Title: Why grow tomatoes
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026381/00001
 Material Information
Title: Why grow tomatoes
Alternate Title: Bulletin 62 ; Florida Agricultural Extension Service
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Thursby, Isabelle S.
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Publication Date: June, 1931
Copyright Date: 1931
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026381
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aab7784 - LTQF
amt6875 - LTUF
47285991 - OCLC
002570562 - AlephBibNum


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The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.

Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida

(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)


Written and Compiled by

Fig. 1.-THE TWENTIETH CENTURY LOVE APPLE. It is only in recent years
that the great nutritional value of the tomato has been really under-
stood and appreciated.

Bulletin 62

June, 1931


P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola
W. B. DAVIS, Perry
FRANK J. WIDEMAN, West Palm Beach
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
R. M. FULGHUM, B.S.A., Ass'stant Editor
E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest
W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent, Organization and Out-
look Specialist
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citrus Pathologist and Entomologist
N. R. MEHRHOF, M. AGR., Poultryman
WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Agent in Animal Husbandry'
J. E. TURLINGTON, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist'
FRANK W. BRUMLEY, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Farm
W. R. BRIGGS, B.S.A., Assistant Agricultural Economist, Farm
D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Marketing
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Specialist
LUCY BELLE SETTLE, B.S., District Agent
RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent
MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., District Agent
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, B.S., Food and Marketing Agent
EVA R. CULLEY, B.S., Acting Nutritionist

'In cooperation with U. S. D. A.

RED RIPE TOMATO-A SONG BY REBA HARRIS.......................--..-----.... 4
THE TOMATO ......----.............................----------------- --------------------- 5
Botanical Relationships and Description....---...............-..........---------- 5
History ......................... --------------------------------- 5
The Tomato in the Diet-- ----------------....................---- 6
Importance of the Tomato........................... -- ---.----- 7
TOMATO GROWING FOR 4-H CLUB MEMBERS ....................... .....--------. 8
Varieties -.......-...........................--- ---- ----. 9
Starting and Growing Tomato Plants...........................------- --. 10
Soils and Fertilizers .. ...................... ------ ---------- 10
Setting Plants ..................................................... 11
Staking ...........---...------------------------------- 11
Pruning .............. ...........---------------- -----. 13
Cultivation ..... .................. .------------- 13
Insects and Diseases-- ... ---..-----...................-.--------- ----------. 14
Why You Should Grow Tomatoes and Plenty of Them........................ 14
JUDGING THE TOMATO ....................-------... ...........-- ------ -----.---. 14
W AYS OF USING TOMATOES FRESH............. ......................... 24
Salads Made with Tomatoes...................----------..... 24
Sandwiches and Sandwich Fillings...............------------------ 30
CANNING AND PRESERVING ............-----......... ----- ---------- 31
WAYS OF USING CANNED TOMATOES.........---------..........---..... 38
Cocktails and Punch ...--.......-....----- -.-- .------ 38
Sauces ......................------------------. .----- 38
Soups ---.......... ... .........----------------------- 39
Chowders ...................--------------------- ------ 40
With Eggs .................---------------------. 41
Scalloped --............--------------------------..-- 41
Southern Dishes ..........----- --- ------............ ............ 42
With Beans .........-..... -------------- ----........... 44
With Sauerkraut .......... -- ----------------.------...... 45
W ith Fish .-.....~........................ --- 45
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ............. ........... -----------------46
A TOMATO TRAGEDY, BY LEACH RYDER ...................-................ 47



(Tune: My Bonnie Lies Over the Ocean)

We planted some wee seeds so tiny,
We watered and tilled them with care.
One day when the weather was shiny
A red-ripe tomato was there.


Red ripe, red ripe,
Red ripe juicy tomato!
Vitamins! Vitamins!
Rich with your essence it teems.

Oh, juicy red-ripe tomato,
You make our eyes sparkle and glow;
We serve you with crispy green lettuce.
You give us our pep and our go!


Of juicy red-ripe tomatoes,
Our garden is full to the brim;
We can them for days that are wintry,
To keep up our vigor and vim.


Written and Compiled by
For several years after girls' club work was first started in
the United States in 1910, the tomato was the only crop grown
by the girls, who were known as canning club girls. The tomato
was the basis for the canning and conserving program of the
first years of club work. Later discovery of the great nutritional
value of the tomato confirmed the wisdom of using this plant for
the first demonstrations.
While in later years 4-H club girls have taken up a number of
different lines of home demonstration work, the tomato still
remains an important part of their program of work.

The tomato, Lycopersicum esculentum, belongs to the night-
shade family of plants, the SOLANACEAE. Other well-known mem-
bers of this family are the potato, eggplant, pepper, tobacco,
ground cherry, jimson-weed, petunia, and other plants. In fact,
the family connections number more than 70 genera, with about
1,600 species.
The name of the genus, Lycopersicum, is derived from the
Greek word "lukopersion," which is the name of an Egyptian
plant closely allied to the Solanum (nightshade). The word
esculentum, which distinguishes the species, is a Latin word
meaning "fit to eat." However, it is a historical fact that for
a long time the tomato was considered not fit to eat.
The fruit of the tomato (botanically) is called a berry and
may be either red or yellow in color when ripe. The stem is tall,
somewhat hairy and rather strong smelling, with leaves alter-
nate and often compound. The root is fibrous and does not ex-
tend very far into the soil.
The tomato belongs to the "American group" of plants as to
origin. Its native home, like that of the potato, is Peru, and it
is still found in the wild state in South America. The Spaniards
are credited with the introduction of both the potato and tomato

Why Grow Tomatoes

into Europe. These vegetables have been more valuable to the
race than all the gold the Spaniards found.
For a long time the tomato was looked upon largely as an
ornamental plant, and it was not until the nineteenth century
that it came into general cultivation and use. Now no home
garden is complete without the tomato. It occupies third place
among the commercial vegetable crops and first place in plain
canned and prepared products and is now valued at $50,000,000
a year.
It is only in very recent years that the great nutritional value
of the tomato has become really appreciated and understood
and the fact known that it is a rich source of those elusive sub-
stances in food which make life possible-the vitamins.
Tomatoes Rich in Three Vitamins: The popularity of the to-
mato, fresh and canned, is fully justified by our present knowl-
edge of food values, for tomatoes are rich in vitamins A, B, and
C, and retain them well when cooked.
Vitamin A, or fat-soluble A, is considered most important to
health in the United States, because so many of our staple
foods are deficient in it. A diet poor in vitamin A lowers the
general stamina of the body and so greatly increases its suscep-
tibility to different infectious diseases.
Vitamin B is the water-soluble, growth-promoting substance
that prevents neuritis. It is important to appetite and digestion
and bears some relation to general nutrition as well. More vita-
min B is needed to keep the body in best condition than to pre-
vent neuritis and probably more than is needed to sustain
normal growth.
Vitamin C is the accessory food factor which is needed in
the diet if the disease known as scurvy and allied diseases are
to be avoided. While a person may not develop typical scurvy
on a diet containing a small amount of this anti-scorbutic vita-
min, he may become much indisposed, or half-sick, with no
definite symptoms but greatly impaired vitality and usefulness.
Lemon, orange, and tomato juices are the best recognized and
most popular remedies for scurvy.
Special emphasis may well be given to the anti-scorbutic value
of tomatoes and tomato juice, because these retain their vitamin
C content almost unchanged in cooking or canning, and they are

Why Grow Tomatoes

available in canned form in all parts of the country throughout
the year and at prices that are neither prohibitive nor subject
to violent fluctuations. This low cost has caused the tomato to
be called the "poor man's orange."
Preventive for Pellagra: Among the diseases which pressed
their unpleasant personality on the public as well as the medi-
cal profession in the latter quarter century, particularly in the
South, was pellagra, one of the most devastating. Dr. Joseph
Goldberger was assigned the task of finding the cause of pel-
lagra and a cure for it-for science is persuaded there is a nat-
ural cause if not a cure for every disease.
In a very recent pamphlet issued by the U. S. Public Health
Service, Reprint No. 1157 from the Public Health Reports, 1927,
Dr. Goldberger and Dr. G. A. Wheeler state that the expressed
juice of canned tomatoes given daily in a quantity of approxi-
mately 1,200 grams (40 ounces) was found to possess well-
marked preventive action for human pellagra. In the conclusion
they say, "Tomatoes are recommended for use in the treatment
of active cases of pellagra, and it is suggested that a more lib-
eral use of this vegetable, particularly in the late winter and
spring, be encouraged as a preventive measure."
Tomatoes as Tonics and "Conditioners": Tomatoes are rich
in minerals, iron, calcium, and phosphorus predominating. They
rank first of all vegetables and fruits as a food treatment for
diabetes. They are rich in acids which help to keep the stomach
and intestines in condition. The chief acid present is citric, the
same that characterizes citrus fruits, though malic, the acid
found in apples, as well as oxalic, the acid present in rhubarb,
are found. Tomatoes contain sugars-glucose and fructose. The
combination of sugars, the delicate acidity, the refreshing juici-
ness, the attractive color, and the ability to gently stimulate
the appetite serve to make the tomato more popular than any
other vegetable except its cousin, the potato.
Tomatoes Have Alkaline Reaction: Tomatoes have an alka-
line reaction in the body. The liberal use of tomatoes in some
form in a meal will counter-balance the acid-forming foods, such
as meat, fish, and cereals and help to prevent or correct intes-
tinal disorder.
The tomato, which was used sparingly at the beginning of
the last century, and up to 50 years ago was considered injuri-

Why Grow Tomatoes

ous or even poisonous by many, is now cultivated wherever con-
ditions will permit. The use of the fresh fruit is not seasonal
but is sustained throughout the entire year in all parts of the
United States by shipments from the South, Mexico, Cuba, and
oher points and by hot-house cultivation.
Florida leads all states in the Union in the amount of toma-
toes shipped fresh and in the monetary value of the crop. The
crop annually sells for many millions of dollars. Manatee County
alone realizes nearly two millions of dollars from the annual
crop of pruned and staked tomatoes shipped through the months
of April, May, and June.
Fortunately for the health of the people, tomato canning to-
day is one of the greatest vegetable industries in America, and
the tomato is the vegetable most commonly canned in the home.
In one year commercial food factories can more than a million
and a quarter tons of red-ripe tomatoes. This includes soups,
purees, chili sauce, catsup, tomato paste, prepared spaghetti, and
a dozen other products from tomatoes. By far the greatest bulk
of the crop that goes to the factory is canned with the addition
of nothing more than salt.
Canned tomatoes, especially those canned whole, are similar
to the raw product, as canning does not materially change the
texture or food value of the vegetable.
In the army the juice from the canned fruit is recommended
to quench thirst, where water is unobtainable or impure.
Tomato juice put up in glass bottles, though a very recent
product on the market, occupied a large place in the 1930 tomato
pack. One state alone produced nearly three and a half million
cases, almost a million greater than in 1929. This new drink is
being enthusiastically received and welcomed into the field with
grapefruit and pineapple juice as side runners to orange juice.
It is now found on the bill of fare of enterprising establishments
and fountain stands.
Club girls and housewives, realizing the value of the tomato,
will see to it that the home pantry shelves are amply filled with
this delicious vegetable, so that the family may have a plentiful
supply for the days when the fresh product is difficult to obtain.
It is recommended that the Florida 4-H club girl have at
least 50 tomato plants in her garden. These should be ready for

Why Grow Tomatoes

transplanting to the open ground in late August, September, or
October if for her fall garden, or from January to March 1, as
soon as danger of frost is over, for the spring
garden. The time for transplanting, of course,
will depend on the locality.

There is a large
and interesting
number of varieties
in tomatoes. Among
the best known that
are grown in the
United States might
well be named the
Earliana, June
Pink, Bonny Best,
John Baer, Cooper's
Special, Living-
ston's Globe, Globe,
and a newer arrival,
the Marglobe. The
Marglobe is a recent
introduction t h a t

Why Grow -
Lt. T i6 -rreaIV B

u .ad d ily.
3rd -M" be uKsdSo pl Sow
41k- ajihACuaw i
5ik- kh ,
AJ5.m C._1

has been developed by the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture and the Florida Experiment
Station. It is a variety of unusual merit because
of its resistance to disease and its good quality.
Very often the variety of tomato grown
is largely a matter of personal preference,
but for Florida gardens the
variety found best adapted
to our soil and climatic
conditions should be used.
Of late years, the small, Fig. 2.- This club girl tells why club
so-called preserving toma- girls should grow tomatoes.
so-called preserving toma-
toes have become quite popular and with good reason, as they
are delicious when preserved. Yellow Plum, Yellow Pear, and
Red Pear, are among the best varieties.
The still smaller cherry tomato is a rampant grower and pro-
duces abundantly throughout the entire spring and summer sea-
son. It is bright red in color, and perfectly smooth. Clusters of

Why Grow Tomatoes

10 and 15 fruit ripen at one time. They are delicious to serve
whole in salads.
Tomatoes are very sensitive to cold and must be started in
a warm place. In order to have early tomatoes, sow seed in boxes
or seedbed six to eight weeks before planting, covering 1/4 to 1/2
inch deep. When from two to three inches high, or when seed-
lings have their second regular
leaf in addition to the seed leaves
with which they come through
the ground, they may be
transplanted to paper bands
or pots in order to form a
good root system and be strong
and stocky. Paper drinking cups
make good pots for seedlings. Then
shift to larger pots or bands as
growth and root development proceed.
The plants should be kept growing rap-
idly from the very start. Those grown in
such a way that they can be transferred
to the open without disturbing the root
system have an
advantage over
plants whose
r o o t systems
must be more
or less injured in removing
from the seedbed to the
garden. A plant
Fig. 3.-A well grown tomato plant ready for ready for trans-
transplanting. ready for trans-
planting should
be stocky and sturdy and well rooted and have plenty of dark
green leaves.
The tomato appears to do well on a variety of soils from a
light soil to a muck. Put the soil in good condition by working
in thoroughly well-rotted stable manure two weeks in advance
of transplanting. For best results the ground should be already
in a high state of fertility and good physical condition and,
preferably, should not have been in tomatoes, potatoes, peppers,

Why Grow Tomatoes

or eggplant for at least three years. These vegetables, which
are closely related to the tomato, may serve as host plants for
various diseases which attack the tomato crop.
The kind and quantity of fertilizer to use varies with the con-
dition of the land and the skill of the grower. Well-rotted stable
manure is the best all-around garden fertilizer. It not only fur-
nishes essential plant food, but also makes the soil mellow, por-
ous, and easily worked, prevents crusting of the surface, and
renders the land more drought resistant.
Authorities agree, however, that for the best development of
the fruit, stable manure should be supplemented by one or
more applications of commercial fertilizer, after plants have be-
come well established in the garden. A formula of 7-5-6 is some-
times used, but it is recommended that, owing to the wide varia-
tion in type of soils over Florida, the advice of the county agent
be obtained regarding kind, time, and amount of fertilizer to use.

Use stake and string in making your rows. Be careful in
measuring. Stretch line where rows are to run and space evenly.
When staked and pruned to one or more stems, tomatoes may
be set 18 inches apart in three-foot rows. This allows room for
clean, thorough cultivation.
Not all plants will stand deep transplanting, but tomatoes do
better set obliquely- with the lower end not over six inches
deep but all the stem except the very top buried. They will then
develop a secondary root system along the stem, enabling them
to better withstand hot, dry weather. Plants 12 to 15 inches
tall should have at least two-thirds of the stem covered with soil.
Plant late in the afternoon and water thoroughly. Watch plants
and, when soil becomes dry on top, water thoroughly again.

Many commercial growers in Florida are producing tomatoes
that are trained to a single stem or to two stems supported by
stakes. Authorities agree that this is an excellent way to handle
the crop in the limited space of the home garden. Especially is
this practice valuable where surface trench irrigation is used, or
on poorly drained land.
When tomatoes are transplanted, it is wise to drive a thick,
tall stake about three inches from the base of the plant, upon

Why Grow Tomatoes

which the vine may be trained. At this time, the
be injured by the stakes as they would be later.

roots will not

Fig. 4.-Staked and trimmed tomato plants produce fruits of the choicest
quality. This row of Marglobe shows what may be expected from staked
and pruned plants.

The stake should be driven deep enough to support the plant
and leave the stake projecting about four feet above the ground.
Soft strings should be tied tightly around the stakes and loosely

A d'

:~a~S~~ !_:~-- rc~S~~
' `
g~P~-- Y~.~

Why Grow Tomatoes

around the plants. As the plant increases in height it will be
necessary to continue the tying up process.
When tomatoes are staked and pruned, the plants may be
more easily cultivated and sprayed, and the fruit will be cleaner,
larger, and finer. Many think staked plants will bear over a
longer period of time.

The main stem and one or two fruiting branches are a good
average to leave on the plant. Select the branch to be left in ad-
dition to the main stem and pinch out all the other branches,
while young, small, and tender. Pruning, or removal of surplus
shoots or suckers, throws all the growth and vigor of the plant
into the main stems and into the fruit.
Pruning is not difficult. Examine a tomato plant that is eight
to 12 inches tall. You find a main stem, with branches com-
ing out along stem where leaves are attached. After the surplus
small branches or suckers are pinched off, other branches will
appear higher up, as the plant grows. Keep these suckers pinched
out from time to time. When the branch which was left in
addition to the main stem reaches some size, secondary branches
will appear on it, the same as on the main stem. Keep these also
pinched out. Also pinch out top of main stems after three to
five clusters of bloom and hands of fruit have formed on each.
This hastens the development of the fruit.
Frequent shallow cultivation is necessary, especially during
the first month in the garden. This helps to conserve moisture,
keeps down the grass and weeds, and allows the air to enter the
soil. The constant cultivation, keeping weeds and grass down,
will carry the tomatoes through any ordinary "dry spell"; but,
in case of real drought, the plants will be severely checked if
not ruined unless water can be given. If you do water, soak the
ground thoroughly. Sprinkling the surface is worse than useless.
After the fruit commences to ripen, cultivation may be dis-
continued, if desired, and the plants mulched heavily with straw,
hay, or other material of this kind. This will keep weeds from
growing, conserve moisture, and make cultivation unnecessary.
In fact, many gardeners consider mulching a very beneficial

Why Grow Tomatoes

The insects that are most destructive are cutworms, tomato
horn worms, tomato fruit worms, and flea beetles. The most in-
jurious diseases are nailhead rust and fusarium wilt. Nailhead
rust can be controlled by consistent spraying with bordeaux
mixture and by use of resistant varieties such as Marglobe.
Fusarium wilt is avoided by planting in soil in which no tomatoes
or related crops have been grown for three or more years. Spray-
ing with arsenicals is recommended for the tomato horn worm,
fruit worms, and the flea beetles. It is highly advisable to carry
on bordeaux spraying or dusting through the season. This is
most important, even when using a resistant variety like Mar-
globe. For detailed information, ask your home demonstration
agent for the bulletins "Florida Truck and Garden Insects," by
J. R. Watson, and "Tomato Diseases in Florida," by G. F. Weber.
Tomatoes are rich in all three vitamins, A, B, and C, all es-
sential to vigorous growth and health.
Tomatoes are rich in minerals; hence, are body and bone build-
ers and effective blood cleansers.
Tomatoes are simplest of all vegetables to can. Canned, their
food value is just as great as that of the fresh product, and
they may be used in many pleasing ways which will serve to
make other foods more attractive, palatable, and healthful. To-
matoes should be canned in quantities sufficient that they can
be served at least twice a week throughout the year, when fresh
ones are not available from the garden.

The "form" of the plant has reference to the habit of growth.
In judging the form of a given plant, compare it with an ideal
plant in habit of growth. Standard varieties differ from dwarf
varieties in this respect. "Vigor" is the ability of a plant to
thrive under suitable conditions. Thriftiness is indicated by the
appearance of the plant and the fruit it bears. The "foliage"
should be heavy to be able to resist the hot sun of midsummer
days. "Productiveness" needs no explanation, and great stress
should be laid on this quality. Some varieties of tomatoes are
more subject to "disease" than others; so a place is given in the
judging record to this point. (Examine both plant and fruit

Why Grow Tomatoes


Pois Perfect
onts Score

Vigor ................... .................
Form ............................ .
F foliage ................................ i
Product (quantity & quality)
Freedom from disease
(plant & fruit)...............
Total .--.-- ...

Club Girl's


R em arks ---------_--- --- .. -..--------.-------- -.------.-------_.----------_ _------------- .---------
Remarks .................. ............- ...- .... -...-..........
Name .......................
D ate .-- .. ... ... ....... ...................... .....- ......


The "form" or shape of the fruit should be characteristic of
the variety, smooth, regular, and free from wrinkles or folds.
The condition of the blossom and stem ends should be included
when considering smoothness. Specimens should be large as to
"size" but not overgrown. The "color" should be uniform, bright,
clear, and true to the variety. A poor color and an inferior skin
are serious objections. By "condition" is meant maturity of
specimens but not over-ripeness. They should have small seed
cavities, thick, firm, fleshy walls. The flesh should compose a
relatively large proportion of the tomato. The sample plate
should be uniform in size, form, color, and maturity-each fruit
being uniformly ripe.




Form (ideal for variety)......!
Size ................................. ..........
Color ............................... .........
Flesh ........... ........... ......... ..
Condition .........................
Uniformity of sample ---.....j.
Total ...--.................... .

Remarks ......--- ...........
Name .--................
Date .........

Perfect Club Girl's Corrected
Score Score Score

20 ............................ ............... ..
10 .................... .. -.... ...
20 ...... ................. -. -.. -- -
1520 .................. .......... .. ....
15 I....................... ......... ..
100 .................- ...... I........... ..... ....

------------------------------ ------------------------------:
I------------------------------ --------------------
------------------------------- ...................
I------------------------- ------- ----_ -----

Why Grow Tomatoes




Solids: Fruits, ripe...........I
Fruits, whole or in largely
pieces ..---..--...... ........ I
Fruit, uniform in quan-l
tity or type..................----
Meat, solid and free!
from green or defects
Flavor, natural ................
Color, natural ....---.............I
Peeling and coring-............
Weight (22 oz. for No. 3
tin) .............................
Liquid: Natural consistency
Weight (14 oz. in No. 2
tin) ............. ....-
Container, tin: Free fro m
rust or clean................
Free from dents or
blemishes ....................
Label clean, complete
information ................

Containers, glass: Clean .....-
Bales bright ....-- .............I
Labels, clean, completely
information-name of
person, product, date!

T otal ..................... I








/ Club Girl's


2 ------................-------------- -
2 -.........---....-.... ---------

1 -----...--..----. ------------

100 .-...-....---------------- ----------

Rem arks ............ -........... ... .....--- -- ..
Nam e ...- --- .. ...................... ... ...... --- -- .... -----
Date .--- ...... .......................

NOTE.-Solid-pack tomatoes are considered the finest tomato product.
Sound, uniformly ripe, fresh tomatoes must be used. The tomatoes, after
being peeled, cored and trimmed are placed in cans usually whole or almost
whole, usually with salt and sugar seasoning. Such juice as fills the space
between the pieces of tomato comes solely from the tomatoes within the
container. These may be labeled "Fancy Tomatoes".

......... ......... .........

-------------- ...............
......................... I ....

Why Grow Tomatoes

(Without the use of heat)
It not infrequently happens that considerable quantities of
green tomatoes become available, for which there appears to be
no use. Thus, at the end of the shipping season, large quantities
of green tomatoes may be left on the vines. Again, as happened
during a recent summer, a hail storm may bruise every tomato
in a field, making them useless for market, but leaving the green
ones available for home use by the method of preservation here
Green tomatoes can be very easily made into a desirable food
product, having good keeping qualities. Complete success by
this method, also called pickling, brining, "dilling" or ferment-
ing, cannot be had in Florida by the use of open containers that
allow the air to have free access to the contents. Containers
must be air-tight or nearly air-tight and must be kept full to
overflowing with the pickling brine.

Pack the tomatoes into suitable containers together with the
desired quantity of pickle spices. Mixed or plain spices or dill
may be used, but for tomatoes the writer prefers mixed spices
such as are generally sold by grocerymen. About half an ounce
of the spices to a gallon is indicated; more or less to suit the
taste may be used. In case insufficient tomatoes are available
for filling a container, grape leaves may be used to complete the
filling. In fact, a pad of grape leaves or cloth several layers thick
may be placed on top of the tomatoes in each container, in order
to prevent the topmost ones from floating; or, if necessary, a
plate or other suitable non-metal dish may be used to weight
down the contents. Then fill the containers to overflowing with
a brine made by dissolving 7/8 cup (7 ounces) of common salt and
3 or 4 tablespoons of sugar in a gallon of water.
Cover or close the containers as directed in a succeeding para-
graph and set aside in some suitable place where any slight
overflow of brine can do no harm. A shady place in a shed,
under a tree, or under a building, near or on the ground, is fine.
They may be kept indoors if so desired, provided suitable pro-
vision is made for taking care of the slight overflow of brine by

Why Grow Tomatoes

means of saucers, graniteware pans, etc. When the brine begins
to recede (lower), add fresh brine, made without sugar, to over-
flowing, and keep the containers closed. Do this occasionally,
or until the brine ceases to recede.
During warm weather the process is completed in two to four
weeks. The cessation of gas formation, the clearing and lower-
ing of the brine in the jar, are signs that the pickling process
is completed or is nearing completion. As it nears completion, a
whitish sediment will accumulate on top of the tomatoes. This
consists of the bacteria that produced the fermentation, together
with other particles sus-
pended in the brine. This
is perfectly harmless
and may be washed off
preparatory to eating.
.o Containers of glass,
earthenware (such as
churns, stone jars, or
crocks), or other non-
metal materials like
wood, having about 2 to
12 quarts' capacity, are
suitable for preserving
tomatoes in small quan-
tities by t h is process.
Churns with a flange
for holding a lid are de-
sirable, because the lid
(generally of earthen-
Fig. 5.-A stone churn or crock is an excel- ware) helps hold down
lent container for making or storing the contents and sup-
pickled tomatoes. The cover (shown in
front) should be used under the rubber ports the sheet of rub-
on which the sand bag is resting. ber and weight used to
make a tight cover. Large containers such as wooden tubs,
buckets, kegs, and barrels may be used for larger quantities.
It is again emphasized that, for best results, all these contain-
ers must be provided with some device for keeping the air away
from contents. Allowing the preserving process to take its
course in containers that are air-tight or nearly air-tight not
only prevents the formation of a scum but results in a finer

Why Grow Tomatoes

product with better keeping qualities. The small amount of
scum sometimes formed in such containers is generally harmless.


Fig. 6.-A 3-quart glass jar filled with okra, showing cover (consist-
ing of a sheet of rubber and a sand pouch) in position. A similar
method is used for tomatoes and other vegetables.

Why Grow Tomatoes

Containers not already fitted to be closed air-tight may be
covered practically air-tight by means of a sheet of rubber and
a suitable weight, preferably a sack of sand. Pieces of suitable
sheet-rubber may be obtained from hardware stores or dealers
in machinery. Or suitable sheets, even a foot in diameter, may
be cut from discarded inner tubes of auto or truck tires and
should be an inch or two larger than the diameter of the open-
ing to be covered.
The sack, containing enough sand to make it cover the open-
ing, is most conveniently made by gathering the edges of a
square piece of cloth up around the sand and tying the gathered
portion above it to form a pouch. Strong wrapping paper also
may be used for making the pouches. When one or more bricks
or other suitable weights are used instead of a sand pouch, a
pad of paper or cardboard about one-half inch thick (a catalog
or magazine of suitable size is fine) should be placed between
the weight and rubber, in order to better equalize the pressure
on the rubber and the edge of the opening, and thus make it
more nearly air-tight. Such a pad sometimes may be used to
advantage even under a sand bag.
If glass fruit jars are used (and only those with glass covers
are suitable), the covers should not be clamped down firmly or
sealed until the pickling process is completed, which is two to
four weeks. Leaving the covers on loosely with the clamps or
bails in position ready to be clamped down allows the fermenta-
tion gases to escape.
The larger malted milk jars, of about three quarts capacity,
have been found very desirable for pickling purposes. Many
other kinds of glass jars, such as candy jars of suitable size,
also are excellent. Glass jars with ground stoppers, when of
suitable size, are fine, the stoppers operating as safety valves.
Used wooden pickle tubs, or buckets or kegs, or barrels gen-
erally may be obtained from grocerymen at small cost. Of course,
new ones, when available, may be employed. Tubs or buckets
should have the head permanently replaced and then, by means
of a key-hole saw, an oblong or rectangular hole (about 4 x 5
inches) cut through the top, through which the hand can reach.
Such a hole is also very conveniently covered with a sheet of
rubber and suitable weight. Kegs and barrels may be filled by
removing the head and replacing it after filling. Such keg or
barrel should then be placed on its side and filled with the pick-

Why Grow Tomatoes

ling brine through the bung. This should then be kept closed
by means of a piece of rubber and suitable weight, and the keg
or barrel kept filled to overflowing with brine every few days
or as often as necessary.
Again, kegs and barrels may be used for making pickles with-
out removing the head. If the head has been removed, replace it.
Such containers
should have the bung en-
larged to an oval or rec- .
tangular opening o f
about 4 x 5 inches and
laid on the side. The keg
or barrel can then be
conveniently fi I e d or
emptied through this en- -_ p .
large opening.

Tomatoes preserved
by this process may be
eaten like pickles or used .
with other materials for
making c h o w cho w,
pickle spreads, and what
not. The mi 1 d acid
formed during the pro-
cess of serf-souring is
cess of self-souring is Fig. 7.-A sheet of rubber, layers of ccr-
the same as that found rugated cardboard, and bricks make a
in dill pickles and sauer- good cover to use over containers in
which tomatoes are being pickled.
kraut, namely lactic
acid, and is recognized by dieticians and the medical profession
generally as a very desirable intestinal antiseptic. It is easily di-
gested. Self-soured vegetables and pickles (dill pickles, tomatoes,
sauerkraut, string beans, okra, peppers, etc.) are not in the same
class with vinegar pickles that are so generously condemned or
Aside from the presence of the beneficent lactic acid, self-
soured products furnish an abundance of roughage necessary for
the best functioning of the digestive system. Both the brine
and acid of self-soured tomatoes may be removed by several
changes of water, and the resulting product used for any pur-
pose for which fresh green tomatoes are used.

Why Grow Tomatoes

After the curing or pickling process is completed the product
may be left in the original containers even when these are of
considerable size, and suitable quantities removed as needed,
provided the containers are always kept closed and full to over-
flowing by additions of fresh brine.
In general, it has been found best, however, to repack toma-
toes processed or pickled in large containers into glass fruit
jars of suitable sizes having glass covers that can be sealed. If
the pickling or curing process was completed in such jars, it is
unnecessary to repack them, although new brine may be in part
or wholly substituted for the old. The glass jars with their con-
tents can then be sealed and set aside in any cool place for keep-
ing and for future use. Repacking may be done in the old brine,
partly new and partly old brine, or all new brine. If all new brine
is used, the product will, of course, be less sour and more salty
but will keep better, at the same time producing a clearer look-
ink package for exhibition purposes.
Unused portions left in sealed jars will begin to form a scum
over the brine after a few days, and spoilage may begin. This
can be prevented by simply repacking the unused material into
smaller jars and filling them to overflowing with brine, supple-
menting with new brine if necessary. This procedure is recom-
mended when it is apparent that repacking in one or several
smaller containers is more convenient, or more practical than
adding a relatively large amount of fresh brine to replenish a
larger container.
That other vegetables may be preserved by this process has
been mentioned several times. Most common among these are
cucumbers (dill pickles), green beans (snap beans, string beans),
sweet bell-peppers, pimiento peppers, okra, artichokes, and per-
haps others.
Sauerkraut was not placed in the preceding list because the
process of producing it is slightly different, none or only small
quantities of brine, such as has been described, being used. In-
stead, the necessary brine is produced by tamping the shredded

Why Grow Tomatoes

In all instances where the use of new or fresh brine has been
indicated, half strength without sugar, made by using one-half
the quantity of salt indicated for the regular brine, may be used,
especially if a less salty product is desired.
If at any time the pickled product should prove to be lacking
in acidity (that is, not sour enough to suit) this may be reme-
died by adding sugar, allowing a teaspoonful to each quart of
the contents of the container. This may be repeated several
times if necessary. After adding the sugar, close the container
as previously recommended, and allow to stand for a week or 10
days. The sugar will be changed by the lactic acid bacteria into
lactic acid, thus making a more sour product. On the other hand,
acidity may be directly increased by the addition of a teaspoon-
ful or fraction thereof, of lactic acid to each quart. Small quan-
tities of vinegar may also be used if desired.
The writer is aware that those who are familiar with the pro-
cess of making pickled products of the kind described in this
paper in open containers, without the precautions described for
keeping out the air, do so with considerable success. But it is
believed that even such may find some advantage in adopting
the method described, whether in Florida or elsewhere.

Why Grow Tomatoes

General Points in Preparation of Salads: To make salad
plants crisp after thoroughly cleansing, let stand in cold water.
Then shake off surplus moisture and keep in cooler or refriger-
ator, until needed. Oil and water do not mix, hence salad plants
must be drained before making up. They should be crisp and
To "marinate" a salad means, ordinary, to mix with French
dressing and allow to stand a short time before serving.
Salad materials that are cut, in most cases, should be uniform
in size and symmetrical in shape. Materials are not usually com-
bined until ready to serve, except where they need to be mari-
Whole tomatoes may be quickly scalded, cold dipped, peeled,
and placed on ice to chill thoroughly before being served; or, in-
stead of being scalded, they may be rubbed with the back of a
silver knife, gently. This loosens the skin and enables it to be
peeled quickly. The small cherry tomatoes which grow extrava-
gantly in many sections in Florida and the pear-shaped yellow
or red tomato should always be scalded quickly and cold dipped;
then the skin may be slipped off easily. These combine into deli-
cious and most attractive salads.
Arranging and Serving: In arranging a salad, keep the let-
tuce or small leaves of cabbage in a cup-like shape. If cabbage or
lettuce is shredded, cut very finely. A center of interest is needed
in any finished salad. It may be a dash of paprika or thin strips
of pepper or pimiento on top of the mayonnaise placed in one
spot, not spread promiscuously.
Salads may be served from a chop plate, where each service
is ready to be lifted off into the individual plate, or from a salad
bowl lined with lettuce, water cress, finely shredded cabbage,
Chinese cabbage, or very thin slices of cucumber, and filled
with the materials. They may be served on the individual plate.
In this case, use a plate suited to the size of the salad, allowing
sufficient margin around the edge. When none of the basic
salad greens are available for a salad-bed, garnish with sprigs
of parsley, celery leaves, nasturtium leaves, or rings of green
French Dressings and Mayonnaise: Any good salad oil may
be used for French dressing and mayonnaise.

Why Grow Tomatoes

French Dressing
1/2 teaspoon salt 1 teaspoon sugar
6 tablespoons oil 14 teaspoon pepper or
3 tablespoons lemon juice paprika

Put all ingredients in a bottle and shake until well-blended
and thickened, just before using. May be beaten with a fork
in a bowl or jar.
Variations of French Dressing

One tablespoon Worcestershire sauce may be added. Or add
1 tablespoon each of finely minced onion, green pepper, celery,
and carrot, 1 teaspoon chopped parsley, 1/2 teaspoon each of
white mustard seed and celery seed. Add more salt, also sugar,
if desired. It is better the second day than first; hence should
be made in larger quantities than the amount given above.
Excellent to serve with fish, cauliflower, cabbage, chayote,
okra, and other vegetables; also fine for fruit salads.

1 whole egg or 1 teaspoon sugar
2 egg yolks Juice one lemon
1 teaspoon salt 1 pint oil
Put egg or yolks into bowl and beat with large rotary egg
Add 1 tablespoon oil and beat well. In about two minutes add
another tablespoon oil and beat as before. Continue beating
until 4 or 5 tablespoons have been beaten in. Then the remain-
ing oil may be added in a steady stream, beating rapidly all the
As it becomes too thick and consequently too hard to beat,
thin with the lemon juice into which the salt and sugar have
been dissolved.
May add more seasoning as desired.
Keep in a closely covered container (a fruit jar is good, kept
tightly closed with a rubber on it when not in use, and the jar
kept in a cool, dark place-wherever milk and butter is kept).
The mayonnaise will keep a week or longer in the hot days of
The secret in making a never failing mayonnaise is in the
adding of oil slowly at first and beating it in thoroughly at the
beginning, before adding it in the steady stream. By following

Why Grow Tomatoes

instructions, you will make a thick, delicious, and wholesome
Thousand Island Dressing
1% cups mayonnaise 1 or more hard cooked eggs
1 cup chili sauce cut fine
2 diced green onions % cup olives cut fine
cup green peppers, diced Tabasco or Worcestershire
2 pimientos, cut fine sauce may be added

Thousand island dressing is delicious served with tomato, egg
or fish salad.
A less elaborate, but equally delightful, dressing may be made
as follows:
1 cup mayonnaise % or 1 cup chili sauce (depend-
1 cup chopped olives, dill ing on the consistency of
pickle, or chayote the mayonnaise used)

Mix ingredients thoroughly and chill before using.
Tomato Soy Mayonnaise
To one cupful of mayonnaise add one or two tablespoonfuls
of tomato soy and mix.
Use with any vegetable, egg, cold meat, or fish salad. Tomato
soy mayonnaise also makes a delicious sandwich filling alone or
with ham or other cold meats, eggs, etc.
O. P. M. Tomato Flower Salad
Select a smooth red-ripe tomato, 2 or 21/2 inches in diameter,.
peel and chill. With a paring knife first cut (as though to divide
in half) through the skin to a depth of about 1/8 inch, leaving
base intact. In like manner cut in quarters and then in eighths.
Lay back the eight petals. Place the tomato on a bed of finely
shredded crisp cabbage or lettuce. In center of each petal place
an okra pod cut in half lengthwise. Next place a little mound of
cream or cottage cheese, rolled in finely-eut parsley, between
every other petal. Sprinkle center of tomato with finely chopped
green pepper, carrots, celery, and chives. Serve with French
Note: Do not over cook okra. Cook only until tender by steam-
ing or in boiling, salted water.

Why Grow Tomatoes

Florida 4-H Club Special
1 envelope sparkling gelatine 1 slice onion
1 cup cold water 2 slices lemon
1 No. 3 can or quart of to- % bay leaf
matoes 4 heart-shaped molds
Soak gelatine in cold water five minutes. Add seasoning, bring
to boiling point, and cook gently 20 minutes. Remove from fire,
add soaked gelatine, and, when dissolved, strain and allow to
cool. Turn mixture one-eighth inch deep into four heart shaped
molds, first dipped in cold water and chilled, and place on ice to
harden. From a green pepper cut four H's and, when the layers
in pan are firm, place an H in center of each heart (inside of
pepper up), and fasten down with a few drops of the liquid.
When rest of mixture is cold, add:
/2 cup Spanish onion, chopped 1 cup diced avocado or 1 cup
fine dilled chayote, diced
1/2 cup shredded celery 1 sweet pepper, preferably
red, shredded thinly

Fill molds and set away to harden at least two hours. Shred
one cup cabbage very finely. Let stand in cold water 10 minutes,
dry on leaves between towel and arrange on salad plate. On this
bed of shredded cabbage place the four hearts, points meeting
in center, dipping molds quickly into warm water in order to
make slip out easily. Add a green pepper stem and serve with
well chilled mayonnaise.
Poinsettia Salad
6 tomatoes 1% cups English peas
"Peppy" French dressing
Peel and thoroughly chill the tomatoes. When ready to serve,
cut into eighths, not quite severing the sections at the bottom,
spread apart like petals of the flower. Place on a crisp lettuce
leaf, dust lightly with salt. Fill the centers with green peas well
mixed with French dressing.
Dixie Salad
Cut young okra pods (cooked) in thick slices, and mix with
finely shredded cabbage or lettuce, cherry tomatoes (skins re-
moved), red and green peppers, and young chayotes cut in dice.
Add thousand island dressing, and serve in a bowl lined with
lettuce. Garnish with cherry tomatoes and hard boiled eggs.

Why Grow Tomatoes

Note: Okra should be cooked only until tender. Mix carefully
so that okra will retain shape.

Osceola Salad
Cherry tomatoes String beans
In a salad bowl lined with hearts of lettuce place equal quanti-
ties of cherry tomatoes (skin removed) and string beans. Serve
with mayonnaise and paprika or finely minced parsley sprinkled
over top.
Tomato Salad-Monticello
1 cup cherry tomatoes 1 tablespoon chopped parsley
1 cup small yellow tomatoes French dressing
1 clove garlic Lettuce

Scald the tomatoes, cold dip, and slip off skins carefully, and
set on the ice to cool. At serving time rub the salad bowl with
garlic and line with heart leaves of lettuce. Place the yellow
tomatoes in the center and red ones around them. Marinate with
French dressing and sprinkle with parsley.

Patrician Salad No. I
Avocado pear Tomato
Lettuce Chopped onions
French dressing or chives
On a bed of lettuce place equal parts of avocado, cut in cubes,
and cherry tomatoes, quartered. Sprinkle with chopped Ber-
muda onions or chives.
Use French dressing to which has been added double quan-
tities of lemon or lime juice. Tomato catsup also may be added
to dressing, if liked.

Patrician Salad No. II
Lettuce Tomatoes
Avocado Grapefruit
Chayote (dilled) Sweet red pepper

Take equal amounts of diced avocado, tomatoes, and grape-
fruit, marinate well with French dressing that has plenty of
lemon in it. Serve in lettuce cups, set in a basket made from
grapefruit shells. Garnish with shredded chayote and sweet red

Why Grow Tomatoes

Tomato Baskets-Ponce de Leon

Place whole, ripe tomatoes, peeled, chilled, and hollowed out,
in a nest of finely shredded cabbage or lettuce, and fill with raw
sauerkraut, chopped green pepper, celery, and salted peanuts,
mixed with mayonnaise.
Sprinkle with chopped dill pickles or the chopped yellows and
whites of hard boiled eggs. Handles may be made for tomato
baskets out of strips of green pepper or celery, slipping the ends
down deep in the sides of the baskets.
American Salad
Cabbage Green Peppers
Tomatoes Chayotes
Dice tomatoes and chayotes; shred peppers and cabbage. Mix
with mayonnaise or thousand island dressing, and serve on let-
tuce leaves, or young, cup-shaped cabbage leaves.
Creole Salad
3 cups cooked macaroni, rice, 1 cup finely cut Spanish onion
or potatoes % cup coarsely cut sweet
2 tablespoons coarsely cut pepper
pimiento Salt to taste
1/2 cup freshly grated cheese Well seasoned mayonnaise to
1 tablespoon chopped parsley moisten thoroughly
Toss until well-blended, using a fork to mix; serve on crisp
lettuce leaves or shredded cabbage, on which has been placed
a ring of sliced tomatoes. Garnish with sweet peppers, pimiento
and a dash of paprika.
Note: For variety and additional food value, mix with this
tomatoes, peeled and cut in pieces, and shredded lettuce, adding
boiled ham, crab meat, or fish flakes. This salad should be main
dish at luncheon or supper. It is healthful, filling, economical,
and well balanced.
Mexican Salad
3 large green peppers 4 slices bacon
1 medium onion 1/2 cup vinegar
4 medium ripe tomatoes 1 teaspoon chili powder
Cut vegetables in small chunks and mix. Cut bacon in small
strips and cook crisp in hot skillet. Stir in chili powder, and add
the vinegar. As it boils up, pour over the vegetables. Put on
lettuce on salad plates and serve.

Why Grow Tomatoes

Stuffed Tomato Salad
6 medium sized tomatoes Salt
6 stuffed hard cooked eggs Mayonnaise
Pepper Lettuce
French dressing
Peel the tomatoes. Hollow out to form cups. Dust with salt
and pepper, and marinate in French dressing for 30 minutes.
Then slip a hard cooked or stuffed egg into each tomato and
serve very cold with lettuce and mayonnaise.

Stuffed Tomato Sauerkraut Salad
6 small solid tomatoes 2 tablespoons lemon juice
4 cups sauerkraut 1 tablespoon sugar
6 tablespoons salad oil--olive, 1/8 teaspoon salt
corn, or cottonseed oil 14 teaspoon paprika
Peel tomatoes, cut off stem, remove core and seeds. Combine
the salad oil, lemon juice, sugar, salt, and paprika, with an egg
beater. Add the sauerkraut to the salad dressing thus prepared.
Fill the tomatoes with the mixture. Set each tomato on a let-
tuce leaf. This can be served as a separate salad course or as an
accompaniment to a meat course.

Savory Sandwich Filling
Chop fine together 2 hard-boiled eggs, 10 stuffed olives, 1
small onion, and 1/2 small cucumber. Mix into paste with equal
parts chili sauce and mayonnaise; season with salt. Place be-
tween thinly sliced buttered whole wheat bread with a small
lettuce leaf.
20th Century Club Sandwiches
Toast 100 percent whole wheat bread on one side only, butter
the untoasted side. On bottom slice put lettuce leaf and slices
of tomatoes. Spread with mayonnaise; then add another slice of
toast, untoasted side up. Cover this with a layer of raw sauer-
kraut and then mayonnaise. Cover with a slice of toast, toasted
side up. Put a slice of tomato on top of each club sandwich;
fasten on an olive with a toothpick. Serve cold.
These are delicious for late suppers or Sunday night tea.

Why Grow Tomatoes

The tomato, by reason of its natural J..
acidity, is readily sterilized, and so tI-
may be easily canned in glass or tin.
Tomatoes are the basis of our most
widely used condiments, ketchup and
chili sauce.
Many delicious relishes and
sweetmeats may be made from the
immature as well as from
the ripe fruit by the skill-
ful preserver. Nutrition
specialists give great
value to the "appetizing"
qualities of the fruits and Canni Tor
in this connection the to-
mato scores high.
i -. S rt

Tomatoes to be canned i cA
should be well ripened on ,
the vines. They should be ;
handled carefully and be --p
absolutely free from spots .-]
or decay. They should be
graded for color and to *. '
some extent for size. To- .
matoes that have consid-
erable green around the !-"
stem should be avoided,
but if one must can them,
all the green parts should
be cut away.
Tomatoes are first thoroughly
washed to remove all soil. They are
then scalded in boiling water for about
one minute or just long enough to
cause their skins to slip easily. Use a
wire basket or square of cheesecloth.
As soon as they are scalded sufficiently

Why Grow Tomatoes

cool in clean, cold water and drain. Over-scalding will make the
tomatoes soft and under-scalding will cause waste of time in re-
moving their skins. Do not attempt to handle too many at one
time, as the process must be carried through quickly.
Core and peel promptly. The cores should be removed first.
This is done with a short-blade, sharp-pointed knife. By insert-
ing the knife into the base of the tomato near the stem and to
about the center of the fruit, and cutting around the stem, keep-
ing a half inch or more from it, a cone-shaped portion is quickly
removed. This is mostly solid material and is not desired in the
canned product. A few trials soon enable one to judge as to the
size of cut necessary to remove the entire core.
The skins are then stripped off. This is most easily done by
beginning at the blossom end. Often there is a small black spot
at the blossom end which could be cut out. When sufficient
quantity of peeled tomatoes has been secured they are packed
firmly and solidly into the tin or glass containers with back of
wooden spoon. If too large to pass readily through the opening
they are cut into suitable size and are then packed closely enough
to set free sufficient juice to fill all spaces between pieces and to
cover the solids.
It is a violation of the pure food law to add water or the juice
from other tomatoes. This law applies to all tomatoes canned
for market.
Glass jars should be packed full. In packing tin cans a head
space of 1/8 to 1/4 inches must be left in all cases. Two level tea-
spoons salt and sugar mixture may be added to each quart.
(This is made by mixing together one part salt and two parts
sugar.) Glass jars are partially sealed and processed in the hot
water canner at boiling pint 30 minutes, quarts 35 minutes. Ex-
haust tin cans and seal when contents are hot. Process tin cans
5 minutes less than glass.
High grade, select tomatoes only should be used for juice.
They should be red-ripe, well developed, firm, smooth and juicy,
as well as being high in acidity. Green tomatoes, or over-ripe,
unsound fruit are unsuitable for juice. Wash carefully and drain.
Cut out all cores.
Cook the tomatoes lightly in a covered container to release the
color from the skins and give a larger yield of juice. This cooking
also liberates the vegetable gums and the pectin around the seeds

Why Grow Tomatoes

and fleshy tissue. Extract the pulp by passing first through a
coarse and then a fine sieve. The first sieve will remove the skin,
seeds and coarse fibre. The second one should be very fine in
order to disintegrate the pulp as finely as possible so that it
will stay in suspension for a longer period. The juice is next
heated to about 150' F., and filled into clean, hot bottles, jars or
cans, sealed and sterilized at from 175 to 1850 F. Salt may be
added to the juice, though many prefer to omit it until ready
to serve.
The juice is heated before being filled into bottles or tins, to
drive out the contained air-air, so to speak, is oxygen and oxy-
gen with heat, causes the destruction of vitamin C. This heat-
ing also permits filling the containers almost completely with
the juice. The lower the temperature used the better the flavor.
Juice can be sterilized at a much lower temperature and in a
shorter time than is used for canned tomatoes because it has no
solid pieces or hard cores to prevent rapid heat penetration, con-
sequently the juice can be sterilized at 1750 to 180 F., as against
the boiling temperature (2120 F.) needed in canning whole to-

Note: Give tomato juice to babies at the physician's direc-
tion in the quantities he may advise. For adults, tomato juice
may be served hot or ice cold, adding salt to taste, as a drink by
itself or seasoned to make a delicious tomato juice cocktail or a
healthful, colorful party punch. It makes an excellent pick-up
drink for breakfast or a before dinner appetizer, or it may be
served during the day as a refreshing, healthful drink. In cook-
ing, it can be used in many ways, being excellent for tomato
bouillon or a delightful base for a ge'atine or aspic salad.
Tomato Puree
2 qt. thick tomato pulp 1 large onion
4 tablespoons chopped pimiento 3 teaspoons salt
Red pepper 2 tablespoons sugar
Tomato puree may be made from the small and irregular sized
tomatoes, but they should be well ripened and flavored. Wash,
run through food chopper, and cook until soft and thickened.
If a smooth, seedless mixture is desired, press through sieve
or, preferably, through a dilver.
Add onion, chopped pepper, and seasoning. Towards the lat-

Why Grow Tomatoes

ter part of process, it is necessary to stir frequently to keep
from burning.
When sufficiently concentrated, can and process 20 minutes
at boiling.
Vegetable Soup Mixture
This should be made in the proportion of one-half tomato
pulp, one-fourth corn or tiny lima beans, and one-fourth okra,
with seasoning added. One slice of onion should be added to
each No. 2 can. The tomatoes should be heated, rubbed through
a sieve, and cooked down to about the consistency of ketchup
before measuring; then the corn, okra, onion, and seasoning
should be added and cooked until the corn and okra are about
three-fourths done. Then pack into cans and process one hour
at boiling or 25 minutes at 10 pounds steam pressure.

Chili Sauce
1 gal. red-ripe tomatoes 1 tablespoon white mustard
1 cup onions ground seed
1 cup sweet red peppers 1 bay leaf
% cup brown sugar 1 teaspoon garlic finely minced
3 cups vinegar 12 oz. stick cinnamon
Y2 teaspoon cayenne pepper 1 teaspoon cloves (whole)
1 tablespoon celery seed 1/ nutmeg grated
Wash tomatoes, cut out green core, and put through food
chopper with the onion and peppers, using fine blade. Boil all
the ingredients together until soft and thickened- except in
vinegar, cinnamon, cloves, and nutmeg. Then add remaining in-
gredients, bring to a boil, remove from fire, and let stand over-
night. Then cook rapidly until thick, stirring frequently.
Have ready scalded bottles, or pint, or 1/ pint jars. (Scald
by covering clean bottles or jars with cold water and heating
until water has boiled for at least 10 minutes.)
Pour hot sauce in, push scalded corks into bottles, and place
containers at once in boiling water, and boil 15 minutes. Remove,
press corks securely in bottles, and dip cork and mouth of bottles
several times in melted sealing wax. If jars are used, fill with
the hot chili sauce and process immediately.

Why Grow Tomatoes

Green Tomato Soy
Wash tomatoes, cut into quarters, and put through food chop-
per enough to make 1 gallon. Grind with this six large onions.
Mix tomatoes with:
2 cups vinegar 2 pounds brown sugar
2 tablespoons salt 4 tablespoons celery
% tablespoon e a c h ground 4 tablespoons white mustard
cinnamon, cloves, and all- seed
spice 1 tablespoon white pepper
Let stand 4 to 6 hours. Cook about 10 minutes, stirring occa-
sionally. Let stand over-night. In the morning, taste, add more
salt or other seasonings if needed. Bring to boil. Pour into ster-
ilized jars, process, and seal.
Hemphill House Special Pinata Sweet Pickle
3 Ibs. green tomatoes, sliced 3 lbs. granulated sugar
rather thick 1 cup orange honey
2 lbs. pineapple, fresh or can- 3 cups mild vinegar
ned, sliced a b o u t % as 1 teaspoon celery seed
thick as tomato slices, or 2 teaspoons yellow mustard
2 lbs. green mango, peeled seed
and sliced 1 teaspoon each stick cinna-
1 cup pineapple or other fruit mon, cloves and allspice
juice 1 blade mace
Mix vinegar, sugar, honey, and fruit juice. Tie spices in thin
bag and add. Bring to boil and cook 10 minutes. Pour over to-
mato and pineapple. Cover and let stand over-night. Drain off
liquid and boil as before. Add fruit and cook until fruit is ten-
der and clear and syrup somewhat thickened. Let stand over-
night. Pack in pint jars and simmer 10 minutes.
Note: Any syrup left over is delicious diluted with hot water
and used to baste roast, ham, or lamb, or stiffened with gelatine
as a jelly for piquant garnish for cold meats or for molded fruit
or in American or other salads.
Green Tomato Preserves
Select tomatoes that are mature but not turned in color, wash,
remove core and any blemishes on skin, and cut into quarters.
Weigh and to every pound of the fruit add 3 pound of sugar.
Allow to stand 4 to 5 hours or until sugar is dissolved. Drain
off liquid and boil vigorously 10 minutes. Add tomatoes and cook
until syrup is slightly thickened and fruit clear and transparent.
Allow to stand in syrup over-night. Next day add one lemon

Why Grow Tomatoes

sliced thin, to each pound of tomatoes, stick cinnamon and whole
cloves. Boil again until thick. Pack into scalded containers.
Process pint jars 10 minutes at boiling.
Ripe Tomato Preserves
The pear, plum or peach types of tomatoes are best for mak-
ing preserves. Both the red and yellow tomatoes may be used.
They may be made as pure tomato preserves or the flavor may
be modified with slices of lemon and whole spice-cinnamon and
cloves. The tomatoes should be just ripe-neither green nor
soft. Scald 15 to 30 seconds or just long enough to cause the
skins to slip easily. When removed from the boiling water they
must be cooled at once in cold water. The skins are removed but
as a rule the core is not cut out as in canning. For each pound
of prepared tomatoes 1 pound of sugar and 1/2 cup of water are
required. The sugar is dissolved in the water and heated to
boiling and boiled 5 minutes. The tomatoes are added to the
boiling syrup and gently boiled until fruits are tender. They
are then set aside for 24 hours. The syrup is drained and meas-
ured and is concentrated to two-thirds of the measured volume
and poured while hot over the tomatoes. After standing 24
hours the syrup is again drained and concentrated until it will
give a jelly test. The preserves are packed into clean, dry jars,
filled with hot syrup and simmered for 5 minutes in the water
Palm Beach Preserves
3 lbs. green tomatoes 14 teaspoon salt
1 small pineapple 2 lemons
3% lbs. sugar 2 cups sliced kumquats
1 cup preserved ginger
Slice lemons very thin, discarding seed, or, if kumquats are
used, cut in thick rings. Cover with water, and let stand over-
night. Cut tomatoes in quarters (or eighths, if large), add sugar,
and let stand until dissolved. Add citrus and pineapple cut into
strips and cook until product is clear and syrup somewhat thick-
ened. Add ginger cut fine. Let stand over-night. In the morning
give short cook, pack in sca'ded jars, and process 10 minutes.
Pensacola Pinata Conserve
2 lbs. Red Pear preserving to- 2% lbs. sugar
matoes 1 medium sized pineapple
1 cup raisins 2 lemons or one cup sliced
% cup pecan meats kumquats
% teaspoon salt

Why Grow Tomatoes

To the red (or yellow) preserving tomatoes which have been
scalded, cold dipped, and skinned, add sugar. Let stand 4 to 5
hours or until sugar has all dissolved. Drain liquid from toma-
toes and boil vigorously 10 minutes. Add tomatoes to syrup and
salt. Continue boiling. Also add the thinly sliced lemons or kum-
quats, the pineapple which has been peeled, cut into small cubes,
and simmer 10 minutes in water sufficient to cover.
When fruit begins to look transparent and syrup is slightly
thickened, remove from fire and let stand over-night.
In the morning give short, rapid cook. Add raisins and nuts,
and pack in hot, scalded jars, and process at simmering for 10
minutes, if in 12 oz. preserve jars. If larger containers are used,
process longer, according to size.
Tomato Marmalade
4 lbs. ripe tomatoes 1 lemon
1 cup seeded raisins 3/2 lbs. granulated sugar
1 cup pecan meats
Wash, scald, and peel tomatoes. Cut in pieces. Cut lemon in
thin slices. Put alternate layers of fruit, sugar, and lemons in
preserving kettle. Cook until thick. Add raisins and nut meats
when removing from fire.
Tropical Mince-Meat or Sandwich Filling
4 qts. green tomatoes (ground) 1 pt. vinegar or ,2 vinegar
3 oranges and 3 lemons or and pt. grape, plum,
2 pints kumquats (ground) pineapple, mango, or other
1 pt. cocoanut, grated fruit juice
1 Ib. raisins, seeded 1 teaspoon cloves
3 teaspoons cinnamon 1 glass tart jelly or jam
1 lb. raisins, seedless 1 teaspoon mace
1 pint figs 1 teaspoon allspice
1 lb. pineapple, shredded Salt
5 lbs. brown sugar
Select oranges and lemon with clear, well ripened skins. Scrub
thoroughly and cut into convenient pieces for putting through
food chopper, grinding all portions except seed. If kumquats
are used, clean and cut in halves to remove seed before putting
through chopper. Grind tomatoes and seeded raisins. Combine
all materials. Let stand several hours. Boil 20 minutes. Let
stand over-night, re-season if necessary. Boil again 10 minutes,
pack hot in jars, and process pints 10 minutes at boiling, quarts
15 minutes.

Why Grow Tomatoes

Note: If this mince meat is used for pies, one or two apples
or mangoes, if in season, may be added when made up. Musca-
dine hulls may be used instead of raisins, and plums, pears,
Surinam cherries, mangoes, and other fruits may be added to
those listed or may be substituted for them. Green mangoes
make a wonderful addition to the mince-meat. This product
makes a most satisfactory sandwich or cake filling.


Probably no one article of diet can be used in more ways than
tomatoes. They are commonly served in their simplest form,
namely stewed or turned hot from the can. Tomatoes are the
favorite ingredient for soups of many sorts.
They are excellent, particularly as accompaniments in vari-
ous ways to fish and beef and with cheese and most shell-bean
dishes, with rice and the various pastes, such as macaroni, spa-
ghetti, etc. In fact, there is hardly any meat or vegetable com-
bination that is not greatly improved by the addition of tomatoes.
Tomato Juice Cocktails
1 pt. tomato juice 1/2 teaspoon Worcestershire
Iz teaspoon lemon juice sauce
/2 teaspoon salt
5 drops Tabasco sauce (if wished very hot)
Serve cold in cocktail glasses.
Tomato Punch
3 No. 10 cans tomato puree 1/2 gal. orange juice
3 doz. lemons 2 gal. pineapple juice
%/ gallon water
Mix ingredients and serve in block of ice. A delicious, colorful
punch. Serves 250.
Tomato Sauce
(From left-over juice from canning)
2 tablespoons bacon fat or Or 2 tablespoons chili powder
butter 2 tablespoons flour
1 teaspoon salt 14 teaspoon cayenne
1 teaspoon Worcestershire 2 cups tomato juice
sauce 1 small onion ground
Melt fat, add dry ingredients, and gradually stir in liquid, let-
ting sauce come to boiling point each time before adding more

Why Grow Tomatoes

liquid. Simmer ten minutes. Serve with eggs, rice croquettes,
chops, fish, etc.
Savory Tomato Sauce

Mince fine a slice of salt pork. Fry to a light brown in a sauce
pan. Add finely minced onion and 1 tablespoon each minced car-
rot, turnip, and sweet pepper, and lightly brown in fat. Add 11/2
quarts peeled tomatoes cut in pieces, cloves, a sprig of parsley,
and celery and 1/2 bay leaf.
Simmer covered 1/2 hour, stirring occasionally. Run through
colander or through a dilver, if smooth sauce is desired. Other-
wise, rub together 1 tablespoon each flour and butter, add to
tomatoes, re-heat, season, and serve.
Creole Sauce
1 pint tomato puree 2 tablespoons chopped onion
Y cup green pepper (cut in 1 1 tablespoon sugar
in. cubes or strips) 2 tablespoons butter or bacon
cup red pepper (cut in fat
strips or cubes) 1 bay leaf
1 teaspoon celery seed % teaspoon minced parsley
(crushed) 4 tablespoons minced ham
1% teaspoon salt
Chop onion and fry in the butter until yellow (keeping cover
on utensil while fat and onion are cooking tends to prevent unde-
sirable browning). Add the pepper, tomato puree, ham, and
seasoning, and simmer for half an hour. Serve hot.
This Creole sauce can be used in omelets, with rice croquettes,
veal, lamb, boiled or baked fish, in soup, and with Creole chicken.

Cream of Tomato Soup
1 pint canned tomatoes 1 quart milk
2 tablespoons butter or other 1 tablespoon minced onion
fat 1% teaspoon white pepper
1 tablespoon flour 4 teaspoon soda
1 teaspoon salt

Cook tomatoes slowly with the sugar, salt, parsley, and pepper
for 10 minutes and rub through a strainer. Scald the milk and
thicken with the flour and fat rubbed to a paste; re-heat the
tomatoes and add the soda. Add tomato mixture slowly to hot
milk and serve at once.

Why Grow Tomatoes

Vegetable Tomato Soup
Mince fine a medium sized pepper, an onion, a carrot, cabbage
leaf, and a turnip, and put in kettle with a sprig of parsley, a
stalk of celery, small pieces of bay leaf, and three cloves. Add
2 quarts of tomatoes.
Cover and simmer 1 hour, or until the vegetables are tender.
Season with 1 tablespoon salt, 1/ teaspoon white pepper, and 1
tablespoon sugar. Strain through a colander and thicken with
1 tablespoon flour, rubbed together with two tablespoons butter
or bacon fat.
This is a delicious soup and may be cooked thick, and canned
corn, okra, and other vegetables in season may be substituted.

Tomato Chowder
/' cup diced salt pork 1 medium onion, minced
1 cup diced carrot 1 pint tomato puree
1 cup diced potato 1 cup celery, cut in small
1% quarts thin white sauce pieces

Saute the diced pork until brown. Add all the vegetables and
saute until light brown. Cover with boiling water and cook until
the vegetables are tender. Add salt, paprika, and white sauce.
Heat the puree; combine the two mixtures. Serve at once on
toast strips.
Corn and Tomato Chowder
2 cups canned corn 1 cup milk
I cup canned or ripe tomatoes 1/2 cup grated cheese
2 cups diced celery 12 cup chopped pimientos
1 quart cold water 3 tablespoons flour
2 tablespoons fat 1% teaspoons salt
11/4 teaspoons pepper
Place corn, tomatoes, diced celery, and one teaspoonful salt
in a kettle and cover with the cold water. Boil 1/2 hour. Melt
fat and add flour gradually. Then add the cold milk, stirring
constantly. Add the vegetable mixture to the white sauce, a
little at a time, and seasonings. Add to the chowder the grated
cheese and pimientos, chopped fine. Stir until cheese is melted.
Serve piping hot. A cream soup may be made, if desired, by
straining out the vegetables before adding the white sauce.
Serves six to eight.

Why Grow Tomatoes

Eggs and Tomatoes

4 eggs
4 oz. dried beef
1/ lb. mild cream cheese

1 i cups tomatoes
2 tablespoons butter
1 teaspoon chili powder

Shred the chipped beef, quite fine. Heat butter in skillet; then
crisp and brown the dried beef in the hot butter. Add this to
the chili powder, the grated cheese, and the tomatoes. When
simmering, stir in the beaten eggs. Cook only until eggs set,
something like scrambled eggs. Serve hot on toast. Will serve
four to six people. Makes a fine luncheon or supper dish.

Cheese Souffle with Chili Sauce

2 tablespoons butter
Y2 cup chili sauce
3 eggs

2 tablespoons flour
1 cup or 4 oz. cheese


Make a sauce of the butter, flour, seasoning, and chili sauce.
Let boil five minutes. Remove from the fire. Add the grated
cheese, the yolks of the eggs, and, lastly, fold in the whites
beaten dry. Bake in a buttered souffle dish until well puffed
and delicately colored-about 25 minutes, in moderate oven.
Serve as soon as removed from the oven.

Scalloped Tomatoes
Use cooked tomatoes or raw tomatoes, sliced. Alternate lay-
ers of seasoned tomatoes and crumbs. (If the crumbs are dry,
they should be moistened with hot water or stock.)
Salt and bits of butter are sprinkled over each layer, and on
top buttered crumbs.
Bake in a moderate oven 20 to 30 minutes.


Any of the following may be sprinkled between the layers:

Pepper, cayenne or paprika
Minced ham, chicken or crisp
Celery, stewed or raw
Corn, especially fresh corn

Bell pepper or pimiento,
Chili powder
Sliced or minced onion
Browned onion
Parsley, minced

Why Grow Tomatoes

Bacon strips may be placed on top.
When raw tomatoes are used, white sauce may be placed
over top.
Another way:
Stew, season, and thicken tomatoes. Place in baking dish.
Cover with buttered crumbs or buttered toast. Brown lightly.

Creole Tomatoes

1 onion chopped
1 clove of garlic
1/2 green pepper

3 tablespoons butter or bacon
2 cups canned tomatoes
1 small can okra

Melt butter; add chopped onion, shredded pepper, and garlic,
and saute for five minutes. Then add tomatoes, okra drained
and sliced, and salt to season. Cover and simmer for 30 minutes
or until thick. Serve with pork, chicken, or beef.

Italian Macaroni with Tomato

2 cups macaroni (cooked un-
til tender)
1 chopped green pepper
1 cup tomato sauce or puree

' chopped onion
1 cup cooked meat
/2 cup cheese
Salt and pepper

Drain macaroni. Add tomato sauce and other seasonings. Cook
10 minutes. Place in casserole. Add cheese, cut finely, and bake
until cheese is partly melted.

Tomatoes with Rice

4 cups cooked rice
4 large, ripe tomatoes or
1% cups tomatoes
2 slices of bacon

2 green sweet peppers
1 onion
2 teaspoons salt
/2 teaspoon pepper

Cut up bacon, fry out the fat, add chopped onion and sweet
pepper, and lightly brown. Add remaining ingredients and cook
about 20 to 25 minutes.

Tomatoes with Rice-Spanish Style
1 cup rice, washed and % cup olive oil or vegetable
drained dry oil

Put rice in oil and brown, stirring all the time. Add 1/2 cup
water, large can tomatoes, large onion, chili peppers, pimientos,

Why Grow Tomatoes

ripe olives. Cook on slow fire until thoroughly done. Cook down
thick; serve hot.
Chicken Stew-Spanish
Take a half pound of salt pork and cut in one-inch pieces and
fry in bottom of kettle. Then add one chicken cut up for stew-
ing; nearly cover with water; salt; add a large red pepper cut
in pieces; let simmer until nearly done; then add three cloves
garlic, thicken with two tablespoons flour that has been dis-
solved in a little cold water. When ready to serve, have one green
pepper shredded to sprinkle over top.

Creole Chicken
1 medium sized fowl 1/ cup onion
2 cups tomato puree 1/2 cup rice
1 cup okra 1 teaspoon salt
1 cup chopped sweet peppers 1 cup boiling water
1 tablespoon fat

Dress the fowl and cut into joints. Melt the fat, add onion and
pepper. Cook for a few minutes to develop flavor; then add salt,
tomato, and okra, and simmer for 10 minutes. Place layers of
chicken, vegetable mixture, and rice in cooking vessel until all
is used. Pour over this one cup boiling water. Simmer for two
hours and put in fireless cooker for three hours without the hot
disk or two hours with it. Additional seasoning of ham or bacon,
parsley and bay leaf may be used.

Meat Balls-Spanish
2 cups cold ground meat (any 1/2 cup cold mashed potatoes,
kind) hominy, or rice
1 egg 1 teaspoon chili powder

Mix these together thoroughly; then make in little cakes. The
easiest way to do this is to take a spoonful, make it in a ball
shape, then pat it about 1/ inch thick. Brown in skillet with
hot fat. Put in a platter and pour over sauce made with:

11/ cups tomatoes (canned or 2 tablespoons flour
chopped) 3 tablespoons butter
2 tablespoons minced onion 1 tablespoon salt
1 teaspoon chili powder

Blend flour and butter. Add other ingredients and simmer
gently 10 minutes.

Why Grow Tomatoes

Tamale Pie-No. I
Take 11/2 lb. lean beef stew, no bone, not much fat; one onion.
Simmer until tender in water to cover well. Cook slowly until
beef is very tender. Salt. Make corn meal mush with the broth,
not very stiff, to drop off spoon easily. Stir one tablespoon chili
powder into mush. In baking dish make layer of mush, cover
with layer of meat, pour a small can of tomato sauce over meat,
cover with mush and bake until tomato sauce has cooked into
Tamale Pie-No. II
2 cups chopped cooked meat 1 medium sized onion, chop-
(chicken or veal preferred) ped
1 cup tomato sauce 1 cup corn
% cup cornmeal (cooked in 1 pimiento, chopped fine
1% cups boiling salted wa- % cup grated cheese
ter) cup chopped ripe olives
Salt and chili Thin mixture with milk, if
Pepper to taste necessary
Mix all ingredients in a baking dish except the cheese. Sprinkle
cheese over the top and bake 35 minutes in moderate oven.
Serve with a highly seasoned tomato sauce. A splendid whole
meal dish.
Tamale Loaf
3 eggs 1/ cup butter, vegetable oil
1% cups yellow corn meal (do or bacon drippings
not scald) 2 medium onions, cut fine
1 cup or more sweet milk 1 clove garlic, if liked
1 can corn 1 teaspoon or more chili pow-
1 pint tomatoes der
1 cup ripe olives Salt to taste
1 cup or more cooked meat
Make a batter of the corn meal, milk, eggs, and shortening;
add seasonings and other ingredients. This makes a thin batter
which bakes nicely in 45 minutes to one hour. Make a gravy of
the liquor the meat was cooked in, with tomato sauce added, or
any brown sauce is good with this dish.

Baked Beans with Chili Sauce
Soak two cups of navy beans in water over-night. Drain in
the morning, and, after covering with fresh water, boil slowly
until the skins begin to burst. Drain and place 1/2 pound of pork

Why Grow Tomatoes

in the bean pot and bury in the beans. Mix 2 tablespoons salt,
4 tablespoons of brown sugar, 1 cup of chili sauce, and 1 cup of
boiling water. Add to the beans and bake slowly 3 or 4 hours. A
small onion placed in the beans before baking, if desired, im-
proves flavor.
Baked Tomatoes with Sauerkraut

Remove thin slices from the stem ends of smooth, medium
sized tomatoes. Take out the pulp, add an equal quantity of
bread crumbs and an equal quantity of sauerkraut. Season with
salt, pepper, and a few drops of onion juice, and refill the toma-
toes with the mixture. Place stuffed tomatoes in a greased pan,
sprinkle each tomato with buttered crumbs, and bake 20 min-
utes in a hot oven.
Baked Fish with Tomato Sauce

Whole fish-3 or 4 pounds
1/4 cup butter
1 teaspoon salt to lb. fish

Dry bread
1 pint tomato juice
2 teaspoons chili powder

Wash and wipe the whole dressed fish carefully. Fill with
moist bread (just to hold the shape). Rub butter mixed with
the chili powder and salt over the fish. Pour over the tomato
juice and bake covered for 30 minutes. Uncover and place under
the broiler flame to crisp and brown.

Florida Fish Stew
(For canning or immediate consumption)

2 lbs. dry-meated fish (weigh
after it is cleaned, skinned,
boned, and cut in pieces as
for serving)
1 quart canned tomatoes or 6
large fresh ones
2/ cup of good cooking oil
2 cloves of garlic, finely sliced
2 medium sized onions, finely

2 tablespoons of ripe pimien-
to, finely chopped (ripe
sweet peppers may be
1 tablespoon lemon juice or
good vinegar
1 tablespoon of finely chopped
Salt, paprika, and a little

Put the tomatoes into a saucepan and season with salt, pepper
and just a little sugar. Add the spices and let simmer for half
an hour. Remove from the fire and pass through a strainer. Re-
turn to fire and add the chopped pimiento. Let simmer until
fish is ready.

Why Grow Tomatoes

In a frying pan heat /3 cup cooking oil and add the garlic
and onion. Cook until soft, but do not brown. (It is best done
by covering the pan with a closely fitting cover.) Add this to
the tomatoes, and, if this mixture is too thin, allow it to sim-
mer until it is as thick as ketchup.
After the fish is cleaned, boned, and skinned, it is cut in ser-
viceable pieces (about five to the pound), sprinkled with salt,
and cooked on both sides in the remainder of the oil until of a
light brown color.
Add the lemon juice and parsley to the tomato mixture, taste
it, and, if needed, add more salt and paprika. Add the pieces of
fish and let simmer in an aluminum kettle on back of stove,
where it cannot stick or burn until it is thoroughly done, if for
immediate service. If it is to be canned, pack before the final
simmering into glass jars or inside lacquered tin cans. Process
as follows:
No. 2 tin cans or pint jars-1 hour at 10 pounds steam pres-
No. 3 tins or quart jars-75 minutes at 10 pounds steam pres-
Note: This is a most delicious stew. Directions for making
were prepared by a specialist, Dr. Frantz P. Lund, of the United
States Department of Agriculture.

In the preparation of this bulletin the writer has had the cor-
dial assistance of many friends, and parts have been submitted
to agricultural specialists. To all of them, grateful acknowledg-
ment is offered. For the illustration on the front page, credit is
extended to Francis I. Stokes & Co. For the illustration of
pruned and staked tomatoes we are indebted to Ferry-Morse
Seed Company.

Why Grow Tomatoes

(A 4-H Club Playlet)

Club Girl
Scene-Club Girl's garden-(Tomato plants and several large
tomatoes, one large Marglobe).
Enter small girl-(looks at tomatoes).
Girl-Oh, my, I'm getting so tired of working with these to-
matoes. I wish they'd take care of themselves! I suppose they
ought to be sprayed, but I'm so tired and sleepy I just don't
much care what happens. (Lies down.) My, this is such a nice
place to rest, and I'm so sleepy. I wish I could lie here forever.
(Falls asleep.)
Enter worms (several of them).
First Worm-Oh, friends, just look at those tomatoes! And
I am as hungry as a bear! (Girl awakes-watches worms.)
Second Worm-And we're just in time. I see we've beaten
the leaf spot, blight, nailhead rust, and the wilt here. Isn't that
Third Worm-And they haven't sprayed. Thank goodness for
First Worm-I wonder why they haven't, and such good look-
ing tomatoes!
Second Worm-Aren't they, though? Those tomatoes must
have been grown by a club girl. Look at that big Marglobe!
Third Worm-Wasn't it nice of her not to spray before we
got here?
First Worm (seeing little girl)-Wait-what's this-a girl-
and she's asleep! Good! I'm glad she's lazy. Otherwise, we
couldn't get her tomatoes. She is so different from other club
girls. They're usually right on the job.
Second Worm-Don't these look good! Let's go for them!
Other Worms-Yes, do hurry!
Girl (waking up)-Oh, you awful worms; don't you dare eat
those tomatoes, and especially my Marglobe!

Why Grow Tomatoes

First Worm-You can't drive us off without a spray, so there!
Worm Song-(Worms drag off tomatoes singing. Little girl
sits down and cries. During a short pause tomatoes are returned.
Girl awakes.)
Girl-Oh, where are my tomatoes? (Sees tomatoes.) Oh,
what an awful dream! Those terrible worms! I can just see them
eating my nice tomatoes that I've worked so hard to raise. This
has taught me a lesson. I must get that spray at once and get
to work!
(Exits to get spray.)
Tomato Song.


(Tune: Hail, Hail, the Gang's all Here)
Hail, hail, the worms are all here
Ready to go to work, ready to go to work now,
Hail, hail, the worms are all here
Ready to go to work now.


(Same Tune)
Hail, hail, the worms can't get us,
Because we're going to be sprayed,
Because we're going to be sprayed,
Hail, hail, the worms can't get us,
Because we're going to be sprayed now.

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