Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station ; 321
Title: Selecting and using beef and veal
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 Material Information
Title: Selecting and using beef and veal
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 34 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Kirk, W. Gordon ( William Gordon ), 1898-1979
Shealy, A. L
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1938
Subject: Beef   ( lcsh )
Veal   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 34.
Statement of Responsibility: W.G. Kirk and A.L. Shealy.
General Note: Cover title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026427
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000924547
oclc - 18213485
notis - AEN5174

Full Text


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.

Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida

Bulletin 321





'If ;:.

I4s -

Fig. 1.-An attractive folded rib roast from the 9th and 10th rib section.

Bulletins will be sent free to Florida residents upon request to

June, 1938


John J. Tigert, M.A., LL.D.. President of
the University
Wilmon Newell, D.Sc., Director
H. Harold Hume, D.Sc., Asst. Dir., Research
Harold Mowry, M.S.A., Asst. Dir., Adm.
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Assistant Editor
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian
Ruby Newhall, Administrative Manager
K. H. Graham, Business Manager
Rachel McQuarrie, Accountant


W. E. Stokes, M.S., Agronomist**
W. A. Leukel, Ph.D., Agronomist
G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Associate*
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Associate
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate
John P. Camp, M.S., Assistant
Roy E. Blaser, M.S., Assistant
A. L. Shealy, D.V.M., Animal Husbandman**
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman
L. M. Thurston, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist
W. M. Neal, Ph.D., Asso. in An. Nutrition
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarian
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husbandman
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Asst. An. Husbandman
R. M. Crown, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husbandman
P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Assistant Dairy
L. L. Rusoff, M.S., Asst. in An. Nutrition
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Chemist**
R. M. Barnette, Ph.D., Chemist
C. E. Bell, Ph.D., Associate
R. B. French, Ph.D., Associate
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant
J. Russell Henderson, M.S.A., Assistant
C. V. Noble, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist**
Bruce McKinley, A.B., B.S.A., Associate
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Assistant
Ouida Davis Abbott, Ph.D., Specialist**
Ruth Overstreet, R.N., Assistant
J. R. Watson, A.M., Entomologist**
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Associate
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist and
Acting Head of Department
A. L. Stahl, Ph.D., Associate
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Truck Horticulturist
R. J. Wilmot, M.S.A., Specialist, Fumigation
R. D. Dickey, B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist
J. Carlton Cain, B.S.A., Asst. Horticulturist
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist**
George F. Weber, Ph.D., PPlant Pathologist
R. K. Vorhees, M.S., Assistant
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Assistant Botanist
L. W. Gaddum, Ph.D., Biochemist
L H. Rogers, M.A., Spectroscopic Analyst
Richard A. Carrigan, B.S., Asst. Chemist

R. P. Terry, Acting Chairman, Miami
Thomas W. Bryant, Lakeland
W. M. Palmer, Ocala
H. P. Adair, Jacksonville
Chas. P. Helfenstein, Live Oak
J. T. Diamond, Secretary, Tallahassee

L. O. Gratz, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist in
R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist
J. D. Warner, M.S., Agronomist
Jesse Reeves, Farm Superintendent
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Horticulturist in Charge
John H. Jefferies, Superintendent
W. A. Kuntz, A.M., Asso. Plant Pathologist
Michael Peech, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
B. R. Fudge, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Asst. Entomologist
John A. Granger, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Biochemist in Charge
R. N. Lobdell, M.S., Entomologist
F. D. Stevens, B.S., Sugarcane Agronomist
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Sugarcane
G. R. Townsend, Ph.D., Associate Plant
R. W. Kidder, B.S., Asst. Animal Husbandman
W. T. Foresee, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
B. S. Clayton, B.S.C.E., Drainage Engineer*
H. S. Wolfe, Ph.D., Horticulturist in Charge
W. M. Fifield, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist
Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist
W. F. Ward, M.S., Asst. Ah. Husbandman
in Charge*

M. N. Walker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist In
K. W. Loucks, M.S., Asst. Plant Pathologist
C. C. Goff, M.S., Assistant Entomologist
Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
J. W. Wilson, Sc.D.; Associate Entomologist
A. S. Rhoads, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Samuel 0. Hill, B.S., Asst. Entomologist*
David G. Kelbert, Asst. Plant Pathologist
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Chemist in Charge
Celery Investigations
W. B. Shippy, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist
E. S. Ellison, Meteorologist*
B. H. Moore, A.B., Asst. Meteorologist*
In cooperation with U.S.D.A.
** Head of Department.




SELECTION OF BEEF AND VEAL .................................................... 4
Factors Which Influence the Grade of Beef ............................ 4
Grades of Beef Carcasses .................................................................. 5
Flavor in M eat .........................-... ..... ...-................. ... 6
Cutting of M eat ..................... .... ....... ........................................ 7
CU TS OF BEEF ........................................ ................ 7
CU TS OF V EAL ........................................ ............................................ 23
METHODS OF PRESERVING BEEF ................................................. 29
Factors Involved in Meat Curing ....................... ................. 29
Corned Beef ....................... ..................................... .............. 30
Dried Beef ..................................................................... ........ 31
PREPARATION OF MEAT FOR THE TABLE ............................... 32
Methods of Cooking Meat ............................ ........................... 32
Preparing the Less Tender Cuts ........................... ................... 33

Meat is a nutritious and palatable food. The various elements
found in it-protein, fat and minerals-are similar to those
comprising the human body. Because of this it can be easily
digested and utilized by the body for growth and maintenance.
Vitamins B and G, which protect against deficiency diseases,
particularly pellagra, are present in relatively large amounts.
The extractives of meat give it flavor and make it one of the
most palatable of all foods.
In purchasing most foods, the housewife knows what she
wants. Especially is this true of staple articles, canned goods,
fruits and vegetables. Canned goods are purchased largely by
their brands or trade names, while the selection of fruits and
vegetables is based upon their quality and freshness. However,
meats, particularly beef and veal, usually are not selected on
such a well established basis. How often is the expression
heard, "Oh! just give me a steak" or "cut off a roast". The
purchaser realizes that there are many different kinds of steaks
and roasts, but comparatively few purchasers of beef and veal
are able to recognize the cuts of meat they desire.
The objects in offering this bulletin are: (1) to provide pur-
chasers with a means of identifying the various cuts of beef
and veal, (2) to give a guide to the selection of meat from a
quality standpoint, (3) to present methods of preservation which

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

will enable anyone to have beef available for use at any season
of the year, and (4) to outline some of the standard methods
used in the preparation of meat.

The term "beef" as generally used is rather comprehensive.
It includes the meat from all classes of cattle except that which
is obtained from vealers and calves. Quite often the terms
"veal" and "calf" are used interchangeably to designate the
meat from cattle usually not more than one year old. Veal,
however, is the flesh of calves not under three weeks and not
over 12 weeks of age at time of slaughter. Calf carcasses are
from animals which have passed beyond the veal stage (from
three to 12 months) but have not taken on beef characteristics.
The meat from calves possesses some of the characteristics of
both veal and beef. Baby beef is procured from animals having
a high degree of finish which are marketed when 14 to 18
months old. The meat from all other cattle is known as beef.
Three factors used to determine the grade of a beef carcass
are: (1) conformation or form; (2) amount and distribution
of fat, commonly known as finish; and (3) quality.
Conformation.-The term conformation refers to the general
form and outline of the carcass and is determined by the size
and shape of the bones, thickness of the muscles, and amount
and distribution of the fat. Conformation indicates the propor-
tion of lean, fat and bone in the carcass as well as the relation
between the high quality and low quality cuts. A high grade
carcass has short shanks and neck, well developed round, heavily
fleshed loin and ribs, with not too large a proportion of plate
and chuck. In contrast, a low grade carcass usually has long
shanks and neck, prominent shoulder and hip bones, and thinly
fleshed round, loin and ribs.
Finish.-Finish is the amount, character and distribution of
external and internal fat throughout the carcass. A well finished
or high grade beef carcass has an even covering of brittle, flaky,
creamy white fat over the chuck, ribs, loin and round with a
smaller amount on the shanks, neck and plate. There are large
but not excessive amounts of fat around the kidneys. When
such a carcass is cut, relatively heavy deposits of fat are found
between the larger muscles and a liberal distribution of fat

Selecting and Using Beef and Veal

occurs between the muscle bundles. This last condition, an
intermixture of lean and fat, is known as "marbling".
Fat is important because it adds to the attractiveness of the
carcass or cut. Its greatest significance, however, lies in the
fact that fat makes the meat more palatable and increases the
degree of tenderness. A low grade carcass is deficient in ex-
ternal and internal fat and there is seldom any sign of "mar-
bling". The fat that is present is distributed unevenly through-
out the carcass and may be soft in character.
The degree of finish influences the keeping quality of beef.
If the exterior of the carcass is well covered with fat the meat
can be aged or ripened for several days. Aging increases the
degree of tenderness and improves the quality and palatability
of the meat. Beef with no fat covering cannot be aged or
Quality.-The term quality embodies all that has been men-
tioned previously concerning conformation and finish, and in
addition refers to the degree of fineness in bones and flesh.
Quality in meat is determined by the size, color and texture
of the bones; color, firmness, and texture of the muscle fibers;
amount of connective tissue present, and the distribution, color
and texture of the fat. In good quality beef, the bones are
relatively small and if from a young animal are red in color
and porous in character on the cut surfaces. The lean is fine
in texture, bright red in color, smooth and velvety in appearance
and well marbled with creamy white, flaky fat. Poor quality
beef contains a relatively large proportion of bone which is
often white and flinty in character. The lean is coarse in tex-
ture, dark red in color, and has a relatively large quantity of
connective tissue. Usually the carcass contains little fat which
is not distributed uniformly.

Most canned and packaged goods are sold under certain brands
and when a particular brand is purchased, a definite standard
product is obtained. More and more is this true in the whole-
sale and retail distribution of beef and veal. The United States
Department of Agriculture and various meat packing companies
have established certain grades for fresh beef and a uniform
definite standard for each of these grades is gradually becom-
ing recognized. The grades of beef set up by the United States
Department of Agriculture from highest to lowest are: prime,

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

choice, good, medium and plain. Each of the large meat packing
concerns has grades that correspond with these. The retail mer-
chant who purchases beef and veal slaughtered locally grades
the meat in his mind somewhat similarly to the grades given
above. The housewife may purchase meat by asking for a cut
from a choice, good or medium carcass or wholesale cut. The
price range is also from high to low, depending upon the grade
of meat purchased.
Prime beef nearly approaches the ideal in conformation, finish
and quality. It comes from steers or the choicest heifers. Only
1 to 2 percent of all cattle fall within this grade. The prime
grade of meat is used almost entirely by restaurants and hotels
catering to a fastidious trade.
Choice or second grade is the top grade sold in many of the
best markets. Such beef is obtained from well fed steers and
heifers that have excellent beef conformation. High quality
roasts and steaks can be cut from this grade of meat.
The third or good grade of beef comes from grain-fed cattle
showing less finish than the prime and choice grades, and from
the highest grade of grass-fattened cattle. It carries a fair
amount of exterior fat and a considerable quantity of interior
fat and marbling.
The medium grade of carcass is from steers or heifers of
slightly inferior conformation and finish. Meat of this grade
may be well flavored and low in price, but will need longer
The plain grade is from animals of inferior beef conforma-
tion. The carcass lacks in thickness of fleshing throughout and
there is little, if any, fat on the exterior or between the muscles.
It comes from the low grade steers, heifers, and cows. Meat
of this grade is used mostly for stew meat, ground beef (ham-
burger), mince meat, and for process meat.
Flavor in meat is largely determined by the presence or ab-
sence of meat extractives and internal and external fat. As
the animal matures, meat extractives increase in the muscles.
Veal is tender because it comes from a young animal but for
the same reason contains very little meat extractives and fat
which renders it deficient in natural meat flavor. In contrast,
meat from a mature animal lacks in tenderness because of the
hardness of the muscle fibers and the amount of connective

Selecting and Using Beef and Veal

tissue present but has sufficient meat extractives to give a well
flavored product. Beef from steers and heifers 16 to 30 months
of age, of good conformation and carrying a moderate amount
of finish, has sufficient meat extractives and fat to be well
flavored and comparatively tender.

One object in cutting meat is to obtain pieces suitable in size
for use in the home. There are several other factors, however,
which are taken into account in dividing a side of beef or veal.
One of the important things to consider is the muscle structure
of the meat. Whenever possible the lean meat should be cut
crosswise of the fibers. There are muscles going in various
directions in the region of the large shoulder joint and the
pelvic section. This makes it difficult to cut across all the
muscles in these areas. The retail merchant separates the
round and loin, heavily muscled parts, from the flank which
is made up of thin muscles. The rib, a high quality cut, is
separated from the navel, a low quality cut. In addition, meat
is cut in such way that it will be attractive in appearance.


A side of beef is divided into fore and hind quarters. The
division usually is made between the 12th and 13th ribs which
leaves one rib on the hindquarter. The quarters are divided
further into wholesale cuts from which are obtained the retail
pieces (Fig. 2).
The sides of beef and veal and cuts of these two meats shown
on the following pages are from beef cattle raised at the FIlorida
Agricultural Experiment Station. The meat was cut by the
senior author and the pictures were made by Assistant Director
Harold Mowry.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Fig. 2--Side of beef, outside and inside views, showing wholesale cuts.

Side of Beef.-The following wholesale cuts are shown.

6. Beef ribs
7. Navel make up
8. Brisketjthe plate
9. Fore shank
10. Chuck rib roast

11. Chuck roast
12. Round bone pot
13. Neck

According to United States Department of Agriculture standard grades
the above side of beef would grade "good". Note the fullness of the round
and loin and the compactness of the carcass. The fat is uniformly dis-
tributed over the loin, ribs, chuck and over the thicker part of the round.
There is little fat, however, on the plate and lower part of the round.

1. Round
2. Rump
3. Loin end
4. Short loin
5. Flank

Selecting and Using Beef and Veal

Fig. 3.-Round steak, the least expensive steak of the hindquarter.

Round Steak.-Round steak is oval in shape with a small round bone
in the center. It consists of several large muscles but lacks in exterior
and interior fat. The cut shown, however, has more fat throughout the
lean tissue than is found generally in round steak. The steak above is
from the center of the wholesale round which is higher in quality than
steaks cut from either the loin or shank end. Round steak is the least
expensive steak of the hindquarter. The shank end of the round contains
a relatively small amount of lean meat and a large amount of bone and
connective tissue. It is used as pot roast, stew or ground meat.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Fig. 4.-Rump roast.

Rump Roast.-The rump is a wedge-shaped piece of meat lying between
the round and loin end (Fig. 2, No. 2). It has a moderate amount of fat
and a relatively large portion of bone, as it contains the hip joint and
part of the pelvic arch. This cut is suitable for roasting, and for this
purpose it frequently is boned and rolled. The lean portion can be used
as boneless steaks for broiling or pan frying.

Selecting and Using Beef and Veal

Fig. 5.-Round bone sirloin steak.

Round Bone Sirloin Steak.-Sirloin steaks are obtained from the whole-
sale loin end cut (Fig. 2, No. 3) and are characterized by being oblong in
shape and containing sections of the backbone and hip bone. No two
sirloin steaks are the same in muscle and bone because of the changing
positions of these structures. The steaks procured from the loin end
are considered more tender and to have a more desirable flavor than those
from the wholesale round cut.
The above steak is known as a round bone sirloin (note round bone
in lower center of cut) and is one of the most desirable steaks from this
section. The lean meat has been cut across the grain, since all of the
muscle fibers run in one direction. The round bone sirloin steak is well
marbled and contains a small proportion of bone to meat.


Fig. 6.-Double bone sirloin steak.

Double Bone Sirloin Steak.-The characteristics of this steak are muscle
fibers running in two directions and a relatively large proportion of fat
and bone to lean meat. When lean meat is cut parallel to the muscle
fibers (see right of figure) it lacks tenderness, and for this reason, it is
not as desirable as the round bone sirloin steak. This steak may be broiled
and when cut three inches thick makes an excellent roast.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Fig. 7.-Porterhouse is considered the highest quality steak in the beef carcass.

Porterhouse Steak.-Porterhouse, T-bone and club steaks are obtained
from the short loin (Fig. 2, No. 4). Porterhouse is considered to be the
highest quality steak in the beef carcass. It is characterized by the T-bone
conformation, large "eye of beef" above the bone, and the tenderloin muscle
below. When the tail end of the steak, which is rather coarse, is cut off
the resulting steak is known as a "short cut" porterhouse. These steaks
should be cut about 3/ inch thick if they are to be cooked well done, but
if slightly rare meat is preferred, 1 to 112 inches is not too thick. Porter-
house, because of its flavor and tenderness, is in greatest demand and,
therefore, is the most expensive cut in the beef carcass.

Selecting and Using Beef and Veal

Fig. -. T-bone steak is similar in quality to porterhouse.

T-Bone Steak.-T-bone steak can be recognized readily by the distinct
T-bone formation. This steak shows a considerable portion of tenderloin
muscle, but usually there is much less than in porterhouse steak, or none
at all. The "eye of beef" above the bone is similar in quality to that of
the porterhouse. This cut, as indicated in the figure, contains a consider-
able quantity of kidney fat or suet. It is cut and cooked as is porterhouse
and the price is approximately the same.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Fig. 9.-Club steak is a high quality cut.

Club Steak.-One or two club steaks are obtained from the rib end
of the short loin. These steaks have neither T-bone nor tenderloin muscle,
but may or may not have a rib (13th rib). Club steaks have a large "eye
of beef" which in good quality beef is well marbled and surrounded on the
exterior by fat. This is a high quality cut and usually is broiled. For
oven broiling, 1 to 11 inches in thickness is best. Club steaks are con-
sidered to be slightly inferior in quality to porterhouse and T-bone steaks.
However, they have a higher percentage of lean to fat and bone than do
the other steaks obtained from the short loin.

Fig. 10.-Flank steak, of medium tenderness but rich in flavor.

Flank Steak.-The flank is the cheapest wholesale cut of the hind-
quarter. It contains about 50 percent surplus fat and connective tissue,
and very little bone. Its chief value lies in the large abdominal, flat,
rectangular-shaped muscle which is known as the flank steak. The muscle
fibers of the steak are large and run lengthwise. When used for Swiss
steak it is scored on both sides diagonally to the fibers. When rolled with
suet or fat pork it may be used as a roast. This steak is rich in flavor
and when properly prepared is of medium tenderness.

Selecting and Using Beef and Veal

Fig. 11.-Chuck end of rib.

Chuck End of Rib.-There are 13 ribs in a side of beef. In quartering
the side one rib, the 13th, is left on the hindquarter which leaves 12 ribs
in the forequarter. The wholesale rib cut (Fig. 2, No. 6) contains seven
ribs and corresponding sections of the backbone. Note the number of
muscles which go to make up the thickness of this cut and the small
cartilagenous section of the shoulder blade at the upper edge of the cut.

Rib Roasts.-Retail roasts from the wholesale rib cut are the choicest
roasts in the whole carcass. These roasts have the least bone of any
forequarter cut and there is usually sufficient fat on the exterior and
intermingled with the lean to baste it naturally as it cooks. Rib roasts
are sold as standing, folded or rolled. The first cut from the loin end of
the rib is known as the 11th and 12th rib roast; the middle cuts-the 9th
and 10th, and the 7th and 8th rib roasts; the chuck end as the 6th rib roast.
The weight of the 6th rib cut is about equal to that of the 11th and 12th
rib cut. The prepared folded rib roast shown in Fig. 1 (Cover) was taken
from the 9th and 10th rib section.


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Fig. 12.-Chuck rib roast, which is well flavored meat.

Chuck Rib Roast.-The square cut chuck (Fig. 2, wholesale cuts 10, 11,
12 and 13) has many small muscles and as the muscle bundles run in
various directions, it is impossible to cut all the muscles across the grain.
The chuck has a relatively large amount of connective tissue, little fat
and a fairly high percentage of bone. The retail cuts may be made in
various shapes and sizes. The chuck rib roast consists of two ribs with
corresponding vertebrae and part of the shoulder blade. It is made up
of a number of muscles, contains a moderate amount of fat and a con-
siderable quantity of bone. A chuck rib roast from a carcass which grades
"medium" or higher makes a satisfactory roast or it may be cut into chuck
steaks. It is well flavored because it contains a relatively large amount
of meat extractives.

Fig. 13.-Boned and rolled chuck rib roasts.

Selecting and Using Beef and Veal

Boned and Rolled Chuck Rib Roasts.-The chuck rib roast when taken
from a medium-sized carcass may be too large for a small family. Fig-
ure 13 (page 16) shows this roast boned and made into two rolls. Each
of these rolls weighs approximately 4 pounds. The rolls contain no bone,
a good proportion of lean and fat which is well distributed, and very little
connective tissue. The roll on the right is from the section next to the
ribs and is considered to be the tenderer of the two, whereas the roll on
the left contains the exterior fat. The quality of these roasts is excellent
and there is no waste.

Fig. 14.-Chuck roast

Chuck Roast.-The chuck roast is similar in muscle structure, fat
content, and quality of lean to that of the chuck rib roast. It contains
a small end of the shoulder blade, two ribs and corresponding portions
of the backbone. When taken from a medium or higher grade carcass,
it makes a good roast or it may be used for steaks. It may be cooked
as a pot roast or used for braising. Because of its size it is often cut
crosswise, making two roasts or it may be boned and divided into top
and bottom rolls.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Fig. 15.-Round bone pot roast, also known as cross rib roast or arm bone roast.

Round Bone Pot Roast.-Round bone pot roast is cut across the ribs
and at right angles to the chuck roasts (see Fig. 2, No. 12). It is known
also as cross rib roast or arm bone roast because it is cut across the ribs
and has in the center the small round arm bone. The short ribs may be
removed as has been done in this cut. It may be cut into steaks for pan
frying, and when cut of suitable thickness it is used for Swiss steak. When
cut into steaks it sometimes is sold as round steak. It differs, however,
from the round steak in that the muscles are smaller and it has a char-
acteristic small round muscle near the bone.

Neck End of Chuck.-The neck end of chuck as pictured (in Fig. 16)
shows a large proportion of lean meat. However, this piece contains the
large shoulder knuckle, one rib and all of the neck vertebrae. In good
quality carcasses, one or two pot roasts can be cut from the thicker part.
These will be similar in quality and texture to the chuck roast (Fig. 14).
The neck proper is well flavored meat, but lacks tenderness. Boneless
neck, because of its flavor, is one of the most desirable cuts for ground
beef. Chopping or grinding finely divides the connective tissue present
and thus the meat is made tender. It also makes excellent stew meat.

Selecting and Using Beef and Veal

Fig. 16.-Neck end of chuck.

Be_- 44

Fig. 17.-Shoulder or soup knuckle.

Shoulder or Soup Knuckle.-The shoulder or soup knuckle contains a
large amount of bone, connective tissue and varying amounts of lean
meat, depending upon the method of cutting. This cut, as the name im-
plies, is used for soup.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Fig. 18.-The fore shank.

Fore Shank.-The fore shank has a large amount of bone and con-
nective tissue. The connective tissue makes it a highly desirable cut for
soup or for pressed or jellied beef. A small pot roast or several shoulder
steaks may be cut from the larger or upper end. The lower part of the
shank is cut into 2 or 3-inch lengths to use for soup, or the meat may be
used for stew or ground beef.

Fig. 19.-The brisket.

Brisket.-The plate of beef consists of the navel and brisket (Fig. 2,
Nos. 7 and 8). The lean and fat, which are well flavored, are deposited
in alternate layers. The plate contains the lower end of the ribs and breast
bone. The brisket can be identified from the navel by the presence of the
breast bone and the granular nature of much of the exterior fat. There
is a large amount of bone and fat, and the fat when cooked has a sweet
flavor. This cut is used for soup, stews and ground beef.

Selecting and Using Beef and Veal

Fig. 20.-Boiling pieces from plate.

Boiling Pieces from Plate.-Sections consisting of two or more rib
ends are cut from the plate and sold as boiling beef. Note the alternate
layers of lean and fat in the folded cut. These cuts usually have moderate
amounts of fat and the lean is well flavored.

Fig. 21.-Short ribs of beef, used for boiling or as a pot roast.

Short Ribs of Beef.-Short ribs of beef are cut from the upper portion
of the navel. They are cut from two to four inches in length and are used
for boiling or as a pot roast. The short ribs are considered to be the best
part of the plate.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station



Fig. 22.-Boned and rolled navel.

Boned and Rolled Navel.-The navel piece can be boned, rolled and
cut into pieces of any desired size. Note the thin outside lean portion
which is fibrous and lacking in tenderness. The inside of the roll con-
tains desirable proportions of lean to fat and is well flavored. If the roll
contains a moderate amount of fat, it can be used as a roast. Because of
the thinness of the muscles in this cut it is used more frequently for boil-
ing or stewing than for any other purpose.

Selecting and Using Beef and Veal

Veal is the flesh of calves over three weeks and under 12
weeks of age. Good veal is dependent upon the age of the calf,
its breeding and the feed and care it received from birth. De-
sirable conformation is indicated by a compact body which is
heavily fleshed in the back, loin, and thighs. A desirable finish
implies a considerable quantity of fat around the kidneys and
in the pelvic region but with little on the exterior of the carcass
or between the larger muscles. The flesh should be light pink
in color, firm and smooth in appearance. The meat is fine-
grained as the animal is immature when slaughtered.

The flesh of veal, when exposed to the air, dries out and turns
dark more rapidly than does beef. For this reason the hide is
left on the carcass at slaughtering time. Veal cannot be ripened
satisfactorily because of the absence of sufficient fat, and the
watery nature of the flesh. Therefore, it should be used within
a short time after it has been slaughtered.

Veal is used for roasts, chops or stewing. The thickness of
the carcass determines whether it is to be used for roasts or
chops. The larger carcasses are used frequently for roasts,
while the smaller ones are cut into chops.

The neck, which is made up of long muscle fibers and con-
tains a large amount of both bone and connective tissue, is used
for stews or soup. The fore shank has a high proportion of
connective tissue and bone and is excellent for soup. The mus-
cles of the breast of veal often are separated and sold as "pocket"
veal to be stuffed and roasted. The breast may be left on the
ribs and shoulder and the whole boned and included in a roll
for roasting. Breast of veal, as with neck, is frequently cut
in small pieces and sold as stew meat.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

% .

Fig. 23.-Side of veal, outside and inside views, showing wholesale cuts.

Side of Veal.-The following wholesale cuts are shown.
1. Leg 4. Flank 7. Shoulder
2. Rump 5. Ribs 8. Fore shank
3. Loin 6. Breast

Note the absence of large quantities of fat on the exterior, around the
kidneys and in the pelvic region, also the light color of the flesh compared
with that of a beef carcass.

Selecting and Using Beef and Veal

Fig. 24.-Veal cutlets, one of the most economical cuts in the veal carcass.

Veal Cutlet.-The thicker part of the leg of veal is used as veal cutlets
(steaks) or roasts while the shank is used for stew meat or for soup. Veal
cutlets are characterized by having a small round bone surrounded by
relatively large muscles. Note the large proportion of lean to bone and
fat. Veal cutlets are tender and suitable for broiling, but it is necessary
to add some fat in the cooking process. They have a good flavor and are
one of the most economical cuts in the veal carcass.

Fig. 25.-Veal roast from loin end.

Veal Roast from Loin End.-The entire loin of veal can be used for
roasts or chops. This cut shows a roast from the round or rump end of
the loin. The bone in the lower part of the picture is part of the femur
socket. Note the lack of fat and that some of the muscles have been cut
along the muscle fibers.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Fig. 26.-Veal roast from the loin.

Veal Roast from the Loin.-This cut shows the section of the loin end
next to the short loin. Note the difference in bone and muscle structure
compared with the roast in Fig. 25. No two chops obtained from the loin
end are the same in muscle and bone because of the changing position and
shape of these structures.

Fig. 27.-Round bone roast of veal.

Selecting and Using Beef and Veal

Round Bone Roast.-This roast gets its name because it contains part
of the arm bone which is round. It is known also as "cross the rib roast"
because it contains a short section of three ribs. The round bone roast
contains a large proportion of lean meat to bone and fat and is considered
one of the most economical cuts from the forequarter. Although the roasts
or chops from the shoulder of veal are not as choice as those from the rib
and loin, they are tender and well flavored. (Fig. 27.)

Fig. 28.-Veal roast from the short loin.

Veal Roast from the Short Loin.-This roast is characterized by the
presence of the T-shaped bone, the large muscle above and the round
tenderloin muscle below the bone. There is little exterior or kidney fat
and the thin part of the cut has been folded under. Chops from the
short loin are considered to be the choicest in the veal carcass.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Fig. 29.-Boned and rolled rib roast of veal.

Boned and Rolled Rib Roast.-Standing or folded rib cuts from a veal
carcass are rather thin for roasting. The above picture shows a boned and
rolled roast from the rib section. Note the large muscle in the center of
the roll and the absence of fat either on the exterior or between the
muscles. When the rib section is used for chops the bones are left in.

Fig. 30.-Shoulder roast of veal.

Shoulder Roast of Veal.-The shoulder roast shown in Fig. 30 contains,
in addition to the ribs and backbone, a part of the shoulder blade. It is
frequently boned and rolled when sold as a roast but when cut into chops
the bones are left in. Note the number of muscles in this piece, some of
which are cut parallel to the muscle fibers.

Selecting and Using Beef and Veal

Meat is a perishable food product and unless it is kept at or
below the freezing point, or is canned or cured, it will decom-
pose very rapidly. Enzymes in the meat break down the tissues
(ripening) which if allowed to go too far produces an undesir-
able product. Meat spoilage is due to the action of bacteria
which are found everywhere in Nature. This makes it im-
possible to keep fresh meat from becoming contaminated and,
therefore, all methods of preservation of meat are based upon
either checking the growth of or destroying the bacteria.
The freezing method as carried on in many rural and urban
communities is to cut the chilled carcass into retail cuts, as
steaks, roasts or boiling pieces, wrap each piece in oiled paper
and place it in a freezing room which is kept below 0 Fahren-
heit. After the meat is frozen it is stored in individual lockers
in a room kept at a temperature below 15 F. As the meat is
required in the home a piece of the desired size and quality can
be obtained from the refrigeration plant. The low temperature
inhibits all bacterial growth and the meat is kept in a perfectly
fresh state.
In the canning method all bacteria are destroyed by heat and
the air-tight containers prevent contamination from the outside.
For further information on the canning of meat see Florida
Agricultural Extension Bulletin 87, "Meat Canning", by Isabelle
S. Thursby.

The four basic factors involved in all meat curing are: (1)
fresh, wholesome meat; (2) cleanliness; (3) sufficient salt to
check bacterial growth; and (4) low temperature to check
bacterial activity until the salt has had time to penetrate to
the center of each piece.
Fresh, Wholesome Meat.-The health of the animal should
receive first consideration as a sound article of food cannot be
obtained from an animal that is not in thrifty condition. Beef
for curing should be put into cure immediately after the carcass
is chilled, while still perfectly fresh.
Cleanliness.-Cleanliness at time of slaughtering, handling
and cutting up of carcass and in all of the curing processes is
essential. All tools and equipment should be scalded thoroughly
before meat is cut or packed in curing containers.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Curing Ingredients.-Common salt is the basis of all meat
curing and is the only absolutely necessary ingredient. A good
grade of dairy salt, or salt intended for table use, is reasonably
free from impurities and gives better penetration than impure
or coarse salt. When salt is used alone, it tends to make the
lean tissues dry and hard by driving out the water and meat
Sugar is used to give flavor, to make the meat juicy and to
counteract the hardening influence of the salt. Brown sugar
usually gives a more pleasing flavor than white sugar and syrup
may be used in place of either of these.
Saltpeter is a strong preservative but it is harmful if eaten
in large quantities. The purpose of the small amount of salt-
peter added is to give the characteristic bright pink or red color
to the cured product. Without saltpeter the cured meat will
be gray in color as it comes from the cure.
Temperature.-Curing can be accomplished most satisfactorily
when the meat is kept under refrigeration where a range of
temperature between 32 to 38 F. is maintained. At these tem-
peratures the bacterial growth is held in check and salt penetra-
tion is rapid. Above 40 F. the organisms which cause meat
spoilage grow rapidly and there is danger of bone taint before
the salt penetrates to the center of the cut, while below 320 F.
the rate of salt penetration is retarded and it is difficult to
obtain a uniform cure throughout the thicker cuts of meat.

Corned beef is prepared from the cheaper cuts such as plate,
chuck and shank, although other cuts may be used. Meat that
is well marbled makes a more desirable product than meat which
is lacking in fat. The following recipe has been found satis-
100 pounds of beef
8 pounds of salt
3 pounds of brown sugar (white sugar or syrup may be used)
3 ounces of saltpeter
5 gallons of water
The most desirable containers are large earthenware jars,
but because of the danger of breakage wooden tubs or barrels
are used. A clean, tight hardwood vinegar or syrup barrel will
answer the purpose. It should be thoroughly scrubbed and
scalded before being used. If there is any odor in a new barrel
it can be removed by repeated scaldings or by allowing salt

Selecting and Using Beef and Veal

water to stand in the barrel for several days. Do not use a
barrel made of resinous wood as the meat will taste of resin.
In corning, cut the meat in pieces of uniform size (five to six
pounds) and thickness to facilitate packing. Rub each piece of
meat with salt and pack in the curing container. Make a pickle
of the remaining salt and other ingredients and pour over the
meat. If the mixture is boiled to sterilize it, be sure the solu-
tion is well cooled before pouring it over the meat. Weight
down with a clean board and stone. Keep at a temperature
from 32 to 380 F. Repack the meat on the fourth and eighth
days to insure uniform penetration of the curing mixture. The
meat will be ready for use in 10 days, but will be at its best
in 15 to 20 days. The meat must be kept in the brine until
used. If it becomes too salty the excess salt can be removed
by soaking in water or by parboiling.

The large muscles of the round commonly are used for dried
beef but any thick muscled piece may be used. The higher the
quality of meat the better will be the finished product. The
round usually is separated into three parts by following the
natural division between the muscles. When this is done the
meat can be sliced across the grain after it is dried and smoked.
The brine and the dry method are used most frequently.
Brine Method.-The same procedure is followed in the prepara-
tion of dried beef as outlined for corned beef. Allow the meat
to stay in the brine three days per pound per piece, that is, 15
days for a 5-pound piece of meat. When the meat is removed
from the brine, allow it to drip and become thoroughly dry,
after which it may be smoked.
Dry Method.-Less salt is required for dry than for brine
curing. The following curing mixture has proven satisfactory:
100 pounds of beef
5 pounds of common salt
3 pounds of brown sugar (white sugar or syrup may be used)
3 ounces of saltpeter
Divide the curing mixture into three equal parts and rub
the meat with one portion and pack in a tight vessel. Allow the
meat to remain in cure for four days, remove it from the pack
and rub it with a second portion of the curing mixture. Repack
the meat, placing the pieces which were on top at the bottom of
the pack. Repeat again in four days, using the remaining por-

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

tion of the curing mixture and leave from three to five days.
Any pickle which has collected in the container during the
curing period should be allowed to remain to aid in the cure.
When taken from the cure, the meat is washed to remove excess
salt and then allowed to drip.
The cured meat is dried at a temperature of 130 to 1400 F.
for 30 hours. If such a temperature cannot be obtained, the
meat is allowed to dry for a longer period before it is smoked.
The dried beef is smoked at a temperature of 100 to 140 F.
If possible, use green, hard, non-resinous woods such as hickory
or oak, but if these are not available corn cobs may be used.
A light smoke for 24 hours will give a mild smoke flavor. The
meat can be smoked for a longer period if a more pronounced
smoke flavor is desired, or it may be smoked for a few hours
every week until it is used.

The finest quality meat may prove a disappointment if not
properly cooked. On the other hand, a low grade piece of meat
may become a palatable food after it has been cooked properly.
The natural meat flavors are relished by almost everyone regard-
less of how often meat appears on the menu. With improper
preparation, much of the original meat flavor may be destroyed.
The reasons for cooking meat are (1) to develop flavors; (2)
to improve appearance; (3) to kill bacteria and parasites; and
(4) to soften connective tissue.
The method used in the cooking of meat should depend upon
the grade of the carcass and the part of the carcass from which
it is taken. The more tender cuts, which have a minimum of
connective tissue, are from the parts of the carcass which have
been used the least in life. The muscles which have been used
the most have fibers with greatly thickened walls and are sur-
rounded by a large amount of connective tissue. Consequently,
these cuts must be prepared carefully in order to obtain an
appetizing food product.
There are only two ways of cooking meat, by dry heat and
by moist heat. The more tender cuts which contain a small
amount of connective tissue and have a moderate amount of
fat are cooked by dry heat, while the less tender cuts which
contain little fat and a large amount of connective tissue are

Selecting and Using Beef and Veal

cooked by moist heat. The dry heat methods are roasting,
broiling and panbroiling; and the moist heat methods are brais-
ing, boiling in water and stewing.
Roast: To cook by dry heat in an oven.
Broil: To cook by direct heat from hot coals, a gas flame
or electric element; to grill.
Panbroiling: To cook in a hot, uncovered frying pan, pour-
ing off fat as it accumulates in the pan.
Boil: To cook in boiling liquid, usually water.
Braise: To brown meat in a hot receptacle in a small amount
of fat, then to cook slowly in the meat juices or in added liquid
(water, milk, cream, diluted vinegar, juices from vegetables)
in a covered utensil.
Stew: To cook in water below the boiling point; the cooking
temperature is approximately 185 F.

Preparing the less tender cuts by pounding has been practiced
for many years. The object is to break down the connective
tissue in the meat. In doing this, meat juices are liberated
and unless taken up with flour much flavor is lost from the
piece of meat. Pounding with the edge of a plate does not have
much effect in breaking down the connective tissue. The more
modern method is to use a mallet which has blunt, knife-like
edges at right angles to each other which cut the tough tissue.
The cubing machine uses the same principle of blunt, knife-
like edges which are fixed in the shape of a cube. The meat
is cut thin, placed in the machine and the pressure breaks much
of the connective tissue, but does not cut quite through.
Cuts, of meat may be scored with a knife, cutting more or
less across the grain. This method is commonly used in the
preparation of flank steak which has long, strong muscle fibers.
Grinding meat is one of the principal methods of making it
more tender, because it breaks up the connective tissue and
muscle fibers. Meat thus treated can be cooked quickly. Chopped
meat may be broiled like a sirloin or porterhouse steak. It can
be molded into cakes with a little pressure and then placed on
the broiler to cook to the desired degree of doneness. Ground
meat can be made into the form of a loaf and baked with dry
heat as any roast is cooked.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Less tender cuts of the carcass used for ground meat are
likely to lack sufficient fat to be well flavored. The grinding
of some suet with the lean will correct this, and fat will help
retain the meat juices in the patty or loaf. Ground meat with
sufficient fat incorporated will baste itself naturally as it cooks.
Larding of the lean, less tender cuts of meat adds to the
flavor and prevents dryness. Small strips of fat salt pork or
bacon are spaced throughout the piece of beef by means of a
larding needle. As the meat cooks, the fat melts through the
meat giving it added juiciness and flavor. Slices of fat pork
are sometimes placed on the top of a piece of lean beef and as
it cooks the melted fat runs down and through the meat.

The authors wish to express their deep appreciation to Harold Mowry,
Assistant Director, Administration, for making the pictures contained
herein. They also wish to acknowledge the help of R. M. Crown, Assistant
Animal Husbandman, in the preparation of certain parts of this bulletin.


BELL, VIOLA M., and M. D. HELSER. Essentials in the Selection of Meat.
John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 1930.

DAVIS, W. C. Market Classes and Grades of Yearling Beef. U. S. De-
partment of Agriculture Circular- 208. 1932.

DAVIS, W. C., and C. M. HARRIS. Market Classes and Grades of Dressed
Veal and Calf Carcasses. U. S. Department of Agriculture Circular
103. 1930.

DAVIS, W. C., and C. V. WHALIN. Market Classes and Grades of Beef.
U. S. Department of Agriculture Bulletin -1246 (Rev.). 1927.

HELSER, M. D. Farm Meats. The Macmillan Co. 1929.

TOMHAVE, W. H. Meat and Meat Products. J. B. Lippincott Co. 1930.

Ten Lessons on Meat. National Livestock and Meat Board, Department
of Home Economics. 1933.

Cattle on a Thousand Hills
if there be that many hills in Florida, are waxing fat for
the consumers of beef. Vast improvement in quality of
this State's meat production has been noted in recent years,
bringing better meats to consumers and more satisfactory
prices to producers.

For 50 Years

The State Agricultural Experiment Station

has given attention to cattle production problems. It has
shown the way-
To overcome salt sick and other troubles caused
by mineral deficiencies.
To use citrus refuse as a feed.
To grow better grasses and other feed crops.
To breed higher quality animals.
To manage herds for profits.

1938 marks the GOLDEN ANNIVERSARY year
of research and study by this agency.
Truly it has registered

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