Citation
Near home, or, Europe described : with anecdotes and numerous illustrations

Material Information

Title:
Near home, or, Europe described : with anecdotes and numerous illustrations
Added title page title:
Near home
Translated Title:
Europe described. ( English )
Creator:
Mortimer, Favell Lee, 1802-1878
Williams, S.
Carreras, Theodore
Adeney
Strangeways and Sons
Hatchards.
Place of Publication:
London
Publisher:
Hatchards, Piccadilly
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
xxiii, 528, 2 p. : ill., maps ; 17 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Costume -- Juvenile literature
National characteristics -- Juvenile literature
Anti-Catholicism -- Juvenile literature
Social life and customs -- Juvenile literature -- Europe
Description and travel -- Juvenile literature -- Europe
Baldwin -- 1881.

Notes

General Note:
Includes publisher's catalog.
General Note:
Some illustrations signed S. Williams or Carreras; some engraved by Adeney.
General Note:
Includes col. fold-out map of Europe.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
024705445 ( aleph )
AAB8979 ( notis )
AHQ2075 ( notis )
25820273 ( oclc )

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Full Text

































































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The Baldwin Library

University
Ried
Florida





GRANTED AT HALF-PRICE BY THE

PURE LITERATURE SOCIBTY.
President—THE EARL OF SHAFTESBURY.
By Subscribing a Guinea

You can Receive, post free Monthly, a Shilling Parcel selected
by yourself from 42 approved Periodicals.

Or you may Recommend Grants of Books at half-price ror
Libraries, to the value of £10 annually.

All Subscribers may purchase Books, Diagrams, Cottage Pic-
tures, and Maps, at Subscriber’s prices from the Society’s
Library of above 3000 Volumes.

J. Macerecor, Esa.
Hon. Secretaries G. H. H. OntpHant-Ferauson, Esa.
C. Doueias Fox, Esa.

Secretary—Mr. RichHarp TurRNER

OrvicEs: 11, BUCKINGHAM STREET,
ADELPHI, StRanD, W.C.





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NEAR HOME:

THE COUNTRIES OF EUROPE DESCRIBED,



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INKER oF Norru Hunearyise

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Near Home

OR,

KUROPE DESCRIBED.

WITH

ANECDOTES AND NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS,

BY

THE AUTHOR OF THE ‘PEEP OF DAY?

The World which God made
Ought to be governed
By the Book which He wrote.

NEW EDITION,

CAREFULLY REVISED, AND EMBRACING NEW BOUNDARIES
AND OTHER CHANGES,

FIFTY NEW PICTURES.

Lightp=sebenth Chousany.

LONDON: |
HATCHARDS, PICCADILLY.
1881,



LONDON:

PRINTED BY STRANGEWAYS AND SONS,

Tow er Street, Upper St, Martin’s Lane,



INTRODUCTION.

My DEAR CHILDREN,

It is more than a year since the last
Edition of Near Home came out. The first
copy of it was sent to your kind friend the
author. The morning it arrived, I took it to
her bedside, but she would not look at it.
She felt that she had done with this busy
world, and that she was going to rest with her
Saviour. She had then lost the power of
speech. If she wanted to say anything, she
wrote it on a little slate. I remember one
day she gave me her slate that I might read
what she had written. It was about her
orphans and her books, which she gave to my

sister and myself. Her orphans and her books



V1 INTRODUCTION TO

are now our special care. We have taken
great pains with this Edition, and have tried
to make it as she would have liked it to be.
We have also added to it fifty new pictures.
As we have studied it, chapter after chapter, it
has seemed to us as though we heard once more
the familiar tones of her dear voice instructing
us as she used to do when we were children
ourselves. We have thought again of the days
when we sat upon her lap and enjoyed her play-
lessons, long, long ago. How we have changed
since then! How the world has changed! We
have tried to describe these changes in the
book. One of them is, that now, wherever
you go, you may take Bibles with you.
Travelling is so much easier than it used
to be, that I dare say you will visit most of the
countries described in Near Home. You will
enjoy yourselves much more if you study this
book first, and find out in it all the things
you ought to see. I hope you will care for

the people as well as the places. You must



THE NEW EDITION. Vi

not imagine that we English are always wiser
or better than other people. But you may
meet with danger where you least expect it.
You may find many things that are very
dangerous though they look very pleasant.
They are like the draught of sparkling water
from a poisoned well: it looks innocent and
wholesome, but it brings death to the drinker.
If you wish to be happy yourself, and to make
others happy, you must judge everything by
your Bible, and make it your companion and

friend.

‘WHEREWITUIAL SUALL A YOUNG MAN CLEANSE HIS
WAY? By TAKING HEED TUERETO ACCORDING TO THY
Wworp.—BPs. exix. 9.

L. C, MEYER.

TRowBRIDGE REcTorY,

Nov. 26th, 1879.






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PREFACE.

SUPERFICIAL, incomplete, trifling! Such is the
true character of this book. Inaccurate we hope
it is not; but errors, in spite of care, may have
crept in; and the world, old as she is, would
not sit still for her picture. But why super-
ficial, incomplete, and trifling ? Because it is
intended for a race of beings whose tastes must
be consulted.

Some maintain that by reading solid books
children will become solid. The physician is
not on their side: he prescribes milk for babes,
and an inspired Apostle has sanctioned the
prescription. 1 Cor. ul, 2.

Is not the desire for useful knowledge the
best preparation for its acquisition? And how
is the desire to be imparted? By endeavouring
to render knowledge attractive. When once
the desire is excited, the chief difficulty of the



xu PREFACE.

teacher has vanished, and now the child will
learn more without a teacher, than before with
one. Now he will relish dry books, and dip
into deep books, and feed on solid books. The
little work, which first won his fancy, is cast
aside, as superficial, incomplete, and trifling;
but it has served its purpose.

It is not with the idea of superseding solid
works that this little prattler is sent forth.
Primers, Outlines, and Introductions; Digests
and Epitomes, frown not on the upstart! nor
deem it an intruder! Gazetteers, Cyclopzedias,
and Geographical Dictionaries, regard not with
contempt your humble pioneer, nor call it a |
pretender. Those who read it will soon cast ¢t
aside to consult you.

Children are not always to remain at school,
nor in the school-room; and if, while there,
they get a distaste for knowledge—facts, rules,
tables, lists, lines, axioms, and accidence, though
become so familiar by weekly recapitulations,
will slip out of their minds in a few years and
habits of applcation be broken in a few months.

If teachers could be convinced that every lesson



PREFACE; - Xilt

in which~a, child, however it has increased -its
knowledge, has increased its dislike for know-
ledge, is a lesson worse than lost,—then they
would consider not only how subjects ought to
be treated, but pwpils. There are many who
do great justice to their subjects, while they
do great injustice to their pupils. The nature
of the one is understood, but not the nature of
the other. a

Are the usual plans of education successful
in developing intelligence? How is it, then,
that while the elements of all the sciences are.
taught to children, it is not rational treatises,
nor true histories, that are most in demand by
adults — but-— but-— Novels?

Under the common system we often find—
the younger the child, the more reasonable the
creature. Every year which adds to its know-
ledge seems to diminish its sense. What can
be the reason of this result? Does it not arise
from administering knowledge in a form un-
suited to young minds? Because we have the
power to make them learn, it is forgotten how
desirable it would be to make them delight in



X1V PREFACE.

learning: yet, unless that wish be excited, all
the pains of teacher and pupil will be thrown
away, and some untaught youth, who has the
wish, and has gratified it in precious moments,
stolen from the last, the loom, the plough, and
the anvil, will outstrip boys and girls who
have won prizes, and worn medals, and distin-
guished themselves at public examinations and
exhibitions. |

But, while it is desirable to pursue the right
path to knowledge, it is much more desirable,
nay, it is absolutely necessary to remember
that the attainment of secular knowledge is not
the end of life. The service of God is that
end, and knowledge is valuable, because it is
an admirable tool with which to work for our
Heavenly Master. In this little book, the
attempt is made at every turning to instil re-
ligious principle, and to show that the world
which God MADE ought to be governed by the
Book which. He WROTE.

‘To desire to know—to know, is CURIOSITY,

‘To desire to know—to be known, is
VANITY.



PREFACE. XV

‘To desire to know—to sell your knowledge,
is COVETOUSNESS.

‘To desire to know—to edify one’s self, is
PRUDENCE.

‘To desire to know—to edify others, is
CHARITY.’—St. Bernard.

‘To desire to know——to glorify God, is
RELIGION.’ —Added by a saint seven hundred
years afterwards.








CONTENTS.

PART I.

PAGE

INTRODUCTION, containing a short account of each
Country . , ; . . dL
The European Dinner ; . 47
The European Presents ; ; 50
The European Animals . : Oo

The Capital, or Chief Town, of every Country
in Europe . :, 67

Remarks on the Chief Towns, or Capitals, of
Iurope ; ; , 79

Some of the Seas, Mountains, and Riv ers of
Europe . : 73
Food of Peasants in Ew: ope . , , 76
Clothes of Peasants in Europe , . 79
The Countries of Europe compared together . 84

PART I.

CONTAINING MORE PARTICULARS OF THE COUNTRIUS
OF EUROPE,

ENGLAND . : . ; . 93
London . : ; ; 97
Liverpool , ; ; . 10d)
Manchester. 102
Other great Tow ns— Leeds, . Sheflield, Bir

mingham, and Neweastle . : - 103

WALES. , » 1038

SCOTLAND , . . . Ill
Edinburgh. ; ~ 126
Glasgow . . : ~ Il

h



XV111 CONTENTS.

IRELAND .
Story of Little Emily
The Famine ..
The Orphans’ Nursery
Dublin °
Cork, Belfast, and Limerick .

FRANCE
Paris .
Belle Ville
Story of Lizzie
Lyons and Bordeaux .
The little French Mountaineer

SPAIN ;
Madrid
The Guadalquiver
Seville
Gibraltar
Cape Finisterre
The Pyrenees .
PortTUGAL
Lisbon
Cintra
Oporto
Russia
St. Peter shine
Moscow
Kief

ITaLy
Rome .
Naples
Venice
Florence
Pisa
Milan
Turin

PAGE
133
141
146
152
153
155
158
175
77
180
18]
182
188
202
209
210
211
212
214
217
220
229
223
227
246
256
261
271
231
285
287
288
291
29]
299



CONTENTS.
SWITZERLAND . . .
Berne . . . .
Lucerne . . .
Zurich . . .
Neuchatel , .
Geneva . . .
GERMANY. . , .
The Rhine . , ,
Frankfort-on-the-Mau .

Hamburg on the River Elbe
Dresden and Munich .
Regensburg and Nuremberg

Treves ;

PRUSSIA. . . .
Berlin , ,
Potsdam , .

The Christian Village

AUSTRIA . , .

Vienna , , ,
The Danube . , ;
The Mountains of Styria

BoHEMIA . . . .
Prague ; . .

TIUNGARY . ; .
Budapest

PoLAND . . , .
Warsaw . : .
Cracow . . .
The Vistula. . .

HoLLAND, OR THE NETHERLANDS
Amsterdam . : ;
The Hague. .
Rotterdam . . .
Leyden . , :

Brook, or Brock . ;

PAGE
. 296
304.
306
309
809
810
. 316
328
330
. 33
. 838
. 834
335
. B87
340
. 842
345
346
. 348
. 349
. 35!
. 855
. 3800
364
. 868
. O20
. 879
. 379
380
. 388
389
390
391
. 89



xx CONTENTS.

BELGIUM . .
-. Brussels . . .
DENMARK .
Copenhagen
IcELAND
SICILY . . : . ,
Mount Etna . . . . -
Messina
Palermo
Catania
Syracuse
SWEDEN .
Stockholm ,
Upsala ; .
The Swedish Shepherd Boy .
Norway : . .
LAPLAND . ;
Story of Little Matthew

The Messenger of Christ among the Shows .

TURKEY
Constantinople
THE SLAVONIAN STATES .
Roumania
Servia :
~ Bulgaria
GREECE . °
Athens :
Cyprus
CONCLUSION eo



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

‘The World

Iinglish Cottage
Signs of Great Britain and Ireland
Laplanders Skating

Spanish Sheep

Street in Holland .

Turkish School

Bears on the Ice

Malta . : ; .
Horned Owl, Vulture, Falcon, and Kagle
Stag, Roebuck, Fallow-deer, and Idlk
A Stork and a Crane .

A Genette and a Marmot in a Jsutechen
Cronstadt, the Port of Petersburg
Russian Woman in Winter Costume
St. Paul’s Cathedral

Fall of Foyers

Eagle and Child

Hdinburgh Castle .

White Horse Close

Old Houses, Indinburgh

Holyrood

Dean Bridge, over the Wa ater of Leith Ravi eo

The Bedroom of Mary, Queen of Scots
Connemara Boatman ,
Kingstown Harbour, in Dublin Bay

16
28
ye
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XXi1 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

Sahnon Fishing

Women of Normandy . ;
Nuns of the Carmelite Order

The Prince Imperial

I'élix Neff and Marietta. .

Spaniard with a Guitar. ;

A Spanish Lady . .

The Prado , : ;
Gibraltar. ; ; . ,

Peasants of the South of Spain

Aqueduct at Lisbon , ;

Russian Troika

Kussian Peasant Women Talking.

Russian Peasants Drinking Tea, and Samoyar
An Icon

Russian Pope or Priest

Cathedral of St. Basil at Moscow .

St. Isaac's Cathedral, St. Petersburg

The Emperor Alexander II. in his Sledge
Winter Cab, or Sledge, such as people hire
Russian Coachman in Winter Livery

Spaski Gateway , .
Tower of Ivan the Great, and the Great Bell
tome

Venice.

The leaning Tower of Pisa

Via Mala; called the Lost Hole

Dogs of St. Bernard °

Swiss Cottaze

Swiss . . : . .
Bear-pit at Berne . . ; .

PAGE

156
159
171
178
186
199
204
206
212
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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

Tucerne ,

Overthrow of Sledge :
Cologne

The Walhalla of Regensbure
Nuremberg . .
Brandenburgh Gate, Berlin :
Chamois Hunting . . :
Polish Inn . . .
Dutch

Danes

Swedes: the younger woman in a bridal dress
Swedish Shepherd Bov

Norwegians .

Seals ina Stream .

Reindeer Sledge .

Milking Reindeer .

Dancing Dervish

Mosque of Sultan Vulide, Constantinople
Greeks , .

Mars’ Hill .

Greek Priest instructing Children.

~ A Lighthouse on the coast of Cyprus.



LIST OF FULL-PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS.

Tfungarian Tinker — .. |
The World —.
New Law Courts .
Westminster Abbey
‘Canongate, Tolbooth . .

Holyrood Chapel

Giant’s Causeway

Sabots . ;

Cottage of Russian Peasant.
The Kremlin

Great Bell of Moscow

Bay of Naples

Pont de Solis.

Glacier .

Matterhorn ;

Grape-gatherers

Cologne Cathedral (altered up to date)

ITamburg Costume .
ITamburg Flower-gir] . .
Nuremberg . ; .

Grreat Geysir .

Norwegiansion Sunday Afiernoon

Bulgarian Peasants gathering Roses

@

Fortress of Famagasta, near the old

Town of Salamis . .

Cyprus; the Site of Paphos, where

Elym mas lived . .

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NEAR HOME.

PART I.



THE WORLD.

WHAT is this I hold in my hand? It is very
small, not much bigger than an orange; yet
this little thing is like the great world, in which
we live. The world, indeed, is very big. Look
out of the window. You see a little piece of
the world ; but you cannot see it all.

There is another world you can see—I mean
the moon. | | |

It ishung up above the sky. There is nothing

B



2 THE WORLD.

under it to keep it from falling. It is God who
keeps it where it is.

This world in which we live is like the moon.
It is round like the moon. ‘There is nothing
under it to keep it from falling, yet it does not
fall.

But we know a great deal more about this
world than we do about the moon. We do not
know the name of one place in the moon;* but
we know the names of many places in this world.

At the beginning of this book there is a map
of the world. But the map is flat, and the
world isround. A mapisnot as much like the
world as a globe is—but then we cannot put a
olobe into a book.

Look at the map.

Some of it is dark and some is white. The
dark part shows you where the land is, and the
white part shows yow where the water is.

Is there most land or water in the world ?

Oh! most water, a great deal.

There is one large piece of land, called
Europe ; there is another, called Asia; another,
called Africa; another, called America. These
four great pieces were called the four quarters
of the world.

In 1606 some sailors, from a country called

* Learned men have given names of their own to different

parts of the moon ‘as they appear to them through the
telescope.



ENGLAND. 3

Holland, discovered another large piece of land,
which they called Australia, or the great South
Land. ‘The first Englishman, who went to
Australia was the famous Captain Cook.*

There are a great many little pieces of land
with water all round, and they are called.
islands.

The top of the map is called the north.

The bottom is called the south.

The right side is the east.

The left side is the west.

ENGLAND.

Would you like to see the piece of land in
which you live ?

Is it England ?

Look for it onthe map. See, itis one of the
islands. Itseems almost to touch the mainland
of Europe.

Can you tell me anything about England ?
Is it a pleasant land?

Yes; I think it very pleasant.

What makes it pleasant?

It is not very hot, nor is it very cold. In
some countries, it is so hot that the green grass
is withered and made brown by the sun. In

* Captain Cook went there in 1768.



4 ENGLAND.

some countries, it is so cold that no trees will
grow. But, in England, there is fresh green
erass, and there are high-spreading trees. Still
[ must say one thing against England: the air
is sometimes so thick with fogs that you cannot
see across the land.

What kind of fruit grows on our hedges?
Not oranges,—but blackberries.

What sort of birds perch in our trees? Not
the green parrot,—but the robin redbreast.

What sort of beasts are found in our woods?
Not fierce wolves,-—but playful squirrels.

What sort of cottages do the poor people

Ve ane

_ They live in cottages with windows and
chimneys, and a room upstairs, and sometimes
with a little garden in front, full of gay flowers.

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English Cottage.



ENGLAND. 5

What sort of people live in England ?

The children usually have light hair, blue
eyes, and rosy cheeks; but their hair grows dark
as they grow older. Many people have fair,
round, blooming faces, and stout, strong limbs
—but only those who live in the country.

The English are reckoned a happy people,
because they have a good Queen and good laws.
People are not put in prison unless they do
wrong, and no one is killed unless he first kills
another.

But the best of all is, that in England there
are many Bibles. The people may learn about
God, and about His Son, the Lord Jesus Christ,
and about that heavenly place where saints and
angels dwell.

It was not always so. Once the people in
England worshipped idols of wood and stone,
but now every child there may say—

‘IT thank the goodness and the grace
Which on my birth have smiled,
And made me in these Christian days

A happy English child,’



SCOTLAND.

This country is joined to England. Look for
it on the map. It looks like a big head, and
England looks hke the body. It is a great deal
prettier than England. There are hills which
reach to the clouds, covered with yellow broom
and purple heath. English boys would soon be
tired of climbing these high hills; but the Scotch
laddies run up and down the steep hills, as you
would run up and down stairs. There are stout,
rough, little ponies, on which you might ride
among the hills. |

Scotland is colder than England, yet the poor
children run about without shoes and stockings.
You cannot hear the noise of their steps, even
on the pavement, because their feet are bare.
Women, as they walk in the country, often carry
their shoes and stockings in their hands to keep
them clean, and they put them on before they
come into the town.

The Scotch are fond of reading; but they are
fond also of drinking whisky, a sort of spirit
which hurts their health. Much less whisky
has been drunk since a lawâ„¢ was made for
shutting the public-houses on Sunday.

* Called the Forbes Mackenzie Act.



WALES.

This country is joined to England. It looks
like the hands of Old England. .

It is like Scotland, full of high hills and
running streams trickling down their sides.
There are many sheep feeding on the fine grass
among the hills. Of their wool, the Welsh make
very fine flannel. They spin it, and then knit
it into stockings and caps, and into wigs for
poor old men. The women used to ride to
market on ponies, knitting as they went,
wrapped in long blue cloaks, and wearing bea-
ver hats to keep off the rain.

Our Queen’s eldest son is called the Prince
of Wales; his name is Albert Edward. The
people at church pray for him every Sunday.
May God bless him, and give him His Holy
Spirit ! |

England, Scotland, and Wales are joined to-
gether, and are one piece of land with water all
round. This land is called Great Britain. The
people who live there are called the British.
If you are an English child, you are British as
well. Scotch and Welsh children are British,
too.



IRELAND.

This country lies close to Great Britain, but
it is not joined to it. Water runs between.

Ireland is an island, Great. Britain is an
island. Which is the bigger of these two
islands? Does not Ireland look like the little
sister of Great Britain ?

I said there were fogs in England. Now I
tell you there are bogs in Ireland. There are
lands called bogs, where, in some places, the
earth is quite soft and ready to give way
when trodden upon. Sometimes a horse and
its rider have sunk down into a bog, and
never been seen again. These bogs cover
more than a quarter of Ireland.

But the rain does good as well asharm. The
grass 1s very rich, and is fit for fattening cattle.
There are many bullocks fattened there, then
killed, and made into salt beef. The fresh
grass makes Ireland look so green, that it has
been called the ‘Emerald Isle,’ for there is a
green jewel called an emerald. |

But if I were to tell you about some of the
wild, desolate parts of Ireland, it would make
you very sad. The people there cannot always
get food enough. Some years ago their potatoes
were spoiled by the wet, and there was a famine,



IRELAND, 9

These very poor people live in cottages called
cabins. Once a stranger saw a pig lying by
the fire, in an Irish cabin, and he said to the
poor man—‘ Why do you let the pig lie in that
good place ?’

‘Has he not a good right to it?’ said the
poor man. ‘Does not he pay the rent, please
your honour ?’

How is that ? how can the pig pay? When
he is fat he is sold to pay the rent.

Great Britain and Iveland have the same
Queen to reign over them, and they are all
called one kingdom.

Kach of these countries has a sign, which
people used sometimes to put on their seal to
show which country they came from.



The rose is the sign of England.
The thistle is the sign of Scotland.
The harp is the sign of Wales.

The shamrock is the sign of Ireland.



10

FRANCE,

There is only a little piece of water between
England and France. France is warmer than
England. More fruit grows in France; there
are apple-trees on the sides of the road, and
there are fields full of grapes. Wine is so
common that poor people drink it.

The French are more lively than the English.
They are fond of talking, and laughing, and
dancing. ‘They are very clever and very in-
dustrious. The women dress very prettily, and
spend a great deal of time out-of-doors. The
French are fonder of company than the English.

Their religion is the Roman Catholic. I
have been in a church in the evening, and have
seen people kneeling on the stone floor, saying
their prayers. They do not pray to God only,
but to the Virgin Mary as well, and to the
Apostles, and other good men. In _ their
churches, there are images, to which they
bow down. ‘They have not been taught that
God has said, ‘ Thou shalt not bow down
to it,’



I]

SWEDEN,

This is a very cold country. Wheat will not
grow well in it, but oats and rye will grow. The
peasants eat oatmeal-cakes and black rye-bread,
and they have plenty of fish. Sometimes in the
north they cannot get even that, and are obliged
to eat hard bread made of the bark of trees.
Then they pluck off the straw from the thatch
to feed their horses. They have little horses,
and they are very kind to them. When
strangers make their horses go too fast, the poor
Swedes cry. When a Swede goes a journey,
he often puts a string of rye-cakes round his
horse’s neck, and when he stops to rest he-eats
some himself and gives his horse some.

Lhe poor people lve in houses painted red,
with grass growing on the top.

There are beautiful large lakes in Sweden,
with forests of fir-trees. There are also mines
of the -best iron in the world. You would
tremble to go down into the chief iron mine,
for there is a ladder down into the deep pit,
slippery from ice. If your foot were to slip,
you would be dashed to pieces, |



12

NORWAY.

There are many mountains, which divide
Sweden from Norway. Yet the same king
reigns over both. They are called one king-
dom. They have the same religion ; it is not
the Roman Catholic, it is like ours. Norway
is more beautiful than Sweden, because it has
more mountains.

The poor people keep goats. The goats are
fond of climbing up high places. Sometimes a
goat gets into a narrow place among the rocks,
and cannot get out. When the goat’s master
knows this, he desires his friends to tie a rope
round his own body, and to let him down from
the top of the rock till he comes to the place
where the poor goat is standing, and then he
takes it in his arms, and calls to his friends to
draw him up again. He will take all this
trouble to save his goat.

The little boys delight in climbing among’
the rocks; there they may be scen in their red
caps with their bare legs,

I said there was iron in Sweden. In Norway
there is something more precious (though not
more useful), I mean silver.

Both in Norway and Sweden brandy is too
much liked,



LAPLAND.

This country is even colder than Sweden and
Norway. It lies just on the north of those
countries, and has the same king to rule over it.
The Laplanders are very short, for the cold
stops their growth. They are often called
Lapps, and that is a good name for such little
people.

Corn will not grow in Lapland. I do not
know what the people would do without their
reindeer. It isa pretty sight to see these fine
creatures milked in the evening. They come
bounding and leaping along from the hills.
Our cows come heavily and steadily along.
But, while the reindeer are being milked they
are made to stand still, for the men hold them
fast by a rope tied round their fine horns.
Then the girls come with their pails to milk
the beautiful animals.

You see, the reindeer are as useful as cows.
They are like horses, too, for they can draw the
Lapps along in carriages made like boats,
which slide over the snow. But the reindeer
cannot carry their masters on their backs; for,
though their legs are strong to draw, their backs
are too weak to carry. They are so gentle that



14 LAPLAND.

a Lapp can drive fifteen ata time. The bridle
is not put in their mouths, but tied to their
horns. The creatures will gallop for thirty
miles without stopping.

Do you want to have some of these reindeer
here? But what would you give them-to eat?
Grass would not do. Where would you find
the white moss in which the reindeer delight ?

Some Lapps are poor, and have no reindeer.
They have a way by which they can go as fast
as the deer, though not sofar. They slide along
the snow in skates. These skates are narrow
pieces of wood as long asa man. In these the
Lapps seem to fly down the hills. They can
overtake the bears. They know where to find
them by the marks of their feet in the snow.
When they overtake a bear, they knock him so
hard a blow on the nose as to stun him, and
then they kill him.



Laplanders Skating.



SPAIN. 14

But the best use the Lapps make of their
skates 1s to fly to church. There are very few
churches, and the Lapps have many miles to
go. Some in sledges, and some in skates,
arrive at church, But when there, they are
apt to go to sleep. A man walks up and down
with a stick rapping on the ground, to wake
the sleepers, and if that does not rouse them
he raps on their heads.

Once the Lapps did not know who made
them or who died for them, but the King of
Sweden sent missionaries to teach them.

SPAIN.

This is a land where the sun shines, a
land of oranges, and figs, and grapes. There is
one sort of wine made in Spain, which is often
seen in England. Have you ever seen two
bottles of wine on the table, one white and
one red? The white wine is called Sherry,
and it comes from Spain. How pretty the
oranges must look, peeping amongst the dark
ereen leaves! How sweet the white blossoms
smell! The orange-trees would die if they
were not watered, for it is very dry in Spain.
There are very sandy plains, where you



16 SPAIN,

would faint beneath the hot sun, A dry
country suits sheep, and there are numbers of
sheep in Spain. Their wool makes very fine
cloth called merino, and is used for ladies’
winter-gowns. |



Spanish Sheep.

There are pretty cats in Spain, with very soft
hair; pretty dogs called spaniels; goats brows-
ing among the mountains, and excellent don-
keys; and there are mules, which are larger
than donkeys, but have long ears like them.
On the mules and donkeys you can ride safely
on the steep mountains. But beware of the
robbers; they are fierce, and often kill people.

The people are very different in different
parts of Spain. In one part they are very
industrious and very lively; in another part
they are gloomy and silent, solemn and stately.

Their religion is Roman Catholic.



ly

PORTUGAL.*

This country is so close to Spain, you might
have thought they were one kingdom; but they
are not. Portugal lies more to the west than
any kingdom in Europe. It is about a hundred
miles broad, and about four times as long.
Beautiful marble and stone for building are-
found underground. The soil is very good.

The people are very contented and very
frugal. They eat a good deal of maize or
Indian corn.

The vine is the chief plant of Portugal. In
some places it hangs in festoons from oak and >
poplar trees, or else twines around them. In
some places it is planted in terraces, and is
only allowed to grow a few inches high. In
some places it is planted in rows, like goose-
berry bushes. In other places it grows on high
trellises, and makes shady walks and beautiful
arbours. Iam sure this is the way you would
admire most.

When the black grapes are gathered, they
are separated from the white ones, and are
thrown into a great trough. A number of men
then jump into the trough; they stand close

* The name of Portugal came from Porto Cale, which a

king of Castile gave to the French Prince, Henry, 1035.
C



18 ITALY.

together, putting their hands on each other's
shoulders, and then they step backwards and
forwards. When they are tired, others take
their places. made in Portugal. It is called ‘ Port,’ from
the town of Oporto, where it is shipped for
England.

Observe the shape of Spain and Portugal ;
they make one piece of land, and there is water
almost all round, but not quite. That sort
of land is called a pen-in-su-la, or ‘almost an
island,’

Do you see this piece of land at the bottom
of Europe? Do you not think it something like
the shape of a man’s leg? It is called Italy.
Is Italy an island? It has not water all round
it, but it has water almost all round it. It is .
called a peninsula.

It 1s hot, for all the countries in the south
of Europe are hot; but it is not as hot and dry
as Spain. Why not? It is narrow, so that the
sea 1s near to every part, and the sea air cools it.
There are very high mountains running down
all the middle, and where the mountains are,
the clouds gather and the rain comes.

Italy, like Spain, is full of fruits and flowers,



ITALY. 19

Like Spain, too, it isa Roman Catholic country.
The people sing well, and draw beautiful pic-
tures. But music and painting do not make
people truly wise. It is the Holy Scriptures
alone, which are able to make us wise unto
salvation.

There is a man in Italy called the Pope.
That word Pope means papa, or father. The
Roman Catholics say that he is the father of all
Christians. They say that he can do no wrong,
and that he can pardon sins. They put him
in the place of God; yet he is only a man.
When one Pope dies, another priest 1s made
Pope. Once a-year people meet together to
kiss his great toe. Do you laugh? It would
be better to ery. How much God must be
displeased! The Roman Catholics are called
Papists, because they believe in the Pope.
Are you a Papist? No; I hope you are a
Protestant. What is a Protestant? He is a
person who does not believe that the Pope
can forgive sins.”

Do yow believe that the Pope can forgive
sins? The Popeis only a man. How can a
nuin forgive sins? None but God can forgive
sins. Jesus shed His precious blood to wash
out our sins. He can forgive your sins. Ask
Him to forgive you, and He will.

* The name of Protestant was given to people who ‘ pro-
tested’ against Error.



SWITZERLAND.

This is the most-beautiful country in Europe.
It is the high mountains that make it so beau-
tiful. Their tops reach far beyond the clouds.
There are also large pieces of water called lakes.
There are pretty wooden cottages among the
mountains, and little boys who take care of
goats.

Higher up still there is a kind of deer called
the chamois. There are men who hunt them
for the sake of their flesh, and skin, and horns.
It is adangerous employment. The hunter sets
out in the night, that he may be in time to find
the flock of chamois feeding in the morning on
the sides of the mountains. He hides himself
behind a rock, and shoots. But sometimes the
chamois see the hunter coming; for there is
always one standing on a high rock watching
while the rest are feeding. Ifthe watcher sees
a man, he makes a sort of whistling noise, and
all run to the high place and look; then they
gallop away to the mountains. All day the
hunter clambers among the rocks, often cutting
steps with his hatchet for his feet. At night he
sleeps on the snow, and next morning watches
to see the chamois coming down from the moun-



GERMANY, 2]

tain-tops. If he kills one, he returns home with
joy; but often his little children watch for him
in vain, and he is found at last lying frozen on
the ledge of a high rock, or dashed to pieces at
the bottom.

Travellers are sometimes frozen in the snow—
but there are clever and large dogs, who go out
with a man to look for people who are lost in
the snow, and to bring them to a warm place.

There is no king in Switzerland. In some
parts of Switzerland, the people are Roman
Catholics, and in some parts, Protestants. Every
one remarks that the Protestantsare the cleanest,
and most industrious, and most cheerful people
in Switzerland.

GERMANY.

This isthe middle part of Europe. It is not
so damp and rainy as England.

The people are industrious. They work
harder than any other people in Europe.

Like the English, they can make useful
things well. They make clocks and watches,
knives and swords, cups and plates. Like the
Scotch, they love reading and writing. Like
the Italians, they love music and singing.



22 GERMANY.

Germany is made up of twenty-five ditferent
states or kingdoms. The largest of them all is
Prussia. The King of Prussia is the Emperor
of all Germany. Some of the states are Roman
Catholic and some are Protestant. Prussia is
Protestant, and the emperor is a Protestant.

Bavaria is Roman Catholic, and the king is
a Roman Catholic.

Our Prince Albert came from Saxe-Cobure-
Gotha, which is oue of the Protestant States
of Germany. He married Queen Victoria in
1840; and he died in 1861, to the grief of all
Kngland, as well as of our beloved Queen.

His eldest daughter, the Princess Royal,
married Prince Frederick of Prussia, who is
heir to the German Empire.

His second daughter, the Princess Alice,
married another German prince. She was a
very fond mother, and died from nursing her
sick children herself. She was beloved like her
father, and is lamented like him.



PRUSSIA.

IT have told you that Prussia and Germany
are one, and that the King of Prussia is the
Emperor of Germany. Prussia is about as long
as Italy. It is bounded on the north by the
Baltic Sea, and on the west by Holland; but
Prussia is not so damp or flat as Holland,
though it 1s colder. It is colder than England.
Shall I tell you why? In Prussia, the north
wind passes over the snows of Sweden and
Russia. Now the north wind in England
passes over the sea, and the sea is warmer
than snow. And why is Prussia so damp?
Because there are many marshes and forests
in it. If the marshes were drained and the
forests cut down, Prussia would not be so
damp. ‘There is a way of draining marshes
by cutting little ditches in them, for the
water runs out of the land into the ditches.

I suppose you do not wish to go to Prussia.
Yet it is a better country to live in than beau-
tiful Italy, for it is a Protestant country.
The people are taught to mind what is written
in the Bible. There is a king, and there are
good laws. All the children are obliged to
learn to read. They must go to school at
seven, and stay there till they are fourteen.



24

POLAND.

Poland was once a great kingdom, almost as
large as Great Britain and France put toge-
ther.* Poland stretched from the Baltic Sea
to Hungary and Turkey. The people of Poland
were very quarrelsome and fond of fighting.
Whenever their king died, there were disputes
about choosing a new king. Some of the Poles
thought there would be less quarrelling if each
king were succeeded by his son. Others of the
Poles did not approve this plan, and wished to
go on choosing their king. This made fresh
disputes. The people were very miserable.
There were many proud lords, who were un-
kind to the poor. There were no schools for
the poor children—no one cared for them ; and
the lords spent their time in feasting; they
were very fond of riding—they scarcely ever
walked. When a poor man met a lord, he
made a bow so low that his head touched
the ground.

The Russians declared it was not safe to have



* Square miles, France ... ... ... 203,619
" » nglandand Wales 657,813

7 » weotland... ... ... 26,014
287,446

“ » Poland ... ... ... 284,000



POLAND. 25

such quarrelsome neighbours as the Poles.*
So Russia came and fought against Poland,
and then Prussia and Austria did so too.
These three divided Poland amongst them-
selves,

At first they left the Poles a little piece, but
aiterwards they took even this away from them.
The country, which is still called Poland, is
not a kingdom at all, but only a province of
Russia.

It is near Prussia, and it is like Prussia;
but it is flatter and uglier. There are forests
with wolves, and foxes, and bears in them; but
there are no mountains,

The people are not happy, and many of the
lords are now wandering far from home, with-
out money or lands. |

Polish nobles are very polite and very
brave. They speak many languages, and
they think there is no country in the world
like Poland.

* Out of fifty-five Parliaments, forty-eight ended in tumult
and violence.

nn ot ne ne



26

HUNGARY.

This country is much warmer than Poland.
The cold winds that blow so hard in Poland do
not reach Hungary. And why not? Because
there is a long chain of mountains, on the north
which keeps off the cold winds. Yet in Hungary
there are forests and marshes. In the forests
there are wild beasts. The damp air from the
marshes hurts the health of the people.

Once, in England, there were forests and
marshes; but the English have made fields
and built towns all over the land. Now the
Hungarians are doing the same.

Hungary is now joined with Austria into one
empire.

Hungary is not as beautiful as Greece;
though there are many sweet spots in it—
woods full of flowers and fruits, and flowing
brooks. It is avery fruitful country. There
is delicious honey made from sweet-smelling
herbs. There is the best wine in the world,
called Tokay. There are no grapes like those
of Hungary; the people say that the worst
wine of Hungary is better than the best wine of
France: but this is not true. Everything grows
well in Hungary.

Many of the men dress in sheepskin cloaks.



HOLLAND, OR THE NETHERLANDS. 27

In the summer they wear white linen shirts and
trousers. ‘The men wear little black round
hats. The people wear red, green, and white,
because they are the colours of Hungary.
Gentlemen often wear a feather in their
fur-caps. /

The religion of Hungary is the Roman
Catholic.

HOLLAND, OR THE NETHERLANDS.

I told you last ofa country full of mountains;
now I am going to tell you of a country without
any mountains—a country that is flat like a
dish. Do you think it is a pretty country ?
Only one part of it is pretty, which is Guelder-
Jand. Holland is wet and unhealthy.

The people of Holland are called the Dutch.
They are avery industrious people. They make
their wet land as dry as they can by digging
deep ditches and canals for the water to flow
into. Thecanalsare very useful. They are lke
roads from one place to another. Often may
you see a boat in a canal, and a horse by the
side drawing the boat and trotting along. This
is a slow, but quiet way of travelling. There
are canals in the streets. There are railways
also now in all parts of the country.





2S HOLLAND, OR THE NETHERLANDS.



Street in Holland.

The Dutch are very clean. They scrub the
brass pans they use in their kitchens, till they
shine like gold. If they did not rub them a
great deal, the damp would perhaps spoil them.
They are very fond of smoking. Some think
it isthe damp air which makes them delight so
much in their pipes. They cannot talk while
they are smoking; but they are not particu-
larly fond of talking and laughing. They are a
steady, quiet, grave people.

What sort of animals are there in Holland ?
There are goats and sheep. There are not
many horses for riding: but there are strong
horses to draw the boats slowly along; and
there are plenty of cows to eat the fine, fresh
grass. There are also very obedient dogs,



BELGIUM. 29

which draw little carts full of fish along the
streets into the country.

The favourite bird is the stork. It js a
tall bird with very long legs, a very lone
neck, a very long beak, and a small head,
No wonder the Dutch love it, for it is so
useful. With its long legs it can walk in the
marshes, and with its lone beak it can seize the
-roaking frogs, of which the marshes are full.
When it walks in the streets, it eats the dead
rats and mice, and so helps to keep the streets
clean. The storks make no noise, yet they are
playful creatures, and have been known to play
at hide-and-seek with children.

BELGIUM.

This is a little country. Part of it is flat,
like Holland; but not all. Once the flat part
was barren, and had only sands covered with
heaths and furze; but now it is full of fine
cornfields.

What is growing in that purple field, which
smells so sweet ?

It is clover, of which horses are sofond. The
horses are well fed in Belgium. The waggons,



30 BELGIUM.

the carts, and ploughs, are neat and well
made.

Many of the women are busily employed in
making lace. The little girls begin to learn
at five years old. They must begin early, for
the thread they use is so fine that it- takes a
long while to learn how to make lace without
breaking the thread.

Belgium, you see, lies just between France
and Holland. Which is it most like? Hol-
land.

The people are like the Dutch in being
industrious, but they are like the French in
being Roman Catholics. . You will not be sur-
prised to hear that they prefer the French to
the Dutch. They speak French, though some
of them also speak a language of their own.
They follow the French fashions and customs.
They have a king of their own, called Leopold.
His father once lived in England, for he
married the Princess Charlotte, the cousin of
our beloved Queen. |



3]

RUSSIA.

I am now going to tell you about the largest
country in all Kurope. I need not say which
it is, for you can find that out for yourself, by
looking in the map. See how very large it
is! But though it is large, it is not full of
people. There are miles of country, where no
one lives.

You may travel for hours in the railroad
and not see a single house except the railway
stations. |

In the north, you see forests and morasses ;
in the east, you see sandy plains, called steppes.
These steppes are not all waste land, for much
corn is grown on them and sent to England,

Russia is a very cold country in the winter.
Some parts of it are very hot in the summer.
The ruler of Russia is called the Czar. He is
also King of Poland, and Grand Duke of Fin-
land. His people call him the Emperor of all
the Russias. The late Emperor, Alexander IL.,
did more for the Russian peasants than any
other. He made them free, which they were not
before. His only daughter married the Duke
of Edinburgh, who is the second son of our
Queen Victoria,



Qo
bo

TURKEY.

Of all the countries in Europe I should like
least to live in Turkey.

And why? Not because it is ugly like Hol-
land, for it is beautiful; nor because it is cold
like Lapland, for it 1s warm and pleasant:
but because it has such a bad religion. It is
not the Roman Catholic religion—which is
a Christian religion: the religion of Turkey
is not a Christian religion at all; it is called
Mohammedanism. There was once a great de-
ceiver called Mohammed, who pretended that
God had sent him to teach people; but he was
a false prophet, and he tanga people only what
was false and wicked.

The ruler of Turkey is called the Sultan.
He does whatever he pleases. He has a great
many wives. He lives in a beautiful palace,
and keeps a great number of servants.â„¢

The Turks are very fine, handsome men, with
black hair and black eyes, and pale complexions,
and fine noses. They dress in large loose
pelisses, and they wear turbans on their heads.

They lead an idle life. In summer they
spread a carpet on the ground, under a shady

-* Most of these servants come from Africa. They are all
very rude, ignorant, and fanatical.



~

TURKEY. oo

tree, or by the bank of a river, and spend hours
in silence, sitting with their legs across, smoking
or chewing opium. They have nothing good
to think of, and they throw away their time.
This they call happiness. Perhaps you want
to know what opium is. It is the juice of
the white poppy. It is dried in the sun,
and cut up into small pieces. The Turks like
to chew it, because it makes them feel half
asleep; but it is very unwholegome, and takes
away the mind by degrees, and makes the body
grow weak,












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Turkish School.

Many of the Turks can read, but it 1s a
bad book which they read—the Koran which
Mohammed wrote.

It is curious to seea Turkish school. These
schools are only for boys, The school-house

D



34 TURKEY.

has no walls, and this makes it cool. The
children sit cross-legged on little mats, with
their books in their hands; while the master
sits in the midst, with a great stick in his
hand, ready to beat any one who looks off his
book. The unhappy little tribe are learning to
repeat by heart sentences out of the Koran.
How different are those sentences from the
texts taught in our English infant-schools!
There is no such verse in all the Koran as
‘Suffer little children to come unto Me,’ or,
‘He shall gather the lambs with His arm, and
carry them in His bosom.’

Now there are schools for girls, and many
good women have left their homes on purpose
to teach the little Turkish girls.

In May, 1879, one of these ladies wrote a
description of the lovely flowers of Turkey,
purple and golden, red and blue; but she said
they did not look half so bright to her as the
sixty-six young girls who were learning in her
school-room.”

" Life and Light, August, 1879.



38

GREECE.

Look at the land at the bottom of Turkey.
It is called Greece. It isa charming country ;
but who would like to live so near the Turks?

The Greeks have found it very unpleasant.
Many of the Greeks have been obliged to hide
themselves from the Turks among the rocks
and mountains, and many of them have turned
robbers. But now they have a king of their
own, and they are no longer ureatee so ill as
they used to be.

The Greeks have not the same religion as
the Turks. They are called Christians, but
they are not Protestants. Are they Roman
Catholics? No, they do not mind the Pope of
Rome. They are lke the Russians, and their
religion is called the Greek religion. In some
things itis ike the Roman Catholic religion.
The Greeks bow down to pictures, though they
do not worship images.

English people often go to Greece. And
why? Is it to see the beautiful rivers and
mountains that they go? Not only to see
them, but for another reason.
ago there were in Greece marble palaces for
kines, and temples for idols, and they are fallen



36 GREECE.

down and lying upon the ground. People
come from far to look at them. The great
stones and broken pillars peep out among the -
long grass. There the goats browse and sport
together. Who can be sorry that the idol
temples are fallen down?

Does anything useful come from Greece?
‘Yes, silk, for there are many mulberry-trees
for the silk-worms. The sweetest honey comes
from Greece, because there are so many sweet-
smelling herbs there; such as thyme and rose-
mary; and bees suck the sweetest juices out
of these plants.

Have you ever eaten plum-cake? But are
those plums in the cake? No. Are they cur-
rants? No, they never grew on currant-bushes.
They are grapes—very small grapes. Why,
then, do we not say grape-cake instead of
plum-cake? The reason is that these tiny
grapes were called currants, because they were
first brought from Corinth, which is a city of
Grreece.



37

DENMARK.

What a strange shape this country is! It is
like a neck. There is water almost round it, so
it is called a peninsula, like Spain and Greece.
There are large islands close to the shore,
which are part of Denmark. Itis a good thing
for a country to have sea-shores. Poland has
no shores. How can she have any ships?
Holland has some ships. England has many
ships. Denmark once had many ships; but
they were destroyed—and now she has only a
few.

Denmark is flat ike Belgium, but the people
have not taken so much pains to make the land
fruitful. Besides, it 1s much colder in Den-
mark than in Belgium. In winter the Danes
go in sledges on the ice.

There is the Protestant religion in Denmark,
and there is a king over the land.

The. great people have beautiful houses.
Other people ornament their houses with
flowers, and china, and little statues, which
are copied from the statues at Copenhagen.
Every one is well taught. The children
learn sewing and embroidery, and sing old
sones about the time when Denmark was
great and powertul,



38

ICELAND.

Any child might guess what sort of a country
this is, for its name tells us it isa land of ice.
But it will surprise you to hear that there is
a great deal of fire init, and hot water. There
are mountains in it, called burning mountains,
or volcanoes. Fire bursts out of these moun-
tains, and there comes out a hot, soft, dark
stuff, called lava. The largest of the burning
mountains is Hecla.

There is also scalding water in the valleys.
There are springs of water which spout with
great noise out of the earth, and these springs
are hot. Some are so very hot that they would
scald your little hand. The poor people some-
times put a pan of fish upon the hot water, and
boil their dinner. Some springs are not quite
so hot, and poor women wash their clothes in
them ; and some are only just warm, and in
them the young people bathe. Would you not
like to travel to Iceland, to see the hot springs
and the burning mountains ?

What sort of people live in Iceland? Very
honest and quiet people. They are very poor.
Hardly any corn grows in Iceland. . Poor people
cannot get bread. They eat dried fish, and they
drink milk. In winter, every one keeps at
home, because it is dark nearly all day. In



ICELAND, og

summer, the men and boys go to the shores to
fish. What do the women and little children
do? They go to the mountains to gather a
curious kind of plant, called Iceland Moss,
which they make into soup by boiling it in
milk. On the mountains they live in tents,
Then it is the children see the bubbling
springs. Then it is they play among the
hills.

But the long, dark winter soon comes again,
and they are shut up in their dark houses. The
lamp gives them a little hght. Then the parents
teach their children to read and write; for there
are no schools in Iceland. There are Bibles in
which the children can read. It is a Protestant
country, and every one may read the Bible.
The little boys go out sometimes to clear away
the snow, that the poor sheep may have some
crass. The men twist ropes, and weave cloth,
and make iron tools, and wooden bowls, and
horn spoons; and the women work with their
needles, or spin, or weave, in the large bed-
room. |

There are horses in Iceland, but they lead a
hard life in winter, for they are turned out to
get food as they can, and very thin they are
when spring comes; while the cows are kept in
the stable, and fed with a little hay. As for the
poor little sheep, they eat seaweed when they are
very hungry,and the wind sometimes blows them



40 ICELAND,

away into the sea when they are feeding. But
there are worse enemies than the wind for the
poor sheep. JI mean the bears. ‘There are no
bears living in the land, but there are some who
come on visits. Howis that? They come upon
great pieces of ice floating on the sea.. They
come from a colder land, a great way off, and
the wind drives them along till they reach the
shores of Iceland. Then they jump upon the
land, very hungry, after their cold voyage, and
they catch as many sheep as they can. But if
the Icelanders see them coming, they run out
with spears to frighten them away; or, better
still, to kill them, for then the Icelander has a
warm skin for a cloak. What a strange kind
of sailor is the white bear!









: fe we 7 e : RSs AY = ~~ =






ein USE

There is a sort of duck called an eider duck,
which lines its nest with its own soft feathers.



SICILY.

This country is an island. It is not at all
like Iceland. Iceland is cold. Sicily is hot.
Iceland has hardly any gardens in it. Sicily
is one great garden, for the finest fruits and
flowers grow there. But in one respect, Sicily
is like Iceland. It has a great burning moun-
tain. We call this mountain, Etna, but the
people of Sicily call it Mongibello, which means
the ‘mountain of mountains.’ If you went ail
round it, you would go a hundred miles. It is
much larger than Hecla. Etna is round, and
looks like a tea-cup turned upside down, only
it has a pointed top. It is very high.” If you
wanted to go up this mountain, and to see the sun
rise from the top, you would set off about noon
the day before. Though the road is very steep,
you could drive a long way. At first you would
findit hot,and thesun would beat upon your head.
You would pass through vineyards and orange
groves. You would see mossy fountains and
neat white cottages. The land is so fruitful,
and so easy to dig, that numbers of people live
here. They love the golden corn and the
purple grapes, the rich fruits and the sweet

* About 11,000 feet, or 2 miles,



42 SICILY.

flowers.* What a pleasant place! But is it
a safe place? Look at those black rocks
amongst the green leaves. They are made of
lava, which once came pouring down in a
stream of fire and burned everything it touched.

After you had driven for about four hours,
you could stop and dine. You would then have
to get mules and guides. You would come
first to black ashes and grey lava, and then to
woods of trees, where it would be cool and
pleasant. It is a great pity that numbers of
the trees have been cut down and burned. It
would get colder and colder till you saw
nothing but loose ashes and fields of snow.
You could rest and have a cup of coffee at
a house called the Englishmen’s House, be-
cause some Englishmen helped to build it.
Then you would have to leave your mules, and
to finish your journey on foot. You would find
this part of the way very hard. You would
have to pick your way like a cat creeping along
the broken glass on the top of a wall. It is
tiring to walk on ashes and lava, but it is
worse to walk on fine dust and yellow sulphur.
Instead of getting on, you would feel as if each |
step you were slipping back. Hot steam from
the mountain-top would blind your eyes and
make you feel sick.

At last you would come quite to the top.

* 477 kinds of flowers grow there.



SICILY, 43

Then you would be rewarded for all your
trouble and pains if you could see the sun
rise, and see his wonderful image in the mist.
This is a sight which can be seen nowhere
else. All across the island you would see the
purple shadow of Etna, and beyond it the rosy
tips of other mountains.

Nothing can be more lovely than the view,
which reaches over hundreds of miles. You see
all Sicily surrounded by the beautiful’blue sea.
If you climbed to the top of Mont Blane, you
would find that part of the view was shut out by
other mountains; but Mount Etna stands alone,
and, therefore, you could see all roundit. Then
you would look down on the mountain itself: the
snowy top,and the green woods like a bright band
all round, and long lines of black lava. Quite
at the top, you would see smoke coming out of
a great hole.. This great hole in the top of the
mountain is called the crater. It is always
changing. Once it seemed so full of rubbish
that the smoke only escaped through the cracks ;
another time it looked so deep that no one could
see to the bottom. It put one in mind of the
burning and bottomless pit ito which the
wicked shall be cast.

The Sicilians are proud of their great moun-
tain. They say it keeps them warm im winter
and cool in summer. The fire keeps them
warm, and the snow cool.



44 SARDINIA, CORSICA, AND MALTA.

In winter, the people roll the snow down from
the upper part of the mountain, and store it in
those large caves. The children are fond of
making snowballs on the mountain, and rolling
them into the caves. The little brown, dark- |
eyed creatures must look darker still among
the snow. In summer time, the people bring
ponies with panniers, to fetch the snow out
of the caves, and they make them trot down
quickly to the town below, lest the snow should
melt on the way. Did you ever hear of a snow-
shop? There are none in England, but there
are in Sicily.

What sort of people are the Sicilians? They
are very polite, but they are very superstitious,
Their religion is the Roman Catholic.

SARDINIA, CORSICA, AND MALTA.

What is that great sea, which lies under
Europe?

It is called the Med-i-ter-ra-ne-an Sea.
There are many islands in it. I will only
speak of three. See those two—they look like
sisters, an elder and a younger. The larger is
called SARDINIA. It is very much like Sicily,
only there is no burning mountain init. The
people are poor and ignorant. They have large -
flocks of sheep and goats, There are deer in



SARDINIA, CORSICA, AND MALTA. 45

the forests. Many people go into the forests
to hunt. But there are wild boars there, and
there are robbers. The shepherds on the moun-
tains always carry guns, because they never
know when the wild beasts, or the fierce rebbers,
may come out to attack them.

So much corn grows in Sardinia, that some-
times it is left to rot on the ground; and there
is so much milk, that sometimes cheeses are
used as manure.

The island near Sardinia is called CORSICA.

There are many rocks in it. It is not as
fruitful as Sardinia, but it is more famous.
Why? Because a child was once born there,
who became at last an Emperor of France.
His-‘name was Napoleon Bonaparte. Did you
never hear his name? When he was alive, all
the children in the nursery were taught to be
afraid of him. ‘The nurses called him ‘Bony,’
or ‘Nap.’ He conquered many countries, and
covered the ground with the bodies of men who
were killed in battle. We were afraid lest he
should-come over to England, but he never did.
God took care of us. Bonaparte was at last
conquered, and shut up in a little island called
St. Helena, till he died.

Mata.—This is a very little island. It is so
little that I should not speak of it, were it not
thata very good man was once shipwrecked there.
I mean the Apostle Paul. The island was once



46 SARDINIA, CORSICA, AND MALTA.

called Melita; but now it is called Malta. Paul
was a prisoner when he was at Malta; he picked
up sticks, and made a fire, and a viper jumped
out of the fire upon his hand, but did not kill
him. Youmay read about the visit of St. Paul
to Malta in the last chapter of the Acts, How
much better to be like Paul than Napoleon!
One killed men’s bodies in battle, the other
saved men’s souls by telling them of Jesus
Christ, the Saviour of the world.











































































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What sort of an island is Malta? Very little
will grow on that hard rock, except fruit-trees,
There are beautiful oranges in Malta.

Malta may be called an Italian island, because
it isvery near Italy. Yet it is alsoan English
island, because it belongs to the Queen of Eng-
land. If you were to go there, you would see
many English soldiers, and many English
people, and you would see an English church;
but you would also see many Roman Catholic
churches full of images,



47

THE EUROPEAN DINNER.

Now, my dear children, let us suppose that
we were going to give a great dinner to all the
people of Europe, and that we asked each to
bring something to eat or drink, that grew in
his own country. What could each bring ?

Now will you try and find out, before you
look to see what is written in this book? I
like children to try and find out things for
themselves, for then they remember them much
better than if they only read about them.

Now that you have tried to think, come and
look, and see what I have written in my book.

Lhe table is ready. Who comes here?

Two men dressed in very warm clothes.
They come from some cold country. Each
of them has a dish of fish in his hand. One
is an Icelander, with some cod; the other a
Norwegian, with some oysters. Our coun-
tries, say they, do not bear fruit like other
lands, but there is abundance of fish on the
shores of Iceland and Norway.

After the fish has been served and removed,
several men get up, go out of the room, and
bring back large dishes.

I am sure you are glad to see your own dear



48 THE EUROPEAN DINNER.

countryman. What a fine joint he seems to
have beneath that cover! It isa sirloin of roast
beef, from an ox that fed in one of the rich
meadows of England.

The Welshman comes next, with a nice little
leg of mutton, from one of the sheep that crop
the short grass upon the sides of the mountains
in Wales.

Next comes the Prussian, with a haunch of
venison, from one of the deer that roam in his
forests.

Next comes the German, with an excellent
ham, from one of the swine that are found in
his woods.

Then the little Laplander brings in a dried
reindeer’s tongue, which was the best dish in
his house.

These five dishes of meat make a plentiful
dinner for the party, but vegetables are wanting.

A Sicilian comes with some fine broccoli from
Sicily.

An Irishman enters with a smoking heap of
potatoes, that grew in the green valleys of
Ireland.

But salt and mustard are needed. The Pole
brings the salt from the mines of Poland; and
the Belgian the mustard, from the fields of
mustard-seed in Belgium.

When all have eaten enough, the dishes are
removed, and another course is brought in.



THE EUROPEAN DINNER. 49

Lhe Swede brings some woodcocks, shot
among the forests of Sweden; and the Greek
some partridges from the fertile valleys of
Greece.

The Russian a large tart made of cranberries,
that grow in the forests of Russia.

Then another course is brought in. The
Swiss brings some cheese from his little dairy
among the mountains of Switzerland; the
Dutchman some butter, from the fine cows
that graze in the moist fields of Holland; and
the Scotchman, some oat-cakes, made from
the oats that grow in his bleak and beautiful
land.

It is time for dessert, and now we shall look
to the people of the South to supply the fruits
and the wine.

The Hungarian brings the most beautiful
grapes from the vineyards on the hills of Hun-
gary; the Itahan, the finest melons from the
sunny plains of Italy; and the Frenchman,
dehcious plums from the fruitful orchards of
France; and the Maltese, oranges from the
sultry groves of his rocky island.

But where is the wine? Two men enter,
very much like each other, for both have dark
eyes and hair, and dark complexions. One is
a Spaniard with a bottle of white wine, the
other a Portuguese with a bottle of red wine.
The white wine is sherry, from grapes of Spain;

K;



50 THE EUROPEAN PRESENTS.

the red is port, from grapes of Portugal. Thus
the dessert is complete.

When all have finished, they go into another
room. Three of them go outand return. The
Turk brings in coffee, which grows well in the
hot lands of Turkey. The Dane brings cream,
for there is rich grass in Denmark. ,

But where is the sugar to sweeten the coffee ?
The Frenchman brings the sugar, which he has
made from beet-root. And now the feast is
finished, and the company departed.

THE EUROPEAN PRESENTS. |

Let us suppose that a young man took a
journey through all the countries of Europe,
and bought in each country some presents for
his friends at home. Suppose when he came
home he opened his boxes, and brought out his
presents. What did he give to each of his
friends? _ There was,—

1. His aged grandfather, what shall we sup-
pose he might say to him?—‘ Dear grandfather,
will you kindly accept this cushion stuffed
with eider-down from Iceland? On this you
may like to rest your leg, that often pains
you so much.’

_ 2, His grandmother :-——‘ Will you kindly
accept this merino for a gown? The merino



THE EUROPEAN PRESENTS. 5]

comes from the sheep of Spain. Very little of
this wool is woven in Spain, but I found some
which was, and I hoped that it might make
you a warm winter gown.’

3. His father:—‘ Will you, dear father,
accept this marble jar? I found it in Greece,
and I thought you might like to place it in
the grove.’

4. His mother:—‘ Will you accept this silk?
It comes from France, and was woven there ;
and it will, I hope, make you a gown.’

5. His sister Helen, aged seventeen :—* Will
you accept this picture, and hang it up in your
own room? It was painted in Italy.’

6. His brother George, aged sixteen :—‘ I
know you are fond of things found in the
ground, and that you have a cabinet of mi-
nerals. Will you add to it this gold ore from
Hungary, this silver ore from Norway, this iron
ore from Sweden, and this tin ore from our own
dear England ?’

7, His sister Sophia, aged fourteen :—‘ Will
you accept this little china vase of flowers? It
was made in Prussia.’

8, His brother Henry, aged twelve:—‘ I
brought this watch from Switzerland, and I
hope it will go well.’ |

9, His brother Edward, aged ten :—‘ I know
you are fond of writing; this little case of
Russia leather may be convenient to you when



52 THE EUROPEAN PRESENTS.

you are at school, as you often write letters to
us at home.’

10. His brother Frederick, aged eight :—
‘This knife was bought in England, where the
very best knives are made. You will be careful
not to hurt yourself, my dear boy.’

11. His brother Walter, aged seven :—‘ This
pair of reindeer’s horns comes from Iceland.
As you are fond of animals, I thought you
might like to fasten them on the wall of your
little room.’

12. His brother Charles, aged five :—* For
you I have brought a plaid dress, such as little
boys in Scotland wear.’

13. His sister Emma, aged three :—‘ For
little Emmy I have got a box of toys made in
Germany. Here are little wooden spoons and
dishes, and animals of many kinds.’

14. ‘ For the sweet little Willie I bring this
lace from Belgium, and hope my nthor will
trim his cap with it, and tell him some day that
brother Alfred did not forget the baby.’

15. ‘For my dear old nurse I have brought

this flannel, which comes from the sheep of
Wales.’



On
Oo

THE EUROPEAN ANIMALS.

rd

Let us suppose that a gentleman wished to
have one animal from each country in Europe;
then let us suppose what animal he would get
from each, and where he would keep it.

My little boys and girls, come into this
courtyard, and see that small house with iron
grating. There are four large birds in it.

The largest is the vulture from Hungary.

The next in size is an eagle from Sweden.

The next in size a falcon from Iceland.

And the least a horned owl from Greece.

The vulture can smell the best.

The eagle can see the best.

The owl can hear the best.

The vulture and the horned ow: are very
ugly. The eagle and the falcon are very
handsome.

The vulture has no feathers where you would
expect to see them, that is, on his neck ; while
the owl has some where you are surprised to
find them, for he has some great feathers stick-
ing out near his ears like horns.

It is well the vulture has none on his neck,
because he plunges his head into such putrid
bodies of dead animals, that he would be in a
horrible state if he had feathers. But why has



54 THE EUROPEAN ANIMALS,

the owl those long feathers sticking up above
his ears? Perhaps they help him to hear so
well. I do not know, but I guess this may be
the reason.

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What is the difference between the eagle
and the vulture? — ae

The vulture lives on dead animals, the eagle
on living animals; therefore the vulture moves
slowly, but the eagle flies quickly after its prey.

What is the difference between the eagle and
the falcon? |

The eagle can hardly be tamed, for, though
he may seem to be tame, he cannot be trusted.
The falcon can be made so tame that he will
catch birds for his master, and do all he bids.



THE EUROPEAN ANIMALS. 55

What is the difference between the eagle and
the owl? :

The eagle has strong eyes that can bear the
light of the sun, and he builds his nest very
high, where he has a great deal of light. The
owl cannot bear the light of day, and he builds
his nest in low places, and goes out at night to
catch his prey.

Now let us go into the stable.

There is a very large horse, a very little pony,
a very fine donkey, and a great dog.

Where do these animals come from?

The strong cart-horse comes from Belgium.

The little pony from Wales.

The fine donkey from Spain.

And the wolf-dog from Ireland.*

That strong cart-horse is very useful to the
farmers of Belgium, who take so much pains
with their fields. They need strong horses to
draw the heavy loads of clover and all kinds
of grass and corn.

That little rough pony is very useful to the
poor Welsh people: the women ride such ponies
over the steep mountains when they go to market
or to church. It is just fit for a little boy who
wishes to go out riding with his papa.

The Spanish donkey is larger than the Welsh
pony. |
Now let us go to the park. Under the large

* The Irish wolf-dog is nearly extinct.



56 THE EUROPEAN ANIMALS.

trees there are some creatures that look like
deer; but they are very different from each
other. |

The largest is an elk from Denmark.

The next in size are stags from Prussia.

The next are fallow-deer, born in England.

The smallest of all are roebucks from Poland.













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Stag, Roebuck, Fallow-deer, and Elk.

They all have horns, which drop off every
year and grow again.

I suppose you think that great elk must be
very fierce, because he igs go large: but he ig
quite tame and gentle. .

Is the pretty little roebuck, which is not as
high as the table, is he tame and gentle ?

No, he cannot be made quite tame; he is
like the eagle, he may seem tame, but he.



THE EUROPEAN ANIMALS. 57

cannot be trusted. The elk is the ugliest,
but he is the most gentle of all those animals.
The roebuck is the prettiest, but he is the
wildest. The elks like to live together in herds,
so do the stags and the deer; but the roebuck
lives with his faithful mate. His little ones,
the pretty fawns, follow their parents over the
hills till they are grown up.

The elk can only trot ; the others bound and
gallop about the eaunicy,

The elk has a strong and short neck; the
other deer have elegant long necks.

It 1s well for the elk he has such a strone
neck, for his horns are very large and heavy;
neither does he want a lone neck, for he
eats the branches of trees, and he is so tall
that he can reach them very easily.

What is the difference between the stag and
the fallow-deer ?

The stag is much larger and wilder than the
fallow-deer. Besides, there is a great difference
in their horns; for the horns of the stag are
round, like the branches of a tree, while the
horns of the fallow-deer are flattened at the
end.

The elk has flattened horns, and with them
he shovels away the snow in winter.

The horns of the roebuck are round, like
those of the: stag.

Which do you like best of all these animals ?



58 THE EUROPEAN ANIMALS.

Do you prefer the elk, who is so much attached
to his master that he will follow him wherever
he goes? or do you prefer the roebuck, who,
though he does not love his keeper, is so loving
to his mate and his little ones ?

Now let us walk down that shady grove.
Here, in a dark part of it, I see a small stone
house, with strong bars in front. Two wild
beasts are shut up there. They are both very
ugly, and very fierce by nature. They come
from very cold countries, and therefore they
are placed in a cold part of the ground. What
are they?

A black bear from Lapland, and a wolf from
Russia. |

Now let us see in what things they are
alike, and in what things they are unlike.

They can only be tamed when caught young ;
they can never be trusted; they both can
smell exceedingly well, but the bear smells
the best—better, indeed, than any other beast.

They both like to eat flesh, but the bear will
eat vegetables too. Both of them are sulky,
and like to lve alone.

Now let us see in what things they are
unlike.

The bear has a shaggy, black coat, which
the Laplander finds very useful to sleep cn;
the wolf has a coarse skin, covered with
brown and grey bristles. |



THE EUROPEAN ANIMALS. 59

The bear’s flesh is very nice indeed to eat;
the wolf’s flesh is so bad that no creature but
a wolf can touch it.

The bear can climb trees, but cannot run
fast; the wolf cannot climb, but he can run
for days and nights together without being
tired.

The bear is often very fat; the wolf is very
thin indeed. The bear growls, the wolf howls.
The bear is rather like a man in his way of
walking; the wolf is very much like a dog.

Which, now, do you like best? I know that
you like neither. Which, then, do you dzslike
the most ?

I can guess which. The bear, though rough
and savage, is not quite as horrible as the wolf.

il} S

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A Stork and a Crane.



60 THE EUROPEAN ANIMALS.

There are two tall birds walking about.
They are very much alike indeed; they have
both very long necks, and very long legs, and
very long bills. But they are not quite alike.

What are they ?

One is a stork from Holland, the other isa
crane from Norway.

What is the difference between them ?

The stork is white and brown; the crane is
of a dark grey.

But there is a greater difference than this,
only you cannot see that difference.

The stork makes no noise, except a little
rattling of its beak; while the crane has a
louder voice than any other bird—or beast
either. its voice is something like the sound
of a trumpet.

What can we give them to eat? Get a
handful of corn, that will please the crane;
but, to please the stork, you had better catch
a frog.

They are both very tame indeed; and very
fond of those who take care of them. .They are
both fond of travelling, and fly to hot countries
in the winter; but no one can tell exactly where
they go, for they fly sometimes to one place,
and sometimes to another; and they travel so
high up in the air that no eye can see them.

_ Every one is glad when the storks arrive in
their country, because they eat up the frogs and



THE EUROPEAN ANIMALS. 61

mice; but no one is glad to see the cranes,
because they eat up the corn which the farmer
has just sown. In this little field we are glad
to see both stork and crane, and we hardly
know which we like the best. |

We are now close to the house. Here are
three dogs playing before the door. How very
different they are from one another! Who
would think that they were all the same sort
of animal? One is very large, another very
ugly, and the third is very small and pretty.
Yet the ugly one is far the cleverest and the
best. . Iam sure you will love him most when
I tell you some more about him. The ugly one
is called a shepherd’s dog. He came from the
south of Scotland, where there are large flocks
of sheep fed among the hills, and he is very
useful to the shepherds. The large dog is
called a wolf-dog; he comes from Ireland;
he is nearly as large as a pony. Wolf-dogs
have killed almost all the wolves in Ireland.*
That pretty little dog came from Malta. It
is a lap-dog. It is called a Maltese dog.
Some people love to pet dogs, and to tie
ribbons round their necks and take them out
walking. Lap-dogs are generally fed, too much,
and they become lazy, and idle, and unhappy.
The shepherd’s dog is a far happier creature,
for he knows he is useful to his master.

* There are very few wolf-dogs left in Ireland.



62 THE EUROPEAN ANIMALS.

Let me tell you a short story about a Scotch
shepherd’s dog. One day, a shepherd took his
little boy with him, as well as his dog. The
child was only three years old. The father
left him alone, while he looked after some sheep,
when suddenly a thick fog came on. The poor
man could not find his child. He hoped
he had gone home; but when he inquired,
he found his wife had not seen him. Both
fatber and mother searched around, but no
child was to be seen.

Next morning they gave their dog a piece
of bread, for breakfast, as usual. As soon
as the dog received it, he ran off with it. very
quickly. The next day, the dog did so again.
On the third day the shepherd thought, «I
will go and see what the dog does with his
bread.’ He followed him down many a steep
path, till at last he came to a waterfall. The
shepherd, stepping from crag to crag, crossed
the roaring stream. On the other side, in a
little hole of the rock, sat his little boy eating a
piece of bread, while the dog lay beside him,
watching his young master with love and
pleasure in his looks. Oh, how much de-
lighted the shepherd was to find his child!
The poor dog had gone without his breakfast
for two days. The little boy had been afraid
of crossing the stream, and had not known how
to get home. He would have been starved, if



THE EUROPEAN ANIMALS, 63

it had not been for the faithful dog. Do you
not love the shepherd’s dog, though his hair is
coarse, and though his tail is short, and his ears
stick up? You love him better than you do
the lap-dog.

This is the way into. the kitchen. Look at
that little creature. Is it a hare? No, it is
much stouter than a hare; besides, it has not
long ears like a hare. Isita squirrel? No,
it is much bigger than a squirrel, and it has
not a long tail like a squirrel. Yet, it is very
much like a squirrel in its way of eating. See!
it is now sitting up and holding an apple
between its forepaws. Here, little fellow, is a
piece of cake. How tame it is! it takes the
cake out of my hand. Ask the cook what is
the name of this little animal.





A Genette and a Marmot in a Kitchen,



64 THE EUROPEAN ANIMALS.

It is a marmot, and it comes from the moun-
tains of Switzerland. Do not be afraid of it,
for it is very good-natured, and, though it has
sharp teeth, it will not bite you. Only we
must take care our httle dog does not follow us
in, for it hates dogs very much, and will fly at
them when it sees them.

Ask the cook what the marmot eats. Any-
thing and everything—meat, pudding, and
fruit; but it is most pleased if it can get
into the dairy to lap the milk and devour
the butter. It seems very fond of the hot
kitchen-fire, for it cannot bear the cold. It
likes to he in this warm basket, lined with
hay.

I wish you could see a marmot in its own
native mountains. It digs a hole in the earth,
with the help of its companions, and _ lives
underground all the winter, in a nice, large
room lined with moss and hay. It makes the
hay itself. Oh, what a clever little hay-maker !
It has no scythe to mow with, no fork to toss
the hay with, no cart to bring it home in:
how, then, does it make hay? Its teeth are its
scythe, and its paws are its fork. The little
marmots carry the hay home themselves, and
make their room comfortable before winter
comes, While they are making hay one
marmot keeps watch, perched on a high
rock, to see that no man, or dog, or great



THE EUROPEAN ANIMALS. 65

bird, comes near. If he sees one of these
enemies, he whistles, and then all the mar-
mots hurry into their holes again. Well! the
marmot is a clever little creature indeed.
‘Good-bye, hay-maker !’

Here is another creature, rather like a cat,
only much smaller and thinner. Call it, and
stroke it. See, it comes quite willingly. Where
do you come from, pretty creature? What a
sweet smell there is in the room! I do not
see any flowers,—where can the smell come
from? Has any one been putting some nice
ointment on this pretty little creature? Oh
no, it is the way in which it always smells.
Oh, do tell me the name of the sweet creature !
It ought to be called violet, or mignonnette.

Itsname is not mignonnette, but genette. It
comes from Turkey. Genettes are kept in the
Turkish houses, that they may eat up the mice.
The mice run away as soon as they smell that
sweet smell. They are so useful that everybody
values them; they are so clean, that no one
minds keeping them indoors; and they are so
gentle, that little children need not be afraid
of playing with them. It is true that they
cannot sheathe their claws, as pussy can; but
then they do not wish to scratch. |

Do you think the genette pretty? Yes, I
like its black spots and its stripes upon its dark,
shining fur, and I admire its black mane, like

I



66 THE EUROPEAN ANIMALS.

the mane ofa horse; but I do not like its pointed
nose as I do pussy’s round face.

Now let us go into the drawing-room, and
see whether there are any curious animals to
be found there. There is nothing but a cage,
with a little bird init. I hope the door is never
left open, for I know the genette would like to
eat that pretty creature.

Is it avery curious bird? I think I have
seen many birds like it. It is about the size
of a sparrow, only it is much prettier. It is
not as pretty as a goldfinch. It has a very
thick, short neck. It isa bullfinch. Perhaps
you may have seen such a,bird in the spring,
hopping about the garden, and picking the
worms from among the plants. But this bird
comes from Germany. Wait a little, and you
will hear it sing. Hark! itis singing. What
a pretty tune it is whistling! It was in Ger-
many it learnt that tune. The Germans are
very fond of music, and they play tunes on
the flute, and teach bullfinches to whistle them.
Some bullfinches are stupid, and cannot learn,
but others are clever, and learn very quickly.

I would rather hear.a bird warbling its wild
notes, while perched upon a spray, than listen
to the best-taught bullfinch that ever whistled
ia a cage.

Now we have seen birds and beasts from most
of the countries of Europe.



THE CAPITAL, OR CHIEF TOWN. 67

Here is a list of all we have seen to-day :-—

Vulture from Hungary. Bear from Lapland.

Kagle from Sweden. Wolf from Russia.

Falcon from Iceland. Stork from Holland.
Horned Owl from Greece. Crane from Norway.
Cart-horse from Belgium. Wolf-dog from Ireland.
Pony from Wales. _| Shepherd’s dog from Scot-
Donkey from Spain. land.

Elk from Denmark. Lapdog from Malta.

Stag from Prussia. Marmot from Switzerland.
Fallow-deer from England. Genette from Turkey.
Roebuck from Poland. Bullfinch from Germany.

THE CAPITAL, OR CHIEF TOWN, OF
EVERY COUNTRY IN EUROPE.

1, London. This great city is built on the
banks of the river Thames, where a great num-
ber of ships are always to be seen. Of what
country is it the capital? |

2. Kdinburgh. There isa very high rock in
the midst of the city, with an old castle at the
top. Of what country is it the capital ?

38. Dublin. There is a very large square in
it, with a gravel-walk all round, shaded by
trees. It is called St. Stephen’s Green. Of
what country is it the capital ?

4, Paris. The ladies there dress very gaily,
and are always changing the fashions, wearing



68 THE CAPITAL, OR CHIEF TOWN,

bonnets of new shapes, and dresses of neW
colours. Of what country is it the capital ?

5. Stockholm. Here is a great lake with
many little islands in it, covered with houses,
and trees, and rocks. Of what country is it
the capital ? |

6. Christiania. A great deal of wood is sent
from this city to other countries. Of what
country is it the capital ?

7. Madrid. There are many fountains in
the streets. Of what country is it the.
capital ?

8. Lisbon. There was a dreadful earthquake
there about a hundred years ago. Of what
country is it the capital ?

9. Rome. Here is the grandest church in
the world. It is called St. Peter’s. Of what
country is Rome the capital ?

Naples is in the same country as Rome.
There are a great many poor men in Naples,
who have no employment, and no homes. They
live upon wild fruits, and sleep in the streets,
except when it rains; then they take shelter in
the caves in the hills around.

10. Vienna. Here is the most beautiful
park. Of what country is it the capital?

11. Berne. Here some famous bears are
kept.

12. Geneva. Here there is a manufactory
for watches.



OF EVERY COUNTRY IN EUROPE. 69

13, Amsterdam is full of canals, on which the
women skate to market in the winter.

14, St. Petersburg. In the winter there isa _
great market, which is open every day. Atthe
beginnine of the winter, as soon as the frost
sets In, numbers of oxen are killed, and piled
up in open sheds. Frozen meat will keep good
all the winter, There is also a very large mar-
ket, where frozen fish are sold. The Russians
fast nearly half the year, and are forbidden to
eat meat, egos, and milk; but then, they are
allowed to eat fish.

Moscow is in the same country as St. Peters-
burg. It used to be the capital of Russia.
Here is the largest bell in the world. It 1s too
heavy to be hung up. It is not used because,
during a fire, it fell from the tower, and a large
piece was knocked out of its side. Now it is
placed near the tower, where people may look
at it. The common people think this bell is
holy. There is a door near the top, and a
ladder inside, by which people can go to the
bottom of the bell.

15. Constantinople. Here is the largest
mosque in the world.

16. Athens is full of fallen temples, which
were built a long while ago by the heathen,
and which have grown old and fallen down.

17. Berlin. Thereare more soldiers in this
city than in any other,



70 REMARKS ON THE CHIEF TOWNS,

18. Warsaw.
made here, and sold to the great lords.

19. Buda-Pesth is built on the banks of a
broad river. Once there was no bridge across,
except a long chain of boats, but there are now
two fine bridges. One of them is-for the
railway.

20. In Brussels very beautiful lace is
made.

21. Copenhagen. Here there is a very high
tower, with a winding road that leads to the
top. Though it is very steep an Emperor
(named Peter the Great) once drove a carriage
with four horses abreast up this road.

22. Palermo. Near this town there is a most
beautiful garden, called Flora, full of flowers
and fruits, where the people delight to walk.

REMARKS ON THE CHIEF TOWNS, OR
CAPITALS, OF EUROPE.

St. Petersburg has the most superb buildings.
Berlin has the most beautiful streets.
Dublin has the most beautiful squares.
Berne has the most beautiful prospects.
' Stockholm has beautiful rocky islands.
Yet people say Edinburgh and Naples are the



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NEAR HOME:

THE COUNTRIES OF EUROPE DESCRIBED,
e

Na tHE

pan

oe



INKER oF Norru Hunearyise

at
Near Home

OR,

KUROPE DESCRIBED.

WITH

ANECDOTES AND NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS,

BY

THE AUTHOR OF THE ‘PEEP OF DAY?

The World which God made
Ought to be governed
By the Book which He wrote.

NEW EDITION,

CAREFULLY REVISED, AND EMBRACING NEW BOUNDARIES
AND OTHER CHANGES,

FIFTY NEW PICTURES.

Lightp=sebenth Chousany.

LONDON: |
HATCHARDS, PICCADILLY.
1881,
LONDON:

PRINTED BY STRANGEWAYS AND SONS,

Tow er Street, Upper St, Martin’s Lane,
INTRODUCTION.

My DEAR CHILDREN,

It is more than a year since the last
Edition of Near Home came out. The first
copy of it was sent to your kind friend the
author. The morning it arrived, I took it to
her bedside, but she would not look at it.
She felt that she had done with this busy
world, and that she was going to rest with her
Saviour. She had then lost the power of
speech. If she wanted to say anything, she
wrote it on a little slate. I remember one
day she gave me her slate that I might read
what she had written. It was about her
orphans and her books, which she gave to my

sister and myself. Her orphans and her books
V1 INTRODUCTION TO

are now our special care. We have taken
great pains with this Edition, and have tried
to make it as she would have liked it to be.
We have also added to it fifty new pictures.
As we have studied it, chapter after chapter, it
has seemed to us as though we heard once more
the familiar tones of her dear voice instructing
us as she used to do when we were children
ourselves. We have thought again of the days
when we sat upon her lap and enjoyed her play-
lessons, long, long ago. How we have changed
since then! How the world has changed! We
have tried to describe these changes in the
book. One of them is, that now, wherever
you go, you may take Bibles with you.
Travelling is so much easier than it used
to be, that I dare say you will visit most of the
countries described in Near Home. You will
enjoy yourselves much more if you study this
book first, and find out in it all the things
you ought to see. I hope you will care for

the people as well as the places. You must
THE NEW EDITION. Vi

not imagine that we English are always wiser
or better than other people. But you may
meet with danger where you least expect it.
You may find many things that are very
dangerous though they look very pleasant.
They are like the draught of sparkling water
from a poisoned well: it looks innocent and
wholesome, but it brings death to the drinker.
If you wish to be happy yourself, and to make
others happy, you must judge everything by
your Bible, and make it your companion and

friend.

‘WHEREWITUIAL SUALL A YOUNG MAN CLEANSE HIS
WAY? By TAKING HEED TUERETO ACCORDING TO THY
Wworp.—BPs. exix. 9.

L. C, MEYER.

TRowBRIDGE REcTorY,

Nov. 26th, 1879.
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*
PREFACE.

SUPERFICIAL, incomplete, trifling! Such is the
true character of this book. Inaccurate we hope
it is not; but errors, in spite of care, may have
crept in; and the world, old as she is, would
not sit still for her picture. But why super-
ficial, incomplete, and trifling ? Because it is
intended for a race of beings whose tastes must
be consulted.

Some maintain that by reading solid books
children will become solid. The physician is
not on their side: he prescribes milk for babes,
and an inspired Apostle has sanctioned the
prescription. 1 Cor. ul, 2.

Is not the desire for useful knowledge the
best preparation for its acquisition? And how
is the desire to be imparted? By endeavouring
to render knowledge attractive. When once
the desire is excited, the chief difficulty of the
xu PREFACE.

teacher has vanished, and now the child will
learn more without a teacher, than before with
one. Now he will relish dry books, and dip
into deep books, and feed on solid books. The
little work, which first won his fancy, is cast
aside, as superficial, incomplete, and trifling;
but it has served its purpose.

It is not with the idea of superseding solid
works that this little prattler is sent forth.
Primers, Outlines, and Introductions; Digests
and Epitomes, frown not on the upstart! nor
deem it an intruder! Gazetteers, Cyclopzedias,
and Geographical Dictionaries, regard not with
contempt your humble pioneer, nor call it a |
pretender. Those who read it will soon cast ¢t
aside to consult you.

Children are not always to remain at school,
nor in the school-room; and if, while there,
they get a distaste for knowledge—facts, rules,
tables, lists, lines, axioms, and accidence, though
become so familiar by weekly recapitulations,
will slip out of their minds in a few years and
habits of applcation be broken in a few months.

If teachers could be convinced that every lesson
PREFACE; - Xilt

in which~a, child, however it has increased -its
knowledge, has increased its dislike for know-
ledge, is a lesson worse than lost,—then they
would consider not only how subjects ought to
be treated, but pwpils. There are many who
do great justice to their subjects, while they
do great injustice to their pupils. The nature
of the one is understood, but not the nature of
the other. a

Are the usual plans of education successful
in developing intelligence? How is it, then,
that while the elements of all the sciences are.
taught to children, it is not rational treatises,
nor true histories, that are most in demand by
adults — but-— but-— Novels?

Under the common system we often find—
the younger the child, the more reasonable the
creature. Every year which adds to its know-
ledge seems to diminish its sense. What can
be the reason of this result? Does it not arise
from administering knowledge in a form un-
suited to young minds? Because we have the
power to make them learn, it is forgotten how
desirable it would be to make them delight in
X1V PREFACE.

learning: yet, unless that wish be excited, all
the pains of teacher and pupil will be thrown
away, and some untaught youth, who has the
wish, and has gratified it in precious moments,
stolen from the last, the loom, the plough, and
the anvil, will outstrip boys and girls who
have won prizes, and worn medals, and distin-
guished themselves at public examinations and
exhibitions. |

But, while it is desirable to pursue the right
path to knowledge, it is much more desirable,
nay, it is absolutely necessary to remember
that the attainment of secular knowledge is not
the end of life. The service of God is that
end, and knowledge is valuable, because it is
an admirable tool with which to work for our
Heavenly Master. In this little book, the
attempt is made at every turning to instil re-
ligious principle, and to show that the world
which God MADE ought to be governed by the
Book which. He WROTE.

‘To desire to know—to know, is CURIOSITY,

‘To desire to know—to be known, is
VANITY.
PREFACE. XV

‘To desire to know—to sell your knowledge,
is COVETOUSNESS.

‘To desire to know—to edify one’s self, is
PRUDENCE.

‘To desire to know—to edify others, is
CHARITY.’—St. Bernard.

‘To desire to know——to glorify God, is
RELIGION.’ —Added by a saint seven hundred
years afterwards.


CONTENTS.

PART I.

PAGE

INTRODUCTION, containing a short account of each
Country . , ; . . dL
The European Dinner ; . 47
The European Presents ; ; 50
The European Animals . : Oo

The Capital, or Chief Town, of every Country
in Europe . :, 67

Remarks on the Chief Towns, or Capitals, of
Iurope ; ; , 79

Some of the Seas, Mountains, and Riv ers of
Europe . : 73
Food of Peasants in Ew: ope . , , 76
Clothes of Peasants in Europe , . 79
The Countries of Europe compared together . 84

PART I.

CONTAINING MORE PARTICULARS OF THE COUNTRIUS
OF EUROPE,

ENGLAND . : . ; . 93
London . : ; ; 97
Liverpool , ; ; . 10d)
Manchester. 102
Other great Tow ns— Leeds, . Sheflield, Bir

mingham, and Neweastle . : - 103

WALES. , » 1038

SCOTLAND , . . . Ill
Edinburgh. ; ~ 126
Glasgow . . : ~ Il

h
XV111 CONTENTS.

IRELAND .
Story of Little Emily
The Famine ..
The Orphans’ Nursery
Dublin °
Cork, Belfast, and Limerick .

FRANCE
Paris .
Belle Ville
Story of Lizzie
Lyons and Bordeaux .
The little French Mountaineer

SPAIN ;
Madrid
The Guadalquiver
Seville
Gibraltar
Cape Finisterre
The Pyrenees .
PortTUGAL
Lisbon
Cintra
Oporto
Russia
St. Peter shine
Moscow
Kief

ITaLy
Rome .
Naples
Venice
Florence
Pisa
Milan
Turin

PAGE
133
141
146
152
153
155
158
175
77
180
18]
182
188
202
209
210
211
212
214
217
220
229
223
227
246
256
261
271
231
285
287
288
291
29]
299
CONTENTS.
SWITZERLAND . . .
Berne . . . .
Lucerne . . .
Zurich . . .
Neuchatel , .
Geneva . . .
GERMANY. . , .
The Rhine . , ,
Frankfort-on-the-Mau .

Hamburg on the River Elbe
Dresden and Munich .
Regensburg and Nuremberg

Treves ;

PRUSSIA. . . .
Berlin , ,
Potsdam , .

The Christian Village

AUSTRIA . , .

Vienna , , ,
The Danube . , ;
The Mountains of Styria

BoHEMIA . . . .
Prague ; . .

TIUNGARY . ; .
Budapest

PoLAND . . , .
Warsaw . : .
Cracow . . .
The Vistula. . .

HoLLAND, OR THE NETHERLANDS
Amsterdam . : ;
The Hague. .
Rotterdam . . .
Leyden . , :

Brook, or Brock . ;

PAGE
. 296
304.
306
309
809
810
. 316
328
330
. 33
. 838
. 834
335
. B87
340
. 842
345
346
. 348
. 349
. 35!
. 855
. 3800
364
. 868
. O20
. 879
. 379
380
. 388
389
390
391
. 89
xx CONTENTS.

BELGIUM . .
-. Brussels . . .
DENMARK .
Copenhagen
IcELAND
SICILY . . : . ,
Mount Etna . . . . -
Messina
Palermo
Catania
Syracuse
SWEDEN .
Stockholm ,
Upsala ; .
The Swedish Shepherd Boy .
Norway : . .
LAPLAND . ;
Story of Little Matthew

The Messenger of Christ among the Shows .

TURKEY
Constantinople
THE SLAVONIAN STATES .
Roumania
Servia :
~ Bulgaria
GREECE . °
Athens :
Cyprus
CONCLUSION eo
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

‘The World

Iinglish Cottage
Signs of Great Britain and Ireland
Laplanders Skating

Spanish Sheep

Street in Holland .

Turkish School

Bears on the Ice

Malta . : ; .
Horned Owl, Vulture, Falcon, and Kagle
Stag, Roebuck, Fallow-deer, and Idlk
A Stork and a Crane .

A Genette and a Marmot in a Jsutechen
Cronstadt, the Port of Petersburg
Russian Woman in Winter Costume
St. Paul’s Cathedral

Fall of Foyers

Eagle and Child

Hdinburgh Castle .

White Horse Close

Old Houses, Indinburgh

Holyrood

Dean Bridge, over the Wa ater of Leith Ravi eo

The Bedroom of Mary, Queen of Scots
Connemara Boatman ,
Kingstown Harbour, in Dublin Bay

16
28
ye
e ded
40
46

toot St

ae er
\w e/ ww
7

Jo mT
5 “T to WwW ee
XXi1 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

Sahnon Fishing

Women of Normandy . ;
Nuns of the Carmelite Order

The Prince Imperial

I'élix Neff and Marietta. .

Spaniard with a Guitar. ;

A Spanish Lady . .

The Prado , : ;
Gibraltar. ; ; . ,

Peasants of the South of Spain

Aqueduct at Lisbon , ;

Russian Troika

Kussian Peasant Women Talking.

Russian Peasants Drinking Tea, and Samoyar
An Icon

Russian Pope or Priest

Cathedral of St. Basil at Moscow .

St. Isaac's Cathedral, St. Petersburg

The Emperor Alexander II. in his Sledge
Winter Cab, or Sledge, such as people hire
Russian Coachman in Winter Livery

Spaski Gateway , .
Tower of Ivan the Great, and the Great Bell
tome

Venice.

The leaning Tower of Pisa

Via Mala; called the Lost Hole

Dogs of St. Bernard °

Swiss Cottaze

Swiss . . : . .
Bear-pit at Berne . . ; .

PAGE

156
159
171
178
186
199
204
206
212
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287
291
207
298
200
3033

o())
esthe)
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

Tucerne ,

Overthrow of Sledge :
Cologne

The Walhalla of Regensbure
Nuremberg . .
Brandenburgh Gate, Berlin :
Chamois Hunting . . :
Polish Inn . . .
Dutch

Danes

Swedes: the younger woman in a bridal dress
Swedish Shepherd Bov

Norwegians .

Seals ina Stream .

Reindeer Sledge .

Milking Reindeer .

Dancing Dervish

Mosque of Sultan Vulide, Constantinople
Greeks , .

Mars’ Hill .

Greek Priest instructing Children.

~ A Lighthouse on the coast of Cyprus.
LIST OF FULL-PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS.

Tfungarian Tinker — .. |
The World —.
New Law Courts .
Westminster Abbey
‘Canongate, Tolbooth . .

Holyrood Chapel

Giant’s Causeway

Sabots . ;

Cottage of Russian Peasant.
The Kremlin

Great Bell of Moscow

Bay of Naples

Pont de Solis.

Glacier .

Matterhorn ;

Grape-gatherers

Cologne Cathedral (altered up to date)

ITamburg Costume .
ITamburg Flower-gir] . .
Nuremberg . ; .

Grreat Geysir .

Norwegiansion Sunday Afiernoon

Bulgarian Peasants gathering Roses

@

Fortress of Famagasta, near the old

Town of Salamis . .

Cyprus; the Site of Paphos, where

Elym mas lived . .

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NEAR HOME.

PART I.



THE WORLD.

WHAT is this I hold in my hand? It is very
small, not much bigger than an orange; yet
this little thing is like the great world, in which
we live. The world, indeed, is very big. Look
out of the window. You see a little piece of
the world ; but you cannot see it all.

There is another world you can see—I mean
the moon. | | |

It ishung up above the sky. There is nothing

B
2 THE WORLD.

under it to keep it from falling. It is God who
keeps it where it is.

This world in which we live is like the moon.
It is round like the moon. ‘There is nothing
under it to keep it from falling, yet it does not
fall.

But we know a great deal more about this
world than we do about the moon. We do not
know the name of one place in the moon;* but
we know the names of many places in this world.

At the beginning of this book there is a map
of the world. But the map is flat, and the
world isround. A mapisnot as much like the
world as a globe is—but then we cannot put a
olobe into a book.

Look at the map.

Some of it is dark and some is white. The
dark part shows you where the land is, and the
white part shows yow where the water is.

Is there most land or water in the world ?

Oh! most water, a great deal.

There is one large piece of land, called
Europe ; there is another, called Asia; another,
called Africa; another, called America. These
four great pieces were called the four quarters
of the world.

In 1606 some sailors, from a country called

* Learned men have given names of their own to different

parts of the moon ‘as they appear to them through the
telescope.
ENGLAND. 3

Holland, discovered another large piece of land,
which they called Australia, or the great South
Land. ‘The first Englishman, who went to
Australia was the famous Captain Cook.*

There are a great many little pieces of land
with water all round, and they are called.
islands.

The top of the map is called the north.

The bottom is called the south.

The right side is the east.

The left side is the west.

ENGLAND.

Would you like to see the piece of land in
which you live ?

Is it England ?

Look for it onthe map. See, itis one of the
islands. Itseems almost to touch the mainland
of Europe.

Can you tell me anything about England ?
Is it a pleasant land?

Yes; I think it very pleasant.

What makes it pleasant?

It is not very hot, nor is it very cold. In
some countries, it is so hot that the green grass
is withered and made brown by the sun. In

* Captain Cook went there in 1768.
4 ENGLAND.

some countries, it is so cold that no trees will
grow. But, in England, there is fresh green
erass, and there are high-spreading trees. Still
[ must say one thing against England: the air
is sometimes so thick with fogs that you cannot
see across the land.

What kind of fruit grows on our hedges?
Not oranges,—but blackberries.

What sort of birds perch in our trees? Not
the green parrot,—but the robin redbreast.

What sort of beasts are found in our woods?
Not fierce wolves,-—but playful squirrels.

What sort of cottages do the poor people

Ve ane

_ They live in cottages with windows and
chimneys, and a room upstairs, and sometimes
with a little garden in front, full of gay flowers.

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English Cottage.
ENGLAND. 5

What sort of people live in England ?

The children usually have light hair, blue
eyes, and rosy cheeks; but their hair grows dark
as they grow older. Many people have fair,
round, blooming faces, and stout, strong limbs
—but only those who live in the country.

The English are reckoned a happy people,
because they have a good Queen and good laws.
People are not put in prison unless they do
wrong, and no one is killed unless he first kills
another.

But the best of all is, that in England there
are many Bibles. The people may learn about
God, and about His Son, the Lord Jesus Christ,
and about that heavenly place where saints and
angels dwell.

It was not always so. Once the people in
England worshipped idols of wood and stone,
but now every child there may say—

‘IT thank the goodness and the grace
Which on my birth have smiled,
And made me in these Christian days

A happy English child,’
SCOTLAND.

This country is joined to England. Look for
it on the map. It looks like a big head, and
England looks hke the body. It is a great deal
prettier than England. There are hills which
reach to the clouds, covered with yellow broom
and purple heath. English boys would soon be
tired of climbing these high hills; but the Scotch
laddies run up and down the steep hills, as you
would run up and down stairs. There are stout,
rough, little ponies, on which you might ride
among the hills. |

Scotland is colder than England, yet the poor
children run about without shoes and stockings.
You cannot hear the noise of their steps, even
on the pavement, because their feet are bare.
Women, as they walk in the country, often carry
their shoes and stockings in their hands to keep
them clean, and they put them on before they
come into the town.

The Scotch are fond of reading; but they are
fond also of drinking whisky, a sort of spirit
which hurts their health. Much less whisky
has been drunk since a lawâ„¢ was made for
shutting the public-houses on Sunday.

* Called the Forbes Mackenzie Act.
WALES.

This country is joined to England. It looks
like the hands of Old England. .

It is like Scotland, full of high hills and
running streams trickling down their sides.
There are many sheep feeding on the fine grass
among the hills. Of their wool, the Welsh make
very fine flannel. They spin it, and then knit
it into stockings and caps, and into wigs for
poor old men. The women used to ride to
market on ponies, knitting as they went,
wrapped in long blue cloaks, and wearing bea-
ver hats to keep off the rain.

Our Queen’s eldest son is called the Prince
of Wales; his name is Albert Edward. The
people at church pray for him every Sunday.
May God bless him, and give him His Holy
Spirit ! |

England, Scotland, and Wales are joined to-
gether, and are one piece of land with water all
round. This land is called Great Britain. The
people who live there are called the British.
If you are an English child, you are British as
well. Scotch and Welsh children are British,
too.
IRELAND.

This country lies close to Great Britain, but
it is not joined to it. Water runs between.

Ireland is an island, Great. Britain is an
island. Which is the bigger of these two
islands? Does not Ireland look like the little
sister of Great Britain ?

I said there were fogs in England. Now I
tell you there are bogs in Ireland. There are
lands called bogs, where, in some places, the
earth is quite soft and ready to give way
when trodden upon. Sometimes a horse and
its rider have sunk down into a bog, and
never been seen again. These bogs cover
more than a quarter of Ireland.

But the rain does good as well asharm. The
grass 1s very rich, and is fit for fattening cattle.
There are many bullocks fattened there, then
killed, and made into salt beef. The fresh
grass makes Ireland look so green, that it has
been called the ‘Emerald Isle,’ for there is a
green jewel called an emerald. |

But if I were to tell you about some of the
wild, desolate parts of Ireland, it would make
you very sad. The people there cannot always
get food enough. Some years ago their potatoes
were spoiled by the wet, and there was a famine,
IRELAND, 9

These very poor people live in cottages called
cabins. Once a stranger saw a pig lying by
the fire, in an Irish cabin, and he said to the
poor man—‘ Why do you let the pig lie in that
good place ?’

‘Has he not a good right to it?’ said the
poor man. ‘Does not he pay the rent, please
your honour ?’

How is that ? how can the pig pay? When
he is fat he is sold to pay the rent.

Great Britain and Iveland have the same
Queen to reign over them, and they are all
called one kingdom.

Kach of these countries has a sign, which
people used sometimes to put on their seal to
show which country they came from.



The rose is the sign of England.
The thistle is the sign of Scotland.
The harp is the sign of Wales.

The shamrock is the sign of Ireland.
10

FRANCE,

There is only a little piece of water between
England and France. France is warmer than
England. More fruit grows in France; there
are apple-trees on the sides of the road, and
there are fields full of grapes. Wine is so
common that poor people drink it.

The French are more lively than the English.
They are fond of talking, and laughing, and
dancing. ‘They are very clever and very in-
dustrious. The women dress very prettily, and
spend a great deal of time out-of-doors. The
French are fonder of company than the English.

Their religion is the Roman Catholic. I
have been in a church in the evening, and have
seen people kneeling on the stone floor, saying
their prayers. They do not pray to God only,
but to the Virgin Mary as well, and to the
Apostles, and other good men. In _ their
churches, there are images, to which they
bow down. ‘They have not been taught that
God has said, ‘ Thou shalt not bow down
to it,’
I]

SWEDEN,

This is a very cold country. Wheat will not
grow well in it, but oats and rye will grow. The
peasants eat oatmeal-cakes and black rye-bread,
and they have plenty of fish. Sometimes in the
north they cannot get even that, and are obliged
to eat hard bread made of the bark of trees.
Then they pluck off the straw from the thatch
to feed their horses. They have little horses,
and they are very kind to them. When
strangers make their horses go too fast, the poor
Swedes cry. When a Swede goes a journey,
he often puts a string of rye-cakes round his
horse’s neck, and when he stops to rest he-eats
some himself and gives his horse some.

Lhe poor people lve in houses painted red,
with grass growing on the top.

There are beautiful large lakes in Sweden,
with forests of fir-trees. There are also mines
of the -best iron in the world. You would
tremble to go down into the chief iron mine,
for there is a ladder down into the deep pit,
slippery from ice. If your foot were to slip,
you would be dashed to pieces, |
12

NORWAY.

There are many mountains, which divide
Sweden from Norway. Yet the same king
reigns over both. They are called one king-
dom. They have the same religion ; it is not
the Roman Catholic, it is like ours. Norway
is more beautiful than Sweden, because it has
more mountains.

The poor people keep goats. The goats are
fond of climbing up high places. Sometimes a
goat gets into a narrow place among the rocks,
and cannot get out. When the goat’s master
knows this, he desires his friends to tie a rope
round his own body, and to let him down from
the top of the rock till he comes to the place
where the poor goat is standing, and then he
takes it in his arms, and calls to his friends to
draw him up again. He will take all this
trouble to save his goat.

The little boys delight in climbing among’
the rocks; there they may be scen in their red
caps with their bare legs,

I said there was iron in Sweden. In Norway
there is something more precious (though not
more useful), I mean silver.

Both in Norway and Sweden brandy is too
much liked,
LAPLAND.

This country is even colder than Sweden and
Norway. It lies just on the north of those
countries, and has the same king to rule over it.
The Laplanders are very short, for the cold
stops their growth. They are often called
Lapps, and that is a good name for such little
people.

Corn will not grow in Lapland. I do not
know what the people would do without their
reindeer. It isa pretty sight to see these fine
creatures milked in the evening. They come
bounding and leaping along from the hills.
Our cows come heavily and steadily along.
But, while the reindeer are being milked they
are made to stand still, for the men hold them
fast by a rope tied round their fine horns.
Then the girls come with their pails to milk
the beautiful animals.

You see, the reindeer are as useful as cows.
They are like horses, too, for they can draw the
Lapps along in carriages made like boats,
which slide over the snow. But the reindeer
cannot carry their masters on their backs; for,
though their legs are strong to draw, their backs
are too weak to carry. They are so gentle that
14 LAPLAND.

a Lapp can drive fifteen ata time. The bridle
is not put in their mouths, but tied to their
horns. The creatures will gallop for thirty
miles without stopping.

Do you want to have some of these reindeer
here? But what would you give them-to eat?
Grass would not do. Where would you find
the white moss in which the reindeer delight ?

Some Lapps are poor, and have no reindeer.
They have a way by which they can go as fast
as the deer, though not sofar. They slide along
the snow in skates. These skates are narrow
pieces of wood as long asa man. In these the
Lapps seem to fly down the hills. They can
overtake the bears. They know where to find
them by the marks of their feet in the snow.
When they overtake a bear, they knock him so
hard a blow on the nose as to stun him, and
then they kill him.



Laplanders Skating.
SPAIN. 14

But the best use the Lapps make of their
skates 1s to fly to church. There are very few
churches, and the Lapps have many miles to
go. Some in sledges, and some in skates,
arrive at church, But when there, they are
apt to go to sleep. A man walks up and down
with a stick rapping on the ground, to wake
the sleepers, and if that does not rouse them
he raps on their heads.

Once the Lapps did not know who made
them or who died for them, but the King of
Sweden sent missionaries to teach them.

SPAIN.

This is a land where the sun shines, a
land of oranges, and figs, and grapes. There is
one sort of wine made in Spain, which is often
seen in England. Have you ever seen two
bottles of wine on the table, one white and
one red? The white wine is called Sherry,
and it comes from Spain. How pretty the
oranges must look, peeping amongst the dark
ereen leaves! How sweet the white blossoms
smell! The orange-trees would die if they
were not watered, for it is very dry in Spain.
There are very sandy plains, where you
16 SPAIN,

would faint beneath the hot sun, A dry
country suits sheep, and there are numbers of
sheep in Spain. Their wool makes very fine
cloth called merino, and is used for ladies’
winter-gowns. |



Spanish Sheep.

There are pretty cats in Spain, with very soft
hair; pretty dogs called spaniels; goats brows-
ing among the mountains, and excellent don-
keys; and there are mules, which are larger
than donkeys, but have long ears like them.
On the mules and donkeys you can ride safely
on the steep mountains. But beware of the
robbers; they are fierce, and often kill people.

The people are very different in different
parts of Spain. In one part they are very
industrious and very lively; in another part
they are gloomy and silent, solemn and stately.

Their religion is Roman Catholic.
ly

PORTUGAL.*

This country is so close to Spain, you might
have thought they were one kingdom; but they
are not. Portugal lies more to the west than
any kingdom in Europe. It is about a hundred
miles broad, and about four times as long.
Beautiful marble and stone for building are-
found underground. The soil is very good.

The people are very contented and very
frugal. They eat a good deal of maize or
Indian corn.

The vine is the chief plant of Portugal. In
some places it hangs in festoons from oak and >
poplar trees, or else twines around them. In
some places it is planted in terraces, and is
only allowed to grow a few inches high. In
some places it is planted in rows, like goose-
berry bushes. In other places it grows on high
trellises, and makes shady walks and beautiful
arbours. Iam sure this is the way you would
admire most.

When the black grapes are gathered, they
are separated from the white ones, and are
thrown into a great trough. A number of men
then jump into the trough; they stand close

* The name of Portugal came from Porto Cale, which a

king of Castile gave to the French Prince, Henry, 1035.
C
18 ITALY.

together, putting their hands on each other's
shoulders, and then they step backwards and
forwards. When they are tired, others take
their places. made in Portugal. It is called ‘ Port,’ from
the town of Oporto, where it is shipped for
England.

Observe the shape of Spain and Portugal ;
they make one piece of land, and there is water
almost all round, but not quite. That sort
of land is called a pen-in-su-la, or ‘almost an
island,’

Do you see this piece of land at the bottom
of Europe? Do you not think it something like
the shape of a man’s leg? It is called Italy.
Is Italy an island? It has not water all round
it, but it has water almost all round it. It is .
called a peninsula.

It 1s hot, for all the countries in the south
of Europe are hot; but it is not as hot and dry
as Spain. Why not? It is narrow, so that the
sea 1s near to every part, and the sea air cools it.
There are very high mountains running down
all the middle, and where the mountains are,
the clouds gather and the rain comes.

Italy, like Spain, is full of fruits and flowers,
ITALY. 19

Like Spain, too, it isa Roman Catholic country.
The people sing well, and draw beautiful pic-
tures. But music and painting do not make
people truly wise. It is the Holy Scriptures
alone, which are able to make us wise unto
salvation.

There is a man in Italy called the Pope.
That word Pope means papa, or father. The
Roman Catholics say that he is the father of all
Christians. They say that he can do no wrong,
and that he can pardon sins. They put him
in the place of God; yet he is only a man.
When one Pope dies, another priest 1s made
Pope. Once a-year people meet together to
kiss his great toe. Do you laugh? It would
be better to ery. How much God must be
displeased! The Roman Catholics are called
Papists, because they believe in the Pope.
Are you a Papist? No; I hope you are a
Protestant. What is a Protestant? He is a
person who does not believe that the Pope
can forgive sins.”

Do yow believe that the Pope can forgive
sins? The Popeis only a man. How can a
nuin forgive sins? None but God can forgive
sins. Jesus shed His precious blood to wash
out our sins. He can forgive your sins. Ask
Him to forgive you, and He will.

* The name of Protestant was given to people who ‘ pro-
tested’ against Error.
SWITZERLAND.

This is the most-beautiful country in Europe.
It is the high mountains that make it so beau-
tiful. Their tops reach far beyond the clouds.
There are also large pieces of water called lakes.
There are pretty wooden cottages among the
mountains, and little boys who take care of
goats.

Higher up still there is a kind of deer called
the chamois. There are men who hunt them
for the sake of their flesh, and skin, and horns.
It is adangerous employment. The hunter sets
out in the night, that he may be in time to find
the flock of chamois feeding in the morning on
the sides of the mountains. He hides himself
behind a rock, and shoots. But sometimes the
chamois see the hunter coming; for there is
always one standing on a high rock watching
while the rest are feeding. Ifthe watcher sees
a man, he makes a sort of whistling noise, and
all run to the high place and look; then they
gallop away to the mountains. All day the
hunter clambers among the rocks, often cutting
steps with his hatchet for his feet. At night he
sleeps on the snow, and next morning watches
to see the chamois coming down from the moun-
GERMANY, 2]

tain-tops. If he kills one, he returns home with
joy; but often his little children watch for him
in vain, and he is found at last lying frozen on
the ledge of a high rock, or dashed to pieces at
the bottom.

Travellers are sometimes frozen in the snow—
but there are clever and large dogs, who go out
with a man to look for people who are lost in
the snow, and to bring them to a warm place.

There is no king in Switzerland. In some
parts of Switzerland, the people are Roman
Catholics, and in some parts, Protestants. Every
one remarks that the Protestantsare the cleanest,
and most industrious, and most cheerful people
in Switzerland.

GERMANY.

This isthe middle part of Europe. It is not
so damp and rainy as England.

The people are industrious. They work
harder than any other people in Europe.

Like the English, they can make useful
things well. They make clocks and watches,
knives and swords, cups and plates. Like the
Scotch, they love reading and writing. Like
the Italians, they love music and singing.
22 GERMANY.

Germany is made up of twenty-five ditferent
states or kingdoms. The largest of them all is
Prussia. The King of Prussia is the Emperor
of all Germany. Some of the states are Roman
Catholic and some are Protestant. Prussia is
Protestant, and the emperor is a Protestant.

Bavaria is Roman Catholic, and the king is
a Roman Catholic.

Our Prince Albert came from Saxe-Cobure-
Gotha, which is oue of the Protestant States
of Germany. He married Queen Victoria in
1840; and he died in 1861, to the grief of all
Kngland, as well as of our beloved Queen.

His eldest daughter, the Princess Royal,
married Prince Frederick of Prussia, who is
heir to the German Empire.

His second daughter, the Princess Alice,
married another German prince. She was a
very fond mother, and died from nursing her
sick children herself. She was beloved like her
father, and is lamented like him.
PRUSSIA.

IT have told you that Prussia and Germany
are one, and that the King of Prussia is the
Emperor of Germany. Prussia is about as long
as Italy. It is bounded on the north by the
Baltic Sea, and on the west by Holland; but
Prussia is not so damp or flat as Holland,
though it 1s colder. It is colder than England.
Shall I tell you why? In Prussia, the north
wind passes over the snows of Sweden and
Russia. Now the north wind in England
passes over the sea, and the sea is warmer
than snow. And why is Prussia so damp?
Because there are many marshes and forests
in it. If the marshes were drained and the
forests cut down, Prussia would not be so
damp. ‘There is a way of draining marshes
by cutting little ditches in them, for the
water runs out of the land into the ditches.

I suppose you do not wish to go to Prussia.
Yet it is a better country to live in than beau-
tiful Italy, for it is a Protestant country.
The people are taught to mind what is written
in the Bible. There is a king, and there are
good laws. All the children are obliged to
learn to read. They must go to school at
seven, and stay there till they are fourteen.
24

POLAND.

Poland was once a great kingdom, almost as
large as Great Britain and France put toge-
ther.* Poland stretched from the Baltic Sea
to Hungary and Turkey. The people of Poland
were very quarrelsome and fond of fighting.
Whenever their king died, there were disputes
about choosing a new king. Some of the Poles
thought there would be less quarrelling if each
king were succeeded by his son. Others of the
Poles did not approve this plan, and wished to
go on choosing their king. This made fresh
disputes. The people were very miserable.
There were many proud lords, who were un-
kind to the poor. There were no schools for
the poor children—no one cared for them ; and
the lords spent their time in feasting; they
were very fond of riding—they scarcely ever
walked. When a poor man met a lord, he
made a bow so low that his head touched
the ground.

The Russians declared it was not safe to have



* Square miles, France ... ... ... 203,619
" » nglandand Wales 657,813

7 » weotland... ... ... 26,014
287,446

“ » Poland ... ... ... 284,000
POLAND. 25

such quarrelsome neighbours as the Poles.*
So Russia came and fought against Poland,
and then Prussia and Austria did so too.
These three divided Poland amongst them-
selves,

At first they left the Poles a little piece, but
aiterwards they took even this away from them.
The country, which is still called Poland, is
not a kingdom at all, but only a province of
Russia.

It is near Prussia, and it is like Prussia;
but it is flatter and uglier. There are forests
with wolves, and foxes, and bears in them; but
there are no mountains,

The people are not happy, and many of the
lords are now wandering far from home, with-
out money or lands. |

Polish nobles are very polite and very
brave. They speak many languages, and
they think there is no country in the world
like Poland.

* Out of fifty-five Parliaments, forty-eight ended in tumult
and violence.

nn ot ne ne
26

HUNGARY.

This country is much warmer than Poland.
The cold winds that blow so hard in Poland do
not reach Hungary. And why not? Because
there is a long chain of mountains, on the north
which keeps off the cold winds. Yet in Hungary
there are forests and marshes. In the forests
there are wild beasts. The damp air from the
marshes hurts the health of the people.

Once, in England, there were forests and
marshes; but the English have made fields
and built towns all over the land. Now the
Hungarians are doing the same.

Hungary is now joined with Austria into one
empire.

Hungary is not as beautiful as Greece;
though there are many sweet spots in it—
woods full of flowers and fruits, and flowing
brooks. It is avery fruitful country. There
is delicious honey made from sweet-smelling
herbs. There is the best wine in the world,
called Tokay. There are no grapes like those
of Hungary; the people say that the worst
wine of Hungary is better than the best wine of
France: but this is not true. Everything grows
well in Hungary.

Many of the men dress in sheepskin cloaks.
HOLLAND, OR THE NETHERLANDS. 27

In the summer they wear white linen shirts and
trousers. ‘The men wear little black round
hats. The people wear red, green, and white,
because they are the colours of Hungary.
Gentlemen often wear a feather in their
fur-caps. /

The religion of Hungary is the Roman
Catholic.

HOLLAND, OR THE NETHERLANDS.

I told you last ofa country full of mountains;
now I am going to tell you of a country without
any mountains—a country that is flat like a
dish. Do you think it is a pretty country ?
Only one part of it is pretty, which is Guelder-
Jand. Holland is wet and unhealthy.

The people of Holland are called the Dutch.
They are avery industrious people. They make
their wet land as dry as they can by digging
deep ditches and canals for the water to flow
into. Thecanalsare very useful. They are lke
roads from one place to another. Often may
you see a boat in a canal, and a horse by the
side drawing the boat and trotting along. This
is a slow, but quiet way of travelling. There
are canals in the streets. There are railways
also now in all parts of the country.


2S HOLLAND, OR THE NETHERLANDS.



Street in Holland.

The Dutch are very clean. They scrub the
brass pans they use in their kitchens, till they
shine like gold. If they did not rub them a
great deal, the damp would perhaps spoil them.
They are very fond of smoking. Some think
it isthe damp air which makes them delight so
much in their pipes. They cannot talk while
they are smoking; but they are not particu-
larly fond of talking and laughing. They are a
steady, quiet, grave people.

What sort of animals are there in Holland ?
There are goats and sheep. There are not
many horses for riding: but there are strong
horses to draw the boats slowly along; and
there are plenty of cows to eat the fine, fresh
grass. There are also very obedient dogs,
BELGIUM. 29

which draw little carts full of fish along the
streets into the country.

The favourite bird is the stork. It js a
tall bird with very long legs, a very lone
neck, a very long beak, and a small head,
No wonder the Dutch love it, for it is so
useful. With its long legs it can walk in the
marshes, and with its lone beak it can seize the
-roaking frogs, of which the marshes are full.
When it walks in the streets, it eats the dead
rats and mice, and so helps to keep the streets
clean. The storks make no noise, yet they are
playful creatures, and have been known to play
at hide-and-seek with children.

BELGIUM.

This is a little country. Part of it is flat,
like Holland; but not all. Once the flat part
was barren, and had only sands covered with
heaths and furze; but now it is full of fine
cornfields.

What is growing in that purple field, which
smells so sweet ?

It is clover, of which horses are sofond. The
horses are well fed in Belgium. The waggons,
30 BELGIUM.

the carts, and ploughs, are neat and well
made.

Many of the women are busily employed in
making lace. The little girls begin to learn
at five years old. They must begin early, for
the thread they use is so fine that it- takes a
long while to learn how to make lace without
breaking the thread.

Belgium, you see, lies just between France
and Holland. Which is it most like? Hol-
land.

The people are like the Dutch in being
industrious, but they are like the French in
being Roman Catholics. . You will not be sur-
prised to hear that they prefer the French to
the Dutch. They speak French, though some
of them also speak a language of their own.
They follow the French fashions and customs.
They have a king of their own, called Leopold.
His father once lived in England, for he
married the Princess Charlotte, the cousin of
our beloved Queen. |
3]

RUSSIA.

I am now going to tell you about the largest
country in all Kurope. I need not say which
it is, for you can find that out for yourself, by
looking in the map. See how very large it
is! But though it is large, it is not full of
people. There are miles of country, where no
one lives.

You may travel for hours in the railroad
and not see a single house except the railway
stations. |

In the north, you see forests and morasses ;
in the east, you see sandy plains, called steppes.
These steppes are not all waste land, for much
corn is grown on them and sent to England,

Russia is a very cold country in the winter.
Some parts of it are very hot in the summer.
The ruler of Russia is called the Czar. He is
also King of Poland, and Grand Duke of Fin-
land. His people call him the Emperor of all
the Russias. The late Emperor, Alexander IL.,
did more for the Russian peasants than any
other. He made them free, which they were not
before. His only daughter married the Duke
of Edinburgh, who is the second son of our
Queen Victoria,
Qo
bo

TURKEY.

Of all the countries in Europe I should like
least to live in Turkey.

And why? Not because it is ugly like Hol-
land, for it is beautiful; nor because it is cold
like Lapland, for it 1s warm and pleasant:
but because it has such a bad religion. It is
not the Roman Catholic religion—which is
a Christian religion: the religion of Turkey
is not a Christian religion at all; it is called
Mohammedanism. There was once a great de-
ceiver called Mohammed, who pretended that
God had sent him to teach people; but he was
a false prophet, and he tanga people only what
was false and wicked.

The ruler of Turkey is called the Sultan.
He does whatever he pleases. He has a great
many wives. He lives in a beautiful palace,
and keeps a great number of servants.â„¢

The Turks are very fine, handsome men, with
black hair and black eyes, and pale complexions,
and fine noses. They dress in large loose
pelisses, and they wear turbans on their heads.

They lead an idle life. In summer they
spread a carpet on the ground, under a shady

-* Most of these servants come from Africa. They are all
very rude, ignorant, and fanatical.
~

TURKEY. oo

tree, or by the bank of a river, and spend hours
in silence, sitting with their legs across, smoking
or chewing opium. They have nothing good
to think of, and they throw away their time.
This they call happiness. Perhaps you want
to know what opium is. It is the juice of
the white poppy. It is dried in the sun,
and cut up into small pieces. The Turks like
to chew it, because it makes them feel half
asleep; but it is very unwholegome, and takes
away the mind by degrees, and makes the body
grow weak,












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Turkish School.

Many of the Turks can read, but it 1s a
bad book which they read—the Koran which
Mohammed wrote.

It is curious to seea Turkish school. These
schools are only for boys, The school-house

D
34 TURKEY.

has no walls, and this makes it cool. The
children sit cross-legged on little mats, with
their books in their hands; while the master
sits in the midst, with a great stick in his
hand, ready to beat any one who looks off his
book. The unhappy little tribe are learning to
repeat by heart sentences out of the Koran.
How different are those sentences from the
texts taught in our English infant-schools!
There is no such verse in all the Koran as
‘Suffer little children to come unto Me,’ or,
‘He shall gather the lambs with His arm, and
carry them in His bosom.’

Now there are schools for girls, and many
good women have left their homes on purpose
to teach the little Turkish girls.

In May, 1879, one of these ladies wrote a
description of the lovely flowers of Turkey,
purple and golden, red and blue; but she said
they did not look half so bright to her as the
sixty-six young girls who were learning in her
school-room.”

" Life and Light, August, 1879.
38

GREECE.

Look at the land at the bottom of Turkey.
It is called Greece. It isa charming country ;
but who would like to live so near the Turks?

The Greeks have found it very unpleasant.
Many of the Greeks have been obliged to hide
themselves from the Turks among the rocks
and mountains, and many of them have turned
robbers. But now they have a king of their
own, and they are no longer ureatee so ill as
they used to be.

The Greeks have not the same religion as
the Turks. They are called Christians, but
they are not Protestants. Are they Roman
Catholics? No, they do not mind the Pope of
Rome. They are lke the Russians, and their
religion is called the Greek religion. In some
things itis ike the Roman Catholic religion.
The Greeks bow down to pictures, though they
do not worship images.

English people often go to Greece. And
why? Is it to see the beautiful rivers and
mountains that they go? Not only to see
them, but for another reason.
ago there were in Greece marble palaces for
kines, and temples for idols, and they are fallen
36 GREECE.

down and lying upon the ground. People
come from far to look at them. The great
stones and broken pillars peep out among the -
long grass. There the goats browse and sport
together. Who can be sorry that the idol
temples are fallen down?

Does anything useful come from Greece?
‘Yes, silk, for there are many mulberry-trees
for the silk-worms. The sweetest honey comes
from Greece, because there are so many sweet-
smelling herbs there; such as thyme and rose-
mary; and bees suck the sweetest juices out
of these plants.

Have you ever eaten plum-cake? But are
those plums in the cake? No. Are they cur-
rants? No, they never grew on currant-bushes.
They are grapes—very small grapes. Why,
then, do we not say grape-cake instead of
plum-cake? The reason is that these tiny
grapes were called currants, because they were
first brought from Corinth, which is a city of
Grreece.
37

DENMARK.

What a strange shape this country is! It is
like a neck. There is water almost round it, so
it is called a peninsula, like Spain and Greece.
There are large islands close to the shore,
which are part of Denmark. Itis a good thing
for a country to have sea-shores. Poland has
no shores. How can she have any ships?
Holland has some ships. England has many
ships. Denmark once had many ships; but
they were destroyed—and now she has only a
few.

Denmark is flat ike Belgium, but the people
have not taken so much pains to make the land
fruitful. Besides, it 1s much colder in Den-
mark than in Belgium. In winter the Danes
go in sledges on the ice.

There is the Protestant religion in Denmark,
and there is a king over the land.

The. great people have beautiful houses.
Other people ornament their houses with
flowers, and china, and little statues, which
are copied from the statues at Copenhagen.
Every one is well taught. The children
learn sewing and embroidery, and sing old
sones about the time when Denmark was
great and powertul,
38

ICELAND.

Any child might guess what sort of a country
this is, for its name tells us it isa land of ice.
But it will surprise you to hear that there is
a great deal of fire init, and hot water. There
are mountains in it, called burning mountains,
or volcanoes. Fire bursts out of these moun-
tains, and there comes out a hot, soft, dark
stuff, called lava. The largest of the burning
mountains is Hecla.

There is also scalding water in the valleys.
There are springs of water which spout with
great noise out of the earth, and these springs
are hot. Some are so very hot that they would
scald your little hand. The poor people some-
times put a pan of fish upon the hot water, and
boil their dinner. Some springs are not quite
so hot, and poor women wash their clothes in
them ; and some are only just warm, and in
them the young people bathe. Would you not
like to travel to Iceland, to see the hot springs
and the burning mountains ?

What sort of people live in Iceland? Very
honest and quiet people. They are very poor.
Hardly any corn grows in Iceland. . Poor people
cannot get bread. They eat dried fish, and they
drink milk. In winter, every one keeps at
home, because it is dark nearly all day. In
ICELAND, og

summer, the men and boys go to the shores to
fish. What do the women and little children
do? They go to the mountains to gather a
curious kind of plant, called Iceland Moss,
which they make into soup by boiling it in
milk. On the mountains they live in tents,
Then it is the children see the bubbling
springs. Then it is they play among the
hills.

But the long, dark winter soon comes again,
and they are shut up in their dark houses. The
lamp gives them a little hght. Then the parents
teach their children to read and write; for there
are no schools in Iceland. There are Bibles in
which the children can read. It is a Protestant
country, and every one may read the Bible.
The little boys go out sometimes to clear away
the snow, that the poor sheep may have some
crass. The men twist ropes, and weave cloth,
and make iron tools, and wooden bowls, and
horn spoons; and the women work with their
needles, or spin, or weave, in the large bed-
room. |

There are horses in Iceland, but they lead a
hard life in winter, for they are turned out to
get food as they can, and very thin they are
when spring comes; while the cows are kept in
the stable, and fed with a little hay. As for the
poor little sheep, they eat seaweed when they are
very hungry,and the wind sometimes blows them
40 ICELAND,

away into the sea when they are feeding. But
there are worse enemies than the wind for the
poor sheep. JI mean the bears. ‘There are no
bears living in the land, but there are some who
come on visits. Howis that? They come upon
great pieces of ice floating on the sea.. They
come from a colder land, a great way off, and
the wind drives them along till they reach the
shores of Iceland. Then they jump upon the
land, very hungry, after their cold voyage, and
they catch as many sheep as they can. But if
the Icelanders see them coming, they run out
with spears to frighten them away; or, better
still, to kill them, for then the Icelander has a
warm skin for a cloak. What a strange kind
of sailor is the white bear!









: fe we 7 e : RSs AY = ~~ =






ein USE

There is a sort of duck called an eider duck,
which lines its nest with its own soft feathers.
SICILY.

This country is an island. It is not at all
like Iceland. Iceland is cold. Sicily is hot.
Iceland has hardly any gardens in it. Sicily
is one great garden, for the finest fruits and
flowers grow there. But in one respect, Sicily
is like Iceland. It has a great burning moun-
tain. We call this mountain, Etna, but the
people of Sicily call it Mongibello, which means
the ‘mountain of mountains.’ If you went ail
round it, you would go a hundred miles. It is
much larger than Hecla. Etna is round, and
looks like a tea-cup turned upside down, only
it has a pointed top. It is very high.” If you
wanted to go up this mountain, and to see the sun
rise from the top, you would set off about noon
the day before. Though the road is very steep,
you could drive a long way. At first you would
findit hot,and thesun would beat upon your head.
You would pass through vineyards and orange
groves. You would see mossy fountains and
neat white cottages. The land is so fruitful,
and so easy to dig, that numbers of people live
here. They love the golden corn and the
purple grapes, the rich fruits and the sweet

* About 11,000 feet, or 2 miles,
42 SICILY.

flowers.* What a pleasant place! But is it
a safe place? Look at those black rocks
amongst the green leaves. They are made of
lava, which once came pouring down in a
stream of fire and burned everything it touched.

After you had driven for about four hours,
you could stop and dine. You would then have
to get mules and guides. You would come
first to black ashes and grey lava, and then to
woods of trees, where it would be cool and
pleasant. It is a great pity that numbers of
the trees have been cut down and burned. It
would get colder and colder till you saw
nothing but loose ashes and fields of snow.
You could rest and have a cup of coffee at
a house called the Englishmen’s House, be-
cause some Englishmen helped to build it.
Then you would have to leave your mules, and
to finish your journey on foot. You would find
this part of the way very hard. You would
have to pick your way like a cat creeping along
the broken glass on the top of a wall. It is
tiring to walk on ashes and lava, but it is
worse to walk on fine dust and yellow sulphur.
Instead of getting on, you would feel as if each |
step you were slipping back. Hot steam from
the mountain-top would blind your eyes and
make you feel sick.

At last you would come quite to the top.

* 477 kinds of flowers grow there.
SICILY, 43

Then you would be rewarded for all your
trouble and pains if you could see the sun
rise, and see his wonderful image in the mist.
This is a sight which can be seen nowhere
else. All across the island you would see the
purple shadow of Etna, and beyond it the rosy
tips of other mountains.

Nothing can be more lovely than the view,
which reaches over hundreds of miles. You see
all Sicily surrounded by the beautiful’blue sea.
If you climbed to the top of Mont Blane, you
would find that part of the view was shut out by
other mountains; but Mount Etna stands alone,
and, therefore, you could see all roundit. Then
you would look down on the mountain itself: the
snowy top,and the green woods like a bright band
all round, and long lines of black lava. Quite
at the top, you would see smoke coming out of
a great hole.. This great hole in the top of the
mountain is called the crater. It is always
changing. Once it seemed so full of rubbish
that the smoke only escaped through the cracks ;
another time it looked so deep that no one could
see to the bottom. It put one in mind of the
burning and bottomless pit ito which the
wicked shall be cast.

The Sicilians are proud of their great moun-
tain. They say it keeps them warm im winter
and cool in summer. The fire keeps them
warm, and the snow cool.
44 SARDINIA, CORSICA, AND MALTA.

In winter, the people roll the snow down from
the upper part of the mountain, and store it in
those large caves. The children are fond of
making snowballs on the mountain, and rolling
them into the caves. The little brown, dark- |
eyed creatures must look darker still among
the snow. In summer time, the people bring
ponies with panniers, to fetch the snow out
of the caves, and they make them trot down
quickly to the town below, lest the snow should
melt on the way. Did you ever hear of a snow-
shop? There are none in England, but there
are in Sicily.

What sort of people are the Sicilians? They
are very polite, but they are very superstitious,
Their religion is the Roman Catholic.

SARDINIA, CORSICA, AND MALTA.

What is that great sea, which lies under
Europe?

It is called the Med-i-ter-ra-ne-an Sea.
There are many islands in it. I will only
speak of three. See those two—they look like
sisters, an elder and a younger. The larger is
called SARDINIA. It is very much like Sicily,
only there is no burning mountain init. The
people are poor and ignorant. They have large -
flocks of sheep and goats, There are deer in
SARDINIA, CORSICA, AND MALTA. 45

the forests. Many people go into the forests
to hunt. But there are wild boars there, and
there are robbers. The shepherds on the moun-
tains always carry guns, because they never
know when the wild beasts, or the fierce rebbers,
may come out to attack them.

So much corn grows in Sardinia, that some-
times it is left to rot on the ground; and there
is so much milk, that sometimes cheeses are
used as manure.

The island near Sardinia is called CORSICA.

There are many rocks in it. It is not as
fruitful as Sardinia, but it is more famous.
Why? Because a child was once born there,
who became at last an Emperor of France.
His-‘name was Napoleon Bonaparte. Did you
never hear his name? When he was alive, all
the children in the nursery were taught to be
afraid of him. ‘The nurses called him ‘Bony,’
or ‘Nap.’ He conquered many countries, and
covered the ground with the bodies of men who
were killed in battle. We were afraid lest he
should-come over to England, but he never did.
God took care of us. Bonaparte was at last
conquered, and shut up in a little island called
St. Helena, till he died.

Mata.—This is a very little island. It is so
little that I should not speak of it, were it not
thata very good man was once shipwrecked there.
I mean the Apostle Paul. The island was once
46 SARDINIA, CORSICA, AND MALTA.

called Melita; but now it is called Malta. Paul
was a prisoner when he was at Malta; he picked
up sticks, and made a fire, and a viper jumped
out of the fire upon his hand, but did not kill
him. Youmay read about the visit of St. Paul
to Malta in the last chapter of the Acts, How
much better to be like Paul than Napoleon!
One killed men’s bodies in battle, the other
saved men’s souls by telling them of Jesus
Christ, the Saviour of the world.











































































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What sort of an island is Malta? Very little
will grow on that hard rock, except fruit-trees,
There are beautiful oranges in Malta.

Malta may be called an Italian island, because
it isvery near Italy. Yet it is alsoan English
island, because it belongs to the Queen of Eng-
land. If you were to go there, you would see
many English soldiers, and many English
people, and you would see an English church;
but you would also see many Roman Catholic
churches full of images,
47

THE EUROPEAN DINNER.

Now, my dear children, let us suppose that
we were going to give a great dinner to all the
people of Europe, and that we asked each to
bring something to eat or drink, that grew in
his own country. What could each bring ?

Now will you try and find out, before you
look to see what is written in this book? I
like children to try and find out things for
themselves, for then they remember them much
better than if they only read about them.

Now that you have tried to think, come and
look, and see what I have written in my book.

Lhe table is ready. Who comes here?

Two men dressed in very warm clothes.
They come from some cold country. Each
of them has a dish of fish in his hand. One
is an Icelander, with some cod; the other a
Norwegian, with some oysters. Our coun-
tries, say they, do not bear fruit like other
lands, but there is abundance of fish on the
shores of Iceland and Norway.

After the fish has been served and removed,
several men get up, go out of the room, and
bring back large dishes.

I am sure you are glad to see your own dear
48 THE EUROPEAN DINNER.

countryman. What a fine joint he seems to
have beneath that cover! It isa sirloin of roast
beef, from an ox that fed in one of the rich
meadows of England.

The Welshman comes next, with a nice little
leg of mutton, from one of the sheep that crop
the short grass upon the sides of the mountains
in Wales.

Next comes the Prussian, with a haunch of
venison, from one of the deer that roam in his
forests.

Next comes the German, with an excellent
ham, from one of the swine that are found in
his woods.

Then the little Laplander brings in a dried
reindeer’s tongue, which was the best dish in
his house.

These five dishes of meat make a plentiful
dinner for the party, but vegetables are wanting.

A Sicilian comes with some fine broccoli from
Sicily.

An Irishman enters with a smoking heap of
potatoes, that grew in the green valleys of
Ireland.

But salt and mustard are needed. The Pole
brings the salt from the mines of Poland; and
the Belgian the mustard, from the fields of
mustard-seed in Belgium.

When all have eaten enough, the dishes are
removed, and another course is brought in.
THE EUROPEAN DINNER. 49

Lhe Swede brings some woodcocks, shot
among the forests of Sweden; and the Greek
some partridges from the fertile valleys of
Greece.

The Russian a large tart made of cranberries,
that grow in the forests of Russia.

Then another course is brought in. The
Swiss brings some cheese from his little dairy
among the mountains of Switzerland; the
Dutchman some butter, from the fine cows
that graze in the moist fields of Holland; and
the Scotchman, some oat-cakes, made from
the oats that grow in his bleak and beautiful
land.

It is time for dessert, and now we shall look
to the people of the South to supply the fruits
and the wine.

The Hungarian brings the most beautiful
grapes from the vineyards on the hills of Hun-
gary; the Itahan, the finest melons from the
sunny plains of Italy; and the Frenchman,
dehcious plums from the fruitful orchards of
France; and the Maltese, oranges from the
sultry groves of his rocky island.

But where is the wine? Two men enter,
very much like each other, for both have dark
eyes and hair, and dark complexions. One is
a Spaniard with a bottle of white wine, the
other a Portuguese with a bottle of red wine.
The white wine is sherry, from grapes of Spain;

K;
50 THE EUROPEAN PRESENTS.

the red is port, from grapes of Portugal. Thus
the dessert is complete.

When all have finished, they go into another
room. Three of them go outand return. The
Turk brings in coffee, which grows well in the
hot lands of Turkey. The Dane brings cream,
for there is rich grass in Denmark. ,

But where is the sugar to sweeten the coffee ?
The Frenchman brings the sugar, which he has
made from beet-root. And now the feast is
finished, and the company departed.

THE EUROPEAN PRESENTS. |

Let us suppose that a young man took a
journey through all the countries of Europe,
and bought in each country some presents for
his friends at home. Suppose when he came
home he opened his boxes, and brought out his
presents. What did he give to each of his
friends? _ There was,—

1. His aged grandfather, what shall we sup-
pose he might say to him?—‘ Dear grandfather,
will you kindly accept this cushion stuffed
with eider-down from Iceland? On this you
may like to rest your leg, that often pains
you so much.’

_ 2, His grandmother :-——‘ Will you kindly
accept this merino for a gown? The merino
THE EUROPEAN PRESENTS. 5]

comes from the sheep of Spain. Very little of
this wool is woven in Spain, but I found some
which was, and I hoped that it might make
you a warm winter gown.’

3. His father:—‘ Will you, dear father,
accept this marble jar? I found it in Greece,
and I thought you might like to place it in
the grove.’

4. His mother:—‘ Will you accept this silk?
It comes from France, and was woven there ;
and it will, I hope, make you a gown.’

5. His sister Helen, aged seventeen :—* Will
you accept this picture, and hang it up in your
own room? It was painted in Italy.’

6. His brother George, aged sixteen :—‘ I
know you are fond of things found in the
ground, and that you have a cabinet of mi-
nerals. Will you add to it this gold ore from
Hungary, this silver ore from Norway, this iron
ore from Sweden, and this tin ore from our own
dear England ?’

7, His sister Sophia, aged fourteen :—‘ Will
you accept this little china vase of flowers? It
was made in Prussia.’

8, His brother Henry, aged twelve:—‘ I
brought this watch from Switzerland, and I
hope it will go well.’ |

9, His brother Edward, aged ten :—‘ I know
you are fond of writing; this little case of
Russia leather may be convenient to you when
52 THE EUROPEAN PRESENTS.

you are at school, as you often write letters to
us at home.’

10. His brother Frederick, aged eight :—
‘This knife was bought in England, where the
very best knives are made. You will be careful
not to hurt yourself, my dear boy.’

11. His brother Walter, aged seven :—‘ This
pair of reindeer’s horns comes from Iceland.
As you are fond of animals, I thought you
might like to fasten them on the wall of your
little room.’

12. His brother Charles, aged five :—* For
you I have brought a plaid dress, such as little
boys in Scotland wear.’

13. His sister Emma, aged three :—‘ For
little Emmy I have got a box of toys made in
Germany. Here are little wooden spoons and
dishes, and animals of many kinds.’

14. ‘ For the sweet little Willie I bring this
lace from Belgium, and hope my nthor will
trim his cap with it, and tell him some day that
brother Alfred did not forget the baby.’

15. ‘For my dear old nurse I have brought

this flannel, which comes from the sheep of
Wales.’
On
Oo

THE EUROPEAN ANIMALS.

rd

Let us suppose that a gentleman wished to
have one animal from each country in Europe;
then let us suppose what animal he would get
from each, and where he would keep it.

My little boys and girls, come into this
courtyard, and see that small house with iron
grating. There are four large birds in it.

The largest is the vulture from Hungary.

The next in size is an eagle from Sweden.

The next in size a falcon from Iceland.

And the least a horned owl from Greece.

The vulture can smell the best.

The eagle can see the best.

The owl can hear the best.

The vulture and the horned ow: are very
ugly. The eagle and the falcon are very
handsome.

The vulture has no feathers where you would
expect to see them, that is, on his neck ; while
the owl has some where you are surprised to
find them, for he has some great feathers stick-
ing out near his ears like horns.

It is well the vulture has none on his neck,
because he plunges his head into such putrid
bodies of dead animals, that he would be in a
horrible state if he had feathers. But why has
54 THE EUROPEAN ANIMALS,

the owl those long feathers sticking up above
his ears? Perhaps they help him to hear so
well. I do not know, but I guess this may be
the reason.

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What is the difference between the eagle
and the vulture? — ae

The vulture lives on dead animals, the eagle
on living animals; therefore the vulture moves
slowly, but the eagle flies quickly after its prey.

What is the difference between the eagle and
the falcon? |

The eagle can hardly be tamed, for, though
he may seem to be tame, he cannot be trusted.
The falcon can be made so tame that he will
catch birds for his master, and do all he bids.
THE EUROPEAN ANIMALS. 55

What is the difference between the eagle and
the owl? :

The eagle has strong eyes that can bear the
light of the sun, and he builds his nest very
high, where he has a great deal of light. The
owl cannot bear the light of day, and he builds
his nest in low places, and goes out at night to
catch his prey.

Now let us go into the stable.

There is a very large horse, a very little pony,
a very fine donkey, and a great dog.

Where do these animals come from?

The strong cart-horse comes from Belgium.

The little pony from Wales.

The fine donkey from Spain.

And the wolf-dog from Ireland.*

That strong cart-horse is very useful to the
farmers of Belgium, who take so much pains
with their fields. They need strong horses to
draw the heavy loads of clover and all kinds
of grass and corn.

That little rough pony is very useful to the
poor Welsh people: the women ride such ponies
over the steep mountains when they go to market
or to church. It is just fit for a little boy who
wishes to go out riding with his papa.

The Spanish donkey is larger than the Welsh
pony. |
Now let us go to the park. Under the large

* The Irish wolf-dog is nearly extinct.
56 THE EUROPEAN ANIMALS.

trees there are some creatures that look like
deer; but they are very different from each
other. |

The largest is an elk from Denmark.

The next in size are stags from Prussia.

The next are fallow-deer, born in England.

The smallest of all are roebucks from Poland.













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Stag, Roebuck, Fallow-deer, and Elk.

They all have horns, which drop off every
year and grow again.

I suppose you think that great elk must be
very fierce, because he igs go large: but he ig
quite tame and gentle. .

Is the pretty little roebuck, which is not as
high as the table, is he tame and gentle ?

No, he cannot be made quite tame; he is
like the eagle, he may seem tame, but he.
THE EUROPEAN ANIMALS. 57

cannot be trusted. The elk is the ugliest,
but he is the most gentle of all those animals.
The roebuck is the prettiest, but he is the
wildest. The elks like to live together in herds,
so do the stags and the deer; but the roebuck
lives with his faithful mate. His little ones,
the pretty fawns, follow their parents over the
hills till they are grown up.

The elk can only trot ; the others bound and
gallop about the eaunicy,

The elk has a strong and short neck; the
other deer have elegant long necks.

It 1s well for the elk he has such a strone
neck, for his horns are very large and heavy;
neither does he want a lone neck, for he
eats the branches of trees, and he is so tall
that he can reach them very easily.

What is the difference between the stag and
the fallow-deer ?

The stag is much larger and wilder than the
fallow-deer. Besides, there is a great difference
in their horns; for the horns of the stag are
round, like the branches of a tree, while the
horns of the fallow-deer are flattened at the
end.

The elk has flattened horns, and with them
he shovels away the snow in winter.

The horns of the roebuck are round, like
those of the: stag.

Which do you like best of all these animals ?
58 THE EUROPEAN ANIMALS.

Do you prefer the elk, who is so much attached
to his master that he will follow him wherever
he goes? or do you prefer the roebuck, who,
though he does not love his keeper, is so loving
to his mate and his little ones ?

Now let us walk down that shady grove.
Here, in a dark part of it, I see a small stone
house, with strong bars in front. Two wild
beasts are shut up there. They are both very
ugly, and very fierce by nature. They come
from very cold countries, and therefore they
are placed in a cold part of the ground. What
are they?

A black bear from Lapland, and a wolf from
Russia. |

Now let us see in what things they are
alike, and in what things they are unlike.

They can only be tamed when caught young ;
they can never be trusted; they both can
smell exceedingly well, but the bear smells
the best—better, indeed, than any other beast.

They both like to eat flesh, but the bear will
eat vegetables too. Both of them are sulky,
and like to lve alone.

Now let us see in what things they are
unlike.

The bear has a shaggy, black coat, which
the Laplander finds very useful to sleep cn;
the wolf has a coarse skin, covered with
brown and grey bristles. |
THE EUROPEAN ANIMALS. 59

The bear’s flesh is very nice indeed to eat;
the wolf’s flesh is so bad that no creature but
a wolf can touch it.

The bear can climb trees, but cannot run
fast; the wolf cannot climb, but he can run
for days and nights together without being
tired.

The bear is often very fat; the wolf is very
thin indeed. The bear growls, the wolf howls.
The bear is rather like a man in his way of
walking; the wolf is very much like a dog.

Which, now, do you like best? I know that
you like neither. Which, then, do you dzslike
the most ?

I can guess which. The bear, though rough
and savage, is not quite as horrible as the wolf.

il} S

. 4
AS
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A Stork and a Crane.
60 THE EUROPEAN ANIMALS.

There are two tall birds walking about.
They are very much alike indeed; they have
both very long necks, and very long legs, and
very long bills. But they are not quite alike.

What are they ?

One is a stork from Holland, the other isa
crane from Norway.

What is the difference between them ?

The stork is white and brown; the crane is
of a dark grey.

But there is a greater difference than this,
only you cannot see that difference.

The stork makes no noise, except a little
rattling of its beak; while the crane has a
louder voice than any other bird—or beast
either. its voice is something like the sound
of a trumpet.

What can we give them to eat? Get a
handful of corn, that will please the crane;
but, to please the stork, you had better catch
a frog.

They are both very tame indeed; and very
fond of those who take care of them. .They are
both fond of travelling, and fly to hot countries
in the winter; but no one can tell exactly where
they go, for they fly sometimes to one place,
and sometimes to another; and they travel so
high up in the air that no eye can see them.

_ Every one is glad when the storks arrive in
their country, because they eat up the frogs and
THE EUROPEAN ANIMALS. 61

mice; but no one is glad to see the cranes,
because they eat up the corn which the farmer
has just sown. In this little field we are glad
to see both stork and crane, and we hardly
know which we like the best. |

We are now close to the house. Here are
three dogs playing before the door. How very
different they are from one another! Who
would think that they were all the same sort
of animal? One is very large, another very
ugly, and the third is very small and pretty.
Yet the ugly one is far the cleverest and the
best. . Iam sure you will love him most when
I tell you some more about him. The ugly one
is called a shepherd’s dog. He came from the
south of Scotland, where there are large flocks
of sheep fed among the hills, and he is very
useful to the shepherds. The large dog is
called a wolf-dog; he comes from Ireland;
he is nearly as large as a pony. Wolf-dogs
have killed almost all the wolves in Ireland.*
That pretty little dog came from Malta. It
is a lap-dog. It is called a Maltese dog.
Some people love to pet dogs, and to tie
ribbons round their necks and take them out
walking. Lap-dogs are generally fed, too much,
and they become lazy, and idle, and unhappy.
The shepherd’s dog is a far happier creature,
for he knows he is useful to his master.

* There are very few wolf-dogs left in Ireland.
62 THE EUROPEAN ANIMALS.

Let me tell you a short story about a Scotch
shepherd’s dog. One day, a shepherd took his
little boy with him, as well as his dog. The
child was only three years old. The father
left him alone, while he looked after some sheep,
when suddenly a thick fog came on. The poor
man could not find his child. He hoped
he had gone home; but when he inquired,
he found his wife had not seen him. Both
fatber and mother searched around, but no
child was to be seen.

Next morning they gave their dog a piece
of bread, for breakfast, as usual. As soon
as the dog received it, he ran off with it. very
quickly. The next day, the dog did so again.
On the third day the shepherd thought, «I
will go and see what the dog does with his
bread.’ He followed him down many a steep
path, till at last he came to a waterfall. The
shepherd, stepping from crag to crag, crossed
the roaring stream. On the other side, in a
little hole of the rock, sat his little boy eating a
piece of bread, while the dog lay beside him,
watching his young master with love and
pleasure in his looks. Oh, how much de-
lighted the shepherd was to find his child!
The poor dog had gone without his breakfast
for two days. The little boy had been afraid
of crossing the stream, and had not known how
to get home. He would have been starved, if
THE EUROPEAN ANIMALS, 63

it had not been for the faithful dog. Do you
not love the shepherd’s dog, though his hair is
coarse, and though his tail is short, and his ears
stick up? You love him better than you do
the lap-dog.

This is the way into. the kitchen. Look at
that little creature. Is it a hare? No, it is
much stouter than a hare; besides, it has not
long ears like a hare. Isita squirrel? No,
it is much bigger than a squirrel, and it has
not a long tail like a squirrel. Yet, it is very
much like a squirrel in its way of eating. See!
it is now sitting up and holding an apple
between its forepaws. Here, little fellow, is a
piece of cake. How tame it is! it takes the
cake out of my hand. Ask the cook what is
the name of this little animal.





A Genette and a Marmot in a Kitchen,
64 THE EUROPEAN ANIMALS.

It is a marmot, and it comes from the moun-
tains of Switzerland. Do not be afraid of it,
for it is very good-natured, and, though it has
sharp teeth, it will not bite you. Only we
must take care our httle dog does not follow us
in, for it hates dogs very much, and will fly at
them when it sees them.

Ask the cook what the marmot eats. Any-
thing and everything—meat, pudding, and
fruit; but it is most pleased if it can get
into the dairy to lap the milk and devour
the butter. It seems very fond of the hot
kitchen-fire, for it cannot bear the cold. It
likes to he in this warm basket, lined with
hay.

I wish you could see a marmot in its own
native mountains. It digs a hole in the earth,
with the help of its companions, and _ lives
underground all the winter, in a nice, large
room lined with moss and hay. It makes the
hay itself. Oh, what a clever little hay-maker !
It has no scythe to mow with, no fork to toss
the hay with, no cart to bring it home in:
how, then, does it make hay? Its teeth are its
scythe, and its paws are its fork. The little
marmots carry the hay home themselves, and
make their room comfortable before winter
comes, While they are making hay one
marmot keeps watch, perched on a high
rock, to see that no man, or dog, or great
THE EUROPEAN ANIMALS. 65

bird, comes near. If he sees one of these
enemies, he whistles, and then all the mar-
mots hurry into their holes again. Well! the
marmot is a clever little creature indeed.
‘Good-bye, hay-maker !’

Here is another creature, rather like a cat,
only much smaller and thinner. Call it, and
stroke it. See, it comes quite willingly. Where
do you come from, pretty creature? What a
sweet smell there is in the room! I do not
see any flowers,—where can the smell come
from? Has any one been putting some nice
ointment on this pretty little creature? Oh
no, it is the way in which it always smells.
Oh, do tell me the name of the sweet creature !
It ought to be called violet, or mignonnette.

Itsname is not mignonnette, but genette. It
comes from Turkey. Genettes are kept in the
Turkish houses, that they may eat up the mice.
The mice run away as soon as they smell that
sweet smell. They are so useful that everybody
values them; they are so clean, that no one
minds keeping them indoors; and they are so
gentle, that little children need not be afraid
of playing with them. It is true that they
cannot sheathe their claws, as pussy can; but
then they do not wish to scratch. |

Do you think the genette pretty? Yes, I
like its black spots and its stripes upon its dark,
shining fur, and I admire its black mane, like

I
66 THE EUROPEAN ANIMALS.

the mane ofa horse; but I do not like its pointed
nose as I do pussy’s round face.

Now let us go into the drawing-room, and
see whether there are any curious animals to
be found there. There is nothing but a cage,
with a little bird init. I hope the door is never
left open, for I know the genette would like to
eat that pretty creature.

Is it avery curious bird? I think I have
seen many birds like it. It is about the size
of a sparrow, only it is much prettier. It is
not as pretty as a goldfinch. It has a very
thick, short neck. It isa bullfinch. Perhaps
you may have seen such a,bird in the spring,
hopping about the garden, and picking the
worms from among the plants. But this bird
comes from Germany. Wait a little, and you
will hear it sing. Hark! itis singing. What
a pretty tune it is whistling! It was in Ger-
many it learnt that tune. The Germans are
very fond of music, and they play tunes on
the flute, and teach bullfinches to whistle them.
Some bullfinches are stupid, and cannot learn,
but others are clever, and learn very quickly.

I would rather hear.a bird warbling its wild
notes, while perched upon a spray, than listen
to the best-taught bullfinch that ever whistled
ia a cage.

Now we have seen birds and beasts from most
of the countries of Europe.
THE CAPITAL, OR CHIEF TOWN. 67

Here is a list of all we have seen to-day :-—

Vulture from Hungary. Bear from Lapland.

Kagle from Sweden. Wolf from Russia.

Falcon from Iceland. Stork from Holland.
Horned Owl from Greece. Crane from Norway.
Cart-horse from Belgium. Wolf-dog from Ireland.
Pony from Wales. _| Shepherd’s dog from Scot-
Donkey from Spain. land.

Elk from Denmark. Lapdog from Malta.

Stag from Prussia. Marmot from Switzerland.
Fallow-deer from England. Genette from Turkey.
Roebuck from Poland. Bullfinch from Germany.

THE CAPITAL, OR CHIEF TOWN, OF
EVERY COUNTRY IN EUROPE.

1, London. This great city is built on the
banks of the river Thames, where a great num-
ber of ships are always to be seen. Of what
country is it the capital? |

2. Kdinburgh. There isa very high rock in
the midst of the city, with an old castle at the
top. Of what country is it the capital ?

38. Dublin. There is a very large square in
it, with a gravel-walk all round, shaded by
trees. It is called St. Stephen’s Green. Of
what country is it the capital ?

4, Paris. The ladies there dress very gaily,
and are always changing the fashions, wearing
68 THE CAPITAL, OR CHIEF TOWN,

bonnets of new shapes, and dresses of neW
colours. Of what country is it the capital ?

5. Stockholm. Here is a great lake with
many little islands in it, covered with houses,
and trees, and rocks. Of what country is it
the capital ? |

6. Christiania. A great deal of wood is sent
from this city to other countries. Of what
country is it the capital ?

7. Madrid. There are many fountains in
the streets. Of what country is it the.
capital ?

8. Lisbon. There was a dreadful earthquake
there about a hundred years ago. Of what
country is it the capital ?

9. Rome. Here is the grandest church in
the world. It is called St. Peter’s. Of what
country is Rome the capital ?

Naples is in the same country as Rome.
There are a great many poor men in Naples,
who have no employment, and no homes. They
live upon wild fruits, and sleep in the streets,
except when it rains; then they take shelter in
the caves in the hills around.

10. Vienna. Here is the most beautiful
park. Of what country is it the capital?

11. Berne. Here some famous bears are
kept.

12. Geneva. Here there is a manufactory
for watches.
OF EVERY COUNTRY IN EUROPE. 69

13, Amsterdam is full of canals, on which the
women skate to market in the winter.

14, St. Petersburg. In the winter there isa _
great market, which is open every day. Atthe
beginnine of the winter, as soon as the frost
sets In, numbers of oxen are killed, and piled
up in open sheds. Frozen meat will keep good
all the winter, There is also a very large mar-
ket, where frozen fish are sold. The Russians
fast nearly half the year, and are forbidden to
eat meat, egos, and milk; but then, they are
allowed to eat fish.

Moscow is in the same country as St. Peters-
burg. It used to be the capital of Russia.
Here is the largest bell in the world. It 1s too
heavy to be hung up. It is not used because,
during a fire, it fell from the tower, and a large
piece was knocked out of its side. Now it is
placed near the tower, where people may look
at it. The common people think this bell is
holy. There is a door near the top, and a
ladder inside, by which people can go to the
bottom of the bell.

15. Constantinople. Here is the largest
mosque in the world.

16. Athens is full of fallen temples, which
were built a long while ago by the heathen,
and which have grown old and fallen down.

17. Berlin. Thereare more soldiers in this
city than in any other,
70 REMARKS ON THE CHIEF TOWNS,

18. Warsaw.
made here, and sold to the great lords.

19. Buda-Pesth is built on the banks of a
broad river. Once there was no bridge across,
except a long chain of boats, but there are now
two fine bridges. One of them is-for the
railway.

20. In Brussels very beautiful lace is
made.

21. Copenhagen. Here there is a very high
tower, with a winding road that leads to the
top. Though it is very steep an Emperor
(named Peter the Great) once drove a carriage
with four horses abreast up this road.

22. Palermo. Near this town there is a most
beautiful garden, called Flora, full of flowers
and fruits, where the people delight to walk.

REMARKS ON THE CHIEF TOWNS, OR
CAPITALS, OF EUROPE.

St. Petersburg has the most superb buildings.
Berlin has the most beautiful streets.
Dublin has the most beautiful squares.
Berne has the most beautiful prospects.
' Stockholm has beautiful rocky islands.
Yet people say Edinburgh and Naples are the
OR CAPITALS, OF EUROPE, 71

most beautiful cities of Europe; not only be-
cause they have handsome streets, but because
Kdinburgh is built among rocks and hills, and
Naples on the shores of a very large bay.

London contains the most people.
Christiania contains the fewest people.

SS

st. Petersburg has the finest palace in Europe.
Madrid has the finest walk.

Berlin the finest gate.

Rome the finest church.

Moscow the finest bells.

London the finest bridges.

Athens 1s the oldest city in Europe.
St. Petersburg is the newest city in Europe.

London is the busiest chief city in Europe.
Jopenhagen is the least busy.

Paris has the most Museums of any city in
Europe.
Rome has the most pictures.
72 REMARKS ON THE CHIEF TOWNS.

Amsterdam has the most canals.
London has the most warehouses,



In Madrid there is a great deal of dust.

In Amsterdam there is very bad water.

In London there is a great deal of smoke.

In Constantinople there are many troops of
very troublesome dogs.

St. Petersburg is built close to a very broad
river, which used very often to overflow its
banks. Very high stone quays have been built,
to prevent the river from overflowing the city ;
but whenever the river rises, cannons are fired
from the fortress in order to warn people that
it 1s rising.




SOME OF THE SEAS, MOUNTAINS, ETC. 73

Constantinople is in great danger of being
burned, for the houses are made of wood, and
there are no chimneys.

et

SOME OF THE SEAS, MOUNTAINS,
AND RIVERS OF EUROPE.

Europe is a very curious shape. The land
goes in and out. There are many seas in it,
and they make the shape uneven. They are
very convenient, because ships can sail from
one country to another on these seas.

The Names of the Chief Seas.

The Med-i-ter-ra-ne-an Sea, between Europe,
Asia, and Africa.

The Black Sea, between Turkey and Asia.

The Baltic Sea, between Sweden, Russia, and
Prussia.

There are some high mountains in Europe.
The highest reach the clouds. Their tops are
about three miles above the ground, and are
always covered with snow.

What are the names of these high moun-
tains?
74 SOME OF THE SEAS, MOUNTAINS,

Mont Blanc (which means white) and Monte
Rosa. |

Where are they? Cannot you guess?

In Switzerland.

Mount Etna is not so high as Mont Blane,
for it is not two miles high.

Mountains often stand side by side like trees
planted in a row, or like soldiers in a line.
These rows are called chains of mountains.

Names of the Chief Chains of Mountains

| in Hurope.

The Alps, between France, Switzerland, and
Italy (Mont Blanc and Monte Rosa are in this
chain). |

The Pyrenees, between France and Spain.

There are a great many rivers in Kurope,
but they are not very large.

What are rivers? They are streams of water
that rise up in the earth, and are very small at
first, but they grow wider and deeper as they
roll along, and at last they fall into the sea.



Names of some of the Rivers in Europe.

The Volga, in Russia, is the largest river in
Europe.”

“ One of the longest bridges in the world crosses the Volga.
It is nearly three times as long as the bridge across the
Menai Straits; yet it is not as long as the Victoria bridge
at Montreal.
AND RIVERS OF EUROPE. ras’

Lhe Danube flows across Germany and Tur-
key, and falls into the Black Sea. Vienna is
built near the Danube.

The Rhine in Germany is a beautiful river,
On its high banks many castles are built,
English people often go up the Rhine in the
summer, and draw pictures of the high banks
and old castles.

The Rhone in France is another large river,

The Seine in France is not very large,
but it is very famous, because Paris is built
upon it.

The Thames is much smailer than the
Seine, but English children love it more, be-
cause 1t isin England. London is built on the
Thames. ‘There are many fine bridges over it,
and there are a great number of large ships
from all countries lying in it continually.

Names of some of the Lakes in Europe.

In Russia there are two very large picces of
water called lakes. Each of them is as big as
the island of Sicily. The water is always frozen,
and the country around is bleak and barren.*

There is a beautiful lake in Switzerland
called the Lake of Geneva, which is sur-
rounded by lovely woods and mountains.

* Lake Onega is almost as big as the island of Corsica,
and Lake Ladoga is almost twice as large.
FOOD OF PEASANTS IN EUROPE.

In England—white wheaten bread, bacon,
mutton, butter and cheese, potatoes and greens.
Sometimes roast beef and pudding. Tea and
coffee, beer and (too often) gin.

rere ——

In Scotland—oatmeal-cakes and porridge,
soup, and greens, and haggis (which is a mix-
ture of fat, liver, onions, and oatmeal, boiled
up together). Sour milk, and whisky (which
is made of barley).

In Wales—bread and cheese, leeks and
onions, and flummery (which is made of oat-
meal and milk mixed together). Milk.

In Ireland—bread, potatoes, and stir-about,
made with Indian meal—sometimes bacon,
Tea, milk, and porter.

rn ra ne eer net re

In France — vegetable soups, fruits, and
wheaten bread, Wine and coffee,
FOOD OF PEASANTS IN EUROPE. 77

In Norway and Sweden—instead of bread,
large, flat, round, hard, oatmeal biscuits,
oatmeal and barley-meal, puddings, fish and
pickled meat, wild strawberries. Small beer,
milk and water, and (too often) brandy.

In Lapland—rye-bread, reindeers’ flesh, and
bears’ flesh, fish, wild birds and their eggs,
puddings made of reindeers’ blood. Milk and
water, and brandy. _

In Spain — all kinds of fruit, and olla podrida
(which is a mixture of vegetables, meat, and
herbs).

mail

In Portugal—bread made of Indian corn,
garlic, fish, and fruit.

In Italy —fruits and a paste made of chest-
nuts, beaten up with sugar till it is hard enough
to cut with a knife, also macaroni (which is
flour made into the shape of a serpent or snake).
Iced lemonade, and wine.
78 FOOD OF PEASANTS IN EUROPE.

In Germany—rye-bread, pork, cheese, and
sausages, and sauer-kraut (which is made of
cabbage). Wine.

In Switzerland—barley-bread, butter and
cheese, bacon, milk, and omelet (which is
made of eggs, onions, and butter). Milk.

eS

Holland—fish, and butter, and cheese, and
vegetables.

Russia — black rye-bread, black cabbage-
broth, mushrooms, and cranberries. Whisky,
and kwas (which is made of rye).



Turkey—salads and olives, goats’ milk,
cheese, and kids’ flesh, and pilau (which is
made of rice and butter), chopped mutton
rolled up with rice. Coffee and sweet water,
called sherbet, but no wine.

Greece—fish, vegetables, melons, olives, and
gourds, snails dressed in garlic. Milk and wine,

Poland —rye-bread and milk.
CLOTHES OF PEASANTS IN EUROPE. 19

Hungary — bacon and rye-bread, meat once
a-week. A favourite dish is gulyas (which is
mutton cut into small pieces and stewed with
pepper), plums and melons. Milk and wine.

Iceland—dried fish instead of bread, some
butter, sometimes barley-bread, and mutton.
Milk and water, whey, sour curdled milk, and
coffee.

CLOTHES OF PEASANTS IN EUROPE.

What the men wear. What the women wear.

SCOTLAND.

Shirt made of a
striped woollen stuff
called plaid, waistcoat
and kilt of the same,
blue flat cap called a
bonnet.

They only dress in
this way in the north
part, called the High-
lands.

Plaid scarf over the
head, a ribbon round
the head called a snood
when unmarried ; af-
terwards a_ kerchief.
They take off their
shoes and_ stockings
when they walk in the
country.
80 CLOTHES OF PEASANTS IN EUROPE.

What the men wear.

What the women wear.

FRANCE.

Some wear. blue
blouses, and wooden
shoes, called sabots.

The women often
wear long earrings,
and white caps in-
stead of bonnets.

SWEDEN.

In one partâ„¢ themen
wear a suit of dark
blue, with rows of sil-
ver buttons on their
jacket, a large leathern
apron, and a cap.

In one partâ„¢ the
women wear a short,
narrow, dark blue
skirt, red or blue
stockings, and enor-
mously thick shoes, a
white jacket with full
sleeves, and a red bo-
dice; round the neck, a
coloured handkerchief,
with silver ornaments.

On the head a cap;
sometimes nothing is
worn but a silk hand-
kerchief tied under the
chin.

LAPLAND.

They wear no linen;
trousers of reindeer-
skin, long coat of the
same edged with fur,
girdle, and fur cap.

The same as the
men, with a cap and
apron ornamented with
brass wire.

* Dalecarlia.
CLOTHES OF PEASANTS IN EUROPE. 81

What the men weary.

What the women wear.

SPAIN.

Hats with broad A black scarf (called
flaps, and long black | a mantilla) over the
cloaks. ' head.

SWITZERLAND.

They dress differ-
ently in different parts.
At Berne they wear
a trimmed hat, brown
jacket, white sleeves,
and striped trousers.

At Berne they wear
long hair plaited hang-
ing down their shoul-
ders, flat straw hat, red
jacket, white sleeves,
black petticoat edged
with red,red stockings,
and black collar round
the throat.

RUSSIA.

A long sheepskin
coat with the wool
inside, coarse linen
trousers, woollen cloth
wrapped many times
round the legs, with
felt boots over all; and
a hat with avery high
crown lined with fur.

The women in the
summer wear coloured
print dresses, with
handkerchiefs tied
round the head. In
the winter they dress
like the men: that 1s
to say—they wear a
sheepskin coat (as you
see in the picture) and

| high felt boots. |

G
82 CLOTHES OF PEASANTS IN EUROPE.



ee




SES
ae oe ne Oe

Russian Woman in Winter Costume.

What the men wear. What the women wear.
TURKEY.

Long loose pelisse, Pelisse, and a veil
loose trousers, and | onthe head, with many
turban. ornaments.

GREECE.

Dark jacket, white A long red or blue
small-clothes down to | robe, a thin veil of
the knee, made of nar- | muslin on the head,
row strips of calico | and yellow boots,
joined together, dark
gaiters, a high scarlet
cap with a blue tassel
at the top. |
CLOTHES OF PEASANTS IN EUROPE. 83

What the men wear.

What the women wear. |

POLAND.

In winter, a sheep-
skin with the wool in-
side, and boots of the
bark of trees.

In summer, shirt and
drawers of coarse linen,
with shoesor stockings.
The head shaven, ex-
cept a small tuft at the
top, and a round cap.

Wrapper of white
linen on the _ head,
the hair hangs down
in two plaits. A white
piece of linen wrapped
over their heads and
shoulders when they
go out. |

HUNGARY.

Red waistcoat, white
linen shirt, and very
wide trousers, cloak of
sheepskin, little round
black hat, adorned
with feathers.

In summer, a dark
blue gown with little
white spots, a girdle
round the waist.

ICELAND.

Short jacket and
trousers of black wool-
len stuff called ‘ wad-
mel,’ shoes of untanned
sheepskin.

Petticoat and apron
of blue wadmel, a scar-
let bodice, a black tip-
pet, and aruff of black
and red velvet. Un-
married women wear
caps, but married wo-
men wear on the head
a white kerchief made
to stand up very high.
84

THE COUNTRIES OF EUROPE
COMPARED TOGETHER.*

THINGS MADE OR FOUND IN EUROPE.

The best marble comes from Italy.

The best silver in Europe comes from
Germany.

The best iron comes from Sweden.

The best tin comes from England.

The best silk comes from France.

The best lace comes from Belgium.

The best cakes come from Scotland.

The best cheese (called Parmesan) comes
from Italy.

The best wine (called Tokay) comes from
Hungary.

The best honey comes from Greece and

Sicily.

The best wheat comes from Sardinia.

The best wool (called Merino) comes from
Spain.

The best fruit comes from Portugal.

The best toys come from Germany.

* It is not intended that this chapter should be learnt by
heart, but that it should furnish mattcr for questions that
might entertain some children.
COUNTRIES OF EUROPE COMPARED. 85

The most coal comes from England.

The most silk comes from Italy.

The most salt comes from Austrian Poland.
The most gold comes from Hungary.

The most furs come from Russia,

The most mountainous country in Europe is
Switzerland.

The flattest country is Holland.

The coldest country is Iceland.

The hottest country is Malta.

The most barren by nature is Holland.

The most fruitful by nature is Hungary.

There are the most forests in Russia.
The most voleanoes in Iceland.

The most caverns in Norway.

The most lakes in Sweden.

The most canals in Holland.

The most rivers in Hungary.

The most towns in Germany,

The most burying-grounds in Turkey.
The most palaces in Italy.

The most factories in England.
86 COUNTRIES OF EUROPE COMPARED.

In Italy, the ladies are always in company.
In Turkey, they are always shut up at home.

In Lapland, poor people sleep on bearskins.
In some parts of Iceland they sleep on straw.

In Russia, some people have double windows
to keep out the cold.

In Italy, some people have verandas to keep
off the heat.

In England, coal is used for firing.
In France, wood is used.
In Ireland, turf is used.

In Russia, the sheep and cows live in houses
all the winter.

In Italy, many poor people sleep out of doors
all the summer.

In Iceland, people stay at home all through
the winter.

In Lapland, they travel in sledges and on
skates in the winter.
COUNTRIES OF EUROPE COMPARED. 87

In Poland, there are more Jews than in any
other country in Europe.

In Hungary, there are more gipsies.

In Prussia, there are more soldiers (according
to the number of the people).

In England, there are more sailors.

In Spain, there are more shepherds.

In Italy, there are more musicians.

The Irish have warm manners.
The Scotch have cold manners.
The French have polite manners.
The English have blunt manners.

The Scotch play on the bagpipe.
The Welsh play on the harp.

The Spaniards play on the guitar.
The Germans play on the violin.

The English are the most free of any nation
in Kurope.
The Turks are the most enslaved.

norrrentone saree"

The Prussians are the most taught.
The Sardinians are the most untaught.
SS COUNTRIES OF EUROPE COMPARED.

The Germans write more books than any
other nation in Europe.
The Italians carve more beautiful statues.
_ The French make more ornaments.
The English construct more wonderful ma-
chines. ;
The Belgians cultivate the ground the best.

In Poland, the men shave their heads.
In Turkey, they wear very long beards.
Greek women are handsome.

French women are witty,

Scotch women are sensible.

Welsh women are notable.

Dutch women are neat.

Knelish women are modest.

In Lapland, black cats are respected, and
honoured as sacred.
In Turkey, storks are respected.



The gayest nation in Europe are the French.
The gravest nation are the Dutch.

The most industrious nation are the Germans.
The idlest nation are the Portuguese,-
COUNTRIES OF EUROPE COMPARED. 89

The cleanest nation are the Dutch.
The dirtiest nation are the Poles.
The simplest nation are the Icelanders.

In Denmark, there are no rivers.

In Wales, there are no lakes.

In Holland, there are no mountains.
In Iceland, there are no forests,

The Scoteh observe the Sabbath better than
any other people.

The English send out more missionaries.

The Icelanders commit fewer crimes.

END OF PART I.

PART IL

CONTAINING

MORE PARTICULARS OF THE COUNTRIES
OF EUROPE.
PART II.

ENGLAND.

WHEN you were a little child, you thought
the world was flat like the table. Did you not?
And did you not wish very much to know what
there was at the end of it? But now you are
grown older and have been taught more, you
_ know that the world is round like an orange, and
that it 1s hung up in the heavens like the moon.

What is the name of your own country?
Can you findit on the map? Here it is,—an
island of Europe.

What country do you love best? Your own
country? I know you do. Every child loves
his own country best.

Let us talk together about England.

What sort of alandis it? There are green
fields and shady lanes, and white cottages with
little gardens.

What trees grow in England? Try and
think of their names. The oak, the elm, the
beech, the fir, the ash, the willow.

Does any fruit grow in England? In the
94 | ENGLAND.

gardens there are strawberries, and gooseberries,
and currants, and raspberries, and plums, and
cherries, and peaches, and nectarines, and pears,
and apples. But Ido not call these English
fruits, because they grow only in gardens.
Those are English fruits which grow in the
hedges and woods.

And is there any fruit in the hedges? Yes;
there are blackberries. Are not you pleased
to see the blackberries getting black in the
autumn? There are strawberries, too, and
nuts in the woods.

In the gardens there are a great many
pretty flowers—tulips, and lilies, and dahlias.
But are there any flowers in the hedges and in
the fields? Those that grow without being
planted by men are called wild flowers. There
are pretty yellow flowers, called buttercups,
cowslips, and primroses; and blue flowers,
called violets and blue-bells; and there are pink
and white roses, and honeysuckles.

What beasts are therein England? Some
are tame, such as horses, cows, and sheep.
Others are wild, and run about where they
please.

Foxes, hares, and rabbits live in the fields,
squirrels and dormice in the trees, and rats and
mice hide themselves in the barns and in the
houses. | |

There are birds which sing sweetly,—night-
ENGLAND. 95

ingales and goldfinches, larks and linnets. But
is not the robin your favourite bird; not be-
cause it has a pretty red breast, but because it
comes in winter to the window to be fed ?

Now let us speak of the people who live in
England.

How do the poor people dress? The men
wear cloth coats and black hats; the women
wear gowns and aprons of cotton, and straw
bonnets, and woollen shawls.

In what sort of cottages do they live ?

Some cottages are made of planks of wood
nailed together; they are cold, because the wind
blows in through tbe chinks. Some are made
of bricks, and small stones, and they are very
comfortable. The poor white cottages you so
often see are made of clay, covered with white-
wash, and they are thatched with straw. When
you have opened the little wooden gate, and
passed through the little garden, you lift the
latch of the door. Then you find yourself in
a room with white walls and a brick floor.
There 1s a wide chimney, in which the little
children sit on their wooden stools. The cups
and plates stand in a row upon a shelf. There
is one window with very little panes of glass,
and some old books lie upon the sill. There
is a large wooden chair with a patchwork
cushion for the old grandfather, and a cradle
96 ENGLAND.

for the babe. The back-door leads into a little
wash-house, and upstairs there are two small
rooms, without any doors. The pig lives in
a sty in the yard behind, and puss alone is
allowed to come into the house.

What is the character of the English? What
sort of people are they? They are not very
pleasant in company, because they do not like
strangers, nor taking much trouble. They like
best being at home, and this is right. They
do not so much care about their houses and fur-
niture looking pretty, as about their being clean
and comfortable. They are very much afraid
of being cheated; therefore they are careful and
prudent, and slow to trust people till they know
them. They are cold in their manners, yet
they will often do kind actions. They are in-
dustrious, for they like to get money. They
are too fond of money, as well as of good eating
and drinking. They like reading the news-
papers, but do not read a great many books,
nor do they care much for music or painting.
They are often in low spirits, and are apt
to grumble, and to wish they were richer
than they are, and to speak against the ruiers
of the land. Yet they might be the happiest
people in the world, for there is no country in
which there are so many Bibles. There is
many a child of five or six years old who has a
Bible of his own.




















































































































































































































































































































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New Law Courts. BOF
97

LONDON,



St. Paul’s Cathedral.

London is the name of the chief town of Eng-
land. It is called the capital. There is no
city in Kurope that has so many people in it.
There are no walls round London, and so many
new houses are built that it grows larger every
day.

The streets are crowded with people looking
very busy. There are a great many shops, with
beautiful things at the windows to tempt the
people to buy. The pavement is so broad and
‘smooth that you can walk comfortably along,
H
98 LONDON.

and at night the streets are lighted with bril-
liant gas-lamps.

There is a river which runs through Lon-
don, called the Thames. It is not very broad,
but there are more ships in that river than
in any other in Europe. They bring goods
from distant lands. The merchants store the
great parcels in their warehouses, and send
goods, made in England, to other countries in
return.

London is full of buyers and sellers. Many
people in it are very rich.

But many are very poor.

The rich people live in wide streets, and
large squares. It is pleasant to live in a square,
for it has a garden in the middle, with iron
railings round it.

Is London a pleasant city? No; because
there is so much fog, and so much smoke.
This makes it dark and black. Yet the streets
where the rich people live are kept clean, and
the maid in each house washes the steps of her
master’s house every morning.

Is London a pretty city? No; because it is
not built by the sea-side or on high hills. Yet
it has two beautiful churches—called St. Paul’s —
and Westminster Abbey; and it has some beau-
tiful parks, where ladies and gentlemen drive,
and ride, and walk, and where even poor child-
ren play under the shady trees.
=e Siamese eet cote | SRN ee |























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































STITT i] ne ne i yy NI , Al a [= WN Hanae i
i wa a 1 NE/INSHATIANT |e ites hs ot r iN

CVA NY SAA HH OY VA A Nall ne

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} ay MN H}

Westminster Abbey.
LONDON. 99

But the poor people live in narrow alleys or
streets. What a difference between living in an
alley and living in a square! one so close and
dirty, the other so clean and airy! But there
are good men who care for the poor in the
alleys.

There are schools for little ragged children -
—such as could not go to a neat Sunday-
school. These children have been taught at
home to steal, and lie, and swear; but kind
teachers tell them at school about God and
Christ, and heaven and hell. At first these
rude children push each other about, and laugh
and make jokes; but soon they learn to sit still
and attend.

I will tell you about one of these ragged
children. A poor boy said to his teacher, ‘ If
you will lend me threepence, I think I could
earn my own bread, for I do not wish to steal.’
This boy had two brothers, who were thieves.
His teacher lent him threepence. What use
did he make of them? He bought a dozen
boxes of lucifer-matches at a farthing a-piece,
and sold them ata halfpenny a-piece. So he
had threepence to spend in food, and threepence
to buy more lucifer-matches. He sold a dozen
boxes every day. How did he spend his three-
pence?
dinner, and another for supper. Three far-
things were for bread, and one farthing for
100 LONDON.

dripping. Sometimes he earned a little more
than threepence,—so he was able to pay back
the money he had borrowed. All day long
this boy was at the ragged school—it was only
early in the morning and late at night he sold
his matches. ;

Why did not his parents give him food ?
They were drunkards. They let him sleep in
their room, but they had no bread to spare for
him. It was a miserable room in which they
lived. There was nothing in it but two cups
on the mantle-shelf, a tin kettle without a cover
in the grate, and a few shavings in the corner.
Those shavings were the bed for the whole
family! There was no covering upon the bed.
There the ragged boy slept. But though the
room was miserable, the boy was not miserable;
for he loved his school—he loved his teacher
-—he loved most of all his teacher’s God and
Naviour—his own God—his own Saviour.

Early in the morning he rose from his
wretched bed, and went to wash himself at a
water-butt in the yard; then sold his lucifer-
matches, and bought his breakfast.

But did he forget to pray? Oh, no. Karly at
school, with his lesson well learned, you might
know him by his happy face. What could make
him happy? Was it the feeling that God cared
for him?

He was not a selfish boy: when his sister
LIVERPOOL. 101

wanted food, he always shared with her his
morsel of bread. At last he tried to get a
place. A fishmonger hired him as an errand-
boy, for four shillings a-week. He behaved so
well, that in time his master trusted him with
everything. After he had stayed there five
years, he had a guinea a-week. I do not know
what his sister would have done without him,
for her drunken father turned her out into
the streets; but she went to her brother, and
he helped her till she could get some work
to do.

I hear it was a pleasant sight to see them
walking together on Sunday to the house of
prayer. It was by going to the ragged school
in the old stable that they became so happy,
and will be happy for ever and ever,

LIVERPOOL.

Next to London, this is the largest town in
England. It lies near the sea, and it sends out
many ships to other countries,
102

MANCHESTER.

Manchester is the next largest town to Liver-
pool. There it is that those cotton prints are
made, which so many women and children wear.
The cotton comes in ships to England, but it is
made into calico and printed with pretty pat-
terns of blue, pink, and lilac, in Manchester.

There are large houses there full of great
machines, and men and women making calico
and cotton prints. These houses are called
factories. |

And are there any children in these large
houses? Yes; but none younger than ten
years old. Once very little children used to
work in the factories; but a kind nobleman,
called Lord Shaftesbury, pleaded for them, and
now there are laws to prevent children from
working too soon, and too much. At ten years
old, children may work in the cotton mills; but
only for half the day, the rest of the day they
must go to school.

The first railway for steam-carriages ever
made was between Liverpool and Manchester.
103

OTHER GREAT TOWNS,

LEEDS is famous for making wool into cloth.

SHEFFIELD for making knives.

BIRMINGHAM for making things of iron, brass,
and copper, called hardware.

NEWCASTLE is famous for coals, which are
found underground.

There are in England mines of tin and j iron,
lead and copper.

Did you ever see a mine? It is a deep hole,
and men work underground, and they beat with
great hammers, and they fill pails with large
pieces of tin or copper, and afterwards these
pails are pulled up with ropes.

The miners live in cottages near the mine.

WALES.

THIS country lies close to England, indeed it
is often counted to be one with England ; yet
there are many people in it who cannot speak
a word of English. The Welsh are very fond
of their country, and a beautiful country it is;
full of mountains, with rivulets running down
their rocky sides, winding in the green vales,
half concealed, by the bending trees.
104 | WALES.

But these scenes would not be as lovely as
they are, were it not for the beautiful lambs,
bounding and frisking in the soft grass. Surely
there are no such lambs anywhere to be seen
as these! they are as white as milk and soft as
silk; they are as light and agile as young deer,
and their faces are as sweet and innocent as
the faces of doves, while their bright, black ©
eyes gaze timidly on the passing traveller.
They lead a happy life among the mountains,
for they roam about at their pleasure: when
they will, they go down to drink of the pure
water of the stream; and when they will,
they climb the heights to breathe the fresh
mountain air.

In some places there are low walls of stone,
built half-way up the hills; these are to hinder
the silly sheep from venturing on the steep
crags, whence they might fall and be dashed in
pieces: for sheep are not as careful as other
animals, and if they are left quite to themselves
they often perish.

CoTTAGES.-There are small cottages scat-
tered amongst the hills. Let me lead you to
one, situated on the banks ofa little lake. What
a peaceful scene! There are high hills on
-every side, and in one sheltered nook there is
a pretty grey church. Come into this little
cottage. The people smile as you enter, and
seem pleased to see you; but they cannot speak
WALES, 103

to you, for they do not know English. There
18 no ceiling but the slanting roof. You see
that there are no rooms upstairs; but it is bet-
ter to have one high and airy room than several
little ones. Where do the family sleep? There
is a wall across the sitting-room, and on the
other side there is just room enough for a bed,
It is a neat one, with check curtains. The fire-
place is very large, and the chimney very wide,
but there is no grate; the fire burns on the
hearth, and the family sit on low stools
around it. There is some handsome furni-
ture,—a clock, and a wardrobe; these are
the great ornaments of the dwelling. From
the beams of the roof, fine hams and sides of
bacon are hanging. There is a basket of egos
on the shelf, and a barrel of coarse meal to
make bread. On the window-sill some old
books aré: tye, and amongst them the Welsh
Bible. - Once there were scarcely any Welsh
Bibles, or any who could read them; but now
the poor man would smile if you whed him
whether he has a Bible. Near the cottage the
pig and the poultry may be seen, but not the
pretty flower-garden so common in England.
THE PrEOPLE.—They are rather short, and
not slender, but of a figure well suited for
climbing hills. Their faces are broad, and their
cheeks rosy; their eyes are bright, and their
mouths large and smiling. Their countenances
106 WALES.

are pleasant; they have a kind look in their
beaming eyes, and an honest look too. The
mountain air agrees well with the children, for
their cheeks are often so blooming that they
look as if they were painted. Even the old
people have a healthy hue spread over their
countenances.

The Welsh are a very happy people, for the
Lord is their God.* They love God’s house
and God’s day, and they love to meet in the
middle of the week, to teach the children and
to hear them repeat verses. When judges have
come into Wales, they have noticed how few
prisoners they found there. It is the Bible
which makes the people happy. The Welsh
are very fond of singing, and often meet in a
church to sing old music together. |

The Welsh dress is coarse, plain, and strong,
just suited to a country where such heavy
showers fall. Every hilly country is rainy, be-
cause clouds gather round the tops of hills.

Welsh people now dress very much like the
English. Once the women used to wear black
beaver hats, such as men wear in England, only
with broader brims. Under these hats, they
wore mob-caps, all frilled, and fastened beneath
the chin, so that their faces were well defended
from the weather. Sometimes, instead of bea-

“ ¢ Happy is the people whose God is the Lord ’—
(Ps. exliv. 15).
WALES. 107

ver hats, they wore black bonnets, which were
generally made of beaver. If you travel now
through North Wales, very likely you will only
see s1x women with beaver hats; but you will see
that the women generally wear big cloaks. A
Welshwoman looks very comfortable in her long,
warm, blue cloak, and her stout, dark, woollen
gown, her black stockings and strong shoes ;
with her busy fingers she moves the knitting-
needles very fast, and she scarcely looks at her
work as she walks along.

If it is curious to see a woman knitting while
she is walking, it is more curious to see her
knitting while riding: and yet the Welshwomen
often knit while going to market on their strong
little ponies. |

Wales is not a fruitful — but the people
are industrious, and they know how to turn to
advantage the little they possess. A great deal
of corn is grown in Wales now, and, therefore,
the people eat less barley-bread than they once
did. The chief productions of Wales are flannel
and slates; flannel made from the wool of the
sheep feeding on the hills, and slates dug out of
those hills) The flannel is very fine, because
the fleeces are so fine. Sometimes it appears
as if there were broad streams of water running
through the fields; but, on coming nearer, what
appeared water is found to be flannel spread
on the grass to whiten. The mills, where the
108 WALES.

flannel is woven are built by the side of the
river, and the cottages of the weavers are
scattered around. ..

It is not unpleasant to live near a flannel-
mill, but it is very unpleasant to live near a
slate-quarry; the white dust of the slate fills
the air, and the noise of the hewing is heard a
long way off. Yet how useful are these slates,
not only for the roofs of houses, but also for
poor children to write upon! Every poor
child in Wales may have a slate to write texts
and hymns upon, as he sits in the chimney-
corner.

There are a great many little churches scat-
tered over Wales. They are built of grey
stones, and the churchyard is filled with grey
stones with Welsh words carved upon them.
In churchyards, in England, there are many
green graves, with no stones to tell the names
of those who lie beneath; but it is not so in
Wales. The poor do not like that the names
of their dead ones should be forgotten. Even
inside the churches may be seen little black
tablets, about the size of a child’s slate, fastened
to the walls and to the pillars: upon these
tablets are written the names of the dead. On
one, these words may be seen: ‘Griffith Jones, —
died on May sth, 1840.’ On another, these
words: ‘ Annie Evans, died on June 8th, 1812.’

It is well to keep in memory the friends we
WALES, 109

have lost. A parent’s name may bring to a
child’s mind a parent’s last farewell.

The lakes in Wales are small, but some of
them are very pretty. The largest lake is four
miles long, and is called Bala. Close to it is
the town of Bala, a small, yet famous town;
for there once lived that good minister, Mr.
Charles, who brought so many Bibles into
Wales. |

How did the first thought about getting
Bibles come into ‘his mind? This was the
way. He was walking in the streets of Bala,
when he met a little girl whom he knew. He
stopped to speak to her, and said, ‘Can you
tell me the text of my sermon last Sunday ?’
But the little girl, instead of answering as she
usually did, hung down her head and looked
sorrowful. ‘Can you tell me the text?’ said
the minister. Still she was silent, and soon
she burst into tears. At last she said, ‘The
weather, sir, has been so bad that I could not
get to read the Bible.’

The minister could not think what she meant,
but soon he found that the child had no Bible
at home, and that there was no Bible in her
village, and that she used to travel every week
four miles, over the hills, to a place where
there was a Welsh Bible, and that she looked
for the text in this Bible, and learned it by
heart, but that during the last week, the cold,
110 WALES,

stormy weather, had hindered her from going
so far.

He was pleased to think the child would take
so much trouble to learn the word of God;
but he was grieved that there were so few
Bibles in Wales.—Ah! thought he, what can
I do to get more Bibles for the Welsh? When
he went to London, he talked to his friends
about it, and they made a plan for printing
Bibles in all languages, and selling them
very cheap. This plan is called ‘The Bible
Society.’ *

How much good came from the words of one
poor little girl! Who would not think of her
in passing through Bala ?+

In Wales not only children go to Sunday-
school, but grown-up men and women —
husbands and wives take their babies, and
old men who can scarcely see to read. It is
very pretty to see the old men reading in one
corner and the old women in another.

On Sunday every one goes to the house of
God. If you walk through a village at the
time for service you will find almost every
house empty. Where are the people? They
are all gone to church or chapel.

The highest mountain in Wales is Snowdon.
There is snow at the top. :

* The event occurred in the year 1802.
t+ Taken chiefly from Kidd’s England and Wales.
SCOTLAND. 11]

The mountain next in height is Cader Idris,
which means ‘The chair of the giant Idris;’ but
there is really no such chair at the top.

The third mountain is Plinlimmon,—barren
it is, and ill-shapen; but four rivers flow from
it, and one of them is that great river—the
Severn.

SCOTLAND.

THE Country.—Just at the north of England
there is a country called Scotland. It looks
like the head of England. It is a large head,
certainly, but you can almost see the nose, and
the chin, and the bunch of hair on the top; at
least you can fancy that you see them.

Is Scotland like England ?

No—it is more beautiful. It has not so
many trees ag England has, but then it has
very high hills, higher than any hills in
England; and larger lakes, and more streams,
and finer waterfalls. What is a waterfall?
When water falls down from a high place, then
it is called a waterfall. Oh, it is lovely to see
the water dashing down from the rocks, and the
white foam sparkling among the stones below !
You can hear the sound a great way off, and
though it is loud, it is soft and pleasant. It
is the sound of many waters.
2 SCOTLAND.

But the water is not always white; it is
sometimes dark brown, or light brown, so
that travellers have said it looks like porter,
or like alee What makes it brown? The soft
earth through which the water runs before it
falls down is mixed up with it.










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Scotland is colder than England, because it
is nearer the north. There is very bad weather
in Scotland,—a great deal of rain, and snow,
and fog.

One day a traveller said to a Scotchman,
‘Does it always rain as it does now?’ ‘Na,’
replied the man; ‘it snaws sometimes.’

He said ‘ snaws,’ instead of ‘ snows,’ for the
Scotch peasants talk what is called ‘ broad
Scotch.’ The traveller laughed at the Scotch-
SCOTLAND. 113

man’s answer; yet it is not true that it always
either rains or snows, for sometimes in summer
the sun shines very bright, and the weather is
quite hot.

DreEss.— The Scotch dress is very much like
the English. But the Highlanders wear a
sort of stuff, called tartan plaid. It is made
of flax and of wool mixed together, and there
are pretty stripes upon it. There are differ-
ent sorts of plaid: some sorts have purple and
green stripes, others red and black; in one sort
of plaid, purple is the chief colour, in another
red, and in another white.

The peasants wear plaid shawls instead of
great-coats. The shepherds wear a shawl of
plaid with a small black-and-white check, and
this is called shepherds’ plaid. Many men wear
blue bonnets instead of hats. These bonnets
are like caps, and they are not so easily blown
away by the wind as hats would be.

Some of the poor children wear neither shoes
nor stockings.

Foop.—The peasants are content with very
simple food. Instead of eating wheaten bread,
they often eat oaten cakes. You must not think
these cakes are sweet, like our cakes; they are
more like our biscuits. They are large, and
break very easily. Many a peasant dines on
oat-cakes and cheese, and has oatmeal-porridge
for breakfast and supper. Others often dine on

T
114 SCOTLAND.

potatoes and milk, though sometimes they have
meat,

There is a dish called ‘ Haggis, made of
liver, heart, suet, and onions, all minced up
and boiled in a skin. There is also a soup
called ‘ Hotch-potch,’ made of all sorts of
vegetables boiled together with meat. The

Scotch are very fond of whisky. This 1s a

oe

spirit made from grain. It has a very odd
taste of smoke, caused by the turf, or peat
fire, used in boiling it. In the north of
Scotland, instead of burning coals, people
burn dried bits of sod, called peat.

Scotch people have a great many nice things
for breakfast, when they can afford it. They
are famous for sweetmeats, and for a sort of
orange jam called marmalade.
of the marmalade we eat comes from Scot-
land. The Scotch also make very rich cakes,
which may be kept for six months without
spoiling ; but such dainties are very unwhole-
some. Scotland is often called the ‘ Land 0’
Cakes,’ and all children will think it a very
pretty name. :

The hilly parts of Scotland are called the
Highlands. There is many a poor family who
lives there among the bleak hills. An English
clergyman was walking among these hills; when
he came to the edge of a lake, he wished to cross
over to the other side, but he saw no boat. At
SCOTLAND. 115

last he observed a little stone cottage close by.
He went in and found an old man and woman
sitting in the room with some children. The
good minister said, ‘ My friend, I wish to cross
the lake, but I see no boat.2 The old mar
replied, ‘I can put you across in my boat.’
Then, rising up, he put on his blue bonnet. A
little girl of seven years old then said, ¢ I'll
run and get the boat out, grandfather.’

‘That will be too hard work for you, my child,’
answered the kind oldman. The little girl ran
on before the traveller, her bare feet making no
sound on the rocky path. They had not gone far
when they heard the tinkling of a little bell.

‘Oh, that’s Bella!’ said the grandfather.
‘Yes,’ answered the child, ‘ Bella’s got into
the corn. ‘Then you must turn her oot,’
replied the old man. The child ran forward,
and soon came back, driving Bella, a beautiful
little cow; nor was she at all frightened when
the creature pushed out its head and horns
towards her, for she knew that Bella was a
gentle. creature. Yet Bella was a thief, and had
intended to break into her master’s narrow field
of oats. :

A steep path led down to the place among
the rocks where the boat lay in the water.
The little gir’s mother helped to get the boat
out. Two more children were there, still
younger than Bella's little keeper. The min-
116 SCOTLAND.

ister talked to them all the while the boat was
getting ready, for he loved children. He gave
some pence to the eldest, as a present, and he
told her to learn the twenty-third psalm. ‘ Ah,’
said her mother, ‘she learned that a long time
ago at the school.’ The minister kindly bade
her repeat it. The child had learned it in verse
out of the Scotch Psalm-book :—
‘The Lord’s my shepherd, Pll not want.
He makes me down to lie

In pastures green ; He leadeth me
The quiet waters by.’

The little girl repeated the whole psalm.
When the minister got into the boat, all the
children followed him, and sat close together
at one end. The minister remarked that the
old boatman looked sad, and he knew the rea-
son. *The potatoes are all gone,’ said the
poor man. ‘We thought to pay our rent with
them, but they are gone.’ It sometimes hap-
pens in Scotland that the potatoes are not good
to eat, sometimes the hay is spoiled, and some-
times the corn. But though this poor man
looked sorrowful when he thought of the pota-
toes, he said, ‘God can give us something else
if He pleases.’

The minister hoped he would often think of
the psalm his grandchild had repeated, —<‘ ——
Lord’s my shepherd, I’ll not want.’ |

When he left the honest ferryman, hel gave
SCOTLAND. 117

him more than he asked or expected,—more
than sixpence, which was his fare, though I do
not know how much more.* |

ANIMALS.—The animals in Scotland are not
generally as big as those in England, but they are
strong and nimble. It is very curious that the
cows in the Highlands are generally black and
the horses often grey. There are nice little
ponies in Scotland; they are smaller than the
Welsh ponies, and suit well a little boy just
beginning to ride. Some of the hills of Scot-
land are sprinkled over with sheep, and some-
times, when the snow comes, the poor sheep are
buried in it.

One night, very suddenly, a great snow-storm
came on. ‘The shepherds were frightened when
they thought of their poor sheep, and they went
out with great haste to look for them. When
they came to the place where the sheep had been
feeding, they saw nothing but snow, except a
few heads or horns peeping out. They soon dug
out these poor creatures, but where were the
rest? They could not tell, though they thrust
long poles into the snow in hopes of finding
them. And they did find a few, but there
were hundreds lost. At last a white dog, with
shaggy hair, called Spankie, began scraping the
snow with all his might, and looking over his

“ Taken from the Highland Ferryman, by the Rey.
J. East.
118 SCOTLAND.

shoulder at the shepherds, What did he mean?
The shepherds guessed, and dug deep in that
place, and lo! they came to a sheep. But
Spankie was now scraping the snow in another
place, and then in another—-and wherever
Spankie scraped, there a sheep was lying deep
under the snow. Spankie was not tired of
scraping till all the sheep had been got out,
and there were three hundred buried beneath
the snow, and some buried as deep as a tall
house! Yet Spankie found them all. Was he
not a good and clever dog? Some of the poor
sheep were so weak when they were taken out,
that they died in a few minutes; while others
ran about for a little while, and then fell down
helpless. The shepherds took them home, and
fed them with their own hands, till they were
strong again.* The best shepherds in the
world come from Scotland.

There are many high hills in Scotland, which
are called Bens. The highest of all is Ben Nevis.
On the tops of these Bens, eagles build their
nests. What nests they are! flat like a floor,
and very strong, and made of great sticks,
which are often ual between two high rocks
that hang over a deep place. |

The eagles often carry off the hares and -
bits to their nests, and sometimes young lambs.
The farmers do not like these fierce birds, yet

“ Hoge’s Shepherd’s Calendar.
SCOTLAND. 119

it is dangerous to provoke them. There was
a man who swam across a lake, to a rock
where some eagles had built their nests. He
went to rob them of their little ones, while the
old birds were away. But while he was swim-
ming back with the eagletsin his hands, the old
birds saw him, came down upon him, and killed
him. |

If eagles have been so bold as to kill a man,
you will not be surprised to hear of one who
ventured to steal a child.



Eagle and Child.

It is said that once, while the people were
making hay in the field, a great eagle saw a
babe lying asleep on a bundle of hay, and,
darting down from above, seized it with its
great claws, and flew away. All the people, in
120 SCOTLAND.

alarm, hurried off towards the mountains, where
they knew this eagle had built its nest, and there
they could just see the two old birds on the ledge
of the rock.

Many cried and wrung their hands in sorrow
for the dear babe, but who would try to save it ?
There was a sailor, who used to climb the tall
masts of the ships, and he began to climb
the steep sides of the mountains. But he had
only gone a few steps, when the mother started
up from the rough stone where she had been
sitting, looking up at the eagles’ nest, and began
to mount the rock herself. Though only a poor,
weak woman, she soon got before the sailor,
and sprang from rock to rock; and when she
could find no place for her feet, she held fast by
the roots and the plants growing on the moun-
tain. It was wonderful to see how she made
her way. Her love to her babe strengthened
her limbs, and God kept her feet from
slipping. .

Every one looked eagerly at her, as she reached
the top; they feared lest the fierce birds should
hurt her,—but no—when she came to their
nest they screamed and flew away. There the
mother found her babe lying among the bones
of animals, and stained with their blood; but
the eagles had not begun to eat it, nor had they
hurt a hair of its head. The mother bound it
with her shawl tightly round her waist, and
SCOTLAND. 121

then began quickly to descend, and this was
far more difficult than it had been to go
up.

But where was the sailor all this while? He
had only got up a little way and then his head
had grown giddy, and he had been forced to
return.

See the fond mother, with her babe in her
bosom, sliding down the rocks, holding now by
the yellow broom, and now by the prickly brier,
and getting safely down places as steep as the
sides of a house! When she had got half-way
down, she saw a goat leading its two kids into
the valley: she knew that it would take its
little ones along the easiest path, and she fol-
lowed the creature, till she met her friends
coming up the mountain to meet her. How
glad they were to see her again amongst them!
Many a mother wished to hold the babe in her
arms: ‘Give me the bonny bit bairn,’ says
one to the other. In England they would have
said, ‘Give me the pretty little child.” How
much_they wondered to find the eagle’s claw
had not torn its tender flesh !*

What will not a mother do to save her child!
I hope this little babe, when it grew older, loved
the kind mother, who had climbed up the steep
rock to save it from the eagle’s cruel claws and
bloody beak.

* The Children’s Friend for October, 1836.
122 SCOTLAND.

Can you tell me who has done more than this
for youand me? Do youlove Him? _

i— The Scotch are tall and
strong, with large bones. Their faces are
generally broad, and their cheek-bones high;
their eyes and hair are often light; they look
grave and thoughtful.

CHARACTER.—The Scotch are very grave and
sensible. They love reading. Poor boys, who
are almost grown-up will put themselves to
school in the winter, that they may get. more
learning. People who have very little furni-
ture often havea great many books. A traveller
once stopped at an inn, where there was only
one spare bed and that a very poor one,
in a hole in the wall; yet he found that the
innkeeper had a great many books, and amongst
them several Bibles; also an Encyclopedia, a
book which explains how everything is made;
and this book had cost three guineas. The
blacksmith, too, in the village, had two hun-
dred books. Yet it is sad to say this clever
smith liked drinking, and asked the traveller
for some money to buy whisky.

The Scotch are very intelligent, and very
industrious and persevering. No wonder that
they are very good men of business. They are
very careful of their money and of their own ~
interests, and are sharp in making bargains.
Yet many Scotch people are very generous; and


SCOTLAND. | 123

are content with a little, that they may help the
poor. .

They are rather blunt in their manners.
They are very sincere, and they take a great
deal of trouble to serve their friends.

They like music, and can sing some very
pretty songs; but you would not like the sound
of their favourite instrument, which is called
the bagpipe. Its notes delight the heart of
every Highlander. It sounds best at a distance,
among the mountains. The Highlanders are
fond also of dancing, of playing at foot-ball,
of throwing weights, and of running races on
foot.

But the best part of the character of the
Scotch is their respect for the Lord’s day.
They shut up their shops, and go to church on
Sundays. When travellers choose to go on
their journeys on Sundays, the Scotch people,
who meet them, look displeased. One traveller,
who was out very early on Sunday morning,
was surprised at meeting no one, and at seeing
no one standing at the doors of their huts.
The driver told him they were at home reading
their Bibles.

A gentleman, who was fond of collecting
different sorts of earth and stones, was once
walking about the country on the Sabbath.
He took out his little pocket-hammer, and
began to knock bits out of the rock. A poor
124 SCOTLAND.

old woman passing by said, ‘ What are you
doing there, mon?’ He answered, ‘ Don’t you
see? Iam breaking a stone.’

‘You are doing maw than that, mon; you
are breaking the Sabbath.’

Another poor old woman heard a man sing-
ing on Sunday as he walked along the road,
and she said, ‘Songs, man, or psalms?’ I do
not know which the man was singing, but we
know that psalms ought to be sung on the
Sabbath-day.

The people often walk a long way to their
churches among the hills, and when they get
there, they like to hear a long prayer and a
long sermon. It is pleasing, in some parts,
to see a few poor old women sitting on the
pulpit-stairs in their white caps and handker-
chiefs, with their Bibles in their laps. The
service in the Highlands begins at twelve, and
lasts two hours. Immediately afterwards, the
minister begins another service. And why?
Because some of the people speak English, and
some speak an old language called Gaelic: so
the minister preaches first in English and then
in Gaelic. Many of the people know both
English and Gaelic, and they stay to hear both
services, though the same sermon is preached
both times. At four o’clock all the people
return home. When the minister goes back to
his house, which is called the Manse, I think
EDINBURGH. 125

he must feel very much tired. The Church is
called a Kirk,

PRODUCTIONS. — Calico, and muslin, and
shawls, are woven in Scotland from cotton.
Black cattle are fed on the mountains, and are
sent to England. A great quantity of coal is
dug out of the ground. There are a great,
many fishermen who catch herrings, and salt
them, and put them in boxes on the sea-shore,
to send all over the world. When they have
filled the boxes, the fishermen throw them into
the sea, and the boats pick them up, and bring
them to the ships. Thus town and country,
land and sea, each sends something valuable to
places far off.

EDINBURGH.

Kdinburgh is the chief town of Scotland.
This is the most beautiful city in the world.
What makes it so beautiful? Its lofty hill
with the castle at the top. The sides of that
hill are so steep in one place, that it seems as
if no foot could mount them; but it is said
that once a soldier climbed up to the top. At
the foot of the hill there is a deep valley planted
with trees. As you walk in the fine broad streets
126 EDINBURGH.

of Edinburgh, whenever you look up, you see
this hill and its castle, and you admire them,
and say, ‘How grand! how beautiful !’











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enemies might not be able to get in. But, now
there are no enemies to get in, it is a pity that
people should live in such places. Some of
these old houses have been pulled down lately,
and better houses have been built instead.
There is no large river in Edinburgh, only
a small stream, called the Water of Leith. But
there are a great many bridges. What are they
for? They are placed over the deep, low valleys,
and, as you cross the bridges, you see houses
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EDINBURGH. 129



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There is a famous old palace in Edinburgh.
It is called Holyrood. Many kings and queens
have lived in it. One of them was the beautiful
Mary, Queen of Scots. Her bedroom may still
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130 EDINBURGH.

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Our beloved Queen-is very fond of Scotland,
and often goes there; but she does not stay in
Holyrood. She has a palace called Balmoral,
which is quite in the Highlands, near the lovely
river Dee, in Aberdeenshire.

There is a hill in Edinburgh called the
Calton Hill. It has winding walks up to the
top, and several statues and buildings. From
the top, you can behold the Firth of Forth,
which is only two miles off, and, the hills near
the town. The air is so sweet from these hills
that you feel strong and lively, and are able to
walk further than you can in London.

In the chief streets there are shops down
GLASGOW. ABBY

steps in the area, as well as shops even with the
street: one shop is above another.

Outside the town there are some beautiful
cemeteries,

GLASGOW.

This city is larger than Edinburgh, yet it is
not so famous, because kings have never lived
there, as they once did in Edinburgh. There
are a great many places in Glasgow where
cotton is made into calico and muslin, and
they are called manufactories ; and there are a
great many rich people who live in fine houses.
But the smoke from the manufactories makes
the city unpleasant in rainy weather.

The houses of the rich people are in the
West End, and on the beautiful river Clyde.

The houses of the poor are chiefly in the old
parts of the city. Each house has many stories,
which are called fats, Several families live on
each flat. You may guess how many people
live in.one house. Yet there is only one stair-
case for them all.

There is a very fine University in the best
part of the city. “

One of the most famous travellers who ever —
lived, worked in a Glasgow factory when he was
a boy. He loved reading so much that he often
placed a book before him while he was weaving.
132 LAKES AND MOUNTAINS:

By the time he was sixteen he knew a great deal
of Latin and Greek. He became a missionary,
and went to South Africa, where he made won-
derful discoveries, and where he tried hard to
stop the cruel slave trade.
But, though he was preserved from fierce
hons and savage men, he did not die in his
native land, but in Africa. His body was
brought home by his faithful black servant,
Jacob Wainwright, and was laid in Westminster
Abbey. All Britain mourned for DAvip LIVING-
STONE, and a statue of him, with a Bible in his
hand, stands in the city of Glasgow.

Loch Lomond.

This is the largest lake in Scotland. There
are hills all round covered with purple heather
—but no trees. It is pleasant to sit upon the
heather and look at the still waters of the lake.

Ben Nevis.
The highest mountain in Scotland, and
higher than any in Wales or in England.

The River Tweed.

It divides England from Scotland. If any
one were to say to you, ‘ Have you ever been
beyond the Tweed ?’ should you know what he
meant ?* |

* Taken chiefly from Kohl’s Scotland, Dr. Carus’s Tour

“with the King of Saxony, the Rev. F’. Trench’s Scotland,
Kindly revised by M. J. Owen.
133

TRELAND.*

NEE that country close to England. Does it not
look like her little sister ?

Country. — Ireland, you know, has been
called the Emerald Isle, because the emerald
is a green stone, and the: fields of Ireland are
very green. And why are they so green?
Because it rains somuch. But it is not quite
so coid as it is in England.

Is Ireland beautiful ? Some parts of Ireland
are beautiful. t

Ireland has fine mountains and lakes, but it
has no large forests, though parts of the country
are richly wooded. Ireland has great bogs.
Bogs are soft ground which gives way under
your feet. Yet bogs are not exactly like
marshes. The air and water of marshes are
very unhealthy, whilst the air and water of
bogs are very healthy. Bogs, too, have a won-
derful power of preserving wood, and nearly
everything else. Once the bogs, or moors,
were covered with great forests, but the trees

_ â„¢ Ireland is 300 miles long, and about half as broad, and
is divided into four provinces.

t Especially the county Wicklow, and a district called
Connemara in the west,
134 IRELAND,

are all gone now. They decayed and turned
into a kind of sponge, which is used as fuel.
It is called ‘turf’ in Ireland, and ‘peat’ in
Scotland. The Irish dig up the turf with a
curiously shaped spade, which cuts it into
pieces about a foot long and half as wide.
They cut it in the beginning of the summer,
and leave it for some months to dry on the
bog before they bring it home; then it is
hard and black. It makes a very bright, clear
fire, but burns away much faster than coal.
The largest and best bog in Ireland is called
the Bog of Allen. Many parts of these bogs
are now turned into fields for grass or potatoes.
I do not know what the Irish would do without
their turf, for, although there are coals in Ire-
land, they are not as good as English coals, and
the people cannot get them. So much coal is
brought from England that it is quite as cheap
in Ireland as it is in those parts of England
which are not near the coal-pits.

Though Iveland is only sixty miles from Eng-
land, yet many English people know very little
about it. Some of them seem to think that the
Irish are half-savages, who live in mud cabins
with their pigs, and eat hardly anything but
potatoes. This is a great mistake. In some
_ of the wild parts of the country the people live
in very miserable cottages; but in the villages
they live in cottages made of stone, and the
IRELAND, 135

pigsties are outside at the back. In many
places the cottages have gardens in front, as
pretty as English gardens. There is generally
a little patch of potato-ground near the cottage,
and a cow or some goats grazing about,









Connemara Boatman.

I have heard of a family who kept a horse
in their room! ‘This family lived in a dark
cellar in a town, and they made brooms of
heather, and kept a horse to’ carry them about
to sell.
136 IRELAND.

Foop.—Potatoes used to be the food: po-
tatoes for breakfast, potatoes for dinner, and
potatoes for supper. Since the great famine
there have not been so many potatoes as there
used to be, and the poor people eat a great deal
of bread. Their food is generally the same as
that of working people in England, and they
drink as much tea. They use butter-milk to
drink and to make bread with. They often
eat stirabout, made of Indian meal. They are
fond of porter. Irish whisky is very famous,
but it is too expensive for poor people to drink
much of it.

APPEARANCE.—The Irish are a fine, strong
people. Their complexions are fair and rosy,
and the damp mild weather is very good for the
skin. Some have dark hair, yet even these
generally have blue eyes.

Dress.—The men often wear woollen stuff
called ‘ frieze, which is spun at home. The
women often wear blue cloaks. The poorest of
the Irish do not care much about mending their
clothes, and often wear them in rags.

ANIMALS.—The pig is the animal most often
seen in Ireland. The Irish treat him kindly. In
some places they even give him a corner of the
hut, and share their milk, and potatoes, and
bread with him. At last the day comes when the
pig must be taken to be sold. The master ties
a wisp of straw round piggy’s hind leg, and so
IRELAND. | 137

he drives him along the road till he comes to
the ship in which poor piggy is to sail for
England. The Irishman is very sorry to lose
his pig. It is very droll to see the pigs put
on board the ships, and to hear their masters
bidding them good-bye.

There are plenty of cattle in Ireland, and
they make beef for other countries.

There are goats, also, which give milk, and
the skins of the kids are made into gloves;
but the foxes and eagles take away many of
the young kids.

There are some animals very common in
England not to be found in Ireland—animals
which no one wishes to see—I mean snakes
and toads.

SCHOOLS. —The Irish children are rosy, merry
little creatures. They are much quicker than
English children, and learn much faster. There
are very good schools all over the country, and
the children are very well taught.

Almost all the Irish speak English, though
they have a language of their own. In the
ereater part of Ireland the people speak nothing
but English.*

CHARACTER.—What sort of people are the
Irish? The merriest, drollest people in the
world. They delight in a joke. They are

“ They never make mistakes with the letter 1, as some
English people do,
138 IRELAND.

very kind and good-natured when pleased, but
they.are hot-tempered, and therefore apt to be
quarrelsome. |

The Irish are very hospitable, and they are
very affectionate. I will show you how kind
the parents are to the children when they are
sick.

A good gentleman travelling in Ireland saw a
poor boy about eighteen years old lying in a
ditch upon some straw. There was a sort of
roof of straw placed over the ditch to keep the
rain off. A woman was sitting near with three
children. She wept and said,‘ A month ago he
was a fine lad.’ There were a great many rude
boys playing about with sticks and a ball. The
noise disturbed the sick youth. The mother
said to the gentleman, ‘ What a screaming they
make !—which kills him. Would your honour
but speak a word to them? maybe they would
stop.’ The gentleman told them to be quiet,
and they moved away. ‘Oh,’ said the poor.
woman, ‘when I speak to them they play all
the more. What will I do? What will I
do?’

How did she come to be living in a ditch
with her son? When at home she had heard
that her boy was taken sick; so she left her
hut, taking her little ones with her, and had
gone a great way till she had found him, and
then she had made a roof over the ditch and
IRELAND. 139

had nursed her poor son. If he got well,
surely he worked hard for his kind mother ?

There are not many rich people in Ireland.
Those who are rich, like best coming over to
England and living here, and this is one reason
the poor people are so very poor. They can-
not get work to do, and so they almost starve.
Hundreds of Irish people come over to England
every year in harvest-time, and numbers of
Irish leave their country every year for distant
~ lands.

RELIGION.—If you meet a poor man in
Ireland, and say to him, ‘It is a fine day!”
he will be sure to reply, ‘Yes; thank God!’
It things go wrong, instead of grumbling, the
people will say, ‘We must not complain; it is —
the will of God!’ The Gospel was preached
in Ireland before it was preached in England
or Scotland, and so many holy men lived there
long ago, that it used to be called the ‘Island of
saints.’ The name of one of these good men
was Patrick. He is the patron saint of Ireland.
Now the religion of the greater number of the
people is the Roman Catholic, which teaches
them many wrong things.

Instead of teaching them to confess their
sins to God alone, their religion teaches them
to go to the priest first, and to believe that the
priest will forgive them instead of God.

The Roman Catholic religion teaches them
140 IRELAND.

also to pray to the Virgin Mary, and to
saints and angels. Here is the prayer they
are taught to say, when they get up in the
morning :—

‘Jesus, Mary, and Joseph, I give you my
heart and my soul.’

The poor people are not allowed to read the
Bible, so they do not find out how wrong all these
things are. Some good men, who loved Ireland,
formed a Societyâ„¢ on purpose to send people to
teach the Bible to the Irish. This Society has
done so much good that now numbers of the
Irish have Bibles of their own. ‘There are
also a great many Protestant schools for the chil-
dren. In Dublin there are more than a thousand
scholars. Outside Dublin there is a school for
little children called the ‘ Birds’ Nest.’ It 1s
wonderful to hear the children in the Birds’
Nest answer Bible questions. Many a poor
child has dried its tears, and laughed for joy,
when it was told it should come and live in the
Birds’ Nest. You would not wonder if you
had seen the little creatures when they came
first; like Bobbie, who looked at his bleeding
feet, and then into the face of the kind lady
who received him, and said, ‘Please, sal me have
sues dere ?’

* The Society for Irish Church Missions to Roman
Catholes,
14}

STORY OF LITTLE EMILY.
(Of the Birds’ Nest.)

If you had seen Emily when she first came
to school, I am sure you would have said,
‘What a nice little girl!’ Yet, when her
mother brought her to school, she said she was
very wicked, and that she was so disobedient
she could not keep her at home any longer.

The ladies were surprised to hear this, and
one of them said,—

‘Emily, is it true that you are such a
naughty little girl ?’ |

‘I try not to be,’ the child answered, with a
sweet smile.

‘And if we take you in, will you try to be
obedient ?’

‘Oh yes, ma’am; please take me.’

How happy Emily was to hear she should
come for a month; and very good she was when
she came.

How was it, then, that her mother had given
her such a bad character? Did not she love
her child? Once she did; but now she had
turned against her because Emily had got a
New Testament, and had read it till she found
out how wrong the Roman Catholic religion is.
This made her mother so angry that she turned
1492 STORY OF LITTLE EMILY.

her out of the house. Emily now heard more
about Jesus than ever she had heard before,
and she began to love Him. She felt that
before she only knew Jesus in her head, now
she had Him in her heart.

In her new home every one loved the dear
little pale face, which had a bright red spot on
both cheeks. But instead of growing stronger,
Emily had a bad leg, and was obliged to be
taken to a hospital.

Her little Bible lay there under her . pillow.
‘I know,’ she said, ‘the Bible comforts many
people ; sure there must be enough in it to
comfort me?’ She had such great sufferings,
she said herself, ‘I never could have borne
them, if I had not known Jesus; but His arms
are always round me!’

Now Emily had tasted the love of Jesus her-
self, she talked about Him to a poor woman,
who was lying in the bed next her own. Emily
took great pains with her dull pupil, and re-
peated many texts to her, over and over again,
in her own sweet way, till the poor woman
really understood her.

Some time after this, Emily heard that her
kind friend had died quite happy, and rejoicing
in her Saviour.

The dear child was not surprised. She said,
‘God had heard her prayer, and had taught
this poor woman by His Holy Spirit.’ |
IRELAND. 143

Poor Emily had more pain still to bear.
She said one day, ‘ When people are in a ship,
and it has been very stormy, they enjoy reach-
ing the harbour more than when they have had
a good passage: so I shall enjoy heaven much
more than those who never had any pain!’

Her dying message to her schoolfellows was
this,—* Come to Jesus; He is more to me than
all His promises. I am dying; but, oh! tell
them all to come to Jesus!’

If you were to go to a Roman Catholic
Church, you would see a basin of water near
the door. What is it for? It is called ‘holy
water,’ because the priest has blessed it. Every-
one dips his hand into this water, and sprinkles
himself with it, and thinks that doing this will
keep him from Satan, O how foolish! Then
there is an altar at one end of the church
where the priests read prayers. On that altar
there is a plate of bread and a cup of wine,
and the priests say that they can turn this
bread and wine into the real body and blood
of the Lord Jesus Christ. While they pre-
tend to do this, a bell rings, and everybody
kneels down and worships the bread.

I will now tell you of a poor young woman
who would not believe what the priests said.
144 IRELAND.

She was a maid to a good clergyman, and
she heard him read the Bible at family prayers
every day. Catherine had never heard the
Bible before: she thought it very beautiful,
and she found out that the priests had taught
her wrong when she was a child. When she
went to her Roman Catholic Church, she saw
the image of the Virgin Mary crowned with
flowers, and she saw people bowing down before
it. She did not like to kneel down before it
any more. She saw the people go into little
seats covered up like boxes, where nobody
could see them, and she knew they went there
to confess their sins to the priest, that they
might be forgiven. But Catherine had heard
that Christ alone can forgive sins. At last
she determined never to go to the Roman
Catholic Church again, but only to the church
ofthe good clergyman; that is, to the Protestant
Church. |

- But when the priest found that Catherine
came no more to confess her sins, he cursed her
before all the congregation. It is very dread-
ful to hear a priest curse. He wears a black
dress, and then he curses the nose, and eyes,
and all the body of the poor creature, and then
puts out the candles one by one. Catherine
was told that the priest had cursed her; but
she knew that his words. could do her no
harm.
IRELAND. 145

Though words could not hurt her, blows
could. One day, when Catherine was going on
a message for her master, a wicked man, who
hated Christ’s people, suddenly threw a large
stone at the back of her head, and knocked her
to the ground; then he beat her on her back
and threw more stones at her, till she seemed
quite dead. And so he left her. But some kind
persons found her lying bleeding on the earth,
and they carried her to her master’s house.

There she came to herself; but she felt a
great deal of pain, and could not move.

Catherine did not get well, and she wished
to go home to her father’s cottage. There she
lay, year after year, not able to walk, or to
work for her living. But was she unhappy ?
No; she said her Saviour comforted her heart.
She was happier on her bed of pain than she
had ever been before, because she felt sure
that Jesus loved her, and that she had been
ill-treated for His sake. Many kind people
sent her money, and now and then a friend
went to see her.”

* Taken from the Children’s Friend for June, 1855,

J,
146

THK FAMINE.

The people had long lived upon potatoes ;
but the time came at last when the.potatoes
were not fit to eat. This was the famine. It
was a dreadful time. What bitter tears the
poor creatures shed over their blighted, black
potatoes! They wandered about the fields in
search of food. Happy were those who lived
by the sea-side, for they could pick up a few
shell-fish !

To give you an idea of the sorrows of the
_poor in the famine, I will relate the history of
one poor girl.

Biddy Lacy lived in a chine among the
hills of Connemara. She was the eldest
daughter of the family; she had two sisters,
named Catherine and Mary, and two brothers,
George and little Peter.

The whole family were very ignorant. As
they sat by the fire in the winter evenings,
they would tell each other histories about
miserable souls who could get no rest till the
priest was paid for praying for them. Such
were the histories the priests taught them to
believe. Often these poor people trembled, as
they thought of dying, lest they should not
have money enough to have prayers said for
THE FAMINE. 147

their souls. Soon death came. The potatoes
were spoiled as they lay inthe ground. The
furniture of the cottage was sold to pay the
rent,—even the bed, and the water-can, and
the potato-pot. Sometimes a whole day passed
without any of the family tasting food. What
did the parents feel as they looked around on
their hungry children? One night, the father
lay down on his straw as usual, but, in the
middle of the night he raised his head, and
said, ‘Is there anything at all to eat?’ His
children gave him cold water to drink, for
they had no food. The poor man cried out,
‘Lord, have mercy on my soul!’ and then grew ~
restless, fell into convulsions, and died.

The wife and children threw themselves upon
the dead body, and covered it with tears; but
they were so weak, they could hardly stand.
Next day the neighbours brought a coffin and
buried the poor man.

The family got a little food, or they would
all have died. They were now turned out of
their cottage, and this was a grief to them.
They went to another cottage; but they had no
garden in which to plant potatoes for another
year. Their only food now was a little stir-
about; that is, boiled meal, which was allowed
them from the workhouse; and a very, very
little it was,—not enough even for breakfast.

The poor mother soon called her children to
148 THE FAMINE.

her bedside, and said, ‘ George, won’t you bury
me with your father? I have not long to live:
the strings of my heart were broken when he
died; I will soon have rest: but the Father of
the orphan will protect you !’

She said no more. Biddy kissed her dying
mother, and found those lips were cold! She
fainted away, and when she cane to herself, she
felt her mother’s cold hand lying on her neck.

Biddy remembered what her mother had
said about the orphan’s God. She felt she
had no hope but in Him, and to Him she
prayed. She had never prayed in that way
before, for now she prayed with all her heart.
God heard her prayer, and made her know at
last He was the orphan’s God.

But Biddy had still many troubles to endure.
Mary, once a laughing, blooming child, was
now pale and sorrowful. She often put out
her thin hand, asking for something to eat;
and even in her sleep she sobbed and cried.
One night she awoke, saying, ‘I’m very
hungry ;’ then, stretching out her limbs and
clasping her arms round Biddy’s neck, she
expired. |

George was the next to go—a fine, strong
young man once—who could drive a spade
deeper into the earth than any lad in all the
country; but at last he could not lft it from
the ground. He fainted one day over his spade,
THE FAMINE, 149

as he was trying to earn a few pence, and he
was carried home by two men. He lingered
some days. No priests came near him, because
he had no money; and it was well they did
not, for they would only have shown him the
wrong way, instead of pointing him to Jesus
the avtace One night he said, ‘Have you
anything at all to give me to eat? If I had
but anything at all I would not die.’ The tears
flowed fast down Biddy’s cheeks, for she had
nothing to give her darling brother. He saw
her tears, and he began to weep too.

‘Biddy,’ said he, ‘help me tositup. Help me
quick ; Biddy dear, won’t you help me?’ Poor
Biddy was lying with her face on the ground,
praying that she might die before George ; but
she soon sprang up, and got Catherine and
Peter to help her to raise him. They placed
him on a chair. The dying youth gave one
sorrowful look, tried to speak, but could not:
his head fell back, and he died, leaning against
the wall. There were now only three left—
two young girls and a little boy. They could
taste no food that day, though they had theirâ„¢
usual allowance of stirabout. They knew not
how to get their brother buried; but at last a
man helped them to carry the body to a place
behind the house, and to make a hole and bury
it there.

Catherine was next in age to Biddy, a gentle
150 THE FAMINE,

girl, who minded all her sister said. Once she
was like a kid—runnine over the fields, and
singing like a lark; but now she never moved,
except to look for shell-fish on the beach, or to
scrape the fields, in hopes of finding a few
potatoes. She lay down, as the rest had done,
upon the wisp of straw in the corner, her skin
_ burning like an oven, and her eyes like coals of
fire, while all day long she was calling for water
to quench her thirst. Biddy told the officers of
the workhouse of her sister’s state, and soon she
saw them come and fetch her away to the Fever
Hospital. There, Catherine died, without a
friend to close her eyes,

There was none left with Biddy but little
Peter. He had been the pet of all, because he
was the youngest; and he often had more than
his share of food, because none could bear to
hear him crying from hunger. His legs, once
stout and sturdy, were now like two spindles,
and his little body was nothing but skin and
bones. He fell sick and lay on the straw.
One night, in his sleep, he called for food; he
woke, looked wildly around, breathed heavily,
and died. Biddy sat all alone, looking at him
by the light of the fire. Now all were gone!

Biddy wished to die too, for she felt as if
her heart would break. But she was com-
forted by remembering her mother’s words
about the orphan’s God. She heard of a place
THE FAMINE, 151

where orphans were fed and clothed. She knelt
down and prayed to the orphan’s God that she
might be taken into the Orphans’ Nursery.
She went there and told her history, and she
was admitted.

Is Biddy happy there ?

Yes; she is. Hear her own words: ‘I
am very happy here, only the thought of my
poor family comes over me like a cloud ;
but here I am learning about my Saviour, for
without Him what would the whole world be
tome? I often think how good God was to
me for bringing me here. Sure, I would be
always on my knees praying for the souls of
my father and mother, brothers and sisters,
thinking they would be lost: only now, I thank
the Lord Jesus. He opened my eyes. I never
can see a priest but I tremble all over. For
if the priests had the power to help the souls of
my parents, they did not do it, because we had
no money for them; and if they have not the
power, why do they pretend they have, and get
money for doing what they cannot do? Oh! I
feel thankful to my Saviour, the orphan’s God,
who heard my prayer. Sure, what I suffered
is nothing atall to what He suffered on account
of my sins; glory and honour to His name!’
ae
OF
)

THE ORPHANS NURSERY.

This is the name of the place where Biddy
Lacy was received.

After the famine, there were cupieesd of
orphans wandering about the country, with no
one to take care of them. A kind English
clergyman was travelling in a car, and he saw
a little orphan, only two years old, with nothing
but a rag round its body, sitting on a heap of
rubbish by the way-side, and he observed a pig
come up and seize it by the shoulders. Alarmed
for the babe, he jumped out of his car, drove
away the pig, and delivered the little one from
being torn to pieces. |

‘Poor babe !’ thought he; *‘ how many there
are, like you, deprived of a parent’s tender care,
and exposed to the cruelty of men and beasts!’

God put the thought in the good man’s heart.
He could not sleep till he had determined to
open a house for helpless orphans.

That house is in Connemara, among bleak
hills and wild rocks. It is built on the top of
the high cliffs, in the midst of a green meadow,
with a fine view of the sea. There-is a master
to teach the boys not only how to read and
write, but also how to plough and reap; and
there is a mistress to train the girls to be
DUBLIN. 153

useful servants. The Orphans’ Nursery has
sixty boys.

Some children, who have parents of their
own and money to spend as they like, help
these poor orphans by sending them some
little gifts.

DUBLIN.

Dublin, the chief city, is very beautiful. It
is built on the river Liffey, near where it flows
into a bay called Dublin Bay. What is a bay?
When the land, instead of going straight along
by the sea, is in the shape of half a round, then
the sea is called a bay. A bay is very beautiful.
In a bay the sea is smoother and gentler than
in other parts, so that ships lie quietly and
are not tossed about by the waves. —























































ar

x



os mee SS Soe — Se ee — eG

Kingstown Harbour, in Dublin Bay.
154 DUBLIN.

There are some very fine buildings and some
very handsome streets in Dublin; they are
broad and straight, and pleasant to walk in.
The finest street of all is called Sackville Street.
In London there are many pretty squares, with
iron railings round them, and trees and grass
in the middle, where children play by the side
of their nurses. But there are much larger
squares In Dublin, with fine trees and pretty
shrubs. But Dublin is not beautiful all over.
There are parts where the poor people live,
crowded together, in rags, and dirt, and misery,
just as there are in London.

There is a park at the west end of Dublin
which is one of the finest in the world. It is
called the Phcenix*® Park. There are lovely
gardens in it, called the People’s Gardens, where
any one who likes can go and walk and enjoy
the fresh air.

There are two beautiful Protestant Cathe-
drals. They are both very old. The oldest is
called Christ. Church, and it was built by a
Danish Prince before William the Conqueror
came to England.

Dublin is famous for stuff called Poplin,
which is only made in Ireland.

_* The ancients used to talk about a bird called a phenix,
which, they said, was the most wonderful bird that ever
lived.
CORK—BRELFAST—LIMERICK. 155

CORK is the largest town in the South of
Ireland.” Ships sail from Cork, filled with food
for other countries. Pork, and beef, and bacon,
and butter and eggs, are packed up in boxes
and barrels, and sent far away.

BELFAST is an important place, and has
many factories. The people are very industrious.

Belfast is famous for its linen. The flax
erows in Ireland. The stalks are spun into
thread, and the thread is woven into linen. At
first the linen is not white, but the Irish can
bleach it, or make it white. The fields round
Belfast are covered with linen which is turning
white. It must look asif there was snow on
the ground, for Irish linen is almost as white
as snow.

LIMERICK, on the river Shannon, is the
fourth city. Have you ever heard of Limerick

gloves? They are made of the skins of Irish
kids.

* Tt has one of the finest harbours in the kingdom. Near
Cork there is an island called Spike Island, where prisoners
are sent when they are condemned to hard labour.
156 IRELAND. ”

The finest river in Ireland is the Shannon.
There is no river in England, or Wales, or
Scotland, as broad and lone as the Shannon.
The Irish are much pleased to have such a
splendid river in their country. The colour of
its waters is a very dark brown. What turns
the water this colour? It is the bogs through
which the water passes, that make it that colour.



Salmon Fishing,

Yet itis avery beautiful river, for the waters
flow fast, and foam and dash along, and some-
times they fall down from a height and make a




















































































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IRELAND. 157

great noise among the rocks. Near the town of
Athlone the river Shannon is very broad, and
dotted with wooded islands. Salmon is caught
in the river Shannon.

Some parts of [reland are very beautiful. The
Lakes of Killarney are the most lovely sight in
Ireland. There are no lakes in England or
Scotland like them. They are surrounded by
mountains, which are covered with ferns and
with a beautiful shrub, called the ‘arbutus.’
This shrub is often to be seen in the gardens of.
England, but in Ireland it grows in the fields.

There are some strange-looking towers in
Ireland, called Round Towers. Some of them
are about a hundred feet high. They must
have been built before good King Alfred lived
in England. No one knows why they were
built; but they are always near some church.

There are no very high mountains in Ireland.

In the North of Ireland there is a wonderful
place called the Giant’s Causeway. There are
huge piles of stone columns, which run into
the sea. The columns are about thirty feet
high.

Kindly revised by M, A. Berry.
108

FRANCE.

COUNTRY AND PEOPLE.—France is much larger
_ than England—more than four times as large.
It 1s a sunny land, and is often called ‘ La belle
France,’ or beautiful France.

It lies between the Atlantic and the Mediter-
ranean, and is bounded by seas and mountains
on all sides, except where it touches the Nether-
lands and Germany.

It seems to invite travellers from all parts.
You need only cross the water in a steam-boat
from England, and, in less than two hours,
you can reach France. You will see the same
kinds of trees and hills that you saw in England,
but not the same sort of people. Many of the
working men wear blue blouses and wooden
shoes, called sabots; and many of the women
wear caps instead of bonnets, long earrings,
and handkerchiefs very neatly folded. French
women are very tidy. However poor they are,
they always mend their clothes, and are never
seen in rags; and they have a very graceful
way of putting on their shawls and handker-
chiefs. Very few French people have rosy
cheeks, or light hair; most of them have




be t ri

aE

P. 159,

Sabots.
FRANCE. 159

dark complexions, and brown or black ‘eyes;
they hold up their heads, walk briskly, and



look gay and smiling,






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Women of Normandy.

It would take a thousand countries as big as
France to cover our globe; yet there are only
forty times as many people in the world ay
there are in France.” The French language
is spoken all over the world. It is the very
best language for conversation; but English
people seldom speak it well, unless they learn
it when they are very young.

“ There are about thirty-six millions of people in France,
and there would have been still more if some lands had not
been given over to Germany, after the war of 1871.—See
Géographie par Elisée Reclus,
160 FRANCE.

France used to be divided into provinces,
some larger and some smaller; but now it is
divided into eighty-six departments, which are
generally named after some river or mountain,”
and which are each about the size of Lincoln-
shire. |
French people are very lively, very fond of
talking, and very fond of company. ‘They like
better being out-of-doors than at home, and the
weather is so pleasant that I do not wonder they
like being in the open air. There is generally
a place near the towns in France, planted with
trees on each side, and there the people come
and walk every evening, and sit on benches and
talk. The poor women, who cannot leave home,
take their chairs and place them outside their
cottages, and sit and knit together.

Some of the roads in France are planted with
apple-trees. As you go down to the south, or
lower part of France, you will see still sweeter
fruits. The fields are full of vines, twisted round.
long poles, and bunches of white and purple
erapes hang down towards the ground.

It is very pretty to see a cottage with vines
creeping over the trellis-work, and one or two
fig-trees, with their broad, dark leaves stretch-
ing over the wall. It puts one in mind of the
beautiful promise in the Bible, —< They shall
_* The Island of Corsica, where Napoleon I, was born, is
counted as one of the eighty-six departments,
FRANCE. ] 61

sit every man under his vine and under his
fig-tree.’—Mic. iv. 4,

There are many sweet flower-gardens in
France, and poor people often pick nosegays,
and throw them into the carriage windows, in
hopes the travellers will give them a few pence.

Mignonnette is called the Frenchman’s flower.
It has a very sweet smell, though its light green
colour is not very gay. But the lily is the flower
that France has chosen for her flower, while the
rose 1s the flower of England.

Gardens in France are not always as pretty
as those in England, because the walks are often
straight, between high, smooth edges of box, or
rows of trees, while in England we have winding
shrubberies, and green lawns with flower-beds
scattered about. But sometimes the French
make a garden like ours, and call it an English
garden.

About half a quarter of France is covered
with forests of oak, and beech, and other
English trees. In the south of France, cork
trees, olive, chestnut, walnut, mulberry, and
citron trees grow. France is famous for fruit
—apples, pears, plums, and cherries; and it
yields plenty of corn and potatoes. Some of
the best wine comes from places where the soil
is very poor and stony. The French make a
great deal of sugar from beet root. In some
parts they bring up poultry, and send numbers

M
162 FRANCE.

of eggs to England. In the south they get
salt from the sea-water, and heap it up into
great stacks, which they thatch like haystacks.

‘There is one part of France which is very
dreary, and which is called ‘les Landes.’ It
seems like a vast moor or plain, with miles
and miles of hills of fine white sand, which is
being constantly blown into the sea and then
washed up again on the shore. Yet the people
of the Landes are very contented. They are
shepherds, and follow their flocks along the
marshy pools and on the sandy plains. At
a distance, these shepherds look like a mass of
rough wool. On their feet they wear rough
socks and wooden shoes, and all the rest of
their bodies are covered with the sheep’s fleece.
They can go very fast, for they walk on stilts,
which they call shanks. They often have a
third stick behind them, in order to rest their
backs; so that they are quite at their ease, and
are able to knit as they go. Day after day
they never touch the ground with their feet,
and never stop knitting with their hands.
They carry their food with them, a few dried
fish and a few onions, a little garlic and some
rye-bread, which may have been baked two or
three weeks before. They take something to
drink in a gourd, which they hang across their
shoulders.

Very often when an Englishman dies the
FRANCE. 163

eldest son inherits more than the other chil-
dren; but in France all the children share
equally. There are, therefore, in France fewer
great parks and beautiful places, and many more
small farms and tiny vineyards. Perhaps one
reason that the peasants are so industrious is
that they hke working on their own bit of land.
If the sun does not ripen their grapes (and some-
times it does not) they suffer very much. French
peasants are very frugal; instead of drinking tea,
as we do in England, they drink coffee, and soup,
or sugar and water.

For breakfast, they eat bread or chestnuts.

For dinner, they have soup made of vege-
tables, eggs, and rye-cakes or bread.

And for supper the same as at dinner.

But they often get nice fruit, which people
in England cannot get, and often they drink a
little wine.

I will tell you a short story, to show you
how industrious some of the peasants are.

An English gentleman had hired a house and
garden.- The garden was overrun with weeds.
The gentleman got a labourer to come and put
it in order. He told the man that when he
had made it quite neat, he would give him
some money. How hard the peasant worked!
He began his work before the sun was up, at
three or four o’clock, and he did not leave off
till seven or eight. He rested for two hours
164 FRANCE,

in the heat of the day, but he never went home.
He thought that, would take too much time.
There he was—first with his pickaxe tearing
up the ground; then removing the weeds and
the stones, and afterwards digging it all up.
His food was coarse brown bread, a bottle of
milk, and dried grapes. But you will be sur-
prised to hear what he ate instead of cheese, or
bacon—it was snails, which he found in the old
walls of the garden, and which he thought very
nice.

This man had a little vineyard of his own,
and he made haste to finish the gentleman’s
garden, that he might go and work in his own
vineyard.

The poor women work very hard. They are
glad to help their husbands in their own little
fields, or to earn money by working out. They
may often be seen ploughing, or digging, or
carrying baskets of manure on their heads.
In England, women make hay and pick up
stones, and gather weeds, but they do not work
as hard as men. The old women in France are
made very brown by the sun.

If you wander out in the evening, and come
to a river-side, you will perhaps hear the noise
of talking, laughing, and hammering. It is
some women washing clothes. They have
soaked the linen at home in hot water with
soap, and have carried it down to the river to
FRANCE. 165

finish washing it. They have spread it on
boards, and are beating it very fast and very
hard with a sort of wooden spade. I think
they must soon beat their clothes into holes.

The peasant women used to dress in one
manner in one part of France, and in another
manner in another part. Their manner of dress
was called their costume. This was one of the
costumes.
border, a red jacket, a white cap, and a very
small hat worn on one side of the head. Now
that there are so many railroads all over
France, and that people travel about so
much, costumes are not so much worn as
they used to be, and people dress much more
alike.

Foop.—You have heard what the peasants
eat. The rich people are fond of delicate
dishes, Their cooks are considered very clever,
and even English people, who wish to have very
fine dinners, send for French cooks to live with
them. A common dish at dinner is soup, and
the piece of meat which has been used for
making it. There is no plum-pudding, but
cake and fruits instead. A great many sweet-
meats and sugar-plums are made in France.
Some of them are made of sugar and some of
chocolate, and they are of all shapes, and sizes,
and colours. Boxes of ‘bon-bons,’ that look
very pretty, are sent to England; but children
166 FRANCE,

who eat many, soon spoil their teeth, and hurt
their health.

CHILDREN.—Some French parents like to
make them little men and women. They
take them out with them, keep them up
late, and let them eat unwholesome food.
Children of five or six years old often dine
with company, when they would be happier
in the nursery. ‘The children are often smartly
dressed. |

An English lady and gentleman once observed
a little boy of five or six years old walking up
and down by himself in the middle of the road.
Everything he had on seemed to be new, from
his broad-brimmed, white straw hat, to his jet-
black shoes. He seemed proud of his dress,
strutting and looking about to see who ad-
mired him. Presently the strangers heard a
loud laugh, and turning round, they saw a lady
standing on the stone steps of a house. This
lady was the boy’s mother. She said, ‘ This
is the first day he has worn. that dress. O the
little fellow! he walks like a king—the little
darling !’

You see that the mother was pleased with
her boy, though he was so vain and foolish. I
fear he will not grow up a wise man. There
are many little boys in England who are
quite as foolish. I hope you will try to be
wiser.
FRANCE. - 167

Do you remember the verse :—

‘Fine clothes, fine houses, pretty things,
That please our longing eyes,
Would only make our hearts forget
Our treasure in the skies?’

In French schools, the masters have a great
day for giving the boys rewards.
once went to see the prizes given at a school.
The master stood near a table covered with
books to be given as rewards. Near it was
a basket full of wreaths of flowers. Some
priests were seated on gilded chairs with velvet
cushions, and the boys were standing near them.
After the boys had repeated a great deal, and
answered many questions, the master called
some of them up to receive prizes. As soon |
as the first boy came near the table, a band of
music began to play: then one of the priests
gave him a book, and at the same time took a
wreath out of the basket and placed it on his
head like a crown. It was made of gilded leaves.
Then the priest kissed the boy on each cheek.
The second boy had a crown with green leaves
and blue flowers. Only the first boy had a
golden crown. Some of the prizes were given
to the boys by their own mothers. It was
with great joy the mothers viewed the green
wreaths on the heads of their little ones, and
kissed their cheeks. But I fear that this plan
must make the children very vain, and that
168 | FRANCE.

they must grow up wishing to be praised and
admired.

French people are careful to teach their
children three things,—honesty, honour, and
good manners: honesty, in caring for other
people’s goods; honour, in avoiding all-that is
mean and cowardly; and good manners, in
trying always to say what is agreeable, and
taking care to say nothing that could give pain.
Even poor children are taught to be polite, and
to say, ‘Sir,’ and ‘ Madam.’

In England people have almost left off say-
ing, ‘Sir,’ and ‘Ma’am;’ though they always say
‘Madam’ to the Queen, or to very great people.

In France every one says ‘ Monsieur, and
‘Madame,’ whenever they speak to a stranger. |

The French Government takes great pains
about schools, and does all it can to support
and inspect them.

RELIGION.—The chief religion in France is
the same as in Ireland—the Roman Catholic.
I have told you that it is not the religion of the
Bible, for though the French people pray to
the Lord Jesus Christ, as we do, they pray also
to the Virgin Mary.

The month of May, the sweetest month in
the year, is called the month of Mary. In that
month a great deal of honour is done her.

' A clergyman, who was travelling, went into
- achurch in France, about six o’clock one May
FRANCE, 169

morning. He observed in the porch a great
many baskets, and, when he entered, he found
hundreds of poor women and a few men listen- —
ing to a preacher. Near the pulpit, he observed
a number of steps adorned with lights, and
covered with jars of beautiful fresh flowers.
At the top of the steps, there was a large image
of the Virgin Mary, with a crown and a superb
dress, and holding in her arms the image of a
very small baby. The traveller now found out
why the baskets were in the porch. The poor
women had brought flowers in honour of the
Virgin. The sermon was all about Mary. It
would have been true, if the preacher had said
she was a humble and blessed woman, but he
said much more. He declared that she could
pray to God for us, and even that she could
help us in every trouble, and save our souls in
death. When he had finished the sermon he
sald, ‘ Let us pray,’ and then he and all the
people turned towards the image, and made a
long prayer to Mary. The traveller remem-
bered that God had said, ‘ Thou shalt not make
to thyself any graven image.’ He was shocked
to see people worship Mary and her image, and
he left the church with a sad heart.

There is. another commandment which is
much broken in France. It is the fourth,—
‘Remember the Sabbath-day to keep it holy.’
The shops are often kept open all Sunday.
170 | FRANCE,

Still a great many people go to church in the
morning, where they hear the priests singing
their Latin prayers, and see them holding up a
water to be worshipped. The people think this
wafer has been changed into the Lord’s body
by the priests.

There are no pews in the churches, but there
are chairs heaped up in one corner; and if
people want to sit down, they hire a ‘shady for
‘a halfpenny. They may sit down in what part
of the church they like, and go out and come
in when they please; so there 1s some con-
fusion and bustle in the churches.

On Sunday evening, the French play at all
kinds of games, and go to see sights, and to
hear music, and they meet together to dance.
Often they dance out-of-doors between tall hedges
clipped close, which serve instead of walls.

There are houses in France called convents.
In some of these, women live, called nuns.
They have promised to live there always, and
to spend their time in worshipping God and in
doing good. They think they please God by
shutting themselves up in a house together.
Many mothers send their little girls to these
nuns to be taught. But what do the nuns
teach? They teach their little scholars to
work, to read, to write, and to sing, and to
‘draw; and also they teach them to worship
the Virgin Mary. English parents ought
FRANCE, 171

never to send their children to convents to
be taught.



An English gentleman and lady, who wished
to see a convent, were shown into a small room,
where there was an iron grating with a black
gauze curtain before it. They waited till a nun
came and looked through the iron grating. She
was dressed in black, had a large black hood
falling over part of her face, and by her side she
wore a large gold cross. She looked amiable
and spoke in a gentle voice. The travellers
asked whether they might see the convent.
The nun inquired whether they had any children
to place there. But when the travellers replied,
‘No,’ the nun would not let them come in.

GOVERNMENT.— Is there a King of France ?
There have been many kings. But the French
have no king now. The last king left his palace
172 FRANCE.

in great haste. There were crowds under his
windows, and he was afraid they would burst
in, So he left his dinner unfinished on the
table, he did not stop to pack up his clothes,
but, with his queen on his arm, he hurried
through the streets, and got into a carriage,
and drove off. Many people saw the king
go, but they did not try to keep him. They
said, ‘Let him go.’ Where did he go? To
Kngland, where he spent the rest of his life.
This was King Louis Philippe.

There has since been an Emperor, called
Napoleon III. He was conquered by the
King of Prussia. That King of Prussia be-
came Emperor of Germany, and Napoleon
came to England, with his beautiful Empress
and onlyson,and lived at Chislehurst till hedied.

The young Prince went to Woolwich to learn
to be a soldier. He was so brave and gentle
every one loved him. He asked leave to go to
Africa with the English army. The night be-
fore he started he sat up very late writing his
will, In it, he remembered all his faithful
servants, and spoke most affectionately of his
mother, the Empress, and most gratefully of
our beloved Queen and country.

On the first of June, 1879, he was surprised
and killed by the Zulus a few miles from
the camp. He died a soldier’s death—his
sword in his hand and: facing the enemy.
FRANCE, | 173

His body was brought to England, where it was
received with great honours and many tears.

on



The Prince Imperial.

In the Prince’s Prayer-book a long prayer
was found, written with his own hand. It
began, ‘My God, I give You my heart, do
You give me faith. Without faith we cannot
pray fervently, and my soul cannot live without
prayer.’ |

France is a Republic now, and the head of
the Republic is called the President, in France,
as he is in America.
174 FRANCE.

CHARACTER.—There are no people so gay and
so polite as the French. To please their com-
pany, they pay a great many compliments which
are not always sincere. The French are called
witty, because they say things whieh make
people laugh. Thev are exceedingly brave in
war, and have fought many battles. They have
now a very fine army and a great many ships.
French people are very ingenious, and can make
very curious ornaments. French prisoners have
picked up the straw they found on the floor of
the prison, and they have covered boxes with
these straws cut into slips, and have made them
look beautiful. |

The best silk, beautiful clocks and orna-
ments, fine cambric, and rich lace, are all
made in France.

It was a Frenchman who invented the bal-
loon. His daughter lived to see it used during
the siege of Paris. It was a Frenchman who
discovered the art of making photographs. His
name was Niepce.* It was a Frenchman who
invented gas-lighting. His name was Philippe
le Bon. It cost him thirty years of study, and
he spent so much money in experiments that he
was ruined when he died. The English went
on with his discovery, and London was lighted
with gas two years before Paris.

* A statue is raised to Niepce at Chalons-sur-Saone.
PARIS.

Though Paris is not as large as London, it is
much gayer and brighter. It has large open
squares and long avenues, sparkling fountains
and splendid palaces, ancient churches with
painted-glass windows, elegant statues and
monuments, and shops filled with tempting and
elittering goods. It has the largest library
in the world, and some of the most famous
pictures. It has twenty-two bridges over the
river Seine; and it has great triumphal arches,
in memory of battles which the French have
gained.

People, dressed in the height of fashion,
drive for miles along the fine broad roads,
which lead to a favourite park called the Bois
de Boulogne. It is very amusing to see all the
different kinds of dresses and carriages. People
often sit on chairs, on the grass, by the side of
the broad way, and nurses, and troops of chil-
dren, may be seen amusing themselves there,
too. |

There are also long avenues of trees, and,
lately, one particularly beautiful tree from
Japan has been brought to Paris. It is called
Paulownia Imperialis, after the Princess of
the Netherlands.
176 PARIS.

Paris has also a zoological garden, which igs
called the Jardin des Plantes, and which con-
tains all kinds of curious animals. Under the
city are many underground passages, called
Catacombs.

In Paris there are a great many places,
called cafés, where lemonade, and sweetmeats,
and coffee, and ices, and other things are sold.
Sometimes in front of the cafés, chairs are put on
the pavements of the streets, and little tables,
where people sit and talk.

There are always the sounds of laughing and
talking in the streets, There are also many
stalls, where books and pipes are sold; for the
French people are very fond of amusing books,
and like to know the last news.

What French people care for most, is fine
dress. Every week there are new fashions, new
shapes for bonnets, and new colours. Pictures
are drawn of the fashions, and sent to other
countries, and English people like to dress as
the people do at Paris.

Each family in Paris does not have a whole
house to itself. On each floor of a house there
is a different family. When you come upstairs,
you see three doors; one takes you into a
drawing-room, another into a dining-room, and
another into a large bed-room; then, on each
side of these, there are kitchens, and more bed-
rooms. The rooms are not so comfortable as they
PARIS. 177

are in England. There are carpets in winter, but
in the spring, a man comes and takes away the
carpets to clean them, and he brings them back
before the next winter. The beds are very
pretty; they have no posts to them, but curtains
hanging from the top. ‘These sort of beds are
often seen in England, and they are called
French beds. The windows of the houses open
like doors. The French are fond of ornaments,
and they place little clocks, and figures, and
jars about all their rooms,

In one respect Paris is much _pleasanter
than London—there is no smoke. Everything
does not turn black as in London. And
why not? Because, instead of coals, wood is
burnt. There is no poker to the fire, but only
a pair of tongs, with which to turn the logs.

Outside Paris, there are more palaces and
more parks, more fountains and more pictures.
There is a manufactory of lovely tapestry,
called Gobelins. The person who makes this
tapestry sits at the back, wherehe can not even
see the beautiful picture he is weaving. There
is also a manufactory of the lovely china which
is called Sévres china, which is made nowhere
else.

One of the pretty hills outside Paris is called
Belle Ville* Though the place has such a

* Belle Ville means beautiful town.
N
178 PARIS.

beautiful name, the people who live there are
very poor. They were called Communists,
because they wished everything to be in
common—that is, to belong to all people
equally. When the German War was over,
the Communists tried to burn down. Paris,
because they were so miserable themselves.
Many of them were taken prisoners, and put
to death.

A young Danish lady came to Paris just
after five hundred Communists had been
shot. The very next day she visited a famous
cemetery, called Pére la Charse, and there she
saw two long trenches where the Communists
had been buried. Crowds of women were
standing there, lamenting their sons, their
brothers, their husbands. Who was now left
to keep them from starving? Miss de Broen
resolved to do all she could for them. She
saved them from starving by teaching them to
work. She found them so ignorant that they
did not even know the name of God. When
she asked them who wrote the Bible, only one
replied. What did she say?—*C’est vous,
Mademorselle.’

Miss De Broen worked very hard to teach
these poor Communists about the Saviour, and
she was rewarded by hearing many of them ask
how they could be saved.

One man said he used never to think of
PARIS. 17 9

washing anything but his hands, but he felt
now he must get Jesus to wash his heart.
Though Miss de Broen had many _ kind
friends to help her, yet there was so much to
be done that she almost died from over-
work.

There is another lady doing a great deal of
good in Paris. Her name is Miss Leigh. She
has a nice Home there for English girls. oreat manyâ„¢ come to Paris to learn French, or
dressmaking, or cooking, and they often have
no home and no friends. Miss Leigh receives
them, and many little orphans besides. She
has also a Sunday School, and a Nursery for
children whose mothers go out to work.

* 30,000 English are living in Paris.
~ 180

STORY OF LIZZIE.
(One of Miss Leigh’s Scholars.)

Lizzie was ten years old. She had-fair hair
and blue eyes. Her father was a servant; her
mother was very industrious and very careful.
Instead of giving her children wine, as many
people do in Paris, because the water there is
unwholesome, she gave them cold, weak tea.
Lizzie liked sewing in Miss Leigh’s class, and
she liked fetching soup from Miss Leigh’s
kitchen. But poor little Lizzie fell ill. She
was carefully wrapped in a blanket and carried
to the Hospital. As soon as she arrived there .
she begged leave to say her prayers. She was
too ill to kneel; but as she lay in her little bed
she prayed for all whom she loved, that they
might go to heaven to be with Jesus, and she
repeated her little hymns. She suffered a great
deal, and the doctors could do nothing to make
her better. Quite suddenly she looked up with
a bright smile, and said, ‘I shall be perfectly
satisfied with the fatness of Thy house.’
Then she stretched out her little arms, and
said, ‘Take me, Jesus!’ The Good Shepherd
heard her prayer, and gathered her to His
fold.
LYONS—BORDEAUX. 18]

Lyons.— This is the second city of France,
and is famous for silk and velvet. It is on
the river Rhone, which is a finer river than
the Seine, and which sometimes overflows and
drowns many people.

BORDEAUXâ„¢ is on the river Garonne, which
is crossed by a beautiful bridge. The new
city of Bordeaux is called ‘the Laughing,’ and
has both pure, sweet air, and fine squares and
avenues. ‘The old city has a grand cathedral,
and very curious old houses and narrow streets.
A great deal of wine comes from Bordeaux.

On the longest river in France, the river
Loire, stands the town of Orleans, where there
is a statue of the famous Jeanne d’Arc, who was
called the Maid of Orleans. She was so brave
that she saved her country, but I am sorry to
say that she was cruelly put to death by the
Knglish.

* A few miles below Bordeaux the river Garonne stretches
into anarm of the sea, which is called La Gironde,
182

THE LITTLE FRENCH MOUNTAINEER.

The high mountains which lie between France
and Switzerland are called the Alps. On some
of the mountains, French people live. The
French, you know, are Roman Catholics. Iam
going to tell you about a little French Roman
Catholic. |

Marietta was born in a small village upon the
top of a mountain. A stream rolled down the
mountain-side with a great noise into the deep
valley beneath. It was a beautiful spot which
Marietta’s infant eyes first beheld. But the air
was cold, and the ground was barren. The
villagers were very poor. Corn and vegetables
did not grow in their little gardens and in their
fields, for the high mountains all around kept
off the beams of the sun, and hindered plants
from ripening fully. The poor people tried to
keep themselves warm in winter by letting their
sheep and cows live with them. They made
no windows in their houses, because they could
not get glass; and they made no chimneys
either, but were satisfied with the smoke going
out at the door, —

You may suppose that these hovels were
very dark and dirty. In one of them, lived
Marietta, the little shepherdess, with her
grandfather and grandmother. Though her
father was alive she did not live with him, —~


THE LITTLE FRENCH MOUNTAINEER. 183

but she often saw him, as he lived in a village
very near.

In the summer Marietta led her flock among
the mountains, and watched over them while
they fed by the side of the steep precipices.
And how did the httle shepherdess pass her
time as she sat beside her lambs? Did she
ever repeat that sweet psalm that King David
sane when he was a shepherd ?—‘ The Lord is
my shepherd; I shall not want. He maketh
me to he down in green pastures; He leadeth
me beside the still waters.’ Marietta could
repeat no psalms—could sing no hymns; she
had no Bible, and she had never learned to
read. Roman Catholics are not allowed to read
the Bible. Little Marietta had heard that there
was a book which told about the Lord Jesus
Christ. She longed to hear what was written
in this blessed book. Perhaps you wonder how
she came to hear of the Bible. I must tell you,
then, that there are some Protestants in France.
There were some Protestant villages near the
place where Marietta lived. In these villages
there were Bibles and Sunday-schools. Some
of the little girls, who took care of sheep on the
mountains, went to Sunday-schools, and had
Bibles of their own. Marietta begged these
children to bring their books with them, and to
read to her about Jesus. Oh! how she loved to
hear about Him lying in the manger, and dying
184 THE LITTLE FRENCH MOUNTAINEER.

on the cross, and rising from the grave, and
sitting in the heavens! But Marietta had an-
other way of learning about our Saviour. When
she saw people passing by, she would modestly
ask from what village they came; and if she
found it was from a Protestant village, she
would ask them many questions about the Lord
Jesus and the way of salvation. All they told
her she tried to remember, and she thought
about it as she tended her flock ;—yes, she
thought of the Good Shepherd who gave His
life for His sheep, and she wished to be one of
His little lambs. =

One day Marietta met the good minister of
the Protestant villages. His name was Félix
Neff. He kindly took notice of this poor child,
and asked her whether she could read.

Marietta burst into tears, and answered, ‘ Oh,
if they would but let me go to the Sunday-
school in this place, I should soon learn; but
they say I know too much already.’ The
minister felt very sorry for her, and inquired
who prevented her coming.’ When she told
him that neither her grandfather, nor grand-
mother, nor father, would let her come, Félix
felt very sorry, and he determined to ask her
father to allow her to come. He went to him,
but could not persuade him to let the child be
taught. Little Marietta could not feed her lambs
among the mountains in winter, for then they
THE LITTLE FRENCH MOUNTAINEER. 1809

were covered with snow. In the winter the
poor child was shut up in her dark, smoky
hovel, where there was nobody to teach her.
But though she could not hear, she could think,
and she could pray; and she dzd think, and
she did pray, and God put more grace into her
heart, and made her feel how wrong it was to
go to the Roman Catholic church, where the
people worship images. So, when the spring
returned, and people were able to leave their
cottages again, Marietta told her grandfather
and grandmother that she could not goto their
church and hear the mass (which is the name
of the service at the Roman Catholic churches).
They told her she must go, but she knew it
was better to obey God than man. Then they
beat her, but she did not cry, for she had
heard that Jesus said, ‘ Blessed are they which
are persecuted for righteousness’ sake.’ Her
grandfather and grandmother only beat her
the more because she did not cry; but still
Marietta behaved like the three young men
who were cast into the fiery furnace—still she
said she would not worship idols. Then they
complained of her to her father, but Marietta
spoke so sweetly to him, and told him so meekly
why she could not goto mass, that he felt
afraid to beat her, lest he should be sinning
. against God.

| \ The kind minister heard how Marietta was
186 THE LITTLE FRENCH MOUNTAINEER.

treated, and was very much grieved: but what
could he do to help her ?

One day, he was passing along the mountains,
with two of his friends, and he was just stop-
ping at the bridge, that was placed over the
torrent of water of which I told you before,
when he saw a flock of lambs running down the
mountains, and coming towards him. Whose
lambs were these ? Marietta, had seen the min-
ister a great way off, and had run to meet him.
She was out of breath and full of joy. She
thanked Félix for having tried to persuade her
father to let her go to school on Sundays; and
she told him all her troubles, and how she
trusted in God her Saviour to help her. She
could not talk long with the minister because
she had her flock to tend.

Gi in, |
ik

{i
ie

ey
' Vs , fo

iy if ,

2 Ne fF lif a
ot

ISN

NS



Félix Neff and Marietta. .
THE LITTLE FRENCH MOUNTAINEER. 187

Who ever trusted in God and was not helped?
No one. ‘So it was with Marietta, as you shall
hear. Soon afterwards, Félix Neff came to
Marietta’s village to pray with some poor
people in one of the cottages. Marietta heard
he was coming, and she came too. She had never
before heard a minister pray or preach. Oh, how
attentive she was! Did she look about ?—did
she trifle? Oh, no; though she could not un-
derstand all that he said, she listened with all
her heart, After the prayers were over, she went
to her father and told him where she had been ;
for she was not so much afraid of him as she
was of her grandparents. He was kind, for God
had softened his heart. He took her back to her
erandparents, and begged them not to beat her.
He did more still. He soon afterwards allowed
the little girl to go to a church a good way off,
where Félix Neff preached. She had never
entered such a church before. The people in-
the church had heard of this young shepherdess,
and of her love to Jesus, and they were glad to
see her in the house of God. Her uncle and
aunt were there. Her uncle, who was a good
man, said he would take Marietta to live with
him during the winter, if her father would let
her come, and he would teach her to read.
Marietta’s father gave her leave to go. You
see, my dear children, that God had heard her
prayers, as He had promised to do in that sweet
188 SPAIN.

verse—‘ Ask, and ye shall receive.’ Marietta
never went to mass again. Other people be-.
sides her uncle were kind, and soon she could
read the Bible well, and soon she knew a great
deal about Jesus and the way to heaven.

Oh, how happy are the British children!
They need not ask strangers passing by, to
teach them the way of life. Their parents
take them on their knees, when quite little,
and talk to them about Christ, and heaven,
and angels,â„¢

SPAIN.

THE CounTRY.—Is Spain a beautiful country ?
Yes, it is very beautiful. There are high moun-
tains and very wide plains, and fine trees, and
a clear blue sky.

~The plains are not flat and smooth, but un-
even. Children love to run down steep banks
and to clamber among hillocks. Would you
like to play at hide-and-seek among the brush-
wood and bushes of a’Spanish plain? I think
not, for you might meet with a playfellow that
you would not like—I mean a robber.
_ * Works from which the above particulars have been

derived: Trench’s Travels in France, Andrew Clarke’s
Tour, Wordsworth’s Diary, Memoirs of Félix Neff.
SPAIN. 189

There are robbers in Spain, who hide them-
selves among the caves in the mountains, and
among the thickets in -the forests. If you
travelled through Spain, you would often see
black crosses set up by the roadside, with some
writing upon them. What are these crosses
for? Read what is written upon one,—‘A man,
named Charles, was murdered here in May,
1840.’ Read what is written upon the next,— |
‘A woman, named Julia, and her children, were
murdered here in January, 1736.2 Whenever
a person has been murdered by the roadside, a
cross 1s set up to mark the place.

Sometimes, as you went along, you would
hear the tinkling of bells, with the deep sound
of men’s voices singing. You need not fear
lest robbers are coming, for they make no noise,
The bells are tied round the necks of mules,
with burdens on their backs, and the men are
driving them, and singing to amuse themselves
by the way.

Look at that great waggon drawi by oxen—
how slowly it moves along!

THE ANIMALS.—There are some wild beasts
inthe north of Spain—boars and wolves. The
shepherds are more afraid of a wolf than a
boar, because their large dogs would sooner
fight with a boar than with a wolf. And why ?
Because a wolf has such sharp teeth and claws,
and because it isso cunning. It knows what
190 | SPAIN.

part to lay hold of in each animal. When it
sees a bullock, it seizes it by its throat, but
when it sees a horse, it flies at its haunches. -

There are large herds of horses feeding in the
valleys of Spain. When the mares see a wolf
coming, they know what todo. They put their
foals all together, and they stand all round with
their tails towards the foals. As soon as one of
the mares sees a wolf coming towards her, she
stands on her hind-legs, ready to trample it
under her feet. The wolves, finding they cannot
approach, are at last obliged to go away.

But when a horse is alone, it is very much
terrified at the wolves. A gentleman was
riding among the. mountains, when suddenly
his horse stopped and trembled all over. He
could not think what was the matter with the
poor beast. At first he supposed the horse was
taken ill, but, on listening, he heard some squeak-
ing and growling among the bushes. He pointed
his gun towards the place whence the noise came,
and fired.» Then a scampering was heard- -
the wolves were running away as fast as they
could. The poor horse did not recover his
health for several days, so dreadfully had he
been frightened. |

Men are sometimes frightened at wolves,
as well as horses. Two Spaniards were once
walking along among the hills, when they saw a
whole troop of wolves coming along; onelarge,


SPAIN, 191

fierce, grey wolf led the way, and the rest fol-
lowed. They were galloping fast, with their
tails lifted up, and their eyes looking fiery.
The poor men tried to get out of the way, as
well as they could. They turned out of the
path, and stood on the side of a hill among the
vines, and there they waited trembling, and
hoping the wolves would not see them. But
the first wolf turned that very way, and the
rest came after it. The wolf passed by one of
the men without noticing him, though it came
so near him that its bristly hair brushed the
man’s legs. When it came to the other man,
who was standing a little higher up the hill, it
passed by—almost—then turned half round,
and snapped at him, without biting him. That
was a sign to the pack of wolves to eat him.
They understood the sign, and in a few moments
tore the man limb from limb, howling all the
while most dreadfully, and leaving nothing but
bones.

_ It is not often that wolves get hold of a man,
but they often devour sheep.

There are large flocks of sheep in Spain, with
very fine wool, called merinos. There are goats
leaping amongst the mountains, and there are
tame goats, and they are milked as cows are
milked in England.

You have often seen a flock of sheep, but did
you ever see a flock of pigs? In Spain you
192 SPAIN.

might see one. Allthe people in a village who
keep pigs, send them out under the care of one
man every day, to feed in the plains. The man
is called a swineherd. He has a troublesome
charge, for pigs are not as quiet and gentle as
sheep. One evening, a traveller saw the swine-
herd returning with his pigs. Theman wore a
ragged cloak, anda hat in the shape of a sugar-
loaf. In one hand he held a cow-horn, with
which he made a horrible noise; in the other,
he held a stick with a nail at the end, and with
this stick he pricked those pigs that did not
mind the sound of the horn. The pigs followed
the man very steadily, till they came close to
the village; then they set up a loud grunt, and
set off in a fast gallop; one went one way, and
another went another way; each knew the way
to his own home, and was in such a hurry to
reach it, that he bolted through the open door,
and jumped over the threshold, frightening all
the little children.as he rushed by. It was the
thought of supper, I think, which made the pigs
So eager.

If the Spanish pigs are such active creatures,
what must the horses, and ponies, and donkeys
be? They are all very spirited, and can gallop
very fast. I will tell youa story about a Spanish
pony.

A gentleman wanted a pony to ride upon
over the mountains. He met a gipsy, who
SPAIN. 193

said he had one to sell. The gipsy said, ‘My
pony is the best in Spain.’ But when the
gentleman saw the animal, he did not think so
much of it, for it seemed weak, and it had the
marks of a rope upon its poor thin sides, as if
it had been beaten a great deal. Yet its eye
was bright and lively.

‘It looks weak,’ said the gentleman.

‘You cannot ride him,’ replied the gipsy ;
‘if you mount him, he will run away, and no-
thing will stop him but the sea.’

The gentleman did not believe the gipsy; so,
getting upon the pony with only a halter, and
not a bridle, in its mouth, he set off. Oh!
how the creature did gallop! It seemed, in-
deed, as if he never would stop till he should
come to the sea. But the sea was a long, long
way off; no pony could have gone so far. At
last the pony came to a very wide ditch; it
jumped over it, the halter broke, and the rider
fell off, and rolled in the dust. He soon got
up, for he was not hurt.

Where was the pony? Glad to find it had
got rid of its burden, it was rioting in the
fields, kicking its heels into the air. The gipsy
had seen all that had happened. He now
whistled, and the obedient beast, giving a
gentle neigh, trotted back to him.

There are also bulls in Spain. I shall tell you
soon the cruel manner in which they are treated,

| O
194 | SPAIN.

Foop.—The Spaniards do not breakfast till
the middle of the day. They take something
in their bed-rooms before they dress, but it is
only a very small cup of chocolate, and a little
bit of bread without butter (for very little
butter is made in Spain). They drink warm
or cold sugar and water several times in the day.

At their noon-day breakfast, the favourite
dish is called puchero, or olla. It is made
of stewed beef and chickens, cut small, and
peas, and beans, and other vegetables, and
a little bit of pork or bacon. Then there are
roasted hares, and rabbits, and kids, and pigeons,
and cheese, and eggs, and cakes, and fruits.

The Spaniards dine about six o’clock. At
their dinner they often have stewed beef and
tomatoes, or love-apples, dressed in oil.

You would think many of the Spanish dishes
were spoiled by the oil and the garlic with
which they are mixed. The oil is the juice of
the olive. There are a great many olive-trees
in Spain, fine spreading trees; and the olive is
a little dark round fruit about the size of a
plum. The Spaniards eat a great many olives
with bread. Poor people sometimes dine on
olives and bread.

There are many other fruits you would like
better than olives. Oranges and figs are more
plentiful than apples are in England, and great
quantities are sent to other countries,
SPAIN, 195 |

Spanish grapes are very beautiful and very
cheap. Many of them are dried and sent to
England. They are called raisins. Have you
ever eaten Malaga raisins?

Wine 1s so common in Spain that poor men
drink it in earthen cups, as English people
drink beer; but the Spaniards do not keep it
in barrels, as we do beer, but in skins. A
pig-skin is easily turned into a bottle, and
laid upon a donkey; a barrel would not be half
so convenient to travel with.

The famous sherry wine, so often seen in
England, comes from Xeres, in Spain.

A traveller, with his guide, called one day
on a priest, in his little cottage, in the country.
Over the door grew a beautifulvine. The tra-
veller knocked, but no answer was returned.
The truth was, the old priest, as well’as his old
servant and his favourite cat, had all fallen
asleep after dinner. But, at last, the knocking
was heard, and the door was opened. ‘The old
man, thinking that the visitors had dined, de-
sired cakes and sweetmeats to be placed on
the table, but when he found they had not,
he said he must give them some dinner. Yet
what to give them he knew not, for he had no
meat in the house. So he took them to his
dove-cote, or pigeon-house, to see whether he
had a pigeon fit to kill; but the pigeons were
too young to be eaten. Then he looked un-
196 SPAIN,

happy, and after showing his visitors his bees,
he led them into some empty rooms, where
flitches of bacon were hanging from the ceiling.
Looking up, he said, ‘I am sorry I have no-
thing better to offer you than this bacon, and
some fresh eggs; for my hens lay every day.’
The traveller thought this dinner quite good
‘enough. The old priest gave a great deal
away to the poor, and kept two clean beds
for any travellers who might need a place of
rest.

RELIGION.—The religion in Spain is the
Roman Catholic. The priests do not read the
Bible much, nor do they advise the ‘people to
read it, though the Bible isthe book which can
make us wise, and save our souls. |

There was a good man who wished to give
Bibles and Testaments to the Spaniards. So
he hired a donkey, and loaded it with a bag of
books. As he went along, a young woman
passed, leading a little boy by the hand. She
stopped him, and said, ‘ Uncle, what have you
got on your ass ?’

Why did she call him uncle? It is a name
which the Spaniards always give out of polite-
ness to people whom they don’t know. The
young woman said, ‘Have you got soap on
your ass ?’

The stranger told the young woman that he
sold good books, and he showed her a Testament.


SPAIN, 197

She began to read out loud, and at last cried
out, ‘What beautiful, what charming reading!’
Then she inquired the price of the book.
Though it was very cheap, she said she had not
money enough to buy it; so she put it down,
and went away. But soon the little boy came
running back, shouting out, ‘Stop, uncle! the
book, the book!” The little fellow had got the
money for it in his hand, but it was all in cop-
per, not in silver. |

A tew of the priests, when they saw the
good man’s Bibles, praised them, and bought
some; but most of the priests were angry, and
spoke against the holy books. Poor people
bought them. Many of them had never seen
a Testament before. Sometimes a poor man
would sit under the shade of a great tree, while
his neighbours would gather round and listen
attentively to the history of the Lord Jesus.
You have heard that history. You have a
Bible or a Testament of your own. Do you
love it? Do you think it ‘beautiful and
charming reading ? ’

COTFAGES.—Some of the cottages are very
miserable indeed.
amongst the mountains with his guide, came
to a village where there were a few black
huts. He knocked at the door of one. A
man opened it, holding a burning piece of
wood in his hand, instead of a candle. The
198 SPAIN,

gentleman asked to be allowed to sleep in
hut that night. The poor man let him in,
and led him first through a room full of straw,
then through a stable, into the room where the
family lived. After providing bacon and eggs
for supper, he pointed to a small door in the
roof, and told the gentleman he might sleep
there upon some clean straw. |

‘Is there no bed in the cottage?’ asked the
gentleman.

‘No,’ replied the poor man. ‘I never slept
in a bed in all my life, nor have my children,
nor did my father and mother before me. We
sleep on the hearth by the fire, or else among
the cattle in the stable.’ |

In some parts of Spain there are rows of neat, |
white cottages, with red-tiled roofs. But when ~
the door m a cottage 1s open, you see at the end
of the narrow passage, an image of the Virgin
Mary upon an altar. On the steps of the”
altar, there are little candles and candlesticks,
and tiny vases of artificial flowers, which are no- |
bigger than peas. 4

In Spain the Virgin Mary is —
more than God, How much grieved the blessed”
Mary would be, could she hear the prayers and”
praises that are offered up to her! She ie
say, ‘Go to my saa He saved me, and Hise is.
able to save you.’ a

AMUSEMENTS.—The favourite cnonstimesiill a









SPAIN, 199

the young people is dancing. Generally there
is a place, near the church, where the grass is
smooth, and there the people assemble to
dance, and play at games. They are very
fond of playing on the guitar, and singing
songs as they play. In summer evenings the
guitar may be heard in the streets long after it
is dark. Very few people like reading, or any
useful employment.

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Spaniard with a Guitar.

The Spaniards are very cruel. They delight
in bull-fights. There is a large building in
every town for fighting bulls. Seats are placed
allround, and in the middle is a large place for
the bulls, with rails to keep them from hurting

the people. The people are glad when they


200 SPAIN.

see the bull driven in. Generally he-is teased”
before he comes into the place, and a sharp
iron is sticking in his neck all the time he is
there. Showers of iron arrows are thrown at
him. Sometimes as many as fifty arrows are:
hanging from his neck. There are- men on
horseback with long spears who attack the bull,
Very soon the bull with his horns gores one of
the horses; the rider gets away as quickly as he -
can, and the people help him to get over the
rails, while some men in red cloaks rush for-
ward and frighten the bull. The man whose
horse is killed gets another horse, and comes
back again to torment the bull. Sometimes
the men are killed by the bull, but this
happens very seldom. The poor horses
suffer most. They are generally old or
worn-out. It must be dreadful to behold
the poor blind-folded creatures, with streams
of blood pouring from their breasts, and their
bodies gashed and torn to pieces whilst they
are yet alive. z
When the bull has been tormented for a
long while, a man on horseback enters, with a
sword to kill him. “This man is called the
‘Matador.’ While the bull puts down its
head, in order to try to hurt with its horns,
the matador pierces its neck with his sword. As ~
soon as he has done it, the people give a shout -
of joy. The bull dows not die immediately,
SPAIN. | 201

but runs backwards and forwards in an agony,
till he drops down dead. Then the trumpets
sound, as if some great thing had been done.
Mules are brought in, ropes are tied to the
bull’s horns, and the mules drag out the dead
body. Sometimes six bulls are killed one after
another. The more bulls are killed, the better
the people like the fight. If only a few are
killed, the people hiss. A matador is paid fifty
or sixty pounds for every bull he kills, and ~
sometimes more.

And can women like to see such bloody
sights? Yes, they do—and priests, who ought
to show the people what is right, are pleased
to view these wicked deeds. How angry the
merciful God must be to see men thus torment
His poor dumb creatures !

When the Prince of Wales visited Spain, he
did not go to see a bull-fight.
202



MADRID.

This city is built just in the middle of
Spain.

The king, who chose Madrid for his chief
city, made a foolish choice; for it is far from
the sea, and there is no great river near, only
a little stream, so that ships cannot come near
it. Itis built also on a high plain, where very
cold winds blow. It would not be wellto goto
Madrid in winter, itis so very windy, and there
are no good plans for keeping the houses warm.
In summer it is very bot. But then there are
a great many fountains in the streets. These
fountains spring up in large stone basins, with
statues in the middle, and the water comes
spouting up, and pouring down all day. Where
does the water come from? From mountains
thirty miles off. It runs through a way cut out
for it, till it reaches the city ; and it is so clear,
so cold, so sweet! There are men sitting by
the fountains with large water-casks. They fill
them, and carry them on their backs, upstairs,
to the tops of the highest houses.

Hovusres.—-The window of the lowest room
has iron bars. There have been so many dis-
turbances or revolutions in Spain, and so many
MADRID. 203

changes in the Government, that it is necessary
to put bars to make the house safe. But
the people often live in the upper rooms, for the
sake of the view, and keep lumber and stores
in the lower. A family lives upon each floor.
A great many families live in the same house.
There are balconies before all the upper win-
dows, and in summer, people hang curtains out
of the upper windows, to cover the balconies,
and keep the rooms cool. These curtains are
of red, green, blue, and all sorts of colours, and
make the streets look very gay.

There are no fire-places in the rooms, nor
chimneys. How do the people keep themselves
warm in winter? They have brass pans with
charcoal inside. When they feel cold, they all
sit round this brass pan, called a brazier, and put
their feet on the wooden edge. But still they
feel rather cold.

In the sitting-room, there is a place where
the wall sinks in, and this is called an alcove.
and here the bed is placed, and a curtain is
drawn before it in the day.

The floors are covered with red tiles.

DRESS AND APPEARANCE.—The Spaniards are
rather short and stout. Their hair and eyes are
black, their skin is dark, their cheeks pale, and
their countenance is grave and sad. They walk
very slowly, and hold up their heads. The
women are very graceful.
204. MADRID.

In Madrid the men are always wrapped up in
cloaks. When the wind is very piercing, they
put their cloaks before their mouths. They
used to wear round their bodies a_ broad

crimson sash, or girdle, in which a large knife

was hid. | , -



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A Spanish Lady,
MADRID. 205

_ The women often dress in black, and they
like to wear long trains, which they do not hold
up in the streets. Their hair is done up with
a comb at the back of their heads: a black lace
scarf, called a mantilla, is fastened to it, and
falls down over their shoulders: it is worn in-
stead of a bonnet, and looks very elegant. In
their hands they hold a large fan. No Spanish
lady would think of moving without her fan ; it
not only keeps her cool, but it shades her from
the sun. Every little girl has her fan in her
hand. There are many shops in Madrid, in
which nothing is sold but fans.

When you walk in the streets of Madrid you
will see many different kinds of dresses, be-
cause there are people there from all parts of
Spain.

How THE SPANIARDS PASS THEIR TIME IN
Maprip.—As soon as they get up in the morn-
ing, they stand in their balconies, to amuse
themselves, and to taste the fresh air. After-
wards the women dress, and some go to mass,
while the men stand idly about, smoking cigars,
or talking to their neighbours. After dinner,
they take their siesta; that is, they le down
and go to sleep, because it is sohot. Even the
workmen rest in the afternoon. You may see
them lying in the squares or streets, or by the
river side, fast asleep. In the evening, every
one goes out to walk on the Prado, or meadow.
206 MADRID.

This is a beautiful broad walk, two miles long, —
which runs through Madrid; large elm-trees
are planted on each side, and stone benches are
placed underneath. There are beautiful foun-
tains in this walk, and glasses of water are sold
to those who are thirsty. The people walk
here till very late.





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THE Prison. —The gentleman who sold
Bibles in Spain was shut up for three weeks in
a prison in Madrid. It was a horrible place.
In the day, the prisoners walked about in large
courts, but at night they were all locked up
in dark dungeons. There were no beds, but
only horse-cloths spread on the floor. The


THE ESCURLAL. 207

darkest and dirtiest of all the dungeons was
one in which the little thieves were locked
up,—poor boys who had scarcely a rag to
cover them.

But, amongst the dirty and the ragged pri-
soners, some very gaily-dressed men were seen.
They wore shirts of snow-white linen with wide
sleeves, waistcoats of blue or green silk with
silver buttons, silk stockings, crimson girdles,
and gay silk handkerchiefs of many colours
round their heads. Who were these men? Rob-
bers,—the boldest,—the proudest,—the greatest
of the robbers. They had wicked friends in
Madrid, who gave them fine clothes. One of
these robbers had a little boy of seven years
old. This child had seen a great deal of
wickedness. Once, when his father broke into
a house, and murdered the people who lived
there, this child had been with him. The wicked
father petted and fondled the child a great deal;
and so did all the robbers in the court. The
little fellow was dressed just like his father, and
even had a knife in his girdle. What an un-
happy boy he was! the murderer’s son, the
robbers’ pet and plaything!

THE EscurIAL.—This is a famous palace
twelve miles from Madrid. The way to it is
over the plain where no trees grow, and no birds
sing, where the grass is brown in summer, and

all the streams are dried up.
208 THE ESCURIAL.

It is in a very bleak and very dreary spot
that the Escurial stands. No houses are near
it. Itis very large. On one side of the palace
there are as many windows as there are days in
the year, three hundred and sixty-five. Why
did the kings of Spain build a palace in such a
lonely place? Itis a house for monks ag well
as for the royal family ; and it is built in the
shape of a gridiron, in honour of a martyr called
st. Lawrence, who was once broiled to death on
a gridiron, There is a church in this palace,
and there is a burial-place for kings. That
burial-place is very gloomy. It is a round
room underground, with walls of black marble.
You go down the stairs by the light of a torch.
There are little holes in its walls, with black
marble urns in them, and kings’ bones inside,
and their names outside. There is a large
chandelier hanging from the middle, which is
lighted up when a king or queen is buried.

TR BT ATI SOT IG ER AT ma ae
209

THE GUADALQUIVER.

This is the finest river in Spain.

There are herds of bulls and horses feeding
on its banks. They have a man to take care
of them. It is much easier to take care of
sheep than to take care of bulls and horses,
because sheep are not so riotous as bulls and
horses. When one of them gallops away, what
can the man do? Can he run after him and
catch it? No. But this is what he does. He
lays hold of some horse by the mane, jumps on
his back without saddle or bridle, and gallops
atter the lost animal till he find him.

There is no country in Europe where the
horses are finer than in Spain. The Spaniards
treat them better than they treat mules and
asses, which they often beat unmercifully. As
for oxen, they poke them with an iron spike,
fastened to the end of a long stick,
210

SEVILLE.

This city is built on that fine river, the Gua-
dalquiver. i

It is much hotter than Madrid. There are
very few people there who have ever seen snow,
for though it sometimes falls in the night, it is
melted before the morning. Some young people
asked an Englishman to tell them what snow
was like. Was it like paper, or sugar, or salt ?
He made some soap-suds, and told them snow
was like them.

Many of the streets are so narrow that a
person, walking in the middle, might touch
the houses on both sides. As you pass along,
you will see the doors of the houses wide open.
If you enter, you go through a passage till you
come to a little court behind, with rooms all
round. The people sit in this court in summer
time. It is pleasanter than in-doors. A cur-
tain is spread over the top to keep it cool; the
floor is of marble, a fountain is in the middle,
and roses in flower-pots, and orange-trees and
lemon-shrubs bloom all round, and often there
is a large cage of beautiful birds.

But it would not be pleasant to live in
seville, because the people do such wrong
things. There is no city where there are 80
GIBRALTAR. 911

many bull-fights, for such fine, strong bulls
feed on the banks of the Guadalquiver. And
at what time are the bull-fights? On Sunday
afternoons !

An English gentleman, who went to Seville,
visited one of the churches there, which contains
the tomb of a famous inquisitor, or persecutor.
Here the Gospel is preached to young and old.
The little ones are taught that Jesus invited
them to come to Him, instead of going to the
Virgin Mary. Close by there is a school for
girls. How happy they looked at their lessons!
Almost every one had a flower in her hair, and
a little store of fruit for her mid-day meal.
They were pleased to show their visitor the nice
samplers and the paper-flowers they had been
making.

GIBRALTAR.

This town is in Spain, but it belongs to the
English.* It was conquered a long while ago.

* The English, under Sir George Rooke, took the place
in 1704. Seventy-five years later the French and Spanish
besieged it, by land and sea, for three years and a half.
After the English garrison had been reduced almost to
famine, their commander, General Elliot, set the enemies’
ships on fire with red-hot balls, and destroyed in one night
what had cost 2,000,0001. sterling. Thus Gibraltar was saved.
212 CAPE FINISTERRE.

It is very convenient for our ships when they
are sailing into the Mediterranean Sea. There
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CAPE FINISTERRE.

A cape is a corner of land sticking out into
thesea. There is such a capein Spain. Look
at it in the map. A traveller wished very
much to see this cape, and hé took a great
deal of trouble to get there. On his way he

_ passed over many steep mountains, When he
came near the cape, he left his black pony in 4
CAPE FINISTERRE. 213

stable, in a poor little village, and then began
to climb up a great, flinty, rough rock. The
sun fell upon his head, and made him feel
ready to faint, and the sharp stones cut his
hands. great rock, and then he saw a fine sight,—the
sea spread out far and wide, and the waves
dashing against the tall cliffs, and foaming
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THE PYRENEES.

These are high mountains between France
and Spain. There is snow always atthe top,
and itis the snow which makes the winds so
cold that come pouring down upon the plains of
Castille, where Madrid is built.

PRODUCTIONS.—Seville is famous for oranges,

Xeres for white wine.

Barcelona for silk handkerchiefs.

Near the coast of the Mediterranean Sea it is
very hot, and mulberry-trees grow abundantly,
and silkworms are reared upon their leaves.
Rice, and even the sugar-cane, will grow in
some parts. There are silver mines near
Seville.

CHARACTER. — Have you not already found
out the character of the Spaniards? They are
not like the French, lively and talkative: they
are grave and silent.“ They are not warm-
hearted like the Irish, but cold and distant;
nor fond of home like the English, but fond of
company. ‘They are apt to be cruel. They
are very proud. ‘The poor are as proud as
the rich. They think no nation and no

* Iuxcept the Biscayans, who are said to be lively.
SPAIN. 215

language is like their own. It is true
their language is the finest in Kurope,
but there are very few wise books written
in it. |

One of the most amusing books in the world
was written in Spanish. It is the story of a
mad knight, called Don Quixote, who did a
great many foolish things. One day, for in-
stance, he rode against a windmill, which he
mistook for a giant and tried to kill with his
spear, and was nearly killed himself by the
great arms of the windmill. This story would
amuse you. ‘The history of Queen Joanna
would make you sad. She was the mother of
the famous Emperor Charles V., and a very
unhappy mother she was. She was shut up
for many years, and even beaten. Her father,
her husband, and her son, all declared she was
mad, and every one believed them. It has
since been found out she was not mad, but
that she refused to go to a Roman Catholic
service, called the Mass.“ She was one of those
who had trials of bonds and imprisonment,
but who obtained a good report through
faith.t

Spain was once a land of martyrs; for there
was in Spain a terrible band of men, who called

* See D’ Aubigné’s Reformation.
+ Heb. x1. 36, 38, 39.
216 SPAIN.

themselves the Inquisition. They inquired
into everything that any one did; and they
could put any one to death whom they pleased,
They had horrible dungeons, where people
were tortured to death in the most cruel
manner.

There is no Inquisition now. Spain has a
good king; and Bibles are allowed to be given
away and sold.* Many Spaniards receive them
gladly, and beg for more. There are about
ten thousand Bible Christians in Spain.

* May 5, 1869.—The Act of Religious Liberty was decreed
by the Cortes. The present Government also allows much
liberty.

Taken chiefly from Borrow’s Bible in Spain. A few
particulars from Conder’s Modern Traveller, and from
several other works.

Revised by Rev. L. 8. Tugwell, who begs every one to
help him to send. Bibles into Spain.
217

PORTUGAL,

THE CountRy.— Portugal is very near Spain;
but it is very unlike Spain.

Spain has been disloyal to her kings, and
has been constantly troubled by civil wars—
that is, wars between one Spaniard and another.

Portugal is very quiet and loyal.

The Portuguese are more indolent than the
Spaniards. They have black eyes and hair,
and dark complexions, like the Spaniards.

Lhe Portuguese have beautiful white teeth.
They have a very bad habit—they take snuff.
They are so proud that they will not carry
burdens; but they will draw wheelbarrows.
The Spaniards do just the contrary: they will
carry burdens, but will not draw a wheelbarrow.
Most of the working men in Portugal are
Spaniards, and come from a province in Spain
called Galicia. The Portuguese language is
not as fine as the Spanish, and is spoken in
harsher tones.

The Portuguese are very clever stonemasons,
and the women work beautifully with their
needle, and make wonderful pictures with hair.

The Portuguese are famous for their sweet-
meats, their preserved peaches, and _ little
oranges. They make all kinds of pretty things
218 PORTUGAL.

of boiling sugar and beaten eggs. How
would you like to see a cake covered with
little fishes, and birds, and flowers, all moving
on wires ?

Foop.—There is very little milk in Portugal,
and hardly any butter. The reason of this is,
that the hot sun dries up the grass, so that
there is hardly any pasture for the cows.

Almost all the butter in Portugal comes
from Cork, in Ireland. There are butter mer-
chants, whose business it is to get this butter
and sell it. |

The meat is not good, and there is very
little; but you can get fish and chickens.
Some of the chickens have a curious food—
erape-stones, After the grapes have been
crushed to make wine, the stones are put into
sacks, and sold as food for the chickens. |

Poor people eat fresh fish (which is very
cheap), and bacon and beans. They often
dine on bread and figs, or on bread and a
water-melon. Servants always dine on soup,
and a piece of beef which has been boiled with
bacon, and rice and gravy. |

The Portuguese are very fond of tomatoes,
and they have a great many medlars. They
have so many quinces, that they make them
into quince marmalade, which they eat instead
of butter. | |

In Lisbon, sweet lemons are grown, and
PORTUGAL. 219

Japanese medlars, which look something like
tiny apricots. A favourite fruit is the pome-
granate. The hard shell is first taken off, and
the beautiful inside, or pulp, is sent to table,
piled up in a dish. People help themselves to
large platefuls of it, which they eat with sifted.
white sugar.

At dessert the fruit is often beautifully
arranged. Instead of the grapes being in
one dish, and the figs in another, as you
often see on the table at home, some of all
kinds are put into each dish. Thus a melon,
and a bunch of grapes, and some figs, will
all be placed together, and make a beautiful
picture.

Oranges are as common in Portugal as apples
are in England. Great numbers of oranges are
_ sent to other countries. They are all packed by

the side of the river; and the small ones are
thrown away into the water. The packers make
a ring by touching the top of their thumb with
the tip of their middle finger. Every orange
that is small enough to go through this ring is.
thrown away. You may see hundreds floating
down the stream. Should you not like to have
them ? | :
You could, for a penny or twopence, buy a
green water-melon, bright red inside, and so
large that it would make a good dinner for two
people. For a penny you could buy two or
299 CINTRA.

see those heaps of ruins they ask their parents
what they are.

The earthquake happened on a saint’s day,
when thousands of candles were burning in all
the churches. The earthquake shook the hghted
candles, and made them set fire to the churches
and houses near. Whole houses were swallowed
up, and half the city was on fire. Some of the
people escaped to a piece of land which jutted
out into the sea. Suddenly this piece of land
broke off from the rest and was swallowed up
by the sea, with all the people on it.

There are earthquakes even now, though
they are slight ones. In one of these a cart
and two bullocks are said to have disappeared ;
the ground opened and swallowed them up, and
then closed over them.

Dress.—The ladies of Lisbon dress very
smart.

CINTRA.

A few miles from Lisbon is a place called
Cintra. It is the most beautiful place you
can fancy. There is a hill covered with the
finest trees, and white houses peeping out from
among these trees. But this is not all—there
are waterfalls tumbling down the hill, and
flowing between the lemon-gardens.
LISBON. 32)

the water of Lisbon is brought from a place
twenty miles off. Near Lisbon there is a deep
valley, and there is a very high bridge, with
high arches over this valley, and the water
runs through the bridge, not under it. This

aqueduct is the finest in Europe, and in the
world. |



Aqueduct at Lisbon.

But what are those heaps of stones? They
look like churches and houses fallen down.
And so they are; for more than a hundred
years ago, a great earthquake shook Lisbon,
and threw down many of the buildings, and
killed numbers of the people. This dreadful
day can never be forgotten, When children
Pages
222-223
Missing

From
Original
224 PORTUGAL.

come four priests, all wearing grand robes, and
thousands of people. Many of these people
carry wax candles in their hands. Some of
them dress in black, and walk with their feet
bare, and their heads bowed down. ‘They do
this to show their sorrow for something wicked
they have done.

These saints’ days are holidays.

All the windows in the town are adorned
with handsome flags and long draperies. Some
or these draperies are long enough to touch
the street below; others are a mass of gold
beads, or are woven with gold and silver thread.

When the image of the saint passes, every
one uncovers his head; and the people throw
down baskets full of rose leaves from all the
windows.

The Portuguese have different saints for
different things. If they lose anything, they
pray to Saint Antonio. If they want to get
married, they pray to another saint; and so on.

Before each saint’s day, all the images in the
churches are taken dewn and dressed afresh,
and covered with ornaments. Each image has
a particular dress for each saint’s day.

On one saint’s day the clothes are red, and
on another yellow, and so on. The colours for
the Virgin Mary are light blue and white. If
achild falls sick, the parents sometimes pro-
mise, that if it recover they will give it to the
PORTUGAL. 295

Virgin. Then, all its clothes, even its shoes,
must be light blue and white.

There are shops where all sorts of wax
things are sold: wax arms and legs, wax ears
and noses, wax eyes and wax babies, wax necks
and wax cheeks. When people have anything
the matter with them, they promise their fa-
vourite saint that if they recover, they will
hang up a wax ear, or eye, or nose, or whatever
it may be, round their saint’s image in the
church. A week before that saint’s day comes,
all these wax ornaments are collected and made
into candles, which are lighted in honour of the
saint. |

The Portuguese see no harm in a falsehood.
Their religion teaches them that it is their
duty to say what is not true, if they think that
it will do good. But they long to be taught.
A great many Bibles have now been given away
in Portugal. —

For the last six years God, in His goodness, has
sent faithful men there to preach and teach the
Bible. Many poor little children have learned
to love the Lord Jesus.

About thirty years ago, a Spanish priest was
saying mass in Spain—he was giving the people
the bread, or wafer, which they thought he
had changed into the Lord’s body, As he was
doing this, he suddenly felt it was impossible
for any man to change a wafer into the Lord’s

Q
226 PORTUGAL.

body. He resolved that he would not be a
priest any longer. He went to his own priest,
or bishop, and told him what he felt. He said
that he could not go on doing what was con-
trary to God’s Word. He was promised that
he should be madea great man, if only he
would remain a priest. But he refused. Like
Moses he chose rather to’ give up all. He was
thrown into prison, and there he suffered so
much that he fell ill. At last he was set free.
Then he went to America, and became a
minister. After some time he went to Por-
tugal. He found the Portuguese eagerly
longing to hear the Scriptures. He got a
large room, where he preached to hundreds of
people. But so many came that numbers
stayed outside the windows, for they could not
get in—there was no room for them inside.
They had even to be sent away from the windows
where they stood.

So you see how anxious the Portuguese are
to hear the Word of God. Five priests were
converted, and three of them are now Pro-
testant ministers. |

Can you do anything to help to send Bibles
to Portugal ?

Taken from Borrow’s Bible in Spain, and Conder’s
‘Modern Traveller.

Revised by a Jady who knows and loves Portugal.
RUSSIA.

Russia is by far the largest country in Europe.
The Emperor of Russia rules over nearly as
much country asthe Queen of England,” but he
does not rule over nearly as many people.

Some of his land is in Asia, and some is in
Europe. In England we usually call him the
Czar, but his own nobles call him the Emperor
of all the Russias.

Is Russia a pleasant country ? You shall tell
me whether you think it pleasant. The greater
part of it is very coldindeed in winter. There
are many gloomy forests, and many wide plains,
with small villages very far from each other.

In winter all is covered with one vast sheet
of snow. Along the roads there are very few
people to be seen. In the forests there are
wild beasts roaming about.

What wild beasts? Bears and wolves. The
bears are not often seen, for they are sullen
creatures, which like to live alone. Each bear

* The area of the Russian Empire is about 8,325,393
English square miles, while that of the British Empire is
8,871,135 square miles. ‘The population of the Russian
Empire is about 85,685,945, and that of the British Empire
about 285,860,000; so, roughly speaking, there is a difference
of 200,000,000 between the population of the two empires.
228 RUSSIA.

has his gloomy den, in which he spends the
winter. When spring comes, he leaves his den
to seek for food, and then grows fat again.

Wolves are bolder than bears. They like to
live near villages, amongst the bushes and brush-
wood.
a man, but, when he finds a child straying
alone in a wood, he does not hesitate to carry
him off. When a wolf sees a large animal,
such as a horse or a cow, sometimes he setg
up a howl, to call the other wolves to help him;
then, altogether, they spring upon the poor
beast, and devour it.

Wolves will even attack dogs. They have
a sly plan for seizing them. A pack of wolves
will come into a village, and, when the dogs
begin to pursue them, they will run away, till
they have led the dogs far into the woods: then,
they will suddenly turn round, and catch and
devour the poor barking animals,

I will tell you a short story of a Russian
wolf. He had long watched a puppy dog, and
one day he followed it into its master’s house.
Immediately afterwards, some person outside
shut the door, and so shut the wolf in. The
master had seen the wolf come in, He was in
the kitchen, and he took his gun, and, opening
the kitchen-door a little way, pointed it at the
‘Wolf in the passage. How much alarmed the
man was to find the wolf seize hold of his gun!
RUSSIA. 299

aed

The man, in his fright, dropped it, and shut the
door; but he called out of the window to his
servants to bring him another gun, and after-
wards he shot the wolf; but not before the

poor little dog had been bitten and worried to
death, .




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In winter, the Russians use carriages without
wheels, called ‘ sledges.’ When people are
going on a long journey, or are using a heavy
sledge, they have three horses. These horses are
not harnessed like English horses. Instead of a
pole the carriage has shafts, to which one horse
is harnessed first, and then two other horses
are loosely attached to him, one on each side.
The middle horse has his head tightly fastened,

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230 RUSSIA.

so that he must always hold it up high, while
the two side ones bend their necks out, and
keep their heads very low. The middle horse
has to trot all the time, but the side ones gene-
rally canter or gallop. That big thing over
the collar, which looks lke a _ badly-formed
horseshoe, is called a ‘duga,’ and is made of
wood. It is used to connect the points of
the shafts, for the middle horse has no traces.
Uponthis duga, and underneath the highest part
of it, is fastened a big bell, which may often be
heard more than a mile off. In winter, wolves
have been known to follow travellers, to howl
alter them, and even to jump upon them in
their sledges.

Dress. — In the winter, the poor people
dress in the warmest clothes they can get.
As there are plenty of sheep, they wear cloaks
of their skins, with the wool inside, and these
cloaks they call ‘shubas.’ Look at the picture
of the two peasants drinking their tea, and you
will see what I mean. The peasants always
wear that kind of sheepskin, but the rich
people have their shubas made of different
kinds of fur. The men let their hair grow
long, and they tie a piece of string round their
heads, to keep it out of their eyes when they
are at work. When a peasant meets any one
greater than himself, he generally takes this
string off his head, as if it were his hat. Instead
RUSSIA. | 231

of only touching their caps, as Englishmen often
do, Russian peasants take their hats quite off to
a great man, and hold them in their hands as
long as they can see him; and he always takes
his hat off to them in return.

As you drive in a hired sledge through a
town, you will continually see your driver take
off his cap to another driver, instead of giving
him a friendly nod as London cabmen do.

When a peasant wants to have his hair cut,
he asks some friend to do it for him. This
friend often places a basin upon his head, in
order that he may cut the hair evenly all round.
The peasants rarely shave their faces, but wear
long beards. The coachmen and grooms shave
the back of their necks.

The costume of the women in summer is
very gay, consisting entirely of coloured print.
They never wear bonnets or hats, but they
wrap coloured print handkerchiefs round their
heads. Neither men nor women wear boots
or stockings in summer, but in the winter they
wear large felt boots, which come up as high
as the knees, such as you see in the next
picture. Those, who cannot afford felt boots,
bind strips of rag round their legs and feet,
and fasten them on with string; over the rag,
they wear shoes made of thin strips of bark
plaited. In the winter the women wear sheep-
skins, like the men. There is a picture of a
Zac RUSSIA.

woman in a sheepskin, in the first part of thig
book. Russian gentlemen wear fur cloaks and
fur caps in the winter. The merchants and
rich peasants do not wear coats cut the same
shape as in England, but long, loose, blue
coats, with girdles round the waist. The
Russian nobles dress like the English.



Russian Peasant Women Talking.

Foop.—-The favourite drink of Russiaus is
tea. The peasants do not take it as we do;
for they generally drink it out of glass tumblers
instead of cups, and. it is very weak tea indeed.
They do not put the lump of sugar into the
RUSSIA. 933

tea, but they hold it in their left hand, and
bite a piece off before each sip of tea. When
the lump of sugar becomes too small to bite
pieces off, they put it in their mouths and
pass the tea over it.

Another drink of the people is ‘ kwas,’ which
is made of fermented rye. Probably English
children would not like it at all. |



Russian Peasants Drinking Tea, and Samovar.

In the picture you see a Russian ‘ Samovar,’
which is a kind of large tea-urn. Water
can be kept boiling in it; for in the middle of
the samovar, there is a little charcoal fire. The
234 RUSSIA.

teapot is placed on the chimney, which keeps
the tea very hot. In the picture you see that
the teapot is placed upon the samovar.

A favourite dish is called ‘tshee.’ It isa
soup made of cabbage, barley-meal, salt, honey,
and chopped-up mutton. This dish 1s eaten
hot. The peasants live chiefly upon black
bread, made of rye. With this, they gene-
rally eat buck-wheat, which is a national
dish, and is often eaten with roast mutton.
The peasants eat grease ; but other people will
not even eat fat. Perhaps you dislike fat, too.

The Russians are very fond of mushrooms
of all sorts, and of cranberries, which grow
plentifully in their forests. |

THE CoTTAGES.—The Russian peasants live
in wretchedly poor dwellings, made of logs,
laid one on the top of the other. The windows
are very small. In the room there is a large
stove, which sometimes fills the inside of the
house with smoke. Where do the family
sleep? The favourite place is the top of the
stove. There they sleep, wrapped in their
dirty sheepskins; and those who cannot sleep
on the stove, lie where they can, and as near
to it as possible. The stove keeps the cottage
so warm that the little boys sit at home with
no clothes on but their shirts. The baby is placed
in a strange kind of cradle, fastened to the end
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RUSSIA. 235

What is that picture, with a lamp burning
before it, which you see as you enter a cottage,
and to which every one crosses himself and
bows, as hecomesin? Itisa holy picture called
an Icon,* and it may be a picture of the Virgin
Mary with the child Jesus, or perhaps it_is the
picture of a man long since dead, whom the
Russians call Saint Nicholas.











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In every room of a Russian house you may
see a small Icon (like the picture) in a corner
of the room. It is generally opposite the door,
and close to the ceiling. The Russians always
say their prayers before these pictures or Icons.

At Moscow, there is a very famous Icon,

” ‘Icon’ comes from a Greek word meaning an image,
236 RUSSIA.

called the Iberian Madonna, which is supposed
to work miracles. It is kept in a little chapel
near one of the entrances to the Kremlin.

When the Emperor or one of the Imperial
family arrives at Moscow he always drives
straight from the railway-station to the little
chapel, and there offers up a short prayer. _

The nobles also do the same thing, especially
before starting or returning from a journey,
By paying a large sum of money, an inhabitant
of Moscow may have this Icon brought to his
house. Accordingly, this large picture may be
seen every day driving about Moscow in a
carriage-and-four. The carriage is a common
closed one, and very shabby. ‘The horses are
driven all four side by side, and not two and two,
as you may sometimes seein Kngland. You can
easily tell which is the carriage of the Icon,
because the coachman is always bare-headed,
however coldit may be; and because the people
in the street uncover and cross themselves as
it passes, Two priests in robes sit inside the
carriage with the large picture.

While this Icon is absent from the chapel
an exact copy of it 1s put in its place there, so
that people, who come to worship before it may
not be disappointed.

THE Ricu.— The rich among the Russians
have very large houses and a great many seI-
vants. There is one servant to heat the stoves,
RUSSIA. 237

and another to light the lamps; and there are
many cooks, for the Russians like good dinners.
There are also many footmen, to stand about
the passages when company comés, and many
grooms to take care of the horses and carriages.
Though the rooms are large and grand, they are
not neat. The Russians seldom have carpets,
because they think them unhealthy. Are you
surprised at this? The Russians are quite
right; for carpets make a room dusty, unless
they are swept. In Russia, it is too cold in
the winter time to open the windows and sweep
the carpets as we do. If you opened the win-
dow, you would catch cold and get fever. Only
a small pane of glass is opened in each room,
and whilst it is open, hardly any one dares
stay inthe room. You see, therefore, the Rus-
slans are wise in not having carpets !

There are no bells, except from the sitting-
room into the passage, where the men-servants
wait all day.

In the country, it is curious to see the cattle
driven out in the morning to feed. Cows, sheep,
horses, and pigs, all go together; and instead
of a shepherd with a crook, a man, with a long-
lashed whip, follows the animals. This whip he
continually cracks, and the noise it makes, is as
loud as the report of a gun. In the evening,
he may be seen coming home with his lowing,
bleating, neighing, grunting companions; for
RUSSIA.

all the cattle are kept in sheds during the
night, for fear of the wolves. In winter-
time, they are shut up in their stables, by
day as well as by night.

The rich people are very fond of company;
nothing pleases them more than to see. sledges
coming to their houses. The children are allowed
to dine at table with their parents. Russian chil-
dren often learn to speak several languages, be-
cause they generally have an English nurse, and
a Irench governess, and a German master; and,
when they talk, they sometimes mix different
languages together, so that it is difficult to
understand what they mean. A child has been
heard to speak in this manner to his. father:
‘Papa, I have been inthe let moi sahd; Feodor
s’nami buil ; est-ce que vous wirez pas?’ What,
did he mean? ‘Papa, I have been in the summer
garden ; Feodor was with us; will you not go?’
Russian nobles generally talk French to each
other, and they speak German and English as
well as their own language. Many boys are not
taught Greek or Hebrew, for their parents think
it is of no use to learn languages which nobody
speaks now: but, as the Bible was written in
Greek and Hebrew, it must be well to know
those languages.

RELIGION.—Are the children taught to fear
God? Some are, and these very often by their
English nurses,
RUSSIA. | 239

The children are generally taught religion by
the priest, and he tells them to do what their
Church commands, and to obey its laws.

The Russian Church is almost exactly the
same as the Greek Church.

The Roman Catholic Church is governed by
the Pope.

The Greek Church is governed by a
Patriarch.

The Russian Church is governed by the H oly
Synod, which is an assembly of priests, with the
Emperor for their head.*

The Russian Church forbids images, though
it allows pictures.

Every Russian child wears a little cross, tied
round its neck. When is the cross first put
on? At its baptism, when it is a very little
baby. The priest first dips the baby three times
in water. He takes care to hold his hand over
the baby’s mouth, to prevent it from being
drowned. Then he takes a little oil, and with
a little brush, touches its eyes, and ears, and
mouth, and hands, and feet, and afterwards he
puts the cross round its neck. |

When the godparents say they ‘ renounce
the devil and all his works,’ they turn their

* It was Peter the Great who established the Holy
Synod. Before his reign there used to be a Patriarch of
Moscow. The highest of the Russian Priests are called
Metropolitans.
240 RUSSIA.

heads and spit upon the floor, and the priest
also does the same.

Children are very seldom baptized in church,
but nearly always at their own homes. The
parents of the child may not be present at the
baptism. Children of poor people- are very
often baptized the same day or the day after
they are born, and in less than two months they
must receive the Holy Communion.

Russian priests are called ‘popes.’ The
peasants always give them the name of
‘father,’ when they speak to them. You
may know the priests, when you meet them,
by their brown coats, buttoned up to their
chins, and their hats with broad brims. Those
men in black cloth gowns and high black
caps, are the monks, who live in houses to-
gether, and have no wives. They are called the
Black Clergy, whilst the others are called the
White Clergy. The white clergy are the village
priests. A man cannot be ordained or made
priest till he has a wife. Do you want to
know the reason of this? It is because
St. Paul says, ‘Let the deacons be the husband
of one wife.’ If a priest loses his wife, he 18
not allowed to marry again, and he often
becomes a monk. Most of the bishops have
been monks. | | |

When the Russians meet their priest, they
behave very respectfully to him; instead of
RUSSIA. 24]

shaking hands with him, they kiss the back
of his hand, and ask him to give them his
blessing. But they cannot always respect the
priests in their hearts, for many of them are
very tond of strong drink; and they also try to
get as much money as they can from the poor
people, for the village priests are generally very
poor, and often are obliged to till their fields
themselves, |

The clergy are not allowed to cut their hair
nor to shave, so they have long hair falling over
their shoulders, which makes some of them
look like women. A large cross hangs on their
chest by a chain round the neck.

WS" ae
fl ——
i



————

Russian Pope or Priest.
242 BUSSIA,

Although there are many priests whom the
people cannot respect, yet there are some very
good ones. I have heard of one who spent his
time in praying and doing good. More than
a hundred poor people, who were not able to
work, lived in his house. Rich people gave
him money to buy food for these poor creatures,
Every day this good priest prayed with them,
read the Bible to them, and talked to them
about their souls and their Saviour. Even
when he was ninety years old, he used to get
up at five o’clock to pray.

Another good priest was a missionary in the
far north, and used to travel from island to
island in sledges, drawn by reindeer. He was
much honoured, as he deserved to be. He
was made higher than the Archbishops, for -
he was made Metropolitan of Moscow. This
was the greatest honour which could ~ be
given him. But a sad thing happened to
him. He had suffered so much from going
out in the intense cold that he lost his
eyesight ; but, though quite blind, he took his
part in the service, as he knew all the prayers
and gospels by heart. He died in 1879.

THE CHURCHES. —The churches are very gay.
They are not the same shape as our churches.
Instead of one tower or steeple, they have five
cupolas —one at each corner, and one in the
middle, with a cross at the top of each; and


RUSSIA. 243

all these cupolas are painted with gay colours,
and are often ornamented with gold. The
walls of the church inside are covered with
pictures of saints and angels. I think it would
tire you very much to attend service, for there
are no seatsin the church—all the people stand
crowded together. Inthe country churches, the
men generally stand in the front and the women
behind. | |
The priests read parts of chapters out of the
New Testament; and they do not read in Latin,
as the Roman Catholics do, nor in Russian, but

i. in a language called the Sclavonic language,

which, unfortunately, many of the poor people
do not properly understand. But the deacons
read so fast that even those who know the
- language cannot always understand what they
say.

There is no organ in the church, nor any
other musical instrument, but men and boys
sing beautiful psalms; none of the congregation,
however, join in the singing.

The people, who stand in the church, often
bow down to the ground, till they touch the
floor with their foreheads. They think they
please God by making these low bows.

Look at the picture of the Cathedral of
St. Basil. This is a remarkable church at
Moscow, just outside the Holy Gate of the
Kremlin wall. I have also heard it called the
244 RUSSIA,

‘ Pine-apple Church,’ because one of its domes
as you see, is like a pine-apple, It was built
by the command of the Czar, John the Terrible,
When it was finished he was very much pleased
and thought that it was the most beautiful
church that had ever been built.

AA a

S=


RUSSIA. 245

Some people say that, after the church was
built, he put out the eyes of the architect to
prevent him from ever building a church like
it in any other country; but I hardly think this
can be true.

This cathedral is very irregular in appear-
ance. It has eleven domes, each different in
colour and design. Under each dome, is a
chapel. |

THE EMPEROR or CzAR of Russia may do
whatever he pleases). He may even punish
people without telling them what it is for.
Sometimes he sends them a long way off to
a part of his country which is in Asia, and
which is called Siberia, making them walk the
latter part of the way, where there is no rail-
way. ‘The men have to walk together, about
twenty in a gang, and the women some dis~
tance behind, in another gang. They walk about
twelve miles a-day, and sleep in small houses,
which have been built to receive them on their
way. When they get to Siberia, some have to
work in mines. Sometimes they are never al-
lowed to come back to their homes and their
friends.

aed Pome cD BS ADIT tA LOO LE ALND IPED ERNE AR ADEA PAPE SANSA ARAL
246

ST. PETERSBURG.

The chief city of Russia is called St. Peters.
burg. And why has it thisname? Because
it was built by the Emperor Peter I. He was
the Czar who is always called Peter the Great,

This Peter was a clever man. He came to
England to learn to build ships, and he made
a large boat with his own hands. It is still
kept at St. Petersburg. There, also, may be
seen a little house that Peter made for himself,
before the great. city was built.

Peter chose a very damp place for his new
capital, but it has a fine, broad river running
through it, called the Neva. Why did Peter
choose this damp place? Because it is near the
Baltic Sea, and so it is a good place for ships.
He said that he desired to have ‘a window
looking out into Europe.’ As there were no
railroads in those days it was often a long
time before people could get any news.
Peter hoped to learn what his neighbours
were doing from the ships that came to
st. Petersburg.

St. Petersburg is full of palaces and fine -
streets. The Emperor has a very grand palace,
called the Winter Palace. It is the largest in
Europe, and it is built in the largest square in
Europe. On the quay of the Neva, not far
ST. PETERSBURG. 247

from the Winter Palace, there is a statue of
Peter the Great. He is on horseback, climbing
a rock, and the horse is trampling a dragon
under foot.



















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octane 2a = te == SS

- St. Isaac’s Cathedral, St. Petersburg.

This is the great cathedral at St. Petersburg.
On Easter Eve, the people bring a great many
large cakes, white cheeses, and eges coloured
red, adorned with flowers and lighted tapers,
and place them in rows, on the steps leading up
to the cathedral. |
248 ST, PETERSBURG.

While it is yet night, the priests pass between
all these rows of things, sprinkling them with
water, and chanting prayers. ‘This is called
blessing the food.

THE MARKET-PLACES.—If you want to buy
anything in St. Petersburg, you had better go
to the market-places. There are shops in the
streets, but most of the goods are sold in a
market. Over the gate of the market, the
picture of a saint is hung, with a lamp burning
before it.

When you go in, you see a great many
little booths and little shops. Things of the
same sort, are sold in booths near each other.
There is the cap-row, and the toy-row, and the
paper-row. And there is the pastrycook-row.

If you want a fur cloak, say to any one you
meet, ‘My little father, or my little mother,
where is the fur-row?’ and the people will
answer you civilly, if you speak civilly to
them.

There are some very strange things to be
seen in the market. Look at those white hares
that appear to be running along the ground,
and those cows which never move, those quiet
pigs, too, with their little ones! They are all
dead, but they stand upright, because they are
frozen quite stiff with the cold.

The reason of this is, that frozen meat will
keep all the winter; therefore, as soon as the
ST. PETERSBURG. 249

frost sets in, a number of animals are killed for
the winter.

The hares in Russia become quite white —
during the winter, though in summer they are
the same colour as English hares.

A great many pigeons are sold in the market,
but they are never eaten by the Russians, only
kept as pets. They are called holy birds, and
are allowed to live in the churches, and to fly in
and out of the roof.

One row of booths is covered with little
pictures, and filled inside with boxes of images.
See! that man is buying twenty pictures of
saints. ‘They are to hang up in his new house,
for in every room is placed a holy picture called
an Icon. Look at the picture of an Icon,* and
you will remember what it is like.

BATHING- Houses.—- The Russian peasants
are generally fair, and have light hair. They
never undress when they go to bed, but always
sleep in their ‘shubas.’ From this you might
think that they were dirty; you will be sur-
prised to hear that they have a bath once
a-week! On Saturday evening they may be
seen, with a towel in one hand and a birch-twig
in the other, hurrying to the bathing-houses.
In these bathing-houses the people do not take
a bath by going into the water. There is a
large stove in the room with stone or wooden

* See page 235,
250 ST, PETERSBURG.

benches all round. These benches are like
those of a green-house, one above another,
Large stones are first heated in the stoves;
when they are taken out, water is poured upon
them, and that fills the room with steam or
vapour. The people lie on the benches, and
grow quite hot from the steam. The higher
they mount on the benches, the hotter they
become, because the hottest air and steam are
at the top. Men come and beat them with
their birch-twigs, and throw pails of cold water
over them. This is thought very pleasant.
Russians are very uneasy if they cannot bathe.
In many villages the bathing-houses are built
some distance from the other houses, for they
are more liable to catch fire; and when a fire
begins in the summer it spreads very rapidly.
In hot weather, all the people are very fond of
bathing in the river. The children sometimes
bathe several times in the day.

They are also very fond of swinging: grown-
up people often stand on a board and swing them-
selves. In almost every village there is a swing.

WINTER IN ST. PETERSBURG.—Little children
cannot go out in very cold weather. When
the extreme cold has passed, then they go out,
but they wear a great many warm things,

There are no perambulators to be seen with
little children sitting in them, but men-servants
carry the babies, and the nurses walk bytheir side.
‘ST. PETERSBURG. 951

A nurse very seldom indeed carries a baby ;
for you must remember that the baby, with all
its clothes to keep it warm, is very heavy, and -
a nurse would not be able to carry it for more

than a few minutes.

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— It is very pleasant to drive out in sledges on the
white, ‘crunching’ snow. ‘There are thousands
of sledges standing all day to be hired, and every
one, who can afford it, takes drives in them.
The picture above is of a one-horse sledge for
one or two persons besides the coachman. It
is the Czar Alexander II., the late Emperor
and the father of the Duchess of Edinburgh,

driving in his sledge.
252 ST, PETERSBURG.

During the winter you might have seen him
every day driving abont in this way. He went
very fast, as do all the private sledges, for they
have beautiful horses. But the sledges which
people hire, and which are used for cabs in
winter, do not go so fast. Here is a picture of

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Winter Cab, or Sledge, such as people hire.

Though the horses and ponies look very
miserable, yet some of them go very fast.
The coachman looks very uncomfortable, for
he has hardly any seat, and in a big sledge
for three horses, he has no seat at all, and
stands all the time.

But the great delight of some of the people
of St. Petersburg, during the winter, is the
ice-hills,
ST. PETERSBURG. 253

Two slopes are made facing each other, and
are covered with smoothice. One or two persons
get into a sledge on the top of one of the slopes,
then the sledge is launched down the smooth
ice on that side. When it reaches the bottom,
it rushes along the ice to the opposite slope.

The Russians wrap themselves up in furs
during the winter. You can hardly see their
faces; but their noses and eyes peep out, as
you will see if you look at the picture of
the man in the sledge. Sometimes you
will observe a man’s nose grow very white
indeed. He feels no pain; he does not know
that his nose is getting frozen. Any kind per-
son passing by will call out, ‘Father, mind your
nose!’ Then the man will take up some snow
and rub his nose till it grows warm: and thus
his nose is saved.

In Russia, when ladies and gentlemen dine
out or go to an evening party, their carriages
and horses wait outside for them. Sometimes
a coachman has to remain near the front door
for hours with his carriage.

There are sheds in St. Petersburg for coach
men to stand under, and large fires in the
middle, to keep them from being frozen to
death. The coachman’s livery in the winter
is rather different from what it is in the summer.
In the winter it is thickly lined with fur, and the
hat is a four-cornered one made of red or light
254, ST. PETERSBURG.

blue velvet. The fatter a Russian coachman is,
the more he is thought of. All grand people
have extremely big coachmen, with long beards,
Here is a picture of a very fine St. Petersburg
coachman in his winter driving-dress. All
coachmen wear the same kind of dress. You
see his white gloves in the band round his waist





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Fussian Coachman in Winter Livery.

The rich people keep their houses very warm.
They have double windows, and put sand or
cotton-wool between. In the sand, sham flowers
are sometimes put. Salt-cellars full of salt are
also put between the windows, to absorb the
damp. Sometimes the salt is made into the
ST, PETERSBURG. 955

shape of little houses, and trees, and hills,
Which would you put, between your windows, .
if you were there—cotton-wool or sand? There
are two doors to some rooms, one behind the
other, to keep the cold air from getting in.
There is a large stove in each room; and these
stoves Keep the house as warm as it is in
England in summer-time.

SUMMER IN ST. PETERSBURG.—In summer
it is very hot and very dusty. Yet St. Peters-
burg looks beautiful in summer, with its white
houses and their green roofs. Then, too, you
may go in a boat on the broad Neva, and
visit the islands, covered with trees and grass.

EASTER AT ST. PETERSBURG.—There are a
great many ceremonies at Easter. On Good
Friday, there is a long box placed in the
churches, covered with a cloth, and on the
cloth the body of the Saviour is painted with
His five bleeding wounds.

Just before midnight on Saturday, crowds of
people hasten to the churches. At the church-
door each person buys a taper. When the
clock strikes twelve, suddenly all these tapers
are lighted; each man lights his candle from
his neighbour’s; and the priests begin to sing,
‘Christ is risen.’

Then there is great joy shown by all. They
shake hands and kiss each other, all the bells
ring, and cannon are fired. The churches are
256 MOSCOW.

blazing with lights, and all St. Petersburg ig
full of brightness and bustle, music and mirth,

On Easter Sunday, every one who meets a
friend or an acquaintance cries out, * Christ, is
risen!’ then kisses him three times on each
cheek, and presses an egg into his hand.
These eggs are generally painted with the
words, ‘Christ is risen!’ But some are not
real eggs, but made of ivory or of cut glass,
and some are sugar-plum-boxes, and some are
transparent, and contain waxen trees, and ducks,
and angels lying on beds of roses.

And how does the day end? In feasting,
and drinking. The streets of St. Petersburg
are filled with staggering, reeling people. Are
they glad that Christ is risen? If they were,
could they delight in the sins for which He
died ? |

MOSCOW.

This city was the capital of Russia before
Peter the Great built St. Petersburg.

Moscow is veryunlike St. Petersburg. Which
would you like the best ?

Petersburg is a new city.

Moscow is an old one.

Petersburg has straight streets.

Moscow has winding streets.


































































































































































































































































































































































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The Kremlin, 2. fas
MOSCOW. 257

Petersburg is quite flat.

Moscow is full of hills.

Petersburg is the city of palaces.

Moscow is the city of churches.

Petersburg has no pretty country around it.

Moscow has fields and gardens in the midst
of it, and corn-fields and woods around it.

Petersburg has a broad river, and manv
canals.

Moscow has two shallow streams.

Petersburg has whole streets full of fine
houses.

Moscow has fine houses and cottages mixed
together.

I think you would like Moscow the best. It
is not so grand as Petersburg, but it is much
more interesting. You would find it very
amusing to ramble about Moscow; you would
see something new at every step. Though other
cities contain more people, hardly any city is
as large as Moscow.

The grandest place in the city is the Krem-
lin. What is the Kremlin? It is not one
building, but many collected together on the
top of a hill in the middle of the city, and
surrounded with walls. There are cathedrals,
churches, and palaces, on the hill. Look at
tnat large building on the right, with a flag-
staff on the top of it. That is the great palace
with the State apartments. In this palace there

S
258 MOSCOW.

are several very beautiful halls leading from one
to another. The building on the left is called
the Treasury. It is a most interesting place,
and contains a collection very like that of the
Tower of London. Jn one hall, there are many
thrones of silver, gold, and ivory, all round the
room. before each throne there is a little
table with a cushion, and a crown upon it;
such shining crowns, covered with such splendid
jewels! But who wear those beautiful crowns?
No one. Those who wore them, are dead—they
were the Kings and Queens of Russia. Their
crowns and coronation thrones are kept at
Moscow, but they are taken to St. Petersburg
whenever an Emperor dies, and they are all
displayed at his lying-in-state.

On each chair or throne is the initial of the
IKkmperor or Empress whose throne it was. In
the middle of this room, in a glass case, is
the Order of the Garter, which our Queen
Elizabeth gave to John the Terrible,* one of
the Russian Emperors.

In another room of the Treasury are a
great number of ancient carriages. One of
the largest of these was a present from Queen
_ Elizabeth to another Czar of Russia. The
panels are very prettily painted.

In one of the great halls of the Kremlin, the
chief priest blesses some oil every two years.

* Ivan IV.
MOSCOW. 259

The oil is put into a large silver bath, which
hangs over a stove. Very sweet-smelling herbs
are mixed witb the oil, which the priests stir
with long sticks.. It takes two days to mix and
boil the oil. While it is being mixed, some of
the priests read in the Gospel by turns, and say
prayers; and a great many people come and
listen very attentively. What is the oil for?
It is to anoint babies at their baptism. The
same oil is also used to anoint the Emperor at
his coronation. When it is fit for use it is put
into thirty large silver jars and kept in a church.
The Russian priests send for some when they

































































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Spaskt Gateway.
260 MOSCOW.

his is one of the five gates leading into
the Kremlin. Over it, as you see, is a holy
picture, and in front of this holy picture,
hangs a lantern. In this lantern, a candle
or vil-lamp is always kept burning. Over
_ all the gates at Moscow there is a holy picture,
and, generally, a lantern as well. There is a
very curious old custom connected with this
gate. Every man or boy, and even the Emperor
himself, takes off his hat, as he passes through
the gateway. It is very funny to see all the
coachmen carrying their hats in their hands
whilst they are driving under this long arch-
way.

Many years ago if a person did not take
off his hat, he was punished by being made
to prostrate himself itty times before the
picture.

A curious sight in the Kremlin is the great
bell, about which you have already heard.
It is the largest bell in the world. What
do you think of a bell as large as a room?
Well, this bellis as large as a good-sized room.
But it is of no use, as it is broken. Once it
was hung up, but it fell down and broke; and
now it is placed on a pedestal near the tower, -
so that people may examine it. When it was
being cast, the ladies of Moscow brought their
jewels and other treasures, and threw them _
into the liquid metal. There is a large piece



































































































































































KIEF. | 261

knocked out of the side of the bell. In the

‘picture, you see the great bell at the foot of
the tower. |















































































































































































































































Tower of Ivan the Great, and the Great Bell.

KIEF.

This is one of the oldest cities in Russia. It
is called the ‘ Holy City,’ or, the ‘ Jerusalem of
Russia.” And why? Pay a visit to it with
me, and you will find out.

It is a beautiful city, built along the steep
banks of the river Dnieper. In one of the
262 : KIEF.

rocks, which form these steep banks, caverns
have been hollowed out and used as burying-
places. |

Did you ever see a cavern? ‘There are
no caverns in England at all like those of
Kief. :

If you wish to visit these caverns, there are
etides with lghted torches to show you the
way. You will have to go through very narrow
passages. You cannot see to the end of them,
because they are so winding. But what is the
use of these passages? At last you will see a
sort of shelf on one side of the passage, and
on it a coffin,—an open coffin. A dried-up
body, in a silk dress, lies in the coffin; his
hand hangs out; the guide stops, and kisses
it. Soon you come to more such coffins.
The guide kisses every dead hand he sees.
In some places you will see little windows
in the wall. Look through them. ‘There
are dead bodies lying inside. They have
been preserved in a very curious way, 80
that they have not crumbled into dust, like
other dead _ bodies.

The Russians say that all these dead men
were very good, and they call them saints.
Crowds of pilgrims” come from all parts of
Russia to Kief every year.

“ The pilgrims to Kief amount annually to as many as
200,000.
KIEF, 263

Near Moscow (about two hours by rail) is a
famous monastery, called Troitsa. Thousands
of people make a pilgrimage every year to.
the shrine of St. Sergius, its founder and
patron. ‘This shrine weighs 936 lbs. of pure
silver, which is more than a large ox weighs.

In a church, at a little distance, is St. Sergius’
coffin, People who are suffering from tooth-
ache often make a pilgrimage there, in order
to bite off a piece, as this is supposed to
do good to the toothache. Already a very
large hole has been gnawed in the coffin,
and nearly the whole of one of the sides is
gone.

There is another small church, which women
may never enter except on the twenty-eighth
and twenty-ninth of August. The people say
that the Virgin Mary went up to Heaven on
one of those days.

Near Troitsa are some catacombs, which it
would make you shudder to enter. They are
very deep below the surface of the earth, where
no daylight can come. They consist of pas-
sages with cells dug out of the earth on
each side. In some of these cells men have
lived for many years without ever coming out,
because they have taken ‘ vows of seclusion’
from man and from the light of day. Before
they enter the cell some of these men take very
strict vows that they will never speak to any-
264. KIEF,

one, but will keep perpetual silence; and some-
times after they enter, they wall themselves in,
and only leave a small hole through which their
food may be passed tothem. The cells are very
small and damp, though each has a stove. Be-
sides the stove in the wall, there is a kind of bed,
and an icon with a lamp burning before it, which
is the only light in the cell. I hope that you
know a better way of pleasing God. Instead
of keeping silence, I hope you will be like the
children in the temple, who cried Hosanna to
the Son of David.

CHARACTER.—By this time you will know
something of the character of the Russians.
They are fond of amusements and company.

The peasants are civil, but sly, and idle,
and sometimes dishonest. But then, it must
be remembered, that until lately the peasants
were serfs; which is a condition little better
than that of slaves. They were almost entirely
at the mercy of the masters on whose land they
were born; and, as these masters were sometimes
hard and unjust, it is no wonder that the poor
serfs were not more honest and industrious. Yet,
though the Russians often are not to be trusted,
I have heard of one who acted in a very upright
and noble manner.

_A lady said to one of her servants, ‘ Take
this money to my daughter.’ It was a large
sum of money. Soon afterwards, the man re-
KIEF, 265

turned, crying, ‘I have lost the money, I do not
know how. Pray forgive me.’ The lady could
not tell whether her servant had stolen or lost -
it, but she kindly said nothing more about it.
Six years afterwards, the man appeared and
laid the money at her feet.. He had saved all
he could out of his wages, and, when he had
married, he had added his wife’s money to
his own savings. ‘Here it is!’ said the
joyful man. The lady would not take it,
and he would not have it back. Therefore
this kind lady put it into the bank to keep
it for his children.

When the Emperor Alexander II. came to
the throne, all the peasants were serfs. In
1861, he gave them their freedom. There
were about twenty-two millions thus set free.
He gave to each man the cottage in which he
lived, as well as some land to cultivate,

Very few serfs were able to read ;—now, every
peasant-child, from nine to twelve years of age,
must go to school. The schools are examined
every year by Government. Those boys who
gain a certificate at the end of three years
are not obliged to go into the army. All
others, excepting only sons, have to serve
as soldiers or sailors for a short time. A
certificate is very difficult to gain, and is
only given to one or two ney at the head
of the school.
266 ALEXANDER II.

The Russians used to have a terrible kind
of punishment, by flogging with an instrument
called a ‘knout.?. The Emperor Alexander IT,
abolished, or put an end to, this punishment,
He made new and good laws, and did every-
thing he could for the good of his people.

The Emperor Alexander I. founded a Russian
Bible Society, which translated the New Testa-
ment and the Psalms into the Russian language,
The rest of the Bible was only in the old
Sclavonic language.

The Emperor, Alexander II., allowed the
whole Bible to be translated into Russian,
and to be sold everywhere. During the war
with Turkey in 1877, great numbers of Bibles
were bought by the Russian soldiers. Russian
Bibles are now seen everywhere in Russia;
and good men are sent all over the country
to sell them.

Millions of men loved Alexander II. yet
some men hated him. These men were called
Nihilists, or Nothing-ists, because they wish to
keep nothing as it is, but to upset all laws and
governments, so that every one may do as he
likes. “They regard not man and they fear not
God ;”—they do not even believein Him. They
have made themselves into a secret society, and
they print letters, and send them to different
people—no one knows how. The Nihilists
often wrote to Alexander II. and threatened to
ALEXANDER II, 267

kill him; they did worse—they tried to mur-
der him again and again. Three times they
shot at him with pistols, once they blew up
part of the train in which he travelled, and
another time they blew up the dining-room of
his palace at his dinner-hour.

On Sunday, 13th March, 1881, they made
their last attempt. It was a lovely morning,
and the sun was shining brightly on the glis-
tening snow, when some friends of the Emperor
tried to persuade him not to go out. They
feared some plot against his life, and they
implored him not to review his troops that
day, according to his custom, but their en-
treaties were in vain; he said he felt it hig
duty to go, and he went.

As he was returning home a tremendous
noise was heard—something had burst and
had shattered the Emperor’s carriage. What
was it ?——an iron ball, or bomb. It had been
painted white, that it might not be noticed in
the snow. It was hollow, and it had water
inside it, and glass tubes filled with something
far more dangerous than gunpowder. This
dreadful bomb wounded some of the soldiers
round the carriage. The Emperor was unhurt,
but deadly pale. He stepped out immedi-
ately, full of care for his poor wounded guards;
when, lo! two minutes after the first explosion,
a young man of nineteen was seen to raise


268 ALEXANDER IT.

something as high as he could, and to fling it
with all his might at the Emperor’s feet. It was
another bomb. How terrible was the second
explosion! A column of snow and fragments
rose high into the air, and the ground was
strewn with the wounded. Motionless upon
the snow, lay the Emperor himself, his hat and
cloak gone, his uniform torn, both his legs
shattered, and blood flowing from his wounds,

One of his officers, crying ‘Good God! what
have they done to your Majesty?’ threw him-
selfon the ground beside him, and endeavoured
to support him and to cover his head. Twice
the Emperor murmured, ‘olodni—lIt is cold!’
and tried to put his hand to his brow, which was
covered with blood. The Emperor’s brother
then came up, asked him, ‘Sacha, how do
you fecl ?’ and placed a cap on his head. Some
one proposed carrying him into a house near
to staunch the blood, but the Emperor himself
said distinctly, ‘ Bear me to the palace, to die
there.’

He was obeyed. He was taken home in a
sledge, and supported on both sides, for he was
too weak to hold up his head or even to speak
again, except with his eyes. At thirty-five
minutes past three, exactly one hour and fifty |
minutes after the dreadful explosion, surrounded
by his sorrowing family, Alexander II. ceased
to breathe. Grievous, indeed, were his wounds!
ALEXANDER II. : 269

His face, his hands, his body, his legs—all had
suffered.

You will be shocked to — that women
had joined with cruel hands in preparing the
murderous bomb.

Great was the horror of the people; many
were seen running about and weeping, kneeling
on the snow and searching for some broken
fragment or bloody stain to keep as a relic.

The Emperor’s body was embalmed, and
taken, with much pomp, from the Winter
Palace to the Cathedral of Saint Peter and Saint
Paul. The procession, was as magnificent as
gold and jewels, plumed steeds, and royal
princes, could make it; but the most touching
part of all must have been to see the new
Emperor, ALEXANDER III., follow his father’s
bier for two long hours, alone, on foot, and
with a countenance full of grief and majesty.

Iany were allowed to enter the Cathedral
and pay their last respects to their beloved Czar.

A number of peasants travelled from Mos-
cow to St. Petersburg on purpose to add their
wreath to the countless crowns laid at his feet.
One of them wrote an account of his visit.
Tie says, ‘More and more as we approached
the church I felt my heart sink. At last we
entered. Many generals were present; they
made way to let us pass; we fell on our knees
and wept bitterly; we struck the pavement
270 ALEXANDER II.

with our foreheads, and our tears flowed
abundantly. I was ashamed before so many
generals, but I continued to weep. Three
times we bent the knee,—no words will ex-
press what I felt. The coffin had disappeared
under a mountain of wreaths, but the general
parted them asunder in order to place our
crowns on the breast of our father. Yes, the
wreath of the poor peasants rested on the
breast of our LIBERATOR—-of our Martyr.
Then our tears began once more to flow. The
general permitted us to kiss the hand of the
sovereign. On beholding the countenance of the
dead monarch I became as though petrified. It
did not at all resemble the portraits, which we
all know. The hair and beard were completely
white; the traces of the crime were visible on
the left eyelid and on the cheek: but he was
there in his coffin, our martyred Czar, with an
expression of great sweetness, as though he
slept. A sacred image was between his hands;
flowers encircled his head; and the whole coun-
tenance bore an aspect of such mildness that
the most hardened and wicked heart might
have been softened by the spectacle of this »
cruel martyrdom.’

The present Emperor, Alexander III., mar-
ried the Danish Princess Dagmar, sister of our
beloved Princess of Wales.

Kindly revised by J. B. Clark, Esa.
271

ITALY.

WHAT a change it would be for any one to go
from the snowy forests of Russia to the sunny
plains of Italy! Italy has often been called the
Garden of Europe.

And why is it called a garden? Because it
is so full of flowers and of fruit. If you were
to see the purple and scarlet anemones that
cover the ground,* and the pink oleander,
you would say, ‘ This is a garden.” Then the
oranges and lemons look beautiful, and the
purple grapes climbing between the trees.

If you look up, you see a sky of the deepest
blue, and often without a cloud. Winter comes,
it is true, but it does not stay long. The spring
soon shines forth, and the summer lasts a great
while.

Italy would be still more beautiful if there
were more fine, large trees, and fresh, green
grass. tor want of shade the land is scorched.

In the north of Italy there are some mag-
nificent lakes, whose blue waters look cool and
refreshing in the hottest weather. Our beloved
Queen spent some weeks by the side of one of
these lakes, called Lago Maggiore. She de-

“ Purple gladiolus and cyclamen grow wild in Italy. The
prickly pear (which is like the cactus) grows in the south.
279 ITALY.

lighted the people by talking to them in
Italian.

PEOPLE.— What sort of people live in
Italy? They are very dark, because the sun
shines so much. They have dark hair and
eyes, —not those bright, merry, black eyes
you see in France, but beautiful soft eyes
of very dark brown. A few of the ladies have
golden hair, which is very much admired.

The religion of the Italians is the Roman
Catholic.

hey are so polite that they never contradict
any one, and when they speak of bad people
they always seem to pity them instead of con-
- demning them.

They play at all sorts of games for money,
some with cards and some with their fingers.
They are not taught that this is wrong. Every
spring there is a feast at Rome which lasts two
or three days; it is called the Carnival. Many
foolish things are done at the Carnival,

Sometimes people put on masks and run
about the streets, and see whether any one
can find out who they are when their faces
are hid. On a certain day, every one who likes
it, takes a quantity of sugar-plums and little
nosegays, and throws them at the people in
the streets; then there is much confusion and
merriment. Afterwards the horses have a
race. They have no riders—the horses rua
ITALY. . ‘273

by themselves, and are stopped by carpets
held up in the streets.* Another day every-
one takes a candle, and the amusement is
to try and blow out other people’s candles and
keep your own alight. Things are thrown -
at the candles in order to put them out,
and many tricks are played. These are very
foolish games for grown-up people, and they
are being left off.

Four hundred years ago it happened once in
Carnival-time that the children were so wild
no one could manage them, till a good man,
named Savonarola, gathered them round him,
and gave them a better amusement-—teaching
them to make a bonfire of foolish books and
pictures.

The Italians are very fond of music, and of
painting, and of statues. They do not care
so much for useful things as the Enelish do.
Italians care most for beautiful things; English
people care most for wseful things,
many Italian boys come to London. Some of
them bring little organs, and some bring images,
which they carry on trays on their heads, and
some bring dormice, and some monkeys. There
are good people in London who teach these boys
to read, and give them Italian Testaments to

* At Siena, every parish furnishes the race with a horse,
and each horse, decked in gay trappings, is taken into the
parish church and blessed there by the priest before the race.

a
274 ITALY.

take with them when they return to Italy.
Why do these boys leave their own country
to come here? Very often they are brought
to England by some cunning man, who goes to
their native village, or mountain, and persuades
their parents to trust them to his care. He
flatters the parents by calling their children
handsome, he pleases them by giving them a
piece of gold, and he deceives them by promis-
ing to make their children rich and happy.

There are no workhouses in Italy where poor
people may go who have no home and no friends,
therefore people, who are too old, or too sick, to
work, are obliged to beg; and very sad it often
is to see them. Some of the poor creatures
are blind, and some have broken backs or
legs.

Italian boys do not fight with their fists, like
English boys, but throw stones when they are
angry. It is dangerous to provoke Italians.
Even boys, as well as men, take out their knives
and cut one another when they are displeased.
Sometimes they do worse, and instead of show-
ing their anger at the time, keep it in, and
watch an opportunity of murdering their
enemy.

It 1s quite a mistake to say that Italians are
lazy.* They are very industrious, and they
are also very soher, very kind-hearted, and very.

* See Hughes’ Treasury of Geography, p. 352.
ITALY, 275

grateful. The children are very docile and
easy to manage.

Houses. —Italy was once full of rich people.
Their houses are left, but there are not many
rich people to live in them. It is easy for a
stranger to hire a fine, large, old house, with a
marble staircase, and a terrace covered with
vines,

All day you must keep the blinds down or
the sun would scorch you. But you can open
them in the evening, and enjoy the pure air;
only take care at night lest the mosquitoes come
in and bite you all over. The beds often have
gauze curtains down to the ground, to keep off
the mosquitoes.

Even poor people love painted ceilings. The
Italians often adorn their houses with statues
placed in their halls, as well as with painted
ceilings.

In some places the Italians have a very good
way of bringing water upstairs. The maids let
buckets down from the upper windows, and some
one in the court below fills them from the foun-
tain, and then the maids draw the buckets up
again. In other places, people keep a donkey
to draw up the water from the well.

Foop.—The common food of poor people is
porridge made of maize, or Indian corn, instead
of oatmeal. This porridge is called Polenta.
But you may be ill if you eat much polenta,
276 ITALY.

unless you take something with it. In the
north of Italy people dry chestnuts and grind
them into powder, and then make cakes with
the powder.

A favourite food of poor people is macaroni.
What is that? It is made of flour and water
in the shape of pipes. Macaroni looks like
white serpents. There are plenty of stalls in
the towns where macaroni is sold, and where
the poor people in the evening go and buy
their supper.

There are boys in the streets who sell iced
water. In England no one would buy this
sort of drink, but in Italy the people like it.
The Italians do not care about eating and
drinking.

I will tell you what sort of dinners they have
in Italy. Perhaps this might be the dinner:
soup made of cabbage and thickened with rice;
to give it a good taste, cheese is put into the
soup; a fowl, which has been boiled in the
soup; and a dish of fried brains and _arti-
chokes. I think you would like this dinner. I
am quite sure you would like the grapes, and
peaches, melons, oranges, and figs of Italy.
Very poor people would have bread and cheese
for their dinner, and the cheese would be made
most ewes’ milk.

_ There is plenty of wine.
The people of Venice only eat one good meal
ITALY. 277

in the day—their dinner, which they have at four
oclock. It is very simple—a piece of boiled
beef, a little soup thickened with rice, some
vegetables, and some light wine. A piece of
bread and a little coffee, an ice and fruit, are
enough for the rest of the day.

DreEss.—There are a great many different
ways of dressing in Italy. All young women,
even the poorest, have their hair very carefully
done. In one part, the women wear nothing
on their heads, and even the old women may
be seen with their grey hair tied up in knots
at the back of their heads: as their faces are
made very dark by the sun, they look very ill
in this head-dress. In one part of Italy, the
girls fasten up their hair with a large silver
bodkin. In another part the women wear
black veils instead of hats or bonnets. Some of
the women used to wear white veils, and to carry
large fans in their hands. In Rome, the women
wear a white cloth folded flat upon their heads
and covering the back of their necks, so as to
shade them from thesun. The men often wear
a red scarf, and a sash over their shirts, and
caps which are red on one side and black on
the other. They often have no coats, but very
pretty embroidered waistcoats. Instead of boots,
they wear sandals, and instead of stockings, they
bandage their legs with long strips of brown
linen.
278 ITALY.

On the tops of the mountains, there are wild-
looking shepherds, who live there alone with
their sheep. They have long, curling locks,
and they wear mantles or cloaks of brown and
white wool, brown peaked hats, and sandals on
their feet. At night they wrap themselves in
their cloaks to sleep. They are rough in their
manners, but they are honest and trustworthy.
They live on polenta and a little cheese.

The mothers have a very bad way of dressing
their babies. They bind them round with rolls
of cloth, and straighten their little legs, so
that the babies are stiff like a poker, and
cannot crawl on the ground, or kick their hmbs
about. The mothers think that by this plan
they shall make the children straight and
strong; but really they make them crooked and
weak. There are a great many cripples to be
seen.

CusToMs.—Italians seldom have fires, but each
person has a little earthenware basket called a
scaldino, filled with wood ashes. The ashes of
the box-tree have a very pleasant smell.

There is a place near Florence called the
T'respiano ; here people are buried who are too
poor to have a tombstone. Very soon after
their death, their bodies are taken to a chapel,
and then in the night they are carried to the
Trespiano, where they are buried. They are
very seldom put into coffins.
ITALY, 279

People are hardly ever executed in Italy.
In all his reign the last king, Victor Emmanuel, ©
never once condemned any one to death.

You will like to hear a true story of this
king. He told it himself one day, out hunting,
to the gentleman who related it.

You must know the king was very fond
of dressing himself in common clothes, and
going about his country with only one atten-
dant, who was desired not to treat him as a
king. It happened one day that the king and
his attendant were overtaken by a tremendous
storm. Now the rain there comes down in
bucketsful, and drenches every one who is
caught in it. The king, therefore, was very
glad to take refuge in the house of a peasant,
and asked his leave to stay the night. The
peasant replied that he was very sorry, but
this was impossible, for his wife was ill in bed,
and he had no other bed to offer; but as the
storm continued he afterwards said, ‘ You shall
stay if you don’t mind sharing my accommo-
dation.” What was this? Nothing but a heap
of straw on the kitchen floor. The king was
quite content to accept the offer, and he stayed
all night; whether he slept soundly or not we
cannot tell. Next morning the peasant said
to him, ‘My youngest son is to be bap-
tized, and I have great difficulty in getting
a godfather in this lonely place; will you do
280 ITALY,

me the kindness of standing sponsor for my
boy ?’

‘With all my healt? replied the king; and
he became the infant’s godfather. After the
baptism he gave the priest who had -baptized
the child some money, and told him to see
that he had a good education. Before leaving
the house he gave the child’s father a sealed
packet, and desired him to give it to his son
when he was sixteen years old.

So the king went away, and no one guessed
who had been the peasant’s guest.

Meanwhile years passed, and the boy grew
up. When he was sixteen the packet was
opened. What did the father find? A com-
mission in the army for his gon! The
young man entered the army, and behaved so
well that the king chose him to be the officer
continually near him, and called him _ his
alde-de-camp. Yet, though exalted to such
honour, he was never ashamed of his early
home or his parents.
281

See SEs
SS SS ee SSS See



Rome.

Rome is on the river Tiber. This is the
capital of the kingdom of Italy. Once it was
the capital of the world, for it was the capital
of the great Roman Empire. It was the place
where the holy Apostle Paul and many other
saints were cruelly put to death. It was a
wicked city, full of idols and cruelty. Here the
Pope lives. He is the chief of all the priests
of the Roman Catholic religion. You see why
that religion is called Roman. The Pope lives
at Rome. He declares that all he says must
be right, and that he can never even make
252 ROME.

a mistake. He says he is like Peter the
Apostle; but Peter obeyed the Word of God,
and the Pope does not. When one Pope dies,
another Pope is chosen. The Pope used to be
the King of Rome; but now there is a King of
Italy, who reigns in Rome as his capital. The
Pope still lives at Rome; but he is only a
priest now, and not a king.

There is a great church at Rome. It is the
Jargest in the world. It is called St. Peter’s,
Inside, there is a large black statue of Peter,
A great many people kiss its foot. When they
do this, they kneel and touch the foot first with
their lips and then with their forehead. So many
people have kissed this foot that the toes are
quite worn away. When people have kissed
Peter’s foot, they go and worship at his tomb.
This tomb is under the dome, or round part of
the church. Lamps are always burning around
it, and prayers to St. Peter are hung up on
cards, that people may pray to him.” Yet no
one knows whether Peter’s body is really there.
Many learned men say that Peter never went
to Rome at all. How much grieved the holy
Apostle would have been if he had known
what people would do!

On one day in the year the Pope used
to wash the feet of thirteen men. He did
this that he might be like Jesus, who washed
the feet of His twelve apostles. But why
ROME. 283

thirteen ? Because after Judas killed himself —
there was another apostle, called Matthias.
These thirteen men sat in a row on a high
bench in St. Peter’s Church, They were dressed
in white, with white caps, and each held a nose-
gay in his hand; then the Pope washed their
feet by pouring water out of a golden jug into
a golden basin. Afterwards they went into a
palace to have dinner. There they sat on a
high place, along one side of a table, where
everybody could see them. The Pope was
dressed in a scarlet robe, with a white satin
cap. He poured water on the hands of each of
the thirteen, and then said grace; afterwards
he gave to each his portion of food and wine.

Another still more foolish ceremony is per-
formed every day, but especially on Good
Friday. There is a staircase which people
say was once in Pontius Pilate’s house, and
that our Saviour trod upon it. It is now
covered with a wooden case, to prevent it from
being worn to pieces. The Pope promises to
forgive the sins of any one who goes up
these stairs on his knees.
cimb up-——though it is very hard to get up
these stairs—but still they try.

Three hundred years ago, a young man was
climbing up these stairs, when suddenly he re-
membered the words, ‘The just shall live by
faith.’ Then he felt that it was by faith in |
284. ROME.

Christ, and not by climbing stairs, that his sings
must be blotted out. He felt ashamed of what
he had done, and never climbed the stairs again.
Who was this young man? Martin Luther.
Did you ever hear of him? It was he who
persuaded many kings and their people to read
the Bible, and to become Protestants. England
is a Protestant country, and Wales, and Scot-
land, and Sweden, and Norway, and Lapland,
and Iceland, and Denmark, and Holland, and
Prussia, as well as other parts of Germany,
and part of Switzerland.

Rome is full of wonderful things—mighty
old buildings, splendid palaces, ancient arches,
beautiful statues, and fine pictures. It would
take too long to tell you about them; but I
shall tell you of two new things which some
travellers Jately saw in the Royal Palace.
These were two very lovely statues: one was
of the sister of the Queen of Italy, and the other
of a young lady with a book in her hand, which
she seemed to be reading, whilst her face looked
full of thought and of pleasure. The name
of the book was printed in gold letters on the
back,—it was the Bible; and round the foot,
or pedestal, the words were written:

‘ON THE SUNDAY.’

Must not the angels rejoice to see such words
in Rome? Shall not we rejoice, too?
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NAPLES.

Naples is much more beautiful than Rome.
It is built by the sea-side, where the land is in
the shape of a half-moon. This is called a
bay. Naples is a gay city. The people are
always moving about and talking fast. The
streets are full of carts and carriages laden
with people—some before, and some behind,
and some underneath; for even the poor people
hke to get up. Now there are omnibuses and
tramways also. In Rome the people are grave
and silent, but in Naples they are merry and
noisy. Which city should you lke best ?

There is a monastery at Naples, where the
walls are made of bones. In four or five of
the rooms all the furniture is made of bones.
Flower-baskets, made of small bones, adorn the
windows, and a skeleton hangs down from
one of the ceilings.

Mount Vesuvius. —This mountain is very
near Naples. It is a terrible mountain, for fire
comes out of a hole at the top. Would you
like to climb this mountain? People often
look down into the hole at the top, and some-
times they even go down into it. No one can
tell when the hot boiling stuff called ‘lava’
286 NAPLES,

will burst forth, and when red-hot cinders wil]
rain down. It takes about two hours to 20 to
the top, but only a quarter of an hour to get
down.”

There is a place near Naples called Pauso-
lippo. Here there is a grotto where poisonous
air rises out of the ground. People often come
to see the Dogs’ Grotto, as it is called. In
order to show them how poisonous the air is, a
poor dog is brought and made to breathe it.
In less than a minute he falls into a fit. Then
cold water is poured on him, and he seems to
recover. But after he has breathed this bad
air s1x or seven times he is sure to die. I do not
think you would like to see the poor dog suffer.

There is another grotto you would like to
ses, lam sure. It is called the ‘ Blue Grotto,’
because it is filled with very blue sea-water.
It you wish to see the Blue Grotto, get a small
boat and go to the end of the grotto. If you
like, a boy will go with you in the boat, and
then jump out and swim about in the Blue
Grotto. ook at him! He is as blue as the
water, This is a pretty sight; and you can
enjoy it without hurting the boy, as the bad
air hurt the dog.

“ A railway has just been made to the very edge of the
crater. The carriages are drawn up by two steel ropes and
an engine. |
287

VENICF.

This is one of the most wonderful cities in
the world. It looks as if it was built in the
sea, but there are little islands of sand under
the water on which the houses rest. There are
narrow streets between the houses with pave-
ment, and a great many bridges to join one
street to another; but it is not so pleasant to
walk in these streets as to go on the water.
There are streets full of water, called canals,
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288 FLORENCE,

they make no noise and no dust, as carriages
do. Venice is a very quiet city.

There is no animal there bigger than a dog,
Horses would be of no use in Venice.

Over the doors of the great Church of
st. Mark, there are some famous’ bronze
horses. The walls of St. Mark’s are covered
with pictures, made of little bits of stone and
gold-coloured glass.

How do the people get water to drink ? for
the sea-water is not fit to drink. They catch
the rain in cisterns. They have no other water,
except what is brought in boats.

FLORENCE,

‘Of all the fairest cities of the earth,
None is so fair as Florence !’

Beautiful Florence is on the river Arno,
which is crossed by fine bridges. Its palaces
have some of the finest pictures, and its cathe-
dral has the largest dome in the world. Close
to itis a building called the Baptistery, with
beautiful bronze doors. There all the children
in Florence are baptized.

But Florence is chiefly famous for the
great men who were born or brought up there.
FLORENCE. 289

There was the shepherd boy, Giotto, who was
seen by a great painter® drawing one of his
father’s sheep on a stone. The painter stood
still and looked at Giotto’s drawing, and then
inyited him to come to Florence and live with
him. Giotto agreed at once, on condition his
father gave him leave; and he learned so well
that he soon had pupils of his own. Heused to
keep his money in a bag, which he hung up in
his room, and he allowed his pupils to take out
what money they liked. His mind was so full
of painting that he cared very little for money.
Giotto built a beautiful bell-tower, which is still
seen at Florence.

Then there was the great Michael Angelo.
When he was only fifteen he found an old broken
statue without a head. He amused himself by
making a head. Perhaps you will think this
was easy. but it was not easy to make a head
for such a curious body. I must tell you the
body belonged to a fancy creature called a
faun, with a goat’s tail and pointed ears.
Michael Angelo made this head go well that
he surprised every one. He afterwards built
the splendid church of St. Peter’s, at Rome.

There was the famous painter, Raphael, who
made some large pictures called cartoons, which
you may see in the South Kensington Museum.
They are pictures of Jesus and his Apostles.

* Cimabue, 1302.
U
290 FLORENCE.

In one of them Jesus is drawn sitting in a
little boat. Peteris kneeling in front of him,
and big birds are standing in the water near,
while the other disciples are in the other boat,
dragging the great net to land. ,

Another famous man was the great poet
Dante, who wroteawonderful poemabout heaven
and hell.

Another was the astronomer, Galileo, who
tried to persuade people that the earth went
round the sun. They would not believe him,
and put him in prison, where they kept him
for several years. After he came out he dis-
covered many wonderful things, while he was
gazing at the stars, through a telescope he had
made for himself. He spent so many nights
looking at the stars, that he injured his eyes
and became quite blind.

If you go to Florence, you may see the very
tower from the top of which Galileo looked at
the stars, and the house where he lived; and
where our poet Milton visited him before he
also became blind,


291

PISA.

Another city on the river Arno is Pisa, which
has a famous leaning tower.

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The Leaning Tower of Pisa.

»

MILAN is a very fine city, and has a beautiful
cathedral of white marble. People often climb
to the roof of the cathedral, from which they
can see eighty churches.

At Milan there is a famous picture of the
292 TURIN.

Lord’s Supper. It is painted on a wall, and it
has been so much injured by Sean that,
perhaps, if you saw it, you might feel dis.
appointed at first; but the more you looked
at it, the more you would admire all that now
remains of it. It is almost the only picture
that remains of the great painter, Leonardo da
Vinci. You may often sce prints of it in England,

TURIN is famous because it is the capital
of Piedmont, It is the place where Victor
Emmanuel used to live when he was King of
Piedmont and Sardinia, and before he bonbeas
king of all Italy.

PRODUCTIONS OF ITALY.—The mountains are
full of pure white marble. There is one place
called ‘Carrara,’ famous for its quarries of
marble, which is called ‘ Carrara,’ too, The
workmen do not get it by digging. They make
a deep hole in the marble, and fill it with gun-
powder. Before they set light to the gun-
powder they take care to get out of the way;
for ina moment the powder blows up with a
great noise, and splits the marble into huge
blocks. This is called ‘ blasting the marble.’

Sometimes women carry these blocks or slabs
down the steep mountain side on their heads.
They are paid less than a penny a-load. When
they reach the flat ground, they leave the marble
ITALY. 293

to come the rest of the way in carts, drawn by »
milk-white oxen.

Besides this white marble, which is used for
statues, there are red and black marbles, and
there is the green serpentine, and the bright
blue lapis-lazuli, and the brilliant jasper.

At Florence, beautiful flower-pictures are
made of coloured stones and marble. They
are as bright as real flowers, and they never
fade. |

At Rome, wonderful pictures are made in
mosaic, that is, by joining together thousands
of little pieces of stone or glass.

Silk comes from Italy, for there are mul-
berry-trees to feed the silkworms; and there
are some famous silk manufactories.

People, who have lands, in the north of
Italy, send for silkworms’ eggs from Japan,
and give them out to their own cottagers, who
take care of the little worms, as soon as they
come out, and feed them with mulberry leaves.
They want feeding as often as babies; for the
leaves must be changed every two hours, by
night as well as by day. The worms grow fat,
and spin large cocoons, some white, some green,
and some yellow. These are divided between
the cottagers who fed the worms, and the
people who sent for the eggs.
are kept, in order that the moths may creep
out of them alive; but the rest are all packed
294 ITALY.

in great sacks, and taken to a large place full
of troughs of hot water, into which they are
thrown, and then the silk is wound off by
machines.

Woollen caps are made in Italy, and many
of them are sent to Turkey.

Excellent cheese, and beautiful bonnets, and
baskets, and fans of straw, are made in Italy.

But statues and pictures are the chief glory
of Italy.

Italy is a much happier country than it used
to be. It was divided into different little
states, and governed by many princes. Now
there is one king of all Italy. His name is
King Humbert, and he has a charming queen,
who is much beloved. The king once punished
his little son of nine years old, and kept him
in his room for a week, because he had been
unkind to a little playfellow, and said that he
would cut off her head, if he were king.

Besides a good king, Italy has now the
Word of God, which is openly sold and taught.
In Milan, Bibles are sold at a book-stall out-
side the cathedral.

Protestants may now worship in their own
churches in Rome; and Bibles are sold in the
streets.

At Florence there are Protestant schools,
and many grown-up men and women come and
listen. There is a home, too, where poor
ITALY. 295

Italian boys learn trades, and where they are
taught about the Saviour. :

Over the chapel of this home are the words,
‘In memoriam, or ‘In memory.’ Why is this?
Most of the money it cost, to build the chapel
was given by a good Englishman, who lives
in Florence. His little son of seven years
old fell sick and died. Before he died, he
begged that his toys might be given to the
boys’ home. His father not only gave the toys,
but helped to build the chapel in memory of his
dear child.

If you go to Florence, I hope you will see
Dr. Comandi’s Home, and his happy boys.
Many of them become useful men. A few
of them have died very happily. Luigi was
the name of one boy. He was thirteen years
old. He said it was much better for him to
die and go to heaven, than to stay on earth
and be too sick to work. Before he died he
entreated his mother to bring up his brothers
and sisters as Protestants. One of the children
in Dr. Comandi’s Sunday School also died when
she was about Luigi’s age. She was the eldest
of a very poor family,—so poor that sometimes
there was nothing in the house for them to eat.
She got a sunstroke one day, as she was sitting
in the balcony, working and looking after the
little ones. She suffered very much in her
head, but in spite of her pain she kept on
296 SWITZERLAND.

singing her little hymns, and talking of hey
dear Sunday school, After she died her mother
came to the school and begged for her little
books, that she might keep them for her sake.*

Kindly revised by E, M. M., at Florence.

SWITZERLAND.

SWITZERLAND is a small country, for it is only
half the size of Scotland. —

There is no country in Europe so beautiful
as Switzerland; it is the land of high mountains,
and deep valleys, and bubbling streams, and
roaring waterfalls. Sometimes the road has
to be cut through the rock. Sometimes the
road goes over a precipice.

People come from all countries to see
Switzerland. But if you are afraid of going
up. steep paths you had better not go there, for
you would have to travel in high places, by the
side of terrible precipices. There are very
steady mules that would carry you up on their
backs, and men called guides, who would show
you the way.

“ Taken chiefly from Pictures from Italy, and the Moder
Traveller. |
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SWITZERLAND. 297



Via Mala; called the Lost Hole, because you cannot see where
you are going. |

Some foolish people have tried to go over the
mountains without guides; you shall hear what
became of one of them. In the midst of the
mountains a great stone is seen like a grave
stone. What is written on it? |

‘Travellers, it is necessary to have a wise
and strong guide. Do not go far from him.
Mind what he says.’ 3

Why was that stone put up?
298 SWITZERLAND.

Because a traveller lost his way near that
spot, and was found dead in a cavern

Some travellers have fallen over the pre-
cipices, and some have sunk into the cracks of
the snow, because they had nobody to show
them the way. Some have been frozen in the
snow, and would have died, had they not been
found by the good dogs sent out by the monks
of Mount St. Bernard. A man usually goes
with the dogs, to take care of any one they
find. |



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There are many pretty cottages to be seen
amongst the mountains. A Swiss cottage is not
quite like an English cottage. It has a roof
that comes beyond the cottage; and stairs out-
SWITZERLAND. 299

side, anda balcony upstairs by which to go into
the house. And what is the reason the houses
are built in this way? It is because of the
snow, which rolls down the -mountains and
settles on the roof. That deep roof shelters the
house from the wet; it is like an umbrella to
the house. Then the lowest room is so damp
that it is used as a stable for cows, and the
stairs are the way into the upper room where
the family live, and the balcony serves as a
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Swiss Cottage.

It is very pleasant to see on some of the
Swiss cottages a board over the door, with a
text of Scripture carved upon it. What text
would you like to have written over your door,
if you had a house?
300 SWITZERLAND.

There are very few rich people in Switzer-
land; but riches do not make any one happy.
See that cottage! A weaver lives there. He
has a loom on which he weaves silk and ribbon,
His wife can weave as well as he, and the little
children can help to wind. but the weaver is
not always at his loom; he is often digging in
his garden, or attending to his cows, sheep, and
goats. When it is wet he weaves, but when it
is fine he digs. This is a good plan, for it keeps
the poor man in health. His cows give milk,
and butter, and cheese, for his family; his
garden provides them with plenty of vegetables;
and the money, he gets by weaving, buys bread,
and coffee, and sugar, and a little meat—and
he wants no more food than this. Instead of
beer, he drinks cider, which he makes from lis
own apples. Huis wife spins hemp into coarse
clothes as she sits at the door.

In some places the Swiss children make toys
to sell. Perhaps you will see, sitting round a
cottage table, several boys and girls; one 1s
cutting pieces of wood with a knife to make it
into animals; another is painting little birds
and beasts, making the canaries yellow, and the
squirrels brown, giving the robin a red breast,
and the tigers handsome stripes: another child
is glu-ing green paper on long pegs to make
trees; while another is covering an egg-shell
with the inside of rushes, to make it into a box.
SWITZERLAND. 301

It must be pleasant to see these industrious
children earning bread for themselves and their
poor parents.

But there are a great many idle little beg-
gars, who run after the travellers, as they go
slowly up the mountains. These are dirty
little creatures, with hands unwashed and hair
uncombed.

Ali over Switzerland there are very good
schools for the children. Some of the plans
for teaching were made by a famous teacher
called Pestalozzi. I hope some day you will
read his life.

As you pass through the villages, you will
often see poor children sitting by the way-side,
with their heads bent down, their eyes rolling,
and their mouths open. What is the matter
with these unhappy creatures? They are idiots.
They have hardly any sense; yet their parents
love them even more than their other children.
Do not mock or despise them, for they have
immortal souls; and some of them can pray
to God, though they cannot work or read.

Some years ago, a kind doctor took pity on
them; and he felt a large house on a hill-
side, where the sun shone bright, and then he ©
filled the house with idiots: and he taught
them, and tried to make them sensible; and
now he has made them much better and much
happier than they were.
302 SWITZERLAND.

RELIGION. — Switzerland is divided into
twenty-two parts, called Cantons. There is not
ONE king over all Switzerland. No, there are
a great many people who rule over it, and some
rule over one part, and some over another,
Neither is there ONE language spoken in Switzer-
land: some speak Frencb, and some German,
and some Italian. Neither is there ONE sort of
face: some have a face like the Germans, round
and rosy; some like the French, with merry
black eyes; and some like the Itahans, with
high noses and dark skins. Neither is there
ONE sort of character: the mountaineers are
simple, honest creatures, but those who live
in the valleys are more cunning and clever.
Neither is there ONE sort of dress; in every
town a different kind is seen: in one place
the women wear broad-brimmed hats, and in
another high-crowned caps. Neither is there
ONE religion: in some parts it is the Roman
Catholic, in others the Protestant. You
may easily tell what is the religion of any
place, by seeing whether there are crosses and
images by the roadside; or whether there are
none.

The Protestants as well as the Roman
Catholics amuse themselves on Sunday: some
go in boats on the lakes, some go out shooting
in the woods, and some play and sing in the
town. Even the poor men among the moun- »
SWITZERLAND. 303

tains go to the public-house on Sunday evening
and drink wine; and though they may not drink
too much, yet they do wrong in going there at all.
On Sunday a poor man should read his Bible,
and teach his little children. I am glad to
tell you that there are some good men, called
‘Colporteurs,’ who climb the mountains, with
packs at their backs full of Bibles, and who
sell them to the poor people. There are a great
many good people in Switzerland, and some-
times they invite Christians from all countries
to come to Switzerland and meet together, and
very happy the meetings are.



Swiss.
o04

BERNE.

This is the capital of Switzerland. It is built
on a hill, and it has a most beautiful prospect.
When you have passed through the gates of
the town, you find yourself in a long picturesque
street. You need not fear the rain, for the
upper story juts out over the pavement.

If it is market-day, there is a great crowd,
and a great noise too. Do you see that stall
in the market, with bells as large as dinner-
bells? What are they for? The farmers are
buying them to tie round the necks of their
cows. In each herd one is called the leader,
and she has a large bell hung round her neck,
that the rest may follow her. She is very
proud of her bell, and she would be very
unhappy if it were taken away from her.

The bear is the favourite animal at Berne.
There are two great images of bears placed on
the pillars of the gates, and in the city there is
a bear-pit, where bears are shut up as a sight.

A good while ago a very dreadful accident
happened in this bear-pit,

It is divided in two; and in one part there
was only one bear—but a fierce one, as you
will see. An English gentleman was leaning
over the low wall to look at the bears beneath,
BERNE. | 305

when he fell over and broke hisarm. He found
himself in the deep pit with the great bear.

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Bear-pit at Berne.

He could not climb out; he could only ery
out for help. The men at the top went to look
for ropes; but they were an hour before they
brought them to the pit.
All this time the poor English captain was
sitting in the pit, feeling great pain in his arm,
x
306 LUCERNE.

but more fear in his heart, for he could not
tell when the surly old bear would run upon
him. .
Strange to say, that old bear did not come
near him!

At last the ropes were let down, and the
Englishman was lifted up. He was already
half way up—in another moment he would be
out of danger—when the old bear sprang up to-
wards him, seized him, and dragged him down
into the pit! There for a long time the man
and the bear struggled; and at last the bear
prevailed, and the man was killed.

We may be sure that the bear was not
allowed to live after this fierce act; but it was
a pity he was not shot before he had done the
deed.

This is a warning for children not to go too
near the wild beasts in the Zoological Gardens.

LUCERNE.

This is one of the loveliest places in Switzer-
land. There is one thing there I am sure you
will go and see. It is an enormous lion cut in
the rock. You see the fine creature is wounded
and dying.

A famous Dane, called Thorwalsden, sculp-
LUCERNE. 307

tured this lion in memory of some brave Swiss,
who were the guard of the French king,
Louis XVI.; for it was the custom for French
kings to have a body-guard of Swiss soldiers.
These faithful Swiss soldiers all died, trying to
defend King Louis XVL., in the cruel days of
the French Revolution. |























































Lucerne,

You cannot imagine anything more beautiful
than the blue lake of Lucerne. It is often
called the lake of the forest cantons, for it hag
four long arms which stretch out into the
four wooded cantons. On one side of the lake
is a high mountain. People say Pilate lived
on that mountain, and they called the mountain,
Mount Pilate, after him. Théy say he felt so
miserable, that he drowned himself in a lake on
the top of the mountain.

We are quite sure, wherever he was, he must
308 LUCERNE.

have been very miserable, after he had crucified
the innocent and holy Saviour.

Travellers often go up another mountain
called the Righi, near the lake, in order to see
the sun rise from it. They can go up without
any trouble, though it is very steep, for there
is a railroad to the top.

People often also visit the other end of the
lake. Here there is a statue of a man with an
arrow in one hand, and a crossbow in the other.
The name of this man is William Tell. He
lived more than five hundred years ago—in
the time of our Edward I., when Austria ruled
in Switzerland.

The Austrian governor had commanded every-
one to bow to his cap, which was hung on a
pole. Tell refused. He was then commanded
to shoot at an apple, which was placed on the
head of his own son. Tell shot so well that he
divided the apple, without hurting his boy.
The boy was very brave and very obedient, else
he would not have been able to keep quite still,
and then his father might have killed him.

Some time afterwards Tell shot the cruel
governor himself, near a little chapel on the
borders of the lake. The chapel became so old
that it had to be rebuilt. It is now adorned
with pictures of Tell shooting the apple on his
boy’s head, and of the Governor riding along
the lane on his grey horse.
309

ZURICH.

It is built by the side of a lake. It is a
happy town, for the people are honest and in-
dustrious. The prison is not large, and some-
times it is empty. The people of Zurich are
much fonder of reading than those of Berne,
and they have a large library.

NEUCHATEL.

Neuchatel is a small town on one of the
lakes. A great many watches are made there,
If ever you go to Neuchatel, you may see a
brass plate in the great church. This plate
was put there long ago. On it is written,—
‘This year, 1530, 23 Oct., idolatry was taken
away, and destroyed by the citizens.’

On that very day,a good man called Farel
had been preaching in the hospital. In _ his
sermon he said :—‘ In the large church the
priests sing the mass. In this little chapel,
where so few can hear, the Gospel is preached.’
Then the people exclaimed, ‘The Gospel shall
be preached in the great church!’

They seized Farel, and carried him there.
He mounted the pulpit and looked around on
310 GENEVA.

the glittering finery and ornaments. He looked
down on the eager faces of the people, and he
preached a wonderful sermon. It was all about
Christ, the one Saviour for poor sinners, and how
He must be worshipped in spirit and in truth.

suddenly a cry arose in the crowd, § We will
follow Christ and the Gospel, and in that faith
alone shall we and our children live and die!’

Then all tell upon the images and the eruci-
fixes, and shattered them to pieces on the pave-
ment. In memory of this day the brass plate
was put on a pillar in the church.

So a SEE EN

GENEVA.

It is built near one of the most beautiful
lakes in the world. There are many clever
people living in it.

Here some of the watches are made which
are so often seen in England. There is a school
in which boys are taught to make watches.

Fifty years ago a boy was born at Geneva,
called Louis Favre. He grew up as a common
workman, but he was so industrious, and so
clever, that he became a famous builder at
Paris. He heard that people wanted to make
a railroad from Switzerland to Italy, through
the great Mount St. Gothard. This mountain
is two miles high. It was thought very won-










































































Glacier. P. 311.
GENEVA. 311

derful when Napoleon made a road over it.
But now atunnel was to be made through it.
Favre undertook to do this, and he succeeded.
His plan was to blast the rock with stuff
called dynamite, instead of gunpowder, and to
bore a hole through the mountain with a ma-
chine filled with tightly-pressed air, instead of
steam.* He succeeded, and invited his friends
to meet him in the tunnel, halfway through
the mountain. But, before the day of meeting
came, he suddenly died of apoplexy, and his
only reward is the gratitude of his countrymen.

Mont Blanc is reckoned almost the highest
mountain in Kurope. No one can climb to the
top in one day; those who try to get up sleep
one night on the way.T

Glaciers are like fields of ice. They are very
dangerous, for thereare splits inthem— often very
deep splits—called crevasses. Sometimes they
are narrow, and you can step over them easily;
sometimes they are wide, and people who wish to
cross them are tied together by a rope, so that
if any one slips the others may draw him up.

A hunter was once crossing one of these
sphts by a bridge of snow when he felt the
snow sink with him. Down he went, hundreds
of feet, till he came to a little stream. He

* The Compressed Air Machine was invented by Favre’ 8
friend and countryman Colladon.
+ Mont Blanc was first ascended in 1786.
O12 SWITZERLAND.

might well have died from such a fall; but the
snow had saved him; he was not hurt. He
got up and walked along. He followed the
stream about a mile. Then he came to a solid
wall of ice. What could he do now? He could
go neither backwards nor forwards. He noticed,
however, that the stream had made a way for
itself under the wall of ice. He resolved at
once to try if there would be room for him
too, and he plunged bravely into the cold
water. After that he became insensible, and
he did not know what happened to hin, till he
opened his eyes and found himself ina smiling
valley. Then his fear was turned into joy.

MovuntTaAINSs. —When people go to Switzer-
land for the first time, they often think, ‘ How
happy should I be to live in a cottage here, to
look down upon those sweet lakes, to hear that
grand waterfall, and to gaze upon the snowy
peaks of those high mountains!’ But very
often a great lump of snow, as big as a house,
rolls down the side of a mountain, and, making
a noise as loud as thunder, crushes a cottage
that lies on the side! O what a terrible dis-
aster! But I am going to tell you of a worse.
What do you think of the side of a mountain
getting loose, and slipping down, with all its
trees, and cattle, and cottages? Yet such a
fos once happened in Switzerland.

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SWITZERLAND. 313

summer, and the wet had loosened the earth.
It was on the 2nd of September, 1806, about
five o'clock in the afternoon, that the earth
began to slide. Very slowly it went at first.
A young man felt the ground giving way, and
called out to an old man to come away ; but
the old man, who was smoking his pipe by his
door, said, ‘I have time to fill my pipe once
more, and he went back; the house fell upon
him and killed him; but the young man, run-
ning as fast as he could, though he fell down
often, escaped.

How many men say, ‘ There is yet time, we
will not seek God yet!’ What if they should
perish for ever !

I am now going to tell you of a child of only
five years old. Her name was Mary Anne.
The maid, Fanny, took the child by the hand,
and was crossing the room to go out, when
suddenly the house seemed to spin round, as if
it were a teetotum, and the maid and the child
were torn violently from each other, and then
tossed up and down in the dark; sometimes
their heads seemed uppermost, and sometimes
their heels. At last all was still, and poor
Fanny found herself with her head downwards,
squeezed very tight in the ground, covered with
bruises and full of pain. She struggled to get
free, but could only get her right hand loose,
to wipe the blood from her eyes.
314 SWITZERLAND.

Where was little Mary Anne? Fanny heard
some faint groans. She knew the child’s voice.
‘Where are you, Mary Anne?’ she cried.
‘ Lying on my back amongst stones and bushes,
which hold me fast ; but my hands are free, and
I can see some light, and something. green,
Will no one come to take us out ?’ Fanny
thought it was the Day of Judgment, and that
every one was destroyed: but she was not un-
happy, for she hoped she should soon die, and
go to heaven. Then Fanny prayed to God,
and the poor child prayed with her. How
earnestly they must have prayed! Their
hearts went with their words, At last they
heard a bell;—it was a church bell, and
soon a village clock struck seven. Then
Fanny knew that the world was not come to
an end.

The little girl now began to cry for her sup-
per; but her cries became fainter and fainter,
till all was silent again. Fanny felt her feet
getting very cold, and perhaps she would have
died, if she had not been able to get them free;
now she was more comfortable, but still she
could not get out, and did not know whether
Mary Anne was still alive. At last she heard
her sorrowful voice again, for the child had
only been asleey.

Soon a noise was heard above,—it was like
the sound of digging,—then there were sad
SWITZERLAND. 315

cries of a person in great distress. It was
the father of Mary Anne. He had got away
before the house fell down, and had carried
two of his children in his arms, but his wife
had stayed behind with the baby that she
might call Mary Anne. And now the father
had brought his spade, and was digging among
the heap of ruins, and he had seen a foot peep-
ing out of the ground, and he had dug and
found his wife quite dead, with the baby in her
arms, and now he was crying over their cold
bodies. Mary Anne heard his voice, and called
out, ‘Father!’ Then the spade was heard
again, and soon Mary Anne was set free, but—
poor child—her thigh was broken. She told
her father that Fanny lay very near. At last
she also was found, but almost dead. She
could not see, and could scarcely move. Ina
few days her sight was restored, and her health
was better; but as long as she lived she used
to think of that terrible night, and often felt
frightened when there was nothing the matter.
But I trust she never forgot the goodness of
God in hearing her prayers and sparing her
life. More than a hundred houses were destroyed
in the fall of the Rossbere, ame four hundred
and fifty people.

* Taken chiefly from Chambers’ Travels, Alexander’s
Switzerland, and Children’s Friend for January, 1847.
316

GERMANY.

IF you were travelling through Germany, you
would see fine hills and great forests; but you
would not see those pretty green fields, parted
off by hedges all covered with May, which are
so pleasant in England. Where are the cows?
They are generally in the stable. How strange
it seems to keep the poor cow shut up in a stall!
But she is not starved. See that woman, with a
large basket on her head! The basket is full
of grass for the cow. Look at those little boys!
They are busy pulling up weeds by the brook-
side for the poor cow at home.

Does the cow never go out ? Yes, sometimes
she does, but not in the way she likes best.
She comes out to draw a cart, or a waggon,
with a yoke over her fair neck; or, when
she comes out for a walk, it is with a rope
round her horns, and in this way, she feeds
by the roadside. I am sure, if you were a cow,
you would much sooner be an English cow,
ranging at will over a field, feasting on the fresh
grass, than a German cow, eating the bundles
of weeds in a stable, or led about by a child.

There are very few animals to be seen in
Germany, except those that are drawing car-
riages on the road. What is the reason? I
will tell you. The people want the land for
GERMANY. 317

sowing corn and planting vegetables, and they
find that it is a waste of land to make it into
fields for cows and sheep. They say the animals
spoil the grass by treading on it. Even the
grass upon the lawns in the gardens is let grow
long enough for cows to eat.

The peasants have fields of their own.
They do not work as labourers and receive
wages; they work in their own fields and gar-
dens, and they sell their fruit and vegetables.
Is this a good plan? One advantage of it is
that the people work very hard, because they
know they are working for themselves. The
children help their parents a great deal. You
know it is they who pick grass for the cow, and
it is they who take her out to feed with a rope
round her horns. The women mow as well as
_ the men; they dig, too, and plough, and do all
kinds of out-of-door work.

By the roadside there are rows of fruit-trees.
These belong to the peasants. In autumn
they are heavily laden with fruit. It is a
beautiful sight to see the father, and mother,
and the children, all engaged in picking the
fruit, and placing it in baskets, which they carry
upon their backs. The plums are dried, and
the apples are made into cider, to drink at home.

There are plenty of vines also in Germany,
and the people make wine. The grapes are
gathered in October, and itis a joyful time.
318 GERMANY.

Guns are fired, and fireworks are let off, and
loud shoutings are heard; and the grapes are
thrown into tubs,* and carried down the hills
on men’s backs to be pressed in a large vat,

When the leaves fall off the trees, the children
bring them home to make beds for the poor
cows; and they pick up the fir-apples to light
the fires at home, or to sell in the towns. You
will wonder how such useful children can have
time to go to school. Theymake time by getting
up early. In summer time they get up at four
and go to school at six. How different they
are from English children, who can hardly get
to school by nine! In winter time there is not
so much to do out of doors, and then the
children are longer at school.

I cannot say the cottages have nice rooms
downstairs, for the lower room is the cow’s
stable. The people live in the upper room.
As the women are so much out-of- doors,
they do not care to ornament their house.
There is a dresser with shelves, and a stove for
cooking; besides wooden chairs, benches, and
table. The bed is often in a recess in the wall,
with curtains before it. It is always very clean
and comfortable, and is often hung out in the sun
toair. There is always plenty of linen, which the
women themselves spin in the winter evenings.

“ These tubs are made of wood, and are the same shape as
the fruit baskets,
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GERMANY. 319

In one corner of the room there is generally
a shelf with some old books, which are taken
great care of, and which are brought out on
Sunday. Germans delight in reading, and
they love their hymn-book next to their Bible.

The peasants are very much pleased to receive
a visitor. They immediately fetch wine, cider,
or apples from their cellar, and glasses from
their cupboard in the wall, and sometimes also
cherries, or soft white cheese, which they eat
with caraway seeds. Then they beg their visitor
to sit down with them and taste their good
things. When he leaves, he must not be sur-
prised if he finds some cocks and hens on the
staircase, as he goes down.

Outside the cottage there is no pretty garden
blooming with flowers, but only a heap of straw
for the cattle.

Dress.—The peasants wear different kinds
of dresses in different places. In some places,
the women wear little white caps fastened to
the back of their heads, and in others black
caps; in some places, they wear handkerchiefs
on their heads, and in others large, round
straw-hats, with little crowns. This last is a
oood custom, because those straw-hats must
shade them from the sun, when working in
their gardens, or vineyards. There are parts of
Germany, where the women wear nothing at all
on their heads, not even in winter: though,
320 GERMANY. .

when it is very cold, the old women are obliged
to wrap a handkerchief over their grey locks,

But what should you say to see women
ploughing, all glittering with gold and silver?
Yet in one part of Germany, women wear caps
of gold with silver tassels, blue bodices worked
with silver, and red petticoats.

And what should you say to men wearing
artificial flowers? Yet in one part the men
wear artificial flowers in their hats, with red
waistcoats and silver buttons, blue jackets, and
handsome leather belts.

The little girls wear their hair plaited in
long tails, and hanging down their back.

In winter it is very cold, much colder than
in England, but not sodamp. The gentlemen
often have their coats lined and trimmed with
fur. The boys have warm gloves tied round
their necks, ready for them to put on when
they like it: and I believe their fingers would
be frozen, if it were not for this plan.

Foop.—The Germans get up very early, and
have breakfast at six or seven o’clock, but they
are content with a cup of coffee and a piece of
bread or a roll; and they often drink a glass of
cold water before they begin.

In the middle of the day they dine, and at
seven they have supper. They have some
curious dishes never seen in England. The

* Near Munich, in Bavaria.
GERMANY. 321

chief of these is ‘Sauerkraut.’ It is made of
cabbage, which has been cut up very small
indeed, and well salted, and afterwards packed
close in barrels. It is kept in the cellar,
and a little at a time is boiled and served
up for dinner. Soup, salad, and sausages
are much esteemed; as well as all kinds of
fruits and vegetables. Of all fruits, cherries
seem to be the favourite ; cherries are on
every table as long as they are ripe; and
not only cherries just gathered froru the tree,
but cherry cake, cherry sauce, cherry brandy,
and cherry tarts, which are made with the
crust under the cherries instead of over them.
Grerman cherries are much larger, sweeter, and
better than English ones, as well as much more
plentiful. They cost only a penny a-pound.
People sometimes eat several pounds at a time.
In the season, perhaps, a peasant will invite
you to come to a cherry-feast; he will then
climb up his tree and gather as many cherries
for you as you can eat.

The Germans live upon the fruits of their
own fields and orchards, not upon foreign
dainties. Tea they scarcely ever drink. But
cider, made from the apples in their orchard,
is stored up in the poor man’s house, and
offered to every visitor. Wine, made from
their own vineyards, is common at the tables
of those who are not quite poor. By living
S27 GERMANY.

upon what grows in their own country, the
Germans spend much less money than the
English, and, surely, they act more wisely,
APPEARANCE.— Many of the Germans are
stout, tall, fine-looking men. In the north of
Germany, the women are fresh and fair, with
round, smiling faces, light hair and blue eyes,
They have stout figures and short necks, and
are very strong and healthy. But there are
many different kinds of faces and figures in
Germany, and dark eyes and hair are often
seen in the south. The women work so hard
in the sun, that they soon begin to look old.
Rich people very seldom live in the country;
they preter living in the towns: so that it is
rare to see those pretty country-houses so
common in England. Near the towns, there
are gardens where anybody may walk; and
there, crowds of people often meet and talk, and
drink milk, and eat ices, and listen to music.
The ladies are very industrious, and take
their knitting wherever they go. They are as
fond of their knitting-needles as the gentlemen
are of their pipes. The number of stockings
they make, would surprise you. How much
better to knit than to smoke! When they are
at home, the ladies spend a great deal of time in
cooking. Can they donothing but knit and cook?
Yes, they can embroider very beautifully, and
they can play on the piano, and sing together.
GERMANY. a20

But many are not so fond of reading as English
and Scotch ladies are. When they read, too
often they read novels—histories of people who
have never lived. It would be better to read
nothing than such books. Most of these novels,
alas! come from England.

In winter, the people delight to ride in sledges.
The children have their little sledges. A very
small one may be bought for a shilling. In
such a one a little boy will sit, and slide down
the hills. I wonder the young creatures are
not afraid of going so fast. The children move
their sledges with their heels; but the men and
women have sledges drawn by horses, and as
large as carriages, only without wheels.

I have heard of an accident once happening
among the hills, to a party in sledges. They
were going by asteep place, where the snow lay
very thick on the side. The horses suddenly
took fright, and one of the sledges was over-
turned. The people fell out, and rolled down
the hill among the deep snow. There was a
little boy of four years old in that sledge. The
driver was his father. Oh! how much troubled
he was to see the child roll out! He ran to
the edge of the hill, crying out, ‘My child!
my child! my child! my child is killed!’ Then
he plunged down the side of the hill amongst
the heaps of snow. There he found several
people creeping out of the snow, shaking it off,
324 GERMANY.

and very angry with their driver. But he did
not care for that, he only said, ‘ My child! my
child! where is he? he will be smothered in the
snow!’ Soon he caught sight of a red worsted
glove ; he knew it was his darling boy’s. He



















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seized hold of it—he pulled—he drew out his
child by the arm. The rosy face was now black
and blue, and presently the little nose began to
bleed, and then the child opened his mouth, and
cried very loud indeed. The father was glad
even to hear him cry, because it showed he was
alive. The little fellow had hurt his nose and
eye against a stone ;—but that was all: he was
not killed, and his father’s heart was glad. Oh!
how much parents love their children, both in
Germany and in England, and all over the
GERMANY. 325

world! Do thechildren love their parents, and
try to please them ? .

At Christmas time, the parents please their
children by getting a little tree, and sticking
lights all over it, and hanging fruit and little
figures upon it, and by laying presents on a
table near it. The tree is never seen till it
is lighted up,—and then all at once the door is
opened, and the tree is seen shining in all its
splendour, and the children set up a cry of de-
light. But very naughty children are not al-
lowed to see the tree, or to have any presents.
Even the poor people have a tree in their cot-
tages, and buy penny dolls for their children.

You would very much like the way in which
the Germans keep their birthdays. The father
and the mother, as well as the children, remem-
ber their birthdays. Perhaps the papa, when he
comes down to breakfast, finds several pretty
presents placed by his plate, to surprise him.
Soon afterwards a friend comes in with a gar-
land of sweet flowers and green leaves; the papa
hangs if up in his room, with those that his
children bring him. At supper, there is a cake
in the middle of the table, and a number of
lights burning round it. How many? Thirty-
six, perhaps. Why? Because papa is thirty-six
years old that day. If he were forty, there would
be forty lights. A child of four would only
have four lights placed for him,
326 GERMANY.

CHARACTER.—You must have seen already
that the Germans are very kind and pleasant
in their families. They are affectionate. They
are careful also, and cautious. They do every-
thing very slowly, that they may not meet with —
any accident; and when they begin to work,
they go on, and never give up, however hard
the thing may be: for they are persevering,
They do not try to look grand, and to seem
rich, but are content with the plain and simple
things they can get.

Many of the men are very fond of reading,
and are very sensible and clever, and write a
great many books,—more than in any other
country.

The Germans are like the English in making
well many useful things, such as guns, knives,
and watches. They take so much pains that
they are sure to find out the best way of doing
whatever they try to do.

RELIGION.—Those little images of the Virgin
stuck in the front of the cottages, in little niches,
show that Roman Catholics live there. Yet in
many parts of Germany the people are Pro-
testants.*

_ Happy are those parts, and blessed are those
people! In going into a Protestant church in
Germany you would see all the men sitting 02
one side, and the women on the other. The

* Nearly half the people of Germany are Protestants,
GERMANY. 327

men sit together in the gallery, if there is one.
When a babe is brought to be baptized, it lies
upon acushion. A muslin covering, beautifully
worked, is thrown over it. The nurse carries it
into the church ; but, when the time comes for
it to be baptized, a little girl holds it in her arms:
sometimes it is the baby’s sister, sometimes its
young aunt, or cousin.

When the minister walks out, sometimes the
children raise their little hands as high as pos-
sible to reach his hand, and to shake it heartily.
They know him well, for they are taught by him
on Sunday afternoons, when he walks up and
down amongst them in his church, dressed in his
black gown. Very often a knock is heard at the
door of a minister’s house, and a poor woman
comes in with a basket of fresh butter and new-
laid eggs, or red cherries, or rosy apples: it is
a present for the minister’s wife. Such tokens
of affection are very acceptable.

The Protestants have followed one of the evil
practices of the Roman Catholics. They are in
the habit of going out in parties of pleasure on
the Sabbath, and even of doing business on that
holy day.

It is true most of the shops are shut; but
what are the shopkeepers doing? Some are
gone to spend the day in the woods, and some are
busy at home looking over their goods. Sunday
would be the best day of all for teaching their
328 THE RHINE.

children about the Saviour; but they often spend
it as if they quite forgot that it is the Lord’s Day.

We must not forget that one of the greatest
Protestants who ever lived was a German; his
name was Martin Luther. He was the son of
a poor miner; but he was so industrious, and
studied so much, that he became a learned
monk. Then he began to read the Bible in
Latin; and he translated it into German, and
spent the rest of his life in teaching and preach-
ing that the Bible is the Word of God.

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THE RHINE.

This river rises in Switzerland and then runs
through Germany. It is one of the most lovely
rivers in the world. Its banks are high and steep,
adorned with trees and old castles,

COLOGNE is on the Rhine.* There is made
the scent called Eau-de-Cologne, which is
known all over the world.

There is a beautiful cathedral at Cologne,
which has just been finished. The plan of it
was made by a very clever man, called Gerhard
von Riehl. Nothing in his plan has ever been
-altered. The first stone was laid in 1248, when

* It was a Roman town or colony, and it takes its name
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COLOGNE. | 329

King Henry III. reigned in England. The
work of building went on very slowly, and often
stopped altogether. At last the Emperor of
Germany determined the cathedral should be
finished. In October, 1880, this wasdone. The
city of Cologne was filled with rejoicing, and
crowded with guests on the day when the
Emperor, followed by many princes and great
men, entered the cathedral and pronounced ‘it
finished. After he had made a short speech,
the Ze Dewm was sung, not by priests, but by
laymen. In this cathedral there is a glass-
case with three figures in it, called ‘ The three
kings, or the wise men.’ They were brought
from Italy and given to the cathedral.





















































































































































































































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full of bones—the bones of eleven thousand


330 FRANKFORT-ON-THE-MAIN.

young girls, who went to Rome on a pilgrimage,
On their way home again to Ireland, they
stopped at Cologne, and there they were all
put to death. The walls are covered with their
bones.*

FRANKFORT-ON-THE-MAIN.

This city is full of rich people. A great
many of them are Jews. Once the Jews used
to be despised and ill-treated in Frankfort.
They were obliged to live in dirty streets all
together, and were shut in by gates at night.
One narrow street in particular was called the
Judengasse, or Jews’ Lane. The houses in it
were very high, and they became so old that
they were ready to fall, and had to be pulled
down. From this old street came the family of
one of the richest men in the world, Baron de
Rothschild. But now the Jews may live where
they like, and many of them live in the best parts
of the town. There is a fine hall with the pictures
of all the German emperors round the walls.
The houses in Frankfort are very handsome, and
some of them look like the palaces of kings ;
and there is a beautiful drive all round the
town. There is a Zoological Garden, and there

* Gunpowder was invented at Cologne by a monk. The

name of this monk was Schwartz, or Black, and he lived in
the time of our King Edward ITI,
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Hambu
HAMBURG ON THE RIVER ELBE. 301

is ‘The Palm Garden,’ a most lovely place,
where people often go and enjoy the flowers,
and listen to fine music, and eat ices.

HAMBURG ON THE RIVER ELBE.

Hamburg is a very great city. It has
more people than Birmingham.* It has a
spendid harbour, filled with ships from all parts
of the world. There are so many masts that
they appear, at a distance, like a forest, and
they look very gay on Sundays, when all the
_ ships hoist their flags. You never see an idle
man in the harbour, but you see people of all
colours, and you hear them talk many languages.
So many people understand English, that you
would not be ata loss if you did not know a
word of German.

The old town is very curious. It has canals,
which remind you of Venice, and which are
covered with boats bringing coals, and wood,
and vegetables to the houses. There are some
streets In the old town which are so narrow that
you can almost touch the houses on both sides
of you as you walk, and there are handsome
dining-rooms underground, called cellars, where
people go and eat all kinds of dainties.

The water in Hamburg is not good.

“ Hamburg has 350,000 ; Birmingham has 343,787.
339 | DRESDEN—MUNICH.

The most beautiful thing in Hamburg igs
the lake in the middle of it. This lake ig
called the Alster-basin, because it contains the
water of the river Alster. Here people amuse
themselves in winter with sledges and skates,
and in summer with boats. The best houses
are built on the sides of this lake. I think
that these lake-houses must be prettier than
a square in London. Outside the town, there
are beautiful parks, with old trees.

The new town of Hamburg is very fine,
There is a famous school at Hamburg, called
the Rauhe Haus, where boys are educated and
taught trades. Many troublesome children have
learned to be good there.

DRESDEN is a handsome city, famous for its
beautiful china and its collection of fine pictures.

MunIcH has a magnificent palace, where the
King of Bavaria lives. It has very wide streets
and fine churches. The last king was very fond
of painting, and he built a beautiful palace only
for pictures, and another only for statues.

Every year a great fair is held in October
near Munich, on a plain. There, the same
king put up an enormous bronze statue,
which he called Bavaria. Inside the statue,
there is a staircase which goes up into the
head, which is so large that fifteen people can
sit down together in it, The present King of
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REGENSBURG—- NUREMBERG. Boo

Bavaria loves music as much as the last King
loved statues and painting.

Near REGENSBURG is a beautiful building
called the Walhalla, which is filled with busts
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The Wathalla of Regensburg.

One of the most curious towns of Germany
is Protestant NUREMBERG. It has very old
houses. and quaint windows, which project
over the street. It has beautiful churches
and lovely fountains. A great many wooden
toys are made in Germany, but the best
and most beautiful come from Nuremberg,
which is a famous place for carving wood.
Many years ago a wonderful old shoemaker
lived at Nuremberg; his name was Hans
334 TREVES.

Sachs, and his grave is still seen. He wrote
beautiful hymns which are known all over
Germany.



































































































































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TREVES.—Here the Roman Catholic priests
keep a piece of brown linen, which they say
once belonged to the Lord Jesus. They call it
the Holy Coat, and they have got a great deal
of money by showing it in a glass case in a
church ; but one of the priests wrote a book to
persuade the people not to believe in this holy
coat. Indeed he was right. Though he had
once been a shepherd-~boy, he was too wise
to believe the other priests. Many Roman
Catholics have become Protestants since they
found out the trick about the ‘Holy Coat.’”*

* Chiefly taken from Howitt’s Rural and Domestic Scenes
in Germany.


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Nuremberg.
335

PRUSSIA.

Ir you were travelling along the highroad
you would know immediately when you came
into Prussia, for you would see a very high
pillar, with a black eagle carved upon it. The
bird has yellow legs, a crown on its head, a
sceptre and sword in its claws. That great
eagle is the sign of the King of Prussia. If
you were to go another mile you would see
another pillar, with a black eagle. The mile-
stones are all of this kind.

A German mile is as long as four English
miles; but Germans seldom talk about miles:
they generally count by hours instead. If you
ask how far off a place is, they generally say,
so many hours. An hour means the distance
a person could walk easily in an hour—about
two-and-a-half of our miles. :

The King of Prussia is now called Emperor of
Germany. He keeps a great number of soldiers
to guard his kingdom, and he thinks he needs
them, because the sea does not surround his
country, as it does our happy island; neither
do mountains surround it, as they do Bohemia.
The country lies open almost on-every side.

The Emperor has been a great soldier all
his life; he has won many battles, and he has
336 PRUSSIA.

made Prussia much larger than it was. He ig
very fond of his army, like his great-grand-
father, who was. called Frederick the Great,
because he was such a grand general.*

Prussia is not a pretty country. It is full of
sandy plains, and ugly bogs, and low fir-trees;
yet it is, upon the whole, a healthy country,
The east wind blows very sharp, and the ground
is very damp. In one respect it is a good
country, for the religion is Protestant. There
are also many good laws, and the poor people
are taught to read and write. But there is
a law, which seems very hard to English people.
Every man who is less than forty years old,
whether he is rich or poor, must be a soldier
whenever he is wanted. This is a pity, for
many poor labourers are obliged to leave their
homes, and when they return to their villages
they are sometimes worse than when they
went; yet Prussian soldiers are kept very
strict, and punished if they behave ill. As so
many men are soldiers, the women do a great
deal of the hard work in the fields; and they

* The secret of the Emperor’s greatness ig shown in a
speech he made July, 1879, in which he said :—‘ If there is
anything in this changing life which can give us a hold-fast
it is the one only foundation, which is laid in Jesus Christ.
Do not join the multitude who reject or misinterpret the
Bible. The rock on which we all must fix our foot-hold is
the pure faith the Bible teaches. All must build on the
foundation of the Bible and the Gospel.’
BERLIN. 337 -

soon grow old and look very ill, with their red
handkerchiefs twisted round their heads. All
the gentlemen in Prussia are soldiers.

Foop.—The Prussians are fond of potatoes,
and have a way of making potatoes into potato-
cheese, by mixing them with the curds of milk.
They also like beer-soup. It is made of boil-
ing beer, mixed with eggs, cream, spice, sugar,
raisins, and currants.

They like coffee very much; but the poor
people cannot well afford it, and they have
found out how to make a drink from acorns,
that is very much like coffee, and very whole-
some. They keep the acorns a little while, cut
them up small, and roast and grind them.

BERLIN.

The chief city of Prussia is Berlin. It is
built on a sandy plain. All at once you see
a very handsome gate just before you; there
is hardly one like it in all Europe. There
are five door-ways. The middle one 1s the
widest.

It is for the king and royal family. There
are two for people walking, and two for car-
riages. Why two? One for those going out
of the city, and one for those coming 1.

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338 BERLIN.

Therefore, people can never run against each
other by accident.

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Brandenburgh Gate, Berlin.

When you have passed through the gate
you enter a very fine street. It is the finest
in Europe. There is an avenue down the
middle, of lime-trees and chestnut-trees. Here
people walk, while the carriages pass on each
side. The houses in this street belong to great
lords. At the end of the street, which is nearly
a mile long, there is a great square all of sand,
without any grass. On one side is the Em-
peror’s palace. Do not forget that the King of
Prussia is now Emperor of Germany.

“Do you think you should like Berlin? I
have not told you yet of the kennels, or ditches,
BERLIN. 339

which are found in every part, even near the
king’s palace, and which are so black and dirty
that the whole city is quite unpleasant in
summer-time. The Prussians think nothing
of it, and say, ‘Are not all cities like this ?’
The river itself is not much better than a large
kennel. The river Spree is a lazy river. The
water hardly flows at all. It is not deep, and
the boats can only just float in it; yet still it
is useful, for a great many boats come up from
other countries laden with goods. I need not
say that the black river and the black kennels
are very bad for the health, and many more
people die in Berlin than in London.

You will see soldiers at every step you take.
They crowd the drinking-shops. These are
very handsome buildings, with looking-glasses
on the walls, and beautiful lights hanging from
the ceilings, and rows of bottles of all colours
to tempt the foolish to buy. Here the poor
soldiers waste their little money, for they have
only threepence a-day.

I am sorry to say that, though Prussia is a
Protestant country, the people do not keep the
Sunday holy, but even go to the play in the
evening.
340

POTSDAM.

Though Berlin is so flat, there is a place
twenty miles off that is very beautiful. People
now go there by the railway. They find them-
selves ina moment among green hills and woods,
and by the banks of a sweet river. Upon the
hills are built many beautiful palaces, which
everybody may see. In one of the palaces there
is aroom where a very ungodly Frenchman once
lived. His name was Voltaire. The walls of
this room are covered with pictures of monkeys
and parrots. It was done by order of a king,
who said Voltaire was like a monkey and a
parrot. Voltaire had written a great many
books, which have taught people to despise
God and to serve Satan. He did all he could
to persuade people that the Bible was not true.
When he came to die he was very unhappy, for
he could not even pray.

In one of the palaces there are many garlands
of leaves hanging on the walls. They were given
to the king and queen on their birthday, as signs
of the affection of their people.

When the Emperor and Empress had been
married fifty years they kept their golden
wedding-day. There were fireworks, and re-
joicings, and holidays, and many captives were
PRUSSIA. 341 —

set free; and more captives would have received —
their liberty if they had but asked for it.

How many people are now the ‘captives of
Satan, because they will not ask the Lord to
set them free!

CHARACTER.—The Prussians are like the Ger-
mans, and, indeed, they are Germans. They are
not so fond of company, or of feasting, as the
Austrians. They like music, but they like
reading also. Every one smokes, both rich
and poor, and even boys begin very early
to imitate their fathers in this disagreeable
habit. The gentlemen and ladies are very
polite, and fond of paying compliments. The
Prussians are very prudent and careful of their
money.

PRODUCTIONS. — The Prussians are famous
for guns. They have invented several new
kinds of guns; one is called the needle-gun.
The great Krupp gun manufactory, near
Munster,‘in Westphalia, is one of the sights
of Prussia.

The Prussians make beautiful china, which
is much admired in other countries. They also
make necklaces and bracelets for ladies, of
iron. Perhaps you think such necklaces cannot
be pretty, but they are; and you may be sure
they are very strong, for this iron is also used
for bridges.
342 THE CHRISTIAN VILLAGE.

A great deal of beautiful yellow amber falls
from the cliffs and is found in the Baltic Sea: *
sometimes hundreds of pounds of amber are
picked up on shore after a storm.

There is one part of Prussia where flax grows,
and where the women spin as they walk along,
not with a spinning-wheel, but with a distaff,
which they hold in their hands; and the linen
they make is very beautiful.

The vine grows in Prussia, particularly on
the banks of the river Rhine, where very good
wine is made.

THE CHRISTIAN VILLAGE.

There is a village in Prussia which is spoken
of all over the world. It is called Herrn-hut,
or, ‘the Protection of the Lord.’

If you were to see it you would say, ‘ This is
a very quiet village, but it is very much like
other villages. Why do people talk so much
about it?’ The reason is, because so many good
people live there. More than a hundred years
ago avery good lord, named Count Zinzendorf,
allowed these poor people to settle on his estate.
They came from a part of Germany where the
Roman Catholics treated them ill. They built

* See Hughes’ Treasury of Geography, p. 237.
THE CHRISTIAN VILLAGE. 343

a neat village near a great wood. The wood
is very pleasant and is full of walks. In the
village, the women who are unmarried live in
a house together, and so do the unmarried men,
but the families live in their own houses. Every
day the people meet together to sing hymns, and
all day long they are very busy—the men in the
fields and the women working at home. They
dress very plainly. The women all wear neat
muslin caps; but they do not all wear the same
coloured ribbons. The young girls wear deep
red; the young women wear pink: when
they are married, blue; and the widows wear
grey.

There is a picture in this village that you
would like to see. It isin the hall where the
men meet to pray. Inthe midst of this picture
is seen the Lord Jesus Christ, and all around
Him people of different countries worshipping
Him. There is the poor Negro slave, and there
is the little Greenlander in his sealskin dress,
and there is the wild Indian, and there is the
stupid Hottentot. What does the picture
mean? It was painted to keep in memory
how people of all countries have turned to the
Lord and Saviour. The people of Herrn-hut
go out to preach to the heathen, and they have
converted a great many. Does not this picture
put you in mind of the place in the Revelation
where it is said, ‘I beheld, and lo, a great
344 THE CHRISTIAN VILLAGE.

multitude, which no man could number, of all
nations, and kindreds, and tongues, and people,
stood before the throne, and before the Lamb,
clothed with white robes, and palms in their
hands ?’ (Rev. vii. 9.)

There is a beautiful burying-ground at Herrn-
hut. Itis on the side of a hill. You might
take it fora garden. There is a green hedge
on every side, and broad straight walks with
hornbeam-trees in rows, and green arbours at
the end of the walks. In the midst of this
burying-ground is the tomb of the good Count
Zinzendorf.*

The people in this village are called ‘The
United Brethren.’ In England they are often
called Moravians.

There are some famous Moravian schools on
the Rhine, where many English children are
sent, and very.carefully taught. f

* See the history of Count Zinzendorf, in a little book for
children, called The Banished Count. (Snow.)
+ Taken chiefly from Howitt’s Germany.
345

AUSTRIA.

AFTER Prussia we come to Austria. The
Kmperor who reigns over it has a great deal of
power; yet he is very kind, as you will think
when I tell you that, on a certain day every
week, any poor person may come and make his
complaints to him, as to a father.

A great many languages are spoken in Austria.
The commonest is German.

Many of the Austrians have large farm-
houses, and perhaps you would like to visit one
of them. ‘The farm-house looks something like
a castle, for it has buildings all round the court-
yard. You must enter through a narrow door-
way. It is pleasant to see a sentence out
of the Bible written over the door. There is
one large room in which all the family dine,
and where the women sit and spin. Round it
are the bedrooms, and there are a great many,
for, counting men and maids, forty persons live
in the house. All these rooms are downstairs ;
upstairs there is a grander room for visitors, full
of pictures of grandpapas and great-grand-
papas, and plenty of spare beds with very gay
quilts. The Emperor has sometimes visited
this farm-house. In the chest upstairs, the
farmer’s wife keeps her best dresses, her black
346 VIENNA.

spencer, her black silk gown, and her cap of
otter-skin with its star of pearls.

Then there are the store-rooms, where the
fruit may be kept dry. The chests are full
of plums, of apples, and of pears. The farmer’s
stables are full of fine horses and cows. But it
is the pigsties that would surprise you the most.
In a large shed there is a row of boxes made of
stone or wood. These boxes have no covers,
Inside each box there is a pig, which gets
plenty of fresh air, and which is kept quite
clean, and eats his meals by himself. In this
way he gets very fat. There are no pigs so
comfortable as those of Austria.



VIENNA.

The largest city of Austria is Vienna.

Once Vienna had walls all round it, but they
were pulled down to make room for a beautiful
street, called the Ring Street. Can you guess
why it has this name? Because it encircles
the old town, like a beautiful ring. It is full
of splendid palaces and fine buildings, The
houses of the old town, inside Ring Street, are
crowded together. Most of them are so high
that they darken the narrow, crooked streets.
VIENNA, 347

But the new town, outside Ring Street, has
light, bright, straight streets. Some of the
houses in it are very large. Thirty or forty
families can live in one of them. There are
a few houses left in the old town where even
more people can live.

If you were to go and see a friend, you would
be puzzled how to find him, unless you knew
which room he lived in. There are many
staircases, which all meet in a square yard or
court, in the middle of each great house.

Not nearly as many people live in the old
town as in the new.

The people of Vienna are very good-humoured
and merry. They love music and dancing,
seeing sights, and enjoying themselves. They
spend a great deal of their time out-of-doors,
enjoying themselves with their friends. They
are also very industrious, and willing to work.
They are very kind to strangers. Many people
have one evening in the week when all their
friends may come and see them. Any one who
has been once invited may come as often as he
pleases.

What the people of Vienna love move than all
else is the Prater. The Prater is the most beauti-
ful park in the world. It belongs to the Emperor,
but he allows anybody to go there, and he goes
there himself. It is full, not only of trees, but
of houses, where people sell things to eat and
348 THE DANUBE.

drink. The people would not like it much
if they could not get some refreshment. On
the first day of May the Prater looks more
beautiful than ever; for on that day it is
always filled with numbers of people driving
about in carriages and enjoying themselves.

Crowds of people go out on Sundays,
by the railways, to spend the day in visit-
ing the beautiful hills and woods in the
country.

The streets are kept very clean, yet the city
is not very healthy. A great many people have
coughs in Vienna, because the east wind blows
very cold.

Among the shops is one where monkeys and
parrots are sold. The monkeys are apt to die
of coughs after they come to Vienna. The
parrots are kept in dark cages, that they may
learn to talk before they are sold.

Kindly revised by Eugen Fetzer, of Vienna.

THE DANUBE.

This is a very beautiful river, and the largest
in Europe, except the Volga. It runs outside
the walls of Vienna, but a small stream runs
through the town, called the Wien; and this
THE MOUNTAINS OF STYRIA. — 349

is why the city is called Wien in German, and —
Vienna in English.

Some curious animals used to be seen on
the banks of the Danube—beavers. These
little creatures cut down young trees with
their teeth to build their houses, which have
two rooms; one close to the water, the other
room on the dry land, and there they live and
sleep. It is very hard to catch them, for, if
they hear the least noise, they plunge into the
water. One gentleman laid a great many
traps, and he caught two; but the rest of
the beavers must have heard of it, for he never
could catch but one more, and then the beavers
went away, and nobody could find out where
they went. Beavers are harmless little crea-
tures, and eat nothing but the bark of trees.
Are you not sorry that there are no more
beavers on the banks of the Danube?

THE MOUNTAINS OF STYRIA.—In one part of
Austria, called Styria, there are very fine moun-
tains, and wild creatures like deer, called cha-
mois, leaping among the rocks.

There are hunters who spend their time in
trying to catch the pretty chamois. Once
upon a time a hunter found a chamois with
two very little ones in a hole on the top
of a high rock. The little chamois were
sporting by their mother, and she was watching
350 THE MOUNTAINS OF STYRIA.

to see that nobody came near to hurt them.
The hunter, holding by both hands to a
rock, peeped at the happy family. The old
chamois caught sight of him, and ran at him in
a fury, and, with her horns, tried to push him
down into the deep place below. The hunter
pushed her away with his feet, and still went
on, coming nearer to the little ones. The poor
chamois rushed back to them, and showed them
how to leap from their hole on to another rock ;
but the little creatures were too young to jump
so far. What would become of them? The
hunter with his gun was creeping very close.
At last the mother thought of a plan. She
made her body into a bridge. She stretched
her fore-feet as far as the rock beyond, and
looked back at her little ones, hoping they
would know what to do. And they did. They
sprang upon her as lightly as cats, and reached
the other side; and then all three were off like
the wind, and were soon out of reach of the
hunter’s gun.

What a clever chamois that was, and what a
tender mother! Oh! what will not a mother
do to save her little ones from perishing ?*

* Taken chiefly from Kohl’s Austria.
BOHEMIA. 351



Chamois Hunting.

BOHEMIA.

THIS is a pretty little country in Austria.
Once it had a king of its own, but now it
belongs to the Emperor of Austria. You
might have thought it never could have been
conquered, for all round it, there is a wall of
mountains. It is like a saucer in shape; for
the inside is flat and the edges are high. It
is a very healthy country, because it is high
and dry; for it is not deep like a cup. There
are no marshes in it, or great forests, to make
it damp; and it is not cold, because the hills
keep off the wind. Many people live to a
hundred, and some to one hundred and fifteen
years.

In the woods a kind of people dwell whom
352 BOHEMIA.

you have often seen in England, in little tents
by the roadside—I mean, ‘ Gipsies.’

Perhaps as you passed along the road in
Bohemia, some little gipsies might come out of
the woods, with very dark skins, and dressed
sometimes in shirts almost as dark as them-
selves, and play tricks and antics in hope of
getting some money. Now and then you may
see gipsies working in the fields.

ANIMAIS.—There is only one wood in Bo-
hemia in which any bears are to be found. A
poor man walking along, saw a little bear play-
ing on the grass. He took it up, intending to
carry it home, when suddenly he observed the
old bear hurrying after him. Quickly he threw
down the young animal, and set off running as
fast as he could. The old bear was so angry
that she pursued him still, and would soon have
overtaken him, had not the poor man seen the
gate of a farmyard open, and got into the house.
The fright, it is said, turned his hair quite
white.

DRESS AND APPEARANCE.—The women of
Bohemia are tall and stout, with round and
rosy faces; and they wear gay bodices and
gowns of some other gay colour, with a bright
handkerchief on their heads of red, yellow, or
blue.

CHARACTER.—The Bohemians are a merry
people. They are very fond of music, and they
BOHEMIA. 35D

often carry little harps in their hands. They
sing together as they return from their labour
in the fields. They are very curious, and ask
a great many questions. When they meet a
stranger, they say, ‘ Where do you come from?
Where are you gomg? What are the names
of your friends?’ and sometimes they get no
answer. |

Their religion is the Roman Catholic. Often,
as you pass along the road, you may see a man
walking with a hymn-book in his hand, sing-
ing; and two boys dressed in white behind;
and then a train of people, so gaily decked
that they seem like a bed of tulips. Where
are they going? To a village church, to wor-
ship an image there! They do not know that
God abhors images, and that He loves those who
worship Him in spirit and in truth.

But I must tell you of three Bohemians who
learned the Gospel from the English. One of
them was Anne, queen of our King Richard IT.
Before she came here, her uncle sent people to
discover what sort of a country England was;
it seemed to him such a long way off. She
was only fifteen when she married King Richard.
She was called Good Queen Anne, because she
begged that the prisoners might be set free on
the day of her coronation. She taught the
English ladies to use pins and to ride on side-
saddles. This gentle lady delighted in reading

AA
354 BOHEMIA.

God’s Word, which had just been translated into
English by the pious Wycliffe. In 1384, when
his enemies wished to put him to death, she
had the happiness of delivering him out of their
hands.

The other Bohemians were John Huss and
his friend Jerome, who studied Wycliffe’s books,
and who preached everywhere what they read in
them. This made the Emperor of Germany very
angry, and he ordered them to appear before
him at a place called Constance. Huss and his
friend were both condemned to be burnt.
When Huss heard his sentence, he said, ‘ To-
day you roast a goose! “-—a hundred years
hence will come a white swan, which you will not
be able to destroy.’ The Emperor was able to
stop the mowths of these faithful martyrs, but
he was not able to destroy and blot out their
names, for they are written in Heaven, and they
are beloved on earth.

About a hundred years after Huss had been
put to death his words came true; for the bold
Martin Luther preached just as Huss had done.
Many tried to stop Luther’s mouth, but they
could not succeed.

There are now many good people in Bohemia,
who are called Hussites, because they love the

Bible.
‘Some of the Roman Catholics in Bohemia

“ In Bohemian Huss means a goose.
PRAGUE. . 356

are very anxious to get Bibles, in spite of their
priests. One of these priests even burnt sixty-
seven Bibles.

PRAGUE.

A river, called the Moldau, runs through it.
This river is as broad as the Thames, but not
so smooth; for in one place it runs very fast.
ft is said there once was a waterfall, which
the Bohemians called Prags, and so the city is
called Prague. Over the river Moldau there isa
bridge, and on the bridge a number of images.
One of these has two lamps, and another has
five, burning before it. It is the image of
Christ that has two. And which has five? The
image of John of Nepomuck. This man is
more thought of in Prague than the Lord
Himself. He was said to be a bishop, who lived
a long while ago, and who was cruelly thrown >
into the river from the bridge. And why?
Beeause he would not tell the king the queen’s
secrets. But some people say that John of
Nepomuck never really lived, and that the
story about him was only invented to make
people forget John Huss.

In the Cathedral of Prague there is an image
of John of Nepomuck on his knees, all of silver,
306 PRAGUE.

with silver angels round him. There are no such
images to be seen anywhere else. A number of
people come from far, in order to bow to the
great image and to kiss it with much respect. Yet
thieves have sometimes been so bold as to get
in at might; and three times they have stolen
the splendid golden lamp which hanes over
the silver saint.

In August, 1879, many thousand pilgrims
came to Prague. They arrived by the eight
railroads which meet there. They came to do
honour to John of Nepomuck. What a crowd
there was at the cathedral, all eager to see the
great sight! What was it? The enormous
silver casket, which is kept in the cathedral,
was to be opened. It is so big that it weighs
more than thirty loads of coal. Inside this
great casket there is a crystal casket, and inside
the crystal casket, are the bones of the saint.
This crystal casket was taken out and shown to
the people. Then there was a grand procession.
The Archbishop went first, and he blessed the
multitude, whilst he carried in his hand a
costly gold vessel, containing the saint’s tongue,
preserved in spirits. But the pilgrims were
not satished till they had brought their books
and beads, and rubbed them against the crystal
casket, in order to get a double blessing.
357

HUNGARY.

CLIMATE.—The winter is very cold, and lasts
four months. The summer lasts five months,
and is very hot. People can hardly bear the
heat; but it is good for the corn and the
vines. |

Hungary is much warmer than Prussia,
because there are high mountains which serve >
asa screen against the north and east winds.
Look at them. They are called the Carpa-
thian Mountains. They are of the same kind
of use that a high folding-screen is when spread
round the chair of an old iady. They are the
highest mountains in Europe, except the Alps_
and the Pyrenees.”

The people, who live on these mountains,
tend sheep and cows like the Swiss; and make
cheese. Many of them are hunters, for the
mountains are full of chamois, stags, elks,
eagles, and birds of prey.

Rivers.—There are a great many rivers in
Hungary. The beautiful blue Danube is the
largest. It runs through the whole land, and
waters many cities. The river Theiss his the

* The highest of the Carpathian Mountains are called
Tatra, Fatra, and Matra.
358 HUNGARY.

most fish. It is only deep enough for ships in
some parts. It often overflows its banks, and
does a great deal of harm.

In 1879 it destroyed the large city of Szege-
din. The Emperor was much grieved at this
misfortune, and did all be could to help his
poor subjects. Another great river is called
the Drave. It bounds Hungary on the south.

LAKES.—There are two great salt lakes.
The beautiful Balaton lake is twice as large as
the largest lake in Switzerland. ‘Thousands of
people go to it every summer for their health ;
just as we English go to the sea-side. They
amuse themselves by going about the lake in
steamboats. |

The other lake is covered all over with reeds.
It looks like a marsh, rather thana lake. It
is called the Neusiedler lake.

THE ForrEst.— Besides rivers and mountains
Hungary has many forests. The greatest of all
of them is called the Forest of Bakony.* It is
one of the oldest and largest in Europe.

Twenty years ago it was so large and so
thick, that people could not foree their way
into it. I do not think that you would have
wished to try, for robbers used to live in it.
But there are no more robbers there now.

* You must not think the forest was called Bakony from

our English word bacon; though, perhaps, it may help you
to remember the name.
HUNGARY. «B59

Some of the trees have been cut down, and the
land has been enclosed, so that you need not be
afraid ot gomg there. The trees are much -
used for timber.

If you were to travel in the forest of Bakony,
you would see a great number of pigs feeding
under the trees. As soon as the acorns are ripe,
thousands of pigs are driven into the forest.
There they get very tame, and there they stay
till they are fat. Then they are driven out of
the forest to be sold.

The men who take care of these pigs are
called swineherds. Perhaps you think they
have not such a pleasant employment as shep-
herds have? You would lke better to take
care of bleating sheep than of grunting pigs?
But these swineherds are very merry. They
have plenty of meat to eat——pork and mutton;
and as for drink, they have the beautiful wines
of Hungary——as much as ever they like. They
are all very fond of music, and they play very
well on the flute and the bagpipe. They
dress in large woollen cloaks, with flowers
worked on them in red, white, and green
thread ; and in their hands they carry a small
hatchet to cut wood.

I have told you of a forest in Hungary; I
will now speak of a plain.

Bohemia is in shape like a saucer; there
are high places around, but no deep place in
360 HUNGARY.

the middle; all is high and dry. But Hungary
is like a cup, and has a low part in the middle.
Plenty of grass grows in the valleys, and fattens
numbers of oxen.

The greater part of Hungary is flat. Between
the two great rivers—the river Danube and the
river Theiss—there are two plains of sand.
They are called Great Cumania and Little
Cumania, or Great Kunsig and Little Kunsag.

It was in Kunség that a wild boy was once
found. Itis said he was caught in a net, by
some men who were fishing in one of the lakes.
He was a strange-looking creature, and wore no
clothes; but his whole body was covered with
a hard skin like the scales of a fish. He would
eat nothing but grass, hay, straw, frogs, or fish.
He was taken to the castle of a great lord, and
there pains were taken to teach him to speak,
but he would never learn. At first he would
tear off his clothes, but he was made to keep
them on, and he learned to turn the spit in the
kitchen. The name of Kun Istvan was given
to him, which is, in English, Marsh Stephen.
Kun did not like the kitchen as well as he did
the bogs; and one day he ran away. No one
could find him again. Once or twice after-
wards he was seen by the fishermen amongst
the lakes, but not near enough to catch
him.

Just as England is divided into counties.
HUNGARY. 361

Hungary is divided into fifty parts, and each
part has its chief town. :

Foop.—In Hungary there is plenty of meat,
because there are so many animals. A favourite
dish, called Gulyas, is made of mutton, cut
very small and well peppered. There is
abundance of the finest fruit. Melons are so
common that two may be bought for a penny.
Gourds also are eaten by the poor. One
gourd is sometimes as heavy as a big boy of
twelve years old. The people cut them in
slices and boil them. The poor are very fond
of cabbage. There are fields of cabbages to
be seen.

THE PEopLeE.—The Hungarians are hand-
some. Their bodies are supple and elastic.
Their hair and their bright eyes are generally
black. In winter the poor men wear hats with
feathers and little brims, blue jackets, wide
trousers, and sheepskin cloaks. In summer
they wear red waistcoats and white linen shirts,
with very wide sleeves and very wide trousers.
The men wear their black hair in curls; but
when they are old they wear it long, and they
push it back from their foreheads with a round
comb. They begin to let their hair grow long
when they are forty. |

The women wear their hair smooth, and plait
it with a bright riband into a long tail behind.

The Hungarians love fine dress. In some
362 HUNGARY.

parts of Hungary the poor men wear in their
hats large bunches of flowers, which are ga-
thered out of the fields and gardens; and
sometimes they wear artificial flowers: but,
as if flowers were not enough, they stick
among them the feathers of peacocks, and
even of ostriches. The women, of course,
wear fine head-dresses, too. Smart young men
wear silver spurs when they dance, and are
covered with silver buttons and silver chains,
while their hair hangs in small curls over their
cheeks. Some of the rich people have such
magnificent castles that there are none like
them to be seen in England. There is a prince
who has thirty-four castles, and one of these
castles has three hundred and sixty rooms for
visitors. The poor people have houses made
of wood and unbaked bricks.

Long ago the people used to be obliged to
work for the lords without wages two days in
every week. But this is not so now.

Then Hungary was joined with Austria, and.
the two countries were governed alike. The
people of Hungary did not like this. They
wished to be governed by their own laws. So
they took up arms against Austria thirty years
ago, and they gained their wish. Ever since
the War—or the Revolution, as it is called—
of 1848, Hungary and Austria have been sepa-
rate. It is true they have the same ruler;
HUNGARY. 363

for the Emperor of Austria is the King of
Hungary, but each country has its own govern-
ment and its own laws.

since the Exhibition in 1873, there have
been new laws about teaching the children.
There are very good schools, and every child
in Hungary is obliged to go to school.

PrRopucTIONS.—There are few countries in
which so many things are to be found as in
Hungary. It is famous for its animals, its
vegetables, and its minerals.

ANIMALS.—Hungarian horses are very swift.
They are often used as race-horses. A single
horse won so many races and so much money
that his master built a palace with the money,
and called it after his horse, * Kinesem.’

In Lower Hungary a great number of beasts
are to be seen feeding everywhere. There are
thousands of horned cattle, oxen, and sheep.
The skins of the beasts are sold to be made
into leather. The geese supply a quantity of
bed-feathers.

The rivers are full of fish and crabs. There
are also numbers of game, chamois, stags, deer,
hares, pheasants, partridges, and other birds.

There are wild boars, foxes, and wolves.
The wolves sometimes do a great deal of mis-
chief. But there are so many hunters in
Hungary, that people are not as much afraid of
them as they used to be.
364 RUDAPEST,.

VEGETABLES.—Tobacco grows in Hungary,
and a great deal of corn, barley, oats, wheat,
and maize, or Indian corn. The fruits are
delicious.

The best wine in Europe, called Tokay, is
made from Hungarian grapes. There are many
other kinds nearly as good.

MINERALS.—Most of the gold and silver
found in Europe comes from the mountains of
Hungary. They are also rich in precious
stones, of all sorts. There is one jewel which
is only found in Hungary—the lovely opal, with
its colours of rainbow.”

There is more salt in Hungary than in the
mines of Old Poland—salt enough for the whole
of Europe. ‘There is iron, too; and there are
mineral springs.

The chief things made in Hungary are wine,
soap, and tobacco-pipes.

Hungary sends quantities of corn, wine, and
pigs, to other countries.

BUDAPEST.

The capital of Hungary is Budapest. It isa
great city, with handsome buildings, churches,
and squares. The broad river Danube rolls
through the midst of Budapest, and divides it

* Opals are also found in Australia.
BUDAPEST. 365

into two parts. Once these two parts were two-
cities. One was called Buda, and the other was
called Pest. But in 1873 they were made into
one city, called Budapest. . There is a magni-
ficent bridge over the Danube which joins the
two parts of the city, and there is a very fine
place where people land. Budapest has a great
deal of trade with ships up the river, which
bring them many things from foreign ‘countries.
I cannot tell you how much they value a piece
of English cloth, or even a paper of English
needles !

Budapest is the place where the kings of
Hungary are crowned.

On the Buda side of the river there is a
grand castle. There the kings of Hungary
used to live more than three hundred years
ago. But though the Emperor of Austria, who
is King of Hungary now, does not live there,
but at Vienna, his Empress spends much of her
time at a hewakitel palace she has near Buda-
pest. It is called Godollo.

If you were to visit Budapest you might get
leave to see the old castle. The Hungarians
keep a great treasure there. It is the hand of
their favourite king, Saint Stephen, who lived
a thousand years after Christ. This hand is
covered with gold rings, and it is placed on a
red-velvet cushion. Besides King Stephen’s
hand there is his golden crown, which is always
366 BUDAPEST.

worn at the King’s coronation. The Hungarians
think as much of this crown as if it were a
living creature. It is kept in the castle, in an
iron chest with five seals. The iron door of
the room is fastened with three locks. Two
soldiers sit’ constantly in the next room: not
the same two, for there are sixty-four soldiers
who take turn to watch.

There are sixteen millions of people in Hun-
gary. The greatest number are Hungarians;
the rest belong to nine other nations. It is
no wonder that there are many religions.

More than half the people are Roman
Catholics, but there are a great many Pro-
testants; their chapels are mostly small and
low, but in them the Bible is read, and the
way to the heavenly mansions by Jesus Christ
is shown.

Many different languages are spoken in
Hungary; the Bible has been translated into
all of them, and is very much read even by the
Roman Catholics. The Peep of Day, and the
Streaks of Light, and about ninety other books,
have also been translated. Good men go about
the country, selling books and tracts. Some-
times the Roman Catholic teachers encourage
their scholars to buy them. It is a pretty sight
to see the little ones bringing their coppers, and
running lest they should come too late. One day,
after so-many tracts had been bought that the
BUDAPEST. 367

good man had closed his boxes and lifted them
on the cart to go away, there came such a -
crowd of children, begging for books, that he
had to unpack his store again. Jn one place
the children, who had not a farthing to give for
a tract, brought a large fresh egg, and begged
for a leaflet in exchange.

In another place a drunkard bought a tract,
and began to read it aloudinaninn. Soon
tears rolled down his cheeks and blinded his
eyes. When he had read it through, he stood
up and said, ‘From this moment I shall never
taste drink again; but, oh! if I had only seen
that tract five years ago I should still have had
my house and home—now I am a beggar, and
my poor family miserable! What shall I do ?’
Then he was told the beautiful verse, ‘ Now is
the accepted time, now is the day of salvation.’

Does not this story make you wish to help
to send tracts to Hungary, where they are go
much valued? |

Kindly revised by R. Kcenig, minister of the Free Church
of Scotland at Budapest; and by M. Zmertych Ivan, of
Hungary.
368

POLAND.








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Polish Inn,

WHAT a change it is togo from Prussia into
a country that joins it !

Prussia is rich.

Poland is poor.

Prussia is prosperous.

Poland is unhappy.

Prussia is free,

Poland is conquered.

To wHom POLAND BELONGS.—Poor Poland
has no king of her own. She has been torn
to pieces by three great countries—Austria,
Russia, and Prussia. They have divided Poland
between them. This was very wrong. Only
POLAND. 369

that. part of the country, which belongs to
Russia is now called Poland.

Poland has a great white eagle as her sign.
There is no country in Europe which has so
many lords in it as Poland once had: but
now most of the lords have been sent out of
their fine castles, to go where they can.

CoUNTRY.—You may go a great way without
seeing anything pretty. Poland is a plain of
sand. When the wind blows hard, the sand
gets into your eyes and mouth. Sometimes
the ground is soft, and the carriage can hardly
vet along—it 1s passing over a marsh. Some-
times you will see large forests of tall, thin
hr-trees, and sometimes fields of corn, but with-
out hedges. There are bells tied to the horses’
necks, as in Russia. |

ANIMALS.—There are wolves in the forests, |
aud even bears, with plenty of poor frightened
deer. It is the custom in some places, when
a poor man has killed a wolf, for him to take
round the dead wolf to every house in the
village to ask for a reward. At one house he
gets a handtul ot flour, and at another a piece
of bacon. Afterwards he sends the head to
the governor of the place, and he gets a piece
of money. | |

The Poles are very fond of horses, and they
have a great many. A poor man sometimes
lets his horse live with him in his hut. Wheel-

BB
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370 POLAND.

barrows are not much used, because they
must be drawn along by men, and the Poles
do not care to take the trouble. ‘They prefer
carrying their goods in carts. Very poor
carts they often are, with wheels made of
one piece of wood, like those in the carts in
the toy-shops.

Even poor people keep cows. Very often in
the middle of a town you will see a square. In
the evening a whole herd of cows come home
from feeding on the plains. The women and
children drive them home—and now a cow 1s
standing before each door, ana a woman or a
child is milking her. At night, the cows sleep
in the middle of the square.

IFoop.—- You see that poor people can get,
milk because they have cows. But their food
is not very good. Potatoes, and cabbages, and
barley-gruel—they are the chief food. The
drink is beer and spirits. The Poles are like
many other people, a great deal too fond of
spirits.

One night a traveller, as he lay on his straw
bed at an inn, saw the men packing up cab-
bages for the winter. How they cut and chopped
the cabbages at the table, and then thrust them
into great jars! They pressed them down by
stamping and jumping on them; one of the
men smoked his pipe all the time, and the
other played sometimes on his fiddle. The
POLAND. 371

traveller did not like their way of pressing
down cabbages. Do you?

Dress.—The poor men wear loose, white,
woollen shirts, reaching down to their feet,
with wide leather girdles round their waists.
Their shoes are not made of leather, but of the
bark of trees, and their hair hangs down over
their shoulders.

The women often wear short pelisses trimmed -
with fur, over a petticoat much longer than the
pelisse. In some places they wear caps with
long lappets hanging down behind; in other
places they wear their own long hair in plaits,
and white handkerchiefs on their heads; but in
every place they are very untidy. Yet the Poles
are pleasing in their looks. Generally their
eyes are dark, and their figures are tall.

CLIMATE.— It is very cold in Poland.
Why? Look where the mountains are. Those
mountains, which make Hungary so warm by
keeping off the north wind, are of no good to
Poland. There are no mountains there to keep
off the cold winds. These winds come rushing
down from the north, till the poor people are
glad to wrap their sheepskin cloaks tight round
them. The rivers often overflow, and make
Poland very damp. Can it be a healthy
country? No. There is a dreadful disease
which is not known in England. It is called
the * Plica Polonica, or © Polish Plait’ A
372 POLAND.

person feels a headache and pains in his limbs;
atter a tew days the hair becomes sticky and
twists together, and feels quite tender and gore.
Would it not be best to cut it off? Nos; this
might kill the poor creature. You must wait
till the new hair grows; then you may cut off
the old hair. Sometimes people have this sad
disease all their lives. Very few clean people
have it; yet sometimes they catch it. It is
said that no one with light hair ever has it. As
most little English boys and girls have light
hair, they will be glad to hear this.

THE JEWS.——AII children, who have read the
Bible, know that the Jews were once called
Israelites, and that they once lived in the land of |
Canaan. Where do they live now? Inall lands;
but more Jews live in Poland than in any other
country. You might once have known them in
a moment by their long black muslin gowns
and their long black shining beards.» They
have eyes like the hawk, and noses like its
beak. They are fine-looking men—such as you
might imagine their kings David and Solomon
to have been.

The rich Jewesses all wear bright turbans,
adorned with diamonds and rubies. But all
the Jews are not rich. Some are miserably

* Tn 1847 the Emperor of Russia forbade the Jews to weat
their own dress any more, and this cruel law cost the 5) ews
many tears. :
POLAND. 373

poor, as you would say, if you were to see the
cellars in which they live.

The Jews are not indolent like the Poles, but
try in every way to get money. Itis they who
keep all the inns—and wretched inns they are.
See that large shed under which horses and earts
are kept. At one end thereis a sort of house.
It is the inn. Go in at that low-covered door-
way, taking care not to hit your head (unless
you are only a little boy or girl). The floor
has no carpet, not even boards—no, nor bricks
——it is the bare earth. There are some boards in
one corner, with some straw on them. Would
you rather sleep there or in that little dark
room behind? Look in; it is full of dirty
beds, and children of all sizes. In that dark
room the father, who has been selling beer
all day, often sits up at night, and lehts his
lamp, to read his old books.

some of the Jews are very troublesome to
travellers. They follow them about, offering
to help them, and will not go away when they
are told. Even the little children carry baskets
about full of pretty things, and entreat people
to buy. The Poles often speak rudely to the
Jews, and think themselves much better than
they; but the Jews bear this with great pa-
tience, because they are accustomed to be ill-
treated.

When will the Jews believe in Him Who
374 POLAND.

came into their land eighteen hundred years
ago? It is because they do not believe in the
Lord Jesus Christ that God allows them to be
so unhappy. But we cannot forget that the
Lord Jesus Himself, when He lived down here,
was a Jew.

‘It was a Jew Who shed His blood
Our pardon to procure ;
It is a Jew Who sits above
That pardon to ensure.’

CHARACTER.— The Poles are very brave.
Many of them have gladly shed the last drop
of their blood in fighting for their beloved
country. Wherever they are, they love to
think and talk of their poor Poland. They
are very clever in learning to speak different
languages, and they are very fond of music
and dancing. They used to be called the
‘Proud Poles.’ It is written in the Bible,
‘Pride comes before a fall;’ and the proud
Poles have fallen very low, for most of them are
now the subjects of Russia, and many have
lost their fine houses and parks.

The nobles used to treat the poor cruelly. A
lord often took away the poor man’s cow, and
the poor man in return cut down the lord’s tree.
All the Poles were either great lords or poor
people. It was the Jews or the Germans who
bought and sold. The gentlemen in Poland
were too proud to work. How foolish that is,


POLAND. 375

when Adam worked in the garden of Eden!
Surely none of us are as great as Adam was
before he sinned. |

The Poles are fond of dress. They used
to wear the most beautiful dress in Europe,
but they are not allowed to wear it now. Still
you may see they love dress, by the gold
brooches and chains on the necks of the gentle-
men. The Poles love talking, and they speak
very loud; they are proud of this, and say that
the Germans are dumb. |

THE SALT-MINE.—A very beautiful sight is
the great salt-mine of Wielicza, which is in
the part of Poland that now belongs to
Austria. ‘There is no such mine in all Europe.
There are stairs cut in the salt; but a child,
I think, must be let down by a rope tied to
a canvas seat. When you get down you go
from room to room—each room is as large as a
church. The salt is not white, but dark grey
with streaks of white. But this dark salt shines
when the candles are lighted. Men hold candles
in their hands and show you the way. There
are five stories, or sets of rooms, one under
the other, with stairs between. It is said there
are more than a thousand rooms, and that no
one knows the way over them all. There are
men below breaking the salt with their pick-
axes, and filling barrels with the large blocks
of salt. There are horses below to draw these


376 POLAND.

barrels along, and there are stables and mangers
made of salt; for, when once the horses come
down, they never go up again. How do they
get down? Not by the stairs; they are let
down ina basket. At first they struggle, but
when they are in the dark they get quiet. The
men do not sleep in the mines, except the stable-
men-—the rest go up every night to breathe the
fresh air. When great people visit this mine
it is illuminated by thousands of torches, whose
light is reflected on the salt crystals, and makes
the place look like a fairy palace.

RELIGION.—Most of the Poles are Roman
Catholics; but in that part of the country
which belongs to Russia, and which is still
called Poland, some of the people are of the
Russian religion, which is called the Greek |
Church. It is easy to find out whether a
town is Roman Catholic or of the Greek
Church. If there are images set up to wor-
ship, then you may know it is Roman Catho-
lic: but if there are only pictures or crosses,
then it is of the Greek Church.

Often you will see in Poland crosses as high
as a small house, with figures of Christ upon
them, sometimes covered with rags, and some-
times decked with flowers. Whata sight! How
unlike are these images to that glorious Saviour
Who sits above at God’s right hand, pleading for
His people!
WARSAW. OTT

In the Roman Catholic churches there are
often several organs, sometimes two and some-
times five. In all countries but Poland, one
organ is thought enough, but there the organs
answer one another, and then join in one chorus.

WARSAW.

This is the capital of Poland. It is full of
soldiers. They are Russians, sent by the Em-
peror to keep the poor Poles in order. The
palace is still there, but there is no longer any
king to live in it. Houses, where lords once
lived, stand empty.

There is a very curious way of numbering the
houses in Warsaw. In London and other cities
each street has its own numbers; but in Warsaw
all the houses are numbered one after another,
The palace is number one, and the numbers run
on to about five thousand. In London there
_ would be hundreds of thousands if the houses
were numbered in that way.

Is Warsaw a beautiful city? It is a grand
city built upon a hill, with a river at the foot.
Yet it makes one sigh to look at it, because it
has been conquered by the enemy.

There is a shop in Warsaw where a good
man sells Bibles. One day a lady came into
378 WARSAW.

it with her daughter, and asked for a copy of
the Gospels. They were both beautifully
dressed, and they had often passed the shop
before, and every time the younger lady had
stopped the other. This was because she longed
fora Bible. She had heard a great deal of it
from her lame step-brother, who was confined
to his couch, and who had a Bible which be-
longed to his mother, and which he read every
morning and evening. The more she heard
the more she wished for a Bible of her own,
and night and day she begged for one. Now
that she was in the shop, and that her mother
had asked for the Gospels, she timidly said,
‘Would a whole Bible cost much more? [I
should so much hke to have one, but mother
says it will cost too much.’ She was told that
her mother could easily afford the price. Then
the lady explained that she did not think it fit
to give a Bible to a girl of fourteen, lest it
should spoil her. ‘What!’ exclaimed the
good man of the shop, ‘spoil her! The
Saviour says, “Search the Scriptures, they
testify of Me.’’ This answer persuaded the
mother, and she made her daughter happy
by giving her the Bible she so much desired.
379

CRACOW.

This now belongs to Austria. It is the pret- .
tiest city in old Poland, but it is a small city.
Why is it so famous? Because the kings of
Poland used to be crowned there and buried
there. On a high rock stands a church. A
steep road leads to it. How many kings have
gone up that road —first, very much pleased —
to be crowned; and then, silent and cold—to
be buried! There are statues of the kings in
the church. What a day it will be when all
those kings rise out of their tombs, to be
judged by the King of kings!

THE VISTULA.

On this river both Warsaw and Cracow are
built. Its banks are low, and often the water
overflows and covers the land.”

* Taken from Spencer, Stephens, and Kohl.

Kindly revised by EK. Brutzer,
380

HOLLAND, OR THE NETHERLANDS.*

THERE is no country in the world damper than
Holland. There is so much water that every
place is wet ; indeed, people could not live there
at all, if it were not for the pains they take to
make it a little more dry. They dig little
ditches close together all over the country, and
let the water run into them. They also make
great banks, to keep out the sea, and to prevent
it from overflowing the land. These banks are
called dykes. The cows are covered with sacking
during the rainy season, lest they should get wet,
and lest they should get fever by lying down in
the very wet meadows.

You would be surprised to see how many
windmills there are in Holland. If you look
round, you see windmills on every side; per-
haps you can count sixty at once. What can
they be for? To grind corn? No. The use
of the windmills is to pump water out of the wet
ditches into the broad streams of water called
canals. These are much prettier than the
wet ditches. Willow-trees grow by the edge

* Holland properly means only two provinces, but the
whole country is often called Holland, though its real name
is the Netherlands, or the Lowlands.
HOLLAND, OR THE NETHERLANDS. 381

of the canals, and boats full of people float
along. In winter some of these canals are
covered with ice, and men and women, and
children, may be seen skating to market, with
their baskets on their heads.

You must never expect to climb a hill in
Holland. I think a little Dutch boy would be
frightened to see a Scotch boy run down one of
his native hills. Sometimes you will see fine
trees, and parks, and corn-fields; but more
often only canals and marshes with cows.



Dutch.

APPEARANCE.—The damp air makes the chil-
dren’s cheeks fresh and rosy. In Holland, people
generally have light eyes and hair, and round
faces.

They dress very much like English and
382 HOLLAND, OR THE NETHERLANDS.

French people. But some of the country-
women wear gold plates on their heads and
long golden earrings; and even poor girls
will sometimes wear as much gold as would
buy two cows in England.”

CHARACTER.-—There is no people in Europe
who spend so much time cleaning their houses
as the Dutch. If they did not rub and serub
a good deal, the damp would cover all their
brass pans with rust.

It is pleasant to go into a Dutch kitchen.
What a clean floor: The red bricks have just
been rubbed over with fresh red sand. What
bright copper kettles and saucepans! What a
neat brick hearth! What pretty shining tiles
on the walls!

The poor children at school are much cleaner
than English children.

The Dutch are very industrious. The king
will not allow big boys to stand idle in the
streets. The policemen take up idle ragged
boys, and send them in‘o the country to drain
the marshy grounds; so there are very few
thieves, and hardly any beggars.

The Dutch are very careful not to get into
debt. They take great pains to earn and to
save money, in order to provide for their chil-

* The women inherit these golden skull-caps and earrings
from their mothers; but sometimes they are only plated,
and not real gold.
HOLLAND, OR THE NETHERLANDS. 383

dren. They are kind to the poor and to orphans,
and they support the needy and aged by collec-
tions in their churches.

At church, you will see a man with a
long stick and a black velvet bag at the |
end of it, and a little bell instead of a tassel.
What is it for? To collect money for the
poor. With this stick the man fishes for
money. |

But no money is given to any poor people
who do not send their children to school. Is
not this a good plan?

The Dutch children do not make as much
noise at school as English children do. You
hear no noise outside the school-house, and,
when playtime comes, the scholars go out
quietly. They cannot help making some noise
with their teet, as they wear wooden shoes;
and wooden shoes, [ think, they must need to
keep their feet dry in such a wet country.

Would you like to peep at one of the schools ?
What neat rows of boys and girls sitting toge-
ther, while their teachers are drawing on the
biack board! There are no little monitors.
None but grown-up people teach the children.
In one school the scholars are allowed to draw
pictures on their slates one hour every day.
This is a great treat. Some masters teach their
scholars to write with their left hand one hour
every week, in order that they may still be able
384 HOLLAND, OR THE NETHERLANDS.

to write if any accident happen to their right
hand.

Perhaps you think that the Dutch do not
like their land, since part of it is so wet. Ah!
they like it quite as well as you like England,
and would not change it for any other. They
call it their Faderland; and they love to sing
about their Faderland and their king; for they
have a king of their own, whom they serve
faithfully.

GARDENS.—The Dutch are very fond of their
gardeus. The trees used sometimes to be cut
out into shapes; and one was like a fox, and
another was like a cock. This was a pity, for
nothing can be so beautiful as the natural shape
of a tree. The Dutch often place images of
animals as ornaments in their gardens, and
paint them different strange colours. Blue
dogs and red lions must look very curious.
Roman Catholics paint their cottages sky-blue.
Why? They say it is the colour of the
Virgin’s dress. The walks are straight, and
covered with sand, for there is no gravel to be
had in Holland. In the public gardens, cart-
loads of shells are put down. There is nota
leaf to be seen lying on the ground, nor a weed
in the beds, and the flowers are very gay and
beautiful, especially tulips, crocuses, and hya-
cinths. No country in the world has such
beautiful tulips and hyacinths as Holland.
HOLLAND, OR THE NETHERLANDS. 385

They are sent to all parts of the world. Yet
an English garden, though not so neat, is much
prettier than a Dutch garden, for it has wind-
ing walks, and sloping lawns, and shady nooks
among the spreading trees.

Foop.--The Dutch are very fond of eating
egos, boiled hard, especially plovers’ eggs, and
pickles, and all kinds of vegetables. They eat
plovers’ eggs with cress, and they eat _
and potatoes together.

Their favourite drink is coffee, which is very
cheap. Everybody drinks some about luncheon
time. Yet there is a great deal of strong
spirit, or gin, made in Holland;â„¢ it is called
Hollands.

There is also plenty of milk in Holland.
There are little round cheeses, about the size
of a baby’s head, which are sent to England, and
called Dutch cheeses. In Holland these cheeses
are called ‘ Death’s-head cheeses !’

You may be sure there is fishin Holland. In
no country are there such good herrings. The
ships go out onthe 15th day of June, to catch
them in the sea near Great Britain. As soon
as they have caught some in their nets, they
kill them, salt them very quickly, and pack
them up in barrels—and the First barrel they
send as a present to the KING. It is brought:
into the Hague in a small cart, which is drawn

“ At Schiedam, near Rotterdam. _
CC
386 HOLLAND, OR THE NETHERLANDS,

by a dog, direct to the palace, and which js
adorned with the national flag.

The fishmongers’ shops are decked with gar-
lands of flowers when the new herrings are
sold. But the Dutch do not boil their herrings
as we do,—they eat them sodden in milk, and
decorated with a dandelion in the mouth.
Dutch labourers eat dried fish raw with their
bread, just as English labourers eat bread and
cheese.

ANIMALS.—The favourite bird in Holland ig
that bird with long legs, a long neck, and along
beak, called the stork, It is just fit for Holland,
for it eats frogs, and it can wade along in the
marshes with its long legs, and poke its long
beak into the soft ground. The Dutch are so
fond of it, that they forbid anybody to shoot it.
What they like best is to get a stork to build
its nest on the top of their houses, or on a tree
close by.

A stork may often be seen walking in the
street with its little ones. But, before the
winter comes, the storks set out in large flocks
to fly to Africa, that they may be warm during
the winter. But there are some tame storks
that never go away.
broken one of its legs, lived for years with a
- wooden leg.

| RELIGIoN.—Are you not already sure that
there is a good religion in this country? The
HOLLAND, OR THE NETHERLANDS, 387

Protestant is the religion. In the church you
will often see a very handsome pulpit of black
wood, and a fine organ. In the middle there
generally are open pews or benches, where the
women sit, and on the sides, there are benches
of wood for the men. As the churches are
cold im winter, the ladies have found out a
good plan for keeping their feet warm. They
have fire-stools. These are little foot-stools
which will open, and which hold burning peat.
There is no smoke from peat, and the heat is
kept in a long while. This peat is easily got
in Holland. It is the sod, or grass and soft
earth, from the top of the marshes. The Bible
is read in church and hymns are sung, and a
sermon is preached, and the people behave in a
proper manner, and look as if they were joining
in the prayers, and attending to the reading ;
but God alone, who sees the heart, knows how
many are really worshipping Him.

PRODUCTIONS.~—In damp countries rich grass
grows for cattle, therefore the Dutch dairies are
famous. Much flax grows in the fields. Flower-
roots are wrapped in paper and stowed in boxes,
and sent to all countries.
388

AMSTERDAM.

Amsterdam is the old capital of Holland.
There is no city in which there is so much
danger of being drowned, for it is full of canals,
The houses are all built on piles or posts, driven
into the ground, and they are so well built that
the people who live in them do not suffer from
damp.”

They are built in rows along the banks of
the canals. Very often there are lines of trees
between the houses and the canals. There are
nearly three hundred bridges.

There are a great many rich people in Am-
sterdam, for Amsterdam is full of merchants;
and their houses are solid and well built. Some
of them are very old and curious. They are
much larger than they appear. If you looked
at the front windows of a house, you might
think it was quite small, when it was not small
at all. This is because the houses go so far
back. They have marble passages, and some
of the windows have very old glass, which was

* Amsterdam Palace was built more than two hundred
years ago on a thousand piles. It contains the piano on

which Queen Hortense composed her famous song, ‘ Partant
pour la Syrie.’
THE HAGUE. 389

made in Venice, and which is tinted pink or
violet. This glass is very valuable.

But, though there is so much water in Am-
sterdam, there is very little water fit to drink,
so that the people either buy water of men who
bring water-carts, or they drink rain- water,
which is kept in tanks. Still, the water of the
canals is very useful for keeping the city clean.
The servant-girls may be seen in the morning,
in their wooden shoes, pouring buckets in the
street, and dashing water against the sides of
the houses.

THE HAGUE.

Though Amsterdam is the capital, the Hague
may also be called the capital, for the king lives
at the Hague, and the Parliament meets at
the Hague, in September. There are several
famous pictures; one of them represents a
bull.

The Hague is a very fine city, and has an
avenue three miles long, which leads to a
fishing village near.
390

ROTTERDAM.

This city is built on a broad river, called the
Maas, or Meuse. Some branches from the great
river, the Rhine, flow into the Meuse. You
may sometimes see a cottage built upon a large
rait, and floating on the river. In it there lives
a man who buys all kinds of jugs and basins in
Germany, and sells them in Holland. His
ooods are piled upon the deck of his great boat.
How neat his cottage looks! if it can be called
a cottage, when it contains a dining-room and
drawing-room, as well as bed-rooms, and a
kitchen. There are clean white or red cur-
tains to the windows, and balconies filled with
the gayest flowers. Many little children are
born in such a house, and live there all
their days. What a strange kind of life
they must lead! If they could draw, what
pretty pictures they might make of the
castles and woods that they pass by in Ger-
many; but when they get to Holland, there
are no high banks to the river, and no beauti-
ful scenes.

In Holland you may often see a solitary
bargeman, with a rope round his chest, dragging
a huge raft against the stream. You will never
hear him sing, for he is always silent; his horse
is on the opposite bank.
LEYDEN——-BROOK, OR BROCK. 391

LEYDEN has the largest botanical garden in
Kurope.

BROOK, OR BROCK.

This is only a village, but it is reckoned the
cleanest village in the world. It is built near
a great pool of water. The cottages have
gardens full of fine flowers. The gateway is
green, tipped with gold; the narrow walk up to
the house is neatly paved with small bricks ;
the door is painted light green, and the shutters
outside the same; the steps are yellow, and the
walls are white. The people must be very
oiten painting, to keep them as neat as they are.
But you might walk through the village without
seeing anybody. Why? Because the people
goin and out of their back-doors, in order not
to spoil the fresh look of the front.

There is a neat little church in the middle
of the village. The stone floor is well scrubbed,
and the seats and the pulpit shine from rubbing.
But what is far better, there are a great many
large Bibles in the church belonging to the
old people who come there on Sunday.

It is very amusing to see the dairies of
Brock. The dairyman lives in the same house
with his cows, and goes in at the same door ;
but, instead of his house being lke a cow-
392 BROOK, OR BROCK.

house, the room for the cows is like a par-
lour, or at least a kitchen, for it is washed
every day. The cows also are kept very clean,
and their tails are tied up in winter, when they
are in their stables.

There are very fine schools in Holland, but
the Bible is not taught in them. This grieves
Dutch Christians so much that many very poor
people give a penny a-week in order to have
‘schools with the Bible,’ as they call them.
There are now more than fifty thousand chil-
dren in the Bible-schools, and ninety thousand
Sunday scholars. A good Dutch minister built
four large girls’ schools close to his house, and
preached to them himself in a little church he
called the Refuge Church. He built this church
on high ground, in order that his people might
have a refuge in case a flood should come; and
he made the pillars hollow, so that they might
do for chimneys. No flood came, but a fire,
and then all his girls had a safe shelter till
their homes were rebuilt.*

* Taken from the Tour of Mr. William Chambers.

Kindly revised by the Misses Van Hoof.
393

BELGIUM.

BELGIUM is a small country. Its coasts are
nearer the shores of Britain than any other
country, except France.

I shall not say much about Belgium, because
it is so like the countries on each side. Which
are they? France and Holland.

On the west side, Belgium is very flat, like
Holland, though not as flat or damp as that
curlous land. On the east side, Belgium is
hilly and very pretty. Belgium is full of
corn-helds, like France. The people are, in
some things, like the Dutch: they are steady,
sober, and industrious; but, in some things,
they are like the French: they are quick and
lively. They speak the French language,
though, in some provinces, the people speak
a language of their own, called Flemish, which
is something like English; and, in other pro-
vinces,they speak a language called the Walloon
language. The names of the trades over the
shops, and the names of the streets, are always
written in French, though sometimes they are
written in another language besides. If you
know French you can travel as pleasantly in
Belgium as in France.

All Belgians love music and dancing. In
the winter rich people drive about on the ice,
394 BELGIUM.

in ornamental sledges of fanciful shapes and
gay colours.

The peasants sometimes amuse themselves
by shooting with a cross-bow at a wooden bird,
fixed on the top of a lofty pole.

There are a great many neat little farm-
houses among the fields. Each farm is not
larger than a good-sized field, that is, about
six acres; yet on this small piece of land the
whole family live comfortably. How indus-
trious they must be! Yes, not one in the
family is idle. The father sows wheat in one
corner of his field, and in another rye, and in
another clover for the beasts, and in another
flax to make linen. The wife spins the flax,
and then has it woven into clothes for her
family. The children have plenty to do in
collecting food for the two cows, which are
kept in the stable. There is a pig in the sty,
and a goat in the yard, and a few fowls roosting
in the poultry-loft. The farm-house is a com-
fortable cottage, with a large, clean kitchen,
and very little rooms on each side, that can
just hold a bed a-piece, and upstairs a sleeping-
room for the children; and though they are
not quite so clean as the Dutch rooms, they
are very comfortable.*

-* In the Walloon provinces (Liege, Lamur Hainault, and
part of Luxembourg) the people are not quite so clean as
they are in the Flemish provinces.
BELGIUM. 395

The farmer works very hard, for often he
has no plough, and no cart, and no _ horse.
Therefore he digs his land with his spade,
and wheels along his barrowful of hay. This
is slow work, but it is the only way these poor
people can manage. They live on plain food. —
As soon as they get up (and it is with the
cock), they take a piece of rye-bread and a
cup of coffee. At nine they have a comfort-
able breakfast of bread and butter, and cheese ;
and then at noon there is a dinner of potatoes
and onions, with a slice of bacon ; and for sup-
per, salad with bread. They drink very little
beer, but they have plenty of milk. Their
dress is plain and coarse, and their shoes are
made ot wood, and are very cheap and strong.

I told you the cows were kept in the stable.
Sometimes, for a treat, these cows have nice
warm soup, not made of meat, but of potatoes,
peas, beans, and hay. The farmer’s wife must
know how to cook for the cows as well as for
the family.

Do you not hope that these industrious,
honest people love to read their Bibles in
their pleasant cottages? Alas! they are
Roman Catholics!

Belgium was not always a Roman Catholic
country. Once it was joined with Protestant
Holland. Both together, they made the king-
dom of the United Netherlands; one of the
396 BELGIUM.

richest kingdoms of the world. The people
were very brave, and very industrious. They
made most beautiful things, which they carried
to all parts of the world. But they were Pro-
testants, and their cruel king hated Protestants,
He was king of Spain as well as king of the
Netherlands. He was the same King Philip
who married our bloody Queen Mary, and who
sent the Spanish Armada to conquer England.

Philip had a servant, called the Duke of
Alva, as cruel as himself. He desired the
duke to destroy every Protestant who would
not become a Roman Catholic. A hundred
thousand poor Netherlanders were executed.
Perhaps all the people would have perished had
it not been for the sand-hills, and the sea, and
the canals, which helped to keep the fierce
Spaniards out of the north. God had pity on
these poor persecuted people, and sent them a
deliverer, William of Orange, one of the best
aud wisest princes who ever lived, and one of
the greatest generals. William gave up all he
possessed in order to save his country; and he
was helped in this by John of Barneveld, who
was as wise with his pen, as William was brave
with his sword.

In spite of King Philip, the people of the
north remained Protestants, and became free.
But, alas! the Prince of Orange was basely
murdered; and the people of the south, though
BRUSSELS, 397

they had suffered so much for their religion,
became Roman Catholics.

Is it not sad to think that the Virgin Mary
and the saints are worshipped, in the very
country where there have been so many
martyrs ?

But there is now a society in Belgium for
sending men to preach the Gospel, and to give
away tracts. These good men are received
everywhere with joy. ‘Ever since my wife and
I read your little book,’ said one man, ‘we have
been different people. We never knew before
that God loved us so much!’

In one of the Walloon provinces two hundred
now worship together. Yet a little time ago
nearly half of them were Roman Catholics,

BRUSSELS.

This is the chief city of Belgium. It is
built on the sunny side of a hill, and is a very
handsome town. The houses of Brussels are
of stone, and many are painted white, and
have white blinds, so they look very clean.
There is a pretty park in Brussels, but it is
more like a garden than a park. The walks
are broad and straight, and the trees are large
398 BRUSSELS.

and spreading. In the middle there is a pond
full of gold and silver fish.

There are several beautiful fountains, one of
them adorned with statues; there is also a very
high column, and in the market-place there is
a lofty tower. But the most wonderful thing
in Brussels is that, without knowing it, you may
walk and drive over a river at the bottom of
the town. Howis this? The river has been
quite covered over, and a broad road, called the
Boulevard Central, built over. it. On each
side of this broad way, are beautiful shops and
houses. Since this boulevard has been made
the town has been much healthier. |

There is also an avenue which leads to a
wood, where there is a lake on which people
skate in winter.

Brussels is famous for its lace. Women
make pretty sprigs, and then fasten them on
the net.

There is a cathedral which has a very curious
pulpit. Under the pulpit the figures of Adam
and Eve are carved in wood, as large as lite.
The pulpit is in a tree covered with wooden
fruit and birds, and this tree comes up higher
than the pulpit, and overshadows it with its
branches ;—and there is an image of Christ as
a child, and of His mother Mary; and there
is the serpent winding among the branches, and
Mary helping her child to crush the serpent
BRUSSELS. , 399

with His foot. What do you think of this
pulpit? It must be pretty, but it is a foolish
plan to make images round a pulpit. Would
children listen so well to the preacher when
they saw his face peeping out among the
branches and the birds?

But the preachers in that pulpit do not
speak the truth as it is written in the Bible. .

There is a fountain in Brussels, with a
brass image of a boy, which is called ‘The
Mannikin,’ and which has a servant to wait
upon it, and to dress it up on_ holidays.
The Mannikin is so rich he can well afford
to keep a servant, for many people have
given him money; and as he wants no food,
what could be done with his money, except to
buy clothes and to pay a servant? Many
kings have given presents to the Mannikin.
One gave him a soldier’s dress,

The people of Brussels do not under-
stand the Scriptures, and so they honour
images. Once a great number of people as-
sembled in Brussels to see a golden crown
placed on the head of the Virgin Mary’s image.
This golden crown was adorned with nearly a
thousand jewels. Eight young ladies, dressed
in white, bore it to the foot of Mary’s throne,
and then the priests placed it on Mary’s head,
while the musicians played. In the arms of
this image there was another of Christ, with a
400 BRUSSELS.

silver crown on His head. How strange to five
a golden crown to Mary, who is only a woman,
and a silver one to Christ, who is God! But
Christ does not want crowns of any kind to be
put upon His head by men. His Father has
given Him glorious crowns, which He will wear
when He comes again in the clouds.

The King of Belgium allows good mission-
aries to go about and read the Scriptures to
people. Do you not hope they will learn that
‘God is a spirit, and they that worship Him
must worship Him in spirit and in truth ?’—
John, iv. 24.”

Near Brussels there is a home for little Pro-
testant children.

About ten miles from Brussels is the field of
Waterloo, where Napoleon Bonaparte fought
his last great battle. There is now a high
mound there with a bronze lion on the top of
it, in memory of the battle.

If you go to Belgium you will most likely
see the town of Antwerp, which is the chief
port of Belgium, and which has a beautiful
cathedral, with one of the finest pictures in the
world. It is Rubens’ picture of the body of the
Lord Jesus being taken down from the Cross.t

* Taken from Chambers’ Tour in Belgium, and Massie’s
Summer Ramble.

+ The first newspaper printed in Europe appeared at
Antwerp, 1605.
DENMARK. | 401

Mechlin, or Malines, is famous for lace, and
its cathedral is the highest in Europe.

One of the oldest cities of Belgium is GHENT.
It was the birth-place of our old John of
Gaunt, and also of Charles V., the father of
King Philip, who was so cruel to the poor
people of the Netherlands. Ghent, or Gand,
was bigger than Paris in those days, and
Charles V. used to boast that he could put
Paris into his glove; meaning the city of
Ghent.

Kindly revised by Miss Van der Kelen.

ARE ROTA

DENMARK.

I SHALL tell you very little about Denmark,
because it is so much like England.

The language is a good deal like English.
In old times, the Danes used to come often
over to England, and no doubt we learned some
of their words. The Danes are also, like the
Dutch, a steady, quiet people; but they are not.
such a busy, money-getting nation.

Denmark is flat, but not nearly as flat as
Holland, nor as damp. As you travel, you will
pass by many low hills, and clumps of beech-
trees, with nightingales singing most sweetly,
and rose-bushes blooming around.

* ¢Je mettrais Paris dans mon Gant.’
D D
402 DENMARK.

We must love Denmark, because of ‘the Rose
of Denmark.’ I mean our Princess, who came
from this land to become Princess of Wales.

There are many small streams in Denmark,
but none wide enough to be called a river,
There are, however, little lakes. Denmark
consists of one great peninsula, called Jutland,
and of many islands with straits between them.
The largest of the islands are Zealand, Laland,
and Funen. I think the names of some of the
straits would amuse you. The island of Funen
hes near Jutland, and the strait between them
is narrow: it is called the ‘Little Belt.’ Between
Funen and Zealand there is a much wider strait,
called the ‘Great Belt.’ Between Zealand and
Sweden there is another narrow strait: it is
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ANIMALS.—Denmark is a country full of rich
grass. There is an abundance of fine cows,
COPENHAGEN. 403

yielding excellent milk. In some farms two
hundred cows are kept, and a thousand cheeses
stored up. ‘The milk-maids may be known by
their dress—a dark petticoat with red and
yellow stripes, and a straw-hat with a broad
brim, which shades them from the sun.

There are very fine horses. The carriage-
horses have long tails, which look very graceful.



COPENHAGEN.

This is the capital. It is built on the island
of Zealand, the largest of all the islands of
Denmark. Copenhagen stands by the seaside.
As you come near it in a ship, you are struck
with the fine buildings. There is not so regular
and handsome a town in all Europe; but, as
the ground is flat, it cannot be as beautiful as
Edinburgh. If you like a quiet city you would
like Copenhagen.

There are several palaces very near each
other, in which the king lives, and also his re-
lations. There are also very handsome libraries,
picture galleries, and museums, where you may
see some of the beautiful statues the famous
Danish sculptor Thorwaldsen made. You re-
member the lion he cut in the rock at Lucerne.

One church is adorned with white marble
404 COPENHAGEN.

statues of the Lord and His Apostles, and with
a beautiful white marble font. It is made like
a large shell, which is held by an angel
kneeling. Many infants are baptized in this
font. |

There is a large burying-ground near Copen-
hagen. . The walks are broad and _ straight.
Each grave is in a little square place, with
railings round it, and a little mound in the
midst. A shrub is planted at the top of the
mound, and in the corners of the little square
flowers are planted, and narrow walks are made
among the flowers.

Here the relations often come, and sit upon
a green chair inside the rails, and dress the
flowers, and take away the weeds with a little
spade and hoe. Servants often come to visit
the graves of their old masters.

There is one very sad sight to be seen in
Copenhagen: criminals working in the streets.
They are dressed in jackets half black and halt
white, and they wear an iron chain round their
legs, while a soldier stands over each band with
a loaded gun. In this way the wretched men
work, sweeping the streets and carrying bur-
dens. The sight ought to make men pray to
God to keep them from crime.

DREss.—A common dress of the poor women
is a blue petticoat and a red apron, with a lace
cap, and a large gold comb covering all the
DENMARK. 405

back of the head. The women are generally
tall and fresh-coloured, with small features and
fair complexions. Some of the old women
wear a curiously-shaped cap, made of a plain
band of silk, which quite covers the hair. It is
pointed at the top, and has no trimming, but a
bow with long ends behind. The men are
also fair, and soon get stout; and, as they have -
very good appetites, this is not surprising.

CHARACTER.— The Danes possess a great
many good qualities, but they are too fond of
feasting and amusement ; yet, they do not drink
too much, like most northern nations. A tra-
veller who spent some months in Denmark
said when he left it, ‘I never saw in this land a
cripple, or a beggar, or a drunken person, either
in the day, or night.’ This could not be said
by any traveller in England.

The religion is the Protestant.

There is a school in every parish, and every-
one in Denmark must learn to read and write.
No people are better taught than the Danes.

But there are many shepherd-boys who can-
not be at school all day. They come to be
taught at noon, when their sheep are resting
quietly in the heat of the day. Then they
hear of the Good Shepherd who makes His
sheep to lie down in green pastures.”

* Taken chiefly from Bremer’s Denmark.
Revised by M. J. Hoskin.
406

ICELAND.

WHAT sort of country is it? Its name just
suits it. The first person who found Jceland
called it Snow-land, because he could see
nothing but snow; but the next person called
it Ice-land, because of the large heaps of ice
floating near the shores. |

Yet you will be surprised to hear that there
is a great deal of hot water in Iceland. What
is the reason? There is fire underground,
which makes the water hot. There are many
hollow places in the ground, like large basing,
full of hot water. You must take care not to
fall into one of these basins, for you would be
boiled alive. But you would find this hot
water useful; if you wanted to boil a pudding
you need only put the pan upon the water, and
the pudding would soon be ready for dinner.
You would not need to boil the kettle to make
tea—there would be hot water all ready for you.
Some of the water, though very hot, is not
scalding; you might wash your clothes in that
water. And some water is only just warm, and
you could bathe there. Sometimes the Ice-
landers do bathe in the warm basins-—not as
often as they should, for they are a dirty
people. »


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Great Geysir,
ICELAND. 407

There is one spring in Iceland which you
would be afraid of approaching. It is called
the Great Geysir, which means, the Great
Fury. Every now and then it spouts up from
the earth; but before this happens, it makes
a noise like thunder, or as if a giant were
struggling to escape from an underground cell.
As soon as this takes place, the water rises in a
splendid dome, and from the centre of this
there springs a magnificent fountain, which
leaps, all white, into the air as high as a
church steeple. It is very beautiful to see it
playing, for, besides the water, there is always
a great quantity of steam given off. There is
no sight quite hke it in the world.

About a hundred yards from the Great Gey-
sir is another hot spring, called the Strokr,
which means the Churn. This one is always
boiling violently, and it makes a noise, which
the Icelanders compare to the grumbling of an
angry old man. ‘This one never spouts up of
its own accord, but can be made to do so by
throwing into its mouth a quantity of turf;
then it spouts up quite as high as the Great
Geysir. But the sight is not so pretty,
because the water is all dirty from the turf.

Have you heard of the great mountain
Hecla? It is a burning mountain. Some-
times it throws out great quantities of ashes,
and then hot, dark lava pours down its sides on
408 ICELAND,

all the country round, and kills every one who
cannot get out of the way quickly enough,
Sometimes the mountain is quiet for years
together, and then, all at once, breaks out in
this terrible manner. Besides Hecla there are
several other burning mountains or volcanoes
in Iceland. So, you see, it is not a very safe
island to dwell in.

There are not many people in it, nor many
trees. You may travel for miles and miles, and
see only bare mountains, and boiling springs, and
deep caverns in the hard lava. There are little
birch and willow trees as high as this room;
but a fine spreading oak would be a strange
sight.

F’oop,— Iceland is so cold that very few
plants will grow in it. Corn will not grow,
except a little rye and a little barley—only a
very, very little. How, then, can there be
bread? There is very little, and what there is,
is made trom barley and rye, which are brought
by the merchants. The poor people are obliged
to do without bread. They can get plenty of
fish, especially cod fish, which they dry in the
sun, and eat with butter instead of bread.
Rice and sago are brought from Denmark, and
are used for puddings. There is grass in Iceland,
and there are cows and sheep to eat it. The Ice-
landers milk the sheep as well as the cows. They
kill the sheep sometimes, and so have mutton
ICELAND, 409

—and now and then they have beef, but not
very often. They seldom get vegetables. There
are a few little gardens with cabbages, and
turnips, and potatoes; but a garden in Iceland
is quite a curiosity. There is no fruit at all.

How much surprised an Icelander would be
to walk in one of our kitchen-gardens, and to
see our peaches and our pears! And you
would be just as much surprised to see a gar-
den in a hot country, and the grapes growing
in the fields. |

The Icelanders seldom drink anything but
milk and water, or coffee, or sour whey, at
their meals. But I am sorry to say that many
of them have become fond of drinking corn-
brandy between their meals.

DRESS.— Warm clothes are necessary in Ice-
land. The wool of the sheep is made into
cloth. The women like to wear very hand-
some clothes. This is one kind of dress
which married women wear on high days and
holidays—a blue cloth petticoat and apron, a
scarlet bodice, lacing in front, a black tippet,
and a ruff of black and red velvet. The dress
is ornamented with gold lace, and silver chains ©
and bells. The hair is hidden under a high
white head-dress, with a coloured handkerchief
at the top. But the every-day dress of all the
women, married or unmarried, is a heavily-
plaited skirt, and a tight-fitting bodice of dark
410 ICELAND.

blue or black cloth, called wadmel, trimmed
with silver braid. The hair is plaited, and the
ends are caught up under a little black cap, or-
namented with a heavy silk tassel mounted with
silver, and placed jauntily on one side. Little
girls dress just like their mothers. The men are
learning to dress like the men of other countries,
but you still see the short jacket, and trousers
of wadmel; and they all wear shoes of un-
tanned sheepskin. The genuine Iceland vlove
is acurlosity. It has no fngers—like a baby’s
glove,—but it differs from the baby’s glove in
having two thumbs, one at the back and the
other at the front, so that when the palm of the
hand is getting worn and thin, the back can be
turned to the front, and the glove be nearly as
oood as new.

Houses.—There are no houses in the middle
of Iceland: all the people live rather near the
sea, that they may get fish.

There are several towns in Iceland, but the
largest of them we should only call a village.
Its name is Reykjavik, and it is built by the
seashore.

In the country, as you travel along, you will
often see a farm-house, and a church, standing
all by themselves. For as a rule the farm-
servants live in the farm-house. The farm-
houses look very neat ontside. Some of the poor
ones are very low, and have only two windows


ICELAND. 411

in front; but others have as many as five
gables, each with two windows. The houses
are built of turf and stone, and roofed with
grass. ‘lhe rooms are lined with planks of
wood. But perhaps you remember that I told
you there were no big trees in Iceland? It is
quite true that there are none, but God supplies
the wants of the poor Icelanders in a won-
derful way. Kvery year, numbers of large trees
are washed on the shore by the Gulf Stream.
This stream is like a river of warm water, which
flows through the sea.

What are those green hillocks before the
house? The hillocks were made to grow
grass for the cows. All that grass is to be
cut and made into hay to feed the cows in
winter.

Now let us go into the house. Iam afraid
you will think it dark and dirty. You enter a
sort of hall, hung round with saddles, bridles,
and farm-tools, and occasionally a hand-loom
stands on one side. You pass through this
hall into the kitchen, which contains nothing
but a flat hearth. On this the people burn
‘sea-weeds, fish-bones, and any refuse which
can be coaxed to smoulder, or be puffed into a
blaze.’ * a |

From the hall you ascend a dark, narrow
staircase to the room where the family lives.

“ Iceland: its Scenes and Sagas. By 8, Baring-Gould.
412 ICELAND.

It is full of beds and full of litter. Wooden
dishes, spinning-wheels, and old clothes, lie
about in confusion in all directions. The fur-
niture is hardly ever dusted, or the rooms
scrubbed, or even swept.

The little windows, which are sometimes
placed in the roof, will not open. There is no
fire-place or stove in the room. The only
means the people have of warming themselves
in winter is by burning paraffine lamps, and
huddling together. The house is never aired,
What an unpleasant place !

The larger houses are made by adding a
second or a third gable, each containing two
rooms downstairs and one upstairs. Most
likely our forefathers had houses and churches
like those which are now seen in Iceland.

CHURCHES.—The churches are built entirely
of wood. They are painted black, except the
window-frames, which are white. Itis pleasant
to see so many little churches in the island.
Large churches would be of no use, for there
are too few people in each place. The congre-
gation come from far on horseback. Having
got off their horses, they wait for the minister
at the church-door. When he comes, he kisses
all the people, as well the grown-up men as
the little children, and then they all go into
church together. There they sing, and say
prayers, and the minister reads the Bible, and
ICELAND. 413

preaches a sermon. The religion of Iceland is
the Protestant.

It is a pity the churches are not kept cleaner
and neater. The farmer often turns the church
into a lumber-room. He keeps his best clothes
in the church if he likes; and, what is much
worse, he lays by his wool and his dried fish
there—and the-fish gives the place a very un-
pleasant smell.

There are noinns in Iceland; but the people
are very hospitable. Many of the farm-houses
are furnished with guest-rooms, for the use of
travellers. When there is no room in the
farm-house, travellers sleep in the church. The
ministers are very poor, and some of them
dress like beggars; but others wear neat black
clothes.

On Sundays they wear a loose black gown,
and a white ruff. As the ministers are so poor,
they are almost all farmers. Some of the best
farms on the island are in the hands of the
clergymen. |

Icelanders have no family or surnames.
They only add ‘son,’ or ¢ dottir,’ to the father’s
Christian name. When a lady marries, she
keeps her own name; she is always called
the daughter of such a man, or So-and-so’s
daughter.

Icelanders have no titles; every one is called
by his Christian name.
414 ICELAND,

ANIMALS.—The horses are nimble little anj-
mals, and very gentle. They will stand still if
their master leaves them, and quietly eat grass
while he is away. I do not know what the
Icelanders would do without them, because the
paths are so rough and hilly that men would
soon be tired of walking. The women have a
saddle like an elbow-chair. It is impossible
to go in a carriage in Iceland, for there are no
roads; nor are there any bridges over the
rivers. When people travel, they tie several
horses together, the head of one to the tail of
the other, and load them with their baggage.
Sometimes you may see thirty horses all in a
string. Yet these useful horses are turned out
in winter to get food as they can, for there is
no hay for them. The cows and sheep have
all the hay, and the poor little horses must
go without any; and sometimes they die of
hunger.

There are no pigs in Iceland. It is nota
country that would suit a pig; there is so little
for it to eat,

There are some reindeer, but they are not
tame; they wander about the middle of the
island, and live on Iceland moss. This is a
kind of lichen. When it is cleaned and boiled,
it makes a strengthening jelly, which is given
to invalids. ;

There are grey foxes. There are also flocks


ICELAND, 415

of swans. Many of the sheep are black, and
others are black and white. I think the Ice-
landers are cruel to their sheep, for they do not
shear them as we do, but they pull the wool off
their backs.

Only one bird sings. There is no night-
ingale, nor robin, nor linnet to be heard. The
snow-bunting has all the singing to himself.
This pretty little fellow has light brown and
black feathers, and in winter his brown breast
turns quite white like the snow, while his back
is still black. No doubt the children are as fond
of the snow-bunting as you are of the robin-
redbreast.

But the most curious bird in Iceland is the
eider-duck. She has very soft covering on her
breast, called down, and with it she lines her
nest. ‘The Icelanders like the eider-ducks to
build their nests near their houses, and even
inside. But why do they likeit? That they
may take away the down and sell it. When
the poor duck finds the soft down is gone, she
plucks off more, and lines her nest afresh. It
is not wrong of the Icelander to take the down
away. I cannot call it stealing, for beasts and
birds are made to be useful to men, and the
down is of great use tous. Quilts are stuffed
with it, and they are very light, and very
warm, and are laid over people instead of
blankets. The eider-down is sent in ships
416 ICELAND.

from Iceland to other countries, together wit)
fox-skins, dried fish, and cod-liver oil. The
Icelanders have not much to send, and they
want a great many things to be sent to them,
such as flour, and rice, and sago.

WAY OF SPENDING 'TIME.—The Iceland wintey
is long and dark. How do the Icelanders
spend it in their uncomfortable dwellings? Very
happily. They do not lie in bed in the morn-
ing. At six o’clock they rise, though it is quite
dark. One goes to feed the sheep in the stable,
and another the cows, and another goes to the
smithy to make shoes for the horses. During
the long, dark days, the family sit together in
their long bed-room (each sitting at the bottom
of his own bed), working and reading by lamp-
light. The women pick the feathers and straw
out of the eider-down, or else they prepare the
wool for spinning, or they make their clothes.
The men make ropes, shoes, nets, bone spoons,
and wooden bowls, while one reads out aloud;
for there are books in Iceland,——histories of
old times, and of storms, and shipwrecks, and
of fierce bears, and fiercer men. Sometimes
the Bible and other books about God are read.
Often there is a little library in the church,
and the books are exchanged on Sundays.

In the spring, the Icelanders are very busy.
The farmers go and live in huts by the sea-
shore, and catch fish, while the women remain
ICELAND. 417

at home to make butter. When the summer
comes, the grass on the hillocks is cut, and then
a feast of milk-porridge is given. When all
the hay on the hillocks has been stored up,
then a better feast is given,-where a fat sheep
is served up. But at these feasts there is no
drunkenness nor riot.

The last business, before the winter sets in,
is to gather the scattered sheep. The Icelanders
meet together on the hills, and then go forth
every day, two and two, to look for the wander-
ing sheep; and when they have found them,
they drive them into a large fold. There are
great rejoicings then; but those are sorrowful
who have lost any of their sheep. Each man
takes home his own sheep to feed them near
his own house,

GOVERNMENT. — Iceland has no king of her
own, though she was once an independent
country. She belongs to Denmark. The King
of Denmark appoints a man to rule over Ice-
land. He is called the Governor. The Danes
are more like gentlemen than the Icelanders,
but they are not so sober and steady. A great
many Danes live in Reykjavik, and they have
made the place much worse than it used to be.
I am afraid they have set the example of
drinking too much wine and brandy.

When Iceland was independent, the Parlia-
ment, or Althing, used to meet in the open air

EE
418 ICELAND.

at midsummer, at Thinevalla, which means
Parliament Valley. There is a rock there,
with a natural ditch full of deep blue water all
round it, except at a narrow neck, which used
to be the entrance, On this rock, called the
Logberg, or Lawstone, the Parliament met and
made laws, and judged cases, whilst the cleft
or fissure kept the crowd at a distance.

Near the rock there is a stone, which is
marked with true, or standard, measures,
People often came to look at this stone, for
a fair was held at the same time as the Par-
liament, and if any one there disagreed about
the length of a piece of cloth, or anything
else, they used to go and look at the stone
to settle the dispute.

CHARACTER.—There are very few people as
harmless and quiet as the Icelanders. They
are dull and slow, but they are honest and
true. ‘They are fond of working and reading,
and not fond of riotand folly. You would find
them very kind if you were travelling; some-
times they would come and offer you some
milk and water, or coffee, or butter, or some
mutton and rice, without expecting any money
in return.

They are never idle when they can help it.
It isa pity they do not spend a, little of their
time in keeping their houses and themselves
sweet and clean.


ICELAND, 4.19

Every one can read and write, yet the children
do not go to school. The parents teach them
in the winter. There is one school in Iceland
for big boys, but only one; all the ministers,
doctors, and magistrates, have been to that
school, and have learned Latin, and even
Hebrew. Many a poor minister, who dresses
in rags, can speak Latin quite well.

The women in Iceland are not treated with
much respect. They wait on the men at
dinner, and do not venture to sit down and
dine with them. It seems strange to see
an Icelandic lady bringing in the dishes, and
then changing the plates. When the company
rise up, they turn round and make a bow to the
lady who has waited.

There is one prison in Iceland, but some-
times there are only six people in it. Stealing
sheep is the crime most often committed.
Murders are seldom heard of. Once a man
committed a dreadful murder, and was sen-
tenced to be hanged; but there was no one
in Iceland who would undertake to hang him,
so a man from Norway came over for the
- execution.*

* Taken from Sir George Mackenzie’s Travels, inserted
in Chambers’ Journal.

Kindly revised by Rev. E. P. Knubley.
420

SICILY.

THIS country is an island. Iceland also is an
island, but how different these two islands are!
Which is the larger? Look in the map, and
see. Iceland is much the larger, It is about
as large as England, while Sicily is smaller than
Scotland—almost as small as Wales.

Which should you think the pleasanter
country? Sicily, a great deal. Iceland is
the coldest country in Europe, and Sicily
the warmest (except, perhaps, some little
islands, too small to be reckoned countries).
Iceland has a very short summer, Sicily has
a very short winter. Even at Christmas time,
it is so warm that you might sit out-of-doors
in the evening, and not feel cold; and there
the poor women do sit and spin. In the
middle of the day in summer it is so_ hot,
that no one dares go out into the streets; even
poor people lie on their beds at home, and
sleep if they can.

How different are the plants in Sicily from
those in Iceland! In Iceland, wheat will not
grow at all, while in Sicily there is the finest
corn. There are no fruit-trees in Iceland,
but in Sicily you may buy twenty oranges for
a penny.
SICILY. 42]

How different are the animals in Sicily and
in Iceland! Instead of nimble little horses,
there are in Sicily tall asses, of a dove colour,
on which even gentlemen ride. They are
combed and rubbed as carefully as horses,
and look very smart, adorned with knots of
ribbon. There are mules, too, in Sicily, and
travellers ride up the hills upon their backs.
In some parts of Sicily, the people use a
curious carriage, called a ‘lettiga;’ it is a
sedan-chair, with a mule before and a mule
behind, and the sedan swinging between,
while the bells on the mules tinkle merrily.
Only two people can sit in this lettiga, and
they are so much shaken that they often feel
as if they were in a boat. Once there were
very few roads in Sicily, where carriages with
wheels could go. Now, there are railways as
well as roads.

The people are very different, too, in Iceland
and Sicily. In the prison in Iceland there are
sometimes scarcely any thieves, while in Sicily
the robbers are so bola, and so many, that it is
a hard matter to catch them. Gentlemen are
so much afraid of the robbers, that they do not
like to take any of them up, lest the rest should
be angry. I have heard of a Sicilian prince
who lived in the mountains, in a fine country-
house. He knew that the caverns were full
of robbers. The prince hired men, not to
422 SICILY. |

seize the robbers, but to guard his house.
The guards sat round it at night, wrapped in
their cloaks, with dogs by their side, and guns
in their hands. You would not lke to live
in a country-house in Sicily; it would be
better to live in one of the towns. _

There are a great many beggars in Sicily.
How different is it in Iceland, where even poor
people offer a draught of milk to the stranger !

What is the religion of Sicily? It is the |
Roman Catholic. The people are taught to
honour the Virgin and the saints, and to believe
that they can do miracles. The churches are full
of pictures. In one of these pictures you see a
saint, who has just made two children alive
again, after they had been cut in pieces and
salted. In another, you see the Virgin and
Jesus putting a crown on a saint’s head. ‘The
bones of this saint are kept in a great silver
case, and drawn round the town every year by
crowds of men, while others carry huge wax-
candles, and women come wrapped in black
cloaks, so that nothing can be seen of them
but one eye.

The priests say that the Virgin once wrote
a letter to the people of Messina, and that this
letter can cure the sick and cast out devils.
Even queens have worn it round their necks.
A copy of it 1s kept in one of the churches,
behind a silver or gold curtain.
SICILY. 423

In one place, a great machine is carried about
the streets once a-year. At the bottom, a figure
of Christ is seen lying, and from the top little
children are hanging, pretending to be angels
in the sky. It hurts the children to be pulled
up and down by the ropes, but next day they
have a reward. This is the reward. They
are carried about in sedan-chairs, in all their
angel dress of wings and white robes, and at
each house some money is given them. ‘These
poor little creatures are taught to pretend to
be angels, but it is far better to learn the way
of becoming really like angels.

Mount Etna.—There is a burning mountain
in Sicily, and a much larger one than Hecla.

Etna is a very tall mountain. Though only
two miles high, yet you must travel more than
twenty miles, to get to the top. People can
drive some distance. Then they must ride up
on mules. At first the way 1s pleasant, through
villages and vineyards. Afterwards you come
to a great wood; and when you have passed
through. that, you find yourself in a land of
brown lava and white snow. Here you stumble
about among the great stones. At last you
see a steep-pointed place. Up that you must
climb, for no mule can carry you. What do
you see at the top? A great, deep black hole,
always smoking and grumbling. Take care,
do not stay too long, lest the mountain should
424 SICILY.

throw out its boiling contents. Great stones
often spout up in the air, and fall back into. the
hole or crater; but sometimes the lava comes
pouring down in a wide stream, destroying
everything before it.

The great hole at the top is called the
Grand Crater, but there are as many as eighty
craters besides this grand one. Some of them
are old and worn out. No more smoke comes
out of them; but beautiful green trees cover
them. Others are still full of fire and danger.

In May, 1879, a thick smoke came out of
the mountain, and clouds of fine black dust
rained down, till everything was black—-even
the flowers in the garden. The black dust
got into drawers and boxes which were shut
down. At night, a river of burning lava
came rolling down for miles, and great balls of
fire burst from the crater, and fell down in
glittering showers.

In the woody part of Mount Etna there
are some wonderful chesnut-trees. One is
called the Father of the Forest. It is said
to be the oldest tree in the world. If you
went to see it, you might be disappointed.
Instead of seeing one tree, you would find four
old trees growing in a circle. All four look
very old, and are covered with ferns and ivy.
Once, instead of four, there were five. People
say that all their roots joined underground,
SICILY. 425

and they think that they all grew from one
great giant-tree, which once stood in their
midst, and which was called the Tree of the
Hundred Horses. It had this name because
a queen took refuge there with a hundred
horsemen.

Higher up the mountain, there is another
chesnut-tree, which is one of the largest trees
in the world. It is a thousand years old.

Besides wonderful trees, Etna has wonderful
caverns. There are caves so large, that they
would hold as many people as ten churches.

The mountain of Etna is of great use to the
Sicilians. How canthat be? It is their great
ice-house.

The Sicilians like nothing so much as iced
water to drink. It is very cold near the top of
Ktna (though it is hot inside), and there is
always plenty of snow there, and people go up
with their mules, and pack the snow in pan-
niers, and cover it with straw, and bring it
down to the shops to sell. There is such a
bustle in the shops to get the fresh snow. Some
take it home to cool their wine, and their water, ©
and their milk; while others can only afford
just to spend a halfpenny in a cold draught.
Even the beggars drink iced water. It is so
much better for them than the gin of which
English beggars are so fond!

Foop.— Macaroni, hard-boiled eggs, and
A26 SICILY.

salad, are the favourite food. Wine is more
common than milk is in Iceland. Oil made
from olives, is much liked. There is abund-
ance of beautiful fruit. . There is one food
common in all islands—it is fish. There are
many kinds of rare fish at Syracuse.

DreEss.—The gentlemen and ladies dress as
they do in England. The poor men some-
times wear a loose cotton shirt, and drawers,
with a brown woollen cap on their heads;
while their feet are bare. They throw over
all a large brown cloak, with a hood covering
their heads. There are many robbers who have
need of a hood to hide their faces, and who
have a sharp dagger under their cloak. The
women in some places wear black silk mantillas,
or throw over their heads brilliant shawls—
crimson, amber, or canary colour.

Country.— It is beautiful to travel in Sicily.
There are such fine mountains, and such ex-
quisite fruit and flowers. Even in winter
there are green trees; and all the year round
there are fruit and vegetables. You may eat
green peas in December and January.

The climate 1s delightful. There are so
many oranges, and lemons, and citrons, that,
every year, half-a-million of boxes are sent to
other countries. Each box holds about two or
three hundred oranges. There are also almond
and chesnut-trees, and a tree called the locust-
MESSINA. 427

tree, with dark shining leaves, and long pods.
People think these pods were the husks which
the * Prodigal Son’ wished to share with the
pigs.

The Indian fig grows where nothing else
will. It grows wild, and its fruit is much
eaten by all the peasants of Sicily.

Many villages are built on the tops of the
mountains, and they look very pretty perched
so high. But the mothers are so much afraid
of their children tumbling down the rocks, that
they often tie them to the posts of the doors.
When they are four years old, they think they
have sense enough not to go too near the
dangerous edge, and they leave off tying them up.

GOVERNMENT.—NSicily, as well as Iceland, has
no king of her own.

Sicily now belongs to the kingdom of Italy.

MESSINA.

This is the port by which people enter from
Italy. It looks beautiful from the sea, with
its white houses and red roofs, and its high
hills behind, clothed with vines and olives ;
but there are often slight earthquakes.

Nearly a hundred years ago, Messina was
almost destroyed by an earthquake.
428

PALERMO.

Palermo is the capital. Itis a most beautiful
city. It looks as if it stood in a lovely garden,
surrounded by mountains. It has been called
the golden shell; and no wonder, for it lies
amongst countless orange groves, which are
always covered with fruit.

The climate is delightful; and the city has
good water, and is well drained. It has been
healthy ever since new banks were made to
keep in the river.

some of the streets are very narrow and
winding, but there are two fine streets which
cross the city, and divide it into four quarters ;
this makes it easier for people to find their way.

All the houses on the ground-floor are shops.
Even a duke lives in a house with shops under-
neath. Itis common to have the kitchen at
the top. There are balconies to all the rooms.
The women delight in standing there, and
looking at the gay shows which pass beneath.
The rooms of the rich are very beautiful, the
ceilings are painted, and the floors are made
of marble, or ornamented with shining tiles.

There are nearly two hundred churches.
The finest of them all has a great silver chest,
which weighs nearly as much asa bullock and
PALERMO, 429

a half. People are only allowed to see it three
times a-year.

What do you think there is inside it? The
bones of Saint Rosalia. On the top of the chest
there is a little figure of her, covered with
roses and adorned with jewels, trampling on a
dragon.

This is because the people are taught to
believe their Rosalia stopped the pestilence ;
they also think that she delivered their city
from earthquake.

Iam sure you long to tell them Jesus only
can save us from death and from trouble, and
that He is waiting to lead us, if only we will
ask Him !

The churches of Palermo are very unlike
those of Iceland. They are large and hand-
some, and are ornamented with coloured stones,
with statues and pictures; not like those poor
little churches, which sometimes smell of wool
and dried fish. Yet it is in those that the
Word of God is read, and not in the fine
churches of Palermo.

Outside Palermo there is a lovely garden
called the Flora, full of sweet roses and gay
flowers, orange, lemon, and pepper-trees.

Here, too, you see the palm, the banana,
and the bamboo. Every summer this garden
is lighted up with coloured lamps, in honour of
Saint Rosalia.
430 CATANIA.

Six hundred years ago a terrible sight was
seen outside Palermo. One Tuesday evening,
as the people were enjoying themselves outside
the town, the French, who were then masters
of Sicily, came out of the town amongst them,
and vexed them by their cruel and bad conduct.
Suddenly a cry arose of ‘Death to the French?’
and every Frenchman in the island was slain,
except one man and his family, who had treated
the Sicilians well.

This dreadful event is called the Sicilian
Vespers, because it happened in the evening.

CATANIA is the handsomest city in Sicily.
Near it stands grand Mount Etna, dotted with
villages. Above is the beautiful blue sky, and
all around are dark groves and rocky streams of
black lava. When this lava poured down from
the mountain-sides, it was red hot. In one place
it leaped over the city wall and buricd a spring
of water. People were so much distressed for
want of the water that at last the lava was hewn
away, and a long staircase was cut in it to
reach the spring.

The lava now looks only like black rock.
Everything in Catania is made of it. The
streets are paved with lava, the furniture is
often made of lava, the churches and houses
are built of lava, coloured white, yellow, pink,
and green. Very beautiful the houses look,
SYRACUSE. 431

as they sparkle amongst the dark groves and the
streams of black lava-rock which surround the
town.

Catania is much cleaner and brighter than
either Palermo or Messina. It has a delightful
climate, and it is very healthy, as there are no
swamps near. The people are pleasant and
amiable. The poorest are remarkably honest.
There are manufactories of silk and cotton.
Catania supplies other countries with yellow
sulphur, with fruit, and with snow.

SYRACUSE is only a small town now, and many
of its streets are narrow and dirty. But once
it was a very famous place, full of fine buildings
and temples.

It stands on a rock, with water almost all
round it. When the Prince of Wales went to
Syracuse he was let down from the cliff in a
chair, in order to see a little chamber in the
rock. It was made there by a very cruel tyrant,
called Dionysius. He was unhappy as well as
cruel, for he was always afraid of being murdered.
Before his wife and children were allowed to come
into his room they were always searched, lest
they should be hiding some weapon in their
clothes. He was still more afraid of his
prisoners. Over the prison he had a little
room made, where he could sit. It is called
the Ear of Dionysius, because it was contrived
432 SYRACUSE.

so cleverly that as he was sitting in it he could
hear everything his prisoners said or even
whispered.

A very famous plant, called the Papyrus,
grows near Syracuse. More than two thousand
years ago the King of Egypt sent it to Sicily
as a present. In those days, people made
beds, clothes, and other things, of papyrus.
They used to take off the outside rind, and to
cut the soft inside, or pith, into thin slices,
which they pasted and pressed together, to
make something to write upon, called § paper,
Though paper is now made from rags, it is still
called paper, from the papyrus. The papyrus,
however, no longer grows in Egypt. Syracuse
is the only place where it is now seen. People
sometimes take a boat and push it through the
rushes till they reach a beautiful little round
basin of deep water. The papyrus grows all
round, and the water is so clear that the fish
may be seen swimming about at the bottom.

At Syracuse there is plenty of game, plenty
of fruit and vegetables, the best honey in the
world, and a great many kinds of rare fish with
curious names,

The people are very polite and hospitable.
The ladies are very beautiful. The women still
use the distaff, which was invented at Syracuse.
‘The climate is delightful. People say that
there is never a day when the sun is not seen;
SWEDEN. 433

yet in summer Syracuse is unhealthy. And
why? Because there are marshes near. They
have been there hundreds of years. They were
there before the old city was built. But we
must hope that the Sicilians will drain their
land, so as to make it healthier.

You will be glad to hear that the Bible is
now sold in Sicily. Many good men are now
teaching the people that there is only one Priest
whose prayers can save the soul, and that this
Priest gave His life as a sacrifice for the sins of
men.

A i DAC Da ote tn

SW EDEN.*

THERE is a large piece of land in the north
that seems like the arm of Europe, as Italy
looks like the leg. This arm is divided into
two countries—Norway and Sweden. A long
chain of mountains runs between them.

But, though they are two countries, they are
one kingdom. One king now reigns over both,
though it was not always so. Both these coun-
tries are very cold; but in many respects, they
are very different, as you will see.

Sweden is rather a flat country—not quite

* Sweden and Norway together used to be called
Scandinavia.
FF
A384 SWEDEN.

flat like Holland or Poland ; for there is rising’
ground, but not many high hills.

If you want to fancy the sort of country
picture to yourself a wood of dark fir-trees ;
below see a pretty little lake edged with trees;
near it a green spot where cows feed, and scat-
tered over it great rocks, and heaps of stones,
and wooden cottages painted red.

The lakes are very useful to the poor Swedes,
because they are full of fish.

There is one very large lake in Sweden, called
the Lake Wener. There are large ships upon
it. You might almost think that lake was the
great sea, for sometimes you lose sight of land
altogether as you cross it. Sometimes you
have to thread your way carefully through
little groups of islands covered with birch-
trees.

Near Lake Wener is a hill, called Kinne
Kulle. People used to imagine that fairies
and evil spirits lived on this hill. They called
one of them the ‘ Mountain King,’ and they
thought he sent fogs on the lake, and storms,
and lightning, to punish all who offended him.
They said, too, that he kept guard over some
vast treasures, which lay hidden in the heart of
the mountain. Now, no one believes these
foolish stories.

There are some waterfalls at Trolhittan
which are too beautiful and wonderful to be
SWEDEN. 435

described. They are the finest falls in the
north of Europe.












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Swedes: the younger woman in a bridal dress.

Foop.—The Swedes have a curious way of
dressing their meat. In England, meat is boiled
or roasted, but, in Sweden, meat is often only
smoked. You would not like smoked salmon,
or smoked reindeer flesh. But how should you
like rough salmon? It is salmon not cooked
at all! . Yet the Swedes eat it often, mixing
with it vinegar and pepper. Milk-soup is
another dish, and beer-soup is another. very favourite soup, too, is made from the
hips and haws which grow wild on the bushes.
Fish and sweet dishes are often eaten in the
middle of dinner.

Even poor people eat five meals a-day, but
436 SWEDEN.

they are much lighter meals than meals gene-
rally are in England. The Swedes often invite
their friends to go with them into pastry-cooks’
shops, and treat them to coffee, and cakes, and
syrup.

There is a bad custom of eating some food at
a side-table,” before sitting down to dinner.
This is called getting an appetite for dinner,
but I should think it was taking it away.

There isa much worse custom, of drinking a
glass of spirits before meals once or twice a-day.
This habit is very bad for the health, and
shortens the life.

In the north of Sweden, the poor are often
obliged to eat bark-bread. They grind the
bark into meal, and, if they can, they mix rye
with it. Bark-bread is dry and bitter, but it is
tolerable if eaten with plenty of butter.

Strawberries are the commonest fruit. They
grow wild on the rocky banks, and children pick
them and sell them to travellers,

In many parts of Sweden,a delicious fruit,
called the ‘ Cloudberry,’ is found. The Lapps,
who live far up in the north, used to boil it
with fish, and make it into jelly. In Sweden it
is made into tarts, which are excellent. Before
it is ripe the cloudberry is crimson; when it 1s
ripe it turns a brilliant yellow.

“ The side-table is called the Smorgasbord, which means
‘table of the buttered-goose.’
SWEDEN. | 437

There is a great deal of game in Sweden.
There is the black cock, which is seen in
Scotland, and a very fine bird called caper
calis. Its flesh is considered very delicious ;
some of it is white, and some brown. In order
to protect the game from kites, the Govern-
ment gives a reward of five shillings for every
kite which is killed. |

CHARACTER. — Every one can read. The
schools are very good. There is one at Stock-
holm, which is called the Seminary, where
young ladies are taught many interesting things,
and become as learned as their brothers.

The Swedes are very fond of reading. In
every little town there is a bookseller’s shop,
and sometimes there are more booksellers than
butchers. It is never so in England, as you
will see if you observe.

The people in Sweden used to be very much
oiven to drinking, but a good and wise Go-
vernment has put down this vice. You do
not see tipsy men and women in the streets
of Stockholm, nearly as often as you would
see them in any town in England of the same
size.

The Swedes are very candid and simple;
they do not rush about as some English people
do, but take things very quietly. They are
amiable and hospitable, but too fond of pleasure
and amusements. The boys are not brought
438 SWEDEN.

up to be as manly as English boys. They
do not play at cricket; but in winter, when
ice covers the lakes, and sometimes the sea,
they skate and vo about in sledges.

Now I will tell you of some people in Sweden
who iove God. Once a traveller in the north of
Sweden went very early in the morning to the
riverside to fish. The spot he chose was a quiet
place, hidden by the banks from the sight of those
who passed by. He was much surprised to see
about eight people sitting round a man who
was reading the Bible. When these poor Swedes
saw the stranger, they seemed frightened. Why?
They were afraid that he would tell. Though
the religion of Sweden is the Protestant, yet in
those days poor people might not meet together
to read the Bible. So there was a set of people
called Readers, who went about reading the
Bible to their poor countrymen. Now every
one may read for himself, and many faithful
clergymen work amongst the people, and try to
bring them to the Saviour.

The Swedes are very polite. If you give a
little footboy some money, he will say, ‘Tak,
and kiss the back of your hand, and then bow
eracefully. Even the beggars will show their
gratitude - by kissing your sleeve, or the skirt
of your coat. After a dinner party, each ouest
goes up to the master or mistress of the house,
and makes a bow or a curtsey, and says ° Tak.’
SWEDEN. 439

Gentlemen kiss their hostess’s hand. I am
afraid in England we are not so polite.

COTTAGES.—In the south of Sweden the
cottages are uncomfortable. They are so small
that, to make more room, the beds are placed
one above another, and you must climb up to
the top bed, and, when there, take care not to
fall out. As you go along the road, you will
observe broken windows, unswept yards, torn
thatch. It seems as if the people were idle,
and cared not for their houses. But in the
north there are many pretty, neat villazes—
where each cottage is painted some bright
colour, and where all the windows are furnished
with muslin blinds, and are adorned with gay
flower-pots. Here the women are very in-
dustrious. They buy the wool off the sheep’s
backs and are always at their looms, weaving
it into clothes for their families, while their
husbands are ploughing and sowing.

There are large forests of dark pines, with
grey rocks scattered all over the ground, In
these forests lone cottages are found-—many
miles from any town. The poor people come
to church on Sunday, though some have to
travel seventy miles. They are obliged to set
out on Friday, and to take shelter with their
horses, in sheds near the church.

A gentleman, who visited Sweden, gave
away thousands of tracts as he went. The
440 SWEDEN,

people received them eagerly. One gentle-
man stopped his carriage in order to get
some, and the children came in flocks,

When people have large estates, their tenants
do all that is wanted on the estate. One is shoe-
maker, one blacksmith, one carpenter, another
fisherman, and another gamekeeper. Instead
of having money given them for what they do,
they have each a piece of land, so many sacks
of corn, and so many trees, which they may cut
down for firewood: and the same with other
things.

The peasants all weave their own clothes.
servants generally stay a year at least, and
never less than six months. They have very
little money given them, but they are supplied
with shoes by the shoemaker, and with wool,
Which they weave into cloth themselves, for in
every great house, there is a room on purpose
for weaving. When a visitor arrives in one of
these great houses a servant is given him, to
attend upon him, to wash for him, and to do
everything he requires.

Rich people have large gardens, filled with
fruit: gooseberries, cherries, strawberries, melons,
apples and pears: many more than they can eat.
So they send the rest to the nearest market-town.
Two or three mornings in the week, the gardener
gets up at four o’clock, packs his cart, and drives
it into town.
SWEDEN, 44]

It would amuse you to see this cart, for it is
very much like an enormous cnest of drawers.
One drawer is filled with gooseberries, another
with cherries, and so on.

A good minister went to see some noble ladies,
who livein an ancient castle on one of the beau-
tiful Swedish lakes. The castle walls are twelve
feet thick. In the grounds, he saw a garden-
church, with a pulpit of stone, and benches of
moss, with waving birch trees for walls, and
the soft blue sky forthe roof. How pleasant it
was to hear the simple people sing Sankey’s
hymns! They all live together like a large
family. Many of them said they had never been
twenty miles from home. Some of them were
wearing the cloth they had spun themselves
forty years before from wool off the sheep’s
backs, They make their own leather from the
skins, and their candles from the fat of the
sheep.

(GOVERNMENT.—There is a king, and there
are two Houses of Parliament. One of the
kings of Sweden was very famous. His name
was Gustavus Adolphus. He was very good
and very great. He was killed in battle, and
his death was a great misfortune to the world.
His poor widow was so unhappy that she kept
his heart in a gold case always near her till
the great nobles who governed Sweden insisted
on having it buried.
442

STOCKHOLM.

This city is built on the side of a lovely lake,
where it flows into the Baltic Sea, and upon
many pretty islands covered with trees. There
are more than twelve hundred islands in the
lake. They are connected by bridges. But
little steamboats ply to and from all parts of
the city, and are the easiest way of going
about, The palace is the most beautiful in
Europe: it is white, and stands by the side of
the lake.

People live in large houses—each family on
one floor, The rooms are built round a
court.

The Swedes do not care as much for com-
forts as for ornaments. They have fine looking-
glasses, and sofas, and chandeliers, and pictures,
but they often do without basins, jugs, chests of
drawers, curtains, and other useful furniture.
Nothing useful is well done in Sweden. The
carpenters and the blacksmiths are very clumsy
in their work; but the musicians play beauti-
fully, and the sculptors make fine statues.

In the library at Stockho!m there is a won-
derful book, written in silver letters on purple
vellum. Itis atranslation of the four Gospels,
which was made fifteen hundred years ago.
UPSALA. 443

UpsaLaA is famous for its University. In
the ancient cathedral is the tomb of its first
Protestant Archbishop; of the patriot king,
Gustavus Vasa; and of the famous botanist,
Linneus. He was the son of a Swedish
minister, and he was thought to be a dull
boy till his genius for plants and flowers was
discovered. A myrtle which he planted is
still seen at Upsala.

On the borders of a beautiful lake* there is a
monument to Gustavus Vasa. It is built over
a cellar where he was safely concealed from
the Danes by a faithful peasant-woman, named
Barbro. She hid the trap-door of the cellar,
by covering it with the tub in which she was
brewing beer. The monument is adorned with
pictures of the king and Barbro. The cellar is
very damp and dark, and so low that the poor
king could never once have stood upright during
the days he spent in it.

PRODUCTIONS.—Though the ground does not
produce the best corn, it contains the best iron.
This is the riches of Sweden. The forests also
are full of fine trees, useful for timber. ‘Tar is
another very useful article. What is tar? The
poor people take the bark off fir-trees, and leave
the trees to die. After a few years they cut
them down, and they find the rotten wood is
become tar. They pack the tar in barrels, and

* Lake Siljan.
4.4.4. THE SWEDISH SHEPHERD BOY.

float them down the streams, and throw them
down the waterfalls, till they reach the seaside,
whence they are sent in ships to other countries,

THE SWEDISH SHEPHERD BOY.*

Once upon a time, there hved a little boy
in a cottage by the side of a great lake in
Sweden. When he was six years old, a very
sad accident happened. In the middle of a
cold winter's night, the cottage took fire. The
little boy’s father was not sleeping at home
that night, and there was nobody in the house
but women and little children. There was
the mother, who was weak,—the grandmother,
who was infirm,—a little brother four years
old, and a baby-sister in the cradle. How
could they put out the fire? The mother tried,
but could not, though she threw pails full of
water upon the roof. There was no cottage
near, no one who saw the flames, or heard the
eries of the children. The mother pulled out
of the house as much furniture as she could,
and was half killed by the fatigue. What a
sight for the father, when he returned home:

* Extracted from a little book of this name published by
the Religious Tract Society.
THE SWEDISH SHEPHERD BOY. 4.4.5

his comfortable ecttage a heap of ashes! He
built a little hut with the trunks of trees,
and lived in it till he could build a new
cottage.

But the fire made him so poor that he was
obliged at last to sell his cottage and his land.
Then he tried to earn bread by working as a
carpenter, but very few people would buy
his tables and chairs, though he moved about
from one town to another, in hopes of getting
work.

His eldest boy was a great comfort to him.
He loved his parents, and was grieved to think
he could do so little to help them. But, when
this boy was ten years old, he got a place asa
shepherd boy. At the time he got this place,
there was a famine in the land, and the poor
were forced to eat hard bread, made of the bark
of trees. When the boy set out to go to his
new master, his kind mother walked with him
part of the way. When she said she must
return home, her little boy threw his arms round
her neck, and sobbed bitterly. His mother
prayed to God to bless him.

In his new place, the shepherd boy rose at
four o’clock, and went out with his cows and
sheep, to look for fresh grass. The summer
was bot and dry, and often there was nothing
but burnt-up grass to be found. Then the
shepherd boy was severely scolded by the
446 THE SWEDISH SHEPHERD BOY.

farmer. Very little food was given bim—a
cup of milk, with bread, made of chaff and oats,
was his breakfast; and meal porridge, with the
same kind of bread, was his dinner and supper.








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Swedish Shepherd Boy.

He spent many hours in the woods with no com-
panions but his flocks and herds. Sometimes
he was alarmed by the sight of awolf. He feared
lest some of these fierce creatures should carry
off his lambs, knowing how much he should be
punished if they did. But God preserved him
from this trouble. Whena violent storm arose,
he found it very difficult to take care of his
cows and sheep. He often ran round and
round, trying to keep them together, but the
frightened animals would escape on one side
- THE SWEDISH SHEPHERD BOY. 447

while he was on the other, and then he had
to go in search of them amidst the pouring
rain, and roaring thunder. Yet he passed
some pleasant hours, in warm summer days,
lying beneath a tree, reading. It was not
often he could get a new book, and so he
read the same over and over, till he knew it
by heart.

But, when the summer was gone, the farmer
wanted his shepherd boy no longer; for the
cows and sheep are kept in the stables during
winter.

What could the child do now? Must he
return to his parents, who had no bread to
spare? He determined to beg from door to
door, till he could get work. The first night
he arrived at a small village, and asked for a
place to sleep in. But every door was shut
against him,—no one would let him in, or give
him supper. At last he saw an open door; he
looked in, and perceived on the kitchen table
a piece of oaten cake. There was no one in
the room, and he was hungry. He lIcnged to
eat the dry morsel—he took it in his hand—
but he remembered the commandment, ‘ Thou
shalt not steal;’ he put it down, and he left
the cottage hastily. That night the shepherd
boy slept in a barn upon a little straw. He
awoke in the morning cold and hungry, and
with a bad cough. He had hardly strength to
448 THE SWEDISH SHEPHERD BOY.

return home ; but, when he got there, his parents
received him with open arms, and shared with
him their dry crusts.

What was to become of the boy during the
long dark winter? He, who feeds the ravens,
pitied this child.

One day a sledge stood at the door, a a farmer
got out and said, ‘Neighbour Hens, you have
a son, who can both read and write well; my
children can do neither; what do you say
to letting him stay with me during the
winter ?’

The shepherd boy coloured with joy, and
before Hans, his father, could reply, cried
out, ‘IL will go with you; and I am ready
to go at once.’ He soon made up his little
bundle, and set out with the farmer. How
was it the shepherd boy could read and write
so well? He had never been to school, but
he had been taught at home by his kind
father when he was quite little. How glad
he was now that he had taken pains to
learn !

some children may think it pleasant to be
a tutor, instead of a pupil; but the shepherd
boy found it very unpleasant to teach boys
much bigger than himself, who hated their
books. The farmer wished him to be teaching
from morning to night, while the boys them-
selves wished to be playing. It was more difh-
THE SWEDISH SHEPHERD BOY. 449

cult to manage these foolish youths than the
stupid cows and sheep.

When the winter was over, the tutor became
a shepherd boy again.

In this manner he passed every year till he
was seventeen years old, and then he was so
tired of teaching, that he asked his father
to show him how to make tables and chairs.
His father willingly consented. When the boy
had learned the business, he travelled from
town to town as a carpenter, but could get very
little employment. Then he determined to be
a tailor, but neither could he get: employment
in this trade, and he was often obliged to follow
the plough, or to handle the flail, to earn a
morsel of bread.

Are you not glad to hear that at last his
great desire was granted, and he went to a
place where young men are taught, called a
university ? He had saved a little money,
but not enough to support him. How did
he get food whilst at the university? There
were in the town seven families, who, by
turns, kindly invited him to dinner every
week. Thus he got a dinner every day, but
went without breakfast and supper. As for
his clothes, he made them himself in the
night.

After many troubles he became a clergyman;
yet even then, when he first preached, he did

GG
A50 NORWAY.

not teach people the right way. He thought
we could be saved by our own goodness, till he
heard a poor man speak of the love of the Lord
Jesus Christ in dying for sinners. He had
often heard of Christ before; but now he
believed in Him, and Icved Him. At last he
became a missionary, and went to a hot country,
a great way from Sweden, to teach the ignorant
heathens.
Kindly revised by Miss Kuper.

pee ee

NORWAY.

THE Country.—Is there a more beautiful
country in Kurope than Norway? Switzerland
is very beautiful, but Norway is the grandest
country in Europe. There are mountains,
waterfalls, and lakes, with such forests as are
seen nowhere else.” It has been said, that fir-
trees grow in Norway as hair grows on a man’s
head.

In the forests, the bear, and the wolf, and the
enormous elk wander at liberty. There, too,
_ strawberries and raspberries grow wild,—yes, in
this very cold country; and why ? because the

——* A great deal of paper is now made from the wood of
Norwegian trees.
NORWAY. 451

summers, though short, are very hot. Among
the snow on the mountains, most beautiful
flowers bloom for a little while. These flowers
are called ‘reindeer flowers,’ because they
grow where the reindeer feeds on his white
moss.

Along the coast of Norway, there are more
little islands than you could count. If you
look at the map, you will see a great many
little islands, yet only the lars ger ones are put
inthe map. There are a great many smaller
ones besides.

A traveller sailing among the rocky isles
was once obliged to stop a whole fortnight at
one of them. No one lived there, but an old
woman and her husband, and generally the old
woman was alone, because her husband went
fishing. She had four companions—a cow, a
goat, a cock, and a magpie. Many people
complain of want of company, who have much
more than this old woman, and she never
complained.

There are beautiful Fiords in Norway, What
isa fiord?
which runs up into the land, and which has
high mountains on both sides. Ships can sail
up these fiords for miles, and nothing can be
more wonderful and beautiful than they are.
It is worth while going to Norway only to see a
ford,
452 NORWAY.

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Norwegians.

PrOPLE.—What sort of people live in this
wild country ?

They are called Norwegians. The men are
tall and strong; the women are handsome.
They are a simple people—kind and good-
natured, and particularly honest. In summer
nights, which are quite light and very hot, the
people leave their doors open, and no thief
comes in, not even in the towns. Bars and
bolts are of no use in Norway.

A gentleman having slept in a cottage, went
away in the morning. He had not gone far
before he heard some one calling after him.
It was the cottager, bringing four silver spoons
that had been left behind.

The Norwegians are too fond of a spirit
called fnkel—-something like gin, only it 18
made from potatoes. On every little farm there
NORWAY. 453

is a machine, called a still, for making it.
Oh, who can say how much mischief is done by
those stills?*

The poor are not as fond of reading as the
Swedes, though they can read. They are not
like the Icelanders, who drink little and read
much.

Hovusres.—Most things in Norway are made
of wood, because itis so plentiful. The wooden
houses are painted white, or green, or yellow;
but they are not as pretty as the cottages in
Switzerland.

There is always a storehouse in the yard, and
this is filled with food for the winter; and the
women are going backwards and forwards all
day long to this storehouse. In it, are stowed
away barley-cakes, and dried salmon, and eggs,
and cheese, and flour. There is another room
in every house for the loom. The women sing
as they weave. At every spare minute they
fly to their looms.

The poor people have a strange plan for

* In Scandinavia (that is in Sweden and Norway), people
do not drink spirits nearly as much as they used to do.
The reason of this is that some new laws have been made.
By these laws, only a few public-houses are allowed to be
opened in each place, and they must be closed from
Saturday evening till Monday morning. The master will
not gain any more money if he tempts people to drink too
much; he will, instead, be forbidden to keep a public-house

any more. These laws have done great good. They were
first made at Gothenburg, in Sweden.
454 | NORWAY.

keeping themselves warm in winter at night.
There is a large chest in the cottage, with one
broad deep drawer; this drawer is filled with
eider-down. At night all the family sleep in
this drawer, leaving it just enough open to give
them room to to get 1n.

The inns are often very simple. Sometimes
there is only one room for strangers, with two
wooden cribs in it, a straw mattress, or else
hay, coarse sheets, and a sheepskin or cowskin
for a counterpane. The cups and plates are
very few. Some years ago in one house, the
old woman had no more than a single spoon,
and this she could not find. She went to the
cupboard and cried out, ‘ Well, I am sure there
was a spoon here. Where can the spoon have
got to, I wonder?’ So the traveller was
obliged to eat his egg and drink his tea with-
out one.

Dress.—There are many different ways. of
dressing in Norway. Often both men and
women wear their hair in long tails, on their
shoulders. In many places, people have no
shoes or stockings. The women often wear
jackets of leather. A green jacket, with a red
waistcoat, and a green petticoat, is a dress for a
poor woman, A man looks well dressed in a
grey suit, with a red cap, and large silver but-
tons, and buckles on his shoes. But it is when
a woman marries that she dresses in all her
NORWAY, 455

finery. What do you think of a head-dress of
feathers stuck all round like a crown, and gay
ribbons hanging down, a silver chain round
the neck, and large silver brooches and brace-
lets, silver rings round the waist, and silver
buckles in the shoes, with red gloves, and red
stockings? This was the dress of a farmer’s
daughter on her wedding-day. Silver is found
in Norway, and is the chief ornament of the
poor. | |

Foop.—People who love dainties must not
come to Norway. Barley-cakes as thin and
round as plates, or rye-bread, with some coffee,
may easily be had. There is also the best
butter in the world. But there is very little
meat to be had, and no fruit except the wild |
fruits of the wood. There cannot be much
meat where there is so little food for animals.
But the rivers are full of fish. This is the
chief food. One traveller wondered what made
his room so unpleasant, and at last he found
there was a great well full of fish in the floor,
just covered over.

There are often famines, and then sawdust
is mixed with the bread, and the poor cows are
fed on a sort of paste made up of rubbish of
various kinds. |

Customs.—As the snow is very deep all the
winter, the Norwegian cannot work in the fields
for many months. All he can do out-of-doors
456 NORWAY.

is to saw wood. He feeds the cattle in the
barn, and in the house he makes his own
shoes and clothes, while the women weave and
sing. |

Summer is the busy time in Norway. Then
people work even in the night. Indeed, the
night is the best time for working, because the
day is so hot that the labourer is often obliged
to lie down and sleep, as in Italy.

In the middle of summer the nights are
never really dark. In the north of Norway
there is twilight at midnight; and farther north
still, the sun himself can be seen at midnight.
You would like these light nights of summer;
but how would you like the dark days of
winter ? |

In summer the cows and sheep are sent. to
the mountains. The children have the care of
them, with the help of some clever and brave
dogs, to frighten away the wolves. An English-
man, in walking over the mountains, once came
to a log-hut, and found in it a girl of sixteen,
with her little brother of eight years old, and a
dog. There they lived with the sheep and
cows, day after day, till the winter came on.

Sometimes an old woman takes care of the
cows. Tired with climbing, a traveller founda
bowl of milk in a hut; he drank it up, and lett
a few halfpence in the empty bowl. The old
woman came up just then, and, thanking him
NORWAY. AST

heartily for the money, begged him to drink as
much as he pleased, without payment.

The women can row boats, because most of
them live by the water-side. They can manage
an oar as well as a needle.

Two poor girls were in the habit of going
every morning and evening, in a boat, to milk
their cows. One evening, as they were return-
ing with their pails of milk, the wind blew hard
and drove them far from their home out to sea.
The wind continued to blow till it took them to
Scotland, and all the time they had nothing to
eat—only milk to drink. Very, very cold and
hungry they were, when they reached Scotland. |
There they were well treated, and sent back in
a ship to Norway. How glad the parents of
these poor girls were to see them again, for they
had given them up for lost!

RicH PEOPLE.—There are a few rich people
in Norway, and they are very kind to strangers.
Over the door of a country-house was written
‘Velkommen,’ which means Welcome. The
family could speak English quite well. They
had not such a breakfast as we have, but two
instead (if that can be). Very early they took
a cup of coffee and a biscuit; then later, they
went to the sideboard, and ate smoked salmon
and cold meat, and drank brandy.

They dined at one, and the children dined
downstairs with their parents. At table every
458 NORWAY,

one was pressed to eat more than he wished.
After drinking a great deal of wine, the com-
pany rose up from dinner, shook hands with
each other, and the visitors said, ‘ Tak for mad,’
or ‘ Thanks for dinner.’

The ladies not only help to cook the dinner,
but also to wait on the gentlemen. This they do
with great good humour; but Englishmen
would rather wait on the ladies, than let them
walt.

ANIMALS.—The cows, and sheep, and horses
are all little creatures.

The Norwegians are very fond of their pretty
little horses, which may be called ponies. They
are generally white, or of a cream colour, very
sure-footed and obedient. Nothing grieves a
Norwegian more than to see a stranger drive
his pony too fast. He knows it cannot go fast
without being hurt, for it lives only on grass or
hay, and never eats corn.

There is a bird, which has a bad character in
England for chattering and stealing, but which
is respected in Norway. Itis the magpie. He |
is the favourite bird. |

Strangers like to visit Norway for the sake
of the lovely scenery, and for the sake of
catching salmon in the rivers. Many of these
great fishes are as long as a child of eight years
old: they struggle hard when they are caught
by a hook, and often get away at last.
NORWAY. 459

There is a beast in the river, of which all
the fishes are afraid. It is an animal with a
head like a man and a tail like a fish, and is
called a seal. When the fishes know that a
seal is near, they hide themselves instantly in
the holes in the water; yet seals can easily be
tamed. You can see some tame seals at the
Zoological Gardens in London.

ly \ A“
WN SV“ WSS
\ o

BANS NY
Sin
SS \ WS ~

———
Al \K Kt \\
aN



Seals in a Stream.

In every house, the skins of bears and wolves
are hanging up, ready for any one to put on.
It is very comfortable to be wrapped up in these
skins when driving over the ice in a sledge.

The savage bears come down in the night,
from the rocks where they live, to kill the
cattle, and also to eat the corn. There is no
460 | NORWAY.

food to spare for these creatures, and a reward
is given for killing them.

GFOVERNMENT.—Norway used to belong to
Denmark; but now Norway and Sweden have
the same king.

There is a parliament called the Storthing,
Farmers, and merchants, and soldiers belong
to this parliament—not quite a hundred in all,
They meet once in three years at Christiania,
and they stay together three months. One of
the laws they have made is that there shall be
no lords in the land.

RELIGION.—It is the Protestant. Yet, if
you were to enter a church, you might fear that
it was Roman Catholic, because at one end
there is an altar with small images upon it
of the Virgin and of the saints. The minister,
too, wears a gown with a great cross on the
back, and when he first comes into the church
he kneels down before the altar with his back
turned to the people. Yet, you would soon
find out that there is a better religion than the
Roman Catholics, for the prayers are not said
in Latin, nor are images worshipped. ‘The
people sing five psalms during the. service;
the minister reads a few short prayers, and
a few verses of Scripture, and preaches a
sermon.

After service, the Sabbath is not kept holy.
There are dancing, and drinking, and merry-


























































P. 461.

Norwegians on Sunday Afternoon.
NORWAY. 46]

making. No wonder, therefore, that most of
the people are very ignorant.

The poor fishermen cannot often go to church,
even if they wish it ; for the way is generally by
water, and, when the wind blows hard, they dare
not go on the rough sea among the sharp
rocks. What can they do at home? If they
have Bibles, they can read them; but Bibles
used to be scarce and dear in Norway, till some
good people from England went to Norway to
give Bibles. They gave two fiddlers one a-
piece; and those men left off fiddling on Sun-
days, and began to meet in a cottage, and read
the Scriptures with the same people who used
to dance.

When it was known that a poor man had a
Bible, his neighbours flocked to his hut on
Sunday, to hear him read.*

There are many cottages where the Bible is
now loved.

In 1878 the English sent more than thirty
thousand Bibles to Norway.

One of the good colporteurs who travelled
about in Norway to sell Bibles was happy to
see how much they were read. He says:—
‘Some of the peasants sing a psalm together
morning and evening, and the master reads a
chapter once or twice a-day.’t

* Bible Society Report, 1847.
+ Ibid, 1879.
462 NORWAY.

There are four chief towns in Norway ;—-
Christiania, Bergen, Christiansand, and Trond-
heim or Daathelae, |

Christiania is the capital.

Christiansand is on an island.

Trondheim or Drontheim used once to be
the capital. It has a fine cathedral. Whoever
reigns in Norway is crowned at Trondheim.

Bergen is a very curious old place. There
are old houses and warehouses, with red roofs,
and a fish-market crowded with peasants dressed
in bright colours, and chattering loudly over
fish of every size and colour. Some of these
hsh are bright blue, and some are red. I am
sure you would like to see them.

The people are very friendly, and very fond
of the English. Is it not a pity that the English
steamer, which comes from Hull every fortnight,
always arrives on Sunday? Will the Norwegians
think that English people care much for that
day ?

The Norwegians study history a great deal,
and are very fond of poetry and_ painting.
There is a picture at Bergen of their favourite
king, Olaf, pointing to the sun and declaring
that He who made the sun is greater than all
gods, and that anidol is nothing. Near him,
in the picture, there is a huge wooden image of
an idol called Thor; a soldier is just going to
knock it down. People say that when the
NORWAY. 463

image was broken, rats, mice, and lizards, came
out of it. This story is meant to show what a
bad thing idolatry is.

Bergen is not far from a wonderful fiord
called the Hardanger Fiord, which is a hun-
dred miles long. It has a great many arms.
The sea flows between dark rocks, high as
mountains ; and far above them are the white
and blue snow fields of a splendid glacier.

An English clergyman lately travelled across
Norway. He spent the Sunday at Bergen.
The market-place was filled with peasants from
the country, dressed in bright costumes of all
colours. They had come into town to attend
the Sunday services.

Next day he began his journey in a steam-
boat, through narrow fiords with rocks on each
side, hundreds of feet high. Then he got a little
carriage, called a ‘carriole,’ just big enough to
hold himself and his baggage. A boy hung
on behind, though the carriole whirled down
the hills so fast it seemed to take away the
breath. _ On they went, past mountains, lakes,
streams, waterfalls, and snug farms. The boys
and all the people were very civil and obliging.
Our traveller found everything very cheap.
He only paid nine shillings for a bed, a din-
ner, coffee, a supper, a breakfast, and a car-

* From Great Britain Messenger.
464 NORWAY.

riage which took him eight miles. As he
drove through the villages he held out tracts.
The people grasped his hand to show how
pleased they were to have them. One man
wanted to give him some milk, and a little girl
ran after him begging him to accept some wild
strawberries—all she had to give. Before he
reached Christiania, he had given away nearly
three thousand tracts.

The most northern town in Europe is Ham-
merfest. A French lady visited it on her way
to Spitzbergen, and she saw a grey parrot
there which felt so terribly cold that it never
spoke.

The chief mountains are the Dovre-fiel—
and the highest of these is the Snow-hatten ;
yet it is little more than half as high as Mont
Blanc in Switzerland (8000 feet; Mont Blanc
is 15,000).*

“ Taken from Milford’s Norway, and Two Summers in
Norway.
LAPLAND.

THERE is one people in Europe who wander
about from place to place, yet always keep
among the mountains of Norway, or the plains
on the north of Sweden. These people are
called Lapps. They have no lands, but instead
of lands, they have reindeer. They have no
houses, but dwell in tents. They wander about
that they may find pasture for their deer.

Very little will grow in Lapland; corn will
not; vegetables will not, except a few beans
and small potatoes, with great care; fruit will
not, except raspberries and black currants.
Therefore the Lapps have nothing to eat but
their reindeer, except a little bread they get
from Sweden, and a kind of bread they make of
moss. Milk also they have in abundance from
their deer ; and it is a great comfort to them,
for it is very rich and sweet.

Some travellers were very desirous to see
these Lapps. Would you like to accompany
the travellers on their visit?

There was a large party—four Englishmen
and four other men, besides. the Lapp, who
showed the way.

By the side of a lake, they saw a very little
wooden church, where the Lapps sometimes meet

HH
466 LAPLAND.

to worship. There was a table at one end
covered with blue cloth, and a silver cup upon
it. Here the poor wanderers sometimes par-
take of the Supper of the Lord Jesus. There
was a velvet robe for the priest; yet there wag
no paint on the walls or benches—all was plain
deal board. In the churchyard there were
graves with crosses near them. It is only about
once a-year that a minister visits this place, but
some poor man generally reads and prays there
every Sunday.











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wees oe aN Oe \ oe g ao eee te
\ ee AY XY S . Ox ( =
Cine s ag aa :





+ cena am:

Jieindcer Sledge.

Amongst the barren mountains, the travellers
first caught sight of two dark tents. One of
them belonged to the Lapp who showed the
way. He ran before to tell his countrymen
that strangers were coming; for the Lapps are
careful, and will not let strangers into their
LAPLAND. 467

tents, tiil they know that they will do them no
harm. reindeer, driven by a man, a boy, and a dog,
came up to the tents.

The door of the tent was so small that it was
hard to get in; yet, once in, the visitors found
themselves very comfortable, for each of the
family shook him heartily by the hand, and
made room for them to le on skins by the side
of a blazing fire in the midst. In this tent
there was a man named Johan Neilson, and his
wife, and his old mother, and four children,
and a woman who lodged there. The hut would
scarcely hold the eight strangers and the family
too—they were as closely packed as sheep in a
fold.

The kind people offered a large bow! of rein-
deer milk to the hungry visitors, and began
also to boil a salted leg of reindeer for their
supper.

The travellers, as they lay on the skins,
looked around at the curious place. There
was no-chimney; where the poles met at.the
top the smoke went out, but not before it had
blackened all inside, and particularly the faces
of the Lapps. A number of useful articles
were hanging up on the sides of the tent,—
cheeses, and dried pieces of reindeer. The man

was dressed in leather, from head to foot, with
4. boots of reindeer-skin. The women wore dark
468 LAPLAND.

woollen cloth, and a girdle with a silver clasp.
No doubt they had put on their best clothes
to receive the company. ‘The women as well
as the men had their pipes, and nothing pleased
the old grandmother so much as some tobacco
from England. They were all much astonished
at the sight of lucifer matches. As for them
they had no candles, but when they wanted a
bright light, they held up a piece of burning
wood out of the fire. Neither had they any
clock, but found out the time by the sun and
stars. There were other articles that these
Lapps had not, which they were better far
without,—that is, finkel and brandy; but
when a glass of finkel was offered to them,
they drank it off so gladly that it was plain they
were as fond of drinking as their countrymen.

When it was time to go to sleep, the master
lighted his pipe, and laid down with it in his
mouth. Reindeer skins were the coverings.
One of the children coming in late, the old
grandmother lifted up the skin where she lay,
to let the boy in, One of the family watched
by turns all night by the side of the reindeer,
lest the wolves should devour them.

At five in the morning the travellers arose,
_ and ate for breakfast reindeer’s flesh ; and they
drank reindeer’s milk, and found it even nicer
than cow’s milk. They then went out to see
the herd. There were three hundred, all of
LAPLAND, 469

which belonged to Johan Neilson, and his
neighbour Peter Johnson, and to the lodger,
The beautiful creatures had sleek skins and
branching horns, covered with down as soft as
velvet. They were as gentle as they were
beautiful, and as useful as they were gentle;
so that it is not surprising that their masters
loved them, and treated them as if they were
their own children, Every morning and evening
they were driven to the tents to be milked.
Neilson’s eldest son, a boy of sixteen, threw a
rope over the horns of one of the deer, to keep
her still, and then milking began.

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sand

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Milking Reindeer.

The travellers went away that morning, not
wishing to spend another night with the family,
470 LAPLAND.

lying on the skins. But, first, they gave a few
skillings to each of the little boys, and that wag
not much; for a skilling is only a halfpenny,
The Lapland family charged the eight strangers
no more than tenpence for their food and
lodging during their visit.

Do you wish there were reindeer in Kne-
land? They could not live in so warm a
country. It is in snow the reindeer delights,
and in the sweet moss which grows beneath it.
Even Sweden is too warm for the reindeer in
summer. They would faint and die, if the
Lapps did not lead them, in hot weather, to
the mountains of Norway, covered with ever-
lasting snow.

It is no wonder that the Laplander loves his
reindeer. But he has some affection to spare
for his faithful dogs, that help him to manage
his reindeer.

These clever little creatures are not afraid
when the wolves come. The timid deer run
up and down the mountains, not knowing
how to get away from the howling wolves; then
the dogs drive them all together, and, standing
round them, keep off their enemies. Therefore,
when the Lapp returns home tired in the
evening, he shares his soup and his meat with
his brave guards. If you saw these dogs, per-
haps you would take them for foxes; but they
are not like those sly animals in their disposi-
LAPLAND. 471

tions. I will relate an anecdote of a Lapland
dog, which will make you love it better than
ever.

On a winter’s day, two little boys went to
the mountains to fetch some grass. They took
their nets in their hands, and, after walking
seven miles, they reached a spot covered with
snow. Under this snow they knew they should
find fresh grass. They scratched up the snow,
filled their nets with grass, and turned their
steps towards home. But, as they were going
down the mountain, a vast heap of snow from
the mountain-top came rolling after them,
and suddenly buried them beneath it. Their
little dog, which had run on before, soon
missed his young masters, and turning back
scratched up the snow so diligently, that at
last one of the boys crept out. But where was
the other? His brother began to dig up the
snow, hoping to find him, but he did not go to
the right place. The dog was wiser than the
boy. He dug at the right place, and at last
found the poor child, lying on his face, unable
to stir.

When the boys came home, they related the
whole history. Do you not think this little
dog must ever after have been a favourite and
a pet ?â„¢

I have read of a little Lapp called Matthew.

* Taken from Milford’s Visit to the Lapps.
A72 LAPLAND.

One day he harnessed his young reindeer,
though his father had forbidden him to do go,
Off he set in his sledge, with his little dog
Carlo. The sledge was soon overturned, and
the strap broken which fastened it to the
reindeer, Away went the reindeer, leaving
Matthew senseless on the ground. When he
opened his eyes he heard the wolves in the dis-
tance. What could he do? He began to pray;
and then he made a hole in the snow for him-
self and Carlo, and turned the sledge over them
for a roof. When he had done this, he took
his little dog in his arms, and lay down to
sleep. Both he and his dog felt very hungry
next morning. Carlo seemed to ask him for
something to eat, so he got up and went a few
steps ; but he had no skates, and when he tried
to walk he only sank in the snow up to his
waist. All day long he was obliged to stay
quietly where he was. He called in vain to
his father and mother, his brothers and sisters.
He felt very sorry for his disobedience, and
he prayed God to forgive him. He prayed,
too, that Carlo might not die, because he had
not been disobedient like himself. In the
evening he heard a little’sound. He stretched
out his hand quite gently, and found he
had got a live partridge. He put it close
to him, and slept as well as he could with his
two companions on each side of him. Next
THE MESSENGER OF CHRIST. 473

morning he found the poor partridge had
broken one of its wings, He longed for Carlo
to wake, that he might lick it well, and he gave
him the bird as soon as he saw his eyes open.
But instead of licking the wound, Carlo killed
the bird in an instant. At first Matthew cried;
then he thought that perhaps God had sent
him something to eat, so he ate half the par-
tridge, and gave the other half to Carlo. He
thought it was the nicest morsel he had ever
eaten. The third night just as he was shutting
his eyes to try to sleep he heard a noise. Carlo
heard it too, and began to bark, and rushed
away. Soon he came back with Matthew’s
father. Matthew was safe. Would he not obey
his father another time ?* :

THE MESSENGER OF CHRIST AMONG THE SNOWS.

For a very long while the Laplanders were
heathens ; and, though now they call themselves
Christians, they are very ignorant, for they have
been taught very little.

They have had, however, a missionary amongst
them—a Swede, and his name is Tellstrom.
He was a poor man in Stockholm, working
hard in painting houses, when it came into his

* Rayon de Soleil, May, 1879.
474 THE MESSENGER OF CHRIST

heart to go to Lapland. But he did not know
the Lappish language, nor did he know any one
who could teach him. However, he had heard
that a Lappish grammar had been printed. He
inquired for it in all the booksellers’ shops, but
could not meet with it. At last, he obtained
leave to search for it amongst a number of old
books stored up in a warehouse ; and to his great
joy he foundit. In all his spare time (and he had
not much) he studied it; and he made great
progress, for he looked to God for help. He
soon got a Lappish Testament, and learned to
read it.

But how was he to go to Lapland? He
knew a good gentleman in Stockholm, named
Mr. Scott. He went to him and told him
his plan. Mr. Scott was surprised; for,
only a short time before, he had received
some money trom England, with this message,
‘Spend the money in doing good to the poor
Lapps.’ ‘Now,’ thought Mr. Scott, ‘this
is wonderful; the money comes first, and
then the man who wants to do good to these
Lapps: surely God sends both the money and
the man.’

Mr, Scott consulted with his friends respect-
ing the painter’s plan; and they all talked te
Tellstrom about it.

‘They asked him, ‘Have you learned that
difficult language ?’
AMONG THE SNOWS. 475

‘Yes,’ he said, and he told them how he had
found the grammar.

“Can you bear the cold ?’ said they.

‘Yes, he replied; and he told them how he
had tried whether he could bear cold, by walking
on the stone stairs in winter without shoes or
stockings,

‘Can you bear hunger, and can you live
without bread and vegetables ?’

‘Yes, he replied. ‘Ihave accustomed my-
self to fast. Every Sabbath I have fasted,
because I would not work, and I had not money
to buy food without working.’

‘Can you bear to be without a friend, in a
country where true Christians are very scarce ?’

‘Yes, I can bear even that; for Christ has
said, ** Lo, I am with you alway, even unto the
end of the world.’

Mr. Scott and his friends agreed that Tell-
strom was fit to be a missionary; but they
thought he ought first to gain more knowledge.
So they said,‘ We will give you money to keep
you without working, that you may have time
for study.’

Therefore, Tellstrom left off painting, and
spent his time in reading. Yet he refused to
accept any money. How, then, did he live?
He had a silver spoon. His godmother, a noble
lady, had given it to him when he was bap-
tized; he sold it for food. He had never sold
476 THE MESSENGER OF CHRIST

it while he was a painter, though he had often
wanted food; because a spoon given by a reat,
person to a poor one at his baptism, is con-
sidered a treasure; but now he sold it for the
work of God.

At last the time came for Tellstrom to 20 to
Lapland. A Missionary Society was formed,
There were many in England, but this was the
first in Sweden; and Tellstrom was the first
missionary sent out. He went to Lapland in
the year 1835. Just before he went, a friend
gave him a silver spoon,—a friend who knew
nothing of his having sold a spoon. Tellstrom
was surprised. He thought he saw in this
little gift a sign that the Lord would give him
back all he had given for His sake, and, there-
fore, he had these words of Christ engraved
upon the new spoon :—

‘There is no man that hath left house, or
parents, or brethren, or wife, or children, for the
kingdom of God’s sake, who shall not receive
manifold more in this present time, and in the
world to come life everlasting.’

Upon Tellstrom’s arrival in Lapland, he hired
aroom, and preached at first in the Swedish
tongue; but God was with him, and the people
heard him gladly, and so filled the. room that
he began to preach in the church. But he did
not long preach there, for the Lapps are a wau-
dering people, because their deer are wandering
AMONG THE SNOWS. 477

creatures, seeking moss where they can find it,
Therefore Tellstrom became a wanderer too;
that he might gain the more souls. He learned
in summer to pick his way through the marshes,
on the roads made of pine-trees, that shake
under the traveller’s tread; and he ventured
in winter to cross the frozen plains, where no
foot of man is to be seen, and once he nearly
lost his life amidst the snowy deserts.

He longed to instruct the little ones, and he
took eighteen of them under his care, and fed,
and clothed, and taught them for two years ; and
then sent them home with little books in their
hands, and sweet hymns on their lips, to cheer
their parents’ huts with prayers and praises.

Then he received another company of chil-
dren into his house, and in two years he sent
them forth to make room for yet another little
band. In thismanner he taught a great num-
ber of children; and many parents, through
the children, have:turned unto the Lord.

How pleasant it would be to visit one of the
huts where these pious families hve, and to hear
them thanking God for sending His servant to
tell them of Jesus!

About thirty years after Tellstrom went to
Lapland a young Lapp woman arrived in Stock-
holm. Her name was Maria Magdalena, and
her father’s name was Math or Matthew. She
came all the way from Lapland on purpose to
478 THE MESSENGER OF CHRIST

tell the King how sorely the poor little Lapp
children wanted schools, at which they could be |
left while their parents wandered about With |
their reindeer. |

Maria and her sister had been educated in a
Missionary School. This dear sister died, and
when she was dying she spoke to Maria, who
loved her very much. She made her promise
to travel all that long, weary way in order to
plead before the King for the children of her
people. Maria did not forget her promise,
Every day, as she wandered over her native
rocks and hills, keeping her father’s reindeer,
she was thinking of her poor countrymen, and
how they did not know the Lord, and she
prayed to Him to help them.

At last she buckled on her long wooden
skates, bade her parents farewell, and started
for the great town far away. Sometimes
she felt very tired, tor she had to cross deserts
covered with snow and ice. She was often
in danger, but God helped her through all.
Wherever she stopped, some friendly hand was
outstretched to help her, and rest and food
were given her. And so she travelled on her
skates till she reached the town of Gefle, where
she found a coach going to Stockholm. She
arrived there on the 3rd of March, after a
journey of six hundred miles. The busy streets
were crowded with people, who looked for a
AMONG THE SNOWS. A79

moment with surprise at her curious dress, and
then passed on,

But one lady stopped to speak to her, and
ask her why she came to Stockholm. Magda-
lena told her her story, and how she had prayed
to God to tottch the hearts of those whose help
she wanted.

‘Well,’ said the lady, ‘ your prayer is already
answered. Only yesterday a collection was
made here for the Lapps.’ |

And she took her to the house ofa good pastor
who had preached for Lapland missions, and
who afterwards wrote the history of Maria
Magdalena.

She had been recommended to several people
in Stockholm, who were good to her. She saw
the King and Queen, and they kindly promised
to help her. God gave her many friends, so
that she returned to her father and her wander-
ing people with money for the schools, and
with promises of more. Would you not like
to have seen her, dressed in reindeer skin, and
wearing a large red cap, with her brown com-
plexion and her pleasant face? She was, indeed,
a true-hearted Christian.*

* From Lapland and Maria Magdalena Mathsdotter, by
H. Rochrich; and Two Lapp Heroines in Stockholn, by
M. A. Howitt.

Kindly revised by Miss Kuper.
480

TURKEY.

Tuts land is very different fromvall the other
countries of Europe—and this is the reason: it
has a different religion. All the other countries
are called Christian, but Turkey is a Moham-
medan country. What is that?

Once there was a man named Mohammed,
who told people he was a prophet sent from
God; but he was a false prophet. He wrote a
book called the Koran, and filled it with foolish
histories and absurd laws, which he mixed up
with things out of the Bible.

Mohammed died a long while ago. A maid
mixed poison with a leg of mutton in order to
see whether the prophet would find it out; but
he never did; he ate the mutton, and from that
time he began to waste away till he died, three
years afterwards. Jesus, whom we worship,
could not be deceived. He knew why Judas
gave him the treacherous kiss. He died because
He chose to die. Where is Mohammed now?
Among the dead. Wheréis Jesus? At God’s
right hand. He hears our prayers; but Mo-
hammed hears nothing.

_ The places where the Turks worship are
called mosques. They are very much _ like
TURKEY. 481

churches, only there are no seats, but carpets
are spread on the marble floor. The chief
day for worship is Friday, instead of Sunday.
There are men, called Imams, who read and
expound the Koran in the mosques. O how
different is a Turkish Friday from a Christian
Sunday!

One of the rules of Mohammed is to pray
five times a-day-—and this the Turks do.
Wherever they are, or whatever they are doing,
when they hear the man, in one of the mina-
rets of the mosques, calling out the time of
prayer, they stop, and bend, and mutter their
prayers.

Many of them do not understand these
prayers, because they are in Arabic. No won-
der that the Turks are very irreverent. They
do not mind swearing, cursing, or even lying,
between the prayers which they repeat.

If you were talking to a Turk in the street,
and the time for prayer came, he would leave
off talking and fall on his knees and begin to
pray. _ It 1s much better to shut the door,
and to pray to our Father which seeth in
secret,

You will say that the Turks are very much
like the Roman Catholics in their ways, and
so they are. But the Mohammedans know
nothing about Christ. There aresome Roman
Catholics who really love Him, but no Moham-

Il
482 TURKEY.

medans can love Him. They hate Christians,
and often curse them as they pass.

There are some Turks, called dancing der-
vishes, who pretend to be very holy, and. one
of their holy exercises is twirling round and
round like tops, and shouting all the time,
‘There is no god but the true God, and Mo-
hammed is his prophet.’ Strangers go and see
them twirl. It would astonish you to see how
fast they turn round, in their full white petti-
coats, which look like so many white umbrellas.



Dancing Dervish.

On their heads they wear brown caps, in the
shape of sugar-loaves. While they dance, their
arms are stretched out wide and their eyes
shut. When they have done dancing, they
fall upon the floor utterly exhausted.
TURKEY. 483

There is another sort of dervishes, called
howling dervishes, and they howl till they foam
at the mouth. Sometimes they only bark like
dogs. Suddenly, one falls down and cries out
with all his force, very slowly, ‘ Allah! Allah!
(which means God.) Mohammed! Moham-
med!’ This he howls till he can howl no
longer, but lies quiet. Then another begins to
howl, and then another. I need not ask you
which you would rather see, the dancing
or the howling dervishes. It must be so
horrible to hear the howling, especially of
the name of God. How different is the
sweet sound of Hallelujah (praise the Lord),
which is sung by saints on earth, and angels
in heaven!

Once, the howling dervishes used to cut them-
selves with spears and daggers, but one of the
Sultans forbade this practice.

VISIT TO A TURKISH House.—The Turks are
allowed to have four wives, if they please.
They hire a great many women to wait upon
their wives. Most Turks have only one wife,
for it costs a great dealto keep four. The wives
are not allowed to be seen, except by women;
and when they go in the BUECET, they dean
wear a thick veil.

An English lady once got leave to visit the
house of a Turkish nobleman. He was called
a Pasha, which means a governor, and he was
4.84 TURKEY.

considered a very great man. He had only
one wife, and she was the adopted daughter of
the Sultan, or King of Turkey. She was called
Sultana, or princess.

T'wo negroes showed the English lady the
way into the house. When she reached the
foot of the stairs, two women received her, and
led her up. They were very polite, and kissed
her hands and the hem of her dress. They
brought her into a very large room. The
upper end, called the divan, was higher than
the rest, and was covered with two splendid
shawls. Nothing could be seen through the
windows, for, instead of glass, there was a close
wooden lattice,

The lady was made to sit down on a pile of
cushions, for there were no chairs. Presently,
about fifteen young slaves came running into
the room, laughing and talking. They were
come to stare at the visitor. They were all
dressed alike, in loose silk jackets, a short one
above and a longer one underneath, with long
loose trousers and yellow slippers. Their clothes
were of the gayest colours, and in their hair a
silk handkerchief was twisted.

Presently a noise was heard in the passage,
and the Sultana entered. The young slaves
placed themselves in rows as she passed by.
She was dressed very magnificently in light blue
silk trousers, anda red robe covered with gold
TURKEY, 485

embroidery,—so long as to sweep the ground.
A rich shawl was bound round her waist, anda
brown satin pelisse, lined with fur, hung over
her shoulders, while a silk handkerchief wrought
in gold adorned her head; but what rendered
her most splendid were the diamonds which
sparkled on every part of the dress. Yet all
this superb attire did not make her look beau-
tiful, or even pleasing. Four negro boys went
before her, and six maids followed.

The Sultana made her visitor sit down beside
her on the cushions of the divan, and pressed
her to smoke a pipe. The two negro boys
brought in silver trays, with gold cups and .
crystal vases, filled with coffee, sherbet, and
sweetmeats. There was an interpreter, so the
English lady could talk to the Sultana. She
found that this princess spent her whole time
in sleeping, eating, bathing, and dressing. The
Sultana’s children were sent for. There were
four of them ; the eldest, a boy of six years old,
was dressed just like his father, the Pasha, with
a turban and pelisse, and even a little sword.
The visitor praised the children so much (for
they were fine children), that the Sultana in-
sisted on calling her ‘ Sister,’ and entreated her
to accept a diamond ring. She then bade her
tell the people of England that if they came to
Turkey, the Pasha’s lady would be happy to
receive them,
486 TURKEY.

The visitor touched the Sultana’s hands with
great respect, and went out of the room without
turning her back.

Who would like to be a Turkish lady—even
a Sultana, a king’s daughter? What silly
lives ladies lead in Turkey! They cannot read,
and, if they could, they have no Bible to read,
hey have never heard how they ought to spend
their time. Are there no ladies in England
who waste their time as much as these poor
Turks? O yes, there are some who rise late,
read novels, talk nonsense, and think much
about their dress; but who never study the
Bible, nor teach their children, nor visit the
poor.

There are now many missionaries in Turkey
—some from America and some from England;
some men and some women.

In all parts of the country these missionaries
have schools and colleges, as well as churches,
and God is greatly blessing these good people.
They do all they can to teach the Turkish
ladies. |
CONSTANTINOPLE.

The chief town in Turkey is built by the sea.
Like many other towns it looks beautiful at a
distance, but turns out, when you arrive there,
to be very unpleasant. Constantinople looks
even more beautiful than Lisbon, or Venice, or
Naples. The golden tops of the mosques, peep-
ing and sparkling among the tall cypress-trees,
and the gardens sloping down to the water’s
edge, make it appear lovely; but the narrow
dirty streets disgust the stranger who walks in
them.

The sea by which it is built is called the
Bosphorus.

THE GRAND SIGNIOR.—The King of Turkey
is called the Sultan, or the Grand Signior. He
has a palace by the waterside, where his wives
live. He will not call them his wives, because
he thinks it too great an honour for any one to
be married to him. They are all slaves brought
from distant parts. Seven of the most beautiful
are called the favourites, and the rest wait upon
them as slaves. In all there are five or six
hundred. |

Are they happy? Oh, by nomeans. Can
they forget the countries whence they came,
their parents, and their friends at home?
bps
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CONSTANTINOPLE,




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Mosque of Suitan Vulide, Constantinople.
}

They live in a_ beautiful palace by the
waterside, called the Seragho. In the gar-
dens of this palace, the Sultan’s favourites
amuse themselves. No one is allowed to
visit them, nor are they allowed to visit any
one. How soon they must get tired of the
marble halls and cool fountains, shady groves,
and lovely gardens! Their daughters are called
sultanas, or princesses. One of them used to
spend much of her time, before she was married,
in throwing oranges out of the palace windows,
into the boats that passed by. It was her
amusement to try to throw them at the heads
of the boatmen. What an amusement for a
young lady!
CONSTANTINOPLE, 489

The Sultan does what he pleases. He
can order any one who ottends him to be
killed.

It is one of the wicked customs of this dark
Jand to murder the boy-babies of the king’s
brothers. The little girls are suffered to live,
but the boys are strangled as soon as they are
born. The reason is lest, when they are grown up,
any of them should try to make himself Sultan
or Grand Signior. You have read of Pharaoh,
king of Egypt; and of Herod, king ‘of the
Jews. The Grand Signior is like those cruel
kings.

ANIMALS.—The beasts, which draw waggons
in Turkey, are not horses or asses, but oxen
and buffaloes. Horses are sometimes used for
carriages and for riding. The carriages, in
which the ladies drive, resting on soft cushions,
are drawn by a train of oxen.

Bufialoes are a good deal like oxen, only very
ugly, with black hair hanging down between
their black horns, over their sullen faces. But
their drivers try to make them look better by
twisting smart ribbons in their dingy locks of
hair. |

Perhaps you have never seen a buffalo. Now
I am going to speak of an animal that you saw
before you could speak—I mean a dog. Is it
one of your favourite animals?

If you lived in Turkey you would not be fond


490 CONSTANTINOPLE.

of dogs. A number of hungry dogs roam about
Constantinople, eating up all the dead things
or offal, lying in the streets. I will tell you
an anecdote about them.

An English lady was walking one morning
with her little niece, in a burial-ground in Con-
stantinople, amongst the shady trees and beds
of flowers, when suddenly she saw troops of hun-
ery dogs approaching her from every quarter,
The little girl grew pale with fright, and showed
her aunt a piece of bread she held in her hand,
It was indeed for this the dogs were assembling,
There they were on every side, with their sharp
teeth, and glaring eyes, and noses snuffing the
air, as if they smelt something very nice. Some
of them were so large that a man would hardly
have been able to resist them. The lady knew not
what todo. She took the bread from the child,
who very readily gave it up; but she feared to
throw it to the dogs, lest those who did not geta
mouthful should turn upon her with fresh fury,
or attack her little niece. She tried to reach
the gate, dragging the child after her, while the
dogs followed—howling and raging, and even
daring to take her dress between their teeth.
At last she came close to the door; then,
flinging the bread as far as she could from her,
she rushed through and escaped by a narrow
path to the inn.

At night such troops of fierce dogs walk
CONSTANTINOPLE, 49]

about the streets, that people carry in their
hands whips to defend themselves,

The favourite bird in Turkey is the pigeon.
It is reckoned a holy bird, and flocks of pigeons
are kept near the mosques. The stork is another
bird that the Turks are fond of. The Dutch
like them because they eat the frogs in the
marshes, but the Turks like them for a different
reason, Before the winter comes, the storks fly
away to a hotter country, and the Turks say
they are gone to the place where Mohammed
was buried; so they call the stork a religious
bird, and they show it great respect when it
returns in thespring. They think it an honour
if it build its nest in one of their houses, and
they say that then no plague or fire can come
near their dwelling.

SLAVES.— You have already heard that there
are slaves in Turkey. It is the only country in
Kurope where slaves are bought and _ sold.
There used to be a slave-market in Constanti-
nople; but it was given up more than thirty
years ago.”

When the Turks go to battle they seize their
prisoners for slaves.

Soldiers have been seen riding towards Con-
stantinople with large baskets on each side of
their horses. And what were in the baskets?

* It was given up January 30th, 1847. See Wayfaring
Sketches,
492 CONSTANTINOPLE,

Little boys and girls stolen from the enemy.
Some were as young as three years, just able to
talk, while others were as old as ten. These
thoughtless lambs were rejoicing as they rode
along, little knowing the troubles they would
suffer under cruel masters.

CHARACTER OF THE TURKS.— They are so
grave that they look wise. But how can lazy
people be really wise? They like to spend their
time in eating opium, sipping coffee, and sit-
ting still. They are so lazy that, though the
land is very fruitful, they do not sow corn enough
for their own bread, but send for corn to other
countries. They read scarcely anything but the
Koran, which they learn by heart. Yet, in one
respect, they are to be praised. It is this,—
they bear troubles well.

I have heard of a pasha, or governor, who was
in high favour with the Sultan, until at last he
had the misfortune to get into disgrace. The
Sultan had made him rich, but now he took
away his riches. The poor pasha had nothing
to support him. What could hedo? Instead
of fretting or begging, he bought a few lemons
and sold them at the corner of the bazaar, or
market, One of his friends came to buy some
of his lemons, and as he bought them said,
‘Do you not feel very much the sad change in
your fortune?’ ‘Not at all, not at all,’ replied
the lemon-seller. ‘Allah is great—Allah is good.
CONSTANTINOPLE. 493

He gave me all that I once possessed, and he has
a right to take it away again.’ Was not this
a good answer? It is almost the same as the
answer of Job,—‘ The Lord gave, and the Lord
hath taken away: blessed be the name of the
Lord.’ But though the Turk answered like
Job, the Turk did not feel as Job did. He felt
that God had a right to do as He pleased; but
Job knew that God loved him, even while He
was taking all away. The Turks do not know
that God so loved the world that He gave His
only-begotten Son to die for our sins. We know
that God is lke a kind father who corrects his
children, but who would much rather give them
treats and rewards.* |

* Taken from Madden’s Travels, Wayfaring Sketches,

A Pastor's Memorial of the Holy Land, and Dr, Walsh
Travels

Kindly revised by Rev. Henry A. Stern.
494

THE SLAVONIAN STATES.

ONCE. these were provinces of Turkey. Now
they all *have princes of their own. Their
names-afe Roumania, Servia, Montenegro, and
Bulgaria. >

Since the war in 1877, Turkey has also lost
another province, which is now governed by
Austria.*

ROUMANTA.

King Charles I. of Roumania is a German
prince. Roumania is one of the most fertile
countries in Europe, full of corn-fields and wide
pasture-lands. It has large forests too. Num-
bers of bees make honey from the sweet blos-
soms of the lime-trees.

SERVIA.

Servia has great forests and heaths, and
nourishes numbers of pigs. It is more moun-
tainous than Roumania.

* Bosnia-Herzegovina,
495

BULGARIA.

Many hundred years ago, a great colapany
of people left India and settled themselves
in the south of Russia, near the rive Volga;
they were called Bulgarians from the Volga.
After a time, some of them went soutn to the
country which is now called Bulgaria after them.

In those days the Bulgarians worshipped
false. gods. At last, about a thousand years
ago, two Bulgarian brothers, named Cyril and
Methodius, went to live in a Christian land.
There they heard about the true God and His
Son Jesus Christ. -When they returned home
to their own people they taught many of them
what they had learned themselves. The king
and some of his great men became Christians.
Many believed and were baptized, and I am
sorry to say some others were obliged to follow
their example, though they did not believe.

The Bulgarians have been called Christians
ever since, yet they were very ignorant, and
thought that the way to be saved was to do
good works and to bear hardships. They had
no open Bible to point them to ‘the Lamb
of God Who taketh away the sins of the
world.’

Though the Bulgarians are very industrious
496 BULGARIA.

their religion led them to laziness, for it re-
quired them to keep holy more than a hundred
days in the year. It also told them to fast
more than two hundred days; that is, to eat
neither meat nor cheese, eges nor butter, but
only bread and vegetables.

The Bulgarians are very brave, and often
conquered their enemies. They had kings
and governcrs of their own till about five hun-
dred years ago, when one of their kings died
and his land was divided between his two sons.
Bulgaria then soon fell into the hands of the
Turks. No one knows how much the poor
Bulgarians suffered, but God had pity on them
as on the Israelites and sent them a deliverer.

Now the Bulgarians are free, and are go-
verned by a prince they chose for themselves.
Many of them have been heard to say, ‘ How
nice it is to be free!’

Bulgaria is a land of high mountains and
valleys, and great plains. It is very fruitful.
In some parts, there are plenty of vineyards
full of sweet grapes, which are made into pre-
serves and treacle as well as into wine. In
other parts, there are vast fields of roses. How
lovely are the flowers in full bloom, and how
delightful is their perfume! The roses are
gathered every morning and then boiled in big
boilers to make the rose-water and the rose-oil,
which are sent all over the world... . |
BULGARIA, 497

Bulgarians have some very good qualities.
They are patient, quiet, and industrious. They
do not work fast, for they are generally very
slow in all they do, and they have no good
tools: yet they get through a great deal, because
they will work patiently for many hours.

Not only the men are industrious, but the
women too. As soon as their work in the
house is done, they go and help their husbands
and fathers out-of-doors.

Bulgarian peasants are contented with very
little; they seldom taste fresh meat, and gene-
rally live on rye-bread and maize-porridge, or
beans seasoned with vinegar and pepper. They
have milk and cream from their own cows.
Sometimes at a feast they have a young pig or
lamb as a treat, and then they drink home-
made wine. |

Bulgarian peasant women do not go to shops
to buy their dresses, as women do in England ;
they spin and weave, and make them at home,
You see how industrious they are. They are
much happier than Turkish women, because
they are always busy.

When a Bulgarian peasant girl marries, she
has a pretty trousseau: a lone shirt, prettily
embroidered round the collar, sleeves, and
skirt; a coat without sleeves, that fits quite
tight ; and a very narrow sash made of plaited
wool. Itis narrow because it is very long—

KK
498 BULGARIA.

about eighty yards; she will twist this round
her many times. Besides these things she has
an overcoat, and an apron, and woollen socks,
all embroidered, and red shoes, Her mother
began to make all these pretty things when her
daughter was a baby. As each thing was
finished, it was put away carefully in a long
bag like a bolster.

A Bulgarian cottage does not usually look
very tidy outside, for it is made of poles stuck
in the ground, fastened together and plastered
over inside and out with clay. The walls are
generally whitewashed. It is neat and clean
inside. There are only three rooms. They
live in one rcom, sleep in another, and keep
their stores in the third. Outside the house
there is a yard, with sheds for the animals, and
a wall all round, and there are dogs to guard
them all.

A lady was once staying in a Bulgarian
gentleman’s house. She was very kindly
treated, tor Bulgarians are very hospitable.
They were pleased to show her their nice
schools, for it was then a new thing to have
nice schools in Bulgaria. The people have
only lately found out what a nice thing it is
to get a good education.

But the prettiest sight this lady saw was the
_ rose-picking, to make rose-water. One morn-
ing she heard a knock at her door; she was
NE
FAS

At

Lh
Ad if

MANY
a An


BULGARIA. 499

told it was time to get up, if she wished to see
the gathering of the sweet flowers. She was
taken to a large field, thickly planted with
rose-bushes. The half-open buds looked lovely,
all covered with dew. Numbers of nightingales
hovered over them, singing sweetly. Young
men and young women were gathering the
buds. They wore their holiday dresses. The
young men wore snow-white shirts and gaily-
coloured waistcoats without sleeves ; the young
women had tied coloured handkerchiefs round
their heads. The young people looked as bright
as butterflies among the flowers. The girls
picked the buds, and then threw them into
baskets that hung on their arms. The young
men helped them, and were sometimes rewarded
with a bud for their caps.

When the baskets were full, children carried
them and emptied them into large vessels placed
under the shade of trees, where the mothers sat
and sorted the roses. The lady thought that
she had never seen a mué¢h prettier sight.

She. felt very sad a little while afterwards |
when she saw in the newspapers that the war
had reached that beautiful spot, and that
human blood had flowed where, a little
while before, she had seen the lovely roses
gathered.” :

* Taken from People of Turkey, by a Consul’s daughter
and wile. |
500 BULGARIA.

Some thirty years ago, an old Bulgarian
monk, named Neopheet, translated the Bible,
for the first time, into Bulgarian. Afterwards,
some good American missionaries translated it.
There are now many thousand copies of the
Bible scattered over the country. In twenty
towns and villages people meet every Sunday to
hear the old old story of the love of Jesus.
There are about thirty Sunday schools with some
hundreds of scholars. The hearts of the little
ones beat with joy as they learn to lisp the
blessed words, ‘Suffer the little children to
come unto me and forbid them not.’

If you had visited a Bulgarian school thirty
years ago, you would have seen the children
sitting cross-legged round a low, wide room.
Often there were no benches. You would have
seen a torn book on each child’s lap. The
teacher sat cross-legged on the floor in one
corner, a sheepskin hat on his head, and a long
stick by his side. Now and then he gave a
wild scream to quiet the noisy children, Se-
veral boys stood round him to repeat their
lessons. If one of them made the smallest mis-
take in spelling, down fell the stick like
lightning on his poor head. Every school had
its own prison. For the least fault the poor
boys had their feet fastened with a rope on a
pole and fearfully beaten. No wonder the
scholars were led to school with fear and
BULGARIA. 501

trembling, and always ran away if they could.
Now all is changed. The school buildings are
the best in the country. Each child has a
beautiful spelling-book, adorned with charming
pictures. The teachers are very kind, and the
children in return love them as their best friends.
Both boys and girls are very fond of play, and
their teachers give them plenty of it.

One of the Bulgarian governors has opened
night schools and holiday schools for young
and old.

A good minister visited a Sunday school in
a town surrounded by fields of roses. He found
a widow lady teaching a class of fifteen little
boys and girls. She was telling them about
David and about the golden text, ‘ Love your
enemies. Their thirty little eyes were all
directed straight to their teacher, like so many
arrows. Every one was eager to listen and to
answer. When she had finished her story, she
said, ‘ Now all of you, who desire to be lke
David, and who feel they need God’s help, rise
and pray.’ All were on their feet at once, and all
prayed, one after the other, to be helped to love
their euemies like David. And not one of
them all forgot to pray for their visitor,
that he too might be blessed and made like
David.

A few years ago the Bulgarians suffered much
for their religion. Now, under their good
502 BULGARIA.

Government, every one may believe what he
likes.

Good books are being printed continually for
the people.
robberies and murders. Now people can travel
safely by night, as well as by day.

The Governors of Bulgaria are the best of
her men, and do all they can to encourage all
that is right and good.

Kindly revised by Rey. J. A. Tonjoroff, of Philippopolis.
5903

GREECE.






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Greeks.

Country.— Greece is one of the lovely coun-
tries—perhaps it is the most beautiful but
we cannot be certain, for some people would
say Switzerland. |
But. there is one beauty in Greece which is
not to be found in Switzerland; this 1s—very
fine old ruins, or remains of beautiful buildings.
What is the reason? When the other coun-
tries of Europe were filled with savages, then
Greece was filled with clever men. When our
dear old England was covered with forests;
haunted by bears and wolves, wild bulls, and
504 GREECE.

boars; inhabited by people with painted skins ;
then—then—what was to be seen in Greece?
All that was grand and beautiful :—kings and
armies, ships and palaces, pictures and statues,
temples and cities, gardens and groves.

But now, what is England? and what is
Greece? The Greeks are not savages, but they
are not as wise as the English. Their marble
temples have fallen down, and the white pillars
are lying on the ground or standing up half
broken. As you ride along you see places
where great battles were once fought—but all
is silent now.

A NIGHT IN A CoTTaGcE.—-If you travel in
Greece, rise very early in the morning. Get a
sure-footed horse, not soon tired, to carry you
along the steep mountain path. At four o’clock
on a summer morning the air is so fresh that
the travellers’ horses prance with delight. But
before noon the sun pours down such burning
rays that the stones in the path become too
hot to be touched. ‘Then it is pleasant to see
the shepherd leading his sheep to the green
pastures, He goes before them, and they
follow him, and listen to his voice. Who can
see him without thinking of the Good Shepherd
who laid down His life for His sheep? The
kind Greek shepherd, seeing travellers, and
knowing how thirsty they must be, takes hold
of a large flat wooden bottle, hanging by a
GREECE, 505

leathern strap from his side, and offers them
some cool sweet milk.

Whichever way the horses wander, you are
sure to see some lovely prospect, and to find
some old tomb or ruined temple among the
dark-green brushwood.

A party of English ladies and gentlemen,
mounted on horseback, went to see a place
where a great battle was once fought, called
Marathon. It is by the sea-side. Thousands
had once been killed in that place. Great
had been the noise on that day—shouts and
shrieks ;—but nothing can be heard there now
except the waves roaring, as they did when that
battle was fought.

Near the plain of Marathon there are the
ruins of atemple. No one durst go near those
white columns, for a huge snake lifted up its
crested head on high, as it twined round the
broken pillars. Had any one disturbed the
creature, its forked tongue would soon have
been seen shooting out between its poisonous
jaws.

Night came on. There were no houses to be
seen. All was silent. There was no path. It
was quite dark, and the travellers had lost their
way. They tried to get through a thicket of
myrtle-bushes. Suddenly the horses stopped
and neighed aloud. They were at the edge of
a iarge piece of water. What was to be done?
506 GREECE.

Must the travellers sleep there? The ground
was damp—the air was cold—and, worse than
all, at a distance”the howling of jackals was
heard. Yet the horses were too weary to go
much farther, and their riders were ready to
drop off their backs.

Just then one of the servants cried out joy-
fully, ‘I see a little twinkling light afar off.
It must be a village.” The party set out again.
Soon, the barking of shepherd dogs was heard,
and presently a group of poor Greeks came
out of their huts. There was a dispute among
them who should lodge the strangers in his
hut. At last it was agreed that the shepherd
who had the best hut should have that honour.
He led the way in triumph, and the strangers
gladly followed.

This best hut was made of wood, and had
onlyone room. A large fire blazed on a square
stove at one end, and sheepskins were spread
on the clay floor. The travellers were invited
to sit down on the sheepskins. By the light of
the fire they saw the family of the shepherd,
who were sitting opposite—his wife, his
daughter, and her husband. A little beyond
there were an ass and a pig, both of which were
displeased at being driven from the fire to make
room for strangers, It would not be easy to
say how many cocks and hens were perched on
the rafters, or were flying from one corner to
GREECE. 507

the other. The travellers’ horses also were
admitted into the hut with the servants 3 so
that the place was much crowded.

Greatly were the shepherd’s family astonished
When the strangers opened their packages.
When they saw the silver forks and spoons,
they wondered how money could be made into
such articles, for they had never seen any silver
but dollars. They could not make out how
cushions could be filled with air, and almost
feared their visitors were conjurers, when they
saw them filling their pillows with their breath.
They were surprised to see them comb their
hair, for they themselves only took that trouble
once a-year, at Easter.

All the while the travellers were at supper,
a number of poor Greeks were peeping in at
the door. As soon as it was over, the poor
people inside told the crowd to go away. Then
they lighted a small lamp that was hanging up
before a picture of a saint, quite black with
smoke. Kneeling down before that picture,
the peasants said their prayers. But what are
prayers offered to pictures? Of no use at all;
-——they are worse than of no use; such prayers
are sinful; for God has forbidden us to bow
down to the likeness of anything. Before the
poor people wrapped themselves in their sheep-
skins for the night, they politely wished the
travellers sound sleep and pleasant dreams.
508 GREECE.

But how could travellers either sleep or dream,
with a pig grunting and an ass braying in the
room? At three o’clock in the morning the
travellers rose to pursue their way.

PRODUCTIONS.—Greece is a very fruitful land.
There are olives, and almonds, and green figs,
cool water-melons, and enormous grapes. There
are so many grapes and vineyards, that the
dogs may go in there and eat heartily. Are
not grapes strange food for dogs?

The nights are so warm in summer that the
poor people often sleep under the trees, instead
of in their huts; but they take care never to
sleep under an olive-tree, because snakes are
often found hid in that tree. But under a
mulberry-tree the people like to sleep. And
who do you think sleep in the huts? Worms.
Yes, the people give up their huts to worms.
But of what kind? Silkworms. These indus-
trious little creatures deserve to be well treated.
A great deal of silk is made in Greece. It is
very amusing to see the young girls winding
the silk off the yellow balls the worms have
spun.

GRECIAN WoMEN.—The dress is different in
different places. This is one dress, A full
petticoat and embroidered bodice, a girdle,
loose slippers, and stockings of various colours;
on the head a small red cap, and a yellow hand-
kerchief: the long hair being plaited in two
ATHENS, 509

tresses, reaching almost to the ground. When
the ladies go out they wear a long muslin veil,
fastened on the back of their heads and falling
over their faces.

The Grecian ladies are handsome, with black
hair and eyes, fine features and figures. If
their hair is not quite black, they dye it. To
make their eyes look blackér than they are,
they paint their eyelids with a little brush.
The young ladies are seldom seen; they sit
with their maid in a room by themselves,

The cap of a young girl is often covered
with pieces of gold and silver money. This
money is her fortune. Whenever she gets a
present, if she does not spend it, she sews it
in her cap.

ATHENS.

This isa very old city indeed, much older
than London, or Edinburgh, or Paris — older ©
even than Rome. It was all in ruins, till a
kine came from Germany, called Otho, and
built a new city. There are squares in Athens
now, and streets, and thirteen churches, and
twenty wells, and a palace, and a prison, and a
college, and there are hotels where you might
sleep and live comfortably.
510 ATHENS,









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Mars’ Hill.

There is one place in Athens a Christian
would like to see better than any other, There
is a spot outside the city where once a preacher
stood, and told the people for the first time
about Jesus the Son of God. The place where
he stood was called Mars’ Hill. The name of
the preacher was Paul, and it is above eighteen
hundred years ago since he preached. Should
you not like to see this stony hill? You may
read the sermon in the seventeenth chapter of
Acts. When Paul was there, Athens was full
of images of false gods. Now the people say
they worship Christ, but they do not worship
Him in the way that He approves. Paul would
tell them so, if he were now on earth, and if he
were to go to Athens.
GREECE. ~Oll

THE SORROWS OF THE GREEKS.—It is dread-
ful to hear of all the poor Greeks have suffered
_from the Turks.

There is a beautiful little island near Greece,
called Scio. This may be called the island of
oranges. Far off upon the sea, the sweet smell
of the orange-blossoms can be perceived. This
lovely island was once full of people,—now it
is almost empty. The cruel Turks suddenly
landed on the island, and immediately began
to burn and to destroy. They killed more than
half the people, and they took many prisoners,
and sold them to be slaves in Constantinople,
and other large cities. Only a few people
escaped to the mountains,

-You shall hear of a visit made to this island.
Two gentlemen arrived one evening in a ship
at Scio ; one was a stranger, and the other had
been born in the place. The first town they
saw was all burned to the ground. ‘There was
scarcely a room standing. The only people to
be seen lived in little sheds. The travellers
went to the house of a Greek archbishop. Per-
haps you think an archbishop must live in a |
fine house. This house had once been fine;
the stone steps at the door still remained, there
was still a large hall, but one side had fallen
down. In a small room the poor archbishop
lay sick in bed. The rain came in through the
ceiling, and the bed had often been moved out
512 GREECE.

of the way of the rain. But the sick man was
thankful that he had any place to rest in. He
begged his guests to eat their supper in the hall,
Two young priests waited upon them. One of
them had long black hair hanging down his
shoulders. He had a pewter jug, from which
he poured water over the visitors’ hands into a
basin, and then wiped them with atowel. The
supper was a lump of bread and a glass of
water for each, with some black olives and
sweetmeats. This was all. After supper the
hands were washed again, and then coffee and
pipes were served.

The visitors slept on cushions placed on the
high part of the floor called the divan, and each
was covered with a quilt. :

The next morning they set out on mules.
They came to the village where the Greek had
once lived. They found it quite silent, for the
people were dead, or gone away. They passed
many fine houses, with high walls round the
large gardens. At last they stopped at a stone
gateway. This was the house of the poor
Greek’s father. No one lived there now. The
garden was filled with orange, and lemon, and
fig, and almond-trees; but it was also full of
weeds entangled amongst the roses. The house
inside was black with smoke, and the wind
blew through its broken walls. The Greek
spoke very little He once looked at a fine
GREECE. 513

vase, round which a sweet plant was twined,
and said, ‘It is the same vase;’ and then he
looked at a tree, and said, ‘This is the only one
I do not remember.’ How sad he must have
felt to think of his murdered relations !

RoOBBERS.—Once it was quite dangerous to
go about the mountains, so many murders were
committed there. But lately a great deal of
pains has been taken to frighten the robbers.
The king rewards every poor man who bring’s
a robber’s head in his hand. There was a
famous robber, named Bour-na-ba. In English
he might be called Barnaby. He chose a very
strange hiding-place for such a wicked man.
It was achapel. There are little chapels built
in all the lonely places of Greece—in caverns,
and on mountains, and tall cliffs—and a little
silver lamp is usually kept burning in them.
While Barnaby was hid in the chapel, another
robber sat by the wayside with a gun, and
when he saw travellers he made a sign, and
Barnaby with all his band rushed out and
bound them hand and foot. Often they
killed the poor creatures as well as robbed
them.

When the king determined to destroy the
robbers, this Barnaby was afraid of being
punished, so he offered to seize robbers, and to
bring them to justice. Barnaby was pardoned.
He spent the rest of his days in hunting for

LL
514. GREECE.

his old companions. But his hoary head did
not go down to the grave unpunished, for a
voung man, whose house he had entered to
take him to prison, shot him dead.

CHILDREN.— Many of the Greeks do not
know how to bring up their children. _I will
relate an anecdote of one spoiled child.

An English lady was in a ship not far from
Athens. When it grew dark, she went down
into the cabin. There she saw a Greek lady
lying on the floor, twisting her hands in her
long hair, weeping, and lamenting aloud, and
crying out, ‘If the ship do not return to Athens
immediately, I do not know what I shall do!’
‘What is the matter?’ asked the English lady.
‘Oh,’ said she, ‘I have a little daughter of
seven years old, and she wishes to go home;
and when we told her she could not, she began
to scream violently, and is still screaming so
loud that I fear she will go into fits.’

The English lady tried to quiet the naughty
child by giving her cakes and sugar-plums.
This plan succeeded. If the child had not
been spoiled ever since she was a baby, she
would not have been so wilful and passionate
at seven years old. _

Now I will tell you of another child, who was
treated in a different manner, and yet in quite
as wrong a manner as the other.

A missionary once visited a rich Greek named
GREECE. 515

Budures, This Greek brought in a sweet child
of four years old to see the missionary.

‘She is an orphan,’ said Budures. ‘ Ask
her any questions you please, and she will
answer them.’ The pretty little creature came
up to the missionary, and, after bowing herself
down to the floor, took his hand and kissed
it, Then the missionary began to ask her
questions.

‘Where do you come from, my dear ?’—
‘From the island of Crete.’

‘Where is your father, my love ?’—* The
Turks killed him.’

‘Where is your mother, my lamb ?’—* They
killed her, too.’

‘Where are all your brothers ?’—* The Turks
killed them all.’

‘Where are your sisters, my dear child ?’—
‘They killed my sisters, too.’

‘Where are your servants ?’—‘ The Turks
killed them all.’ |

‘And how did you escape, my dear ?’—‘ In
the sand by the sea-side.’ | |

This was quite true. The poor child had
been found half buried in the sand. Then
Budures roughly said to the missionary, ‘ She
is very guilty of telling lies. She is also dis«
obedient. What shall I do to her?’ Then
Budures turned to the. trembling child, and
sald. in a fierce voice, ‘Now mind; this. is a
516 GREECE.

priest; he will cut out your tongue, if you tell
lies.’

The missionary was grieved to hear the Greek
talk in this way to the little orphan. He said
to him, ‘Do not teach the child that God’s
ministers will treat her cruelly.’

‘Oh,’ said Budures, ‘she is always abusing
the Turks for killing her mother.’

‘Tam not mructied at that,’ answered the
minister, for he knew the child had never been
taught to forgive her enemies. He turned to
the little creature, and said kindly, ‘Do you
not remember what is written in the Lord’s
Prayer? “ Forgive us our trespasses, as we for-
give those who trespass against us.’’’

How severely this orphan was used! One child
was spoiled, and the other child was ill-treated.
The missionary would not have brought up the
little girl as Budures did. |

CHARACTER.—The Greeks are very unlike
the Turks. They are lively and warm in their
manners, and fond of talking. They love sing-

ing, though they sing badly. They delight in
_ dancing and merriment. They give way to
all their feelings, crying one moment and
laughing another. They do not bear troubles
well; when they are unhappy, they scream
like babies. When a friend dies, they cry
so loud that all the neighbours hear, and they
never leave off.crying till their friend is buried.
GREECE. 517

They are very obliging and affectionate, but
not to be trusted.

PRIESTS.—A missionary once spent some days
in the house of a priest. It was only a hut
with a mud floor, There was a hole in the
middle for the fire of fagots, and another in
the ceiling to Jet out the smoke. There was
but one room, and there lived in it the priest,
his wife, his old mother, his three children, a,
horse, some cows, and many fowls.

What sort of a man was this poor priest ?
Was he pious? When did he say his prayers?
While he was washing his face. At breakfast
another priest came to see him. There were
bread, and butter, and blackbirds on the table,
or rather on the board lying on the floor. The
erandmother was not allowed to breakfast with
the family—they thought her too old! Was
that kind or respectful? There was plenty of
wine at breakfast, and both the priests drank
cup after cup. ‘Drink, drink,’ they said to
the missionary. But he refused, saying,
‘Drunkenness is a sin.’ One of them replied,
‘That may be true; but I like drinking.’ What
a sad reason !

But now let me tell you ofa priest who, I
hope, was better than these. —

He was seen sitting under a spreading olive-
tree, in the heat of the day, dressed in his
robes, and a large old book was lying on his
518 GREECE,

knees. It was the Greek Testament. Nearly
twenty children were standing around, listening
with great earnestness and with beaming eyes,
to the priest’s instructions. When strangers
approached, the children began to look about.

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Greek Priest instructing Children.

The priest desired a little boy to read aloud a
passage of Scripture. The child had long
flowing hair (a sign that he was to be brought
up as a priest), and his countenance was grave.
He read aloud several verses in the Greek
Testament.

We cannot like the Greek Church, but we are
glad that some of the Greek children are taught
to read the Scriptures. May those children
GREECE, 519

become wise unto salvation through faith which
is in Christ !*

Some years ago a eatideeinn visited a large
school at Athens. There were seven hundred
pupils. He was delighted to see how eager
they all were to learn. What do you think
was the greatest punishment they could have?
Not to be allowed to come to school, even for
a day.

You will be more pleased still to hear that
there is a good doctor at Athens, who sends
colporteurs all over the country to sell Bibles.
In 1879 more than two thousand copies of God’s
Word were sold.

One of the colporteurs is called Nicolas.
He was an orphan, and he used to work in a
factory. ‘There one of his hands was so much
hurt that he was sent to the hospital. He was
obliged to lie still, and he began to wish to be
religious: he thought the best plan would he to
become a monk.

Just then there came a monk to the hospital.
This monk had a New Testament. Nicolas
borrowed it, and read it eagerly. He saw that
the monk did not behave at all according to the
book; so he gave up the idea of becoming a
monk himself.

He had to leave the hospital, but he was

* Taken from Wayfaring Sketches, Wilson’s Greek Mis-
sion, and Stephens’ Incidents of Travel.
520 CYPRUS.

not able to work. What could he do? He
went about the streets selling papers. A good
man met him, and invited him to his own room,
and talked to him of Jesus. Nicolas heard him
with joy. Soon afterwards he was brought
before the mayor and reproved. He replied,—

‘The Gospel found me wretched and starv-
ing. It has lifted me up, fed me, clothed me,
and saved my soul.’

He is now telling others of this Gospel.*

CYPRUS.

CYPRUS is an island in the Mediterranean Sea,
which has a lofty, snow-capped mountain called
Olympus. Cyprus is lovely in spring, the air
so light, the sky so blue, the colours so bright.

In the autumn, for miles and miles, nothing
is to be seen but brown-baked mud; but in the
spring, Cyprus has rich flowery fields. The
myrtle, the anemone, and the narcissus, all
grow wild. The peasants delight in flowers.
They wear bunches of jessamine and sweet-
scented geranium. Every child on the road-.
side offers you a bouquet, and the poorest
little girl wears flowers in her hair. Cyprus

“ Annual Report of American Bible Society, 1879.
CYPRUS, §21

isa land of gourds, of oranges and figs, dates,
olives, and corn. It is famous for its wine.
It is full of game, hares, partridges, woodcocks,
turkeys, and wild ducks. Cocks and hens may
be seen there, without any tails, and looking
like round balls with a neck and two legs, In
one place there are wild sheep and wild boars,

You can buy a fat lamb for three shillings,
and a large loaf for three halfpence.

In summer, there are sand-flies—and in
winter, there are fleas without number, which
swarm in the white sand. You must often
soak your mattress in paraffine, if you wish to
escape them; and when you travel, you must
get into a large flannel bag and tie it round
your neck. The people fancy that there is
always the most s2// in the years when there
are the most fleas.

A great many sponges are fished up out of
the sea on the north coast of Cyprus. For five
shillings a gentleman got one, which measured
more than six feet round.

An- English lady who lived in Cyprus, tells
us that when she wished to please the people,
she could give them nothing they liked so much
as the photograph of our beloved Queen and
~ her family. She has seen a dozen women go
up and kiss the portrait of the Princess of Wales
with the greatest reverence.

If you wish to know more about Cyprus, you


522 CYPRUS.

must read the account of this lady’s home in
Cyprus.”

The name of one place in Cyprus would
amuse you—Cape ‘ Gatti,’ or ‘Cats.’ It is
called after the multitude of cats which were
kept there by the monks, in order to destroy
the snakes. There are copper mines in Cyprus,
which once enriched Hered the Great.











A Lighthouse on the coast of Cyprus.t

We read of Cyprus in the Bible. There
Barnabas was born, and there he afterwards
went with St. Paul. They set off together
from Antioch, and landed at a place called
Salamis, on the east of Cyprus. After they

* Our Home in Cyprus, by Mrs. Scott Stevenson.
t From Illustrated Missionary News, December, 1878.
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had preached to their own people, the Jews,
they travelled a hundred miles to a place called
Paphos, at the other end of the island. There
was a famous temple at Paphos to Venus, the
goddess of Beauty, where doves were fed and
incense was burnt in her honour. Her image
was not at all beautiful, for it was only a lump
of white stone. The poets said that she was
born in the sea, that she suddenly rose up out
of the foam, and landed at Paphos, which was
therefore called her city. |

The Roman Governor, or Pro-consul, lived
at Paphos. His name was Sergius Paulus.
Very likely he did not believe in the goddess
Venus, for he is called in Scripture ‘a prudent
man, or a ‘man of understanding.” When
Paul and Barnabas arrived, he sent for them,
that he might learn the Word of God. How
happy Paul must have been to instruct him!
In the thirteenth of Acts, Luke tells us how the
wicked sorcerer was punished, and how Sergius
Paulus believed. In this chapter, too, he first
calls the Apostle by his Roman name of Paul
instead of his Jewish name of Saul.

In English history, we read of Cyprus again.
When our King Richard the Lion-hearted set
off for the Holy Land, a storm came on and
drove some of his ships on the coast of Cyprus.
A very cruel king was then reigning in Cyprus.
His name was Isaac. How did he treat King
524 CYPRUS.

Richard’s ships? One of them had some prin-
cesses on board. The poor ladies were much
terrified, and begged leave to take refuge in the
harbour. Isaac refused their prayer. He be-
haved still worse to the sailors, whose ships were
wrecked, for he put them in prison,

As he refused to release them, King Richard
landed in Cyprus, and made Isaac prisoner
himself. He begged not to be put in irons,
so he was bound in silver fetters instead.

It was in the island of Cyprus that King
Richard married his good queen,and proclaimed
her Queen of England and Cyprus. |

In the days of Queen Elizabeth, Cyprus
belonged to the city of Venice, but the Turks
came and conquered the unhappy island. They
killed thousands and thousands of people, and
they tortured the brave Venetian captain to
death, and then stuffed his skin with straw,
and sent it to Constantinople.*

Cyprus has belonged to Turkey ever since.
Yet though it has had Mohammedan rulers, it
is not a Mohammedan country. It has an
Archbishop of its own, who signs his name in
red ink, who wears purple, and who uses a cane
with a gold ball on the top.

* Some people say it was the love of Cyprian wine which
made the Turkish Sultan attack Cyprus. One day, after he
had been drinking too much of this favourite winc, he met
with an accident, which caused his death.
CYPRUS. 525

At the end of the war between Russia and
Turkey in 1878, some great lords from many
countries of Europe met at Berlin. They
signed a treaty called the Berlin Treaty. One
agreement in this treaty was that the English
should occupy and govern the island of Cyprus.
It still belongs to Turkey, but it has an English
governor. |

When the English arrived in Cyprus they
found the harbours choked up, the country
unhealthy for want of care and cleanliness, few
inhabitants, very little water, and hardly any
roads.

Long ago a Roman poet called the island
‘Happy Cyprus!’ We hope the English will
help to make it ‘happy Cyprus’ again.

From Life and Epistles of St. Paul, by Thomas Lewin.

Kindly revised by Major Grant.


CONCLUSION.

THE people of the north of Europe are happier
than those in the south. And why? Because
they are taught more of the Word of God.

Barren Iceland is better than fruitful Sicily.

Holland, flat and damp, is better than Bo-
hemia, mountainous and lovely.

Bleak Scotland is more to be desired than
balmy Greece; and England, wrapt in fogs, 1s
more blessed than Italy with her blue skies.

Yet none of these countries are as happy as
they might be, because there are none where
all the people fear God and keep His command-
ments. When the kingdoms of the world shall
serve the Lord, then they will be happy. Then
there will be no more—

Slaves, nor beggars ;
Prisoners, nor policemen ;
Drunkards, nor gin-shops 5
Robbers, nor executioners ;
Persecutors, nor martyrs ;
CONCLUSION. 527

Proud lords, nor cruel kings;

Miserable hovels, nor crowded alleys ;

Devouring beasts, nor venomous reptiles ;

Plague, nor famine ;

Karthquake, nor irruption ;

Soldiers, cannon, nor ships of war ;

Wandering Jews, nor idolatrous Gentiles ;

Nor deceiving priests, with their pictures,
lnages, and crosses ;

Holy water, holy fire ;

There will be no Pope and no False
Prophet.

But instead of all these, what will there be ?
Search the Word of God and know.

‘But in the last days it shall come to pass,
that the mountain of the house of the Lord
shall be established in the top of the mountains,
and it shall be exalted above the hills; and
people shall flow unto it. And many nations
shall come and say, Come, and let us go up to
the mountain of the Lord, and to the house of
the God of Jacob. .... And they shall beat
their. swords into ploughshares, and their spears
into pruning-hooks: nation shall not lift up a
sword against nation, neither shall they learn
war any more. But they shall sit every man
under his vine and under his fig-tree; and none
shall make them afraid: for the mouth of the
Lord of Hosts hath spoken it. Afie. iv. 1-4.

‘The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb,
528 CONCLUSION.

and the leopard shall le down with the kid;
and the calf, and the young lion, and the fatling
together; and a little child shall lead them.’—
isa. xi. 6.
And why such Plenty, Peace, and Piety ?
Because SATAN will be in his prison and
CHRIST upon His THRONE.—Rev. xx.



em ‘
cpioatpaian

LONDON:
- Printed by Srnanecrwars & Sons, Tower Street, Upper St. Martin's Lane.
Hy the Author of “Che Weep of Day.’

NURSERY BIBLE SERIES.

/n the following Order. First for 4, the last for 10 years of age.

1. THE PEEP OF DAY;

ee
wd

6.

ay

10,

Or, a Series of the earliest Religious Instruction
the Infant Mind is capable of receiving.

c8mo. with 27 Illus. Cloth, 2s.; roxb. 2s. 6d. School Edition, 1s. 2d.
LArGE EpiTion,. Sq. cr. 8vo. with 11 full-page Illus. in colours. Cl. 3s.6d.
Also an Edition in French. 18mo. Illustrated, cloth, 2s. 6d. :

Over 550,000 copies of this book (published originally in 1833) have been sold in
kingland at 2s. and 1s. 2d. There have been editions.printed and sold by thousands
in America; and the work has been translated and published in French, German,
Russian, Samoan, Chinese, and many other languages, both for Missionary and
general educational use. :

The Indian Government, in their Educational Report for April 1873, specially
recommended the Work for use in their Mission-schools; and Missionaries have
testified to the fact that by having the book in English, and translating it verbatim,
they have been enabled to bring the truths of the Bible within the comprehension
and home to the hearts of the heathen when their own explanations have failed.

. STREAKS OF LIGHT; or, Fifty-two Facts from the Bible.

49th ‘lhousand. 52 Illustrations. 18mo. cloth, 2s. 6¢.; roxburghe, 3s.
Cheap Edition, Illustrated, lintp cloth, 1s. 6d.

. LINE UPON LINE;

Or, a Second Series of Religious Instruction.

Part I. 297th Thous. Ques. and 30 Illus. 18mo. cl. 2s. 6d¢.; roxb.
»» Al. 236th Thous. Ques. and 27 Illus. 18mo. cl. 2s. 6a.; roxb. 3

Cheap Editions, Illustrated, limp cloth, each 1s. 4d.

> OD
a

. PRECEPT UPON PRECEPT.

41st Thous. Ques. 68 Illus. and Map. 18mo. cl. 2s. 6d.3; roxb. 3s.
Cheap Edition, Illustrated, lintp cloth, 1s. 6d.

. APOSTLES PREACHING TO JEWS AND GENTILES ;

Or, the Acts explained to Children.
17th Thous. Questions. 27 Illus.and Map. 18mo. cl. 2s. 6¢.; roxb.
Cheap Edition, [llustrated, lintp cloth, 1s. 4d.

LINES LEFT OUT.

sist Thousand. Questions and 28 Illus. 18mo. cloth, 2s. 6@.; roxb.
Cheap Edition, Illustrated, limp cloth, 1s. 6d.

U2
4

U2
-

. THE KINGS OF ISRAEL AND JUDAH.

22nd Thous. 27 Illus. and Map. 18mo. cloth, 3s.; roxburghe, 39s. 6:7.
Cheap Edition, Illustrated, limp cloth, 1s. 6d.

. THE CAPTIVITY OF JUDAH. With Questions.

1oth Thous. 27 Illus.and Map. 18mo. cloth, 2s. 6¢.; roxburghe, 35.
Cheap Edition, Lllustrated, limp cloth, 1s. 6d.

. MORE ABOUT JESUS. With Questions.

57th Thousand. 26 Illustrations. 18mo, cloth, 2s, 6¢.; roxburghe, 3s
Cheap Edition, Illustrated, lintp cloth, 1s. 4d.

THE ABOVE SERIES in a Handsome Nursery Box.
10 vols. roxburghe, gilt edges, 315. 6d.
Cheap School Series. 10 vols. leatherette, 215.
il,

14,

16,

"18,

19.

BY THE AUTHOR OF ‘THE PEEP ee ee
foe A RE es bc eee ee . We
GEOGRAPHIES FOR CHILDREN (rr, to, AND 13).

NEAR HOME ;
Or, Europe Described to Children. With Anecdotes.

New Edition (82nd Thousand), carefully revised. Crown 8vo. 5s.
With 22 full-page and 79 smaller Illus. 50 xew, and Coloured Map.

2, FAR OFF (PartlI.);

Or, Asia Described. With Aneedétes.

New Edition (46th Thousand). 516 pp. carefully revised.” Cr. 8vo. 5s.
With 95 small, 16 full-page, and 2 Coloured Illus. and Coloured Map.

. FAR OFF (Part II.) ;

Or, Oceania, Africa, and America Described.

New Edition (36th Thousand), carefully revised. Crown 8vo. 5S
With over 200 Illustrations and Coloured Map.

LATIN WITHOUT TEARS: or, One Word a Day.
Square 16mo. cloth, 3s. 6d.

5 READING WITHOUT TEARS;

A Pleasant Mode of Learning to Read.
Part I. 56th Thousand. 520 Illus. 16mo. large type, cloth, 2s. 6d.
», II. 24th Thousand. 1x30 Illus. x16mo. large type, cloth, 3s.

Coneplete tn One Volume Lllustrated, 16mo. cloth extra, 5s.

READING DISENTANGLED.

A Series of Classified Lessons in 37 Sheets.
The set plain, 6s. ; mounted, 10s. The set coloured, gs. ; mounted, 13s.

;. LIGHT IN THE DWELLING;

Or, a Harmony of the Four Gassels.

With very Short and Simple Remarks, adapted to Family Reading,

and arranged in 365 Sections for every Day i in the Year.

28th Thousand. Thick crown 8vo. cloth, 8s.; calf, 16s. ; morocco, 19S.
THE NIGHT OF TOIL;

Or, First Missionary Lanoud in the South Sea Islands.

Seventh and Cheaper Edition, with 9 Illus. Fcap. 8vo. cloth, 3s. 6d.

TEACHING MYSELF ;
Or, an Abridgment of ‘ Reading without Tears.’
For the Cottager. 18th Thousand. 92 Illus. Square 16mo. paper, 4d.

20, THE ANGEL’S MESSAGE ;

Or, the Saviour made Kaen to the Cottager.
18th Thousand. With 9 Illustrations. Square 16mo. paper cover, 4a.

21. TRACTS FOR CHILDREN;; or, Fifty-two eb ogee: Facts.

14th Thousand. Ina Packet of Vey. Tracts, 2s.
or bound together in cloth, 2s,

Oser ‘a Million and a Half Copies of thes Anthor’s Works have been sold.



HATCHARDS, 187 PICCADILLY, LONDON.



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'2012-05-06T03:00:19-04:00'
describe
'207950' 'info:fdaE20091214_AAAACFfileF20091214_AABVJL' 'sip-files00008.QC.jpg'
0f9faecac1d403f909baa02fdcdfe7c1
48464902e9f3ff11806735dc4c45077ab911a221
'2012-05-06T03:02:31-04:00'
describe
'34678592' 'info:fdaE20091214_AAAACFfileF20091214_AABVJM' 'sip-files00008.tif'
971606265f3e0fa64c04da3265058858
897f13e9f007e4266c870cd8b91d1a94f0bffdd8
'2012-05-06T03:21:58-04:00'
describe
'683' 'info:fdaE20091214_AAAACFfileF20091214_AABVJN' 'sip-files00008.txt'
80d5bc0b0b423c105fc060bdb3a83bd5
05cd797d11ff9d7a6653c5fab7acf2de0e7a2f1b
'2012-05-06T03:13:04-04:00'
describe
Invalid character
'183854' 'info:fdaE20091214_AAAACFfileF20091214_AABVJO' 'sip-files00008thm.jpg'
6083f1cee5d55eedaa704450f9a7dc42
e544dae4d0c762d05f9198bc00b6d57f60af1805
'2012-05-06T02:57:14-04:00'
describe
'944970' 'info:fdaE20091214_AAAACFfileF20091214_AABVJP' 'sip-files00009.jp2'
4e674439bc228bd3abc9779f352a5a33
23949062e7cb72c95152f9f7001cca46c071eda4
'2012-05-06T03:12:46-04:00'
describe
'55705' 'info:fdaE20091214_AAAACFfileF20091214_AABVJQ' 'sip-files00009.jpg'
b91fea383c35d1b5ef4627b7d62a426d
7c86cf2b4bde0f99cb9fe2bd1d6b5c940e27cdc1
'2012-05-06T03:17:22-04:00'
describe
'11380' 'info:fdaE20091214_AAAACFfileF20091214_AABVJR' 'sip-files00009.pro'
2ba66ee06edf3b126bbb813e83ef8cf4
b018241766d3f244a0f7e60839996c5415292e68
'2012-05-06T03:15:12-04:00'
describe
'17000' 'info:fdaE20091214_AAAACFfileF20091214_AABVJS' 'sip-files00009.QC.jpg'
537a18bc228736f0090b4a072f175b33
00d698cf7a0e1ca7571c8a7f8515eba32aef682a
'2012-05-06T03:06:00-04:00'
describe
'13511040' 'info:fdaE20091214_AAAACFfileF20091214_AABVJT' 'sip-files00009.tif'
aace660fc3904a3208fe72d522ce3867
7a0f20c37def8e418fa50a24c877cdbdee0e250c
'2012-05-06T02:54:44-04:00'
describe
'514' 'info:fdaE20091214_AAAACFfileF20091214_AABVJU' 'sip-files00009.txt'
9bb40c6f0ace64e34d7c1b2491730514
0b4415e3d3a4e5c8d2d5367ff04eb37ff76965db
'2012-05-06T02:59:39-04:00'
describe
'5393' 'info:fdaE20091214_AAAACFfileF20091214_AABVJV' 'sip-files00009thm.jpg'
26ecaf9d3cf2c29892cc8f76b70e1374
fcb9f201a844260ee512f8ccff1d6a19ae1272cd
'2012-05-06T03:19:16-04:00'
describe
'258625' 'info:fdaE20091214_AAAACFfileF20091214_AABVJW' 'sip-files00010.jp2'
d4458e0c95ff0cb71f82807964ca6040
c59b6c930671984e2f12df019bc5d745a542dd7c
'2012-05-06T03:16:53-04:00'
describe
'15730' 'info:fdaE20091214_AAAACFfileF20091214_AABVJX' 'sip-files00010.jpg'
6e89ebe97355aba96fad914154590acf
6ac157bbc4fb68592f9c02089247ccb9710671da
'2012-05-06T03:09:42-04:00'
describe
'2648' 'info:fdaE20091214_AAAACFfileF20091214_AABVJY' 'sip-files00010.pro'
bca19c258be61b6c325c405d27c9ebf7
6363ec77df4386a421ed62499474f8831d265ea3
'2012-05-06T03:13:30-04:00'
describe
'4706' 'info:fdaE20091214_AAAACFfileF20091214_AABVJZ' 'sip-files00010.QC.jpg'
e74855a46a78af96915230acb3d29f50
a4373fd525619ba93956ae0162b8d31e0d32126a
'2012-05-06T03:14:23-04:00'
describe
'13508544' 'info:fdaE20091214_AAAACFfileF20091214_AABVKA' 'sip-files00010.tif'
c24c92e4aa8a38b402349c5996183c8f
ed39614e9c541bd3b0313a77340964f24949fd25
'2012-05-06T02:55:49-04:00'
describe
'218' 'info:fdaE20091214_AAAACFfileF20091214_AABVKB' 'sip-files00010.txt'
85be0729c7d21c82e90825aa9fc92def
44eeabfc7c451f711506979f89c4a233d7c4ea00
'2012-05-06T03:05:50-04:00'
describe
'1461' 'info:fdaE20091214_AAAACFfileF20091214_AABVKC' 'sip-files00010thm.jpg'
6a9b9ed5b30c59436de9c940014d5d70
937360b84fbfab3c29737be38d51a2bd421ae655
'2012-05-06T03:08:40-04:00'
describe
'1246914' 'info:fdaE20091214_AAAACFfileF20091214_AABVKD' 'sip-files00011.jp2'
e1955b23edfcf36368f6ed9164a38346
8f563be8cbe35660eda75ce205e5554435283fb0
'2012-05-06T03:20:15-04:00'
describe
'73092' 'info:fdaE20091214_AAAACFfileF20091214_AABVKE' 'sip-files00011.jpg'
cc6e518d19fc2f2cc87ee2e18fb16520
474ea634a4bddd03fcd9c3fca877305b1b6db1dd
'2012-05-06T03:04:10-04:00'
describe
'20295' 'info:fdaE20091214_AAAACFfileF20091214_AABVKF' 'sip-files00011.pro'
4eed829e7ce0478e0d4f36b452119f03
7214cb7d7ea00d2c8a328926138d3cb745835799
'2012-05-06T03:22:46-04:00'
describe
'24312' 'info:fdaE20091214_AAAACFfileF20091214_AABVKG' 'sip-files00011.QC.jpg'
84e238129bbfb2d845bd4e9a3fa5a10a
71494daa586aaefb91d596af70b22164e695b4a5
'2012-05-06T03:10:39-04:00'
describe
'13511748' 'info:fdaE20091214_AAAACFfileF20091214_AABVKH' 'sip-files00011.tif'
68be3acde8b65bd0b16130a15b7908f1
4754bc09533d2170b8b039385760a421abbe221b
'2012-05-06T03:16:14-04:00'
describe
'824' 'info:fdaE20091214_AAAACFfileF20091214_AABVKI' 'sip-files00011.txt'
c1c029a44eca22008429e4636178974f
de1c935f63206de40d49b09321435043b0bb19d0
'2012-05-06T03:01:57-04:00'
describe
'7687' 'info:fdaE20091214_AAAACFfileF20091214_AABVKJ' 'sip-files00011thm.jpg'
05c7bd2bca3d8e3a73b78b6d11b43aef
869a795759de54799493434f4ab3c1ef841a9185
'2012-05-06T03:09:37-04:00'
describe
'1687601' 'info:fdaE20091214_AAAACFfileF20091214_AABVKK' 'sip-files00012.jp2'
d60220dd4d4548c13239a948117fed5d
9c72903956cf574eb32e7dd00e9492304fd0314c
'2012-05-06T03:12:34-04:00'
describe
'107730' 'info:fdaE20091214_AAAACFfileF20091214_AABVKL' 'sip-files00012.jpg'
0dfe6dcd39a111b58ba18e9e66848832
ed2c75b430646a1b9e697e7756d904e10f51e134
'2012-05-06T03:04:24-04:00'
describe
'31674' 'info:fdaE20091214_AAAACFfileF20091214_AABVKM' 'sip-files00012.pro'
f970aab19ce404f068f5854d652b5883
88f26169f5556667d0ad9b1c0e75373a922c486f
'2012-05-06T03:22:21-04:00'
describe
'36531' 'info:fdaE20091214_AAAACFfileF20091214_AABVKN' 'sip-files00012.QC.jpg'
9ad5abe8a56eb7f8e279492eef6e3e18
1711eed1680f1ec08316ed7468afb70cce205d80
'2012-05-06T03:15:41-04:00'