction. The round bone sirloin steak is well marbled and contains a small proportion of bone to meat.


Fig. 7-Double bone sirloin steak.


Double Bone Sirloin Steak.-The characteristics of this steak are muscle fibers running in two directions and a relatively large proportion of fat and bone to lean meat. When lean meat is cut parallel to the muscle fibers (see right of figure) it lacks tenderness and, for this reason, it is not as desirable as the round bone sirloin steak. This steak may be broiled and when cut three inches thick makes an excellent roast.







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Fig. S.-Porterhouse is considered the highest quality steak in the beef carcass.




Porterhouse Steak.-Porterhouse, T-bone and club steaks are obtained from the short loin (Fig. 3, No. 4). Porterhouse is considered to be the highest quality steak in the beef carcass. It is characterized by the T-bone conformation, large "eye of beef" above the bone, and the tenderloin muscle below. When the tail end of the steak, which is rather coarse, is cut off, the resulting steak is known as a "short cut" porterhouse. These steaks should be cut about 3/1, inch thick if they are to be cooked well done, but if slightly rare meat is preferred, I to 11/2 inches is not too thick. Porterhouse, because of its flavor and tenderness, is in most demand and, therefore, is the most expensive cut in the beef carcass.






























Fig. 9.-T-bone steak is similar in quality to porterhouse.
T-Bone Steak.-T-bone steak can be recognized readily by the distinct T-bone form-ation. This steak shows considerable portion of tenderloin muscle, but usually there is much less than in porterhouse steak, or none at all. The "eye of beef " above the bone is similar in quality to that of the porterhouse. This cut, as indicated in the figure, contains a considerable quantity of kidney fat or suet. It is cut and cooked as is porterhoulse and the price is approximately the same.


Fig. 10.-Club steak is a high quality cut.
Club Steak. One or two club steaks are obtained from the rib end of the short loin. These steaks have neither T-bone nor tenderloin muscle, but may or may not have a rib (13th rib). Club steaks have a large "e of beef" which in good quality beef is well marbled and surrounded on the exterior by fat. This is a high quality cut and usually is broiled. For oven broiling, 1 to 11/ inches in thickness is best. Club steaks are considered to be slightly inferior in quality to porterhouse and T-hone steaks. However, they have a higher percentage of lean to fat and bone than do the other steaks obtained from the short loin.






















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Fig. 11.-Flank steak, of medium tenderness but rich in flavor.
Flank Steak.-The flank is the cheapest wholesale cut of the hindquarter. It contains about 50 percent surplus fat and connective tissue and very little bone. Its chief value lies in the large abdominal, fiat, rectangular-shaped muscle which is known as the flank steak. The muscle fibers of the steak are large and run lengthwise. When used for Swiss steak it is scored on both sides diagonally to the fibers. XWhen rolled with suet or fat pork it may he used as a roast. This steak is rich in flavor and when properly prepared is of medium tenderness.


Fig. 12.-Chuck end of rib.
Chuck End of Rib. There are 13 ribs in a side of beef. In quartering the side one rib, the 13th, is left on the hindquarter which leaves 12 ribs in the forequarter. The wholesale rib cut (Fig. 3, No. 6) contains seven ribs and corresponding sections of the backbone. Note the number of muscles which go to make up the thickness of this cut and the sinall cartilagenous section of the shoulder blade at the upper edge of the cut.







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Fig. 13.-An attractive folded rib roast from the 9th and 11th rib section.



Rib Roasts.-Retail roasts from the wholesale rib cut are the choicest roasts in the carcass. These roasts have the least bone of any forequarter cut and there is usually sufficient fat on the exterior and intermingled with the lean to baste it naturally as it cooks. Rib roasts are sold as standing, folded or rolled. The first cut from the loin end of the rib is known as the 11th and 12th rib roast; the middle cuts-the 9th and 10th and the 7th and 8th rib roasts; the chuck end as the 6th rib roast. The weight of the 6th rib cut is about equal to that of the 11th and 12th rib cut. The prepared folded rib roast shown in Fig. 13 was taken from the 9th and 10th rib section.








Selecting and Using Beef and Veal


Fig. 14.-Chuck rib roast, which is well flavored meat.


Chuck Rib Roast.-The square cut chuck (Fig. 3, wholesale cuts 10, 11, 12 and 13) has many small muscles and, as the muscle bundles run in various directions, it is impossible to cut all the muscles across the grain. The chuck has a relatively large amount of connective tissue, little fat and a fairly high percentage of bone. The retail cuts may be made in various shapes and sizes. The chuck rib roast consists of two ribs with corresponding vertebrae and part of the shoulder blade. It is made up of a nrimber of muscles, contains a moderate amount of fat and a considerable quantity of bone. A chuck rib roast from a carcass which grades Commercial or higher makes a satisfactory roast or it may be cut into chuck
-teaks. It is well flavored because it contains a relatively large amount Of meat extractives. It is usually braised or pot roasted.


Fig. 15-Boned and rolled chuck rib roasts.








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Boned and Rolled Chuck Rib Roasts.-The chuck rib roast when taken from a medium-sized carcass may be too large for a small family. Figure 15 shows this roast boned and made into two rolls. Each of these rolls weighs approximately 4 pounds. The rolls contain a good proportion of lean and fat which is well distributed, very little connective tissue and no bone. The roll on the right is from the section next to the ribs and is considered to be the tenderer of the two, whereas the roll on the left contains the exterior fat. The quality of these roasts is excellent and there is no waste.


Fig. 16-Chuck roast.


Chuck Roast.-The chuck roast is similar in muscle structure, fat content, and quality of lean to the chuck rib roast. It contains a small end of the shoulder blade, two ribs and corresponding portions of the backbone. When taken frorn a Commercial or higher grade carcass it makes a good roast or it may be used for steaks. It may be cooked as a pot roast or used for braising. Because of its size it is often cut crosswise, making two roasts, or it may be boned and divided into top and bottom rolls.








Selecting and Using Beef and Veal


Fig. 17-Round bone pot roast, also known as cross rib roast or arm bone roasts.

Round Bone Pot Roast.-Round bone pot roast is cut across the ribs and at right angles to the chuck roasts (see Fig. 3, No. 12). it is known also as cross rib roast or arm bone roast because it is cut across the ribs and has the small round arm bone in the center. The short ribs may be removed, as in this cut. It may be cut into steaks for pail frying, and when cut of suitable thickness it is used for Swiss steak. When cut into steaks it sometimes is sold as round steak. It differs, however, from round steak in that the muscles are smaller and it has a characteristic small round muscle near the bone.


Neck End of Chuck.-The neck end of chuck as pictured shows a large proportion of lean meat. However, this piece contains the large shoulder knuckle, one rib and all of the neck vertebrae. In good quality carcasses one or two pot roasts can be cut from the thicker part. These will be similar in quality and texture to the chuck roast (Fig. 16). The neck proper is well-flavored meat but lacks tenderness. Boneless neck, because of its flavor, is one of the most desirable cuts for ground beef. Chopping or grinding finely divides the connective tissue present and thus makes the meat tender. It also makes excellent stew meat.








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Fig. 18.-Neck end of chuck.


Fig. 19.-Shoulder or soup knuckle.


Shoulder or Soup Knuckle.-The shoulder or soup knuckle contains a large amount of bone, connective tissue and varying amounts of lean meat, depending upon the method of cutting. This cut, as the name implies, is used for soup.







Selecting and Using Beef and Veal


Fig. 20-The fore shank.


Fore Shank.-The fore shank has a large amount of bone and connective tissue. The connective tissue makes it a highly desirable cut for soup or for pressed or jellied beef. A small pot roast or several shoulder steaks may be cut froni the larger or upper end. The lower part of the shank is cut into 2- or 3-inch lengths to use for soup, or the meat may be used for stew or ground beef.


Fig. 21-The brisket.


Brisket.-The plate of beef consists of the navel and brisket (Fig. 3, Nos. 7 and 8). The lean and fat, which are well flavored, are deposited in alternate layers. The plate contains the lower end of the ribs and breast bone. The brisket can be identified from the navel by the presence of the breast bone and the granular nature of much of the exterior fat. There is a large amount of bone and fat, and the fat when cooked has a sweet flavor. This cut is used for soul), stews and ground beef.








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Fig. 22.-Boiling pieces from plate.


Boiling Pieces from Plate.-Sections consisting of two or more rib ends are cut from the plate and sold as boiling beef. Note the alternate layers of lean and fat in the folded cut. These cuts Lsually have moderate amounts of fat and the lean is well flavored.


Fig. 23. Short ribs of beef, used for boiling or as a pot roast.


Short Ribs of Beef.-Short ribs of beef are cut from the upper portion of the navel. They are cut from 2 to 4 inches in length and are used for boiling or as a pot roast. The short ribs are considered to be the best part of the plate.







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Fig-. 24.-Boned and rolled navel.


Boned and Rolled Navel.-The navel piece can be boned, rolled and cut into pieces of any desired size. Note the thin outside lean portion which is fibrous and lacking in tenderness. The inside of the roll contains desirable proportions of lean to fat and is well flavored. If the roll contains a moderate amount of f at, it can be used as a roast. Because of the thinness of the muscles in this cut it is used more frequently for boiling or stewing than for any other purpose.








Florida Agricultu ral Excperimen t Stations


Fig. 25.-Side of veal, outside and inside views, showing wholesale cuts.

Side of Veal.-The following whoesale cuts are shown:

1. Leg 4. Flank 7. Shoulder
2. Rumip 5. Ribs 8. Fore shank
3. Loin 6. Breast

Note the absence of large quantities of fat on the exterior, around the kidneys and in the pelvic region; also the light color of the flesh compared with that of a heef carcass.







Selecting and Using Beef and Veal


Fig. 26.-Veal cutlets, one of the most economical cuts in the veal carcass.


Veal Cutlet.-The thicker part of the leg of veal is used as veal cutlets (steaks) or roasts, while the shank is used for stew meat or soup. Veal cutlets are characterized by having a small round bone surrounded by relatively large muscles. Note the large proportion of lean to bone and fat. Veal cutlets are tender and suitable for broiling, but it is necessary to add some fat in the cooking process. They have a good flavor and are one of the most economical cuts in the veal carcass.


Fig. 27.-Veal roast from loin end.


Veal Roast from Loin End.-The entire loin of veal can be used for roasts or chops. This cut shows a roast from the round or rump end of the loin. The bone in the lower part of the picture is part of the femur socket. Note the lack of fat and that some of the muscles have been cut along the muscle fibers.







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Fig. 28.-Veal roast from the loin.
Veal Roast from the Loin.-This cut shows the section of the loin end next to the short loin. Note the difference in bone and muscle structure compared with the roast in Fig. 27. No two chops obtained from the loin end are the same in muscle and bone because of the changing position and shape of these structures.


Fig. 29. Round hone roast of veal.








Selecting and Using Beef and Veal


Round Bone Roast.-This roast gets its name because it contains part of the arm bone which is round. It is known also as "cross the rib roast" because it contains a short section of three ribs. The round bone roast contains a large proportion of lean meat to bone and fat and is considered one of the most economical cuts from the forequarter. Although the roasts or chops from the shoulder of veal are not as choice as those from the rib and loin they are tender and well flavored (Fig. 29).


Fig. 30.-Veal roast from the short loin.


Veal Roast from the Short Loin.-This roast is characterized by the presence of the T-shaped bone, the large muscle above the round tenderloin muscle below the bone. There is little exterior or kidney fat and the thin part of the cut has been folded under. Chops from the short loin are considered to be the choicest in the veal carcass.



































Fig. 31.-Boned and rolled rib roast of veal.
Boned and Rolled Rib Roast.-Standing or folded rib cuts fromn a veal carcass are rather thin for roasting. The above picture shows a boned and rolled roast from the rib section. Note the large muscle in the center of the roll and the absence of fat either on the exterior or between the muscles. When the rib section is used for chops the bones are left in.


Fig. 32. Shoulder roast of veal.
Shoulder Roast of Veal.-The shoulder roast contains, in addition to ribs and backbone, part of the shoulder blade. It is frequently boned and rolled when sold as a roast, but when cut into chops the bones are left in. Note the number of muscles, some of which are cut necessarily parallel to the muscle fibers.







Selecting and Using Beef and Veal


before shipping. Veal and calf carcasses do not contain sufficient fat to be satisfactorily aged. Therefore, these meats should be used within a short time after slaughter, or frozen and preserved for future use.
Calf and veal are used for chops, roasts, stewing or ground meat. The thickness of the carcass largely determines the use of the wholesale cuts.
Although veal and calf are relatively tender, cuts such as the neck, fore shank and breast are high in connective tissue and lack tenderness. They are often used as stew meat, ground meat, or in the case of the shank, for making soup.

CARE OF MEAT IN THE HOME
Meat is a highly perishable food and requires cleanliness and care, or it will spoil rapidly. - The undesirable changes which ineat undergoes are classified as (1) oxidative, (2) enzymatic and (3) putrefactive. The oxidative changes are due to the taking up of oxygen by the fat, resulting in an undesirable flavor change known as rancidity. Rancidity is not normally a problem in fresh meats, as the putrefactive changes occur more rapidly. Consequently, rancidity occurs primarily in frozen and cured meats, more particularly in porkand poultry.
The enzymatic changes occur after death when the catalytic enzymes begin to break down the connective tissue. These enzymes are responsible for the development of tenderness and the full flavor of aged beef, but if allowed to proceed too far will result in decomposition of the tissue. This process is slowed by refrigeration and is not normally a major cause of spoilage.
The putrefactive changes are largely the result of bacterial action on the lean tissue. Growth of bacteria, which are universally present, can be retarded by refrigeration. However, fresh meat has a limited storage life due to bacterial decomposition, unless the storage temperature is below freezing.
Fresh meat should be kept in the coldest part of the home refrigerator to minimize meat spoilage. Unless it is to be used within several days, it should be frozen, cured or canned to prevent spoilage. In storing fresh meat in the refrigerator, the paper should be removed or opened and wrapped loosely to. allow the surface to dry out. The dry surface will materially inhibit the growth of bacteria. Meat which cannot be used before danger of spoilage occurs may be cooked and held in the refrigerator for much longer periods. However, cooked meat should






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


be covered tightly to prevent dehydration. Place it in a covered dish or wrap in moisture-proof paper.

METHODS OF, PRESERVING BEEF AND VEAL
Preservation of meat is based upon checking the growth of or destroying the bacteria and upon inactivating the catalytic enzymes causing autolysis or break down of the tissues. The methods discussed below act in one or both of these ways:
Freezing.-Freezing slows down or retards the changes occurring in fresh meat. Frozen meat closely approaches the fresh product. Thus freezing is preferred as a method of preserving meat by most people.
Following are the steps in preparing and freezing meat:
1. Divide meat into desired cuts.
2. Wrap each cut in a good grade of commercial freezer paper. Take care to exclude all air by folding in the edges, thus preventing dehydration or "freezer burn." If two steaks are placed in the same package, separate with a sheet of oiled paper.
3. Clearly label each package, with name of cut, date and. weight (if possible).
4. Place meat in the freezer at 00 F. or below as quickly as possible after wrapping.
5. Take care to avoid over-loading the home freezer.
6. Store frozen meat below 150 F., in either the home freezer or the freezer-locker plant.
I
Either rancidity or dehydration usually limits the storage life of frozen meat which has been properly packaged. It is recommended that frozen beef and veal be held in freezer storage no longer than 12 months to minimize these undesirable changes. . Canning.-Canning destroys the bacteria by heat and sealing

in air-tight containers prevents further contamination. The process is described fully in other publications.
Curing.-In curing meat of any kind, use only clean untainted meat from a healthy animal. Cleanliness reduces bacterial contamination and prevents spoilage. If in doubt as to the soundness of the meat, discard it and avoid the danger of spoilage.
Although a wide variety of ingredients are used in curing meat, common salt is the only basic element. A good grade dairy salt or common table salt is recommended because of their






Selecting and Using Beef and Veal


freedom from impurities. Salt preserves meat by removing the moisture, thereby inhibiting the growth of bacteria. Salt, when used alone, tends to make the lean tissues dry and hard. Sugar is used to give flavor and counteract the hardening effect of salt. Brown sugar is commonly preferred, but white sugar, syrup or molasses is sometimes used. Saltpeter is usually added to curing mixtures in small quantities to develop the desirable bright pink color of the cured product. Unless saltpeter is used, the cured meat becomes gray in color.
Curing can be accomplished most satisfactorily at 380 F. At this temperature the curing ingredients penetrate the meat quite rapidly, yet the temperature is low enough to inhibit the growth of microorganisms. Lower temperatures result in a reduced rate of salt penetration, and below 320 F. the length of time necessary in the cure is measurably increased. Temperatures above 400 F. materially increase the incidence of spoilage.

CORNED BEEF
Corned beef is prepared from the cheaper cuts of meat, such as the plate, chuck and shank, although other cuts may be used. Meat that contains some fat is more desirable than that devoid of finish. The following recipe has been found satisfactory for every 100 pounds of beef:
8 lbs. salt
3 lbs. sugar (brown usually preferred)
3 oz. saltpeter 5 gals, water
Large earthenware jars and hardwood boxes or barrels make excellent curing receptacles. Receptacles must be water-tight and should be thoroughly scrubbed and scalded before being used. Containers made of soft woods should not be used, as they impart a resinous flavor to the product.
In corning, cut the meat in pieces of the desired size, usually about 4 to 6 pounds. Rub each piece of meat with salt and pack in the container. Sprinkle a layer of salt over each layer of meat as it is packed. Allow to stand over night in the cooler. Make a pickle with the remaining curing ingredients and heat to boiling to kill any organisms present. Cool to 380 F. and pour the solution over the meat. Weight down with a hardwood block and be sure all the meat is submerged. Keep in cooler at 32 to 380 F. Repack the meat on the fourth and eighth day to insure uniform penetration of the curing mixture. The meat






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should be kept in the brine until used. It can be used in 10 daysbut is better after 15 to 20 days. If it becomes too salty, the excess can be removed by soaking in water or by parboiling.

DRIED BEEF
The round is most commonly used in making dried beef, but any large muscle with a high proportion of lean can be used. 'The round is usually divided into three parts by following the natural division between the muscles. This facilitates cutting across the grain after it is dried and smoked.
Brine Method.-The same curing procedure is followed as was previously outlined for corned beef. The meat should be cured 3 days per pound; a 5-pound piece of meat would require 15 days, After removal from the brine, hang until it becomes thoroughly dry and then smoke it according to the procedure used for the dry method.
Dry Method.-The following mixture has proven satisfactory for curing 100 pounds of beef:
5 lb. salt
3 lb.,sugar (brown preferred)
3 oz. saltpeter
Mix the curing ingredients thoroughly and divide into three equal. portions. Rub the meat with one portion and pack in a tight vessel. Allow the meat to cure four days, remove it and rub with the second portion of the curing mixture. Repack the meat, placing the pieces which were on top at the bottom of the pack. Repeat again in four days, using the remainder of the curing ingredients and leave for an additional three to five days. The pickle which collects in the bottom of the container should be left to aid in curing.
When taken from the cure, the excess salt is removed by washing and the meat is allowed to drip. The cured meat is dried at a temperature of 130 to 1400 F. for 30 hours. In the event this temperature cannot be obtained, the meat is allowed to dry for a longer period before smoking. , The cured beef is smoked for 24 hours at a temperature of 100 to 140" F. for a mild smoke flavor, or it may be smoked for a longer period if a more pronounced smoke flavor is desired. Sometimes it is the practice to smoke for a few hours each week until the meat is used. Green, non-resinous, hardwoods such as hickory or oak make the best fuels, although corn cobs can be used.






Selecting and Using Beef and Veal


PREPARATION OF MEAT FOR THE TABLE
The finest quality meat may prove a disappointment if not properly cooked. On the other hand, a low grade piece of meat may become very palatable after proper preparation. Good meat cookery retains the natural meat flavors, but improper preparation will destroy flavor and decrease palatability.

METHODS OF COOKING MEAT
Meat is cooked (1) to develop the flavors and make more palatable, (2) to improve the appearance, (3) to kill bacteria and other microorganisms and (4) to soften the connective tissues, thereby tenderizing.
In selecting a method of cookery for a piece of meat consider the grade of the carcass and the cut to be cooked. In general, the more tender cuts, which have a minimum of connective tissue, are from the part of the carcass which has been used least in life. The muscles used most have fibers with thickened walls and are surrounded by a large amount of connective tissue. Consequently, the location of the cut must be considered in selecting a method of cookery.
There are only two basic methods of cooking meat-by dry heat or by moist heat. The more tender cuts which contain a small amount of connective tissue and have a moderate amount of fat should be cooked by dry heat, while the less tender cuts which contain little fat and a large amount of connective tissue should be cooked by moist heat. Methods of cooking by dry heat are roasting, broiling and panbroiling. Methods with moist heat arc, braising and simmering in liquid, or stewing.
Each method of cooking is described below:
Roast.-To cook in an oven without added moisture (dry heat). Oven temperatures of 300 to 3500 F. are recommended.
Broil To cook by direct heat from hot coals, a gas flameor
-in electric element. To grill. Makes use of temperatures of 350 to 4001 F.
Panbroil.-To cook in a hot, uncovered frying pan, pouring off the fat as it accumulates.
Braise.-To brown meat in a small amount of added fat, then to cover and cook slowly in the meat juices or in added liquid. The liquid is usually water, but milk, cream, dilute vinegar and vegetable juices are sometimes used. The temperature after browning should be reduced so the liquid will not boll.






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Stew or Simmer.-To cook in liquid at a temperature of 1850 R Meat should never be boiled, as this, causes loss of flavor and makes the meat stringy and difficult to carve. Small, uniform pieces of meat may be cooked in liquid with or without added vegetables.
Low temperatures in meat cookery have the following advantages over high temperatures: (1) less moisture is lost, (2) less shrinkage occurs due to retention of both moisture and fat and (3) the meat is more tender, has more juice and has a richer flavor.

OTHER METHODS OF PREPARING LESS TENDER CUTS
Preparing the less tender cuts by pounding has been practiced for many years. The object is to break down the connective tissue in the meat. In doing this, meat juices are liberated, so flour is used to take up the juices and conserve the flavor. Pounding with a tenderizing mallet, which has blunt knife-like edges at right angles to each other, is most effective.
The cubing machine works on the same principle as the mallet, with blunt knife-like edges which break much of the connective tissue by pressure but do not cut through the steak.
Cuts of meat can be scored with a knife by cutting more or less across the grain. This method is commonly used in preparing flank steak, which has long, strong muscle fibers.
Grinding meat is one of the most common methods of tenderizing. The grinder break& up the connective tissues and muscle fibers. Meat thus prepared can be broiled or panbroiled in the form of patties, or it can be molded into a loaf and roasted with dry heat. To develop a good flavor and prevent ground beef from drying out, it should contain about 1 part fat to 4 parts lean. The cuts of beef used for making ground meat are often lacking in fat, which can be added by grinding enough suet to give the proper proportion. The additional fat will baste the meat as it cooks.
Larding of lean, less tender cuts of meat adds to the flavor and prevents dryness. Small strips of fat can be placed in the lean meat by use of a larding needle, The fat will melt as the meat cooks, giving it added juiciness and flavor. A cover of fat is sometimes added to veal roasts to prevent dryness and add flavor.




Full Text

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HISTORIC NOTE The publications in this collection do not reflect current scientific knowledge or recommendations. These texts represent the historic publishing record of the Institute for Food and Agricultural Sciences and should be used only to trace the historic work of the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS research may be found on the Electronic Data Information Source (EDIS) site maintained by the Florida Cooperative Extension Service. Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University of Florida

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/ Bulletin 541 UN IVERSITY OF FLORIDA AG RI CU LTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS WILLARD M. FIFIELD, Director GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA Selecting and Using Beef and Veal A. 1\1. P EA RSON and w. G. KIRK I OCl 2 2 1954 June 1954 Fig . 1.--U. S. C h oice wholesaie beef rib. (Courtesy USDA Production and Marketing Administration.) Singl e copies free to Florida residents upon request to AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION GAINESV ILLE , FLORIDA

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BOARD QI!' CONTROL Hollis Rinehart, Chairman, Miami J. Lee Ballard, St. Petersburg Fred H. Kent, Jacksonville Wm. H. Dial, Orlando Mrs. Alfred L duPont, Jacksonville George W. English, Jr., Ft. Lauderdale W. Glenn Miller, Monticello J. B. Culpepper, Secretary, Tallahassee EXECUTIVE STAFF John S. Allen, Acting President 3 J. Wayne Reitz, Ph.D., Provost for Agr. 3 Willard M. Fifield, M.S., Director J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Asso. Director R. W. Bledsoe, Ph.D., Assistant Director Rogers L. Bartley, B.S., Admin. Mgr. 3 Geo. R. Freeman, B.S., Farm Superintendent MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS H. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Agr. Economist 1 8 R. E. L. Greene, Ph.D., Agr. Economist 3 M. A. Brooker, Ph.D., Agr. Economist 3 Zach Savage, M.S.A., Assoeiate A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Agr. Economist D. E. Alleger, M.S., Associate D. L. Brooke, M.S.A., Associate M. R. Godwin, Ph.D., Associate 3 W. K. McPherson, M.S., Agr. Economist 3 Eric Thor, M.S., Asso. Agr. Economist a Cecil N. Smith, M.A., Asso. Agr. Economist Levi A. Powell, Sr., M.S.A., Assistant• E. D. Smith, Ph.D., Asst. Agr. Economist N. K. Roberts, M.A., Asst. Agr. Economist Orlando, Florida (Cooperative USDA) G. Norman Rose, B.S., Asso. Agri. Economist J. C. Townsend, Jr., B.S.A., Agr. Statistician 2 J. B. Owens, B.S.A., Agr. Statistician• F. T. Calloway, M.S., Agr. Statistician C. L. Crenshaw, M.S., Asst. Agr. Economist B. W. Kelly, M.S., Asst. Agr. Economist AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING F1azier Rogers, M.S.A., Agr. Engineer 1 a J. M. Myers, M.S.A., Asso. Agr. Engineer J. S. Norton, M.S., Asst. Agr. Engineer AGRONOMY Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist 1 2 G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Agronomist H. C. Harris, Ph.D., Agronomist W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Agronomist Fred A. Clark, M,S., Associate 2 E. S. Horner, Ph.D., Assis'tant A. T. Wallace, Ph.D., Assistant D. E. McCloud, Ph.D., Assistant 8 G. C. Nutter, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist 1. M. Wofford, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist E. 0. Burt, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist J. W. Edwardson, M.S., Asst. Agronomist 3 ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND NUTRITION T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., Animal Husbandman 1 G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist :1 It. L. Shirley, Ph.D., Biochemist A. M. Pearson, Ph.D., Asso. An. Husb. 3 John P. Feaster, Ph.D., Asst. An. Nutri. H. D. Wallace, Ph.D., Asso. An. Husb. 3 M. Koger, Ph.D., An. Husbandman 3 J. F. Hentges, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. An. Husb. 3 L. R. Arrington, Ph.D., Asst. An. Hush. A. C. Warnick, P,h.D., Asst. Physiologist DAIRY SCIENCE E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist 1 R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman S. P. Marshall, Ph.D., Asso. Dairy Husb.• W. A. Krienke, M.S., Asso. Dairy Tech. 3 P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Asso. Dairy Uusb. Leon Mull, Ph.D., Asso. Dairy Tech.• H; H. Wilkowske, Ph.D., Asst. Dairy Tech. 3 James M. Wing, Ph.D., Asst. Dairy Hush. EDITORIAL J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor 3 Clyde Beale, A.B.J ., Associate Editor 3 William G. Mitchell, A.B.J., Assistant Editor Samuel L. Burgess, A.B.J., Assistant Editor' ENTOMOLOGY A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Entomologist ' L. C. Kuitert, Ph.D., Associate H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant F. A. Robinson, M.S., Asst. Apiculturist R. E. Waites, Ph.D., Asst. Entomolo~ist S. H. Kerr, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist J. R. Christie, Ph.D., Nematologist HOME ECONOMICS Ouida D. Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ.' R. B. French, Ph.D., Biochemist HORTICULTURE G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist 1 R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Hort. & Interim Head F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Horticulturist• Albert P. Lorz, Ph.D., Horticulturist R. K. Showalter, M.S., Asso. Hort. R. H. Sharpe, M.S., Asso. Horticulturist V. F. Nettles, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Horticulturist• R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Asso. Hort. L. H. Halsey, M.S.A., Asst. Hort. C. B. Hall, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist Austin Griffiths, Jr., B.S., Asst. Hort. S. E. McFadden, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Hort. C. H. VanMiddelem, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist B. D. Thompson, M.S.A., Interim Asst. Hort. M. W. Hoover, M.S.A., Asst. Hort. LIBRARY Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian PLANT PATHOLOGY W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist 1 Phares Decker, Ph.D., Plant Patholmdst Erdman West, M.S., Botanist & Mycologist, Robert W. Earhart, Ph.D., Plant Path.2 Howard N .• 11iller, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path. Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Asso. Botanist C. W. Anderson, Ph.D., Asst. Plant ,Path. POULTRY HUSBANDRY N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Hush.• 3 J. C. Driggers. Ph.D., Asso. Poultry Hush.• SOILS F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologist 1 Gaylord M. Volk, Ph.D., Soils Chemist J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Soils Chemist Nathan Gammon, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist Ralph G. Leighty, B.S., Asst. Soil Surveyor G. D. Thornton, Ph.D., Microbiologist C. F. Eno, Ph.D., Asst. Soils Microbiologist H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist R. E. Caldwell, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist 3 V. W. Carlisle, B.S., Asst. Soil Surveyor J. H. Walker, M.S.A., Asst. Soil Surveyor William K. Robertson, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist 0. E. Cruz, B.S.A., Asst. Soil Surveyor W. G. Blue, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist J. G. A. F'iskel, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist 3 L. C. Hammond, Ph.D., Asst. Soil Physicist ' H. L. Breland, Ph.D., Asst. Soils Chem. W. L. Pritchett, Ph.D., Soil Technologist VETERINARY SCIENCE D. A. Sanders, D. V.M., Veterinarian 1 3 M. W . Emmel, D. V.M., Veterinarian• C. R. Simpson, D. V .M., Asso. Veterinarian L. E. Swanson, D. V.M., Parasitologist W. R. Dennis, D.V.M., Asst. Parasitologist E. W. Swarthout, D.V.M., Asso. Poultry Pathologist !Dade City) M. Ristic, D.V.M., Asso. Poultry Pathologist J. G. Wadsworth, D.V.M., Asst. Poul. Path.

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BRANCH STATIONS NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY W. C. Rhoades, M.S., Entomologist in Char ge R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Patholo gist L . G. Thomp so n, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist W. H. Ch apman , M.S., Agronomist Frank S. Baker, Jr., B.S., Asst. An. Husb. Frank E. Guthrie, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist Mobile Unit, Monticello R. W. Wallace, B.S. , Associate Agronomist Mobile Unit, l\11arianna R. W. Lip sco mb , M.S., Associate Agronomist Mobile Unit, Pensacola R. L. Smith, M.S., Associate Agronomist Mobile Unit, Chipley J. B. White , B.S.A., Associate A gron omist CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge W. L. Thompson, B.S ., Entomologist R. F. Suit, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist E. P. Duch arme, Ph.D . , Asso. Plant Path. J. W. Sites, Ph.D., Hor tic ulturi st H. O. Sterling, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist H. J. Reitz, Ph.D., Horticulturist Francine Fisher, M.S., Asst. Plant Path. I. W. Wander, Ph.D ., Soils Chemist J. W. Kesterson, M.S., Asso. Chemist R. Hendrickson , B.S., As st. Chemist Ivan Stewart, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist D. S. Prosser, Jr., B.S ., Asst. Engineer R. W. Olsen , B.S., Bi ochem ist F. W .Wenz e l, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist Alvin H. Rouse, M.S ., Asso. Chemist H. W. F'ord, Ph.D., As st. Horticulturist L. C . Knori-, Ph.D., Asso. Histologist R. M. Pratt, Ph . D., Asso. Ent.-Pathologist W. A. Simanton, Ph.D ., Entomologist E. J. Deszyck, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist C. D. Leon ar d, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist W. T. L ong, M.S., Asst . Horticulturist M. H. Muma, Ph.D., Asso. Entomologist F. J. Reyn o lds, Ph . D., Asso. Hort. W. F. Spencer, Ph.D., Asst. Chem. R. B. Johnson, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist W. F. Newhall, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist W. F. Grierson-Jackson , Ph.D., Asst . Chem. Roger Patri ck, Ph.D., Bacteriologist M; F. Oberbacher, Ph . D . , Asst. Plant Physfol Evert J . Elvin, B.S., A sst. Horticulturist R . C. J. Koo, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist J. R. Kuykendall, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist W. C. Price, P'h.D., Virologist EVERGLADES STATION, BELLE GLADE W. T; Forsee, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist in Charge R. V. Allison, Ph.D., F . iber Technolo g ist Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Physiolo gis t J, W. Ra nd olph, M.S., Agricultural Engr. R. W. Kidder, M.S .. Asso. Animal Hush . C. C. Seale, Associate Agronomist N. C. Hay slip, B.S.A. Asso. Entomologist E . A. Wolf, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist W. H. Thames, M.S., Asst. Entomolo g ist W. G. Genung, M.S., Asst. Entomolo gis t Robert J. Allen, Ph.D., Asst. A gro nomist V. E. Green, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist J. F. Darby , Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path. V, L. Guzman, Ph.D., Asst. Hort . J. C. Stephens, B.S., Drainage En gineer 2 A. E. Kretschmer, Jr., . Ph.D., Asst. Soils Chem. Charles T. Ozaki, Ph.D ., Asst. Chemist Thoma s L. Meade, Ph.D ., Asst. An . Nutri. D. S. Harrison . M.S., Ass t. Agri. En g r. F. T. Boyd, Ph.D.; Asso. Agronomist M. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist J. N. Simons , Ph.D . , Asst. Virolo;dst D . W. Beard s ley, M.S ., Asst. Animal Hu s h . R. S. Cox, Ph . D., Asso. Plant Pa:Utologist SUB-TROPICAL STATION, HOMESTEAD Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Vice-Dir. in Charge D. 0. Wolfenbarger, Ph.D., Entomologist Francis B. Li n coln, Ph.D., Horticulturist Robert A. Conover, Ph . D ., Plant Path. John L. Malcolm, Ph .D., Asso. Soils Chemist R. W. H arkness, Ph . D ., Asst. Chemist R. Bruce L edin , Ph.D., Asst. Hort. J. C. Noonan, M.S., Asst . Hort. M. H. Gall at in , B.S., Soil Conservationist 2 T. W. Y oung, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist WEST CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION, BROOKSVILLE Marian W. Hazen, M.S., Animal Husband man in Charge 2 RANGE CATTLE STATION, ONA W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge E. M. Hod ges , Ph.D., Agronomist D. W. Jones , M.S., Asst. Soil Technologist CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION, SANFORD R . W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Vice-Dir . in Charge J . W. Wilson, ScD., Entomologist P. J. We stgate, Ph.D., Asso, Hort. Ben F. Whitner, Jr., B.S.A., Asst. Hort. WEST FLORIDA STATION, JAY C. E. Hutton, Ph.D . , Vice-Director in Charge H . W. Lundy , B.S.A., Associate Ag rono mist R. L. Jeff ers. Ph.D., Asso. Agronomist SUWANNEE VALLEY STATION, LIVE OAK G, E. Ritchey, M.S., Agronomist in Charge GULF COAST STATION, BRADENTON E. L. Spencer, Ph.D., Soils Chemist In Charge E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomolo gi st David G. A. Kelbert, Asso, Horticulturist Robert 0. Magie, Ph . D., Plant Pathologist J . M. Walter, Ph.D., rla:,t Pathologist S. S. Woltz, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturi,;t Donald S. Burgis, M.S.A ., Asst. Hort. C. M. Gerald.son, Ph.D ., Asst. Horticulturist G. Sowell, J r,. Ph.D., Asst. Plant Pathologist FIELD LABORATORIES watermelon, Grape, Pasture-Leesburg J. M. Crall, Ph.D., Asso . Plant Path. in Chg. C. C. Helm s, Jr. , B.S., .Asst. Agronomist L. H. Stover, Assistant in Horticulture Strawberry-Plant City A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist Vegetables-Hastings A. H. Eddin s, Ph.D., Pl ant Path. in Charge E. N. Mccubbin, Ph . D. , Horticulturist T. M. Dobrovsky, Ph . D., Asst. Entomologist D. L. Myhre, B.S., Asst. Soils Chemist Pecans-Monticello A. M. Phillips, B.S., Asso. Entomolo,iist John R. Large, M.S., A sso. Plant Path . Frost Forecasting-Lakeland Wa _ rren 0 . Johnson, B.S., Meteorologist in Charge 2 1 Head of Department 'In cooperation with U . S. Cooperative, other divisions, U . of } . 'Ort leave

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CONTENTS PAGE SELECTION OF BEEF AND VEAL . . .. ... ....... ...... ............. .. ..... . .. .. . . .. . .. .. . .. . . .. .. . . . F ' actors which Influence the Grade of Beef ; Grades of Beef Carcasses . . ..................................... . ...... .... . .... ... . . . . . ............ . Grades of Veal and Calf Carcasses .. 5 5 7 9 Flavor in Meat ................... . . ............... .. . 10 Cl:TTING OF MEAT ... . ..... 10 Cuts of Beef ................ . . . ....... ... ..... . ................ . ................. .... ... . . ... ..... ... ....... ... 10 Cutting the Veal and Calf Carcass .... . . .. ... . ............. . .. .. ,.. ... . . .... . .. .. ....... 10 CARE O F . MEAT IN THE HOME ... ..... . . ............. ..... . ............ . .. ... .... .. . ........ . .... ..... , ..... 31 Methods of Preserving Beef and Veal ... . ..... ...... . ... . . ..... .... .. . . . ...... . Corned Beef ..... ... ...... ..... . ... :. .......... . ....... ..... .... .. .. ......... ...... ......... ..... 33 Dried Beef -....... . ... .. .. . . 34 PREPARATION OF MEAT FOR THE TABLE , . .. . ............ . . . .......... . ... .. . ...... . . .... . ......... 35 M et hods of Cooking Meat . . ....... .. ....................... . Other Methods of Preparin g Le ss Tender Cuts . REFERENCES 35 36 BELL, VIOLA M., and M. D. HELSER. Essentials in selection of meat. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 1930. BULL, SLEETER. Meat for the table; McGraw-Hill. 1951. HELSER, M. D. Farm meat s . The Macmillan Co . 1929. National Livestock and Meat Board. Ten lessons on meat . 6th Ed. 1943 . TOMHAVE, W. H. Meat and m e at products. J. B. Lippincott Co., 1930. U. S. Department of Agriculture. Official United States standards for grades of vealers and slaughter calves. Service and Regulatory An nouncements, No. 113. 1951. U. S. Department of Agriculture. Official United States standards for grades of veal and calf carcasses. Service and Regulatory Announce ments, No. 114. 1951. U. S. Department of Agricultur e. Official United States standards for grades of carcass be e f. S erv ic e and Regulatory Announcement s , No. 99. 1950. U. S. D e partment of Agriculture. Official United States standards for grades of slaughter cattle, Servi ce and Regulatory Announcements , .No. 112 . 1950. ZIEGL E R, P. T. The meat w e e at. 3rd _ Ed. Interstate Printers and Pub l is hers. 1952. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors express their a ppreciation to Harold Mowry for making the pictures used in this bull e tin. They also acknowledge the help of R. M. Crown, formerly Assistant Animal Husbandman, in the preparation of . certain parts of this bulletin.

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Selecting and Using Beef and Veal 1 A. M. PEARSON and W. G. KIRK . Meat is a nutritious, palatable food that is largely digestible. It is an excellent dietary source of protein, containing all of the essential amino acids. It supplies most of the B-complex vita mins, being especially rich in niacin, which will prevent and cure pellagra. Recently, researchers have found meat to contain vitamin B 1 2 , which is important in red blood cell formation. Meat is also a good source of many minerals, especially iron, copper and phosphorus. Not only is meat nutritious but its flavor makes it one of the most appetite-satisfying foods. In purchasing food, the housewife is a careful and critical buyer. This is especially true in purchasing fruits , vegetables and canned goods. Fruits and vegetables are selected upon a basis of quality and freshness, while canned goods are largely purchased by their brand name. However, meats, particularly beef and veal, are not so easily selected. Few housewives are able to recognize the various steaks and roasts, and the recogrtl tion of quality in the retail cuts is even more elusive. This bulletin is designed to: ( 1) aid in identifying the various cuts of beef and veal, (2) serve as a guide in selecting meat from a quality standpoint, with special reference to the use of government grades, (3) present the various methods of preserving beef and veal, and (4) outline some standard methods of cookery used in preparing meats for the table. SELECTION OF BEEF AND VEAL FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE THE GRADE OF BEEF The term "beef" has a rather comprehensive usage, which . includes the meat obtained from all classes of cattle except vealers and calves. Frequently the terms "veal" and "calf" are used interchangeably to designate the meat from animals of the bovine species which are under one year of age. How ever, by definition of the United States Department of Agri culture, veal is the flesh of calves not under three weeks of age nor over 12 weeks of age at the ,time of slaughter. Calf carcasses are from animals which have passed the veal stages but have not taken on the characteristics of beef, or from ani mals between 12 weeks and one year of age at the time of slaugh ter. Beef, then, is the meat from all animals of the bovine species which are beyond one year of age at time of slaughter1 A revision of Bulletin 321 by W. G. Kirk and A. L. Shealy.

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6 Plorida Agricultural Experiment Stq,tions ing. Sometimes . a special classification known as baby beef is used, which is the meat from good type animals having a high degree , of finish that are marketed between _ 12 and 18 months of age. The grade of a beef or veal carcass is determined by three factors: (1) conformation or form, (2) finish or the amount and distribution of fat, and (3) quality. Confortnation.-The term conformation refers to the general form and outiine of the carcass. The ideal carcass has short shanks and a short neck, a well developed, thick round, a full, thick, heavily-muscled loin, and a well proportioned, thick chuck. In general, the ideal carcass ha$ a high proportion of meat to bone and a large percentage of the high-priced cuts (loin, round and ribs) in relation to the low-priced cuts . (chuck and plate). In contrast, a low-,grade carcass has long spanks, a long, thin neck, prominent hip bones, heavy, coarse shoulders, a long, thin, tapering round, a shallow loin a . nd poorly arched ribs, showing lack of development in the high-priced cuts. Fiilish,:--Finish refers to the amount, character and distri bution of external and internal fat throughout the carca~s. A well finished beef carcass has an even covering of fat over the chuck, rib, loin and round. Inside, the carcass shows abun dant overflow or lining fat between the ribs, and the inside of the flank shows fat streaking in the large lean muscle. When the carcass is cut the fat is liberally streaked through the lean muscles. _ This > intermixture of fat throughout the lean is called "marbling" and indicates quality as well as finish'. Fat makes the meat more _ attractive and a good external cov ering is necessary for aging, which is the process of holding the meat at temperatures of 32 to 38 F. in the meat cooler for several days to three weeks while the enzymes break down the connective tissue. This renders the meat more tender and improves the flavor. Beef lacking an external covering of fat dries out rapidly and the surface begins to decompose with the development of slime and mold. Fat makes the meat more palatable and increases the degree of tenderness. An external covering of fat prevents loss of moisture during the cooking process, bastes the meat while it is cooking and adds to the flavor. Although excess fat may be undesirable, fat is necessary to give the . meat a full, rich flavor and to prevent drying out during cooking with the at tendant toughness.

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Selecting and Using Beef and Veal 7 Quality.-In meat, quality is determined by the . size, color and texture of the bones; color, firmness and texture of muscle fibers; amount and appearance of connective tissue; and dis tribution and texture of the fat. The animal's age is considered under quality and is determined by the appearance of the bones. A young animal has soft, porous, moist, red bones. The carti lage buttons on the tip of the chine bones are unossified and soft in the young animal and gradually become hard and flinty as the animal matures. Poor quality beef contains a high pro portion of bone which is white and flinty in character. Good quality is indicated by fine textured lean which is bright red in color, smooth and velvety in appearance, and well marbled. On the other hand, poor quality is evidenced by coarse-textured , dark-colored lean with a relatively large quantity of connec . tive tissue. An even distribution of fat with abundant marbling indicates high quality; lack of finish, uneven distribution of fat and absence of marbling are indicative of poor quality. GRADES OF BEEF CARCASSES The United States Department of Agriculture has set up cer tain established grades for fresh beef and veal. This makes it USDA @]ID USDA CHOICE UTILITY D @]ID D @]ID D @]ID D Fig. 2.-These are exact r e plicas of the grade . stamps appearing on the upper five grade s of beef carca s ses. In applying the stamp to a carcass, it must appear on every wholesal e cut. (Courtesy USDA Production Mar keting Administration.)

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8 \Florida Agricultural E x periment Stations possible to purchase beef and veal by grade with assurance that the meat will come up to the specifications of the . grade. The grades of. beef set up by the USDA are as follows from highest to lowest: Prime, Choice, Good, Commercial, Utility, Cutter and Canner. Under Office of Price Stablization regulations in effect during and following World War II, government grading was com pulsory and many purchasers learned the advantages of buying by grade. Even though grading is no longer mandatory, it is usually possible to obtain government graded beef by asking your butcher. Government graded beef is stamped and the grade can be easily recognized by the consumer, as shown in Figure 2. Sometimes butchers take advantage of the unin formed by advertising U. S. graded AA or A grade meat, but such grades are not recognized as official. The meat packers have their own systems of grading meat, which are largely patterned after government grades. How ever, the grades are placed on the meat by a representative of the packer and are thus more subject to variation, as the supervision is nof so close. The packer grades do offer a step towards standardization and systematizing the selling of beef by name brands, but government grades have the advantage of being more comparable from . one location to another and of being made by a grader free of packer pressure. The following is a brief discussion of the government grades for beef carcasses: Prime Grade.-As the name denotes, meat bearing this grade approaches perfection. It comes only from steers and heifers which are blocky and compact and carry a considerable amount of finish. The Prime grade provides meat which approaches perfect~on in flavor and tenderness. Most Prime beef is used by restaurants, hotels, dining cars or steamships. In general, the meat is too expensive and carries too much fat to suit the average housewife. Choice Grade.-Meats of this grade come from steers, heifers and . young cows not quite equal to those in the Prime grade in one or more of the grading factors, but are definitely supe rior in eating qualities. A large proportion of this grade goes I into restaurants and public eating places. However, the select butcher trade handles large quantities . of this grade. Although cutting waste is considerable, the superior flavor and tender ness of Choice beef make it a favorite of many housewives.

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Selecting and Using Beef and Veal 9 Good Grade.-Most meat in this grade goes into the retail butcher shops where it is a universal favorite of those desiring to compromise between good eating qualities and economy of cost. It contains less fat than the higher grades but has a fair amount of exterior covering and a slight amount of marbling. It comes from steers, heifers and young cows. Commercial Grade.-Beef qualifying for this grade is quite variable in conformation, finish and quality . Young cows, steers and heifers that are inferior in conformation and finish fall into this grade. Carcasses of older animals may carry plenty of finish and conformation for the higher grade but be graded Commercial because of their lack of quality as evidenced by maturity. Meat from Commercial carcasses should be cooked with moist heat or be ground to . produce tender meat. How ever, the flavor is usually superior, and it is an economical source of lean meat. Utility Grade.-Beef of Utility grade is decidedly inferior in conformation, finish and quality. Although some finds its way into retail channels, it is not suitable for oven-roasting or broiling. However, this grade produces excellent pot-roasts, stew meat and ground meat in which finish is not essential. Cutter and Canner.-These are the two bottom grades of beef and are not on the market in carcass form. Filet mignon (tenderloin muscle) and other boneless beef cuts are made from these grades. Most meat classifying as Cutter and Canner is used as ground beef, processed or canned. GRADES OF VEAL AND CALF CARCASSES Veal and calf carcasses are graded the same, although there is some difference in maturity. Differentiation is based pri marily upon color of the lean, although appearance of bones, texture of lean, ch . aracter of fat and carcass weight are con sidered. The grades are Prime, Choice, Good, Commercial, Utility and Cun. The same grade factors, conformation, quality and . finish, used in grading beef carcasses are considered. The amount of finish and the relative importance of conformation and quality vary from veal to calves, but the same general principles hold true as in beef grading. Consequently, detailed grade specifica tions for calf and veal carcasses will not be discussed.

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10 Florida Agricultural E x periment Stations FLAVOR IN MEAT The flavor of meat is )argely determined by the amourit of meat extractives and fat-both . internal and external. As the animal matures, meat extractives increase in the muscles, there by improving the flavor. Consequently, mature beef has a . rich , full flavor, whereas veal and calves have little flavor. On the other hand, meat from a mature animal lacks in tenderness because of the amount of connective tissue, while veal is ex tremely tender. In general, young steers and heifers from 15 to 30 months of age, of good conformation and well finished , produce flavorful and comparatively tender meat. CUTTING OF MEAT The guiding principles in cutting meat are: (1) separation of the thin and thick cuts, (2) division of tender and less tender cuts, (3) size of cuts desired, and (4) the structure of the cut. Whenever possible, these principles should b e followed. Due to differences re-quired in the cooking time, thin cuts are separated from the thick cuts. For example, the loin (a thick cut) is separated from the flank (a thin cut). As different methods of cookery are required for tender and less tender cuts, the rib (tender) is separated from the chuck (less tender). The size of cuts desired necessarily influences the method of cutting. Structure is considered, because meat cut across the grain is more tender, more attractive and easier t6 carve. CUTS OF BEEF A side of beef is divided into fore and hind quarters. The division is usually made between the 12th and 13th ribs, which leaves one rib on the hindquarters. Although this practice varies somewhat according to local cutting procedures, a 12-rib forequarter will be used as standard in this bulletin. The following pictures illustrate the cuts and method of cutting. CUTTING THE VEAL AND CALF CARCASS Since both veal and calf are cut the same, they will be con sidered together. The same principles apply as in cutting beef carcasses. The flesh of veal and calves, when exposed to air, dries out and turns dark more rapidly than beef. For this reason, the hide is left on the carcass at slaughtering time to be removed

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Selecting and Using Beef and Veal 11 . -1 Fig. 3 . -Side of beef, outside and in side views, s howing wholesale cuts. Side of Beef.-The following wholesale and retail cuts are shown: 1. Round 6. Wholesale ribs 11. Chuck roast 2 . Rump 7. Navel } mak e up 12 . Round bone pot 3 . Loin end 8 . Brisket the plate roast 4. Short loin 9 . Fore shank 13. Neck 5. Flank 10. Chuck rib roast According to USDA standard grades, the above s ide of beef would g rade "Good." Note the fuJJne ss of the round and loin and the compactness of the carcass. The fat is uniform l y distributed over the loin, ribs, chuck and the thicker part of the round. Th ere is little fat, how ever, on the plate and lower part of the round.

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12 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Fig. 4 . -Round steak, the least expensive s teak of the hindquarter . Round Steak.-Round steak is oval in shape with a small round bone in the center. It consists of severa l l arge muscles but lacks in exterior and interior fat . The cut sho-wn, ho wever, has more fat throughout the lean tissue than i s found genera ll y in round steak. The stea k above i s from the center of the whole sa le round which is higher in quality than steaks cut from either the loin or s h a nk end. The shank end of the round con tains a relatively small amount of lean meat and a large a mount of bone and connective tissue. It is used as pot roast, stew, or ground meat . The round stea k is often divided into top and bottom round s teaks by dividing along the natural sea m. Top round contains the large muscle nearest the camera and is most desirable, while the other portion i s the bottom round and con tain s two major muscles.

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Selecting and Us in g B ee f and Veal 13 Fig. 5.-Rump roast . Rump Roast.-Th e rump is a wedge s h aped piece of meat l ying between the round and loin end (Fig . 3, No . 2). It has a mod erate amo unt of fat and a relatively laige portion of bone, as it contains the hip joint and part of the pelvic arch. This cut is su itable for roasting, but to facilitate carving it is frequently boned and rolled. The lean portion can be u sed as boneless stea k s for broiling or pan frying if of good quality.

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14 Flor ida Agricultural E xperimen t Stations Fig. 6 . -Round bone s irloin steak. Round Bone Sirloin Steak.-Sirloin steaks are obtain e d from the whol sa le loin end cut (Fig. 3, No . 3) and are c haract er i zed by being oblong in s hap e and containing sectio n s of the ba c kbone and hip bone. No two s irloi n steaks are the same in muscle and bone because of the c han g ing position s of these struct ure s . The steaks procured from the loin end are consid ered more tender and to have a more desirable flavo r than those from the end towards the whole sa le round cut. Th e above steak i s known as the round bone s irloin (note round bone in low er cente r of cut) and is one of the most desirable steaks from this section . The lean meat ha s been cut across the grain, s in ce all of the mu s cle fibers run in one direction. The round bone s irloin s teak is well marbled and contains a sma ll proport ion of bone to meat. Fig. 7.-Double bone s irloin steak. Double Bone Sirloin St.eak.-The c h aracte ri stics of thi s steak are mu sc l e fiber s running in two directions and a relatively large proportion of fat and bone to lean meat. When l ea n meat i s cut parallel to the muscle fibers (see right of fi gure) it lack s tenderne ss and , for this reason, it i s not as desirable as the round bone sir loin stea k. This stea k ma y be broiled and when c ut three inches thick makes an exce ll e nt roast .

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I I, I' Selecting a~d Using Beef and Veal 15 Fig. 8.-Porterhous e is c on s idered the highest quality s teak in th e beef carca ss . Porterhou se Steak.-Porterhouse, T-bone and club ste a ks are obtained from the short loin (Fig. 3, No. 4). Porterhou s e is considered to be the highest quality steak in the beef carcass . It is characterized by the T-bone conformation, large "e y e of beef" above the bone, and the tenderloin muscle below . When the tail end of the steak , which i s rather coarse, is cut off, the resulting steak is known a s a "short cut" porterhou s e . Thes e steaks should be cut about 3 1, 1 inch thick if they are to be cooked we ll done, but if s li ghtly rare meat is preferred , 1 to 1 1/2 inche s is not too thick. Porterhouse, because of its flavor and tender ness, is in most demand and, therefore, is the most expensive c ut in the beef carcass.

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Fig . 9.T-bon e steak i s s imil ar in quality to porterho u se: T-Bone S teak. T-bon e steak can be recognized read il y by the di sti n ct T-bone format i on. Thi s stea k shows c on s iderable porti on of tenderloin muscle, but usually there is m uc h les s t h a n in porterhou se s te a k, 01 non e at a l l. Th e "eye of beef" above t h e bone i s s imil ar in quality to that of the porterhou se. Thi s c ut, as indi cated in th e fi g ur e, contai n s a cons id er ab l e q u antity of kid n ey fat or s uet . It is c ut and coo ked as i s porter hon se and t h e pric e is ap p rox im ately t h e sa m e. Fi g . 10.-C lub s teak i s a high quality c ut. Club S teak. -One or two club s t ea k s are obtained from t h e rib end of t h e s ho rt loin. The se s te a k s h ave neither T-bon e nor t e nderloin muscl e, but may or may not h ave a r ib (13th r i b). C lub s t ea k s hav e a lar ge "eye of beef" which in good q u a l ity b eef i s we ll marb l ed and s urr ou n ded on the exterior by fat. Th is i s a high q u a li ty c ut a n d u s ually is broil e d. For oven br oilin g, 1 to 1 i n c h e s in thickness i s be st. Cl ub s teaks are c onsidered to be s li g htl y in ferior in qua lity to porterhouse and T-b one s teak s . How ever, t h ey have a hi g her percentage of lean to fat a nd b o ne than do the other s t ea k s obtained from the s ho rt Joi n .

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Fig. 11.-Fl ank s teak, of medium tenderness but rich in fl avor. Flank Steak.-The fl ank i s the c heape s t wholesale c ut of the hind quarter. It contains about 50 percent surp lu s fat and conne ct ive ti ss ue and very littl e bone . It s c hi ef value lies in the larg e abdominal, flat, rectang ula r s h aped mu sc le which is known as the flank s teak. The mu sc le fib ers of the s t eak are lar g e and run length w i s e . When u s ed for Swiss s teak it i s sc ored on bo t h sides diagonall y to t he fiber s . When rolled w ith s uet or fat pork it ma y be u sed as a roa s t. Thi s s teak i s ri c h in flavor and wh e n properl y pr epa r ed i s of medium tenderness . Fig. 12.C hu ck end of rib. Chuck End of Rib.-There are 13 ribs in a s ide of beef. In quart e ring the side one rib, the 1 3t h, is left on the hindquarter which leave s 12 rib s in the forequarter. The wholesale rib cut (Fig. 3, No. 6) contains seYen ribs and corresponding sections of the backbone. Note the number of mu s cles which go to make up the thickne ss of this cut and the small c artila ge nou s sec tion of the s houlder blade at the upper edge of the c ut .

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18 Plorida Agricultural E x p e rim e nt Stat-ions F i g-. 1 3 .-An attractiv e folded rib roa s t from th e 9th and 11th rib section. Rib Roasts.-Retail roasts from the whole s ale rib cut are the choicest roasts in the carcass. These roasts have the least bone of any forequarter cut and there is usually sufficient fat on the exterior and intermingled with the lean to baste it naturally as it cooks. Rib roasts are sold as standing, folded or rolled. The first cut from the loin end of the rib is known as the 11th and 12th rib roast; the middle cuts-the 9th and 10th and the 7th and 8th rib roasts ; the chuck end as the 6th rib roast. The weight of the 6th rib cut is about equal to that of the 11th and 12th rib cut. The prepared folded rib roast s hown in Fig. 13 was taken from the 9th and 10th rib section.

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Se l e cting and Using B ee f and Veal 19 Fig. 14.-Chuck r ib r oast, whic h is well flavor ed meat. C huck Rib Roa s t.-Th e sq uar e cut chuc k (Fig. 3, whol esale c ut s 10, 11, 1 2 and 1 3) ha s many small muscles and, a s the mu sc le bundle s r un in var iou s directions, it is imp ossible to cut all t he muscles acros s th e g rai n. The chuck h as a relatively large amount of connective ti ss ue, litt le fat a nd a fairly high percentage of bone. The retail c ut s may be made in v ariou s s hape s and s i zes. Th e chuck rib roast co n s i s t s of two rib s with c orre sp onding vert e brae and part of the s hould e r blad e . It i s made up of a nnmber of mu scles, co ntain s a moderate amount of fat and a c on s id erable q uantity of bone . A c huck rib roast from a carca ss whi c h grades Com mercial or hi gher make s a s ati s factory roast or it may be c ut into chuck s teaks. It is well flavored b eca u se it conta in s a relatively large amount o f meat ext ractiv es . I t is usually braised or pot roasted. Fig. 15 . -Boned and rolled c hu ck rib roast s.

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20 Florida Agricultural E ,cperimen t Stations Boned a nd Ro ll e d C h uck R i b Roasts . -The chuck rib roast when taken from a medium-sized carcass may be too large for a small family. Figur e 15 shows this roast boned and made into two rolls. Each of the se rolls weighs approximately 4 pounds. The rolls contain a good proportion of lean and fat which i s well di str ibuted, very little connective ti ss u e and no bone . The roll on the right is from the sec tion next to the rib s and i s considered to b e the tenderer of the two , wh ereas the ro ll on the lef t conta in s the exter ior fat . The quality of these roasts i s exce llen t a nd t h ere i s n o waste. i Fig. ] 6. Chuck roast . . j C hu ck Roast.-Th e chuck roast is s imil ar in muscle s tru c ture, fat content, and quality of lean to the chuck rib roast. It contains a s mali end of the shoulder blade, two ribs and corresponding portions of the backbone . When taken from a Commercial or higher grade carca ss it makes a good roast or it may be used for steaks. It may be cooked as a pot roast or used for braising. Because of its size it is often cut cross wise, making two roast s, or it may be boned and divided into top and bottom rolls.

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Selecting and Using B eef and V ea l Fig . 17.-Round bone pot roast, also known as cross rib roast or arm bone roast s . 21 Round Bone Pot Roast . -Round bone pot r oast is cut across the ribs and at r i ght angles to th e chuck roasts (see Fig. 3, No. 12). It i s known a l so as cr o ss ri b roast or arm bon e roa s t because it i s c ut across t he ribs and ha s the s mall round arm bon e in the cen te r . The s hort ribs may be remo \'ed, as in this cut . It may be cut into ste ak s for pan fry in g, and w hen cut of s uitabl e t hi ckness it is used for Swi ss steak. When c ut int o s teaks it so m etimes i s sold a s round steak. lt differs, however, from ro und steak in that the mu scles are smaller and i t ha s a c h aracte ri stic s mall round m u sc l e near the bone. Neck End of C hu ck . -The neck e nd of c hu c k a s pictured s how s a l arge pr oportion of l ea n meat. However, thi s piece contains the lar ge s houlder k nuckle, one rib and all of the neck vertebrae . In good qua l ity carc a sses o n e or two pot roasts can be c u t from the thick er part . Th ese will be s imilar in quality and te x tur e to the c hu c k roast (Fig. 16). Th e neck proper i s we ll -flavored m eat but l acks tenderness. Bonel ess ne c k , becau se o f it s flavor , i s one of t h e mo st de sira ble c ut s fo r gr ound beef. C hop p in g or gr indin g fin e ly divides the connect iv e tissue present and thu s makes t h e meat tender. It also makes exce ll ent stew meat .

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22 Flor ida Agricultural E: -c p e riment Stations Fig-. 18.-Neck encl of c hu ck. Fig-. 1 9 . -S houlcl er or so up knuckl e. S hould er or So up Kn u ck l e . Th e s hould er or soup knuckle contain s a larg-e amount of bone, connective ti ss ue and varyingamounts of lean meat, dependingupon t h e m et h o d of cutti n g. Thi s cut, as the name implie s, is used for s oup.

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Selecting and Using B eef and Veal 23 Fig . 20.-Th e fore s hank. Fore S h ank.-Th e fore s hank ha s a lar ge amount of bone a nd con nective t i ss ue . Th e co nn ective tissue makes it a highly desirable cut for so up or for pre ssed or jellied beef. A s mall pot roast or se veral s houlder s teak s may be c ut from the larger or upper end. Th e lower part of t h e s h an k i s cut into 2or 3-inch l e ngth s to use for so up , or the meat may be u se d for stew or gro und beef. Fig. 21.-The brisket. Brisket.-Th e pla te of beef cons i sts of the navel and brisket (F i g. 3, Nos. 7 and 8). The lean and fat, whi c h are well flavor ed, are deposited in alternate layer s. Th e plate contains the lower end of t h e ribs and breast bone . Th e brisket c an be identified from the navel by the pre se nce of the br east bone and the g ranular nature of much of the exterior fat. There i s a large amount of bone and fat, and the fat when coo k ed has a s weet flavo r. Thi s cut i s u secl for soup, stews and g round b eef.

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2 4 Flo ri da A.gricultural E t cperiment Stations Fig. 22 . Boilin g pieces from plate . Boiling Pieces from Plate.-Sections consisting of two or more rib ends are cut from the plate and so ld as boiling beef. Note the alternate layers of le an and fat in the folded c ut . These cuts usua ll y have moder ate amounts of fat and the l ean is well flavored. Fig. 23.-Short ribs of beef, u sed for boiling or as a pot roast. Short Ribs of Beef.-Short r ibs of beef are cut from the upper portion of the navel. They are cut from 2 to 4 inches in len g th and are used for boiling or as a pot roast . The s hort ribs are considered to be the best part of the plate.

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S e l ecting and Using B eef ancl V ea l 25 Fig . 24.-Boned and rolled navel. Boned and Rolled Navel.-The navel piece can be boned, rolle d and c ut in to pieces of any desired s i ze. Note the th in outs i de le an portion which is fibro u s and l ack in g in t e nd erness . The in s ide of the roll contain s desirable proportion s of le a n to fat a nd i s well fl av or ed. If the roll contain s a moderate amount of fat, it can be u sed as a roast. Becau se of the thinne ss of the muscles in th i s cut it i s used more freque ntl y for bo ilin g or s tewing t h an for any ot h er purpose.

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26 Flo rida Agricultural E ~ c p er im ent St at ions ___ !:...... Fig. 25.-S id e of veal, outside and in si d e views, s howin g w hol esa l e cuts. Side of Veal .Th e followin g whoe sa le c ut s are s hown : 1. Leg 4. Flank 7. S hould er 2. Ru m p 5. R i bs 8. Fore s h ank 3 . Lo i n 6 . Brea s t Note t h e absen ce of l arge quant iti es of fat on the exter ior , aro und the kidne.ys an d in the pelvi c reg ion ; also the li g ht co l or of the flesh co mpared with that of a beef carcass.

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Selecting and Using B eef and V eal 27 Fi g . 26 .V ea l c uU ets, one of the mo st econom i cal c ut s in the veal carcass. Veal C utl et .-Th e t hi cker part of the leg of veal i s u sed as veal cut le ts (steaks) or roa sts, while t h e s hank is u sed for stew m eat or s ou p. Veal cutlets are c har acterized by h aving a s m all round bone surrounded by relatively lar ge mu sc l es. rote the lar ge proportion of J ean to bone and fat. Veal c utle ts are tender and s uit ab l e for broilin g, but it i s neces s a r y to add so m e fat in t h e cooking process. Th ey hav e a good flavo r and are one of t h e mo st econom i ca l c ut s in the vea l carcass. Fig. 27 .Veal roast from l oin end . Veal Roa st from Loin End.-The e ntir e Join of ve al ca n be u sed for roast s or chops. Thi s cut s hows a roa st from the round or rum p end of t h e loin. Th e bom i in the low er part of t h e pi ct ur e is part of the femur s ocket. Note the lack of fat and that so m e of the mu sc l es hav e been cut along t he mu sc le fiber s.

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28 Florida A . griculturnl E x periment Stations I: Fig-. 28.-Veal roast from the loin . Vea l Roast from the Loin. Thi s cut s how s the section of the loin end next to the s hort loin. Note the difference in bone and mu scle str uctur e compared with the roast in Fig-. 27 . No two c hop s obtained from the loin end are the same in muscl e and bone because of the c han gingposition and s hape of these structures. Fig-. 29 . -Rou nd bone roa st of vea l.

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Selecting and Using B ee f ancl Veal 29 Round Bone Roast.-Thi s roast gets i ts name because it contains part of th e arm bone w hi c h is round. It i s known also as "cross t h e r ib roa st'' be c ause it contains a s ho rt sect ion of t h ree r ib s. The ro und bone roa st co nt ai n s a la rge proport i on of J ean meat to bone and fat and is considered one of the most economical c u ts from the forequarter. Although the roasts or chops from t h e s h ou ld er of veal are not as cho i ce as those from t h e r ib and loin they are tender and well fl avored ( Fi g. 29). Fig. 3 0.-Veal roast from th e s hort loin . Veal Roast from the Short Loin.-This roast is characterized by the presence of the T-shaped bone , the large muscle above the round tenderloin mu sc le below the bone. There i s little exterior or kidney fat and the thin p::i.rt of the cut has been folded under. C hop s from the s h ort loin are considered. to be the choicest in the veal carcass.

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Fig. 31.-Boned and rolled rib roast of veal. Boned and Roll e d Rib R oast.-Standingor folded rib cuts from a veal carcass are rather thin for roasting-. Th e above picture s how s a boned a nd ro ll ed roast from the rib section. Note t h e large muscle in the center of the ro ll and the absence of fat either on the exter ior or between t h e muscle s . When the r ib section i s u sed for c hop s t h e bon es are lef t in. Fig-. 32.-Shoulder roast of veal. S h o uld e r Roa st of Vea l. The s hould er roast c onta in s, in addition to ribs and backbone , part of t h e s h ou l der b l ade. It is frequent ly boned and rolled when sol d as a roas t, but w h en c u t into c ho ps the bones are left in. Note the number of mu sc l e s, so me of w hi ch are cut neces sar ily para ll e l to t h e mu sc l e fibE:r s.

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Sel e cting and Using B ee f and Veal 31 before shipping. Veal and calf carcasses do not contain suffi cient fat to be satisfactorily aged. Therefore, these meats should be used within a short time after slaughter, or frozen and preserved for future use. Calf and veal are used for chops, roasts, stewing or ground meat. The thickness of the carcass largely determines the use of the wholesale cuts. Although veal and calf are relatively tender, cuts such as the neck, fore shank and breast are high in connective tissue and lack tenderness. They a re often used as stew meat, ground meat , or in the ca s e of the shank, for making soup. CARE OF MEAT IN THE HOME Meat is a highly perishable food and requires cleanliness and care, or it will spoil rapidly. The undesirable changes which meat undergoes are classified as (1) oxidative, (2) enzymatic and (3) putrefactive. The oxidative changes are due to the taking up o:f oxygen by the fat, resulting in an undesirable flavor change known as rancidity. Rancidity is not normally a p roblem in fresh meats, as the putrefactive changes occur more rapidly. Consequently, rancidity occurs primarily in frozen and cured meats, more particularly in pork . and poultry. The enzymatic changes occur after death when the catalytic e nzymes begin to break down the connective tissue. These enzymes are responsible for the development of tenderness and the full flavor of aged beef, but if allowed to proceed too far will result in decomposition of the tissue. This process is slowed b y refrigeration and is not normally a major cause of spoilage. The putrefactive changes are largely the result of bacterial a ction on the lean tissue. Growth of bacteria, which are uni versally present, can be retarded by refrigeration. However, fresh meat has a limited storage life due to bacterial decomposi tion, unless the storage temperature is _ below freezing. Fresh meat should be kept in the colde s t part of the horn~ refrigerator to minimize meat spoilage. Unless it is to be used within several days, it should be frozen , cured or canned to pre v ent spoilage. In storing fresh meat in the refrigerator , the paper should be removed or opened and wr a pped lqosely to allow the surface to dry out. The dry surface will materially inhibit the growth of bacteria. Meat which cannot be used before danger of spoilage occurs may be cooked and held in the refrig erator for much longer periods . Howe v er , cooked meat should

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32 Florida Agric u lt ur al E xpe rini en t Stations be covered tightly to prevent dehydration. Place it in a covered dish or wrap in moisture-proof paper. METHODS OF . PRESERVING BEE F AND VEAL Preservation of meat is based upon checking the growth of or destroying the bacteria and upon inactivating the catalytic enzymes causing autolysis or break down o f the tissues. The methods discussed below act in one or both of these ways : Freezing.-Freezing slows down or retards the changes oc curring in fresh meat. Frozen meat clos e ly approaches the fresh product. Thus freezing is preferred as a method of preserving meat by most people. Following are the steps in preparing and fr e ezing meat: 1. Divide meat into desired cuts. 2. Wrap each cut in a good grade of commercial freezer p a per. Take care to exclude a ll air by folding in the edges, thus prevent in g dehydration or "freezer burn." If two steaks are placed in the s am~ package , separate with a sheet of oiled paper. 3 . Clearly label each package with name of cut, date and weight (if possible). 4. Place meat 'in the fr eeze r at 0 F. or below as quickly as possible a fter wrapping. 5. Take care to avoid over-loading the hom e free z er. 6. Store frozen meat below 15 F. , in either the home freezer or the freezer-locker plant. Either rancidity ~r dehydration usually limits the storage life of frozen meat which has been properly packaged. It is recom mended that frozen ' beef and veal be held in freezer storage no longer than 12 months to minimize these undesirable changes. Canning,-Canning destroys the bacteria b y heat and sealing in air-tight containers prevents further contamination. The process is described fully in other publication s. Curing.-In curing meat of any kind, use only clean untainted meat from a healthy animal. Cleanline ss reduces bacterial con tamination and prevents spoilage. If in doubt as to the sound ness of the meat, discard it and a void the danger of spoilage. Although a wide variety of ingredients are used in curing meat, common salt is the only basic .element. A good grade dairy salt or common table salt is recommended because of their

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Selecting and Using Beef and Veal 33 freedom from impurities. Salt preserves meat by removing the , moisture, thereby inhibiting the growth of bacteria. Salt, when used alone, tends to make the lean tissues dry and hard. Sugar is used to give flavor and counteract the hardening effect of salt. Brown sugar is commonly preferred, but white sugar, syrup or molasses is sometimes used. Saltpeter is usually added to curing mixtures in small quantities to develop the desirable bright pink color of the cured product. Unless salt peter is used, the cured meat becomes gray in color. Curing can be accomplished most satisfactorily at 38 F. At this temperature the curing ingredients penetrate the meat quite rapidly, yet the temperature is low enough to inhibit the growth of microorganisms. Lower temperatures result in a reduced rate of salt penetration, and below 32 F. the length of time necessary in the cure is measurably increased. Tempera tures above 40 F. materially increase the incidence of spoilage. CORNED BEEF Corned beef is prepared from the cheaper cuts of meat, such as the plate, chuck and shank, although other cuts may be used. Meat that contains some fat is more desirable than that devoid of finish. The following recipe has been found satisfac tory for every 100 pounds of beef: 8 lbs. salt 3 lbs. sugar (brown usually preferred) 3 oz. saltpeter 5 gals. water Large earthenware jars and hardwood boxes or barrels make exceilent curing receptacles. Receptacles must be water-tight a nd should be thoroughly scrubbed and scalded before being used. Containers made of soft woods should not be used, as they impart a resinous fl a vor to the product. In corning, cut the meat in pieces of the desired size, usually a bout 4 to 6 pounds. Rub each piece of meat with salt and pack in the container. Sprinkle a layer of s a lt over each layer of meat as it is packed. Allow to stand over night in the cooler. Make a pickle with the remaining curing ingredients and heat to boiling to kill any organisms present. Cool to 38 F. and pour the solution over the meat. Weight down with a hard wood block and be sure all the meat is submerged. Keep in cooler a t 32 to 38 F. Repack the meat on the fourth and eighth day to insure uniform penetration of the curing mixture. The meat

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34 Florida Ag r icultu ra l E x p eriment Stations should be kept in the brine until used. It can be used in 10 days, , but is . better after 15 to 20 days. If it becomes too salty, the excess can be removed by soaking in water or by parboiling. DRIED BEEF The round is most commonly used in m a king dried beef, but any large muscle with a high proportion of lean can be used. , The round is ' usually divided into three parts by following the natural division between the muscles. This facilitates cutting across the grain after it is dried and smoked. Brine Method.~The same curing procedure is followed as was previously outlined for corned beef. The meat should be cured 3 days per pound; a 5-pound piece of meat would require 15 days , After removal from the brine, hang until it becomes thoroughly dry and then smoke it according to the procedure used for the dry method. Dry Method.-The following mixture has proven satisfactory for curing 100 pounds of beef: 5 lb. salt 3 lb. , sugar (brown preferred) 3 oz. saltpeter Mix the curing ingredients thorughly and divide into three equal portions. Rub the meat with one portion and pack in a tight vessel. Allow the meat to cure four days, remove it aild rub with the second portion of the curing mixture. Repack the meat, placing the pieces which were on top at the bottom of the pack. Repeat again in four days, using the remainder of the curing ingredients and leave for an additional three to five days . The pickle which collects in the bottom of the container should be left to ai . d in curing. When taken from the cure, the excess salt is removed by washing and the meat is allowed to drip . The cured meat is dried at a temperature of 130 to 140 F. for 30 hours. In the event this temperature cannot be obtained, the meat is allowed to dry for a longer period before smoking. The cured beef is smoked for 24 hours at a temperature of 100 to 140 F. for a mild smoke flavor, or it may be smoked for a longer period if a more pronounced smoke flavor is de sired. Sometimes it is the practice to smoke for a few hours each week until the meat is used. Green, non~resinous, hard woods such as hickory or oak make the best fuels, although corn cobs can be used.

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Selecting and Using Beef and Veal PREPARATION OF MEAT FOR THE TABLE 35 The finest quality meat may prove a disappointment if not properly cooked. On the other hand, a low grade piece of meat may become very palatable after proper preparation. Good meat cookery retains the natural meat flavors, but improper p reparation will destroy flavor and decrease palatability. METHODS OF COOKING MEAT Meat is cp9ked (1) to develop the flavors and make more palatable, (2) to improve the appearance, (3) to kill bacteria a nd other microorganisms and ( 4) to soften the connective tissues, thereby tenderizing. In selecting a method of cookery for a piece of meat con s ider the grade of the carcass and the cut to be cooked. In g eneral, the more tender cuts, which have a minimum of co nnective tissue, are from the part of the carcass which has b een used least in life. The muscles used most have fibers with thickened walls and are surrounded by a large amount of connective tissue. Consequently, the location of the cut must b e considered in selecting a method of cookery. There are only two basic methods of cooking meat-by dry heat or by moist heat. The more tender cuts which contain a s mall amount of connective tissue and have a moderate amount of fat should be cooked by dry heat, while the less tender cuts which contain little fat and a large amount of connective tissue sho uld be cooked by moist heat. Methods of cooking by dry heat are roasting, broiling and panbroiling. Methods with moist heat a re braising and simmering in liquid , or stewing. Each method of cooking is described below: Roast.-To cook in an oven without added moisture (dry heat). Oven temperatures of 300 to 350 F. are recommended . Broil.-To cook by direct heat from hot coals, a gas flame or an electric element. To grill. Makes use of temperatures of 350 to 400 F. PanbroiJ.-To cook in a hot, uncovered frying pan, pouring off the fat as it accumulates. Braise.-To brown meat in a small amount of added fat, then to cover and cook slowly in the meat juices or in added liquid. 'rhe liquid is usually water, but milk, cream, dilute vinegar and vegetable juices are sometimes used. , The temperature after browning should be reduced so the liquid will not boil.

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36 Florida . Agricu,ltural E x perim e nt StatfonB 'Stew or Simmer.-To cook in liquid at a temperature of 185 F. Meat should never be boiled, as this , causes loss of tlavor and makes the meat stringy and difficult to carve. Small, uni form pieces of meat may be cooked in liquid with or without a dded vegetables. Low temperatures in meat cookery have the following ad vantages over high temperatures: (1) less moisture is lost, (2) le s s shrinkage occurs due to retention of both moisture and fat and (3) the meat is more tender, has more juice and has a richer flavor. OTHER METHODS OF PREPARING LESS TENDER CUTS Preparing the less tender cuts by pounding has been practiced for many years. The object is to break down the connective tissue in the me at . In doing thi s , meat juices are liberated, so flour is u s ed to take up the juices and conserve the flavor. Pound ing with a tenderizing mallet, which has blunt knife-like edges at right angles . to each other, i s most effective. The cubing machine works on the s a me principle as the mallet, wi t h blunt knife-like edge s which break much of the c onnective tissue by pressure but do not cut through the s teak. Cuts of meat can be scored with a knife by cutting more or le s s across the grain. This method is commonly used in pre p a ring fl a nk s te a k, w:hich has lon g, s tron g muscle fibers. Grinding meat is one of the mo s t common methods of tender izing. The grinder break s up the c onnectiv e tissue s and muscle fibers. Meat thus prepared can be broil e d or panbroiled in the form of patties, or it can be molded into a loaf and roasted with dry heat. To develop a good flavor and prevent ground beef from drying out, . it should contain about 1 part fat to 4 parts le a n. The cuts of be e f u se d for making g round :tneat are often lacking in fat, which can be added by grinding enough suet to give the proper proportion. The additional fat will baste the meat as it cooks. Larding of lean, less tender cuts of m e at adds to the flavor and prevents dryness. Small strips of fat can be placed in the lean meat by use of a larding needle . The fat will melt as the meat cooks, giving it added juiciness an d flavor. A cover of fat is sometimes added to veal roasts to prevent dryness and add flavor.


xml record header identifier oai:www.uflib.ufl.edu.ufdc:UF0002642800001datestamp 2009-01-05setSpec [UFDC_OAI_SET]metadata oai_dc:dc xmlns:oai_dc http:www.openarchives.orgOAI2.0oai_dc xmlns:dc http:purl.orgdcelements1.1 xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.openarchives.orgOAI2.0oai_dc.xsd dc:title Selecting and using beef and veal Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station ; 541dc:creator Pearson, A. M ( Albert Marchant ), 1916-Kirk, W. Gordon ( William Gordon ), 1898-1979dc:subject Beef ( lcsh )Veal ( lcsh )Cookery (Beef) ( lcsh )Cookery (Veal) ( lcsh )dc:description b Statement of Responsibility A.M. Pearson and W.G. Kirk.Cover title.dc:publisher University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stationdc:date 1954dc:type Bookdc:format 36 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.dc:identifier http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/ufdc/?b=UF00026428&v=00001000926386 (aleph)AEN7057 (notis)18276369 (oclc)dc:source University of Floridadc:language English