Citation
Stem injury of tobacco caused by fungi growing on the poison mixture used for controlling bud worms

Material Information

Title:
Stem injury of tobacco caused by fungi growing on the poison mixture used for controlling bud worms
Series Title:
Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Creator:
Tisdale, W. B ( William Burleigh ), 1890-
Kelley, J. G ( John Grady )
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla
Publisher:
University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
p. [277]-286 : ill. ; 23 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Tobacco -- Diseases and pests -- Florida ( lcsh )
Fungal diseases of plants -- Florida ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
"Contribution no. 3 from the Tobacco Experiment Station, Quincy"-- T.p.
Statement of Responsibility:
by W.B. Tisdale and J.G. Kelley.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
027161575 ( ALEPH )
18172683 ( OCLC )
AEN4035 ( NOTIS )

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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
Agricultural Experiment Station



STEM INJURY OF TOBACCO

Caused by

Fungi Growing on the Poison Mixture
Used for Controlling Budworms

By W. B. TISDALE AND J. G. KELLEY




















Fig. 126.-Lower portion of stem of Connecti-
cut Round Tip tobacco plant showing loca-
tion and nature of lesion resulting from
fungi growing on poison mixture accumu-
lated around the stem.

(Contribution No. 3 from the Tobacco Experiment Station,
Quincy)

Bulletins will be sent free upon application to the Experiment Station,
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


May, 1926


Bulletin 182







BOARD OF CONTROL

P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola
E. L. WARTMANN, Citra
E. W. LANE, Jacksonville
A. H. BLENDING, Leesburg
W. B. DAVIS, Perry
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee
J. G. KELLUM, Auditor, Tallahassee

STATION STAFF

WILMON NEWELL, D. Sc., Director
JOHN M. SCOTT. B. S., Vice Director and Animal Industrialist
SAM T. FLEMING, A. B., Assistant to Director
J. R. WATSON, A. M. Entomologist
ARCHIE N. TISSOT, M. S., Assistant Entomologist
H. E. BRATLEY, M. S. A., Asst. in Entomology
R. W. RUPRECHT, Ph. D., Chemist
R. M. BARNETTE, Ph. D., Assistant Chemist
C. E. BELL, M. S. Assistant Chemist
E. W. COWAN, A. M., Assistant Chemist
J. M. COLEMAN, B. S., Assistant Chemist
0. F. BURGER, D Sc., Plant Pathologist
G. F. WEBER, Ph. D., Associate Plant Pathologist
J. L. SEAL, M. S., Assistant Plant Pathologist
ROBERT E. NOLEN, M. S. A., Lab. Asst. in Plant Pathology
K. W. LOUCKS, A. B., Lab. Asst. in Plant Pathology
ERDMAN WEST, B. S., Lab. Asst. in Plant Pathology
D. G. A. KELBERT, Field Asst. in Plant Pathology
W. E. STOKES, M. S., Grass and Forage Crops Specialist
W. A. LEUKEL, Ph. D., Assistant Grass and Forage Crops Specialist
A. F. CAMP, Ph. D., Plant Physiologist, Cotton Investigations
W. A. CARVER, Ph. D., Assistant Cotton Specialist
EDGAR F. GROSSMAN, M. A., Assistant Entomologist, Cotton Investigations
RAYMOND CROWN, Field Asst., Cotton Investigations
A. L. SHEALY, D. V. M., Veterinarian
D. A. SANDERS, D. V. M., Assistant Veterinarian
C. V. NOBLE, Ph. D., Agricultural Economist
BRUCE McKINLEY, B. S. A., Assistant in Agricultural Economics
H. G. HAMILTON, M. S., Assistant Agricultural Economist
OUIDA DAVIS ABBOTT, Ph. D., Head, Home Economics Research
GEORGIA WESTOVER, Assistant in Home Economics
HAROLD MOWRY, Assistant Horticulturist
G. H. BLACKMON, B. S. A., Pecan Culturist
IDA KEELING CRESAP, Librarian
J. FRANCIS COOPER, B. S. A., Editor
RUBY NEWHALL, Secretary
HENRY ZEIGLER, Farm Foreman
W. B. TISDALE, Ph. D., Plant Pathologist, in charge Tobacco Experiment
Station (Quincy)
J. G. KELLEY, B. S. A., Lab. Asst. in Plant Pathology (Quincy)
JESSE REEVES, Foreman Tobacco Experiment Station (Quincy)
L. O. GRATZ, Ph. D., Assistant Plant Pathologist (Hastings)
A. S. RHOADS, Ph. D., Assistant Plant Pathologist (Cocoa)
A. N. BROOKS, Ph. D., Assistant Plant Pathologist (Plant City)
STACY O. HAWKINS, Field Asst. in Plant Pathology (Miami)
J. H. JEFFERIES, Superintendent Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred)
W. A. KUNTZ, A. M., Assistant Plant Pathologist (Lake Alfred)
GEO. E. TEDDER, Foreman, Everglades Experiment Station (Belle Glade)


K. H. GRAHAM, Auditor
RACHEL MCQUARRIE, Assistant Auditor








STEM INJURY OF TOBACCO
Caused by
Fungi Growing on the Poison Mixture
Used for Controlling Budworms
By W. B. TISDALE AND J. G. KELLEY

Each year since the inception of tobacco investigations in the
Florida-Georgia district in 1922 an occasional tobacco plant has
been observed with dwarfed, chlorotic and flecked lower leaves
accompanied by a brown to black lesion on the basal portion of
the stem. Examination of the few affected plants each year
failed to reveal the cause of the trouble. All attempts to associ-
ate a parasitic organism with the diseased parts were in vain.
Altho several fungi (Fusaria in most cases) and bacteria were
isolated from diseased stems, none of them produced any symp-
toms of disease when inoculated into the stems of healthy plants.
In May 1925, about 10 days after a light rain, the disease be-
gan to appear in epidemic form in several fields of both cigar
wrapper and bright leaf tobacco. Counts made in one 15-acre
field of cigar wrapper tobacco when the plants averaged about
three feet high showed that 38 percent of the plants had affected
leaves and 8 percent of the plants were dead. The most severe
infection found in fields of bright leaf tobacco was 18 percent of
the plants with leaf injury and about 4 percent dead.
All plants showing leaf injury at this time were found to have
the characteristic lesion on the stem at the surface of the soil.
Lesions were also found on the stems of several plants examined
which were not stunted nor bore any affected leaves. However,
no attempt was made to determine the percentage of plants hav-
ing stem injury without also showing leaf injury, as the trouble
was not considered of great importance except in cases suffi-
ciently severe to result in leaf injury.
In 1926 the disease was again observed in several fields of
wrapper tobacco. Signs of the disease this year, as in 1925,
became apparent in a week to ten days after a light rain which
fell after a period of four weeks of dry weather. In these fields
only an occasional plant died and a relatively small percentage
of the plants showed any leaf injury. However, a high percent-
age of the plants were stunted which appeared to be a result of
the stem injury. All stunted plants examined showed typical





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


lesions on the stems, altho the injury did not extend thru the
cortex except on the plants which also showed leaf injury.

SIGNS OF THE
INJURY

Signs of the
injury which first
attract one's at-
tention are mot-
tled, chlorotic or
flecked lower
leaves (Fig. 127)
accompanied by
stunting of the
entire plant. Ex-
amination of the
stems of such
plants reveals a
dark brown to
black lesion lo-
cated at the sur-
face of the soil
and varying in
length from one-
half to more than
an inch (Fig.
126). The lesion
may be narrow
o r completely
girdle the stem.
I n the former
case only the
leaves immediate-
ly above the le-
sion are affected,
while in the lat-
Fig. 127.-Lower leaf of bright tobacco plant show- ter case all of the
ing nature of injury resulting from stem gird- lower e a v e s
ling caused by fungi growing on the poison mix-
ture accumulating around the base of the stem. may be affected
(Fig. 128), and if the injury extends thru the cortex, the plant
usually dies. Distinct lines of demarcation separate the healthy






Bulletin 182, Stem Injury of Tobacco


from diseased tissue. In advanced stages the affected tissue
dries and shrinks, giving the lesions a sunken appearance (Fig.
129). Upon drying out the dead tissue frequently cracks
lengthwise, especially in cases where the injury is limited to
one side of the stem. Brown streaks are usually apparent in
the cambium and the inner cortex between the stem lesion and
the affected leaves.

CAUSE OF THE INJURY
Field examinations revealed that all affected plants had a lump
or crust of the corn meal-arsenate of lead mixture used for con-
trolling the budworm at the base of the stem and in contact
with the in-
Fig "d jured parts.
.~ These lumps
S. or crusts of
Sthe poison mix-
ture were hard
and were over-
run by fungi.
At first it was
thought p os-
sible that the
arsenate o f
lead contained
in the mixture
might be re-
sponsible f o r
the injury and
experiments
Fig. 128.-Badly stunted and dwarfed bright tobacco e r e co n-
plant caused by fungi growing on the poison mix- ducted to de-
ture around the base of the stem. termine t h is
hypothesis.
A saucer-shaped excavation one-half inch deep was made
around vigorous young tobacco plants growing in the field and
a level tablespoonful of the poison mixture or pure corn meal
was placed in the hole in contact with the stems. Other plants
were treated in a similar manner with an equal amount of the
poison mixture to which hydrated lime had been added at the
rate of two pounds of lime to 75 pounds of the poison mixture.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


The lime was added to counteract any free arsenic which might
be present in the mixture. The materials were moistened
slightly after they were placed around the plants.
One week after the treatment the lower leaves of some of the
plants of each of the three lots were chlorotic and had brown
specks distributed over the surface. Three days later the leaf
margins had dried out and the plants showed retarded growth
as compared
'S with the checks.
SThe stems of all
treated plants
showed injury
S ( similar to that
found occurring
in the fields.
These experi-
ments seem to be
sufficient proof
that the arsenate
of lead is not the
cause of the in-
jury.
After it was
ascertained that
Srf t. the same type of
Injury was pro-
S duced with pure
Scorn meal as with
/ the corn meal-ar-
senate of lead
mixture, atten-
tion was directed
Fig. 129.-Stem of bright tobacco similar to that
shown in figure 128, showing sunken condition to the organisms
of stem lesion and depth of injury, found growing
on the mixture. Lumps of the poison mixture were brought
into the laboratory and placed in moist chambers at room tem-
perature. After a few days several different organisms had
begun to sporulate on the surface of the material, each one ap-
parently dominating in certain areas. Spores of each form
were transferred to slants of potato-dextrose agar and to plates
of sterilized corn meal. In most cases pure cultures of the or-





Bulletin 182, Stem Injury of Tobacco


ganisms were obtained at the first attempt, while others re-
quired a second transfer to free them from bacteria. By this
method four fungi-Aspergillus ofyzae (Ahlb.) Cohn, Asper-
gillus niger van Tieg.,1 and one species each of Mucor and Peni-
cillium were obtained in pure culture. A Fusarium also devel-
oped on the lumps of poison mixture in the moist chambers but
very little growth appeared on the surface of the pabulum so it
could not be readily freed from the bacteria. No inoculations
were made with the Fusarium.

RELATION OF THE FUNGI TO DEVELOPMENT
OF THE STEM INJURY

After the organisms had covered the surface of the corn meal






















Fig. 130.-Photograph of tobacco seedlings showing severe injury resulting
(right) in contact with the stems. Plant on the left was treated with
sterilized uninoculated corn meal for check. Photographed Jan. 6, 1926,
one week after inoculation.
contained in the petri dishes, which was about four days, the
contents of each dish were cut into four pieces and each piece

'The author is indebted to Prof. E. M. Gilbert of the University of Wis-
consin for his assistance in identifying the organisms.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


then broken into smaller pieces and placed in contact with the
stem of a vigorous young tobacco plant growing in sterilized
soil in the greenhouse. The inoculated material was placed
just below the surface of the ground and a little soil placed over
it. Other plants were treated with an equal amount of steril-
ized uninoculated corn meal.
One week after the material was applied two plants of each
lot were removed for examination. The comparative condition
of the plants at the end of that period is shown in Figures 130
and 131. As may be seen, the plants treated with cultures of













IA
r A






Fig. 131.-Photograph of tobacco seedlings showing slight injury produced
by placing corn meal cultures of Mucor sp. (center) and Penicillium
(right) in contact with the stems. Plant on the left was treated with
sterilized uninoculated corn meal for check. Photographed Jan. 6, 1926,
one week after inoculation.

A. oryzae and A. niger were completely girdled. The injury ex-
tended thru the cortex and into the vascular tissue and the leaves
had begun to wilt. The stems of plants treated with cultures
of the Mucor and Penicillium showed very slight injury and the
controls showed no injury whatever. Other plants of the differ-
ent lots examined one week later showed practically no change
in degree of injury to the stems. However, at that time a Mucor






Bulletin 182, Stem Injury of Tobacco


had partially over-run the checks but no injury was apparent.
The injury produced by the species of Aspergillus in these ex-
periments was more severe than that observed in the fields
under natural conditions, but other experiments with older
plants indicate that it was due to the difference in age of the
plants.
In order to determine whether the organisms were parasitic
on tobacco plants, vigorous young plants were inoculated by in-
serting fragments of pure cultures of the fungi into the stems
at the surface of the soil. After one week the plants inoculated
with A. oryzae and A. niger showed slight discoloration of the
wounded tissues at the points of inoculation. The others showed
no difference from the checks. After two weeks the discolored
cells had sloughed off and all inoculated plants exhibited about
the same symptoms as the checks. The wounds had calloused
over and showed no signs of fungous invasion. Attempts to
re-isolate the fungi from the inoculated plants were unsuccess-
ful. However, the species of Aspergillus were isolated from a
few affected stems brought in from the fields.
Therefore, it appears that the injury is of indirect nature,
perhaps due to a byproduct of the fungi growing on the corn
meal.
DISCUSSION

Corn meal-arsenate of lead mixture (1 pound arsenate of
lead to 75 pounds of corn meal) has been used quite successfully
for the last decade in Florida for controlling the budworm on
shade-grown tobacco.' During that period there has been no re-
port of serious injury to the stems until 1925, thus indicating
that the injury is dependent upon a combination of certain
weather and cultural practices. In 1925 there was no rainfall
between April 4 and May 12, which was quite unusual for that
season of the year. On the latter date certain localities received
a good rain, while others received little or none. The fields which
received a light rain on May 12 suffered most severe injury from
the poison mixture, while irrigated fields and those which re-
ceived a heavy rain suffered little or no injury.
The poison mixture is applied to the buds of tobacco plants
twice a week from the time they become established in the fields

"A. C. Morgan and F. L. McDonough. The Tobacco Budworm and Its
Control in the Southern Tobacco Districts. U. S. D. A. Farmers' Bull. No.
819. 1917-revised 1923.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


until they have been topped. A small portion of the mixture is
dropped into the buds each time. Some of the mixture from each
application trickles down and accumulates on the ground around
the base of the stems. As the rapidly developing leaves expand
more of the mixture is shaken off which also falls to the ground.
During normal seasons rains are sufficiently frequent and heavy
to wash away the poison mixture from the leaves and from the
base of the stems. In 1925, however, eight or ten applications
of the mixture were made during the dry period, thus permit-
ting the accumulation of a considerable'quantity of the material
in the axils of the leaves and on the ground around the plants.
The light rain coming on May 12 was just sufficient to wash off
the surplus from the plants and leave it in a moist lump around
the base of the stems, making conditions favorable for the
growth of the fungi.

CONTROL

Since stem injury of tobacco resulting from the accumulation
of poison mixture around the stems has occurred only twice
during the number of years it has been in successful use for
controlling the budworm and since the injury occurred on these
occasions about one week after a light rain terminating a long
dry period, it seems that this type of injury will always be of
minor importance. If such weather conditions should again ob-
tain, it appears that the injury may be prevented by modifying
the method of applying the poison mixture and cultural prac-
tices. During dry periods tobacco in non-irrigated fields grows
slowly and one application of the poison per week may be suf-
ficient to keep the buds protected from the budworm. By this
practice there would be less of the material to accumulate around
the stems. If it were found to be impractical to reduce the num-
ber of applications of the poison mixture in order to keep the bud-
worm under control, the amount of the mixture should be re-
duced to a minimum at each application, and the soil could be
stirred around the plants with a hoe or more soil worked to the
plants with a plow. By this means the mixture could be re-
moved from contact with the stems or covered before it re-
sulted in injury to the plants.




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'2012-02-08T15:08:03-05:00'
describe
'173678' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIEK' 'sip-files00003.QC.jpg'
876dab7a9b71623dc52384e9157ad1cc
b67cc418ca5f9c11f758e52e8a97398d1d3fda98
'2012-02-08T15:07:47-05:00'
describe
'498960' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIEL' 'sip-files00003.tif'
b2e9b5f0d6d44a555f6827d318d529b8
2a1b3bc44e43dace45ffefe78fff0913372a1a03
describe
'2405' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIEM' 'sip-files00003.txt'
ecebcc24cf2de045e2fa0d544018667d
00cd3a5a1e8f3eefbeaff976ec6cca82198299dd
describe
'56017' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIEN' 'sip-files00003thm.jpg'
dc22f2e3e9f9317f76a9a6a045b44441
d03db0c749677cfb562c96e46032a0ab1374bc6a
describe
'473684' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIEO' 'sip-files00004.jp2'
3612cc4b9231849ccb20938d00a0742c
c44068c275701bdb1d9d087e6d0372ad4967fc9c
'2012-02-08T15:08:00-05:00'
describe
'502319' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIEP' 'sip-files00004.jpg'
78beb8c00133ae64084ac24f1aa2ac6e
06c3f227defcfbc49c365b6e1377d1bf4bbdba51
'2012-02-08T15:07:52-05:00'
describe
'28705' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIEQ' 'sip-files00004.pro'
f5d9929f34452a851364e3a861bc5c38
dc8940c884d23095f59b5397ae4602a30a63e39f
describe
'157289' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIER' 'sip-files00004.QC.jpg'
2bbcce88d60f8bf80630924ffde58cea
bc4afa4aecc04ba05679829447a04f47bb777326
describe
'3802724' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIES' 'sip-files00004.tif'
e3eb496fe63772e51d1febf1d3af53fa
ad8469e1c3d766d927e30fcb20b2fae07614924e
'2012-02-08T15:07:49-05:00'
describe
'2668' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIET' 'sip-files00004.txt'
d7e5819a991322c50be89a4553ce6034
5b259dbf92b66c6abfb6a0e9420933de8b2c9c35
describe
'48580' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIEU' 'sip-files00004thm.jpg'
fe3c241faacd64148aced413e9bb1d95
015c4a5b7a100228c7fed5e8c0012a20ced0ce08
'2012-02-08T15:07:34-05:00'
describe
'461542' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIEV' 'sip-files00005.jp2'
9cc8a09129c639d1d52df611e2043c3d
b262d340773d0fc3778a31456885f38ab7000247
describe
'468349' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIEW' 'sip-files00005.jpg'
bb4b5c436b59b28e04cc364f695cba4f
fadffdd82b418ed645e2509aafe5a0978387142c
describe
'40083' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIEX' 'sip-files00005.pro'
394a2ca760b86b4ae1a548f5dfcb49f0
19ba7983a2600495bdfb8f3fbdbea1591d51dcf1
describe
'160199' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIEY' 'sip-files00005.QC.jpg'
739ddddf0a5cc8227c3b2e6c37e9d18a
ceecd80d80a102bf0bf4624956eb2824ce5f7833
describe
'3703824' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIEZ' 'sip-files00005.tif'
d045253f3f1dfa52afb6fe52bfcaa62a
79caa6b3f515ec314a0167af8f05f97829b76ddb
'2012-02-08T15:07:39-05:00'
describe
'2472' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIFA' 'sip-files00005.txt'
8ca67f7a24626a445fb81ce0084bb3a9
8cabe77cd4cc002e710bf602d15ef12a72b5b085
describe
'50139' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIFB' 'sip-files00005thm.jpg'
bd3ead5f305f7a28a2ff8bb9cadbfa20
63cc87b68c46931142dc164ec845aa7340231fb8
describe
'467341' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIFC' 'sip-files00006.jp2'
a5de885879270b8c2bfcfc67becc19aa
5c318bf9081159e1ce8da5145147c53db1a8a326
describe
'532966' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIFD' 'sip-files00006.jpg'
43040dbc0dea7d8aa248391b24f90ffa
8ebe57211e98b02e6e02615c5ef8595cb14e8d7b
describe
'39804' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIFE' 'sip-files00006.pro'
58aa69c28bbf835dece2256c99242879
db8af1857af37eeb5d68854858ac53358d20da69
'2012-02-08T15:07:36-05:00'
describe
'169629' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIFF' 'sip-files00006.QC.jpg'
6f5e4ab9eee8545b0ffdeaa347806272
eaf1558c18db342e38704992899d5fd7656ec90e
describe
'3750628' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIFG' 'sip-files00006.tif'
b3e86a3f06723f56d107455655683f7d
97d69dfce848f7fde3ba23a6c321d5aa420b16de
describe
'2539' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIFH' 'sip-files00006.txt'
074d1582eabb9d508a4449bc88a728fe
2216870a0ce97d48b531e75177fe9c2cd66a4b55
'2012-02-08T15:07:42-05:00'
describe
WARNING CODE 'Daitss::Anomaly' Invalid character
'52164' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIFI' 'sip-files00006thm.jpg'
a7fdfb638b898b6847eff931bb072771
f0ae9906e19108699665b3304d8a4a0aa02a35b1
'2012-02-08T15:07:56-05:00'
describe
'459476' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIFJ' 'sip-files00007.jp2'
0fac15135edc55a3b19fabcce821249c
f71ff3022e6c2d927eaddcb0d7e1ac33fb1949bf
describe
'437753' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIFK' 'sip-files00007.jpg'
14e0aa7cc214edd48e1bf99f70c74296
a652908d8f05ccb3980fe37ea64600196a819756
describe
'30311' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIFL' 'sip-files00007.pro'
46c5ccc47d0fd1934efac72be20ae564
6525c4b8d5c8b6747777c15af3828e7d6eedafdc
describe
'143563' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIFM' 'sip-files00007.QC.jpg'
e33fd67b2a541c6811fc936da0316173
64f41c293c2cf18c63592ab7475ff8959cc49ae0
describe
'3687008' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIFN' 'sip-files00007.tif'
a1d0cd036dfadd8311a414c1e46c2f90
133d323343360a319b56a3312653669414c7d75c
describe
'1298' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIFO' 'sip-files00007.txt'
61cebeb4a401a66910f4cc6f4619cdd1
68c7d9ea9eaf24e80b58a25819f98afc80f267fa
describe
'46701' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIFP' 'sip-files00007thm.jpg'
cd7b245d299f22f7ce06140ccc66696c
e50e41dc1f14ec19efd8615bd1c6fde65c854034
'2012-02-08T15:07:48-05:00'
describe
'479217' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIFQ' 'sip-files00008.jp2'
3587967395884172b02a2d7dfb8c0851
b745fff8e795423572d2c1d833ed9e9cb3175ac0
describe
'501121' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIFR' 'sip-files00008.jpg'
4f16ac17dfc5059bd1ff64ceb7fd2a90
fb8d4bb333548a9aa869ce6e397e006f1b7c64a9
describe
'36341' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIFS' 'sip-files00008.pro'
b14dfb8e57b778c2005490d5beb59e78
8af75f53589cf837172f90b464801208a66b87d6
'2012-02-08T15:07:40-05:00'
describe
'156746' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIFT' 'sip-files00008.QC.jpg'
5d6a9084bf174a7acaaabf276a4336cf
6f67b7204b31a62012e26eac5b991758b88b6133
describe
'3847436' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIFU' 'sip-files00008.tif'
c46a8bb5db4390543ef474fdc072fa43
df80db96cf1de0d1887945cdc17a02efdd5afbed
describe
'1580' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIFV' 'sip-files00008.txt'
b6897e7a946df7655681347a4695be8a
6da879bb85686eb01ba105a8e228a438fa90d7b2
describe
'50673' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIFW' 'sip-files00008thm.jpg'
660e3c89a8caf7f87e695632217f71f6
255b1054f90c5021c0a2d6f1cfa4ce9caa452ca7
describe
'125176' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIFX' 'sip-files00009.jp2'
fe76ab1e9bf40141e7250647c1944a90
250f87cf7319f5ca5a789dbcb529c77f2adf238b
describe
'495708' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIFY' 'sip-files00009.jpg'
2b61b531b65e2cd77a82cfcc562401ef
8e1ad0f253ff4443f646066cc6399c9880c32084
describe
'61711' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIFZ' 'sip-files00009.pro'
0745f921a3c47935b56e83e275b9fd59
c90ff4c4c10dfdae3e11b02c3dabd1ba6c3b33d9
describe
'178937' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIGA' 'sip-files00009.QC.jpg'
259f406d111d0b40bbc2821ecb4f0a7e
cabe3297e109b51bccfe2337446c8f573e6438df
describe
'498644' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIGB' 'sip-files00009.tif'
3505550f9873963efd868b9236acd1f8
932bcfa7e774596f9ca5fce4249a043627ca3a67
describe
'2470' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIGC' 'sip-files00009.txt'
131b2c28793328dd8f72fb738f02420b
4ff9c6097dc79fa4e5c8d7d4ee64d0f438f8a590
describe
'58768' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIGD' 'sip-files00009thm.jpg'
41506879459be304706bcf648f2afa6a
f8e13f980c7686000eefc493b3b34ee4aec69029
describe
'120386' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIGE' 'sip-files00010.jp2'
0ee599623485cf6fab441e7c81cf381a
25668b7f6e7e5a1a97bf6c587ce45fb39d76ce09
describe
'481319' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIGF' 'sip-files00010.jpg'
143dd5176d14dcbb0b7d29ed68f07624
4ff59474cd93658b17c3fe1a1a8d137997d4c8e7
describe
'58447' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIGG' 'sip-files00010.pro'
058c5131377f3191bb9d8224f97d893b
7c61a74fd6307f1194f3fea41bae09a411b21e10
describe
'170206' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIGH' 'sip-files00010.QC.jpg'
4b433d6afcae4efbd0e60a8705e80552
eb3b49c043268b6199a57dfa9e8df05d11b4bdc5
describe
'498964' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIGI' 'sip-files00010.tif'
3b2b6002058b224b2084664918e4c25b
e0367d7cf3cf8753fefcb55c164cee1eb99d1c86
describe
'2313' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIGJ' 'sip-files00010.txt'
b77c0d3462ed409b549e9d4e60766afd
0b893910e3d7535cafe93d12027dcfe8390a685f
describe
'54767' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIGK' 'sip-files00010thm.jpg'
e6ca9b83f47a0a2456826aac4bbc9a55
bceb634be0163fc064198aad100cabe287f3f20f
describe
'23904' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIGL' 'sip-filesUF00026386_00001.mets'
90646922dfc568e2ee360bb529363fc7
3a03ab7a6723ebcd8eabb17e564794edfa67173b
'2012-02-08T15:07:41-05:00'
describe
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
'2015-05-15T15:42:01-04:00' 'mixed'
xml resolution
http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/ufdc2.xsd
BROKEN_LINK schema http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/ufdc2.xsd
The element type "div" must be terminated by the matching end-tag "
".
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
'26484' 'info:fdaE20090529_AAACZCfileF20090529_AAFIGO' 'sip-filesUF00026386_00001.xml'
91ef0646065178448c8993375cba902a
8d19bf26f3278ac54c0fcfb0c53041f6df4bd55a
describe
xml resolution


xml record header identifier oai:www.uflib.ufl.edu.ufdc:UF0002638600001datestamp 2009-01-05setSpec [UFDC_OAI_SET]metadata oai_dc:dc xmlns:oai_dc http:www.openarchives.orgOAI2.0oai_dc xmlns:dc http:purl.orgdcelements1.1 xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.openarchives.orgOAI2.0oai_dc.xsd dc:title Stem injury of tobacco caused by fungi growing on the poison mixture used for controlling bud worms Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station ; 182dc:creator Tisdale, W. B ( William Burleigh ), 1890-Kelley, J. G ( John Grady )dc:subject Tobacco -- Diseases and pests -- Florida ( lcsh )Fungal diseases of plants -- Florida ( lcsh )dc:description b Statement of Responsibility by W.B. Tisdale and J.G. Kelley.Cover title."Contribution no. 3 from the Tobacco Experiment Station, Quincy"-- T.p.dc:publisher University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stationdc:date 1926dc:type Bookdc:format p. 277-286 : ill. ; 23 cm.dc:identifier http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/ufdc/?b=UF00026386&v=00001000923484 (aleph)AAB7802 (ltqf)AEN4035 (notis)18172683 (oclc)dc:source University of Floridadc:language English