Title: Rose growing
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026349/00001
 Material Information
Title: Rose growing
Uniform Title: Bulletin 59 ; FloridaAgricultural Extension Service
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Floyd, W. L.
Watkins,John V.
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Publication Date: October, 1930
Copyright Date: 1930
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026349
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aab7731 - LTQF
amt6860 - LTUF
35582075 - OCLC
002570547 - AlephBibNum


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The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.

Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida

(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)


Fig. 1.-The rose-beautiful, fragrant, subtle flower of sentiment, romance
and history.
Bulletins will be sent free upon application to the
Agricultural Extension Service,

Bulletin 59

October, 1930


P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola
W. B. DAVIS, Perry
FRANK J. WIDEMAN, West Palm Beach
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee



JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University
WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
R. M. FULGHUM, B.S.A., Assistant Editor
E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest

W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairy Specialist
E. F. DE BUSK, B.S., Citrus Pathologist and Entomologist
N. R. MEHRHOF, M. AGR., Poultryman
FRANK W. BRUMLEY, M.S.A., Economist, Farm Management


VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Agent in Home Improvement
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Food and Marketing Agent
LUCY BELLE SETTLE, B.S., District Agent
RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent
MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., District Agent

A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent
JULIA MILLER, Local District Home Demonstration Agent


We like roses partly because of the effect on the senses of their
form, color, or fragrance, partly because there is something more
subtle which draws us to the flowers of this plant, when there are
so many others that are beautiful in form, striking in color and
delightfully fragrant.
Probably the long history and popularity of the rose in all coun-
tries has something to do with our fondness for it. As an emblem
of youth it was, in the long ago, dedicated to Aurora. By others,
as the emblem of youth and beauty, it was dedicated to Venus. It
is the symbolic flower of our mother country, England, where it
has held a conspicuous part in legend, song and history for many
A rose suspended from the ceiling enjoined secrecy regarding
what was said and done at ancient banquets, hence the expression
still current, "sub rosa."
No other flower has had so much sentiment, romance and his-
toric association connected with it.
Native roses are found growing in all temperate countries of
the northern hemisphere. These have made possible the develop-
ment of varieties adapted to different regions and multiplied the
number so that there is large opportunity for selecting favorites
and giving some reasons for their selection.

Roses are classified, according to origin or the species from
which they came, into a number of garden groups. These have
been so much mixed that their original characteristics overlap at
many points. Some of the most important in Florida are:
Teas:-These are more easily injured by cold than any others
and because of this are especially adapted to the Gulf Coast region
and California. Some of our most robust growers are found among
them, though they are considered as weaker than hybrid teas in
regions just to the North. The flowers have a wide range in color
*Professor of Horticulture and Assistant Horticulturist, respectively, with
the Florida College of Agriculture.

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and are characterized by a tea-like fragrance and continuous
blooming, except during the coldest winter months.
Hybrid Teas:-These are more nearly perpetual bloomers than
the group so named; the bushes are vigorous but rather small, so
are best planted close together in beds. They comprise practically

Fig. 2.-Betty is a coppery pink hybrid tea that is attractive.

all colors possible in a rose, many with pointed buds and strongly
tea-scented flowers. More hybrid teas than any other type are
planted in Florida.
Hybrid Perpetuals:-This group includes the largest roses,
borne on stiff, upright stems, with rough, deep green foliage.
They produce flowers on shoots developed from previous year's
wood, while those of teas and hybrid teas are on current season's
growth. The flowers are inclined to be flat, and are very full, but
lack fragrance.

Rose Growing

Polyanthas:-These are of dwarf habit, nearly ever-blooming,
with shapely bushes and flowers in clusters. They come in various
shades of color but lack fragrance. Cecile Brunner and the Baby
Rambler are representative varieties. Some others of less impor-
tance to us are the Noisettes, Hybrid Wichuraianas and Cherokees.

Fig. 3.-Francis Scott Key, large, deep red, thrifty-one of our favorite dozen.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Listed below are the favorite dozen roses of the authors. The
first six are teas, the best group for Florida:
Duchess de Brabant: Pale pink, stems rather short for cutting.
Madam Lambard: Darker on outside of petals than on the in-
side, stems rather short. The most vigorous pink we have.

Fig. 4.-The Radiance is the easiest grown and most reliable pink hybrid tea.
One of our favorite dozen.
Safrano: Salmon colored buds of exquisite shape, semi-double
Maman Cochet: Rosy pink, double flower of fine form and sub-
stance. The white is also good as a bush and climber.


Rose Growing 7

Marie Van Houtte: Light yellow, edged with rose; very strong
Lady Hillingdon: Slender, pointed buds and flowers of saffron
yellow. The climber of this is more vigorous than the bush
Antoine Rivoire: Creamy-white delicately tinted with pink.
Hybrid tea.

Fig. 5.-Etoile de France, a hybrid tea
with velvety crimson buds, is another
of nlr favorite dnzen.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Radiance: The easiest grown and most reliable pink hybrid tea.
The Red Radiance is equally desirable.
Etoile de France: A hybrid tea with velvety crimson buds and
flowers borne on strong, stiff stems.
Kaiserin Auguste Viktoria: A standard old hybrid tea. Flowers
are snowy white, with a tint of lemon in the center. The
climber of this is also desirable.
Francis Scott Key: Large, deep red, lasts well when cut, thrifty
growing hybrid tea.
Frau Karl Druschki: Often called White American Beauty. A
hybrid perpetual, with large, full, snow white blooms.

Fig. 6.-Paul's Scar-
let Climber blooms
profusely in the

Rose Growing

Louis Philippe: A Bengal rose, often called Florida rose. A
wealth of dark red blooms are produced continually. It is
one of the few that grow satisfactorily from cuttings.
In this selection we have not given long stems, so much desired
in cutting roses, much consideration; rather beauty in the garden
and in vases and baskets in the house. All important colors are
Desirable Climbers
Reine Marie Henriette: Tea, fine growing plant, producing large
cherry-red flowers.
Reve d'Or: A vigorous climbing Noisette; flowers creamy yellow.
Paul's Scarlet: Hybrid Wichuraiana, vivid scarlet, shaded crim-
son, blooms profusely in spring.
Dr. Van Fleet: Hybrid Wichuraiana, rank climber, flowers flesh-
pink, deepening to rose in center.
Preference has been given to those which are vigorous, long-
lived, ever-blooming and resistant to diseases. Authorities on
rose culture in Florida have been consulted and the performance
of varieties growing in our college gardens has been closely ob-

The following are some other varieties which we have found to
do fairly well in Gainesville.
Alexander Hill Gray-yellow, not very prolific, difficult to find
perfect flowers.
Devoniensis-white, shaded pink. Climber.
Helen Goode-creamy white.
Minnie Francis-dark pink.
Natalie Bottoner-cream yellow.
Perle des Jardins-creamy yellow.
Hybrid Teas
Betty-coppery pink.
Dean Hole-splashed silver carmine.
Duchess of Wellington-saffron.
Etoile de Hollande-red.
Jonkeer J. L. Mock-pink.
Joseph Hill-yellow, pink edges,

Florida Cooperative Extension


Fig. 7.-Joseph Hill, a yellow hybrid tea with pink edges, makes an attrac-
tive rose.


Rose Growing

Gruss an Teplitz-crimson.
Mrs. Aaron Ward-Indian yellow.
Rose Marie-rose pink.

Hybrid Perpetuals
Anna de Diesbach-pink.
Paul Neyron-rose pink.
Pink Frau Karl Druschki-pink.
Crimson Frau Karl Druschki-crimson.

Baby Doll-shades of pink, saffron and crimson blended.
Baby Rambler-red.
Cecile Brunner-shell pink.
Edith Cavell-ox-blood red.

Fig. 8.-The Edith
Cavell is a desirable
ox-blood red Polyan-

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Marechal Niel-yellow climber.
Lamarque-yellow climber.
Chromatella-lemon yellow climber.
Estelle Pradel-white climber.

Hybrid Wichuraiana
Silver Moon-white climber.
American Pillar-pink climber.
Dorothy Perkins-pink climber.

Fig. 9.-The Silver Moon, a hybrid Wichuraiana, is a desirable white climber.
The one shown here was used in a hedge.

Anemone-pink climber.
Fortune's Yellow-blend of yellow, orange and pink climber.
White Cherokee-white climber.
Ramona-red climber.

Rose Growing

Fig. 10.-Antoine Rivoire, a hybrid tea with creamy white blooms delicately
tinted with pink, is another of our favorite dozen.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Roses are easily grown from cuttings, and a few varieties, such
as Louis Philippe, Banksia, Cherokee and McCartney, do well when
so grown; other vigorous kinds do fairly well from cuttings on
clay-loam or low hammock soils, but the weaker growers are satis-
factory only when grafted or budded on a vigorous growing stock,
and this is especially true for those grown on more sandy soils.
Many stocks have been tried and compared, among them Madam
Plantier, Rosa multiflora, Canina, Fortuneana and odorata; the
consensus of opinion today is that Rosa odorata is the most desir-
able stock for most Florida localities and conditions. These plants
sucker very little, are more drought resistant, more vigorous, and
produce more flowers on light porous soils. They seem to be very
resistant to the attacks of nematodes, which produce root-knot.
Rosa odorata is ordinarily a long-lived plant, even under the
trying conditions of Florida, and can be relied upon to furnish an
excellent understock for our popular cutting varieties. Very often
these improved varieties are not adapted to outdoor culture and
the rosarian will be disappointed to find that many of the varieties
receiving glowing reports in the nursery catalogs will last only a
year or two. The Florida rose garden requires continual replace-
ment, in spite of the most careful cultural methods, so that it is
necessary to buy new plants each season.

One usually cannot locate the rose garden where the soil is best,
but where there is a suitable area near the house. It should not
be placed under the shade of large trees, whose roots will compete
for moisture and plant food, and whose leaves and branches inter-
cept the sun's rays. Trees far enough away to allow not less than
three hours of sunlight a day, preferably in the morning, may be
tolerated provided plenty of plant food and water are given to
supply what the roses need after the tree roots have taken their
toll. Some of the weaker growing teas and hybrid teas are bene-
fited by mid-day and afternoon shade in summer.

Roses are shallow rooted, therefore deep preparation is not nec-
essary; well-rotted cow manure, or compost, scattered over the
ground at the rate of a wheelbarrow load to 25 square feet and
turned in to a depth of 8 to 10 inches ten days or two weeks before
planting is a good preliminary preparation.

Rose Growing

The best planting time is when plants are most dormant; this
is usually in December and January, but may vary a month in
either direction. The plant should be carefully pruned, all broken
and bruised roots being cut off clean and smooth.
Although roses require an abundance of water, they cannot
stand wet feet, so a well-drained situation should be chosen.
In laying out the rose garden, narrow beds, preferably not over
five feet in width, are recommended so that the weeding, pruning

Fig. 11.-Rose plant at time of setting. Unpruned on left, pruned on right.

and gathering of the flowers can be accomplished from walks on
both sides. Tender new growth is easily broken off by gardeners
if they are required to walk between the plants when working.
If the soil is poor, remove it to a depth of two feet, and replace
it with a compost of rotted leaves, cow manure or good hammock
soil. The older the compost the better.

Florida Cooperative Extension

For climbers and pillar roses, three feet is a satisfactory plant-
ing distance. Hybrid perpetuals and strong growing hybrid teas
should also be planted three feet apart, while the less robust hybrid
teas, teas and polyanthas succeed well in the checks of two to
two and a half feet.

Fig. 12.-The Duchess of Wellington is a saffron hybrid tea that produces
attractive blooms.

It is considered good practice to arrange the rose garden with
trellises for climbing roses as a boundary to protect the more
delicate bush varieties from the winds.
The holes for the plants should be sufficiently large to accommo-
date the root systems without crowding. In the bottom of each
hole drop two handfuls of bone meal and cover lightly with good

Rose Growing

top soil. Insert the new plant so that it will grow at the same
depth as it grew in the nursery row. With plenty of water, work
the top soil about the roots, filling the hole to the ground level.
Pack firmly by' trampling with the feet, and put a large saucer of
earth about the plant to hold water.

Fig. 13.-Mrs. Aaron Ward, a hybrid tea with Indian yellow blooms.

Florida Cooperative Extension

We believe that the mulch system is preferable to cultivation,
especially where plants are set close together. Cultivation, unless
shallow, destroys many feeding roots and causes the organic
matter in the soil to burn more rapidly. Moreover, there is danger
of breaking the new tender growth unless the tools are handled
with extreme care. Rose flowers are borne mainly on new wood,
so it is quite evident that breaking off the new shoots will mate-
rially reduce the number of flowers.
If the rose garden has been laid out in beds the weeding, ferti-
lizing, pruning, and the cutting of the flowers may be done by hand
from the walks on both sides of the beds.
Cow manure applied two or three inches thick over the entire
rose bed is probably the best mulch. This material supplies plant
food, beneficial bacteria, organic matter, and serves as a blanket
to protect the roots from the hot sun. Early each spring the old
mulch should be worked into the soil and a new mulch should be
applied. If cow manure is objectionable or cannot be obtained,
cottonseed meal or tankage, at the rate of three-quarters to one
pound may be scattered about each plant and raked in lightly;
then the soil should be mulched with peat moss or leaves of forest
When flower buds appear one-half to three-fourths of a pound
of a garden fertilizer analyzing 4% ammonia, 6% phosphoric acid
and 5% potash, applied about the plant by raking the mulching
material aside, scattering the fertilizer over the ground, then
raking the mulch back so as to cover it, will increase the size and
quantity of blooms. This may be repeated in September or early
October if plants are not in vigorous condition.
Granulated peat moss is an excellent mulch material. It has
remarkable water-holding capacity, adds organic matter to the
soil, and protects the roots from the hot sun. In addition to its
other advantages, peat moss is quite free of weed seeds.
Oak leaves, straw and lawn clippings are also valuable mulch
materials, but are inferior to peat moss.


In addition to cutting back at time of planting, the plants should
be carefully pruned each season. Pruning shears are best for this
work. Bush varieties are best pruned when most dormant, usually
in December to February. First remove, close to the ground, all

Rose Growing

dead and weak shoots, then cut back the strong stems, removing
one-fourth to one-third of the old wood. Prune sufficiently to give
the bushes a symmetrical shape.

Fig. 14.-Hybrid tea rose, showing where to prune after one year's growth.

Climbers should be pruned less than bush forms, but all dead
and weak wood and crossed branches should be removed as soon
as found. These should be looked for after the heavy blooming
of spring.
The art of pruning is gained by experience; different groups
and varieties require different treatments, and should be studied
to determine what is best suited to each.

Early morning, while the dew is still on the leaves, is the best
time to cut roses. Select buds with two or more petals open and
cut them with as short stems as possible. Cutting roses with long

Florida Cooperative Extension

Fig. 15.-Frau Karl Druschki, often called White American Beauty, is another
of our favorite dozen.

Rose Growing

stems greatly reduces the leaf area and causes a serious check to
the plant. Small sharp pruning shears are best for cutting roses.
The cut should be made on a slant, just above a bud which points
away from the center of the plant. As soon as possible after the
buds are gathered place them in cold water in a cool shady place
for an hour or two before arranging them. Each day cut a half
inch or so off of the end of each stem with a sharp knife, and
renew the water in the container.

The rainy season is attended by a flush of growth which pro-
duces a profusion of blooms. After the rainy season very often
a long drought condition is experienced. At this time the plants
may be allowed to rest in preparation for a season of blooms in
the early fall. During this rest period irrigation may be withheld
and the plants may be pruned so as to make them shapely and
compact. With the advent of cool weather an abundant supply of
water and plant food will bring the rose bushes into a flush of
growth which is necessary for the production of blooms.

Those living near cities or large towns may find a market for
well-formed roses of good quality, on long, stiff stems.
The radiances are the most satisfactory as a rule, though
Kaiserin Auguste Viktoria and Antoine Rivoire are other varieties
of value.
A fertile, well-drained location is important. This should be
well manured and prepared before planting. Cow manure in lib-
eral quantities, or, if it is not obtainable, cottonseed meal or tank-
age, broadcast and plowed or disked in at the rate of one to three
tons per acre, at least two weeks before planting, is a good pre-
liminary preparation.
It is best to set the plants in rows three feet apart, spacing them
one and a half or two feet in the rows.
Mulching is not practicable for large areas, so abundant ferti-
lizer and a limited amount of shallow cultivation should be given.
Cultivation may begin when signs of new growth appear and con-
tinue till the beginning of the rainy season, at intervals, only as
often as necessary to keep down weeds and grass.
When flowers begin to form, an application of 1,000 to 1,500
pounds of garden fertilizer, already described, may be made and

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F i Ho -"N .1! itt li
1 L t I t -
.0I a t

cultivated in lightly, to increase size and quality of the bloom.
During the rainy season apply one to two tons of raw bone meal
per acre and occasionally chop down all weeds with a hoe. In
the hot, dry period following the rainy season, prune lightly,
removing all weak wood and cutting back very long stems. Plants
usually take a partial rest at this time, which prepares them for
vigorous effort a little later.
About the middle or latter part of September fertilize and cul-
tivate as in the spring and irrigate if possible, if rains are infre-
quent. This will stimulate growth on which November and Decem-
ber blooms will form.

Rose Growing

When cold checks the blooming, prune carefully, as discussed
elsewhere and allow the plants to rest until swelling buds indicate
that growth activity has begun, then begin fertilization and culti-
vation as done the year before.
Some growers, especially on the lower East Coast, are succeed-
ing with roses on muck lands. As such soil is usually rich in nitro-

Fig. 17.-Gruss an Teplitz, crimson-flowered hybrid tea.

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gen this element is reduced in the fertilizer, but the phosphorus
and potash are used liberally. No satisfactory fertilizing plan
can be given as the chemical and physical condition of these soils
is quite variable. Well-balanced fertilization, careful attention to
drainage, cultivation and other factors important in upland grow-
ing, will insure success.
Rose aphids, or green plant lice, are at times serious pests in
the rose garden. They gather in great numbers on the tender
new growth and about the young buds. Stunted growth and
imperfect blooms are the result if the insects are allowed to go
unchecked. Nicotine and soap sprays or nicotine dust are efficient
Flower thrips are extremely troublesome during dry seasons.
They are tiny, light colored insects that infest the blooms in num-
bers beyond estimation. Browned petals, balled buds that fail to
open and abnormal shapes result from the attacks of thrips.
Water seems to be the only effective control. Almost all flowers
harbor these insects, so it is useless to try to reduce their numbers.
Pumpkin bugs often attack roses, especially during the fall, and
punctured buds of abnormal shape result from their feeding in
the rose garden. Hand picking, at best a tedious and thankless
process, seems to be the only method of control. Spraying appar-
ently has little or no effect, as the insects fly when they are ap-
Cottony cushion scale, when found feeding on the stems or canes,
are best controlled by colonies of vedalia, a small beetle which is
a natural parasite. A citronella spray, if applied under very high
pressure, will give an effective check.

Black spot is the most serious disease with which the rosarian
has to contend. It is first evident in the form of minute irregular
black spots on the upper surface of the leaves. As the fungus
grows, the spots become larger, until finally the leaves turn yellow
and drop off. This reduction of the leaf area is a serious check,
and stunted bushes, bearing a few small blooms, are the result.
Lesions running along the stems are also a manifestation of the
Black spot is especially prevalent during hot, humid weather,
and at this time special precautions should be taken to protect the

Rose Growing

rose garden from the ravages of this disease. So far as known
there are no cures for black spot, so preventive measures are the
only means of control.
Copper compounds, such as Bordeaux mixture or ammoniacal
copper carbonate, a colorless spray, are efficacious treatments if
frequent applications are made. The disease spreads so rapidly
that a coating of copper should cover the plants at all times to fore-
stall the entrance of the fungus into the tissues of the leaves and
stems. Plants in vigorous growth seem to be less severely injured
than are the weaker individuals. Abundant plant food and water
should help the plants to overcome the ravages of the disease.
Some varieties are much more resistant to black spot than
others. Generally the climbers are less seriously infected than are
the bush sorts.
Black spot has proven to be so serious in rose culture that a great
deal of research has been done in recent years to find satisfactory
controls for the disease. As a result of this work many different
kinds of ready mixed sprays and dusts are offered by seed stores
and plantsmen. Some of them require mixing with water before
being applied, others may be dusted on the plants just as they
come from the carton.
Mildew, another fungus disease, is occasionally seen in Florida
rose gardens. It is not nearly so injurious as is black spot, and is
much easier to control. Frequent dusting with sulphur will easily
control mildew.
Stem canker, characterized by brown or black areas on the stems
or canes, often causes serious reduction of the wood. Infected
parts should be cut away and burned.
The catalogs of the larger seed houses contain advertisements
of several sorts of small sprayers and dusters. Most of these are
quite serviceable and if given good care they may be relied upon
to last several years. It is well to bear in mind that the popular
compressed air sprayers have no agitators, therefore occasional
vigorous shaking of the tank aids in keeping the contents well
1. Plant bush varieties in beds, two to two and a half feet apart
each way. Give climbers more distance.
2. Bud or graft them on Texas Wax (Rosa odorata) stock.
3. Break the ground deep and fertilize with well-rotted manure
and bone meal before planting.

26 Florida Cooperative Extension

4. Select a location where they will get at least three to four
hours of sun each day.
5. Give plenty of water and plant food. Fertilize two or three
times during the growing season.
6. Plant no deeper than they stood in the nursery row.
7. Prune only as is necessary to keep in good shape, and remove
weak wood. Give heaviest pruning when plants are dormant.
8. Plant a number of individuals of each variety together to get
the effect of mass of same color and characteristics.
9. Dig out weak, unthrifty plants, two or more years old, and
replace with young vigorous ones.
10. Watch for black spot, the ever-present rose disease, and
spray with a good fungicide.

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