Citation
Sugar-cane and syrup making

Material Information

Title:
Sugar-cane and syrup making
Series Title:
Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Creator:
Spencer, A. P ( Arthur Perceval )
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla
Publisher:
University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
p. [49]-67 : ill., plans ; 23 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Sugarcane -- Florida ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
Cover title.
Statement of Responsibility:
by A.P. Spencer.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
030151830 ( ALEPH )
18161090 ( OCLC )
AEN2344 ( NOTIS )

Related Items

Related Item:
PALMM Version

Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida






NOVEMBER, 1913


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

Agricultural Experiment Station





SUGARCANE

AND

SYRUP MAKING

BY

A. P. SPENCER


Fig. 7.-Covering seed-cane with disk cultivator. (Japanese cane.)

The Station bulletins will be sent free upon application to the Experiment
Station, Gainesville, Fla.
Pepper Pub. & Ptg. Co., Gainesville, Fla.


BULLETIN 118












CONTENTS

Introduction ........... ...... ................. .. .............. 51
Soil ................................ ............. ................ 51
Soil Preparation ...................... .......... .. ... ........... 52
R otation ...................................... .... ................. 53
F ertilizers ....................................... ... ............. 53
Planting ............................................... ........... 54
Cultivation .................. .................. ..... .. ............. 55
H arvesting ..................................... ..... .............. 55
Seed-C ane ....................................... ................... 56
Time to Save Seed-Cane ......................................... 56
Laying Down the Bed ................... .... .................. 57
Stubble or Ratoon Cane ........................ .................... 58
V varieties ......................................................... 58
Japenese Cane ..................................... .. .............. 59
Cane Grinding ........................................... ............ 59
Evaporation of Juice ............................................... 60
Fermentation in Syrup ............................................... 64
Diseases of Sugar Cane ................................. ............. 65
R ed R ot ........................................... ............. 65
Insect Enemies of Sugar-Cane ......................................... 66
The Cane Borer ............................... ................. .. 66
The Army Worm ................................................ 67
Danger in Imported Canes ........................................ 67




IMPORTANT FACTS

(1) Sugar-cane is successfully grown throughout Florida, though it only
matures perfectly in Southern Florida.
(2) Any good agricultural soil in Florida that has sufficient drainage is
capable of producing profitable crops of sugar-cane.
(3) Sufficient moisture is the controlling element in the production of
sugar-cane, from its earliest growth.
(4) Ammonia and potash are especially needed in any fertilizer applied,
while phosphoric acid is needed in lesser quantities.
(5) Cultivation should be frequent until the crop is well-grown, but always
with shallow-working implements.
(6) The longer the cane can stand without danger of frost, the higher will
be the sucrose content, and the better the quality of syrup.
(7) Sugar-cane will give a better yield if the seed-cane has been selected
for healthiness and maturity.

(In preparing this bulletin, reliable information was derived from the
bulletins of the Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station, from the writings
of Mr. C. K. McQuarrie, and from the publications of Capt. R. E. Rose, State
Chemist. For all this, due acknowledgment is hereby made.)











SUGAR-CANE AND SYRUP MAKING

BY A. P. SPENCER



Sugar-cane is among the most certain of Florida crops. Crop
failure for the State has never been reported. Sugar-cane has
been grown more or less in almost every county in Florida, and
with a degree of success on almost every grade of agricultural
soil in the State. It must not be inferred that sugar-cane has no
preference as to soil fertility, moisture, or physical condition of
the soil. Success in growing this crop is governed by the meth-
ods adopted in each stage of its growth.
Sugar-cane is a tropical plant. The different varieties re-
quire more or less than twelve months without frost to reach full
maturity. Certain varieties are propagated successfully and
profitably as far as 100 miles north of the Gulf of Mexico. Below
the twenty-seventh parallel, or the region around Manatee and
Lake Okeechobee in Southern Florida, sugar-cane matures, form-
ing long sprays of bloom called "arrows." In seasons with little
or no frost, the cane may mature even north of this line. In all
sections of the State it reaches a stage of maturity sufficient for
making syrup or sugar.
Up to the sixties, large plantations of sugar-cane existed on
the low hammock lands of Manatee, Volusia, and Citrus Counties.
At this time the industry was perhaps the most important one in
Florida. At the close of the war, these plantations were nearly
abandoned. Some of this land was planted in orange groves.
Since this period, little attention has been given to growing sugar-
cane on a large scale, although nearly every county of the State
produces more or less of it. At the present time the largest acre-
age is on the rolling high pinelands of West Florida.


SOIL

The greatest tonnage of canes per acre is usually produced
on low rich hammocks where the drainage is good. However, it





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


is still an open question what class of soil in Florida is best for
producing syrup. The better grades of high pine land in West
Florida are producing from fifteen to twenty-five tons of sugar-
cane per acre, and a superior grade of syrup. We may conclude
that any good agricultural soil in Florida that has sufficient drain-
age is capable of producing profitable crops of sugar-cane, if the
crop is grown by methods suitable to the soil. The rolling pine
lands are well adapted without further drainage. Flat-woods
soils frequently require drainage to carry off the surplus water
that is usually present during the rainy season. The flat ham-
mock lands and reclaimed marsh lands, for the most part, have
usually artificial drainage to control the surplus water during the
wet season. While sugar-cane is a heavy consumer of moisture,
it must have an open soil with the water table below the feeding
area of the roots. It is a vigorous plant, and succeeds well on any
soil suitable for corn or other farm crops.


SOIL PREPARATION

Soil intended for sugar-cane should be prepared as long in
advance of the planting time as the previous crop will permit; be-
fore November 1 for fall planting, and not later than January 1
for winter planting. After the vegetable matter has been plowed
under, the surface should be harrowed and pulverized two or three
times before the land is laid off for planting. Soils that have not
been plowed deeply and worked back into condition cannot con-
serve the moisture already in the soil, or absorb and store up the
rainfall that occurs during the winter months. Sufficient mois-
ture is the controlling element in the production of sugar-cane
from its earliest growth. The conservation of moisture is one of
the main things to look to in the preparation of the soil for grow-
ing sugar-cane.
The deeper the land can be plowed, the better for sugar-
cane, because of the extensive root system and the long season
the cane remains in the growing stage. Fields that have been
in cultivation for a number of years will be benefited by subsoiling
until a depth of sixteen or twenty inches is secured. This may
be done with an ordinary subsoil plow, or by a scooter following
in the furrow behind a turning plow in breaking. This gives
additional depth to the seed-bed, and proves advantageous to the





Bulletin 118


crop, in that it gives a large storage area for the moisture supply
needed.

ROTATION

In rotation, sugar-cane may follow almost any of the ordi-
nary farm crops, but preferably sweet potatoes, velvet beans, or
other leguminous crops; the latter being especially desirable be-
cause of the liberal amounts of humus they add to the soil.
Because of its gross feeding tendencies and the large amounts
of fertilizing elements it consumes in the making of a twenty-ton
crop, it is not advisable that sugar-cane shall follow itself on the
same land, unless where it is desirable to grow it from the
"stubble" or "ratoons," and then not for more than three years in
succession.

FERTILIZERS

With the exception of the rich hammock lands, sugar-cane
will require liberal applications of fertilizer. Ammonia and pot-
ash are especially needed in any fertilizer applied, while phos-
phoric acid is needed in lesser quantities. The richer the soil in
humus and decaying organic matter, the less will be the need of
heavy applications of ammonia. This is evidenced by the very
heavy crops grown in the hammock lands of Southern Florida be-
fore the war, when commercial fertilizers were nearly unknown
here. On high pine land a fertilizer analyzing 5 per cent. of
ammonia, 4 per cent. of phosphoric acid, and 8 per cent. of pot-
ash, should be applied at the rate of 600 to 1,000 pounds per acre,
ten days before planting. The ammonia should come from an
organic source, because of the long season required by the crop
for growing. If the crop appears uneven and yellow, and shows
an unthrifty appearance, it will be advisable to give a second ap-
plication of ammonia not later than August 1. This ammonia
should be applied in the form of nitrate of soda at the rate of 200
pounds per acre, and broad-casted. It matters little in what
form the potash or phosphoric acid is applied, because of the gross
feeding tendencies of the sugar-cane plant. It is, however, con-
ceded by some growers that a better grade of syrup will be pro-
duced by using sulphate of potash, instead of muriate of potash
or kainit. This, however, is still an open question.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Fig. 6.-Seed-cane in open furrows. (Japanese cane.)

PLANTING


When ready to plant the crop, lay off the furrows six inches
deep and six feet apart. In these furrows plant the canes, after
cutting them in lengths of three or four joints each, lapping them
in the furrow a few inches (Fig. 6). Cover the canes with
about three inches of soil (Fig. 7). If they are covered too
deeply in mid-winter the eyes will be slow in sprouting, and likely
to make a less vigorous growth than if they sprouted readily.
After the cane is well up, the furrow may be filled in to the level.
This places the roots well below the surface, giving a better root
system (Fig. 8), and helps to prevent the canes from blowing








Fig. 8.-Rootlets of one stalk of cane, washed out of the soil; over five
feet long. (Japanese cane.)

over when the crop is about mature and top-heavy. Canes that
are planted very shallow will often blow over and tangle during






Bulletin 118


the heavy wind storms of October. A tangled cane patch re-
quires more labor for cutting and harvesting than one which
stands erect.

CULTIVATION

The cultivation of sugar-cane is similar to that of corn.
This cultivation should begin soon after the canes are planted,
mainly to prevent the loss from evaporation that will occur dur-
ing the spring months unless the surface soil is kept stirred.
The first two or three cultivations may be done with the weeder
or harrow, which may be run in any direction over the rows.
After the canes are too high for the weeder to pass over, the one
or two-horse cultivator, running shallow, is a good implement to
use. Cultivation should be frequent until the crop is well grown,
but always with shallow-working implements. If the ground is
allowed to become dry from lack of cultivation at any stage in
the growth, the cane suffers. A maximum crop cannot be made
unless the plants have an abundant supply of moisture. In all
probability the rainfall will be sufficient between June 1 and Sep-
tember 1, but during this period the weeds and grass will get a
good start and fill the land unless the cultivation is frequent.
The most likely period for the cane to be injured from lack of
moisture is between planting time and June 15. It is advisable
to keep the cultivation up just as long as it is possible to go
through the cane patch.

HARVESTING

The first operation in harvesting is stripping the canes. This
should be done about the last week in October in West Florida,
and two weeks later in Central Florida. By removing the dead
leaves the sunlight is admitted to the ground, which is thought
to hasten the ripening of the canes. As there is a large amount
of work involved in handling one acre of sugar-cane, it is further
advisable to have this stripping done early, so that there will be
no delay when the grinding season begins. The longer the cane
can stand without danger of frost, the higher will be the sucrose
content, and the better the quality of syrup, as immature cane
makes inferior syrup. Cutting should commence about Novem-
ber 15 in West Florida, and in Central Florida about ten days
later. The tops are removed before the cane is cut. It is rec-






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


ommended to leave about one immature joint to every eight
mature joints, because of the glucose contained in the immature
stalk, which helps to prevent crystallization in the evaporation of
the juice. After the cane is topped, it should then be cut as
low as possible and put into rows, or on the wagon for hauling
to the cane mill. In the event of approaching freezing weather
it is well to cut all the canes and cover them up with the tops to
prevent them from freezing. A white frost does not injure sugar-
cane, but checks its growth and hastens maturity. A freeze is
apt to kill the buds or eyes, and so injure them for seed; but it
does not injure the canes for syrup or sugar, unless they fer-
ment in the meantime.

SEED-CANE
Sugar-cane will give a better yield if the seed-cane has been
selected for healthiness and maturity. While this is one of the
most general crops in the State and has been grown for many
years, yet comparatively little attention has been given to careful
selection of seed-cane. The loss from inferior seed-cane comes
in several ways. If immature and poorly developed canes are
planted, the stand of canes is almost sure to be uneven. The
poorer canes will have many immature eyes that will not germi-
nate at all, and many more that will germinate slowly, so that
in the next year's crop there will be several blank spaces and
many short-jointed small canes. There is the possibility of put-
ting diseased seed-canes in the bed, perhaps causing the entire
bed to rot, or at least injuring the growing powers of even the
best canes. The selection of proper seed-cane is of the greatest
importance in the growing of sugar-cane. Seed-canes should
have well-matured buds, and joints of medium length. If the
joints are short, the cane is apt to be less vigorous in growth.
It will require upward of 1,800 whole canes to plant an acre.
In filling the beds it would be a wise precaution to allow at least
2,500 canes for each acre to be planted, so that in case of a loss
there will be a sufficient number left for planting. No canes
should be bedded from any field where red rot is suspected or
known to be present. This disease is described on a later page.

TIME TO SAVE SEED CANE
It has been already stated that cane buds are injured by a
freeze. It is important that the seed-canes should be cut and






Bulletin 118


bedded before a freeze is likely. This date would be in west
Florida about November 20, and in middle Florida about ten days
later. It is to be remembered, however, that the seed-cane is
more likely to grow well if it is well matured and if the buds are
large and well developed. So that it is advisable to allow the
canes to stand as long as they are safe from frost.


LAYING DOWN THE BED

The bottom of the bed for the seed-cane should be shnmt l i-ht
inches below the surface of the ground. The bed should be six
feet wide. The seed-canes should be placed in this bed in even
layers about four canes deep on the sides and a little deeper in
the center, so as to give a rounded top to shed the water. Seed-
canes should not be topped. Each layer in the beds should be
about ten inches forward of the previous one, so that the tops
will cover the joints of the lower layers. The bed should be
made as uniform and even as possible, so that no canes will be
left uncovered and no depressions occur in the bed to collect wa-
ter during rains. It is well in all cases that the butts of the
canes should touch the ground and the canes be moist when laid
down. This will help to prevent the buds from drying out, and
also prevent dry rot. "Immediately after a heavy rain is a good
time to bed seed-cane." When the bed is filled, it should be cov-
ered with about two inches of soil as a protection against frost.
A strip about two inches wide may be left open along the ridge
the entire length of the bed to give ventilation, and one or two
furrows thrown up with a plow on each side to drain the water
away. Should water stand in the bed during the winter, even
for a short time, the canes would probably ferment and the buds
be destroyed. If the bed is located on a slope, there is little
danger of water standing in it. It might be again emphasized
that a lack of moisture in the seed-bed will probably produce dry
rot or drying out of the buds, causing them to germinate slowly
if at all; while standing water in the seed-bed will destroy the
buds and possibly destroy the cane entirely. If the stubble is to
be bedded for seed, it is best to dig it up by the roots, and bed it
with the root attached. It would not be wise, however, to bed
stubble cane in this way in the same bed with seed-canes; al-
though about the same protection against freezing, and the same
precautions as to excess or lack of moisture are recommended.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


STUBBLE OR RATOON CANE

While it is generally considered that a better yield of cane
will be secured if the canes are planted annually, it is neverthe-
less a common practice to use stubble or ratoons for seed-cane.
Unless these ratoons have more care than is frequently given
them, an uneven stand will result in the following year. This is
due to many causes, most of which can be avoided. In the first
place, ratoons should be cut very low. If they are cut high there
will be fermentation and decay, which injures the buds. A prac-
tice that is adopted by the best cane growers is to run a light
furrow along one side of the cane, and then turn the ratoons up-
side-down in this furrow, throwing a light furrow on them. This
gives a covering for protection during the winter and prevents
decay of the stumps of the canes.
It is not considered a good practice to use ratoons for more
than two years in succession. Those who do this seldom get as
good yield in the third year as in the second year.


VARIETIES

Little attention has been given to the varieties of sugar-cane
in Florida. Nevertheless the best growers usually select the
light-colored canes because these produce a lighter colored
syrup. It is fortunate that the light-colored canes usually pro-
duce as well as the red or purple canes.
In Louisiana the best results have been obtained from D. 74,
which is a light-colored cane. It produces a larger tonnage of
cane than other varieties in Louisiana. It is said to resist heavy
winds, and to be altogether desirable. It is recommended by the
Louisiana Experiment Station in preference to the purple or rib-
bon cane. A few farmers in Florida have, also, reported D. 74 to
be one of the best canes for Florida. In Bulletin 129 of the Lou-
isiana Experiment Station, the author speaks of it as follows:
"In nearly all sections of Louisiana it has given heavier yields
than the purple or ribbon canes. It is reported to be in tonnage
20 per cent. superior to either green or ribbon canes. In addition
it is reported to contain a larger percentage of sugar in its juice."
The richer in sugar a cane, the larger the amount of syrup that
can be made from it. With the ordinary process of manufacture,
this high percentage of sugar will cause crystallization in the






Bulletin 118


syrup, but with the better methods, crystallization can be avoided
in other ways.

JAPANESE CANE

Japanese cane was introduced into Florida about 1889 from
Louisiana. It makes an excellent grade of syrup, but it is not
generally recommended for syrup-making. It is much harder to
grind than other canes, and the juice is more difficult to extract.
It usually has a lower yield of syrup. There are, however, excep-
tional cases when Japanese cane has yielded as high as five hun-
dred gallons of syrup per acre. The average yield of all canes in
the State is less than three hundred gallons an acre. Where this
exceptionally high yield was obtained, it was under very favorable
conditions, and in these cases other canes would probably have
given still greater yields. Japanese cane will withstand ten de-
grees of frost, and is therefore a perennial, and can be grown
several years in succession without replanting. Some growers
claim it will not require replanting for an almost indefinite num-
ber of years, but experiments do not altogether bear this out.
The test plots on the Experiment Station farm show a much
greater yield on the newly planted plots than on stubble originally
planted about six years ago. Japanese cane is not generally rec-
ommended for syrup-making, but has proved an excellent winter
forage crop for live stock. Because of the extra labor involved in
stripping the leaves, and because the hardness of the cane re-
quires heavier mills to get as high a percentage of the juice, this
cane is less desirable than the other sugar-canes for syrup-mak-
ing.

CANE GRINDING

Most of the cane mills in Florida are of the small type, and
are operated by horse power. They will not give a high extrac-
tion, and are not to be recommended, except where only a small
amount of syrup is made. It must be remembered that the great-
er the extraction, that is, the larger the amount of juice that is
pressed out per ton of cane, the greater will be the amount of
syrup secured per acre. Very few of the small mills extract more
than fifty per cent. of the weight of the cane in juice, leaving 35
per cent. still in the cane. (Cane is composed on the average of
85 per cent. juice and 15 per cent. dry material.) To secure the






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


full extraction, it is necessary to set the rolls so close that the
pulp or bagasse when passed through the mill will be broken into
short pieces apparently free from juice and so dry that they will
burn readily. A well designed steam power mill, when properly
set, will extract 75 per cent. of the weight of the cane in juice,
leaving only 10 per cent. in the bagasse. The most powerful
steam mills extract an amount of juice equal to about 80 per
cent. of the weight of the cane, or nearly all the sucrose in the
cane. A large percentage of the sucrose is wasted on farms
where light mills are employed.
When sugar-cane has been properly grown on a good quality
of soil, a yield of twenty tons per acre may be expected. As high
as thirty or thirty-five tons have been produced under exception-
ally good conditions. The average yield for the State is perhaps
fifteen tons. One ton of well matured sugar-cane will produce
about twenty gallons of syrup at a density of 33 degrees Baume.
The exact figures cannot be given, since analyses of Florida canes
vary from 9 to 18 in percentage of cane-sugar in the juice.
Several firms manufacture cane mills of standard designs,
and it would be well for those who contemplate buying new syrup-
making equipment to investigate the tonnage capacity per day
and horse-power required to operate the machinery, bearing in
mind that the chief value of a mill lies in its power to extract the
highest percentage of juice from the canes. (The names of these
firms will be supplied to those who request them.)

EVAPORATION OF JUICE

As the juice comes from the mill, it contains large quantities
of coarse materials that should be removed before it goes into
the evaporating pans. Thorough straining at this particular
stage is necessary in the manufacture of high-grade syrup. As
the juice leaves the mill, it should pass through a close wire screen
to remove the coarse particles and leaves. Below this would be
a coarse cloth strainer to catch finer pieces, and then the juice
should pass through coarse muslin. Just before going into the
receiving tank it passes through a woolen blanket which catches
most of the finest sediment. These filters should be stretched on
hoops, and a number of them kept on hand so they can be fre-
quently changed and cleaned, otherwise they will become clogged
and prevent the juice from passing through. Thorough strain-
ing before the juice enters the evaporating pans will not only re-





Bulletin 118


duce the amount of skimming, but also improve the quality of the
syrup. The receiving tank for the strained juice should be large
enough for a full run in the evaporating pans, so there may be
no delay when evaporation begins. This receiving tank also acts
as a settling tank between the process of straining and that of
evaporation. For plants suited to handle from five to forty
acres of cane, the evaporating pan with steam coils is recom-
mended. The better pan evaporators are equipped with steam
coils for evaporation, while the smaller outfits are of the fur-
nace type with the pans immediately over the firebox. (See
Figs 9, 10, 11.) The steam coils are to be preferred because of
the control in boiling the juice. These pans are manufactured for
their special purpose and can be purchased complete from the
manufacturer.



















Fig. 9.-Outer view of small evaporating plant, showing skimming
barrel to left and syrup gate to right.

When the juice enters the first evaporating pan, it should boil
up quickly. This throws up a large amount of sediment and
scum, which must be removed with a skimmer. If this boiling is
slow, a large amount of the sediment will not rise to the surface
and cannot be skimmed off; but will pass over into the second pan,
from which it is more difficult to remove it because of the greater
density of the juice in the second pan. In the first pan the juice
is evaporated to a density of about 25 degrees Baume. In the





















30 INCHES I

FUR/ NAACE

END

mc~^---- ____ -





-------- --- --- --- --- ---.--- ...........--._ .... ........... -
7 rEET 6 EET S FEET

GA LV IZED I7RO -



S '. *2L,''..il i l :j N

F RN A CE A A- -S



SECTION
Fig. 10.-Small syrup evaporator in section.


'21
o
t.
FL
Fl


h a
41
k"

r:
r


H
~tt
S
3
m
x
o
~1
c+
n
X
o
x





































SYR UP TUB


Fig. 11.-Plan of small syrup evaporator.


3TVICE PI?.

TaOM FMLL


"FMIHAC E

END





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


second pan the evaporation continues until the density of the
syrup is 33 or 34 degrees Baume. With larger plants the juice
remains in the receiving tank for six hours or more, so that the
sediment goes to the bottom. Then the juice is drawn from the
top, over into the first evaporating pan. Most of the clarification
takes place in the first evaporating pan. As the juice becomes
of a greater density it will hold a large amount of the sediment
in suspension. If not thoroughly clarified before leaving the first
pan, it will be almost impossible to remove the finer particles when
the juice has become more concentrated in the second evaporat-
ing pan. A cloudy syrup results.
When the juice has been boiled to the required density, it
should be run into the containers, and immediately sealed up.
The secret in making syrup of a uniform grade and high quality
is in the care exercised in securing proper straining and the
proper density in each stage of evaporation. It is nearly im-
possible for anyone to determine the exact density without the
use of a Baume spindle. This Baume spindle is a glass float with
a graduated scale. The point to which it sinks into the liquid
will indicate the density. A small quantity of syrup may be re-
moved from the boiling mass and placed in a glass or tin, and the
Baume spindle inserted. The heated syrup in which the instru-
ment sinks to 33 or 34 degrees has been sufficiently boiled. This,
on cooling, will give a density of 37 or 38 Baume, which is the
proper density for marketable syrup.


FERMENTATION IN SYRUP

Fermentation in syrup is caused by molds, yeasts, or bacteria.




Fig. 12.-Baume spindle.

The preservation of syrup consists in sterilizing it, which can be
done by continuous boiling until all the mold spores or microbes
which cause fermentation have been destroyed. This steriliza-
tion may be accomplished by heating it to 180 degrees Fahren-
heit. Fermentation, however, will take place even though the
syrup has been heated much above 180 degrees, unless the con-





Bulletin 118


tainers into which the syrup is placed have also been completely
sterilized. It is practically impossible to thoroughly sterilize a
barrel under the ordinary conditions around a small syrup plant.
In most cases the fermentation that syrup undergoes after it
has been standing three or four months in barrels is due to the
condition of the barrel when the syrup is placed in it. For this
reason, syrup placed in cans or bottles will usually keep a longer
period if the containers have been properly sterilized by thorough
boiling before the syrup is placed in them. Under this condition,
syrup will keep for an almost indefinite period if the cans are
filled while the syrup is still hot, and are immediately sealed, to
prevent further contamination from outside sources. Steriliza-
tion of both syrup and container is therefore the only means of
preventing fermentation in cane-syrup. Furthermore, it should
be borne in mind that cleanliness in manufacture, from the time
the cane enters the mill until the syrup is placed in the container,
is the main thing in keeping syrup sweet. The rollers of the
mill should be washed with lime water when stopped for any
length of time. The juice gutters and all surfaces over which
the juice passes must also be thoroughly cleaned. The walls of
the building and the surroundings should be kept clean. Where
it is practicable, cold storage will facilitate the keeping of the
syrup. Fermentation of syrup does not take place at low tem-
peratures, so that if the syrup can be put in cold storage it should
keep almost indefinitely. It is a mistaken idea that syrup is a
readily perishable product. There should be no more difficulty in
preserving it than there is with canned sweet potatoes, if it has
been handled properly during the process of manufacture.

DISEASES OF SUGAR-CANE
RED ROT OF SUGAR-CANE
(H. S. Fawcett)
The disease has characteristic marks inside the canes by which it may
be recognized, but is difficult to recognize externally. It is therefore apt
to be overlooked until it becomes so serious as to attract attention. When
the diseased canes are split lengthwise the soft tissue of the internodes
shows a reddish discoloration. In these red discolored areas are found
white spots which shade off into the red. These white spots are especially
characteristic of Red Rot. As the disease advances the central portion of
the stem gives way, forming a long straight cavity, in which is a whitish
mold made up of fungus threads. The nodes and buds become first brown,
and finally black. The hard outside of the stalk remains apparently un-






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


changed. When the disease has not progressed so far as this, the canes
may appear at first glance to be healthy; but when they are split length-
wise the soft tissue in the internodes will show the beginnings of the
disease as small reddish patches. Because it is so easily overlooked, the
grower should keep a watch for it. There are other diseases that may cause
reddening of the soft tissue, but if there are also white patches within the
red areas, the -disease may be pronounced Red Rot.
Although Red Rot is usually not noticed until the cane is cut for
planting, it may be present during the summer. In some cases the fungus
causing Red Rot may seriously check the growth of the plant during the
summer, and redden the leaves and the soft tissue inside the canes.
The fungus attacks the plant most easily through wounds or holes made by
borers. It appears to get to the growing plant, however, mostly by means
of the planted cuttings, and does not spread much through the air. Usually
the injury is only slight during the growing season. At the bedding season,
however, the fungus is present ready to cause serious damage to the dormant
canes. It is at this time that the fungus grows, advances into the interior
of the canes, and kills the buds. In the beds decay appears to start mostly
at the ends of the canes, although it may also start at other places along the
canes.
MEANS OF CONTROL.-1. Plant only healthy canes. In Hawaii and
other places, it has been found that this disease may be easily and successfully
controlled by planting only healthy canes that show no sign of discoloration.
Any canes showing even the slightest discoloration of the, interior should be
discarded. It will be necessary, in sections where the disease has become
prevalent, to grind all the cane, and get seed-cane for planting from some
other locality.
2. As an extra preventive the selected canes may be dipped in Bordeaux
mixture just before they are planted. This will kill any fungus that may
have gotten onto the cut ends or surfaces. A large wooden trough is conven-
ient for holding the Bordeaux mixture while dipping. The formula, 5 pounds
of copper sulphate, 5 pounds of lime, and 50 gallons of water, may be used.
The cost is but slight.
3. Whenever possible plant the canes in the fall instead of bedding
them. Planting the cane in the fall will give one an opportunity to discover
the disease, if present, and will do away with danger from contamination in
the bed.
4. Burn all the trash in the old bed, and all diseased cane.


INSECT ENEMIES OF SUGAR-CANE

J. R. WATSON
THE CANE BORER
The most serious enemy of cane is the borer (Diatraca saccharalis). In
some parts of the State this is a serious pest. Luckily it is not generally
distributed, and many localities are entirely free from it. It is very impor-
tant for growers in such places to keep it out.
The borer is the caterpillar of a moth. The female moth lays her eggs
on the foliage. The young caterpillars, hatching out, feed on the tender







Bulletin 118


leaves for a few days, but soon enter the cane through a bud or "eye," thereby
reducing the stand of cane. They spend their entire larval life in the cane,
tunnelling up and down, stunting its growth, weakening it so that the wind
may blow it over, reducing the sugar content, and making easy the entrance
of fungus diseases. Here they go into the pupa stage, to hatch out as small
moths in a week or so, unless delayed by cold weather, in which event the
pupae spend the winter in the cane.
Control is difficult once the borer becomes established in a field, hence
we urge Florida growers to be very careful about introducing this pest into
a community now free from it, as such a community has a great advantage
over the infested one in the matter of cane-growing. A little carelessness
in this respect now may cause, in a community, a loss of thousands of dollars
in a few years. Dissemination is almost entirely through infested seed-cane,
as the female flies only a few score feet. Planters should carefully inspect
all seed-cane, and any canes exhibiting holes should be promptly burned.
Remedy. -Once introduced the best the grower can do is to reduce the
numbers of hybernating larvae by burning the tops and rubbish as soon as
sufficiently dried, cutting the canes low, and destroying shoots that start
from the roots where cane is cut early. Plant in the fall from sound canes
only. Rotation of crops must be practiced in infested fields.


THE ARMY WORM
Sugar-cane is one of the favorite food plants of this caterpillar (also
known as the Southern grass worm), which in some years occurs in de-
structive numbers. On cane it can readily be controlled by the arsenic
compounds. Use a spray of three pounds of lead arsenate paste or one pound
of zinc arsenite powder to fifty gallons of water, or dust the plants with the
latter, using air-slaked lime as a filler.


DANGER IN IMPORTED CANE

There are, in the West Indies, many serious enemies of cane that have
not yet been introduced into the United States, or which are rare here.
Among them are the larger cane-borer, the weevil borer, frog-hoppers, root-
borers, pink mealy bugs, and mites. For this reason introduction of West
Indian cane for seed should be done, if at all, with the greatest care pos-
sible and the most rigid inspection. The Bureau of Entomology of the
United States Department of Agriculture, recommends that such introduced
canes be grown during the first year, at least, under the constant supervision
of an entomologist.




Full Text
xml version 1.0
xml-stylesheet type textxsl href daitss_report_xhtml.xsl
REPORT xsi:schemaLocation 'http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitss2Report.xsd' xmlns:xsi 'http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance' xmlns 'http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss'
DISSEMINATION IEID 'E20090529_AAADAQ' PACKAGE 'UF00026398_00001' INGEST_TIME '2009-05-29T15:15:21-04:00'
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT 'UF' PROJECT 'UFDC'
REQUEST_EVENTS TITLE Disseminate Event
REQUEST_EVENT NAME 'disseminate request placed' TIME '2015-05-15T14:47:01-04:00' NOTE 'request id: 302173; This is a disseminate from UF Chelsea S Dinsmore for migration DigiTool to Islandora see CAS-56088-F3Z2' AGENT 'Stephen'
finished' '2015-05-15T15:47:23-04:00' '' 'SYSTEM'
FILES
FILE SIZE '40410' DFID 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNBY' ORIGIN 'DEPOSITOR' PATH 'sip-files00000.jp2'
MESSAGE_DIGEST ALGORITHM 'MD5' 482ff226d2174f33a4fb1f989a9874c2
'SHA-1' 1d2571011a93209d45aaa7681f7023e55afd1db0
EVENT '2012-02-08T15:47:28-05:00' OUTCOME 'success'
PROCEDURE describe
'179426' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNBZ' 'sip-files00000.jpg'
b3abf71d80922c180114dd7726d5dbfe
67a6f4aded95fc1f5c8b0f0444758a946370074b
'2012-02-08T15:47:42-05:00'
describe
'15653' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNCA' 'sip-files00000.pro'
89e11778c0fcdb7d189987c679923dc0
ce4011af7c553e6fdddefcd7ea66d891acb7dc76
'2012-02-08T15:47:48-05:00'
describe
'71018' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNCB' 'sip-files00000.QC.jpg'
c6864edcd31e3cb41a72c79e2df7432a
7086f80662f6339c1268380fbcb8d09630498561
'2012-02-08T15:47:13-05:00'
describe
'557172' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNCC' 'sip-files00000.tif'
d7b61ff96139afe1d7e9186f7fe09869
2506a331cdcb6a04fb4e20fec3691b67ebd9d8bb
'2012-02-08T15:47:55-05:00'
describe
'591' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNCD' 'sip-files00000.txt'
dd61bf16823026f7c8b0521029020026
933c59e5f6bba188e76269f4e9ddfc6f40a49697
describe
'26360' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNCE' 'sip-files00000thm.jpg'
1620dd5c68a61a08558e34a96ef15daf
7388ca3514e8e4060739e699f92c60b82b7fb1d3
'2012-02-08T15:47:57-05:00'
describe
'485068' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNCF' 'sip-files00001.jp2'
5d73449e5a15ce610eafcd6a72c84e91
6e83119986a92f814c3ff6ebcaa7c11aa0fa92d9
'2012-02-08T15:47:09-05:00'
describe
'397823' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNCG' 'sip-files00001.jpg'
cc1928a60a60d193dee556d3916606f9
ccd308634c709e021aa016bf323a213a47876130
describe
'8982' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNCH' 'sip-files00001.pro'
fea9e310ced482edf244d2b6bd8d530a
3e6a84ee7a2263cd36b04afc308ba02a55339693
'2012-02-08T15:47:32-05:00'
describe
'121457' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNCI' 'sip-files00001.QC.jpg'
74768a9a3e7c12c1c04377565191a72a
92d37cbe53363ab9bbad07565c5272035810d2f4
'2012-02-08T15:47:30-05:00'
describe
'3892272' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNCJ' 'sip-files00001.tif'
d0c636b0c9f17e975c3bfbbfadf991c7
60836b60c714c1f2629001af0fa9e3e73dbd94d8
describe
'488' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNCK' 'sip-files00001.txt'
f7cfd09a0654911c4a4494fbff91d0f5
02f6a676ca7f8a11d2a5879ec23ac5a53eda74d4
'2012-02-08T15:47:26-05:00'
describe
'42043' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNCL' 'sip-files00001thm.jpg'
2f2f8acaa5eed72d830d28e2d9e70e47
b40a65d78973b01fb72426cf7d78d1fc563330ab
'2012-02-08T15:47:24-05:00'
describe
'81457' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNCM' 'sip-files00002.jp2'
cdc6370db98efbbb388f6e05e390082f
46655ba3ca49925185fa76ba480c4f9c6120c4d2
'2012-02-08T15:48:00-05:00'
describe
'354324' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNCN' 'sip-files00002.jpg'
8e84dc307929fe385c79f86aeccd649e
a0c1cdea72c9d6dbaa110899b7c424a6b6be6ae3
'2012-02-08T15:47:08-05:00'
describe
'73539' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNCO' 'sip-files00002.pro'
835a504c264fde31098b9bf8a44b01fa
40379300e88dab3a7adb26c96bb311d02cfc7229
'2012-02-08T15:47:34-05:00'
describe
'130572' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNCP' 'sip-files00002.QC.jpg'
f1e10c102b8e60fda702abecbb6b7080
be8b9bcd5be69507555ff157ca9a685dd2e29845
describe
'501808' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNCQ' 'sip-files00002.tif'
0b0b85b56f528d75aa887144c42b146d
e1c0a22a724e42e6790c19f4da755c3989823dfc
'2012-02-08T15:47:49-05:00'
describe
'3042' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNCR' 'sip-files00002.txt'
ef508888a12e6b1999fe387fa8ec38af
9bb1285a95d1cde93634ee785e0182ac342a454e
'2012-02-08T15:47:51-05:00'
describe
'45070' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNCS' 'sip-files00002thm.jpg'
d5567a1a6e8bc26eeeac569e674f4b92
d6db4e16d10bb8c3a0a46e63cc18496a7fe3b15f
'2012-02-08T15:47:47-05:00'
describe
'102563' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNCT' 'sip-files00003.jp2'
53b4dd7fa39ae8f0064ecbeea73a76b7
28e9abba11db07872b3f62f37c94abcbd3edde3b
'2012-02-08T15:47:41-05:00'
describe
'395832' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNCU' 'sip-files00003.jpg'
d8b60fa6e9a51fbdb3561e2022ef9bbc
eb3b5095baf7374e3bb7a83cf0da6831c11770e2
describe
'47558' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNCV' 'sip-files00003.pro'
4907c7507f63efd5a2216f19d7f23e5c
88d0fd8323aa5ea3afce41f496dfa320946b8f26
describe
'144052' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNCW' 'sip-files00003.QC.jpg'
6777ce6380d26e84bb51e54a1847b6c5
39ea15744feafa97965668d62fc3bb14eefdcb0d
'2012-02-08T15:47:58-05:00'
describe
'502968' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNCX' 'sip-files00003.tif'
009caa73e21081ce0f56f400f05dc329
6663ea359daf410c11e6fe60e94a2b2883038a43
'2012-02-08T15:47:45-05:00'
describe
'1978' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNCY' 'sip-files00003.txt'
cf4810a84a73edfad2deaa4d8b71ff6c
811c64550a306abdb3d7cadf389ba05acce3779a
'2012-02-08T15:48:04-05:00'
describe
'49580' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNCZ' 'sip-files00003thm.jpg'
0969b8cbd4a05ae3856bc87f647cd7cb
7f12f151f0ad550a28097bfdaa852d0580f4fa77
describe
'129420' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNDA' 'sip-files00004.jp2'
4679bff3999ccb229adad87d0cf19c44
4cb38ae621eaadfc5a831ad7a5d3964adce56f9e
'2012-02-08T15:47:50-05:00'
describe
'508003' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNDB' 'sip-files00004.jpg'
bca41e7eff016934d72b1be294d53ace
8f9981b792fc371c16a5e86b02ac6bd58a0be324
'2012-02-08T15:47:56-05:00'
describe
'62076' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNDC' 'sip-files00004.pro'
75eaa5cd34e089a4c20ccc99fa6dbe57
d5fa1037c210ff271e5e75cae9257fd5f9df4b91
'2012-02-08T15:48:01-05:00'
describe
'179858' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNDD' 'sip-files00004.QC.jpg'
da7f9cdee5cf473b8a4f87205b4d5ae3
a0d0a1229522af4cac90125bb55a4ba6f779ae29
'2012-02-08T15:47:07-05:00'
describe
'504284' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNDE' 'sip-files00004.tif'
35226d39c165e5a723900e6e9d03848c
088691892c19266e18801a92e02b3584d3d81370
'2012-02-08T15:47:14-05:00'
describe
'2499' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNDF' 'sip-files00004.txt'
8dc9e3f02c882b299c52865aafe81dea
b766377353de3dc183b07fcf1bb4e2df872e206f
describe
'59431' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNDG' 'sip-files00004thm.jpg'
6d625c28e6d0f7dea02bf48d34d9526c
fb8b6d4f9a04a7d7c10bfb6f3324a1fe21352ac4
describe
'118066' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNDH' 'sip-files00005.jp2'
a2d3b34234ba020d12976d384347cc03
2686bb63921df05b731aff42deb328bdef975904
describe
'465594' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNDI' 'sip-files00005.jpg'
f300a6a2083939f47980c1d8080a45a8
c1fa28f10ee7934a6c757fae8c5dd69aa5626471
'2012-02-08T15:47:27-05:00'
describe
'55822' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNDJ' 'sip-files00005.pro'
270c05c510dd90dfe1f6ea5279d4a794
b0ef878149e99477c1f7d1500282166fa9412afe
'2012-02-08T15:47:40-05:00'
describe
'163249' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNDK' 'sip-files00005.QC.jpg'
d24bfb8d8a79da8999bb8f0032665cbe
69a78df860110365f6321f31cb8fc7456920cead
describe
'503864' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNDL' 'sip-files00005.tif'
4f14d744043768fdca9024fd05c197bb
367312f8c5b509c3abb47d1dca4ca49baffc6666
'2012-02-08T15:47:31-05:00'
describe
'2266' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNDM' 'sip-files00005.txt'
2afed77472794a384487e8c8d24450e3
ebe34d409758dfa186b1015f8573e149dda91803
'2012-02-08T15:47:19-05:00'
describe
'53869' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNDN' 'sip-files00005thm.jpg'
3ecaceb1c26f58dce7d2c392f97b6781
cd4bb9e405ae1786af8e1ec009c0c6eba0678171
'2012-02-08T15:47:10-05:00'
describe
'493935' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNDO' 'sip-files00006.jp2'
5ea23e51f5b5cdb99a49a7e4ff12d90e
23431ff1b5a87138bc4579c3fc56314b8d52fd70
'2012-02-08T15:47:11-05:00'
describe
'530332' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNDP' 'sip-files00006.jpg'
048e6c5e190bdeb4740230d77668bc1c
7203458878569c5267816c22a403834bc607c83e
'2012-02-08T15:47:18-05:00'
describe
'25467' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNDQ' 'sip-files00006.pro'
c1490c2cd5e240d9ae0588b29bb27467
ed75a2d3b7f5f8f7876e5a082405b33c2741d124
'2012-02-08T15:47:38-05:00'
describe
'159655' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNDR' 'sip-files00006.QC.jpg'
be6a802ab9f11150e3f556e73e53b86d
17f276f4110ae6b68130fd228c22bfca31f12e7f
describe
'3965060' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNDS' 'sip-files00006.tif'
1868ecbd9afb9a8087bf2e8bc958df03
845a25a8ac2a6db35e6457c84bf27cdc8357909b
describe
'1061' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNDT' 'sip-files00006.txt'
c577121965f5bdfcde6f618d70034bd5
7977f186533879f0e433c7565b8e689e81cebc20
'2012-02-08T15:47:35-05:00'
describe
'50205' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNDU' 'sip-files00006thm.jpg'
42e19d45a4de2eec77d797731383788d
d39f359630961d7ef0a02ea4a19a7cf8c68c7bc2
'2012-02-08T15:47:20-05:00'
describe
'120392' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNDV' 'sip-files00007.jp2'
be4503522424483cf8c2ebbe2a6824a4
a30bdfd2881a66fc8a5ea1564db70858693418c1
'2012-02-08T15:47:59-05:00'
describe
'476911' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNDW' 'sip-files00007.jpg'
45b32485d5de6a02bbd74fd9ef37bb99
8cf13ea48a873e98fa4f5ae647a54ee059810469
'2012-02-08T15:47:22-05:00'
describe
'57729' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNDX' 'sip-files00007.pro'
a5815878ca16127ef1d8b61d56668083
5766cfc82205362873b67851935237594f83da06
'2012-02-08T15:47:17-05:00'
describe
'169506' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNDY' 'sip-files00007.QC.jpg'
f72aa26d049416f2c758969f35192f5a
dd8f9a398aefb560f692c4f5536e4545b1706cca
'2012-02-08T15:48:05-05:00'
describe
'503992' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNDZ' 'sip-files00007.tif'
1b4b2681b05a9774c022c4ea14e57cf0
0f9e0795250e8e5b491ecdaed78b999cf79be50c
'2012-02-08T15:47:46-05:00'
describe
'2336' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNEA' 'sip-files00007.txt'
e449e0f3a83ddd0573e4efac89ccc9d8
395315c73074c8bed916ea5bcbc8b956f4dae0e6
describe
'55839' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNEB' 'sip-files00007thm.jpg'
baff3fbff426e8b0e233c14c1deac78d
48dcc250fb426fcd8c46d6fcabcc5552d92807d1
describe
'130116' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNEC' 'sip-files00008.jp2'
ea408ce368389b0a683e6a80a78072d9
fa1266c1742d173520785bf5e4a6c4937808a935
describe
'504170' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNED' 'sip-files00008.jpg'
19279d2e9a0cfce7039e532a5c1ba980
7feeb04bdb487101dfbb991ed68febc3e7d738bd
'2012-02-08T15:47:21-05:00'
describe
'62342' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNEE' 'sip-files00008.pro'
b0603456221e297b41d576af45fd6d2a
a12b8d2dacfc39409bee27be78064b6fd08dd571
describe
'178441' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNEF' 'sip-files00008.QC.jpg'
058a9d4bed82fc48fbe59ac013b437c3
8fb8ffee1c3777cc880ff52ac3709392c05d0d4d
describe
'509876' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNEG' 'sip-files00008.tif'
b1c7094b3a053785dde1c3b7b2cd6c53
1ab6c0e4b55c6af7611096d8be969682ea50bc74
'2012-02-08T15:47:23-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNEH' 'sip-files00008.txt'
e07e3742e9faaa184b0f6d988c563333
ea0984b0d02430dff1e0ff62deafe2a66b264fa0
describe
'58625' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNEI' 'sip-files00008thm.jpg'
6f871316c821a2adc2e555178b143a08
bb2d99f9e874085f3a0429ef84d37f3807ed0b84
describe
'132027' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNEJ' 'sip-files00009.jp2'
dc3470179b1bfce977b656933d9c2414
fcb7f3d08d8b811408c2d2a238df3ca84b6c795b
describe
'523066' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNEK' 'sip-files00009.jpg'
a1533122349f5686baf75d9d27569c50
2d27be99b151aaa63b1bb7a70e4f50228e418ce3
'2012-02-08T15:47:43-05:00'
describe
'63483' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNEL' 'sip-files00009.pro'
83009f75d705f5ae9cddd9683fb73356
f116448b74d6ea8208367ab81dcbd601672d4252
describe
'185153' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNEM' 'sip-files00009.QC.jpg'
c0203ba87461d043f2fa71859a9de4f2
a5ee92e19f4b107f7bc2de98fda1245d6e2b028a
describe
'505024' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNEN' 'sip-files00009.tif'
25a8514d45d70b9786103168da429efe
eaead2fb6e0f999c362d0e0d8a030373d44b7c9a
'2012-02-08T15:47:44-05:00'
describe
'2519' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNEO' 'sip-files00009.txt'
0a90a45a60a688161e79e20619e76f0b
4e4d4c57c8d6ab7ec671ec35730c45702a536d8c
'2012-02-08T15:47:53-05:00'
describe
'61168' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNEP' 'sip-files00009thm.jpg'
810762c5ec5a36e54e7972c686a3f12f
2308a536360c302ead6f8c9ccec4a5279a4f4ce1
describe
'126183' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNEQ' 'sip-files00010.jp2'
5cd6d77871af437ad2bd9fa1972f8a8c
bacc09273932ce3b0f3b57fd3496fcc66f4a83a6
'2012-02-08T15:47:39-05:00'
describe
'494100' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNER' 'sip-files00010.jpg'
ada4036531ea7c092e77afe4a735a79e
33b05cc6fbf068ac25b84d55421a5061620e8e0d
describe
'60760' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNES' 'sip-files00010.pro'
45b6d9f9f08d3547a971cf5987b6498a
795943bea0966bba0329e53277295f6c27853395
'2012-02-08T15:47:16-05:00'
describe
'174582' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNET' 'sip-files00010.QC.jpg'
096377c7a64ba067b63150a191d11b3a
0d1d104dcf90d6a9d2ab1b0439115b3f3219b311
describe
'504076' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNEU' 'sip-files00010.tif'
062f67608e52e80c86cefce5c366cc68
d92dd452ffd6123236cd6d151ab877857db8ae69
describe
'2445' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNEV' 'sip-files00010.txt'
03741efccd4e4acc558e52a3a5c71171
fcd7f8c4f2ddb9f41d5bd0333d95d9aeb9836320
describe
'58852' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNEW' 'sip-files00010thm.jpg'
3825c945f6826946d20d433d04fbb027
d33c75bcb447cbeb370cccb67e45c8cb47178973
describe
'122274' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNEX' 'sip-files00011.jp2'
fbfa4559e24bf10933a0b616a4628f46
43c43a3235b5c548479230aab5028cec72e598fa
describe
'479006' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNEY' 'sip-files00011.jpg'
122bc9b99bd69ccadba69c1569ad4d27
14d704dcb0a4ba19d9181c53548d66b0c5d1539c
'2012-02-08T15:47:33-05:00'
describe
'58501' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNEZ' 'sip-files00011.pro'
d8b8046d0b3c47a2f3a753479b2ea199
34510106d6defb34f5b06d99ab6cb0b4c0ffb1f6
describe
'170750' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNFA' 'sip-files00011.QC.jpg'
c18e0a2fe21c6bc37cf9984e6102a615
596cbc70be8b1c4df1d64e45ddef5e54d32463d7
'2012-02-08T15:48:06-05:00'
describe
'504532' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNFB' 'sip-files00011.tif'
5685beccba7dc9f0e5f0ed72aed40ceb
888ec71c45ff4a9d272fc66ae4eb8a72e7066082
describe
'2359' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNFC' 'sip-files00011.txt'
eaa37cc2f51366bed8f7e4b9a54d35a2
7f1d723b7b43b14e6ccaf393025f2c6a7309f40a
'2012-02-08T15:47:15-05:00'
describe
'57222' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNFD' 'sip-files00011thm.jpg'
5a3bcc482d395a293fea1bc0bd20c284
30b8f8a25bbdb27d6c50779ebf36ac448b0a6f3f
describe
'137128' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNFE' 'sip-files00012.jp2'
b3e4778aa279d8da5b7c3d8f03057491
0ac3b00d048ea71676f7a98aad17d9c335bf6dfb
describe
'538404' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNFF' 'sip-files00012.jpg'
4b668c85103229702ad8fa579d71a64b
973662b48478ed7656954b828cb6651d0251a54b
'2012-02-08T15:47:36-05:00'
describe
'65528' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNFG' 'sip-files00012.pro'
61369fea20c8fc399297f2c8fe630388
d68f1ac69372f659481a19570d7cfbd870d419f6
'2012-02-08T15:47:54-05:00'
describe
'184408' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNFH' 'sip-files00012.QC.jpg'
bc5c55fc7a1fe5902ca1c285267ea3e5
efea62b48d7a1ce8199c810a396ee47bbb131bfb
'2012-02-08T15:47:52-05:00'
describe
'504568' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNFI' 'sip-files00012.tif'
715cfb502a1a67eb0d8bcf001c993e14
fbac527a45a68457943c33276607c5db7ac4e9e0
describe
'2586' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNFJ' 'sip-files00012.txt'
5154154e912055cd07544c6744362fe1
03d07d8cfb19428c1aa61681d363a57a372e0de2
'2012-02-08T15:48:03-05:00'
describe
'62089' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNFK' 'sip-files00012thm.jpg'
a615664899a3eacfd822310964475c50
5081bc00d54e09955597be4d73f07af843a0ca49
describe
'466600' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNFL' 'sip-files00013.jp2'
9dc34f1fc47f91f10e64d39fd15ba39c
98fe0e3dc1a0d6be2e2e46c4a8ead887f3158f2c
describe
'515812' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNFM' 'sip-files00013.jpg'
ac3c5339df031e16df74deb228fa2be7
cd279b2a15b7da9e0471dcf421acb87ae23fdb24
describe
'37983' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNFN' 'sip-files00013.pro'
47dc8f780bd896df258376f215ff8322
ee7bb21ce78a0f0597e994015d7459a25bb0dd84
describe
'165925' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNFO' 'sip-files00013.QC.jpg'
cbbd012fc16f295e8426e9233d4d30a6
876256554e0cdde73893437ab745bcb0e55251ab
describe
'3745892' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNFP' 'sip-files00013.tif'
46bdd6540c448ee9e7efd633579d3ecf
e6252312d478f21e13570f2053d48d3517f3f03b
'2012-02-08T15:47:37-05:00'
describe
'1562' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNFQ' 'sip-files00013.txt'
99a8d03b1c16d7d9d10f8af4b0908411
77e9221e82703d28a8edef7430871bab0ab0d83b
describe
'53560' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNFR' 'sip-files00013thm.jpg'
3b2f9fe331195600fc973f99ef0a105d
7fb3cbb7b2a540e2fb7de0f3307d7c2b3e63849e
describe
'43224' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNFS' 'sip-files00014.jp2'
1762f4d6ebb3a31bce965ad71f28667c
8ba2ffde41ea17f7ecdf6a0241d8a204fe4e7c3b
describe
'87800' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNFT' 'sip-files00014.jpg'
e37c8a0a2844e3b0cb495f4785657126
7c184a5f87881f7c1ebb77515f7fe8e74965255c
describe
'10967' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNFU' 'sip-files00014.pro'
261bdbfcecd4db3a1ed55229cd000b0c
56ec68a82099468b9fb214e362d557a9a70681bf
describe
'39014' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNFV' 'sip-files00014.QC.jpg'
b6dcf264348b31cb0f2499fc23ad8d84
4c5963aeb2007a0cc90774c6b83e2e6cc3b9b1c3
describe
'499032' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNFW' 'sip-files00014.tif'
ff4e0776fb18e4377c0ff4eadb496d7c
1f7dc32f2a72ec10f913e6a6c704fbbf7242a99d
describe
'885' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNFX' 'sip-files00014.txt'
c9e6ecf7e1105267037b1a30b57c1afa
80e5b74ae9a1be7b389a1fbec54be8caed74a923
describe
'20551' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNFY' 'sip-files00014thm.jpg'
1ea44c885f286be57c67580a27cfcde8
4c5b2b1a1255bb1f27ac7e3cdc1b8e7a8d99dfe5
describe
'33996' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNFZ' 'sip-files00015.jp2'
e1df71861f04a6e381662b7b3fc9a290
56ea21fc1716e30a17721cd90f3c14234b0bbc1b
describe
'83698' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNGA' 'sip-files00015.jpg'
a6ba186c68b599623044b285d184bb1b
8413ad92c16f4b1c4ad24b6a569a6bf5a13eb7be
describe
'2744' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNGB' 'sip-files00015.pro'
0fbfc9311c70796461287d65959b0dfe
f7388db9c891086b648a503cc6778a3a0941a0d9
describe
'34840' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNGC' 'sip-files00015.QC.jpg'
4a6e2ad034650e00c6c19205ccbc65ab
651beb2ac010e9ebe96103de887be30ab473d1dd
describe
'498624' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNGD' 'sip-files00015.tif'
1fbfd927e6e0e3d8d20de3983ec48514
90d79da53b8d0b911ffdf9962051594c8216e7fd
'2012-02-08T15:48:02-05:00'
describe
'182' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNGE' 'sip-files00015.txt'
190edf30ac23917db86bcc0cf01c4d48
957c38f0859d02e6ca30a565f6ab18704dd772a4
describe
'20022' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNGF' 'sip-files00015thm.jpg'
ebc9fde178724d4eadd2030ca38f663f
46dda36e52c38f7d9e8ae97c3b71126438e6c47e
describe
'120381' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNGG' 'sip-files00016.jp2'
a2a566acd40878ec6eded6ee9b9a8bfc
d2eba31f5a17faae01653d34735de6b05f10b442
describe
'466010' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNGH' 'sip-files00016.jpg'
19b34700bb512ede587162df797afda7
80c025bf282e89e146c19cac44a534ae08b5e7ac
describe
'54219' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNGI' 'sip-files00016.pro'
b9f656dce8946b4f492691d066c692a0
052400adf706deaa1cc16ed936c3d8a39deb026c
describe
'166994' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNGJ' 'sip-files00016.QC.jpg'
9ca216a848e968b430d996600a2397b5
d008ae46dc4df74e1bc553a84c92639cbc2249b8
describe
'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNGK' 'sip-files00016.tif'
54447a549fefd07913383578f9049e76
9bf4aad67b59bd427e00d632cb9a5915cac489c4
'2012-02-08T15:47:12-05:00'
describe
'2174' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNGL' 'sip-files00016.txt'
a830e07e7262564707dad397ab0335c9
94fa737f537fccd60e699ac49bf29c5e227a3040
describe
'56060' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNGM' 'sip-files00016thm.jpg'
31621fe3d29c537c793f361bc2b355cc
db5a47bd698e7a7178ce1732bf060a6efbee49aa
describe
'132880' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNGN' 'sip-files00017.jp2'
a9ba4b9fea12e1dc4552c7bf4e212422
02541f66ba930abdefd8893ae4d8aca383c3b010
describe
'523231' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNGO' 'sip-files00017.jpg'
c8af10ce0f01328242a7e9b0d72236c7
c23c27f668c5ed5bfbfb676b3ee3906da871d093
describe
'66883' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNGP' 'sip-files00017.pro'
82666a0ff202690b961887435621ce5d
c38f0b07e475e129dbbfb97c61e07117800a6184
describe
'181912' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNGQ' 'sip-files00017.QC.jpg'
2db8c988347339aa1213b093e0cbac71
ac0f7478ec267630608a29c107c361ef6d7fdef3
describe
'504324' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNGR' 'sip-files00017.tif'
02c5c271897bf8a7b236cebc4306033c
0d27d3390496e3018289cbc5abf158fe1ea02121
describe
'2731' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNGS' 'sip-files00017.txt'
ee6e470b558f284222421937725daea4
c7a70af69e9c3f0c68ec0d0d2820de5cbc1b097b
describe
'58106' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNGT' 'sip-files00017thm.jpg'
8d8ce51a573d69590cf8cf02d72c077b
4981ec46fe07ccc0e1b349ee1da36f9bd6aa63af
describe
'124928' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNGU' 'sip-files00018.jp2'
ef93b0d0785e098eb225f7965ebd7724
5498f77ab99bc36f67c77c1bf329ea14251c62ff
describe
'489990' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNGV' 'sip-files00018.jpg'
0db1411bc9aac00c50b6f4a4e0113cc8
2362ab20c0febd8e2734182791500fa0a2712634
describe
'76762' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNGW' 'sip-files00018.pro'
88e9b5487a71866c7e71764359fa7004
e8486085d55ae9bdb6e841224770ba0acc9b42c1
describe
'170976' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNGX' 'sip-files00018.QC.jpg'
3dc5a6580af78811a9fa8c5528515445
9720836f89eef9b1a1f3c20cb1ee3e85f6635209
describe
'503868' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNGY' 'sip-files00018.tif'
6f2db152e9320253f767aa066c3dbf6a
9f01a02c433e8d23827480e544e3e65af6aff524
describe
'3233' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNGZ' 'sip-files00018.txt'
6b05339bd94485b85e8a791f19f61892
f668ea3c744722c6b4ce734a79eed2074dde5d85
describe
'57162' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNHA' 'sip-files00018thm.jpg'
f2b233cd58cad5416a00a03ec46d3b1f
12c806003a430998f967a44b71a8837b0aa7373b
describe
'104998' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNHB' 'sip-files00019.jp2'
98e1340c569f3e8a23bbafe86a6c9056
23889459fc865093ff5c6cbf7c60c01fe417944e
describe
'408004' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNHC' 'sip-files00019.jpg'
c1658d4d5a6e06b95cc49b88fa78d666
43a422053044835ca590903df5859ba1f673ce6e
describe
'62817' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNHD' 'sip-files00019.pro'
c7dfd09937d1563eeea9f4ed5749e2ab
c0c62b64db4b6f36c057b79f8dbc021a85bf0293
describe
'141535' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNHE' 'sip-files00019.QC.jpg'
74ee70a3aab89a26a72bab79983a063f
245a51b98fcf39e2379ae3378e70081b4e66265d
describe
'502156' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNHF' 'sip-files00019.tif'
ddbea7e465a5c560cdd4a2f6e1903b01
0a6560380ef637fc62f5c5fcf30070cbde297eed
describe
'2655' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNHG' 'sip-files00019.txt'
1a21b775b55ba2a26041f84549a9921b
bd0496379fe3fbdfa8dc35eff5a63b219a82ecc7
describe
'48137' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNHH' 'sip-files00019thm.jpg'
10f13bc13cb6e8d455038893e8c3598c
c807a843bf1c28c82b3956a22fb76f7be24a08de
describe
'36006' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNHI' 'sip-filesUF00026398_00001.mets'
984f310fad84ef49437f0630fc61ce0d
a46df6d1f46a558dd06864939abbf0133435f532
describe
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
'2015-05-15T15:46:39-04:00' 'mixed'
xml resolution
http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/ufdc2.xsd
BROKEN_LINK schema http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/ufdc2.xsd
WARNING CODE 'Daitss::Anomaly' The element type "div" must be terminated by the matching end-tag "
".
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
'42731' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAADAQfileF20090529_AAFNHL' 'sip-filesUF00026398_00001.xml'
bb731b4a8ef46a3d47552587afd10e17
b94ca97722ff1608c341b29c161fbda73d707e1b
describe
xml resolution


xml record header identifier oai:www.uflib.ufl.edu.ufdc:UF0002639800001datestamp 2009-01-05setSpec [UFDC_OAI_SET]metadata oai_dc:dc xmlns:oai_dc http:www.openarchives.orgOAI2.0oai_dc xmlns:dc http:purl.orgdcelements1.1 xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.openarchives.orgOAI2.0oai_dc.xsd dc:title Sugar-cane and syrup making Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station ; 118dc:creator Spencer, A. P ( Arthur Perceval )dc:subject Sugarcane -- Florida ( lcsh )dc:description b Statement of Responsibility by A.P. Spencer.Additional Physical Form Electronic version available on the World Wide Web as part of the PALMM Project.Cover title.dc:publisher University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stationdc:date 1913dc:type Bookdc:format p. 49-67 : ill., plans ; 23 cm.dc:identifier http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/ufdc/?b=UF00026398&v=00001000921876 (aleph)AAB7816 (ltqf)AEN2344 (notis)18161090 (oclc)dc:source University of Floridadc:language English