Second report on pecan culture

Material Information

Second report on pecan culture
Series Title:
Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Hume, H. Harold ( Hardrada Harold ), 1875-1965
Place of Publication:
Lake City Fla
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
p. [461]-501, [8] leaves of plates : ill. ; 23 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Pecan -- Florida ( lcsh )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


General Note:
Cover title.
Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station)
Statement of Responsibility:
by H. Harold Hume.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
030150784 ( ALEPH )
18159456 ( OCLC )
AEN2256 ( NOTIS )

Full Text


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.

Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida


MARCH, 1906.



Second Report on Pecan Culture.

A Basket of Randall Pecans.

(Formerly Horticulturist of the Florida Experiment Station; now Horticulturist
of the North Carolina Department of Agriculture and the North Carolina Experiment

The Bulletins of this Station will be sent free to any address in Florida upon appli-
cation to the Director of the Experiment Station. Lake City. Fla.

St. Augustine. Fla.:


N. P. BRYAN, Chairman............. ... .. Jacksonville, Fla.
P. K. YONGE ............................... Pensacola, Fla.
*N ADAMS ............................ White Springs. Fla.
A. L. B .ow ..................................Eusti, Fla.
T. B. KING ............. .................. Arcadia, Fla.


ANDREW SLEDD, A. M., Ph. D .................... .Director
1C. M. CONNER, B. S.......... Vice-Director and Agriculturist
EDWARD R. FLINT, B. S., Ph. D., M. D.............. .Chemist
E. H. SEILARDS, M. A.. Ph. D .................. Entomologist
CHAS. F. DAWSON, M. D., D. V. S...... Consulting Veterinarian
A. W BLAIR, A. M............... ... Assistant Chemist
B. H. BRIDGES, B. S.. ............ ...... Assistant Chemist
A. H. CHAPMAN, B. S.......... Assistant in Field Experiments
H. S. FAWCETT, B. S......Assistant Botanist and Horticulturist
L. IH-ASEMAN, B. S.................... Assistant Entomologist
i,. !' JERNIGAN ................... Auditor and Bookkeeper
L. C. ALGEE................ .....................Stenographer
JoHN F. MIrcHELL .................. Foreman Station Farm
L. M. STEARNS ................. Gardener Horticultural Dept.
fSunperintendent Farmers' Institutes.

Introduction ........... ............ .............. 465
Pecan Botany......... ..... ... .. ....... .. ............... 466
Pollenation ............................ ................ 468
Range of Culture in Florida ..................................... 469
Pecan Propagation ..................... ..... ................ 470
Selecting and Planting Nuts.................................. 471
Propagating Tools ............ .... .............. 472
Waxes, Cloth and Twine ................................ 473
Selecting Cions and Buds .................. ............ 474
Grafting and Grafting Methods.......'......... ...............475
Cleft-grafting ....... ................................. 476
W hip-grafting ........................... .............. 477
Budding and Budding Methods .................................. 478
Annular-budding ....................................... 479
Veneer-shield Budding .................................. 480
Lopping ................. ............................. 480
The Nursery ............................................... 480
Top-working Pecan Trees ....................................... 481
Soils and Their Preparation ..................................... 483
Pecan Planting ............... ......................... ....... 484
Buying Trees ............................. ............ 484
Distances .............. ............................... 485
Staking the Ground ........ ........ ...... ............ .. 486
Planting ....................................... ... 486
Cultivation ............................................... 487
Fertilizers ............... ................. ........... 489
Formulas ................... ..... ..... ...............4 489
SApplying the Fertilizer ....... ............................ 490
Pruning ...................... .................. .............. 490
Harvesting and Marketing.......... ....... .................... 492
Field Equipment .................. .... ............ ... 492
Picking ................... .............. .............. 492
Grading ................... ....... .. ................ 493
Polishing .. ...................... ............... 493
Packages .................... ....... ................. 494
Marketing ............................................ 494
V varieties ..................... ................................ 494
Varieties recommended ................... ............. 496


A- Basket of Randall Pecans ............................ Frontispiece
Staminate Flowers ........................ ... ............ Fig. 1
Leaf and Pistillate Flowers, Etc ............................. Fig. 2
Germination of Pecan............. ...... .............. Fig. 3
Germination of Pecan............. ........... ........... Fig. 4
Cions ............................. ............................ Fig. 5
Cleft-grafting ....................... ................... Fig. 6
Whip-grafting .................. ................... .. Fig. 7
Grafting Iron .............. ........................ Fig. 8
VlirI.-! iin.. in Nursery Row........ .................... Fig. 9
Annular-budding .......... .............................. Fig. 10
Veneer-shield Budding .... ....................... ............. Fig. 11
Method of Removing Large Branches......................... Fig. 12
Preventing Splitting of Crotched Branches...................... Fig. 13
Rotten Hole'and Properly Made Wound...................... Fig. 14


Different Kinds of rCu.i.1i] 1 Tools................ ..............Plate I
T.:.p-. .rkl.l Van Deman Pecan ................................Plate II
Top-worked Trees ...... ...... .........: ............. Plate III
Root System of Nursery Tree................................. Plate IV
Pruning of Top-worked r. ............... ............. Plate V
Ten-pound Box of Van Deman Pecans ........................ Plate VI
Varieties of Pecans ................ ................... Plate VII
\Vari li of Pecan Kernels ....... .......... ..............Plate VIII


In August, 1900, a preliminary report (Bul. No. 54) was
issued from'this Station on pecan culture. Subsequently, in June,
1901, a publication was made on Top-Working Pecans (Bul. No.
57). The editions of both these publications are now exhausted,
and it has been deemed advisable to issue another bulletin on the
same subject.
Since the first bulletin was brought out, the pecan has been
carefully studied by the author, both in Florida and in other
States. We have witnessed a steady growth in the interest taken
in this valuable nut. During the period intervening since 1900
much that is new and noteworthy in pecan culture has been
brought forward. Large plantings have been made in Western
Florida, and in Alachua County in particular, as well as in other
parts of the State. The culture of the pecan has not yet passed
out from the formative period, and doubtless many mistakes have
been made; but the fact remains that the pecan is a valuable nut-
bearing tree, a valuable shade tree, and is worthy of the serious
attention of every tree planter in the middle, northern and west-
ern parts of the State. A few of them should be planted by every
farmer for shade and fruit. In the towns and villages it has its
place as a street shade tree, and as an addition to the trees planted
in town lots. As an orchard tree the pecan has much to recom-
mend it, but serious attention must be given to the selection of
the soil, location and varieties, and as good care must be given to
it as to any other fruit tree. The rule should be to plant only as
many trees as can be well cared for, and give them the attention
they should have.
A large number of new varieties have been brought forward.
Many of these are known only locally, and considerable time must
elapse before their exact merits and adaptations are known.
Many of them are very promising, but what they will do in new
localities can only be determined by actual test. On the other
hand, some varieties for one reason or another have proved
themselves dismal failures in general culture. To such an extent
is this true that many nurserymen have discontinued their propa-
gation. But in these things the history of pecan varieties is the
history of all other varieties of fruit. Many brought

466 BULLETiN' NO. 85

forward and named, pr:.paated and planted, only to disappear
from the lists of standard varieties in a few years. It takes time
to establish the merits or the weak points of a variety.
There is no question but that the time \ ill come %%\hei the
pecan will fill an important place in the rural wealth of the
Southern States. We annually import som:ethin:. over $5,000,000
worth of nuts; we export only about $30;000 worth. Our exports
will increase from year to year, and when they have reached any
considerable amount it will be found that tlhe pecan holds first
place among the tree nuts exported.
The amount of pecans annually consumed in the country
has been steadily increasing from year to year, and there
has at the same time been a steady increase in the market value
of the nuts. Nuts of very ordinary grade, such as are commonly
used by nurserymen for raising stocks for nursery work, could be
bought five or six years ago at from four to six cents per pound;
now they are worth from eight to twelve cents. There has been,
as well, a corresponding increase in the value of the product
marketed for culinary and dessert purposes. The better grade of
nuts, those which are sold by growers at from twenty to fifty
cents, are taken entirely by a private trade, and the demand
cannot be supplied, and there appears to be no immediate prospect
of its being met, because the increasing demand is more than
keeping pace with increased production. The pecan is destined
to take the lead among tree nuts used in this country, and in fact
among all fruits classed as nuts, the peanut excepted.

The pecan tree is indigenous in the United States in the
rich, alluvial bottoms of the Mississippi. Its northern limit is
about Davenport, Iowa. In the Mississippi Valley proper it
extends to within about seventy-five miles of the Gulf of Mexico.
This was its southern limit in that region, though farther west it
extends into Mexico.
The area as given in "Nut Culture in the United States"
embraces an obliquely set area, having near its four extremities
the cities of Davenport, Iowa, Chattanooga, Tenn., Laredo, Tex.,
and the region of the headwaters of the Colorado River in Texas.
It extends farthest from the center of this area along the streams
and rivers.


Consequently it will be seen that
the pecan tree is native in parts of the
following States: Illinois, Indiana,
Iowa, Missouri, Tennessee, Kentucky,
Alabama, Louisiana, Arkansas, New
Mexico and Indian Territory. Out-
side of this area it has been planted in
a large number of States. Its culti-
vated area corresponds rather closely
with that of the cotton plant, though
it extends beyond its area.
The pecan belongs to the family
IJuglandaceae (Walnut family), its
near relatives being the other species
of hickory, the walnuts and butternut:
For many years the scientific name
FIG. 1-Staminate Flowers of the
Pecan. commonly applied to it was Carya
Nutt, but in
r deference to
i o' the rules of
priority this
name has
largely given
place to the
name Hi-
coria pecan
V( R(Marsh)
Britton. This
name, Hi-
coria pecan
is peculiarly
\ r significant,
since it is tru-
_ly American,
being derived
FIG. 2-(a) Leaf of Atlanta Pecan. (b) Twig bearing pistillate flowers. being derived
(c) Stamens. (d) Bract on which stamens are borne. (e) Portion from powco-
of twig showing bud from which the staminate flowers are pro-
duced. hiccora and
pacan, two words used by the Indians for hickory nuts.


It is a large, tLately tree, 75 to 170 feet in height, with
wide, spreading branches and symnnetrical top. The bark is
r:.u.iih, broken and arali~h black in color. The bark of the
young twigs is quite smn.:.,th, liberally dotted \ithl lenticels, and
during their early life, t...ether with thie leaves and flowers of
the tree, they are covered with a liberal coating of rather rust-
colored hairs. The leaves are oval, compound, composed of
from seven to fifteen falcate. obl...n.-lanc, te..te sl I.p-l.'.:inted.
serrated laf:tets, green and quite bright li.htir c:l,:.rid
below, and when mature, nearly or quite smn.:.:th. The i.:.-,s;i
are of two kin.:I--pistillate and staminate. The former are-
produced upon the young shoots, while the latter come from buIls
upon twi..- one ,ear old. The staminate catkins are usually
pr....Juc:ed in two _r...ulp- of three each, from a single bud, and-
have very short stalks. The stamens are three to five in number-
in each l,, and borne beneath a three-parted bract. The-
pistillate -1.:lieii have a four-valved involucre (known in the.
mature form as the husk) and a t\\-parted stigma. The nuts
are quite variable in size, -lhape. color and quality. Some are
long and pointed, others are nearly spherical. In Texas, the
plherical or nearly spherical nuts appear to be more common.
than elsewhere. Selected nuts of Isome varieties i ill weigh an.
ounce or more each, while of many other kinds it takes a hundred,-
more or less, to make a pound.
As a general rule, the husks of most varieties open at
maturity In some, however, they remain close.- or nearly so.
These latter varieties are objectionable on account of the
increased difficulty of athli rin: the crop.
r :'r!.FN r II. N.-The. pecian is wind pollenated. In conse-
':ueincc there is a great waste of pollen to compensate for which
it is produced in large quantities. Wet, windy weather at the-
time the trees are in bloom, frlc-uently interferes with pollenation.
to extent that the crop is reduced very c:'nsi.ideral.l'.
.With s,:nme s.recic; of hicko:ry. notably H.. minima and H..
glabrla,. cr,:ss-,--:.llenation and consequent cross-.-c:rtilizati':n with
the pecan have rec.ultel in several well-marked hybrids. None-
of those found thus far, with'perhaps one or two exceprtion.S
have been worthy of propagation. .



Cros3-pollenation by hand for the production of better varie-
ties, has been attempted, but as yet the work has not progressed
far enough for the results to be known. This field is a very
inviting one. The results from such work will certainly be
as interesting and valuable as those obtained by breeding any
other kinds of fruit. The chief objection is that considerable
time must necessarily elapse-six years or more-before the
results can be known, as it would take that length of time to
secure nuts from the (seed produced as the result of the crossing
work. The operation of cross-pollenating the blossoms, as com-
pared with other fruits, is comparatively simple. The rather
tedious operation of emasculation, i. e., removing the stamens.
from the blossoms, is unnecessary as the stamens and pistils are
produced apart from each other. All that is necessary is to
cover up the pistillate flowers with a sack (to prevent any pos-
sible foreign pollenation) until the pistils have matured. Then
pollenate with the pollen desired and replace the sacks until the
fruit has ;set. The paper sacks should then be taken off and the
young fruit enclosed in a mosquito net sack until matured. Buds
or grafts should be taken from the seedlings grown from these:
nuts and inserted in the tops of old trees. By so doing fruit
can be secured much sooner than otherwise would be the case..
In Florida, the work of producing new varieties of known
parentage is being systematically taken up by the Summit
Nurseries, Monticello, Fla.

The pecan may be grown in middle, northern and western
Florida wherever the soil conditions are found to be satisfactory.
Its culture should not be attempted in the southern portion of
the State. Other trees can be grown there to much better advan-
t,.,e. and at any rate the success which would. f11.-.\\w the. effort
is at I,-i4t open to question. It can pr`.r.l1'.d' ,e ,rown farther
south on the west than on the east c.a:nt. bil. .enerallY.:.r'eakin
the attempt should not be made much south; of ttatitude of
Lakeland on either side of the State.
The statement is frequently made that, g ere&An will suc-
ceed wherever the larger species of. .hicrya4ref, found' in the


State. This is largely true, as the pecan ,el.o;, s to the same
family, and genus of trees, l:.ut it should not, perhaps, be relied
on too implicitly. At all events soil conditions must not he
The pecan inay be propagated from seed or by budding and
Formerly they, were g r.. \\i almost entirely from peed and
seedling trees were planted. But now seedlings have given
way to budded and .graftilL trees. \\ so? It was apnounced
as a fact not so many :,ears ago, and there are s.-me .:ho, may
:still maintain ii, that fifty per cent. or some other per cent. of
pecann would come true to: ,seed. But it must be stated as a
fact that neither fifty i-.r any other per cent. will come true to
seed. \\e have yet to find a single instance where the nut of
_. a ..-'.lliii.- tree was identical with that borne
p-,.. -by its parent plant. Occasionally they are
I ) :.. better, but the rule is that they generally
a ic va-rtlh inferior to the fruit produced by
the parent tree. Hence if an orchard of
trees of the same habit of growth, prolific-
ness, reiuhlrit, in 1..:arii,. uniform
ti throughout, trees v hich will produce a
crop of nuts, lunif. In in size, shape, color
and quality, is desired, do not plant seed-
ling trees. Scores of these seedling trees
pr!.1:.lii.:l nut but little larger than chinqua-
pins, and it is a fact which cannot be gain-
said that the seed:in. pecan up to the time
"l. -' ....... ."..l..... of fruiting is an Luikn.-vii. quantity, after
I il.-.....*' which it is too:: fr'lc,] tl, a dia p-*intnlent.
But seeds have their place. From them are grown the
stocks upon which to work desirable varieties. From seeds
mai, be originated new and desirable varieties, for it sometimes
happens that the seedling is better than the parent. Seedlhn;
trees may be grown and set out in orchard form to be t.:p-iw.-rke.
afterwards. This plan has something to recommend it. It is


less expensive, provided time is not an object, for it takes a
longer time to get bearing trees by thip plan, and it is open to
the further objection that it is more difficult to secure uniformity
in size and shape of tree than it is by setting out budded or
grafted trees at first. The objections in the way of expense, if
that be an objection, is best overcome by, planting nuts in
nursery rows, grafting the trees there, and then setting them in
the field. By no means should the nuts be planted where the
trees are to remain. It is too dif-
ficult to give them the necessary
care. Besides, they are likely to be
destroyed by squirrels or other ani-
mals, or the seedlings injured through
carelessness in cultivation.
Nuits to be used in growing stocks
should be fully matured before gath-
ering. Some care should be taken in
their selection. They should be of
good size for the variety, and should
be gathered only from healthy, vig-
orous trees. Frequently the only ob-
\ e ject held in view is to get as many
q. nuts as possible in a pound without
Regard to the tree on which they grew.
We believe that this is in a large de-
gree responsible for the unsatisfactory
growth made by many grafted trees.
Those nuts which mature first are best
for planting.
The nuts may be plairtel in Florida
Sas soon as they are taken from the
trees, placing them in drills three and
a half feet apart and covering them
two and a half or three inches
deep. In many cases it may be neces-
sary and more convenient to strat-
FIG. 4-Germination of Pecan. ify the nuts in damp sand in boxes,
() C)ote.dons. (1) Leaves. first an inch layer of sann. .then a

BULL 1 i.'., NO. 85

layer :ft nuts until the 1.,,::es are til-.l. These boxes should
I.Ce pla,:c, in a. ,:._..1. shady place, under a 1..uilimi..i in a
ce. ar or 1.ur!.ici1 in tlhe earth. It is a good plan to cover
them u itlih irc ii,:i 1-.. prevent mice, rats or squirrels from
attickLing th!emji. 1n :"irli, -p in, the 1... i:-5 should be emptied out
ai.i til-e nutri plaint,-d a dIii c:to.l above.
The ..-c.l-l.e:d, :i.iuil..I be thorou.i-.1il'y .i\ rpar.d. plowed deeply
,:r siL:,s. ile lI. \:lil -iiupli:od \\irlh .-rganic matter, either from
stable ma.iire o:r irc:.oii l.-,.ear _a c :l. velvet beans or some other
le. 1inini'i.1, cr'p ,g!r.. ii thi e -.:.l. ,ani t:.rncl LIunJdir.
Du.rin'III thle [rI:,\\ir -:a:'n Ili. -eel-l:.'ed should be kept
ell iltI d.t.l ai:l frl :.- t' ii '. .:..I and g a .. A f. rtilize.-
richl in riitr,.:-n, h.I. M. l > -ed. Itl o...n p.:,sii...n will 1hav to
bie .:.vern l ',cr, lar 'y 1.. thie ch!aralte-r .-.f Lli soil and the
carci aindJ cnl! til.i en it it ir'l.''.u I', : .'it for :nod nursery
..:.!- a i :rtiliz,.r aiail -ir. three per cent. p -li.:.pb:[rirc acid, three
per cent. potash and five per cent. ,itlr..,gen will ..ivc good
, r:'sil In a t'i,.arIle -a-.nii tlh tops i:,f the ,_t.ini trees will
be ;a foot *..r -.:.- ,iii -i..,e in height u itIh a tap-root t'-u feet
aid a half u:r s.: iIn cii-ntli. Tile f:ll.:.'. in spring and -iumlier
mnan :. tlie *i,.i. t iree can 1e w.:,rk,-d by graf'i:ing or bLuddJiI.1.
PROPAGATING 1. .i.--The tools tnc Fs-; rf i-:r pr .pagating
pcC'ins--Inuir-cry work and, top-'\ ..rking---are a c:,nim:n l.iuliling
knife, a budding tool, a grafting iron, a graftin- mallet and a
ine.-t.:-:.thl- I a .'
The l..iili.hgi knife should have a tliin blade of good steel,
carpril.le f Ircta L iinL:i ka I, iiai.rp edge. The i\ l:-ts:t-nle
ueled flre-e.lurtl. \ t.: keep the 1.1na.1 sharp to insure the making of
siii,:_t i 1. C tcl i n .i
At :i.l t ta!ii'r liui.llin'ii tools ha.' e been in-vin- 1. "Thi e.
sli.i n iIn thace ii.-.ipt: ini; i -r:ii tiin. are known as W it,'h
G-ialireat'l' ain Ncl-riCr's :i.ilin t::. rees ectivel. The iprin-
ci:le iin rcli n i, thi t i*.: sharp c:.ilthii.- blades are fixed par-
all,-I t., ach otherr t.- in- r i.u nif.rmii. in c tti i iin innular and
\,.'n:er-.-,iclI -.r pitc l i liii.-. V'hit.-'s 1..i..1 'n implement is
es,.:ciaill r,.- iiiimen..le..l for i:-. n t op- k .rkiirn. The hole, along
thi. zides are tiuil a~ a guage for iii.rasiiring the stock and bud
stick. In the writer's opinion Nelson's instrument is the one



Three Bndding"Knives made and used by Dr. J. B. Curtis, Orange Heights, Fla.. and a
bundle of Cions tied up ready for shipment.

Budding Tools-White, Galbreath and Nelson in the order named.


best adapted for veneer-shield budding, but the blades are just a
little too close together. A very satisfactory knife for this work
may be made from two ordinary budding knives and a piece of
wood three-quarters of an inch square and four inches-long. To
opposite sides of this the blades can be firmly attached with rivets
and by binding with fine wire and twine.
The grafting iron is indispensable in cleft-grafting. These
can be purchased at small cost or a blacksmith can make an cx-
cellent one from an old flat file. Three or four inches of the file
should be flattened and sharpened for a blade. In the remainder
drill two holes and attach two pieces of wood to form a handle.
A small sized carpenter's mallet answers nicely for a grafting
mallet, or a very good one may be made from a piece of tough
wood or a piece of an old wagon spoke. A leather thong should
be attached to the handle through which the wrist can be slipped
to carry it when top-working.
The best saw for use in top-working is a carpenter's back
saw. This has a stiff blade, fine teeth, and leaves a smooth, clean
WAXES, CLOTH AND TWINE.-Good grafting wax may be
made according to either of the following formulas:
1. Resin 6 pounds, beeswax 2 pounds, linseed oil 1 pint.
2. Resin 4 pounds, beeswax 2 pounds, tallow 1 pound.
Melt the ingredients in an iron kettle over a slow fire, stir-
ring slowly to insure thorough mixing. When melted pour out
into a bucket of cold water. Grease the hands, remove the wax
from the water as soon as it can be handled and pull until it is light
yellow in color. Wax not needed for immediate use may be rolled
up in balls,'wrapped in oiled, stiff, brown paper and put away for
future use.
Waxed cloth can be prepared by melting the wax in a kettle
and dropping into it sheets or wide strips of old calico or cotton
cloth. As soon as saturated with the wax, remove them from the
kettle and stretch on a board. For use tear into strips, one-
quarter or one-half of an inch wide.
\\axc.I twine is prcrar.l 1.. dropping balls of No, 15 knitting
cotton into the melted wax and stirring them about f.:,r four or
five minutes or until the wax has penetrated them.


474 :L.LLE FIN NO. 85
SELECTING CIONS AND BUDS.-Cions and bud sticks should
be taken from chalthl\. vigorous trees. Select the cions from
well matured wood of ':ne year's growth, though a piece of two-
years old wood at the base will n.:-t matter. Fig. 5, N.:,. 1,
shows an tln.lesira;il:l cion. The wood is angular, small and the
iiiriin:.lde. long, and the pith large in proportion to the diameter.
Either terminal rp.:rti:.ns o:f -i igs may be used or portions back of
the tip, but the buds shli,-uil always be well developed, full and
plump. For this reason grafts shlouIl. not be cut from wood
for 1cr:k from the tip of the branch. As stated nlrea.:l, twigs
of the p'leviL--,uL season's growth are generally used, pro:.ided- the
growth is not too 1:rV-c. Fig. 5, N.: 8, shows one of these.
IC.aft- ar,. ',enet'r:Ill, cut ;i1C.:ut fi e C:Or six inchI- ,loig rin.d shioiIul

















FIG. 5-Cions. 1-3 Cdrtis; 4-6Van Demai. : -i-..i.r I p .... i.. I. .1 .lender, pithy:
7 t C'tons from 1 yr. -i.:. .ri i .1.. I.r .., ,till 1... I .n .s old; 6, Cion
Irr. .: ai back of tip; 8; (.'i-.1 .vr.n ie. 1 111i atit .
be from one-quarter to three-eights of an inch in thickness.
It is best that the grafts be cut while still in a dormant state,
and inserted in the stock just before growth starts. The cions


may be kept for a considerable length of time by placing them,
loosely packed, in damp moss or sawdust, in a box. The box
should be covered over with earth and the cions kept sufficiently
moist to prevent drying out. The difference in the condition of
the stock and cion, it should be understood, is not absolutely
necessary, as good results are frequently obtained without these
precautions, but in grafting the pecan a difference in dormancy
is extremely desirable, and is an important factor in securing good
For bud sticks, well developed one-year-old branches, one-
half to seven-eights of an inch in diameter and on which the buds
are well formed, or older wood with plump, full buds are se-
lected. Such sticks frequently show three buds at a node (Fig.
10), and if some misfortune should overtake one or two of these,
there is still a chance of success, though the upper one being the
strongest is generally the one which starts, provided it is unin-
jured and the bud takes. The degree of maturity of the bud is
important and care should be exercised that only those which
are plump, full and well developed, are used. It is easy to dis-
tinguish between desirable and undesirable buds.

Top-working by grafting or the grafting of nursery
stock above ground should be done in spring just before
growth starts. The preference is for the latter part of the
season, provided there is not too much work to be done, as
the cions have less time to dry out before the process of uniting
with the stock begins. The work of whip-grafting nursery stock
under ground just at the crown roots of the seedlings can be
started in the.latter part of December and continued until Feb-
ruary. For this work, the earth is thrown back from the seed-
lings, leaving them standing in a narrow trench. After the cions
are inserted, the ground is placed back about them, covering
them up, leaving only the top bud exposed. The seedling trees
cannot be dug up and bench-grafted satisfactorily in winter, as is
the practice with apples, pears and other fruits. It can be done,
but the percentage of unions secured is too ,small to make it an
economical method to follow. The only satisfactory plan is to
graft the seedlings in the nursery row, as described above.



Two methods of grafting are used, cleft-grafting for top-
wc.rking and whip-grafting for working both nursery seedlings
and old trees.
CLEFT-GRAFTING.-Having selected the place on the branch
or trunk at which the cion or cions are to be inserted, the part
should be sawed off with a smooth, clean cut. If a large branch
is to be removed, it should be done after the
manner illustrated in Fig. 12, nm.lking the cuts
in the order numbered to prevent splitting. The
end of the stub can then be cut squarely off at the
point desired.
The trunk or branch is then
Q > split with the grafting iron as
Shown in Fig. 8. The cleft
should be carefully made and
,' should be about one and a half
inches in length. In i-rerprin
the cion, a sloping cut 'is made
at the lower end about one and
Sa haf inches long, cutting into 1
the pith from a point one-half
li way up the cut, down to the
Slower end. On the opposite
Side, the second cut should not
touch the pith, but should be
IJ t..l 1i t[hr. iu_-h the wood through- a.
out. The ci,.,n should be left FIG. 7-Whip-
FIG. .- 1 .-n .,fi .0.1.. 1. Stock
ing. i. ,in. wider on the outer side than on I ,1.--I ..- 2.Cion
3. Stock, show- prepared. 3.
ing cleft. 2. Clon the inner to make a tight fit Stock and Cion
;. -i..1 ready together ready
r... -.. when inserted. Start the cuts for wrapping.
on each side of and just at a bud. Fig. 6.
I-aT inc made the cleft, open it with the wedge end of the
irafting iron and place the cion in position in the cleft stock.
The cambium layers should be in contact and the cion should be
shoved well down until the whole of the wedge is within the
stock. In large stocks two cions may be inserted, the weaker of
which should be removed if both live. Large stocks will exert
sufficient pressure against the cions to ren.ler t icing unnecessary,


but if the stocks are small the union should be firmly tied with
waxed twine or cloth and in any case the ends of the cut stock and
the union must be covered smoothly with grafting wax. Should

FIG. 8-Grafting Iron used for Cleft-grafting.
there be danger of the stock exerting too much pressure (as
in the case of large stocks) the cleft should be made well out to
one side of the center.
WHIP-GRAFTING.-Stocks, whether seedling trees or branches
in the tops of old trees, should be less than an inch in diameter,
one-half or five-eights inch being a nice size.
A sloping cut, an inch or an inch and a half long is made at
the end of the scion, a corresponding cut is made on the stock.
A small tongue of wood is raised on each by making a cut with
the knife blade parallel to the grain of the wood. The tongue
is raised a little on both stock and cion and the two are then
shoved together, with the cambium layers on one or both sides in
contact. They must then be firmly bound either with twine or
cloth, the whole of the cut surfaces being covered over to the ex-
clusion of water, air, and the germs of decay.
The cion and stock are preferably chosen of nearly the same
size but a cion somewhat smaller than the stock may be used, in
which case the cambium layers along one side of the surfaces in
contact must be placed opposite as already indicated. In working
nursery seedlings by whip-grafting, the cions should be inserted



so that the point of union will be under the surface of the ground.
The earth should be placed back around the union as soon as the

FIG. 9-Whip-grafting at the crown in the nursery row. The earth has been thrown
back; the stocks are cut in front of the workman; the man in the distance is filling
up the trench.
work is completed. This plan of propagation will not give satis-
factory results except on well drained lands.

Budding is preferred to grafting by some propagators, as
they are able to secure a larger percentage of unions than by
grafting; others prefer grafting. Much, however, depends upon
the locality, soil and drainage. By either method from fifty to
seventy-five per cent. of successful unions must be considered sat-
isfactory. The amateur may well be satisfied with ten per cent.
The season for budding is when the bark will slip well during


the months of July and Augus't. The season is, however, often
extended into September. Many of the buds inserted late in the
season remain dormant until the following spring.
During the season from the first of July until September,
the atmosphere is moist, the buds are in good condition, the
sap flows freely, and better results are secured than at any other
time. The buds commonly used are those which have been
formed just previously. They should be carefully selected and
only those fully matured should be used. Oliver (Bulletin 30,
Bureau Plant Industry, U. S. D. A.) recommends the use of
dormant buds of last season, but the method has not met with
favor because of the large amount of wood which must be sac-
rificed to secure a few buds.
ANNULAR BUDDING.-By this method branches or seedling
trees three-quarters of an inch or less in diameter may be
worked. It is preferable that the stock and bud stick be of
the same size, though the stock may be somewhat smaller. From
the stock remove a ring of bark an inch or so in length. On
the bud stick, select a good, plump bud and remove it by taking
out a ring of bark the same in size as-the one removed from the
stock. Place this ring in the place on the stock prepared for it

ft II,

FIG. 10-Annular Budding. 1. Stock pre-
pared for bud. 2. Bud. 3. Bud in place FIG.l11-Veneer Shield-budding.-(a) Bud cut.
and tied. (b) Bud inserted and tied.

and bandage securely in place, using a piece of waxed cloth.
The wrapping should be brought around the stock so as to



cover the cut ends. The bud may be covered over or left ex-
In ten days or two weeks, remove the bandage, and exam-
ine the bud. A plump, full bud at this time is an indication that
union has taken place.
used, it is not essential that the stock and cion be of the same
sie and so far as size alone goes, almost any stock may be
used. A rectangular, or triangular piece of bark i;s removed
fiom the side of the stock. From the bud stick cut a similar
piece of bark with a bud in its center. Place the bud in place
on the stock and wrap as in annular budding. If the stock is
considerably larger than the bud stick, the piece of bark with
bud attached will have to be flattened out somewhat before in-
LoPPING.-Frequently buds, particularly those inserted late
in the season, act as dormant buds and do not begin growth until
the following spring. The top of stocks budded during June,
July and August should be lopped, up to September first. It is
always well to start the buds out before growth ceases for the
season, but stocks budded after the first of September should
no! be lopped until the following pi liiwg. just before growth
One method of lopping is to cut the stock back to within
five or six inches of the buds, at first. Later, after the bud has
grown to some size, it should be cut right back to the bud and
paI'an',: over to prevent rotting. Lopping may also be performed
by cutting the stock half off two or three inches above the bud
and bending it over. After growth starts in the bud it should be
removed entirely, thus throwing the full flow of sap into the bud.

The best soil for the pecan nursery is a well-drained, loamy
soil with a clay or sandy clay subsoil. The land should be put in
good condition before the trees or nuts are planted,in it. Crops
of beggar-weed, velvet beans plowed under, or a good dressing
of well-rotted stable manure will go a long way toward putting
the ground in good shape. The ground should be plowed deeply
and put in the very best tilth.


Throughout the growing season, the ground should be cul-
tivated frequently. Shallow cultivation to conserve moisture and
destroy weeds is all that is necessary. It is not possible to grow
good trees without thorough, frequent cultivation.
Fertilizers containing considerable nitrogen should be used
at the rate of about 300 pounds per acre. One analyzing 3 per
cent. phosphoric acid, 3, per cent. potash and 6 per cent. nitrogen
is about right for nurseries on most Florida soils.
As soon as a block of trees is removed it is an excellent plan
to sow the ground in one of the leguminous crops mentioned
above, to help it to recuperate. The frequent cultivations, so
necessary for the growth of the trees, wear out the humus in the
soil. The legumes will replace this if grown, and plowed back
into the soil, after they are dead and dry.
By far the greater number of seedling trees in the State
have not fulfilled the expectations of their planters. The trees
are not prolific or the fruit which they
bear is small and inferior. Such trees
if in good health and vigor may be
top-worked to advantage. Seedlings
may be planted with the expectation
of top-working them, but this is not
: If the trunks are small, an inch or
an inch and a-half in diameter, the
whole top may be removed at once.
If the trees are of medium size, the
main branches may le worked close
FIG. 12-Method of cutting large to the trunk and if large, grafts may
branches to prevent splitting. be inserted farther up from the trunk.
1. First cut. 2. Second cut.
S. Stub. Buds may be inserted in vigorous
branches. The growth of such branches may be induced by cut-
ting back the original branch of the tree in late winter. Lateral
buds will thus be forced into growth and by midsummer the
branches formed from them will be large enough to bud. The
attempt should not be made to bud or graft over the whole top.
of a large tree in one season. Only a few branches should
be worked each year, and in the course of two, three or four
years, depending upon the size of the tree, the old top can be


entirely removed and replaced by a new one of a good variety.
Both cleft- and whip-grafts may be used, but the latter can,
of course, only be used on small stocks. The objection to
working very large branches is that they do not heal readily;
two and a-half inches is about the maximum in size. Large
wounds should be painted over with white lead paint to prevent
For several months after the new top has commenced to
grow the cions or buds have but a slight hold upon the stock,
and as the growth is usually very vigorous and the leaf surface
great, considerable damage is frequently done by strong winds,
or by wind and rain together. To prevent this the young shoots
may be tied together or fastened to other portions of the stock.
If this be done, care should be taken that the twine used does
not do injury by cutting into the wood. To obviate this a piece
of burlap should be placed around the branch beneath the twine
and the twine should be removed as soon as it has served its pur-
pose. In some cases the top may be supported by lashing a pole
against the side of the trunk and fastening the grafts to the upper

FGo. 13-Two methods of preventing the splitting of crotched branches, by means of a
bolt on the left and a living brace qn the right.
part of 'this, or a pole may be driven into the ground at some
distance from the trunk, fastened against a branch or stub of a
branch above and used in the same way. After the top has grown
sufficiently to take care of itself these posts can, of course, be
removed. Sometimes, after the top has made considerable



i.'K !/ /;

?\ JP.~.

Van Deman Pecan top-worked on a seedling tree. 1. Winter view, 2. 'Close view of union. 3. Tree in foliage. Some nuts were borne the second season.


Top-worked trees. 1. Bad crotch formation. 2. Top supported by a post shown at the right. 3. Large tree grafted on the branches.


growth, and particularly if large branches are allowed to develop
opposite each other, they are split apart and the whole top
ruined. If this undesirable conformation exists it is best to
take steps to prevent splitting. A bolt having a stout washer
against the head should be placed through two branches, a second
washer placed on and the nut screwed up. This bolt will, in the
course of a few years, be entirely covered. By this means the
tree trunks are held firmly together. This same plan may be
used to save branches which have partially split apart. Sometimes
a branch may be inarched from one large branch to another to
serve as a living brace.
Necessarily a considerable number of wounds are made
in top-working. Branches are removed entirely, others are cut
back to within a foot or so of the trunk and grafted. Often these
fall to unite. Such stubs should not be left. If branches are
formed on them they should be cut back to the point where these
buds start; if no branches come out from them they should be
cut back to the trunk or large branch on which they are borne.
If left they prevent the healing of the wound, rot back, and the
rot is carried into and down the trunk of the tree resulting in a
hollow and weakened trunk. Smooth cuts should be made and
these should be covered with white, lead paint to prevent de-
cay. A little lamp black may be added, if desired, to make the
paint nearly the color of pecan bark.

The peculiar conditions of soil and moisture surrounding the
pecan in its native home might be regarded as an indication that
it could not be grown except on deep, rich soil, in proximity to
rivers, ponds or streams. Such, however, would be a wrong in-
ference, for it succeeds admirably and bears good crops on a
wide range of soils. Hence, we find it today in localities far re-
moved from the regions to which it is indigenous, and thriving
under conditions differing greatly from those obtaining in its
native home. In Florida trees may be found growing on soils
ranging from the black hammock to the less fertile high-pine
lands. On hammock soils, however, the trees are often inclined
to develop wood at the expense of fruit, while on less fertile soils
the trees make less wood and bear more fruit proportionately.
Pecans thrive well on flat woods; the grove of Dr. J. B. Curtis,


Orange Heights, Fla., is planted on this type of land. Moisture
in sufficient quantity must be present, but it will not do to plant
the pecan on land that is continually wet and soggy. The pres-
ence of a hard, impenetrable subsoil doubtless has a great influ-
ence upon the welfare of the tree, and it would be better to select
other ground, or when this is impossible, to blast out the hardpan..
A quicksand subsoil is equally objectionable. If close to the sur-
face, it should not be used. The roots cannot penetrate it. All
things considered the best soil is probably one which has pre-
viously supported a growth of holly, willow-leaved oak, dog-wood,.
hickory and those other trees usually found associated with
them. A sandy loam with a clay or sandy clay subsoil is difficult
to surpass.
The land intended for young trees should be well prepared.
This preparation will depend largely upon the care and treatment
which the soil has received previously. Land on which the
forest still' stands should preferably be thoroughly cleared and
put in cultivation for a year or two before planting. Leguminous.
crops are excellent to precede the setting of the trees. Plow the
ground thoroughly, break deeply, harrow it level and it is.
ready for the trees.
BUYING TREEs.-Florida has suffered as much from fraudu-
lent pecan tree agents as any other State. Seedling trees have
been "doctored" and sold, to planters and varieties have been
sold which were untrue to name. Unfortunately too few people-
are acquainted with the characteristics of a budded or grafted tree.
Those who are thoroughly acquainted with the wood, twigs,
and branches of pecan trees are able to tell the different varieties
at a glance. The color of the bark, the shape, size and arrange-
ment of the lenticles, the size and shape of the buds are always.
characteristic and by these marks varieties can be distinguished.
Every planter should acquaint himself with the wood characteris-
tics of the varieties. But after all, the safest, by far the safest
plan is to deal directly with honest nurserymen, men of unques-
tionable integrity, men who give their business careful thought
and attention.
The best .trees for general planting are well grown one-
year-old trees, from three to five feet high.


Too often but slight attention is given to the planting of
the trees. There is too frequently a disposition on the part of
the person setting trees of any kind to do the work as rapidly
as possible without consideration for the future welfare of the
plants. Few realize that time spent in careful, intelligent prep-
aration of the soil and in setting the trees is time well spent, and
well paid for in the after development of trunk and branch.
Better a month spent in preparing the future home of the young
tree than years of its life spent in an unequal struggle for exist-
ence. More than that, the tree may die out-right and a year must
elapse before it can be replaced. It is generally stated that the
pecan is a slow grower, and yet trees from twelve to fourteen
years old will sometimes measure from thirty-five to fifty-seven
inches in circumference at the base, while under less favorable
circumstances others will stand still for a period of six or seven
years, or until they have accumulated sufficient energy to over-
come the untoward conditions of their environment.
DISTANCIs.-The distance apart at which the trees should
be set, will depend in a measure upon the character of the soil.
If rich and moist the trees should be set farther apart than on
higher, drier soils. Forty feet is generally believed to be about
right for most Florida lands. Two methods of setting may be
followed, rectangular and hexagonal. The number of trees which
may be set per acre by the rectangular system are as follows:
40x40 ............................. 27 trees
40x45 ............................ 24 "
40x50 ........................... 21 "
40x60 ............................... 18 "
45x45 ............................. 21 "
50x50 ............................. 17 "
50x60 ............. ............ .. 14 "
50x75 ............................ 11 "
60x60 .............................. 12 "
60x75 .............................. 9 "
70x70 .............................. 8 "
70x75 .............. .. .............. 8 "
75x75 .............................. 7 "
To find the number of trees for any distances not given in
the above table, multiply the distances together and divide 43560,


the number of square feet in an acre, by the product. The re-
sult will give the number of trees.
By the hexagonal system about fifteen per cent. more trees
may be set per acre than by the rectangular system. If a double
.1 anti ng is contemplated, as pecans and peaches, the rectangular
system should be used and one or more peaches set out in each
rectangle formed by the pecans.
Si ..Ki :rG nTH GROUND.-If a good plowman can be secured,
the rows can be run off with a plow, running both lengthwise
and crosswise of the field. Ordinarily, however, a true corner
may be established with a carpenter's -qu:uni. the field staked out
around the outside. For the rectangular system, the stakes
can then be set up in the center of the field by measuring, or by
si.ihtini', or by both. Ordinary building laths make good stakes.
To stake off the ground by the hexagonal method, commence
on one side of the field and plant stakes at the desired distance
apart where the trees are to stand. Using two chains or two
pieces of wire with rings at the ends (their length being the
same as-the tree distance), the positions for the second row of
trees may be easily ascertained. Drop the rings over two ad-
joining stakes and stretch them out until they form an equilateral
triangle with the base line. Plant a stake at the apex to indicate
where the tree is to stand. Set up all the stakes for this second
row in the same manner, then use it as a base line and so on across
the field.
PLANTING.-Having set a stake where each tree is to stand,
the planting board should then be brought into use. This is
simply a light board, five or six inches wide and six feet long,
with a notch cut in the center of one side and an inch hole
bored in each end. In di~c.iin. the holes for the trees this board
is .laid down on the ground with the notch against the tree
stake. Two small wooden stakes are then shoved into the
-r.',lMd through the holes in the ends and the board and tree
stake both taken away.
Dig the holes broad enough and deep enough to accom-
modate the roots of the trees. Prune back the broken ends of
the roots. The tap-roots should be left eighteen inches long
on the smaller size of nursery trees, while on larger and older
trees they should be left longer, twenty-four or thirty inches.


, -.- r.g ,
- a

* ,"


~Pa'P i

Root system of a well grown nursery tree.
i ;"
~~. 11

S. .:.

lKoot system of a \veil grown nursery tree.

.. Ilsl


No injury will result from thus cutting the tap-root; a new
one will be formed.
Having dug the hole, place the planting board back over
the small stakes still left in the ground, set the tree with its
trunk in the notch which will bring it just where the tree stake
was and proceed to fill in the hole. Surface soil should be
used for filling, and the ground carefully packed about the
roots by hand. One pound of commercial fertilizer per tree
may be used to advantage. This should be thoroughly mixed
with the soil used in filling in the hole. When the work is
finished, a surface mulch of leaves, straw or trash should be
provided to prevent evaporation, or the ground may be raked
on top to form a mulch of dry earth.
Never allow the roots of a pecan tree to become dried out.
It is best that the necessary root-pruning be done in the shed
and the trees carried to the field wrapped in a damp blanket,
from which they are removed one by one as required for planting.
The tops should be pruned back slightly to restore the balance
between the roots and the tops which has been disturbed in
the process of transplanting.
The best time to plant pecan trees is somewhere between
the first of December or the latter part of Novmber and the
first of February. Preference must be given to the earlier part
of thip period as the ground will have a chance to become firmly
packed and the root wounds will have partially callused' over
before the growing season begins. Besides, the early spring
season in Florida is usually dry and recently planted trees do
not stand nearly so good a show as those planted in December
and January.
Because the pecan grows as a forest tree in some parts of
the country, many people suppose that it can be left without
care and cultivation, left as any other tree in the fields and woods
is left to shift for itself. But if fruit is required from the tree,
no matter whether planted in the garden or the orchard, it should
be given good care. Too many of our practices are based upon
ideas taken from the native trees of the woods and fields. But
all these trees do from year to year is bear a few fruits, many


of which are imperfect, in the attempt to reproduce themselves.
If that is all that is desired of the pecan tree, well and good, a
system of neglect will secure the result and the insects and
fungi will be the chief beneficiaries of the practice.
One lesson can be learned from the woods. The ideal soil
condition for the pecan grove is that found in the forest. The
soil there is filled with vegetable matter, and humus; it holds
water and plant food. The aim in the cultivation of the trees
should be to provide and maintain a soil as nearly ideal as that.
Whether anyone would have the temerity to advocate the
cultivation of a pecan orchard along the lines applied to peach
orchards and citrus groves is seriously doubted. A pecan planta-
tion will begin to bear in from six to eight yeans after planting
and should produce a very fair crop at ten years, after which it
rapidly increases in productivity. But during the period when
the trees are growing and no fruit is being produced, cultivation
must be given.
This is best done by planting the land between the tree rows
in cotton, peanuts or other field crops, in vegetables, cowpeas,
beggarweed or velvet beans. The last mentioned crops may be
used in making hay. These are the ideal crops for the pecan
orchard. It would be best to follow a systematic rotation of
these crops. As foi instance, 1st year peanuts, 2d year cotton,
or 1st year crabgrass and beggarweed, 2nd year cotton, 3rd
year velvet beans.
The area grown in these crops should by no means equal
the total area of the field. The tree rows for a width of four
or five feet on each side should not be planted in crops during
the first year. This strip should, however, be cultivated during
the first part of the season and about the beginning of the rainy
season sowed to beggar-weed. The cultivated area will neces-
sarily become more restricted each year, and eventually the
ground will have to be given up to the trees.
Then the plan frequently advised (and the author must
plead guilty to having done so at one time himself) is to put
the land in grass and use it as a pasture. But grass is generally
an important item in the cultivation of neglected pecan orchards.
It is synonymous with neglect and bad treatment. It interferes


with the growth, development and fruiting of the trees and this
plan is no longer advised by the writer.
Instead, it is preferable to cultivate the trees in spring, con-
tinuing the cultivation well up to the rainy season. Later, in
August, a crop of crabgrass and beggarweed may be removed
for hay. By autumn a considerable additional growth will be
formed to cover the ground in winter and turned back into the
soil to restore and maintain the necessary humus content of
the soil.
On nearly all Florida soils, pecan trees are benefited by
the application of fertilizers in some form or other. Large
quantities of food materials are taken from the soil in the growth
of the tree and the development of the crop.
The greatest demand made on the soil by the tree is for
nitrogen and this can be met by applying stable manure, or by
growing leguminous crops and turning them under as already
directed. In the fertilizing of the pecan this is by all means the
best policy. The potash in the form of sulphate or muriate of
potash and the phosphoric acid in the form of acid phosphate
can be supplied separately.
FORMULAS.-The requirements of the trees will differ at dif-
ferent stages of their growth. The needs of the young trees
differ from those of fruiting ones. For young trees, nitrogen
in considerable amounts is required while for bearing tree, more
potash and phosphoric acid and less nitrogen relatively are
required. If complete fertilizers are used, those-given the young
trees should analyse about five per cent. phosphoric acid, six
per cent. potash and four per cent. nitrogen; while one containing
six per cent. phosphoric acid, eight per cent. potash and four
per cent. nitrogen is about right for bearing trees.
If we assume that acid phosphate analyses 14 per cent.
phosphoric acid, high grade sulphate of potash 50 per cent.
potash, cotton-seed meal 6.5 per cent. nitrogen, and dried blood
14 per cent. nitrogen, the following amounts of these materials
which may be mixed at home will give approximately the above


Acid Phosphate ,(14 per cent. goods)............ 700 pounds
H. G. Sulphate Potash....................... 25 "
Cotton-Seed Meal..... .................. .... 1150
If dried blood is used in place of cotton-seed meal one-half
the amount or 575 pounds will give as much, or slightly more,
nitrogen than the 1150 pounds of cotton-seed meal.
Acid Phosphate (14 per cent.) ................ 850 pounds
H. G. Sulphate Potash ........................ 300
Dried Blood ..............................:.. 250
Cotton-Seed Meal ............................ 600

2000 pounds
APPLYING THE FERTILIZER.-The whole of the fertilizer
may be applied in spring just before the growth starts. On the
whole this is one of the best times to apply it. In some cases
it may be advisable to apply only half the material at that time,
leaving the other half for application about the first of June.
So far as the nitrogen part of the fertilizer is concerned, this
would be good practice, but the potash, and phosphoric acid
may as well be applied at the beginning of the season's growth.
In applying the fertilizer to young trees, it should be put
on in a circular band about the tree (closer or farther away
depending on the size of the tree) and spreading it around on
a strip four or five feet wide. As the trees increase in size, the
fertilizer should be applied over a larger area until, in the case
of old trees, the whole surface should receive an application.

For such pruning. as is necessary for pecan trees a few
tools should be provided. These will consist of a pair of good
pruning shears, German solid steel pruning shears being the best,
a pair of Walter's tree pruners for cutting back long branches,
and a good pruning saw. One of the best pruning saws is what
i~ known as a Climax pruning saw, or a Pacific Coast pruning
saw is equally as good.


It is not advisable to prune the trees during the time when
growth has just started in spring and the sap is in active motion.
At this time it will be well nigh impossible to properly protect
the wounds. The necessary coat of paint will not stick to the
wound when wet with sap from the tree.

FIG. 14-Rotten hole due to careless pruning at the left. A properly made woundiready
for painting is shown at the right.

While pruning may be done during the summer months
when the tree is in full leaf, all things considered, the best time
to prune is in early spring before growth starts. There is usually
less to be done on the farm at this season, and more time is
available for the work. Wounds made at this time usually heal
quite rapidly.
In cutting all branches the saw should be held parallel to
the part which is to remain, and the branch should be cut off
smoothly, close up to the trunk.
As soon as the branch is removed the wound should be
painted to protect it from decay. For a protective covering
nothing is better than white lead paint. A small amount of
coloring matter may be added to it, if desired.
As a general rule the pecan requires comparatively little
pruning. At the time of planting the young trees should be cut
back some distance, particularly if they are very tall. It is well
to have the main branches form within four or five feet of the
ground. After this about all the pruning necessary is to remove


dead or injured branches and cut back those which have a
tendency to run up beyond their neighbors. For this work, as
well as in procuring grafts or bud-wood from the top of the tree,
the tree pruner comes into good service.
Top-worked trees frequently require considerable pruning
to get them started so that they will develop into shapely, sym-
metrical trees. The accompanying illustration shows a young
top-worked tree. Two cleft-grafts inserted in the main shoot
of the top have made a splendid growth. Part of the old top
still remains below. This should be removed and the grafts
should be pruned as indicated by the lines. One of them should
be removed entirely to do away with the undesirable crotch
formation and almost certain consequent splitting of the top.

The pecan crop is not so difficult to harvest and prepare
for market as a crop of oranges or peaches, for instance, and
yet some care must be taken to put the nuts on the market in
inviting shape.
FIELD EQUIPMENT.-The equipment necessary for harvesting
consists of an extension ladder, a step ladder, a number of bam-
boo fishing poles and picking sacks. The best kind of step
ladder is one having three legs instead of four. Picking sacks
may be made from ordinary hemp or jute sacks. The sack
should be spread open with a piece of stick, sharp-pointed at
both ends, placed in one side of the mouth, thus making the
opening triangular. Place a pecan nut in the lower corner of
the sack, tie one end of a piece of stout twine about it as it lies
in the corner, and then tie the other end -of the twine to the
center of the mouth of the sack opposite the stick. The twine
should be short enough to draw the bottom and top of the sack
close together, leaving an opening through which the arm may
be thrust and the sack slung over the shoulder.
PICKING.-As soon as the greater percentage of the burs
have opened, the crop should be gathered. It will not do to
wait until all have opened, neither is it advisable to pick the
trees over a number of times. Pick them clean at one picking.
The burs of those nuts which are fully matured will open; the
burs of immature ones may not. The latter should be discarded.





/ -i '7

Pruning of Top-worked tree (one year) showing where cuts should be made (at the lines)
to produce a well balanced top. The lower ones are all seedling branches.


The men should climb the trees and pick the nuts by hand,
using the bamboo poles only for those which are entirely out
of reach. Even this should be done carefully so as not to injure
the bearing wood of the trees. Care in picking good nuts by
,hand will amply repay the grower, because the beating and
shaking of the trees will cause a considerable quantity of fruit
to be lost, and a few pounds saved will repay all the time and
trouble. Of course, in very high trees, there is frequently
nothing to do but to shake and thrash the crop off the trees.
The plan of covering the ground beneath the trees with a large
sheet would work well and assist in reducing losses. As soon
as taken from the trees the nuts should be spread out under a
shed or in a building to dry. A very convenient plan, and one
which will save space, is to provide a sufficient number of trays,
three feet by four feet, and three inches deep, with half-inch
mesh wire bottoms, and place the nuts in these, two or two
and a half inches deep. Racks can be provided around the room
in which to place these. In from ten days to two weeks from
the time of picking, the nuts should be cured.
GRADING.-The variety should be made the basis of the
grade; that is, each variety should be picked, packed and mar-
keted by itself. This besides gives an excellent opportunity to
compare the commercial value of different kinds. When a
grower has a large number of different kinds of seedling nuts,
and a small quantity of each, they may be graded by passing
them through screens.
POLISHING.-At the present time practically all of the com-
mon market nuts are both polished and colored. Coloring should
not be resorted to, and in the case of good varieties of nuts
polishing should not be done. In the case of small or mixed
lots, however, polishing is useful in making the nuts more uni-
form. It can be accomplished by putting the nuts with a little
dry sand in a barrel fixed so that it can be rotated like a re
evolving churn and turning until the nuts receive the desired
polish. The better nuts, however, should be put on the market
just as they come from the trees. The markings, dots and
streaks on the outside are their trademark, and should not be
interfered with.



PACKAGES.-For shipping small quantities of pecans by ex
press iinthiini is better than a box. Barrels are best for larger
shipments. ,For mail shipments stout pasteboard, wooden or tin
boxes or tin cans make good packages. Frequently shipments
are made in sacks, but the sack does not afford sufficient protec-
tion to the contents and should not be used. As a rule the box
should be made so that a given weight will fill it, but this diffi-
culty may be overcome, to a certain extent, by putting in a pad
of paper or excelsior-paper being preferable. Fill the packages
on a solid floor, shaking them down well and putting in all they
will hold, placing the pad, if one has to be used, in the bottom.
On the outside of the packages before shipping should be
placed the name of the grower, the variety, the number of pounds
and the shipping directions. Small boxes to be shipped by
express for the holiday trade should be wrapped in good quality
wrapping paper before shipping.
MARKErTNGo.-The best plan for marketing good pecan nuts
is to build up a private trade. As a matter of fact, at the present
time but very few of the large, full-meated pecans find their
way into the general market. They are either taken by seedsmen
or consumed by riialte customers. In building up a private
trade advertising has its place, of course. Advertisements in-
serted in magazines or papers, particularly in those which are
published in the tourist towns of the State, may be found helpful.
The object and aim should be to give each private customer
a package, bright, neat, attractive and containing the best quality
of nuts. If a certain price per pound is fixed for a given quality,
then this should not be varied under any circumstances. Each
year the same 1iquality of nuts should be given to each customer.
It will not do to give large ones one year and smaller ones the
next; this tends to create dissatisfaction. In some of the larger
cities there are high-class fruit dealers who handle nothing but
fruits, nuts, etc., of the very highest quality. Under some cir-
cumstances it might be well to enter into negotiations with such
Although the pecan industry is not old, yet a very consid-
erable number of varieties has been brought forward. Not all



' .-

A ten pound box of Van Deman Pecans as packed by Dr. J. B. Curtis.



of these are or have been meritorious, and in fact many varieties
are now represented by name alone. Other varieties are com-
paratively new, and no one can speak authoritatively of what
they will do over a wide range of territory. Still other varieties
have been propagated by buds or grafts for a number of years
with the'result that they have been tested fairly well over the
country. Some of the varieties so tried have proved satisfactory,
others have not. Of the older varieties, Stuart, Van Deman
and Frotscher have been found satisfactory in nearly all cases,
while Centennial and Rome have proved so unsatisfactory that
they have been cut out of the lists of many propagatons. It is
doubtful whether a more worthless nut has ever been propagated
and sold than that much-named variey,--Rome, Columbian,
Pride of the .Coast, Century, Twentieth Century, etc. For
Florida planters the best advice the author can give is plant
neither Centennial nor Rome. They either do not bear enough
fruit, or that which they do produce is inferior or poorly filled
out. Van Deman, Stuart and Frotscher, on the other hand.
have generally borne full crops of nuts of good quality.
A satisfactory commercial pecan nut must be prolific, of
good size, good quality, must not be spasmodic in its bearing,
plump, with a bright, presentable exterior and preferably a
light-colored kernel. The nuts should besides yield sixty per
cent. or upwards of kernels. All these things in one variety
makes a difficult combination to secure. Undue weight must
not, however, be given to size, for size and quality are usually
antagonistic to each other. In fact, in pecans as in other fruits
we must go to the small or medium sized ones for the best qual-
ity. No variety of pecan is superior to San Saba in quality, yet
it is a small nut. Other varieties which may be regarded as
standards of quality are Schley and Curtis. The former is a
medium to large nut and medium prolific variety, while Curtis
is of medium size, precocious and prolific.
l\r.:.mii..!, -kr is reported as doing well in Louisiana, and
being a medium-sized nut, it is likely to succeed in Florida; but
the shell is rather thick. Georgia has proved to be a prolific
and a precocious bearer. Nearly all of the varieties given in
the following list have been reported upon favorably by different

496 J:i L. L i i.' NO. 85

In I.lai;iii pecans, no greater mistake than that of plant.
ing a laIr;: number of varieties can be made. At most thz
.l.raltin.s lI..-li.1h be confined to four or five varieties. If the
grower dC-i:. to r :[.jiriineirt. and it is a good thing to do.
lh>-n a tree or two of a .number of other varieties hi.:.1i.ld be
included, in order to test their merits.
VARIE TIS Ri ,...I i r *i i:L.--The f. :ll. .iing list contains the
varieties which are v,..itli., of the attention of Florida planters.
....t all of them have been thoroughly tested as yet, and the
reason for inserting them here is to urge that this be done-
not in large numbers, not in ten-acre blocks, but in lots of two
or three trees. In the meantime, until our knowledge of varie-
it,- and their adaptations is increased, the -,r- l advice that
can be ., the Fl.-ri.,n planter by the writer is to c.:ii i.n
liii-;;1 to Curtis, Frotscher, Schley, Stuart, Van Deman. This
list for i.laniin. ; in the western part of the State may be sup-
l-iliein.:.l by Bolt.-.n. S.' eetmeat and Georgia.

BoLToN.--Mediumn, l 2-inch x 1-inch; ovate conical; color,
lirk ,r:r, i:l--1i,... i. marked with purplish-black streaks and
d[l.:1 hi.- from center to apex; base rounded; apex slightly four-
angled,'blunt, ;'l...inl g r;i..ll.lll from the center; shell thick 1.9
mm.; .p ,riti.-irs thick; :1ra:kin lil alnt, medium; kernel ..-iniip.
dark straw-colored; sutures broad, ,.k 1.; secondary (:n:-. short,
':l;i r deep; texture compact, fine-grained; flavor sweet, good;
"|:allit. .- Very 2.:...-,1.
The .lri.i:.Il Bolton tree is one of six r..-.1inZ-. obtained
by Judge T. M. Puleston in 1 or 1887 from Mrs. E. Footman
of Monticello, Florida, and planted in his house yard at Monti-
cello. The nuts from which the trees were grown came from
the Bolton place, six miles south of I i-.n!ti::ll.. The tree
has been badly crowded by two adjoining trees and shaded by
the house. P;..:. rni.!, it has been -.. r>'-! cut back to obtain
cions, The crop of 1905 was seventy-five pounds of nuts. One
hundred pounds is the largest crop borne up to this time.
CURTIs.--Medium, 15-8-inch x 7-8; ovate conical, com-
pressed; color, brownish gray, marked throughout with dark
-,.cl;- anll a few .irpl-lli- specks ,1 ..i.i the apex; base i..nn,-l-l.
apex sloping, pointed; shell thin; cracking quality excellent; par-


Varieties of Pecans. all natural size: First row (left i.. Ao1.11 ,-1 .lton. (nrtis. Dewey, Frotscher. Georgia, Lonisiona. Sebond row (left to right)-
Moneymaker, Pabst, Russell. San Saba, -. 1.1- -i,,'.,1 Third row (left to right)-Sccess. Sweetmeat. Van Deman.


.titions thin, smooth; kernel straw-colored, marked with dark
specks, plump, full with narrow sutures of medium depth; texture
compact, firm; flavor sweet, rich, nutty; quality excellent.
The Curtis pecan was grown by Dr. J. B. Curtis, of Orange
Heights, from a nut planted March 9, 1886. The first crop was
borne in 1893. The original tree has been severely cut back
for buds and grafts, but, notwithstanding, has given as much
as 80 pounds of a crop in one season. Many of the top-worked
trees have given as much, or more, than the parent one.
DEwEY.-Medium to large, 1 7-8-inch x 3-4-inch; ovate
pointed; color dull gray and marked with splashes of purplish-
brown; base rounded; apex sharp; shell brittle and thin; cracking
quality very good; partitions thin; kernel full, plump, smooth,
bright light straw-colored with narrow sutures of medium depth;
texture firm and solid; flavor sweet, rich, good; quality very good.
The original tree stands on the Morris farm, seven miles
south of Monticello, Jeffenson County, Florida. The tree is
now about twenty years old, and is badly located. It stands
by the roadside, in the garden yard. It has received no culti-
vation, and the road-bed has been cut down five or six feet,
leaving the tree standing on a bank. In view of this fact, it
is difficult to speak definitely of its prolificness.
FROTSCHER.-(Syn.: Frotscher's Eggshell, Eggshell, Olivier,
Majestic.) Large 1 5-8-inch x 1 7-8-inch; cylindrical ovate color.
bright yellowish-brown, with a few black splashes about the apex;
base broad, rounded; apex blunt-pointed, four-angled; shell
slightly ridged, smooth, thin; partitions thin; cracking quality
excellent; kernel brownish-yellow, dark veined, frequently slack
at one end; sutures of medium depth, rather narrow; secondary
sutures well marked; texture dry, rather coarse; flavor good;
quality fair to medium.
The above description was made from specimens received
from J. Steckler Seed Company, New Orleans. The original
tree stands in the garden of H. J. Pharr, Olivier, Louisiana.
The place was formerly owned by Oscar Olivier. The variety
was first propagated by Mr. William Nelson, and catalogued
as Frotscher's Eggshell by Richard Frotscher in 1885.
The variety is precocious, productive, and succeeds over a
wide range of country.

BUC.LEL i.' NO. 85

GEORGIA (Syn. Georgia Giant).-Size large, 1 1-2-inch x
1 1-8-inch x 1-inch; rounded ovate; color brownish-gray, marked
with splashes and dots: of dark brown covering a good part
of the surface; base rounded; apex tapering, blunt; shell
brittle, medium in llticknl;-_; cracking qINalliti medium; partitions
thick, corky, red; kernel bright, rc.Jiil-l -rown, plump, full, com-
pact, fine-grainJ; l" l..-.r sweet; quality very good.
The ,i-.:.r.ia p-,..:an was raised by Mr. G. M. Bacon, Dewitt,
Ga., from a nut of uncertain origin,-planted in 1885. The one-
year-old -.:.l! in, was transplanted in the year 1886. The first
crop, borne in 1891, was 32 nuts. The tree has been severely
cut for buds and grafts, but in 1901 prz.r..:ice.I 4 1-2 bushels,
or alI. it .25, pounds of nuts. Young trees of this variety have

LOUISIANA.-Size medium, 1 7-8-inch x 7-8-inch x 3-4-inch;
oblong cylindrical; c.-1l.r Lra.l i'l-1.r.I -lI'n, marked with splashes of
Iiiur.I.!hh b.ack-toward the apex; base rounded, sloping; apex
I..h'i;-. pointed; 'shell rather ilickl; partitions of medium thick-
ness; crZcl:in. q,11 lit very good; kernel full, plump, dark yellow;
ruIrTeI. 1.' :i.:l. shallow; texture firm, compact; flavor sweet, good;
1il.'ili_. very good.
Described _r.:imi specimens received from Sut!!!ii Nurseries,
Monticello, Frkrida.
MONEYMAKIER.-Size' medium, I .;-16-inch x 1-inch; ovate
oblong; color light"; .ll,.. ish-l'-r.t ii with a few Jiuirplilh-brli: l
imark an'lbo.t the apex; base rounded; apex abrilpt ly rounded,
s11h-ll., \ied.lJ. small niliple; shell of medium thickness; par-
ititll.n. thick, corky; cracking quality very good; kernel
inlI. plump, broadly :.,i1 ; sutures -traight, shallow, sec-
:11ndar. ones small; texture firm, solid; flavor sweet, good; qual-
i11 \rr., eood.
1: -cril, d f ri. i .,Icilm.ns rrecciled from P'i." e :..r F. H.
r.:i.ii -tli, liar..n Rouge, Louisiana. This pecan was originatn-
an! ii-tr.:I .ic.l by Mr. S. H. Tamrl:s. Mound, Louisiana. The
,lualir, is very g.:...d. and the variety is precocious, prolific
airdj hardly.
PABS'r.-c Size. larger 1 ."- a-ii-le' .,% x y- -inicd h .. fI'. r, :." lin-
dri:al!; color dull gray, marked v. iti broad p:la.ihes- of purj:,i*di



Pecan Kernels, all Natural Size: Ilirst r1\ (left to right)--Bolton. Curtis. [le\\ey. Frotl-cher, (eorgia. l.olisiiina. Secorll row (left
to rigiht)-Moneymaker, Pabst. 1{u tell. Sanl Saba. Schley. Stewnilt. Third row (left to ritht)--Suree-. Sw\eetmeat. ,Val Deman.


black; base rounded; apex blunt, four-angled, grooved; shell of
medium thickness; partitions rather thick; cracking quality fair;
kernel plump, large, thick, with broad, shal.ow sutures, secondary
sutures short, shallow, bright yellow in color; texture fine; flavor
good; quality very good.
Described from specimens received from Mr. William A.
Taylor, United States Department of Agriculture. The original
tree, according to Mr. Taylor, is one of a number of seedlings
on grounds of the late William B. Schmidt at Ocean Springs,
Mississippi. The original tree is now about thirty years old.
Quite productive, and recommended for planting by those who
have tested it.
RUSSELL.--ize medium to large, 1 5-8-inches x 7-8-inch;
form ovate, slightly compressed; color grayish-brown with small
specks and splashes of purplish black; base rounded, bluntly
pointed; apex abruptly sloping; shell very thin, brittle; partitions
very thin; cracking quality excellent; kernel usually plump,
though sometimes shrunken at the base, sutures broad and shal-
low, dark straw-colored; texture fairly compact; flavor dry,
sweet; quality good.
Described from specimens received from Mr. Charles E.
Pabst, Ocean Springs, Mississippi. The original tree stands in
the yard of Mrs. H. F. Russell, Ocean Springs, Mississippi.
The tree is one of a lot of seedlings raised by the late Colonel
W. R. Stuart, about 1875. The tree was planted where it now
stands by Peter Madsen. It was named by Mr. Charles E. Pabst,
and propagated by him in 1894.
SAN SABA.-Size small, 1 3-8-inches x 7-8-inch; ovate, slight-
ly compressed towards the apex; color, bright reddish-yellow,
marked with purplish-brown splashes, extending from about the
middle to the apex; shell very thin and brittle; partitions thin;
cracking quality excellent; kernel very plump, smooth, deeply and
broadly grooved, bright straw-colored, oval in outline; texture
solid, fine-grained; flavor -rich, sweet, delicate; quality excellent.
The San Saba may be regarded as a standard of quality
among pecans as the Seckel is among pears. Described from
specimens received from E. .E. Risien, San Saba, Texas. The
variety was introduced by Mr. Risien, about 1893. The original



tree stands on the San Saba River, near. its intersection with the
Colorado River, in Texas.
ScHLEY.-Size large, 1 7-8-inches x 7-8-inch x 3-8-inch;
oblong, oval flattened; color, light reddish brown, marked with
small specks about the base and small splashes of purplish-brown
about the apex; base rounded, abruptly short nippled; apex
abrupt, flattened on two sides and rather sharp-pointed; shell
brittle, dense, thin; cracking quality excellent, shell breaking easily
and readily separating from kernel; kernel very full and plump,
smooth with shallow sutures and almost entirely free from
wrinkles, very light yellow in color; texture very firm; flavor
rich, sweet.
Obtained from H. K. Miller, Monticello, Florida. Said by
some to be only medium prolific, but the exceedingly high quality
and well-filled kernels leave little to be desired in the nut itself.
It ripens early in the ,season, middle of September to first of
October. It begins growth late in spring, but not so late as
SrUART (Syn. Castanera).-Size large to very large, 17-8-
inches x 1-inch; ovate cylindrical; color grayish-brown, splashed
and dotted with purplish-black; base rounded, tipped; apex
blunt, abrupt, somewhat four-angled; shell medium in thick-
ness, 1.1 mm.; partitions thin; cracking quality very good; kernel
plump, full, bright straw colored; sutures moderately broad and
deep, secondary sutures not well defined; texture solid, fine-
grained; flavor rich, sweet; qui:hilit very good.
Described from specimens received from the Stuart Pecan
Company, Ocean Springs, Mississippi. This variety has been
ic-ted. found to succeed and to be prolific over a wide range of
c-':iuntr. The original tree,* grown from a nut planted by John
R. Sassabee, about 1874, stood in the garden now owned by
Captain E. Castonera, Pascagoula, Mississippi. It was blown
down in October, 1893, but a new shoot, now in bearing, has
-prirng up from the roots. First propagated in 1886 by Mr.
A. G. Delmas, Scranton, Mi\sissippi. It does not begin growth
until quite late in spring, a desirable feature for some sections.
SucCEss.-Size large, 1 9-16-inches x 1-inch; oblong, ovate,
Taylor, William A. (Yearbook), 1904.


tapering from near base to apex; color, light yellowish-brown,
strongly marked with purplish-brown splashes about the apex;
base flattened, roundish; apex blunt, four-angled; shell thin,
.93 mm.; cracking quality very good; partitions thin; kernel
large, full, plump, filling the shell; light yellow in color, sutures
broad, of medium depth, inner surface wrinkled, oval in outline;
texture firm, solid, compact; flavor sweet, rich; quality very good.
The original tree was found "growing in a crowded row of
seedlings planted at Ocean Springs by the late W. B. Schmidt
about ten years previously. The original Success tree first at-
tracted attention in the fall of 1901." Described from specimens
received from Mr. Theo. Bechtel, Ocean Springs, Mississippi.
This is a very desirable nut, and if as prolific as the variety is
good, it will indeed prove a valuable acquisition.
SWEETMEAT.-Size medium, 11-4-inches x 7-8-inch; oblong;
color, bright grayish brown, marked with small streaks of purplish
brown about the apex; base rounded; apex abruptly blunt; shell
thin, .8 mm.; partitions of medium thickness, corky; cracking
quality good;' kernel plump, full, somewhat wrinkled, light yellow,
sutures broad, shallow; texture fine-grained, compact; flavor
sweet; quality good.
Originated from seed obtained in New Orleans by Mr. D. L.
Pierson, Monticello, Florida. Planted out in its present position
when one year old, in 1892 or 1893. It bbre its first crop five
years after planting. The tree stands on the property of the
Summit Nui-series, Monticello, Florida. It is a very prolific
variety, in all probability a seedling of Frotcher. Described from
specimens taken from the original tree.
VAN DEMAN.-Large to very large, 2 1-8-inches : 7-8-inch;
oblong cylindrical; color, reddish-brown, with splashes and streaks
of purplish-brown; base sloping, blunt-pointed; apex tapering,
sharp-pointed; shell of medium thickness; cracking quality fair;
partitions thick; kernel light yellow, with a few dark specks,
sutures rather deeply and narrowly grooved, with secondary su-
tures forming a mere line; kernel fine-grained and compact, some-
times slack at the end; flavor sweet and delicate: quality very
Specimens for description obtained of Dr. J. B. Curtis,
Orange Heights, Florida. Quite widely tested and recommended
for planting.

Bulletins of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.


2. .r ........... .. .... 'v. i% in I lune. 1888.
4. as. P. D'ePie--......... .... er .l .... ............. .I.r.. l .
11. jas. P. DeP.: ....... ..... r I ... ..... ...... ..'-. r. ."
1* as. DIeP .... ..... -- neral .... .... ... .... I rnar. 1 r. 1891.
13. as. P. i. P .- .r ... ....... r.i. I-'
16. Jas. P i ,PF .. r* ,r l ar .. .. 1.
17. Jas. 'P L.' P, : ....... ael l..arm .. .r I. 92.
1.* Jas. P 'rP. : I '.i *.
S A. A P r..,, .......... .ir r .:e ... ........ L.,:i. 1 .3.
24. O. 0 r. .... ..... .. ....rr .. .... 1 iil '. 1. '
25. A -i % ; 1 ..., ... . I I l .,,,g .. *r, i.,I.. -- 1 4.
26. A. V,' B .... .. ... I l -1.
27. I,. A, \ 11 ,, l-,...r e.. ..... ........ l 1 4 .
28. A. 'V,' ininc ....... i i i Southern (. l
1 *e r ............ .. I .I r. 1894.
30. B. ,1 .I.... ...... 1 Cui. e .' r eco...... .....r 1895.
32. A. A. P r- .. i I :.,r. T
88. M S. I .-e.. .. ": r .i 9
84. A. L. ,lr.. e.. ...... .:,I: r R. l,. .. ,' l, "
36. A. L. -. .. .. October, 1896.
37. O. C1r ''. ........... .. November, 1896.
SQ F I-. JIe ......... I .- -. F l.r.l 1 .., ''.
5 S. P. r ........ .. i .,- .. F r u. r ..
40. A. L. 'lior. .. T., I To, ul" es .... 1Mac 1 90
541. P. H ~- ...,. ... -_.:, 'W-i t F a 'i
42 L C 'rr,.a .. .... .. T bl i,.. .:-. \.I-.,,. 1i-..
48. A. A. Perl --.. .-. I ,, .I ,, ..r 1897.
Fr 1 t. r 1897.
45. A. L. Quaintance........ Injurious Insects ......... r i
48. A. L. Quaintance......... Insect Enemies of the T1 .I....
in Florida ........ .r.'..I-, 1898.
51. H. A. .:: .. .... : C .mon Florida Scales.. January, 1900.
62. H. K. :.1.11.r .. I Powders ................ February, 1900.
53. H. Har.-i I Ho-lTe .... Paci'rus Troubles.......... March, 1900.
55. H. F.... oth .a. t...l.r l With Florida Peed
S ., : ........... ..... --r'i b rb.r 1900.
56 H. A. G'ovirl .. .... The Crttnv Cushion Scale 1 1" '
57. H. Harcl i-lH ..e ....... IC r : of Pecans,,.... ..-... 1
58. H. Harcil H ie. ... 1 "1. 1
59. H. Har ld:! -H.lum.e .. ... -l .. .... ...... .. *** .r. 1901.
60. II. K. ile. ........ ... ns................ ire % 1902.
61. TI. ,.: ,r.I ... Two P .-. .- i* 1.
62. H. : ,r .l.1 ni..... .... The r. -1'.. .1 r. .... i .
63. H. Harold Hume......... Packing Citrus Fruits.......... September, 1902.
64. C. F. Dawson............ Texas Cattle Fever and Sal190
A* be r. 1902.
65. H. Harold Hume......... he i .....i .. er, 1902.
66. H. Harold Hnme......... The .inI .- .... a' ..r. i.. 1903.
68. H. K. H. T HTI-.T r:.... l 70. H. H. I- .. r ... r.-h r i- r 1904.
71. H. H H..n..- F. C R I......- i..- :- Per..n.,,-., '!i r.-l.,, .)04.
72. C. M Conner.. ... .! I .i .... ,4.
78. V. C. Reimer............. The H .,- I', I .:li '. r l 1 '.*".
74. H. Harold Hume......... Anthracnose of the Pomelo..... August, 1904.
75. H-. Har I H ... I' r; .-- .. .. ...... .. August, 1904.
76. H. A. Gc I II. 11" ir.,. i,.,.. r..'. :,. I Fungicides..... November, 1904.
77. C. F. P;..:-.n ,-,,,,, ,,..r, and Its Eradi r 1.-0
78. C. M. Cner............... Crops. The Silo....... 'I 'h I.-",.
79. H. A. -.r.1. ........ .. .:-r of the Pecan........... April, 1905.
80. A. W. B'itr............ "r.- Composition of Some of th
Concentrated Feeding-stuffs
on Sale in Florida........ April, 1905.
81. E. R. Flint.............. Fertilizer Suggestions...... August, 1905.

Press Bulletins.


No. 1. H. Harold Hume...... Directions for Preparation of
Bordeaux Mixture........ February 1, 1901.
No. 2. H. K. Miller......... Lime and Its Relation to Agri-
culture ................... March 1, 1901.
No. 3. H. Harold Hume...... Seed Testing.................. April 1, 1901.
No. 4. H. A. Gossard....... he White Fly............ .... May 1, 1901.
No. 6. H. A. Gossard....... Nursery Inspection (part 1).... August 15, 1901.
No. 7. H. A. Gossard....... Nursery Inspection (part 2).... September 1, 1901,
No. 8. J. F. Mitchell......... Care of Irish Potatoes Harvest
ed in the Spring and Held
For Fall Planting......... September 15, 1901.
No. 9. Chas. F. Dawson...... Sore Head.................... October 1, 1901.
No. 10. H. Harold Hume..... Plants Affected by Root Knot.. October 15, 1901.
No. 11. A. W. Blair.......... Vinegar ...................... November 1, 1901.
No. 12. John H. Jeffries....... Seed Beds and Their Manage-
ment ................... November 15, 1901.
No. 13. H. A. Gossard....... Treatment for San Jose Scale.. December 1, 1901.
No. 14. H. E. Stockbridge..... Beef from Velvet Beans and
Cassava .................. December 15, 1901.
Nos. 15 and 16. Chas F. Dawson Some Poultry Pests ........... January 1 and 15, 1902
No. 17. A. W. Blair........... Preservatives in Canned Goods. February 1, 1902.
No. 18. H. Harold Hume...... Cantaloupe Blight.............. February 15, 1902.
No. 19. H. A. Gossard....... Cut Worms .................. March 1, 1902.
No. 21. Chas. F. Dawson..... Parturient Paralysis.......... April 15, 1902.
No. 22. H. K. Miller........N nitrogen as a Fertilizer....... April 15, 1902.
No. 23. H. r. Stockbridge..... Protection Against Drought.... May 1, 1902.
No. 24. H. A. Gossard........ Orange Mites.:............... May 10, 1902.
No. 25. Chas. F. Dawson. ..... Ro. une 1, 1902.
No. 26. Chas. F. Dawson...... Lumpy Jaw ................. June 15, 1902.
No. 27. H. Harold Hume..... Cover Crops ................. July 1, 1902.
No. 28. C. F. Dawson........ Moon Blindness .............. uly 15, 1902.
No. 29. A. W. Blair....... Food Adulteration.............September 1, 1902.
No. 30. C. F. Dawson ........ Dehorning Cattle .............. October 1, 1902.
No. 31. A. W. Blair........... Food Adulteration; Coffee...... November 1, 1902.
No. 32. C. F. Dawson........ Foot and Mouth Disease....... December 1, 1902.
No. 33. H. A. Gossard........ The Red Soldier Bug or Cotton
Stainer .................. January 1, 1902.
No. 34. C. F. Dawson......... Ox Warbles.................. February 1. 1903.
No. 35. A. W. Blair.......... Food Adulteration; Butter...... March 1, 1903.
No. 86. C. F. Dawson........ Hook Worms in Cattle........ April 1, 1903.
No. 37. C. I. Conner........ The Velvet Bean............. May 1, 1903.
No. 38. C. F. Dawson........ Practical Results of the Texas
Fever Inoculations......... Tune 1, 1903.
No. 39. C. F. Dawson....... Lung Worms in Swine......... July 1, 1903.
Nos. 40 and 41. C. F. Dawson. Glanders ................... October 1, 1903.
No. 42. A. W. Blair .......... Food Adulteration; Spices and
Condiments ............... November 1, 1903.
No. 43. C. M. Conner........ How to Feed a Horse.......... December 1, 1903.
No. 44. F. C. Reimer......... Planting Trees................ December 1, 1903.
No. 45. H. A. Gossard........ The Sugar Cane Borer......... December 15, 1903.
No. 46. C. M. Conner........ Selecting Seed Corn........ February 1, 1904.
No. 47. C. F. Dawson......... The Rabid Dog.... ....... March 1, 1904.
No. 48. A. W. Blair.......... Food Adulteration; Adulterated
Drugs and Chemicals...... April 1, 1904.
No. 49. H. K. Miller ......... Saw Palmetto Ashes.......... May 1, 1904.
No. 50. C. F. Dawson........ Insect Pests to Live Stock...... June 1, 1904.
No. 51. C. F. Dawson......... Wormy Fowls... ....... August 15, 1904.
No. 52. E. R. Flint............ The Loss of Nitrogen on the
Farm .................... December 1, 1904.
No. 53. C. F. Dawson ........ Hog Cholera and Swine Plague. December 15, 1904.
No. 54. F. M. Rolfs......... Seed Potatoes.......... ....... December 15, 1904.
No. 55. F. M. Rolfs.......... Potato Blight and Its Remedy.. February 7, 1905.
No. 56. E. H. Sellards......... White Fly Conditions in North-
ern Florida............... February 28, 1905.
No. 57. E. R. Flint........... Proposed Experiments on Ferti-
lization of the Orange..... September 11, 1905.
No. 58. C. F. Dawson....... noraee Poisoning.............. October 1, 1905.