Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Winter in the woods
 Tricks of light
 Saving the toll
 The real king of beasts
 The French soldier-boy
 A lively way to ring a bell
 Down in the earth
 The lion
 Bob's hiding-place
 The Continental soldier
 A judge of music
 The sensitive plant
 Sir Marmaduke
 The giraffe
 Up in the air
 The Arabian horse
 Indian puddings: pumpkin pies
 Living in smoke
 The cannon of the Palais-Royal
 Waters, deep and shallow
 Hans, the herb-gatherer
 Some cunning insects
 A first sight of the sea
 The largest church in the...
 The soft place
 A few feathered friends
 In a well
 A vegetable gas manufactory
 About bears
 An old country-house
 Far-away forests
 Building ships
 The orang-outang
 Little Bridget's bath
 Some novel fishing
 Eagles and little girls
 Climbing mountains
 Andrew's plan
 The wild ass
 Ancient riding
 Beautiful bugs
 A battle on stilts
 Drawing the long bow
 An ancient theatre
 Bird chat
 Tame snakes
 Buying "the mirror"
 Big game
 The bootblack's dog
 Going after the cows
 The reflective stag
 When we must not believe our...
 A city under the ground
 The coachman
 Geysers, and how they work
 A giant puff-ball
 Tickled by a straw
 The light in the castle
 The oak tree
 The seaside
 The sick pike
 Two kinds of blossoms
 About glass
 School's out
 The boomerang
 Back Cover

Title: Round-about rambles in lands of fact and fancy
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026270/00001
 Material Information
Title: Round-about rambles in lands of fact and fancy
Physical Description: 2, 371 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Stockton, Frank Richard, 1834-1902
Karst, John, 1836-1922 ( Illustrator )
Gauchard, Félix Jean ( Illustrator )
Waters, D. E ( Illustrator )
Laplante, Charles, d. 1903 ( Illustrator )
Sellier ( Illustrator )
Sargent ( Illustrator )
Lancelot, Dieudonné Auguste, 1822-1894 ( Illustrator )
Mesnel, A ( Illustrator )
Dargent, Edouard Yan, 1824-1899 ( Illustrator )
Riou, Edouard, 1833-1900 ( Illustrator )
Hildibrand, Henri Thóphile ( Illustrator )
Bayard, Émile Antoine, 1837-1891 ( Illustrator )
Lançon, Auguste André, 1836-1887 ( Illustrator )
Fenn, Harry, 1838-1911 ( Illustrator )
Bonnafoux, A ( Illustrator )
Bensch, E. B ( Illustrator )
Pearson, G ( George ) ( Engraver )
Felter, John D., 1825 ( Engraver )
Scribner, Armstrong, and Company ( Publisher )
Poole & MacLauchlan ( Printer )
Publisher: Scribner, Armstrong & Co.
Place of Publication: New York
Manufacturer: Poole & MacLauchlan
Publication Date: c1872
Subject: Natural history -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Curiosities and wonders -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Physical science -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Animals -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Voyages and travels -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Children's stories   ( lcsh )
Children's stories -- 1872   ( lcsh )
Bldn -- 1872
Genre: Children's stories   ( lcsh )
novel   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- New York -- New York
Statement of Responsibility: by Frank R. Stockton.
General Note: Some illustrations engraved by Pearson or Felter after John Karst, Gauchard, D.E. Waters, C. Laplante, Sellier, Sargent, Lancelot, Mesnel, Yan Dargent, Riou, Hildibrand, Bayard, A. Lancon, H. Fenn, A. Bonnafoux, or E.B. Bensch.
Funding: Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026270
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002237874
notis - ALH8367
oclc - 02751248
lccn - 08015532

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover 1
        Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
    List of Illustrations
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Winter in the woods
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Tricks of light
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Saving the toll
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    The real king of beasts
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    The French soldier-boy
        Page 32
        Page 33
    A lively way to ring a bell
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Down in the earth
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    The lion
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Bob's hiding-place
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
    The Continental soldier
        Page 59
        Page 60
    A judge of music
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    The sensitive plant
        Page 64
        Page 65
    Sir Marmaduke
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    The giraffe
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Up in the air
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
    The Arabian horse
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
    Indian puddings: pumpkin pies
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
    Living in smoke
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
    The cannon of the Palais-Royal
        Page 97
        Page 98
    Waters, deep and shallow
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
    Hans, the herb-gatherer
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
    Some cunning insects
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
    A first sight of the sea
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
    The largest church in the world
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
    The soft place
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
    A few feathered friends
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
    In a well
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
    A vegetable gas manufactory
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
    About bears
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
    An old country-house
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
    Far-away forests
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
    Building ships
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
    The orang-outang
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
    Little Bridget's bath
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
    Some novel fishing
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
    Eagles and little girls
        Page 203
    Climbing mountains
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
    Andrew's plan
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
    The wild ass
        Page 212
        Page 213
    Ancient riding
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
    Beautiful bugs
        Page 218
        Page 219
    A battle on stilts
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
    Drawing the long bow
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
    An ancient theatre
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
    Bird chat
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
    Tame snakes
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
    Buying "the mirror"
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
    Big game
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
    The bootblack's dog
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
    Going after the cows
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
    The reflective stag
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
    When we must not believe our eyes
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
    A city under the ground
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
    The coachman
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
    Geysers, and how they work
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
    A giant puff-ball
        Page 303
        Page 304
    Tickled by a straw
        Page 305
        Page 306
    The light in the castle
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
    The oak tree
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
    The seaside
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
    The sick pike
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
    Two kinds of blossoms
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
    About glass
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
    School's out
        Page 350
        Page 351
        Page 352
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
        Page 357
        Page 358
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
        Page 366
        Page 367
    The boomerang
        Page 368
        Page 369
        Page 370
        Page 371
    Back Cover
        Cover 1
        Cover 2
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The Baldwin Library
D of
R FlvoFrida

V. ~


y r"-.


3n anbs of






& CO.,

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1872,


In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington..

205 to 213 East 12th St.


WINTER IN THE WOODS............. ......... ........... ..... .. 7
TRICKS OF LIGHT ................ ....... ............................................ 10
SAVING THE TOLL......... ................... .. ...... .. ...... .............. ....... .. 18
THE REAL KING OF BEASTS. ................. ... ..... ..... .... ................... 23
THE FRENCH SOLDIER-BOY. ........................ .... ............................ 32
A LIVELY IWAY TO RING A BELL...................................................... 34
DOWN IN THE EARTH. ......... .................................................... 36
THE LION................... ... ...... ......... ..... .. .. ... ....... ... ......... . 44
.,BOB'S HIDING-PLACE.............................................. ........ 49
THE CONTINENTAL SOLDIER............................................ ................. 59
A JUDGE OF MUSIC... ..... ............ ..................... .. ............. ... 61
THE SENSITIVE PLANT............. .... .... ... ....................................... 64
SIR MARMADUKE..................... ..................... ............ .. ....... .... .... 66
THE GIRAFFE ............................ ........ .............. ..................... 69
UP IN THE AIR............ .... .. ................................ ...... ...... ....... 73
THE ARABIAN HORSE................................ .......... ........... .......... 87
INDIAN-PUDDINGS : PUMPKIN-PIES...................................................... 90
LIVING IN SMOKE. ...................................................*............. 94

WATERS, DEEP AND SHALLOW......................................................... 99
HANS THE HERB-GATHERER. ................... ....................................... 123
SOME CUNNING INSECTS. ................. ....... ... ...... . . 128
A FIRST SIGHT OF THE SEA. ....... .............. ........ .............. .. 184
THE LARGEST CHURCH IN THE WORLD. ............................. .................. 137
THE SOFT PLACE. ............... ................. ....... ...* .............. ****... 140
A FEW FEATHERED FRIENDS. .................... ...... ............................ 146
IN A W ELL ....... ... ...... ..... *.... ............ ..............*... ... ... ..... 159
A VEGETABLE .GAS MANUFACTORY................. .................. ................ 163
ABOUT BEARS..... ...... .... .. .. . ... .................... ................ 16
AN OLD COUNTRY-HOUSE............... .. ...... .......... .................*...*..
FAR-AWAY FORESTS. ..... .............o************ ***.......* .* 1*** **************77
BUILDING SHIPS ...................... o ......... .......... ......... .... ..... ..... 183


THE ORANG-OUTANG. .................. ...... .... .... .......... .... ...
LITTLE BRIDGET'S BATH. ................... ....................... ........ ........

THE WILD Ass......
BIRD CHAT..........
GYMNASTICS .........
BIG GAME...........

IRLS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.. .. ............................ ............................ .
.................................................... ...........
............................................................. ..
............................................................. ..
...................... ............................. ......... .
............. .......... ......... .... .......... ....
E .................................................. ............
.......... ................................................... .

. .. ......... .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .
. O.. .. . o. . . . . . .. . . . .. .

S .E . . . . . . . . o . . . . . .
O W. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
BELIEVE OUR. EYES. ...............................................
..... ................................. ..................... ...
........................................ .......................
H SE ..W ... .. ....................................................
G .............................. .................... .............
BELIEVE OUR EYES..................................................
...................................... .........................
E Y V OR..............................................................
................................................... ..............
.. ........................................................... ..

.A. ...... ........................................................

L.. I................ ..............................................
...... .......................................................
eo eee e ee e e o ee e e eo ee e ee
e e oe eeo eo oo e oe ee ee ee e e e I i e e eo
o@ eeo oo * .go eeeoeo oe o e ee eoe eoe eoo oooo

NEST-BUILDERS. .................. ............. .. .......... ... .... .......
THE BOOMERANG ................................... .................... .........




A Few Feathered Friends.........Frontispiece.
The Woodcutter ....................... 7
The Minstrel on the Wall............... o
Tricks in a Church...................... 11
The Dance of Demons................... 13
Nostradamus........ .... .. ....... ... 14
The Lion's Head ....................... 15
The Theatrical Ghost................. 16
The Toll-bridge. ..................... 18
A Royal Procession...................... 22
An Elephant after Him................. 25
The Dog's Protector .................... 27
An Elephant Nurse ..................... 29
Saving the Artillery-man................. 30
The Gallant Elephant.................... 31
The French Soldier-Boy.................. 32
On a Bell ............................ 34
Fishes found in the ,Mammoth Cave. ..... 36
The Bottomless Pit.................... 40

The Lion's Home.......................

The Uncaged Lion.................
A Lion's Dinner............ ......
A Terrible Companion ..............
Off to the Kitchen.................
Blind Man's Buff..................
The Story-Teller...................
In the Cellar.................... .
Handing round the Apples..........
The Drummer of 1776..............
The Continental Soldier ...........
The Donkey in the Parlor.........
Sir Marmaduke....................
The Giraffe......... ............
Above the Clouds ...............
The Flying Man..................
The Parachute-shut...............
The Parachute-open ...............
Le Flesseles .......................
Bagnolet's Balloon ................
Coming down Roughly .............
A Balloon with Sails and Rudders...
The Minerva ................... .
Safe Ballooning ....................
Driven out to Sea.... ...........
The W ar-Horse ....................


In the Cornfield ... ....................
A Big Mosquito.........................
Exactly Noon ..........................
The Spring ........................ ..
The Brook.........................
The Mill............... .. ..
The Cascade ................... .

The Great River..............
Falls of Gavarni..............
The Falls of Zambesi..........
Niagara ......................
Fishing with a Net............
Fishing with a Spear...........
A Pearl Oyster.............
Divers .......... ..............
Rough Water.................
The Iceberg.............. .....
The Storm ...................
The Shipwreck................
Water-Spouts. ......... ....
A Bit of Cable.................
Hans, the Herb-Gatherer .... .

. ..

***. -

.. ...

Patsey........... ... .................
A Spider at Home.....................
The Ant's Arch........................
The Cock-chafer's Wing............. ...
The Spider's Bridge................ ...
The Moth and the Bees...........
Learned Fleas..................... .. .
The Pacific...........................
St. Peter's at Rome.....................
Interior of St. Peter's............. .....
The Five Young Deer...................
Waking Up ..........................
Familiar Friends........................

The Pigeon.........................
The D ove..............................
The Swan..............................
The Goose that Led.....................
The Goose that Followed...........
The Sensible Duck.......................
The .Goldfinch ...........................
The Magpie ...........................
The Owl............................ .






Morning Sing
In a Well...
The Fraxinell
A Company (
The Black B
The Grizzly ]
The White B
The Tame B
An old Coun
Ancient Build
The Pine Fo
Tree Ferns..
Tropical For
The Giant T
The Great E
The Orang-O
Bridget and t
The Sea-Hor
The Cuttle-Fi
The Polypier.
Tunnies .....
The Sword-F:
The Shark..
The Child an
Climbing the
Andrew and
Wild Asses..
The Palanquil
The Chariot.
A Battle on .
Drawing the
The Colosseu
The Cormorai
The Bittern..
The Pelican..
The Hoopoe.
The Falcon..
The Mummy
The Stand...
The Coffin...
The Outside
The Sarcophal
The Tame Sn
The Novel T(
Youngsters Fi
Throwing the
Throwing the
Thomas Toph
Venetian Acrc

rers....................... .
. . . . . .
a .......... .... . .....
of Bears.....................
ear.....*........... .........
Bear. ......................
Bear.............. ...... .
ear .....................
try-House ............... ...
.............. ... .
astern... ................. .
utang ......................
:he Fairies ............ ... ..
. . .. .. .. .. .. .
............. ........... .
se ....... ................. .
ish .........................

ish .........................

d the Eagle...............
.............. .. ....... ..
,n ...................... ...

n of Beetles................
Long Bow................
ofs ....................
ake .................... .
.a ................ ........
...ig g...................
Coffin ......................

Hammer .. ................
Stone .............. ......
am. ......................

The. Tight-Rope......
The See-Saw...........
The Wild Boar......


The Musk-Ox and the Sailor.............
Hunting the Brown Bear ................
A Brave Hippopotamus .................
A Rhinocerus Turning the Table........
A Tiger-Hunt..................... ..
A Fight with a Gorilla..................
The Boot-black's Dog..................
Going after the Cows ...................
The Reflective Stag.................... .
The M irage ............................
Fata M organa.........................
The Spectre of the Brocken.............
A Narrow Street in Pompeii ............
A Cleared Street in Pompeii ............
The Atrium in the House of Pansa.......
Ornaments from Pompeii.................
A Pompeiian Bakery....................
The Amphitheatre of Pompeii............
The Coachman........................
The Grand Geyser................
The Artificial Geyser...................
A Giant Puff-ball .......................
Tickled by a Straw .....................
The Will-o'-the-Wisp ..................
The Oak Tree ..........................
The Sea-Side...........................
The Vessels on Shore....................
The Sick Pike..........................
The Blossoms............ ............ .
Ice-Blossoms ...........................
Ice-Flowers. .... ...... .......... .... .
Ancient Bead................... .......
Venetian Bottle.........................
German Drinking-Glass ...................
Glass Jug............................ ..
Making Bottles..........................
Venetian Goblet.........................
Modern Goblets ........................
The Queen's Mirror ....................
Bohemian Goblet .......................
French Flagon..........................

The Portland Vase..................
The Strange Lady ......... .. ........
Carl and the Duke ......................
The Dominie............... .........
W rens' Nests...........................
Orioles' N est...........................
Owl's Nests ............................
Flamingoes' Nests. .............. .. ..
The little Grebe's Nest .................
The Ostrich-Nest ......... ......... .. .
The Stork's Nest ...... ... ......

A Fish's Nest.................
Throwing the Boomerang........
The Way the Boomerang Goes....

.. ... .


. .. .. .. .
. .. .. .



OME along, boys and girls! We are off on our rambles.
But please do not ask me where we are going. It would
delay us very much if I should postpone our start until
I had drawn you a map of the route, with all the stopping-
places set down.
We have far to go, and a great many things to see, and it may be
that some of you will be very tired before we get through.
If so, I shall be sorry; but it will be a comfort to think that none
of us need go any farther than we choose.
There will be considerable variety in our rambles. We shall
walk about familiar places, and we shall explore streets and houses
that have been buried for centuries. We shall go down deep into
the earth, and we shall float in a balloon, high up into the air. We
shall see many beasts of the forest; some that are bloody and cruel,
and others that are gentle and wise. We will meet with birds,
fishes, grand old buildings, fleas, vast woods, bugs, mummies,
snakes, tight-rope dancers, gorillas, will-o'-the-wisps, beautiful


blossoms, boomerangs, oceans, birds' nests, and I cannot tell you
what all besides. We will also have some adventures, hear some
stories, and have a peep at a fairy or two before we are done.
I shall not, however, be able to go with you everywhere. When
you are enjoying a "Bird Chat;" "Buying the Mirror;" learning
when "We must not Believe our Eyes;" visiting "A City under
the Ground;" hearing of "The Coachman's" troubles; sitting under
"The Oak-tree;" finding out wonderful things "About Glass;"
watching what happens, when "School's Out;" or following the
fortunes of "Carl," your guide will be a lady, and I think that you
will all agree that she knows very well where she ought to go, and
lbw to get there. The rest of the time you will be with me.
And now, having talked enough, suppose we start.


WHAT can


be more delightful, to a boy of spirit, than a day in

the woods when there has been a good snow! If he also hap-
pens to have a good friend or two, and some good dogs (who are just

as likely to

be friends as his boy-companions), he ought to be much


happier than an ordinary king. A forest is a fine place at any time,
but when the ground is well covered with snow-especially if there
is a hard crust upon it-the woods seem to possess a peculiar charm.
You can go anywhere then.
In the summer, the thick undergrowth, the intertwining vines, and
the heavy lower branches of the trees, make it difficult even to see
into the dark recesses of the forest. But in the winter all is open.
The low wet places, the deep holes, the rotten bogs, everything on
the ground that is in the way of a good run and a jump, is covered
up. You do not walk a hundred yards under the bare branches of
the trees before up starts a rabbit, or a hare, if you would rather call
him by his right name,-and away go the dogs, and away you go-
alpf you tearing along at the top of your speed!
But poor Bunny has a small chance, when a hard snow is on
the ground. His hiding-places are all covered uip, and before he
knows it the dogs have caught him, and your mother will have
stewed rabbit for supper. It seems a hard fate for the poor little fel-
low, but he was born partly for that purpose.
When you have caught your rabbit, and come back to where the
men are cutting wood, you will be just as proud to tell the boy who
is cutting up the branches all about your splendid hunt, as if you had
chased and killed a stag.
"There's where we started him!" you will cry, "and away he
scudded, over there among the chestnuts, and Rover right at his heels,
and when we got down there to the creek, Rover turned heels-over-
head on the ice, he was going so fast; but I gave one slide right across,
and just up there, by the big walnut, the other two dogs got him "
That boy is almost as much excited as you are, and he would drop
his axe in one minute, and be off with you on another chase, if his
father were not there.


And now you find that you have reached the wood-cutters exactly
in time, for that great tree is just about to come down.
There go the top-branches, moving slowly along through the tops
of the other trees, and now they move faster, and everything begins to
crack; and, with a rush and a clatter of breaking limbs, the great
oak comes crashing down; jarring the very earth beneath your feet,
and making the snow fly about like a sparkling cloud, while away run
the dogs, with their tails between their legs.
The tree is down now, and you will want to be home in time for
dinner. Farmer Brown's sled has just passed, and if you will cut
across the woods you can catch up with him, and have a ride home,
and tell him all about the rabbit-hunt, on the way.
If it is Saturday, and a holiday, you will be out again this afternoon
with some of the other boys, perhaps, and have a grand hunt.
Suppose it is snowing, what will you care ? You will not mind the
snow any more than if it were a shower of blossoms from the apple-
trees in May.



THERE iS nothing more straightforward in its ways than light-
when we let it alone. But, like many of us, when it is introduced to
the inventions and contrivances of the civilized world, it often becomes
exceedingly fond of vagaries and extravagances.
Of all the companions of light which endeavor to induce it to for-
sake its former simple habits, there is not one which has the influence
possessed by glass. 'When light and glass get together it is diffi-
cult to divine what tricks they are going to perform. But some of
these are very interesting, if they are a little wild, and there are very
few of us who do not enjoy them.
For instance, what a delight to any company, be it composed of



young folks or old, is a magic-lantern The most beautiful and the
most absurd pictures may be made to appear upon the wall or screen.
But there is an instrument, called the phantasmagoria, which is really
nothing but an improved magic-lantern, which is capable of produ-
cing much more striking effects. It is a much larger instrument than
the other, and when it is exhibited a screen is placed between it and
the spectators, so that they do not see how the pictures are produced.
It is mounted on castors, so that at times it can be brought nearer and
nearer to the screen, until the picture seems to enlarge and grow in a
wonderful manner. Then, when it is drawn back, the image dimin-

ishes and recedes far into the distance. The lenses and other mech-
anism of the phantasmagoria can also be moved in various directions,
making the action of the pictures still more wonderful. Sometimes,


when the instrument is exhibited in public, the screen is not used, but
the pictures are thrown upon a cloud of smoke, which is itself almost
invisible in the dim light of the room. In such a case the figures
seem as if they were floating in the air.
A man, named Robertson, once gave exhibitions in Paris, in an old
chapel, and at the close of his performances he generally caused a great
skeleton figure of Death to appear among the pillars and arches. Many
of the audience were often nearly scared to death by this apparition.
The more ignorant people of Paris who attended these exhi-
bitions, could not be persuaded, when they saw men, women, and
animals walking about in the air between the arches of the chapel,
that Robertson was not a magician, although he explained to them
that the images were nothing but the effect of a lantern and some
glass lenses. When these people could see that the figures were pro-
duced on a volume of smoke, they were still more astonished and
awed, for they thought that the spirits arose from the fire which
caused the smoke.
But Robertson had still other means of exhibiting the tricks of
light. Opposite is a picture of the '. Dance of Demons."
This delusion is very simple indeed, and is produced by placing a
card-figure on a screen, and throwing shadows from this upon an-
other screen, by means of several lights, held by assistants. Thus
each light throws its own shadow, and if the candles are moved up
and down, and about, the shadows will dance, jump over each other,
and do all sorts of wonderful things. Robertson, and other public
exhibitors, had quite complicated arrangements of this kind, but they
all acted on the same principle. But all of those who exhibit to the
public the freaks of light are not as honest as Mr. Robertson. You
may have heard of Nostradamus, who also lived in Paris, but long
before Robertson, and who pretended to be a magician. Among


of the

things, he asserted that he could show people pictures of their
husbands or wives. Marie de Medicis, a celebrated princess
time, came to him on this sensible errand, and he, being very

Z'4~.. __
- ZZ,.----s

anxious to please her, showed her, in a looking-glass, the reflected
image of Henry of Navarre, sitting upon the throne of France. This,
of course, astonished the princess very much, but it need not'astonish
us, if we carefully examine the picture of that conjuring scene.
The mirror into which the lady was to look, was in a room ad-
joining that in which Henry was sitting on the throne. It was placed
.at such an angle that her face would not be reflected in it, but an
aperture in the wall allowed the figure of Henry to be reflected from
a looking-glass, hung near the ceiling, down upon the "magic" mir-


ror. So, of course, she saw his picture there, and believed entirely
in the old humbug, Nostradamus.
But there are much simpler methods by which the vagaries of light
may be made amusing, and among the best of these are what are

called Chinese shadows." These require a little ingenuity, but they
are certainly simple enough. They consist of nothing but a card or
paper, upon which the lights of the picture intended to be represent-
ed are cut out. .When this is held between a candle and a wall, a
startling shadow-image may be produced, which one would not imagine
to have any connection with the card, unless he had studied the
manner in which said card was cut. -Here is a picture of a company
amusing themselves with these cards. No one would suopose that


the card which the young man is holding in his hand bore the least
resemblance to a lion'sr head, but there is no mistaking the shadow on
the wall.

The most wonderful public exhibitions of optical illusions have
been those in which a real ghost or spectre apparently moves across
the stage of a theatre. This has frequently been done in late years,
both in this -country and Europe. The audiences were perfectly
amazed to see a spirit suddenly appear, walk about the stage, and act
like a regular ghost, who did not seem to be in the least disturbed when
an actor fired a pistol at him, or ran him through with a sword. The
method of producing this illusion is well shown in the accompanying
picture. A large plate of glass is placed in front of the stage so that


the audience does not perceive it. The edges of it must be con-
cealed by curtains, which are not shown in the picture. An actor,
dressed as a ghost, walks in front of the stage below its level, where
he is not seen by the audience, and a strong electric- light being
thrown upon him, his reflected image appears to the spectator as if it
were walking about on the stage. When the light is put out of
course the spirit instantly vanishes.

A very amusing account is given of a man who was hired to do
some work about a theatre. He had finished his work for the pres-
ent, and wishing to eat his supper, which he had brought with him,
he chose a nice quiet place uhder the stage, where he thought he
would not be disturbed. Not knowing that everything was prepared


for the appearance of a ghost, he sat down in front of the electric
lamp, and as soon as it was lighted the .audience was amazed to see,
sitting very comfortably in the air above the stage, a man in his shirt-
sleeves, eating bread and cheese! Little did -he think, when he heard
the audience roaring with laughter, that they were laughing at his
Light plays so many tricks with our eyes and senses that it is
possible to narrate but a few of them here. But those that I have
mentioned are enough to show us what a wild fellow he is, especially
where he and glass get frolicking together.



WHEN I was a youngster and lived in the country, there were three
of us boys who used to go very frequently to a small village about a
mile from our homes. To reach this village it was necessary to cross
a narrow river, and there was a toll-bridge for that purpose. The
toll for every foot-passenger who went over this bridge was one cent.
Now, this does not seem like a very high charge, but, at that time,
we very often thought that we would much rather keep our pennies
to spend in the village than to pay them to the old man who .took
toll on the bridge. But it was often necessary for us to cross the
river, and to do so, and save our money at the same time, we used to
adopt a very hazardous expedient.
At a short distance below the toll-bridge there was a railroad-
bridge, which you cannot see in the picture. This bridge was not
intended for anything but railroad trains; it was very high above the

_ ~II~


water, it was very long, and it was not floored. When any one
stood on the cross-ties which supported the rails, he could look right
down into the water far below him. For the convenience of the rail-
road-men and others who sometimes were obliged to go on the
bridge, there was a single line of boards placed over the ties at one
side of the track, and there was a slight hand-rail put up at that side
of the bridge.
To save'our pennies we used to cross this bridge, and every time.
we did so we risked our lives.
We were careful, however, not to go on the bridge at times when a
train might be expected to cross it, for when the cars passed us, we
had much rather be on solid ground. But one day, when we had
forgotten the hour; or a train was behind, or ahead of time; or an
extra train was on the road-we were crossing this railroad bridge,
and had just about reached the middle of it, when we heard the
whistle of a locomotive! Looking up quickly, we saw a train, not a
quarter of a mile away, which was coming towards us at full speed.
We stood paralyzed for a moment. We did not know what to do.
In a minute, or less, the train would be on the bridge and we had not,
or thought we had not, time to get off of it, whether we went forward
or backward.
But we could not stand on that narrow path of boards while the
train was passing. The cars would almost touch us. What could we
do ? I believe that if we had had time, we would have climbed down
on the trestle-work below the bridge, and so let the train pass over
us. But whatever could be done must be done instantly, and we
could think of nothing better than to get outside of the railing and
hold on as well as we could. In this position we would, at any rate,
be far enough from the cars to prevent them from touching us. So
out we got, and stood on the ends of the timbers, holding fast to the


slender hand-rail. And on came the train! When the locomotive
first touched the bridge we could feel the shock, and as it came rattling
and grinding over the rails towards us-coming right on to us, as it
seemed-our faces turned pale, you may well believe.-
But the locomotive did not run off the track just at that exact spot
where we were standing-a catastrophe which, I believe, in the bot-
tom of our hearts, every one of us feared. It passed on, and the train
came thundering after it. How dreadfully close those cars did come
to us! How that bridge did shake and tremble in every timber; and
how we trembled for fear we should be shaken off into the river so
far below us And what an enormously long train it was I suppose
that it took, really, but a very short time to pass, but it seemed to us
as if there was no end to it at all, and as if it would never, never get
entirely over that bridge !
But it did cross at last, and went rumbling away into the distance.
Then we three, almost too much frightened to speak to each other,
crept under the rail and hurried over the bridge.
All that anxiety, that fright, that actual misery of mind, and positive
danger of body, to save one cent apiece!
But we never saved any more money in that way. When we
crossed the river after that, we went over the toll-bridge, and we
paid our pennies, like other sensible people.
Had it been positively necessary for us to have crossed that river,
and had there been no other way for us to do it but to go over the
railroad bridge, I think we might have been called brave boys, for
the bridge was very high above the water, and a timid person would
have been very likely to have been frightened when he looked down
at his feet, and saw how easy it would be for him to make a misstep
and go tumbling down between the timbers.
But, as there was no necessity or sufficient reason for our risking


our lives in that manner, we were nothing more or less
little fools!

than three

It would be well if all
presents itself, would ask

boys or girls, to whom

a hazardous feat

themselves the question: Would it be a

brave thing for me to do that, or would I be merely proving myself a


-1 17, r.





FOR many centuries there has been a usurper on the throne of the
Beasts. That creature is the Lion.
But those who take an interest in the animal kingdom (and I am
very sorry for those who do not) should force the Lion to take off
the crown, put down the sceptre, and surrender the throne to the
real King of Beasts-the Elephant.
There is every reason why this high honor should be accorded to
the Elephant. In the first place, he is physically superior to the Lion.
An Elephant attacked by a Lion could dash his antagonist to the
ground with his trunk, run him through with his tusks, and trample
him to death under his feet. The claws and teeth of the Lion would
make no impression of any consequence on the Elephant's thick skin
and massive muscles. If the Elephant was to decide his claim to the
throne by dint of fighting for it, the Lion would find himself an ex-
king in a very short time. But the Elephaint is too peaceful to assert
his right in this way-and, what is more, he d6es not suppose that
any one could even imagine a Lion to be his superior. He never had
such an idea himself.
But besides his strength of body, the Elephant ;is superior in intel-
ligence to all animals, except the dog and man. He is said by natu-
ralists to have a very fine brain, considering that he is only a beast.
His instinct seems to rise on some occasions almost to the level of
our practical reasoning, and the stories which are told of his smart-
ness are very many indeed.
But no one can assert that the Lion has any particular intelligence.
To be sure, there have been stories told of his generosity, but they
are not many, and they are all very old. The Elephant proves his


pre-eminence as a thinking beast every day. We see him very fre-
quently in menageries, and we can judge of what he is capable. We
see the Lion also, and we very soon find out what he can do. He
can lie still and look grave and majestic; he can jump_ about in his
cage, if he has been trained; and he can eat! He is certainly great
in that respect.
We all know a great deal about the Elephant, how he is caught
and tamed, and made the servant and sometimes the friend of man.
This, however, seldom happens but in India. In Africa they do not
often tame Elephants, as they hunt them generally for the sake of
their ivory, and the poor beasts are killed by hundreds and hundreds
so that we may have billiard-balls, knife-handles, and fine-tooth
But whether the Elephant is wanted as a beast of burden, or it is
only his great tusks that are desired, it is no joke to hunt him. He
will not attack a man without provocation (except in very rare cases);
when he does get in a passion it is time for the hunter to look out
for his precious skin. If the man is armed with a gun, he must take
the best of aim, and his bullets must be like young cannon-balls, for
the Elephant's head is hard and his skin is tough. If the hunter is
on a horse, he need not suppose that he can escape by merely putting
his steed, to its best speed. The Elephant is big and awkward-
looking, but he gets over the ground in a very rapid manner.
Here is an illustration of an incident in which a boy found out, in
great sorrow and trepidation, how fast an Elephant can run.
This boy was one of the attendants of the Duke of Edinburgh,
one of Queen Victoria's sons, who was hunting Elephants in Africa.
The Elephants which the party were after on that particular day,
had got out of the sight of the hunters, and this boy, beitig
mounted on a horse, went to look them up. It was not long before


he found them, and he also found much more than he had bargained
for. He found that one of the big fellows was very much inclined to
hunt him, and he came riding out of the forest as hard as he could
go, with a great Elephant full tilt after him. Fortunately for the boy,

the Duke was ready with his gun, and when the Elephant came
dashing up he put two balls into his head. The great beast dropped
mortally wounded, and the boy was saved. I don't believe that he
was so curious about the whereabouts of Elephants after that.
When the Elephant is desired as a servant, he is captured in vari-


ous ways. Sometimes he is driven into great pens; sometimes he
tumbles into pitfalls, and sometimes tame.Elephants coax him into
traps, and fondle and amuse him while their masters tie up his legs
with great ropes. The pitfalls are not favorite methods-of capturing
Elephants. Besides the injury that may be done to the animal, other
beasts may fall into and disturb the trap, and even men may find
themselves at the bottom of a great deep hole when they least ex-
pect it, for the top is very carefully covered over with sticks and
leaves, so as to look as much as possible like the surrounding ground.
Du Chaillu, who was a great hunter in Africa, once fell down one of
these pits, and it was a long time before he could make anybody
hear him and come and help him out. If an Elephant had happened
to put his foot on the covering of that hole while Du Chaillu was
down there, the hunter would have found himself very much crowded.
When the Elephant is caught, he is soon tamed and trained, and
then he goes to work to make himself useful, if there is anything for
him to do. And it is when he becomes the servant and companion
of man that we have an opportunity of seeing what a smart fellow
he is.
It is sometimes hard to believe all that we hear of the Elephant's
cleverness and sagacity, but we know that most of the stories we
hear about him are true.
For instance, an Elephant which was on exhibition in this country
had a fast and true friend, a little dog. One day, when these animals
were temporarily residing in a barn, while on their march from one
town to another, the Elephant heard some men teasing the dog, just
outside of the barn. The rough fellows made the poor little dog
howl and yelp, as they persecuted him by all sorts of mean tricks and
ill usage. When the Elephant heard the cries of his friend he be-
came very much worried, and ~hen at last he comprehended that


the dog was being badly treated, he lifted
smashed a great hole in the side of the barn,
boards fly before him.

up his trunk and just
making the stones and

When the men saw this great head sticking out through the side
of the barn, and that great long trunk brandishing itself above their
heads, they thought it was time to leave that little dog alone.
Here, again, is an Elephant story which is almost as tough as the
animal's hide, .but we have no right to disbelieve it, for it is told by
very respectable writers. During the war between the East Indian
natives and the English, in 1858, there was an Elephant named Ku.da-

the Second,--his mother having been a noted



bar M~oll


named Kudabar Moll. This animal belonged to the British army,
and his duty was to carry a cannon on his back. In this way he be-
came very familiar with artillery. During a battle, when his cannon
was posted on a battery, and was blazing away at the enemy, the
good Kudabar was standing, according to custom, a few paces in the
rear of the gunners. But the fire became very hot on that battery,
and very soon most of the gunners were shot down, so that there was
no one to pass the cartridges from the ammunition wagon to the ar-
tillery-men. Perceiving this, Kudabar, without being ordered, took
the cartridges from the wagon; and passed them, one by one, to the
gunner. Very soon, however, there were only three men left, and
these, just as they had loaded their cannon for another volley, fell
killed or wounded, almost at the same moment. One of them, who
held a lighted match in his hand, called as he fell to the Elephant and
handed him the match. The intelligent Kudabar took the match in
his trunk, stepped up to the cannon, and fired it off!
He was then about to apply the match to others, when re-enforce-
ments came up, and his services as an artillery-man were no longer
I cannot help thinking, that if that Elephant had been furnished
with a pen and ink, he might possibly have written a very good ac-
count of the battle.
But few. stories are quite as wonderful as that one. We have no
difficulty at all in believing the account of the Elephant who took care
of a little child. He did not wear a cap and apron, as the artist has
shown in the picture, but he certainly was a very kind and attentive
nurse. When the child fell down, the Elephant would put his trunk
gently around it, and pick it up. When it got tangled among thorns
or vines, the great nurse would disengage it as carefully as any one
could have done it; and when it wandered too far, the Elephant would


bring it back and make it play within proper limits. I do not know
what would have been the consequence if this child had behaved
badly, and the Elephant had thought fit to give it A box on the ear.
But nothing of the kind ever happened, and the child was a great
deal safer than it would have been with many ordinary nurses.

There are so many stories told about the Elephant that I can allude
to but few, even if I did not believe that you were familiar with a
great many of them.
One of the most humane and thoughtful Elephants of whom I have
ever heard was one which was attached, like. our friend Kudabar, to
an artillery train in India. He was walking, on a march, behind a
wagon, when he perceived a soldier slip down in the road and fall ex-
actly where, in another instant, the hind-wheel of the wagon would
pass over him. Without being ordered, the Elephant seized the
wheel with his trunk, lifted it-wagon and all-in the air, and held it
up until it had passed over the fallen soldier!



Neither you nor I could have done better than that, even if we had
been strong enough.


A very pretty story is told of an Indian Elephant who was very
gallant. His master, a young Burman lord, had recently been mar-
ried, and, shortly after the wedding, he and his bride, with many of
their guests and followers, were gathered together in the veranda,
on the outside of his house. The Elephant, who was a great fa-
vorite with the young lord, happened to be conducted past the house
as the company were thus enjoying themselves. Feeling, no doubt,
that it was right to be as polite as possible on this occasion, he put
his trunk over a bamboo-fence which enclosed a garden, and select-
ing the biggest and brightest flower he could see, he approached the
veranda, and rearing himself upon his hind-legs, he stretched out
his trunk, with the flower held delicately in the little finger at its end,
towards the company. One of the women reached out her hand for
it, but the Elephant would not give it to her. Then his master
wished to'take it, but the Elephant would not let him have it. But
when the newly-made bride came forward the Elephant presented it
to her with all the grace of which he was capable.!



4Y v

/L Q

Now, do you not think that an animal which is larger and more
powerful than any beast which walks the earth, and is, at the same
time, gentle enough to nurse a child, humane enough to protect a dog
or a man, and sensible enough to be polite to a newly-married lady,
is deserving of the title of the King of Beasts ?




ANXIOUSLY the General-in-chief of the French Army

a little mound overlooking the battle-field. Th
during, the musketry was rattling, and clouds
the field and the contending armies.

stood upon

e cannon were thun-

of smoke


"Ah! thought he, "if that town over yonder is not taken; if my


brave captains fall, and my brave

soldiers falter at that stone wall;

and if our flag shall not soon wave over those ramparts, France may
yet be humbled."
Is it, then, a wonder, feeling that so much depended on the result

of this

battle, that his eyes strove so earnestly to pierce the heavy

clouds of smoke that overhung the scene?
But while he stood, there came towards him, galloping madly out
of the battle, a solitary rider.
In a few minutes he had reached the General, and thrown himself
from his saddle.
It was a mere boy-one of the very youngest of soldiers !

"Sire !" he

cried, "we've taken the town!

Our men are in the

market-place, and you can ride there now!
walls-our flag! "

And see !-upon

The eyes of the General flashed with joy and triumph.

glorious news!
As he turned to the boy to thank him


Here was

for the more than welcome

tidings that he brought, he noticed that the lad was pale and trem-
bling, and that as he stood holding by the mane of his horse, his left
hand was pressed upon his chest, and the blood was slowly trickling
between his fingers.

" My boy said he, tenderly, as he fixed his

ling, you're wounded "
No, sire! cried the boy,
thus addressed him, and the

not wounded;
and died.


I am killed "

eyes upon the strip-

his pale face flushing as his General
shouts of victory filled his ears, I am
And down at his General's feet he fell

have been brave men upon

the battle-field ever since the


began, but there never was a truer soldier's heart than

which kept this


boy alive until he had borne to his General the glo-

rious news of the battle won.

p L



HERE are two young me
trying to break their necks;




n who look very much
but in reality they have

as if they were
no such desire.


They are simply ringing that great bell, and riding backward and for-
ward on it as it swings through the air.
These young fellows are Spaniards, and in many churches in their
country it is considered a fine thing to go up into the belfry of a church
or cathedral, and, when the regular bell-ringers are tired, to jump on
the great bells and swing away as hard as they can make them go.
No matter about any particular peal or style of ringing.
The faster and the more furiously they swing, the jollier the ride,
and the greater the racket. Sometimes in a cathedral there are twenty
bells, all going at once, with a couple of mad chaps riding on each
one of them. It is, doubtless, a very pleasant amusement, after one
gets used to it, but it is a wonder that some of those young men are
not shot off into the air, when the great bell gets to swinging as fast
and as far as it can go.
But although they hold on as tightly as if they were riding a wild
young colt, they are simply foolhardy. No man or boy has a right
to risk his life and limbs in such reckless feats.
There is no probability, however, of the sport ever being intro-
duced into this country.
Even if there were no danger in it, such a clatter and banging as
is heard in a Spanish belfry, when the young men are swinging on
the bells, would never be allowed in our churches. The Spaniards
may like such a noise and hubbub, but they like a great many things
which would not suit us.



LET us take a little trip down under the surface of the earth. There
will be something unusual about such an excursion. Of course, as
we are not going to dig our way, we will have to find a convenient
hole somewhere, and the best hole for the purpose which I know of
is in Edmondson County, Kentucky.
So let us go there..
When we reach this hole we find that it is not a very large one,
but still quite high and wide enough for us to enter. But, before we
go in to that dark place, we will get some one to carry a light and

IC (~I`
.,. ri



guide us; for this underground country which we are going to ex-
plore is very extensive, very dark, and, in some places, very dan-
Here is a black man who will go with us. He has a lantern, and
he says he knows every nook and corner of the place. So we engage
him, get some lanterns for ourselves, and in we go. We commence
to go downwards very soon after we have passed from the outer air
and sunshine, but it is not long before we stand upon a level surface,
where we can see nothing of the outside world. If our lanterns went
out, we should be in pitchy darkness.
Now we are in the Mammoth Cave of Kentucky!
This vast cavern, which stretches so many miles beneath the sur-
face of the earth, has never been fully explored; but we are going
over as much of it as our guide is accustomed to show to visitors,
and if our legs are nottired before we get back I shall be very much
surprised, for the trip will take us all day. The floor on which we
are now standing is smooth and level, and runs back into the interior
of the cave fully a thousand yards. This place they call the Audu-
bon Gallery "-after our famous naturalist who made birds the study
of his life. His works are published in enormous volumes, costing
about one hundred and fifty dollars apiece. Perhaps your father will
get you one.
We pass quickly through this gallery, where there is not much to
see, although, to be sure, they used to manufacture saltpetre here.
Think of that! A manufactory in the bowels of the earth! Then
we enter a large, roundish room called the Rotunda," and from this
there are a great many passages, leading off in various directions.
One of these, which is called the Grand Vestibule," will take us to
the Church."
Yes, we have a church here, and, what is more, there has been


preaching in it, although I have never heard that it had any regular
members. This room has a vast arched roof, and a great many
stalactites hang from the walls and roof in such a way as to give
one an idea of Gothic architecture. Therefore this has been called
the Gothic Church." You can see a great deal which looks like
old-fashioned church ornaments and furniture, and, as the light of the
lanterns flashes about on the walls and ceiling, you can imagine a great
deal more.
After this we come to the Gothic Avenue," which would be a very
interesting place to us if we but had a little more time; but we hurry
through it, for the next room we are to visit is called the Haunted
Chamber !" Every one of us must be very anxious to see anything of
that kind. When we get into it, however, we are very much disap-
pointed. It is not half so gloomy and dark as the rest of the cave, for
here we are pretty sure to find people, and lights, and signs of life.
Here you.may sometimes buy gingerbread and bottled beer, from
women who have stands here for that purpose. It is expected that
when visitors get this far they will be hungry. Sometimes, too, there
are persons who live down here, and spend most of their time in this
chamber. These are invalid people with weak lungs, who think that
the air of the cave is good for them. I do not know whether they are
right or not, but I am sure that they take very gloomy medicine.
The only reason for calling this room the Haunted Chamber is, that
the first explorers of the cave found mummies here.
Who these were when they were alive, no man can say. If they
were Indians, they were very different Indians from those who have
lived in this country since its discovery. They do not make mum-
mies. But all over our land we find evidences that some race-now
extinct-lived here before the present North American Indian.
Whether the ghosts of any of these mummies walk about in this

S 38


room, I cannot say; but as no one ever saw any, or heard any, or
knew anybody who had seen or heard any, I think it is doubtful.
When we leave this room we go down some ladders and over a
bridge, and then we enter what is called the Labyrinth," where the
passage turns and twists on itself in a very abrupt manner, and where
the roof is so low that all of us, except those who are very short in-
deed, must stoop very low. When we get through this passage,
which some folks call the "Path of Humiliation "-for everybody has
to bow down, you know-we come to a spot where the guide says he
is going to show us something through a window.
The window is nothing but a hole broken in a rocky wall; but as
we look through it, and hold the lanterns so that we can see as much
as possible, we perceive that we are gazing down into a deep and
enormous well. They call it the "Bottomless Pit." If we drop bits
of burning paper into this well we can see them fall down, down, and
down, until they go out, but can never see them stop, as if they had
reached the bottom.
The hole through which we are looking is cut through one side of
this well, so that there is a great deal of it above us as well as below;
but although we hold our lanterns up, hoping to see the top, we can
see nothing but pitchy darkness up there. The roof of this pit is too
high for the light to strike upon it. Here is a picture of some persons
dropping lights down into this pit, hoping to be able to see the bottom.
We must climb up and down some more ladders now, and then we
will reach the-" Mammoth Dome." This is a vast room-big enough
for a gymnasium for giants-and the roof is so high that no ordinary
light will show it. It is nearly four hundred feet from the floor. The
next room we visit is one of the most beautiful places in the whole
cave. It is called the Starry Chamber. The roof and walls and
floor are covered with little bright bits of stone, which shine and



glitter, when a light is brought into the room, like real stars in the
sky. If the guide is
used to. his business,
he can here produce
most beautiful effects.
By concealing his lan-
tern behind a rock or
pillar, and then grad-
ually bringing it out,
throwing more and
more light upon the
roof, he can create a
most lovely star-light
At first all will be
dark, and then a few
stars will twinkle out,
and then there will be
more of them, and each
one. will be brighter,
and at last you will
think you are looking
up into a dark sky
full of glorious shining
stars! And if you look
at the walls you will
see thousands of stars
that seem as if they
were dropping from the
sky; and if you cast your eyes upon the ground, you will see it


covered with other thousands of stars that seem to have already
This is a lovely place, but we cannot stay here any longer. We
want to reach the underground stream of which we have heard so
much--the River Styx."
This is a regular river, running through a great part of the Mam-
moth Cave. You may float on it in a boat, and, if you choose, you
may fish in it, although you would not be likely to catch anything.
But if you did, the fish would have no eyes! All the fish in this
river are blind. You can easily perceive that eyes would be of no
use in a place where it is always as dark as pitch, except when travel-
lers come along with their lanterns.
SThere is a rough boat here, and we will get into it and have a row
over this dark and gloomy river. Whenever our guide shouts we
hear the wildest kind of echoes, and everything seems solemn and
unearthly. At one time our boat stops for a moment, and the guide
goes on shore, and directly we hear the most awful crash imaginable.
It sounds as -if a dozen gong-factories had blown up at once, and we
nearly jump out of the boat! But we soon see that it was nothing
but the guide striking on a piece of sheet-iron or tin. The echoes,
one after another, from this noise had produced the horrible crashing
sounds we had heard.
After sailing along for about half an hour we land, and soon reach
an avenue which has its walls ornamented with beautiful flowers-all
formed on the rocky walls by the hand of Nature.
Now we visit the Ball Room," which is large and handsome, with
its walls as white as snow. Leaving this, we take a difficult and ex
citing journey to the Rocky Mountains." We go down steep paths,
which are narrow, and up steep ones, which are wide; we jump over
wide cracks and step over great stones, and we are getting very tired


of scrambling about in the. bowels of the earth; but the guide tells us
that if we will but cross the mountains "-which we find to be noth-
ing more than great rocks, which have fallen from the roof above,
but which, however, are not very easy to get over-we shall rest in
the Fairy Grotto." So on we push, and reach the delightful abode
of the fairies of the Mammoth Cave. That is, if there were any
fairies in this cave, they would live here.
And a splendid place they would have!
Great colonnades and magnificent arches, all ornamented with
beautiful stalactites of various forms, and glittering like cut-glass in
the light of our lanterns, and thousands of different ornaments of
sparkling stone, many of them appearing as if- they were cut by the
hand of skilful artists, adorn this beautiful grotto. At one end there
is. a group of stalactites, which looks to us exactly like a graceful
palm-tree cut out of alabaster. All over the vast hall we can hear
the pattering and tinkling of the water, which has been dripping,
drop by drop, for centuries, and making, as it carried with it little
particles of earth and rock, all these beautiful forms which we see.
We have now walked nearly five miles. into the great cave, and
there is much which we have not seen. But we must go back to the
upper earth. We will have a tiresome trip of it, but it is seldom that
we can get anything good without taking a little trouble for it. And
to have seen this greatest of all natural caverns is worth far more
labor and fatigue than we have expended on its exploration. There
is nothing like it in, the known world.




I DO not desire to be wanting in respect to the Lion. Because I
asserted that it was my opinion that he should resign the throne of
the King of Beasts to the Elephant, I do not wish to deprive him of
any part of his just reputation.
The Lion, with the exception of any animal but the Elephant,
the Rhinoceros, the Hippopotamus, and such big fellows, is the
strongest of beasts. Compared to Tigers and Panthers, he is some-
what generous, and compared to most of the flesh-eating animals, he
is quite intelligent. Lions have been taught to perform certain feats
when in a state of captivity; but, as all of us know who have seen
ihe performing animals in a menagerie, he is by no means the equal,
of a Dog or an Elephant.
The Lion appears to the greatest advantage in the midst of his,
family. When he and his wife are taking their walks abroad they
will often fly before a man, especially if he is a white man.
But at home, surrounded by their little ones, the case is different.
Those cubs,. in the picture of the Lion's home, are nice little fellows,
and you might play with them without fear of more than a few
scratches. But where is thp brave man who would dare to go down
among those rocks, armed with guns, pistols, or whatever he pleased,
and take one of them!
I do not think he lives in your town.
We never see a Lion looking very brave or noble in a cage. Most
of those that I have seen appeared to me .to be excessively lazy.
They had not half the spirit of the tigers and wolves. But, out in
his native country, he presents a much more imposing spectacle,



especially if one can get.a full view of him when he is a little excited.,
Here is a picture of such a Lion as you will not see in a cage.
Considering his size, the strength of the Lion is astonishing.
He will kill an ox with ----. -
one blow of his great -_ _
: -- __- T
paw, if he strikes it on -
the back, and then -- __ __-=
seizing it in his great ---___
jaws, he will carry it --
off almost as easily as ___---_ _-=_
you could carry a
And when he has
carried his prey to the
spot where he chooses _
to have his dinner, he
shows that no beast
can surpass him in __
the meat-eating line. -
When he has satisfied
his hunger on an ox,
there is not much left
for those who come to
the second table. And
there are often other
Lions, younger and
weaker than the one
who has provided the
dinner, who must wait
until their master or


father is done before they have a chance to take a bite.
you may see' by this picture, they do not wait very patiently.
roar and growl and grumble until their turn comes.

But, as

Lions have some very peculiar characteristics. When they have
made a bound upon their prey and have missed it, they seldom chase
the frightened animal. They are accustomed to make one spring on
a deer or an ox, and to settle the matter there and then. So, after a
failure to do this, they go to the place from which they have made
the spring and practise the'jump over and over until they feel that
they can make it the next time they have a chance.
This is by no means a bad idea for a Lion--or a man either.
Another of their peculiarities is their fear of traps and snares.




Very often they will not spring upon an ox or a horse, simply because
it is tied.to a tree. They think there is some trick when they see the
animal is fastened by a rope.
And when they come upon a man who is asleep, they will very
often let him lie undisturbed. They are not accustomed to seeing
men lying about in their haunts, and they don't know what to make
of it. Sometimes thev take it in their heads to lie down there them-


Then it becomes disagreeable for the man when he awakes.
Then it becomes disagreeable for the man when he awakes.

A story of this kind is told of an African who had been hunting,
and who, being tired, had lain down to sleep. When he awoke there
lay a great Lion at a short distance from him'! For a minute or two

the man remained motionless with

fright, and then he put forth his


hand to take his gun, which was on the ground a few feet from
But when the Lion saw him move he raised his head and roared.
The man was quiet in a second.
After a while it began to be terribly hot, and the rocks on which
the poor man was lying became so heated by the sun that they
burned his feet.
But whenever he moved the old Lion raised his head and growled.
The African lay there for a very long time, and the Lion kept watch
over him. I expect that Lion had had a good meal just before he
saw this man, and he was simply saving him up until he got hungry
again. But, fortunately, after the hunter had suffered awfully from
the heat of the burning sun, and had also lain there all hight, with
this dreadful beast keeping watch over him, the Lion became thirsty
before he got hungry, and when he went off to a spring to get a
drink the African crawled away.
If that Lion had been a Tiger, I think he would have killed the
man, whether he wished to eat him or not.
So there is something for the Lion's reputation.




BOB was not a very big boy, but he was a lively little fellow and
full of fun. You can see him there in the picture, riding on his
brother Jim's back. One evening there happened to be a great many
boys and girls at Bob's father's house. The grown-up folks were
having a family party, and as they were going to stay all night-you


see this was in the country-some of them brought their children
with them.
-It was not long after supper that a game of Blind-Man's-Buff was
proposed, and, as it would not do to have such an uproar in the sit-
ting-room as the game would produce, the children were all packed
off to the kitchen. There they have a glorious time. Jim is the first
one blindfolded, and, as he gropes after the others, they go stumbling


other in every direction. Old Grandfather, who has been smoking
his pipe by the kitchen fire, takes as much pleasure in the game as
the young folks, and when they tumble over his legs, or come bang-
oh i vr ietio.OdGadahr wohsbe mkn



ing up against his chair, he only laughs, and warns them not to hurt
I could not tell you how often Grandfather was caught, and how they
all laughed at the blind-man when he found out whom he had seized.
But after a while the children became tired of playing Blind-Man's-
Buff, and a game of Hide-and-Seek was proposed. Everybody was
in favor of that, especially little Bob. It appears that Bob had not
a very good time in the other game. Everybody seemed to run up
against him and push him about, and whenever he was caught the
blind-man said "Bob!" immediately. You see there was no mistak-
ing Bob; he was so little.
But in Hide-and-Seek he would have a better chance. He had
always liked that game ever since he had known how to play any-
thing. He was a good little fellow for hiding, and he knew it.
When the game had begun, and all the children--except the big-
gest girl, who was standing in a corner, with her hands before her
face, counting as fast as she could, and hoping that she would come
to one hundred before everybody had hidden themselves--had scam-
pered off to various hiding-places, Bob still stood in the middle of
the kitchen-floor, wondering where in the world he should go to! All
of a sudden-the girl in the corner had already reached sixty-four-
he thought he would go down in the cellar.
There was no rule against that-at least none that he knew of-
and so, slipping softly to the cellar-door, over in the darkest corner
of the kitchen, he opened it, and vent softly down the steps.
There was a little light on the steps, for Bob did not shut the door
quite tightly after him, and if there had been none at all, he would
have been quite as well pleased. He was not afraid of the dark, and
all that now filled his mind was the thought of getting somewhere
where no one could possibly find him. So he groped his way under


the steps, and there he squatted down in the dark
barrels which stood in a corner.
"Now," thought Bob, "she won't find me-easy.

ness, behind two

He waited
prouder he be
I'll bet mi
Bob heard

there a good while,
le's the hardest place
i great deal of noise

and the longer

he waited


of all," he said to himself.
and shouting after the big girl

came out from her corner and
heard a bang above his head,
one shutting the cellar-door.

began finding the others, and he also
but he did not know that it was some
After that all was quiet.

Bob listened, but could not hear a step.


He had not the slightest


idea, of course, that they had stopped playing and were telling stories
by the kitchen fire. The big girl had found them all so easily that
Hide-and-Seek had been voted down.
Bob had his-own ideas in regard to this silence. "I know," he whis-
pered to himself, "they're all found, and they're after me, and keep-
ing quiet to hear me breathe!"
And, to prevent their finding his hiding-place by the sound of his
breathing, Bob held his breath until he was red in the face. He had
heard often enough of that trick of keeping quiet and listening to
breathing. You couldn't catch him that way!
When he was at last obliged to take a breath, you might have sup-
posed he would have swallowed half the air in the cellar. He thought
he had never tasted anything so good as that long draught of fresh
"Can't hold my breath all the time!" Bob thought. "If I could,
maybe they'd never find me at all," which reflection was much nearer
the truth than the little fellow imagined.
I don't know how long-Bob had been sitting under the steps-it
may have been five minutes, or it may have been a quarter of an hour,
and he was beginning to feel a little cold-when he heard the cellar-
door open, and some one put their foot upon the steps.
-" There they are!" he thought, and he cuddled himself up in the
smallest space possible.
t.Some one was coming down, sure enough, but it was not the chil-
dren; as Bob expected.. It was his Aunt Alice and her cousin Tom
Green. They had come down to get some cider and apples for the
company, and had no thought of Bob. In fact, when Bob was missed
it was supposed that he had got tired and had gone up-stairs, where
old Aunt Hannah was putting some of the smaller children to bed.
So, of course, Alice and Tom Green did not try to find him, but


Bob, who could not see them, thought it was
children come down to look for him.

certainly some of the

In this picture of the scene in the cellar, little Bob is behind those

two barrel
see him.

s in the right-hand upper
He knows how to hide too

corner, but of course you can't
well for that.

But when Tom and Alice spoke, Bob knew their voices and peeped

"Oh!" he thought, "it's only Aunt Alice and he.
down for cider and things. I've got to hide safe no

when they go up-stairs."
"I didn't know all them barrels

They've come
iw, or they'll tell

apples in! I thought some





were potatoes. I wish they would just go up-stairs again and leave
that candle on the floor! I wonder if they will forget it! If they
do, I'll just eat a whole hat-full of those big red apples, and some of
the streakedy ones in the other barrel too; and then I'll put my
mouth to the spigot of that cider-barrel, and turn it, and drink and
drink and drink-and if there isn't enough left in that barrel, I'll go
to another one and turn that. I never did have enough cider in all
my life. I wish they'd hurry and go up.
"Kissin'! what's the good of kissin'! A cellar ain't no place for
that. I expect they won't remember to forget the candle if they
don't look out!
"Oh, pshaw! just look at 'em! They're a-going up again, and
taking the candle along The mean things !"
Poor little Bob!
There he sat in his corner, all alone again in the darkness and
silence, for Tom and Alice had shut the cellar-door after them when
they had gone up-stairs. He sat quietly for a minute or two, and
then he said to himself:
I believe I'd just as lieve they'd find me as not."
And to help them a little in their search he began to kick very
gently against one of the barrels.
Poor Bob! If you were to kick with all your force and even upset
the barrel they would not hear you. And what is more, they are not
even thinking of you, for the apples are now being distributed.
"I wonder," said the little fellow to himself, if I could find that
red-apple barrel in the dark. But then I couldn't tell the red ones
from the streakedy ones. But either of 'em would do. I guess
I won't try, though, for I might put my hand on a rat. They run
about when it's dark. I hope they won't come in this corner. But
there's nothing' for 'em to eat in this corner but me, and they ain't


lions. I wonder if they'll come down after more cider when that's all
drunk up. If they do, I guess I'll come out and let Aunt Alice tell
them all where I am. I don't like playing' this game when it's too

And so he sai and waited and listened, and his eye-lids began to
grow heavy and his head began to nod, and directly little Bob was
fast asleep in the dark corner behind the barrels.
By ten o'clock the children were all put to bed, and soon after the
old folks went up-stairs, leaving only Tom Green, Alice, and some of
the young men and women.down in the big sitting-room.
Bob's mother went up into the room where several of the children
were sleeping, and after looking around, she said to the old colored
"( Hannah, what have you done with Bob?"



I didn't put him to bed, mum. I spect Miss Alice has took him
to her bed. She knowed how crowded the chil'un all was, up here."
"But Alice has not gone to bed," said Bob's mother.
Don't spect she has, mum," said Hannah. "But I reckon she
put him in her bed till she come."
I'll go and see," said Bob's mother.
She went, and she saw, but she didn't see Bob! And he wasn't
in the next room, or in any bed in the house, or under any bed, or any-
where at all, as far as she could see; and so, pretty soon, there was
a nice hubbub in that house!
Bob's mother and father, and his grandfather, and Hannah, and
the young folks in the parlor, and nearly all the rest of the visitors,
ransacked the house from top to bottom. Then they looked out of
doors, and some of them went around the yard, where they could see
very plainly, as it was bright moonlight. But though they searched
and called, there was no Bob.
The house-doors being open, Snag the dog came in, and he joined
in the search, you may be. sure, although I do not know that he ex-
actly understood what they were looking for.
Some one now opened the cellar-door, but it seemed preposterous
to look down in the cellar for the little fellow.
But nothing was preposterous to Snag.
The moment the cellar-door was opened he shuffled down the
steps as fast as he could go. He knew there was somebody down
And when those who followed him with a candle reached the cel-
lar-floor, there was Snag, with his head between the barrels, wagging
his tail as if he was trying to jerk it off, and whining with joy as he
tried to stick his cold nose into the rosy face of little sleeping Bob.
It was Tom Green who carried Bob up-stairs, and very soon in-


deed all the folks were gathered in the kitchen, and Bob sleepily
told his story.
"But Tom and I were down in the cellar," said his Aunt Alice,
"and we didn't see you."
I guess you didn't," said Bob, rubbing his eyes. "I was a-hidin'
and you was a-kissin'."
What a shout of laughter arose in the kitchen at this speech!
Everybody laughed so much that Bob got wide awake and wanted
some apples and cake.
The little fellow certainly made a sensation that night; but it was
afterwards noticed that he ceased to care much for the game of Hide-
and-Seek. He played it too well, you see.





SDID you ever see a Continental Soldier?
I doubt it. Some twenty years ago there used
to be a few of them scattered here and there
over the country, but they.must be nearly all
gone now. About a year ago there were but two
of them left. Those whom some of us can re-
I x member were rather mournful old gentlemen.
SThey shuffled about their dwelling-places, they
I -smoked their pipes, and they were nearly always
ready to talk about the glorious old days of the
Revolution. It was well they had those days to
fall back upon, for they had but little share in the glories of the pres-
ent. When they looked abroad upon the country that their arms,
and blood perhaps, had helped give to that vigorous Young America
which now swells with prosperity from Alaska to Florida, they could
see very little of it which they could call their own.
It was difficult to look upon those feeble old men and imagine that
they were once full of vigor and fire; that they held their old flint-
locks with arms of iron when the British cavalry rushed upon their
bayonets; that their keen eyes flashed a deadly aim along their rusty
rifle-barrels; that, with their good swords quivering in their sinewy
hands, they urged their horses boldly over the battle-field, shouting
brave words to their advancing men; and that they laughed at heat
and cold, patiently endured hunger and privation, strode along brave-
ly on the longest marches, and, at last, stood proudly by when Corn-
wallis gave up his sword.
Those old gentlemen did not look like anything of that sort. Their


old arms could hardly manage their old canes; their old legs could
just about carry them on a march around the garden, and they were
very particular indeed about heat and cold.
But History and Art will better keep alive the memory of their
good deeds, and call more vigorously upon the gratitude of their
countrymen, than those old Continentallers could themselves have
done it, had they lived on for years and years, and told generation
after generation how once they galloped proudly along the ranks, or,
in humbler station, beat with vigorous arm the stirring drum-'roll that
called their comrades to the battle-field.

.ci L




* __ __ ___^______


IT is not well to despise anybody or anything until you know what
they can do. I have known some very stupid-looking people who
could do a sum in the rule-of-three in a minute, and who could add
up a column of six figures abreast while I was just making a begin-
ning at the right-hand bottom corner. But stupid-looking beings are
often good at other things besides arithmetic. I have seen doctors,
with very dull faces, who knew all about castor-oil and mustard-plas-
ters, and above you see a picture of a Donkey who understood
This animal had a very fine ear for music. You can see how much
ear he had, and I have no doubt that he enjoyed the sweet sounds
from one end to the other of those beautiful long flaps. Well, he
very often had an opportunity of enjoying himself, for the lady of the
house was a fine musician, and she used to sing and play upon the
piano nearly every day. And as soon as he heard the sweet sounds



which thrilled his soul, the Donkey would come to the parlor window
and listen.
One day the lady played and sang something which was particu-
larly sweet and touching. I never heard the name of the song-
whether it was I'm sitting on the stile, Mary," or A watcher, pale
and weary "-but if it was the latter, I am not surprised that it should
have overcome even a jackass. At any rate, the music so moved the
soul of Mr. Donkey that he could no longer restrain himself, but enter-
ing the open door he stepped into the parlor, approached the lady,
and with a voice faltering from the excess of his emotion, he joined in
the chorus!
The lady jumped backwards and gave a dreadful scream, and the
Donkey, thinking that the music went up very high in that part, com-
menced to bray at such a pitch that you could have heard him if you
had been up in a balloon.
That was a lively concert; but it was soon ended by the lady rush-
ing from the room and sending her man John to drive out the musical
jackass with a big stick.
Fortunately, all donkeys have not this taste for music. The near-
est that the majority of jackasses come to being votaries of music is
when their skins are used for covering cases for musical instruments.
And if they have any ambition in the cause of harmony, that is better
than nothing.


F V- 'I

y "o
A4 -



I. M'1J\'~' 4





THERE was never a better name for a plant than this, for the deli-
cate leaves which grow on this slender stalk are almost as sensitive
to the touch as if they were alive. If you place your hand on a
growing plant, you will soon see all the leaves on the stem that you
have touched fold themselves up as tightly as if they had been packed
up carefully to be sent away by mail or express. In some of the com-
mon kinds of this plant, which grow about in our fields, it takes some
time for the leaves to fold after they have been touched or handled;
but if you watch them long enough--five or ten minutes--you will
see that they never fail to close. They are not so sensitive as their
cultivated kindred, but they still have the family disposition.
Now this is certainly a wonderful property for a plant to possess,
but it is not half so strange as another trait of these same pretty green
leaves. They will shut up when it is dark, and open when it is light.
It may be said that many other plants will do this, but that is a
mistake. Many flowers and leaves close at night and open in the
day-time, but very few indeed exhibit the peculiar action of the sensi-
tive plant in this respect. That plant will open at night if you bring
a bright light into the room where it is growing, and it will close its
leaves if the room is made dark in the day-time.
Other plants take note of times and seasons. The sensitive plant
obeys no regular rules of this kind, but acts according to circum-
When I was a boy, I often used to go to a green-house where
there were a great many beautiful and rare plants; but I always thought
that the sensitive plant was the most wonderful thing in the whole



collection, and I did not know then how susceptible it was to the
influence of light. I was interested in it simply because it seemed
to have a sort of vegetable reason, and understood that it should shut
up its leaves whenever I touched it.
But there were things around me in the vegetable kingdom which
were still more wonderful than that, and I took no notice of them
at all.
In the garden and around the house, growing everywhere, in the
most common and ordinary places, were vines of various kinds-I
think there were more morning-glories than anything else-and these
exhibited a great deal more sense, and a much nearer approach to
reasoning powers, than the sensitive plants, which were so carefully
kept in the green-house.
When one of these vines came up out of the earth, fresh from its
seed, the first thing it wanted, after its tendrils began to show them-
selves, was something to climb up upon. It would like a good high
pole. Now, if there was such a pole within a few feet of the little
vine it would grow straight towards it, and climb up it!
It would not grow first in one direction, and then in another and
then in another, until it ran against something to climb on, but it
. would go right straight towards the pole, as if it saw it, and knew it
was a good one for its purpose.
I think that there is not much in the vegetable kingdom more won-
derful than that.



SIR MARMADUKE was a good old English gentleman, all of the olden
time. There you see him, in his old-fashioned dining-room, with his
old-fashionedwife holding her old-fashioned distaff, while he is sur-
rounded by his old-fashioned arms, pets, and furniture.
On his hand he holds his hawk, and his dogs are enjoying the
great wood fire. His saddle is thrown on the floor; his hat and his
pipes lie near it; his sword and his cross-bows are stood up, or
thrown down, anywhere at all, and standing by his great chair is




something which looks like a coal-scuttle, but which is only a
Sir Marmaduke was certainly a fine old gentleman. In times of
peace he lived happily with his family, and was kind and generous to
the poor around him. In times of war he fought bravely for his
But what a different old gentleman would he have been had he
lived in our 'day!
Then, instead of saying Rebeck me !" and Ods Boddikins!"
when his hawk bit his finger or something else put him out of humor,
he would have exclaimed, Oh, pshaw !" or, "Botheration !" In-
stead of playing with a hawk, he would have had a black-and-tan ter-
rier,-if he had any pet at all; and his wife would not have been
bothering herself with a distaff, when linen, already spun and woven,
could be bought for fifty cents a yard. Had she lived now, the good
lady would have been mending stockings or crocheting a tidy.
Instead of a pitcher of ale on his supper-table, the good knight
would have had some tea or coffee; and instead of a chine of beef, a
mess of pottage, and a great loaf of brown bread for his evening meal,
he would have had some white bread, cakes, preserves, and other
trifles of that sort, which in the olden days were considered only fit
for, children and women. The good old English gentlemen were
tremendous eaters. They used to take five meals a day, and each
one of them was heavy and substantial.
If Sir Marmaduke had any sons or daughters, he would have treated
them very differently in the present day. Instead of keeping them
at home, under the tuition of some young clergyman or ancient
scholar, until they should be old enough and accomplished enough
to become pages to a great lord, or companions to some great
lady, he would have sent them to school, and the boys-the younger


ones, at least-would have been prepared for some occupation which
would support them, while the girls would have been taught to play
on the piano and to work slippers.
In these days, instead of that old helmet on the floor, you would
have seen a high-top hat-that is, if the old gentleman should continue
to be as careless as the picture shows him; instead of a cross-bow
on the floor, and another leaning against the chair, you would have
seen a double-barrelled gun and a powder-horn; and instead of
the picturesque and becoming clothes in which you see Sir Marma-
duke, he would have worn some sort of a tight-fitting and ugly suit,
such as old gentlemen now-a-days generally wear.
There were a great many advantages in the old style of living, and
also a very great many disadvantages. On the whole, we should be
very thankful indeed that we were born in this century, and not in
the good old times of yore.
A little boy once made a very wise remark on this subject. He
said: "I wish I could have seen General Washington and Israel
Putnam; but I'm glad I didn't, for if I'd been alive then, I would have
been dead now. And besides, I wouldn't have had any telegraphs
and things."
There is enough in that boy's remark for a whole composition, if
any one chose to write it..



SOME one once called
the Giraffe a "two-story
animal," and the remark
was not altogether in-
As you see him in
the picture, lying down,
he seems to be high
enough for all ordinary
purposes; but when he
stands up, you will see
that his legs-or his
lower story-will ele-
vate him to a surpris-
ing height.
The ordinary giraffe
measures about fifteen
feet from the top of his
head to the ground, but
some of them have been
known to be over six-
teen feet high. Most
of this height is owing
to their long necks, but
their fore-legs are also
very long. The hind-
legs are much shorter,,




for there is no necessity for any great length in them. The
fore-legs and neck of the Giraffe are made long so that he can eat
the leaves from the tops of young trees. This tender foliage is his
favorite diet; but he will eat the foliage from any part of a tree, and
he is content with the herbage on the ground, when there is nothing
He is not a fighting animal. Those little horns which you see on
his head, and which look as if they had been broken off-although
they are really their full size-are of no use as offensive weapons.
When danger threatens him he runs away, and a funny sight he is
then. He can run very fast, but he is very awkward; he goes like
a cow on stilts.
But when there is no chance for him to run away, he can often
defend himself, for he can kick like a good fellow. His hind-legs fly
so fast when he is kicking that you can hardly see them, and he has
been known to drive off a lion by this means of defence.
When hunters wish to catch a giraffe alive, they generally drive
him into a thick woods, where his great height prevents him from
running very rapidly; and as soon as they come up with him, they
endeavor to entangle him in ropes, to throw him down, and to put
a halter round his neck. If they only keep out of the way of his heels,
there is no need of being afraid of him. When they have secured
him they lead him off, if he will come; but if he is an old fellow he
will not walk after them, and he is too strong to be easily pulled along,
no matter how many-men may be in the hunt. So in this case they
generally kill him, for his skin is valuable, and his flesh is very good
to eat. But if the giraffe is a young one, he will follow his captors
without difficulty, for these animals are naturally very gentle.
Why the natives of Africa should desire to obtain living giraffes,
unless it is to sell them to people who wish to carry them to other


countries, travellers do not inform us. We have never heard that
any domestic use was made of them, nor that they were kept for the
sake of their meat. But we suppose the hunters know their own
It is probable that the lion is really the greatest enemy of the
giraffe. It is not often that this crafty and powerful hunter will put
himself within reach of his victim's heels. Approaching softly and
slowly, the lion waits until he is quite near the giraffe, and then, with
one- bound, he springs upon his back. Sometimes the giraffe suc-
ceeds in shaking him off, but generally they both fall together-the
giraffe dead, and the lion with his appetite whetted for an enormous


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WE have already ta-
ken a journey under the
earth, and now, if you
--_-_ like, we will try a trip
in the air.. Anything
...._ for a novelty. We have
lived on the surface of
the earth ever since we
were born.
We will make our as-
cent in a balloon. It
has been thought by
some folks, that there
were easier methods of
ascending into the air
than by a cumbrous bal-
loon, but their inven-
tions never became pop-
_-_ --_- For instance, look at
_- the picture of a flying-
This gentleman had
an idea that he could fly
iby the aid of this inge-
nious machinery. You
will see that his wings


-L-- ~-~-


are arranged so that they are moved by his legs, and also by cords
attached to his arms. The umbrella over his head is not intended to
ward off the rain or the sun, but is to act as a sort of parachute, to keep
him from falling .while he is making his strokes. The basket, which
hangs down low enough to be out of the way of his feet, is filled with
provisions, which he expects to need in the course of his journey.
That journey lasted exactly as long as it took him to fall from the
top of a high rock to the ground below.
But we are not going to trust ourselves to any such harem-scarem
contrivance as this. We are going up in a regular balloon.
We all know how balloons are made, and this one, of ours is like
most others. It is a great globular bag, made of strips of silk sewn
together, and varnished with a certain composition which renders
the balloon air-tight. The car in which we will travel is made of
wicker-work, for that is both light and strong, and it is suspended
from a net-work of strong cord which covers the whole balloon. It
would not do, you know, to attach a cord to any particular part of
the silk, for that would tear it. In the top of the balloon is a valve,
and a cord from it comes down into the car. This valve is to be
pulled open when we wish to come down towards the earth. The
gas then escapes, and of course the balloon descends. In the car are
bags of sand, and these are to be emptied out when we think we are
too heavy for the balloon, and are either coming down too fast or are
not as high as we wish to go. Relieved of the weight of a bag, the
balloon rises.
Sand is used because it can be emptied out and will not injure any-
body in its descent. It would be rather dangerous, if ballooning
were a common thing, for the aeronauts to throw out stones and old
iron, such as are used for the ballast of a ship. If 'you ever feel
a shower of sand coming down upon you through the air; look up,


and you will probably see a balloon-that is, if you do not get some
of the sand in your eyes.
The gas with which our balloon is to be filled is hydrogen gas; but
I think we will not use the pure hydrogen, for it is troublesome and
expensive to produce. We will get permission of the city gas authori-
ties to take gas from one of their pipes.
That will carry us up very well indeed. When the balloon is
nearly full-we never fill it entirely, for the gas expands when it
rises into lighter air, and the balloon would explode if we did not
leave room for this expansion-it is-almost as round as a ball, and
swells out proudly, struggling and pulling at the ropes which confine
it to the ground.
Now we have but to attach the car, get
in, and cut loose. But we are going to be
very careful on this trip, and so we will ---
attach a parachute to the balloon. I hope
we may not use it, but it may save us in
case of an accident. This is the manner o
in which the parachute will hang from the
bottom of the car.
It resembles, you see, a closed umbrella
without a handle, and it has cords at the _-
bottom, to which a car is attached. If
we wish to come down by means of this
contrivance, we must descend from the car -
of the balloon to that of the parachute, and
then we must unfasten the rope which at-
taches us to the balloon. We will then
drop like a shot; but as soon as the air
gets under our parachute it will spread open, and our descent will


immediately begin to be much more gradual, and if nothing unusual
occurs to us, we will come gently to the ground. This picture shows
the manner in which we would come down in a parachute.
This man's balloon has
probably urst, or we see
it is tumbling down, and it
will no doubt reach the
ground before him.
When all is ready and we
are properly seated in the
Scar, with our instruments and
Extra clothes and ballast, and
some provisions, we will
give the word to "let her
Did you see that?
The earth dropped right
down. And it is dropping,
but more slowly, yet.
That is the sensation persons generally experience when they first
go up in a balloon. Not being used to rising in the air, they think
at first that they are stationary, and that the earth and all the peo-
ple and houses on it are falling below them.
Now, then, we are off! Look down and see how everything gets
smaller, and smaller, and smaller. As we pass over a river, we can
look down to its very bottom; and if we were not so high we
could see the fishes swimming about. The houses soon begin to
look like toy-cottages, and the trees like bushes; and the creeks and
rivers like silvery bands. The people now appear as black spots;



-------- ---:

AV----- ----~--


we can just see some of them moving about; but if they were to
shout very loud we might hear them, for sound travels upward to a
great distance.
Soon everything begins to be mixed up below us. We can hardly
tell the woods from the fields; all seem pretty much alike. And now
we think it is getting foggy; we can see nothing at all beneath us,
and when we look up and around us we can see nothing but fog.
We are in the clouds !
Yes, these are the clouds.
S There is nothing very
ar, a beautiful about them-
Hw they are only masses of
-vapor. But how thick
-- that vapor is! Now,
when we look up, we
-;--~:- cannot even see the bal-
....... loon above us. We are
sitting in our little bas-
ket-work car, and that is
_all we know! We are
shut out from the whole
world, closed up in a
__ _cloud
But this foggy atmos-
Sphere is becoming thin-
-ner, and we soon shoot
out of it! Now we .can
see clearly around us. Where are the clouds? Look! there they
are, spread out like a great bed below us'.
How they glisten and sparkle in the bright sunlight !


Is not this glorious, to ride above the clouds, in what seems to us
illimitable space! The earth is only a few miles below us, it is true,
but up and around us space is illimitable.

But we shall penetrate space no longer in an
is time we were going back to the world. We
the eyes and ears of some of us are becoming
that, our balloon is getting too large. The gas
on account of the rarity of the air.

upward direction. It
are all very cold, and
painful. More than
within it is expanding,





We shall pull the rope of the valve.
Now we are descending. We are in the clouds, and before we
think much about it we are out of them. We see the earth beneath us,
like a great circular plain, with the centre a little elevated. Now we
see the rivers; the forests begin to define themselves; we.can dis-
tinguish houses, and we know that we are falling very rapidly. It is
time to throw out ballast. We do'so, and we descend more slowly.
Now we are not much higher than the tops of the trees. People
are running towards us. Out with another bag of sand! We rise a
little. Now we throw out the anchor. It drags along the ground for

some distance, as the wind carries us over a field, and then it catches
in a fence. And now the people run up and pull us to the ground,
and the most dangerous part of our expedition is over.


For it is comparatively safe to go up in a balloon, but the descent
is often very hazardous indeed.
On the preceding page is a picture of a balloon which did not come
down so pleasantly as ours.
With nine persons in it, it was driven over the ground by a tremen-
dous wind; the anchors were broken; the car was bumped against
the ground ever so many times; and the balloon dashed into trees,
breaking off their branches; it came near running into a railroad
train; it struck and carried away part of a telegraph line, and at
last became tangled up in a forest, and stopped. Several of the per-
sons in it had their limbs broken, and it is a wonder they were not all
The balloon in which we ascended was a very plain, common-sense
affair; but when aerial ascents were first undertaken the balloons were
very fancifully decorated.
For instance, Bagnolet's balloon and that of Le Flesselles, of which
we have given you pictures, are much handsomer than anything we
have at present. But they were not any more serviceable for all their,
ornamentation, and they differed from ours in still another way-they
were hot-air balloons."
Other balloons were furnished with all sorts of fans, rudders, etc.,
for the purpose of steering them, or accelerating their motion up or
On the next page is one of that kind.
This balloon ascended from Dijon, France, in 1784, but the steering-
apparatus did not prove to be of much use.
There were other balloons devised by the early aeronauts, which
were still stranger than that one which arose from Dijon. The Mi-
nerva, the picture of which you can examine at your leisure, was in-
vented by a Mr. Robertson, in the beginning of this century. He


wished to make a grand aerial voyage of several months, with a com-
pany of about sixty persons, and therefore he had to have a very
large balloon. To pro-
S__- cure this he desired the
= co-operation of the sci-
entific men throughout
-- -Europe, and sent plans.
and descriptions of his
---projected balloon to all
the learned societies.
This great ship of the
S- air was to be a regular
little town, as you may
___ see. The balloon was
------ _----_~_ to be one hundred and
-_ fifty feet in diameter,
-__-- --- and was to carry a large
Ship, on which the pa's-
sengers would be safe
if they descended in the
01__ water, even if it were the
middle of the ocean.
Everything was to be
provided for the safety
and convenience of the
passengers. Around the
upper part. of the bal-
loon you will see a plat-
form, with sentries and
tents. These soldiers were to be called the "air-marines." There

is a small balloon-about the common size-which could be sent off
like a small boat whenever occasion required. If any one got tired
of the expedition, and wanted to go home, there was a parachute
by which he might descend. On the deck of the ship, near the
stern, was to be a little church; small houses hung from below,
reached by ladders of silk, which were to be used as medicine-

rooms, gymnasiums, etc.; and under
hogshead, as big as a house, which
stores, and keep them tight and dry.

the ship would hang a great
would contain provisions and
There was also a kitchen:




and a cannon
which you se

, with which to fire off salutes, besides a number of guns,
e projecting from the port-holes of the ship. These, I

suppose, were to be used against all
sea, or land.

enemies or pirates

of the air,



I cannot enumerate all the appendages of this wonderful balloon-
you see there are telescopes, sails, great speaking-trumpets, anchors,
etc.; but I will merely remark that it was never constructed.
One of the safest, and sometimes the most profitable, methods of
using a balloon, is that shown in the picture, "Safe Ballooning."
Here a battle is going on, and the individuals in the balloon, safely
watching the progress of events and the movements of the enemy,
transmit their observations to the army with which they are connected.
Of course the men on the ground manage a balloon of this sort, and
pull it around to any point that they please, lowering it by the ropes
when the observations are concluded. Balloons are often used in
warfare in this manner.
But during the late siege of Paris, balloons became more useful than
they have ever been since their invention. A great many ae6ronauts
left the besieged city, floated safely over the Prussian army, and de-
scended in friendly localities. Some of these balloons were captured,
but they generally accomplished their purposes, and were of great
service to the French. On one occasion, however, a balloon from
Paris was driven by adverse winds to the ocean, and its occupants
were drowned.
It has not been one hundred years since the balloon was invented
by the brothers Montgolfier, of France. They used heated air in-
stead of gas, and their balloons were of course inferior to those of
the present day. But we have not improved very much upon the
original balloon, and what progress will eventually be made in aerial
navigation it is difficult to prophesy. But there are persons who be-
lieve that in time air-ships will make regular trips in all directions,
like our present steamboats and railroad-trains.
If this is ever the case, I hope we may all be living to see it.

=--~r=- ----- -----;-= r~==-~-/




THE Arabian horse has long been celebrated as the most valuable
of his race. He is considered an aristocrat among horses, and only
those steeds which can trace their descent from Arabian ancestors
have the right to be called thorough-bred."
Occasionally an Arabian horse is brought to this country, but we
do not often see them. In fact, they would not be as valuable here
as those horses which, besides Arabian descent, have also other
characteristics which especially adapt them to our country and climate.
In Arabia the horse, as an individual, especially if he happens to
be of the purest breed, is more highly prized than in any other part
of the world. It is almost impossible to buy a favorite horse from an
Arab, and even if he can be induced to sell it, the transaction is a very
complicated one. In the first place, all the relations and allies of the
owner must give their consent, for the parting with a horse to a
stranger is a very important matter with them. The buyer must
then make himself sure that the whole of the horse belongs to the
man who is selling him, for the Arabs, when they wish to raise money,
very often do so by selling to a member of their tribe a fore-leg, a
hind-leg, or an ear, of one of their horses; and in this case, the per-
son who is a part owner of the animal must have his proportionate
share of all profits which may arise from its sale or use. This prac-
tice is very much like our method of mortgaging our lands.
When the horse is finally bought and paid for, it had better be
taken away as soon as possible, for the Arabs-even those who have
no interest whatever in the sale-cannot endure to see a horse which
once belonged to their tribe passing into the hands of strangers.
And therefore, in order to soothe their wounded sensibilities, they



often steal the animal, if they can get a chance, before the buyer
carries him out of their reach.
The Arabian horse is generally much more intelligent and docile
than those of our country. But this is not altogether on account of
his good blood. The Arab makes a friend and companion of his
horse. The animal so constantly associates with man, is talked to so
much, and treated so kindly, that he sometimes shows the most sur-
prising intelligence. He will follow his master like a dog; come at
his call; stand anywhere without moving, until his master returns to
him; stop instantly if his rider falls from his back, and wait until he
mounts again; and it has been said that an Arabian horse has been
known to pick up his wounded master from the field of battle, and
by fastening his teeth in the man's clothes, to carry him to a place of
There is no doubt, if we were to treat our horses with gentleness
and prudence, and in a measure make companions of them when-
ever it was possible, that they would come to regard us with much
of the affection and obedience which the Arabian horse shows to his




SOME of the good old folks whom I well remember, called these
things Ingin-puddins and punkin pies," but now we all know what
very incorrect expressions those were. But, even with, such highly
improper names, these delicacies tasted quite as well in those days


as they do now, and, if my youthful memory does not mislead me,
they tasted a little better.
There is no stage of the rise and progress of Indian puddings and
pumpkin pies, with which, when a youngster, I was not familiar. In
the very beginning of things, when the fields were being ploughed,
"we boys" were there. True, we went with no intent to benefit
either the corn-crop or the pumpkin-vines. We merely searched in
the newly turned-up earth for fish-worms. But for all that, we were
And when the corn was all planted, how zealous we used to be
about the crows! What benevolent but idiotic old scarecrows we
used to construct, and how extremely anxious we were to be intrusted
with guns, that we might disperse, at once and forever, these black
marauders For well we knew that a few dead crows, stuck up here
and there on stakes, would frighten away all the rest of the flock.
But we were not allowed the guns, and, even if we had had them,
it is probable that the crows would all have died of old age, had they
depended for an early death upon our powder and shot. With their
sagacity, their long sight, and their sentinels posted on the high trees
around the field, they were not likely to let a boy with a gun ap-
proach very near to them. I have heard-and have no doubt of the
truth of the statement-that one of the best ways to shoot crows is
to.go after them in a wagon, keeping your gun, of course, as much
out of sight as possible. Crows seem to know exactly what guns are
intended for. But they are seldom afraid of a wagon. They expect
no danger from it, and one can frequently drive along a country road
while crows are quietly feeding in the field adjoining, quite close to
the fence.
But if any one goes out to shoot crows in this way he had better
be very careful that he has an excessively mild and unimpressible



horse. For, if the horse is frightened at the report of the gun, and
dashes away, and smashes the wagon, and breaks his harness, and
spills everything out of the wagon into the dust, mud, and bramble-
bushes, and throws the gunner heels over head into a ditch, it may
be that a dead crow will hardly pay him for his trouble and expense
in procuring it.
But after a time the corn got so high that it was not afraid of a bird,
and then we forgot the crows. But we liked to watch the corn in all
its stages. We kept a sharp look-out for the young pumpkin-vines,
and were glad to see the beans, which were planted in the hills with
the corn in some parts of the field.
There is one great advantage in a corn-field which many other
fields do not possess: you can always walk in it! And when the
corn is higher than your head, and the great long leaves are rustling
in the wind, and you can hardly see each other a dozen yards away,
what a glorious thing it is to wander about amidst all this cool green-
ness, and pick out the biggest and the fattest ears for roasting!
You have then all the loveliness of Nature, combined with the hope
of a future joy, which .Art-the art of your mother, or whoever roasts
the corn-will give you.
But the triumph of the corn-field is not yet. The transformation
of its products into Indian puddings and pumpkin pies will not occur
until the golden Autumn days, when the sun, and the corn, and the
pumpkins are all yellow alike, and gold-if it was not so scarce-
would be nothing to compare to any of them. Then come the men,
with their corn-cutters-pieces of scythe-blades, with handles fitted
to them--and down go the corn-stalks. Only one crack a-piece,
and sometimes a big cut will slice off the stalks on a whole hill.
How we used to long to wield those corn-cutters!
But our parents thought too much of our legs.


When the corn has been cut and carried away, the pumpkins are
enough to astonish anybody. We never had any idea that there
were so many!
At last, when the days were getting short, and the mornings were
a little cool, and the corn was in the cribs, and the pumpkins were
in the barn, and some of us had taken a grist to the mill, then were
the days of the pudding of Indian corn and the pies of pumpkin!
Then we stayed in the kitchen and saw the whole delightful process,
from the first mixing of the yellow meal with water, and the first cut
into the round pumpkins, until the swelling pudding and the tranquil
pie emerged in hot and savory grandeur from the oven.
It is of no use to expect those days to return. It is easy enough
to get the pies and the puddings, but it is very hard to be a boy



HERE is a mosquito of which the bravest man might be afraid; but,
fortunately, these insects are not found quite so. large as the one in
the drawing, for he is considerably magni-
fied. But when we hear even a very small
fellow buzzing around our heads, in the dark-
ness of a summer night, we are very apt to
think that he sounds as if he were at least as
big as a bat.
In some parts of our country, mosquitoes
are at certain seasons so plentiful and blood-
thirsty that it is impossible to get along com-
fortably in their company. But, except in
spots where no one would be likely to live,
whether there were mosquitoes there or not,
these insects do not exist in sufficient numbers to cause us to give
up our ordinary style of living and devote all our energies to keep-
ing them at a distance.
In some other countries, however, the people are not so fortunate.
In Senegal, at certain seasons, the inhabitants are driven from their
habitations by the clouds of mosquitoes which spread over the land,
and are forced to take refuge on high platforms, under which they
keep fires continually burning.
The smoke from these fires will keep away the mosquitoes, but it
cannot be very pleasant to the Senegalians. However, they become
used to it, and during the worst of the mosquito season, they eat,
drink, sleep, and enjoy themselves to the best of their ability on these
platforms, which for the time become their houses.

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