Citation
Storing frozen cream

Material Information

Title:
Storing frozen cream a preliminary report
Series Title:
Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Creator:
Freeman, T. R ( Theodore Russell ), 1906-
Mull, L. E ( Leon Edmund ), 1913-
Fouts, E. L ( Everett Lincoln ), b. 1890
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla
Publisher:
University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
24 p. : charts ; 23 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Cream -- Storage ( lcsh )
Ice cream, ices, etc ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Bibliography: p. 22-24.
General Note:
Cover title.
Statement of Responsibility:
T.R. Freeman, L.E. Mull, E.L. Fouts.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
027127738 ( ALEPH )
18232269 ( OCLC )
AEN5832 ( NOTIS )

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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida






Bulletin 383
/4 Bulletin 383


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
WILMON NEWELL, Director
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA









STORING FROZEN CREAM

(A Preliminary Report)




T. R. FREEMAN

L. E. MULL

E. L. FOUTS


TECHNICAL BULLETIN





Single copies free to Florida residents upon request to
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


February, 1943





EXECUTIVE STAFF
John J. Tigert, M.A., LL.D., President of the
University3
Wilmon Newell, D.Sc., Director3
Harold Mowry, M.S.A., Asso. Director
L. O. Gratz, Ph.D., Asst. Dir., Research
W. M. Fifield, M.S., Asst. Dir., Admin.4
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor3
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Assistant Editor3
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor3
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian
Ruby Newhall, Administrative Manager3
K. H. Graham, Business Manager3
Claranelle Alderman, Accountant3

MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE
AGRONOMY
W. E. Stokes, M.S., Agronomist'
W. A. Leukel, Ph.D., Agronomist3
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist
G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Associate2
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate
Roy E. Blaser, M.S., Associate
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Associate
Fred A. Clark, B.S.A., Assistant
ANIMAL INDUSTRY
A. L. Shealy, D.V.M., An. Industrialist' 3
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman3
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist3
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarian3
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist4
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husb.3
T. R. Freeman, Ph.D., Asso. in Dairy Mfg.
R. S. Glasscock, Ph.D., Asso. An. Husb.
D. J. Smith, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.4
P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Asst. Dairy Husb.3
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Tech, in An. Nutrition
S. P. Marshall, M.S., Asst. in An. Nutr.
L. E. Mull, M.S., Asst. in Dairy Tech.4
O. K. Moore, M.S., Asst. Poultry Husb.
C. B. Reeves, B.S., Asst. Dairy Tech.
J. E. Pace, B.S., Asst. An. Hush.
ECONOMICS. AGRICULTURAL
C. V. Noble, Ph.D., Agr. Economist' 3
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Associate
Max E. Brunk, M.S., Assistant
ECONOMICS, HOME
Ouida D. Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ.,
Ruth 0. Townsend, R.N., Assistant
R. B. French, Ph.D., Asso. Chemist
ENTOMOLOGY
J. R. Watson, A.M., Entomologist'
A N. Tissot, Ph.D., Associate
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant
HORTICULTURE
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist'
A. L. Stahl, Ph.D., Associate
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Truck Hort.
R. J. Wilmot, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.4
J. Carlton Cain, B.S.A., Asst. Hort.4
Victor F. Nettles, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.4
Byron E. Janes. Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
A. L. Kenworthy, M.S., Asst. Hort.
F. S. Lagassee, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.2
II. M. Sell, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.2
PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist' 3
George F. Weber, Ph.D., Plant Path.3
Phares Decker, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Asst. Botanist
SOILS
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Chemist' a
Gaylord M. Volk, M.S., Chemist
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologist3
C. E. Bell, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
J. R. Henderson, M.S.A., Soils Technologist
L. H. Rogers, Ph.D., Asso. Biochemist4
Richard A. Carrigan, B.S., Asso. Chemist4
L. E. Ensminger, Ph.D., Asso. Soils Chem.
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
Geo. D. Thornton, M.S., Asst. Chemist
T. C. Erwin, Assistant Chemist
J. N. Howard, B.S.. Asst. Chemist
R. E. Caldwell, M.S.A., Soil Surveyor4
Olaf C. Olson, B.S., Soil Surveyor4


BOARD OF CONTROL
H. P. Adair, Chairman, Jacksonville
R. H. Gore, Fort Lauderdale
N. B. Jordan, Quincy
T. T. Scott, Live Oak
Thos. W. Bryant, Lakeland
J. T. Diamond, Secretary, Tallasassee
BRANCH STATIONS
NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY
J. D. Warner, M.S., Agronomist in Charge
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist
Elliott Whitehurst, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.'
W. C. McCormick, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.
Jesse Reeves, Asst. Agron., Tobacco
W. H. Chapman, M.S., Asst. Agron.'
Mobile Unit, Monticello
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Asso. Agronomist
Mobile Unit, Milton
J. H. Wallace, M.A., Asso. Agronomist
CITRUS STATION. LAKE ALFRED
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Horticulturist in Charge
V. C. Jamison, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
B. R. Fudge, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Associate Ento.
F. F. Cowart, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
J. W. Sites, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
W. W. Lawless, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist'
R. K. Voorhees, Ph.D.. Asso. Plant Path.
H. O. Sterling, B.S., Asst. Hort.
T. W. Young, Ph.D., Asso. Hort., Coastal
C. R. Stearns, Jr., B.S.A., Chemist
EVERGLADES STA., BELLE GLADE
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Biochemist in Charge
J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist
F. D. Stevens, B.S., Sugarcane Agron.
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Sugarcane
Physiologist
G. R. Townsend, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Asst. An. Husb.
W. T. Forsee, Ph.D., Asso. Chemist
B. S. Clayton, B.S.C.E., Drainage Eng.'
F. S. Andrews, Ph.D., Asso. Truck Hort.4
Roy A. Bair, Ph.D., Asst. Agron.
E. C. Minnum, M.S., Asst. Truck Hort.
N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A., Asst. Entomologist
SUB-TROPICAL STA., HOMESTEAD
Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charge
S. J. Lynch, B.S.A., Asst. Horticulturist
E. M. Andersen, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
W. CENT. FLA. STA., BROOKSVILLE
W. F. Ward, M.S., Asst. An. Husb. in Charge2
RANGE CATTLE STA., ONA
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., An. Husb. in Charge
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Asso. Agron., Wauchula
Gilbert A. Tucker, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.4
R. A. Fulford, B.S.A., Asst. An. Hush.
FIELD STATIONS
Leesburg
M. N. Walker, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charge'
K. W. Loucks, M.S., Asst. Plant Path.
E. E. Hartwig, Ph.D., Asst. Agron. & Path.
Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Asso. Truck Hort.
Monticello
S. O. Hill, B.S., Entomologist2 4
A. M. Phillips, B.S., Asst. Entomologist'
Sanford
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Chemist in Charge,
Bradenton
Jos. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Truck Hort. in
Charge
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
F. T. McLean, Ph.D., Horticulturist
A. L. Harrison, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
David G. Kelbert, Asst. Plant Pathologist
Celery Investigations
Jack Russell, M.S., Asst. Entomologist
Lakeland
E. S. Ellison, Meteorologist2 4
Harry Armstrong, Asso. Meteorologist2
1 Head of Department.
2 In cooperation with U. S.
3 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
SOn leave.


Gift \i-V








STORING FROZEN CREAM

T. R. FREEMAN, L. E. MULL and E. L. FOUTS
CONTENTS
Page Page
REVIEW OF LITERATURE .... ... ........... 3 Exclusion of Air .......................... 9
EXPERIMENTAL METHOD ....... ................ 5 Flavor Changes ................................ 10
Processing .... .... ....................... 5 Oxidation-Reduction Potentials .... 12
Analyses ................ ... ........... ...... 6 II. Ice Cream ..................... ... ............. 16
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ............................. 7 Oxidized Flavor ............................. 16
I. Cream .......................... .............. 7 Processing Methods ...................... 20
Untreated Cream ............................ 7 CONCLUSIONS .......... ... .......................... 21
H om ogenization .... .................... 8 IIIBLIOGRAPHY .. ........ ...... ................ 22
Antioxidants ........... ...................... 9
Each year during the tourist season, which usually extends
from December through March, Florida ice cream manufacturers
import large quantities of cream from other states. Through-
out the summer months, however, these manufacturers are
normally confronted with an accumulating surplus of cream.
A practical method of storing this cream for periods of 6 to 8
months would be valuable to the ice cream industry of this state.
Such a procedure would make it possible to utilize the surplus
cream to better advantage, and also would materially reduce,
if not eliminate, the winter shortage.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Although considerable work has been done on the storage of
frozen cream, as indicated by Dahle's (8)1 review of the litera-
ture, there yet remains some lack of agreement as to its possi-
bilities and as to the most satisfactory method of preparing the
cream for storage. A number of writers have noted seasonal
variations in the stability of milk toward the development of
oxidized flavors. Mattick (22) was one of the first workers
to report the prevalence of this flavor defect during the winter
months. A few years later Brueckner and Guthrie (6) con-
curred in this observation by stating that the oxidized flavors
were "more pronounced and more widespread" during winter
than during summer. Likewise, Trout and Gjessing (27) and
Hening and Dahlberg (17) reported that they observed more
difficulty from the oxidized flavor during the winter months.
Josephson and Dahle (19) have shown recently that metal-
induced oxidized flavor is more troublesome during the winter;
a similar observation was reported by Thurston (25). That
this seasonal trend may be largely due to changes in feeding

Italic figures in parentheses refer to "Bibliography."






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


conditions has been implied by Dahle (7) and Thurston (25).
Webb and Hileman (28) concluded that "summer milk is able
to resist the development of oxidized flavors even in the presence
of a high oxidation-reduction potential." On the other hand
Guthrie (14) was able to see little difference in the development
of oxidized flavor in milk from summer and winter fed cows.
This latter observation corroborates a previous report by Proks
and Groh (23) to the effect that the tallowy flavor appeared
during the summer as well as in the winter.
Effects of the dairy ration constituents on the susceptibility
of milk to the development of oxidized flavors also have been
the subject of rather widespread investigation. Many contra-
dictory reports have appeared in recent years regarding the
effect of vitamin A and carotene. However, the prevailing
opinion, as reported by Henderson (16), is that carotene and
vitamin A in the ration impart a characteristic to the milk which
makes it more resistant to oxidized flavor development. Work
reported by the Kansas station (21) substantiates this view-
point.
Brown and Dustman (1) and Brown, Vanlandingham and
Weakley (4) reported that feeding high-quality alfalfa hay re-
duced the incidence of oxidized flavor in the milk. In a similar
manner Brown and Thurston (3) observed the beneficial effects
of grass feeding. Garrett, Arnold, and Hartman (11) showed
that legume and grass silages were more desirable in this re-
spect than corn silage, beet pulp, and dried citrus pulp. Green-
bank (13) found that green feed did not always inhibit oxidized
flavor development, but that beneficial effects were generally
noted after the cows were on pasture for 2 to 5 weeks.
Guthrie (15) fed cod liver oil in the ration and observed an
increase in the tendency toward occurrence of oxidized flavor.
As a result of feeding different kinds of vegetable oils, Brown,
Dustman, and Weakley (2) brought about a change in the iodine
number of the butterfat and observed a corresponding variation
in the susceptibility of the latter to the development of oxidized
flavor. Upon feeding potassium iodide to dairy cows, Brown,
Vanlandingham and Weakley (5) noted a reduction in the as-
corbic acid content of the milk, but no change in development of
metal-induced oxidized flavor.
It would seem logical that butterfat produced in Florida might
possess storage characteristics differing from those of butterfat






Storing Frozen Cream


produced in more northern latitudes, inasmuch as the climatic
and feeding conditions which prevail in Florida differ from those
in other sections. No experimental work on cream storage has
been reported, to our knowledge, from stations located in the
Southern states.

EXPERIMENTAL METHOD
While recognizing that the use of frozen cream in ice cream
mixes generally results in a certain amount of "oiling off" of
the fat during the processing of the mix, and that the use of
such cream may be a source of difficulty in obtaining the proper
overrun at the freezer, nevertheless the preliminary investiga-
tion reported here was designed primarily for studying methods
of protecting the flavor of the cream during storage.
Processing.-Three lots of cream produced on successive days
(June 5, 6, and 7, 1941) were used in this experiment. In the
production and handling of the milk from which the cream was
obtained, and in the processing of the cream, special precautions
were taken to reduce to a minimum any possibility of contam-
inating the product with copper or iron from the equipment.
Each lot of cream was divided into 4 sub-lots for the purpose
of comparing various methods of processing. After the cream
was processed it was placed in new, clean tin cans, which then
were hermetically sealed with a hand-operated closing machine.
The canned cream was placed immediately in the ice cream hard-
ening room, where the temperature was maintained at approxi-
mately 0 F. throughout the storage period. At the end of the
storage period an ice cream mix was made from each sub-lot of
cream, using this cream as the only source of fat.
The following outline indicates the methods of processing
which were compared, and the manner in which the cream was
treated in each case:
LOT I
Fat content: 37%
Added sucrose: None
Added copper: None
Heat treatment: 1750 F. for 10 minutes.
Sub-lot A Control
Sub-lot B Homogenized, 2,000 pounds single stage, at 175 F., fol-
lowing pasteurization.
Sub-lot C Control plus 1.5 p.p.m. Cu 2 added after pasteurization.
Sub-lot D -Same as B, plus 1.5 p.p.m. Cu added after homo-
genization.
All added copper was in the form of copper sulfate solution.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


LOT II
Fat content: 31.9%
Added sucrose: 12% (88 lbs. cream + 12 lbs. sucrose).
Added copper: 1.5 p.p.m. Cu 2 after pasteurization.
Heat treatment: 175* F. for 10 minutes.
Sub-lot E Control
Sub-lot F- 1.5% Avenex No. 7 (based on weight of cream).
Sub-lot G--0.1% Avenex concentrate (based on weight of cream).
Sub-lot H--0.003% trypsin (based on weight of cream), added to
cream at approximately 100 F. This temperature
was maintained for 15 minutes, after which the cream
was quickly heated to the pasteurization temperature.

LOT III
Fat content: 35.2%
Added sucrose: 12% (88 lbs. cream + 12 lbs. sucrose).
Added copper: None
Heat treatment: 175 F. for 10 minutes.
Sub-lot I-- Control
Sub-lot J-0.5% ascorbic acid3 (based on total solids content of
cream), added after cooling cream to 140 F.
Sub-lot K Same as control, except containers were left open.
Sub-lot L Same as K except surface of cream was covered with
layer of ice approximately / inch thick. Ice layer
obtained by pouring distilled water on frozen surface
of cream after one day in storage.
Analyses.-Immediately after separation and before process-
ing a sample of cream from each lot was subjected to pH and
oxidation-reduction potential determinations. Six hours after
processing, the redox test was applied to a sample from each
sub-lot of cream. At the end of each month during the 7-month
storage period each sub-lot of cream was scored for intensity
of oxidized flavor and was analyzed for pH and for redox poten-
tial. The ice cream was scored immediately after hardening and
after being in storage 1, 2, and 4 weeks.
The pH and redox potential measurements were made with a
Leeds and Northrup potentiometer-electrometer No. 7660. Meas-
urements of pH were obtained with a glass electrode, whereas
the redox potential determinations were obtained with bright
platinum foil electrodes. In either case, the reference electrode
consisted of a saturated KCl calomel half-cell. All measure-
ments were made at 250 C. 0.50. Oxidation-reduction potential

SAll added copper was in the form of copper sulfate solution.
3 This product, described as d-gluco ascorbic acid, is no longer available.






Storing Frozen Cream


readings were taken after the platinum electrodes had been in
contact with the cream sample for 4 hours. Each value recorded
is based on the average of the readings obtained with 4 elec-
trodes, the observed potentials being recalculated and recorded
on the basis of the so-called zero potential of the normal hy-
drogen electrode.
All flavor scores recorded, for both cream and ice cream, are
the averages of the independent scores of 3 judges, with the
exception of the cream scores for the first month, which are
the average scores of 2 judges. The identity of all samples was
unknown to the judges at time of scoring. Although the cream
samples were scored on a basis of the intensity of the oxidized
flavor, other obvious flavor defects were noted as a matter of
routine. The following system of notation was employed in con-
nection with the judging of the cream samples:
1. No oxidized flavor 3. Slight oxidized flavor
2. Doubtful 4. Pronounced oxidized flavor
5. Intense oxidized flavor
The ice cream flavor scores are based on the American Dairy
Science Association score card, which allows 45 points for flavor.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
I CREAM
The flavor scores for all sub-lots of cream are given in Table 1.
The averages shown in the last column are of no significance
per se. However, it is believed they may be useful in comparing
the various methods of processing, inasmuch as these calculated
values should tend to balance out inconsistencies resulting from
the "human error" in scoring the cream samples.
Untreated Cream.-Two of the 3 lots of cream used in this
study contained control sub-lots which may be termed normal
in that they contained no added copper and received no anti-
oxidative treatment (sub-lots A and I). Of the 14 scoring
made on these 2 sub-lots during 7 months of storage, in only
one instance (A at 3 months) did a sample possess as much
as a "slight" oxidized flavor. These results seem to indicate
that the cream possessed a fairly high degree of natural stability
against the development of oxidized flavor. Although it must
be remembered that an effort was made to avoid metallic con-
tamination during processing, a preliminary study at this station
(10) has shown that milk produced in Florida appears to be






8 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

TABLE 1.-OXIDIZED FLAVOR OF STORED CREAM AT MONTHLY INTERVALS.
Flavor Score

Treatment I



No added sucrose

A Control 1.5 1.7 3.2 2.5 1.3 1.0 2.2 1.9
B Homogenized 1.0i 1.0 1.0 1.75 1.3 1.0 1.3 1.2
I |
C Copper 3.5 3.0 3.0 2.75 2.2 3.2 2.3 2.9
D Copper, 1.5 2.0 2.7 3.0 2.7 3.2 2.5 2.5
Homogenized_
12% added sucrose, 1.5 p.p.m. added copper

E Control 3.0 2.8 1.7 3.2 2.7 2.8 3.5 2.8
F Avenex 1.0 1.0 2.3 1.3 1.5 1.2 2.8 1.6
II
G Avenex 3.0 2.5 2.8 2.8 2.2 2.3 3.0 2.7
Concentrate
H Trypsin 3.75 4.1 2.5 3.0 2.8 2.2 2.8 3.0

12%r added sucrose, no added copper

I Control 1.0 1.7 1.3 1.0 1.3 1.3 1.7 1.3
J Ascorbic acid 1.0 1.3 1.3 1.5 1.3 1.5 1.0 1.3
III
K Containers 2.5 1.3 1.3 1.5 1.7 2.7 1.8
open
L Ice layer 1.0 1.3 1.3 2.7 1.7 1.8 2.5 1.8

less susceptible to the development of oxidized flavor than milk
produced in other sections of the United States. Whether or
not these results are representative of the storage qualities of
Florida-produced cream in general remains to be established
through further trials. However, Rogers (24) and Trout (26)
state that by observing proper precautions ice cream of good
quality can be made using, as the only source of fat, cream
which has been stored in the frozen state for as long as a year.
Homogenization.-According to the flavor scores of Lot I,
the value of homogenization as a means of preventing oxidized
flavor development in frozen cream during storage is question-
able. It is interesting to note that homogenization afforded
definite flavor protection for the first 3 or 4 months of the






Storing Frozen Cream


storage period, after which time its effect had apparently be-
come dissipated. This method of treatment was slightly more
effective in the cream which received no added copper.
On the basis of the present study the authors are inclined to
feel that the slight advantage, from the standpoint of flavor,
gained by homogenizing the cream is more than offset by cer-
tain practical disadvantages involved in the processing and
handling of the product. Homogenization increases the cost of
processing, by virtue of the additional time and power required
and the use of an additional piece of equipment. The high vis-
cosity of homogenized cream makes cooling a slow, difficult pro-
cess, and tends to increase waste through the adherence of the
cream to cooler, pipelines, and cans. Furthermore, destabiliza-
tion of the emulsion resulting from the freezing of the cream
was much more pronounced in the 2 sub-lots of homogenized
cream than in the 2 corresponding sub-lots of unhomogenized
cream. This latter observation agrees with those reported in
1936 by Josephson and Dahle (18), and more recently by
Trout (26).
Antioxidants.-Using the average scores in Lot II for com-
parison, one would conclude that avenex, avenex concentrate,
and trypsin rank in that order as antioxidants for cream to be
stored frozen. At the 6-month and 7-month periods, however,
the order of preference is less evident. Excluding the 7-month
score, avenex has antioxidative properties definitely superior to
either avenex concentrate or trypsin. The greatest deteriora-
tion in the flavor of the avenex-protected cream was between
the 6- and 7-month periods of examination. There is little
choice between avenex concentrate and trypsin, regardless of
the age, up to 7 months, of the frozen cream.
It is impossible to judge the efficacy of ascorbic acid as an
antioxidant, inasmuch as the control sample in this lot failed
to develop an oxidized flavor. The commercial use of ascorbic
acid for this purpose is, however, impractical at the present
time because of its high price.4
Exclusion of Air.-In all the comparisons thus far discussed
the containers were hermetically sealed. This probably would

We have since received an experimental quantity of another analogue
of ascorbic acid which is designated as sodium arabo ascorbate. It is
stated that when available for distribution this product will be sufficiently
low in cost to render feasible its use as an antioxidant in milk and cream.
Trials with this preparation are in progress, but results are not yet
available.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


be impractical in most ice cream plants. It was deemed im-
portant, therefore, to determine whether or not the "control"
samples were receiving a form of protection which they would
not have under practical conditions. Accordingly, one sub-lot
of cream was stored in cans which were left open. The possible
value of a surface layer of ice as a protective measure also
seemed worth investigating. Results of these comparisons are
indicated in the flavor scores of sub-lots I (control), K, and L.
The average scores indicate only a slight advantage in sealing
the cans, and no improvement resulting from the surface layer
of ice. These comparisons, however, are again of questionable
significance, in view of the fact that none of the cream, includ-
ing the control, developed an oxidized flavor during the storage
period. As the cream in Lot III had no copper added, it appears
that a more severe test is required to yield conclusive informa-
tion.
Flavor Changes.-It would logically be suspected that the
flavor of stored cream would become progressively more objec-
tionable as the storage period lengthens. This was by no means
the universal case, however, as is clearly indicated by the data
shown in Table 1. The maximum intensity of oxidized flavor
occurred as frequently during the first half of the storage period
as during the last half. For convenience of observation, this
information is shown in Table 2.
TABLE 2.-AGE IN MONTHS WHEN MAXIMUM OXIDIZED FLAVOR WAS
OBSERVED.
Sub-lot A B C D E F G H I J K L
Age 3 4 1 6 7 7 1 2 2 4 6 4
and 7 and 7 and 6

Greenbank (13) postulated an explanation of the chemical
changes involved when tallowy or oxidized flavors are produced
in milk. He suggested that the tallowy flavor results from the
mild oxidation of some minor constituent of milk, perhaps
lecithin, and that further oxidation of this tallowy-flavored
intermediate substance produces an end product which is free
from tallowiness. These successive changes he represented by
the following hypothetical equation:
R > RO > RO.
(No oxidized flavor) (Oxidized flavor) (No oxidized flavor)
The observations indicated in Table 2 appear to support such
an hypothesis. It might be concluded, for example, that the





Storing Frozen Cream


reaction went to completion early in the storage period in the
cream samples of sub-lots A, B, C, H, and L.
However, a different situation apparently is involved in sub-
lots G and I, wherein the maximum oxidized flavor development
occurred both at the beginning and at the end of the storage
period. It is possible that a second maximum would have oc-
curred in other sub-lots if longer storage periods had been used.
This recurring oxidized flavor, following its previous disappear-
ance, has not been observed in milk, so far as the authors are
aware. Assuming that the reactions take place in accordance
with Greenbank's hypothesis, the Law of Mass Action may pro-
vide a basis of explanation for the observations recorded in
Table 2.
The first stage of the reaction may be represented as follows:
R + 0 RO (a)
(No oxidized flavor) (Oxidized flavor)
in which R represents the "minor constituent" involved. We
may consider that the amount of this constituent in milk is so
small that it is all changed to the oxide, with an appreciable
amount of dissolved oxygen still unused. The second step of
the reaction then proceeds as follows:
RO + 0 -- > RO (b)
(Oxidized flavor) (No oxidized flavor)
The ultimate effect of reaction (b) on the flavor of the milk
would depend entirely upon the supply of oxygen, if the time
element is not considered. With an adequate supply of oxygen,
all oxidized flavor would be removed by virtue of oxidation of
the oxide to the peroxide. If the oxygen supply is inadequate,
a certain degree of oxidized flavor may persist.
Now consider how these reactions might behave in cream
which, for the sake of discussion, may be presumed to contain
a much greater concentration of R. Under such conditions re-
action (a) will be limited by the availability of oxygen rather
than R. Let it be assumed that the supply of readily available
oxygen becomes exhausted when not more than half of R has
been oxidized. Furthermore, an accumulation of the product
RO will tend to slow the reaction. Thus the reaction is greatly
retarded until a new supply of oxygen has had an opportunity
to diffuse from the surface into the container of cream. Obvi-
ously, the rate of diffusion will be very slow through the frozen
cream at the low storage temperature used. After a matter of
weeks or months oxidation again takes place, reaction (b) pro-






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


ceeds, and the intensity of the oxidized flavor decreases. It will
be recalled, however, that not all of R has been subjected to the
oxidation process. Accordingly, if oxygen once more becomes
available, it may combine with R to produce more of the tallowy-
flavored oxide. This is possible since reaction (b) has removed
enough of the product of reaction (a) to allow the latter again
to proceed.
Although the flavor scores in Table 1 represent degrees of
oxidized flavor only, other noticeable flavor defects were recorded
as a matter of routine. A total of 237 individual flavor examina-
tions were made by the 3 judges on the 12 sub-lots of cream over
the 7-month period. The only flavor criticism other than "oxi-
dized" consistently made by more than one judge was "cooked,"
"heated," or "custard," which criticism was recorded 49 times
during the course of the experiment. It is significant that only
2 of these 49 observations were on cream samples containing
added copper. These results are in keeping with the viewpoint
of other investigators who maintain that the cooked flavor re-
sults from the production of sulfhydryls, and that the latter are
incompatible with copper ions (9, 12, 20).
Oxidation-Reduction Potentials. Data showing oxidation-
reduction potentials of the cream are given in Table 3. Whereas
Dahle, et al (9) reported an increase in Eh 5 during the first
month, followed by a consistent decrease during the remainder
of the storage period, our observations, as recorded in Table 3,
do not show this trend. The present study indicates an increase
in Eh (average of all sub-lots) during the first 4 months, after
which the potential remains fairly constant. This is shown
graphically in Fig. 1.
The data in Table 3 indicate that the protective action ob-
tained from avenex, avenex concentrate, and trypsin is not due
to the effect of these antioxidants on the oxidation-reduction
potential of the cream. Comparing the average potentials (en-
tire storage period) in Lot II, it will be observed that the control
sample had a lower potential than the samples containing the
antioxidants. At the 7-month period, however, the Eh of the
avenex-containing cream was considerably lower than that of
the control sample. As pointed out previously, the oxidized
flavor intensity of the avenex-containing cream showed the
greatest increase between the 6- and 7-month periods of storage.
"Eh is the symbol for redox potential or oxidation-reduction potential,
which is a measure of the oxidizing intensity of a solution.





TABLE 3.-OXIDATION-REDUCTION POTENTIALS (VOLTS) OF CREAM AT MONTHLY INTERVALS.

Lot Sub-lot Treatment Unpro- __Processed
__ cessed Fresh 1 Mo. I 2 Mos. ] 3 Mos. 1 4 Mos. 1 5 Mos. | 6 Mos. 7 Mos. Average
No added sucrose


A Control

B Homogenized
C Copper
C Copper,
D Copper,nized
Homogenized


I Control

J Ascorbic acid

K Containers open

L Ice layer

Average


.259(









.2541


.2360




.2497


.1601 .2269 .2388 .3366 .4000 .3320 .3401

.2029 .1990 .2968 .3341 .4114 .3226 .3371

.2662 .3036 .3986 .4296 .4731 .4414 .4608

.2597 .3260 .3314 .4601 .4968 .4544 .4718

12'% added sucrose, 1.5 p.p.m. added copper

.3120 .3074 .3116 .4323 .4349 .4428 .4438

.3446 .3142 -- .4334 .4373 .4151 .4473

.2942 .3227 .4284 .4311 .4262 .4426 .4376

.2938 .3031 .4374 .4364 .4333 .4438 .4288


12% added sucrose, no added copper

.2136 .2400 .3006 .3261 .3357

.1502 .1410 .1540 .1532 .1226

.2136 .2457 .3053 .3243 .3507

.2136 .2265 .2998 .3239 .3513

.2437 .2630 .3184 .3b84 .3894


.3468

.1640

.3574

.3648


.3493

.1472

.3574

.3484


.3773 .3808 1


.3281

.3373

.4491

.4728


.2953

.3052

.4028

.4091


.4816 .3958

.4258 .4025

.4591 .4052

.4529 .4037


.3511 .3079

.1874 .1525

-- .3078

.3593 .3110

.3913 ****


I


,


----~--~~





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


The search for a significant relationship between redox poten-
tials and flavor scores has not been particularly fruitful. An
attempt to correlate the 83 flavor scores in Table 1 with the
corresponding redox potentials of Table 3 was unsuccessful, in-
dicating that there is no important relationship between the
degree of oxidized flavor and the oxidation-reduction potential,
when these 2 characteristics are determined simultaneously in
the cream sample.
The value of a test for predicting the keeping quality of stored
cream is obvious. Such a test, to be of practical use to the in-
dustry, must be relatively simple. Although the redox potential
determination does not answer this description, it should be
helpful to have an understanding of any fundamental relation-
ship between changes in redox potential and the development
of oxidized flavors.





... .. ... .. i.. -l-F|,' ,;
I I I... l i










Fig. 1.-Relationship between age of stored cream and oxidation-reduction
potential.

Greenbank (13) states that the tendency of a milk sample
to develop oxidized flavors depends upon the degree to which
it is poised. This characteristic of the sample he determined
by measuring the oxidation-reduction potential before and after
the addition of copper. It was hoped that a similar relationship
might be found for cream to be stored frozen, by relating the
change in potential resulting from processing with the subse-
quent development of oxidized flavor. No such relationship was
it i posed.Thi chractrisic f th saplehe dterine
by masurng te oxdaton-rducton pteniabfoead fe
th ditino opr.I a oe ta iiarrltosi
migh be! fon o ra ob soe rzn yrltingth




* :1


I


:1 I


7 I '


..q. ... ... ..
.- .. -

7 .
-- '' .
:, 1- .9 I
SI i ,p: : I
igk obbu Ii:I;
I T:
;..1: 'I- -,- , i :, ', !t ''
.. ... -'... .. ..



i _i I'
-'li_ < :'"_ .. i --
-.. L i i i, ,r ," '-
Ii -- ,, ,I ..- -- -T-- "
:: -: ,, ,,l 1 ] ; i !


Fig. 2,-Change in Eh as related to flavor score of cream at monthly intervals. The correlation coefficients indicate that
the change in Eh brought about by processing is nA)t a reliable measure of the stability of the cream.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


found, however, with the cream used in this experiment. The
change in the Eh of the cream brought about by processing was
of little significance from the standpoint of predicting keeping
quality, as will be noted upon examination of the correlation
coefficients in Fig. 2. For storage periods of less than 7 months
the correlation between change in Eh resulting from processing,
and oxidized flavor, is not significant. A closer relationship was
found between the change in potential during storage and the
intensity of the oxidized flavor at the end of the storage period,
as is indicated by the higher correlation coefficients. However,
this is of theoretical interest only, since it would be of no value
for predicting keeping quality. Fig. 2 shows correlation co-
efficients for storage periods up to 7 months. For the data
involved in this particular case, values below + .665 are not
significant.6 This point is indicated by the horizontal line on
the graph.
II ICE CREAM
Oxidized Flavor.-Inasmuch as frozen cream is stored almost
exclusively for use in ice cream, it is essential to know what
effect this stored cream has on the quality of the finished ice
cream. Data concerning this phase of the experiment are pre-
sented in Table 4. In a general way, the ice cream flavor scores
and criticisms reflect the quality of the cream used. There are
a few notable exceptions, however, which will receive further
discussion in a later paragraph.
It is agreed rather generally that oxidized flavors embrace
the principal flavor defects encountered in cream stored in the
frozen condition (8). This being true, it is important to know
to what extent such flavors will be imparted to ice cream made
from the stored cream. This factor, under commercial condi-
tions, would be given primary consideration in judging to what
extent a given lot of frozen cream could safely be used as a
source of fat in the ice cream mix. These same considerations
will determine the order in which several lots of frozen cream
of different ages should be used.
The data in Table 4 indicate an inverse relationship between
the intensity of the oxidized flavor in the stored cream and the
flavor score of the finished ice cream. This means that to pro-
duce an ice cream of superior flavor one should use stored cream
that possesses little or no oxidized flavor. A statistical treat-
"Student's" method of t was employed for calculating the value + .665.




TABLE 4.-SHOWING EFFECT ON QUALITY OF ICE CREAM WHEN FROZEN STORED CREAM IS USED AS ONLY SOURCE OF BUTTERFAT.


Sub-lot

(cream)


A

B

C

D


Oxidized
Flavor of
Cream,
7 Months


K -

L 2.5

Aver-
age -


1 Day


Score

38.2

38.25

35.0

34.0

35.3

36.0

35.8

34.8

38.7

37.8

38.8


39.0


Ice Cream Flavor Scor

1 Week I


Criticism Score Criticism


Lacks fine
flavor
Metallic
S1. metallic
S1. lacks fine
flavor
S1. oxidized
V. oxidized (2)
Oxidized
V. oxidized (2)
S1. oxidized
Oxidized (2)
Sl. oxidized (2)
Oxidized

Sl. oxidized (3)

S1. oxidized (2)
V. oxidized

Sl. metallic
Sl. cooked
Sl. cooked
Cooked (2)

S1. cooked
Lacks freshness

Sl. cooked


38.2 Lacks fine
flavor (2)

38.8 Lacks fine
flavor

33.8 Oxidized (2)
V. oxidized
33.3 Oxidized
V. oxidized (2)
33.7 Oxidized
V. oxidized (2)
34.7 Sl. oxidized
Oxidized
V. oxidized
35.5 Sl. oxidized (2)
Oxidized
36.8 Sl. oxidized (2)

37.8 Sl. oxidized
S1. cooked
36.8 Cooked (3)
Old ingredi-
ent (2)
38.3 Lacks fine
flavor
Cooked
38.8 Lacks fine
flavor

36.4


es and Criticisms* Loss in
I Score,
2 Weeks 4 Weeks Aver- 4 Wks.
Criticism I Score Criticism age

Sl. oxidized 35.5 Oxidized 37.4 2.7
Lacks fine Old ingredient
flavor (2)
Lacks fine 36.8 Lacks fine 38.0 1.45
flavor (2) flavor
S1. cooked
V. oxidized (3) 33.3 Oxidized (2) 33.7 1.7
V. oxidized
V. oxidized (2) 33.5 Oxidized (2) 33.7 0.5
Old ingredient V. oxidized


SScore|

37.8

38.2

32.7

33.8

34.0

34.2

34.0

35.2

38.5

36.5

38.3

39.25

36.0


33.0

33.5

34.2

33.8

37.8

35.0

37.5

37.7

35.1


Oxidized
V. oxidized (2)
Sl. oxidized,
V. oxidized (2)

Oxidized (3)

Sl. oxidized
Oxidized
V. oxidized
No criticism

Old ingredient
Cooked
Unclean
Sl. lacks fresh-
ness
Sl. cooked
Sl. cooked


When more than one judge recorded the same criticism, this is indicated by an appropriate number in


Criticisms of the three judges are given.
parentheses following the criticism.
V. = very; Sl. = slight.


--~--


Sl. oxidized (2)
Oxidized
Sl. oxidized
Oxidized
V. oxidized
Sl. oxidized
V. oxidized (2)
S1. oxidized (2)
Oxidized

Sl. cooked

Cooked (3)
S1. putrid

Lacks fine
flavor
Sl. cooked
Sl. cooked (2)
Sl. lacks fine
flavor






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


ment of this correlation, however, does not seem feasible for 2
reasons. In the first place, the samples are not strictly com-
parable, inasmuch as no 2 sub-lots received exactly the same
treatment. In the second place, the cream scores indicate in-
tensity of the oxidized flavor alone, whereas the scores for ice
cream indicate the total effect for all flavors. The following
remarks should, however, aid in a fuller appreciation of the
significant data in Table 4.
A careful consideration of the flavor criticisms shows that
only 2 defects, "oxidized" and "cooked," were important from
the standpoint of frequency. In most cases a score of 36 or
less indicates the presence of oxidized flavor in some degree.
Ice cream samples possessing very pronounced oxidized flavor
were scored 33 to 34, whereas a score of 35 to 36 indicates that
the sample possessed only a slight oxidized flavor. Thus it may
be stated that, with the exception of one sample, ice cream flavor
scores within the range of 33 to 36 mainly indicate varying
degrees of intensity of the oxidized flavor, whereas scores of
37 to 39 are primarily due to differences in the intensity of the
cooked flavor or to other mild off-flavors. The one exception
mentioned is sub-lot J, which contained ascorbic acid. Through-
out the storage period the cream in this sub-lot was criticized
as possessing a very objectionable custard or cooked flavor.
In studying the data in Table 4 it was discovered that 4 sub-
lots, A, C, D, and L, were noticeably inconsistent with the
general trend. Further examination of the data from these 4
sub-lots revealed an interesting relationship among these "ex-
ceptions." To facilitate this observation, the pertinent data are
assembled in Table 5. The 4 sub-lots are grouped into 2 pairs,
according to the degree of oxidized flavor in the cream.
TABLE 5.-EFFECT OF COPPER CONTAMINATION IN CREAM ON FLAVOR OF THE
RESULTING ICE CREAM.

Sub- Cream, 7 Months Ice Cream Scores
lot Copper Antioxidative I
I Added ITreatment Score 1 day 1 wk.2wks.|4wks. Av. I Loss
p.p.m. i
A 0 None | 2.2 38.2 38.2 37.8 35.5 37.4 2.7
C 1.5 None 2.3 35.0 33.8 32.7 33.3 33.7 1.7

D 1.5 Homogenized 2.5 34.0 33.2 33.8 33.5 33.7 0.5
L 0 Ice layer 2.5 39.0 38.8 39.25 37.7 38.7 1.3






Storing Frozen Cream


It should be noted that for both pairs the degree of oxidized
flavor in the 2 cream samples within a pair is practically the
same. Yet, 24 hours after they were frozen the paired ice cream
samples scored 3 to 5 points apart on flavor. In both pairs the
ice cream made from cream to which copper had been added
suffered a great loss in score during the first 24 hours, as com-
pared with the corresponding sample which contained no added
copper. The difference between the scores of the copper-
containing and copper-free samples of ice cream changed rela-
tively little during the 4-week storage period. It is apparent,
therefore, that the greatest injury to the flavor of the ice cream
containing added copper occurred during the processing or freez-
ing of the mix, or during the first day of storage.
The data of Table 5 may serve as the basis for some interesting
and perhaps practical observations, namely: (1) The rapidity
with which oxidized flavors developed was much greater in ice
cream than in cream; (2) certain cream samples which had been
stored in the frozen condition possessed a fairly desirable flavor
but produced ice cream with an objectionable oxidized flavor.
Thus it would seem that in judging the suitability of a certain
lot of stored cream for use as an ingredient in ice cream mix,
flavor alone is not an adequate criterion; one should know also
whether or not the cream has been subject to appreciable copper
contamination.
The importance of copper as a cause of oxidized flavors in
cream and ice cream is quite apparent. Almost without excep-
tion ice cream criticized for having an oxidized flavor was pre-
pared from cream which had been treated with copper at the
beginning of the storage period. Likewise, all copper-contam-
inated ice cream was criticized as having an oxidized flavor.
Cream which is to be stored for subsequent use in ice cream
should be protected, by every reasonable precaution, from copper
contamination. The exposure of the cream to copper surfaces
during the various stages of processing should be reduced to a
minimum. The addition of an antioxidant to the cream does not
afford absolute protection, as may be observed from the data of
Table 4.
Finally, it should be recalled that in this experiment the frozen
stored cream served as the only source of fat in the ice cream.
In the past this has not been generally recommended as a com-
mercial practice. Most investigators have suggested that not
more than 40 to 60 percent of the fat in an ice cream mix should





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


be derived from stored frozen cream. It is reasonable to pre-
sume that, had the proportion of frozen cream used in our ex-
perimental ice cream mixes been reduced one-half, the flavor of
several of the ice cream samples would have been improved
materially. In many instances, however, it may be definitely
advantageous for an ice cream plant to use frozen cream as
the sole source of fat, if this may be done without jeopardizing
the flavor of the finished product. The results herein reported
suggest that such a procedure is entirely feasible, provided the
cream is of high quality when placed in storage.
Processing Methods.-Since it has been observed that the
correlation between cream scores and ice cream scores is not
perfect, it would seem logical, when comparing the several
methods of processing the cream for storage, to give the greater
emphasis to the quality of the resulting ice cream.
Homogenization of the cream had a slight beneficial effect, if
the cream was relatively free from copper when placed in stor-
age. This treatment did not improve the flavor of the ice cream
if copper was added to the cream at the time it was placed in
storage.
In comparing the antioxidants, if one's judgment is based
on the flavor scores of the ice cream 1 day old, the order of pref-
erence would be avenex, avenex concentrate, and trypsin. It is
interesting to note that the trypsin ice cream scored 0.5 point
lower than the control on the first day, whereas after the ice
cream had been in storage one week the ice cream containing
trypsin scored 3.1 points higher than the control. If the com-
parison of the 3 antioxidants is made on the basis of the average
flavor scores, there is little choice among them, although they
rank in the reverse order of that previously noted.
It is impossible to judge the value of ascorbic acid as an anti-
oxidant, for 2 reasons. First, the control sample of ice cream
failed to develop a definite oxidized flavor. Second, the ascorbic
acid apparently caused an off-flavor to develop in the ice cream
with the result that this ice cream scored more than a point
lower than the control.
Mechanical exclusion of air from the frozen cream, either by
sealing the can or by providing a surface layer of ice, seems to
be of little value. There was little, if any, improvement in the
flavor of ice cream prepared from stored cream "protected" by
these procedures.






Storing Frozen Cream


In summary, an evaluation of the methods of processing the
cream, based on flavor of the ice cream, is in essential agree-
ment with previously drawn conclusions based on flavor scores
of the stored cream.
CONCLUSIONS
1. Ice cream of satisfactory quality can be made from cream
which has been stored 7 months at 00 F., provided the cream
is relatively free from copper. Cream may be stored thus with-
out the use of an antioxidant.
2. Homogenization of the cream as a means of preventing
the development of oxidized flavor during storage is of doubtful
value, particularly if the cream is stored longer than 3 or 4
months. Homogenization is more effective if the cream does not
contain appreciable amounts of copper.
3. Avenex (1.5%), avenex concentrate (0.1%), and trypsin
(0.003%) were effective antioxidants in frozen cream stored 7
months. When the frozen cream was used in ice cream the
flavor scores of the latter indicated that the 3 antioxidants were
of about equal value.
4. The effectiveness of added ascorbic acid, hermetic sealing
of the can, or a surface layer of ice as antioxidative treatments
was not established by this experiment, due to the fact that the
control samples failed to develop any oxidized flavors.
5. Apparently the ascorbic acid was a factor contributing to
the production of an objectionable custard-like or cooked flavor
in the cream.
6. Oxidized flavor may reach its maximum intensity in frozen
cream at any period from the first to the seventh month of
storage.
7. The cooked flavor resulting from pasteurization was greatly
reduced, usually eliminated, if 1.5 parts per million of copper
was added to the cream following pasteurization. It is not rec-
ommended, however, that copper be added to the cream for this
purpose.
8. The oxidation-reduction potential in frozen cream increased
during the first 4 months of storage, after which it remained
fairly constant.
9. There is no definite relationship between oxidized flavor
and oxidation-reduction potential in stored cream, when the 2
are determined at the same time.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


10. The change in Eh of the cream brought about by process-
ing is of little value for predicting the keeping quality of the
cream when stored in the frozen condition.
11. There is a direct relationship between the change in po-
tential during storage and the intensity of the oxidized flavor
at the end of the storage period.
12. The flavor of stored frozen cream is an important factor
in determining the flavor of ice cream prepared from it. How-
ever, when stored frozen cream is used for ice cream manufac-
ture, the degree of oxidized flavor in the finished ice cream is
not always proportional to the degree of oxidized flavor in the
frozen stored cream.
13. Ice cream prepared from stored frozen cream containing
added copper to the extent of 1.5 p.p.m. will probably develop
an oxidized flavor in less than a week, even though the frozen
cream itself is free of oxidized flavors.
14. Cream which is to be placed in frozen storage should be
produced and handled in such manner as to minimize the danger
of metallic contamination, especially by copper.

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Storing Frozen Cream 23

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milk-its source and significance. Milk Dealer, 29: 2: 35. 1939.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


21. The effect of feeding vitamin A and carotene to
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24. ROGERS, L. A. Ice cream investigations. U. S. Bur. Dairy Indus. Ann.
Rpt., p. 41. 1941.

25. THURSTON, L. M. Oxidized flavor in milk. Internatl. Asso. Milk Deal-
ers, Lab. Sect. Proc., pp. 121-141. 1935.

26. TROUT, G. M. Freezing cream for storage. Ice Cream Field, 39: 4: 42.
1942.

27. TROUT, G. M., and E. C. GJESSING. Ascorbic acid and oxidized flavor
in milk. I. Distribution of ascorbic acid and occurrence of oxidized
flavor in commercial grade A raw, in pasteurized irradiated, and in
pasteurized milk throughout the year. Jour. Dairy Sci., 22: 271-281.
1939.

28. WEBB, R. E., and J. L. HILEMAN. The relation of the oxidation-
reduction potential of milk to oxidized flavor. Jour. Dairy Sci., 20:
47-57. 1937.




Full Text
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describe
'124012' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJFS' 'sip-files00010.jp2'
eb6e0f21f7b4039b83cfaae79a865e90
586235ed80d645a538b684e00914f7cb2bf62cfd
describe
'480245' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJFT' 'sip-files00010.jpg'
ec124f65454970b09b1ebf7c6a0d9e48
6617a72c405c46619314f1db2a48a7235ed78eb8
describe
'60336' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJFU' 'sip-files00010.pro'
6f451cf5957237a304401bddc3b9b743
2b0aee79d7a942cacfe7e4b6c43ced4c70ac3017
describe
'173227' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJFV' 'sip-files00010.QC.jpg'
b3a0cab149e18e82d31b9fa1a8652a8b
2f488f6086fb9a1ce420bbffcf76f95d60039d32
'2012-02-08T15:49:11-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJFW' 'sip-files00010.tif'
4e385454e09ff804bb7afdce746892fa
f3613b75944b83a5340071903f8209348532d843
describe
'2514' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJFX' 'sip-files00010.txt'
92efcb853e502ac0396e88f0f575293d
c7bc97900046809cbab303e884bae1f1ddad75ba
describe
'58289' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJFY' 'sip-files00010thm.jpg'
46de200f62a3a63d4cc7f049b6e75a69
fd5a16e834c4e683a17bce8b2512c649069ea6a0
describe
'126166' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJFZ' 'sip-files00011.jp2'
3a3b85bd472b2221937d0be5e20c695f
c19dba055e01aa4a2c15117e3653887b19f27233
describe
'497057' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJGA' 'sip-files00011.jpg'
a8f402c1403a8d0406a418c8c96a71a1
288ad91c3551149db3701d7afe08b7d43148a94a
describe
'62985' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJGB' 'sip-files00011.pro'
6d6949f83a8acae0ad5b770d76bb454f
65290cab4e30abc805d752186db5f8943aead3eb
describe
'177213' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJGC' 'sip-files00011.QC.jpg'
57e84c716b07fa2e0cf1364cde39f9af
e8b5a75cb4c6b8d707449ec4311a5bafbbc1bd11
describe
'512544' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJGD' 'sip-files00011.tif'
fe64f24c67319e392d8ed4dd5e011f20
e1fc47ee4841e92ec9c2bf055d7534895cd5671b
'2012-02-08T15:49:12-05:00'
describe
'2545' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJGE' 'sip-files00011.txt'
52053475bb1d9e835ba328686e6872dd
298d15a4b3d6819939f3ce4f5913eb3b4f0e65e5
'2012-02-08T15:49:26-05:00'
describe
'58705' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJGF' 'sip-files00011thm.jpg'
ff63c73d116efe3701ce44d6a504c136
0b6a6203e9a2b9bbd58866031fa59bdf116aea59
describe
'134742' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJGG' 'sip-files00012.jp2'
e7c877856216a09e80160d07bc17b1a7
0c143cc3024c2a447376d1a55370abef20456dbc
describe
'526484' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJGH' 'sip-files00012.jpg'
cb83323324628263456a95bfd62173b3
0d0143224adc862e210e1830f423263459218391
describe
'67471' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJGI' 'sip-files00012.pro'
15a6e60a068d9ceec8b4a6c6c81bf8be
97f862e10707b75086ac5d5f7f760036aa11f6af
describe
'184596' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJGJ' 'sip-files00012.QC.jpg'
f7749d2b237f6b79260bc7205d3855f8
54d750c006fba5e3b49b43e9aa1a29f697f22084
'2012-02-08T15:49:22-05:00'
describe
'512716' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJGK' 'sip-files00012.tif'
1af243e92cd1e1e65b16f9f7902e7f29
5bbccf868ae79e0aae7fca71f73bfb8b0f64ac35
'2012-02-08T15:49:25-05:00'
describe
'2649' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJGL' 'sip-files00012.txt'
3cffc2c9afb6e123d9d1a7272ec34d9e
6f1486218217ad98a0440d3c23f17d5cc5e4bfbe
describe
'59587' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJGM' 'sip-files00012thm.jpg'
9570d0280b75a53d593b0b671059b74f
56b509368996fe80a3d303fe13d6dd719ec8eea7
describe
'70091' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJGN' 'sip-files00013.jp2'
ac0cb1e26520dd706f9725ebbf298ca3
29b287253a6ade52fa0ee9179384aef2d738649a
describe
'164120' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJGO' 'sip-files00013.jpg'
52cb7fd8d720647364557a9f5f764d64
c2a604ea21516b1b8157eef9d9b4f5776b9f8a86
describe
'33937' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJGP' 'sip-files00013.pro'
3570fd9a951f65a87a4cf141b40897fc
53ca24c518f8a0323ebd649026bc4193d8093675
describe
'60168' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJGQ' 'sip-files00013.QC.jpg'
6a8c7e91ce0230fba3994144c7ce1bfa
6c57c123944488b42f3cb7b65f36ef4bce2c9906
describe
'508516' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJGR' 'sip-files00013.tif'
60c0844cbb0dd0f6f620cb17a7e07cd1
8ba8413afb9a406c27622a084ce75e5fd4aa198e
'2012-02-08T15:49:45-05:00'
describe
'1790' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJGS' 'sip-files00013.txt'
35d523e6eeea11847f12341a31f17a91
f70ba73c3a2b39192994d873461a80200f4d7cf0
describe
'29195' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJGT' 'sip-files00013thm.jpg'
9e39c33e533bae1cb3511efd88de7be2
6924dc390f4aa41b5e678e712f1c3a86196f436a
describe
'141300' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJGU' 'sip-files00014.jp2'
042837f86acd70ec96a49523a1de87df
d10430c422b5c670bbe2f6dfefb53c72ce76d94e
describe
'517216' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJGV' 'sip-files00014.jpg'
49f79423f2b98e0e74f1c73a791e8335
ab064ac7ad68382e6891dae32b0c293326164cac
describe
'45641' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJGW' 'sip-files00014.pro'
45607567507cb9de903e5b8dd618aa28
10ad2de6b79907c585d88de8dab91bf75d79344b
describe
'175125' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJGX' 'sip-files00014.QC.jpg'
e08a67943567d799a4ff6c1bcd043a29
0151f16e23ff2efaf70a579397e9b1f76b02b45d
describe
'513080' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJGY' 'sip-files00014.tif'
bba07c007e8b9089913827191100eaca
35da656fdae2e019fd3b8c6a88ddb4df60196561
describe
'1923' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJGZ' 'sip-files00014.txt'
852db72d18e3fdef45aa9df546b56f88
d5fc14aa18a56801fba904f08f712820973bff04
describe
'58271' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJHA' 'sip-files00014thm.jpg'
da600abc1c538965fd69add8e25a3244
0ca477bbce6a3a547271f2e5e3ee28863f83ea4b
describe
'149001' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJHB' 'sip-files00015.jp2'
6c740a1d6f3a2aaf05a806f8afe2f97c
5572065a921f29794f196450024dffe383420993
describe
'262494' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJHC' 'sip-files00015.jpg'
cf4e2331f57c8bd73ba035a4562946cb
170d8d49550c828b1fac676930be991f671cfa4b
describe
'25128' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJHD' 'sip-files00015.pro'
d9af2c6c84a341bac1a5a31f35573e4a
988db6bb239671e91c1c9110083595943c9ed74e
describe
'81941' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJHE' 'sip-files00015.QC.jpg'
970e1d0874b445240d145a4a48fca6e7
171d9d3b2d25cc91a6d57e098b16dfd2c6188e3b
describe
'513088' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJHF' 'sip-files00015.tif'
73f5517cad4bcee87f16ddc123b4a843
b9ba13ff0a018e28d725c2ced8af906426e9ae0f
describe
'1566' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJHG' 'sip-files00015.txt'
e7323da4ddef3aec0ba0f6503753ebdc
ef4f4c6d18422b3a51ff0096e93dc0a292ca6610
'2012-02-08T15:49:30-05:00'
describe
Invalid character
'35589' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJHH' 'sip-files00015thm.jpg'
b904e65c5800652ccb79e4223ec90da3
a433c5c17cdcc6261d86d48fcc0242ffbeb37447
describe
'129894' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJHI' 'sip-files00016.jp2'
7a209fd7a1611f48a48e0e29447ba184
0380e7e7f1e4f89668161ac147c4800cdb3555e1
describe
'505735' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJHJ' 'sip-files00016.jpg'
bb6d65fe281cd9f41f9a4010b9d6eeea
c722d01780b0f56fa0de429fe9ec4792c458746a
describe
'64705' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJHK' 'sip-files00016.pro'
304da8f60952255b99571bfe0a27c46e
6870697bff664365884ba389fbc9bea9f5c2065b
'2012-02-08T15:49:38-05:00'
describe
'180249' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJHL' 'sip-files00016.QC.jpg'
1690d936e5ca7aa1e052c3ef19aa8fc3
961dff0ec6494316c10e897e50546ec3b54018dd
describe
'512428' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJHM' 'sip-files00016.tif'
aaf8f10e75c580bb8f81b5057f31f3a7
5cf3328f781b8bacc6547d6f1034b273dbe53d5c
describe
'2566' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJHN' 'sip-files00016.txt'
df22b264250b3eeff65aa5450fb52bc6
0fa50f0737bb7e9c86c9aeff26b97e26e1c5ecf9
'2012-02-08T15:49:59-05:00'
describe
Invalid character
'57903' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJHO' 'sip-files00016thm.jpg'
e21bc51da68870d561ba122123a9e06a
c726769db7e34447378176fbcbfb9dc5363635e1
describe
'104151' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJHP' 'sip-files00017.jp2'
9ec59ed785f7fe962ede9ae3cd60b38e
af3404f23c3288275d78b092cbd9a08406e0d213
describe
'206064' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJHQ' 'sip-files00017.jpg'
59bf5eaeec21cf21ed4eb542938a565a
6fd968f2df583878cfb02cf18e9dba347c84de00
describe
'57349' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJHR' 'sip-files00017.pro'
79018c4abd6275e3f7a7529b62e7f6f9
9aebdcd246d7a6abb02dcd4b6e1fe1e0b5b07984
describe
'75830' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJHS' 'sip-files00017.QC.jpg'
8bd49a4c13d0cd59c931e3ecfbd704c5
f67bc0617fe472458cd1a21b14b37ed2bee105b4
describe
'509184' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJHT' 'sip-files00017.tif'
1e601f3019e9b0716ba34302b7310494
0e006c22bf8c9d8420cb5b236904a5827b8705c8
describe
'2860' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJHU' 'sip-files00017.txt'
aad388eca76856a75b0846740b341dd9
967ee27c7e5b36ae2d558070808e8ced75e6bd94
describe
'30790' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJHV' 'sip-files00017thm.jpg'
de4f8b6741327f8a8c2ba394e1c74908
eb4a5e4f3019e58d0349dce3bbc09f625f7ef950
describe
'124163' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJHW' 'sip-files00018.jp2'
aaa5cda61b7473dc0848a7eea7529d94
1155b2b90ca387972162becd4d5bb2f6c0feaea4
describe
'489008' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJHX' 'sip-files00018.jpg'
1c356fd351feee224a180b2e1717d860
790d40f37aa9784f7a7bfac3e9097d246b766ab8
describe
'60832' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJHY' 'sip-files00018.pro'
65e597b3ac85bb6d6061dbf351fa82d7
9e002a4aded9df305aae67dc152b768d2ba411cb
describe
'177581' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJHZ' 'sip-files00018.QC.jpg'
0507364c3adb70040f13bead01cc9123
0073bea91093bbc96ef8d61379deac950a36954b
'2012-02-08T15:49:21-05:00'
describe
'512484' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJIA' 'sip-files00018.tif'
cb16faa5c780c7698f944d1e392da205
d8db6db7dc22ba0ef1a78e6899f390be92e7d150
describe
'2492' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJIB' 'sip-files00018.txt'
5e44881ca136767cc3340b83c5716b8f
63a27480076070024ba37b11004afc47da21e7d2
'2012-02-08T15:49:13-05:00'
describe
'58575' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJIC' 'sip-files00018thm.jpg'
850e458e14f31a073cc8d20f762eec33
7d97af6cdd4df64159f98a9f8389324cc154d980
describe
'135959' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJID' 'sip-files00019.jp2'
8b2dfc5b33ee9cf84d1c3423fafa9734
e7ce20d5d182fb49cfa192c7ee9da3696afe201b
describe
'537403' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJIE' 'sip-files00019.jpg'
fa5c4cca0af7af0b3744846a8df9d9e9
2f4822eae9172e56ce43a4a234e0bac6f4ee1dec
describe
'66240' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJIF' 'sip-files00019.pro'
bd07d44f5162de07bd656ca08cf26171
8ff691dae6218dde64133168e4f912f218a02036
describe
'186198' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJIG' 'sip-files00019.QC.jpg'
178cfc2df8857d417c0b0b6cd91ec8e0
dfbb26e3a0b0de404b63faeb8d5aeeddeb86149b
describe
'512968' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJIH' 'sip-files00019.tif'
524776915c214bcd6a4524958a50c0df
a2d1878b7c9e095c07aef529a04b44f09ad5a175
describe
'2608' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJII' 'sip-files00019.txt'
f784d8970bd7f880938d4b6ea7ee175b
87e467ec508e05b827bd990ed3e4cdf22b372e49
describe
'59731' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJIJ' 'sip-files00019thm.jpg'
b1db3aa53b7f48974fec6aa8ceb37a83
2993f7dfa9edea855e46e05f84d5a61d066e02cf
describe
'130773' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJIK' 'sip-files00020.jp2'
62115531cf653fcd350d5c100bacf7ee
1898503e729bc503e8789149c3b061f83a1b771b
describe
'506131' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJIL' 'sip-files00020.jpg'
8c2d3611553c30de252f28953b8d286a
c72d7f9cc541bf222ecf1408e75f3f81e4c2904d
describe
'63877' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJIM' 'sip-files00020.pro'
540efacfaffd0b4e34cf18d80296fd4a
6fa2ddf1c13b060302891882f7259d903cad2314
describe
'184510' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJIN' 'sip-files00020.QC.jpg'
c5db226d28b42eaf5fdfb6ffbbcbda3a
a3be9aa857aabb90936be0f468968844e511df43
describe
'512860' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJIO' 'sip-files00020.tif'
2a9d48dceb981d8c286c25da10605493
9928c14be89b96737a1210c6c1d43863c065d278
describe
'2503' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJIP' 'sip-files00020.txt'
6fc9c881b09c1ecaffae0026e749d2cc
a4b0a659368c3da3466f6da7014d5e51766a3b99
describe
'58798' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJIQ' 'sip-files00020thm.jpg'
51c60e04914064a55df04456eb0637dd
0c8af51c5ee33dd9a0b02ebe8bbccd16bc94ed28
describe
'111881' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJIR' 'sip-files00021.jp2'
0e082c4630770eccf13434875e814163
429cb46b67d488aa16fd199446d8fbeda7a6033e
'2012-02-08T15:49:18-05:00'
describe
'437925' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJIS' 'sip-files00021.jpg'
5f53253cc32700a00ab3472ea9d59e59
0d8fa99b546b3908aee82a1328dcc0a0e6877377
describe
'54283' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJIT' 'sip-files00021.pro'
dc00b2304a8ff65dbbce4187b85e5259
4318f5f153cb30522aa3007da9cd9c6f70cd9a00
describe
'159655' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJIU' 'sip-files00021.QC.jpg'
0a201fc8e0ef165b332885d9e7648be4
bdecdc5966d072cce6a1f0144107ba5d02b7f857
describe
'512488' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJIV' 'sip-files00021.tif'
fb5f51b34c95e52fd7015a6c5855203f
4abe105c9ca5926c6d3251ba96955854189d12a1
describe
'2177' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJIW' 'sip-files00021.txt'
ef018fcf10efb0db84460765c5198f7f
a99ebb2dbeb6bd94909bf0887f24b2f05fc68882
describe
'56202' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJIX' 'sip-files00021thm.jpg'
90c26b09b3f6c2c97b5a3d0da7abce14
1b88e56bba1b8519a4c694d1902aae29825c48d3
describe
'113993' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJIY' 'sip-files00022.jp2'
c44e0a671e3b35e083af5aae8ae4ec7c
b3527f6a7cd67c10a7789977feb4b8169cfd7b34
describe
'444394' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJIZ' 'sip-files00022.jpg'
fb5a90d2ea82058325ff316a772788fa
f48b4c1ab4a7d0a7a7b5ec6d18d8feae9d66759a
describe
'61163' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJJA' 'sip-files00022.pro'
31107f219ae4e1ebc596b1a29d7274f5
bd42e974bca6efc859a53db57e65e08b97f0f790
describe
'157256' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJJB' 'sip-files00022.QC.jpg'
66c3fb867a7527b1cf6cb0db65684186
eeccdeeea408871faa3cd69706f3c51e5b0895be
describe
'512228' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJJC' 'sip-files00022.tif'
8411a6e5cc1c52cda2a262f10f0e458a
6fdfcd56844bea06ac5f421b2622724a27a477b7
'2012-02-08T15:49:19-05:00'
describe
'2575' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJJD' 'sip-files00022.txt'
b6d3b0b2a5739cf00c8481acbe97b6a7
c09182479d03cc0e3f9e6f30260772e5d6c128a2
describe
'56438' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJJE' 'sip-files00022thm.jpg'
94e08640d70f64159ae297d22e45f746
e606478ad9750d1f890a02111c57446d06caa2d8
describe
'92534' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJJF' 'sip-files00023.jp2'
891ea512c444ecc0d9376477f960e42c
262c8f4a7aafe396ec81e1a60d8526268f4311c3
describe
'352949' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJJG' 'sip-files00023.jpg'
3d8bc9c2d179ecaf2a6da8ab88bd435b
a92ed1bf2503210671337a7af169d22266252071
describe
'54125' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJJH' 'sip-files00023.pro'
c9bd5ea00bc0c647afea0fc2f4538dad
e28be652de6b0a13cd88108023e63b3d26aa81ec
describe
'128613' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJJI' 'sip-files00023.QC.jpg'
62aaf07e780040b4675a63dd8b058cbc
81693a171ff648b7ff4050515c1c590f1e35b140
describe
'511948' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJJJ' 'sip-files00023.tif'
1ef515b34644fd2073bdedbe60de288d
8f89de3c8aaaa7b17650e9d1f760264a16936a49
describe
'2422' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJJK' 'sip-files00023.txt'
190cfea2b6f16538c0dadd2399d59e2a
d44c2d5189035126bfc01473d1f656413cd44124
describe
'53410' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJJL' 'sip-files00023thm.jpg'
0b8f60b7ad4f85cb5ee5e095526dc1c0
e7a968258c6966999a1b8b3de8ac5395992929c5
describe
'51593' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJJM' 'sip-files00024.jp2'
17b02303ce91a036b2cc38fa492997bd
a485cfe33b02e89d954719585b80c9e47eeb2c80
describe
'201548' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJJN' 'sip-files00024.jpg'
4e5282ab4ba00aace0c75ba364b1ebd4
c2bdf4e3502c0c8f952990a91646289733ed9bc4
describe
'28176' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJJO' 'sip-files00024.pro'
dc7dd903ec78d61686b39ec7790a10c3
98d513a332bc6c6d6b9e65a652a62bb978354d5d
describe
'72980' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJJP' 'sip-files00024.QC.jpg'
44717b1272715d3a78f466e9a1888538
c41b09fb76f4727fb6fa4603f90152242f067253
describe
'508284' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJJQ' 'sip-files00024.tif'
7dd55e478a566c03b9b5701767e9c08a
069a96f45c570da502eb0288d449ecd7a8f6e31d
describe
'1253' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJJR' 'sip-files00024.txt'
bb1c17055fcf8fd388ea6cb6ea7cebda
390bbf5f0bb9ea0789704add38eccb422c19d54d
describe
'34048' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJJS' 'sip-files00024thm.jpg'
89f74dadbd05e166b65769dd64e157ba
2e08e55baad9cad3af47564badc6abff52957776
describe
'44172' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJJT' 'sip-filesUF00026389_00001.mets'
efe4a4b20058cbca1035ffef341d5c8b
6d7dbcfb54e9d3e562d90c82ceb2d1b4f1a3b145
describe
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
'2015-05-15T15:36:55-04:00' 'mixed'
xml resolution
http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/ufdc2.xsd
BROKEN_LINK schema http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/ufdc2.xsd
The element type "div" must be terminated by the matching end-tag "
".
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
'53166' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZOfileF20090529_AAFJJW' 'sip-filesUF00026389_00001.xml'
9dde21fb1ca2e33eaf99333c39391668
7083144bc3b15f9013235846244bd49c920abfef
describe
'2015-05-15T15:36:56-04:00'
xml resolution