The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe

Material Information

The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Uniform Title:
Robinson Crusoe
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Stothard, Thomas, 1755-1834 ( Illustrator )
Bickers and Son ( Publisher )
Ballantyne, Hanson & Co ( Printer )
Ballantyne Press ( Printer )
Place of Publication:
London (I Leiscester Square)
Bickers & Son
Ballantyne, Hanson and Co.
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
xix, 378 p., [12] leaves of plates : ill. ; 22 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Castaways -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1864 ( rbgenr )
Imaginary voyages ( rbgenr )
fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London
Scotland -- Edinburgh
England -- London
Scotland -- Edinburgh
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )


NUC pre-1956,
Smith, R.D.H. Crusoe 250,
General Note:
Variant of Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe, 636, which has an additional New York imprint and a blank verso on the half title p. This copy has on verso of half title: Ballantyne Press, Ballantyne, Hanson and Co., Edinburgh and London.
General Note:
Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe.
Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
Statement of Responsibility:
by Daniel De Foe [sic] ; with a memoir of the author and twelve illustrations in permanent photography by T. Stothard, R.A.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections ( with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
028862727 ( ALEPH )
30836226 ( OCLC )
AJN8034 ( NOTIS )

Full Text

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Robinson Crusoe declares his birth and parentage-He inclines to a seafaring
life-His father expostulates with him-Visits Hull, where a companion
tempts him to take a trip by sea-A storm arises, in the midst of which he
reflects on his disobedient conduct-The ship springs a leak, and goes
down in Yarmouth Roads-Escapes to the shore in a boat-Is advised not
to go to sea again, but is unwilling to return home, and travels to London 1


Crusoe makes the acquaintance of the captain of a merchant vessel bound for
the African coast, and embarks as a trading adventurer-Takes a fever,
learns how to navigate a ship, and returns enriched-On the death of the
captain he makes a second voyage with the mate-The ship is taken by
Turkish pirates, whose leader makes Crusoe his slave-Fishing off the
Morocco coast, he contrives an escape-The Moor is thrown overboard,
and swims for his life--Sets sail with the Moresco boy-Dangers of
coasting-An African lion-Steers for the south-Falls in with savages,
who supply him with provisions--Shoots a leopard, whereat the natives are
astonished and terrified-Is picked up by a Portuguese merchant-Sells
the Moresco boy, with a reservation-Arrives at the Brazils 13


Crusoe buys land, and becomes a planter-The Portuguese captain continues
his good offices-The plantation succeeds, but prosperity does not bring


contentment-Becomes supercargo of a slaver-A hurricane-The ship is
driven westward, and strikes on a sandbank-The crew take to their boat,
which is swamped-All are drowned, except Crusoe, who is washed against
a rock, and succeeds in reaching the mainland-He rejoices at his deliver-
ance, reflects on his position, and remembers that he has neither food for
sustenance nor weapons for defence-Sleeps in a tree 30


Crusoe, on waking in the morning, sees the ship lying aground high out of
the water-He comes down from the tree-Swims to the ship-Constructs
a raft, which he loads with stores, and guides with difficulty to the shore-
Surveys the country, and discovers that it is an island and uninhabited-
Shoots a bird, the flesh of which proves to be carrion-Unloads the raft,
and erects a hut--Swims to the ship again, and brings a second cargo
ashore-On his return is confronted by a wild cat, which discovers a dis-
position to be friendly-Makes a tent, which he furnishes and fortifies-
Repeats his visits to the ship, which he strips of its contents-Removes his
tent to a more advantageous site, and fences it strongly-Kills a she-goat,
and is grieved threat 42


Crusoe sets up a wooden cross, on which he inscribes the date of his landing,
and keeps his reckoning of time-He seriously considers his position, and,
balancing the good in it against the evil, arrives at the conclusion that
he is not altogether miserable-Makes various articles of furniture for his
house, with the aid of the tools found in the ship-Keeps a Journal 56


Crusoe enlarges upon the circumstances noted in his Journal, and details his
difficulties-Is surprised by the appearance of barley growing out of the
ground-At first supposes that Providence has specially intervened on his
behalf, but afterwards remembers that the barley was accidentally sown-
Prudently preserves the grain for seed-The Journal resumed-Is startled
by an earthquake, which is followed by a hurricane-Recovers various
articles from the wreck, which have been cast ashore in the storm-
Finds a turtle, and cooks it-Falls ill, and is alarmed by a terrible dream
-Reproaches himself on account of his past life, and reflects upon his
present miseries .67


The Journal resumed-Crusoe's thoughts during his illness-His reflections on
the dealings of Providence with him-Finds a Bible in a seaman's chest


which is cast on shore, and is consoled and encouraged by the reading of
it-Tobacco as a remedial agent-His first prayer-Finds deliverance from
sin a greater blessing than deliverance from affliction-Convalescence-
Takes a fresh survey of the island, and discovers tobacco, aloes, lemons,
melons, grapes, and wild sugar-canes-Gathers grapes, limes, and lemons
to store up for the winter-His lost cat returns with a family of kittens 80

The Journal continued-Crusoe celebrates the anniversary of his landing on
the island by a solemn fast-Sets apart every seventh day for a Sabbath-
His ink beginning to fail, he only records remarkable events in his Journal
-Sows a portion of the grain he had saved at the wrong season, and
learns something worth knowing from the experiment-A new division of
the seasons-Turns his early habit of observing to account, in making
baskets-Makes a journey through the island, and comes to a spot where
the shore is covered with turtles-Loses his way in the interior, and returns
to the shore, from whence he reaches his home-Catches and tames a young
kid,-The second anniversary of his landing-Reflections-Difficulties over-
come by labour and patience 91

Crusoe in trouble about his growing crops, which are attacked by goats and
birds-He delivers himself from these, enemies, and reaps his corn-Is
perplexed how to make bread of it, and determines to preserve the whole
crop for seed-Makes a spade-Indoor employment in the rainy season-
Teaches his parrot to talk-Makes pottery, and a mortar to grind his corn
in-His first baking-A new harvest-Contemplates escaping from the
island-Constructs a boat, but is unable to launch it-Begins to cut a canal,
but gives up the attempt in despair-Fresh reflections 102

Crusoe makes and launches a boat-Leaves the island in search of the main-
land, and encounters unexpected dangers-He despairs of getting back
again-Returns to the island, and on reaching home is startled by the
greeting of his parrot-Perfects himself in the making of earthenware and
baskets-His contrivances to snare the goats which devour his corn-He
catches and tames them-At home with his family-He describes his per-
sonal appearance-Sets out on a new journey through the island 12

Crusoe is surprised by the print of a man's naked foot on the shore, and fears
an attack from savages-Erects a second fortification round his dwelling-
Discovers the remains of a feast of cannibals 135


Crusoe takes precautions against an incursion of the savages-Lives a more
retired life-His principal employment, the milking of his goats, and the
management of his flock-Is surprised by an old he-goat in a cave-Dis-
covers a party of cannibals on the shore-A ship in distress-Finds the
body of a drowned boy cast on shore-Laments that not one of the crew
has been saved, and feels more solitary than ever-Goes off to the wreck
in his boat, and finds the only living thing on board to be a dog-Loads his
*boat with money-bags, clothes, &c., and returns to the shore-Reflections 152

The four-and-twentieth year of Crusoe's sojourn on the island-He dreams
about the savages-He conceives the design of getting a savage into his
possession-The cannibals visit the island again, and proceed to slay the
prisoners they bring with them-The dream is fulfilled-One of the savages
escapes, but is pursued-Crusoe knocks down one of the pursuers, and
shots the other-He welcomes the fugitive, whom he encourages to slay
the second of his enemies-Names his savage Friday-Instructs and clothes
him-Human companionship almost reconciles him to his lot 171


Crusoe attempts to reclaim Friday from cannibalism, and converses with him
about his country and its inhabitants-Instructs him in the knowledge of
the true God, and exposes the delusions of Pagan priestcraft-Friday finds
it difficult to account for the existence of evil-The savage becomes a
Christian, and Crusoe is completely happy 85

Crusoe teaches Friday the use of fire-arms, and describes to him the countries
of Europe-They make a boat, and fit it with masts and sails-Friday is
instructed how to navigate it-The savages again visit the island-They
are attacked and routed-Crusoe rescues a Spaniard, their prisoner, and
Friday discovers his father .. 195

Crusoe's subjects and their religions-The dead bodies of the slain savages are
buried-The Spaniard and Friday's father set out for the mainland to fetch
Europeans who had been shipwrecked there-In their absence Crusoe is
surprised by the appearance of a boat-load of mutinous sailors, who bring
their officers to the island to murder them-Crusoe releases the prisoners-
The mutineers are attacked and defeated 212


Crusoe and the captain consult how they may recover the ship from the muti-
neers-In the meanwhile a fresh party come ashore-An ambuscade is con-
trived, and the mutineers lay down their arms-The captain promises mercy
to all except Will Atkins-The ship taken from the mutineers-Crusoe
leaves the island, in which he had lived for twenty-eight years 226


Crusoe arrives in England, and finds that most of his relations are dead, and
that his benefactor and steward has fallen into misfortune-He goes to
Lisbon, where he makes himself known to the captain of the ship who took
him up at sea, and is put in the way of recovering his property in the
Brazils-His possessions are restored, and he finds himself a wealthy man
-Makes arrangements for the conduct of his estate, and sets out for England
by way of Spain-An encounter with wolves-Friday makes merry with a
bear-Crusoe arrives in England, and settles there 243


Crusoe's reflections in England-He dreams of his island, and conceives a
desire to return to it, which his wife discovers-Resolves to divert his'
thoughts, and begins farming in Bedfordshire-On the death of his wife
he determines to revisit his island, and sets sail in an Indiaman, which is
to touch at the Brazils-The vessel is driven by contrary winds on the coast
of Galway, which leads to new adventures-Falls in with a French merchant
vessel on fire, and delivers the crew, who are carried to Newfoundland--
Steers thence for the West Indies, and falls in with a Bristol ship, the crew
and passengers of which are famishing 266


Crusoe arrives at his island, which he finds with some difficulty, having dis-
covered, in his search for it, that that which he previously supposed to be
a continent, was, in reality, a group of islands-Friday is very joyous upon
seeing the old place-The first person Crusoe meets is the Spaniard whose
life he saved-Friday meets with his 'father-Crusoe discovers that the
English sailors he left behind have behaved badly-The history of the
island during his absence 289


The islanders are greatly relieved by the arrival of Crusoe, who furnishes them
with tools of all kinds-The Spaniards recount their adventures among the
savages before they came to the island, and describe their joy at being


delivered-Will Atkins, who had been the ringleader of the English sailors
in their evil doings, having shown a better disposition, the Spaniards take
him and his companions into their confidence--The island is divided into
tlfree colonies-The French priest, whom Crusoe had brought out of the
ship relieved by him at sea, proposes certain reforms--Conversion of Will
Atkins' Indian wife-The English sailors are married-A religious co.nver-
sation-Crusoe leaves the island in a hopeful condition 330


Crusoe encounters a fleet of Indian canoes at sea-The savages attack his vessel
Friday is killed-Crusoe arrives at Brazil, where he gets his sloop set up,
and despatches it, laden with live-stock, to his island-Sets sail for the
East Indies-Touches at Madagascar, where they are well received by the
natives-The crime of one of the sailors is avenged by his death, where-
upon the crew commence a general massacre, which Crusoe vainly attempts
to stay-On resuming the voyage, he reproaches the sailors, who at length
mutiny, and leave him on shore at Bengal 347


At Bengal, Crusoe meets with an English merchant, with whom he enters into
partnership, and *makes a voyage to Siam and China-They return to
Bengal, where they purchase a Dutch coasting vessel, which they after-
wards discover the crew had run away with-Their new purchase brings
them into danger, as they are mistaken for pirates, and chased by English
and Dutch boats-They beat off their pursuers, and set sail for Cochin
China, where they have an encounter with the natives-They arrive at
Quinchang, where they part from their ship-Crusoe visits Nankin and
Pekin, and travels with a caravan of merchants through Tartary and
Russia-Winters in Siberia-Sails from Archangel to Hamburg-Arrives
in England, after an absence of nearly eleven years, and determines to
wander no more .. 361




























a HE author of "Robinson Crusoe may be deemed
one of the most remarkable instances of the con-
centration of interest and renown in a single per-
formance, that ever appeared in the annals of
literature. More than two hundred publications
flowed from his ever-ready pen; all of them powerful and appro-
priate at the time of their appearance; yet their interest has
gradually died away with the subjects which gave them birth,
and the greater proportion of them, till lately, have been only to
be found resting undisturbed in the libraries of the curious, or
,chance-preserved, on the humbler bookstall. "Robinson Crusoe,"
however, still forms the delight of all readers; the young and old,
the rich and poor: the celebrity of his adventures has been extended
not only through Germany, France, Spain, Italy, and, indeed, the
whole of polished Europe, but even to the sandy plains of Arabia,
where, under the delicious title of "Dur El Bakur," "the pearl of
the sea," in the translation of the ingenious Burkhardt, it rivalled
the long-cherished traditions of Sinbad the Sailor, which form so
interesting a portion of the stories that constitute the "Arabian
Nights' Entertainments."
Daniel De Foe was born in the parish of St. Giles, Cripplegate,
in the city of London, in I661. His parents were Nonconformists,


and the religious persecution under which they at that time cor-
sequently laboured, was perhaps more than compensated to them
by the blessed effect it brought with it of early imbuing the mind
of their son with firmness, independence, and a profound reverence
for that religion, in the cause of which he saw those whom he
most respected and loved willing to "count all loss gain." Whilst
yet a boy he employed himself in copying the Bible in shorthand,
in obedience to the wishes of his parents, who dreaded lest they
might be suddenly deprived of its consolations by some arbitrary
decree of power, at a time when they might be most wanted: he
proceeded with great zeal in his task as far as the Pentateuch,
when his patience and his fears alike subsided, and he was
willing to believe that further precaution was at that period
At fourteen years of age Daniel was placed under the charge
of the Reverend Charles Morton, the head of a respectable
seminary at Newington Green; a gentleman distinguished as a
polite and profound scholar, and in whom his pupils found the
advantages of good society combined with those of sound learning.
De Foe always retained a grateful remembrance of this worthy
man, whose name he has mentioned on various occasions with
the respect it deserves, and whose voluntary exile from his native
land to America, in consequence of the persecutions to which he
was exposed on account of his religious principles, must have been
a subject of equal indignation and regret to the ingenuous mind
of his pupil. It is probable that the frequent occurrence of
similar acts of oppression might be one of the causes that operated
to divert De Foe from his original intention of entering the
ministry; and another might be found in that strong predilection
for politics, which early led him to express his opinions on the
popular side with an ardour and boldness that would soon have
been silenced from the pulpit, but which rapidly raised him to
distinction through the medium of the press.



SDe Foe was about one-and-twenty when he commenced work
as an author, and he continued the employment, with little in-
terruption, for the space of half a century. We have already
remarked that his literary labours amounted to two hundred
acknowledged publications, besides anonymous ones.
At twenty-four years of age De Foe joined the standard of
the brave and unfortunate Duke of Monmouth, on his landing
at Lyme, in the summer of 1685. In this perilous and ill-fated
expedition he acquitted himself courageously, but escaping alike
the horrible cruelties and legal persecutions which followed close
on the defeat of his leader. The public execution of Monmouth,
and the total wreck of hope in his party, seems to have acted for
a time on the lively spirits of De Foe as a sedative, under the
influence of which he betook himself to the peaceful occupation
of a hosier, and carried on the office of factor, or middleman,
between the manufacturer and the retail dealer, about ten years,
during which time he took up his freedom, to which he was
entitled by birth, and was admitted to the civic honour of livery-
man of London in January 1687-88. In the year 1692 he failed
for 1I7,000, a disaster which he attributed mainly to placing too
great reliance; and although his creditors accepted a
composition, he subsequently honourably paid the full amount of
their claims. After this reverse of fortune he undertook the secre-
taryship and afterwards the management and part-ownership of
a tile-works situated at Tilbury, but with no better success; and
his imprisonment in 1703 brought the works to a 'standstill with
a loss of f3000. From this time to the end of his life, business,
so unprofitable to him, gave place to the production of the many
literary works which flowed from his pen.
The poem of "The True-born Englishman" had perhaps a
more decided influence on both the fortunes and reputation of
De Foe than any other of his productions. In it he satirises the
English, themselves the most mixed race in the world, for their



prejudices against foreigners, and lashes their ingratitude for over-
looking all the benefits which King William had conferred on
their country, merely because that country did not happen to be
the one which gave him birth. The opening lines of the poem
are well known.

Wherever God erects a house of prayer,
The Devil always builds a chapel there;
And 'twill be found upon examination,
The latter has the largest congregation."

After tracing the most ancient families to their origin, among
those who marched under the banners of the Norman invader,
he proceeds to compliment them and his countrymen at large in
the following lines :-

These are the heroes who despise the Dutch,
And rail at new-come foreigners so much;
Forgetting that themselves are all derived
From the most scoundrel race that ever lived,
A horrid crowd of rambling thieves and drones,
Who ransack'd kingdoms, and dispeopled towns.
The Pict, and painted Briton, treach'rous Scot,
By hunger, theft, and rapine hither brought,
Norwegian pirates, buccaneering Danes,
Whose red-hair'd offspring everywhere remains;
Who, join'd with Norman-French, compound the breed,
From whence your true-born Englishmen proceed."

The death of William in 1702 opened a fresh field to De Foe
in vindicating both in prose and verse the memory of that monarch
from the aspersions of his enemies. "Can an Englishman," says
he, "go to bed, or rise up, without blessing the very name of
King William ?"
The reign of Anne was fraught with trouble to the Dissenters;
the Queen advocated the cause of the High Church with firmness
and moderation, but the intemperance of the party thus patronised
soon threatened to elevate the mitre even above the crown, and
to mark all the humbler dissenters from its dogmas as victims


of persecution. Such a state of things was calculated to excite
the indignation of far less fiery spirits than De Foe; it cannot,
therefore, be matter of surprise that he should attack it with the
sharpest weapons he had at command: among these satire was
ever ready; and he had now recourse to it under its most delicate
and dangerous form of irony. He accordingly published, under
the assumed character of a High Churchman, his celebrated
pamphlet, entitled "The Shortest Way with Dissenters; or, Pro-
posals for the Establishment of the Church;" in which, after
pretended bitter reflections on the Dissenters and their principles,
and a retrospective view of their conduct in the preceding reigns,
affecting implicit belief in all the factions and plots imputed to
them, he proceeds to make as violent and as ironical a panegyric
on the virtues of the Established Church, particularly compli-
menting it on its lenity and moderation.
The most remarkable, circumstance attending this satire was,
that it offended all parties alike. The High Church people did
not find out that it was the production of an enemy, and the
Dissenters did not perceive that it was written by a friend. The
Government offered a reward for the author's apprehension, and
condemned the book to be burnt by the common hangman. De
Foe resolved to stand his trial, and was found guilty of compos-
ing and publishing a seditious libel, and sentenced to pay a fine
of 200 marks to the Queen, stand three times in the pillory, be
imprisoned during Her Majesty's pleasure, and find sureties for
his good behaviour for seven years.
In August 1704, De Foe was restored to liberty, through the
interposition of Harley, Speaker to the House of Commons. In
the beginning of the ensuing year he was sent abroad, probably
under an assumed name, on some secret mission by Harley; and
he acquitted himself so well in this kind of agency as to procure
him no small degree of favour with Government. On the retire-
ment of Harley, his successor, Godolphin, employed De Foe in



negotiating the union with Scotland, for which service he received
a pension.
In his "Appeal to Honour and Justice," he says of himself:
"I have gone through a life of wonders, and am the subject of a
vast variety of providence. I have been fed more by miracle
than Elijah, when the ravens were his purveyors. I have some
time ago summed up the scenes of my life in this distich:-

'No man has tasted differing fortunes more,
And thirteen times I have been rich and poor.' "

In his time De Foe was a hosier, pantile-maker,'statesman,
philosopher, free-trader, poet, and novelist. Unsuccessful in
trade, persecuted and imprisoned for his free-trade and political
opinions, it remained for him to make his mark as a novelist, and
to hand down his name to posterity as the author of that truth-
like fiction, Robinson Crusoe."
At the age of seventy Daniel Defoe was gently removed, in
seeming lethargic calmness, from this transient state into eternal
life. He died on the 24th of April 1731, in the parish where
he was born, and was buried in Bunhill Fields Cemetery.
De Foe was twice married, his second wife outliving him a few
months. He had seven children-four daughters and three
sons; and with the exception of his daughter Martha, who died
in 1707, they outlived him.
It now only remains to take a general viqw of the character,
moral and literary, of this extraordinary man. He was a tender
parent, as well as dutiful son; this is evident from many passages
in his letters and writings, where he mentions his father and
his children; and that he was an affectionate husband may be
inferred from the same evidence. That his political writings
attracted considerable attention is evident from the unjusti-
fiable means (fine and imprisonment) that were resorted to in
order to suppress them, and to crush their author; but as we


have already remarked, the success with which he could assume
either side of an argument, seems gradually to have lost him the
confidence of all parties; for each in turn felt more certain of
his power to injure, than of his sincerity in serving. It must
be observed, however, that there is no proof of Daniel De Foe
ever having actually swerved from the principles he professed.
That he possessed natural benevolence of heart, and amia-
bility of temper, may be proved from his writings, as well as
from the acknowledgments of some at least of those whom he
had served: in his fictions an author generally delineates the
characteristic features of his own mind; and to judge his by this
rule, it affords a picture of many virtues. No writer, since the
days of Shakespeare, with the exception of Richardson, has shown
so much knowledge of the human heart, or delineated it with
such exquisite exactness of detail and truth of colouring; and if
some of his works are less known than others, it is not because
they are less true to nature, but that they represent those objects
in nature, which are less pleasing to contemplate: he was always,
however, equally intent on instructing, and in his hands the very
incidents of vice are so managed as to produce lessons of'virtue.
Of him it may be said, as Johnson said of Goldsmith, that he left
no species of writing unattempted; and we may add that allthe
separate excellences of his character, attainments of his mind,
and his felicity in expressing them, may be contemplated with
benefit and delight little less than is afforded by his "Robinson







Robinson Crusoe declares his birth and parentage-He inclines to a sea-faring life-
His father expostulates with him-Visits Hull, where a companion tempts him
to take a trip by sea-A storm arises, in the midst of which he reflects on his
disobedient conduct-The ship springs a leak, and goes down in Yarmouth
Roads-Escapes to the shore in a boat-Is advised not to go to sea again, but
is unwilling to return home, and travels to London.

-WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of
0 a good family, though not of that country, my
father being a foreigner of Bremen, who settled
first at Hull. He got a good estate by merchan-
dise, and leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at
York; from whence he had married my mother, whose relations
were named Robinson, a very good family in that country, and
from whom I was so called Robinson Kreutznaer; but, by the
usual corruption of words in England, we are now called, nay,
we call ourselves, and write our name, Crusoe;.. and so my com-
panions always called me.
I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-colonel
to an English regiment of foot in Flarders, formerly commanded
by the famous Colonel Lockhart, and was killed at the battle near
Dunkirk against the Spaniards. What became of my second
brother I never knew, any more than my father or,mother did
know what was become of me.


Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade,
my head began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts.
My father, who was very ancient, had given me a competent share
of learning, as far as house education and a country free school
generally go, and designed me for the law: but I would be
satisfied with nothing but going to sea: and my inclination to
this led me so strongly against the will, nay, the commands of my
father, and against all the entreaties and persuasions of my mother
and other friends, that there seemed to be something fatal in that
propension of nature, tending directly to the life of misery which
was to befall me.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excellent
counsel against what he foresaw was my design. He called me
one morning into his chamber, where he was confined by the
gout, and expostulated very warmly with me upon this subject:
he asked me what reasons, more than a mere wandering inclina-
tion, I had for leaving my father's house, and my native country,
where I might be well introduced, and had a prospect of raising
my fortune, by application and industry, with a life of ease and
pleasure. He told me it was for men of desperate fortunes, on
one hand, or of aspiring superior fortunes, on the other, who
went abroad upon adventures, to rise by enterprise, and make
themselves famous in undertakings of a nature out of the common
road; that these things were all either too far above me, or too
far below me; that mine was the middle state, or what might be
called the upper station of low life, which he had found, by long
experience, was the best state in the world, the most suited to
human happiness; not exposed to the miseries and hardships,
the labour and sufferings, of the mechanic part of mankind, and
not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of the
upper part of mankind : he told me, I might judge of the happi-
ness of this state by this one thing, viz., that this was the state of
life which all other people envied; that kings have frequently
lamented the miserable consequences of being born to great
things, and wished they had been placed in the middle of the
two extremes, between the mean and the great; that the wise
man gave his testimony to this as the just standard of true felicity,
when he prayed to have neither poverty nor riches."
He bid me observe it, and I should always find that the
calamities of life were shared among the upper and lower part of

mankind; but that the middle station had the fewest disasters,
and was not exposed to so many vicissitudes as the higher or
lower part of mankind: nay, they were not subjected to so many
distempers and uneasinesses, either of body or mind, as those were
who, by vicious living, luxury, and extravagancies, on one hand,
or by hard labour, want of necessaries, and mean or insufficient
diet, on the other hand, bring distempers upon themselves by the
natural consequences of their way of living; that the middle
station of life was calculated for all kind of virtues, and all kind
of enjoyments; that peace and plenty were the handmaids of a
middle fortune; that temperance, moderation, quietness, health,
society, all agreeable diversions, and all desirable pleasures, were
the blessings attending the middle station of life; that this way
men went silently and smoothly through the world, and com-
fortably out of it, not embarrassed with the labours of the hands
or of the head, not sold to the life of slavery for daily bread, or
harassed with perplexed circumstances, which rob the soul of
peace, and the body of rest; not enraged with the passion of
envy, or secret burning lust of ambition for great things: but, in
easy circumstances, sliding gently through the world, and sensibly
tasting the sweets of living without the bitter; feeling that they
are happy, and learning by every day's experience to know it
more sensibly.
After this he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affectionate
manner, not to play the young man, nor to precipitate myself
into miseries which nature, and the station of life I was born in,
seemed to have provided against; that I was under no necessity
of seeking my bread; that he would do well for me, and endea-
vour to enter me fairly into the station of life which he had been
just recommending to me; and that if I was not very easy and
happy in the world, it must be my mere fate, or fault, that must
hinder it; and that he should have nothing to answer for, having
thus discharged his duty in warning me against measures which
he knew would be to my hurt: in a word, that as he would do
very kind things for me if I would stay and settle at home as he
directed, so he would not have so much hand in my misfortunes
as to give me any encouragement to go away; and, to close all,
he told me I had my elder brother for an example, to whom he
had used the same earnest persuasions to keep him from going
into the Low Country wars, but could not prevail, his young


desires prompting him to run into the army, where he was killed;
and though, he said, he would not cease to pray for me, yet he
would venture to say to me that if I did take this foolish step,
God would not bless me, and I would have leisure, hereafter, to
reflect upon having neglected his counsel, when there might be
none to assist in my recovery.
I observed, in this last part of his discourse, which was truly
prophetic, though, I suppose, my father did not know it to be so
himself; I say, I observed the tears run down his face very
plentifully, especially when he spoke of my brother who was
killed; and that, when he spoke of my having leisure to repent,
and none to assist me, he was so moved that he broke off the dis-
course, and told me his heart was so full he could say no more
to me.
I was sincerely affected with this discourse; as, indeed, who
could be otherwise? and I resolved not to think of going abroad
any more, but to settle at home, according to my father's desire.
But, alas! a few days wore it all off: and, in short, to prevent
any of my father's further importunities, in a few weeks after I
resolved to run quite away from him. However, I did not act
so hastily, neither as my first heat of resolution prompted; but I
took my mother, at a time when I thought her a little pleasanter
than ordinary, and told her that my thoughts were so entirely
bent upon seeing the world, that I should never settle to any-
thing with resolution enough to go through with it, and my father
had better give me his consent than force me to go without it;
that I was now eighteen years old, which was too late to go
apprentice to a trade, or clerk to an attorney; that I was sure, if
I did, I should never serve out my time, and I should certainly
run away from my master before my time was out, and go to sea;
and if she would speak to my father to let me go one voyage
abroad, if I came home again, and did not like it, I would go no
more; and I would promise, by a double diligence to recover
the time I had lost.
This put my mother into a great passion: she told me she
knew it would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon any
such a subject; that he knew too well what was my interest, to
give his consent to any such thing so much for my hurt; and that
she wondered how I could think of any such thing, after such a
discourse as I had with my father, and such kind and tender


expressions as she knew my father had used to me; and that, in
short, if I would ruin myself, there was no help for me; but I
might depend I should never have their consent to it: that, for
her part, she would not.have so much hand in my destruction,
and I should never have it to say that my mother was willing
when my father was not.
Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet, as I
have heard afterwards, she reported all the discourse to him; and
that my father, after showing a great concern at it, said to her with
a sigh, That boy might be happy if he would stay at home; but
if he goes abroad, he will be the most miserable wretch that ever
was born: I can give no consent to it."
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose;
though in the meantime I continued obstinately deaf to all
proposals of settling to business, and frequently expostulating
with my father and mother about their being so positively deter-
mined against what they knew my inclinations prompted me to.
But being one day at Hull, where I went casually, and without
any purpose of making an elopement that time, but I say, being
there, and one of my companions being going by sea to London
in his father's ship, and prompting me to go with them with the
common allurement of seafaring men, viz., that it should cost me
nothing for my passage, I consulted neither father nor mother any
more, nor so much as sent them word of it; but leaving them to
hear of it as they might, without asking God's blessing, or my
father's, without any consideration of circumstances or con-
sequences, and in an ill hour, God knows, on the ist of Sep-
tember 1651, I went on board a ship bound for London. Never
any young adventurer's misfortunes, I believe, began sooner, or
continued longer, than mine. The ship was no sooner got out of
the Humber but the wind began to blow, and the waves to rise,
in a most frightful manner; and as I had never been at sea before,
I was most inexpressibly sick in body, and terrified in mind. I
began now seriously to reflect upon what I had done, and how
justly I was overtaken by the judgment of Heaven for my wicked
leaving my father's house. All the good counsels of my parents,
my father's tears, and my mother's entreaties, came now fresh into
my mind; and my conscience, which was not yet come to the pitch
of hardness to which it has been since, reproached me with the con-
tempt of advice, and the breach of my duty to God and my father.


All this while the storm increased, and the sea, which I had
never been upon before, went very high, though nothing like
what I have seen many times since; no, nor like what I saw a few
days after; but it was enough to affect me then, who was but a
young sailor, and had never known anything of the matter. I
expected every wave would have swallowed us up, and that every
time the ship fell down, as I thought, in the trough or hollow of
the sea, we should never rise more; and in this agony of mind,
I made many vows and resolutions that if it would please God to
spare my life in this one voyage, if ever I got once my foot on
dry land, I would go directly home to my father, and never set
it into a ship again while I lived; that I would take his advice,
and never run myself into such miseries as these any more. Now
I saw plainly the goodness of his observations about the middle
station of life; how easy, how comfortable, he had lived all his
days, and never had been exposed to tempests at sea or troubles
on shore; and I resolved that I would, like a true repenting
prodigal, go home to my father.
These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the
storm continued, and indeed some time after; but the next day
the wind was abated and the sea calmer, and I began to be a little
inured to it. However, I was very grave for all that day, being
also a little sea-sick still; but towards night the weather cleared
up, the wind was quite over, and a charming fine evening fol-
lowed; the sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so the next
morning; and having little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the
sun shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most delight-
ful that ever I saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick,
but very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that was so
rough and terrible the day before, and could be so calm and so
pleasant in so little time after. And now, lest my good resolu-
tions should continue, my companion, who had indeed enticed
me away, comes to me. "Well, Bob," says he, clapping me on
the shoulder, "how do you do after it? I, warrant you were
frighted, wasn't you, last night, when it blew but a cap-full of
wind ? "A cap-full, do you call it? said I, "'twas a terrible
storm." "A storm, you fool!" replies he, "do you call that a
storm? Why, it was nothing at all; give us but a good
ship and sea-room, and we think nothing of such a squall


of wind as that. But you are but a fresh-water sailor, Bob.
Come, let us make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget all that.
D'ye see what charming weather 'tis now ?" To make short this
sad part of my story, we went the way of all sailors; the punch
was made, and I was made drunk with it; and in that one
night's wickedness I drowned all my repentance, all my reflec-
tions upon my past conduct, and all my resolutions for the future.
In a word, as the sea was returned to its smoothness of surface
and settled calmness by the abatement of the storm, so the hurry
of my thoughts being over, my fears and apprehensions of being
swallowed up by the sea forgotten, and the current of my former
desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows and promises that I
made in my distress. I found, indeed, some intervals of reflec-
tion; and the serious thoughts did, as it were, endeavour to return
again sometimes; but I shook them off and roused myself from
them, as it were from a distemper, and applying myself to drink-
ing and company, soon mastered the return of those fits-for, so
I called them; and I had in five or six days got as complete
a victory over conscience as any young fellow that resolved not
to be troubled with it could desire. But I was to have another
trial for it still; and Providence, as in such cases generally it does,
resolved to leave me entirely without excuse: for if I would not
take this for a deliverance, the next was to be such a one as the
worst and most hardened wretch among us would confess both
the danger and the mercy of.
The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth
Roads: the wind having been contrary and the weather calm,
we had made but little way since the storm. Here we were
obliged to come to an anchor, and here we lay, the wind con-
tinuing contrary, viz., at south-west, for seven or eight days,
during which time a great many ships from Newcastle came into
the same Roads, as the common harbour where the ships might
wait for a wind for the river. We had not, however, rid here so
long, but we should have tided up the river, but that the wind
blew too fresh; and after we had lain four or five days, blew
very hard. However, the Roads being reckoned as good as a
harbour, the anchorage'good, and our ground tackle very strong,
our men were unconcerned, and not in the least apprehensive of
danger, but spent the time in rest and mirth, after the manner of
the sea. But the eighth day, in the morning, the wind increased,


and we had all hands at work to strike our topmasts, and make
everything snug and close, that the ship might ride as easy as
possible. By noon the sea went very high indeed, and our ship
rid forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we thought, once or
twice, our anchor had come home; upon which our master
ordered out the sheet anchor, so that we rode with two anchors
ahead, and the cables veered out to the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I began
to see terror and amazement in the faces. of even the seamen
themselves. The master, though vigilant in the business of
preserving the ship, yet, as he went in and out of his cabin by
me, I could hear him softly to himself say several times, Lord,
be merciful to us we shall be all lost; we shall be all undone! "
and the like. During these first hurries I was stupid, lying still
in my cabin, which was in the steerage, and cannot describe my
temper. I could ill resume the first penitence, which I had so
apparently trampled upon and hardened myself against: I thought
the bitterness of death had been past, and that this would be
nothing, too, like the first. But when the master himself came
by me, as I said just now, and said we should be all lost, I was
dreadfully frighted. I got up out of my cabin, and looked out;
but such a dismal sight I never saw: the sea went mountains
high, and broke upon us every three or four minutes. When I
could look about, I could see nothing but distress round us.
Two ships that rid near us, we found had cut their masts by the
board, being deep laden; and our men cried out that a ship
which rid about a mile ahead of us was foundered. Two more
ships being driven from their anchors, were run out of the Roads
to sea, at all adventures, and that with not a mast standing. The
light ships fared the best, as not so much labouring in the sea;
but two or three of them drove, and came close by us, running
away with only their spritsails out before the wind. Towards
evening, the mate and boatswain begged the master of our ship
to let them cut away the foremast, which he was very unwilling
to do; but the boatswain protesting to him that if he did not
the ship would founder, he consented; and when they had cut
away the foremast the mainmast stood so loose, and shook the
ship so much, they were obliged to cut it away also and make a
clear deck.
Any one may judge what a condition I must be in at all this,


who was but a young sailor, and who had been in such a fright
before at but a little. But if I can express, at this distance, the
thoughts I had about me at that time, I was in tenfold more
horror of mind upon account of my former convictions, and the
having returned from them to the resolutions I had wickedly
taken at first, than I was at death itself; and ,these, added to
the terror of the storm, put me into such a condition, that I can
by no words describe it. But the worst was not come yet; the
storm continued with such fury, that the seamen themselves
acknowledged they had never known a worse. We had a good
ship, but she was deep laden, and wallowed in the sea, that the
seamen every now and then cried out she would founder. It
was my advantage, in one respect, that I did not know what
they meant by founder, till I inquired. However, the storm was
so violent, that I saw what is not often seen, the master, the
boatswain, and some others, more sensible than the rest, at their
prayers, and expecting every moment when the ship would go
to the bottom. In the middle of the night, and under all the
rest of our distresses, one of the men that had been down on
purpose to see, cried out we had sprung a leak; another said
there was four feet water in the hold. Then all hands were
called to the pump. At that very word my heart, as I thought,
died within me, and I fell backwards upon the side of my bed
where I sat, irto the cabin. However, the men roused me, and
told me that I, that was able to do nothing before, was as well
able to pump as another : at which I stirred up and went to the
pump, and worked very heartily. While this was doing, the
master, seeing some light colliers who, not able to ride out the
storm, were obliged to slip and run away to sea, and would come
near us, ordered us to fire a gun as a signal of distress. I, who
knew nothing what that meant, was so surprised that I thought
the ship had broke, or some dreadful thing had happened. In
a word, I was so surprised, that I fell down in a swoon. As
this was a time when everybody had his own life to think of,
nobody minded me, or what was become of me, but another
man stepped up to the pump, and thrusting me aside with his
foot, let me lie, thinking I had been dead; and it was a great
while before I came to myself.
We worked on, but the water increasing in the hold, it was
apparent that the ship would founder; and though the storm


began to abate a little, yet as it was not possible she could swim
till we might run into a port, so the master continued firing guns
for help; and a light ship, who had rid it out just ahead of us,
ventured a boat out to help us. It was with the utmost hazard
the boat came near us, but it was impossible for us to get on
board, or for the boat to lie near the ship's side, till at last the
men, rowing very heartily and venturing their lives to save ours,
our men cast them a rope over the stern with a buoy to it, and
then veered it out a great length, which they, after great labour
and hazard, took hold of, and we hauled them close under our
stern and got all into their boat. It was to no purpose for them
or us, after we were in the boat, to think of reaching to their own
ship; so all agreed to let her drive, and only to pull her in towards
shore as much as we could; and our master promised them, that
if the boat was staved upon shore; he would make it good to their
master: so partly rowing and partly driving, our boat went away
to the northward, sloping towards the shore almost as far as
We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of our
ship, but we saw her sink: and then I understood, for the first
time, what was meant by a ship foundering in the sea. I must
acknowledge, I had hardly eyes to look up when the seamen told
me she was sinking; for, from that moment, they rather put me
into the boat than that I might be said to go in : my heart was, as
it were, dead within me, partly with fright, partly with horror of
mind, and the thoughts of what was yet before me.
While we were in this condition, the men yet labouring at the
oar to bring the boat near the shore, we could see (when, our
boat mounting the waves, we were able to see the shore) a great
many people running along the strand, to assist us when we should
come near; but we made slow way towards the shore, nor were
we able to reach it, till being past the lighthouse at Winterton,
the shore falls off to the westward towards Cromer, and so the
land broke off a little the violence of the wind. Here we got in,
and though not without much difficulty, got all safe on shore, and
walked afterwards on foot to Yarmouth; where, as unfortunate
men, we were used with great humanity, as well by the magistrates
of the town, who assigned us good quarters, as by the particular
merchants and owners of ships; and had money given us sufficient
to carry us either to London or back to Hull, as we thought fit.



Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull and have
gone home, I had been happy, and my father, an emblem of our
blessed Saviour's parable, had even killed the fatted calf for me;
for, hearing the ship I-went away in was cast away in Yarmouth
Roads, it was a great while before he had any assurance that I
was not drowned.
But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that
nothing could resist; and though I had several times loud calls
from my reason, and my more composed judgment, to go home, yet
I had no power to do it. I know not what to call this, nor will I
urge that it is a secret, overruling decree that hurries us on to be
the instruments of our own destruction, even though it be before
us, and that we push upon it with our eyes open. Certainly,
nothing but some such decreed unavoidable misery attending, and
which it was impossible for me to escape, could have pushed me
forward against the calm reasoning and persuasions of my most
retired thoughts, and against two such visible instructions as I
had met with in my first attempt.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who
was the master's son, was now less forward than I: the first time
he spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth, which was not till
two or three days, for we were separated in the town to several
quarters; I say, the first time he saw me, it appeared his tone
was altered, and looking very melancholy, and shaking his head,
he asked me how I did? and telling his father who I was, and
how I had come this voyage only for a trial, in order to go farther
abroad, his father, turning to me with a very grave and concerned
tone,' "Young man," says he, you ought never to go to sea any
more; you ought to take this for a plain and visible token that
you are not to be a sea-faring man." Why," sir ? said I; will
you go to sea no more ? That is another case," said he; it
is my calling, and therefore my duty; but as you made this voyage
for a trial, you see what a taste Heaven has given you of what you
are to expect if you persist. Perhaps this has all befallen us on your
account, like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish. Pray," continues he,
" what are you, and on what account did you go to sea? Upon
that I told him some of my story; at the end of which he burst
out with a strange kind of passion. "What had I done," says he,
" that such an unhappy wretch should come into my ship ? I would
not set my foot in the same ship with thee again for ax thousand


pounds." This indeed was, as I said, an excursion of his spirits,
which were yet agitated by the sense of his loss, and was farther
than he could have authority to go. However, he afterwards
talked very gravely to me: exhorted me to go back to my father,
and not tempt Providence to my ruin; told me I might see a
visible hand of Heaven against me : And, young man," said he,
"depend upon it, if you do not go back, wherever you go you
will meet with nothing but disasters and disappointments till
your father's words are fulfilled upon you."
We parted soon after, for I made him little answer, and I saw
him no more: which way he went, I know not. As for me,
having some money in my pocket, I travelled to London by land,
and there, as well as on the road, had many struggles with myself
what course of life I should take, and whether I should go home
or go to sea. As to going home, shame opposed the best motions
that offered to my thoughts; and it immediately occurred to me
how I should be laughed at among the neighbours, and should be
ashamed to see, not my father and mother only, but even every-
body else: from whence I have since often observed, how incon-
gruous and irrational the common temper of mankind is, especially
of youth, to that reason which ought to guide them in such cases,
viz., that they are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to
repent; nor ashamed of the action for which they ought justly
to be esteemed fools, but are ashamed of. the returning, which
only can make them be esteemed wise men.
In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncertain
what measures to take, and what course of life to lead. An
irresistible reluctance continued to going home; and as I stayed
awhile, the remembrance of the distress I had been in wore off;
and, as that abated, the little motion I had in my desires to a
return wore off with it, till at last I quite laid aside thp thoughts
of it, and looked out for a voyage.


Crusoe makes the acquaintance of the captain of a merchant vessel bound for the
African coast, and embarks as a trading adventurer-Takes a fever, learns how
to navigate a ship, and returns enriched-On the death of the captain he
makes a second voyage with the mate-The ship is taken by Turkish pirates,
whose leader makes Crusoe his slave-Fishing off the Morocco coast, he con-
trives an escape-The Moor is thrown overboard, and swims for his life-Sets
sail with the Moresco boy-Dangers of coasting-An African lion-Steers for
the south-Falls in with savages, who supply him with provisions-Shoots a
leopard, whereat the natives are astonished and terrified-Is picked up by a
Portuguese merchant-Sells the Moresco boy, with a reservation-Arrives at
the Brazils.

rL- oHAT evil influence which carried me first away
from my father's house, that hurried me into the
wild and indigested notion of raising my fortune,
and that impressed those conceits so forcibly upon
me, as t6 make me deaf to all good advice, and to
the entreaties, and even the commands of my father; I say, the
same influence, whatever it ,was, presented the most unfortunate
of all enterprises to my view; and I went on board a vessel
bound to the coast of Africa, or, as our sailors vulgarly call it, a
voyage to Guinea.
It was my great misfortune that in all these adventures I did not
ship myself as a sailor; whereby, though I might indeed have
worked a little harder than ordinary, yet, at the same time, I had
learned the duty and office of a foremastman, and in time might
have.qualified myself for a mate or lieutenant, if not for a master.
But as it was always my fate to choose for the worse, so I did
here; for, having money in my pocket and good clothes upon
my back, I would always go on board in the habit of a gentle-
man; and so I .neither had any business in the ship, nor learned
to do any.
It was my lot, first of all, to fall into pretty good company in


London; which does not always happen to such loose and
unguided young fellows as I then was, the devil generally not
omitting to lay some snare for them very early. But it was not
so with me. I first fell acquainted with the master of a ship who
had been on the coast of Guinea, and who, having had very
good success there, was resolved to go again; and who, taking a
fancy to my conversation, which was not at all disagreeable at,
that time, and hearing me say I had a mind to see the world,
told me, if I would go the voyage with him, I should be at no
expense-I should be his messmate and his companion; and if
I could carry anything with me, I should have all the advantage
of it that the trade would admit; and perhaps I might meet
with some encouragement. I embraced the offer, and entering
into a strict friendship with this captain, who was an honest
and plain-dealing man, I went the voyage with him, and carried
a small adventure with me, which, by the disinterested honesty
of my friend the captain, I increased very considerably; for I
carried about forty pounds in such toys and trifles as the captain
directed me to buy. This forty pounds I had mustered together
by the assistance of some of my relations whom I corresponded
with, and who I believe got my father, or, at least, my mother,
to contribute so much as that to my first adventure. This was
the only voyage which I may say was successful in all my adven-
tures, and which I owe to the integrity and honesty of my friend
the captain, under whom also I got a competent knowledge of
the mathematics and the rules of navigation, learned how to keep
an account of the ship's course, take an observation, and, in short,
to understand some things that were needful to be understood by
a sailor: for, as he took delight to instruct me, I took delight to
learn; and, in a word, this voyage made me both a sailor and a
merchant: for I brought home five pounds nine ounces of gold
dust for my adventure, which yielded me in London, at my return,
almost three hundred pounds, and this filled me with those aspir-
ing thoughts which have since so completed my ruin. Yet even
in this voyage I had my misfortunes too ; particularly that I was
continually sick, being thrown into a violent calenture by the
A violent fever, incident to persons in hot climates, especially to natives
of cooler climates, and to which, therefore, European sailors are peculiarly
liable. One of the symptoms is peculiar : the person affected imagines the sea
to be a green field, and sometimes, attempting to walk on it, is lost.



excessive heat of the climate-our principal trading being upon
the coast, from the latitude of fifteen degrees north, even to the
Line itself.
I was now set up for a Guinea trader: and my friend, to my
great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go the
same voyage again; and I embarked in the same vessel with one
who was his mate in the former voyage, and had now got the
command of the ship. This was the unhappiest voyage that ever
man made; for though I did not carry quite a hundred pounds
of my new-gained wealth-so that I had two hundred pounds
left, and which I lodged with my friend's widow, who was very
just to me-yet I fell into terrible misfortunes in this voyage :
and the first was this, viz.-our ship, making her course towards
the Canary Islands, or rather between those islands and the African
shore, was surprised, in the gray of the morning, by a Turkish
rover of Sallee, who gave chase to us with all the sails she could
make. We crowded also as much canvas as our yards would
spread, or our masts carry, to have got clear; but finding the
pirate gained upon us, and would certainly come up with us in a
few hours, we prepared to fight, our ship having twelve guns,'and
the rover eighteen. About three in the afternoon he came up
with us; and bringing to, by mistake, just athwart our quarter,
instead of athwart our stern as he intended, we brought eight of
our guns to bear on that side, and poured in a broadside upon
him, which made him sheer off again, after returning our fire and
pouring in also his small shot from near two hundred men which
he had on board. However, we had not a man touched, all our
men keeping close. He prepared to attack us again, and we to
defend ourselves; but laying us on board the next time upon our
other quarter, he entered sixty men upon our decks, who imme-
diately fell to cutting and hacking the decks' and rigging. We
plied them with small shot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and such
like, 'and cleared our deck of them twice. However, to cut short
this melancholy part of our story, our ship being disabled and
three of 'our men killed and eight wounded, we were obliged to
yield, and were carried all prisoners into Sallee, a port belonging
to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I appre-
hended; nor was I carried up the country to the emperor's court,
as the rest of our men were, but was kept by the captain of the


rover as his proper prize, and made his slave, being young and
nimble, and fit for his business. At this surprising change of my
circumstances, from a merchant to a miserable slave, I was per-
fectly overwhelmed; and now I looked back upon my father's
prophetic discourse to me, that I should be miserable and have
none to relieve me, which I thought was now so effectually brought
to pass, that I could not be worse-that now the hand of Heaven
had overtaken me, and I was undone, without redemption. But,
alas! :this was but a taste of the misery I was to go through, as
will appear in the sequel of this story.
As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his house,
so I was in hopes that he would take me with him when he went
to sea again, believing that it would, some time or other, be his
fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portuguese man-of-war, and that
then I should be set at liberty. But this hope of mine was soon
taken away, for when he went to sea he left me on shore to look
after his little garden, and do the common drudgery of slaves
about his house; and when he came home again from his cruise,
he ordered me to lie in the cabin, to look after the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method
I might take to effect it, but found no way that had the least
probability in it. Nothing presented to make the supposition of
it rational; for I had nobody to communicate it to that would
embark with me,-no fellow-slave, no Englishman, Irishman, or
Scotchman there but myself: so that for two years, though I often
pleased myself with the imagination, yet I never had the least
encouraging prospect of putting it in practice.
After about two years, an odd circumstance presented itself,
which put the old thought of making some attempt for my liberty
again in my head. My patron lying at home longer than usual,
without fitting out his ship-which, as I heard, was for want of
money-he used constantly, once or twice a week, sometimes
oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the ship's pinnace, and go
out into the Road a-fishing; and as he always took me and a young
Moresco with him to row the boat, we made him very merry, and
I proved very dexterous in catching fish, insomuch that sometimes
he would send me with a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the
youth, the Moresco, as they called him, to catch a dish of fish for
It happened one time that, going a-fishing in a stark calm



morning, a fog rose so thick that though we were not half a league
from the shore, we lost sight of it; and rowing we knew not
whither, or wiich way, we laboured all day and all the next night,
and when the morning came, we found we had pulled off to sea,
instead of pulling in for the shore, and that we were at least two
leagues from the shore: however, we got well in again, though
with a great deal of labour, and some danger, for the wind began
to blow pretty fresh in the morning; but, particularly, we were
all very hungry.
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more
care of himself for the future; and having lying by him the long-
boat of our English ship he had taken, he resolved he would not
go a-fishing any more without a compass and some provision; so
he ordered the carpenter of his ship, who also was an English
slave, to build a little state-room or cabin in the middle of the
longboat, like that of a barge, with a place to stand behind it to
steer and haul home the main sheet, and room before for a hand
or two to stand and work the sails. She sailed with what we call
a shoulder-of-mutton sail, and the boom jibbed over the top of
the cabin, which lay very snug and low, and had in it room for
him to lie, with a slave or two, and a table to eat on, with some
small lockers to put in some bottles of such liquor as he thought
fit to drink, particularly his bread, rice, and coffee.
We were frequently out with this boat a-fishing, and as I was
most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went without me.
It'happened that he had appointed to go out in this boat, either
for pleasure or for fish, with two or three Moors of some distinc-
tion in that place, and for whom he had provided extraordinary,
and had therefore sent on board the boat, overnight, a larger store
of provisions than ordinary,, and had ordered me to get ready
three fusees, with powder and shot, which were on board his
ship, for that they designed some sport of fowling as well as
I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited the next
morning with the boat washed clean, her ancient and pendants
out, and everything to accommodate his guests: when, by and
by, my patron came on board alone, and told me his guests had
put off going, upon some business that fell out, and ordered me
with the man and boy, as usual, to go out with the boat and catch
them some fish, for that his friends were to sup at his house; and


commanded that as soon as I had got some fish, I should bring
it home to his house : all which I prepared to do.
This moment my former notions of deliverance darted into my
thoughts, for now I found I was like to have a little ship at my
command; and my master being gone, I prepared to furnish
myself not for fishing business, but for a voyage; though I knew
not, neither did I so much as consider, whither I should steer;
for anywhere to get out of that place was my way.
My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to this
Moor, to get something for our subsistence on board ; for I told
him we must not presume to eat of our patron's bread. He said,
that was true; so he brought a large basket of rusk or biscuit of
their kind, and three jars with fresh water into the boat. I knew
where my patron's case of bottles stood, which it was evident by
the make were taken out of some English prize, and I conveyed
them into the boat while the Moor was on shore, as if they had
been there before for our master. I conveyed also a great lump
of beeswax into the boat, which weighed above half a hundred-
weight, with a parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a
hammer, all which were of great use to us afterwards, especially
the wax, to make candles. Another trick I tried upon him, which
he innocently came into also. His name was Ismael, whom they
call Muley, or Moley; so I called to him: "Moley," said I,
" our patron's guns are on board the boat, can you not get a little
powder and shot ? it may be we may kill some alcamies (a fowl
like our curlews) for ourselves, for I know he keeps the gunner's
stores in the ship." "Yes," says he, I will bring some ;" and
accordingly he brought a great leather pouch, which held about a
pound and a half of powder, or rather more, and another with
shot, that had five or six pounds, with some bullets, and put all
into the boat: at the same time I had found some powder of my
master's in the great cabin, with which I filled one of the large
bottles in the case, which was almost empty, pouring what was in
it into another; and thus furnished with everything needful, we
sailed out of the port to fish. The castle, which is at the entrance
of the port, knew who we were, and took no notice of us; and
we were not above a mile out of the port, before we hauled in our
sail, and set us down to fish. The wind blew from N.N.E., which
was contrary to my desire; for, had it blown southerly, I had
been sure to have made the coast of Spain, and at least reached


to the bay of Cadiz; but my resolutions were, blow which way
it would, I would be gone from that horrid place where I was,
and leave the rest to fate.
After we had fished some time and catched nothing, for when
I had fish on my hook I would not pull them up that he might
not see them, I said to the Moor, This will not do; our master
will not be thus served; we must stand farther off." He, think-
ing no harm, agreed, and being in the head of the boat, set the
sails; and as I had the helm, I run the boat out near a league
farther, and then brought her to, as if I would fish. Then giving
the boy the helm, I stepped forward to where the Moor was, and
making as if I stooped for something behind him, I took him by
surprise, with my arm under his twist," and tossed him clear
overboard into the sea. He rose immediately, for he swam like a
cork, and called to me, begged to be taken in, and told me he
would go all over the world with me. He swam so strong after
the boat that he would have reached me very quickly, there being
but little wind; upon which I stepped into the cabin, and fetch-
ing one of the fowling-pieces, I presented it at him, and told him
I had done him no hurt, and if he would be quiet I would do
him none. But," said I, "you, swim welf enough to reach the
shore, and the sea is calm; make the best of your way to shore
and I will do you no harm; but if you come-near the boat I will
shoot you through the head; for I am resolved to have my
liberty." So he turned himself about, and swam for the shore,
and I make no doubt but he reached it with ease, for he was an
excellent swimmer.
I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me,
and have drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to trust
him. When he was gone I turned to the boy whom they called
Xury, and said to him, Xury, if you will be faithful to me I will
make you a great man; but if you will not stroke your face to be
true to me (that is, swear by Mahomet and his father's beard),
I must throw you into the sea too." The boy smiled in my face,
and'spoke so innocently, that I could not mistrust him; and
swore to be faithful to me, and go all over the world with me.
While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming I stood out
directly to sea, with the boat rather stretching to windward, that
they might think me gone towards the Strait's mouth (as indeed
The hollow on the inside of the thigh.


any one that had been in their wits must lave been supposed to
do); for who would have supposed we were sailed on to the
southward, to the truly Barbarian coast, where whole nations of
Negroes were sure to surround us with their canoes and destroy
us, where we could never once go on shore but we should be
devoured by savage beasts, or more merciless savages of human
kind ?
But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening I changed my
course, and steered directly south and by east, bending my course
a little toward the east, that I might keep in with the shore; and
having a fair fresh gale of wind, and a smooth quiet sea, I made
such sail, that I believe by the next day, at three o'clock in the
afternoon, when I first made the land, I could not be less than
one hundred and fifty miles south of Sallee, quite beyond the
Emperor of Morocco's dominions, or indeed of any other king
thereabouts; for we saw no people.
Yet such was the fright I. had taken at the Moors, and the
dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that I
would not stop, or go on shore, or come to an anchor, the wind
continuing fair, till I had sailed in that manner five days; and
then the wind shifting to the southward, I concluded also that if
any of our vessels were in chase of me, they also would now give
over: so I ventured to make to the coast, and came to an anchor
in the mouth of a little river; I knew not what or where, neither
what latitude, what country, what nation, or what river. I neither
saw, nor desired to see, any people; the principal thing I wanted
was fresh water. We came into this creek in the evening, resolv-
ing to swim on shore as soon as it was dark, and discover the
country; but as soon as it was quite dark, we heard such dreadful
noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of wild creatures, of
we knew not what kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die
with fear, and begged of me not to go on shore till day. Well,
Xury," said I, then I won't; but it may be we may see men by
day, who will be as bad to us as those lions." Then we may
give them-the shoot-gun," says Xury, laughing, make them run
wey." Such English Xury spoke by conversing among us slaves.
However, I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him
a dram out of our patron's case of bottles to cheer him up.
After all, Xury's advice was good, and I took it. We dropped
our little anchor, and lay still all night. I say still, for we slept



none: for in two or three hours we saw vast great creatures (we
knew not what to call them), of many sorts, come down to the
seashore, and run into the water, wallowing and washing them-
selves, for the pleasure of cooling themselves ; and they made
such hideous howlings and yelling, that I never indeed heard
the like.
Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too; but
we were both more frighted when, we heard one of the mighty
creatures come swimming towards our boat: we could not see
him,-but we might hear him by his blowing to be a monstrous
huge and furious beast. Xury said it was a lion, and it might
be so for aught I know, but poor Xury cried to me to weigh the
anchor, and row away. "No," says I, "Xury, we can slip our
cable with a buoy to it, and go to sea; they cannot follow us far."
I had no sooner said so, but I perceived the creature (whatever
it was) within two oars' length, which something surprised me;
however, I immediately stepped to the cabin door, and taking up
my gun, fired at him, upon which he immediately turned about
and swam towards the shore again.
But it is impossible to describe the horrible noises, and hideous
cries and howlings that were raised, as well upon the edge of the
shore as higher within the country, upon the noise or report of
the gun; a thing, I believe, those creatures had never heard
before. This convinced me there was no going on shore for us
in the night upon that coast, and how to venture ,on shore in the
day, was another question too; for to have fallen into the hands
of any of the savages, had been as bad as to have fallen into the
paws of lions and tigers: at least we were equally apprehensive
of the danger of it.
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore somewhere
or other for water, for we had not a pint left in the boat: when
or where to get it was the point. Xury said, if I would let him
go on shore with one of the'jars, he would find if there was any
water, and bring some to me. I asked him why he would go;
why I should not go, and he stay in the boat? The boy
answered with so much affection, that he made me love him ever
after. Says he, If wild mans come, they eat me, you go away."
"Well, Xury," said I, "we will both go; and if the wild mans
come, we will kill them; they shall eat neither of us." So I gave
Xury a piece of rusk bread to eat, and a dram out of our patron's


case of bottles, which I mentioned before; and we hauled the
boat in as near the shore as we thought was proper, and waded
to shore, carrying nothing but our arms and two jars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the coming
of canoes with savages down the river; but the boy, seeing a low
place about a mile up the country, rambled to it; and, -by and
by, I saw him come running towards me. I thought he was
pursued by some savage, or frighted with some wild beast, and I
therefore ran forwards to help him; but when I came nearer to
him, I saw something hanging over his shoulders, which was a
creature that he had shot, like a hare, but different in colour, and
longer legs: however, we were very glad of it, and it was very
good meat: but the great joy that poor Xury came with, was to
tell me he had found good water, and seen no wild mans.
But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains for
water; for a little higher up the creek where we were, we found
the water fresh when the tide was out, which flows but a little
way up; so we filled our jars, and feasted on the hare we had
killed; and prepared to go on our way, having seen no footsteps
of any human creature in that part of the country.
As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very
well that the islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de Verd
Islands also, lay not far from the coast. But as I had no instru-
ments to take an observation, to know what latitude we were in,
and did not exactly know, or at least remember, what latitude they
were in, I knew not where to look for them, or when to stand off
to sea towards them, otherwise I might now easily have found
some of these islands. But my hope was, that if I stood along
this coast till I came to that part where the English traded, I
should find some of their vessels upon their usual design of trade,
that would relieve and take us in.
By the best of my calculation, the place where I now was must
be that country which, lying between the Emperor of Morocco's
dominions and the Negroes, lies waste and uninhabited, except
by wild beasts; the Negroes having abandoned it, and gone
farther south, for fear of the Moors, and the Moors not thinking
it worth inhabiting, by reason of its barrenness; and indeed both
forsaking it because of the prodigious number of tigers, lions,
leopards, and other furious creatures which harbour there: so
that the Moors use it for their hunting only, where they go like



an army, two or three thousand men at a time; and indeed for
near a hundred miles together upon this coast,'we saw nothing
but a waste, uninhabited country by day, and heard nothing but
howlings and roaring of wild beasts by night.
Once or twice, in the daytime, I thought I saw the Pico of
Teneriffe, being the high top of the mountain Teneriffe, in the
Canaries, and had a great mind to venture out, in hopes of reach-
ing thither; but having tried twice, I was forced in again by con-
trary winds, the sea also going too high for my little vessel: so I
resolved to pursue my first design, and keep along the shore.
Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after we
had left this place; and once, in particular, being early in the
morning, we came to an anchor under a little point of land which
was pretty high; and the tide beginning to flow, we lay still, to
go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more about him than, it
seems, mine were, calls softly to me, and tells me that we had
best go farther off the shore; "for," says he, look, yonder lies
a dreadful monster on the side of that hillock, fast asleep." I
looked where he pointed, and saw a dreadful monster indeed, for
it was a terrible great lion that lay on the side of the shore,
under the shade of a piece of the hill that hung, as it were, over
him. "Xury," says I, "you shall go on shore and kill him."
Xury looked frighted, and said, "Me kill! he eat me at one
mouth "-one mouthful he meant. However, I said no more to
the boy but bade him be still; and I took our biggest gun, which
was almost musket bore, and loaded it with a good charge of
powder, and with two slugs, and laid it down ; then I loaded
another gun with two bullets; and a third, for we had three
pieces, I loaded with five smaller bullets. I took the best aim I
could with the first piece, to have shot him into the head; but he
lay so, with his leg raised a little above his nose, that the slugs
hit his leg about the knee, and broke the bone. He started up,
growling at first, but finding his leg broke, fell down again, and
then got up upon three legs, and gave the most hideous roar that
ever I heard. I was a little surprised that I had not hit him on
the head; however, I took up the second piece immediately, and
though he began to move off, fired again, and shot him into the
head, and had the pleasure to see him drop, and make but little
noise, but lie struggling for life. Then Xury took heart, and
would have me let him go on shore. Well,. go," said I; so the


boy jumped into the water, and taking a little gun in one hand,
swam to shore with the other hand, and coming close to the
creature, put the muzzle of the piece to his ear, and shot him
into the head again, which despatched him quite.
This was game, indeed, to us, but it was no food; and I was
very sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot upon a
creature that was good for nothing to us. However, Xury said he
would have some of him; so he comes on board and asked me
to give him the hatchet. For what, Xury ?" said I. Me cut
off his head," said he. However Xury could not cut off his head;
but he cut off a foot, and brought it with him, and it was a
monstrous great one. I bethought myself, however, that perhaps
the skin of him might, one way or other, be of some value to us;
and I resolved to take off his skin, if I could. So Xury and I
went to work with him: but Xury was much the better workman
at it, for I knew very ill how to do it. Indeed it took us both
up the whole day; but at last we got off the hide of him, and
spreading it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectually dried it
in two days' time, and it afterwards served me to lie upon.
After this stop, we made on to the southward continually,
for ten or twelve days, living very sparingly on our provisions,
which began to abate very much, and going no oftener into the
shore than we were obliged to for fresh water. My design in
this was to make the river Gambia, or Senegal; that is to say,.
anywhere about the Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes to
meet with some European ship: and if I did not, I knew not
what course I had to take, but to seek for the islands, or perish
among the Negroes. I knew that all the ships from Europe,
which sailed either to the coast of Guinea, or to Brazil, or to the
East Indies, made this Cape, or those islands: and in a word I
put the whole of my fortune upon this single point, either that I
must meet with some ship, or must perish.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer, as
I have said, I began to see that the land was inhabited; and in
two or three places, as we sailed by, we saw people stand upon
the shore to look at us: we could also perceive they were quite
black and stark naked. I was once inclined to have gone on
.shore to them; but Xury was my better counsellor, and said to
me, "No go, no go." However, I hauled in nearer the shore,
that I might talk to them; and I found they ran along the shore



by me a good way. I observed they had no weapons in their
hands, except one, who had a long slender stick, which Xury said
was a lance, and that they would throw them a great way with
good aim ; so I kept at -a distance, but talked to them by signs,
4s well as I could, and particularly made signs for something to
eat. They beckoned to me to stop my boat, and they would
fetch me some meat; upon this I lowered the top of my sail, and
lay by, and two of them ran up into the country, and in less than
half-an-hour came back and brought with them two pieces of dry
flesh and some corn, such as is the produce of their country: but
we neither knew what the one or the other was; however, we were
willing to accept it. But how to come at it was our next dispute,
for I was not for venturing on shore to them, and they were as
much afraid of us: but they took a safe way for us all, for they
brought it to the shore, and laid it down, and went and stood a
great way off till we fetched it on board, and then came close to
us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to make
them amends: but an opportunity offered that very instant to
oblige them wonderfully; for while we were lying by the shore,
came two mighty creatures, one pursuing the other (as we took it)
with great fury, from the mountains towards the sea: whether it
was the male pursuing the female, or whether they were in sport
or in rage, we could not tell, any more than we could tell whether
it was usual or strange; but I believe it was the latter, because,
in the first place, those ravenous creatures seldom appear but in
the night; and, in the second place, we found the people terribly
frighted, especially the women. The man that had the lance, or
dart, did not fly from them, but the rest did; however, as the two
creatures ran directly into the water, they did not seem to offer to
fall upon any of the Negroes, but plunged themselves into the
sea, and swam about, as if they had come for their diversion.
At last, one of them began to come nearer our boat than I at first
expected ; but I lay ready for him, for I had loaded my gun with
all possible expedition, and bade Xury load both the others. As
soon as he came fairly within my reach, I fired, and shot him
directly into the head: immediately he sunk down into the water,
but rose instantly, and plunged up and down, as if he was strug-
gling for life, and so indeed he was : he immediately made to
the shore; but between the wound which was his mortal hurt,



and the strangling of the water, he died just before he reached
the shore.
It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor
creatures at the noise and fire of my gun. Some of them were
ready even to die for fear, and fell down as dead with the very
terror;. but when they saw the creature dead, and sunk -in the
water, and that I made signs to them to come to the shore, they
took heart and came to the shore, and began to search for the
creature. I found him by his blood staining the water; and by
the help of a rope, which I slung round him, and gave the
Negroes to haul, they dragged him on shore and found that it
was a most curious leopard, spotted, and fine to an admirable
degree; and the Negroes held up their hands with admiration,
to think what it was I had killed him with.
The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire and the noise
of the gun, swam on shore, and ran up directly to the mountains
from whence they came; nor could I, at that distance, know
what it was. I found quickly the Negroes were for eating the
flesh of this creature, so I was willing to have them take it as a
favour from me; which, when I made signs to them that they
might take him, they were very thankful for. Immediately they
fell to work with him; and though they had no knife, yet with a
sharpened piece of wood, they took off his skin as readily, and
much more readily than we could have done with a knife. They
offered me some of the flesh, which I declined, making as if I
would give it them, but made .signs for the skin, which they gave
me very freely, and brought me a great deal more of their pro-
visions, which, though I did not understand, yet I 'accepted.
Then I made signs to them for some water, and held out one of
my jars to them, turning it bottom upwards, to show that it was
empty, and that I wanted to have it filled. They called immedi-
ately to some of their friends, and there came two women, and
brought a great vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I suppose,
in the sun; this they set down for me, as before, and I sent
Xury on shore with my jars, and filled them all three. The
women were as stark naked as the men.
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and
water; and leaving my friendly Negroes, I made forward for
about eleven days more, without offering to go near the shore,
till I saw the land run out a great length into the sea at about

the distance of four or five leagues before me; and the sea being
very calm, I kept a large offing, to make this point. At length,
doubling the point, at about two leagues from the land, I saw
plainly land on the other side, to seaward: then I concluded, as
it was most certain indeed, that this was the Cape de Verd, and
those the islands called, from thence, Cape de Verd Islands.
However, they were at a great distance, and I could not well
tell what I had best to do; for if I should be taken with a fresh
of wind, I might neither reach one nor the other.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the
cabin, and sat me down, Xury having the helm; when, on a
sudden, the boy cried out, "Master, master, a ship with a sail!"
and the foolish boy was frighted out of his wits, thinking it must
needs be some of his master's ships sent to pursue us, when I
knew we were gotten far enough out of their reach. I jumped
out of the cabin, and immediately saw, not only the ship, but
what she was, viz., that it was a Portuguese ship, and, as I thought,
was bound to the Coast of Guinea for Negroes. But, when I
observed the course she steered, I was soon convinced they were
bound some other way, and did not design to come any nearer
to the shore: upon which I stretched out to sea as much as I
could, resolving to speak with them, if possible.
With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able to
come in their way, but that they would be gone by before I could
make any signal to them; but after I had crowded to the utmost,
and began to despair, they, it seems, saw me, by the help of their
perspective glasses, and that it was some European boat, which
they supposed must belong to some ship that was lost; so they
shortened sail to let me come up. I was encouraged with this,
and as I had my patron's ancient on board, I made a waft of it
to them, for a signal of distress, and fired a gun, both which they
saw; for they told me they saw the smoke, though they did not
hear the gun. Upon these signals, they very kindly brought to, and
lay by for me; and in about three hours' time I came up with them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish, and
in French, but I understood none of them; but at last a Scotch
sailor, who was on board, called to me, and I answered him, and
told him I was an Englishman, that I had made my escape out
of slavery from the Moors at Sallee: then they bade me come on
board, and very kindly took me in, and all my goods.


It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will believe,
that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable,
and almost hopeless, condition as I was in; and I immediately
offered all I had to the captain of the ship, as a return for my
deliverance; but he generously told me he would take nothing
from me, but that all I had should be delivered safe to me when
I came to the Brazils. "For," says he, "I have saved your life
on no other terms than I would be glad to be saved myself; and
it may, one time or other, be my lot to be taken up in the same
condition. Besides," said he, when I carry you to the Brazils, so
great a way from your own country, if I should take from you
what you have, you will be starved there, and then I only take
away that life I have given. No, no, Seignior Inglese" (Mr.
Englishman), says he, "I will carry you thither in charity, and
these things will help to buy your subsistence there, and your
passage home again."
As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the
performance, to a tittle: for he ordered the seamen, that none
should offer to touch anything I had: then he took everything
into his own possession, and gave me back an exact inventory of
them, that I might have them, even so much as my three earthen
As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he saw, and
told me he would buy it of me for the ship's use, and asked me
what I would have for it ? I told him, he had been so generous
to me in everything, that I could not offer to make any price of
the boat, but left it entirely to him: upon which he told me he
would give me a note of his hand to pay me eighty pieces of eight
for it at Brazil; and when it came there, if any one offered to
give more, he would make it up. He offered me also sixty pieces
of eight more for my boy Xury, which I was loth to take; not
that I was not willing to let the captain have him, but I was very
loth to sell the poor boy's liberty, who had assisted me so faith-
fully in procuring my own. However, when I let him know my
reason, he owned it to be just, and offered me this medium, that
he would give the boy an obligation to set him free in ten years,
if he turned Christian. Upon this, and Xury saying he was will-
ing to go to him, I let the captain have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and arrived in the
Bay de Todos los Santos, or All Saints' Bay, in about twenty-two



days after. And now I wds once more delivered from the most
miserable of all conditions of life; and what to do next with my-
self I was now to consider.
The generous' treatment the captain gave me, I can never
enough remember: he would take nothing of me for my passage,
gave me twenty ducats for the leopard's skin, and forty for the
lion's skin, which I had in the boat, and caused everything I had
in the ship to be punctually delivered to me; and what I, was
willing to sell he bought, such as the case of bottles, two of my
guns, and a piece of the lump of beeswax,-for I had made
candles of the rest: in as word, I made about two hundred and
twenty pieces of eight of all my cargo; and with this stock, I went
on shore in the Brazils.


Crusoe buys land, and becomes a planter-The Portuguese captain continues his
good offices-The plantation succeeds, but prosperity does not bring content-
ment-Becomes supercargo of a slaver-A hurricane-The ship is driven west-
ward, and strikes on a sandbank-The crew take to their boat, which is
swamped-All are drowned, except Crusoe, who is washed against a rock, and
succeeds in reaching the mainland-He rejoices at his deliverance, reflects on
his position, and remembers that he has neither food for sustenance nor
weapons for defence-Sleeps in a tree.

HAD not been long here, but being recommended
by the captain to the house of a good honest man,
like himself, who had an ingenio as they call it-
'that is, a plantation and a sugar-house-I lived
with him some time, and acquainted myself, by that
means, with the manner of planting and of making sugar: and
seeing how well the planters lived, and how they grew rich sud-
denly, I resolved, if I could get licence to settle there, I would
turn planter among them; resolving, in the meantime, to find out
some way to get my money, which I had left in London, remitted
to me. To this purpose, getting a kind of a letter of naturalisa-
tion, I purchased as much land that was uncured as my money
would reach, and formed a plan for my plantation and settlement,
and such a one as might be suitable to the stock which I pro-
posed to myself to receive from England.
'I had a neighbour, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but born of English
parents, whose name was Wells, and in much such circumstances
as I was. I call him neighbour, because his plantation lay next
to mine, and we went on very sociably together. My stock was
but low as well as his, and we rather planted for food than any-
thing else, for about two years. However, we began to increase,
and our land began to come into order; so that the third year
we planted some tobacco, and made each of us a large piece of


ground ready foir planting canes in the year to come; but we both
wanted help, and now I found, more than before, I had done
wrong in parting with my boy Xury.
But, alas for me to do wrong, that never did right, was no
great wonder. I had no remedy but to go on: I was gotten into
an employment quite remote to my genius, and directly contrary
to the life I delighted in, and for which I forsook my father's
house and broke through all his good advice: nay, I was coming
into the very middle station, or upper degree of low life, which
my father advised me to before; and which, if I resolved to go
on with, I might as well have stayed at home, and never have
fatigued myself in the world, as I had done: and I used often to
say to myself, I could have done this as well in England, among
my friends, as have gone five thousand miles off to do it among
strangers and savages, in a wilderness, and at such a distance as
never to hear from any part of the world that had the least know-
ledge of me.
In this manner I used to look upon my condition with the
utmost regret. I had nobody to converse with, but now and then
this neighbour; no work to be done but by the labour of my
hands; and I used to say, I lived just like a man cast away upon
some desolate island, that had nobody there but himself. But
how just has it been and how should all men reflect that, when
they compare their present conditions with others that are worse,
Heaven may oblige them to make the exchange, and be convinced
of their former felicity by their experience. I say, how just has
it been that the truly solitary life I reflected on, in an island of
mere desolation, should be my lot, who had so often unjustly
compared it with the life which I then led, in which, had I con-
tinued, I had, in all probability, been exceeding prosperous and
I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carrying on
the plantation, before my kind friend, the captain of the ship that
took me up at sea, went back (for the ship remained there, in
providing his loading, and preparing for his voyage, near three
months) when telling him what little stock I had left behind me
in London, he gave me this friendly and sincere advice : Seignior
Inglese," says he (for so he always called me), "if you will give
me letters, and a procuration here in form to me, with orders'to
the person who has your money in London to, send your effects

to Lisbon to such persons as I shall direct, and in such goods as
are proper for this country, I will'bring you the produce of them,
God willing, at my return ; but since human affairs are all subject
to changes and disasters, I would have you give orders but for
one hundred pounds sterling, which, you say, is half your stock,
and let the hazard be run for the first, so that, if it come safe, you
may order the rest the same way; and, if it miscarry, you may
have the other half to have recourse to for your supply."
This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that I
could not but be convinced it was the best course I could take;
so I accordingly prepared letters to the gentlewoman with whom
I had left my money, and a procuration to the Portuguese captain,
as he desired.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account of all my
adventures,-my slavery, escape, and how I had met with the
Portuguese captain at sea, the humanity of his behaviour, and
what condition I was now in, with all other necessary directions
for my supply : and when this honest captain came to Lisbon, he
found means, by some of the English merchants there, to send
over, not the order only, but a full account of my story to a
merchant at London, who represented it effectually to her : where-
upon she not only delivered the money, but, out of her own
pocket, sent the Portuguese captain a very handsome present for
his humanity and charity to me.
The merchant in London vested his hundred pounds in English
goods, such as the captain had writ for, sent them directly to him
at Lisbon, and he brought them all safe to me at the Brazils :
among which, without my direction (for I was too young in my
business to think of them), he had taken care to have all sorts of
tools, iron work, and utensils, necessary for my plantation, and
which were of great use to me.
When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune made, for I was
surprised with joy of it; and my good steward, the captain, had
laid out the five pounds which my friend had sent him for a
present for himself, to purchase and bring me over a servant
under bond for six years' service, and would not accept of any
consideration, except a little tobacco, which I would have him
accept, being of my own produce.
Neither was this all: but my goods being all English manufac-
tures, such as cloths, stuffs, baize, and things particularly valuable



and desirable in the country, I found means to sell them to a
very great advantage; so that I may say I had more than four
times the value of my first cargo, and was now infinitely beyond
my poor neighbour, I mean in the advancement of my plantation;
for the first thing I did, I bought me a. Negro slave, and a
European servant also-I mean another besides that which the
captain brought me from Lisbon.
But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means
of our greatest adversity, so was it with me. I went on the next
year with great success in my plantation: I raised fifty great rolls
of tobacco on my own ground, more than I had disposed of for
necessaries among my neighbours; and these fifty rolls, being
each of above one hundred pounds weight, were well cured, and
laid by against the' return of the fleet from Lisbon. And now,
increasing in business and in wealth, my head began to be full of
projects and undertakings beyond my reach; such as are, indeed,
often the ruin of the best heads in business.
Had I continued in the station I was now in, I had room for
all the happy things to have yet befallen me, for which my father
so earnestly recommended a quiet retired life, and which he had
so sensibly described the middle station of life to be full of: but
other things attended me, and I was still to be the wilful agent
of all my own miseries; and, particularly, to increase my fault,
and double the reflections upon myself, which in my future
sorrows I should have leisure to make, all these miscarriages
were procured by my apparent obstinate adhering to my foolish
inclination of wandering abroad, and pursuing that inclination in
contradiction to the clearest views of doing myself good in a fair
and plain pursuit of those prospects, and those measures of life,
which nature and Providence concurred to present me with, and
to make my duty.
As I had once done thus in breaking away frommy parents,
so I could not be content now, but I must go and leave the
happy view I had of being a rich and thriving man in my new
plantation, only to pursue a rash and immoderate desire of rising
faster than the' nature of the thing admitted; and thus I cast
myself down again into the deepest gulf of human misery that
ever man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent with life and
a state of health in the world.
To come, then, by just degrees, to the particulars of this part


of my story: you may suppose, that having now lived almost
four years in the Brazils, and beginning to thrive and prosper
very well upon my plantation, I had not only learned the
language, but had contracted acquaintance and friendship
among my fellow-planters, as well as among the merchants at St.
Salvador, which was our port; and that, in my discourse among
them, I had frequently given them an account, of my two voyages
to the coast of Guinea, the manner of trading with the Negroes
there, and how easy it was to purchase upon the coast, for trifles
-such as beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits of glass, and
the like-not only gold dust, Guinea grains, elephants' teeth, &c.,
but Negroes, for the service of the Brazils, in great numbers.
They listened always very attentively to my discourses on these
heads, but especially to that part which related to the buying
Negroes; which was a trade at that time not only not far entered
into, but, as far as it was, had been carried on by the assientos, or
permission of the kings of Spain and Portugal, and engrossed
in the public,-so that few Negroes were bought, and those
excessive dear.
It happened, being in company with some merchants and
planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those things very
earnestly, three of them came to me the next morning, and told
me they had been musing very much upon what I had discoursed
with them of the last night, and they came to make a secret
proposal to me: and after enjoining me to secrecy, they told me
that they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea; that they
had all plantations as well as I, and were straitened for nothing
so much as servants; that as it was a trade that could not be
carried on, because they could not publicly sell the Negroes
when they came home, so they desired to make but one voyage,
to bring the Negroes on shore privately, and divide them among
their own plantations; and, in a word, the question was whether
I would go their supercargo in the ship, to manage the trading
part upon the coast of Guinea? and they offered me that I should
have my equal share of the Negroes, without providing any part
of the stock.
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been
made to any one that had not had a settlement and plantation
of his own to look after, which was in a fair way of coming to be
very considerable, and with a good stock upon it. But for me,



that was thus entered and established, and had nothing to do but
go on as I had begun, for three or four years more, and to have
sent for the other hundred pounds from England,-and who, in
that time, and with that little addition, could scarce have failed
of being worth three or four thousand pounds sterling, and that
increasing too,-for me to think of such a voyage, was the most
preposterous thing that ever man, in such circumstances, could
be guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no more
resist the offer than I could restrain my first rambling designs,
when my father's good counsel was lost upon me. In a word, I
told them I would go with all my heart, if they would undertake
to look after my plantation in my absence, and would dispose
of it to such as I should direct, if I miscarried. This they all
engaged to. do, and entered into writings, or covenants, to do so;
and I made a formal will, disposing of my plantation and effects,
in case of my death, making the captain of the ship that had
saved my life, as before, my universal heir, but obliging him to
dispose of my effects as I had directed in my will,-one half of
the produce being to himself, and the other to be shipped to
In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects, and
to keep up my plantation: had I used half as much' prudence to
have looked into my own interest, and have made a judgment of
what I ought to have done and not to have done, I had certainly
never gone away from so prosperous an undertaking, leaving all the
probable views of a thriving circumstance, and gone upon a voyage
to sea, attended with all its common hazards, to say nothing of
the reasons I had to expect particular misfortunes to myself.
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my
fancy rather than my reason: and accordingly the ship being
fitted out and the cargo furnished, and all things done as by
agreement by my partners in the voyage, I went on board in an
evil hour again, the first of September 1659, being the same day
eight years that I went from my father and mother at Hull, in
order to act the rebel to their authority, and the fool to my own
Our ship was about one hundred and .twenty tons burden,
carried six guns and fourteen men, besides the master, his boy,
and myself: we had on board no large cargo of goods, except of

such toys as were fit for our trade with the Negroes, such as beads,
bits of glass, shells, and odd trifles, especially little looking-glasses,
knives, scissors, hatchets, and the like.
The same day I went on board, we set sail, standing away to
the northward upon our own coast, with design to stretch over
for the African coast, when they came about ten or twelve degrees
of northern latitude, which, it seems, was the manner of their
course in those days. We had very good weather, only excessive
hot, all the way upon our own coast, till we came to the height of
Cape St. Augustino; from whence, keeping farther off at sea, we
lost sight of land, and steered as if we were bound for the isle
Fernando de Noronha, holding our course N.E. by N., and leav-
ing those isles on the east. In this course we passed the Line in
about twelve days' time, and were, by our last observation, in
seven degrees twenty-two minutes northern latitude, when a
violent tornado, or hurricane, took us quite out of our knowledge:
it began from the south-east, came about to the north-west, and
then settled in the north-east, from whence it blew in such a
terrible manner, that for twelve days together we could do nothing
but drive, and, scudding away before it, let it carry us whither
ever fate and the fury of the winds directed; and during these
twelve days, I need not say that I expected every day to be
swallowed up, nor, indeed, did any in the ship expect to save
their lives.
In this distress, we had, besides the terror of the storm, one of
our men died of the calenture, and one man and a boy washed
overboard. About the twelfth day, the weather abating a little,
the master made an observation as well as he could, and found
that he was in about eleven degrees north latitude, but that he
was twenty-two degrees of longitude difference, west from Cape
St. Augustino; so that he found he was gotten upon the coast of
Guyana, or the north part of Brazil, beyond the river Amazons,
toward that of the river Oroonoque, commonly called the Great
River, and began to consult with me what course he should take,
for the.ship was leaky and very much disabled, and he was going
directly back to the coast of Brazil.
I was positively against that; and looking over the charts of
the sea-coast of America with him, we concluded there was no
inhabited country for us to have recourse to, till we came within
the circle of the Caribbee islands, and therefore resolved to stand


away for Barbadoes, which, by keeping off at sea to avoid the
indraft of the bay or gulf of Mexico, we might easily perform, as
we hoped, in about fifteen days' sail,-whereas, we could not
possibly make our voyage to the coast of Africa without some
assistance, both to our ship and to ourselves.
With this design, we changed our course, and steered away
N.W. by W. in order to reach some of our English islands, where
I hoped for relief; but our voyage was otherwise determined, for
being in the latitude of twelve degrees eighteen minutes, a second
storm came upon us, which carried us away with the same impetu-
osity westward, and drove us so out of the very way of all human
commerce, that had all our lives been saved as to the sea, we
were rather in danger of being devoured by savages than ever
returning to our own country.
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our
men, early in the morning, cried out, Land! and we had no
sooner run out of the cabin to look out, in hopes of seeing where-
abouts in the world we were, but the ship struck upon a sand,
and in a moment, her motion being so stopped, the sea broke over
her in such a manner that we expected we should all have perished
immediately; and we were immediately driven into our close quar-
ters, to shelter us from the very foam and spray of the sea.
It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like condi-
tion to describe or conceive the consternation of men in such
circumstances: we knew nothing where we were, or upon what
land it was we were driven, whether an island or the main, whether
inhabited or not inhabited; and as the rage of the wind was still
great, though rather less than at first, we could not so much as
hope to have the ship hold many minutes without breaking in
pieces, unless the winds, by a kind of miracle, should turn
immediately about. In a word, we sat looking one upon another,
and expecting death every moment, and every man acting accord-
ingly, as preparing for another world; for there was little or
nothing more for us to do in this. That which was our present
comfort, and all the comfort we had, was that, contrary to our
expectation, the ship did not break yet, and that the master said
the wind began to abate.
Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate, yet
the ship having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast
for us to expect her getting off, we were in a dreadful condition

indeed, and had nothing to do, but to think of saving our lives as
well as we could. We had a boat at our stern just before the
storm, but she was first staved by dashing against the ship's rudder,
and, in the next place, she broke away, and either sunk or was
driven off to sea; so there was no hope from her. We had
another boat on board, but how to get her off into the sea was a
doubtful thing; however, there was no room to debate, for we
fancied the ship would break in pieces every minute, and some
told us she was actually broken already.
In this distress the mate of our vessel lays hold of the boat,
and with the help of the rest of the men, they got her slung over
the ship's side; and getting all into her, let go, and committed
ourselves, being eleven in number, to God's mercy and the wild
sea; for though the storm was abated considerably, yet the sea
went dreadful high upon the shore, and might well be called den
wild zee, as the Dutch call the sea in a storm.
And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we all saw
plainly that the sea went so high that the boat could not live, and
that we should be inevitably drowned. As to making sail, we
had none; nor, if we had, could we have done anything with it,
so we worked at the oar towards the land, though with heavy
hearts, like men going to execution; for we all knew that when
the boat came nearer the shore, she would be dashed in a thousand
pieces by the breach of the sea. However, we committed our
souls to God in the most earnest manner, and the wind driving
us towards the shore, we hastened our destruction with our own
hands, pulling as well as we could towards land.
What the shore was-whether rock or sand, whether steep or
shoal-we knew not; the only hope that could rationally give us
the least shadow of expectation was, if we might happen into
some bay or gulf, or the mouth of some river, where by great
chance we might have run our boat in, or got under the lee of
the land, and perhaps made smooth water. But there was nothing
of this appeared; but as we made nearer and nearer the shore,
the land looked more frightful than the sea.
After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league and a half,
as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came rolling
astern of us, and plainly bid us expect the coup de grace. In a
word, it took us with such fury, that it overset the boat at once;
and separating us, as well from the boat as from one another,




r~ '4
7 g



--~ --- ~j c~"



gave us not time hardly to "say, "0 God!" for we were all
swallowed up in a moment.
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt
when I sunk into the water; for though I swam very well, yet I
could not deliver myself from the waves so as to draw breath, till
that wave having driven me, or rather carried me, a vast way on
towards the shore, and having spent itself, went back and left me
upon the land almost dry, but half dead with the water I took in,
I had so much presence of mind, as well as breath left, that
seeing myself nearer the mainland than I expected, I got upon
my feet and endeavoured to make on towards the land as fast as
I could, before another wave should return and take me up again;
but I soon found it was impossible to avoid it, for I saw the sea
come after me as high as a great hill, and as furious as an enemy
which I had no means or strength to contend with: my business
was to hold my breath, and raise myself upon the water, if I
could, and so, by swimming, to preserve my breathing, and pilot
myself towards the shore, if possible; my greatest concern now
being that the sea, as it would carry me a great way towards the
shore when it came on, might not carry me back again with it
when it gave back towards the sea.
The wave that came upon me again buried me at once twenty
or thirty feet deep in its own body, and I could feel myself
carried with a mighty force and swiftness towards the shore, a
very great way; but I held my breath, and assisted myself to
swim still forward with all my might. I was ready to burst with
holding my breath, when, as I felt myself rising up, so, to my
immediate relief, I found my head and hands shoot out above
the surface of the water; and though it was not two seconds of
time that I could keep myself so, yet it relieved me greatly, gave
me breath and new courage. I was covered again with water a
good while, but not so long but I held it out; and finding the
water had spent itself and began to return, I struck forward
against the return of the waves, and felt ground again with my
feet. 'I stood still a few moments, to recover breath and till the
water went from me, and then took to my heels and ran with
what strength I had farther towards the shore. But neither would
this deliver me from the fury of the sea, which came pouring in
after me again; and twice more I was lifted up by the waves and
carried forwards as before, the shore being very flat..



The last time of these two had well near been fatal to me; for
the sea, having hurried me along, as before, landed me, or rather
dashed me, against a piece of a rock, and that with such force as
it left me senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my own deliverance;
for the blow, taking my side and breast, beat the breath, as it
were, quite out of my body, and had it returned again immediately,
I must have been strangled in the water; but I recovered a little
before the return of the waves, and seeing I should be covered
again with water, I resolved to hold fast by a piece of the rock,
and so to hold my breath, if possible, till the wave went back.
Now as the waves were not so high as the first, being near land,
I held my hold till the wave abated, and then fetched another run,
which brought me so near the shore that the next wave, though
it went over me, yet did not so swallow me up as to carry me
away; and the next run I took, I got to the main land, where, to
my great comfort, I clambered up the cliffs of the shore, and sat
me down upon the grass, free frofn danger and quite out of the
reach of the water.
I was now landed and safe on shore, and began to look up and
thank God that my life was saved, in a case wherein there was,
some minutes before, scarce any room to hope. I believe it is
impossible to express to the life what the ecstacies and transports
of the soul are, when it is so saved, as I may say, out of the grave;
and I do not wonder now at that custom, viz., that when a
malefactor, who has the halter about his neck, is tied up and just
going to be turned off, and has a reprieve brought to him,-I say,
I do not wonder that they bring a surgeon with it, to let him
blood that very moment they tell him of it, that the surprise may
not drive the animal spirits from the heart, and overwhelm him:
"For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first."
I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and my
whole being, as I may say, wrapped up in the contemplation of
my deliverance; making a thousand gestures and motions which
I cannot describe; reflecting upon all -my comrades that were
drowned, and that there should not be one soul saved but myself,
-for, as for them, I never saw them afterwards, or any sign of
them, except three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes that
were not fellows.
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when the breach and



froth of the sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far
off, and considered, Lord how was it possible I could get on
shore ?
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my
condition, I began to look round me, to see what kind of a place
I was in, and what was next to be done; and I soon found my com-
forts abate, and that, in a word, I had a dreadful deliverance;
for I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor anything either to
eat or drink, to comfort me; neither did I see any prospect
before me, but that of perishing with hunger, or being devoured
by wild beasts: and that which was particularly afflicting to me
was, that I had no weapon either to hunt and kill any creature
for my sustenance, or to defend myself against any other creature
that might desire to kill me for theirs. In a word, I had nothing
about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco in a
box. This was all my provision ; and this threw me into terrible
agonies of mind, that for a while I ran about like a madman.
Night coming upon me, I began, with a heavy heart, to consider
what would be my lot if there were any ravenous beasts in that
country, seeing at night they always come abroad'for their prey.
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts, at that time, was
to get up into a thick bushy tree, like a fir, but thorny-which
grew near me, and where I resolved to sit all .night-and con-
sider the next day what death I should die, for as yet I saw no
prospect of life. I walked about a furlong from the shore, to
see.if I could find any fresh water to drink, which I did, to my
great joy, and having drunk, and put a little tobacco in my
mouth to prevent hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into
it, endeavoured to place myself so as .that, if I should sleep, I
might not fall; and having cut me a short stick like a truncheon,
\ for my defence, I took up my lodging, and having been exces-
1sively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I
believe, few could have done in my condition, and found myself
the most refreshed with it that I think I ever was on such an

Crusoe, on waking in the morning, sees the ship lying a-ground high out of the
water-He comes down from the tree-Swims to the ship-Constructs a raft,
which he loads with stores, and guides with difficulty to the shore-Surveys
the country, and discovers that it is an island and uninhabited-Shoots a bird,
the flesh of which proves to be carrion--Unloads the raft, and erects a hut-
Swims to the ship again, and brings a second cargo ashore-On his return is
confronted by a wild cat, which discovers a disposition to be friendly-Makes
a tent, which he furnishes and fortifies-Repeats his visits to the ship, which
he strips of its contents-Removes his tent to a more advantageous site, and
fences it strongly-Kills a she-goat, and is grieved threat.

HEN I waked it was broad day, the weather clear,
and the storm abated, so that the sea did not rage
and swell as before; but that which surprised me
most was, that the ship was lifted off in the night
from the sand where she lay, by the swelling of the
tide, and was driven up almost as far as the rock which I first
mentioned, where I had been so bruised by the dashing mxe
against it. This being within about a mile from the shore where
I was, and the ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished
myself on board, that at least I might save some necessary things
for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked
about me again, and the first thing I found was the boat, which
lay, as the wind and the sea had tossed her up upon the land,
about two miles on my right hand. I walked as far as I could-
upon the shore to have got to her, but found a neck, or inlet, of
water between me and the boat, which was about half a mile
broad; so I came back for the present, being more intent upon
getting at the ship, where I hoped to find something for my
present subsistence.
A little after noon I found the sea very calm, and the tide
ebbed so far out that I could come within a quarter of a mile of



the ship; and here I found a fresh renewing of my grief, for I
saw evidently that, if we had kept on board, we had all been
safe-that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I had not
been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all comfort
and company as I now was. This forced tears from my eyes
again, but as there was little relief in that, I resolved, if possible,
to get to the ship; so I pulled off my clothes, for the weather
was hot to extremity, and took the water: but when I came to
the ship, my difficulty was still greater to know how to get on
board, for as she lay aground, and high out of the water, there
was nothing within my reach tp lay hold of. I swam round her
twice, and the second time I spied a small piece of rope, which I
wondered I did not see at first, hang down by the fore-chains, so
low as that with great difficulty I got hold of it, and by the help
of that rope got into the forecastle of the ship. Here I found
that the ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water in her
hold; but that she lay so on the side of a bank of hard sand, or
rather earth, and her stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and her
head low, almost to the water. By this means all her quarter was
free, and all that was in that part was dry; for you may be sure
my first work was to search and to see what was spoiled and what
was free: and first I found that all the ship's provisions were dry
and untouched by the water; and being very well disposed to
eat, I went to the bread-room, and filled my pockets with biscuit,
and eat it as I went about other things, for I had no time to lose.
I also found some rum in the great cabin, of which I took a large
dram, and which I had indeed need enough of, to spirit me for
what was before me. Now I wanted nothing but a boat, to
furnish myself with many things which I foresaw would be very
necessary to me.
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be had,
and this extremity roused my application; we had several spare
yards, and two or three large spars of wood, and a spare topmast
or two in the ship. I resolved to fall to work with these, and
flung a's many of them overboard as I could manage of their
.weight, tying every one with a rope, that they might not drive
away. When this was done, I went down the ship's side, and
pulling them to me, I tied four of them fast together at both ends,
as well as I could, in the form of a raft, and laying two or three
short pieces of plank upon them crossways, I found I could walk


upon it very well, but that it was not able to bear any great weight,
the pieces being too. light; so I went to work, and with the
carpenter's saw I cut a spare topmast into three lengths, and
added them to my raft, with a great deal of labour and pains.
But the hope of furnishing myself with necessaries encouraged
me to go beyond what I should have been able to have done
upon another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable weight.
My next care was what to load it with, and how to preserve what
I laid upon it from the surf of the sea. But I was not long con-
sidering this. I first laid all the planks, or boards, upon it that
I could get, and having considered well what I most wanted, I
first got three of the seamen's chests, which I had broken open
and emptied, and lowered them down upon my raft. The first
of these I filled with provisions, viz., bread, rice, three Dutch
cheeses, five pieces of dried goats' flesh (which we lived much
upon), and a little remainder of European corn which had been
laid by for some fowls which we had brought to sea with us, but
the fowls were killed. There had been some barley and wheat
together, but, to my great disappointment, I found afterwards
that the rats had eaten or spoiled it all. As for liquors, I found
several cases of bottles belonging to our skipper, in which were
some cordial waters, and, in all, about five or six gallons of rack.
These I stowed by themselves, there being no need to put them
into the chests, nor no room for them. While I was doing this
I found the tide began to flow, though very calm, and I had the
mortification to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had
left on shore upon the sand, swim away; as for my breeches
which were only linen and open-kneed, I swam on board in them
and my stockings. However, this put me upon rummaging for
clothes, of which I found enough, but took no more than I
wanted for present use, for I had other things which my eye was
more upon, as first, tools to work with on shore; and it was after
long searching that I found out the carpenter's chest, which was
indeed a very useful prize to me, and much more valuable than
a ship loading of gold would have been at that time. I got it
down to my raft, even whole as it was, without losing time to look
into it, for I knew in general what it contained.
My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There were
two very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two pistols ;


these I secured first, with some powder-horns and a small bag of
shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew there were three barrels
of powder in the ship, but knew not where our gunner had stowed
them, but with much search I found them, two of them dry and
good, the third had taken water. Those two I got to my raft,
with the arms. And now I thought myself pretty well freighted,
and began to think how I should get to shore with them, having
neither sail, oar, nor rudder; and the least capful of wind would
have overset all my navigation.
I had three encouragements: i. A smooth, calm sea. 2. The
tide rising, and setting in to the shore. 3. What little wind there
was blew me towards the land. And thus, having found two or
three broken oars belonging to the boat, and, besides, the tools
which were in the chest, I found two saws, an axe, and a hammer;
and with this cargo I put to sea. For a mile, or thereabouts, my
raft went very well, only that I found it drive a little distant from
the place where I had landed before, by which I perceived that
there was some indraft of the water, and consequently I hoped to
find some creek or river there, which I might make use of as a
port to get to land with my cargo. "
As I imagined, so it was: there appeared before me a little
opening of the land, and I found a strong current of the tide set
into it; so I guided my raft as well as I could, to keep in the
middle of the stream. But here I had like to have suffered a
second shipwreck, which, if I had, I think verily would have
broke my heart; for, knowing nothing of the coast, my raft ran
aground at one end of it upon a shoal, and not being aground at
the other end, it wanted but a little that all my cargo had slipped
off towards that end that was afloat, and so fallen into the water.
I did my utmost, by setting my back against the chests, to keep
them in their places, but could not thrust off the raft with'all my
strength; neither durst I stir from the posture I was in, but
holding up the chests with all my might, stood in that manner
near half an hour, in which time the rising of the water brought
me a little more upon a level; and a little after, the water still
rising, my raft floated again, and I thrust her off with the oar I had
into the channel, and then, driving up higher, I at length found
myself in the mouth of a little 'river, with land on both sides,
and a strong current or tide running up. I looked on both
sides for a proper place to get to shore, for I was not willing to

be driven too high up the river, hoping, in time, to see some
ship at sea, and therefore resolved to place myself as near the
coast as I could.
At length I spied a little cove. on the right shore of the creek,
to which, with great pain and difficulty, I guided my raft, and
at last got so near as that, reaching ground with my oar, I could
thrust her directly in; but here I had like to have dipped all
my cargo into the sea again, for that shore lying pretty steep,
that is to say, sloping, there was no place to land, but where
one end of my float, if it ran on shore, would lie so high, and
the other sink lower, as before, that it would endanger my cargo
again. All that I could do was to wait till the tide was at the
highest, keeping the raft with my oar, like an anchor, to hold
the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of ground which
I expected the water would flow over; and so it did. As soon
as I found water enough, for my raft drew about a foot of water,
I thrust her upon that flat piece of ground, and there fastened or
moored her, by sticking my two broken oars into the ground, one
on one side near one end, and one on the other side near the
other end; and thus I lay till the water ebbed away, and left my
raft and all my cargo safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper place
for my habitation, and where to stow my goods, to secure them.
from whatever might happen. Where I was I yet knew not;
whether on the continent or on an island, whether inhabited or
not inhabited, whether in danger of wild beasts or not. There
was a hill, not above a mile from me, which rose up very steep
and high, and which seemed to overtop some other hills, which
lay as in a ridge from it northward. I took out one of the fowling-
pieces; and one of the pistols, and a horn of powder, and thus
armed, I travelled for discovery up to the top of that hill, where,
after I had with great labour and difficulty got up to the top, I
saw my fate, to my great affliction, viz., that I was in an island
environed every way with the sea, no land to be seen, except
some rocks which lay a great way off, and two small islands, less
than this, which lay about three leagues to the west.
I found also that the island I was in was barren, and as I saw
good reason to believe, uninhabited, except by wild beasts, of
whom, however, I saw none; yet I saw abundance of fowls, but
knew not their kinds, neither when I killed them could I tell



what was fit for food and what not. At my coming back I shot
at a great bird which I saw sitting upon a tree on the side of a
great wood. I believe it was the first gun that had been fired
there since the creation of the world: I had no sooner fired, but
from all parts of the wood there arose an innumerable number of
fowls, of many sorts, making a confused screaming, and crying
every one according to his usual note; but not one of them of
any kind that I knew. As for that creature I killed, I took it to
be a kind of a hawk, its colour and beak resembling it, but had
no talons or claws more than common. Its flesh was carrion and
fit for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and fell
to work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me up the rest
of that day; what to do with myself at night I knew not, nor
indeed where to rest, for I was afraid to lie down on the ground,
not knowing but some wild beast might devour me, though, as I
afterwards found, there was really no need for those fears.
However, as well as I could, I barricadoed myself round with
the chests and boards that I had brought on shore, and made a
kind of a hut for that night's lodging. As for food, I yet saw not
which way to supply myself, except that I had seen two or three
creatures, like hares, run out of the wood where I shot the fowl.
I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many
things out of the ship which would be useful to me, and particu-
larly some of the rigging and sails, and such other things as
might come to land; and I resolved to make another voyage on
board the vessel, if possible. And as I knew that the first storm
that blew must necessarily break her all in pieces, I resolved to
set all other things apart till I got everything out of the ship
that I could get. Then I called a council, that is to say, in my
thoughts, whether I should take back the raft, but this appeared
impracticable; so I resolved to go, as before, when the tide was
down, and I did so, only that I stripped before I went from my
hut, having nothing on but a chequered shirt and a pair of linen
drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second raft;
and having had experience of the first, I. neither made this so
unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard, but yet I brought away several
things very useful to me: as, first, in the carpenter's stores, I
found two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a great screw-


jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and, above all, that most useful
thing called a grindstone. All these I secured together, with
several things belonging to the gunner, *particularly two or three
iron crows, and two barrels of musket bullets, seven muskets, and
another fowling-piece, with some small quantity of powder more,
a large bag full of small shot, and a great roll of sheet lead; but
this last was so heavy I could not hoist it up to get it over the
ship's side.
Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes that I could
find, and a spare fore-topsail, hammock, and some bedding; and
with this I loaded my second raft, and brought them all safe on
shore to my very great comfort.
.I was under some apprehensions, during my absence from the
land, that at least my provisions might be devoured on shore;
but, when I came back, I found no sign of any visitor, only there
sat a creature like a wild cat upon one of the chests, which, when
I came towards it, ran away a little distance and then stood still.
She sat very composed and unconcerned, and looked full in my
face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted with me. I presented
my gun at her, but as she did not understand it, she was per-
fectly unconcerned at it, nor did she offer to stir away, upon
which I tossed her a bit of biscuit, though, by the way, I was not
very free of it, for my store was not great; however, I spared her
a bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled of it, and eat it, and looked,
as pleased, for more; but I thanked her, and could spare no
more, so she marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore-though I was fain to
open the barrels of powder and bring them by parcels, for they
were too heavy, being large casks,-I went to work to make me
a little tent with the sail and some poles which I cut f6r that
purpose, and into this tent I brought everything that I knew
would spoil, either with rain or sun; and I piled all the empty
chests and casks up in a circle round the tent, to fortify it from
any sudden attempt either from man or beast.
When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent with
some boards within, and an empty chest set up on end without;
and spreading one of the beds upon the ground, laying my two
pistols just at my head, and my gun at length by me, I went to
bed for the first time, and slept very quietly all night; for I was
very weary and heavy, for the night before I had slept little,


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and had laboured very hard all day, as well to fetch all those
things from the ship as to get them on shore.
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was laid
up, I believe, for one man; but I was not satisfied still, for while
the ship sat upright in that posture, I thought I ought to get every-
thing out of her that I could: so every day, at low water, I went
on board and brought away something or other; but particularly
the third time I went, I brought away as much of the rigging as
I could, as also all the small ropes and rope-twine I could get,
with a piece of spare canvas, which was to mend the sails upon
occasion, and the barrel of wet gunpowder. In a word, I brought
away all the sails, first and last, only that I was fain to cut them
in pieces, and bring as much at a time as I could; for they were
no more useful to be sails, but as mere canvas only.
But that which comforted me more still was, that, at last of all,
after I had made five or six such voyages as these, and thought I
had nothing more to expect from the ship that was worth my
meddling with,-I say, after all this, I found a great hogshead of
bread, and three large runlets of rum or spirits, and a'box of sugar
and a barrel of fine flour; this was surprising to me,'because I
had given over expecting any more provisions, except what was
spoiled by the water. I soon emptied the hogshead of that bread
and wrapped it up, parcel by parcel, in pieces of the sails, which
I cut out; and, in a word, I got all this safe on shore also.
The next day I made another voyage, and now, having
plundered the ship of what was portable and fit to hand out, I
began with the cables, and cutting the great cable into pieces
such as I could move, I got two cables and a hawser on shore,
with all the iron work I could get; and, having cut down the
spritsail-yard and the mizen-yard, and everything I could, to make
a large raft, I loaded it with all those heavy goods, and came
away: but my good luck began now to leave me; for this raft
was so unwieldy and so overladen, that after I was entered the
little cove where I had landed the rest of my goods, not being
able to guide it so handily as I did the other, it overset, and threw
me and all my cargo into the water. As for myself, it was no
great harm, for I was near the shore; but as to my cargo, it was'
a great part of it lost, especially the iron, which I expected would
have been of great use to me. However, when the tide was out,
I got most of the pieces of cable ashore, and some of the iron,



though with infinite labour; for I was fain to dip for it into the
water, a work which fatigued me very much. After this I went
every day on board, and brought away what I could get.
I had been now thirteen days on shore, and had been eleven
times on board the ship, in which time I had brought away all
that one pair of hands could well be supposed capable to bring;
though, I believe verily, had the calm weather held, I should
have brought away the whole ship, piece by piece; but, preparing
the twelfth time to go on board, I found the wind began to rise.
However, at low water, I went on board, and though I thought I
had rummaged the cabin so effectually, as that nothing more could
be found, yet I discovered a lockerwith drawers in it, in one ofwhich
I found two or three razors, and one pair of large scissors, with
some ten or a dozen of good knives and forks; in another I found
about thirty-six pounds value in money, some European coin,
some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some gold, some silver.
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money. "0 drug!"
said I aloud, what art thou good for ? Thou art not worth to
me, no, not the taking off the ground; one of those knives is
worth all this heap: I have no manner of use for thee; e'en
remain where thou art, and go to the bottom, as a creature whose
life is not worth saving." However, upon second thoughts, I
took it away; and wrapping all this in a piece of canvas, I
began to think of masting another raft; but while I was prepar-
ing this, I found the sky overcast, and the wind began to rise,
and in a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale from the shore.
It presently occurred to me, that it was in vain to pretend to
make a raft with the wind off shore, and that it was my business
to be gone before the tide of flood began, otherwise I might not
be able to reach the shore at all. Accordingly I let myself down
into the water, and swam across the channel which lay between
the ship and the sands, and even that with difficulty enough,
partly with the weight of the things I had about me, and partly
the roughness of the water; for the wind rose very hastily, and
before it was quite high water it blew a storm.
But I was gotten home to my little tent, where I lay, with all
my wealth about me, very secure. It blew very hard all that
night, and in the morning, when I looked out, behold no more
ship was to be seen I was a little surprised, but recovered my-
self with this satisfactory reflection, viz., that I had lost no time,


nor abated no diligence, to get everything out of her that could
be useful to me, and that indeed there was little left in her that
I was able to bring away, if I had had more time.
I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of anything
out of her, except what might drive on shore from her wreck, as,
indeed, divers pieces of her afterwards did; but those things were
of small use to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing myself
against either savages, if any should appear, or wild beasts, if any
were in the island; and I had many thoughts of the method how
to do this, and what kind of dwelling to make, whether I should
make me a cave in the earth, or a tent upon the earth; and, in
short, I resolved upon both, the manner and description of which,
it may not be improper to give an account of.
I soon found the place I was in was not for my settlement,
particularly because it was upon a low, moorish ground, near the
sea, and I believed it would not be wholesome; and more par-
ticularly because there was no fresh water near it: so I resolved
to find a more healthy and more convenient spot' of ground.
I consulted several things in my situation, which I found would
be proper for me: first, Health and fresh water I just now men-
tioned; secondly, Shelter from the heat of the sun; thirdly,
Security from ravenous creatures, whether man or beast; fourthly,
A view to the sea, that if God sent any ship in sight, I might not
lose any advantage for my deliverance, for which I was not will-
ing to banish all my expectation yet.
In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plaid on
the side of a rising hill, whose front towards this little plain was
steep as a house side, so that nothing could come down upon me
from the top. On the side of this rock there was a hollow place,
worn a little way in, like the entrance or door of a cave, but there
was not really any cave, or way into the rock, at all.
On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place, I resolved
to pitch my tent. This plain was not above a hundred yards
broad, and about twice as long, and lay like a green before my
door; and at the end of it, descended irregularly every way down
into the low grounds by the seaside. It was on the north-north--
west side of the hill, so that it was sheltered from the heat every
day, till it came to a west-and-by-south sun, or thereabouts, which
in those countries is near the setting.


Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle before the hollow
place, which took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter from
the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter, from its beginning and
In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving
them into the ground till they stood very firm like piles, the
biggest end being out of the ground about five feet and a half, and
sharpened on the top: the two rows did not stand above six
inches from one another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship,
and laid them in rows, one upon another, within the circle be-
tween these two rows of stakes up to the top, placing other stakes
in the inside, leaning against them, about two feet and a half
high, like a spur to a post; and this fence was so strong, that
neither man nor beast could get into it or over it. This cost me
a great deal of time and labour, especially to cut the piles in the
woods, bring them to the place, and drive them into the earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be not by a door, but
by a short ladder to go over the top; which ladder, when I was
in, I lifted over after me, and so I was completely fenced in and
fortified, as I thought, from all the world, and consequently slept
secure in the night, which otherwise I could not have done;
though, as it appeared afterwards, there was no need of all this
caution from the enemies that I apprehended danger from.
Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labour, I carried all my
riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which you
have the account above; and I made me a large tent, which, to
preserve me from the rains that in one part of the year are very
violent there, I made double, viz., one smaller tent within, and
one larger tent above it, and covered the uppermost with a large
tarpaulin which I had saved among the sails.
And now I lay no more, for a while, in the bed which I had
brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was indeed a very
good one, and belonged to the mate of the ship.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything that
would spoil by the wet; and having thus enclosed all my goods,
I made up the entrance which, till now, I had left open, and so
passed and repassed, as I said, by a short ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work my way into the rock,
and bringing all the earth and stones that I dug down out through



my tent, I laid them up within my fence in the nature of a terrace,
so that it raised the ground within about a foot and a half; and
thus I made a cave, just behind my tent, which served me like a
cellar to my house.
It cost me much labour and many days, before all these things
were brought to perfection; and therefore I must go back to some
other things which took up some of my thoughts. At the same
time it happened, after I had laid my scheme for the setting up my
tent, and making the cave, that a storm of rain falling from a thick,
dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning happened, and after that a
great clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect of it. I was not
so much surprised with the lightning as I was with a thought
which darted into my mind as swift as the lightning itself: Oh,
my powder! My very heart sunk within me when I thought,
that at one blast all my powder might be destroyed, on which,
not my defence only, but the providing me food, as I thought,
entirely depended. I was nothing near so anxious about my own
danger, though, had the powder took fire, I had never known who
had hurt me.
Such impression did this make upon me, that after the storm
was over, I laid aside all my works, my building and fortifying,
and applied myself to make bags and boxes, to separate the
powder, and to keep it a little and a little in a parcel, in hope that
whatever might come, it might not all take fire at once; and to
keep it so apart, that it should not be possible to make one part
fire another. I finished this work in about a fortnight, and I
think my powder, which in all was about one hundred and forty
pounds weight, was divided in not less than one hundred parcels.
As to the barrel that had been wet, I did not apprehend any
danger from that; so I placed it in my new cave, which, in my
fancy, I called my kitchen, and the rest I hid up and down in
holes among the rocks, so that no wet might come to it, marking
very carefully where I laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out at least
once every day with my gun, as well to divert myself as to see if
I could kill anything fit for food, and, as near as I could, to
acquaint myself with what the island produced. The first time I
went out I presently discovered that there were goats in the island,
which was a great satisfaction to me; but then it was attended
with this misfortune to me, viz., that they were so shy, so subtle,

and so swift of foot, that it was the most difficult thing in the
world to come at them: but I was not discouraged at this,
not doubting but I might now and then shoot one, as it
soon happened; for, after I had found their haunts a little, I
laid wait in this manner for them: I observed, if they saw
me in the valleys, though they were upon the rocks, they would
run away as in a terrible fright; but if they were feeding
in the valleys, and I was upon the rocks, they took no notice
of me; from whence I concluded that, by the position of their
optics, their sight was so directed downward that they did not
readily see objects that were above them : so afterwards I took
this method-I always climbed the rocks first, to get above them,
and then had frequently a fair mark. The first shot I made
among these creatures I killed a she-goat, which had a little kid
by her which she gave suck to, which grieved me heartily; but
when the old one fell, the kid stood stock still by her, till I came
and took her up; and not only so, but when I carried the old
one with me, upon my shoulders, the kid followed me quite to
my enclosure, upon which I laid down the dam, and took the
kid in my arms and carried it over my pale, in hopes to have
bred it up tame; but it would not eat, so I was forced to kill it
and eat it myself. These two supplied me with flesh a great
while, for I ate sparingly and saved my provisions, my bread
especially, as much as possibly I could.
Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely neces-
sary to provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn; and
what I did for that, as also how I enlarged my cave, and what con-
veniences I made, I shall give a full account of it in its place: but
I must first give some little account of myself, and of my thoughts
about living, which, it may well be supposed, were not a few.
I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for as I was not
cast away upon that island without being driven, as is said, by a'
violent storm quite out of the course of our intended voyage, and
a great way, viz., some hundreds of leagues, out of the ordinary
course of the trade of mankind, I had great reason to consider
it as a determination of Heaven that, in this. desolate place, and
in this desolate manner, I should end my life. The tears would
run plentifully down my face when I made these reflections, and
sometimes I would expostulate with myself why Providence should
thus completely ruin its creatures, and render them so absolutely


miserable,-so without help abandoned, so entirely depressed, that
it could hardly be rational to be thankful for such a life.
But something always returned swift upon me to check these
thoughts, and to reprove me; and particularly one day walking
with my gun in my hand by the seaside, I was very pensive upon
the subject of my present condition, when reason, as it were,
expostulated with me the other way thus: "Well, you are in a
desolate condition, it is true; but, pray remember, where are the
rest of you? Did not you come eleven of you into the boat?
Where are the ten? Why were not they saved, and you lost?
Why were you singled out ? Is it better to be here or there ?'
And then I pointed to the sea. All evils are to be considered with
the good that is in them, and with what worse attended them.
Then it occurred to me again, how well I was furnished for
my subsistence, and what would have been my case if it had not
happened, which was a hundred thousand to one, that the ship
floated from the place where she first struck, and was driven so
near to the shore that I had time to get all these things out of
her: what would have been my case, if I had been to have lived
in the condition in which I at first came on shore, without
necessaries of life, or necessaries to supply and procure them?
"Particularly," said I aloud (though to myself), "what should I
have done without a gun, without ammunition, without any tools
to make anything or to work with, without clothes, bedding, a
tent, or any manner of coverings ?" and that now I had all these
to a sufficient quantity, and was in a fair way to provide myself
in such a manner as to live without my gun, when my ammuni-
tion was spent, so that I had a tolerable view of subsisting,
without any want, as long as I lived; for I considered, from the
beginning, how I would provide for the accidents that might
happen, and for the time that was to come, even not only after
my ammunition should be spent, but even after my health or
strength should decay.
I confess I had not entertained any notion of my ammunition,
being destroyed at one blast, I mean my powder being blown up
by lightning; and this made the thoughts of it so surprising to
me, when it lightened and thundered, as I observed just now.
And now, being to enter into a melancholy relation of a scene of
silent life, such perhaps as was never heard of in the world before,
I shall take it from its beginning, and continue it in its order.

q- -- -- --- --W LWd W ^P 'lNh^ J %---' fJ =T^

Crusoe sets up a wooden cross, on which he inscribes the date of his landing, and
keeps his reckoning of time-He seriously considers his position, and balancing
the good in, it against the evil, arrives at the conclusion that he is not altogether
miserable-Makes various articles of furniture for his house, with the aid of the
tools found in the ship-Keeps a journal.

-T was, by my account, the 3oth of September, when,
Sin the manner as above said, I first set foot upon
this horrid island,-when the sun, being to us in
its autumnal equinox, was almost just over my
head ; for I reckoned myself, by observation, to be
in the latitude of nine degrees twenty-two minutes north of the
After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came into
my thoughts that I should lose my reckoning of time for want of
books and pen and ink, and should even forget the Sabbath days
from the working days; but, to prevent this, I cut it with my
knife upon a large post, in capital letters, and making it into a
great cross, I set it up on the shore where I first landed, viz., I
came on shore here the 3oth of September 1659." Upon the
sides of this square post I cut every day a notch with my knife,
and every seventh notch was as long again as the rest, and every
first day of the month as long again as that long one; and thus
I kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning
of time.
In the next place, we are to observe that among the many
things which I brought out of the ship, in the several voyages
which, as above mentioned, I made to it, I got several things of
less value, but not at all less useful to me, which I omitted
setting down before, as, in particular, pens, ink, and paper;
several parcels in the captain's, mate's, gunner's, and carpenter's
keeping; three or four compasses, some mathematical instru-


ments, dials, perspectives, charts, and books of navigation; all
which I huddled together, whether I might want them or no :
also I found three very good Bibles, which came to me in my
cargo from England, and which I had packed up among my
things; some Portuguese books also, and, among them, two or
three Popish prayer-books, and several other books, all which I
carefully secured. And I must not forget that we had in the ship
a dog and two cats, of whose eminent history I may have occa-
sion to say something in its place; for I carried both the cats
with me, and, as for the dog, he jumped out of the ship himself
and swam on shore to me the day after I went on shore with my
first cargo, and was a trusty servant to me many years. I wanted
nothing that he could fetch me, nor any company that he could
make up to me; I only wanted to have him talk'to me, but that
would not do. As I observed before, I found pen, ink, and
paper, and I husbanded them to the utmost; and I shall show
that, while my ink lasted, I kept things Very exact, but after that
was gone I could not, for I could not make any ink by any
means that I could devise.
And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, notwith-
standing all that I had amassed together; and of these, this of
ink was one, as also spade, pickaxe, and shovel, to dig or remove
the earth; needles, pins,. and thread. As for linen, I soon learned
to want that without much difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily, and
it was near a whole year before I had entirely finished my little
pale, or surrounded habitation. The piles, or stakes, which were
as heavy as I could well lift, were a long time in cutting and pre-
paring in the woods, and more by far in bringing home; so that
I spent sometimes two days in cutting and -bringing home one of
those posts, and a third day in driving it into. the ground; for
which purpose I got a heavy piece of wood at first, but at last
bethought myself of one of the iron crows, which, however,
though I found it, yet it made driving those posts, or piles, very
laborious and tedious work. But what need I have been con-
cerned at the tediousness of anything I had to do, seeing I had
time enough to do it in ? Nor had I any other employment, if
that had been over, at least that I could foresee, except the
ranging the island to seek for food, which I did, more or less,
every day.


I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the cir-
cumstance I was reduced to; and I drew up the state of my
affairs in writing, not so much to leave them to any that were to
come after me (for I was like to have but few heirs), as to deliver
my thoughts from daily poring upon them, and afflicting my
mind: and as my reason began now to master my despondency,
I began to comfort myself as well as I could, and to set the good
against the evil, that I might have something to distinguish my
case from worse; and I stated it very impartially, like debtor and
creditor, the comforts I enjoyed against the miseries I suffered,



I am cast upon a horrible, desolate
island, void of all hope of recovery.

I am singled out and separated, as it
were, from all the world, to be miserable.

I am divided from mankind, a soli-
taire, one banished from human society.

I have no clothes to cover me.

I am without any defence, or means
to resist any violence of man or beast.

I have no soul to speak to, or relieve

But I am alive; and am not drowned,
as all my ship's company was.

But I am singled out, too, from all the
ship's crew, to be spared from death';
and He that miraculously saved me from
death, can deliver me from this condition.

But I am not starved, and perishing on
a barren place, affording no sustenance.

But I am in a hot climate, where, if I
had clothes, I could hardly wear them.

But I am cast on an island, where I see
no wild beast to hurt me, as I saw on the
coast of Africa; and what if 1 had been
shipwrecked there ?
But God wonderfully sent the ship in
near enough to the shore, that I have
gotten out so many necessary things as
will either supply my wants, or enable me
to supply myself, even as long as I live.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony that there
was scarce any condition in the world so miserable, but there was
something negative, or something positive, to be thankful for in
it; and let this stand as a direction, from the experience of the
most miserable of all conditions in this world, that we may always
find in it something to comfort ourselves from, and to set, in the
description of good and evil, on the credit side of the account.
Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition,


and given over looking out to sea, to see if I could spy a ship,-
I say, given over these things, I began to apply myself to accom-
modate my way of living, and to make things as easy to me as
I could.
I have already described my habitation, which was a tent under
the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of posts and
cables; but I might now rather call it a wall, for I raised a kind
of wall up against it of turfs, about two feet thick on the outside,
and after some time (I think it was a year and half) I raised
rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and thatched, or covered, it
with boughs of trees and such things as I could get, to keep out
the rain, which I found at some times of the year very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my goods into this
Sale, and into the cave which I had made behind me. But I
must observe, too, that at first this was a confused heap of goods,
which, as they lay in no order, so they took up all my place: I
had no room to turn myself, so I set myself to enlarge my cave
and works farther into the earth; for it was a loose sandy rock,
which yielded easily to the labour I bestowed on it: and so when
I found I was pretty safe as to beasts of prey, I worked sideways,
to the right hand, into the rock, and then turning to the right
again, worked quite out, and made me a door to come out on
the outside of my pale or fortification.
This gave me not only egress and regress, as it were a back
way to my tent and to my storehouse, but gave me room to stow
my goods.
And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary
things as I found I most wanted, particularly a chair and a table;
for without these I was not able to enjoy the few comforts I had
in the world,-I could not write, or eat, or do several things,
with so much pleasure, without a table.
So I went to work; and here I must needs observe that, as
reason is the substance and original of the mathematics, so, by
stating, and squaring everything by reason, and by making the
most rational judgment of things, every man may be, in time,
master of every mechanic art. I had never handled a tool in my
life; and yet, in time, by labour, application, and contrivance, I
found, at last, that I wanted nothing but I could have made it,
especially if I had had tools. However, I made abundance df
things, even without tools, and some with no more tools than an


adze and a hatchet, which, perhaps, were never made that way
before, and that with .infinite labour. For example, if I wanted
a board, I had no other way but to cut down a tree, set it on an
edge before me, and hew it flat on either side with my axe, till I
had brought it to be as thin as a plank, and then dub it smooth
with my adze. It is true, by this method I could make but one
board out of a whole tree; but this I had no remedy for but
patience, any more than I had for the prodigious deal of time and
labour which it took me up to make a plank or board: but my
time or labour was little worth, and so it was as well employed
one way as another.
However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed above,
in the first place-and this I did out of the short pieces of boards
that I brought on my raft from the ship. But when I had
wrought out some boards, as above, I made large shelves of the
breadth of a foot and a half, one over another, all along one side
of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and iron-work, and, in a
word, to separate everything at large in their places, that I might
easily come at them. I knocked pieces into the wall of the rock,
to hang my guns, and all things that would hang up.
So that, had my cave been to be seen, it looked like a general
magazine of all necessary things; and I had everything so ready
at my hand, that it was a great pleasure to me to see all my goods
in such order, and especially to find my stock of all necessaries so
And now it was when I began to keep a journal of every day's
employment; for, indeed, at first, I was in too much a hurry, and
not only hurry as to labour, but in too much discomposure of
mind, and my journal would have been full of many dull things;
for example, I must have said thus-" Sept. 3oth.-After I got to
shore, and had escaped drowning, instead of being thankful to
God for my deliverance, having first vomited with the great
quantity of salt water which was gotten into my stomach, and
recovering myself a little, I ran about the shore, wringing my
hands, and beating my head and face, exclaiming at my misery,
and crying out, I was undone, undone! till, tired and faint, I was
forced to lie down on the ground to repose, but durst not sleep,
for fear of being devoured."
Some days after this, and after I had been on board the ship
and got all that I could out of her, yet I could not forbear



-v''. .''~


i t

~ A


/ *




getting up to the top of a little mountain and looking out to
sea, in hopes of seeing a ship; then fancy at a vast distance I
spied a sail-please myself with the hopes of it,-and then, after
looking steadily, till I was almost blind, lose it quite, and sit
down and weep like a child, and thus increase my misery by
my folly.
But having gotten over these things in some measure, and
having settled my household stuff and habitation, made me a
table and a chair, and all as handsome about me as I could, I
began to keep my journal,-of which I shall here give you the
copy (though in it will be told all these particulars over again)
as long as it lasted; for, having no more ink, I was forced to
leave it off.


September 30, 1659. I, poor miserable Robinson Crusoe,
being' shipwrecked during a dreadful storm in the offing, came
on shore on this dismal unfortunate island, which I called the
ISLAND OF DESPAIR, all the rest of the ship's company being
drowned, and myself almost dead. All the rest of the day I
spent in afflicting myself at the dismal circumstances I was
brought to, viz., I had neither food, house, clothes, weapon, nor
place to fly to, and in despair of any relief, saw nothing but
death before me, either that I should be devoured by wild beasts,
murdered by savages, or starved to death for want of food. At
the approach of night I slept in a tree, for fear of wild creatures,
but slept soundly, though it rained all night.
October i.-In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the
ship had floated with the high tide, and was driven'on shore again
much nearer the island; which, as it was some comfort on one
hand (for seeing her sit upright, and not broken to pieces, I
hoped, if the wind abated, I might get on board, and get some
food and necessaries out of her for my relief), so, on the other
hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my comrades, who, I
imagined, if we had all stayed on board, might have saved the ship,
or, at least, that they would not have been all drowned, as they
were; and that, had the men been saved, we might, perhaps, have
built us a boat out of the ruins of the ship, to have carried us to
some other part of the world. I spent great part of this day in



perplexing myself on these things; but at length seeing the ship
almost dry, I went upon the sand as near as I could, and then
swam on board. This day also it continued raining, though with
no wind at all.
From the ist of October to the 24th.-All these days entirely
spent in making several voyages to get all I could out of the ship,
which I brought on shore, every tide of flood, upon rafts. Much
rain also in these days, though with some intervals of fair weather;
but it seems this was the rainy season.
Oct. 20.-I overset my raft and all the goods I had got upon
it, but being in shoal water, and the things being chiefly heavy, I
recovered many of them when the tide was out.
Oct. 25.-It rained all night and all day, with some gusts of
wind; during which time the ship broke in pieces, the wind
blowing a little harder than before, and was no more to be seen,
except the wreck of her, and that only at low water. I spent
this day in covering and securing the goods which I had saved,
that the rain might not spoil them.
Oct. 26.-I walked about the shore almost all day, to find out
a place to fix my habitation, greatly concerned to secure myself
from any attack in the night, either from wild beasts or men.
Towards night I fixed upon a proper place, under a rock, and
marked out a semicircle for my encampment, which I resolve to.
strengthen with a work, wall, or fortification, made of double
piles, lined within with cable and without with turf.
From the 26th to the 30th, I worked very hard in carrying all
my goods to my new habitation, though some part of the time it
rained exceeding hard.
The 3Ist, in the morning, I went out into the island with my
gun, to seek for some food and discover the country, when I killed
a she-goat, and her kid followed me home, which I afterwards
killed also, because it would not feed.
November i.-I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there
for the first night, making it as large as I could, with stakes driven
in to swing my hammock upon.
Nov. 2.-I set up all my chests and boards, and the pieces of
timber which made my rafts; and with them formed a fence
round me, a little within the place I had marked out for my
Nov. 3.-I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls like




ducks, which were very good food. In the afternoon went to
work to make me a table.
Nov. 4.-This morning I began to order my times of work, of
going out with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diversion ; viz.,
every morning I walked out with my gun for two or three hours,
if it did not rain ; then employed myself to work'till about eleven'
o'clock; then eat what I had to live on; and from twelve to two
I lay down to sleep, the weather being excessive hot; and then,
in the evening, to work again. The working part of this day and
the next were wholly employed in making my table, for I was yet
but a very sorry workman, though time and necessity made me
a complete natural mechanic soon after, as I believe it would do
any one else.
Nov. 5.-This day I went abroad with my gun and dog, and
killed a wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good for
nothing: every creature I killed, I took off the skins and pre-
served them. Coming back by the seashore, I saw many sorts
of sea-fowls which I did not understand, but was surprised, and
almost frighted, with two or three seals, which, while I was gazing
at, not well knowing what they were, got into the sea and escaped
me for that time.
Nov. 6.-After my morning walk, I went to work with my
table again, and finished it, though not to my liking; nor was it
long before I learned to mend it.
Nov. 7.-Now it began to be settled fair weather. The 7th,
8th, 9th, ioth, and part of the I2th (for the IIth was Sunday,
according to my reckoning), I took wholly up to make me a
chair, and with much ado brought it to a tolerable shape, but.
never to please me; and, even in the making, I pulled it'to-
pieces several times.-Note. I soon neglected my keeping Sun-
days; for, omitting my mark for them on my post, I forgot which
was which.
Nov. 13.-This day it rained, which refreshed me exceedingly,
and cooled the earth; but it was accompanied with terrible
thunder and lightning, which frighted me dreadfully, for fear of
my powder. As soon as it was over, I resolved to separate my
stock of powder into as many little parcels as possible, that it'
might not be in danger.
Nov. 14, 15, 16.-These three days I spent in making little
square chests or boxes, which might hold about a pound, or two


pounds at most, of powder; and so, putting the powder in, I
stowed it in places as secure and remote from one another as
possible. On one of these three days I killed a large bird that
was good to eat, but I know not what to call it.
Nov. I7.-This day I began to dig behind my tent, into the
rock, to make room for my farther conveniency.-Note. Three
things I wanted exceedingly for this work, viz., a pickaxe, a
shovel, and a wheelbarrow, or basket; so I desisted from my
work, and began to consider how to supply that want, and make
me some tools. As for a pickaxe, I made use of the iron crows,
which were proper enough, though heavy; but the next thing
was a shovel or spade: this was so absolutely necessary, that,
indeed, I could do nothing effectually without it, but what kind
of one to make I knew not.
Nov. 18.-The next day, in searching the woods, I found a
tree of that wood, or like it, which, in the Brazils, they call the
iron tree, for its exceeding hardness: of this, with great labour,
and almost spoiling my axe, I cut a piece, and brought it home,
too, with difficulty enough, for it was exceeding heavy. The
excessive hardness of the wood, and having no other way, made
me a long while upon this machine; for I worked it effectually,
by little and little, into the form of a shovel or spade, the handle
exactly shaped like ours in England, only that the broad part
having no iron shod upon it at bottom, it would not last me so
long: however, it served well enough for the uses which I had
occasion to put it to, but never was a shovel, I believe, made
after that fashion, or so long a-making.
I was still deficient; for I wanted a basket, or a wheelbarrow.
A basket I could not make by any means, having no such things
as twigs that would bend to make wicker-ware, at least none yet
found out; and as to the wheelbarrow, I fancied I could make
all but the wheel, but that I had no notion of, neither did I know
how to go about it; besides, I had no possible way to make iron
gudgeons for the spindle or axes of the wheel to run in ; so I gave
it over: and so, for carrying away the earth which I dug out of
the cave, I made me a thing like a hod which the labourers carry
mortar in when they serve the bricklayers.
This was not so difficult to me as the making the shovel; and yet
this and the shovel, and the attempt which I made in vain to make
a wheelbarrow, took me up no less than four days-I mean, always



excepting my morning walk with my gun, which I seldom failed,
and very seldom failed also of bringing home something fit to eat.
Nov. 23.-My other work having now stood still, because of
my making these tools, when they were finished I went on, and
working every day, as my strength and time allowed, I spent
eighteen days entirely in widening and deepening my cave, that
it might hold my goods commodiously.-NVote. During all this
time, I worked to make this room, or cave, spacious enough to
accommodate me as a warehouse, or magazine, a kitchen, a
dining-room, and a cellar. As for a lodging, I kept to the tent;
except that sometimes, in the wet season of the year, it rained so
hard that I could not keep myself dry, which caused me after-
wards to cover all my place within my pale with long poles in the
form of rafters, leaning against the rock, and load them with flags
and large leaves of trees, like a thatch.
December I0o.-I began now to think my cave or vault finished;
when on a sudden (it seems I had made it too large) a great
quantity of earth fell down from the top and one side--so much,
that, in short, it frighted me, and not without reason too; for if
I had been under it I had never wanted a grave-digger. Upon
this disaster, I had a great deal of work to do over again, for I had
the loose earth to carry out, and which was of more importance,
I had the ceiling to prop up, so that I might be sure no more would
come down.
Dec. II.-This day I went to work with it accordingly, and
got two shores, or posts, pitched upright to the top, with two
pieces of board across over each post: this I finished the next
day, and setting more posts up with boards, in about a week more
I had the-roof secured; and the posts, standing in rows, served
me for partitions to part off my house.
Dec. 17.-From this day to the 2oth, I placed shelves, and
knocked up nails on the posts, to hang everything up that could
be hung up; and now I began to be in some order within doors.
Dec. 20.-Now I carried everything into the cave, and began
to furnish my house, and set up some pieces of boards, like a
dresser, to order my victuals upon; but boards began to be very
scarce with me: also I made me another table.
Dec. 24.-Much rain all night and all day: no stirring out.
Dec. 25.-Rain 'all day.
Dec. 26.-No rain, and the earth much cooler than before,
and pleasanter. E


Dec. 27.-Killed a young goat, and lamed another, so that I
catched it, and led it home in a string; when I had it home, I
bound and splintered up its leg, which was broke.-N.B. I took
such care of it that it lived, and the leg grew well, and as strong
as ever; but by nursing it so long, it grew tame, and fed upon
the little green at my door, and would not go away. This was
the first time that I entertained a thought of breeding up some
tame creatures, that I might have food when my powder and shot
was all spent.
Dec. 28, 29, 30.-Great heats, and no breeze: so that there
was no stirring abroad, except in the evening, for food: this time
I spent in putting all my things in order within doors.
January I.-Very hot still; but I went abroad early and late
with my gun, and lay still in the middle of the day. This evening,
going farther into the valleys which lay towards the centre of the
island, I found there was plenty of goats, though exceeding shy,
and hard to come at: however, I resolved to try if I could not
bring my dog to hunt them down.
Jan. 2.-Accordingly, the next day I went out with my dog,
and set him upon the goats; but I was mistaken, for they all faced
about upon the dog, and he knew his danger too well, for he
would not come near them.
Jan. 3.-I began my fence, or wall, which, being still jealous
of my being attacked by somebody, I resolved to make very thick
and strong.-N.B. This wall being described before, I purposely
omit what was said in the journal : it is sufficient to observe, that
I was no less time than from the 3d of January to the I4th of
April, working, finishing, and perfecting this wall,-though it was
no more than about twenty-four yards in length, being a half
circle, from one place in the rock to another place about eight
yards from it, the door of the cave being in the centre behind it.



Crusoe enlarges upon the circumstances noted in his Journal, and details his diffi-
culties-Is surprised by the appearance of barley growing out of the ground-
At first supposes that Providence has specially intervened on his behalf, but
afterwards remembers that the barley was accidentally sown-Prudently preserves
the grain for seed-The Journal resumed-Is startled by an earthquake, which
is followed by a hurricane-Recovers various articles from the wreck, which
have been cast ashore in the storm-Finds a turtle and cooks it-Falls ill, and
is alarmed by a terrible dream-Reproaches himself on account of his past life,
and reflects upon his present miseries.

SLL this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering
me many days, nay, sometimes weeks together;
but I thought I should never be perfectly secure
till this wall was finished: and it is scarce credible
What inexpressible labour everything was done
with, especially the bringing piles out of the woods, and driving
them into the ground, for I made them much bigger than I
needed to have done.
When this wall was finished, and the outside double fenced
with a turf wall raised up close to it, I persuaded myself that if
any people were to come on shore there they would not perceive
anything like a habitation; and it was very well I did so, as may
be observed hereafter, upon a very remarkable occasion.
During this time, I made my rounds in the woods for game
every day, when the rain permitted me, and made frequent dis-
coveries in these walks of something or other to my advantage;
particularly I found a kind of wild pigeons, who built, not as
wood-pigeons, in a tree, but rather as house-pigeons, in the holes
of the rocks: and taking some young ones, I endeavoured to
breed them up tame, and did so; but when they grew older, they
flew all away, which perhaps was at first for want of feeding them,
for I had nothing to give them. However, I frequently found their
nests, and got their young ones, which were very good meat.


And now, in the managing my household affairs, I found
myself wanting in many things which I thought at first it was
impossible for me to make, as, indeed, as to some of them, it
was-for instance, I could never make a cask to be hooped. I
had a small runlet or two, as I observed before, but I could never
arrive to the capacity of making one by them, though I spent
many weeks about it: I could neither put in the heads, nor join
the staves so true to one another as to make them hold water; so
I gave that also over.
-In the next place, I was at a great loss for candle, so that, as
soon as ever it was dark, which was generally by seven o'clock, I
was obliged to go to bed. I remembered the lump of beeswax
with which I made candles in my African adventure, but I had
none of that now. The only remedy I had was, that, when I
had killed a goat, I saved the tallow, and with a little dish made
of clay, which I baked in the sun, to which I added a wick of
some oakum, I made me a lamp; and this gave me light, though
not a clear steady light like a candle. In the middle of all my
labours it happened, that, rummaging my things, I found a little
bag which, as I hinted before, had been filled with corn for the
feeding of poultry, not for this voyage, but before, as I suppose,
when the ship came from Lisbon. What little remainder of corn
had been in the bag was all devoured with the rats, and I saw
nothing in the bag but husks and dust; and being willing to have
the bag for some other use (I think it was to put powder in, when
I divided it for fear of the lightning, or some such use), I shook
the husks of corn out of it, on one side of my fortification, under
the rock.
It was a little before the great rains, just now mentioned, that
I threw this stuff away, taking no notice of anything, and not so
much as remembering that I had thrown anything there; when
about a month after, or thereabouts, I saw some few stalks of
something green shooting out of the ground, which I fancied
might be some plant I had not seen; but I was surprised and
perfectly astonished when, after a little longer time, I saw about
ten or twelve ears come out, which were perfect green barley of
the same kind as our European, nay, as our English barley.
It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion of
my thoughts on this occasion. I had hitherto acted upon no
religious foundation at all: indeed I had very few notions of



religion in my head, nor had entertained any sense of anything
that had befallen me, otherwise than as a chance, or, as we lightly
say, what pleases God, without so much as inquiring into the end
of Providence in these things, or His order in governing events
in the world. But after I saw barley grow there, in a climate
which I knew was not proper for corn, and especially that I knew
not how it came there, it startled me strangely, and I began to
suggest that God had miraculously caused this grain to grow
without any help of seed sown, and that it was so directed purely
for my sustenance on that wild miserable place.
This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out of my
eyes, and I began to bless myself that such a prodigy of nature
should happen upon my account: and this was the more strange
to me, because I saw near it still, all along by the side of the
rock, some other straggling stalks, which proved to be stalks of
rice, and which I knew, because I had seen it grow in Africa
when I was ashore there.
I not only thought these the pure productions of Providence
for my support, but not doubting but that there was more in the
place, I went all over that part of the island where I had been
before, peering in every corner, and under every rock, to see for
more of it; but I could not find any. At last it occurred to my
thoughts, that I had shook a bag of chicken's-meat out in that
place, and then the wonder began to cease; and I must confess
my religious thankfulness to God's providence -began to abate
too, upon the discovering that all this was nothing but what was
common, though I ought to have been as thankful for so strange
and unforeseen providence, as if it had been miraculous; for it
was really the work of Providence, as to me, that should order
or appoint that ten or twelve grains of corn should remain
unspoiled, when the rats had destroyed all the rest,,as if it had
been dropped from heaven,-as also, that I should throw it out in
that particular place, where, it being in the shade of a high rock,
it sprang up immediately, whereas, if I had thrown it anywhere
else at that time, it would have been burnt up and destroyed.
I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure,. in
their season, which was about the end of June; and laying up
every corn, I resolved to sow them all again, hoping, in time, to
have some quantity sufficient to supply me with .bread. But it
was not till the fourth year that I could allow myself the least




grain of this corn to eat, and even then but sparingly, as I shall
say afterwards, in its order; for I lost all that I sowed the first
season, by not observing the proper time, for I sowed it just
before the dry season, so that it never came up at all, at least not
as it would have done; of which in its place.
Besides this barley there were, as above, twenty or thirty stalks
of rice, which I preserved with the same care, and whose use was
of the same kind, or to the same purpose, viz., to make me bread, or
rather food; for I found ways to cook it up without baking, though
I did that also after some time.-But to return to my Journal.
I worked excessive hard these three or four months to get
my wall done, and the I4th of April I closed it up, contriving to
go into it, not by a door, but over the wall, by a ladder, that there
might be no sign on the outside of my habitation.
April 16.-I finished the ladder; so I went up with the ladder
to the top, and then pulled it up after me, and let it down on the
inside: this was a complete enclosure to me, for within I had
room enough, and nothing could come at me from without, unless
it could first mount my wall.
The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost
had all my labour overthrown at once, and myself killed. The
case was thus: As I was busy in the inside of it, behind my tent,
just in the entrance into my cave, I was terribly frighted with a
most dreadful surprising thing indeed; for all on a sudden I
found the earth come crumbling down from the roof of my cave,
and from the edge of the hill over my head, and two of the posts
I had set up in the cave cracked in a frightful manner. I was
heartily scared, but thought nothing of what really was the cause,
only thinking that the top of my cave was falling in, as some of
it had done before. And for fear I should be buried in it, I ran
forward to my ladder, and not thinking myself safe there neither,
I got over my wall for fear of the pieces of the hill which I expected
might roll down upon me. I was no sooner stepped down upon
the firm ground but I plainly saw it was a terrible earthquake;
for the ground I stood on shook three times at about eight minutes
distance, with three such shocks as would have overturned the
strongest building that could be supposed to, have stood on the
earth, and a great piece of the top of a rock which stood about
half a mile from me, next the sea, fell down with such a terrible
noise as I never heard in all my life. I perceived also the very


sea was put into a violent motion by it, and I believe the shocks
were strogger under the water than on the island.
I was so amazed with the thing itself, having never felt the like,
or discoursed with any one that had, that I was like one dead or
stupefied, and the motion of the earth made my stomach sick, like
one that was tossed at sea; but the noise of the falling of the rock
awaked me, as it were, and rousing me from the stupefied condition
I was in, filled me with horror, and I thought of nothing then but
the hill falling upon my tent and all my household goods, and bury-
ing all at once: this sunk my very soul within me a second time.
After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some
time, I began to take courage, and yet I had not heart enough to
get over my wall again, for fear of being buried alive, but sat still
upon the ground, greatly cast down and disconsolate, not knowing
what to do. All this while I had not the least serious religious
thought, nothing but the common-Lord, have mercy upon me!
and when it was over, that went away too.
While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grew cloudy, as
if it would rain: soon after that the wind rose by little and little,
so that in less than half an hour it blew a most dreadful hurricane.
The sea was, all on a sudden, covered over with foam and froth;
the shore was covered with the breach of the water, the trees were
torn up by the roots, and a terrible storm it was; and this held
about three hours and then began to abate, and in two hours
more it was stark calm, and began to rain very hard.
All this while I sat upon the ground, very much terrified and
dejected, when, on a sudden, it came into my thoughts that these
winds and rain being the consequence of the earthquake, the
earthquake itself was spent and over, and I might venture into
my cave again. With this thought my spirits began to revive,
and the rain helping also to persuade me, I went in and sat down
in my tent; but the rain was so violent that my tent was ready to be
beaten-down with it, and I was forced to go into my cave, though
very much afraid and uneasy, for fear it should fall on my head.
This violent rain forced me to a new work, viz., to cut a hole
through my new fortification, like a sink, to let the water go out,
which would else have drowned my cave. After I had been in my
cave some time, and found still no more shocks of the earthquake
follow, I began to be more composed. And now, to support my spirits,
which indeed wanted it very much, I went to my little store, and


took a small sup of rum-which, however, I did then, and always,
very sparingly, knowing I could have no more when that was gone.
It continued raining all that night and great part of the next
day, so that I could not stir abroad; but my mind being more
composed, I began to think of what I had best do, concluding
that, if the island was subject to these earthquakes, there'would
be no living for me in a cave, but I must consider of building me
some little hut in an open place, which I might surround with a
wall, as I had done here, and so make myself secure from wild
beasts or men: but concluded, if I stayed where I was, I should
certainly, one time or other, be buried alive.
With these thoughts I resolved to remove my tent from the
place where it stood, which was just under the hanging precipice
of the hill, and which, 'if it should be shaken again, would
certainly fall upon my tent. And I spent the two next days,
being the 19th and 2oth of April, in contriving where and how to
remove my habitation.
The fear of being swallowed up alive made me that I never
slept in quiet, and yet the apprehension of lying abroad, without
any fence, was almost equal to it : but still, when I looked about,
and saw how everything was put in order, how pleasantly concealed
I was, and how safe from danger, it made me very loath to remove.
In the meantime, it occurred to me that it would require a vast
deal of time for me to do this, and that I must be contented to
run the venture where I was, till I had formed a camp for myself,
and had secured it so as to remove to it. So with this resolution I
composed myself for a time, and resolved that I would go to work
with all speed to build me a wall with piles and cables, &c., in a
circle as before, and set my tent. up in it when it was finished;
but that I would venture to stay where I was till it was finished
and fit to remove to. This was the 2ist.
April 22.-The next morning I began to consider of means to
put this resolve into execution, but I was at a great loss about
my tools. I had three large axes, and abundance of hatchets
(for we carried the hatchets for traffic with the Indians), but with
much chopping and cutting knotty hard wood, they were all full
of notches, and dull; and though I had a grindstone, I could not
turn it and grind my tools too. This caused me as much thought
as a statesman would have bestowed upon a grand point of politics,
or a judge upon the life and death of a man. At length I con-



thrived a wheel with a string, to turn it with my foot, that I might
have both my hands at liberty.-Note. I had not seen any such
thing in England, or at least, not to take notice how it was done,
though since I have observed it is very common there; besides
that, my grindstone was very large and heavy. This machine
cost me a full week's work to bring it to perfection.
April 28, 29.-These two whole days I took up in grinding my
tools, my machine for turning my grindstone 'performing very well.
April 30.-Having perceived my bread had been low a great
while, I now took a survey of it, and reduced myself to one
biscuit cake a day, which made my heart very heavy.
May i.-In the morning, looking towards the seaside, the tide
being low, I saw something lie on the shore bigger than ordinary,
and it looked like a cask: when I came to it, I found a small
barrel, and two or three pieces of the wreck of the ship, which
were driven on shore by the late hurricane; and looking towards
the wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie higher out of the water
than it used to do. I examined the barrel which was driven on
shore, and soon found it was a barrel of gunpowder, but it had
taken water, and the powder was caked as hard as a stone; however,
I rolled it farther on shore for the present, and went on upon the
sands, as near as I could to the wreck of the ship, to look for more.
When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely removed.
The forecastle, which lay before buried in sand, was heaved up
at least six feet, and the stern (which was broken to pieces, and
parted from the rest by the force of the sea, soon after I had left
rummaging of her) was tossed, as it were, up, and cast on one
side, and the sand was thrown so high on that side next her stern
that, whereas there was a great piece of water before, so that I
could not come within a quarter of a mile of the wreck without
swimming, I could now walk quite up to her when the tide was
out. I was surprised with this at first, but soon concluded it
must be done by the earthquake; and as by this violence the
ship was more broken open than formerly, so many things came
daily on shore, which the sea had loosened, and which the winds
and water rolled by degrees to the land.
This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of removing
my habitation, and I busied myself mightily, that day especially,
in searching whether I could make any way into the ship'; but I
found nothing was to be expected of that kind, for all the inside



of the ship was choked up with sand. However, as I had learned
not to despair of anything, I resolved to pull everything to pieces
that I could of the ship, concluding that everything I could get
from her would be of some use or other to me.
Ma-y 3.-I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam
through, which I thought held some of the upper part or quarter-
deck together; and when I had cut it through, I cleared away
the sand as well as I could from the side which lay highest; but
the tide coming in, I was obliged to give over for that time.
May 4.-I went a-fishing, but caught not one fish that I durst eat of,
till I was weary of my sport; when, just going to leave off,I caught
a young dolphin. I had made me a long line of some rope-yarn,
but I had no hooks; yet I frequently caught fish enough, as much
as I cared to eat, all which I dried in the sun, and ate them dry.
May 5.-Worked on the wreck: cut another beam asunder,
Sand brought three great fir planks off from the decks, which I tied
together, and made swim on shore when the tide of flood came on.
May 6.-Worked on the wreck; got several iron bolts out of
her, and other pieces of iron work; worked very hard, and came
home very much tired, and had thoughts of giving it over.
May 7.-Went to the wreck again, but with an intent not to
work; but found the weight of the wreck had broke itself down,
the beams being cut, that several pieces of the ship seemed to
lie loose, and the inside of the hold lay so open that I could see
into it, but almost full of water and sand.
May 8.-Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow to wrench
up the deck, which lay now quite clear of the water or sand. I
wrenched open two planks, and brought them on shore also with
the tide. I left the iron crow in the wreck for next day.
May 9.-Went to the wreck, and with the crow made way into
the body of the wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened
them with the crow, but could not break them up. I felt also the
roll of English lead, and could stir it, but it was too heavy to move.
May o, I I, 13, 14.-Went every day to the wreck, and got a
great deal of pieces of timber, and boards, or plank, and two or
three hundred weight of iron.
May 15.-I carried two hatchets, to try if I could nrot cut a
piece off the roll of lead, by placing the edge of one hatchet and
driving it with the other, but as it lay about a foot and a half in
the water I could not make any blow to drive the hatchet.

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