Title: Pickles & relishes from Florida fruits & vegetables
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026339/00001
 Material Information
Title: Pickles & relishes from Florida fruits & vegetables
Alternate Title: Bulletin 108 ; Florida Agricultural Extension Service
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Thursby, Isabelle S.
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Publication Date: May, 1963
Copyright Date: 1963
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026339
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aab7726 - LTQF
amt7394 - LTUF
44698332 - OCLC
002571079 - AlephBibNum


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The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.

Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida

[ay 1963


Agricultural Extension Servi
University of Florida, Gainesvi



INTRODUCTION .......... .... ............................................................... ... .... 3

LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION ............. ................... ...... .--- 4

Salt Solution or Brine ................... ... ..---------.---- ....... .... ......... 4

Materials Used in Pickling ...... --...............--....- ----..--..---- 5

Salt Solution or Brine Chart .......................... ......-- ..-----..... 6

Equipment for Pickling ...-...............---- -- -...... --.............. 8

Cucumber Salt Stock ... --... ---.................. ....-- .. ...... 8

Freshen Salt Stock ..-...----------...- ......... ------- .........---.. 9

Vegetable Salt Stock .--..--............-------- -- ----......---.......-- 9

Fruit Salt Stock .----....----- ...- -....-......-........ --10

Pickle Pointers .....-...--.----.. .....-.....-......-...---..........---. 10

PICKLE RECIPES .....--...............-~~.......-..... ..... . .....-- .... ............... 12

SWEET SPICED FRUIT PICKLES ----...--......------------.....-- .........--......---- 25

RELISHES AND CHUTNEYS ........... ...... .... ..........--....--..-- ...........-- --- 35

CATSUP AND SAUCES ..--......---...----- -- ..-.....-... ----- -- - .................. 42

FLORIDA BULLETINS ...........-.~.---..-.........- ...- ......- ..................... 46

(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service. University of Florida
Florida State University and United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
M. O. Watkins, Director


Pickles and relishes are important to a meal. While not
considered real food, they make food more interesting. Pickles
are eaten for flavor. Their crisp spiciness stimulates appetites
for other wholesome but less flavorful foods. The season for
making pickles, spicy fruits, and relishes is anytime.
The true flavor of pickles and relishes comes from spices and
herbs, carefully selected and perfectly blended to suit a given
This bulletin will present the principles of making fermented
and quick process pickles, fine flavored relishes and a discussion
of the keeping qualities from Florida fruits and vegetables.
The term pickle applies to any food that is preserved in brine
or vinegar, either with or without bacterial fermentation, and
either with or without the addition of spices and sugar.
Pickling is an art and a science. The making of pickles in-
volves more than the putting of the products into brine. The
products must be fresh, sound, of fine quality, and of proper
maturity; and must be given time to cure and then time to
develop flavor.
There are two types of pickles, the quick process pickles
made from fresh vegetables, and salt stock pickles made from
vegetables that have first been "cured" in a salt solution or brine
for six weeks or longer. Such pickles are termed "salt pickles"
or "salt stock."
The "brine cure" prepares the tissues of the fruits or vege-
tables to absorb the vinegar or the spicy syrup.
Brining or "curing" vegetables and fruits in salt solution
produces changes in color, texture and flavor. It is possible to
make pickles from uncured fresh vegetables. But pickles made
from cured vegetables are finer in flavor, more crisp in texture,
and more attractive in color and general appearance, and have
better keeping qualities.

Latic Acid Fermentation

The object of brining is to bring about a lactic acid fermenta-
tion that will produce good flavor and texture and change the
composition of the vegetables so they will keep for a long time.
The brine is made of salt and water accurately measured. A
weak brine permits the growth of desirable yeasts and lactic
acid bacteria, but prevents the growth of putrefactive bacteria
that would naturally cause the product to spoil. If the solution
is too weak the pickles will be soft and only the putrefactive bac-
teria will develop; if it is too strong the action of the lactic acid
bacteria is hindered. Therefore, the strength of the solution
must be accurately measured. This is done by means of a
salinometer. Most vegetables contain 80 percent or more water
and as the salt in the solution draws out part of the water, the
brine solution should be tested frequently.
The brine also extracts the vegetable juices and fermentable
sugars. This promotes the required acid fermentation. The
lactic acid and the salt preserve the product, provided air is ex-
cluded and yeast scum has not been allowed to develop. In the
presence of air, aerobic micro-organisms, so-called "pickle scum,"
develop and destroy the acid so that softening and spoilage take

Salt Solution or Brine
Strong (20 to 25 percent) brine acts as a preservative, while
a 5 percent to 15 percent brine will permit desirable fermentation
during which process the sugars present in the vegetable juice
will be largely changed to lactic acid bacteria on the vegetable,
which, with the brine, acts as a preservative.
The storage of vegetables or fruit in brine until certain de-
sired changes in color, flavor and texture take place is called
curing. Lactic acid fermentation may or may not have taken
place. Those cured with fermentation have a pleasant fermented
flavor while those cured without have less flavor. Vegetables
lose their raw flavor and become crisp, the flesh becomes semi-
transparent and the color changes from green to a dark olive or
yellowish green. When fermentation has stopped the pickles
are considered cured and are known commercially as salt stock.
With proper care this salt stock may be kept in the solution for
a year or so.

Pickles and Relishes

The vegetables most often used for making salt stock are cu-
cumbers, cauliflower, onions, beans, peppers, green tomatoes,
okra and mangos. Watermelon rind or the citron melon is largely
used for sweet pickles.
When the vegetables are ready to be made into vinegar
pickles, they are removed from the brine, soaked overnight in
cold water (warm water hastens the process) to remove the ex-
cess of salt from their tissues. Then they are stored in vinegar
which may be plain or sweetened and spiced.

Materials Used in Pickling
Salt.-Use a coarse salt that contains no product to prevent
caking and that contains less than 1 percent carbonate or bicar-
bonate of sodium, calcium or magnesium.
Vinegar.-For making pickles, use a clear cider vinegar,
free from mother of vinegar and sediment. The strength of
vinegars is expressed in terms of "grains." A "10 grain" vinegar
contains 1 percent acetic acid and a "40 grain" contains 4 per-
cent. The strength of the vinegar is given on the label of the
container. Vinegar for pickle making should contain 4 to 6 per-
cent acid. The label should read 40 to 60 grains. Too strong a
vinegar will cause pickles to shrivel; too weak a vinegar will
cause them to soften.
Sugar.-Granulated sugar is used in pickle making. Too
much sugar causes pickles to shrivel.
Spices.-The kind and amount of spices used will vary with
the type and kind of pickle. Whole spices are to be preferred
to ground ones. They should be tied loosely in a cheesecloth bag
and be pounded lightly before using.
Water.-Soft water is recommended. Lime and other salts,
as occur in water, may prevent proper acid formation in pickles.
Iron may cause blackening of the pickles.
Coloring Agents.-Well selected cucumbers, properly brined
and processed will be dark olive in color and will not need coloring
agents added. Caution: Don't heat cucumbers in copper kettle
to give a dark green color. Heating vinegar in copper produces
copper acetate which is POISONOUS.
Hardening Agents.-Many recipes for cucumber pickles call
for alum to harden the pickles. Alum is not needed, if pickles

Quality of salt for making brine: Use a coarse salt that contains no product to prevent caking.
Quality of water for making brine: Use soft water. If soft water is not available boil water, cool it and pour off from any
sediment and filter. Add one tablespoon vinegar to each quart of hard water after it has been boiled, cooled and filtered.
Quantity of brine needed: Allow from one-half to two-thirds the volume of the material to be brined. Example: One gallon
of vegetable will require from one-half to two-thirds gallon of brine.
Approximate strength
of Brine
of Brine _Approximate Amount of
Approximate Amount of Nature of Brine Uses of Brine
Salt Salinometer Salt Per Quart of Water
Solution Reading
Percent Degrees Ounces Cup
5 20 2 1/ Permits rapid fermentation For making dill pickles, dilled
with formation of lactic acid. green tomatoes, snap beans,
Must be watched closely for okra, chayotes, kumquats,
signs of spoilage. Vinegar, calamondins.
1/4 cup to 1 quart of water,
may be added to help prevent

10 40 4 % Permits slow fermentation For curing cucumbers and
with formation of lactic acid. most other vegetables which
After fermentation, pickles are to be made into a salt
keep well in this brine for 2 stock for pickles.
to 3 months:
(1) if kept below surface of
brine; (2) if brine is protect-
ed from air; (3) if stored in
a cool place.



Approximate strength
of Brine
Approximate Amount of Nature of Brine Uses of Brine
Salt Salinometer Salt Per Quart of Water
Solution Reading
Percent Degrees Ounces Cup
15 60 6 1z Permits slow fermentation For curing vegetables such
with formation of lactic acids, as cauliflower and pimento
After fermentation, pickles which do not shrivel. For
keep in this brine indefinate- storing vegetables fermented
ly. in a 10 percent brine.

20 80 8 Practically no fermentation For making unfermented salt
takes place and no lactic stock of onions, peppers,
acid is formed. pears, peaches and other
vegetables and hard fruits
which do not shrivel, and
which do not require fermen-
tation for flavor or color.

25 100 10 1 Saturated salt solution, no For preserving vegetables in-
fermentation takes place, definitely, it is a method of
Produced when a l ar ge preservation.
amount of salt is added to

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are properly brined 6 to 8 weeks, and processed according to di-

Equipment for Pickling

1. Container: A clean wooden keg or glazed pottery
or glass container.

2. Cheesecloth or similar ma-
3. Cover: Use large plate or
board for holding vegetables
under brine.

4. Weight to hold plate or board
under the brine. (A tightly
sealed glass jug or jar filled
with water or sand makes a
good weight.)
5. A salinometer: It is used to
measure the exact salt con-
tent of the brine. Follow di- A Stone Churn
Salinometer reactions for its use.
6. Containers and seals: Use standard glass jars and lids for
completed pickles. Seal by packing hot and processing in a
water bath canner for 5 minutes. Store in a cool dry place.

Cucumber Salt Stock
1 to 4 gallon containers
12 pounds (about /4 bushel) cucumbers
9 quarts brine (10 percent or 40 degrees salinometer reading)
9 quarts (21' gallons) water
2 pounds (about 31/ cups) salt Refer to Chart, Page 6.
If desired to hasten fermentation, add 4 tablespoons sugar.

Cut cucumbers from vine leaving quarter inch stem. Weigh
and wash. Pack into the container within an inch of the top.
Fill to overflowing with the brine. Cover and add weight. Set
the containers in a pan or where the overflow during the period

Pickles and Relishes

of fermentation will not do any damage. The loss or overflow of
brine should be replenished every few days with fresh brine.
Remove any scum that may form.
Every week test the strength of the brine. It should never
fall below 40 degrees salinometer reading. It should increase
in strength gradually from 3 to 4 degrees each week. Since the
brine is diluted by the juices drawn from the cucumbers, at the
end of the first day, one pound and three ounces, about 17/8 cups,
of salt should be placed on the cover so salt will not sink to the
bottom of the container before it is dissolved. If it sinks, the
salt solution at the bottom will be very strong while that near
the top may be so weak the pickles will spoil.
At the end of each week thereafter until five weeks have
passed, place on the cover 1/3 pound or 1/2 cup salt for each 12
pounds of cucumbers. When testing each week, it should be
noted that the brine gradually increased in strength, until at
the end of 5 or 6 weeks (when fermentation is over) the
strength of the brine should be 15 percent or a 60 degrees salino-
meter reading. "Curing" is complete when fermentation ceases.
The cucumbers then will be firm and crisp in texture, trans-
lucent and free from whitish spots, dark olive or yellowish green
in color and salty. The cucumber salt stock is now ready to be
stored in air-tight containers in a cool place until needed to be
made into various kinds of pickles.

Freshen Salt Stock

Drain off the brine, cover with fresh water that feels fairly
hot to the hands. Hold at about this temperature, changing and
stirring occasionally, for 10 to 12 hours or longer, according to
the salty flavor desired. Do not remove all salt, as some is need-
ed for flavor. The stock is now ready to make into salt, sour,
sweet or spiced pickles, cucumber rings, chow-chow, relish, or
combined with other stock and made into mustard and mixed

Vegetable Salt Stock

Fermented salt stock may be made from other vegetables by
following the same directions as given for cucumbers. In pre-
paring cauliflower, leave it whole or break heads into flowerets.

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

Peppers should be left with stems on; green beans should be
left intact, as should other vegetables. Avoid crushing or

Fruit Salt Stock

Fermented fruit stock may be made from papaya, water-
melon, cantaloupes, citrus fruits and other fruits by following
the outline for making cucumber salt stock. Under-ripe canta-
loupes should be cut into small pieces, seeds and soft centers re-
moved and the sections pared. Pare off the thick green skin
from watermelon rind, all the red portions, and cut into pieces.
Small green papayas may be left whole. Grapefruit peel, orange
peel, and other citrus products may be held as salt stock until
needed for preserving or candying.

Pickle Pointers

Number I

Quality pickles depend upon the quality of products used. It is
important to have:

1. Fresh, high grade fruit and vegetables, sorted for size and
degree of ripeness.

2. Highest quality whole spice preferable. Flavor comes out
as pickles stand.

3. High grade cider vinegar, or distilled vinegar. Use clear
and colorless vinegar for light vegetables such as onions and

Number II

Fine texture, flavor and color of pickles require:

1. Excluding air from the brined vegetables before, during and
after fermentation.

Pickles and Relishes

2. Maintaining a fairly uniform temperature during fermenta-

3. Maintaining a salt content of brine high enough to prevent
growth of spoilage organisms.

4. Adding a small amount of vinegar to brine for all dillss" to
cause desirable fermentation and to slow undesirable fer-

Number III
Pickles include:

1. Fruit pickles, as whole peaches, pears, papayas or pineapple,
cooked in a spicy, sweet-sour syrup.

2. Quick process pickles salted overnight and combined with
spices and vinegar the second day, as "Bread and Butter"

3. Salt stock, or fermented pickles, requiring three to six weeks
to cure. In general this is the recommended method for
vegetable pickles.

4. Relishes, catsups, chutneys and sauces consist of spiced,
cooked and strained fruits, vegetables and nuts.

Number IV

Containers and storage:

1. Use standard glass jars and lids for completed pickles.

2. Seal by packing hot and processing in a water bath canner
for 5 minutes.

3. Store pickles in a cool dry place.

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

Pickle Recipes

After pickles have been freshened or had excess salt re-
moved, they should be drained and sorted. To secure an attrac-
tive pack, pickles should be as nearly uniform in size as possible.
Cover the pickles with 45 to 50 grain vinegar and store for a
week or 10 days; then transfer to fresh vinegar if a very sour
taste is desired.
When only one application of vinegar is used, the water in
the pickles dilutes the acid greatly and may, after a few weeks,
permit softening and the pickles may spoil. Covered with a
second vinegar of the correct strength, with spices and other
desired flavoring agents added, pickles should keep indefinitely-
after being sealed.
The flavor and other appetizing qualities of many kinds of
pickles are due largely to the spices added. A person with a
flair for testing and experimenting for something different can
blend and perfect new and interesting flavor combinations from
the variety of herbs and other seasoning agents available.

Pickles and Relishes

Spiced Vinegar No. 1 for Sour Pickles

Allow about 1 quart of vinegar for each 2 quarts of cucum-
bers or other vegetables.

1 quart vinegar
1 cup sugar
1/2 tablespoon celery seed
2 tablespoon whole cloves

1/ tablespoon mustard seed
1/ tablespoon pepper corns
2 sprigs tarragon

Mix vinegar and sugar. Add spices tied loosely in a piece of
cheesecloth. Simmer the mixture for 5 minutes. Allow the
spices to stand in the vinegar over night. Pack salt stock pickles
that have been freshened and then stored in vinegar for 10 days
into clean, hot containers, and pour the boiling spiced mixture
over them. Seal.

Spiced Vinegar No. 2 for Sour Pickles

2 tablespoons white mustard seed
1 tablespoon whole black pepper
1 tablespoon whole allspice
1 inch piece ginger root
4 to 6 cups vinegar
1 tablespoon mace

3 tablespoons grated horseradish
1 tablespoon celery seed
1 tablespoon whole cloves
2 large cloves garlic
4 dried red peppers

Heat vinegar and spices together at simmering for 5 minutes,
and set aside overnight. Then strain to remove spices. Pour
the boiling liquid over the drained cucumbers or other vegetables
packed into clean, hot containers. Seal.

Spiced Vinegar No. 3

3 cups vinegar
1 cup water
11/2 cups sugar
1/2 ounce Spice Mixture (below)

1 tablespoon mustard seed
2 hot, red peppers
1 tablespoon celery seed

Mix and bring to the boiling point. Pour while boiling hot
over the brined, prepared vegetables in jars and seal.

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Spice Mixture

5 tablespoons allspice
% cup coriander
6 bay leaves

1/4 cup white mustard seed
6 dried red peppers

Mix well and use as stated above.

Dill Pickles-Fermented

Dill pickles are made by a special process. The flavor of dill
is characteristic and a weak brine is used which permits fast
fermentation and curing. Some manufacturers add dill in a
vinegar solution, after the pickles are cured with salt. Others
add the dill direct to the brine in which they are cured, using
no vinegar at all. This is the genuine dill pickle, or German dill.
For Florida conditions, it is recommended that a small amount
of vinegar be added to the brine to flavor fermentation and in-
hibit the spoilage organisms in the first stages of fermentation.

Dill Cucumber Pickles

4 gallon glass container
2 cups vinegar
2-3 layers of dill
12 pounds (about % bu.) cucum-
(5 percent or 20 degree
salinometer reading)

Brine requires 81/2 quarts water
114 pounds (about 2 cups) salt
1 ounce (4 tablespoons) mixed
pickled spices
2 cloves garlic
1 layer grape leaves for use in
stone or wooden container

Use medium size freshly picked cucumbers. Wash and drain.
Cover bottom of container with a layer of the dill and spice. Add
cucumbers, packing in gently and firmly, with alternate layers
of the mixed pickle spice and dill. Then pour the brine mixed
with the vinegar over the cucumbers. The addition of one table-
spoon of sugar per gallon capacity of the container assists in the
development of the proper acidity. If a glass jar is used, fill
to overflowing with brine, adjust cover so that gas formed dur-
ing fermentation can escape. Any loss of brine during fermen-
tation and storage must be replaced. When fermentation is
over, the jars may be filled and sealed completely, or preferably

Pickles and Relishes

be packed in smaller air-tight containers for more convenient
use. Drain off the brine, after transferring the pickles to the
smaller glass jars, bring the brine to the boiling point, fill the
jars to overflowing. Seal. Dill pickles should be ready for use
4 to 8 weeks after they are first placed in the brine.
If stone crocks or wooden containers are used instead of glass,
fill with the cucumbers, spice and dill to within 2 to 3 inches of
top and finish with a heavy layer of clean grape leaves if they
can be obtained. Cover with plate or wood one inch less in
diameter than container and heavy enough to keep cucumbers
submerged. Pour the brine and vinegar mixture over the
pickles to overflowing. Containers should have an air-tight cover.
When pickles are cured, it is best to transfer them to quart
glass containers. Fill completely with old brine or make new,
adding a small amount of fresh spice and dill. A clove of garlic
to each jar adds an interesting flavor.
Do not store glass jars in the sun or light as the light will
kill the lactic bacteria. Dill pickles cure slowly, usually six
weeks or longer is required before they acquire the desired
flavor, color and texture; also dill pickles keep less well than
others because the brine in which they are fermented and stored
is weak.

Dilled Green Tomatoes

Small green tomatoes make choice dills when freshly gather-
ed and fermented under conditions as given above. In about 6
weeks the tomatoes should be ready to use. For storage, pack
in glass jars and add 1/4 to 1/2 cup vinegar to each jar. Strain
pickle brine; bring it to a boil and cool. Fill jars with hot brine
and seal.

Dilled Okra

Small, tender pods of okra cut with as much stem as possible
make fine dill pickles. Follow directions as given above. In
about 6 weeks the okra should be clear and of good flavor and

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

(Fermented Cabbage)

Select sound heads of cabbage. Remove all decayed or bruised
leaves. Wash well, drain and quarter heads and discard the core
portion. Shred the cabbage with a knife or a slaw cutter. Cut
about 5 pounds of cabbage at a time, weigh accurately. Mix
with 2 ounces of salt, until juices flow freely. When small
amounts of cabbage and salt are mixed at a time the mixing will
be more thorough. After salt has dissolved, pack the cabbage-
salt mixture into the container.
Large glass jars are best for use. Other jars or glazed pot-
tery may be used. To force out the air, pack the mixture down
gently but firmly with a large wooden masher or a spoon. DO
NOT POUND KRAUT. Pack glass jars to within one inch of
top, leaving space for fermentation and to prevent an overflow.
Pack glazed pottery until nearly full. Cover the kraut with a
clean cloth, a plate and weight. Put the container in a warm
place where fermentation may begin at once. Fermentation is
completed in from 10 days to two weeks. Fermentation is more
rapid at higher temperatures, but spoilage is more likely to
occur and a better quality kraut is produced at a lower tempera-
ture. The best temperature is 70 to 75 degrees.
Fermentation will begin within a day after packing. A scum
usually forms on the surface of the brine within a few days.
Remove the scum every few days and wash and scald the cloth
frequently. Replace the cloth, the cover, and the weight on top
of the container. Cover container with another cloth to keep out
dust. When fermentation is complete, bubbles cease to rise to
the top of the liquid and the liquid settles. The sauerkraut
should then be canned.

To Can Sauerkraut

After fermentation is complete, pack the cold kraut firmly
but not tightly into hot, sterile, containers. Add enough of the
kraut brine to fill the containers completely. If there is not
enough kraut brine, add a brine made by dissolving 2 tablespoons
of salt in 1 quart of water. Partially seal jars and place in water
bath, and process pints 15 minutes at simmering. Remove from
water bath and completely seal jar. Set the jars far apart so

Pickles and Relishes

they will cool as quickly as possible. When cans are used, kraut
must be steaming hot before can is sealed.

Spoilage of Sauerkraut

Kraut may discolor, soften, or spoil for the following reasons:

A wrong proportion of salt to cabbage
Poor mixing of salt and cabbage
Poor packing
Poor skimming
Dirty containers
The rising of the shredded cabbage above the surface of the
The storage of the kraut in too warm a place

Mustard Pickles

(Salt Stock or Fresh)

2 cups small cucumbers about
2 inches long
2 cups large cucumbers
2 cups onions
2 cups small green tomatoes cut
in halves or quarters
1 cup snapbeans, cut diagonally
in 1 inch pieces
1 cup cauliflower, flowerets, cut
uniform size

3 green peppers, seeded and
1% quarts vinegar, hot
Also 3 cups vinegar for soak-
2 cups brown sugar
6 tablespoons flour
1 teaspoon celery salt
6 tablespoons powdered mustard
1 tablespoon tumeric

When salt stock is used, freshen it first and then cut into
desirable pieces. If fresh vegetables are used, cut and soak
them overnight in brine made by dissolving 1 cup of salt to 2
quarts of water, then drain them. Soak the drained vegetables
1 hour each time in 2 changes of clear water. Drain again.
Cover the vegetables with a mixture of 3 cups of vinegar
and 3 cups of water. Let stand for 24 hours. Heat to the sim-
mering point, then drain the vegetables and discard the liquid.
Mix the sugar, flour and spices. Add the 11/2 quarts of hot
vinegar slowly, stirring to make a smooth paste. Cook this over
a pan of hot water until the mixture is well thickened. Pour this

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

mixture over the drained vegetables while they are hot. Stir
thoroughly. Pack hot pickles into clean, hot jars, and seal at

Pickled Onions
(Salt Stock or Fresh)

4 quarts of small white onions 3 tablespoons allspice
%4 cup grated horseradish 3 tablespoons white mustard seed
1 quart white vinegar 1 small hot red pepper for each
cup sugar container

When salt stock is used, freshen it first. If fresh onions are
used, drop them into hot water to loosen the outside skin; cut
off the dark portion from the root and slip off the skin, leaving
the onion perfectly smooth. Cover onions with boiling hot brine
made by dissolving 1 cup of salt in 11/2 quarts of boiling water.
Soak the onions for 24 hours, then drain them. Soak onions in
fresh water for 1 hour, and drain.
Mix vinegar, sugar and spices. Boil this syrup mixture for
one minute. Pack the onions into clean, sterile, hot jars. Cover
the onions with boiling syrup mixture. Add a hot red pepper
in each jar, and seal. Cool the jars and store them in a cool

Sweet Vegetable Pickles

As with sour pickles, better sweet pickles are obtained by
using vegetables previously cured in brine than by using fresh
vegetables. The vegetables should be freshened as directed for
sour pickles. Prick the vegetables through and through with
sharp pointed fork or other tool, otherwise the sweet vinegar
may cause vegetables to shrivel.
Store the pickles in strong unsweetened vinegar for about
1 week. Drain. Use one-half the drained vinegar for making
the pickling syrup.
Prepare the syrup of:

2 pints vinegar drained from 1 tablespoon each of mace, ginger
the pickles root, and whole cloves
2 pints fresh vinegar 2 tablespoons stick cinnamon
2 cups sugar, granulated or

Pickles and Relishes

Simmer the vinegar, sugar, and spices together for 5 minutes
and let stand overnight. Strain. Pack drained vegetables in
clean hot jars. Cover with hot syrup and seal.
Onions, cauliflower, green and red peppers, round yellow
tomatoes, red and green pear-shaped tomatoes, small ears of
corn, tiny melons, yellow and green pod beans, one-half grown
pods of the unicorn plant, okra, chayote, as well as cucumbers
make delicious mixed pickles in the same way.
All these vegetables should be first cured in brine for best
results. Very small vegetables are preferred. When larger
vegetables are used it is better to cut them into pieces of desired
size and shape.
For sour pickles, fill jars completely with 45 grain vinegar and
store for 10 days. Pour off. Fill jars with fresh vinegar and
seal. If sweet pickles are wanted, cover vegetables the second
time with a liquor made by dissolving four to six pounds of sugar
in a gallon of vinegar. Seal hot.

Mixed Sweet Pickles
(Salt Stock or Fresh)
1 quart small whole cucumbers 1 cup small okra
1 quart large cucumbers, sliced 1 large green pepper, seeded and
1 quart small white onions, cut sliced
in half 2 red peppers, seeded and sliced
1 cup beans, cut 11/2 inches on 1/4 cup horseradish, cut in pieces
the "bias" 3 quarts vinegar
1 cup green beans, cut same way 3 pounds brown sugar
1 cauliflower broken into 4 tablespoons celery seed
flowerets 4 tablespoons white mustard seed
4 small chayotes, cut into eights /2 teaspoon black pepper

When salt stock is used, freshen vegetables first and then
cut as desired. Soak them 10 days in 45 grain vinegar before
putting in the following sweet spiced solution. If fresh vege-
tables are used, cut and soak them overnight in brine made by
dissolving 1 cup of salt in 2 quarts of water, then drain; wash
the vegetables with fresh water and drain again.
Add the horseradish to the drained vegetables. Mix the
vinegar, brown sugar, and spices. Boil the mixture for 10 min-
utes. Pour the boiling hot syrup over the vegetable mixture.

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Soak the pickles for 2 days, then drain and again heat the syrup
to the boiling point. Pack the pickles into clean hot jars. Cover
the pickles with boiling syrup and seal.

Sweet Spiced Pickled Tomatoes
(Quick Process)

5 pounds small yellow or green 1 teaspoon whole allspice
tomatoes 1 tablespoon stock cinnamon
3% pounds sugar 1 teaspoon whole cloves
2 cups vinegar 1 tablespoon white mustard seed
2 lemons sliced thinly

Small yellow or green tomatoes are best for this pickle, al-
though the large green tomatoes may be cored and cut in quart-
ers. Wash and peel if desired. Prick whole small tomatoes to
prevent bursting. Mix the vinegar, sugar, and spices. Boil the
mixture for 5 minutes. Pour the boiling syrup over the toma-
toes, let them stand for several hours or overnight, then drain off
the syrup and boil it until it is thick enough to coat a spoon. Add
the tomatoes, and boil the mixture until the tomatoes are clear.
Pack the tomatoes into clean, hot jars. Cover the tomatoes with
the boiling syrup, and seal.

Sweet Gherkins

(Salt Stock or Fresh)

2 quarts small, green cucumbers, 1 tablespoon celery seed
uniform size, 1-2 inches 2 tablespoons stick cinnamon
2 quarts boiling vinegar 2 tablespoons whole cloves
2 pounds of sugar (4 cups) 1/2 cup mustard seed
2 tablespoons whole allspice

Freshen salt stock. When fresh cucumbers are used, cover
them with boiling hot brine made by dissolving 2 cups of salt in
11/2 quarts boiling water. Soak the cucumbers in this brine for
24 hours, then drain.
Heat the vinegar to boiling and pour it over the cucumbers.
Let stand for another 24 hours, then drain.
Save the vinegar and add the sugar and spices. Boil the mix-

Pickles and Relishes

ture for 5 minutes. Pack the pickles into clean, hot jars. Cover
the cucumbers with the boiling syrup and seal.

Filled Sweet Pickle

Remove centers from large sweet cucumber pickles as di-
rected above. Or young pickled papayas (3 to 4 inches in length)
may have a circular piece removed from one side and be filled
with the following mixture:

1 cup preserved citron or water- kumquat or a mixture of
melon rind these fruits
1/4 cup preserved ginger 1/ cup preserved or candied
% cup spiced orange or grape- Surinam cherries
fruit peel or 1 cup spiced 1/ cup sweet red pepper jam

Close openings with the pieces removed or with a preserved
cherry or orange peel. Cover with a hot spiced syrup, seal and
process in water bath-pints 5 to 10 minutes at simmering.

Sweet Pickled Watermelon Rind

(Salt Stock Process)

Best texture, flavor and keeping qualities for watermelon
pickles are made by curing the rind in brine rather than by the
heat treatment method. Proceed to freshen the rind as previ-
ously directed. Then store in strong, unsweetened vinegar for
one week. Prepare a syrup of:

3 pints of vinegar, white, if light 3 pounds of sugar
color is desired 1 tablespoon each of mace, ginger
2 lemons, sliced root and whole cloves
2 sticks cinnamon

Simmer vinegar, sugar, spices and lemon together for about
5 to 10 minutes, and let stand overnight. Strain. Pour hot
mixture over melon rind and bring all to a boil. Let stand over-
night and repeat the process the following day. The rind should
be crisp, tender and well flavored. If a less sour product is de-
sired, use part of the first vinegar in making the syrup, although
fresh, new vinegar is to be preferred.

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Sweet Pickled Watermelon Rind
(Quick Process)
4 pounds watermelon rind 2 lemons, sliced
2 tablespoons lime I 1 pint water
lime water 4 pounds granulated sugar
2 quarts cold water 2 tablespoons whole cloves
2 quarts vinegar 4 long pieces stick cinnamon

Select rind from a firm, not over-ripe melon. Before weigh-
ing, trim off the green skin and pink flesh. Cut in one inch cubes
and soak for 21/2 hours in the lime water. Freshen in cold water.
Drain. Cover with fresh water and cook for 11/2 hours, or until
tender. Add more water as it boils off. Let stand over night in
this same water, and next morning drain. Bring to the boiling
point the 2 quarts of vinegar, 1 pint of water, the 4 pounds of
sugar and the spices, tied loosely in cheesecloth. Add drained
watermelon, and boil gently for 2 hours, or until the syrup is
fairly thick and rind is clear. Remove the spice bag, pack water-
melon pickle in sterilized glass jars. Cover with syrup. Seal.
NOTE: The lime (calcium oxide) may be secured from the drugstore
or use slaked lime-2 ounces (2 tablespoonfuls) to 2 quarts of water for
2 pounds of fruit.

Pickled Plums Or "Plum Olives"
Select firm ripe cultivated or wild plums. Do not remove
stem or seeds. Wash and pack, without crushing, into sterilized
jars. Add 2 tablespoons of salt and 1 tablespoon of sugar to each
quart jar. Fill the jars with a mixture of one-half vinegar and
one-half water. Seal and store.
They will be ready for use in about 6 to 8 weeks. They are
somewhat like olives in taste.
Note: A more desirable product may be obtained by fermenting the
plums by the method given for dill pickles (page 14), omitting the pickle
spice and dill.

Pickled Kumquats
Either fully mature kumquats still in the green stage, but
just before they turn yellow, or ripe, well colored fruit may be
used for making into fermented pickles.
Use freshly gathered fruit. Scrape throughly to remove any

Pickles and Relishes

scale or dust. Wash and rinse. Pack, without crushing, in all-
glass containers to within 1 inch of top. Place weight across
the fruit in such way as to prevent their rising in the pickling
solution. Cover with brine made by adding 3 tablespoons salt to
one quart water to completely fill the jar and partially seal. As
fermentation takes place and liquid decreases, it should be re-
placed with new brine, keeping container full so as to leave no
air space. As soon as fermentation is over the jar should be
The kumquats should cure in about six weeks to two months.
They may be used as a substitute for olives.
Caution: Do not wait until fruit is becoming dry or over
mature before using.
Note: You may make sweet spiced kumquats of salt stock or fermented
kumquats. Freshen kumquats.

Pickled Calamondins
Follow directions as given for pickled kumquats.

Pickled Limes and Limequats
May be pickled as directed for pickled kumquats.

Bread and Butter Pickle No. 1
(Quick Process)
A type of cucumber pickle known as the bread and butter
pickle differs from the ordinary cucumber pickle in that it is not
made from cucumbers which have previously undergone a lactic
acid fermentation in brine. Fresh green cucumbers are used to
make Bread and Butter pickles. The cucumbers are washed,
graded and uniformly sliced cross-wise. The round cucumber
chips are packed in a sweet spiced vinegar with a few pieces of
onion. The bread and butter pickle owes its attraction to its
delicious crispness. Care must be taken in preparation to avoid
too long heating as this will destroy the crispness and make the
chips mushy.
Follow these directions:
1. Use fresh green cucumbers and a few onions.
2. Wash the cucumbers and peel and wash the onions.
3. Cut the cucumbers and onions into coarse slices, cross-

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4. Prepare a light brine by dissolving 1/2 pound of salt in one
gallon of water.
5. Cover the cucumbers and the onions separately with this
brine and let stand overnight and then drain thoroughly.
6. Make a liquor of equal amounts of vingar and water, use
to scald the pickles for about 5 minutes, or until they are
tender. Be careful not to get them too soft. Drain this
liquor off thoroughly. Do not use again.
7. Dissolve 6 pounds brown sugar in one quart water and 3
quarts vinegar. Then add the following spices: 2 table-
spoons celery seed, 2 tablespoons mustard seed, and 2
tablespoons ground turmeric.
8. Pack the drained pickles in sterile glass jars.
9. Bring the vinegar, sugar and spices mixture to a boil.
Pour hot over the pickles.
10. Fill jars and seal.

Bread and Butter Pickle No. 2
(Quick Process)
Slice 25 cucumbers of medium size and 12 small onions. Soak
in cold water with a large handful of salt for 3 hours. Then
drain well. Pack sliced cucumbers and onion in sterile glass jars.
Scald 1 quart of vinegar, 2 cups of white sugar, 2 tablespoons
of mustard seed, 2 tablespoons turmeric, 2 tablespoons celery
seed, and 1 teaspoon of cassia buds. Pour this scalding hot mix-
ture over the cucumbers and onions previously packed in jars.
Cucumber Pickles
(Quick Process)
100 small cucumbers 1 pint of small white onions
1 cup salt 1 cup white mustard seed
1/2 cup celery seed 1 cup salad oil
Vz tablespoon ground black
Slice the cucumbers and onions very thin, sprinkle with the
salt and let stand overnight. Use a glass or glazed pottery con-
tainer. In the morning, drain well; add the celery and mustard
seeds, salad oil, and pepper. Mix thoroughly. Put into glass
jars. Fill jars with cold vinegar. Seal. While these are delici-
ous, they will remain firm only a few months.

Pickles and Relishes

Sweet Spiced Fruit Pickles

Spiced fruit, or the so-called sweet pickle fruit, saturated with
a spicy, sweet-sour syrup, is the easiest of all pickles to make.
Only fresh, high quality fruits should be used and they should
be graded for size and stage of ripeness. The ripest fruit should
be kept in one lot if there is a marked difference. When fruits
like carissa, green papayas, kumquats and plums are not peeled,
puncture them thoroughly with a fork or in some other way to
permit the syrup to penetrate fruit. This helps prevent shrivel-
ing. Guavas, ripe papayas and peaches should be peeled; grape-
fruit and other large citrus fruits should be carefully grated and
cut into halves, quarters or a preferred size.

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In general, figs, guavas, ripe papayas, pineapples, and all
fruits that make good preserves can be easily made into pickles
by adding to the rich preserve syrup a small amount of high
grade vinegar and whole spices-stick cinnamon-whole cloves,
allspice and ginger being commonly preferred. Pour the boiling
hot spiced syrup over the preserves and let stand to penetrate
the fruit. A day or two later, drain off the syrup and repeat
the operation until the fruit is thoroughly saturated, well flavor-
ed, clear, tender, translucent and shapely.
For spicing crabapples, figs, peaches, pears, pineapples, and
many other fruits, prepare the following syrup:

3 pounds sugar 1 tablespoon ginger root
2 pints water 11/2 teaspoons whole cloves
1 pint vinegar 2 tablespoons stick cinnamon

Prepare fruit, puncturing whole fruit when needed to pre-
vent shriveling.
If pears are very hard, cover with water and pre-cook 10
minutes. Use this water to dilute the vinegar for the syrup.
Peaches, like pears and quinces, may need pre-cooking before
being placed in syrup. To prevent discoloration, drop the fruit
as it is prepared into a salt solution made by dissolving 1 table-
spoon salt in each quart of water.
Very soft fruits like guavas and ripe papayas may need the
opposite treatment. They may need to stand in the sugar over-
night to be "firmed". The liquid which the sugar draws out can
then be used in place of a syrup made with water. Also a higher
proportion of sugar, 3/ pound to 1 pound of fruit, produces a finer
quality product than the proportions given for syrup above. It is
to be preferred for the best quality guava or papaya pickle.
Thoroughly ripe, fresh, firm figs, with stems trimmed to 1/
inch, benefit when they are placed in a strainer and are dipped
for one minute in boiling water before being added to the spiced
syrup. A soda treatment for figs is NEVER necessary when
ripe, fresh, unbruised figs are used. The repeated washing and
handling that the practice calls for, destroys or breaks down the
delicate structure of the fig. Figs require long cooking to get
rid of the white chalky color.
Boil the sugar, vinegar, and water together. Tie spices loose-
ly in a cheesecloth bag and pound lightly to increase the flavor.

Pickles and Relishes

Whole spices do not cloud and darken products as much as
ground spices.
Place the fruit in the syrup and cook gently until somewhat
clear and tender. Cover and let stand in the syrup overnight.
Reheat. If clear, pack boiling hot into hot containers and seal.
Process in water bath for 5 minutes at boiling point for an air-
tight seal.
Tender fruits like the papaya call for pouring boiling hot
syrup over the fruit on successive days rather than giving fruit
a long cooking. Do this until fruit is tender, transparent, clear
and syrup is thick. Better color, flavor and texture are obtained
in this way.

Pickle Syrups or Juices

Left-over sweetened, spiced vinegars, excess juices drained
from various pickles and relishes-peach, plum, watermelon,
mango, citrus-are desirable for use in general cookery.
Syrup is valuable for using with mincement. It is delicious
to use diluted with hot water to baste baked ham or roast lamb-
the sweet, spice and sour all adding greatly to the final flavor.
The syrup stiffened with gelatin as a jelly for piquant garnish
for cold meats or for jellied fruit or vegetable salads, for fruit
salad dressings or the sweetened vinegar used alone as a dress-
ing for lettuce is liked by many. A half cup of rich syrup may
serve for part liquid and part sweetening in spice cake.

Sweet Spiced Loquats

2 quarts loquats 2 tablespoons stick cinnamon
1/ pint vinegar 1 cup hot water
1 tablespoon whole cloves 1 lemon or 3 calamondins
4 cups sugar

Wash loquats and remove stem and blossom ends. Cut length-
wise on one side of loquat and remove seed. Slice lemons or
calamondins. Steam loquats in the water 2 to 3 minutes to soften
and to prevent shriveling. Add other ingredients and cook gent-
ly about 10 minutes. Let stand overnight. Next day bring to
the boiling point and cook gently until syrup is somewhat thick.

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Pour boiling hot into clean jars and seal. Very delicious to serve
with cold meats.

Sweet Pickled Figs

5 quarts figs 1 quart sugar
1 quart water 1 tablespoon whole cloves
1 pint sugar 1 teaspoon allspice
1 pint vinegar 1 teaspoon mace
1 lemon sliced 2 tablespoons stick cinnamon

Prepare figs as on page 28. Cook 5 quarts of figs until tender
in a syrup made of one quart of water to each pint of sugar, cook-
ing gently for about one hour.
When figs become tender, add 1 quart of sugar, 1 pint of
vinegar, the sliced lemon and the spices-cloves, allspice and
mace. Cook gently until figs are clear and transparent. Let
stand in the syrup overnight. Pack in pint jars, seal and process
in water bath for 15 minutes at boiling point.

Spiced Plums

7 pounds of fruit 3 tablespoons whole cinnamon
1 pint of vinegar 2 tablespoons whole cloves
4 pounds sugar 1 tablespoon allspice

Make a syrup of the sugar, spices and vinegar. Cool slightly,
add the washed fruit. Cover container and let stand overnight.
Drain off spiced syrup and boil it rapidly for about 10 to 20 min-
utes. Add plums and let stand until cold. Pack into clean jars
and seal. Process in water bath, pints 15 minutes at simmering
(180 degrees Fahrenheit).

Spiced Muscadine Grapes

Pick the grapes, wash and slip the pulp from the skins, steam
the pulps over hot water in a double boiler until they can be put
through a coarse sieve to remove seeds. Combine pulp with
skins and weigh. To each 7 pounds allow the same proportions
of sugar and spices as for spiced plums given above. Cook all to-

Pickles and Relishes

gether until very thick, and skins very tender; Pack while hot,
and seal.

Mango Sweet Pickle No. 1

Seedling mangos, not yet mature, may be used. Pare, cut
into thick slices. Cook in clear water until barely tender-not
soft-then drain.

Make the following syrup:

3 pounds brown or white sugar 1 teaspoon whole allspice
1 pint cider vinegar 1 lemon sliced, or
1 teaspoon whole cloves 4 calamondins, cut in halves
1 tablespoon stick cinnamon

Cook the syrup until thick. Pour over the mangos and allow
them to heat through in the syrup. Place in jars and seal.

Mango Sweet Pickle No. 2

Select small, ripe mangos. Peel and place in a container.
Cover with a syrup made by boiling 1 pint of sugar and 1 pint
of vinegar and one pint of water with whole cloves, allspices, and
cinnamon to produce the desired flavor. When cold, drain off
syrup, heat syrup and pour over the fruit again. Repeat several
times. The last time put the fruit in the boiling syrup and when
well heated, transfer to clean jars and seal. The continued drain-
ing off of the syrup, reheating and pouring over the fruit, cooks
the fruit without breaking it. Only mangos free from fibre
should be used as directed above. The syrup should become in-
creasingly heavy as it receives the repeated cooking.

Sweet Pickled Surinam Cherries

Wash and remove pits from large fresh gathered Surinam
cherries. Stuff with pineapple, raisins, preserved orange peel,
if desired. To each pound of cherries add %3/ pound of sugar.
Sprinkle the sugar over the fruit in layers, and let stand over-
night. In the morning, stir gently until the sugar is dissolved,

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and drain juice from the fruit. For each pound of cherries, tie
whole spices-one teaspoon each of cinnamon stick, allspice and
mace in a loose cheesecloth bag. Drop this into the juice to-
gether with 1/2 lemon, limequats or calamondins sliced, and boil
together for about 10 minutes. While the syrup is hot, add 1/4
cup cider vinegar for each pint of juice. Cool slightly and pour
over the drained cherries. Let stand overnight. Repeat process.
Drain off syrup, heat to boiling, cool syrup slightly, pour over
fruit. Let stand overnight. Pack in clean jars and seal. Sim-
mer in water bath, ten minutes for pints.

Sweet Spiced Papaya

Peel and cut fruit in medium size, shapely, uniform pieces or
in large pieces if desired. Do not remove seed. Weigh and for
every pound of papaya, add 3/4 pound of sugar. Sprinkle over
fruit and allow to stand a few hours or until sugar is dissolved.
Place over heat, bring to a boil and boil for 10 minutes. Cover
tightly; remove from heat and let stand overnight. Syrup must
cover fruit at all times. Next day drain off syrup, bring syrup
to boil and pour over papaya. Repeat this process until fruit is
clear and syrup heavy. Then add 1/2 cup vinegar to each pint
syrup and whole spices-1 teaspoon each cinnamon, cloves and
allspice tied in cheesecloth to the syrup. Boil 5 to 10 minutes,
then add fruit and cook another 5 minutes. Transfer to hot jars
and seal. If preferred, the vinegar and spices could be added to
the dissolved sugar in the beginning.

Pickled Pineapple Chunks

4 quarts prepared pineapple 2 tablespoons stick cinnamon
2 cups vinegar 1 tablespoon whole cloves
5 cups sugar 2 slices each of lemon and orange

Cut full ripe pineapple in thick slices, then peel and remove
eyes and cores. Cut into chunks. Mix the vinegar, sugar and
spices. Boil for 5 minutes. Place the chunks of pineapple into
hot syrup. Simmer until the pineapple is tender and clear. Let
stand overnight. Repeat, pack fruit in hot jars. Cover the fruit
with boiling syrup and seal.

Pickles and Relishes

Hemphill House Special Pinata Sweet Pickle

3 pounds green tomatoes, sliced
rather thick or cut in quarters
2 pounds pineapple, fresh or
canned, sliced about 1/ as
thick as tomato slices, or
2 pounds green mango, peeled
and sliced
3 pounds granulated sugar

1 cup orange honey
3 cups vinegar
1 tablespoon celery seed
1 tablespoon each stick cinnamon,
cloves and allspice
2 tablespoons white mustard seed
1 tablespoon mace

Mix vinegar, sugar, honey. Tie cinnamon, cloves and allspice
in thin muslin bag and add to syrup mixture. Bring to boil and
cook 10 minutes. Pour over green tomatoes, pineapple and man-
go. Cover and let stand overnight. Drain off liquid and boil as
before. Add fruit and cook gently until fruit is tender and clear
and syrup is somewhat thickened. Let stand overnight. Pack
in clean pint jars and seal. Simmer in water bath for 10 minutes.

Peaches, Pears, Pineapple, Papaya

For Sweet Spiced Pickle Peaches, Pears, Pineapple, Papaya
and other fruits, follow directions for making sweet spiced fruit

Guava Sweet Pickle

3 pounds prepared guavas
3 cups brown sugar
1 cup white sugar
% cup vinegar
1 tablespoon allspice

3 dozen whole cloves
2 large sticks cinnamon
cup preserved ginger, or
4 pieces of ginger root
%s teaspoon salt

Select large, meaty guavas. If skin is clean and unblemished,
do not peel. Cut off stem and blossom ends, cut in halves and
scoop out centers. Place fruit in preserving kettle; add other
ingredients, and let stand 3 to 4 hours. Then cook until fruit is
tender and syrup heavy. Time required depends on type of
guavas used. Place boiling hot in hot, sterile jars and seal. If
dry ginger is used, remove before serving.

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Sweet Spiced Kumquats

2 pounds whole kumquats 1 cup vinegar
1%/ pounds sugar Whole spice
11/ pints water

Thoroughly clean well colored kumquats by scraping with a
paring knife and a stiff brush. Rinse well and drain. Make a
slit with a sharp pointed knife into and across the sections of
each kumquat to prevent them from bursting open and to facili-
tate penetration of the spiced syrup. Drop kumquats into boil-
ing water and cook until tender.
Drain and add to sugar-vinegar mixture. Cook briskly until
kumquats are clearing and syrup is becoming thick. Add spices,
1 stick cinnamon broken, 1 tablespoon each of cloves and allspice
tied in cheesecloth. Cover tightly and let stand overnight to
"plump." Boil again until kumquats are clear, shining and
transparent, and syrup is thick. Cover tightly. Let stand
again. When cold, pack in clean jars. Add small amount of
spice to syrup, heat, strain and pour over fruit, seal and process
in water bath 5 minutes for pints.

Baked Pickled Orange Slices

Grate lightly to break outside surface of rind, and boil whole
oranges, in a generous amount of water for one hour or until
tender. Change water twice during the hour. Add salt to the
first boiling. When oranges are tender, cut into half-inch slices.
Prepare the following spiced syrup:

2 cups of sugar 20 whole cloves
1/ cup corn syrup 2 two inch pieces of stick
1 cup vinegar cinnamon
Contents of 2 cardamon seed pods 12 bruised coriander seeds
% cup water

Boil syrup mixture 5 minutes, add orange slices, and boil 15
minutes. Transfer to a casserole and bake 3/ hour in a slightly
hotter than moderate oven. If syrup does not completely cover
the fruit, baste occasionally. Fill clean jars and seal.

Pickles and Relishes

Baked Pickled Whole Citrus Fruits

Proceed exactly as for baked Pickled Orange Slices, except
that small whole fruits are needed, such as kumquats, orange-
quats or calamondins. Puncture well but do not grate.
Note: A group of 5 or 6 copper nails about 1 to Il/ inches long, placed
in a circle about %" apart in a wood spatula, is convenient and effective
for puncturing small fruits like kumquats, limequats, and calamondins.
Puncture both blossom and stem ends. Thus treated, the fruit is not as
likely to burst or split in cooking as when cut with a knife.

Sweet Spiced Grapefruit Pickle

Select tree ripened fruit of good quality and thick peel.
Wash and grate carefully to remove all the yellow rind. Remove
peel and cut into convenient quarters or in half inch strips as
preferred. To one pound of fruit, add at least 3 pints of water
and bring slowly to a boil and boil 10 minutes. Then change
water and bring to boil as before. Taste liquid and if very bitter,
drain off, add fresh water and bring to boil again. Repeat until
liquid tastes slightly bitter. Then boil peel until tender. Drain
and add peel to a syrup made by adding 3/4 pound sugar to 1 pint
of water for each pound of peel taken. Boil until peel is clear
and syrup is heavy or thick. Add 1/2 cup white vinegar to each
pound of peel and whole spice-cinnamon and cloves-tied in
cheesecloth bag and lightly bruised. Bring to a boil and let
stand covered 24 hours. Reheat and pack. The peel should be
beautifully clear, tender, yet firm, well-flavored and the syrup
heavy. Sweet pickled citrus fruit should be among the most
popular of Florida pickles.

Tangerine Sweet Pickles

Choose small, firm tangerines of uniform size and unblemished
skins. Wash. Push a fine knitting needle entirely through each
fruit six or eight times. Let fruit stand overnight well covered
with salt water-weighting down with a plate.
In the morning, put the fruit with an abundance of cold water
in a large preserving kettle and boil gently until tender-chang-
ing the water twice.

34 Florida Agricultural Extension Service

While fruit is boiling, make enough syrup to cover the tanger-
ines well, using 1 cup water and 1 cup vinegar to each two cups
of sugar, 1/2 stick cinnamon, 10 whole cloves and 1 lemon sliced.
Stir until sugar is dissolved.
Remove fruit from boiling water with a skimmer and add
to hot syrup. Cook until syrup is thickened and tangerines are
somewhat clear. Let stand overnight or for several nights.
Boil again until fruit is translucent and syrup heavy. Pack
carefully in jars. Process in water bath at simmering 15 min-
utes for pints. This is a delicious pickle to serve with chicken,
veal and other meats.

Pickles and Relishes

Relishes and Chutneys

Relishes consist of mixed, chopped or ground fruits or vege-
tables or a combination of both fruits and vegetables with the
addition of spices and other seasoning agents. As an accessory
to the menu, they are prized mostly for their flavor. Just as
sweet vegetable pickles, mustard pickles and other pickles are
best made from vegetables cured in brine rather than from fresh
products, so are all vegetable relishes best made in the same
way. Tomato catsup, chili sauce and chutneys are made from
the fresh chopped or ground fruits and vegetables, spiced and
cooked down to a sauce.
Chutneys are a hot, sweet, spicy mixture of finely minced in-
gredients and flavored mainly with fresh ginger. Proportions
seem very changeable so the pungency and spiciness may be
easily regulated to suit the taste.
Whatever the type of relish or chutney the purpose is to get
a tart, spicy flavor through the vegetable or fruit, to keep or de-
velop attractive color and to give crispness to those made from
vegetables. For quick process pickles, the vegetables are often
salted down overnight to draw out the juices. Quick vegetable
relishes are not as crisp as those made from salt stock and the
flavor is different, but they require much less work.

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Flamingo Relish

8 large white onions
12 large sweet red peppers
2 hot red peppers, with seeds
1 quart cider vinegar

2 cups sugar
2 teaspoons mustard seeds
2 teaspoons celery seeds
2 teaspoons salt

Remove skins from onions and seeds from peppers and put
through fine blade of food chopper. Combine all ingredients.
Let stand one hour. Bring to boil and boil 15 minutes. Fill into
hot jars and seal. Serve as catsup with baked beans or cold

Honey Beet Relish

Chop together 4 cups peeled raw beets and 2 cups of raw cab-
bage until quite fine. Add 1 cup of grated horseradish root, 2
cups sugar, 1 cup honey, 3 teaspoons salt, 2 hot red peppers with
seed removed, and enough vinegar to cover. Bring to a boil and
cook 10 minutes. Pour into hot jars and seal.

Rosy Radish Relish

pint radish, ground
cup celery, ground
cup onion, white or red,
cup sugar
tablespoon mustard seed

1 tablespoon dill seed
2 hot red peppers with seed
2 teaspoons salt
Vinegar to cover

Use fresh, crisp radishes. Wash, remove tops and roots.
Put all vegetables through coarse blade food chopper. Combine
all ingredients. Let stand a few hours. Bring to a boil and
cook 10 minutes. Pack boiling hot in hot jars and seal.

Sweet Pepper Relish No. 1

12 red peppers, seeded, and
ground coarsely
12 green peppers, seeded and
ground coarsely

12 red onions, medium size,
2 cups vinegar
2 cups sugar

Pickles and Relishes

The peppers must be fresh; unshriveled. Mix all ingredients
and boil about 20 minutes. Pour into hot jars and seal.

Sweet Pepper Relish No. 2

Remove the seeds from 1 dozen large fresh, sweet red pep-
pers. Grind coarsely. Mix with 1 teaspoon of salt, and let stand
3 hours. Drain; add 1 pint of vinegar and 3 cups of sugar; then
cook until like jam, usually about 45 minutes. Pour into small,
hot containers and seal. This jam is fine for potato and other
salads and mixed with cream cheese for sandwiches.

Sweet Mango Relish

Peel green mangos, cut from seed, chop or put through
coarse blade of food chopper. Need enough to make one quart
or 4 cups. Chop or grind two large onions, six sweet red peppers
and two large hot peppers. Add 1 tablespoon of salt, 1 table-
spoon each of white mustard seed and celery seed, 4 cups sugar
and 1 cup vinegar. Two cups raisins may be added if desired.
Combine all ingredients. Bring to boil and boil 5 minutes.
Let stand overnight. Next morning cook until slightly thicken-
ed (about 10 minutes). Pack boiling hot and seal. Mango may
be combined with sweet fruits as papaya or pineapple for mak-
ing jams and other products.

Fruit Relish

4 pounds sliced peaches 2 teaspoons salt
1 quart vinegar 1 clove garlic
3 pounds sugar % ounce dried chili peppers
2 pounds raisins 2 tablespoons white mustard seed
1 pound preserved ginger

Juice, pulp, rind of one orange and one lemon, or, 11/2 cups sliced
kumquats (may be canned kumquat stock).
Peel fruit and slice. Add sugar and vinegar and boil 10 min-
utes. Grind the lemon, orange, garlic and chili peppers. Add
with all other ingredients to the fruit and boil the mixture until
thick, stirring as needed. Let stand overnight. Bring to a boil
and boil 10 minutes. Pack into hot containers and seal. Guavas,

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

pears, pineapple, mango and other fruit may be used in place of
peaches or in combination.

Palm Beach Pineapple Relish

4 cups pineapple crushed
1 cup tarragon vinegar
1 tablespoon stick cinnamon

3 cups granulated sugar
1 teaspoon cloves

Cook the pineapple with the vinegar and spices (tied in
cheesecloth) until fruit is clear and syrup thickens-about 45
minutes. Remove spices and seal. A good sauce for cold meats.

Pineapple Chutney Relish

1% quarts shredded pineapple
12 large green mangos
4 onions
4 sweet red peppers
2 hot red peppers
6 medium size green tomatoes
1 cup cider vinegar

1 cup grape juice
2 cups brown sugar
Juice of 3 lemons or limes
14 cup mustard seed
1 tablespoon ginger
2 cups raisins
1 tablespoon salt

Chop or grind the mangos, onions, peppers, and tomatoes.
Add the other ingredients in the order given and cook all together
until thick, stirring carefully. Place in hot jars and seal.

Guava Chutney No. 1

pounds prepared guavas
pounds brown sugar
pounds raisins
pint pimiento
pounds tamarinds
pods chili pepper, dried
cloves garlic

1 pound green ginger
1 tablespoon each ground allspice,
cloves, cinnamon and salt
1 pound onions
1% cup mustard seed
14 cup celery seed
1a tablespoon pepper

To prepare guavas, remove fibrous hulls and soak pulp in 2
quarts of vinegar, stirring often to dissolve the pulp from the
seed. When pulp is dissolved, run through fruit press or colander

Pickles and Relishes

to remove seed. Then put guavas and raisins through the medi-
um blade of the food chopper. Use the finest blade for the green
ginger, peppers, garlic or onions and mustard seed. Mix all
ingredients and boil 30 minutes. Let stand overnight. Reheat
to boiling and add extra seasoning if needed. Pour in hot jars
and seal.

Guava Chutney No. 2

3 pounds guavas
3 pounds sugar
2 quarts vinegar
2 pounds seeded raisins
2 tablespoons salt
2 teaspoons each cinnamon
and cloves

1 clove garlic
1 pound onions
11/ tablespoons mustard
11/ tablespoons powdered ginger
3 small hot peppers

Put clean, ripe guavas through fruit press or colander to re-
move seed. Boil guava pulp until smooth and thick. Put raisins,
onion, garlic through food chopper. Add these and sugar, vine-
gar, and seasonings to guava pulp. Cook until thick, stirring
occasionally. Let stand overnight. Reheat. Pack in hot jars
while boiling hot and seal. Seal boiling hot. Hold several weeks
before using.
Peaches, pears, pineapple, carissa, Surinam cherries, mangos
may be used in place of guavas in above recipe.

Mango Chutney No. 1

4 pounds sliced and peeled green
1 quart vinegar
2 pounds currants
2 pounds raisins
Y pound onions

3 pounds brown sugar
2 ounces yellow chili
/z pound green ginger
1 tablespoon salt
2 cloves garlic

Chop all ingredients fine except raisins and currants. Chop
raisins and currants medium or leave whole. Mix all ingredients
well. Let stand overnight.
Cook until thick as desired. Pack in clean jars while boiling
hot and seal. Can be made with sweet budded mangos, using
the juice of 5 limes or lemons.

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

Mango Chutney No. 2

3 pounds green mangos,
peeled and sliced
3 pounds tamarind
2 pounds raisins
8 pounds brown sugar
pound chilies
2 pounds green ginger

14 ounce cloves
4 large cloves garlic
1% ounce pimiento
4 tablespoons salt
3 pints strong vinegar
14 ounce mace

Remove hull from ripe tamarinds and soak the pulpy pods
in all except 1/2 cup of the vinegar. Stir pods with a wooden
spoon to get the pulp off the seed; then remove seed and the
leathery parts in which they are enclosed. Scrape the ginger
and grate it. Pound the chilies, garlic, and mustard seed in a
mortar, using a little of the vinegar to moisten. Mix all ingredi-
ents thoroughly. Let stand five days. Bring to a boil. Pack in
containers and process in water bath at simmering 25 minutes
for pints.

Note: The tamarind (Tamarindus indica), a beautiful leguminous fruit
tree whose brown pods contain a pulp rich in sugar and acid, is used as an
important ingredient in chutneys and for making a delightful drink.

Tropical Mince Meat

4 quarts green tomatoes
3 oranges and 3 lemons or
2 pints kumquats (ground)
1 pint coconut, grated
1 pound raisins, seedless
3 teaspoons cinnamon
1 pint figs
1 pound pineapple shredded

1 pint vinegar or pint vinegar
and pint grape, plum, pine-
apple, mango, or other fruit
1 teaspoon cloves
5 pounds sugar (brown)
1 glass tart jelly or jam
1 teaspoon mace
1 teaspoon allspice

Select oranges and lemons with clear, well ripened skins.
(Oranges artificially colored have tough, undesirable peeling.)
Scrub thoroughly and cut into convenient pieces for putting
through food chopper. Grind all portions except seeds. If kum-
quats are used, clean and cut in halves to remove seed before

Pickles and Relishes

putting through chopper. Grind tomatoes and seeded raisins.
Combine all materials. Let stand several hours. Boil 20 min-
utes. Let stand overnight, add more seasoning if desired. Boil
again 10 minutes, pack hot in jars, and process in water bath, at
boiling, 10 minutes for pints, 15 minutes for quarts. This mince-
meat serves not only as a choice filling for the pie but may be
used as a filling for cakes and sandwiches. As a thick spread on
Angel cake, topped with whipped cream and a surinam cherry
for garnish, it serves as a dessert for any special occasion.

Pear Relish

1 peck pears 2 pounds sugar
6 medium peppers (3 red and 1 tablespoon turmeric
3 green) 1 tablespoon salt
2 tablespoons mixed whole spices 4 cups vinegar
5 medium size onions

Remove seed from peppers. Grind using medium coarse
blade on food chopper. Drain juice from peppers but allow the
juice of other ingredients to remain in mixture. Grind pears
and onions in food chopper. Combine all ingredients and cook
30 minutes. Pack in hot jars and seal.

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

Catsups and Sauces

Catsups and sauces differ considerable in texture and appear-
ance from pickles and relishes but are used in much the same
way as relishes. Catsups made from acid, juicy varieties of
fruits are preferred to very sweet fruits. Catsups should be
cooked to a very thick consistency to prevent separation.

Chili Sauce

1 gallon red-ripe tomatoes
2% cups sweet red peppers,
or pimientos
1 hot pepper
1 cup brown sugar
2 tablespoons celery seed
2 tablespoons salt

1 quart vinegar
1 tablespoon white mustard seed
1 bay leaf
1 teaspoon garlic finely minced
1/2 ounce stick cinnamon
1 teaspoon cloves (whole)
14 teaspoon nutmeg, grated
1 tablespoon ginger

Pickles and Relishes

Select sound, fresh, red-ripe tomatoes. Wash, scald and re-
move skins, cores and any green or yellow spots. Tomatoes,
onions and peppers are put through food chopper using a fine
blade. Tie spices loosely in a cheesecloth bag. Boil the spices
with the vegetables until the mixture is reduced one-half. Stir
well to prevent scorching. Add the vinegar, sugar and salt. Boil
mixture rapidly and stir well for 5 minutes. Pour the boiling
chili sauce into clean, hot jars and seal.

Bordeaux Sauce

3 quarts green tomatoes 6 tablespoons mustard seed
3 quarts cabbage 4 tablespoons celery seed
1 pint celery 2 tablespoons each of black pep-
1 pint onions per, cloves, allspice, ginger
6 tablespoons salt and turmeric
1 cup sugar 2 quarts of vinegar
1 clove garlic

Put tomatoes, cabbage, celery and onions through food chop-
per using fine blade. Mix well and boil rapidly for 20 to 25
minutes. Tie spices in a cheesecloth bag. Pour boiling hot into
hot jars and seal.

Pepper Sauce No. 1

Wash small cherry or chili peppers (red and green), prick
with a needle. Pack into bottles. Cover with cider vinegar, and
cork. It will be ready for use within a few days. As the sauce
is used, more vinegar may be added to the peppers.

Pepper Sauce No. 2

4 dozen red tabasco or 1 clove of garlic (finely chopped)
chili peppers % cup spiced vinegar

Boil the garlic and peppers until tender, drain, rub through
sieve. Add enough spiced vinegar to make it of a creamy con-
sistency. Place in jars and seal. Onions may be used in place
of garlic if desired. Use spiced vinegar. Recipe on page 13.

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

Florida Cranberry Catsup

5 pounds roselle
(use calyx only)
1 cup water
1 pint vinegar
2 pounds brown sugar

% tablespoon paprika
3 tablespoons cinnamon
1/ tablespoon ground cloves
/2 tablespoon salt

Cook roselle in water until tender. Rub through a sieve.
Add other ingredients and cook rapidly until thick. Reduce to
about 1/3 the original quantity. Put boiling hot in sterilized con-
tainers and seal.

Tropical Catsup

4 pounds prepared guavas
1 quart vinegar
2 pounds sugar
11/2 pounds raisins
1 pound preserved ginger
1 teaspoon salt

1 clove garlic
2 tablespoons chilies or hot
1/ cup each white mustard and
celery seed

Cut blossom and stem ends from guavas; peel if blemished,
and remove seed. Put through food chopper with raisins, garlic,
ginger, mustard seed and chili. Use fine blade on food chopper.
Add remaining ingredients and boil 30 minutes. Let stand over-
night. If too heavy, dilute with vinegar. Reheat, place in jars
while boiling hot and seal. Allow to season several weeks be-
fore using.
Carissa, mangos, tamarinds-may be substituted for guavas.

Spiced Youngberry Catsup

3 quarts barely ripe
3 cups sugar

2 sticks cinnamon
1 dozen whole cloves
to % cup vinegar

Wash, drain and mash berries. Tie the spices loosely in a
cheesecloth bag. Add vinegar, spices, and sugar to the berries

Pickles and Relishes

and cook rapidly until the mixture is thick. Pour into clean, hot
jars and seal.

Grape Catsup

4 pounds grapes % teaspoon cayenne pepper,
2 tablespoons cinnamon or one hot red pepper
1 tablespoon cloves 1 cup vinegar
and allspice 2 pounds sugar
1 teaspoon salt

Use firm but fully ripe fruit. Wash, stem, and separate skin
and pulp. Heat pulp until soft enough to free seeds. Rub
through fruit press and combine with skins. Cover and steam
until tender. Put through fruit press again. Add remaining
ingredients and cook rapidly until thick. Use whole spices. Tie
them loosely in cheesecloth bag to prevent darkening the product,
and remove bag before placing in jar. Pour in hot, sterile jar to
within 2 inches of top. Seal and process in water bath at boiling
for 10 minutes.
Grape catsup is a pleasing sauce to serve with cold meats.
In making catsup the juicy varieties and an acid juicy variety are
preferred to sweet varieties.
The bunch grapes may be used in the same manner as the
members of the muscadine family.

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

Florida Bulletins

Florida Bulletins containing information in relation to pickles,
relishes, etc., are:
155A "Canning Florida Fruits and Vegetables"
167 "Using Florida Citrus Fruits"
180 "Using Florida Fruits-Limes"
229 "Using Florida Citrus Fruits-Citrus Salads"
230 "Using Florida Citrus Fruits-Citrus Beverages"
231 "Using Florida Citrus Fruits-Citrus Desserts and Cookies"
232 "Using Florida Citrus Fruits-Citrus Bread"
233 "Using Florida Citrus Fruits-Citrus Pies and Cakes"
234 "Using Florida Citrus Fruits-Citrus Garnishes and Sea-
235 "Using Florida Citrus Fruits-Marmalades, Jellies, and
236 "Using Florida Citrus Fruits-Canning and Freezing Citrus
159R "Honey in the Home"
163 "Jellies, Jams and Preserves"
62R "Making and Using Sauerkraut"
150 "Freezing Prepared Foods"
161 "Using Florida Fruits-Mango"
162 "Using Florida Fruits-Papaya"
163 "Using Florida Fruits-Coconut"
164 "Savory or Aromatic Herbs"
165 "Using Florida Fruits-Avacado"
167 "Using Florida Fruits-Berries"
207 "Using Florida Fruits-Guava"
214 "Using Florida Fruits-Pineapple"
215 "Using Florida Fruits-Strawberries"
216 "Using Florida Fruits-Pears"

Pickles and Relishes

Prepared by Isabelle S. Thursby, former Economist in Food Conserva-
tion, in 1951. Revised by the State Home Demonstration Office Publications
Committee, April, 1963. The late Dr. E. W. Berger of the State Plant Board
assisted in preparation of the original bulletin.
References for the revision were:
Pickles and Relishes, Texas Agricultural Extension Service, B-188 re-
vised 1962.
Making Pickles and Relishes, Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service,
Circular 464.

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