Citation
The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe

Material Information

Title:
The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Uniform Title:
Robinson Crusoe
Creator:
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Anelay, Henry, 1817-1883 ( Illustrator )
Dickes, William, 1815-1892 ( Printer )
Bickers and Son ( Publisher )
Ballantyne, Hanson & Co ( Printer )
Chiswick Press ( Printer )
C. Whittingham and Co ( Printer )
Ballantyne Press ( Printer )
Leighton Son & Hodge ( Binder )
Place of Publication:
London (1 Leicester Square)
Publisher:
Bickers & Son
Manufacturer:
Ballantyne, Hanson and Co.
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
xix, 378, 16 p., [8] leaves of plates : 8 col. ill. ; 22 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Castaways -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1881 ( rbgenr )
Publishers' catalogues -- 1881 ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1881
Genre:
Imaginary voyages ( rbgenr )
Publishers' catalogues ( rbgenr )
fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London
Scotland -- Edinburgh
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

General Note:
Spine title: Robinson Crusoe; caption title: Adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
General Note:
Publisher's catalog dated Oct., 1881, 16 p. at end. Catalog printed by Chiswick Press:--C. Whittingham and Co., Tooks Court, Chancery Lane.
General Note:
Some ill. signed H. Anelay; printed by W. Dickes.
General Note:
"Ballantyne Press, Ballantyne, Hanson and Co., Edinburgh and London"--Verso of half-title p.
General Note:
Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe.
General Note:
Bookbinder's label, p. [3] of cover: Bound by Leighton Son and Hodge.
Funding:
Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
Statement of Responsibility:
by Daniel Defoe ; with a memoir of the author and coloured illustrations.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
028275080 ( ALEPH )
30304572 ( OCLC )
AJK2066 ( NOTIS )

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THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES
OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE





Ballantyne Press

BALLANTYNE, HANSON AND CO.
EDINBURGH AND LONDON



— oe
- > ot

BAMTNY.





THE

LIFE AND ADVENTURES

OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE.

BY

DANIEL DE FOE.

WITH

MEMOIR OF THE AUTHOR

AND

COLOURED ILLUSTRATIONS.

LONDON:
BICKERS & SON, 1, LEICESTER SQUARE.





CONTENTS.

—_—_-0 —_—

PAGE

LIsT OF ILLUSTRATIONS : 3 3 ‘ : é i 1M

MEMOIR OF THE AUTHOR ; : f . Xill
CHAPTER, Ly.

Robinson Crusoe declares his birth and parentage—He inclines to a seafaring
life—His father expostulates with him—vVisits Hull, where a companion
tempts him to take a trip by sea—A storm arises, in the midst of which he
reflects on his disobedient conduct—The ship springs a leak, and goes
down in Yarmouth Roads—FEscapes to the shore in a boat—Is advised not
to go to sea again, but is unwilling to return home, and travels to London 1

CIEAP TIER: 41,

Crusoe makes the acquaintance of the captain of a merchant vessel bound for
the African coast, and embarks as a trading adventurer—Takes a fever,
learns how to navigate a ship, and returns enriched—On the death of the
captain he makes a second voyage with the mate—The ship is taken by
Turkish pirates, whose leader makes Crusoe his slave—Fishing off the
Morocco coast, he contrives an escape—The Moor is thrown overboard,
and swims for his life—Sets sail with the Moresco boy—Dangers of
coasting—An African lion—Steers for the south—Falls in with savages,
who supply him with provisions—Shoots a leopard, whereat the natives are
astonished and terrified—Is picked up by a Portuguese merchant—Sells
the Moresco boy, with a reservation—Arrives at the Brazils : , AS

CHAPTER III.

Crusoe buys land, and becomes a planter—The Portuguese captain continues
‘his good offices—The plantation succeeds, but prosperity does not bring



v1

CONTENTS.

PAGE

contentment—Becomes supercargo of a slaver—A hurricane—The ship is

- driven westward, and strikes on a sandbank—The crew take to their boat,

which isswamped—AIll are drowned, except Crusoe, who is washed against
a rock, and succeeds in reaching the mainland— He rejoices at his deliver-
ance, reflects on his position, and remembers that he has neither food for

' sustenance nor weapons for defence—Sleeps in a tree : : :

CHAPIER: IV.

Crusoe, on waking in the morning, sees the ship lying aground high out of

the water—He comes down from the tree—Swims to the ship—Constructs
a raft, which he loads with stores, and guides with difficulty to the shore—
Surveys the country, and discovers that it is an island and uninhabited—
Shoots a bird, the flesh of which proves to be carrion—Unloads the raft,
and erects a hut—Swims to the ship again, and brings a second cargo
ashore—On his return is confronted by a wild cat, which discovers a dis-
position to be friendly—Makes a tent, which he furnishes and fortifies—
Repeats his visits to the ship, which he strips of its contents—Removes his
tent to a more advantageous site, and fences it strongly—Kills a she-goat,
and is grieved thereat : : : : : ° :

CHAPTER V,

Crusoe sets up a wooden cross, on which he inscribes the date of his landing,

and keeps his reckoning of time—He seriously considers his position, and,
balancing the good in it against the evil, arrives at the conclusion that
he is not altogether miserable—Makes various articles of furniture for his
house, with the aid of the tools found in the ship—Keeps a Journal .

CHAPTER YI.

- Crusoe enlarges upon the circumstances noted in his Journal, and details his

difficulties—Is surprised by the appearance of barley growing out of the
ground—At first supposes that Providence has specially intervened on his
behalf, but afterwards remembers that the barley was accidentally sown——
Prudently preserves the grain for seed—The Journal resumed—lIs startled
by an earthquake, which is followed by a hurricane—Recovers various
articles from the wreck, which have been cast ashore in the storm—
Finds a turtle, and cooks it—Falls ill, and is alarmed by a terrible dream
—Reproaches himself on account of his past life, and reflects upon his
present miseries . ; .

e e e e e ° e

CHAPTER VII.

The Journal resumed—Crusoe’s thoughts during his illness—His reflections on

the dealings of Providence with him—Finds a Bible in a seaman’s chest

30

42

56

67



CONTENTS. Vil

PAGE
which is cast on shore, and is consoled and encouraged by the reading of

it— Tobacco as a remedial agent—His first prayer—Finds deliverance from
sin a greater blessing than deliverance from affliction—Convalescence—
‘Takes a fresh survey of the island, and discovers tobacco, aloes, lemons,
melons, grapes, and wild sugar-canes— Gathers grapes, limes, and lemons
to store up for the winter— His lost cat returns with a family of kittens . 80

CHAPTER VIII.

The Journal continued—Crusoe celebrates the anniversary of his landing on
the island by a solemn fast—Sets apart every seventh day for a Sabbath—
His ink beginning to fail, he only records remarkable events in, his Journal
—Sows a portion of the grain he had saved at the wrong season, and
learns something worth knowing from the experiment—A new division of
the seasons—Turns his early habit of observing to account, in making
baskets— Makes a journey through the island, and comes to a spot where
the shore is covered with turtles—Loses his way in the interior, and returns
to the shore, from whence he reaches his home—Catches and tames a young
kid—The second anniversary of his landing—Reflections—Difficulties over-
come by labour and patience . ; OF

CHAPTER IX:

Crusoe in trouble about his growing crops, which are attacked by goats and
birds—He delivers himself from these enemies, and reaps his corn—Is
perplexed how to make bread of it, and determines to preserve the whole
crop for seed—Makes a spade—Indoor employment in the rainy season—
Teaches his parrot to talk—Makes pottery, and a mortar to grind his corn
in—His first baking—A new harvest—Contemplates escaping from the
island—Constructs a boat, but is unable to launch it—Begins to cut a canal,
but gives up the attempt in despair—Fresh reflections. : ‘ » §@2

CHAPTER xX,

Crusoe makes and launches a boat—Leaves the island in search of the main-
land, and encounters unexpected dangers—He despairs of getting back
again—Returns to the island, and on reaching home is startled by the
greeting of his parrot—Perfects himself in the making of earthenware and
baskets—His contrivances to snare the goats which devour his corn—He
catches and tames them—At home with his family—He describes his per-

sonal appearance—Sets out on a new journey through the island . 120

CHAPTER XI.

Crusoe is surprised by the print of a man’s naked foot on the shore, and fears
an attack from savages—Erects a second fortification round his dwelling—
Discovers the remains of a feast of cannibals. : : . : eis



Vili CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XII.

Crusoe takes precautions against an incursion of the savages—Lives a more
retired life—His principal employment, the miiking of his goats, and the
management of his flock—Is surprised by an old he-goat in a cave—Dis-
covers a party of cannibals on the shore—A ship in distress—Finds the
body of a drowned boy cast on shore—Laments that not one of the crew
has been saved, and feels more solitary than ever—Goes off to the wreck
in his boat, and finds the only living thing on board to bea dog—Loads his
boat with money-bags, clothes, &c., and returns to the shore—Reflections

Chi Aa ik Sone.

The four-and-twentieth year of Crusoe’s sojourn on the island—He dreams
about the savages—He conceives the design of getting a savage into his
possession—The cannibals visit the island again, and proceed to slay the
prisoners they bring with them—The dream is fulfilled—One of the savages
escapes, but is pursued—Crusoe knocks down one of the pursuers, and
shoots the other—He welcomes the fugitive, whom he encourages to slay
the second of his enemies—Names his savage Friday—lInstructs and clothes
him—Human companionship almost reconciles him-to his lot .

CHAPTER X1V.

Crusoe attempts to reclaim Friday from cannibalism, and converses with him
about his country and its inhabitants—Instructs him in the knowledge of
the true God, and exposes the delusions of Pagan priestcraft—Friday finds
it difficult to account for the existence of evil—The savage becomes a
Christian, and Crusoe is completely happy

CrHAaribR XV.

Crusoe teaches Friday the use of fire-arms, and describes to him the countries
of Europe—They make a boat, and fit it with masts and sails—Friday is
instructed how to navigate it—The Savages again visit the island—They
are attacked and routed—Crusoe rescues a Spaniard, their prisoner, and
Friday discovers his father

CHAPTER XVI.

Crusoe’s subjects and their religions—The dead bodies of the slain Savages are
buried—The Spaniard and Friday’s father set out for the mainland to fetch
Europeans who had been shipwrecked there—In their absence Crusoe is
surprised by the appearance of a boat-load of mutinous sailors, who bring
their officers to the island to murder them—Crusoe releases the prisoners—
The mutineers are attacked and defeated |

PAGE

152

Peli

185

« 195

» 212



CONTENTS. ix

CHAPTER XVII.

PAGE
Crusoe and the captain consult how they may recover the ship from the muti-
neers—In the meanwhile a fresh party come ashore—An ambuscade is con-
trived, and the mutineers lay down their arms—The captain promises mercy
to all except Will Atkins—The ship taken from the mutineers—Crusoe
leaves the island, in which he had lived for twenty-eight years. , . 226

CHAPTER XVIII.

Crusoe arrives in England, and finds that most of his relations are dead, and
that his benefactor and steward has fallen into misfortune—He goes to
T.isbori, where he makes himself known to the captain of the ship who took
him up at sea, and is put in the way of recovering his property in the
Brazils—His possessions are restored, and he finds himself a wealthy man
— Makes arrangements for the conduct of his estate, and sets out for England
by way of Spain—An encounter with wolves—Friday makes merry with a
bear—Crusoe arrives in England, and settles there . : ; . ; 243

CHAPTER XIX.

Crusoe’s reflections in England—He dreams of his island, and conceives a
desire to return to it, which his wife discovers—Resolves to divert his
thoughts, and begins farming in Bedfordshire—On the death of his wife
he determines to revisit his island, and sets sail in an Indiaman, which is
to touch at the Brazils—The vessel is driven by contrary winds on the coast
of Galway, which leads to new adventures—Falls in with a French merchant
vessel on fire, and delivers the crew, who are carried to Newfoundland—
Steers thence for the West Indies, and falls in with a Bristol ship, the crew
and passengers of which are famishing . : : ; i 3 «, 206

CHAPTER XxX.

Crusoe arrives at his island, which he finds with some difficulty, having dis-
covered, in his search for it, that that which he previously supposed to be
a continent, was, in reality, a group of islands—Friday is very joyous upon
seeing the old place—The first person Crusoe meets is the Spaniard whose
life he saved—Friday meets with his father—Crusoe discovers that the
English sailors he left behind have behaved Sas he ao of the
island during his absence . 3 : : . : . 289

CHAPTER XXI.

The islanders are greatly relieved by the arrival of Crusoe, who furnishes them
with tools ofall kinds—The Spaniards recount their adventures among the
savages before they came to the island, and describe their joy at being



x . CONTENTS.

PAGE
delivered—Will Atkins, who had been the ringleader of the English sailors
in their evil doings, having shown a better disposition, the Spaniards take
him and his companions into their confidence—The island is divided into
three colonies—The French priest, whom Crusoe had brought out of the
ship relieved by him at sea, proposes certain reforms— Conversion of Will
Atkins’ Indian wife—The English sailors are married—A religious conver-
sation—Crusoe leaves the island in a hopeful condition . : ° 5 EO

CHAPTER XXII.

Crusoe encounters a fleet of Indian canoes at sea—The savages attack his vessel
— Friday is killed—Crusoe arrives at Brazil, where he gets his sloop set up,
and despatches it, laden with live-stock, to his island—Sets sail for the
East Indies—Touches at Madagascar, where they are well received by the
natives—The crime of one of the sailors is avenged by his death, where-
upon the crew commence a general massacre, which Crusoe vainly attempts
to stay—On resuming the voyage, he reproaches the sailors, who at length
mutiny, and leave him on shore at Bengal ; : ° : : 47

CHAPTER XXIII.

At Bengal, Crusoe meets with an English merchant, with whom he enters into
partnership, and makes a voyage to Siam and China—They return to
Bengal, where they purchase a Dutch coasting vessel, which they after-
wards discover the crew had run away with—Their new purchase brings
them into danger, as they are mistaken for pirates, and chased by English
and Dutch boats—They beat off their pursuers, and set sail for Cochin
China, where they have an encounter with the natives—They arrive at
Quinchang, where they part from their ship—Crusoe visits Nankin and
Pekin, and travels with a caravan of merchants through Tartary and
Russia—Winters in Siberia—Sails from Archangel to Hamburg—Arrives
in England, after an absence of nearly eleven years, and determines to
wandernomore ; : ; : . ‘ : ; : 2 30%















DANIEL DE FOE.



0





oar eon HE author of ‘Robinson Crusoe” may be deemed
Z one of the most remarkable instances of the con-
centration of interest and renown in a single per-
formance, that ever appeared in the annals of
literature. More than two hundred publications
flowed from his ever-ready pen; all of them powerful and appro-
priate at the time of their appearance; yet their interest has
gradually died away with the subjects which gave them birth,
and the greater proportion of them, till lately, have been only to
be found resting undisturbed in the libraries of the curious, or
_chance-preserved, on the humbler bookstall. “ Robinson Crusoe,”
however, still forms the delight of all readers ; the young and old,
the rich and poor: the celebrity of his adventures has been extended
not only through Germany, France, Spain, Italy, and, indeed, the
whole of polished Europe, but even to the sandy plains of Arabia,
where, under the delicious title of “ Dur El Bakur,” “the pearl of
the sea,” in the translation of the ingenious Burkhardt, it rivalled
the long-cherished traditions of Sinbad the Sailor, which form so
interesting a portion of the stories that constitute the “ Arabian —
Nights’ Entertainments.”
Daniel De Foe was born in the ae of St. Giles, ce
in the city of London, in 1661. His parents were Nonconformists,



XIV MEMOIR OF

and the religious persecution under which they at that time cor-
sequently laboured, was perhaps more than compensated to them
by the blessed effect it brought with it of early imbuing the mind
of their son with firmness, independence, and a profound reverence
for that religion, in the cause of which he saw those whom he
most respected and loved willing to “count'all loss gain.” Whilst
yet a boy he employed himself in copying the Bible in shorthand,
in obedience to the wishes of his parents, who dreaded lest they
might be suddenly deprived of its consolations by some arbitrary
decree of power, at a time when they might be most wanted: he
proceeded with great zeal in his task as far as the Pentateuch,
when his patience and his fears alike subsided, and he was
willing to believe that further precaution was at that period
unnecessary.

At fourteen years of age Daniel was placed under the charge
of the Reverend Charles Morton, the head of a respectable
seminary at Newington Green; a gentleman distinguished as a
polite and profound scholar, and in whom his pupils found the
advantages of good society combined with those of sound learning.
De Foe always retained a grateful remembrance of this worthy
man, whose name he has mentioned on various occasions with
the respect it deserves, and whose voluntary exile from his native
land to America, in consequence of the persecutions to which he
was exposed on account of his religious principles, must have been
a subject of equal indignation and regret to the ingenuous mind
of his pupil. It is probable that the frequent occurrence of
similar acts of oppression might be one of the causes that operated
to divert De Foe from his original intention of entering the
ministry ; and another might be found in that strong predilection
for politics, which early led him to express his opinions on the
popular side with an ardour and boldness that would soon have
been silenced from the pulpit, but which rapidly raised him to
distinction through the medium of the press.



DANIEL DE FOE. XV

*De Foe was about one-and-twenty when he commenced work
as an author, and he continued the employment, with little in-
terruption, for the space of half a century. We have already
remarked that his literary labours amounted to two hundred
acknowledged publications, besides anonymous ones. :

At twenty-four years of age De Foe joined the standard of
the brave and unfortunate Duke of Monmouth, on his landing
at Lyme, in the summer of 1685. In this perilous and ill-fated
expedition he acquitted himself courageously, but escaping alike
the horrible cruelties and legal persecutions which followed close
on the defeat of his leader. The public execution of Monmouth,
and the total wreck of hope in his party, seems to have acted for
a time on the lively spirits of De Foe as a sedative, under the
influence of which he betook himself to the peaceful occupation
of a hosier, and carried on the office of factor, or ‘middleman,
between the manufacturer and the retail dealer, about ten years,
during which time he took up his freedom, to which he was
entitled by birth, and was admitted to the civic honour of livery-
man of London in January 1687-88. In the year 1692 he failed
for £17,000, a disaster which he attributed mainly to placing too
great reliance on credit; and although his creditors accepted a
composition, he subsequently honourably paid the full amount of
their claims. After this reverse of fortune he undertook the secre-
taryship and afterwards the management and part-ownership of.
a tile-works situated at Tilbury, but with no better success; and
his imprisonment in 1703 brought the works to a standstill with
a loss of £3000. From this time to the end of his life, business,
so unprofitable to him, gave place to the production of the many
literary works which flowed from his pen. !

The poem of “The True-born Englishman” had perhaps a
more decided influence on both the fortunes and reputation of
De Foe than any other of his productions. In it he satirises the
English, themselves the most mixed race in the world, for their



XV1 MEMOIR OF

prejudices against foreigners, and lashes their ingratitude for over-
looking ‘all the benefits which King William had conferred on
their country, merely because that country did not happen to be
the one which gave him birth. The opening lines of the poem

are well known.

‘‘ Wherever God erects a house of prayer,
The Devil always builds a chapel there ;
And ’twill be found upon examination,
The latter has the largest congregation.”

After tracing the most ancient families to their origin, among
those who marched under the banners of the Norman invader,
he proceeds to compliment them and his countrymen at large in

the following lines :— '

‘* These are the heroes who despise the Dutch,
And rail at new-come foreigners so much;
Forgetting that themselves are all derived
From the most scoundrel race that ever lived,
A horrid crowd of rambling thieves and drones,
Who ransack’d kingdoms, and dispeopled towns.
The Pict, and painted Briton, treach’rous Scot,
By hunger, theft, and rapine hither brought,
Norwegian pirates, buccaneering Danes,
Whose red-hair'd offspring everywhere remains ;
Who, join’d with Norman-French, compound the breed,
From whence your true-born Englishmen proceed.”

The death of William in 1702 opened a fresh field to De Foe
in vindicating both in prose and verse the memory of that monarch
from the aspersions of his enemies. ‘Can an Englishman,” says
he, “go to bed, or rise up, without blessing the very name of
King William ?”

The reign of Anne was fraught with trouble to the Dissenters :
the Queen advocated the cause of the High Church with firmness
and moderation, but the intemperance of the party thus patronised
soon threatened to elevate the mitre even above the crown, and
to mark all the humbler dissenters from its dogmas as victims



DANIEL DE FOE. Xvl

of persecution. Such a state of things was calculated to excite
the indignation of far less fiery spirits than De Foe; it cannot,
therefore, be matter of surprise that he should attack it with the
sharpest weapons he had at command: among these satire was
ever ready; and he had now recourse to it under its most delicate
and dangerous form of irony. He accordingly published, under
the assumed character of a High Churchman, his celebrated
pamphlet, entitled “The Shortest Way with Dissenters ; or, Pro-
posals for the Establishment of the Church ;” in which, after
pretended bitter reflections on the Dissenters and their principles,
and a retrospective view of their conduct in the preceding reigns,
affecting implicit belief in all the factions and plots imputed to
them, he proceeds to make as violent and as ironical a panegyric
on the virtues of the Established Church, particularly compli-
menting it on its lenity and moderation.

The most remarkable circumstance attending this satire was,
that it offended all parties alike. The High Church people did
not find out that it was the production of an enemy, and the
Dissenters did not perceive that it was written by a friend. The
Government offered a reward for the author’s apprehension, and
condemned the book to be burnt by the common hangman. De
Foe resolved to stand his trial, and was found guilty of compos-
ing and publishing a seditious libel, and sentenced to pay a fine
of 200 marks to the Queen, stand threé times in the pillory, be
imprisoned during Her Majesty's pleasure, and find sureties for
his good behaviour for seven years. ,

In August 1704, De Foe was restored to liberty, through the
interposition of Harley, Speaker to the House of Commons. In
the beginning of the ensuing year he was sent abroad, probably
under an assumed name, on some secret mission by Harley; and
he acquitted himself so well in this kind of agency as to procure
him no small degree of favour with Government. On the retire-
ment of Harley, his successor, Godolphin, employed De Foe in



XVlil MEMOIR OF

negotiating the union with Scotland, for which service he received
a pension.

In his ‘Appeal to Honour and Justice,” he says.of himself:
‘“‘T have gone through a life of wonders, and am the subject of a
vast variety of providences. I have been fed more by miracle
than Elijah, when the ravens were his purveyors. I have some
time ago summed up the scenes of my life in this distich :—

‘No man has tasted differing fortunes more,
And thirteen times I have been rich and poor.’”’

In his time De Foe was a hosier, pantile-maker, statesman,
philosopher, free-trader, poet, and novelist. Unsuccessful in
trade, persecuted and imprisoned for his free-trade and political
opinions, it remained for him to make his mark as a novelist, and
to hand down his name to posterity as the author of that truth-
like fiction, ‘‘ Robinson Crusoe.”

At the age of seventy Daniel Defoe was gently removed, in
seeming lethargic calmness, from this transient state into eternal
life. He died on the 24th of April 1731, in the parish where
he was born, and was buried in Bunhill Fields Cemetery.

De Foe was twice married, his second wife outliving him a few
months. He had seven. children—four daughters and three
sons ; and with the exception of his daughter Martha, who died
in 1707, they outlived him. .

It now only remains to take a general view of the character,
moral and literary, of this extraordinary man. He was a tender
parent, as well as dutiful son ; this is evident from many passages
in his letters and writings, where he mentions his father and
his children; and that he was an affectionate husband may be
inferred from the same evidence. That his political writings
attracted considerable attention is evident from the unjusti-
fiable means (fine and imprisonment) that were resorted to in

order to suppress them, and to crush their author ; but as we



DANIEL DE FOE. oe

have already remarked, the success with which he could assume
either side of an argument, seems gradually to have lost him the
confidence of all parties; for each in turn felt more certain of
his power to injure, than of his sincerity in serving. It must
be observed, however, that there is no proof of Daniel De Foe
ever having actually swerved from the principles he professed.
That he possessed natural benevolence of heart, and amia-
bility of temper, may be proved from his writings, as well as
from the acknowledgments of some at least of those whom he
had served: in his fictions an author generally delineates the
characteristic features of his own mind; and to judge his by this
rule, it affords a picture of many virtues. No writer, since the
-days of Shakespeare, with the exception of Richardson, has shown
so much knowledge of the human heart, or delineated it with
such exquisite exactness of detail and truth of colouring; and if
some of his works are less known than others, it is not because
they are less true to nature, but that they represent those objects
in nature, which are less pleasing to contemplate: he was always,
however, equally intent on instructing, and in his hands the very
‘ncidents of vice are so managed as to produce lessons of virtue.
| Of him it may be said, as Johnson said of Goldsmith, that he left
no species of writing unattempted; and we may add that all the
separate excellences of his character, attainments of his mind,
and his felicity in expressing them, may be contemplated with
benefit and delight little less than is afforded by. his ‘‘ Robinson
Crusoe.”











ADVEN TORRES

OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE.

a ee

CHAPTER I.

Robinson Crusoe declares his birth and parentage—He inclines to a sea-faring life—
His father expostulates with him—Visits Hull, where a companion tempts him
to take a trip by sea—A storm arises, in the midst of which he reflects on his
disobedient conduct—The ship springs a leak, and goes down in Yarmouth
Roads—Escapes to the shore in a boat-—Is advised not to go to sea again, but
is unwilling to return home, and travels to London.

WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of
a good family, though not of that country, my
father being a foreigner of Bremen, who settled
first at Hull. He got a good estate by merchan-
dise, and leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at

oe om whence he had married my mother, whose relations

were named Robinson, a very good family in that country, and
from whom I was so called Robinson Kreutznaer ; but, by the
usual corruption of words in England, we are now called, nay,
we call ourselves, and write our name, Crusoe; and so my com-

panions always called me. | 7

I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-colonel
to an English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly commanded
by the famous Colonel Lockhart, and was killed at the battle near

Dunkirk against the Spaniards. What became of my second

brother I never knew, any more than my father or mother did

know what was become of me.



A



2 ADVENTURES OF

Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade,
my head began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts.
My father, who was very ancient, had given me a competent share
of learning, as far as house education and a country free school
generally go, and designed me for the law: but I would be
satisfied with nothing but going to sea: and my inclination to
this led me so strongly against the will, nay, the commands of my
father, and against all the entreaties and persuasions of my mother
and other friends, that there seemed to be something fatal in that
propension of nature, tending directly to the life of misery which
was to befall me. .

My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excellent
counsel against what he foresaw was my design. He called me
one morning into his chamber, where he was confined by the
gout, and expostulated very warmly with me upon this subject:
he asked me what reasons, more than a mere wandering inclina-
tion, I had for leaving my father’s house, and my native country,
where I might be well introduced, and had a prospect of raising
my fortune, by application and industry, with a life of ease and
pleasure. He told me it was for men of desperate fortunes, on
one hand, or of aspiring superior fortunes, on the other, who
went abroad upon adventures, to rise by enterprise, and make
themselves famous in undertakings of a nature out of the common
road ; that these things were all either too far above me, or too
far below me; that mine was the middle state, or what might be
called the upper station of low life, which he had found, by long
experience, was the best state in the world, the most suited to
human happiness ; not exposed to the miseries and hardships,
the labour and sufferings, of the mechanic part of mankind, and
not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of the
upper part of mankind : he told me, I might judge of the happi-
ness of this state by this one thing, viz., that this was the state of
life which all other people envied ; that kings have frequently
lamented the miserable consequences of being born to great
things, and wished they had been placed in the middle of the
two extremes, between the mean and the great; that the wise
man gave his testimony to this as the just standard of true felicity,
when he prayed to have “ neither poverty nor riches.” |

He bid me observe it, and I should always find that the

calamities of life were shared among the upper and lower parton >.



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 5

mankind ; but that the middle station had the fewest disasters,
and was not exposed to so many vicissitudes as the higher or
lower part of mankind: nay, they were not subjected to so many
distempers and uneasinesses, either of body or mind, as those were
who, by vicious living, ihre and extravagancies, on one hand,
or by hard labour, want of necessaries, and mean or insufficient
diet, on the other hand, bring distempers upon themselves by the
natural consequences of their way of living; that the middle
station of life was calculated for all kind of virtues, and all kind
of enjoyments ; that peace and plenty were the handmaids of a
middle fortune; that temperance, moderation, quietness, health,
society, all agreeable diversions, and all desitable pleasures, were »
the blessings attending the middle station of life; that this way
men went silently and smoothly through the aera and com-
fortably out of it, not embarrassed with the labours of the hands
or of the head, not sold to the life of slavery for daily bread, or
harassed with perplexed circumstances, which rob the soul of
peace, and the body of rest; not enraged with the passion of |
envy, or secret burning lust of ambition for great things: but, in
easy circumstances, sliding gently through the world, and sensibly
tasting the sweets of living without the bitter; feeling that they
are happy, and learning by every day’s enenee to know it
more sensibly.

After this he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affectionate
manner, not to play the young man, nor to precipitate myself
into miseries which nature, and the station of life I was born in,
seemed to have provided against ; that I was under no necessity
of seeking my bread; that he would do well for me, and endea-

vour to enter me fairly into the station of life which he had been
_ just recommending to me; and that if I was not very easy and
happy in the world, it must be my mere fate, or fault, that must
hinder it ; and that he should have nothing to answer for, having
thus discharged his duty in warning me against measures which
he knew would be to my hurt: in a word, that as he would do
very kind things for me if I would stay and settle at home as he
directed, so he would not have so much hand in my misfortunes
as to give me any encouragement to go away; and, to close all,
he told me I had my elder brother for an example, to whom he
had used the same earnest persuasions to keep him from going
into the Low Country wars, but could not prevail, his young



4 | “ADVENTURES OF

desires prompting him to run into the army, where he was killed ;
and though, he said, he would not cease to pray for me, yet he
would venture to say to me that if I did take this foolish step,
God would not bless me, and I would have leisure, hereafter, to
reflect upon having neglected his counsel, when there might be
none to assist In my recovery.

I observed, in this last part of his discourse, which was truly
prophetic, though, I suppose, my father did not know it to be so
himself; I say, I observed the tears run down his face very
plentifully, especially when he spoke of my brother who was
killed ; and that, when he spoke of my having leisure to repent,
and none to assist me, he was so moved that he broke off the dis-
course, and told me his heart was so full he could say no more
to me. :

I was sincerely affected with this discourse; as, indeed, who
could be otherwise? and I resolved not to think of going abroad
any more, but to settle at home, according to my father’s desire.
‘But, alas! a few days wore it all off: and, in short, to prevent
any of my father’s further importunities, in a few weeks after I
resolved to run quite away from him. However, I did not act
so hastily, neither as my first heat of resolution prompted; but I
took my mother, at a time when I thought her a little pleasanter
than ordinary, and told her that my thoughts were so entirely
bent upon seeing the world, that I should never settle to: any-
thing with resolution enough to go through with it, and my father —
had better give me his consent than force me to go without it 5
that I was now eighteen years old, which was too late to go
apprentice to a trade, or clerk to an attorney ; that I was sure, if
I did, I should never serve out my time, and I should certainly
run away from my master before my time was out, and go to sea;
and if she would speak to my father to let me go one voyage
abroad, if I came home again, and did not like it, I would go no
more; and I would promise, by a double diligence to recover
the time I had lost. A

This put my mother into a great passion: she told me she
knew it would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon any
such a subject ; that he knew too well what was my interest, to
give his consent to any such thing so much for my hurt ; and that
she wondered how I could think of any such thing, after such a
discourse as I had with my father, and such kind and fender’.



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 5

expressions as she knew my father had used to me; and that, in
short, if I would ruin myself, there was no help for me; but I
might depend I should never have their consent to it: that, for
her part, she would not have so much hand in my destruction,
and I should never have it to say that my mother was willing
when my father was not.

Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet, as I
have heard afterwards, she reported all the discourse to him ; and
that my father, after showing a great concern at it, said to her with
a sigh, “‘ That boy might be happy if he would stay at home; but
if he goes abroad, he will be the most miserable wretch that ever
was born: I can give no consent to it.”

It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose ;
though in the meantime I continued obstinately deaf to all
proposals of settling to business, and frequently expostulating
with my father and mother about their being so positively deter-
mined against what they knew my inclinations prompted me to.
But being one day at Hull, where I went casually, and without
any purpose of making an elopement that time, but I say, being
there, and one of my companions being going by sea to London
‘in his father’s ship, and prompting me to go with them with the
common allurement of seafaring men, viz., that it should cost me
nothing for my passage, I consulted neither father nor mother any
more, nor so much as sent them word of it; but leaving them to
hear of it as they might, without asking God’s blessing, or my
father’s, without any consideration of circumstances or con-
sequences, and in an ill hour, God knows, on the rst of Sep-
tember 1651, I went on board a ship bound for London. Never
any young adventurer’s misfortunes, I believe, began sooner, or
continued longer, than mine. ‘The ship was no sooner got out of
the Humber but the wind began to. blow, and the waves to rise,
in a most frightful manner; and as I had never been at sea before,
I was most inexpressibly sick in body, and terrified in mind. I
began now seriously to reflect upon what I had done, and how
justly I was overtaken by the judgment of Heaven for my wicked
leaving my father’s house. All the good counsels of my parents,
my father’s tears, and my mother’s entreaties, came now fresh into
my mind ; and my conscience, which was not yet come to the pitch
of hardness to which it has been since, reproached me with the con-
tempt of advice, and the breach of my duty to God and my father.



6 - . ADVENTURES OF

All this while the storm increased, and the sea, which I had
never been upon before, went very high, though nothing like
what I have seen many times since; no, nor like what I saw a few
‘days after; but it was enough to affect me then, who was but a
young sailor, and had never. known anything of the matter. I
expected every wave would have swallowed us up, and that every
time the ship fell down, as I thought, in the trough or hollow of
the sea, we should never rise more; and in this agony of mind,
I made many vows and resolutions that if it would please God to
spare my life in this one voyage, if ever I got once my foot on
dry land, I would go directly home to my father, and never set
it into a ship again while I lived; that I would take his advice,
.. and never run myself into such miseries as these any more. Now
I saw plainly the goodness of his observations about the middle
station of life; how easy, how comfortable, he had lived all his.
days, and never had been exposed to tempests at sea or troubles
on shore; and I resolved that I would, like a true pepenune
prodigal, go home to my father.

These wise and sober thoughts continued all the ae the
storm continued, and indeed some time after; but the next day
the wind was abated and the sea calmer, and I began to be a little
inured to it. However, I was very grave for all that day, being
also a little sea-sick still; but towards night the weather cleared
up, the wind was quite ‘over, and a charming fine evening fol-
lowed ; the sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so the next
morning ; and having little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the
sun shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most delight-
ful that ever I saw.

I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick,
but very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that was so
rough and terrible the day before, and could be so calm and so
pleasant in so little time after. And now, lest my good resolu-
tions should continue, my companion, who had indeed enticed
me away, comes to me. ‘Well, Bob,” says he, clapping me on
the shoulder, ‘‘how do you do after it? I warrant you were
frighted, wa’n’t you, last night, when it blew but a cap-full of
wind?” “A cap-full, do you call it?”.said I, “’twas a terrible
storm.” ‘A. storm, you fool!” replies he, “do you call that a
storm? Why, it was nothing at all; give us but a good
ship and sea- room, and we ink nothing. of such a squall -



ROBINSON CRUSOE. >

of wind as that. But you are but a fresh-water sailor, Bob.
Come, let us make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget all that.
D'’ye see what charming weather ’tis now?” To make short this
sad part of my story, we went the way of all sailors; the punch
was made, and I was made drunk with it; and in that one
night’s wickedness I drowned all my repentance, all my reflec-
tions upon my past conduct, and all my resolutions for the future.
- In a word, as the sea was returned to its smoothness of surface
and settled calmness by the abatement of the storm, so the hurry
of my thoughts being over, my fears and apprehensions of being
swallowed up by the sea forgotten, and the current of my former
desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows: and promises that I
made in my distress. I found, indeed, some intervals of reflec-
tion ; and the serious thoughts did, as it were, endeavour to return
again sometimes ; but I shook them off and roused myself from
them, as it were from a distemper, and applying myself to drink-
ing and company, soon mastered the return of those fits—for so
I called them ; and I had in five or six days got as complete
a victory over conscience as any young fellow that resolved not
to be troubled with it could desire. But I was to have another
trial for it still ; and Providence, as in such cases generally it does,
resolved to leave me entirely without excuse: for if I would not
take this for a deliverance, the next was to be such a one as the
worst and most hardened wretch among us would confess both
the danger and the mercy of. ,

The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth
Roads: the wind having been contrary and the weather calm,
we had made but little way since the storm. Here we were
obliged to come to an anchor, and here we lay, the wind con-
tinuing contrary, viz., at south-west, for seven or eight days,
during which time a great many ships from Newcastle came into
the same Roads, as the common harbour where the ships might
wait for a wind for the river. We had not, however, rid here so
long, but we should have tided up the river, but that the wind
blew too fresh; and after we had lain four or five days, blew
very hard. However, the Roads being reckoned as good as a
harbour, the anchorage good, and our ground tackle very strong,
our men were unconcerned, and not in the least apprehensive of
danger, but spent the time in rest and mirth, after the manner of
the sea. But the eighth day, in the morning, the wind increased,



8 ADVENTURES OF

and we had all hands at work to strike our topmasts, and make
everything snug and close, that the ship might ride as easy as
possible. By noon the sea went very high indeed, and our ship
rid forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we thought, once or
twice, our anchor had come home; upon which our master
ordered out the sheet anchor, so that we rode with two anchors
ahead, and the cables veered out to the better end.

By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed ; and now I began
to see terror and amazement in the faces of even «the seamen
themselves. The master, though vigilant in the business of
preserving the ship, yet, as he went in and out of his cabin by
me, I could hear him softly to himself say several times, “‘ Lord,
be merciful to us! we shall be all lost ; we shall be all undone!”
and the like. During these first hurries I was stupid, lying still
in my cabin, which was in the steerage, and cannot describe my
temper. I could ill resume the first penitence, which I had so
apparently trampled upon and hardened myself against: I thought
the bitterness of death had been past, and that this would be
nothing, too, like the first. But when the master himself came
by me, as I said just now, and said we should be all lost, I was
dreadfully frighted. I got up out of my cabin, and looked out;
but such a.dismal sight I never saw: the sea went mountains
high, and broke upon us every three or four minutes. When I
could look about, I could see nothing but distress round us.
Two ships that rid near us, we found had cut their masts by the
board, being deep laden; and our men eried out that a ship
which rid about a mile ahead of us was foundered. ‘Two more
ships being driven from their anchors, were run out of the Roads
to sea, at all adventures, and that with not a mast standing. The
light ships fared the best, as not so much labouring in the sea ;
but two or three of them drove, and came close by us, running
away with only their spritsails out before the wind. Towards
evening, the mate and boatswain begged the master of our ship
to let them cut away the foremast, which he was very unwilling
to do; but the boatswain protesting to him that if he did not
the hi would founder, he consented ;.and when they had cut
away the foremast the mainmast oud so loose, and shook the
ship so much, they were obliged to cut it away also and make a
clear deck.

Any one may judge what a condition I must be in at all this,



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 9

who was but a young sailor, and who had been in such a fright
before at but a little. But if I can express, at this distance, the
thoughts I had about me at that time, I was in tenfold more
horror of mind upon account of my former convictions, and the
having returned from them to the resolutions I had wickedly
taken at first, than I was at death itself; and these, added to
the terror of the storm, put me into such a condition, that I can
by no words describe it. But the worst was not come yet; the
storm continued with such fury, that the seamen themselves
acknowledged they had never known a worse. We had a good
ship, but she was deep laden, and wallowed in the sea, that the
seamen every now and then cried out she would founder. It
was my advantage, in one respect, that I did not know what
they meant by founder, till I inquired. However, the storm was
so violent, that I saw what is not often seen, the master, the
boatswain, and some others, more sensible than the rest, at their
prayers, and expecting every moment when the ship would go
to the bottom. In the middle of the night, and under all the
rest of our distresses, one of the men that had been down on
purpose to see, cried out we had sprung a leak; another said
there was four feet water in the hold. Then all hands were
called to the pump. At that very word my heart, as I thought,
died within me, and I fell backwards upon the side of my bed
where I sat, into the cabin. However, the men roused me, and
told me’ that I, that was able to do nothing before, was as well
able to pump as another: at which I stirred up and went to the
pump, and worked very heartily. While this was doing, the
master, seeing some light colliers who, not able to ride out the
storm, were obliged to slip and run away to sea, and would come
near us, ordered us to-fire a gun as a signal of distress. I, who
knew nothing what that meant, was so surprised that I thought |
the ship had broke, or some dreadful thing had happened. In
a word, I was so surprised, that I fell down in a swoon. As
this was a time when everybody had his own life to think of,
nobody minded me, or what was become of me, but another
man stepped up to the pump, and thrusting me aside with his
foot, let me lie, thinking I had been dead; and it was a great
while before I came to myself.

We worked on, but the water increasing in the hold, it was
. apparent that the ship would founder; and though the storm



10 _ADVENTURES OF

began to abate a little, yet as 1t was not possible she could swim
till we might run into a port, so the master continued firing guns
for help; and a light ship, who had rid it out just ahead of us,
ventured a boat out to help us. It was with the utmost hazard
the boat came near us, but it was impossible for us to get on
board, or for the boat to lie near the ship’s side, till at last the
men, rowing very heartily and venturing their lives to save ours,
our men cast them a rope over the stern with a buoy to it, and
then veered it out a great length, which they, after great labour
and hazard, took hold of, and we hauled them close under our
stern and got all into their boat. It was to no purpose for them
or us, after we were in the boat, to think of reaching to their own »
ship ; so all agreed to let her drive, and only to pull her in towards
shore as much as we could; and our master promised them, that
if the boat was staved upon shore, he would make it good to their
master : so partly rowing and partly driving, our boat went away
to the northward, sloping towards the shore almost as far as
Winterton-Ness.

We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of our
ship, but we saw her sink: and then I understood, for the first
time, what was meant by a ship foundering in the sea. I must
acknowledge, I had hardly eyes to look up when the seamen told
me she was sinking; for, from that moment, they rather put me
into the boat than that I might be said to go in: my heart was, as
it were, dead within me, partly with fright, partly with horror of
mind, and the thoughts of what was yet before me.

While we were in this condition, the men yet labouring at the
oar to bring the boat near the shore, we could see (when, our
boat mounting the waves, we were able to see the shore) a great
many people running along the strand, to assist us when we should
come near ; but we made slow way towards the shore, nor were
we able to reach it, till being past the lighthouse at Winterton,
the shore falls off to the westward towards Cromer, and so the
land broke off a little the violence of the wind. Here we got in,
and though not without much difficulty, got all safe on shore, and
walked afterwards on foot to Yarmouth; where, as unfortunate
men, we were used with great humanity, as well by the magistrates
of the town, who assigned us good quarters, as by the particular
merchants and owners of ships ; and had money given us sufficient
to carry us either to London or back to Hull, as we thought fit.



ROBINSON CRUSOE. II

Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull and have
gone home, I had been happy, and my father, an emblem of our
blessed Saviour’s parable, had even killed the fatted calf for me ;
for, hearing the ship I went away in was cast away in Yarmouth
Roads, it was a great while before he had any assurance that I
was not drowned.

But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that
nothing could resist ; and though I had several times loud calls
from my reason, and my more composed judgment, to go home, yet
I had no power to do it. I know not what to call this, nor will I
urge that it is a secret, overruling decree that hurries us on to be
the instruments of our own destruction, even though it be before
us, and that we push upon it with our eyes open. Certainly,
nothing but some such decreed unavoidable misery attending, and
- which it was impossible for me to escape, could have pushed me
forward against the calm reasonings and persuasions of my most
retired thoughts, and against two such visible instructions as I
had met with in my first attempt.

My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who
was the master’s son, was now less forward than I: the first time
he spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth, which was not till
two or three days, for we were separated in the town to several
quarters; I say, the first time he saw me, it appeared his tone -
was altered, and looking very melancholy, and shaking his head,
he asked me how I did? and telling his father who I was, and
how I had come this voyage only for a trial, in order to go farther
abroad, his father, turning to me with a very grave and concerned
tone, ‘Young man,” says he, ‘‘ you ought never to go to sea any
more; you ought to take this for a plain and visible token that
you are not to be a sea-faring man.” ‘ Why, sir?” sarc) he, wall”
you go to sea no more?” “That is another case,” said he; “it
is my calling, and therefore my duty ; but as you made this voyage
for a trial, you see what a taste Heaven has given you of what you
are to expect if you persist. Perhaps this has all befallen us on your
account, like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish. Pray,” continues he,
“what are you, and on what account did you go to sear” Upon
that I told him some of my story; at the end of which he burst
out with a strange kind of passion. ‘‘ What had I done,” says he,
‘that such an unhappy wretch should come into my ship? I would
not set my foot in the same ship with thee again for a thousand



12 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

pounds.” This indeed was, as I said, an excursion of his spirits,
which were yet agitated by the sense of his loss, and was farther
than he could have authority to go. However, he afterwards
talked very gravely to me: exhorted me to go back to my father,
and not tempt Providence to my ruin; told me I might. see a
visible hand of Heaven against me: “‘ And, young man,” said he,
‘depend upon it, if you do not go back, wherever you go you,
will meet with nothing but disasters ue ee till
your father’s words are fulfilled upon you.”

We parted soon after, for I made him little answer, and I saw
him no more: which way he went, I know not. As for me,
having some money in my pocket, I travelled to London by land,
and there, as well as on the road, had many struggles with myself
what course of life I should take, and whether I should go home
or go to sea. As to going home, shame opposed the best motions
that offered’to my thoughts; and it immediately occurred to me
how I should be laughed at among the neighbours, and should be
ashamed to see, not my father and mother only, but even every-
body else: from whence I have since often observed, how incon-
gruous and irrational the common temper of mankind is, especially
of youth, to that reason which ought to guide them in such cases,
viz., that they are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to
repent ; nor ashamed of the action for which they ought justly
to be esteemed fools, but are ashamed of the returning, which
only can make them be esteemed wise men.

In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncertain
what measures to take, and what course of life to lead. An
irresistible reluctance continued to going home; and as I stayed
awhile, the remembrance of the distress I had been in wore off ;
and, as that abated, the little motion I had in my desires to a
return wore off with it, till at last I quite laid aside the thoughts
of it, and looked out for a voyage.



£



CHAPTER II.

Crusoe makes the acquaintance of the captain of a merchant vessel bound for the
African coast, and embarks as a trading adventurer—Takes a fever, learns how
to navigate a ship, and returns enriched—On the death of the captain he
makes a second voyage with the mate—The ship is taken by Turkish pirates,
whose leader makes Crusoe his slave—Fishing off the Morocco coast, he con-
trives an escape—The Moor is thrown overboard, and swims for his life—Sets
sail with the Moresco boy—Dangers of coasting—An African lion—Steers for
the south—Falls in with savages, who supply him with provisions—Shoots a
leopard, whereat the natives are astonished and terrified—Is picked up bya
Portuguese merchant—Sells the Moresco boy, with a reservation—Arrives at
the Brazils. |

HAT evil influence which carried me first away
from my father’s house, that hurried me into the
wild and indigested notion of raising my fortune,
and that impressed those conceits so forcibly upon
me, as to make me deaf to all good advice, and to

the entreaties, and even the commands of my father; I say, the



~. same influence, whatever it was, presented the most unfortunate

of all enterprises to my view; and I went on board a vessel
bound to the coast of Africa, or, as our sailors vulgarly call it, a
voyage to Guinea. |

It was my great misfortune that in all these adventures I did not
ship myself as a sailor; whereby, though I might indeed have
worked a little harder than ordinary, yet, at the same time, I had
learned the duty and office of a foremastman, and in time might
have qualified myself for a mate or lieutenant, if not for a master.
But as it was always my fate to choose for the worse, so I did
here ; for, having money in my pocket and good clothes upon
my back, I would always go on board in the habit of a gentle-
man; and so I neither had any business in the ship, nor learned
to do any. : 7

It was my lot, first of all, to fall into pretty good company in



/

14 3 | ADVENTURES OF

London; which does not always happen to such loose and
unguided young fellows as I then was, the devil generally not
omitting to lay some snare for them very early. But it was not
so with me. I first fell acquainted with the master of a ship who
had been on the coast of Guinea, and who, having had very
good success there, was resolved to go again; and who, taking a
fancy to my conversation, which was not at all disagreeable at
that time, and hearing me say I had a mind to see the world,
told me, if I would go the voyage with him, I should be at no
expense—I should be his messmate and his companion ; and if
I could carry anything with me, I should have all the advantage
of it that the trade would admit; and perhaps I might meet
with some encouragement. I embraced the offer, and entering
into a strict friendship with this captain, who was an honest
and plain-dealing man, I went the voyage with him, and carried
a small adventure with me, which, by the disinterested honesty
of my friend the captain, I increased very considerably ; for I
carried about forty pounds in such toys and trifles as the captain
directed me to buy. This forty pounds I had mustered together
by the assistance of some of my relations whom I corresponded
with, and who I believe got my father, or, at least, my mother,
to contribute so much as that to my first adventure. This was
the only voyage which I may say was successful in all my adven-
tures, and which I owe to the integrity and honesty of my friend
the captain, under whom also I got a competent knowledge of
the mathematics and the rules of navigation, learned how to keep
an account of the ship’s course, take an observation, and, in short,
to understand some things that were needful to be understood by
a sailor: for, as he took delight to instruct me, I took delight to
learn ; and, in a word, this voyage made me both a sailor and a
merchant: for I brought home five pounds nine ounces of gold
dust for my adventure, which yielded me in London, at my return,
almost three hundred pounds, and this filled me with those aspir-
ing thoughts which have since so completed my ruin. Yet even
in this voyage I had my misfortunes too ; particularly that I was
continually sick, being thrown into a violent calenture* by the

* A violent fever, incident to persons in hot climates, especially to natives
of cooler climates, and to which, therefore, European sailors are peculiarly
liable. One of the symptoms is peculiar : the person affected imagines the sea
to be a green field, and sometimes, attempting to walk on it, is lost,



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 1s

excessive heat of the climate—our principal trading being upon
the coast, from the latitude of fifteen degrees north, even to the
Line itself. |

I was now set up for a Guinea trader: and my friend, to my
great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go the
same voyage again ; and I embarked in the same vessel with one
who was his mate in the former voyage, and had now got the
command of the ship. This was the unhappiest voyage that ever
man made; for though I did not carry quite a hundred pounds
of my new-gained wealth—so that I had two hundred pounds
left, and which I lodged with my friend’s widow, who was very
just to me—yet I fell into terrible misfortunes in this voyage :
and the first was this, viz.—our ship, making her course towards
the Canary Islands, or rather between those islands and the African
shore, was surprised, in the gray of the morning, by a Turkish
rover of Sallee, who gave chase to us with all the sails she could
make. We crowded also as much canvas as our yards would
spread, or our masts carry, to have got clear; but finding the
pirate gained upon us, and would certainly come up with us ina
few hours, we prepared to fight, our ship having twelve guns, and
the rover eighteen. About three in the afternoon he came up
with us; and bringing to, by mistake, just athwart our quarter,
instead of athwart our stern as he intended, we brought eight of
our guns to bear on that side, and poured in a broadside upon
him, which made him sheer off again, after returning our fire and
pouring in also his small shot from near two hundred men which
he had on board. However, we had not a man touched, all our
men keeping close. He prepared to attack us again, and we to
defend ourselves; but laying us on board the next time upon our
other quarter, he entered sixty men upon our decks, who imme-,
diately fell to cutting and hacking the decks and rigging. We
plied them with small shot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and such
like, and cleared our deck of them twice. However, to cut short
this melancholy part of our story, our ship being disabled and’
three of our men killed and eight wounded, we were obliged to
yield, and were carried all prisoners into Sallee, a port belonging
to the Moors.

The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I appre-
hended ; nor was I carried up the country to the emperor's court,
as the rest of our men were, but was kept by the captain of the

e



16 ADVENTURES OF ©

rover as his proper prize, and made his slave, being young and
nimble, and fit for his business. At this surprising change of my
circumstances, from a merchant to a miserable slave, I was per-
fectly overwhelmed; and now I looked back upon my father’s
prophetic discourse to me, that I should be miserable and have
none to relieve me, which I thought was now so effectually brought
to pass, that I could not be worse—that now the hand of Heaven
had overtaken me, and I was undone, without redemption. But,
alas! this was but a taste of the misery I was to go through, as’
will appear.in the sequel of this story. 7

As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his house,
so I was in hopes that he would take me with him when he went
to sea again, believing that it would, some time or other, be his
fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portuguese man;of-war, and that
then I should be set at liberty. But this hope of mine was soon
taken away, for when he went to sea he left me on shore to look
after his little garden, and do the common drudgery of slaves
about his house; and when he came home again from his cruise,
he ordered me to lie in the cabin, to look after the ship.

Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method
I might take to effect it, but found no way that had the least
probability in it. Nothing presented to make the supposition of
it rational; for I had nobody to communicate it to that would
embark with me,—no fellow-slave, no Englishman, Irishman, or °
Scotchman there but myself: so that for two years, though I often
pleased myself with the imagination, yet I never had the least
encouraging prospect of putting it in practice. |

After about two years, an odd circumstance presented itself,
which put the old thought of making some attempt for my liberty
again in my head. My patron lying at home longer than usual,
without fitting out his ship—which, as I heard, was for want of
money—he used constantly, once or twice a week, sometimes
oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the ship’s pinnace, and go
out into the Road a-fishing ; and as he always took me and a young
Moresco with him to row the boat, we made him very merry, and
I proved very dexterous in catching fish, insomuch that sometimes
he would send me with a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the
youth, the Moresco, as they called him, to catch a dish of fish for
him.

It happened one time that, going a-fishing in a stark calm



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 17

morning, a fog rose so thick that though we were not half a league
from the shore, we lost sight of it; and rowing we knew not
whither, or which way, we laboured all day and all the next night,
and when the morning came, we found we had pulled off to sea,
instead of pulling in for the shore, and that we were at least two
leagues from the shore: however, we got well in again, though
with a great deal of labour, and some danger, for the wind began
to blow pretty fresh in the morning ; but, particularly, we were
all very hungry.

But our patron, warned by this neni resolved to take more
care of himself for the future ; and having lying by him the long-
boat of our English ship he had taken, he resolved he would not
go a-fishing any more without a compass and some provision ; so
he ordered the carpenter of his ship, who also was an English
slave, to build a little state-room or cabin in the middle of the
longboat, like that of a barge, with a place to stand behind it to.
steer and haul home the main sheet, and room before for a hand
or two to stand and work the sails. She sailed with what we call
a shoulder-of-mutton sail, and the boom jibbed over the top of
the cabin, which lay very snug and low, and had in it room for
him to lie, with a slave or two, and a table to eat on, with some
small lockers to put in some bottles of such liquor as he thought
fit to drink, particularly his bread, rice, and coffee.

We were frequently out with this boat a-fishing, and as I was
most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went without me.
It happened that he had appointed to go out in this boat, either
for pleasure or for fish, with two or three Moors of some distinc-
tion in that place, and for whom he had provided extraordinary,
and had therefore sent on board the boat, overnight, a larger store
of provisions than ordinary, and had ordered me to get ready
three fusees, with powder and shot, which were on board his
ship, for that they designed some sport of fowling as well as
fishing.

I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited the next
morning with the boat washed clean, her ancient and pendants
out, and everything to accommodate his guests: when, by and
by, my patron came on board alone, and told me his guests had
put off going, upon some business that fell out, and ordered me
with the man and boy, as usual, to go out with the boat and catch

them some fish, for that his friends were to sup at his house ; and
B



18 ADVENTURES OF

‘commanded that as soon as I had got some fish, I should bring’ |

it home to his house : all which I prepared to do.

This moment my former notions of deliverance darted into my
thoughts, for now I found I was like to have a little ship at my
command ; and my master being gone, I prepared to furnish
myself not “for fishing business, but for a voyage ; though I knew
not, neither did I so much as consider, whither I should steer ;
for anywhere to get out of that place was my way.

My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to this
Moor, to get something for our subsistence on board ; for I told
him we must not presume to eat of our patron’s bread. He said,
that was true; so he brought a large basket of rusk or biscuit of
their kind, and three jars with fresh water into the boat. I knew
where my patron’s case of bottles stood, which it was evident by
the make were taken out of some English prize, and I conveyed
them into the boat while the Moor was on shore, as if they had
been there before for our master. I conveyed also a great lump
of beeswax into the boat, which weighed above half a hundred-
weight, with a parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a
hammer, all which were of great use,to us afterwards, especially
the wax, to make candles. Another trick I tried upon him, which
he innocently came into also. His name was Ismael, whom they
call Muley, or Moley; so I called to him: “ Moley,” said I,
‘our patron’s guns are on board the boat, can you not get_a little
powder and shot ? it may be we may kill some alcamies (a fowl
like our curlews) for ourselves, for I know he keeps the gunner’s
stores in the ship.” ‘“ Yes,” says he, ‘“‘I will bring some ;” and
accordingly he brought a great leather pouch, which held about a
pound and a half of powder, or rather more, and another with
shot, that had five or six pounds, with some bullets, and put all
into the boat : at the same time I had found some powder of my
master’s in the great cabin, with which I filled one of the large
bottles in the case, which was almost empty, pouring what was in
it into another ; and thus furnished with everything needful, we
sailed out of the port to fish. The castle, which is at the entrance
of the port, knew who we were, and took no notice of us; and
we were not above a mile out of the port, before we hauled in our
sail, and set us down to fish. The wind blew from N.N.E., which
was contrary to my desire; for, had it blown southerly, I had
been sure to have made the coast of Spain, and at least reached











ROBINSON CRUSOE. 19

to the bay of Cadiz; but my resolutions were, blow which way
it would, I would be gone from that horrid place where I was,
and leave the rest to fate.

After we had fished some time and catched nothing, for when
I had fish on my hook I would not pull them up that he might
not see them, I said to the Moor, “ This will not do ; our master
will not be thus served ; we must stand farther off.” He, think-
ing no harm, agreed, and being in the head of the boat, set the
sails ; and as I had the helm, I run the boat out near a league
farther, and then brought her to, as if I would fish. Then giving
the boy the helm, I stepped forward to where the Moor was, and
making as if I stooped for something behind him, I took him by
surprise, with my arm under his twist,* and tossed him clear.
overboard into the sea. He rose immediately, for he swam like a
cork, and called to me, begged to be taken in, and told me he
would go all over the world with me. He swam so strong after
the boat that he would have reached me very quickly, there being
but little wind; upon which I stepped into the cabin, and fetch-
ing one of the fowling-pieces, I presented it at him, and told him
I had done him no hurt, and if he would be quiet I would do
him none. ‘ But,” said I, ‘“‘ you swim well enough to reach the
shore, and the sea is calm ; make the best of your way to shore
and I will do you no harm ; but if you come near the boat I will
shoot you through the head; for I am resolved to have my
liberty.” So he turned himself about, and swam for the shore,
and I make no doubt but he reached it with ease, for he was an
excellent swimmer. |

I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me,
and have drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to trust
him. When he was gone I turned to the boy whom they called
Xury, and said to him, “ Xury, if you will be faithful to me I will
make you a great man ; but if you will not stroke your face to be
true to me (that is, swear by Mahomet and his father’s beard),
I must throw you into the sea too.” The boy smiled in my face,
and spoke so innocently, that I could not mistrust him; and
swore to be faithful to me, and go all over the world with me.

While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming I stood out
directly to sea, with the boat rather stretching to windward, that
they might think me gone towards the Strait’s mouth (as indeed

* The hollow on the inside of the thigh.



20 | ADVENTURES OF

any one that had been in their wits must have been supposed to
do) ; for who would have supposed we were sailed on to the
southward, to the truly Barbarian coast, where whole nations of
Negroes were sure to surround us with their canoes and destroy
us, where we could never once go on shore but we should be
devoured by savage beasts, or more merciless savages of human
kind P |

But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening I changed my
course, and steered directly south and by east, bending my course
a little toward the east, that I might keep in with the shore ; and
having a fair fresh gale of wind, and a smooth quiet sea, I made
such sail, that I believe by the next day, at three o’clock in the
afternoon, when I first made the land, I could not be less than
one hundred and fifty miles south of Sallee, quite beyond the
Emperor of Morocco’s dominions, or indeed of any other king
thereabouts ; for we saw no people.

Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, and the
dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that I
would not stop, or go on shore, or come to an anchor, the wind
continuing fair, till I had sailed in that manner five days ; and
then the wind shifting to the southward, I concluded also that if
any of our vessels were in chase of me, they also would now give
over: so I ventured to make to the coast, and came to an anchor
in the mouth of a little river ; I knew not what or where, neither
what latitude, what country, what nation, or what river. I neither
saw, nor desired to see, any people; the principal thing I wanted
was fresh water. We came into this creek in the evening, resolv-
ing to swim on shore as soon as it was dark, and discover the
country; but as soon as it was quite dark, we heard such dreadful.
noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of wild creatures, of
we knew not what kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die
with fear, and begged of me not to go on shore till day.‘ Well,
Xury,” said I, ‘then I won’t ; but it may be we may see men by
day, who will be as bad to us as those lions.” ‘Then we may
give them the shoot-gun,” says Xury, laughing, “ make them run
wey.” Such English Xury spoke by conversing among us slaves.
However, I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him
a dram out of our patron’s case of bottles to cheer him up.
After all, Xury’s advice was good, and I took it. We dropped
our little anchor, and lay still all night. I say still, for we slept



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 21

none: for in two or three hours we saw vast great creatures (we
knew not what to call them), of many sorts, come down to the
seashore, and run into the water, wallowing and washing them-
selves, for the pleasure of cooling themselves ; and they made
such hideous howlings and yellings, that I never indeed heard
the like. | |

Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too; but
we were both more frighted when we heard one of the mighty
creatures come swimming towards our boat: we could not see
him, but we might hear him by his blowing to be a monstrous
huge and furious beast. Xury said it was a lion, and it might
be so for aught I know, but poor Xury cried to me to weigh the
anchor, and row away. ‘‘No,” says I, ‘‘ Xury, we can slip our
cable with a buoy to it, and go to sea ; they cannot follow us far.”
_ I had no sooner said so, but I perceived the creature (whatever
it was) within two oars’ length, which something surprised me;
however, I immediately stepped to the cabin door, and taking up
my gun, fired at him, upon which he immediately turned about
and swam towards the shore again.

But it is impossible to describe the horrible noises, and hideous
cries and howlings that were raised, as well upon the edge of the
shore as higher within the country, upon the noise or report of
the gun; a thing, I believe, those creatures had never heard
before. This convinced me there was no going on shore for us
in the night upon that coast, and how to venture on shore in the
day, was another question too; for to have fallen.into the hands
of any of the savages, had been as bad as to have fallen into the
paws of lions and tigers: at least we were equally apprehensive
of the danger of it.

Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore somewhere
or other for water, for we had not a pint left in the boat: when
or where to get it was the point. ‘Xury said, if I would let him
go on shore with one of the jars, he would find if there was any
watet, and bring some to me. I asked him why he would go ;
why I should not go, and he stay in the boat? The boy
answered with so much affection, that he made me love him ae
after. Says he, “If wild mans come, they eat me, you go away.”
‘Well, Xury,” said I, “we will both go; and if we wild mans
come, we will kill them ; they shall eat neither of us.” So I gave
Xury a piece of rusk Bread to eat, and a dram out of our patron’s



22 ADVENTURES OF

case of bottles, which I mentioned before ; and we hauled the
boat in as near the shore as we thought was proper, and waded
to shore, carrying nothing but our arms and two jars for water.

I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the coming
of canoes with savages down the river ; but the boy, seeing a low
place about a mile up the country, rambled to it; and, by and
by, I saw him come running towards. me. I thought he was
pursued by some savage, or frighted with some wild beast, and I
therefore ran forwards to help him ; but when I came nearer to
him, I saw something hanging over his shoulders, which was a
creature that he had shot, like a hare, but different in colour, and
longer legs: however, we were very glad of it, and it was very
good meat: but the great joy that poor Xury came with, was to
tell me he had found good water, and seen no wild mans.

But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains for
water ; fora little higher up the creek where we were, we found
-the water fresh when the tide was out, which flows but .a little
way up; so we filled our jars, and feasted on the hare we had >
killed ; and prepared to go on our way, having seen no footsteps
of any human creature in that part of the country.

As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very
well that the islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de Verd
Islands also, lay not far from the coast. But as I had no instru-
ments to take an observation, to know what latitude we were in,
and did not exactly know, or at least remember, what latitude they
were in, I knew not where to look for them, or when to stand off
to sea towards them, otherwise I might now easily have found
some of these islands. But my hope was, that if I stood along
this coast till I came to that part where the English traded, I
should find some of their vessels upon their usual design of trade,
that would relieve and take us in.

By the best of my calculation, the place where I now was must
be that country which, lying between the Emperor of Morocco’s
dominions and the Negroes, lies waste and uninhabited, except
by wild beasts; the Negroes having abandoned it, and gone
farther south, for fear of the Moors, and the Moors not thinking
it worth inhabiting, by reason of its barrenness ; and indeed both
forsaking it because of the prodigious number of tigers, lions,
leopards, and other furious creatures which harbour there: so
that the Moors use it for their hunting only, where they go like ©



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 23

an army, two or three thousand men at a time; and indeed for
near a hundred miles together upon this coast, we saw nothing
but a waste, uninhabited country by day, and heard nothing but
howlings and roaring of wild beasts by night.

Once or twice, in the daytime, I thought I saw the Pico of
Teneriffe, being the high top of the mountain Teneriffe, in the
_Canaries, and had a great mind.to venture out, in ‘hopes of reach-
ing thither ; but having tried twice, I was forced in again by con-
trary winds, the sea also going too high for my little vessel: so I
resolved to pursue my first design, and keep along the shore.

Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after we
had left this place ; and once, in particular, being early in the
morning, we came to an anchor under a little point of land which
was pretty high ; and the tide beginning to flow, we lay still, to
go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more about him than, it
seems, mine were, calls softly to me, and tells me that we had
best go farther off the shore ; “ for,” says he, “ look, yonder lies
a dreadful monster on the side of that hillock, fast asleep.” I
looked where he pointed, and saw a dreadful monster indeed, for
it was a terrible great lion that lay on the side of the shore,
under the shade of a piece of the hill that hung, as it were, over
him. “Xury,” says I, “you shall go on shore and kill him.”
Xury looked frighted, and said, “ Me kill! he eat me at one
mouth ”—one mouthful he meant. However, I said no more to
the boy but bade him be still ; and I took our biggest gun, which
was almost musket bore, and loaded it with a good charge of
powder, and with two slugs, and laid it down ; then I loaded
another gun with two bullets; and a third, for we had three
pieces, I loaded with five smaller bullets. I took the best aim I
could with the first piece, to have shot him into the head ; but he
lay so, with his leg raised a little above his nose, that the slugs
hit his leg about the knee, and broke the bone. He started up,
growling at first, but finding his leg broke, fell down again, and
then got up upon three legs, and gave the most hideous roar that
ever heard. Iwasa little surprised that I had not hit him on
the head ; however, I took up the second piece immediately, and
though he began to move off, fired again, and shot him into the
head, and had the pleasure to see him drop, and make but little
noise, but lie struggling for life. Then Xury took heart, and
would have me let him go on shore. “‘ Well, go,” said I; so the



24 ADVENTURES OF

boy jumped into the water, and taking a little gun in one hand,
swam to shore with the other hand, and coming close to the
creature, put the muzzle of the piece to his ear, and shot him
-into the head again, which despatched him quite.

This was game, indeed, to us, but it was no food; and I was
very sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot upon a
creature that was good for nothing to us. However, Xury said he
would have some of him; so he comes on board and asked me
to give him the hatchet. “ For what, Xury?” said I. ‘ Me cut
off his head,” said he. However Xury could not cut off his head ;
but he cut off a foot, and brought it with him, and it was a
monstrous great one. I bethought myself, however, that perhaps
the skin of him might, one way or other, be of some value to us ;
and I resolved to take off his skin, if I could. So Xury and I.
went to work with him: but Xury was much the better workman
at it, for I knew very ill how to do it. Indeed it took us both
up the whole day ; but at last we got off the hide of him, and
spreading it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectually dried it
in two days’ time, and it afterwards served me to lie upon.

After this stop, we made on to the southward continually,
for ten or twelve days, living very sparingly on our provisions,
which began to abate very much, and going no oftener into the
shore than we were obliged to for fresh water. My design in
this was to make the river Gambia, or Senegal; that is to say,
anywhere about the Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes to
meet with some European ship: and if I did not, I knew not
what course I had to take, but to seek for the islands, or perish
among the Negroes. I knew that all the ships from Europe,
which sailed either to the coast of Guinea, or to Brazil, or to the
East Indies, made this Cape, or those islands: and in a word IJ
put the whole of my fortune upon this single point, either that I
must meet with some ship, or must perish.

When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer, as
I have said, I began to see that the land was inhabited ; and in
two or three places, as we sailed by, we saw people stand upon
the shore to look at us: we could also perceive they were quite
black and stark naked. I was once inclined to have gone on
shore to them; but Xury was my better counsellor, and said to
me, “No go, no go.” However, I hauled in nearer the shore,
that I might talk to them; and I found they ran along the shore



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 25

by me a good way. I observed they had no weapons in their
hands, except one, who had a long slender stick, which Xury said
was a lance, and that they would throw them a great way with
good aim; so I kept at a distance, but talked to them by signs,
as well as I could, and particularly made signs for something to
eat. They beckoned to me to stop my boat, and they would
fetch me some meat ; upon this I lowered the top of my sail, and
lay by, and two of them ran up into the country, and in less than
half-an-hour came back and brought with them two pieces of dry
flesh and some corn, such as is the produce of their country: but
we neither knew what the one or the other was ; however, we were
willing to accept it. But how to come at it was our next dispute,
for I was not for venturing on shore to them, and they were as
much afraid of us: but they took a safe way for us all, for they
brought it to the shore, and laid it down, and went and stood a
ereat way off till we fetched it on board, and then came close to
us again. \ |

We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to make
them amends: but an opportunity offered that very instant to
oblige them wonderfully ; for while we were lying by the shore,
came two mighty creatures, one pursuing the other (as we took it)
with great fury, from the mountains towards the sea: whether it
was the male pursuing the female, or whether they were in sport
or in rage, we could not tell, any more than we could tell whether
it was usual or strange; but I believe it was the latter, because,
in the first place, those ravenous creatures seldom appear but in
the night ; and, in the second place, we found the people terribly
frighted, especially the women. The man that had the lance, or
dart, did not fly from them, but the rest did ; however, as the two
creatures ran directly into the water, they did not seem to offer to
fall upon any of the Negroes, but plunged themselves into the
sea, and swam about, as if they had come for their diversion.
At last, one of them began to come nearer our boat than I at first
expected ; but I lay ready for him, for I had loaded my gun with
all possible expedition, and bade Xury load both the others. As
soon as he came fairly -within my reach, I fired, and shot him
directly into the head: immediately he sunk down into the water,
but rose instantly, and plunged up and down, as if he was strug-
_giling for. life, and so indeed he was: he immediately made to
the shore; but between the wound which was his mortal hurt,



26 ADVENTURES OF

and the strangling of the water, he died just before he reached
the shore. |

It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor
creatures at the noise and fire of my gun. Some of them were
ready even to die for fear, and fell down as dead with the very
terror ; but when they saw the creature dead, and sunk in the
water, ena that I made signs to them to come to the shore, they
took heart and came to the shore, and began to search for the
creature. I found him by his plod staining the water; and by
the help of a rope, which I slung round him, and gave the
Negroes to haul, they dragged him on shore and found that it
- was a most curious leopard, spotted, and fine to an admirable
degree; and the Negroes held up their hands with admiration,
to think what it, was I had killed him with.

The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire and the noise
of the gun, swam on shore, and ran up directly to the mountains
from whence they came; nor could I, at that distance, know
what it was. I found ate the Wieswods were for eating the
flesh of this creature, so I was willing to have them take it asa
favour from me; ee when I made signs to them that they
might take him, oe were very thankful for. Immediately they
fell to work with him ; and though they had no knife, yet with a
sharpened piece of sod: they took off his skin as readily, and
much more readily than we could have done with a knife. They
offered me some of the flesh, which I declined, making as if I
would give it them, but made-signs for the skin, which they gave
me very freely, aad brought me a great deal more of their pro-
visions, which, though I did not understand, yet I accepted.
Then I made signs to them for some water, and held out one of
my jars to them, turning it bottom upwards, to show that it was
empty, and that I wanted to have it filled. They called immedi-
ately to some of their friends, and there came two women, and
brought a great vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I suppose,
in the sun; this they set down for me, as before, and I sent
Xury on ee with my jars, and filled them all three. The
women were as stark naked as the men.

I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and
.water; and leaving my friendly Negroes, I made forward for
about peleaaty days more, without offering to go near the shore,
till I saw the land run out a great eae into the sea at sLigtik i



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 27

the distance of four or five leagues before me ; and the sea being
very calm, I kept a large offing, to make this point. At length,
doubling the point, at. about two leagues from the land, I saw
plainly land on the other side, to seaward: then I concluded, as
it was most certain indeed, that this was the Cape de Verd, and
those the islands called, from thence, Cape de. Verd Islands.
However, they were at a great distance, and I could not well
tell what I had best to do; for if I should be taken with a fresh
of wind, I might neither reach one nor the other.

In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the
cabin, and sat me down, Xury having the helm; when, on a
_ sudden, the boy cried out, “‘ Master, master, a ship with a sail!”
and the foolish boy was frighted out of his wits, thinking it must
needs be some of his master’s ships sent to pursue us, when I
knew we were gotten far enough out of their reach. I jumped
out of the cabin, and immediately saw, not only the ship, but
what she was, viz., that it was a Portuguese ship, and, as I thought,
was bound to the Coast of Guinea for Negroes. But, when I
observed the course she steered, I was soon convinced they were
bound some other way, and did not design to come any nearer
to the shore: upon which I stretched out to sea as Te as I
- could, resclving to speak with them, if possible.

With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able to
cofme in their way, but that they would be gone by before I could
make any signal to them; but after I had crowded to the utmost,
and began to despair, they, it seems, saw me, by the help of their
perspective glasses, and that it was some European boat, which
they supposed must belong to some ship that was lost; so they
shortened sail to let me come up. I was encouraged Fath this,
and as I had my patron’s ancient on board, I made a waft of it
‘to them, for a signal of distress, and fired a gun, both which they
saw; for they told me they saw the smoke, though they did not
hear the gun. Upon these signals, they very kindly brought to, and
lay by for me; and in about three hours’ time I came up with them.

They ied me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish, and
in French, but I understood none of them; but at last a Scotch
sailor, his was on board, called to me, and I answered him, and
told him I was an Englishman, that I had made my escape out
of slavery from the Moors at Sallee: then they bade me come on
board, and very kindly took me in, and all my goods.



28 , ADVENTURES OF

It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will believe,
that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable,
and almost hopeless, condition as I was in; and I immediately
offered all I had to the captain of the ship, as a return for my
deliverance ; but he generously told me he would take nothing
from me, but that all I had should be delivered safe to me when
I came to the Brazils. ‘‘ For,” says he, “I have saved your life
on no other terms than I would be glad to be saved myself; and
it may, one time or other, be my lot to be taken up in the same
condition. Besides,” said he, “‘ when I carry you to the Brazils, so
great a way from your own country, if I should take from you
what you have, you will be starved there, and then I only take »
away that life I have given. No, no, Seignior Inglese” (Mr.
Englishman), says he, “I will carry you thither in charity, and
these things will help to buy your subsistence there, and your
passage home again.” |

As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the
performance, to a tittle: for he ordered the seamen, that none
should offer to touch anything I had: then he took everything
into his own possession, and gave me back an exact inventory of
them, that I might have them, even so much as my three earthen
jars.

As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he saw, and
told me he would buy it of me for the ship’s use, and asked me
what I would have for it? I told him, he had been so generous
to me in everything, that I could not offer to make any price of
the boat, but left it entirely to him: upon which he told me he
would give me a note of his hand to pay me eighty pieces of elght
for it at Brazil; and when it came there, if any one offered to
give more, he would make it up. He offered me also sixty pieces
of eight more for my boy Xury, which I was loth to take ; not
that I was not willing to let the captain have him, but I was very
loth to sell the poor boy’s liberty, who had assisted me so faith-
fully in procuring my own. However, when I let him know my.
reason, he owned it to be just, and offered me this medium, that
he would give the boy an obligation to-set him free in ten years,
if he turned Christian. Upon this, and Xury saying he was will-
ing to go to him, I let the captain have him.

We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and arrived in the
Bay de Todos los Santos, or All Saints’ Bay, in about twenty-two



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 29

days after. And now I was once more delivered from the most
miserable of all conditions of life; and what to do next with my-
self I was now to consider.

The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never
‘ enough remember: he would take nothing of me for my passage,
gave me twenty ducats for the leopard’s skin, and forty for the
lion’s skin, which I had in the boat, and caused everything I had
in the ship to be punctually delivered to me; and what I was_
willing to sell he bought, such as the case of bottles, two of my
guns, and a piece of the lump of beeswax,—for I had made
candles of the rest: in a word, I made about two hundred and

twenty pieces of eight of all my cargo ; and with this stock, I went
on shore in, the Brazils.



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CHAPTER IIL

Crusoe buys land, and becomes a planter—The Portuguese captain continues his
good offices—The plantation succeeds, but prosperity does not bring content- -
ment— Becomes supercargo of a slaver—A hurricane—The ship is driven west-
ward, and strikes on a sandbank—The crew take to their boat, which is

- swamped—All are drowned, except Crusoe, who is washed against a rock, and
succeeds in reaching the mainland—He rejoices at his deliverance, reflects on
his position, and remembers that he has neither food for sustenance nor
weapons for defence—Sleeps in a tree.

LES. HAD not been long here, but being recommended
£| [x33 by the captain to the house of a good honest man,
like himself, who had an ingenio as they call it—
that 1s, a plantation and a sugar-house—I lived
| with him some time, and acquainted myself, by that
means, with the manner of planting and of making sugar: and
seeing how well the planters lived, and how they grew rich sud-
denly, I resolved, if I could get licence to settle there, I would
turn planter among them ; resolving, in the meantime, to find out
some way to get my money, which I had left in London, remitted
tome. To this purpose, getting a kind of a letter of naturalisa-
tion, I purchased as much land that was uncured as my money
would reach, and formed a plan for my plantation and settlement,
and such a one as might be suitable to the stock which I pro-
posed to myself to receive from England.

I had a neighbour, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but born of English
parents, whose name was Wells, and in much such circumstances
as I was. I call him neighbour, because his ‘plantation lay next
to mine, and we went on very sociably together. My stock was
but low as well as his, and we rather planted for food than any-
thing else, for about two years. However, we began to increase,
and our land began to come into order; so that the third year
we planted some tobacco, and made each of us a large piece of ©





31

ground ready for planting canes in the year to come; but we both
wanted help, and now I found, more than before, I had done
wrong in parting with my boy Xury. |

But, alas! for me to do wrong, that never did right, was no
ereat wonder. I had no remedy but to go on: I was gotten into
an employment quite remote to my genius, and directly contrary
to the life I delighted in, and for which I forsook my father’s
house and broke through all his good advice: nay, I was coming
into the very middle station, or upper degree of low life, which
my father advised me to before; and which, if I resolved to go
on with, I might as well have stayed at home, and never have
fatigued myself in the world, as I had done: and I used often to
say to myself, I could have done this as well in England, among
my friends, as have gone five thousand miles off to do it among
strangers and savages, in a wilderness, and at such a distance as
’ never to hear from any part of the world that had the least know-
ledge of me.

In this manner I used to look upon my condition with the
utmost regret. I had nobody to converse with, but now and then
this neighbour; no work to be done but by the labour of my
hands ; and I used to say, I lived just like a man cast away upon
some desolate island, that had nobody there but himself But
how just has it been! and how should all men reflect that, when
they compare their present conditions with others that are worse,
Heaven may oblige them to make the exchange, and be convinced
of their former felicity by their experience. I say, how just has
it been that the truly solitary life I reflected on, in an island of
mere desolation, should be my lot, who had so often unjustly
compared it with the life which I then led, in which, had I con-
tinued, I had, in all probability, been exceeding prosperous and
rich, |

I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carrying on
the plantation, before my kind friend, the captain of the ship that
took me up at sea, went back (for the ship remained there, in
providing his loading, and preparing for his voyage, near three
months) when telling him what little stock I had left behind me
in London, he gave me this friendly and sincere advice: ** Seienior
_ Inglese,” says he (for so he always called me), “if you will give
me letters, and a procuration here in form to me, with orders to
the person who has your money in London to send your effects

ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.



32 - ADVENTURES OF

ad

to Lisbon to such persons as I shall direct, and in such goods as
are proper for this country, I will bring you the produce of them,
God willing, at my return ; but since human affairs are all subject
to changes and disasters, I would have you give orders but for
one hundred pounds sterling, which, you say, is half your stock,
and let the hazard be run for the first, so that, if it come safe, you
may order the rest the same way; and, if it miscarry, you may
have the other half to have recourse to for your supply.”

This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that I
could not but be convinced it was the best course I could take ;
so I accordingly prepared letters to the gentlewoman with sania
I had left my money, and a procuration to the Portuguese captain,
as he desired.

I wrote the English captain’s widow a full account of all my

‘ adventures,—my slavery, escape, and how I had met with the

Portuguese captain at sea, the humanity of his behaviour, and
what condition I was now in, with all other necessary directions
for my supply : and when this honest captain came to Lisbon, he
found means, by some of the English merchants there, to send
over, not the order only, but a full account of my story to a
merchant at London, who represented it effectually to her : where- |
upon she not only delivered the money, but, out of her own
pocket, sent the Portuguese captain a very handsome present for
his humanity and charity to me.

The merchant in London vested his hundred pounds in English
goods, such as the captain had writ for, sent them directly to him
at Lisbon, and he brought them all safe to me at the Brazils:
among which, without my direction (for I was too young in my
business to think of them), he had taken care to have all sorts of
tools, iron work, and utensils, necessary for my plantation, and
which were of great use to me.

When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune made, for I was
surprised with joy of it; and my good steward, the captain, had
laid out the five pounds which my friend had sent him for a
present for himself, to purchase and bring me over a servant
under bond for six years’ service, and would not accept of any
consideration, except a little tobacco, which I would have him
accept, being of my own produce.

Neither was this all: but my goods being all English manufac-
tures, such as cloths, stuffs, baize; and things particularly valuable —



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 33

- and desirable in the country, I found means to sell them to a
very great advantage ; so that I may say I had more than four
times the ‘value of my first cargo, and was now infinitely beyond
my poor neighbour, I mean in the advancement of my plantation ;
for the first thing I did, I bought me a Negro slave, and a
European servant also—I mean another besides that which the
captain brought me from Lisbon.

But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means
of our greatest adversity, so was it with me. I went on the next
year with great success in my plantation: I raised fifty great rolls
-of tobacco on my own ground, more than I had disposed of for
necessaries among my neighbours; and these fifty rolls, being
each of above one hundred pounds weight, were well cured, and
laid by against the return of the fleet from Lisbon. And now,
increasing in business and in wealth, my head began to be full of
projects and undertakings beyond my reach ; such as are, indeed,
often the ruin of the best heads in business.

Had I continued in the station I was now in, I had room for
all the happy things to have yet befallen me, for which my father
so earnestly recommended a quiet retired life, and which he had
so sensibly described the middle station of life to be full of : but
other things attended me, and I was still to be the wilful agent |
of all my own miseries ; and, particularly, to increase my fault,
and double the reflections upon myself, which in my future
sorrows I should have leisure to make, all these miscarriages
were procured by my apparent obstinate adhering to my foolish
inclination of wandering abroad, and pursuing that inclination in
contradiction to the clearest views of doing myself good in a fair
and plain pursuit of those prospects, and those measures of life,
which nature and Providence concurred to present me with, and
to make my duty.

As I had once done thus in breaking away from my parents,
so I could not be content now, but I must go and leave the
happy view I had of being a rich and thriving man in my new
- plantation, only to pursue a rash and immoderate desire of rising
faster than the nature of the thing admitted ; and thus I cast
myself down again into the deepest gulf of human misery that
ever man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent with life and .
a state of health in the world.

To come, then, by just degrees, to the particulars of this part

; C



34 ADVENTURES OF

of my story: you may suppose, that having now lived almost
four years in the Brazils, and beginning to thrive and prosper
very well upon my plantation, I had not only learned the
language, but had contracted acquaintance and _ friendship
among my fellow-planters, as well as among the merchants at St.
Salvador, which was our port; and that, in my discoursé among
them, I had frequently given them an account of my two voyages

to the coast of Guinea, the manner of trading with the Negroes —

there, and how easy it was to purchase upon the coast, for trifles
—such as beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits of glass, and
the like—not only gold dust, Guinea grains, elephants’ teeth, &c.,
but Negroes, for the service of the Brazils, in great numbers.
They listened always very attentively to my discourses on these
heads, but especially to that part which related to the buying

Negroes ; which was a trade at that time not only not far entered -

into, but, as far as it was, had been carried on by the asszentos, or
permission of the kings of Spain and Portugal, and engrossed
in the public,—so that few Negroes were bought, and those
excessive dear.

It happened, being in company with some merchants and
planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those things very
earnestly, three of them came to me the next morning, and told
me they had been musing very much upon what I had discoursed
with them of the last night, and they came to make a secret
proposal to me: and after enjoining me to secrecy, they told me

that they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea ; that they .

had all plantations as well as I, and were straitened for nothing
so much as servants; that as it was a trade that could not be
carried on, because they could not publicly sell the Negroes
when they came home, so they desired to make but one voyage,
to bring the Negroes on shore privately, and divide them among
their own plantations ; and, in a word, the question was whether
I would go their supercargo in the ship, to manage the trading

part upon the coast of Guinea? and they offered me that I should

have my equal share of the Negroes, without providing any part
of the stock. :

This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been
made to any one that had not had a settlement and plantation
of his own to look after, which was in a fair way of coming to be
very considerable, and with a good stock upon it. But for me,

Ee - we



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 35

that was thus entered and established, and had nothing to do but
go on as I had begun, for three or four years more, and to have
sent for the other hundred pounds from England,—and who, in
that time, and with that little addition, could scarce have failed |
of being worth three or four thousand pounds sterling, and that
increasing too,—for me to think of such a voyage, was the most
preposterous thing that ever man, in such circumstances, could
be guilty of.

But I, that was born to be my own ites could no more
resist the offer than I could restrain my first rambling designs,
when my father’s good counsel was lost upon me. In a word, I
told them I would go with all my heart, if they would undertake
to look after my plantation in my absence, and would dispose
of it to such as I should direct, if I miscarried. This they all
engaged to do, and entered into writings, or covenants, to do so;
and I made a formal will, disposing of my plantation and effects,
in case of my death, making the captain of the ship that had
saved my life, as before, my universal heir, but obliging him to
dispose of my effects as I had directed in my will,—one half of
the produce being to himself, and the other to be shipped to
England.

In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects, and
to keep up my plantation: had I used half as much prudence to
have looked into my own interest, and have made a judgment of
what I ought to have done and not to have done, I had certainly
never gone away from so prosperous an undertaking, leaving all the
_ probable views of a thriving circumstance, and gone upon a voyage
to sea, attended with all its common hazards, to say nothing of
the reasons I had to expect particular misfortunes to myself.

But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my
fancy rather than my reason: and accordingly the ship being
fitted out and the cargo furnished, and all things done as by
agreement by my partners in the voyage, I went on board in an
evil hour again, the first of September 1659, being the same day
eight years that I went from my father and mother at Hull, in
order to act the rebel to their authority, and the fool to my own
interest.

Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons burden,
carried six guns and fourteen men, besides the master, his boy,
and myself: we had on board no large cargo of goods, except of



36 | ADVENTURES OF

such toys as were fit for our trade with the Negroes, such as beads,
bits of glass, shells, and odd trifles, especially little looking-glasses,
knives, scissors, hatchets, and the like. ;

The same day I went on board, we set sail, standing away to
the northward upon our own coast, with design to stretch over
for the African coast, when they came about ten or twelve degrees
of northern latitude, which, it seems, was the manner of their
course in those days. We had very good weather, only excessive
hot, all the way upon our own coast, till we came to the height of
Cape St. Augustino ; from whence, keeping farther off at sea, we
lost sight of land, and steered as if we were bound for the isle
Fernando de Noronha, holding our course N.E. by N., and leav-
ing those isles on the east. In this course we passed the Line in
about twelve days’ time, and were, by our last observation, in
seven degrees twenty-two minutes northern latitude, when a
violent tornado, or hurricane, took us quite out of our knowledge:
it began from the south-east, came about to the north-west, and
then settled in the north-east, from whence it blew in such a
terrible manner, that for twelve days together we could do nothing
but drive, and, scudding away before it, let it carry us whither
ever fate and the fury of the winds directed; and during these
twelve days, I need not say that I expected every day: to be
swallowed up, nor, indeed, did any in the ship expect to save
their lives.

In this distress, we had, besides the terror of the storm, one of
our men died of the calenture, and one man and a boy washed
overboard. About the twelfth day, the weather abating a little,
the master made an observation as well as he could, and found
that he was in about eleven degrees north latitude, but that he
was twenty-two degrees of longitude difference, west from Cape
St. Augustino ; so that he found he was gotten upon the coast of
Guyana, or the north part of Brazil, beyond the river Amazons,
toward that of the river Oroonoque, commonly called the Great
River, and began to consult with me what course he should take,
for the ship was leaky and very much disabled, and he was going
directly back to the coast of Brazil.

I was positively against that ; and looking over the charts of
the sea-coast of America with him, we concluded there was no
inhabited country for us to have recourse to, till we came within
the circle of the Caribbee islands, and therefore resolyed to stand



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 39

away for Barbadoes, which, by keeping off at sea to avoid the
indraft of the bay or gulf of Mexico, we might easily perform, as
we hoped, in about fifteen days’ sail,—whereas, we could not
possibly make our voyage to the coast of Africa without some
assistance, both to our ship and to ourselves.

With this design, we changed our course, and steered away
N.W. by W. in order to reach some of our English islands, where
I hoped for relief; but our voyage was otherwise determined, for
being in the latitude of twelve degrees eighteen minutes, a second
storm came upon us, which carried us away with the same impetu-
osity westward, and drove us so out of the very way of all human
commerce, that had all our lives been saved as to the sea, we
‘were rather in danger of being devoured by savages than ever
returning to our own country.

In this distress, the wind still Blaine very hard, one of our
men, early in the morning, cried out, Land! and we had -no
sooner run out of the cabin to look out, in hopes of seeing where-
abouts in the world we were, but the ship struck upon a sand,
and in a moment, her motion being so stopped, the sea broke over
her in such a manner that we expected we should all have perished
immediately ; and we were immediately driven into our close quar-
ters, to shelter us from the very foam and spray of the sea.

It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like condi-
tion to describe or conceive the consternation of men in such
circumstances: we knew nothing where we were, or upon what
land it was we were driven, whether an island or the main, whether
inhabited or not inhabited; and as the rage of the wind was still
great, though rather less than at first, we could not so much as
hope to have the ship hold many minutes without breaking in
pieces, unless the winds, by a kind of miracle, should turn
immediately about. In a word, we sat looking one upon another,
and expecting death every moment, and every man acting accord-
ingly, as preparing for another world; for there was little or
nothing more for us to do in this. That which was our present
comfort, and all the comfort we had, was that, contrary to our
expectation, the ship did not break yet, and that the master said
the wind began to abate.

Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate, yet
the ship having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast
for us to expect her getting off, we were in a dreadful condition



38 ADVENTURES OF

indeed, and had nothing to do, but to think of saving our lives as
well as we could. We had a boat at. our stern just before the
storm, but she was first staved by dashing against the ship’s rudder,
and, in the next place, she broke away, and either sunk or was
driven off to sea; so there was no hope from her. We had
another boat on board, but how to get her off into the sea was a
doubtful thing ; however, there was no room to debate, for we
fancied the ship would break in pieces every minute, and some
told us she was actually broken already.

In this distress the mate of our vessel lays hold of the boat,
and with the help of the rest of the men, they got her slung over
the ship’s side; and getting all into her, let go, and committed
ourselves, being eleven in number, to God’s mercy and the wild
sea; for though the storm was abated considerably, yet the sea
went dreadful high upon the shore, and might well be called den
wild zee, as the Dutch call the sea in a storm. ,

And now our case was very dismal indeed ; for we all saw
plainly that the sea went so high that the boat could not live, and
that we should be inevitably drowned. As to making sail, we
had none; nor, if we had, could we have done anything with it,
so we worked at the oar towards the land, though with heavy
hearts, like men going to execution ; for we all knew that when
the boat came nearer the shore, she would be dashed in a thousand
pieces by the breach of the sea. However, we committed our
souls to God in the most earnest manner, and the wind driving
us towards the shore, we hastened our destruction with our own
hands, pulling as well as we could towards land.

‘What the shore was—whether rock or sand, whether steep or
shoal—we knew not ; the only hope that could rationally give us
the least shadow of expectation was, if we might happen into
some bay or gulf, or the mouth of some river, where by great
chance we might have run our boat in, or got under the lee of
the land, and perhaps made smooth water. But there was nothing
of this appeared ; but as we made nearer and nearer the shore, |
the land looked more frightful than the sea. |

After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league and a half,
as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came rolling
astern of us, and plainly bid us expect the coup de erdce,. In a
word, it took us with such fury, that it overset the boat at once ;
and separating us, as well from the boat as from one another, ©



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 39

gave us not time hardly to say, ““O God!” for we were all
swallowed up in a moment.

Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt
when I sunk into the water ; for though I swam very well, yet I
could not deliver myself from the waves so as to draw breath, till
that wave having driven me, or rather carried me, a vast way on
towards the shore, and having spent itself, went back and left me
upon the land almost dry, but half dead with the water I took in.
I had so much presence of mind, as well as breath left, that
seeing myself nearer the mainland than I expected, I got upon
my feet and endeavoured to make on: towards the land as fast as
I could, before another wave should return and take me up again ;
but I soon found it was impossible to avoid it, for I saw the sea
come after me as high as a great hill, and as furious as an enemy
which I had no means or strength to contend with: my business
_-was to hold my breath, and raise myself upon the water, if I
could, and so, by swimming, to preserve my breathing, and pilot -
myself towards the shore, if possible ; my greatest’ concern now
being that the sea, as it would carry me a great way towards the
shore when it came on, might not carry me back again with it
when it gave back towards the sea.

The wave that came upon me again buried me at once twenty
or thirty. feet deep in its own body, and I could feel myself
carried with a mighty force and swiftness towards the shore, a
very great way; but I held my breath, and assisted myself to
swim still forward with all my might. I was ready to burst with
holding my breath, when, as I felt myself rising up, so, to my
immediate relief, I found my head and hands shoot out above |

the surface of the water; and though it was not two seconds of
time that I could keep myself so, yet it relieved me greatly, gave
me breath and new courage. I was covered again with water a
good while, but not so long but I held it out; and finding the
water had spent itself and began to return, I struck forward
against the return of the waves, and felt ground again with my
feet. I stood still a few moments, to recover breath and till the
water went from me, and then took to my-heels and ran with
what strength I had farther towards the shore. But neither would
this deliver me from the fury of the sea, which came pouring in
after me again; and twice more I was lifted up by the waves and
carried forwards as before, the shore being very flat.



40 ADVENTURES OF

The last time of these two had well near been fatal to me; for
the sea, having hurried me along, as before, landed me, or rather
dashed me, against a piece of a rock, and that with such force as
it left me senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my own deliverance ;
for the blow, taking my side and breast, beat the breath, as it
were, quite out of my body, and had it returned again immediately,
I must have been strangled in the water ; but I recovered a little
before the return of the waves, and seeing I should be covered |
again with water, I resolved to hold fast by a piece of the rock,
and so to hold my breath, if possible, till the wave went back.
Now as the waves were not so high as the first, being near land,
I held my hold till the wave abated, and then fetched another run,
which brought me so near the-shore that the next wave, though
it went over me, yet did not so swallow me up as to carry me
away ; and the next run I took, I got to the main land, where, to
my great comfort, I clambered up the cliffs of the shore, and sat
me down upon the grass, free from danger and quite out of the
reach of the water.

I was now landed and safe on shore, and began to look up and
thank God that my life was saved, in a.case wherein there was,
some minutes before, scarce any room to hope. I believe it is
impossible to express to the life what the ecstacies and transports
of the soul are, when it is so saved, as I may say, out of the grave;
and I do not wonder now at that custom, viz., that when a
malefactor, who has the halter about his neck, is tied up and just
going to be turned off, and has a reprieve brought to him,—I say,
‘I do not wonder that they bring a surgeon with it, to let him
blood that very moment they tell him of it, that the surprise may
not drive the animal spirits from the heart, and overwhelm him:

‘* For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.”

I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and my
whole being, as I may say, wrapped up in the contemplation of
my deliverance ; making a thousand gestures and motions which
I cannot describe ; reflecting upon all my comrades that were
drowned, and that there should not be one soul saved but myself,
—for, as for them, I never saw them afterwards, or any sign of
them, except three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes that
were not fellows. |

I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when the breach and



ROBINSON CRUSOE. AI

froth of the sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far
off, and considered, Lord ! how was it possible I could get on
shore ? | |

After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my
condition, I began to look round me, to see what kind of a place
I was in, and what was next to be done ; and I soon found my com-
forts abate, and that, in a word, I had a dreadful deliverance ;
for I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor anything either to
eat or drink, to comfort me; neither did I see any prospect
before me, but that of perishing with hunger, or being devoured
by wild beasts: and that which was particularly afflicting to me
was, that I had no weapon either to hunt and kill any creature
for my sustenance, or to defend myself against any other creature
that might desire to kill me for theirs. In a word, I had nothing
about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco in a
box. This was all my provision ; and this threw me into terrible
agonies of mind, that for a while I ran about like a madman.
Night coming upon me, I began, with a heavy heart, to consider
what would be my lot if there were any ravenous beasts in that
country, seeing at night they always come abroad for their prey.

All the remedy that offered to my thoughts, at that time, was
- to get up into a thick bushy tree, like a fir, but thorny—which
grew near me, and where I resolved to sit all night—and con-
sider the next day what death I should die, for as yet I saw no
prospect of life. I walked about a furlong from the shore, to
see if I could find any fresh water to drink, which I did, to my
great joy, and having drunk, and put a little tobacco in my >
mouth to prevent hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into
it, endeavoured to place myself so as that, if I should sleep, I
might not fall; and having cut me a short stick like a truncheon,
for my defence, I took up my lodging, and having been exces-
sively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I
believe, few could have done in my condition, and found myself
the most refreshed with it that I think I ever was on such an
occasion.







CHAPTER IV.

Crusoe, on waking in the morning, sees the ship lying a-ground high out of the
water—He comes down from the tree—Swims to the ship—Constructs a raft,
which he loads with stores, and guides with difficulty to the shore—Surveys
the country, and discovers that it is an island and uninhabited—Shoots a bird,
the flesh of which proves to be carrion—Unloads the raft, and erects a hut—
Swims to the ship again, and brings a second cargo ashore—On his return is
confronted by a wild cat, which discovers a disposition to be friendly—Makes
a tent, which he furnishes and fortifies—Repeats his visits to the ship, which
he strips of its contents—Removes his tent to a more advantageous site, and
fences it strongly—Kills a she-goat, and is grieved thereat.

LEN I waked it was broad day, the weather clear,
and the storm abated, so that the sea did not rage
and swell as before; but that which surprised me
most was, that the ship was lifted off in the night
= from the sand where she lay, by the swelling of the
tide, and was driven up almost as far as the rock which I first
mentioned, where I had been so bruised by the dashing me
against It. This being within about a mile from the shore where
I was, and the ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished
myself on board, that at least I might save some necessary things
for my use. :

When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked
about me again, and the first thing I found was the boat, which
lay, as the wind and the sea had tossed her up upon the land,
about two miles on my right hand. I walked as far as I could
‘upon the shore to have got to her, but found a neck, or inlet, of
water between me and the boat, which was about half a mile
broad; so I came back for the present, being more intent upon
getting at the ship, where I hoped to find something for my
present subsistence.

A little after noon I found the sea very calm, and the tide
ebbed so far out that I could come within a quarter of a mile of





ROBINSON CRUSOE. 43

the ship; and here I found a fresh renewing of my grief, for I
saw evidently that, if we had kept on board, we had all been
safe—that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I had not
been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all comfort
and company as I now was. This forced tears from my eyes
again, but as there was little relief in that, I resolved, if possible,
to get to the ship; so I pulled off my clothes, for the weather
was hot to extremity, and took the water: but when I came to
the ship, my difficulty was still greater to know how to get on
board, for as she lay aground, and high out of the water, there
was nothing within my reach to lay hold of. I swam round her
twice, and the second time I spied a small piece of rope, which I
wondered I did not see at first, hang down by the fore-chains, so
low as that with great difficulty I got hold of it, and by the help
of that rope got into the forecastle of the ship. Here I found
that the ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water in her
hold ; but that she-lay so on the side of a bank of hard sand, or
rather earth, and her stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and her
head low, almost to the water. By this means all her quarter was
free, and all that was in that part was dry ; for you may be sure
my first work was to search and to see what was spoiled and what
was free: and first I found that all the ship’s provisions were dry
and untouched by the water; and being very well disposed to
_eat, I went to the bread-room, and filled my pockets with biscuit,
and eat it as I went about other things, for I had no time to lose.
I also found some rum in the great cabin, of which I took a large
dram, and which I had indeed need enough of, to spirit me for
what was before me. Now I wanted nothing but a boat, to
furnish myself with many things which I foresaw would be very
necessary to me.

It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be had,
and this extremity roused my application ; we had several spare
yards, and two or three large spars of wood, and a spare topmast
or two in the ship. I resolved to fall to work with these, and
flung as many of them overboard as I could manage of their
weight, tying every one with a rope, that they might not drive
- away. When this was done, I went down the ship’s side, and
pulling them to me, I tied four of them fast together at both ends,
as well as I could, in the form of a raft, and laying two or three
short pieces of plank upon them crossways, I found I could walk



44 ADVENTURES OF

upon it very well, but that it was not able to bear any great weight,
the pieces being too light; so I went to work, and with the
carpenter’s saw I cut a spare topmast into three lengths, and
added them to my raft, with a great deal of labour and pains.
But the hope of furnishing myself with necessaries encouraged
me to go beyond what I should have been able to have done
upon another occasion.

My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable weight.
My next care was what to load it with, and how to preserve what
I laid upon it from the surf of the sea. But I was not long con-
sidering this. I first laid all the planks, or boards, upon it that’
I could get, and having considered well what I most wanted, I
first got three of the seamen’s chests, which I had broken open
and emptied, and lowered them down upon my raft. The first
of these I filled with provisions, viz., bread, rice, three Dutch
cheeses, five pieces of dried goats’ flesh (which we lived much
upon), and a little remainder of European corn which had been
laid by for some fowls which wé had brought to sea with us, but
the fowls were killed. There had been some barley and wheat
together, but, to my great disappointment, I found afterwards
that the rats had eaten or spoiled it all. As for liquors, I found
several cases of bottles belonging to our skipper, in which were
some cordial waters, and, in all, about five or six gallons of rack.
These I stowed by themselves, there being no need to put them
into the chests, nor no room for them. While I was doing this
I found the tide began to flow, though very calm, and I had the:
mortification to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had
left on shore upon the sand, swim away; as for my breeches
which were only linen and open-kneed, I swam on board in them
and my stockings. However, this put me upon rummaging for
clothes, of which I found enough, but took no more than I
wanted for present use, for I had other things which my eye was
more upon, as first, tools to work with on shore; and it was after
long searching that I found out the carpenter’s nese which was
indeed a very useful prize to me, and much more valuable than
a ship loading of gold would have been at that time. I got it
down to my raft, even whole as it was, without losing time to look
into it, for I knew in general. what it contained. -

My next care was for some ammunition andarms. There were
two very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two pistols ;



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 45

these I secured first, with some powder-horns and a small bag of
shot, and two old rusty swords. I, knew there were three barrels
of powder in the ship, but knew not where our gunner had stowed

_ them, but with much search I found them, two of them dry and

good, the third had taken water. Those two I got to my raft,
with the arms. And now I thought myself pretty well freighted,
and began to think how I should get to shore with them, having
neither sail, oar, nor rudder; and the least capful of wind would
have overset all my navigation. |

I had three encouragements: 1. A smooth, calm sea. 2. The

- tide rising, and setting in to the shore. 3. What little wind there

was blew me towards the land. And thus, having found two or
three broken oars belonging to the boat, and, besides, the tools
which were in the chest, I found two saws, an axe, and a hammer ;
and with this cargo I put to sea. For a mile, or thereabouts, my
raft went very well, only that I found it drive a little distant from
the place where I had landed before, by which I perceived that
there was some indraft of the water, and consequently 1 hoped to
find some creek or river there, which I might make use of as a
port to get to land with my cargo.

As I imagined, so it was: there appeared before me a little
opening of the land, and I found a strong current of the tide set
into it; so I guided my raft as well as I could, to keep in the

middle of the stream. But here I had like to have suffered a

second shipwreck, which, if I had, I think verily would have
broke my heart; for, knowing nothing of the coast, my raft ran
aground at one end of it upon a shoal, and not being aground at
the other end, it wanted but a little that all my cargo had slipped
off towards that end that was afloat, and so fallen into the water.
I did my utmost, by setting my back against the chests, to keep
them in their places, but could not thrust off the raft with all my
strength; neither durst I stir from the posture I was in, but
holding up the chests with all my might, stood in that manner
near half an hour, in which time the rising of the water brought
me a little more upon a level; and a little after, the water still
rising, my raft floated again, and I thrust her off with the oar I had
into the channel, and then, driving up higher, I at length found

_ myself in the mouth of a little river, with land on both sides,

and a strong current or tide running up. I looked on both
sides for a proper place to get to shore, for I was not willing to



46 ADVENTURES OF

_be driven too high up the river, hoping, in time, to see some
ship at sea, and therefore resolved to place myself as near the
coast as I could.

At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek,
to which, with great pain and difficulty, I guided my raft, and
at last got so near as that, reaching ground with my oar, I could
thrust her directly in ; but here I had like to have dipped all
my cargo into the sea again, for that shore lying pretty steep, _
that is to say, sloping, there was no place to land, but where
one end of my float, if it ran on shore, would lie so high, and
the other sink lower, as before, that it would endanger my cargo
again. All that I could do was to wait till the tide was at the
highest, keeping the raft with my oar, like an anchor, to hold
the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of ground which
I expected the water would flow over; and so it did. As soon
as I found water enough, for my raft drew about a foot of water,
I thrust her upon that flat piece of ground, and there fastened or
moored her, by sticking my two broken oars into the ground, one
on one side near one end, and one on the other side near the
other end ; and thus I lay till the water ebbed away, and left my
raft and all my cargo safe on shore.

My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper place
for my habitation, and where to stow my goods, to secure them
from whatever might happen. Where I was I yet knew not ;
whether on the continent or on an island, whether inhabited or
not inhabited, whether in danger of wild beasts or not. There
was a hill, not above a mile from me, which rose up very steep
and high, and which seemed to overtop some other hills, which
lay as in a ridge from it northward. I took out one of the fowling-
pieces, and one of the pistols, and a horn of powder, and thus
armed, I travelled for discovery up to the top of that hill, where,
after I had with great labour and difficulty got up to the top, I
saw my fate, to my great affliction, viz., that I was in an island
environed every way with the sea, no land to be seen, except
some rocks which lay a great way off, and two small islands, less
than this, which lay about three leagues to the west.

I found also that the island I was in was barren, and as I saw
good reason to believe, uninhabited, except by wild beasts, of
whom, however, I saw none; yet I saw abundance of fowls, but
knew not their kinds, neither when I killed them could I tell



ROBINSON CRUSOE. | 47

what was fit for food and what not. At my coming back I shot
ata great bird which I saw sitting upon a tree on the side of a
great wood. I believe it was the first gun that had been fired
there since the creation of the world: I had no sooner fired, but
from all parts of the wood there arose an innumerable number of
fowls, of many sorts, making a confused screaming, and crying
every one according to his usual note; but not one of them of
any kind that I knew. As for that creature I killed, I took it to
be a kind of a hawk, its colour and beak resembling it, but had
no talons or claws more than common. Its flesh was carrion and
fit for nothing.

Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and fell
to work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me up the rest
of that day ; what to do with myself at night I knew not, nor
indeed where to rest, for I was afraid to lie down on the ground,
not knowing but some wild beast might devour me, though, as I
afterwards found, there was really no need for those fears.

However, as well as I could, I barricadoed myself round with
the chests and boards that I had brought on shore, and made a
kind of a hut for that night’s lodging. As for food, I yet,saw not
which way to supply myself, except that I had seen two or three
creatures, like hares, run out of the wood where I shot the fowl.

I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many
things out of the ship which would be useful to me, and particu-
larly some of the rigging and sails, and such other things as
might come to land ; and I resolved to make another voyage on
board the vessel, if possible. And as I knew that the first storm
that blew must necessarily break her all in pieces, I resolved to
set all other things apart till I got everything out of the ship
that I could get. Then I called a council, that is to say, in my
thoughts, whether I should take back the raft, but this appeared
impracticable ; so I resolved to go, as before, when the tide was
down, and I did so, only that I stripped before I went from my
hut, having nothing on but a chequered shirt and a pair of linen
drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.

I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second raft ;
and having had experience of the first, I neither made this so
unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard, but yet I brought away several
things very useful to me: as, first, in the carpenter’s stores, I
found two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a great screw-



48 ADVENTURES OF

jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and, above all, that most useful
thing called a grindstone. All these I secured together, with
several things belonging to the gunner, particularly two or three
iron crows, and two barrels of musket bullets, seven muskets, and
another fowling-piece, with some small quantity of powder more,
a large bag full of small shot, and a great roll of sheet lead ; but
this last was so heavy I could not hoist it up to get it over the
ship’s side.

Besides these things, I took all the men’s clothes that I could
find, and a spare fore-topsail, hammock, and some bedding ; and
‘with this I loaded my second raft, and brought them all safe on
shore to my very great comfort. Bhi

I was under some apprehensions, during my absence from the
land, that at least my provisions might be devoured on shore;
but, when I came back, I found no sign of any visitor, only there
' sat a creature like a wild cat upon one of the chests, which, when
I came towards it, ran away a little distance and then stood still.
She sat very composed and unconcerned, and looked full in my
face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted with me. I presented
my gun at her, but as she did not understand it she was per-
fectly unconcerned at it, nor did she offer to stir away, upon
which I tossed her a bit of biscuit, though, by the way, I was not
very free of it, for my store was not great ; however, I spared her
a bit, Isay, and she went to it, smelled of it, and eat it, and looked,
as pleased, for more; but I thanked her, and could spare no
more, SO she ‘neeahath off.

‘Having got my second cargo on shote—thoush I was fain to
open the barrels of powder and bring them by parcels, for they
were too heavy, being large casks,—I went to work to make me
a little tent with the sail and some poles which I cut for that
purpose, and into this tent I brought everything that I knew -
would spoil, either with rain or sun; and I piled all the empty
chests and casks up in a circle round the tent, to fortify it from
any sudden attempt either from man or beast.

When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent with
some boards within, and an empty chest set up on end without ;
and spreading one of the beds upon the ground, laying my =
pistols just at my head, and my gun at length by me, I went to
bed for the first time, and slept very quietly all night ; for I was
very weary and heavy, for the night before I had slept little,







ee
Tee a P os
ae as TONY BHR 2s. os
Spinare a pale stare Dat cee Bee oi
5 3: a cera:

CRUSOE, ON “TRE RAFT:





ROBINSON CRUSOE. AQ

and had laboured very hard all day, as well to fetch all those
things from the’ship as to get them on shore.

_ I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was laid
up, I believe, for one man; but I was not satisfied still, for while
the ship sat upright in that posture, I thought I ought to get every-
thing out of her that I could: so every day, at low water, I went
on board and brought away something or other; but particularly
the third time I went, I brought away as much of the rigging as
I could, as also all the small ropes and rope-twine I could get,
with a piece of spare canvas, which was to mend the sails upon
occasion, and the barrel of wet gunpowder. In a word, I brought
away all the sails, first and last, only that I was fain to cut them
in pleces, and bring as much at a time as I could; for they were
no more useful to be sails, but as mere canvas only.

But that which comforted me more still was, that, at last of all,
after I had made five or six such voyages as these, and thought I
had nothing more to expect from the ship that was worth my.
meddling with,—I say, after all this, I found a great hogshead of
bread, and three large runlets of rum or spirits, and a box of sugar
and a barrel of fine flour; this was surprising to me, because I
had given over expecting any more provisions, except what was
spoiled by the water. I soon emptied the hogshead of that bread
and wrapped it up, parcel by parcel, in pieces of the sails, which
I cut out; and, in a word, I got all this safe on shore also.

The next day I made another voyage, and now, having
plundered the ship of what was portable and fit to hand out, I
began with the cables, and cutting the great cable into pieces
such as I could move, I got two cables and a hawser on shore,
with all the iron work I could get; and, having cut down the
spritsail-yard and the mizen-yard, and everything I could, to make
a large raft, I loaded it with all those heavy goods, and came
away: but my good luck began now to leave me; for this raft
was so unwieldy and so overladen, that after I was entered the
little cove where I had landed the rest of my goods, not being
able to guide it so handily as I did the other, it overset, and threw
me and all my cargo into the water. As for myself, it was no
great harm, for I was near the shore; but as to my cargo, it was .
a great part of it lost, especially the iron, which I expected would
have been of great use to me. However, when the tide was out,
I got most of the pieces of cable ashore, and some of the iron,

D



50 ADVENTURES OF

though with infinite labour; for I was fain to dip for it into the
water, a work which fatigued me very much. After this I went
every day on board, and brought away what I could get. |

I had been now thirteen days on shore, and had been eleven
times on board the ship, in which time I had brought away all
that one pair of hands could well be supposed capable to bring ;
though, I believe verily, had the calm weather held, I should
have brought away the whole ship, piece by piece ; but, preparing
the twelfth time to go on board, I found the wind began to rise.
‘However, at low water, I went on board, and though I thought I
had rummaged the cabin so effectually, as that nothing more could
be found, yet I discovered alockerwith drawers in it,in one of which '
I found two or three razors, and one pair of large scissors, with
some ten or a dozen of good knives and forks ; in another I found
about thirty-six pounds value in money, some European coin,
some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some gold, some silver.

I smiled to myself at the sight of this money. ‘“O drug!”
said I aloud, “what art thou good for? Thou art not worth to
me, no, not the taking off the ground; one of those knives is
worth all this heap: I have no manner of use for thee; e’en
remain where thou art, and go to the bottom, as a creature whose
life is not worth saving.” However, upon second thoughts, I
took it away; and wrapping all this in a piece of canvas, I
began to think of masting another raft; but while I was prepar-
ing this, I found the sky overcast, and the wind began to rise,
and in a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale from the shore.
It presently occurred to me, that it was in vain to pretend to
make a raft with the wind off shore, and that it was my business
to be gone before the tide of flood began, otherwise I might not
be able to reach the shore at all. Accordingly I let myself down
into the water, and swam across the channel which lay between
the ship and the sands, and even that with difficulty enough,
_ partly with the weight of the things I had about me, and partly
the roughness of the water; for the wind rose very hastily, and
before it was quite high water it blew a storm.

But I was gotten home to my little tent, where I lay, with all
my wealth about me, very secure. It blew very hard all that
night, and in the morning, when I looked out, behold no more
ship was to be seen! I was a little surprised, but recovered my-
self with this satisfactory reflection, viz., that I had lost no time, |



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 51

nor abated no diligence, to get everything out of her that could
be useful to me, and that indeed there was little left in her that
I was able to bring away, if I had had more time.

I now gave over any miore thoughts of the ship, or of anything
out of her, except what might drive on shore from her wreck, as,
indeed, divers pieces of her MUS did; but those things were
of small use to me.

My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing myself
against either savages, if any should appear, or wild beasts, if any
were in the island; and I had many thoughts of the method how
to do this, and what kind of dwelling to make, whether I should
make me a cave in the earth, or a tent upon the earth; and, in
short, I resolved upon both, the manner and description of which,
it may not be improper to give an account of.

I soon found the place I was in was not for my settlement,
particularly because it was upon a low, moorish ground, near the
sea, and I believed it would not be wholesome; and more par-
ticularly because there was no fresh water near it: so I resolved
to find a more healthy and more convenient spot of ground.

I consulted several things in my situation, which I found would
be proper for me: first, Health and fresh water I just now men-
tioned; secondly, Shelter from the heat of the sun; thirdly,
Security from ravenous creatures, whether man or beast ; fourthly,
A view to the sea, that if God sent any ship in sight, I might not
lose any advantage for my deliverance, for which I was not will-
ing to banish,all my expectation yet.

In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain on
the side of arising hill, whose front towards this little plain was
steep as a house side, so that nothing could come down upon me
from the top. On the side of this rock there was a hollow place,
worn a little way in, like the entrance or door of a cave, but there
was not really any cave, or way into the rock, at all.

On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place, I resolved
to pitch my tent. This plain was not above a hundred yards
broad, and about twice as long, and lay like a green before my
door; and at the end of it, descended irregularly every way down
into the low grounds by the seaside. . It was on the north-north-
west side of the hill, so that it was ‘sheltered from the heat every
day, till it came to a west-and-by-south sun, or thereabouts, which
in those countries is near the setting.



62 ADVENTURES OF

Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle before the hollow
place, which took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter from
the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter, from its beginning and
ending.

In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving
them into the ground till they stood very firm like piles, the
biggest end being out of the ground about five feet and a half, and
sharpened on the top: the two rows did not stand above six
inches from one another.

Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship,
and laid them in rows, one upon another, within the circle be-
tween these two rows of stakes up to the top, placing other stakes
in the inside, leaning against them, about two feet and a half
high, like a spur to a post; and this fence was so strong, that
neither man nor beast could get into it or over it. This cost me
a great deal of time and labour, especially to cut the piles in the
woods, bring them to the place, and drive them into the earth.

The entrance into, this place I made to be not by a door, but
by a short ladder to go over the top; which ladder, when I was
in, I lifted over after me, and so I was completely fenced in and
fortified, as I thought, from all the world, and consequently slept
secure in the night, which otherwise I could not have done;
though, as it appeared afterwards, there was no need of all this
caution from the enemies that I apprehended danger from.

Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labour, I carried all my
riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which you
have the account above; and I made me a large tent, which, to
preserve me from the rains that in one part of the year are very
violent there, I made double, viz., one smaller tent within, and
one larger tent above it, and covered the uppermost with a large
tarpaulin which I had saved among the sails.

And now I lay no more, for a while, in the bed which I had
brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was indeed a very
good one, and belonged to the mate of the ship.

Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything that
would spoil by the wet ; and having thus enclosed all my goods,
I made up the entrance which, till now, I had left open, and so
passed and repassed, as I said, by a short ladder.

When I had done this, I began to work my way into the rock,
and bringing all the earth and stones that I dug down out through



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 53

my tent, I laid them up within my fence in the nature of a terrace,

so that it raised the ground within about a foot and a half; and

thus I made a cave, just behind my tent, which served me like a
cellar to my house.

It cost me much labour and many ee before all these things
were brought to perfection ; and therefore I must go back to some
other things which took up some of my thoughts. At the same
time it happened, after I had laid my scheme for the setting up my
tent, and making the cave, that a storm of rain falling from a thick,
dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning happened, and after that a
great clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect of it. I was not
so much surprised with the lightning as I was with a thought
which darted into my inind as swift as the lightning itself: Oh,
-my powder! My very heart sunk within me when I thought,
that at one blast all my powder might be destroyed, on which,
not my defence only, but the providing me food, as I thought,
entirely depended. I was nothing near so anxious about my own
danger, though, had the poweies took fire, I had never known who
had hurt me.

Such impression did this make upon me, that after the storm
was over, I laid aside all my works, my building and fortifying,
and applied myself to make bags and boxes, to separate the
powder, and to keep it a little and a little in a parcel, in hope that
whatever might come, it might not all take fire at once; and to
keep it so apart, that 1t should not be possible to make one part
fire another. I finished this work in about a fortnight, and I
think my powder, which in all was about one hundred and forty
pounds weight, was divided in not less than one hundred parcels.
As to the barrel that had been wet, I did not apprehend any
danger from that; so I placed it in my new cave, which, in my
fancy, I called my kitchen, and the rest I hid up and down in
holes among the rocks, so that no wet might come to it, marking
very carefully where I laid it.

In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out at least
once every day with my gun, as well to divert myself as to see if
I could kill anything fit for food, and, as near as I could, to
acquaint myself with what the island produced. ‘The first time I
went out I presently discovered that there were goats in the island,
which was a great satisfaction to me; but then it was attended
with this misfortune to me, viz., that oe were so shy, so subtle,



54 | ADVENTURES OF

and so swift of foot, that it was the most difficult thing in the
world to come at them: but I was not discouraged at this,
not doubting but I might now and then shoot one, as it
soon happened ; for, after I had found their haunts a little, I
laid wait in this manner for them: I observed, if they saw
me in the valleys, though they were upon the rocks, they would
run away as in a terrible fright; but if they were feeding
in the valleys, and I was upon the rocks, they took no notice
of me; from whence I concluded that, by the position of their
optics, their sight was so directed downward that they did not
readily see objects that were above them: so afterwards I took
this method—I always climbed the rocks first, to get above them,
and then had frequently a fair mark. The first shot I made
among these creatures I killed a she-goat, which had a little kid
by her which she gave suck to, which grieved me heartily; but
when the old one fell, the kid stood stock still by her, till I came
and took her up; and not only so, but when I carried the old
one with me, upon my shoulders, the kid followed me quite to
my enclosure, upon which I laid down the dam, and took the
kid in my arms and carried it over my pale, in hopes to have
bred it up tame ; but it would not eat, so I was forced to kill it
and eat it myself. These two supplied me with flesh a great
while, for I ate sparingly and saved my provisions, my bread
especially, as much as possibly I could.

Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely neces-
sary to provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn; and
what I did for that, as also how I enlarged my cave, and what con-
veniences I made, I shall give a full account of it in its place: but
I must first give some little account of myself, and of my thoughts
about living, which, it may well be supposed, were not a few.

I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for as I was not
cast away upon that island without being driven, as is said, by a
‘violent storm quite out of the course of our intended voyage, and
a great way, viz., some hundreds of leagues, out of the ordinary |
course of the trade of mankind, I had great reason to consider
it as a determination of Heaven that, in this desolate place, and
in this desolate manner, I should end my life. The tears would
run plentifully down my face when I made these reflections, and
sometimes I would expostulate with myself why Providence should
thus completely ruin its creatures, and render them so absolutely



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 55

miserable,—so without help abandoned, so entirely depressed, that
it could hardly be rational to be thankful for such a life.

But something always returned swift upon me to check these
thoughts, and to reprove me; and particularly one day walking
with my gun in my hand by the seaside, I was very pensive upon
the subject of my present condition, when reason, as it were,
expostulated with me the other way thus: “Well, you are ina
desolate condition, it is true; but, pray remember, where are the
rest of you? Did not you come eleven of you into the boat?
Where are the ten? Why were not they saved, and you lost?
Why were you singled out? Is it better to be here or there ?’
And then I pointed to the sea. All evils are to be considered with
the good that is in them, and with what worse attended them.

Then it occurred to me again,‘ how well I was furnished for
my subsistence, and what would have been my case if it had not
happened, which was a hundred thousand to one, that the ship
floated from the place where she first struck, and was driven so
near to the shore that I had time to get all these things out of
her: what would have been my case, if I had been to have lived
in the condition in which I at first came on shore, without
necessaries of life, or necessaries to supply and procure them?
“Particularly,” said I aloud (though to myself), “‘what should I
have done without a gun, without ammunition, without any tools
to make anything or to work with, without clothes, bedding, a
tent, or any manner of coverings?” and that now I had all these
to a sufficient quantity, and was in a fair way to provide myself
in such a manner as to live.without my gun, when my ammuni-
tion was spent,'so that I had a tolerable view of subsisting,
without any want, as long as I lived; for I considered, from the
beginning, how I would provide for the accidents that might
happen, and for the time that was to come, even not only after
my ammunition should be spent, but even after my health or
strength should decay.

I confess I had not entertained any notion of my ammunition
being destroyed at one blast, 1 mean my powder being blown up
by lightning; and this made the thoughts of it so surprising to
me, when it lightened and thundered, as I observed just now.

And now, being to enter into a melancholy relation of a scene of
silent life, such perhaps as was never heard of in the world before,
I shall take it from its beginning, and continue it in its order.





CHAPTER Y,

Crusoe sets up a wooden cross, on which he inscribes the date of his landing, and
keeps his reckoning of time—He seriously considers his position, and balancing
the good in it against the evil, arrives at the conclusion that he is not altogether
miserable—Makes various articles of furniture for his house, with the aid of the
tools found in the ship—Keeps a journal.

OS T was, by my account, the 30th of September, when,
. 557 in the manner as above said, I first set foot upon
| this horrid island,—when the sun, being to us in
its autumnal equinox, was almost just over my

. head ; for I reckoned myself, by observation, to be
in the latitude of nine degrees twenty-two minutes north of the
Line.

_ After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came into
my thoughts that I should lose my reckoning of time for want of
books and pen and ink, and should even forget the Sabbath days
from the working days; but, to prevent this, I cut it with my
knife upon a large post, in capital letters, and making it into a
great cross, I set it up on the shore where I first landed, viz., “I
came on shore here the 3oth of September 1659.” Upon the
sides of this square post I cut every day a notch with my knife,
and every seventh notch was_as long again as the rest, and every
first day of the month as: long again as that long one; and thus
{ kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning
of time.

In the next place, we are to observe that among the many
things which I brought out of the ship, in the several voyages
which, as above mentioned, I made to it, I got several things of
less value, but not at all less useful to me, which I omitted
setting down before, as, in particular, pens, ink, and paper ;
several parcels in the captain’s, mate’s, gunner’s, and carpenter’s -
keeping ; three or four compasses, some mathematical instru. ~





ROBINSON CRUSOE. 57

ments, dials, perspectives, charts, and books of navigation ; all
which I huddled together, whether I might want them or no:
also I found three very good Bibles, which came to me in my
cargo from England, and which I had packed up among my
things; some Portuguese books also, and, among them, two or
three Popish prayer-books, and several other books, all which I
carefully secured. And I must not forget that we had in the ship
a dog and two cats, of whose eminent history I may have occa-
sion to say something in its place; for I carried both the cats
with me, and, as for the dog, he jumped out of the ship himself
and swam on shore to me the day after I went on shore with my
first cargo, and was a trusty servant to me many years. I wanted
nothing that he could fetch me, nor any company that he could
-make up to me; I only wanted to have him talk to me, but that
would not do. As I observed before, I found pen, ink, and
paper, and I husbanded them to the utmost; and I shall show
that, while my ink lasted, I kept things very exact, but after that
‘was gone I could not, for I could not make any ink by any
means that I could devise. :

And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, notwith-
standing all that I had amassed together ; and of these, this of
ink was one, as also spade, pickaxe, and shovel, to dig or remove
the earth ; needles, pins, and thread. As for linen, I soon learned
to want that without much difficulty.

This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily, and
it was near a whole year before I had entirely finished my little
pale, or surrounded habitation. ‘The piles, or stakes, which were
as heavy as I could well lift, were a long time in cutting and pre-
paring in the woods, and more by far in bringing home ; so that
I spent sometimes two days in cutting and bringing home one of
those posts, and a third day in driving it into the ground ; for
which purpose I got a heavy piece of wood at first, but at last
bethought myself of one of the iron crows, which, however,
though I found it, yet it made driving those posts, or piles, very
laborious and tedious work. But what need I have been con-
cerned at the tediousness of anything I had to do, seeing I had
time enough to do it in? Nor had I any other employment, if
that had been over, at least that I could foresee, except the
ranging the island to seek for food, which I did, more or less,
every day. _ ,



58 ADVENTURES OF

I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the cir-
cumstance I was reduced to; and I drew up the state of my
affairs in writing, not so much to leave them to any that were to
come after me (for I was like to have but few heirs), as to deliver
my thoughts from daily poring upon them, and afflicting my
mind: and as my reason began now to master my despondency,
I began to comfort myself as well as I could, and to set the good
against the evil, that I might have something to distinguish my
case from worse ; and I stated it very impartially, like debtor and
creditor, the comforts I enjoyed against the miseries I suffered,
thus: |

EVIL. GOOD.

I am cast upon a horrible, desolate But I am alive; and am not drowned,
island, void of all hope of recovery. as all my ship's company was.

- I am singled out and separated, as it But I am singled out, too, from all the
were, from all the world, to be miserable. ship’s crew, to be spared from death ;
and He that miraculously saved me from
death, can deliver me from this condition.

I am divided from mankind, a so/2- But I am not starved, and perishing on
Zazre, one banished from human society. a barren place, affording no sustenance.

I have no clothes to cover me. But I am in a hot climate, where, if I
7 had clothes, I could hardly wear them. -

I am without any defence, or means But I am cast on an island, where I see
to resist any violence of man or beast. no wild beast to hurt me, as I saw on the
coast of Africa; and what if 1 had been

shipwrecked there?

I have no soul to speak to, or relieve But God wonderfully sent the ship in
me, near enough to the shore, that I have
gotten out so many necessary things as
will either supply my wants, or enable me

to supply myself, even as long as I live,

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony that there
was scarce any condition in the world so miserable, but there was
something negative, or something positive, to be thankful for in
it ; and let this stand as a direction, from the experience of the
most miserable of all conditions in this world, that we may always
find in it something to comfort ourselves from, and to set, in the
description of good and evil, on the credit side of the account.

Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition, -



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 59

and given over looking out to sea, to see if I could spy a ship,—
I say, given over these things, I began to apply myself to accom-
modate my way of living, and to make things as easy to me as
I could.

I have already described my habitation, which was a tent under
the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of posts and
cables ; but I might now rather call it a wall, for I raised a kind
of wall up against it of turfs, about two feet thick on the outside,
and after some time (I think it was a year and half) I raised
rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and thatched, or covered, it
with boughs of trees and such things as I could get, to keep out
the rain, which I found at some times of the year very violent.

I have already observed how I brought all my goods into this
pale, and into the cave which I had made behind me. But I
must observe, too, that at first this was a confused heap of goods,
which, as they lay in no order, so they took up all my place: I
had no room to turn myself, so I set myself to enlarge my cave
and works farther into the earth ; for it was a loose sandy rock,
which yielded easily to the labour I bestowed on it: and so when
I found I was pretty safe as to beasts of prey, I worked sideways, -
to the right hand, into the rock, and then turning to the right
again, worked quite out, and made me a door to come out on
the outside of my pale or fortification.

This gave me not only egress and regress, as it were a back
way to my tent and to my storehouse, but gave me room to stow
my goods.

And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary
things as I found I most wanted, particularly a chair and a table ;
for without these I was not able to enjoy the few comforts I We
in the world,—I' could not write, or eat, or do several things,
with so much pleasure, without a table.

So I went to work ; and here I must needs observe that, as
reason is the substance and original of the mathematics, so, by
stating and squaring everything by reason, and by making the
most rational judgment of things, every man may be, in time,
master of every mechanic art. I had never handled a tool in my
life; and‘yet, in time, by labour, application, and contrivance, I
oun at last, that I wanted nothing but I could have made it,
especially if I had had tools. However, I made abundance of
things, even without tools, and some with no more tools than an



60. ADVENTURES OF

adze and a hatchet, which, perhaps, were never made that way
before, and that with infinite labour. For example, if I wanted
a board, I had no other way but to cut down a tree, set it on an
edge before me, and hew it flat on either side with my axe, till I
had brought it to be as thin as a plank, and then dub it smooth
with my adze. It is true, by this method I could make but one
board out of a whole tree; but this I had no remedy for but
patience, any more than I had for the prodigious deal of time and
labour which it took me up to make a plank or board: but my
time or labour was little worth, and so it was as well employed .
one way as another.

However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed above,
in the first place—and this I did out of the short pieces of boards
that I brought on my raft from the ship. But when I had
wrought out some boards, as above, I made large shelves of the
breadth of a foot and a half, one over another, all along one side
of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and iron-work, and, in a
word, to separate everything at large in their places, that I might
easily come at them. ' I knocked pieces into the wall of the rock,
to hang my guns, and all things that would hang up.

So that, had my cave been to be seen, it looked like a general
magazine of all necessary things; and I had everything so ready
at my hand, that it was a great pleasure to me to see all my goods
in such order, and especially to find my stock of all necessaries so
great. |

And now it was when I began to keep a journal of every day’s
employment ; for, indeed, at first, I was in too much a hurry, and
not only hurry as to labour, but in too much discomposure of
mind, and my journal would have been full of many dull things ;
for example, I must have said thus—‘‘ Ses¢. 30¢4.—After I got to
shore, and had escaped drowning, instead of being thankful to
God for my deliverance, having first vomited with the great
quantity of salt water which was gotten into my stomach, and .
recovering myself a little, I ran about the shore, wringing my
hands, and beating my head and face, exclaiming at my misery,
and crying out, I was undone, undone! till, tired and faint, I was
forced to lie down on the ground to repose, but durst not sleep,
for fear of being devoured.”

Some days after this, and after I had been on board the ship
and got all that I could out of her, yet I could not forbear



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 61

getting up to the top of a little mountain and looking out to
sea, in hopes of seeing a ship; then fancy at a vast distance I
spied a sail—please myself with the hopes of it,—and then, after
looking steadily, till I was almost blind, lose it quite, and sit
down and weep like a child, and thus increase my misery by
my folly.

But having gotten over these things in some measure, and
having settled my household stuff and habitation, made me a
table and a chair, and all as handsome about me as I could, I
began to keep my journal,—of which I shall here give you the
copy (though in it will be told all these particulars over again)
as long as it lasted; for, having no more ink, I was forced to
leave it off.

THE JOURNAL. |

September 30, 1659. —I, poor miserable Robinson Crusoe,
being shipwrecked during a dreadful storm in the offing, came
on shore on this dismal unfortunate island, which I called the
IsLAND oF. Despair, all the rest of the ship’s company being
drowned, and myself almost dead. All the rest of the day I
spent in afflicting myself at the dismal circumstances I was
brought to, viz., I had neither food, house, clothes, weapon, nor
place to fly to, and in despair of any relief, saw nothing but
death before me, either that I should be devoured by wild beasts,
- murdered by savages, or starved to death for want of food. At
the approach of night I slept in a tree, for fear of wild creatures,
but slept soundly, though it rained all night.

October 1.—In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the
ship had floated with the high tide, and was driven on shore again
much nearer the island; which, as it was some comfort on one
hand (for seeing her sit upright, and not broken to pieces, I
hoped, if the wind abated, I might get on board, and get some
food and necessaries out of her for my relief), so, on the other
hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my comrades, who, I
imagined, if we had all stayed on board, might have saved the ship,
or, at least, that they would not have been all drowned, as they
were; and that, had the men been saved, we might, perhaps, have
built us a boat out of the ruins of the ship, to have carried us to
some other part of the world. I spent great part of this day in



bees ADVENTURES OF

perplexing myself on these things; but at length seeing the ship
almost dry, I went upon the sand as near as I could, and then
swam on board. ‘This day also it continued eae a paueh with
no wind at all.

From the t1s¢ of October to the 24¢4.—All these days entirely
spent in making several voyages to get all I could out of the ship,
which I preuelt on shore, every tide of flood, upon rafts. Much |
rain also in these days, though with some intervals of fair weather;
but it seems this was the rainy season.

Oct. 20.—I overset my raft and all the goods I had got upon
it, but being in shoal water, and the things being chiefly heavy, I
recovered many of them when the tide was out.

Oct. 25.—It rained all night and all day, with some gusts of .
wind; during which time the ship broke in pieces, the wind
blowing a little harder than before, and was no more to be seen,
except the wreck of her, and that only at low water. I spent
this day in covering and securing the goods which I had saved,
that the rain might not spoil them.

Oct. 26.—I walked about the shore almost all day, to find out
a place to fix my habitation, greatly concerned to secure myself
from any attack in the night, either from wild beasts or men.
Towards night I fixed upon a proper place, under a rock; and

marked out a semicircle for my encampment, which I resolve to
strengthen with a work, wall, or fortification, made of double
piles, lined within with cable and without with turf. —

From the 26¢4 to the 30%, I worked very hard in carrying all
my goods to my new habitation, though some part of the time it
rained exceeding hard.

The 31s¢, in the morning, I went out into the island ah my
gun, to seek for some food and discover the country, when I killed
a she-goat, and, her kid followed me home, which I afterwards
killed also, because it would not feed.

November 1.—I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there
for the first night, making it as large as I could, with stakes driven
in to swing my hammock upon.

LVov. 2.—I set up all my chests and boards, and the pieces of
timber which made my rafts; and with them formed a ‘fence
round me, a little within the ae I had marked out for my
fortification,

Lov. 3.—I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls like -



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 63

ducks, which were very good food. In the afternoon went to
work to make me a table.

LVov. 4.—This morning I began to order my times of work, of
going out with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diversion ; viz.,
every morning I walked out with my gun for two or three hours,
if it did not rain ; then employed myself to work till about eleven
o'clock ; then eat what I had to live on; and from twelve to two
I lay down to sleep, the weather being excessive hot ; and then,
in the evening, to work again. The working part of this day and
the next were wholly employed in making my table, for I was yet
but a very sdrry workman, though time and necessity made me
a complete natural mechanic soon after, as I believe it would do
any one else. ! |
_ Nov. 5.—This day I went abroad with my gun and dog, and
killed a wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good for
nothing: every creature I killed, I took off the skins and pre-
served them. Coming back by the seashore, I saw many sorts
of sea-fowls which I did not understand, but was surprised, and ©
almost frighted, with two or three seals, which, while I was gazing
at, not well knowing what they were, got into the sea and escaped
me for that time.

Nov. 6.—After my morning walk, I went to work crit my
table again, and finished it, though not to my oe 3 nor was it

long before I learned to mend it.

Nov. 7.—Now it began to be settled fair wadictrere The “th,
8th, 9th, roth, and part of the 12th (for the 11th was Sunday,
according to my reckoning), I took wholly up to make me a
chair, and with much ado brought it to a tolerable shape, but
never to please me; and, even in the making, I pulled it to
pieces several himes ees I soon neglected my keeping Sun-
days; for, omitting my mark for them on my post, I forgot which
was which.

Vov. 13.—This day it rained, which refreshed me exceedingly,
and cooled the earth; but it was accompanied with terrible
thunder and lightning, aihich frighted me dreadfully, for fear of
my powder. As soon as it was over, I resolved to separate my
stock of powder into as many little parcels as possible, that it
might not be in danger.

Nov. 14, 15, 16.—These three days I spent in making little
square chests or boxes, which might hold about a pound, or two



64 ADVENTURES OF

pounds. at most, of powder; and so, putting the powder in, I
stowed it in places as secure and remote from one another as
possible. On one of these three days I killed a large bird that
was good to eat, but I know not what to call it.

Vov. 17.—This day I began to dig behind my tent, into the
rock, to make room for my farther conveniency.—JVo/e. ‘Three
things I wanted exceedingly for this. work, viz., a pickaxe, a
shovel, and a wheelbarrow, or basket; so I desisted from my
work, and began to consider how to supply that want, and make
me some tools. As for a pickaxe, I made use of thé iron crows,
, which were proper enough, though heavy; but the next thing
was a shovel or spade: this was so absolutely necessary, that,
indeed, I could do nothing effectually without it, but what kind
of one to make I knew not.

LVov. 18.—The next day, in searching the woods, in found a
tree of that wood, or like it, which, in the Brazils, they call the
iron tree, for its exceeding hardness: of this, with great labour,
and almost spoiling my axe, I cut a piece, and brought it home,
too, with difficulty enough, for it was exceeding heavy. The
excessive hardness of the wood, and having no other way, made
me a long while upon this machine ; for I worked it effectually,
by little and little, into the form of a shovel or spade, the handle
exactly shaped like ours in England, only that the broad part
having no iron shod upon it at bottom, it would not last me so
long : however, it served well enough for the uses which I had
occasion to put it to, but never was a shovel, I believe, made
after that fashion, or so long a-making.

I was still deficient ; for T wanted a basket, or a wheelbarrow.
A basket I could not nal by any means, having no such things
as twigs that would, bend to make wicker-ware, at least none yet
found out ; and as to the wheelbarrow, I fancied I could make
all but che wheel, but that I had no notion of, neither did I know
how to go about it ; besides, I had no possible way to’ make iron
gudgeons for the spindle or axes of the wheel to run in; so I gave
it over: and so, for carrying away the earth which I dug out of
the cave, I made me a thing like a hod which the labourers carry
mortar in when they serve the bricklayers.

This was not so difficult to me as the making the shovel ; and yet
this and the shovel, and the attempt which I made in vain to make
a wheelbarrow, took me up no less than four days—I mean, always -



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 65

excepting my morning walk with my gun, which I seldom failed,
and very seldom failed also of bringing home something fit to eat.

LVov. 23.—-My other work having now stood still, because of
my making these tools, when they were finished I went on, and
working every day, as my strength and time allowed, I spent
eighteen days entirely in widening and deepening my cave, that
it might hold my goods commodiously.—J/Vo¢e. During all this
time, I worked to make this room, or cave, spacious enough to
accommodate me as a warehouse, or magazine, a kitchen, a
dining-room, and a cellar. ~As for a lodging, I kept to the tent ;
except that sometimes, in the wet season of the year, it rained so
hard that I could not keep myself dry, which caused me after-
wards to cover all my place within my pale with long poles in the
form of rafters, leaning against the rock, and load them with flags
and large leaves of trees, like a thatch.

December 10.—I began now to think my cave or vault finished ;
when on a sudden (it seems I had made it too large) a great
quantity of earth fell down from the top and one side—so much,
that, in short, it frighted me, and not without reason too; for if
I had been under it I had never wanted a grave-digger. Upon
this disaster, I had a great deal of work to do over again, for I had
the loose earth to carry out, and which was of more importance,
I had the ceiling to prop up, so that I might be sure no more would
come down.

Dec. 11.—This day I went to work with it accordingly, and
got two shores, or posts, pitched upright to the top, with two
pieces of board across over each post: this I finished the next
day, and setting more posts up with boards, in about a week more
I had the roof secured ; and the posts, standing in rows, served
me for partitions to ee off my house.

- Dec. 17.—From this day to the 2oth, I placed shelves, and
knocked up nails on the posts, to hang everything up that could
be hung up ; and now I began to be in some order within doors.

Dec. 20.—Now I carried everything into the cave, and began
to furnish my house, and set up some pieces of boards, like a
dresser, to order my victuals upon; but boards began to be very
_ scarce with me: also I made me another table.

Dec. 24.—Much rain all night and all day: no stirring out.

Dec. 25.—Rain all day.

Dec. 26.—No rain, and the earth much cooler than before,
and pleasanter. E



66 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Dec. 27.—Killed a young goat, and lamed another, so that I
catched it, and led’ it home in a string; when I had it home, I
bound and splintered up its leg, which was broke.—/V.8. I took
‘such care of it that it lived, and the leg grew well, and as strong
as ever; but by nursing it so long, it grew tame, and fed upon
the little green at my door, and would not go away. ‘This was
the first time that I.entertained a thought of breeding up some.
tame creatures, that I might have food when my powder and shot
was all spent. :

Dec. 28, 29, 30.—Great heats, and no breeze: so that there
was no stirring abroad, except in the evening, for food: this time
I spent in putting all my things in order within doors.

January 1.—Very hot still; but I went abroad early and late
with my gun, and lay still in the middle of the day. This evening,
going farther into the valleys which lay towards the centre of the
island, I found there was plenty of goats, though exceeding shy,
and hard to come at: however, I resolved to try if 1 could not
bring my dog to hunt them down.

Jan. 2.—Accordingly, the next day I went out with my dog,
and set him upon the goats; but I was mistaken, for they all faced
about upon the dog, and he knew his danger too well, for he
would not come near them.

Jan. 3.—I began my fence, or wall, which, being still ‘alos
of my being attacked by somebody, I resolved to make very thick
and strong.—/V.4. This wall being described before, I purposely
omit what was said in the journal: it is sufficient to observe, that
I was no less time than from the 3d of January to the 14th of
April, working, finishing, and perfecting this wall,—though it was
no more than about twenty-four yards in length, being a half
circle, from one place in the rock to another place about eight
yards from it, the door of the cave being in the centre behind it.





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CHAPTER VI.

Crusoe enlarges upon the circumstances noted in his Journal, and details his diffi-
culties—Is surprised by the appearance of barley growing out of the ground-—
At first supposes that Providence has specially intervened on his behalf, but
afterwards remembers that the barley was accidentally sown—Prudently preserves
the grain for seed—The Journal resumed—lIs startled by an earthquake, which
is followed by a hurricane—Recovers various articles from the wreck, which
have been cast ashore in the storm—Finds a turtle and cooks it—Falls ill, and
is alarmed by a terrible dream—Reproaches himself on account of his past life,
and reflects upon his present miseries,

LL this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering
me many days, nay, sometimes weeks together ;
but I thought I should never be perfectly secure
till this wall was finished: and it is scarce credible
what inexpressible labour everything was done
veh especially the bringing piles out of the woods, and driving
them into the ground, for I made ee much bigger than I
needed to have done.

When this wall was finished, and the outside double fenced
with a turf wall raised up close to it, I persuaded myself that if
any people were to come on shore there they would not perceive
anything like a habitation ; and it was very well I did so, as may
be observed hereafter, upon a very remarkable occasion.

During this time, 1 made my rounds in the woods for game
every day, when the rain permitted me, and made frequent dis-
coveries in these walks of something or other to my advantage ;
particularly I found a kind of wild pigeons, who built, not as
wood:-pigeons, in a tree, but rather as house-pigeons, in the holes
of the rocks: and taking some young ones, I endeavoured to
breed them up tame, and did so ; but when they grew older, they
flew all away, which perhaps was at first for want of feeding them,
for I had nothing to give them. However, I frequently found their
nests, and got their young ones, which were very good meat.





68 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

And now, in the managing my household affairs, I found
myself wanting in many things which I thought at first it was
impossible for me to make, as, indeed, as to: some of them, it
was—for instance, I could never make a cask to be hooped. I
had a small runlet or two, as I observed before, but I could never
arrive to the capacity of making one by them, though I spent
_ many weeks about it: I could neither put in the heads, nor join
the staves so true to one another as to make them hold water ; so
I gave that also over. nh

In the next place, I was at a great loss for candle, so that, as
soon as ever it was dark, which was generally by seven o’clock, I
was obliged to go to bed. I remembered the lump of beeswax
with which I made candles in my African adventure, but I had
none of that now. ‘The only remedy I had was, that, when I
had killed a goat, I saved the tallow, and with a little dish made
of clay, which I baked in the sun, to which I added a wick of
some oakum, I made me a lamp ; and this gave me light, though
not a clear steady light like a candle. In the middle of all my
labours it happened, that, rummaging my things, I found a little
bag which, as I hinted before, had been filled with corn for the
feeding of poultry, not for this voyage, but before, as I suppose,
when the ship came from Lisbon. What little remainder of corn
had been in the bag was all devoured with the rats, and I saw
nothing in the bag but husks and dust ; and being willing to have
the bag for some other use (I think it was to put powder in, when
I divided it for fear of the lightning, or some such usé), I shook
the husks of corn out of it, on one side of my fortification, under
the rock.

It was a little before the great rains, just now mentioned, that
I threw this stuff away, taking no notice of anything, and not so
much as remembering that I had thrown anything there ; when
about a month after, or thereabouts, I saw some few stalks of
something green shooting out of the ground, which I fancied
might be some plant I had not seen ; but I was surprised and
perfectly astonished when, after a little longer time, I saw about
ten or twelve ears come out, which were perfect green barley of
the same kind as our European, nay, as our English barley.

It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion of
my thoughts on this occasion. I had hitherto acted upon no
religious foundation at all: indeed I had very few notions of



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 69

religion in my head, nor had entertained any sense of anything
that had befallen me, otherwise than as a chance, or, as we lightly
say, what pleases God, without so much as inquiring into the end
of Providence in these things, or-His order in governing events
in the world. But after I saw barley grow there, in a climate
which I knew was not proper for corn, and especially that I knew
not’ how it came there, it startled me strangely, and I began to
suggest that God had miraculously caused this grain to grow
without any help of seed sown, and that it was so directed purely
for my sustenance on that wild miserable place.

This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out of my
eyes, and I began to bless myself that such a prodigy of nature
should happen upon my account: and this was the more strange
to me, because I saw near it still, all along by the side of the
rock, some other straggling stalks, which proved to be stalks of
rice, and which I knew, because I had seen it grow in Africa
when I was ashore there.

I not only thought these the pure productions of Providence
- for my support, but not doubting but that there was more in the
place, I went all over that part of the island where I had been
before, peering in every corner, and under every rock, to see for
more of it; but I could not find any. At last it occurred to my
thoughts, that I had shook a bag of chicken’s-meat out in that
place, and then the wonder began to cease ; and I must confess
my religious thankfulness to God’s providence began to abate
too, upon the discovering that all this was nothing but what was
common, though I ought to have been as thankful for so strange
and unforeseen providence, as if it had been miraculous ; for it
was really the work of Providence, as to me, that should order
or appoint that ten or twelve grains of corn should remain
unspoiled, when the rats had destroyed all the rest, as if it had
been dropped from heaven,—as also, that I should throw it out in
that particular place, where, it being in the shade of a high rock,
it sprang up immediately, whereas, if I had thrown it anywhere
else at that time, it would have been burnt up and destroyed.

I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in
their season, which was about the end of June; and laying up
every corn, I resolved to sow them all again, hoping, in time, to
have some quantity sufficient to supply me with bread. But it
was not till the fourth year that I could allow myself the least



70 ADVENTURES OF

grain of this corn to eat, and even then but sparingly, as I shall
say afterwards, in its order; for I lost all that I sowed the first
-season, by not observing the proper time, for I sowed it just
before the dry season, so that it never came up at all, at least not
as it would have done; of which in its place. ;

Besides this barley there were, as above, twenty or thirty stalks
of rice, which I preserved with the same care, and whose use was
of the same kind, or to the same purpose, viz., to make me bread, or
rather food ; for I found ways to cook it up without baking, though |
I did that also after some time.—But to return to my Journal.

-I worked excessive hard these three or four months to get
my wall done, and the 14th of April I closed it up, contriving to
go into it, not by a door, but over the wall, by a ladder, that there
might be no sign on the outside of my habitation.

April 16.—I finished the ladder; so I went up with the ladder
to the top, and then pulled it up after me, and let it down on the
inside: this was a complete enclosure to me, for within I had
room enough, and nothing could come at me from without, unless
it could first mount my wall.

The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost
had all my labour overthrown at once, and myself killed. The |
case. was thus: As I was busy in the inside of it, behind my tent,
just in the entrance into my cave, I was terribly frighted with a
most dreadful surprising thing indeed; for all on a sudden I
found the earth come crumbling down from the roof of my cave,
and from the edge of the hill over my head, and two of the posts
I had set up in the cave cracked in a frightful manner. I was
heartily scared, but thought nothing of what really was the cause,
‘only thinking that the top of my cave was falling in, as some of
it had done before. And for fear I should be buried in it, I ran
forward to my ladder, and not thinking myself safe there neither,
I got over my wall for fear of the pieces of the hill which I expected
might roll down upon me. I was no sooner stepped down upon
the firm ground but I plainly saw it was a terrible earthquake ;
for the ground I stood on shook three times at about eight minutes
distance, with three such shocks as would have overturned the
strongest building that could be supposed to have stood on the
earth, and a great piece of the top of a rock which stood about
half a mile from me, next the sea, fell down with such a terrible
noise as I never heard in all my life. I perceived also the very



ROBINSON CRUSOE. : 71

sea was put into a violent motion by it, and I believe the shocks
were strogger under the water than on the island.

I was so amazed with the thing itself, having never felt the like,
or discoursed with any one that had, that I was like one dead or
stupefied, and the motion of the earth made my stomach sick, like
_ one that was tossed at sea; but the noise of the falling of the rock
awaked me, as it were, and rousing me from the stupefied condition
I was in, filled me with horror, and I thought of nothing then but
the hill falling upon my tent and all-my household goods, and bury-
ing all at once: this sunk my very soul within me a second time.

After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some

time, I began to take courage, and yet I had not heart enough to
get over my wall again, for fear of being buried alive, but sat still
upon the ground, greatly cast down and disconsolate, not knowing
what to do. All this while I had not the least serious religious
thought, nothing but the common—Lord, have mercy upon me!
and when it was over, that went away too.
_ While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grew cloudy, as
if it would rain: soon after that the wind rose by little and little,
so that in less than half an hour it blewa most dreadful hurricane.
The sea was, all on a sudden, covered over with foam and froth ;
the shore was covered with the breach of the water, the trees were
torn up by the roots, and a terrible storm it was; and this held
about three hours and then began to abate, and in two hours
more it was stark calm, and began to rain very hard.

- All this while I sat upon the ground, very much terrified and
dejected, when, on a sudden, it came into my thoughts that these -
winds and rain being the consequence of the earthquake, the
earthquake itself was spent and over, and I might venture into
my cave again. With this thought my spirits began to revive,
and the rain helping also to persuade me, I went in and sat down
in my tent; but the rain was so violent that my tent was ready to be ©
beaten down with it, and I was forced to go into my cave, though
very much afraid and uneasy, for fear it should fall on my head.

This violent rain forced me to a new work, viz., to cut a hole
through my new fortification, like a sink, to let the water go out,
which would else have drowned my cave. After I had been in my
cave some time, and found still no more shocks of the earthquake
follow, I beganto bemorecomposed. Andnow, tosupport my spirits,
which indeed wanted it very much, I went to my little store, and



72 ADVENTURES OF

took a small sup of rum—which, however, I did then, and always,
very sparingly, knowing I could have no more when that was gone.

It continued raining all that night and great part of the next
day, so that I could not stir abroad ; but my mind being more
composed, I began to think of what I had best do, concluding
that, if the island was subject to these earthquakes, there would
be no living:for me in a cave, but I must consider of building me
some little hut in an open place, which I might surround with a
wall, as I had done here, and so make myself secure from wild
beasts or men: but concluded, if I stayed where I was, I should
certainly, one time or other, be buried alive.

With these thoughts I resolved to remove my tent from the
place where it stood, which was just under the hanging precipice
of the hill, and which, if it should be shaken again, would
certainly fall upon my tent. And I spent the two next days,
being the rgth and 2oth of April, in contriving where and how to
remove my habitation. |

The fear of being swallowed up alive made me that I never
slept in quiet, and yet the apprehension of lying abroad, without
any fence, was almost equal to it : but still, when I looked about,
and saw how everything was put in order, how pleasantly concealed
I was, and how safe from danger, it made me very loath to remove.

In the meantime, it occurred to me that it would require a vast
deal of time for me to do this, and that I must be contented to
run the venture where I was, till I had formed a camp for myself,
and had secured it so as to remove toit. So with this resolution I
composed myself for a time, and resolved that I would go to work
with all speed to build me a wall with piles and cables, &c., in a
circle as before, and set my tent up in it when it was finished ;
but that I would venture to stay where I was till it was finished
and fit to remove to. . This was the 21st.

April 22.—The next morning I began to consider of means to
put this resolve into execution, but I was at a great loss about
my tools. I had three large axes, and abundance of hatchets
_ (for we carried the hatchets for traffic with the Indians), but with
much chopping and cutting knotty hard wood, they were all full
of notches, and dull; and though I had a grindstone, I could not
turn itand grind my tools too. ‘This caused me as much thought
as a statesman would have bestowed upona grand point of politics,
or a Judge upon the life and death ofa man. At length I con-



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 73

trived a wheel with a string, to turn it with my foot, that I might
have both my hands at liberty:—JVote. I had not seen any such
thing in England, or at least not to take notice how it was done,
though since I have observed it is very common there; besides
that, my grindstone was very large and heavy. This machine
cost me a full week’s work to bring it to perfection.

April 28, 29.—These two whole days I took up in grinding my
tools, my machine for turning my grindstone performing very well.

April 30.—Having perceived my bread had been low a great
while, I now took a survey of it, and reduced myself to one
biscuit cake a day, which made my heart very heavy.

May 1.—In the morning, looking towards the seaside, the tide
being low, I saw something lie on the shore bigger than ordinary,
' and it looked like a cask: when I came to it, I found a small
barrel, and two or three pieces of the wreck of the ship, which
were driven on shore by the late hurricane ; and looking towards
the wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie higher out of the water
than it used to do. I examined the barrel which was driven on
shore, and soon found it was a barrel of gunpowder, but it had
taken water, and the powder was caked as hard asastone ; however,
I rolled it farther on shore for the present, and went on upon the
sands, as near as I could to the wreck of the ship, to look for more.

When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely removed.
The forecastle, which lay before buried in sand, was heaved up
at least six feet, and the stern (which was broken to pieces, and
parted from the rest by the force of the sea, soon after I had left
rummaging of her) was tossed, as it were, up, and cast on one
side, and the sand was thrown so high on that side next her stern
that, whereas there was a great piece of water before, so‘that I
could not come within a quarter of a mile of the wreck without
swimming, I could now walk quite up to her when the tide was
out. I was surprised with this at first, but soon concluded it
must be done by the earthquake ; and as by this violence the
ship was more broken open than formerly, so many things came
daily on shore, which the sea had loosened, and which the winds
and water rolled by degrees to the land.

This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of removing
my habitation, and I busied myself mightily, that day especially,
in searching mee: I could make any way into the ship; but I
found nothing was to be expected of that kind, for all the inside



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The Baldwin Library

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THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES
OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE


Ballantyne Press

BALLANTYNE, HANSON AND CO.
EDINBURGH AND LONDON
— oe
- > ot

BAMTNY.


THE

LIFE AND ADVENTURES

OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE.

BY

DANIEL DE FOE.

WITH

MEMOIR OF THE AUTHOR

AND

COLOURED ILLUSTRATIONS.

LONDON:
BICKERS & SON, 1, LEICESTER SQUARE.


CONTENTS.

—_—_-0 —_—

PAGE

LIsT OF ILLUSTRATIONS : 3 3 ‘ : é i 1M

MEMOIR OF THE AUTHOR ; : f . Xill
CHAPTER, Ly.

Robinson Crusoe declares his birth and parentage—He inclines to a seafaring
life—His father expostulates with him—vVisits Hull, where a companion
tempts him to take a trip by sea—A storm arises, in the midst of which he
reflects on his disobedient conduct—The ship springs a leak, and goes
down in Yarmouth Roads—FEscapes to the shore in a boat—Is advised not
to go to sea again, but is unwilling to return home, and travels to London 1

CIEAP TIER: 41,

Crusoe makes the acquaintance of the captain of a merchant vessel bound for
the African coast, and embarks as a trading adventurer—Takes a fever,
learns how to navigate a ship, and returns enriched—On the death of the
captain he makes a second voyage with the mate—The ship is taken by
Turkish pirates, whose leader makes Crusoe his slave—Fishing off the
Morocco coast, he contrives an escape—The Moor is thrown overboard,
and swims for his life—Sets sail with the Moresco boy—Dangers of
coasting—An African lion—Steers for the south—Falls in with savages,
who supply him with provisions—Shoots a leopard, whereat the natives are
astonished and terrified—Is picked up by a Portuguese merchant—Sells
the Moresco boy, with a reservation—Arrives at the Brazils : , AS

CHAPTER III.

Crusoe buys land, and becomes a planter—The Portuguese captain continues
‘his good offices—The plantation succeeds, but prosperity does not bring
v1

CONTENTS.

PAGE

contentment—Becomes supercargo of a slaver—A hurricane—The ship is

- driven westward, and strikes on a sandbank—The crew take to their boat,

which isswamped—AIll are drowned, except Crusoe, who is washed against
a rock, and succeeds in reaching the mainland— He rejoices at his deliver-
ance, reflects on his position, and remembers that he has neither food for

' sustenance nor weapons for defence—Sleeps in a tree : : :

CHAPIER: IV.

Crusoe, on waking in the morning, sees the ship lying aground high out of

the water—He comes down from the tree—Swims to the ship—Constructs
a raft, which he loads with stores, and guides with difficulty to the shore—
Surveys the country, and discovers that it is an island and uninhabited—
Shoots a bird, the flesh of which proves to be carrion—Unloads the raft,
and erects a hut—Swims to the ship again, and brings a second cargo
ashore—On his return is confronted by a wild cat, which discovers a dis-
position to be friendly—Makes a tent, which he furnishes and fortifies—
Repeats his visits to the ship, which he strips of its contents—Removes his
tent to a more advantageous site, and fences it strongly—Kills a she-goat,
and is grieved thereat : : : : : ° :

CHAPTER V,

Crusoe sets up a wooden cross, on which he inscribes the date of his landing,

and keeps his reckoning of time—He seriously considers his position, and,
balancing the good in it against the evil, arrives at the conclusion that
he is not altogether miserable—Makes various articles of furniture for his
house, with the aid of the tools found in the ship—Keeps a Journal .

CHAPTER YI.

- Crusoe enlarges upon the circumstances noted in his Journal, and details his

difficulties—Is surprised by the appearance of barley growing out of the
ground—At first supposes that Providence has specially intervened on his
behalf, but afterwards remembers that the barley was accidentally sown——
Prudently preserves the grain for seed—The Journal resumed—lIs startled
by an earthquake, which is followed by a hurricane—Recovers various
articles from the wreck, which have been cast ashore in the storm—
Finds a turtle, and cooks it—Falls ill, and is alarmed by a terrible dream
—Reproaches himself on account of his past life, and reflects upon his
present miseries . ; .

e e e e e ° e

CHAPTER VII.

The Journal resumed—Crusoe’s thoughts during his illness—His reflections on

the dealings of Providence with him—Finds a Bible in a seaman’s chest

30

42

56

67
CONTENTS. Vil

PAGE
which is cast on shore, and is consoled and encouraged by the reading of

it— Tobacco as a remedial agent—His first prayer—Finds deliverance from
sin a greater blessing than deliverance from affliction—Convalescence—
‘Takes a fresh survey of the island, and discovers tobacco, aloes, lemons,
melons, grapes, and wild sugar-canes— Gathers grapes, limes, and lemons
to store up for the winter— His lost cat returns with a family of kittens . 80

CHAPTER VIII.

The Journal continued—Crusoe celebrates the anniversary of his landing on
the island by a solemn fast—Sets apart every seventh day for a Sabbath—
His ink beginning to fail, he only records remarkable events in, his Journal
—Sows a portion of the grain he had saved at the wrong season, and
learns something worth knowing from the experiment—A new division of
the seasons—Turns his early habit of observing to account, in making
baskets— Makes a journey through the island, and comes to a spot where
the shore is covered with turtles—Loses his way in the interior, and returns
to the shore, from whence he reaches his home—Catches and tames a young
kid—The second anniversary of his landing—Reflections—Difficulties over-
come by labour and patience . ; OF

CHAPTER IX:

Crusoe in trouble about his growing crops, which are attacked by goats and
birds—He delivers himself from these enemies, and reaps his corn—Is
perplexed how to make bread of it, and determines to preserve the whole
crop for seed—Makes a spade—Indoor employment in the rainy season—
Teaches his parrot to talk—Makes pottery, and a mortar to grind his corn
in—His first baking—A new harvest—Contemplates escaping from the
island—Constructs a boat, but is unable to launch it—Begins to cut a canal,
but gives up the attempt in despair—Fresh reflections. : ‘ » §@2

CHAPTER xX,

Crusoe makes and launches a boat—Leaves the island in search of the main-
land, and encounters unexpected dangers—He despairs of getting back
again—Returns to the island, and on reaching home is startled by the
greeting of his parrot—Perfects himself in the making of earthenware and
baskets—His contrivances to snare the goats which devour his corn—He
catches and tames them—At home with his family—He describes his per-

sonal appearance—Sets out on a new journey through the island . 120

CHAPTER XI.

Crusoe is surprised by the print of a man’s naked foot on the shore, and fears
an attack from savages—Erects a second fortification round his dwelling—
Discovers the remains of a feast of cannibals. : : . : eis
Vili CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XII.

Crusoe takes precautions against an incursion of the savages—Lives a more
retired life—His principal employment, the miiking of his goats, and the
management of his flock—Is surprised by an old he-goat in a cave—Dis-
covers a party of cannibals on the shore—A ship in distress—Finds the
body of a drowned boy cast on shore—Laments that not one of the crew
has been saved, and feels more solitary than ever—Goes off to the wreck
in his boat, and finds the only living thing on board to bea dog—Loads his
boat with money-bags, clothes, &c., and returns to the shore—Reflections

Chi Aa ik Sone.

The four-and-twentieth year of Crusoe’s sojourn on the island—He dreams
about the savages—He conceives the design of getting a savage into his
possession—The cannibals visit the island again, and proceed to slay the
prisoners they bring with them—The dream is fulfilled—One of the savages
escapes, but is pursued—Crusoe knocks down one of the pursuers, and
shoots the other—He welcomes the fugitive, whom he encourages to slay
the second of his enemies—Names his savage Friday—lInstructs and clothes
him—Human companionship almost reconciles him-to his lot .

CHAPTER X1V.

Crusoe attempts to reclaim Friday from cannibalism, and converses with him
about his country and its inhabitants—Instructs him in the knowledge of
the true God, and exposes the delusions of Pagan priestcraft—Friday finds
it difficult to account for the existence of evil—The savage becomes a
Christian, and Crusoe is completely happy

CrHAaribR XV.

Crusoe teaches Friday the use of fire-arms, and describes to him the countries
of Europe—They make a boat, and fit it with masts and sails—Friday is
instructed how to navigate it—The Savages again visit the island—They
are attacked and routed—Crusoe rescues a Spaniard, their prisoner, and
Friday discovers his father

CHAPTER XVI.

Crusoe’s subjects and their religions—The dead bodies of the slain Savages are
buried—The Spaniard and Friday’s father set out for the mainland to fetch
Europeans who had been shipwrecked there—In their absence Crusoe is
surprised by the appearance of a boat-load of mutinous sailors, who bring
their officers to the island to murder them—Crusoe releases the prisoners—
The mutineers are attacked and defeated |

PAGE

152

Peli

185

« 195

» 212
CONTENTS. ix

CHAPTER XVII.

PAGE
Crusoe and the captain consult how they may recover the ship from the muti-
neers—In the meanwhile a fresh party come ashore—An ambuscade is con-
trived, and the mutineers lay down their arms—The captain promises mercy
to all except Will Atkins—The ship taken from the mutineers—Crusoe
leaves the island, in which he had lived for twenty-eight years. , . 226

CHAPTER XVIII.

Crusoe arrives in England, and finds that most of his relations are dead, and
that his benefactor and steward has fallen into misfortune—He goes to
T.isbori, where he makes himself known to the captain of the ship who took
him up at sea, and is put in the way of recovering his property in the
Brazils—His possessions are restored, and he finds himself a wealthy man
— Makes arrangements for the conduct of his estate, and sets out for England
by way of Spain—An encounter with wolves—Friday makes merry with a
bear—Crusoe arrives in England, and settles there . : ; . ; 243

CHAPTER XIX.

Crusoe’s reflections in England—He dreams of his island, and conceives a
desire to return to it, which his wife discovers—Resolves to divert his
thoughts, and begins farming in Bedfordshire—On the death of his wife
he determines to revisit his island, and sets sail in an Indiaman, which is
to touch at the Brazils—The vessel is driven by contrary winds on the coast
of Galway, which leads to new adventures—Falls in with a French merchant
vessel on fire, and delivers the crew, who are carried to Newfoundland—
Steers thence for the West Indies, and falls in with a Bristol ship, the crew
and passengers of which are famishing . : : ; i 3 «, 206

CHAPTER XxX.

Crusoe arrives at his island, which he finds with some difficulty, having dis-
covered, in his search for it, that that which he previously supposed to be
a continent, was, in reality, a group of islands—Friday is very joyous upon
seeing the old place—The first person Crusoe meets is the Spaniard whose
life he saved—Friday meets with his father—Crusoe discovers that the
English sailors he left behind have behaved Sas he ao of the
island during his absence . 3 : : . : . 289

CHAPTER XXI.

The islanders are greatly relieved by the arrival of Crusoe, who furnishes them
with tools ofall kinds—The Spaniards recount their adventures among the
savages before they came to the island, and describe their joy at being
x . CONTENTS.

PAGE
delivered—Will Atkins, who had been the ringleader of the English sailors
in their evil doings, having shown a better disposition, the Spaniards take
him and his companions into their confidence—The island is divided into
three colonies—The French priest, whom Crusoe had brought out of the
ship relieved by him at sea, proposes certain reforms— Conversion of Will
Atkins’ Indian wife—The English sailors are married—A religious conver-
sation—Crusoe leaves the island in a hopeful condition . : ° 5 EO

CHAPTER XXII.

Crusoe encounters a fleet of Indian canoes at sea—The savages attack his vessel
— Friday is killed—Crusoe arrives at Brazil, where he gets his sloop set up,
and despatches it, laden with live-stock, to his island—Sets sail for the
East Indies—Touches at Madagascar, where they are well received by the
natives—The crime of one of the sailors is avenged by his death, where-
upon the crew commence a general massacre, which Crusoe vainly attempts
to stay—On resuming the voyage, he reproaches the sailors, who at length
mutiny, and leave him on shore at Bengal ; : ° : : 47

CHAPTER XXIII.

At Bengal, Crusoe meets with an English merchant, with whom he enters into
partnership, and makes a voyage to Siam and China—They return to
Bengal, where they purchase a Dutch coasting vessel, which they after-
wards discover the crew had run away with—Their new purchase brings
them into danger, as they are mistaken for pirates, and chased by English
and Dutch boats—They beat off their pursuers, and set sail for Cochin
China, where they have an encounter with the natives—They arrive at
Quinchang, where they part from their ship—Crusoe visits Nankin and
Pekin, and travels with a caravan of merchants through Tartary and
Russia—Winters in Siberia—Sails from Archangel to Hamburg—Arrives
in England, after an absence of nearly eleven years, and determines to
wandernomore ; : ; : . ‘ : ; : 2 30%






DANIEL DE FOE.



0





oar eon HE author of ‘Robinson Crusoe” may be deemed
Z one of the most remarkable instances of the con-
centration of interest and renown in a single per-
formance, that ever appeared in the annals of
literature. More than two hundred publications
flowed from his ever-ready pen; all of them powerful and appro-
priate at the time of their appearance; yet their interest has
gradually died away with the subjects which gave them birth,
and the greater proportion of them, till lately, have been only to
be found resting undisturbed in the libraries of the curious, or
_chance-preserved, on the humbler bookstall. “ Robinson Crusoe,”
however, still forms the delight of all readers ; the young and old,
the rich and poor: the celebrity of his adventures has been extended
not only through Germany, France, Spain, Italy, and, indeed, the
whole of polished Europe, but even to the sandy plains of Arabia,
where, under the delicious title of “ Dur El Bakur,” “the pearl of
the sea,” in the translation of the ingenious Burkhardt, it rivalled
the long-cherished traditions of Sinbad the Sailor, which form so
interesting a portion of the stories that constitute the “ Arabian —
Nights’ Entertainments.”
Daniel De Foe was born in the ae of St. Giles, ce
in the city of London, in 1661. His parents were Nonconformists,
XIV MEMOIR OF

and the religious persecution under which they at that time cor-
sequently laboured, was perhaps more than compensated to them
by the blessed effect it brought with it of early imbuing the mind
of their son with firmness, independence, and a profound reverence
for that religion, in the cause of which he saw those whom he
most respected and loved willing to “count'all loss gain.” Whilst
yet a boy he employed himself in copying the Bible in shorthand,
in obedience to the wishes of his parents, who dreaded lest they
might be suddenly deprived of its consolations by some arbitrary
decree of power, at a time when they might be most wanted: he
proceeded with great zeal in his task as far as the Pentateuch,
when his patience and his fears alike subsided, and he was
willing to believe that further precaution was at that period
unnecessary.

At fourteen years of age Daniel was placed under the charge
of the Reverend Charles Morton, the head of a respectable
seminary at Newington Green; a gentleman distinguished as a
polite and profound scholar, and in whom his pupils found the
advantages of good society combined with those of sound learning.
De Foe always retained a grateful remembrance of this worthy
man, whose name he has mentioned on various occasions with
the respect it deserves, and whose voluntary exile from his native
land to America, in consequence of the persecutions to which he
was exposed on account of his religious principles, must have been
a subject of equal indignation and regret to the ingenuous mind
of his pupil. It is probable that the frequent occurrence of
similar acts of oppression might be one of the causes that operated
to divert De Foe from his original intention of entering the
ministry ; and another might be found in that strong predilection
for politics, which early led him to express his opinions on the
popular side with an ardour and boldness that would soon have
been silenced from the pulpit, but which rapidly raised him to
distinction through the medium of the press.
DANIEL DE FOE. XV

*De Foe was about one-and-twenty when he commenced work
as an author, and he continued the employment, with little in-
terruption, for the space of half a century. We have already
remarked that his literary labours amounted to two hundred
acknowledged publications, besides anonymous ones. :

At twenty-four years of age De Foe joined the standard of
the brave and unfortunate Duke of Monmouth, on his landing
at Lyme, in the summer of 1685. In this perilous and ill-fated
expedition he acquitted himself courageously, but escaping alike
the horrible cruelties and legal persecutions which followed close
on the defeat of his leader. The public execution of Monmouth,
and the total wreck of hope in his party, seems to have acted for
a time on the lively spirits of De Foe as a sedative, under the
influence of which he betook himself to the peaceful occupation
of a hosier, and carried on the office of factor, or ‘middleman,
between the manufacturer and the retail dealer, about ten years,
during which time he took up his freedom, to which he was
entitled by birth, and was admitted to the civic honour of livery-
man of London in January 1687-88. In the year 1692 he failed
for £17,000, a disaster which he attributed mainly to placing too
great reliance on credit; and although his creditors accepted a
composition, he subsequently honourably paid the full amount of
their claims. After this reverse of fortune he undertook the secre-
taryship and afterwards the management and part-ownership of.
a tile-works situated at Tilbury, but with no better success; and
his imprisonment in 1703 brought the works to a standstill with
a loss of £3000. From this time to the end of his life, business,
so unprofitable to him, gave place to the production of the many
literary works which flowed from his pen. !

The poem of “The True-born Englishman” had perhaps a
more decided influence on both the fortunes and reputation of
De Foe than any other of his productions. In it he satirises the
English, themselves the most mixed race in the world, for their
XV1 MEMOIR OF

prejudices against foreigners, and lashes their ingratitude for over-
looking ‘all the benefits which King William had conferred on
their country, merely because that country did not happen to be
the one which gave him birth. The opening lines of the poem

are well known.

‘‘ Wherever God erects a house of prayer,
The Devil always builds a chapel there ;
And ’twill be found upon examination,
The latter has the largest congregation.”

After tracing the most ancient families to their origin, among
those who marched under the banners of the Norman invader,
he proceeds to compliment them and his countrymen at large in

the following lines :— '

‘* These are the heroes who despise the Dutch,
And rail at new-come foreigners so much;
Forgetting that themselves are all derived
From the most scoundrel race that ever lived,
A horrid crowd of rambling thieves and drones,
Who ransack’d kingdoms, and dispeopled towns.
The Pict, and painted Briton, treach’rous Scot,
By hunger, theft, and rapine hither brought,
Norwegian pirates, buccaneering Danes,
Whose red-hair'd offspring everywhere remains ;
Who, join’d with Norman-French, compound the breed,
From whence your true-born Englishmen proceed.”

The death of William in 1702 opened a fresh field to De Foe
in vindicating both in prose and verse the memory of that monarch
from the aspersions of his enemies. ‘Can an Englishman,” says
he, “go to bed, or rise up, without blessing the very name of
King William ?”

The reign of Anne was fraught with trouble to the Dissenters :
the Queen advocated the cause of the High Church with firmness
and moderation, but the intemperance of the party thus patronised
soon threatened to elevate the mitre even above the crown, and
to mark all the humbler dissenters from its dogmas as victims
DANIEL DE FOE. Xvl

of persecution. Such a state of things was calculated to excite
the indignation of far less fiery spirits than De Foe; it cannot,
therefore, be matter of surprise that he should attack it with the
sharpest weapons he had at command: among these satire was
ever ready; and he had now recourse to it under its most delicate
and dangerous form of irony. He accordingly published, under
the assumed character of a High Churchman, his celebrated
pamphlet, entitled “The Shortest Way with Dissenters ; or, Pro-
posals for the Establishment of the Church ;” in which, after
pretended bitter reflections on the Dissenters and their principles,
and a retrospective view of their conduct in the preceding reigns,
affecting implicit belief in all the factions and plots imputed to
them, he proceeds to make as violent and as ironical a panegyric
on the virtues of the Established Church, particularly compli-
menting it on its lenity and moderation.

The most remarkable circumstance attending this satire was,
that it offended all parties alike. The High Church people did
not find out that it was the production of an enemy, and the
Dissenters did not perceive that it was written by a friend. The
Government offered a reward for the author’s apprehension, and
condemned the book to be burnt by the common hangman. De
Foe resolved to stand his trial, and was found guilty of compos-
ing and publishing a seditious libel, and sentenced to pay a fine
of 200 marks to the Queen, stand threé times in the pillory, be
imprisoned during Her Majesty's pleasure, and find sureties for
his good behaviour for seven years. ,

In August 1704, De Foe was restored to liberty, through the
interposition of Harley, Speaker to the House of Commons. In
the beginning of the ensuing year he was sent abroad, probably
under an assumed name, on some secret mission by Harley; and
he acquitted himself so well in this kind of agency as to procure
him no small degree of favour with Government. On the retire-
ment of Harley, his successor, Godolphin, employed De Foe in
XVlil MEMOIR OF

negotiating the union with Scotland, for which service he received
a pension.

In his ‘Appeal to Honour and Justice,” he says.of himself:
‘“‘T have gone through a life of wonders, and am the subject of a
vast variety of providences. I have been fed more by miracle
than Elijah, when the ravens were his purveyors. I have some
time ago summed up the scenes of my life in this distich :—

‘No man has tasted differing fortunes more,
And thirteen times I have been rich and poor.’”’

In his time De Foe was a hosier, pantile-maker, statesman,
philosopher, free-trader, poet, and novelist. Unsuccessful in
trade, persecuted and imprisoned for his free-trade and political
opinions, it remained for him to make his mark as a novelist, and
to hand down his name to posterity as the author of that truth-
like fiction, ‘‘ Robinson Crusoe.”

At the age of seventy Daniel Defoe was gently removed, in
seeming lethargic calmness, from this transient state into eternal
life. He died on the 24th of April 1731, in the parish where
he was born, and was buried in Bunhill Fields Cemetery.

De Foe was twice married, his second wife outliving him a few
months. He had seven. children—four daughters and three
sons ; and with the exception of his daughter Martha, who died
in 1707, they outlived him. .

It now only remains to take a general view of the character,
moral and literary, of this extraordinary man. He was a tender
parent, as well as dutiful son ; this is evident from many passages
in his letters and writings, where he mentions his father and
his children; and that he was an affectionate husband may be
inferred from the same evidence. That his political writings
attracted considerable attention is evident from the unjusti-
fiable means (fine and imprisonment) that were resorted to in

order to suppress them, and to crush their author ; but as we
DANIEL DE FOE. oe

have already remarked, the success with which he could assume
either side of an argument, seems gradually to have lost him the
confidence of all parties; for each in turn felt more certain of
his power to injure, than of his sincerity in serving. It must
be observed, however, that there is no proof of Daniel De Foe
ever having actually swerved from the principles he professed.
That he possessed natural benevolence of heart, and amia-
bility of temper, may be proved from his writings, as well as
from the acknowledgments of some at least of those whom he
had served: in his fictions an author generally delineates the
characteristic features of his own mind; and to judge his by this
rule, it affords a picture of many virtues. No writer, since the
-days of Shakespeare, with the exception of Richardson, has shown
so much knowledge of the human heart, or delineated it with
such exquisite exactness of detail and truth of colouring; and if
some of his works are less known than others, it is not because
they are less true to nature, but that they represent those objects
in nature, which are less pleasing to contemplate: he was always,
however, equally intent on instructing, and in his hands the very
‘ncidents of vice are so managed as to produce lessons of virtue.
| Of him it may be said, as Johnson said of Goldsmith, that he left
no species of writing unattempted; and we may add that all the
separate excellences of his character, attainments of his mind,
and his felicity in expressing them, may be contemplated with
benefit and delight little less than is afforded by. his ‘‘ Robinson
Crusoe.”





ADVEN TORRES

OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE.

a ee

CHAPTER I.

Robinson Crusoe declares his birth and parentage—He inclines to a sea-faring life—
His father expostulates with him—Visits Hull, where a companion tempts him
to take a trip by sea—A storm arises, in the midst of which he reflects on his
disobedient conduct—The ship springs a leak, and goes down in Yarmouth
Roads—Escapes to the shore in a boat-—Is advised not to go to sea again, but
is unwilling to return home, and travels to London.

WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of
a good family, though not of that country, my
father being a foreigner of Bremen, who settled
first at Hull. He got a good estate by merchan-
dise, and leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at

oe om whence he had married my mother, whose relations

were named Robinson, a very good family in that country, and
from whom I was so called Robinson Kreutznaer ; but, by the
usual corruption of words in England, we are now called, nay,
we call ourselves, and write our name, Crusoe; and so my com-

panions always called me. | 7

I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-colonel
to an English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly commanded
by the famous Colonel Lockhart, and was killed at the battle near

Dunkirk against the Spaniards. What became of my second

brother I never knew, any more than my father or mother did

know what was become of me.



A
2 ADVENTURES OF

Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade,
my head began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts.
My father, who was very ancient, had given me a competent share
of learning, as far as house education and a country free school
generally go, and designed me for the law: but I would be
satisfied with nothing but going to sea: and my inclination to
this led me so strongly against the will, nay, the commands of my
father, and against all the entreaties and persuasions of my mother
and other friends, that there seemed to be something fatal in that
propension of nature, tending directly to the life of misery which
was to befall me. .

My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excellent
counsel against what he foresaw was my design. He called me
one morning into his chamber, where he was confined by the
gout, and expostulated very warmly with me upon this subject:
he asked me what reasons, more than a mere wandering inclina-
tion, I had for leaving my father’s house, and my native country,
where I might be well introduced, and had a prospect of raising
my fortune, by application and industry, with a life of ease and
pleasure. He told me it was for men of desperate fortunes, on
one hand, or of aspiring superior fortunes, on the other, who
went abroad upon adventures, to rise by enterprise, and make
themselves famous in undertakings of a nature out of the common
road ; that these things were all either too far above me, or too
far below me; that mine was the middle state, or what might be
called the upper station of low life, which he had found, by long
experience, was the best state in the world, the most suited to
human happiness ; not exposed to the miseries and hardships,
the labour and sufferings, of the mechanic part of mankind, and
not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of the
upper part of mankind : he told me, I might judge of the happi-
ness of this state by this one thing, viz., that this was the state of
life which all other people envied ; that kings have frequently
lamented the miserable consequences of being born to great
things, and wished they had been placed in the middle of the
two extremes, between the mean and the great; that the wise
man gave his testimony to this as the just standard of true felicity,
when he prayed to have “ neither poverty nor riches.” |

He bid me observe it, and I should always find that the

calamities of life were shared among the upper and lower parton >.
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 5

mankind ; but that the middle station had the fewest disasters,
and was not exposed to so many vicissitudes as the higher or
lower part of mankind: nay, they were not subjected to so many
distempers and uneasinesses, either of body or mind, as those were
who, by vicious living, ihre and extravagancies, on one hand,
or by hard labour, want of necessaries, and mean or insufficient
diet, on the other hand, bring distempers upon themselves by the
natural consequences of their way of living; that the middle
station of life was calculated for all kind of virtues, and all kind
of enjoyments ; that peace and plenty were the handmaids of a
middle fortune; that temperance, moderation, quietness, health,
society, all agreeable diversions, and all desitable pleasures, were »
the blessings attending the middle station of life; that this way
men went silently and smoothly through the aera and com-
fortably out of it, not embarrassed with the labours of the hands
or of the head, not sold to the life of slavery for daily bread, or
harassed with perplexed circumstances, which rob the soul of
peace, and the body of rest; not enraged with the passion of |
envy, or secret burning lust of ambition for great things: but, in
easy circumstances, sliding gently through the world, and sensibly
tasting the sweets of living without the bitter; feeling that they
are happy, and learning by every day’s enenee to know it
more sensibly.

After this he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affectionate
manner, not to play the young man, nor to precipitate myself
into miseries which nature, and the station of life I was born in,
seemed to have provided against ; that I was under no necessity
of seeking my bread; that he would do well for me, and endea-

vour to enter me fairly into the station of life which he had been
_ just recommending to me; and that if I was not very easy and
happy in the world, it must be my mere fate, or fault, that must
hinder it ; and that he should have nothing to answer for, having
thus discharged his duty in warning me against measures which
he knew would be to my hurt: in a word, that as he would do
very kind things for me if I would stay and settle at home as he
directed, so he would not have so much hand in my misfortunes
as to give me any encouragement to go away; and, to close all,
he told me I had my elder brother for an example, to whom he
had used the same earnest persuasions to keep him from going
into the Low Country wars, but could not prevail, his young
4 | “ADVENTURES OF

desires prompting him to run into the army, where he was killed ;
and though, he said, he would not cease to pray for me, yet he
would venture to say to me that if I did take this foolish step,
God would not bless me, and I would have leisure, hereafter, to
reflect upon having neglected his counsel, when there might be
none to assist In my recovery.

I observed, in this last part of his discourse, which was truly
prophetic, though, I suppose, my father did not know it to be so
himself; I say, I observed the tears run down his face very
plentifully, especially when he spoke of my brother who was
killed ; and that, when he spoke of my having leisure to repent,
and none to assist me, he was so moved that he broke off the dis-
course, and told me his heart was so full he could say no more
to me. :

I was sincerely affected with this discourse; as, indeed, who
could be otherwise? and I resolved not to think of going abroad
any more, but to settle at home, according to my father’s desire.
‘But, alas! a few days wore it all off: and, in short, to prevent
any of my father’s further importunities, in a few weeks after I
resolved to run quite away from him. However, I did not act
so hastily, neither as my first heat of resolution prompted; but I
took my mother, at a time when I thought her a little pleasanter
than ordinary, and told her that my thoughts were so entirely
bent upon seeing the world, that I should never settle to: any-
thing with resolution enough to go through with it, and my father —
had better give me his consent than force me to go without it 5
that I was now eighteen years old, which was too late to go
apprentice to a trade, or clerk to an attorney ; that I was sure, if
I did, I should never serve out my time, and I should certainly
run away from my master before my time was out, and go to sea;
and if she would speak to my father to let me go one voyage
abroad, if I came home again, and did not like it, I would go no
more; and I would promise, by a double diligence to recover
the time I had lost. A

This put my mother into a great passion: she told me she
knew it would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon any
such a subject ; that he knew too well what was my interest, to
give his consent to any such thing so much for my hurt ; and that
she wondered how I could think of any such thing, after such a
discourse as I had with my father, and such kind and fender’.
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 5

expressions as she knew my father had used to me; and that, in
short, if I would ruin myself, there was no help for me; but I
might depend I should never have their consent to it: that, for
her part, she would not have so much hand in my destruction,
and I should never have it to say that my mother was willing
when my father was not.

Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet, as I
have heard afterwards, she reported all the discourse to him ; and
that my father, after showing a great concern at it, said to her with
a sigh, “‘ That boy might be happy if he would stay at home; but
if he goes abroad, he will be the most miserable wretch that ever
was born: I can give no consent to it.”

It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose ;
though in the meantime I continued obstinately deaf to all
proposals of settling to business, and frequently expostulating
with my father and mother about their being so positively deter-
mined against what they knew my inclinations prompted me to.
But being one day at Hull, where I went casually, and without
any purpose of making an elopement that time, but I say, being
there, and one of my companions being going by sea to London
‘in his father’s ship, and prompting me to go with them with the
common allurement of seafaring men, viz., that it should cost me
nothing for my passage, I consulted neither father nor mother any
more, nor so much as sent them word of it; but leaving them to
hear of it as they might, without asking God’s blessing, or my
father’s, without any consideration of circumstances or con-
sequences, and in an ill hour, God knows, on the rst of Sep-
tember 1651, I went on board a ship bound for London. Never
any young adventurer’s misfortunes, I believe, began sooner, or
continued longer, than mine. ‘The ship was no sooner got out of
the Humber but the wind began to. blow, and the waves to rise,
in a most frightful manner; and as I had never been at sea before,
I was most inexpressibly sick in body, and terrified in mind. I
began now seriously to reflect upon what I had done, and how
justly I was overtaken by the judgment of Heaven for my wicked
leaving my father’s house. All the good counsels of my parents,
my father’s tears, and my mother’s entreaties, came now fresh into
my mind ; and my conscience, which was not yet come to the pitch
of hardness to which it has been since, reproached me with the con-
tempt of advice, and the breach of my duty to God and my father.
6 - . ADVENTURES OF

All this while the storm increased, and the sea, which I had
never been upon before, went very high, though nothing like
what I have seen many times since; no, nor like what I saw a few
‘days after; but it was enough to affect me then, who was but a
young sailor, and had never. known anything of the matter. I
expected every wave would have swallowed us up, and that every
time the ship fell down, as I thought, in the trough or hollow of
the sea, we should never rise more; and in this agony of mind,
I made many vows and resolutions that if it would please God to
spare my life in this one voyage, if ever I got once my foot on
dry land, I would go directly home to my father, and never set
it into a ship again while I lived; that I would take his advice,
.. and never run myself into such miseries as these any more. Now
I saw plainly the goodness of his observations about the middle
station of life; how easy, how comfortable, he had lived all his.
days, and never had been exposed to tempests at sea or troubles
on shore; and I resolved that I would, like a true pepenune
prodigal, go home to my father.

These wise and sober thoughts continued all the ae the
storm continued, and indeed some time after; but the next day
the wind was abated and the sea calmer, and I began to be a little
inured to it. However, I was very grave for all that day, being
also a little sea-sick still; but towards night the weather cleared
up, the wind was quite ‘over, and a charming fine evening fol-
lowed ; the sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so the next
morning ; and having little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the
sun shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most delight-
ful that ever I saw.

I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick,
but very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that was so
rough and terrible the day before, and could be so calm and so
pleasant in so little time after. And now, lest my good resolu-
tions should continue, my companion, who had indeed enticed
me away, comes to me. ‘Well, Bob,” says he, clapping me on
the shoulder, ‘‘how do you do after it? I warrant you were
frighted, wa’n’t you, last night, when it blew but a cap-full of
wind?” “A cap-full, do you call it?”.said I, “’twas a terrible
storm.” ‘A. storm, you fool!” replies he, “do you call that a
storm? Why, it was nothing at all; give us but a good
ship and sea- room, and we ink nothing. of such a squall -
ROBINSON CRUSOE. >

of wind as that. But you are but a fresh-water sailor, Bob.
Come, let us make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget all that.
D'’ye see what charming weather ’tis now?” To make short this
sad part of my story, we went the way of all sailors; the punch
was made, and I was made drunk with it; and in that one
night’s wickedness I drowned all my repentance, all my reflec-
tions upon my past conduct, and all my resolutions for the future.
- In a word, as the sea was returned to its smoothness of surface
and settled calmness by the abatement of the storm, so the hurry
of my thoughts being over, my fears and apprehensions of being
swallowed up by the sea forgotten, and the current of my former
desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows: and promises that I
made in my distress. I found, indeed, some intervals of reflec-
tion ; and the serious thoughts did, as it were, endeavour to return
again sometimes ; but I shook them off and roused myself from
them, as it were from a distemper, and applying myself to drink-
ing and company, soon mastered the return of those fits—for so
I called them ; and I had in five or six days got as complete
a victory over conscience as any young fellow that resolved not
to be troubled with it could desire. But I was to have another
trial for it still ; and Providence, as in such cases generally it does,
resolved to leave me entirely without excuse: for if I would not
take this for a deliverance, the next was to be such a one as the
worst and most hardened wretch among us would confess both
the danger and the mercy of. ,

The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth
Roads: the wind having been contrary and the weather calm,
we had made but little way since the storm. Here we were
obliged to come to an anchor, and here we lay, the wind con-
tinuing contrary, viz., at south-west, for seven or eight days,
during which time a great many ships from Newcastle came into
the same Roads, as the common harbour where the ships might
wait for a wind for the river. We had not, however, rid here so
long, but we should have tided up the river, but that the wind
blew too fresh; and after we had lain four or five days, blew
very hard. However, the Roads being reckoned as good as a
harbour, the anchorage good, and our ground tackle very strong,
our men were unconcerned, and not in the least apprehensive of
danger, but spent the time in rest and mirth, after the manner of
the sea. But the eighth day, in the morning, the wind increased,
8 ADVENTURES OF

and we had all hands at work to strike our topmasts, and make
everything snug and close, that the ship might ride as easy as
possible. By noon the sea went very high indeed, and our ship
rid forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we thought, once or
twice, our anchor had come home; upon which our master
ordered out the sheet anchor, so that we rode with two anchors
ahead, and the cables veered out to the better end.

By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed ; and now I began
to see terror and amazement in the faces of even «the seamen
themselves. The master, though vigilant in the business of
preserving the ship, yet, as he went in and out of his cabin by
me, I could hear him softly to himself say several times, “‘ Lord,
be merciful to us! we shall be all lost ; we shall be all undone!”
and the like. During these first hurries I was stupid, lying still
in my cabin, which was in the steerage, and cannot describe my
temper. I could ill resume the first penitence, which I had so
apparently trampled upon and hardened myself against: I thought
the bitterness of death had been past, and that this would be
nothing, too, like the first. But when the master himself came
by me, as I said just now, and said we should be all lost, I was
dreadfully frighted. I got up out of my cabin, and looked out;
but such a.dismal sight I never saw: the sea went mountains
high, and broke upon us every three or four minutes. When I
could look about, I could see nothing but distress round us.
Two ships that rid near us, we found had cut their masts by the
board, being deep laden; and our men eried out that a ship
which rid about a mile ahead of us was foundered. ‘Two more
ships being driven from their anchors, were run out of the Roads
to sea, at all adventures, and that with not a mast standing. The
light ships fared the best, as not so much labouring in the sea ;
but two or three of them drove, and came close by us, running
away with only their spritsails out before the wind. Towards
evening, the mate and boatswain begged the master of our ship
to let them cut away the foremast, which he was very unwilling
to do; but the boatswain protesting to him that if he did not
the hi would founder, he consented ;.and when they had cut
away the foremast the mainmast oud so loose, and shook the
ship so much, they were obliged to cut it away also and make a
clear deck.

Any one may judge what a condition I must be in at all this,
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 9

who was but a young sailor, and who had been in such a fright
before at but a little. But if I can express, at this distance, the
thoughts I had about me at that time, I was in tenfold more
horror of mind upon account of my former convictions, and the
having returned from them to the resolutions I had wickedly
taken at first, than I was at death itself; and these, added to
the terror of the storm, put me into such a condition, that I can
by no words describe it. But the worst was not come yet; the
storm continued with such fury, that the seamen themselves
acknowledged they had never known a worse. We had a good
ship, but she was deep laden, and wallowed in the sea, that the
seamen every now and then cried out she would founder. It
was my advantage, in one respect, that I did not know what
they meant by founder, till I inquired. However, the storm was
so violent, that I saw what is not often seen, the master, the
boatswain, and some others, more sensible than the rest, at their
prayers, and expecting every moment when the ship would go
to the bottom. In the middle of the night, and under all the
rest of our distresses, one of the men that had been down on
purpose to see, cried out we had sprung a leak; another said
there was four feet water in the hold. Then all hands were
called to the pump. At that very word my heart, as I thought,
died within me, and I fell backwards upon the side of my bed
where I sat, into the cabin. However, the men roused me, and
told me’ that I, that was able to do nothing before, was as well
able to pump as another: at which I stirred up and went to the
pump, and worked very heartily. While this was doing, the
master, seeing some light colliers who, not able to ride out the
storm, were obliged to slip and run away to sea, and would come
near us, ordered us to-fire a gun as a signal of distress. I, who
knew nothing what that meant, was so surprised that I thought |
the ship had broke, or some dreadful thing had happened. In
a word, I was so surprised, that I fell down in a swoon. As
this was a time when everybody had his own life to think of,
nobody minded me, or what was become of me, but another
man stepped up to the pump, and thrusting me aside with his
foot, let me lie, thinking I had been dead; and it was a great
while before I came to myself.

We worked on, but the water increasing in the hold, it was
. apparent that the ship would founder; and though the storm
10 _ADVENTURES OF

began to abate a little, yet as 1t was not possible she could swim
till we might run into a port, so the master continued firing guns
for help; and a light ship, who had rid it out just ahead of us,
ventured a boat out to help us. It was with the utmost hazard
the boat came near us, but it was impossible for us to get on
board, or for the boat to lie near the ship’s side, till at last the
men, rowing very heartily and venturing their lives to save ours,
our men cast them a rope over the stern with a buoy to it, and
then veered it out a great length, which they, after great labour
and hazard, took hold of, and we hauled them close under our
stern and got all into their boat. It was to no purpose for them
or us, after we were in the boat, to think of reaching to their own »
ship ; so all agreed to let her drive, and only to pull her in towards
shore as much as we could; and our master promised them, that
if the boat was staved upon shore, he would make it good to their
master : so partly rowing and partly driving, our boat went away
to the northward, sloping towards the shore almost as far as
Winterton-Ness.

We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of our
ship, but we saw her sink: and then I understood, for the first
time, what was meant by a ship foundering in the sea. I must
acknowledge, I had hardly eyes to look up when the seamen told
me she was sinking; for, from that moment, they rather put me
into the boat than that I might be said to go in: my heart was, as
it were, dead within me, partly with fright, partly with horror of
mind, and the thoughts of what was yet before me.

While we were in this condition, the men yet labouring at the
oar to bring the boat near the shore, we could see (when, our
boat mounting the waves, we were able to see the shore) a great
many people running along the strand, to assist us when we should
come near ; but we made slow way towards the shore, nor were
we able to reach it, till being past the lighthouse at Winterton,
the shore falls off to the westward towards Cromer, and so the
land broke off a little the violence of the wind. Here we got in,
and though not without much difficulty, got all safe on shore, and
walked afterwards on foot to Yarmouth; where, as unfortunate
men, we were used with great humanity, as well by the magistrates
of the town, who assigned us good quarters, as by the particular
merchants and owners of ships ; and had money given us sufficient
to carry us either to London or back to Hull, as we thought fit.
ROBINSON CRUSOE. II

Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull and have
gone home, I had been happy, and my father, an emblem of our
blessed Saviour’s parable, had even killed the fatted calf for me ;
for, hearing the ship I went away in was cast away in Yarmouth
Roads, it was a great while before he had any assurance that I
was not drowned.

But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that
nothing could resist ; and though I had several times loud calls
from my reason, and my more composed judgment, to go home, yet
I had no power to do it. I know not what to call this, nor will I
urge that it is a secret, overruling decree that hurries us on to be
the instruments of our own destruction, even though it be before
us, and that we push upon it with our eyes open. Certainly,
nothing but some such decreed unavoidable misery attending, and
- which it was impossible for me to escape, could have pushed me
forward against the calm reasonings and persuasions of my most
retired thoughts, and against two such visible instructions as I
had met with in my first attempt.

My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who
was the master’s son, was now less forward than I: the first time
he spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth, which was not till
two or three days, for we were separated in the town to several
quarters; I say, the first time he saw me, it appeared his tone -
was altered, and looking very melancholy, and shaking his head,
he asked me how I did? and telling his father who I was, and
how I had come this voyage only for a trial, in order to go farther
abroad, his father, turning to me with a very grave and concerned
tone, ‘Young man,” says he, ‘‘ you ought never to go to sea any
more; you ought to take this for a plain and visible token that
you are not to be a sea-faring man.” ‘ Why, sir?” sarc) he, wall”
you go to sea no more?” “That is another case,” said he; “it
is my calling, and therefore my duty ; but as you made this voyage
for a trial, you see what a taste Heaven has given you of what you
are to expect if you persist. Perhaps this has all befallen us on your
account, like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish. Pray,” continues he,
“what are you, and on what account did you go to sear” Upon
that I told him some of my story; at the end of which he burst
out with a strange kind of passion. ‘‘ What had I done,” says he,
‘that such an unhappy wretch should come into my ship? I would
not set my foot in the same ship with thee again for a thousand
12 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

pounds.” This indeed was, as I said, an excursion of his spirits,
which were yet agitated by the sense of his loss, and was farther
than he could have authority to go. However, he afterwards
talked very gravely to me: exhorted me to go back to my father,
and not tempt Providence to my ruin; told me I might. see a
visible hand of Heaven against me: “‘ And, young man,” said he,
‘depend upon it, if you do not go back, wherever you go you,
will meet with nothing but disasters ue ee till
your father’s words are fulfilled upon you.”

We parted soon after, for I made him little answer, and I saw
him no more: which way he went, I know not. As for me,
having some money in my pocket, I travelled to London by land,
and there, as well as on the road, had many struggles with myself
what course of life I should take, and whether I should go home
or go to sea. As to going home, shame opposed the best motions
that offered’to my thoughts; and it immediately occurred to me
how I should be laughed at among the neighbours, and should be
ashamed to see, not my father and mother only, but even every-
body else: from whence I have since often observed, how incon-
gruous and irrational the common temper of mankind is, especially
of youth, to that reason which ought to guide them in such cases,
viz., that they are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to
repent ; nor ashamed of the action for which they ought justly
to be esteemed fools, but are ashamed of the returning, which
only can make them be esteemed wise men.

In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncertain
what measures to take, and what course of life to lead. An
irresistible reluctance continued to going home; and as I stayed
awhile, the remembrance of the distress I had been in wore off ;
and, as that abated, the little motion I had in my desires to a
return wore off with it, till at last I quite laid aside the thoughts
of it, and looked out for a voyage.
£



CHAPTER II.

Crusoe makes the acquaintance of the captain of a merchant vessel bound for the
African coast, and embarks as a trading adventurer—Takes a fever, learns how
to navigate a ship, and returns enriched—On the death of the captain he
makes a second voyage with the mate—The ship is taken by Turkish pirates,
whose leader makes Crusoe his slave—Fishing off the Morocco coast, he con-
trives an escape—The Moor is thrown overboard, and swims for his life—Sets
sail with the Moresco boy—Dangers of coasting—An African lion—Steers for
the south—Falls in with savages, who supply him with provisions—Shoots a
leopard, whereat the natives are astonished and terrified—Is picked up bya
Portuguese merchant—Sells the Moresco boy, with a reservation—Arrives at
the Brazils. |

HAT evil influence which carried me first away
from my father’s house, that hurried me into the
wild and indigested notion of raising my fortune,
and that impressed those conceits so forcibly upon
me, as to make me deaf to all good advice, and to

the entreaties, and even the commands of my father; I say, the



~. same influence, whatever it was, presented the most unfortunate

of all enterprises to my view; and I went on board a vessel
bound to the coast of Africa, or, as our sailors vulgarly call it, a
voyage to Guinea. |

It was my great misfortune that in all these adventures I did not
ship myself as a sailor; whereby, though I might indeed have
worked a little harder than ordinary, yet, at the same time, I had
learned the duty and office of a foremastman, and in time might
have qualified myself for a mate or lieutenant, if not for a master.
But as it was always my fate to choose for the worse, so I did
here ; for, having money in my pocket and good clothes upon
my back, I would always go on board in the habit of a gentle-
man; and so I neither had any business in the ship, nor learned
to do any. : 7

It was my lot, first of all, to fall into pretty good company in
/

14 3 | ADVENTURES OF

London; which does not always happen to such loose and
unguided young fellows as I then was, the devil generally not
omitting to lay some snare for them very early. But it was not
so with me. I first fell acquainted with the master of a ship who
had been on the coast of Guinea, and who, having had very
good success there, was resolved to go again; and who, taking a
fancy to my conversation, which was not at all disagreeable at
that time, and hearing me say I had a mind to see the world,
told me, if I would go the voyage with him, I should be at no
expense—I should be his messmate and his companion ; and if
I could carry anything with me, I should have all the advantage
of it that the trade would admit; and perhaps I might meet
with some encouragement. I embraced the offer, and entering
into a strict friendship with this captain, who was an honest
and plain-dealing man, I went the voyage with him, and carried
a small adventure with me, which, by the disinterested honesty
of my friend the captain, I increased very considerably ; for I
carried about forty pounds in such toys and trifles as the captain
directed me to buy. This forty pounds I had mustered together
by the assistance of some of my relations whom I corresponded
with, and who I believe got my father, or, at least, my mother,
to contribute so much as that to my first adventure. This was
the only voyage which I may say was successful in all my adven-
tures, and which I owe to the integrity and honesty of my friend
the captain, under whom also I got a competent knowledge of
the mathematics and the rules of navigation, learned how to keep
an account of the ship’s course, take an observation, and, in short,
to understand some things that were needful to be understood by
a sailor: for, as he took delight to instruct me, I took delight to
learn ; and, in a word, this voyage made me both a sailor and a
merchant: for I brought home five pounds nine ounces of gold
dust for my adventure, which yielded me in London, at my return,
almost three hundred pounds, and this filled me with those aspir-
ing thoughts which have since so completed my ruin. Yet even
in this voyage I had my misfortunes too ; particularly that I was
continually sick, being thrown into a violent calenture* by the

* A violent fever, incident to persons in hot climates, especially to natives
of cooler climates, and to which, therefore, European sailors are peculiarly
liable. One of the symptoms is peculiar : the person affected imagines the sea
to be a green field, and sometimes, attempting to walk on it, is lost,
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 1s

excessive heat of the climate—our principal trading being upon
the coast, from the latitude of fifteen degrees north, even to the
Line itself. |

I was now set up for a Guinea trader: and my friend, to my
great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go the
same voyage again ; and I embarked in the same vessel with one
who was his mate in the former voyage, and had now got the
command of the ship. This was the unhappiest voyage that ever
man made; for though I did not carry quite a hundred pounds
of my new-gained wealth—so that I had two hundred pounds
left, and which I lodged with my friend’s widow, who was very
just to me—yet I fell into terrible misfortunes in this voyage :
and the first was this, viz.—our ship, making her course towards
the Canary Islands, or rather between those islands and the African
shore, was surprised, in the gray of the morning, by a Turkish
rover of Sallee, who gave chase to us with all the sails she could
make. We crowded also as much canvas as our yards would
spread, or our masts carry, to have got clear; but finding the
pirate gained upon us, and would certainly come up with us ina
few hours, we prepared to fight, our ship having twelve guns, and
the rover eighteen. About three in the afternoon he came up
with us; and bringing to, by mistake, just athwart our quarter,
instead of athwart our stern as he intended, we brought eight of
our guns to bear on that side, and poured in a broadside upon
him, which made him sheer off again, after returning our fire and
pouring in also his small shot from near two hundred men which
he had on board. However, we had not a man touched, all our
men keeping close. He prepared to attack us again, and we to
defend ourselves; but laying us on board the next time upon our
other quarter, he entered sixty men upon our decks, who imme-,
diately fell to cutting and hacking the decks and rigging. We
plied them with small shot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and such
like, and cleared our deck of them twice. However, to cut short
this melancholy part of our story, our ship being disabled and’
three of our men killed and eight wounded, we were obliged to
yield, and were carried all prisoners into Sallee, a port belonging
to the Moors.

The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I appre-
hended ; nor was I carried up the country to the emperor's court,
as the rest of our men were, but was kept by the captain of the

e
16 ADVENTURES OF ©

rover as his proper prize, and made his slave, being young and
nimble, and fit for his business. At this surprising change of my
circumstances, from a merchant to a miserable slave, I was per-
fectly overwhelmed; and now I looked back upon my father’s
prophetic discourse to me, that I should be miserable and have
none to relieve me, which I thought was now so effectually brought
to pass, that I could not be worse—that now the hand of Heaven
had overtaken me, and I was undone, without redemption. But,
alas! this was but a taste of the misery I was to go through, as’
will appear.in the sequel of this story. 7

As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his house,
so I was in hopes that he would take me with him when he went
to sea again, believing that it would, some time or other, be his
fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portuguese man;of-war, and that
then I should be set at liberty. But this hope of mine was soon
taken away, for when he went to sea he left me on shore to look
after his little garden, and do the common drudgery of slaves
about his house; and when he came home again from his cruise,
he ordered me to lie in the cabin, to look after the ship.

Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method
I might take to effect it, but found no way that had the least
probability in it. Nothing presented to make the supposition of
it rational; for I had nobody to communicate it to that would
embark with me,—no fellow-slave, no Englishman, Irishman, or °
Scotchman there but myself: so that for two years, though I often
pleased myself with the imagination, yet I never had the least
encouraging prospect of putting it in practice. |

After about two years, an odd circumstance presented itself,
which put the old thought of making some attempt for my liberty
again in my head. My patron lying at home longer than usual,
without fitting out his ship—which, as I heard, was for want of
money—he used constantly, once or twice a week, sometimes
oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the ship’s pinnace, and go
out into the Road a-fishing ; and as he always took me and a young
Moresco with him to row the boat, we made him very merry, and
I proved very dexterous in catching fish, insomuch that sometimes
he would send me with a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the
youth, the Moresco, as they called him, to catch a dish of fish for
him.

It happened one time that, going a-fishing in a stark calm
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 17

morning, a fog rose so thick that though we were not half a league
from the shore, we lost sight of it; and rowing we knew not
whither, or which way, we laboured all day and all the next night,
and when the morning came, we found we had pulled off to sea,
instead of pulling in for the shore, and that we were at least two
leagues from the shore: however, we got well in again, though
with a great deal of labour, and some danger, for the wind began
to blow pretty fresh in the morning ; but, particularly, we were
all very hungry.

But our patron, warned by this neni resolved to take more
care of himself for the future ; and having lying by him the long-
boat of our English ship he had taken, he resolved he would not
go a-fishing any more without a compass and some provision ; so
he ordered the carpenter of his ship, who also was an English
slave, to build a little state-room or cabin in the middle of the
longboat, like that of a barge, with a place to stand behind it to.
steer and haul home the main sheet, and room before for a hand
or two to stand and work the sails. She sailed with what we call
a shoulder-of-mutton sail, and the boom jibbed over the top of
the cabin, which lay very snug and low, and had in it room for
him to lie, with a slave or two, and a table to eat on, with some
small lockers to put in some bottles of such liquor as he thought
fit to drink, particularly his bread, rice, and coffee.

We were frequently out with this boat a-fishing, and as I was
most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went without me.
It happened that he had appointed to go out in this boat, either
for pleasure or for fish, with two or three Moors of some distinc-
tion in that place, and for whom he had provided extraordinary,
and had therefore sent on board the boat, overnight, a larger store
of provisions than ordinary, and had ordered me to get ready
three fusees, with powder and shot, which were on board his
ship, for that they designed some sport of fowling as well as
fishing.

I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited the next
morning with the boat washed clean, her ancient and pendants
out, and everything to accommodate his guests: when, by and
by, my patron came on board alone, and told me his guests had
put off going, upon some business that fell out, and ordered me
with the man and boy, as usual, to go out with the boat and catch

them some fish, for that his friends were to sup at his house ; and
B
18 ADVENTURES OF

‘commanded that as soon as I had got some fish, I should bring’ |

it home to his house : all which I prepared to do.

This moment my former notions of deliverance darted into my
thoughts, for now I found I was like to have a little ship at my
command ; and my master being gone, I prepared to furnish
myself not “for fishing business, but for a voyage ; though I knew
not, neither did I so much as consider, whither I should steer ;
for anywhere to get out of that place was my way.

My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to this
Moor, to get something for our subsistence on board ; for I told
him we must not presume to eat of our patron’s bread. He said,
that was true; so he brought a large basket of rusk or biscuit of
their kind, and three jars with fresh water into the boat. I knew
where my patron’s case of bottles stood, which it was evident by
the make were taken out of some English prize, and I conveyed
them into the boat while the Moor was on shore, as if they had
been there before for our master. I conveyed also a great lump
of beeswax into the boat, which weighed above half a hundred-
weight, with a parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a
hammer, all which were of great use,to us afterwards, especially
the wax, to make candles. Another trick I tried upon him, which
he innocently came into also. His name was Ismael, whom they
call Muley, or Moley; so I called to him: “ Moley,” said I,
‘our patron’s guns are on board the boat, can you not get_a little
powder and shot ? it may be we may kill some alcamies (a fowl
like our curlews) for ourselves, for I know he keeps the gunner’s
stores in the ship.” ‘“ Yes,” says he, ‘“‘I will bring some ;” and
accordingly he brought a great leather pouch, which held about a
pound and a half of powder, or rather more, and another with
shot, that had five or six pounds, with some bullets, and put all
into the boat : at the same time I had found some powder of my
master’s in the great cabin, with which I filled one of the large
bottles in the case, which was almost empty, pouring what was in
it into another ; and thus furnished with everything needful, we
sailed out of the port to fish. The castle, which is at the entrance
of the port, knew who we were, and took no notice of us; and
we were not above a mile out of the port, before we hauled in our
sail, and set us down to fish. The wind blew from N.N.E., which
was contrary to my desire; for, had it blown southerly, I had
been sure to have made the coast of Spain, and at least reached


ROBINSON CRUSOE. 19

to the bay of Cadiz; but my resolutions were, blow which way
it would, I would be gone from that horrid place where I was,
and leave the rest to fate.

After we had fished some time and catched nothing, for when
I had fish on my hook I would not pull them up that he might
not see them, I said to the Moor, “ This will not do ; our master
will not be thus served ; we must stand farther off.” He, think-
ing no harm, agreed, and being in the head of the boat, set the
sails ; and as I had the helm, I run the boat out near a league
farther, and then brought her to, as if I would fish. Then giving
the boy the helm, I stepped forward to where the Moor was, and
making as if I stooped for something behind him, I took him by
surprise, with my arm under his twist,* and tossed him clear.
overboard into the sea. He rose immediately, for he swam like a
cork, and called to me, begged to be taken in, and told me he
would go all over the world with me. He swam so strong after
the boat that he would have reached me very quickly, there being
but little wind; upon which I stepped into the cabin, and fetch-
ing one of the fowling-pieces, I presented it at him, and told him
I had done him no hurt, and if he would be quiet I would do
him none. ‘ But,” said I, ‘“‘ you swim well enough to reach the
shore, and the sea is calm ; make the best of your way to shore
and I will do you no harm ; but if you come near the boat I will
shoot you through the head; for I am resolved to have my
liberty.” So he turned himself about, and swam for the shore,
and I make no doubt but he reached it with ease, for he was an
excellent swimmer. |

I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me,
and have drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to trust
him. When he was gone I turned to the boy whom they called
Xury, and said to him, “ Xury, if you will be faithful to me I will
make you a great man ; but if you will not stroke your face to be
true to me (that is, swear by Mahomet and his father’s beard),
I must throw you into the sea too.” The boy smiled in my face,
and spoke so innocently, that I could not mistrust him; and
swore to be faithful to me, and go all over the world with me.

While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming I stood out
directly to sea, with the boat rather stretching to windward, that
they might think me gone towards the Strait’s mouth (as indeed

* The hollow on the inside of the thigh.
20 | ADVENTURES OF

any one that had been in their wits must have been supposed to
do) ; for who would have supposed we were sailed on to the
southward, to the truly Barbarian coast, where whole nations of
Negroes were sure to surround us with their canoes and destroy
us, where we could never once go on shore but we should be
devoured by savage beasts, or more merciless savages of human
kind P |

But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening I changed my
course, and steered directly south and by east, bending my course
a little toward the east, that I might keep in with the shore ; and
having a fair fresh gale of wind, and a smooth quiet sea, I made
such sail, that I believe by the next day, at three o’clock in the
afternoon, when I first made the land, I could not be less than
one hundred and fifty miles south of Sallee, quite beyond the
Emperor of Morocco’s dominions, or indeed of any other king
thereabouts ; for we saw no people.

Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, and the
dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that I
would not stop, or go on shore, or come to an anchor, the wind
continuing fair, till I had sailed in that manner five days ; and
then the wind shifting to the southward, I concluded also that if
any of our vessels were in chase of me, they also would now give
over: so I ventured to make to the coast, and came to an anchor
in the mouth of a little river ; I knew not what or where, neither
what latitude, what country, what nation, or what river. I neither
saw, nor desired to see, any people; the principal thing I wanted
was fresh water. We came into this creek in the evening, resolv-
ing to swim on shore as soon as it was dark, and discover the
country; but as soon as it was quite dark, we heard such dreadful.
noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of wild creatures, of
we knew not what kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die
with fear, and begged of me not to go on shore till day.‘ Well,
Xury,” said I, ‘then I won’t ; but it may be we may see men by
day, who will be as bad to us as those lions.” ‘Then we may
give them the shoot-gun,” says Xury, laughing, “ make them run
wey.” Such English Xury spoke by conversing among us slaves.
However, I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him
a dram out of our patron’s case of bottles to cheer him up.
After all, Xury’s advice was good, and I took it. We dropped
our little anchor, and lay still all night. I say still, for we slept
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 21

none: for in two or three hours we saw vast great creatures (we
knew not what to call them), of many sorts, come down to the
seashore, and run into the water, wallowing and washing them-
selves, for the pleasure of cooling themselves ; and they made
such hideous howlings and yellings, that I never indeed heard
the like. | |

Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too; but
we were both more frighted when we heard one of the mighty
creatures come swimming towards our boat: we could not see
him, but we might hear him by his blowing to be a monstrous
huge and furious beast. Xury said it was a lion, and it might
be so for aught I know, but poor Xury cried to me to weigh the
anchor, and row away. ‘‘No,” says I, ‘‘ Xury, we can slip our
cable with a buoy to it, and go to sea ; they cannot follow us far.”
_ I had no sooner said so, but I perceived the creature (whatever
it was) within two oars’ length, which something surprised me;
however, I immediately stepped to the cabin door, and taking up
my gun, fired at him, upon which he immediately turned about
and swam towards the shore again.

But it is impossible to describe the horrible noises, and hideous
cries and howlings that were raised, as well upon the edge of the
shore as higher within the country, upon the noise or report of
the gun; a thing, I believe, those creatures had never heard
before. This convinced me there was no going on shore for us
in the night upon that coast, and how to venture on shore in the
day, was another question too; for to have fallen.into the hands
of any of the savages, had been as bad as to have fallen into the
paws of lions and tigers: at least we were equally apprehensive
of the danger of it.

Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore somewhere
or other for water, for we had not a pint left in the boat: when
or where to get it was the point. ‘Xury said, if I would let him
go on shore with one of the jars, he would find if there was any
watet, and bring some to me. I asked him why he would go ;
why I should not go, and he stay in the boat? The boy
answered with so much affection, that he made me love him ae
after. Says he, “If wild mans come, they eat me, you go away.”
‘Well, Xury,” said I, “we will both go; and if we wild mans
come, we will kill them ; they shall eat neither of us.” So I gave
Xury a piece of rusk Bread to eat, and a dram out of our patron’s
22 ADVENTURES OF

case of bottles, which I mentioned before ; and we hauled the
boat in as near the shore as we thought was proper, and waded
to shore, carrying nothing but our arms and two jars for water.

I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the coming
of canoes with savages down the river ; but the boy, seeing a low
place about a mile up the country, rambled to it; and, by and
by, I saw him come running towards. me. I thought he was
pursued by some savage, or frighted with some wild beast, and I
therefore ran forwards to help him ; but when I came nearer to
him, I saw something hanging over his shoulders, which was a
creature that he had shot, like a hare, but different in colour, and
longer legs: however, we were very glad of it, and it was very
good meat: but the great joy that poor Xury came with, was to
tell me he had found good water, and seen no wild mans.

But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains for
water ; fora little higher up the creek where we were, we found
-the water fresh when the tide was out, which flows but .a little
way up; so we filled our jars, and feasted on the hare we had >
killed ; and prepared to go on our way, having seen no footsteps
of any human creature in that part of the country.

As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very
well that the islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de Verd
Islands also, lay not far from the coast. But as I had no instru-
ments to take an observation, to know what latitude we were in,
and did not exactly know, or at least remember, what latitude they
were in, I knew not where to look for them, or when to stand off
to sea towards them, otherwise I might now easily have found
some of these islands. But my hope was, that if I stood along
this coast till I came to that part where the English traded, I
should find some of their vessels upon their usual design of trade,
that would relieve and take us in.

By the best of my calculation, the place where I now was must
be that country which, lying between the Emperor of Morocco’s
dominions and the Negroes, lies waste and uninhabited, except
by wild beasts; the Negroes having abandoned it, and gone
farther south, for fear of the Moors, and the Moors not thinking
it worth inhabiting, by reason of its barrenness ; and indeed both
forsaking it because of the prodigious number of tigers, lions,
leopards, and other furious creatures which harbour there: so
that the Moors use it for their hunting only, where they go like ©
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 23

an army, two or three thousand men at a time; and indeed for
near a hundred miles together upon this coast, we saw nothing
but a waste, uninhabited country by day, and heard nothing but
howlings and roaring of wild beasts by night.

Once or twice, in the daytime, I thought I saw the Pico of
Teneriffe, being the high top of the mountain Teneriffe, in the
_Canaries, and had a great mind.to venture out, in ‘hopes of reach-
ing thither ; but having tried twice, I was forced in again by con-
trary winds, the sea also going too high for my little vessel: so I
resolved to pursue my first design, and keep along the shore.

Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after we
had left this place ; and once, in particular, being early in the
morning, we came to an anchor under a little point of land which
was pretty high ; and the tide beginning to flow, we lay still, to
go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more about him than, it
seems, mine were, calls softly to me, and tells me that we had
best go farther off the shore ; “ for,” says he, “ look, yonder lies
a dreadful monster on the side of that hillock, fast asleep.” I
looked where he pointed, and saw a dreadful monster indeed, for
it was a terrible great lion that lay on the side of the shore,
under the shade of a piece of the hill that hung, as it were, over
him. “Xury,” says I, “you shall go on shore and kill him.”
Xury looked frighted, and said, “ Me kill! he eat me at one
mouth ”—one mouthful he meant. However, I said no more to
the boy but bade him be still ; and I took our biggest gun, which
was almost musket bore, and loaded it with a good charge of
powder, and with two slugs, and laid it down ; then I loaded
another gun with two bullets; and a third, for we had three
pieces, I loaded with five smaller bullets. I took the best aim I
could with the first piece, to have shot him into the head ; but he
lay so, with his leg raised a little above his nose, that the slugs
hit his leg about the knee, and broke the bone. He started up,
growling at first, but finding his leg broke, fell down again, and
then got up upon three legs, and gave the most hideous roar that
ever heard. Iwasa little surprised that I had not hit him on
the head ; however, I took up the second piece immediately, and
though he began to move off, fired again, and shot him into the
head, and had the pleasure to see him drop, and make but little
noise, but lie struggling for life. Then Xury took heart, and
would have me let him go on shore. “‘ Well, go,” said I; so the
24 ADVENTURES OF

boy jumped into the water, and taking a little gun in one hand,
swam to shore with the other hand, and coming close to the
creature, put the muzzle of the piece to his ear, and shot him
-into the head again, which despatched him quite.

This was game, indeed, to us, but it was no food; and I was
very sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot upon a
creature that was good for nothing to us. However, Xury said he
would have some of him; so he comes on board and asked me
to give him the hatchet. “ For what, Xury?” said I. ‘ Me cut
off his head,” said he. However Xury could not cut off his head ;
but he cut off a foot, and brought it with him, and it was a
monstrous great one. I bethought myself, however, that perhaps
the skin of him might, one way or other, be of some value to us ;
and I resolved to take off his skin, if I could. So Xury and I.
went to work with him: but Xury was much the better workman
at it, for I knew very ill how to do it. Indeed it took us both
up the whole day ; but at last we got off the hide of him, and
spreading it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectually dried it
in two days’ time, and it afterwards served me to lie upon.

After this stop, we made on to the southward continually,
for ten or twelve days, living very sparingly on our provisions,
which began to abate very much, and going no oftener into the
shore than we were obliged to for fresh water. My design in
this was to make the river Gambia, or Senegal; that is to say,
anywhere about the Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes to
meet with some European ship: and if I did not, I knew not
what course I had to take, but to seek for the islands, or perish
among the Negroes. I knew that all the ships from Europe,
which sailed either to the coast of Guinea, or to Brazil, or to the
East Indies, made this Cape, or those islands: and in a word IJ
put the whole of my fortune upon this single point, either that I
must meet with some ship, or must perish.

When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer, as
I have said, I began to see that the land was inhabited ; and in
two or three places, as we sailed by, we saw people stand upon
the shore to look at us: we could also perceive they were quite
black and stark naked. I was once inclined to have gone on
shore to them; but Xury was my better counsellor, and said to
me, “No go, no go.” However, I hauled in nearer the shore,
that I might talk to them; and I found they ran along the shore
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 25

by me a good way. I observed they had no weapons in their
hands, except one, who had a long slender stick, which Xury said
was a lance, and that they would throw them a great way with
good aim; so I kept at a distance, but talked to them by signs,
as well as I could, and particularly made signs for something to
eat. They beckoned to me to stop my boat, and they would
fetch me some meat ; upon this I lowered the top of my sail, and
lay by, and two of them ran up into the country, and in less than
half-an-hour came back and brought with them two pieces of dry
flesh and some corn, such as is the produce of their country: but
we neither knew what the one or the other was ; however, we were
willing to accept it. But how to come at it was our next dispute,
for I was not for venturing on shore to them, and they were as
much afraid of us: but they took a safe way for us all, for they
brought it to the shore, and laid it down, and went and stood a
ereat way off till we fetched it on board, and then came close to
us again. \ |

We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to make
them amends: but an opportunity offered that very instant to
oblige them wonderfully ; for while we were lying by the shore,
came two mighty creatures, one pursuing the other (as we took it)
with great fury, from the mountains towards the sea: whether it
was the male pursuing the female, or whether they were in sport
or in rage, we could not tell, any more than we could tell whether
it was usual or strange; but I believe it was the latter, because,
in the first place, those ravenous creatures seldom appear but in
the night ; and, in the second place, we found the people terribly
frighted, especially the women. The man that had the lance, or
dart, did not fly from them, but the rest did ; however, as the two
creatures ran directly into the water, they did not seem to offer to
fall upon any of the Negroes, but plunged themselves into the
sea, and swam about, as if they had come for their diversion.
At last, one of them began to come nearer our boat than I at first
expected ; but I lay ready for him, for I had loaded my gun with
all possible expedition, and bade Xury load both the others. As
soon as he came fairly -within my reach, I fired, and shot him
directly into the head: immediately he sunk down into the water,
but rose instantly, and plunged up and down, as if he was strug-
_giling for. life, and so indeed he was: he immediately made to
the shore; but between the wound which was his mortal hurt,
26 ADVENTURES OF

and the strangling of the water, he died just before he reached
the shore. |

It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor
creatures at the noise and fire of my gun. Some of them were
ready even to die for fear, and fell down as dead with the very
terror ; but when they saw the creature dead, and sunk in the
water, ena that I made signs to them to come to the shore, they
took heart and came to the shore, and began to search for the
creature. I found him by his plod staining the water; and by
the help of a rope, which I slung round him, and gave the
Negroes to haul, they dragged him on shore and found that it
- was a most curious leopard, spotted, and fine to an admirable
degree; and the Negroes held up their hands with admiration,
to think what it, was I had killed him with.

The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire and the noise
of the gun, swam on shore, and ran up directly to the mountains
from whence they came; nor could I, at that distance, know
what it was. I found ate the Wieswods were for eating the
flesh of this creature, so I was willing to have them take it asa
favour from me; ee when I made signs to them that they
might take him, oe were very thankful for. Immediately they
fell to work with him ; and though they had no knife, yet with a
sharpened piece of sod: they took off his skin as readily, and
much more readily than we could have done with a knife. They
offered me some of the flesh, which I declined, making as if I
would give it them, but made-signs for the skin, which they gave
me very freely, aad brought me a great deal more of their pro-
visions, which, though I did not understand, yet I accepted.
Then I made signs to them for some water, and held out one of
my jars to them, turning it bottom upwards, to show that it was
empty, and that I wanted to have it filled. They called immedi-
ately to some of their friends, and there came two women, and
brought a great vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I suppose,
in the sun; this they set down for me, as before, and I sent
Xury on ee with my jars, and filled them all three. The
women were as stark naked as the men.

I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and
.water; and leaving my friendly Negroes, I made forward for
about peleaaty days more, without offering to go near the shore,
till I saw the land run out a great eae into the sea at sLigtik i
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 27

the distance of four or five leagues before me ; and the sea being
very calm, I kept a large offing, to make this point. At length,
doubling the point, at. about two leagues from the land, I saw
plainly land on the other side, to seaward: then I concluded, as
it was most certain indeed, that this was the Cape de Verd, and
those the islands called, from thence, Cape de. Verd Islands.
However, they were at a great distance, and I could not well
tell what I had best to do; for if I should be taken with a fresh
of wind, I might neither reach one nor the other.

In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the
cabin, and sat me down, Xury having the helm; when, on a
_ sudden, the boy cried out, “‘ Master, master, a ship with a sail!”
and the foolish boy was frighted out of his wits, thinking it must
needs be some of his master’s ships sent to pursue us, when I
knew we were gotten far enough out of their reach. I jumped
out of the cabin, and immediately saw, not only the ship, but
what she was, viz., that it was a Portuguese ship, and, as I thought,
was bound to the Coast of Guinea for Negroes. But, when I
observed the course she steered, I was soon convinced they were
bound some other way, and did not design to come any nearer
to the shore: upon which I stretched out to sea as Te as I
- could, resclving to speak with them, if possible.

With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able to
cofme in their way, but that they would be gone by before I could
make any signal to them; but after I had crowded to the utmost,
and began to despair, they, it seems, saw me, by the help of their
perspective glasses, and that it was some European boat, which
they supposed must belong to some ship that was lost; so they
shortened sail to let me come up. I was encouraged Fath this,
and as I had my patron’s ancient on board, I made a waft of it
‘to them, for a signal of distress, and fired a gun, both which they
saw; for they told me they saw the smoke, though they did not
hear the gun. Upon these signals, they very kindly brought to, and
lay by for me; and in about three hours’ time I came up with them.

They ied me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish, and
in French, but I understood none of them; but at last a Scotch
sailor, his was on board, called to me, and I answered him, and
told him I was an Englishman, that I had made my escape out
of slavery from the Moors at Sallee: then they bade me come on
board, and very kindly took me in, and all my goods.
28 , ADVENTURES OF

It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will believe,
that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable,
and almost hopeless, condition as I was in; and I immediately
offered all I had to the captain of the ship, as a return for my
deliverance ; but he generously told me he would take nothing
from me, but that all I had should be delivered safe to me when
I came to the Brazils. ‘‘ For,” says he, “I have saved your life
on no other terms than I would be glad to be saved myself; and
it may, one time or other, be my lot to be taken up in the same
condition. Besides,” said he, “‘ when I carry you to the Brazils, so
great a way from your own country, if I should take from you
what you have, you will be starved there, and then I only take »
away that life I have given. No, no, Seignior Inglese” (Mr.
Englishman), says he, “I will carry you thither in charity, and
these things will help to buy your subsistence there, and your
passage home again.” |

As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the
performance, to a tittle: for he ordered the seamen, that none
should offer to touch anything I had: then he took everything
into his own possession, and gave me back an exact inventory of
them, that I might have them, even so much as my three earthen
jars.

As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he saw, and
told me he would buy it of me for the ship’s use, and asked me
what I would have for it? I told him, he had been so generous
to me in everything, that I could not offer to make any price of
the boat, but left it entirely to him: upon which he told me he
would give me a note of his hand to pay me eighty pieces of elght
for it at Brazil; and when it came there, if any one offered to
give more, he would make it up. He offered me also sixty pieces
of eight more for my boy Xury, which I was loth to take ; not
that I was not willing to let the captain have him, but I was very
loth to sell the poor boy’s liberty, who had assisted me so faith-
fully in procuring my own. However, when I let him know my.
reason, he owned it to be just, and offered me this medium, that
he would give the boy an obligation to-set him free in ten years,
if he turned Christian. Upon this, and Xury saying he was will-
ing to go to him, I let the captain have him.

We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and arrived in the
Bay de Todos los Santos, or All Saints’ Bay, in about twenty-two
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 29

days after. And now I was once more delivered from the most
miserable of all conditions of life; and what to do next with my-
self I was now to consider.

The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never
‘ enough remember: he would take nothing of me for my passage,
gave me twenty ducats for the leopard’s skin, and forty for the
lion’s skin, which I had in the boat, and caused everything I had
in the ship to be punctually delivered to me; and what I was_
willing to sell he bought, such as the case of bottles, two of my
guns, and a piece of the lump of beeswax,—for I had made
candles of the rest: in a word, I made about two hundred and

twenty pieces of eight of all my cargo ; and with this stock, I went
on shore in, the Brazils.
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CHAPTER IIL

Crusoe buys land, and becomes a planter—The Portuguese captain continues his
good offices—The plantation succeeds, but prosperity does not bring content- -
ment— Becomes supercargo of a slaver—A hurricane—The ship is driven west-
ward, and strikes on a sandbank—The crew take to their boat, which is

- swamped—All are drowned, except Crusoe, who is washed against a rock, and
succeeds in reaching the mainland—He rejoices at his deliverance, reflects on
his position, and remembers that he has neither food for sustenance nor
weapons for defence—Sleeps in a tree.

LES. HAD not been long here, but being recommended
£| [x33 by the captain to the house of a good honest man,
like himself, who had an ingenio as they call it—
that 1s, a plantation and a sugar-house—I lived
| with him some time, and acquainted myself, by that
means, with the manner of planting and of making sugar: and
seeing how well the planters lived, and how they grew rich sud-
denly, I resolved, if I could get licence to settle there, I would
turn planter among them ; resolving, in the meantime, to find out
some way to get my money, which I had left in London, remitted
tome. To this purpose, getting a kind of a letter of naturalisa-
tion, I purchased as much land that was uncured as my money
would reach, and formed a plan for my plantation and settlement,
and such a one as might be suitable to the stock which I pro-
posed to myself to receive from England.

I had a neighbour, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but born of English
parents, whose name was Wells, and in much such circumstances
as I was. I call him neighbour, because his ‘plantation lay next
to mine, and we went on very sociably together. My stock was
but low as well as his, and we rather planted for food than any-
thing else, for about two years. However, we began to increase,
and our land began to come into order; so that the third year
we planted some tobacco, and made each of us a large piece of ©


31

ground ready for planting canes in the year to come; but we both
wanted help, and now I found, more than before, I had done
wrong in parting with my boy Xury. |

But, alas! for me to do wrong, that never did right, was no
ereat wonder. I had no remedy but to go on: I was gotten into
an employment quite remote to my genius, and directly contrary
to the life I delighted in, and for which I forsook my father’s
house and broke through all his good advice: nay, I was coming
into the very middle station, or upper degree of low life, which
my father advised me to before; and which, if I resolved to go
on with, I might as well have stayed at home, and never have
fatigued myself in the world, as I had done: and I used often to
say to myself, I could have done this as well in England, among
my friends, as have gone five thousand miles off to do it among
strangers and savages, in a wilderness, and at such a distance as
’ never to hear from any part of the world that had the least know-
ledge of me.

In this manner I used to look upon my condition with the
utmost regret. I had nobody to converse with, but now and then
this neighbour; no work to be done but by the labour of my
hands ; and I used to say, I lived just like a man cast away upon
some desolate island, that had nobody there but himself But
how just has it been! and how should all men reflect that, when
they compare their present conditions with others that are worse,
Heaven may oblige them to make the exchange, and be convinced
of their former felicity by their experience. I say, how just has
it been that the truly solitary life I reflected on, in an island of
mere desolation, should be my lot, who had so often unjustly
compared it with the life which I then led, in which, had I con-
tinued, I had, in all probability, been exceeding prosperous and
rich, |

I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carrying on
the plantation, before my kind friend, the captain of the ship that
took me up at sea, went back (for the ship remained there, in
providing his loading, and preparing for his voyage, near three
months) when telling him what little stock I had left behind me
in London, he gave me this friendly and sincere advice: ** Seienior
_ Inglese,” says he (for so he always called me), “if you will give
me letters, and a procuration here in form to me, with orders to
the person who has your money in London to send your effects

ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
32 - ADVENTURES OF

ad

to Lisbon to such persons as I shall direct, and in such goods as
are proper for this country, I will bring you the produce of them,
God willing, at my return ; but since human affairs are all subject
to changes and disasters, I would have you give orders but for
one hundred pounds sterling, which, you say, is half your stock,
and let the hazard be run for the first, so that, if it come safe, you
may order the rest the same way; and, if it miscarry, you may
have the other half to have recourse to for your supply.”

This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that I
could not but be convinced it was the best course I could take ;
so I accordingly prepared letters to the gentlewoman with sania
I had left my money, and a procuration to the Portuguese captain,
as he desired.

I wrote the English captain’s widow a full account of all my

‘ adventures,—my slavery, escape, and how I had met with the

Portuguese captain at sea, the humanity of his behaviour, and
what condition I was now in, with all other necessary directions
for my supply : and when this honest captain came to Lisbon, he
found means, by some of the English merchants there, to send
over, not the order only, but a full account of my story to a
merchant at London, who represented it effectually to her : where- |
upon she not only delivered the money, but, out of her own
pocket, sent the Portuguese captain a very handsome present for
his humanity and charity to me.

The merchant in London vested his hundred pounds in English
goods, such as the captain had writ for, sent them directly to him
at Lisbon, and he brought them all safe to me at the Brazils:
among which, without my direction (for I was too young in my
business to think of them), he had taken care to have all sorts of
tools, iron work, and utensils, necessary for my plantation, and
which were of great use to me.

When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune made, for I was
surprised with joy of it; and my good steward, the captain, had
laid out the five pounds which my friend had sent him for a
present for himself, to purchase and bring me over a servant
under bond for six years’ service, and would not accept of any
consideration, except a little tobacco, which I would have him
accept, being of my own produce.

Neither was this all: but my goods being all English manufac-
tures, such as cloths, stuffs, baize; and things particularly valuable —
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 33

- and desirable in the country, I found means to sell them to a
very great advantage ; so that I may say I had more than four
times the ‘value of my first cargo, and was now infinitely beyond
my poor neighbour, I mean in the advancement of my plantation ;
for the first thing I did, I bought me a Negro slave, and a
European servant also—I mean another besides that which the
captain brought me from Lisbon.

But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means
of our greatest adversity, so was it with me. I went on the next
year with great success in my plantation: I raised fifty great rolls
-of tobacco on my own ground, more than I had disposed of for
necessaries among my neighbours; and these fifty rolls, being
each of above one hundred pounds weight, were well cured, and
laid by against the return of the fleet from Lisbon. And now,
increasing in business and in wealth, my head began to be full of
projects and undertakings beyond my reach ; such as are, indeed,
often the ruin of the best heads in business.

Had I continued in the station I was now in, I had room for
all the happy things to have yet befallen me, for which my father
so earnestly recommended a quiet retired life, and which he had
so sensibly described the middle station of life to be full of : but
other things attended me, and I was still to be the wilful agent |
of all my own miseries ; and, particularly, to increase my fault,
and double the reflections upon myself, which in my future
sorrows I should have leisure to make, all these miscarriages
were procured by my apparent obstinate adhering to my foolish
inclination of wandering abroad, and pursuing that inclination in
contradiction to the clearest views of doing myself good in a fair
and plain pursuit of those prospects, and those measures of life,
which nature and Providence concurred to present me with, and
to make my duty.

As I had once done thus in breaking away from my parents,
so I could not be content now, but I must go and leave the
happy view I had of being a rich and thriving man in my new
- plantation, only to pursue a rash and immoderate desire of rising
faster than the nature of the thing admitted ; and thus I cast
myself down again into the deepest gulf of human misery that
ever man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent with life and .
a state of health in the world.

To come, then, by just degrees, to the particulars of this part

; C
34 ADVENTURES OF

of my story: you may suppose, that having now lived almost
four years in the Brazils, and beginning to thrive and prosper
very well upon my plantation, I had not only learned the
language, but had contracted acquaintance and _ friendship
among my fellow-planters, as well as among the merchants at St.
Salvador, which was our port; and that, in my discoursé among
them, I had frequently given them an account of my two voyages

to the coast of Guinea, the manner of trading with the Negroes —

there, and how easy it was to purchase upon the coast, for trifles
—such as beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits of glass, and
the like—not only gold dust, Guinea grains, elephants’ teeth, &c.,
but Negroes, for the service of the Brazils, in great numbers.
They listened always very attentively to my discourses on these
heads, but especially to that part which related to the buying

Negroes ; which was a trade at that time not only not far entered -

into, but, as far as it was, had been carried on by the asszentos, or
permission of the kings of Spain and Portugal, and engrossed
in the public,—so that few Negroes were bought, and those
excessive dear.

It happened, being in company with some merchants and
planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those things very
earnestly, three of them came to me the next morning, and told
me they had been musing very much upon what I had discoursed
with them of the last night, and they came to make a secret
proposal to me: and after enjoining me to secrecy, they told me

that they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea ; that they .

had all plantations as well as I, and were straitened for nothing
so much as servants; that as it was a trade that could not be
carried on, because they could not publicly sell the Negroes
when they came home, so they desired to make but one voyage,
to bring the Negroes on shore privately, and divide them among
their own plantations ; and, in a word, the question was whether
I would go their supercargo in the ship, to manage the trading

part upon the coast of Guinea? and they offered me that I should

have my equal share of the Negroes, without providing any part
of the stock. :

This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been
made to any one that had not had a settlement and plantation
of his own to look after, which was in a fair way of coming to be
very considerable, and with a good stock upon it. But for me,

Ee - we
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 35

that was thus entered and established, and had nothing to do but
go on as I had begun, for three or four years more, and to have
sent for the other hundred pounds from England,—and who, in
that time, and with that little addition, could scarce have failed |
of being worth three or four thousand pounds sterling, and that
increasing too,—for me to think of such a voyage, was the most
preposterous thing that ever man, in such circumstances, could
be guilty of.

But I, that was born to be my own ites could no more
resist the offer than I could restrain my first rambling designs,
when my father’s good counsel was lost upon me. In a word, I
told them I would go with all my heart, if they would undertake
to look after my plantation in my absence, and would dispose
of it to such as I should direct, if I miscarried. This they all
engaged to do, and entered into writings, or covenants, to do so;
and I made a formal will, disposing of my plantation and effects,
in case of my death, making the captain of the ship that had
saved my life, as before, my universal heir, but obliging him to
dispose of my effects as I had directed in my will,—one half of
the produce being to himself, and the other to be shipped to
England.

In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects, and
to keep up my plantation: had I used half as much prudence to
have looked into my own interest, and have made a judgment of
what I ought to have done and not to have done, I had certainly
never gone away from so prosperous an undertaking, leaving all the
_ probable views of a thriving circumstance, and gone upon a voyage
to sea, attended with all its common hazards, to say nothing of
the reasons I had to expect particular misfortunes to myself.

But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my
fancy rather than my reason: and accordingly the ship being
fitted out and the cargo furnished, and all things done as by
agreement by my partners in the voyage, I went on board in an
evil hour again, the first of September 1659, being the same day
eight years that I went from my father and mother at Hull, in
order to act the rebel to their authority, and the fool to my own
interest.

Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons burden,
carried six guns and fourteen men, besides the master, his boy,
and myself: we had on board no large cargo of goods, except of
36 | ADVENTURES OF

such toys as were fit for our trade with the Negroes, such as beads,
bits of glass, shells, and odd trifles, especially little looking-glasses,
knives, scissors, hatchets, and the like. ;

The same day I went on board, we set sail, standing away to
the northward upon our own coast, with design to stretch over
for the African coast, when they came about ten or twelve degrees
of northern latitude, which, it seems, was the manner of their
course in those days. We had very good weather, only excessive
hot, all the way upon our own coast, till we came to the height of
Cape St. Augustino ; from whence, keeping farther off at sea, we
lost sight of land, and steered as if we were bound for the isle
Fernando de Noronha, holding our course N.E. by N., and leav-
ing those isles on the east. In this course we passed the Line in
about twelve days’ time, and were, by our last observation, in
seven degrees twenty-two minutes northern latitude, when a
violent tornado, or hurricane, took us quite out of our knowledge:
it began from the south-east, came about to the north-west, and
then settled in the north-east, from whence it blew in such a
terrible manner, that for twelve days together we could do nothing
but drive, and, scudding away before it, let it carry us whither
ever fate and the fury of the winds directed; and during these
twelve days, I need not say that I expected every day: to be
swallowed up, nor, indeed, did any in the ship expect to save
their lives.

In this distress, we had, besides the terror of the storm, one of
our men died of the calenture, and one man and a boy washed
overboard. About the twelfth day, the weather abating a little,
the master made an observation as well as he could, and found
that he was in about eleven degrees north latitude, but that he
was twenty-two degrees of longitude difference, west from Cape
St. Augustino ; so that he found he was gotten upon the coast of
Guyana, or the north part of Brazil, beyond the river Amazons,
toward that of the river Oroonoque, commonly called the Great
River, and began to consult with me what course he should take,
for the ship was leaky and very much disabled, and he was going
directly back to the coast of Brazil.

I was positively against that ; and looking over the charts of
the sea-coast of America with him, we concluded there was no
inhabited country for us to have recourse to, till we came within
the circle of the Caribbee islands, and therefore resolyed to stand
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 39

away for Barbadoes, which, by keeping off at sea to avoid the
indraft of the bay or gulf of Mexico, we might easily perform, as
we hoped, in about fifteen days’ sail,—whereas, we could not
possibly make our voyage to the coast of Africa without some
assistance, both to our ship and to ourselves.

With this design, we changed our course, and steered away
N.W. by W. in order to reach some of our English islands, where
I hoped for relief; but our voyage was otherwise determined, for
being in the latitude of twelve degrees eighteen minutes, a second
storm came upon us, which carried us away with the same impetu-
osity westward, and drove us so out of the very way of all human
commerce, that had all our lives been saved as to the sea, we
‘were rather in danger of being devoured by savages than ever
returning to our own country.

In this distress, the wind still Blaine very hard, one of our
men, early in the morning, cried out, Land! and we had -no
sooner run out of the cabin to look out, in hopes of seeing where-
abouts in the world we were, but the ship struck upon a sand,
and in a moment, her motion being so stopped, the sea broke over
her in such a manner that we expected we should all have perished
immediately ; and we were immediately driven into our close quar-
ters, to shelter us from the very foam and spray of the sea.

It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like condi-
tion to describe or conceive the consternation of men in such
circumstances: we knew nothing where we were, or upon what
land it was we were driven, whether an island or the main, whether
inhabited or not inhabited; and as the rage of the wind was still
great, though rather less than at first, we could not so much as
hope to have the ship hold many minutes without breaking in
pieces, unless the winds, by a kind of miracle, should turn
immediately about. In a word, we sat looking one upon another,
and expecting death every moment, and every man acting accord-
ingly, as preparing for another world; for there was little or
nothing more for us to do in this. That which was our present
comfort, and all the comfort we had, was that, contrary to our
expectation, the ship did not break yet, and that the master said
the wind began to abate.

Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate, yet
the ship having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast
for us to expect her getting off, we were in a dreadful condition
38 ADVENTURES OF

indeed, and had nothing to do, but to think of saving our lives as
well as we could. We had a boat at. our stern just before the
storm, but she was first staved by dashing against the ship’s rudder,
and, in the next place, she broke away, and either sunk or was
driven off to sea; so there was no hope from her. We had
another boat on board, but how to get her off into the sea was a
doubtful thing ; however, there was no room to debate, for we
fancied the ship would break in pieces every minute, and some
told us she was actually broken already.

In this distress the mate of our vessel lays hold of the boat,
and with the help of the rest of the men, they got her slung over
the ship’s side; and getting all into her, let go, and committed
ourselves, being eleven in number, to God’s mercy and the wild
sea; for though the storm was abated considerably, yet the sea
went dreadful high upon the shore, and might well be called den
wild zee, as the Dutch call the sea in a storm. ,

And now our case was very dismal indeed ; for we all saw
plainly that the sea went so high that the boat could not live, and
that we should be inevitably drowned. As to making sail, we
had none; nor, if we had, could we have done anything with it,
so we worked at the oar towards the land, though with heavy
hearts, like men going to execution ; for we all knew that when
the boat came nearer the shore, she would be dashed in a thousand
pieces by the breach of the sea. However, we committed our
souls to God in the most earnest manner, and the wind driving
us towards the shore, we hastened our destruction with our own
hands, pulling as well as we could towards land.

‘What the shore was—whether rock or sand, whether steep or
shoal—we knew not ; the only hope that could rationally give us
the least shadow of expectation was, if we might happen into
some bay or gulf, or the mouth of some river, where by great
chance we might have run our boat in, or got under the lee of
the land, and perhaps made smooth water. But there was nothing
of this appeared ; but as we made nearer and nearer the shore, |
the land looked more frightful than the sea. |

After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league and a half,
as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came rolling
astern of us, and plainly bid us expect the coup de erdce,. In a
word, it took us with such fury, that it overset the boat at once ;
and separating us, as well from the boat as from one another, ©
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 39

gave us not time hardly to say, ““O God!” for we were all
swallowed up in a moment.

Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt
when I sunk into the water ; for though I swam very well, yet I
could not deliver myself from the waves so as to draw breath, till
that wave having driven me, or rather carried me, a vast way on
towards the shore, and having spent itself, went back and left me
upon the land almost dry, but half dead with the water I took in.
I had so much presence of mind, as well as breath left, that
seeing myself nearer the mainland than I expected, I got upon
my feet and endeavoured to make on: towards the land as fast as
I could, before another wave should return and take me up again ;
but I soon found it was impossible to avoid it, for I saw the sea
come after me as high as a great hill, and as furious as an enemy
which I had no means or strength to contend with: my business
_-was to hold my breath, and raise myself upon the water, if I
could, and so, by swimming, to preserve my breathing, and pilot -
myself towards the shore, if possible ; my greatest’ concern now
being that the sea, as it would carry me a great way towards the
shore when it came on, might not carry me back again with it
when it gave back towards the sea.

The wave that came upon me again buried me at once twenty
or thirty. feet deep in its own body, and I could feel myself
carried with a mighty force and swiftness towards the shore, a
very great way; but I held my breath, and assisted myself to
swim still forward with all my might. I was ready to burst with
holding my breath, when, as I felt myself rising up, so, to my
immediate relief, I found my head and hands shoot out above |

the surface of the water; and though it was not two seconds of
time that I could keep myself so, yet it relieved me greatly, gave
me breath and new courage. I was covered again with water a
good while, but not so long but I held it out; and finding the
water had spent itself and began to return, I struck forward
against the return of the waves, and felt ground again with my
feet. I stood still a few moments, to recover breath and till the
water went from me, and then took to my-heels and ran with
what strength I had farther towards the shore. But neither would
this deliver me from the fury of the sea, which came pouring in
after me again; and twice more I was lifted up by the waves and
carried forwards as before, the shore being very flat.
40 ADVENTURES OF

The last time of these two had well near been fatal to me; for
the sea, having hurried me along, as before, landed me, or rather
dashed me, against a piece of a rock, and that with such force as
it left me senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my own deliverance ;
for the blow, taking my side and breast, beat the breath, as it
were, quite out of my body, and had it returned again immediately,
I must have been strangled in the water ; but I recovered a little
before the return of the waves, and seeing I should be covered |
again with water, I resolved to hold fast by a piece of the rock,
and so to hold my breath, if possible, till the wave went back.
Now as the waves were not so high as the first, being near land,
I held my hold till the wave abated, and then fetched another run,
which brought me so near the-shore that the next wave, though
it went over me, yet did not so swallow me up as to carry me
away ; and the next run I took, I got to the main land, where, to
my great comfort, I clambered up the cliffs of the shore, and sat
me down upon the grass, free from danger and quite out of the
reach of the water.

I was now landed and safe on shore, and began to look up and
thank God that my life was saved, in a.case wherein there was,
some minutes before, scarce any room to hope. I believe it is
impossible to express to the life what the ecstacies and transports
of the soul are, when it is so saved, as I may say, out of the grave;
and I do not wonder now at that custom, viz., that when a
malefactor, who has the halter about his neck, is tied up and just
going to be turned off, and has a reprieve brought to him,—I say,
‘I do not wonder that they bring a surgeon with it, to let him
blood that very moment they tell him of it, that the surprise may
not drive the animal spirits from the heart, and overwhelm him:

‘* For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.”

I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and my
whole being, as I may say, wrapped up in the contemplation of
my deliverance ; making a thousand gestures and motions which
I cannot describe ; reflecting upon all my comrades that were
drowned, and that there should not be one soul saved but myself,
—for, as for them, I never saw them afterwards, or any sign of
them, except three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes that
were not fellows. |

I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when the breach and
ROBINSON CRUSOE. AI

froth of the sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far
off, and considered, Lord ! how was it possible I could get on
shore ? | |

After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my
condition, I began to look round me, to see what kind of a place
I was in, and what was next to be done ; and I soon found my com-
forts abate, and that, in a word, I had a dreadful deliverance ;
for I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor anything either to
eat or drink, to comfort me; neither did I see any prospect
before me, but that of perishing with hunger, or being devoured
by wild beasts: and that which was particularly afflicting to me
was, that I had no weapon either to hunt and kill any creature
for my sustenance, or to defend myself against any other creature
that might desire to kill me for theirs. In a word, I had nothing
about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco in a
box. This was all my provision ; and this threw me into terrible
agonies of mind, that for a while I ran about like a madman.
Night coming upon me, I began, with a heavy heart, to consider
what would be my lot if there were any ravenous beasts in that
country, seeing at night they always come abroad for their prey.

All the remedy that offered to my thoughts, at that time, was
- to get up into a thick bushy tree, like a fir, but thorny—which
grew near me, and where I resolved to sit all night—and con-
sider the next day what death I should die, for as yet I saw no
prospect of life. I walked about a furlong from the shore, to
see if I could find any fresh water to drink, which I did, to my
great joy, and having drunk, and put a little tobacco in my >
mouth to prevent hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into
it, endeavoured to place myself so as that, if I should sleep, I
might not fall; and having cut me a short stick like a truncheon,
for my defence, I took up my lodging, and having been exces-
sively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I
believe, few could have done in my condition, and found myself
the most refreshed with it that I think I ever was on such an
occasion.




CHAPTER IV.

Crusoe, on waking in the morning, sees the ship lying a-ground high out of the
water—He comes down from the tree—Swims to the ship—Constructs a raft,
which he loads with stores, and guides with difficulty to the shore—Surveys
the country, and discovers that it is an island and uninhabited—Shoots a bird,
the flesh of which proves to be carrion—Unloads the raft, and erects a hut—
Swims to the ship again, and brings a second cargo ashore—On his return is
confronted by a wild cat, which discovers a disposition to be friendly—Makes
a tent, which he furnishes and fortifies—Repeats his visits to the ship, which
he strips of its contents—Removes his tent to a more advantageous site, and
fences it strongly—Kills a she-goat, and is grieved thereat.

LEN I waked it was broad day, the weather clear,
and the storm abated, so that the sea did not rage
and swell as before; but that which surprised me
most was, that the ship was lifted off in the night
= from the sand where she lay, by the swelling of the
tide, and was driven up almost as far as the rock which I first
mentioned, where I had been so bruised by the dashing me
against It. This being within about a mile from the shore where
I was, and the ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished
myself on board, that at least I might save some necessary things
for my use. :

When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked
about me again, and the first thing I found was the boat, which
lay, as the wind and the sea had tossed her up upon the land,
about two miles on my right hand. I walked as far as I could
‘upon the shore to have got to her, but found a neck, or inlet, of
water between me and the boat, which was about half a mile
broad; so I came back for the present, being more intent upon
getting at the ship, where I hoped to find something for my
present subsistence.

A little after noon I found the sea very calm, and the tide
ebbed so far out that I could come within a quarter of a mile of


ROBINSON CRUSOE. 43

the ship; and here I found a fresh renewing of my grief, for I
saw evidently that, if we had kept on board, we had all been
safe—that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I had not
been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all comfort
and company as I now was. This forced tears from my eyes
again, but as there was little relief in that, I resolved, if possible,
to get to the ship; so I pulled off my clothes, for the weather
was hot to extremity, and took the water: but when I came to
the ship, my difficulty was still greater to know how to get on
board, for as she lay aground, and high out of the water, there
was nothing within my reach to lay hold of. I swam round her
twice, and the second time I spied a small piece of rope, which I
wondered I did not see at first, hang down by the fore-chains, so
low as that with great difficulty I got hold of it, and by the help
of that rope got into the forecastle of the ship. Here I found
that the ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water in her
hold ; but that she-lay so on the side of a bank of hard sand, or
rather earth, and her stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and her
head low, almost to the water. By this means all her quarter was
free, and all that was in that part was dry ; for you may be sure
my first work was to search and to see what was spoiled and what
was free: and first I found that all the ship’s provisions were dry
and untouched by the water; and being very well disposed to
_eat, I went to the bread-room, and filled my pockets with biscuit,
and eat it as I went about other things, for I had no time to lose.
I also found some rum in the great cabin, of which I took a large
dram, and which I had indeed need enough of, to spirit me for
what was before me. Now I wanted nothing but a boat, to
furnish myself with many things which I foresaw would be very
necessary to me.

It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be had,
and this extremity roused my application ; we had several spare
yards, and two or three large spars of wood, and a spare topmast
or two in the ship. I resolved to fall to work with these, and
flung as many of them overboard as I could manage of their
weight, tying every one with a rope, that they might not drive
- away. When this was done, I went down the ship’s side, and
pulling them to me, I tied four of them fast together at both ends,
as well as I could, in the form of a raft, and laying two or three
short pieces of plank upon them crossways, I found I could walk
44 ADVENTURES OF

upon it very well, but that it was not able to bear any great weight,
the pieces being too light; so I went to work, and with the
carpenter’s saw I cut a spare topmast into three lengths, and
added them to my raft, with a great deal of labour and pains.
But the hope of furnishing myself with necessaries encouraged
me to go beyond what I should have been able to have done
upon another occasion.

My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable weight.
My next care was what to load it with, and how to preserve what
I laid upon it from the surf of the sea. But I was not long con-
sidering this. I first laid all the planks, or boards, upon it that’
I could get, and having considered well what I most wanted, I
first got three of the seamen’s chests, which I had broken open
and emptied, and lowered them down upon my raft. The first
of these I filled with provisions, viz., bread, rice, three Dutch
cheeses, five pieces of dried goats’ flesh (which we lived much
upon), and a little remainder of European corn which had been
laid by for some fowls which wé had brought to sea with us, but
the fowls were killed. There had been some barley and wheat
together, but, to my great disappointment, I found afterwards
that the rats had eaten or spoiled it all. As for liquors, I found
several cases of bottles belonging to our skipper, in which were
some cordial waters, and, in all, about five or six gallons of rack.
These I stowed by themselves, there being no need to put them
into the chests, nor no room for them. While I was doing this
I found the tide began to flow, though very calm, and I had the:
mortification to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had
left on shore upon the sand, swim away; as for my breeches
which were only linen and open-kneed, I swam on board in them
and my stockings. However, this put me upon rummaging for
clothes, of which I found enough, but took no more than I
wanted for present use, for I had other things which my eye was
more upon, as first, tools to work with on shore; and it was after
long searching that I found out the carpenter’s nese which was
indeed a very useful prize to me, and much more valuable than
a ship loading of gold would have been at that time. I got it
down to my raft, even whole as it was, without losing time to look
into it, for I knew in general. what it contained. -

My next care was for some ammunition andarms. There were
two very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two pistols ;
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 45

these I secured first, with some powder-horns and a small bag of
shot, and two old rusty swords. I, knew there were three barrels
of powder in the ship, but knew not where our gunner had stowed

_ them, but with much search I found them, two of them dry and

good, the third had taken water. Those two I got to my raft,
with the arms. And now I thought myself pretty well freighted,
and began to think how I should get to shore with them, having
neither sail, oar, nor rudder; and the least capful of wind would
have overset all my navigation. |

I had three encouragements: 1. A smooth, calm sea. 2. The

- tide rising, and setting in to the shore. 3. What little wind there

was blew me towards the land. And thus, having found two or
three broken oars belonging to the boat, and, besides, the tools
which were in the chest, I found two saws, an axe, and a hammer ;
and with this cargo I put to sea. For a mile, or thereabouts, my
raft went very well, only that I found it drive a little distant from
the place where I had landed before, by which I perceived that
there was some indraft of the water, and consequently 1 hoped to
find some creek or river there, which I might make use of as a
port to get to land with my cargo.

As I imagined, so it was: there appeared before me a little
opening of the land, and I found a strong current of the tide set
into it; so I guided my raft as well as I could, to keep in the

middle of the stream. But here I had like to have suffered a

second shipwreck, which, if I had, I think verily would have
broke my heart; for, knowing nothing of the coast, my raft ran
aground at one end of it upon a shoal, and not being aground at
the other end, it wanted but a little that all my cargo had slipped
off towards that end that was afloat, and so fallen into the water.
I did my utmost, by setting my back against the chests, to keep
them in their places, but could not thrust off the raft with all my
strength; neither durst I stir from the posture I was in, but
holding up the chests with all my might, stood in that manner
near half an hour, in which time the rising of the water brought
me a little more upon a level; and a little after, the water still
rising, my raft floated again, and I thrust her off with the oar I had
into the channel, and then, driving up higher, I at length found

_ myself in the mouth of a little river, with land on both sides,

and a strong current or tide running up. I looked on both
sides for a proper place to get to shore, for I was not willing to
46 ADVENTURES OF

_be driven too high up the river, hoping, in time, to see some
ship at sea, and therefore resolved to place myself as near the
coast as I could.

At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek,
to which, with great pain and difficulty, I guided my raft, and
at last got so near as that, reaching ground with my oar, I could
thrust her directly in ; but here I had like to have dipped all
my cargo into the sea again, for that shore lying pretty steep, _
that is to say, sloping, there was no place to land, but where
one end of my float, if it ran on shore, would lie so high, and
the other sink lower, as before, that it would endanger my cargo
again. All that I could do was to wait till the tide was at the
highest, keeping the raft with my oar, like an anchor, to hold
the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of ground which
I expected the water would flow over; and so it did. As soon
as I found water enough, for my raft drew about a foot of water,
I thrust her upon that flat piece of ground, and there fastened or
moored her, by sticking my two broken oars into the ground, one
on one side near one end, and one on the other side near the
other end ; and thus I lay till the water ebbed away, and left my
raft and all my cargo safe on shore.

My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper place
for my habitation, and where to stow my goods, to secure them
from whatever might happen. Where I was I yet knew not ;
whether on the continent or on an island, whether inhabited or
not inhabited, whether in danger of wild beasts or not. There
was a hill, not above a mile from me, which rose up very steep
and high, and which seemed to overtop some other hills, which
lay as in a ridge from it northward. I took out one of the fowling-
pieces, and one of the pistols, and a horn of powder, and thus
armed, I travelled for discovery up to the top of that hill, where,
after I had with great labour and difficulty got up to the top, I
saw my fate, to my great affliction, viz., that I was in an island
environed every way with the sea, no land to be seen, except
some rocks which lay a great way off, and two small islands, less
than this, which lay about three leagues to the west.

I found also that the island I was in was barren, and as I saw
good reason to believe, uninhabited, except by wild beasts, of
whom, however, I saw none; yet I saw abundance of fowls, but
knew not their kinds, neither when I killed them could I tell
ROBINSON CRUSOE. | 47

what was fit for food and what not. At my coming back I shot
ata great bird which I saw sitting upon a tree on the side of a
great wood. I believe it was the first gun that had been fired
there since the creation of the world: I had no sooner fired, but
from all parts of the wood there arose an innumerable number of
fowls, of many sorts, making a confused screaming, and crying
every one according to his usual note; but not one of them of
any kind that I knew. As for that creature I killed, I took it to
be a kind of a hawk, its colour and beak resembling it, but had
no talons or claws more than common. Its flesh was carrion and
fit for nothing.

Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and fell
to work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me up the rest
of that day ; what to do with myself at night I knew not, nor
indeed where to rest, for I was afraid to lie down on the ground,
not knowing but some wild beast might devour me, though, as I
afterwards found, there was really no need for those fears.

However, as well as I could, I barricadoed myself round with
the chests and boards that I had brought on shore, and made a
kind of a hut for that night’s lodging. As for food, I yet,saw not
which way to supply myself, except that I had seen two or three
creatures, like hares, run out of the wood where I shot the fowl.

I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many
things out of the ship which would be useful to me, and particu-
larly some of the rigging and sails, and such other things as
might come to land ; and I resolved to make another voyage on
board the vessel, if possible. And as I knew that the first storm
that blew must necessarily break her all in pieces, I resolved to
set all other things apart till I got everything out of the ship
that I could get. Then I called a council, that is to say, in my
thoughts, whether I should take back the raft, but this appeared
impracticable ; so I resolved to go, as before, when the tide was
down, and I did so, only that I stripped before I went from my
hut, having nothing on but a chequered shirt and a pair of linen
drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.

I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second raft ;
and having had experience of the first, I neither made this so
unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard, but yet I brought away several
things very useful to me: as, first, in the carpenter’s stores, I
found two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a great screw-
48 ADVENTURES OF

jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and, above all, that most useful
thing called a grindstone. All these I secured together, with
several things belonging to the gunner, particularly two or three
iron crows, and two barrels of musket bullets, seven muskets, and
another fowling-piece, with some small quantity of powder more,
a large bag full of small shot, and a great roll of sheet lead ; but
this last was so heavy I could not hoist it up to get it over the
ship’s side.

Besides these things, I took all the men’s clothes that I could
find, and a spare fore-topsail, hammock, and some bedding ; and
‘with this I loaded my second raft, and brought them all safe on
shore to my very great comfort. Bhi

I was under some apprehensions, during my absence from the
land, that at least my provisions might be devoured on shore;
but, when I came back, I found no sign of any visitor, only there
' sat a creature like a wild cat upon one of the chests, which, when
I came towards it, ran away a little distance and then stood still.
She sat very composed and unconcerned, and looked full in my
face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted with me. I presented
my gun at her, but as she did not understand it she was per-
fectly unconcerned at it, nor did she offer to stir away, upon
which I tossed her a bit of biscuit, though, by the way, I was not
very free of it, for my store was not great ; however, I spared her
a bit, Isay, and she went to it, smelled of it, and eat it, and looked,
as pleased, for more; but I thanked her, and could spare no
more, SO she ‘neeahath off.

‘Having got my second cargo on shote—thoush I was fain to
open the barrels of powder and bring them by parcels, for they
were too heavy, being large casks,—I went to work to make me
a little tent with the sail and some poles which I cut for that
purpose, and into this tent I brought everything that I knew -
would spoil, either with rain or sun; and I piled all the empty
chests and casks up in a circle round the tent, to fortify it from
any sudden attempt either from man or beast.

When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent with
some boards within, and an empty chest set up on end without ;
and spreading one of the beds upon the ground, laying my =
pistols just at my head, and my gun at length by me, I went to
bed for the first time, and slept very quietly all night ; for I was
very weary and heavy, for the night before I had slept little,

ee
Tee a P os
ae as TONY BHR 2s. os
Spinare a pale stare Dat cee Bee oi
5 3: a cera:

CRUSOE, ON “TRE RAFT:


ROBINSON CRUSOE. AQ

and had laboured very hard all day, as well to fetch all those
things from the’ship as to get them on shore.

_ I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was laid
up, I believe, for one man; but I was not satisfied still, for while
the ship sat upright in that posture, I thought I ought to get every-
thing out of her that I could: so every day, at low water, I went
on board and brought away something or other; but particularly
the third time I went, I brought away as much of the rigging as
I could, as also all the small ropes and rope-twine I could get,
with a piece of spare canvas, which was to mend the sails upon
occasion, and the barrel of wet gunpowder. In a word, I brought
away all the sails, first and last, only that I was fain to cut them
in pleces, and bring as much at a time as I could; for they were
no more useful to be sails, but as mere canvas only.

But that which comforted me more still was, that, at last of all,
after I had made five or six such voyages as these, and thought I
had nothing more to expect from the ship that was worth my.
meddling with,—I say, after all this, I found a great hogshead of
bread, and three large runlets of rum or spirits, and a box of sugar
and a barrel of fine flour; this was surprising to me, because I
had given over expecting any more provisions, except what was
spoiled by the water. I soon emptied the hogshead of that bread
and wrapped it up, parcel by parcel, in pieces of the sails, which
I cut out; and, in a word, I got all this safe on shore also.

The next day I made another voyage, and now, having
plundered the ship of what was portable and fit to hand out, I
began with the cables, and cutting the great cable into pieces
such as I could move, I got two cables and a hawser on shore,
with all the iron work I could get; and, having cut down the
spritsail-yard and the mizen-yard, and everything I could, to make
a large raft, I loaded it with all those heavy goods, and came
away: but my good luck began now to leave me; for this raft
was so unwieldy and so overladen, that after I was entered the
little cove where I had landed the rest of my goods, not being
able to guide it so handily as I did the other, it overset, and threw
me and all my cargo into the water. As for myself, it was no
great harm, for I was near the shore; but as to my cargo, it was .
a great part of it lost, especially the iron, which I expected would
have been of great use to me. However, when the tide was out,
I got most of the pieces of cable ashore, and some of the iron,

D
50 ADVENTURES OF

though with infinite labour; for I was fain to dip for it into the
water, a work which fatigued me very much. After this I went
every day on board, and brought away what I could get. |

I had been now thirteen days on shore, and had been eleven
times on board the ship, in which time I had brought away all
that one pair of hands could well be supposed capable to bring ;
though, I believe verily, had the calm weather held, I should
have brought away the whole ship, piece by piece ; but, preparing
the twelfth time to go on board, I found the wind began to rise.
‘However, at low water, I went on board, and though I thought I
had rummaged the cabin so effectually, as that nothing more could
be found, yet I discovered alockerwith drawers in it,in one of which '
I found two or three razors, and one pair of large scissors, with
some ten or a dozen of good knives and forks ; in another I found
about thirty-six pounds value in money, some European coin,
some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some gold, some silver.

I smiled to myself at the sight of this money. ‘“O drug!”
said I aloud, “what art thou good for? Thou art not worth to
me, no, not the taking off the ground; one of those knives is
worth all this heap: I have no manner of use for thee; e’en
remain where thou art, and go to the bottom, as a creature whose
life is not worth saving.” However, upon second thoughts, I
took it away; and wrapping all this in a piece of canvas, I
began to think of masting another raft; but while I was prepar-
ing this, I found the sky overcast, and the wind began to rise,
and in a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale from the shore.
It presently occurred to me, that it was in vain to pretend to
make a raft with the wind off shore, and that it was my business
to be gone before the tide of flood began, otherwise I might not
be able to reach the shore at all. Accordingly I let myself down
into the water, and swam across the channel which lay between
the ship and the sands, and even that with difficulty enough,
_ partly with the weight of the things I had about me, and partly
the roughness of the water; for the wind rose very hastily, and
before it was quite high water it blew a storm.

But I was gotten home to my little tent, where I lay, with all
my wealth about me, very secure. It blew very hard all that
night, and in the morning, when I looked out, behold no more
ship was to be seen! I was a little surprised, but recovered my-
self with this satisfactory reflection, viz., that I had lost no time, |
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 51

nor abated no diligence, to get everything out of her that could
be useful to me, and that indeed there was little left in her that
I was able to bring away, if I had had more time.

I now gave over any miore thoughts of the ship, or of anything
out of her, except what might drive on shore from her wreck, as,
indeed, divers pieces of her MUS did; but those things were
of small use to me.

My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing myself
against either savages, if any should appear, or wild beasts, if any
were in the island; and I had many thoughts of the method how
to do this, and what kind of dwelling to make, whether I should
make me a cave in the earth, or a tent upon the earth; and, in
short, I resolved upon both, the manner and description of which,
it may not be improper to give an account of.

I soon found the place I was in was not for my settlement,
particularly because it was upon a low, moorish ground, near the
sea, and I believed it would not be wholesome; and more par-
ticularly because there was no fresh water near it: so I resolved
to find a more healthy and more convenient spot of ground.

I consulted several things in my situation, which I found would
be proper for me: first, Health and fresh water I just now men-
tioned; secondly, Shelter from the heat of the sun; thirdly,
Security from ravenous creatures, whether man or beast ; fourthly,
A view to the sea, that if God sent any ship in sight, I might not
lose any advantage for my deliverance, for which I was not will-
ing to banish,all my expectation yet.

In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain on
the side of arising hill, whose front towards this little plain was
steep as a house side, so that nothing could come down upon me
from the top. On the side of this rock there was a hollow place,
worn a little way in, like the entrance or door of a cave, but there
was not really any cave, or way into the rock, at all.

On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place, I resolved
to pitch my tent. This plain was not above a hundred yards
broad, and about twice as long, and lay like a green before my
door; and at the end of it, descended irregularly every way down
into the low grounds by the seaside. . It was on the north-north-
west side of the hill, so that it was ‘sheltered from the heat every
day, till it came to a west-and-by-south sun, or thereabouts, which
in those countries is near the setting.
62 ADVENTURES OF

Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle before the hollow
place, which took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter from
the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter, from its beginning and
ending.

In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving
them into the ground till they stood very firm like piles, the
biggest end being out of the ground about five feet and a half, and
sharpened on the top: the two rows did not stand above six
inches from one another.

Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship,
and laid them in rows, one upon another, within the circle be-
tween these two rows of stakes up to the top, placing other stakes
in the inside, leaning against them, about two feet and a half
high, like a spur to a post; and this fence was so strong, that
neither man nor beast could get into it or over it. This cost me
a great deal of time and labour, especially to cut the piles in the
woods, bring them to the place, and drive them into the earth.

The entrance into, this place I made to be not by a door, but
by a short ladder to go over the top; which ladder, when I was
in, I lifted over after me, and so I was completely fenced in and
fortified, as I thought, from all the world, and consequently slept
secure in the night, which otherwise I could not have done;
though, as it appeared afterwards, there was no need of all this
caution from the enemies that I apprehended danger from.

Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labour, I carried all my
riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which you
have the account above; and I made me a large tent, which, to
preserve me from the rains that in one part of the year are very
violent there, I made double, viz., one smaller tent within, and
one larger tent above it, and covered the uppermost with a large
tarpaulin which I had saved among the sails.

And now I lay no more, for a while, in the bed which I had
brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was indeed a very
good one, and belonged to the mate of the ship.

Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything that
would spoil by the wet ; and having thus enclosed all my goods,
I made up the entrance which, till now, I had left open, and so
passed and repassed, as I said, by a short ladder.

When I had done this, I began to work my way into the rock,
and bringing all the earth and stones that I dug down out through
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 53

my tent, I laid them up within my fence in the nature of a terrace,

so that it raised the ground within about a foot and a half; and

thus I made a cave, just behind my tent, which served me like a
cellar to my house.

It cost me much labour and many ee before all these things
were brought to perfection ; and therefore I must go back to some
other things which took up some of my thoughts. At the same
time it happened, after I had laid my scheme for the setting up my
tent, and making the cave, that a storm of rain falling from a thick,
dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning happened, and after that a
great clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect of it. I was not
so much surprised with the lightning as I was with a thought
which darted into my inind as swift as the lightning itself: Oh,
-my powder! My very heart sunk within me when I thought,
that at one blast all my powder might be destroyed, on which,
not my defence only, but the providing me food, as I thought,
entirely depended. I was nothing near so anxious about my own
danger, though, had the poweies took fire, I had never known who
had hurt me.

Such impression did this make upon me, that after the storm
was over, I laid aside all my works, my building and fortifying,
and applied myself to make bags and boxes, to separate the
powder, and to keep it a little and a little in a parcel, in hope that
whatever might come, it might not all take fire at once; and to
keep it so apart, that 1t should not be possible to make one part
fire another. I finished this work in about a fortnight, and I
think my powder, which in all was about one hundred and forty
pounds weight, was divided in not less than one hundred parcels.
As to the barrel that had been wet, I did not apprehend any
danger from that; so I placed it in my new cave, which, in my
fancy, I called my kitchen, and the rest I hid up and down in
holes among the rocks, so that no wet might come to it, marking
very carefully where I laid it.

In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out at least
once every day with my gun, as well to divert myself as to see if
I could kill anything fit for food, and, as near as I could, to
acquaint myself with what the island produced. ‘The first time I
went out I presently discovered that there were goats in the island,
which was a great satisfaction to me; but then it was attended
with this misfortune to me, viz., that oe were so shy, so subtle,
54 | ADVENTURES OF

and so swift of foot, that it was the most difficult thing in the
world to come at them: but I was not discouraged at this,
not doubting but I might now and then shoot one, as it
soon happened ; for, after I had found their haunts a little, I
laid wait in this manner for them: I observed, if they saw
me in the valleys, though they were upon the rocks, they would
run away as in a terrible fright; but if they were feeding
in the valleys, and I was upon the rocks, they took no notice
of me; from whence I concluded that, by the position of their
optics, their sight was so directed downward that they did not
readily see objects that were above them: so afterwards I took
this method—I always climbed the rocks first, to get above them,
and then had frequently a fair mark. The first shot I made
among these creatures I killed a she-goat, which had a little kid
by her which she gave suck to, which grieved me heartily; but
when the old one fell, the kid stood stock still by her, till I came
and took her up; and not only so, but when I carried the old
one with me, upon my shoulders, the kid followed me quite to
my enclosure, upon which I laid down the dam, and took the
kid in my arms and carried it over my pale, in hopes to have
bred it up tame ; but it would not eat, so I was forced to kill it
and eat it myself. These two supplied me with flesh a great
while, for I ate sparingly and saved my provisions, my bread
especially, as much as possibly I could.

Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely neces-
sary to provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn; and
what I did for that, as also how I enlarged my cave, and what con-
veniences I made, I shall give a full account of it in its place: but
I must first give some little account of myself, and of my thoughts
about living, which, it may well be supposed, were not a few.

I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for as I was not
cast away upon that island without being driven, as is said, by a
‘violent storm quite out of the course of our intended voyage, and
a great way, viz., some hundreds of leagues, out of the ordinary |
course of the trade of mankind, I had great reason to consider
it as a determination of Heaven that, in this desolate place, and
in this desolate manner, I should end my life. The tears would
run plentifully down my face when I made these reflections, and
sometimes I would expostulate with myself why Providence should
thus completely ruin its creatures, and render them so absolutely
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 55

miserable,—so without help abandoned, so entirely depressed, that
it could hardly be rational to be thankful for such a life.

But something always returned swift upon me to check these
thoughts, and to reprove me; and particularly one day walking
with my gun in my hand by the seaside, I was very pensive upon
the subject of my present condition, when reason, as it were,
expostulated with me the other way thus: “Well, you are ina
desolate condition, it is true; but, pray remember, where are the
rest of you? Did not you come eleven of you into the boat?
Where are the ten? Why were not they saved, and you lost?
Why were you singled out? Is it better to be here or there ?’
And then I pointed to the sea. All evils are to be considered with
the good that is in them, and with what worse attended them.

Then it occurred to me again,‘ how well I was furnished for
my subsistence, and what would have been my case if it had not
happened, which was a hundred thousand to one, that the ship
floated from the place where she first struck, and was driven so
near to the shore that I had time to get all these things out of
her: what would have been my case, if I had been to have lived
in the condition in which I at first came on shore, without
necessaries of life, or necessaries to supply and procure them?
“Particularly,” said I aloud (though to myself), “‘what should I
have done without a gun, without ammunition, without any tools
to make anything or to work with, without clothes, bedding, a
tent, or any manner of coverings?” and that now I had all these
to a sufficient quantity, and was in a fair way to provide myself
in such a manner as to live.without my gun, when my ammuni-
tion was spent,'so that I had a tolerable view of subsisting,
without any want, as long as I lived; for I considered, from the
beginning, how I would provide for the accidents that might
happen, and for the time that was to come, even not only after
my ammunition should be spent, but even after my health or
strength should decay.

I confess I had not entertained any notion of my ammunition
being destroyed at one blast, 1 mean my powder being blown up
by lightning; and this made the thoughts of it so surprising to
me, when it lightened and thundered, as I observed just now.

And now, being to enter into a melancholy relation of a scene of
silent life, such perhaps as was never heard of in the world before,
I shall take it from its beginning, and continue it in its order.


CHAPTER Y,

Crusoe sets up a wooden cross, on which he inscribes the date of his landing, and
keeps his reckoning of time—He seriously considers his position, and balancing
the good in it against the evil, arrives at the conclusion that he is not altogether
miserable—Makes various articles of furniture for his house, with the aid of the
tools found in the ship—Keeps a journal.

OS T was, by my account, the 30th of September, when,
. 557 in the manner as above said, I first set foot upon
| this horrid island,—when the sun, being to us in
its autumnal equinox, was almost just over my

. head ; for I reckoned myself, by observation, to be
in the latitude of nine degrees twenty-two minutes north of the
Line.

_ After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came into
my thoughts that I should lose my reckoning of time for want of
books and pen and ink, and should even forget the Sabbath days
from the working days; but, to prevent this, I cut it with my
knife upon a large post, in capital letters, and making it into a
great cross, I set it up on the shore where I first landed, viz., “I
came on shore here the 3oth of September 1659.” Upon the
sides of this square post I cut every day a notch with my knife,
and every seventh notch was_as long again as the rest, and every
first day of the month as: long again as that long one; and thus
{ kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning
of time.

In the next place, we are to observe that among the many
things which I brought out of the ship, in the several voyages
which, as above mentioned, I made to it, I got several things of
less value, but not at all less useful to me, which I omitted
setting down before, as, in particular, pens, ink, and paper ;
several parcels in the captain’s, mate’s, gunner’s, and carpenter’s -
keeping ; three or four compasses, some mathematical instru. ~


ROBINSON CRUSOE. 57

ments, dials, perspectives, charts, and books of navigation ; all
which I huddled together, whether I might want them or no:
also I found three very good Bibles, which came to me in my
cargo from England, and which I had packed up among my
things; some Portuguese books also, and, among them, two or
three Popish prayer-books, and several other books, all which I
carefully secured. And I must not forget that we had in the ship
a dog and two cats, of whose eminent history I may have occa-
sion to say something in its place; for I carried both the cats
with me, and, as for the dog, he jumped out of the ship himself
and swam on shore to me the day after I went on shore with my
first cargo, and was a trusty servant to me many years. I wanted
nothing that he could fetch me, nor any company that he could
-make up to me; I only wanted to have him talk to me, but that
would not do. As I observed before, I found pen, ink, and
paper, and I husbanded them to the utmost; and I shall show
that, while my ink lasted, I kept things very exact, but after that
‘was gone I could not, for I could not make any ink by any
means that I could devise. :

And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, notwith-
standing all that I had amassed together ; and of these, this of
ink was one, as also spade, pickaxe, and shovel, to dig or remove
the earth ; needles, pins, and thread. As for linen, I soon learned
to want that without much difficulty.

This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily, and
it was near a whole year before I had entirely finished my little
pale, or surrounded habitation. ‘The piles, or stakes, which were
as heavy as I could well lift, were a long time in cutting and pre-
paring in the woods, and more by far in bringing home ; so that
I spent sometimes two days in cutting and bringing home one of
those posts, and a third day in driving it into the ground ; for
which purpose I got a heavy piece of wood at first, but at last
bethought myself of one of the iron crows, which, however,
though I found it, yet it made driving those posts, or piles, very
laborious and tedious work. But what need I have been con-
cerned at the tediousness of anything I had to do, seeing I had
time enough to do it in? Nor had I any other employment, if
that had been over, at least that I could foresee, except the
ranging the island to seek for food, which I did, more or less,
every day. _ ,
58 ADVENTURES OF

I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the cir-
cumstance I was reduced to; and I drew up the state of my
affairs in writing, not so much to leave them to any that were to
come after me (for I was like to have but few heirs), as to deliver
my thoughts from daily poring upon them, and afflicting my
mind: and as my reason began now to master my despondency,
I began to comfort myself as well as I could, and to set the good
against the evil, that I might have something to distinguish my
case from worse ; and I stated it very impartially, like debtor and
creditor, the comforts I enjoyed against the miseries I suffered,
thus: |

EVIL. GOOD.

I am cast upon a horrible, desolate But I am alive; and am not drowned,
island, void of all hope of recovery. as all my ship's company was.

- I am singled out and separated, as it But I am singled out, too, from all the
were, from all the world, to be miserable. ship’s crew, to be spared from death ;
and He that miraculously saved me from
death, can deliver me from this condition.

I am divided from mankind, a so/2- But I am not starved, and perishing on
Zazre, one banished from human society. a barren place, affording no sustenance.

I have no clothes to cover me. But I am in a hot climate, where, if I
7 had clothes, I could hardly wear them. -

I am without any defence, or means But I am cast on an island, where I see
to resist any violence of man or beast. no wild beast to hurt me, as I saw on the
coast of Africa; and what if 1 had been

shipwrecked there?

I have no soul to speak to, or relieve But God wonderfully sent the ship in
me, near enough to the shore, that I have
gotten out so many necessary things as
will either supply my wants, or enable me

to supply myself, even as long as I live,

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony that there
was scarce any condition in the world so miserable, but there was
something negative, or something positive, to be thankful for in
it ; and let this stand as a direction, from the experience of the
most miserable of all conditions in this world, that we may always
find in it something to comfort ourselves from, and to set, in the
description of good and evil, on the credit side of the account.

Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition, -
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 59

and given over looking out to sea, to see if I could spy a ship,—
I say, given over these things, I began to apply myself to accom-
modate my way of living, and to make things as easy to me as
I could.

I have already described my habitation, which was a tent under
the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of posts and
cables ; but I might now rather call it a wall, for I raised a kind
of wall up against it of turfs, about two feet thick on the outside,
and after some time (I think it was a year and half) I raised
rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and thatched, or covered, it
with boughs of trees and such things as I could get, to keep out
the rain, which I found at some times of the year very violent.

I have already observed how I brought all my goods into this
pale, and into the cave which I had made behind me. But I
must observe, too, that at first this was a confused heap of goods,
which, as they lay in no order, so they took up all my place: I
had no room to turn myself, so I set myself to enlarge my cave
and works farther into the earth ; for it was a loose sandy rock,
which yielded easily to the labour I bestowed on it: and so when
I found I was pretty safe as to beasts of prey, I worked sideways, -
to the right hand, into the rock, and then turning to the right
again, worked quite out, and made me a door to come out on
the outside of my pale or fortification.

This gave me not only egress and regress, as it were a back
way to my tent and to my storehouse, but gave me room to stow
my goods.

And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary
things as I found I most wanted, particularly a chair and a table ;
for without these I was not able to enjoy the few comforts I We
in the world,—I' could not write, or eat, or do several things,
with so much pleasure, without a table.

So I went to work ; and here I must needs observe that, as
reason is the substance and original of the mathematics, so, by
stating and squaring everything by reason, and by making the
most rational judgment of things, every man may be, in time,
master of every mechanic art. I had never handled a tool in my
life; and‘yet, in time, by labour, application, and contrivance, I
oun at last, that I wanted nothing but I could have made it,
especially if I had had tools. However, I made abundance of
things, even without tools, and some with no more tools than an
60. ADVENTURES OF

adze and a hatchet, which, perhaps, were never made that way
before, and that with infinite labour. For example, if I wanted
a board, I had no other way but to cut down a tree, set it on an
edge before me, and hew it flat on either side with my axe, till I
had brought it to be as thin as a plank, and then dub it smooth
with my adze. It is true, by this method I could make but one
board out of a whole tree; but this I had no remedy for but
patience, any more than I had for the prodigious deal of time and
labour which it took me up to make a plank or board: but my
time or labour was little worth, and so it was as well employed .
one way as another.

However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed above,
in the first place—and this I did out of the short pieces of boards
that I brought on my raft from the ship. But when I had
wrought out some boards, as above, I made large shelves of the
breadth of a foot and a half, one over another, all along one side
of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and iron-work, and, in a
word, to separate everything at large in their places, that I might
easily come at them. ' I knocked pieces into the wall of the rock,
to hang my guns, and all things that would hang up.

So that, had my cave been to be seen, it looked like a general
magazine of all necessary things; and I had everything so ready
at my hand, that it was a great pleasure to me to see all my goods
in such order, and especially to find my stock of all necessaries so
great. |

And now it was when I began to keep a journal of every day’s
employment ; for, indeed, at first, I was in too much a hurry, and
not only hurry as to labour, but in too much discomposure of
mind, and my journal would have been full of many dull things ;
for example, I must have said thus—‘‘ Ses¢. 30¢4.—After I got to
shore, and had escaped drowning, instead of being thankful to
God for my deliverance, having first vomited with the great
quantity of salt water which was gotten into my stomach, and .
recovering myself a little, I ran about the shore, wringing my
hands, and beating my head and face, exclaiming at my misery,
and crying out, I was undone, undone! till, tired and faint, I was
forced to lie down on the ground to repose, but durst not sleep,
for fear of being devoured.”

Some days after this, and after I had been on board the ship
and got all that I could out of her, yet I could not forbear
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 61

getting up to the top of a little mountain and looking out to
sea, in hopes of seeing a ship; then fancy at a vast distance I
spied a sail—please myself with the hopes of it,—and then, after
looking steadily, till I was almost blind, lose it quite, and sit
down and weep like a child, and thus increase my misery by
my folly.

But having gotten over these things in some measure, and
having settled my household stuff and habitation, made me a
table and a chair, and all as handsome about me as I could, I
began to keep my journal,—of which I shall here give you the
copy (though in it will be told all these particulars over again)
as long as it lasted; for, having no more ink, I was forced to
leave it off.

THE JOURNAL. |

September 30, 1659. —I, poor miserable Robinson Crusoe,
being shipwrecked during a dreadful storm in the offing, came
on shore on this dismal unfortunate island, which I called the
IsLAND oF. Despair, all the rest of the ship’s company being
drowned, and myself almost dead. All the rest of the day I
spent in afflicting myself at the dismal circumstances I was
brought to, viz., I had neither food, house, clothes, weapon, nor
place to fly to, and in despair of any relief, saw nothing but
death before me, either that I should be devoured by wild beasts,
- murdered by savages, or starved to death for want of food. At
the approach of night I slept in a tree, for fear of wild creatures,
but slept soundly, though it rained all night.

October 1.—In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the
ship had floated with the high tide, and was driven on shore again
much nearer the island; which, as it was some comfort on one
hand (for seeing her sit upright, and not broken to pieces, I
hoped, if the wind abated, I might get on board, and get some
food and necessaries out of her for my relief), so, on the other
hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my comrades, who, I
imagined, if we had all stayed on board, might have saved the ship,
or, at least, that they would not have been all drowned, as they
were; and that, had the men been saved, we might, perhaps, have
built us a boat out of the ruins of the ship, to have carried us to
some other part of the world. I spent great part of this day in
bees ADVENTURES OF

perplexing myself on these things; but at length seeing the ship
almost dry, I went upon the sand as near as I could, and then
swam on board. ‘This day also it continued eae a paueh with
no wind at all.

From the t1s¢ of October to the 24¢4.—All these days entirely
spent in making several voyages to get all I could out of the ship,
which I preuelt on shore, every tide of flood, upon rafts. Much |
rain also in these days, though with some intervals of fair weather;
but it seems this was the rainy season.

Oct. 20.—I overset my raft and all the goods I had got upon
it, but being in shoal water, and the things being chiefly heavy, I
recovered many of them when the tide was out.

Oct. 25.—It rained all night and all day, with some gusts of .
wind; during which time the ship broke in pieces, the wind
blowing a little harder than before, and was no more to be seen,
except the wreck of her, and that only at low water. I spent
this day in covering and securing the goods which I had saved,
that the rain might not spoil them.

Oct. 26.—I walked about the shore almost all day, to find out
a place to fix my habitation, greatly concerned to secure myself
from any attack in the night, either from wild beasts or men.
Towards night I fixed upon a proper place, under a rock; and

marked out a semicircle for my encampment, which I resolve to
strengthen with a work, wall, or fortification, made of double
piles, lined within with cable and without with turf. —

From the 26¢4 to the 30%, I worked very hard in carrying all
my goods to my new habitation, though some part of the time it
rained exceeding hard.

The 31s¢, in the morning, I went out into the island ah my
gun, to seek for some food and discover the country, when I killed
a she-goat, and, her kid followed me home, which I afterwards
killed also, because it would not feed.

November 1.—I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there
for the first night, making it as large as I could, with stakes driven
in to swing my hammock upon.

LVov. 2.—I set up all my chests and boards, and the pieces of
timber which made my rafts; and with them formed a ‘fence
round me, a little within the ae I had marked out for my
fortification,

Lov. 3.—I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls like -
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 63

ducks, which were very good food. In the afternoon went to
work to make me a table.

LVov. 4.—This morning I began to order my times of work, of
going out with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diversion ; viz.,
every morning I walked out with my gun for two or three hours,
if it did not rain ; then employed myself to work till about eleven
o'clock ; then eat what I had to live on; and from twelve to two
I lay down to sleep, the weather being excessive hot ; and then,
in the evening, to work again. The working part of this day and
the next were wholly employed in making my table, for I was yet
but a very sdrry workman, though time and necessity made me
a complete natural mechanic soon after, as I believe it would do
any one else. ! |
_ Nov. 5.—This day I went abroad with my gun and dog, and
killed a wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good for
nothing: every creature I killed, I took off the skins and pre-
served them. Coming back by the seashore, I saw many sorts
of sea-fowls which I did not understand, but was surprised, and ©
almost frighted, with two or three seals, which, while I was gazing
at, not well knowing what they were, got into the sea and escaped
me for that time.

Nov. 6.—After my morning walk, I went to work crit my
table again, and finished it, though not to my oe 3 nor was it

long before I learned to mend it.

Nov. 7.—Now it began to be settled fair wadictrere The “th,
8th, 9th, roth, and part of the 12th (for the 11th was Sunday,
according to my reckoning), I took wholly up to make me a
chair, and with much ado brought it to a tolerable shape, but
never to please me; and, even in the making, I pulled it to
pieces several himes ees I soon neglected my keeping Sun-
days; for, omitting my mark for them on my post, I forgot which
was which.

Vov. 13.—This day it rained, which refreshed me exceedingly,
and cooled the earth; but it was accompanied with terrible
thunder and lightning, aihich frighted me dreadfully, for fear of
my powder. As soon as it was over, I resolved to separate my
stock of powder into as many little parcels as possible, that it
might not be in danger.

Nov. 14, 15, 16.—These three days I spent in making little
square chests or boxes, which might hold about a pound, or two
64 ADVENTURES OF

pounds. at most, of powder; and so, putting the powder in, I
stowed it in places as secure and remote from one another as
possible. On one of these three days I killed a large bird that
was good to eat, but I know not what to call it.

Vov. 17.—This day I began to dig behind my tent, into the
rock, to make room for my farther conveniency.—JVo/e. ‘Three
things I wanted exceedingly for this. work, viz., a pickaxe, a
shovel, and a wheelbarrow, or basket; so I desisted from my
work, and began to consider how to supply that want, and make
me some tools. As for a pickaxe, I made use of thé iron crows,
, which were proper enough, though heavy; but the next thing
was a shovel or spade: this was so absolutely necessary, that,
indeed, I could do nothing effectually without it, but what kind
of one to make I knew not.

LVov. 18.—The next day, in searching the woods, in found a
tree of that wood, or like it, which, in the Brazils, they call the
iron tree, for its exceeding hardness: of this, with great labour,
and almost spoiling my axe, I cut a piece, and brought it home,
too, with difficulty enough, for it was exceeding heavy. The
excessive hardness of the wood, and having no other way, made
me a long while upon this machine ; for I worked it effectually,
by little and little, into the form of a shovel or spade, the handle
exactly shaped like ours in England, only that the broad part
having no iron shod upon it at bottom, it would not last me so
long : however, it served well enough for the uses which I had
occasion to put it to, but never was a shovel, I believe, made
after that fashion, or so long a-making.

I was still deficient ; for T wanted a basket, or a wheelbarrow.
A basket I could not nal by any means, having no such things
as twigs that would, bend to make wicker-ware, at least none yet
found out ; and as to the wheelbarrow, I fancied I could make
all but che wheel, but that I had no notion of, neither did I know
how to go about it ; besides, I had no possible way to’ make iron
gudgeons for the spindle or axes of the wheel to run in; so I gave
it over: and so, for carrying away the earth which I dug out of
the cave, I made me a thing like a hod which the labourers carry
mortar in when they serve the bricklayers.

This was not so difficult to me as the making the shovel ; and yet
this and the shovel, and the attempt which I made in vain to make
a wheelbarrow, took me up no less than four days—I mean, always -
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 65

excepting my morning walk with my gun, which I seldom failed,
and very seldom failed also of bringing home something fit to eat.

LVov. 23.—-My other work having now stood still, because of
my making these tools, when they were finished I went on, and
working every day, as my strength and time allowed, I spent
eighteen days entirely in widening and deepening my cave, that
it might hold my goods commodiously.—J/Vo¢e. During all this
time, I worked to make this room, or cave, spacious enough to
accommodate me as a warehouse, or magazine, a kitchen, a
dining-room, and a cellar. ~As for a lodging, I kept to the tent ;
except that sometimes, in the wet season of the year, it rained so
hard that I could not keep myself dry, which caused me after-
wards to cover all my place within my pale with long poles in the
form of rafters, leaning against the rock, and load them with flags
and large leaves of trees, like a thatch.

December 10.—I began now to think my cave or vault finished ;
when on a sudden (it seems I had made it too large) a great
quantity of earth fell down from the top and one side—so much,
that, in short, it frighted me, and not without reason too; for if
I had been under it I had never wanted a grave-digger. Upon
this disaster, I had a great deal of work to do over again, for I had
the loose earth to carry out, and which was of more importance,
I had the ceiling to prop up, so that I might be sure no more would
come down.

Dec. 11.—This day I went to work with it accordingly, and
got two shores, or posts, pitched upright to the top, with two
pieces of board across over each post: this I finished the next
day, and setting more posts up with boards, in about a week more
I had the roof secured ; and the posts, standing in rows, served
me for partitions to ee off my house.

- Dec. 17.—From this day to the 2oth, I placed shelves, and
knocked up nails on the posts, to hang everything up that could
be hung up ; and now I began to be in some order within doors.

Dec. 20.—Now I carried everything into the cave, and began
to furnish my house, and set up some pieces of boards, like a
dresser, to order my victuals upon; but boards began to be very
_ scarce with me: also I made me another table.

Dec. 24.—Much rain all night and all day: no stirring out.

Dec. 25.—Rain all day.

Dec. 26.—No rain, and the earth much cooler than before,
and pleasanter. E
66 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Dec. 27.—Killed a young goat, and lamed another, so that I
catched it, and led’ it home in a string; when I had it home, I
bound and splintered up its leg, which was broke.—/V.8. I took
‘such care of it that it lived, and the leg grew well, and as strong
as ever; but by nursing it so long, it grew tame, and fed upon
the little green at my door, and would not go away. ‘This was
the first time that I.entertained a thought of breeding up some.
tame creatures, that I might have food when my powder and shot
was all spent. :

Dec. 28, 29, 30.—Great heats, and no breeze: so that there
was no stirring abroad, except in the evening, for food: this time
I spent in putting all my things in order within doors.

January 1.—Very hot still; but I went abroad early and late
with my gun, and lay still in the middle of the day. This evening,
going farther into the valleys which lay towards the centre of the
island, I found there was plenty of goats, though exceeding shy,
and hard to come at: however, I resolved to try if 1 could not
bring my dog to hunt them down.

Jan. 2.—Accordingly, the next day I went out with my dog,
and set him upon the goats; but I was mistaken, for they all faced
about upon the dog, and he knew his danger too well, for he
would not come near them.

Jan. 3.—I began my fence, or wall, which, being still ‘alos
of my being attacked by somebody, I resolved to make very thick
and strong.—/V.4. This wall being described before, I purposely
omit what was said in the journal: it is sufficient to observe, that
I was no less time than from the 3d of January to the 14th of
April, working, finishing, and perfecting this wall,—though it was
no more than about twenty-four yards in length, being a half
circle, from one place in the rock to another place about eight
yards from it, the door of the cave being in the centre behind it.


irs

Cae
ae le a

ff



eZ



CHAPTER VI.

Crusoe enlarges upon the circumstances noted in his Journal, and details his diffi-
culties—Is surprised by the appearance of barley growing out of the ground-—
At first supposes that Providence has specially intervened on his behalf, but
afterwards remembers that the barley was accidentally sown—Prudently preserves
the grain for seed—The Journal resumed—lIs startled by an earthquake, which
is followed by a hurricane—Recovers various articles from the wreck, which
have been cast ashore in the storm—Finds a turtle and cooks it—Falls ill, and
is alarmed by a terrible dream—Reproaches himself on account of his past life,
and reflects upon his present miseries,

LL this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering
me many days, nay, sometimes weeks together ;
but I thought I should never be perfectly secure
till this wall was finished: and it is scarce credible
what inexpressible labour everything was done
veh especially the bringing piles out of the woods, and driving
them into the ground, for I made ee much bigger than I
needed to have done.

When this wall was finished, and the outside double fenced
with a turf wall raised up close to it, I persuaded myself that if
any people were to come on shore there they would not perceive
anything like a habitation ; and it was very well I did so, as may
be observed hereafter, upon a very remarkable occasion.

During this time, 1 made my rounds in the woods for game
every day, when the rain permitted me, and made frequent dis-
coveries in these walks of something or other to my advantage ;
particularly I found a kind of wild pigeons, who built, not as
wood:-pigeons, in a tree, but rather as house-pigeons, in the holes
of the rocks: and taking some young ones, I endeavoured to
breed them up tame, and did so ; but when they grew older, they
flew all away, which perhaps was at first for want of feeding them,
for I had nothing to give them. However, I frequently found their
nests, and got their young ones, which were very good meat.


68 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

And now, in the managing my household affairs, I found
myself wanting in many things which I thought at first it was
impossible for me to make, as, indeed, as to: some of them, it
was—for instance, I could never make a cask to be hooped. I
had a small runlet or two, as I observed before, but I could never
arrive to the capacity of making one by them, though I spent
_ many weeks about it: I could neither put in the heads, nor join
the staves so true to one another as to make them hold water ; so
I gave that also over. nh

In the next place, I was at a great loss for candle, so that, as
soon as ever it was dark, which was generally by seven o’clock, I
was obliged to go to bed. I remembered the lump of beeswax
with which I made candles in my African adventure, but I had
none of that now. ‘The only remedy I had was, that, when I
had killed a goat, I saved the tallow, and with a little dish made
of clay, which I baked in the sun, to which I added a wick of
some oakum, I made me a lamp ; and this gave me light, though
not a clear steady light like a candle. In the middle of all my
labours it happened, that, rummaging my things, I found a little
bag which, as I hinted before, had been filled with corn for the
feeding of poultry, not for this voyage, but before, as I suppose,
when the ship came from Lisbon. What little remainder of corn
had been in the bag was all devoured with the rats, and I saw
nothing in the bag but husks and dust ; and being willing to have
the bag for some other use (I think it was to put powder in, when
I divided it for fear of the lightning, or some such usé), I shook
the husks of corn out of it, on one side of my fortification, under
the rock.

It was a little before the great rains, just now mentioned, that
I threw this stuff away, taking no notice of anything, and not so
much as remembering that I had thrown anything there ; when
about a month after, or thereabouts, I saw some few stalks of
something green shooting out of the ground, which I fancied
might be some plant I had not seen ; but I was surprised and
perfectly astonished when, after a little longer time, I saw about
ten or twelve ears come out, which were perfect green barley of
the same kind as our European, nay, as our English barley.

It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion of
my thoughts on this occasion. I had hitherto acted upon no
religious foundation at all: indeed I had very few notions of
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 69

religion in my head, nor had entertained any sense of anything
that had befallen me, otherwise than as a chance, or, as we lightly
say, what pleases God, without so much as inquiring into the end
of Providence in these things, or-His order in governing events
in the world. But after I saw barley grow there, in a climate
which I knew was not proper for corn, and especially that I knew
not’ how it came there, it startled me strangely, and I began to
suggest that God had miraculously caused this grain to grow
without any help of seed sown, and that it was so directed purely
for my sustenance on that wild miserable place.

This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out of my
eyes, and I began to bless myself that such a prodigy of nature
should happen upon my account: and this was the more strange
to me, because I saw near it still, all along by the side of the
rock, some other straggling stalks, which proved to be stalks of
rice, and which I knew, because I had seen it grow in Africa
when I was ashore there.

I not only thought these the pure productions of Providence
- for my support, but not doubting but that there was more in the
place, I went all over that part of the island where I had been
before, peering in every corner, and under every rock, to see for
more of it; but I could not find any. At last it occurred to my
thoughts, that I had shook a bag of chicken’s-meat out in that
place, and then the wonder began to cease ; and I must confess
my religious thankfulness to God’s providence began to abate
too, upon the discovering that all this was nothing but what was
common, though I ought to have been as thankful for so strange
and unforeseen providence, as if it had been miraculous ; for it
was really the work of Providence, as to me, that should order
or appoint that ten or twelve grains of corn should remain
unspoiled, when the rats had destroyed all the rest, as if it had
been dropped from heaven,—as also, that I should throw it out in
that particular place, where, it being in the shade of a high rock,
it sprang up immediately, whereas, if I had thrown it anywhere
else at that time, it would have been burnt up and destroyed.

I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in
their season, which was about the end of June; and laying up
every corn, I resolved to sow them all again, hoping, in time, to
have some quantity sufficient to supply me with bread. But it
was not till the fourth year that I could allow myself the least
70 ADVENTURES OF

grain of this corn to eat, and even then but sparingly, as I shall
say afterwards, in its order; for I lost all that I sowed the first
-season, by not observing the proper time, for I sowed it just
before the dry season, so that it never came up at all, at least not
as it would have done; of which in its place. ;

Besides this barley there were, as above, twenty or thirty stalks
of rice, which I preserved with the same care, and whose use was
of the same kind, or to the same purpose, viz., to make me bread, or
rather food ; for I found ways to cook it up without baking, though |
I did that also after some time.—But to return to my Journal.

-I worked excessive hard these three or four months to get
my wall done, and the 14th of April I closed it up, contriving to
go into it, not by a door, but over the wall, by a ladder, that there
might be no sign on the outside of my habitation.

April 16.—I finished the ladder; so I went up with the ladder
to the top, and then pulled it up after me, and let it down on the
inside: this was a complete enclosure to me, for within I had
room enough, and nothing could come at me from without, unless
it could first mount my wall.

The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost
had all my labour overthrown at once, and myself killed. The |
case. was thus: As I was busy in the inside of it, behind my tent,
just in the entrance into my cave, I was terribly frighted with a
most dreadful surprising thing indeed; for all on a sudden I
found the earth come crumbling down from the roof of my cave,
and from the edge of the hill over my head, and two of the posts
I had set up in the cave cracked in a frightful manner. I was
heartily scared, but thought nothing of what really was the cause,
‘only thinking that the top of my cave was falling in, as some of
it had done before. And for fear I should be buried in it, I ran
forward to my ladder, and not thinking myself safe there neither,
I got over my wall for fear of the pieces of the hill which I expected
might roll down upon me. I was no sooner stepped down upon
the firm ground but I plainly saw it was a terrible earthquake ;
for the ground I stood on shook three times at about eight minutes
distance, with three such shocks as would have overturned the
strongest building that could be supposed to have stood on the
earth, and a great piece of the top of a rock which stood about
half a mile from me, next the sea, fell down with such a terrible
noise as I never heard in all my life. I perceived also the very
ROBINSON CRUSOE. : 71

sea was put into a violent motion by it, and I believe the shocks
were strogger under the water than on the island.

I was so amazed with the thing itself, having never felt the like,
or discoursed with any one that had, that I was like one dead or
stupefied, and the motion of the earth made my stomach sick, like
_ one that was tossed at sea; but the noise of the falling of the rock
awaked me, as it were, and rousing me from the stupefied condition
I was in, filled me with horror, and I thought of nothing then but
the hill falling upon my tent and all-my household goods, and bury-
ing all at once: this sunk my very soul within me a second time.

After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some

time, I began to take courage, and yet I had not heart enough to
get over my wall again, for fear of being buried alive, but sat still
upon the ground, greatly cast down and disconsolate, not knowing
what to do. All this while I had not the least serious religious
thought, nothing but the common—Lord, have mercy upon me!
and when it was over, that went away too.
_ While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grew cloudy, as
if it would rain: soon after that the wind rose by little and little,
so that in less than half an hour it blewa most dreadful hurricane.
The sea was, all on a sudden, covered over with foam and froth ;
the shore was covered with the breach of the water, the trees were
torn up by the roots, and a terrible storm it was; and this held
about three hours and then began to abate, and in two hours
more it was stark calm, and began to rain very hard.

- All this while I sat upon the ground, very much terrified and
dejected, when, on a sudden, it came into my thoughts that these -
winds and rain being the consequence of the earthquake, the
earthquake itself was spent and over, and I might venture into
my cave again. With this thought my spirits began to revive,
and the rain helping also to persuade me, I went in and sat down
in my tent; but the rain was so violent that my tent was ready to be ©
beaten down with it, and I was forced to go into my cave, though
very much afraid and uneasy, for fear it should fall on my head.

This violent rain forced me to a new work, viz., to cut a hole
through my new fortification, like a sink, to let the water go out,
which would else have drowned my cave. After I had been in my
cave some time, and found still no more shocks of the earthquake
follow, I beganto bemorecomposed. Andnow, tosupport my spirits,
which indeed wanted it very much, I went to my little store, and
72 ADVENTURES OF

took a small sup of rum—which, however, I did then, and always,
very sparingly, knowing I could have no more when that was gone.

It continued raining all that night and great part of the next
day, so that I could not stir abroad ; but my mind being more
composed, I began to think of what I had best do, concluding
that, if the island was subject to these earthquakes, there would
be no living:for me in a cave, but I must consider of building me
some little hut in an open place, which I might surround with a
wall, as I had done here, and so make myself secure from wild
beasts or men: but concluded, if I stayed where I was, I should
certainly, one time or other, be buried alive.

With these thoughts I resolved to remove my tent from the
place where it stood, which was just under the hanging precipice
of the hill, and which, if it should be shaken again, would
certainly fall upon my tent. And I spent the two next days,
being the rgth and 2oth of April, in contriving where and how to
remove my habitation. |

The fear of being swallowed up alive made me that I never
slept in quiet, and yet the apprehension of lying abroad, without
any fence, was almost equal to it : but still, when I looked about,
and saw how everything was put in order, how pleasantly concealed
I was, and how safe from danger, it made me very loath to remove.

In the meantime, it occurred to me that it would require a vast
deal of time for me to do this, and that I must be contented to
run the venture where I was, till I had formed a camp for myself,
and had secured it so as to remove toit. So with this resolution I
composed myself for a time, and resolved that I would go to work
with all speed to build me a wall with piles and cables, &c., in a
circle as before, and set my tent up in it when it was finished ;
but that I would venture to stay where I was till it was finished
and fit to remove to. . This was the 21st.

April 22.—The next morning I began to consider of means to
put this resolve into execution, but I was at a great loss about
my tools. I had three large axes, and abundance of hatchets
_ (for we carried the hatchets for traffic with the Indians), but with
much chopping and cutting knotty hard wood, they were all full
of notches, and dull; and though I had a grindstone, I could not
turn itand grind my tools too. ‘This caused me as much thought
as a statesman would have bestowed upona grand point of politics,
or a Judge upon the life and death ofa man. At length I con-
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 73

trived a wheel with a string, to turn it with my foot, that I might
have both my hands at liberty:—JVote. I had not seen any such
thing in England, or at least not to take notice how it was done,
though since I have observed it is very common there; besides
that, my grindstone was very large and heavy. This machine
cost me a full week’s work to bring it to perfection.

April 28, 29.—These two whole days I took up in grinding my
tools, my machine for turning my grindstone performing very well.

April 30.—Having perceived my bread had been low a great
while, I now took a survey of it, and reduced myself to one
biscuit cake a day, which made my heart very heavy.

May 1.—In the morning, looking towards the seaside, the tide
being low, I saw something lie on the shore bigger than ordinary,
' and it looked like a cask: when I came to it, I found a small
barrel, and two or three pieces of the wreck of the ship, which
were driven on shore by the late hurricane ; and looking towards
the wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie higher out of the water
than it used to do. I examined the barrel which was driven on
shore, and soon found it was a barrel of gunpowder, but it had
taken water, and the powder was caked as hard asastone ; however,
I rolled it farther on shore for the present, and went on upon the
sands, as near as I could to the wreck of the ship, to look for more.

When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely removed.
The forecastle, which lay before buried in sand, was heaved up
at least six feet, and the stern (which was broken to pieces, and
parted from the rest by the force of the sea, soon after I had left
rummaging of her) was tossed, as it were, up, and cast on one
side, and the sand was thrown so high on that side next her stern
that, whereas there was a great piece of water before, so‘that I
could not come within a quarter of a mile of the wreck without
swimming, I could now walk quite up to her when the tide was
out. I was surprised with this at first, but soon concluded it
must be done by the earthquake ; and as by this violence the
ship was more broken open than formerly, so many things came
daily on shore, which the sea had loosened, and which the winds
and water rolled by degrees to the land.

This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of removing
my habitation, and I busied myself mightily, that day especially,
in searching mee: I could make any way into the ship; but I
found nothing was to be expected of that kind, for all the inside
74 ADVENTURES OF

of the ship was choked up with sand. However, as I had learned
not to despair of anything, I resolved to pull everything to pieces
that I could of the ship, concluding that everything I could get
from her would be of some use or other to me.

May 3.—I began with my saw, and cut apiece of a beam
through, which I thought held some of the upper part or quarter-
deck together ; and when I had cut it through, I cleared away
the sand as well as I could from the side which lay highest ; but
the tide coming in, I was obliged to give over for that time.

May 4.—I wenta-fishing, but caughtnotone fish thatI durst eat of,
till I was weary of my sport ; when, just going to leave off,I caught
a young dolphin. I had made me a long line of some rope-yarn,
but I had no hooks; yet I frequently caught fish enough, as much
as I cared to eat, all which I dried in the sun, and ate them dry.

May 5.—Worked on the wreck: cut another beam asunder,
and brought three great fir planks off from the decks, which I tied
together, and made swim on shore when the tide of flood came on.

May 6.—Worked on the wreck ; got several iron bolts out of
her, and other pieces of iron work; worked very hard, and came
home very much tired, and had thoughts of giving it over.

May 7.—Went to the wreck again, but with an intent not to
work ; but found the weight of the wreck had broke itself down,
the beams being cut, that several pieces of the ship seemed to
lie loose, and the inside of the hold lay so open that I could see
into it, but almost full of water and sand.

May 8.—Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow to wrench
up the deck, which lay now quite clear of the water or sand. I
wrenched open two planks, and brought them on shore also with
the tide. I left the iron crow in the wreck for next day.

May 9.—Went to the wreck, and with the crow made way into
the body of the wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened
them with the crow, but could not break them up. I felt also the
roll of English lead, and could stir it, but it was too heavy to move.

_ May 10, tt, 13, 14.—Went every day to the wreck, and got a
great deal of pieces of timber, and boards, or plank, and two or
three hundred weight of iron.

May 15.—I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not cut a.
piece off the roll of lead, by placing the edge of one hatchet and
driving it with the other, but as it lay about a foot anda half in
the water I could not make any blow to drive the hatchet.
ROBINSON CRUSOE. ¥S

May 16.—It had blown hard in the night, and the wreck ap-
peared more broken by the force of the water, but I stayed so long
in the woods to get pigeons for food, that the tide prevented me
going to the wreck that day.

May 17.—I saw some preces of the wreck blown on shore, at a
great distance, two miles off me, but resolved to see what thee
were, and found it was a piece of the head, but too heavy for my
to bring away.

May 24.—Every day, to this day, I worked on the wreck, and
with hard labour I loosened some things so much with the crow,
that the first blowing tide several casks floated out, and two of the
seamen’s chests ; but the wind blowing from the shore, nothing
came to land that day but pieces of timber, and a hogshead which
had some Brazil pork in it, but the salt water and the sand had
spoiled it. I continued this work every day to the 15th of June,.
except the time necessary to get food, which I always appointed,
during this part of my employment, to be when the tide was up,
that I might be ready when it was ebbed out ; and by this time I
had gotten timber, and plank, and iron work enough to have built
a good boat, if I had known how; and also I got, at several times,
and in several pieces, near one hundred weight of the sheet lead.

June 16.—Going down to the seaside, I found a large tortoise,
or turtle. This was the first I had seen, which, it seems, was
only my misfortune, not any defect of the place, or scarcity; for
had I happened to. be on the other side of the island, I might
have had hundreds of them every day, as I found afterwards, but
perhaps had paid dear enough for them.

June 17 I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her three-
score eggs, and her flesh was to me, at that time, the most
savoury and pleasant that ever I tasted in my life, having had no
flesh, but of goats and fowls, since I landed in this horrible place.

June 18.—Rained all day, and I stayed within. I thought at
this time the rain felt cold, and I was something chilly, which I
knew was not usual in that latitude. |

June t9.—Very illand shivering, as if the weather had been cold.

June 20.—No rest all night; violent pains in my head, and
feverish. |

June 21.—Very ill; frighted almost to death with the appre--
hensions of my sad condition, to be sick, and no help: prayed to
God for the first time since the storm off Hull; but scarce knew
what I said, or why, my thoughts being all confused.
76 ADVENTURES OF

June 22.—A little better, but under dreadful apprehensions of
sickness.

June 23.—Very bad again; cold and shivering, and then a
violent headache. .

June 24.—Much better.

June 25.—An ague very violent: the fit held me seven hours,
cold fit, and hot, with faint sweats after it.

June 26.—Better ; and having no victuals to eat, took my gun,
but found myself very weak: however, I killed a she-goat, and
with much difficulty got it home, and broiled some of it, and ate.
I would fain have stewed it and made some broth, but had no pot.

June 24.—The ague again so violent that I lay a-bed all day,
and neither ate nor drank. I was ready to perish for thirst, but so
weak, I had not strength to stand up, or to get myself any water
to drink. Prayed to God again, but was light-headed, and when
I was not, I was so ignorant that I knew not what to say, only I
lay and cried, ‘‘ Lord, look upon me! Lord, pity me! Lord, have
mercy upon me!” I suppose I did nothing else for two or three
hours, till, the fit wearing off, I fell asleep, and did not wake till
far inthe night. When I awaked, I found myself much refreshed,
but weak and exceeding thirsty: however, as I had no water in
my whole habitation, I was forced to lie till morning, and went
to sleep again. In this second sleep I had this terrible dream :

I thought that I was sitting on the ground on the outside of
my wall, where I sat when the storm blew after the earthquake,
and that I saw a man descend from a great black cloud, in a
bright flame of fire, and light upon the ground; he was all over
as bright as a flame, so that I could but just bear to look towards
him: his countenance was most inexpressibly dreadful, impossible
. for words to describe; when he stepped upon the ground with
his feet, I thought the earth trembled, just as it had done before
in the earthquake, and all the air looked, to my apprehension, as
if it had been filled with flashes of fire. He was no sooner landed
upon the earth, but he moved forward towards me, with a long
spear or weapon in his hand to kill me, and when he came toa
rising ground at some distance he spoke to me, or I heard a voice
so terrible that it is impossible to express the terror of it ; all that
I can say I understood was this: “Seeing all these things have not
brought thee to repentance, now thou shalt die,”—at which words
I thought he lifted up the spear that was in his hand, to kill me.

No one that shall ever read this account will expect that I
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 7%

should be able to describe the horrors of my soul at this terrible
vision ;—I mean, that even while it was a dream, I even dreamed
of those horrors; nor is it any more possible to describe the
impression. that remained upon my mind when I awaked, and
found it was but a dream.

I had, alas! no divine knowledge; what I had received by the
good instruction of my father was then worn out by an uninterrupted
series, for eight years, of seafaring wickedness, and a constant
conversation with nothing but such as were, like myself, wicked
and profane to the last degree. 1 do not remember that I had,
in all that time, one thought that so much as tended either to
looking upwards towards God, or inwards towards a reflection
upon my own ways, but a certain stupidity of soul, without desire
of good, or conscience of evil, had entirely overwhelmed me, and
I was all that the most hardened, unthinking, wicked creature
among our common sailors can be supposed to be, not having
the least sense either of the fear of God, in danger, or of thank-
fulness to God, in deliverance.

In the relating what is already past of my story, this will be
the more easily believed when I shall add, that, through all the
variety of miseries that had to this day befallen me, I never had
so much as one thought of it being the hand of God, or that it
was ajust punishment for my sin—my rebellious behaviour against
my father, or my present sins, which were great, or so much as a
punishment for the general course of my wicked life. When I
was on the desperate expedition on the desert shores of Africa, I
never had so much as one thought of what would become of me,
or one wish to God to direct me whither I should go, or to keep
me from the danger which apparently surrounded me, as well
from voracious creatures as cruel savages; but I was merely
thoughtless of God or a Providence, acted like a mere brute, from
the principles of nature, and by the dictates of common sense
only, and indeed hardly that.

When I was delivered and taken up at sea by the Portuguese
captain, well used and dealt justly and honourably with, as well
as charitably, I had not the least thankfulness in my thoughts.
When, again, I was shipwrecked, ruined, and in danger of drown-
‘Ing on this island, I was as far from remorse, or looking on it as
a judgment: I only said-to myself often, that I was an unfortunate
dog, and born to be always miserable.
78 ADVENTURES OF

It is true, when I got on shore first here, and found all my ship’s
crew drowned, and myself spared, I was surprised with a kind of '
ecstasy, and some transports of soul, which, had the grace of God
assisted, might have come up to true thankfulness ; but it ended
where it began, in a mere common flight of joy, or, as I may say,
being glad I was alive, without the least reflection upon the dis-
tinguishing goodness of the hand which had preserved me, and
had singled me out to be preserved when all the rest were destroyed,
or an inquiry why Providence had been thus merciful to me,—
even just the same common sort of joy which seamen generally
have after they have got safe ashore from a shipwreck, which they
drown all in the next bowl of punch, and forget almost as soon as
it is over: and all the rest of my life was like it.

Even when I was afterwards, on due consideration, made sensible
of my condition,—how I was cast on this dreadful place, out of
the reach of human kind, out of all hope of relief, or prospect of
redemption, as soon as I saw but a prospect of living, and that I
should not starve and perish for hunger, all the sense of my
affliction wore off, and I began to be very easy, applied myself
to the works proper for my preservation and supply, and was far
enough from being afflicted at my condition, as a judgment from
Heaven, or as the hand of God against me: these were thoughts
which very seldom entered into my head.

The growing up of the corn, as is hinted in my Journal, had, at
first, some little influence upon me, and began to affect me with
seriousness as long as I thought it had something miraculous in
it, but as soon as ever that part of the thought was removed, all
the impression which was raised from it wore off also, as I have
noted already.

Even the earthquake, though nothing could be more terrible in
its nature, or more immediately directing to the invisible Power
which alone directs such things, yet no sooner was the first fright
over, but the impression it had made went off also. I had no
more sense of God, or His judgments, much less of the present
affliction of my circumstances being from His hand, than if I had
been in the most prosperous condition of life.

But now, when I began to be sick, and a leisurely view of the
miseries of death came to place itself before me,—when my spirits
began to sink under the burden of a strong distemper, and nature
was exhausted with the violence of the fever,—conscience, that
ROBINSON CRUSOE. — 79

had slept so long, began to awake, and I began to reproach myself
with my past life in which I had so evidently, by uncommon
wickedness, provoked the justice of God to lay me under uncommon
strokes, and to deal with me in so vindictive a manner.

These reflections oppressed me for the second or third day of
my distemper, and in the violence, as well of the fever as of the
dreadful reproaches of my conscience, extorted some words from
me like praying to God, though I cannot say they were either a
prayer attended with desires or with hopes; it was rather the
voice of mere fright and distress. My thoughts were confused, the
convictions great upon my mind, and the horror of dying in such
a miserable condition raised vapours in my head with the mere
apprehensions ; and in these hurries of my soul I know not what
my tongue might express, but it was rather exclamation, such as,
“Lord, what a miserable creature am I! If I should be sick, I
shall certainly die for want of help; and what will become of
me?” Then the tears burst out of my eyes, and I could say no
more for a good while.

In this interval, the good advice of my father came to my
mind, and presently his prediction, which I mentioned at the
beginning of this story, viz. that if I did take this foolish step
God would not bless me, and I would have leisure hereafter to
reflect upon having neglected his counsel, when there might be
none to assist in my recovery. ‘‘ Now,” said I, aloud, ‘‘my dear
father’s words are come to pass: God’s justice has overtaken me,
and I have none to help or hear me. I rejected the voice of
Providence, which had mercifully put me in a posture or station
of life wherein I might have been happy and easy, but I would
neither see it myself, nor learn to know the blessing of it from
my parents. I left them to mourn over my folly, and now I am
left to mourn under the consequences of it: I refused their help
and assistance, who would have lifted me into the world, and
would have made everything easy to me; and now I have diffi-
culties to struggle with, too great for even mater itself to support,
and no assistance, no comfort, no advice.” ‘Then ¥ cried out,
“Lord, be my help, for I am in great distress.” This was the
first prayer, if I may call it so, that 1 had made for many years.
But I return to my Journal.
FSCS Ce

CO DTT. FEST
: See aif



CHAPTER. VIL

The Journal resumed—Crusoe's thoughts during his illness—His reflections on the
dealings of Providence with him—Finds a Bible in a seaman’s chest which is
cast on shore, and is consoled and encouraged by the reading of it—Tobacco
as a remedial agent—His first prayer—Finds deliverance from sin a greater

blessing than deliverance from affliction—Convalescence—Takes a fresh survey
of the Island, and discovers tobacco, aloes, lemons, melons, grapes, and wild
Sugar-canes—Gathers grapes, limes, and lemons to store up for the winter—
His lost cat returns with a family of kittens.

{UNE 28.—Having been somewhat refreshed with
z| the sleep I had had, and the fit being entirely off,
I got up, and though the fright and terror of my
dream was very great, yet I considered that the fit
of the ague would return again the next day, and
now was my time to get something to refresh and support myself
when I should be ill; and the first thing I did, I filled a large
square case-bottle with water, and set it upon my table, in reach
of my bed, and to take off the chill or aguish disposition of the
water, I put about a quarter of a pint of rum into it, and mixed
them together. Then I got mea piece of the goat’s flesh, and
broiled. it on the coals, but could eat very little. I walked about,
but was very weak and withal very sad and heavy-hearted in the
sense of my miserable condition, dreading the return of my dis-
temper the next day. At night, I made my supper of three of
the turtle’s eggs, which I roasted in the ashes, and ate, as we call
it, in the shell; and this was the first bit of meat I had ever asked
God’s blessing to, even, as I could remember, in my whole life.
After I had eaten, I tried to walk, but found myself so weak that
I could hardly carry the gun (for I never went out without that) :
so I went but a little way, and sat down upon the ground, ico
ing out upon the sea, which was just before me, and very calm
and smooth. AsIsat here, some such thoughts as these occurred
to me:


ROBINSON CRUSOE. Sr

What is this earth and sea, of which I have seen so much?
Whence is it produced? And what am I, and all the other
creatures, wild and tame, human and brutal? Whence are we?

Sure we are all made by some secret power, who formed the
earth and sea, the air and sky—And who is that? ‘Then it
followed most naturally,—It is God that has made it all. Well, —
but then—it came on strangely—if God has made all these things,
He guides and governs them all, and all things that concern them;
for the Power that could make all things must certainly have
power to guide and direct them.

If so, nothing can happen in the great circuit of His works,
either without His knowledge or appointment.

And if nothing happens without His knowledge, He knows that
I am here, and am in this dreadful condition; and if nothing
happens without His appointment, He has appointed all this to
befal me.

Nothing occurred to my thought to contradict any of these
conclusions, and therefore it rested upon me with the greater force,
that it must neéds be that God had appointed all this to befal
me—that I was brought to this miserable circumstance by His
direction, He having the sole power, not of me only, but of every-
thing that happened in the world. Immediately it followed—

Why has God done this to me? What have I done to be thus
used ?

My conscience presently checked me in that inquiry, as if I
had blasphemed ; and methought it spoke to me like a voice:
“ Wretch ! dost thou ask what thou hast done? Look back upon
a dreadful misspent life, and ask thyself wat thou hast not done?
Ask, why is it that thou wert not long ago destroyed? Why wert
thou not drowned in Yarmouth Roads; killed in the fight when
the ship was taken by the Sallee man-of-war; devoured by the
wild beasts on the coast of Africa; or drowned HERE, when all
the crew perished but thyself? Dost thou ask, ‘ What have L
done?’”

I was struck dumb with these reflections, as one astonished,
and had not a word to say,—no, not to answer to myself; but
rose up pensive and sad, walked back to my retreat, and went up
over my wall, as if I had been going to bed: but my thoughts
were sadly disturbed, and I had no inclination to sleep, so I sat

down in my chair, and lighted my lamp, for it began to be dark.
82 ADVENTURES OF

Now, as the apprehension of the return of my distemper terrified
me very much, it occurred to my thought that the Brazilians take
no physic but their tobacco for almost all distempers ; and I had
a piece of a roll of tobacco in one of the chests, which was quite
cured, and some also that was green, and not quite cured.

_ I went, directed by Heaven, no doubt, for in this chest I found
a cure both for soul and body. I opened the chest, and found
what I looked for, viz., the tobacco ; and as the few books I had
saved lay there too, I took out one of the Bibles which I men-
tioned before, and which, to this time, I had not found. leisure,
or so much as inclination, to look into—I say, I took it out, and
brought both that and the tobacco with me to the table.

What use to make of the tobacco I knew not, as to my dis-
temper, or whether it was good for it or no; but I tried several
experiments with it, as if I was resolved it should hit one way or
other. I first took a piece of a leaf, and chewed it in my mouth,
which indeed at first almost stupefied my brain, the tobacco
being green and strong, and that I had not been much used to it.
Then I took some and steeped it an hour or two in some rum,
and resolved to take a dose of it when I lay down ; and, lastly,
I burnt some upon a pan of coals, and held my nose close over
the smoke of it as long as I could bear it, as well for the heat, as
almost for suffocation. ;

In the interval of this operation, I took up the Bible and began
to read, but my head was too much disturbed with the tobacco to
bear reading, at least at that time ; only, having opened the book
casually, the first words that occurred to me were these,. “Call
on me in the day of trouble: I will deliver thee, and thou shalt
glorify me.”

The words were very apt to my case, and made some impres-
sion upon my thoughts at the time of reading them, though not
so much as they did afterwards ; for, as for being delivered, the
word had no sound, as I may say, to me—the thing was so
remote, so impossible in my apprehension of things, that I began
to say, as the children of Israel did, when they were promised
flesh to eat, “Can God spread a table in the wilderness ? ”—<0 I
began to say, ‘Can God Himself deliver me from this place ?”
And as it was not for many years that any hope appeared, this
prevailed very often upon my thoughts. But, however, the words
made a great impression upon me, and I mused upon them very
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 83

often. It grew now late, and the tobacco had, as I said, dozed
my head so much that I inclined to sleep; so I left my lamp
burning in the cave, lest I should want anything in the night,
and went to bed. But before I lay down, I did what I never
had done in all my life—I kneeled down, and prayed to God to
fulfil the promise to me, that if I called upon Him in the day of
trouble, He would deliver me. After my broken and imperfect
prayer was over, I drank the rum in which I had steeped the
tobacco, which was so strong and rank of the tobacco, that,
indeed, I could scarce get it down. Immediately upon this I
went to bed. I found presently it flew up in my head violently,
but I fell into a sound sleep, and waked no more till, by the sun,
it must necessarily be near three o’clock in the afternoon the
next day; nay, to this hour, I am partly of the opinion that I
slept all the next day and night, and till almost three the day
after ; for otherwise I know not how I should lose a day out of
my reckoning in the days of the week, as it appeared some years
after I had done, for if I had lost it by crossing and recrossing the
Line, I should have lost more than one day,—but certainly I lost
a day in my account, and never knew which way.

Be that, however, one way or other, when I awaked I found
myself exceedingly refreshed, and my spirits lively and cheerful :
when I got up, I was stronger than I was the day before, and my
stomach better, for I was hungry, and, in short, I had no fit the
next day, but contmued much altered for the better. This was
the 2oth.

The 30th was my well day, of course, and I went abroad with
my gun, but did not care to travel too far. I killed a seafowl or
two, something like a brand goose, and brought them home, but
was not very forward to eat them, so I ate some more of the
turtle’s eggs, which were very good. ‘This evening I renewed the
medicine which I had supposed did me good the day before, viz.,
the tobacco steeped in rum, only I did not take so much as
before, nor did I chew any of the leaf, or hold my head over the
_ smoke: however, I was not so well the next day, which was the
1st of July, as I hoped I should have been, for I had a little spice
of the cold fit, but it was not much.

July 2.—I renewed the medicine all the three ways, and dosed
myself with it as at first, and doubled the quantity which I
drank. |
84. ADVENTURES OF

July 3.—I missed the fit for good and all, though I did not
recover my full strength for some weeks after. While I was
thus gathering strength, my thoughts ran exceedingly upon this
Scripture, “I will deliver thee,” and the impossibility of my
deliverance lay much upon my mind, in bar of my ever expecting
it; but as I was discouraging myself with such thoughts, it
occurred to my mind that I pored so much upon my deliverance
from the main affliction, that I disregarded the deliverance I had
received, and I was, as it were, made to ask myself such ques-
tions as these, viz.: ‘“‘ Have I not been delivered, and wonder-
fully, too, from sickness, from the most distressed condition that
could be, and that was so frightful to me? and what notice had
I taken of it? Had I done my part? God had delivered me,
but I had not glorified Him,—that is to say, I had not owned and
been thankful for that as a deliverance, and how could I expect
a greater deliverance ?”

This touched my heart very much, and immediately I knelt
down and gave God thanks aloud for my recovery from my
sickness. |

July 4.—In the morning I took the Bible, and beginning at
the New Testament, I began seriously to read it, and imposed
upon myself to read a while every morning and every night,—not
tying myself to the number of chapters, but as long as my
thoughts should engage me. It was not long after I set seriously
to this work, but I found my heart more deeply and sincerely
affected with the wickedness of my past life. The impression of
my dream revived, and the words, “ All these things have not
brought thee to repentance,” ran seriously in my thoughts. I
was earnestly begging of God to give me repentance, when it
happened providentially, the very day, that, reading the Scripture,
I-came to these words, “ He is exalted a Prince and a Saviour,
to give repentance, and to give remission.” I threw down the
book, and with my heart as well as my hands lifted up to heaven,
in a kind of ecstasy of joy, I cried out aloud, ‘‘ Jesus, Thou son
of David! Jesus, Thou exalted Prince and Saviour ! give me
repentance !”

This was the first time that I could say, in the true sense of
the words, that I prayed in all my life; for now I prayed with a
' sense of my condition, and with a true Scripture view of hope,
founded on the encouragement of the word of God ; and from
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 8x

this time, I may say, I began to have hope that God would hear
me. : |

Now I began to construe the words mentioned above, “Call
on me in the day of trouble: I will deliver thee,” in a different
sense from what I had ever done before; for then I had no notion
of anything being called deliverance, but my being delivered from
the captivity I was in: for though I was indeed at large in the
place, yet the island was certainly a prison to me, and that in
the worst sense in the world. But now I learned to take it in
another sense; now I looked back upon my past life with such
horror, and my sins appeared so dreadful, that my soul sought
nothing of God but deliverance from the load of guilt that bore
down all my comfort. As for my solitary life, it was nothing ; I
did not so much as pray to be delivered from it, or think of it :
it was all of no consideration, in comparison to this. And I
added this part here, to hint to whoever shall read it, that when-
ever they come to a true sense of things, they will find deliver-
ance from sin a much greater blessing than deliverance from
affliction.

But, leaving this part, I return to my Journal.

My condition began now to be, though not less miserable as to
my way of living, yet much easier to my mind; and my thoughts
being directed, by a constant reading the Scripture and praying
to God, to things of a higher nature, I had a great deal of com-
fort within, which, till now, I knew nothing of; also, as my health
and strength returned, I bestirred myself to furnish myself with
everything that I wanted, and make my way of living as regular
as I could. :

From the 4th of July to the 14th, I was chiefly employed in.
walking about with my gun in my hand, a little and a little at a
time, as a man that was gathering up his strength after a fit of
sickness: for it is hardly to be imagined how low I was, and to
.what weakness I was reduced. ‘The application which I made
use of was perfectly new, and perhaps what had never cured an
ague before,—neither can I recommend it to any one to practise,
by this experiment; and though it did carry off the fit, yet it
rather contributed to weakening me, for I had frequent convul-
sions in my nerves and limbs for some time.

I learnt from it also this, in particular,—that being abroad in
the rainy season was the most pernicious thing to my health that
86 ADVENTURES OF

could be, especially in those rains which came attended with
storms and hurricanes of wind; for as the rain which came in a
dry season was always most accompanied with such storms, so I
found that rain was much more dangerous than the rain which
fell in September and October.

I had now been in this unhappy island above ten months:
all possibility of deliverance from this condition seemed to be
entirely taken from me, and I firmly believe that no human shape
had ever set foot upon that place. Having now secured my habi-
tation, as I thought, fully to my mind, I had a great desire to
make.a more perfect discovery of the island, and to see what
other productions I might find, which yet I knew nothing of.

It was the 15th of July that I began to take a more particular
survey of the island itself. I went up the creek first, where, as I
hinted, I brought my rafts on shore. I found, after I came
about two miles up, that the tide did not flow any higher, and
that it was no more than a little brook of running water, and very
fresh and good; but this being the dry season, there was hardly
any water in some parts of it; at least, not enough to run in any
stream so as it could be panacinoa:

On the banks of this brook I found-many pleasant savannahs
or meadows, plain, smooth, and covered with grass; and on the
rising parts of them, next to the higher grounds (where the water,
as it might be supposed, never overflowed), I found a great deal
of tobacco, green, and growing to a great and very strong stalk:
there were divers other plants which I had no notion of, or
understanding about, and that might perhaps have virtues of
their own which I could not find out. I searched for the cassava
root, which the Indians in all that climate make their bread of,
but I could find none. I saw large plants of aloes, but did not
then understand them. I saw several sugar-canes, but wild, and,
for want of cultivation, imperfect. I contented myself with these
discoveries for this time, and came back musing with myself what
course I might take to know the virtue and goodness of any of the
fruits or plants which I should discover, but could bring it to no
conclusion ; for, in short, I had made so little observation while
I was in ee Brazils, that I knew little of the plants in the field,
at least, very little that might serve me to any purpose now in my
distress.

The next day, the 16th, I went up the same ea again, and
ROBINSON CRUSOE. | 87

after going something farther than I had gone the day before, I
found the brook and the savannahs began to cease, and the
country became more woody than before. In this part I found
different fruits, and particularly I found melons upon the ground
in great abundance, and grapes upon the trees: the vines, indeed,
had spread over the trees, and the clusters of grapes were just
now in their prime, very ripe and rich. This was a surprising
discovery, and I was exceeding glad of them; but I was warned
by my experience to eat sparingly of them, remembering that
when I was ashore in Barbary, the eating of grapes killed several
of our Englishmen, who were slaves there, by throwing them into
fluxes and fevers. But I found an excellent use for these grapes,
and that was to cure or dry them in the sun, and keep them as
dried grapes or raisins are kept, which I thought would be (as
indeed they were) as wholesome and agreeable to eat, when no
grapes might be had. |

I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my habita-
tion, which, by the way, was the first night, as I might say, I had
lain from home. In the night I took my first contrivance and
got up into a tree, where I slept well, and the next morning
proceeded upon my discovery, travelling near four miles, as I
might judge by the length of the valley, keeping still due north,
with a ridge of hills on the south and north sides of me.

At the end of this march I came to an opening, where the
country seemed to descend to the west, and a little spring of
fresh water, which issued out of the side of the hill by me, ran
the other way, that is, due east; and the country appeared so
fresh, so green, so flourishing, everything being in a constant
verdure, or flourish of spring, that it looked like a planted
garden. }

I descended a little on the side of that delicious vale, surveying
it with a secret kind of pleasure (though mixed with my other
afflicting thoughts), to think that this was all my own; that
was king and lord of all this country indefeasibly, and had a right
of possession, and if I could convey it, I might have it in inherit-
ance as completely as any lord of a manor in England. I saw
here abundance of cocoa trees, orange, and lemon, and citron
trees, but all wild, and few bearing any fruit,—at least not then.
However, the green limes that I gathered were not only pleasant
to eat, but very wholesome, and I mixed their juice afterwards
88 ADVENTURES OF

with water, which made it very wholesome and very cool and
refreshing. ;

I found now I had business enough, to gather and carry home,
and I resolved to lay up a store, as well of grapes as limes and
lemons, to furnish myself for the wet season, which I knew was
approaching. |

In order to this, I gathered a great heap of grapes in one place,
and a lesser heap in another place, and a great parcel of limes
and lemons in another place ; and taking a few of each with me,
I travelled homeward, and resolved to come again, and bring a
bag or sack, or what I could make, to carry the rest home.

Accordingly, having spent three days in this journey, I came
home (so I must now call my tent and my cave), but before I
got thither the grapes were spoiled: the richness of the fruits,
and the weight of the juice, having broken them and bruised
them, they were good for little or nothing ; as to the limes, they
were good, but I could bring but a few.

The next day being the 19th, I went back, having made me two
small bags to bring home my harvest ; but I was surprised when,
coming to my heap of grapes, which were so rich and fine when
I gathered them, I found them all spread about, trod to pieces,
and dragged about,—some here, some. there, and abundance
eaten and devoured. By this I concluded there were some wild.
creatures thereabouts, which had done this, but what they were
I knew not.

However, as I found that there was no laying them up on
heaps, and no carrying them away in a sack, but that one way
they would be destroyed, and the other way they would be
crushed with their own weight, I took another course; for I
gathered a large quantity of the grapes, and hung them upon the
out-branches of the trees, that they might cure and dry in the
sun: and as for the limes and lemons, I carried as many back
as I could well stand under.

When I came home from this journey, I contemplated with
great pleasure the fruitfulness of that valley and the pleasantness of
the situation, the security from storms on that side the water, and
the wood ; and concluded that I had pitched upon a place to
fix my abode, which was by far the worst part of the country.
Upon the whole, I began to consider of removing my _habita-
tion, and to look out for a place equally safe as where I now
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 89

was situate, if possible, in that pleasant fruitful part of the
island.

This thought ran long in my head, and I was exceeding fond
of it for some time, the pleasantness of the place tempting me ;
but when I came to a nearer view of it, and to consider that I
was now by the seaside, where it was at least possible that some-
thing might happen to my advantage, and, by the same ill-fate
that brought me hither, might bring some other unhappy wretches
to the same place,—and though it was scarce probable that any
such thing should ever happen, yet to enclose myself among the
hills and woods in the centre of the island, was to anticipate my
bondage, and to render such an affair not only improbable, but
impossible,—and that therefore I ought not by any means to
remove.

However, I was so enamoured of this place, that I spent much
of my time there for the whole remaining part of the month of
July ; and though, upon second thoughts, I resolved, as above,
not to remove, yet I built me a little kind of a bower, and sur-
rounded it at a distance with a strong fence, being a double
hedge, as high as I could reach, well staked, and filled between
with brushwood; and here I lay very secure, sometimes two or
three nights together, always going over it with a ladder, as before,
—so that I fancied now I had my country-house and my sea-
coast house. And this work took me up till the beginning of
August.

I had but newly finished my fence, and began to enjoy my
labour, but the rains came on and made me stick close to my first
habitation ; for, though I had made me a tent like the other with
a piece of a sail, and spread it very well, yet I had not the shelter
of a hill to keep me from storms, nor a cave behind me to retreat
into when the rains were extraordinary.

About the beginning of August, as I said, I had finished my
bower, and began to enjoy myself. The 3d of August, I found
the grapes I had hung up were perfectly dried, and indeed were
excellent good raisins of the sun: so I began to take them down
from the trees, and it was very happy that I did so, for the rains
which followed would have spoiled them, and I had lost the best
part of my winter food; for I had above two hundred large
bunches. of them. No sooner had I taken them all down, and
carried most of them home to my cave, but it began to rain; and
go ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

from hence, which was the 14th of August, it rained, more or less,
every day till the middle of October, and sometimes so violently
that I could not stir out of my cave for several days.

In this season, I was much surprised with the increase of my
family. I had been concerned for the loss of one of my cats who
ran away from me, or, as I thought, had been dead, and I heard
no more tale or tidings of her, till, to my astonishment, she came
home, about the end of August, with three kittens. This was the
more strange to me, because, though I had killed a wild cat, as I
called it, with my gun, yet I thought it was a quite different kind
from our European cats; yet the young cats were the same kind
of house-breed like the old one, and both of my cats being females,
I thought it very strange ; but, from these three cats, I afterwards
came to be so pestered with cats, that I was forced to kill them
like vermin, or wild beasts, and to drive them from my house as
much as possible.

From the r4th of August to the 26th, incessant rain, so that I
could not stir, and was now very carat not to be much wet.
In this confinement, I began to be straitened for food; but
venturing out twice, I one day killed a goat, and the last day,
which was the 26th, found a very large tortoise, which was a treat
to me, and my food was regulated thus: I ate a bunch of raisins
for my breakfast, a piece of the goat’s flesh, or of the turtle, for
my dinner, broiled (for, to my great misfortune, I had no vessel
to boil or stew anything), and two or three of the turtle’s eggs for
my supper.

During this confinement in my cover, by the rain, I worked
daily two or three hours at enlarging my cave, and by degrees
worked it on towards one side till I came to the outside of the
hill and made a door, or way out, which came beyond my fence
or wall; and so I came in and out this way. But I was not
perfectly easy at lying so open: for, as I had managed myself
before, I was in a perfect enclosure, whereas now, I thought I lay
exposed ; and yet I could not perceive that there was any living
thing to fear, the biggest creature that I had yet seen upon the
island being a goat.




CHAPTER VIII.

The Journal continued—-Crusoe celebrates the anniversary of his landing on the ~
island by a solemn fast—Sets apart every seventh day for a Sabbath— His ink
beginning to fail, he only records remarkable events in his Journal—Sows a
portion of the grain he had saved at the wrong season, and learns something
worth knowing from the experiment—A new division of the Seasons—Turns
his early habit of observing to account, in making baskets —-Makes a journey
through the island, and comes to a spot where the shore is covered with turtles
—Loses his way in the interior, and returns to the shore, from whence he
reaches his home—Catches and tames a young kid—The second anniversary of
his landing—Reflections— Difficulties overcome by labour and patience. -

EPTEMBER THE 30TH—I was now come to the
unhappy anniversary of my landing,—I cast up the
notches on my post, and found I had been on
shore three hundred and sixty-five days. I kept -
this day asa solemn fast, setting it apart for religious

exercise, prostrating myself on the ground with the most serious

humiliation, confessing my sins to God, acknowledging His
righteous judgments upon me, and praying to Him to have mercy
on me through Jesus Christ; and having not tasted the least
refreshment for twelve hours, even till the going down of the sun,

I then ate a biscuit cake and a bunch of grapes, and went to bed,

finishing the day as I began it.

I had all this time observed no Sabbath-day ; for, as at first I
had no sense of religion upon my mind, I had, after some time,
omitted to distinguish the weeks, by making a longer notch than
ordinary for the Sabbath-day, and so did not really know what
any of the days were; but now having cast up the days, as above,
I found I had been there a year, so I divided it into weeks, and
set apart every seventh day for a Sabbath: though I found, at the
end of my account, I had lost a day or two in my reckoning.

A little after this, my ink began to fail me, and so I contented
myself to use it more sparingly, and to write down only the most


92 ADVENTURES OF

remarkable events of my life, without continuing a daily memo-
randum of other things. :

The rainy season and the dry season began now to appear
regular to me, and I learned to divide them so as to provide for
them accordingly; but I bought all my experience before I had
it, and this I am going to relate was one of the most discouraging
experiments that I made at all. I have mentioned that I had
saved the few ears of barley and rice, which I had so surprisingly
found spring up, as I thought, of themselves, and believe there
were about thirty stalks of rice, and about twenty of barley; and
now I thought it a proper time to sow it after the rains, the sun
being in its southern position, going from me.

Accordingly, I dug up a piece of ground as well as I could
with my wooden spade, and dividing it into two parts, I sowed
my grain; but, as I was sowing, it casually occurred to my thoughts
that I would not sow it all at first, because I did not know
when was the proper time for it; so I sowed about two-thirds of
the seed, leaving about a handful of each.

It was a great comfort to me afterwards that I did so, for not
one grain of that I sowed at this time came to anything; for the
dry months following, the earth having had no rain after the seed
was sown, it had no moisture to assist its growth, and never came
up at all till the wet season had come again, and then it grew as
if it had been but newly sown.

Finding my first seed did not grow, which I easily imagined
was by the drought, I sought for a moister piece of ground to
make another trial in, and I dug up a piece of ground near my
new bower, and sowed the rest of my seed in February, a little
before the vernal equinox; and this, having the rainy months of
March and April to water it, sprung up very pleasantly, and yielded
a very good crop: but having part of the seed left only, and not
daring to sow all that I had, I had but a small quantity at last,
my whole crop not amounting to above half a peck of each kind.
But by this experiment I was made master of my business, and
knew exactly when the proper season was to sow, and that I might
expect two seed-times, and two harvests, every year,

While this corn was. growing, I made a little discovery, which
was of use to me afterwards. As soon as the rains were over
and the weather began to settle, which was about the month of
November, I made a visit up the country to my bower, where,
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 93

J

- though I had not been some months, yet I found all things just
as I left them. ‘The circle, or double hedge, that I had made,
was not only firm and entire, but the stakes which I had cut out
of some trees that grew thereabouts, were all shot out and grown
with long branches, as much as a willow-tree usually shoots the
first year after lopping its head. I could not tell what tree to
call it that these stakes were cut from. I was surprised, and yet
very well pleased, to see the young trees grow, and I pruned them
and led them up to grow as much alike as I could; and it is
scarce credible how beautiful a figure they grew into in three

_ years,—so that, though the hedge made a circle of about twenty-
five yards in diameter, yet the trees, for such I might now call

them, soon covered it, and it was a complete shade, sufficient to
lodge under all the dry season. This made me resolve to cut
some more stakes, and make me a hedge like this, in a semicircle
round my wall (I mean that of my first dwelling), which I did;
and placing the trees, or stakes, in a double row, at about eight
yards distance from my first fence, they grew presently, and were
at first a fine cover to my habitation, and afterwards served for a
defence also, as I shall observe in its order.

I found now that the seasons of the year might generally be
divided, not into summer and winter, as in Europe, but into the
rainy seasons and the dry seasons, which were generally thus :—

Half February

. March \ Rainy, the sun being then on, or near, the equinox.
Half April

Half April
May
June Dry, the sun being then to the north of the Line.
July

Half August

Half August 4
September + Rain, the sun being then come back.
Half October

Half October
- November
‘December } Dry, the sun being then to the south of the Line.
January
Half February

The rainy season sometimes held longer or shorter as the winds
happened to blow, but this was the general observation I made.
O4 ADVENTURES OF

After I had found, by experience, the ill consequences of being
abroad in the rain, I took care to furnish myself with provisions
beforehand, that I might not be obliged to go out, and I sat
within doors as much as possible during the wet months.

In this time I found much employment, and very suitable also
to the time, for I found great occasion of many things which I
had no way to furnish myself with but by hard labour and con-
stant application ; particularly, I tried many ways to make myself
a basket, but all the twigs I could get for the purpose proved so
brittle that they would do nothing. It proved of excellent
advantage to me now, that, when I was a boy, I used to take
great delight in standing at a basketmaker’s, in the town where
my father lived, to see them make their wicker-ware ; and being,
as boys usually are, very officious to help, and a great observer
of the manner how they worked those things, and sometimes
lending a hand, I had by this means so full knowledge of the
methods of it, that I wanted nothing but the materials,—when it
came into my mind that the twigs of that tree from whence I cut
my stakes that grew, might possibly be as tough as the sallows,
and willows, and osiers, in England; and I resolved to try.

Accordingly, the next day, I went to my country-house, as I
called it, and cutting some of the smaller twigs, I found them to
my purpose as much as I could desire ; whereupon I came the
next time prepared with a hatchet to cut down a quantity, which
I soon found, for there was great plenty of them. These I set
up to dry within my circle, or hedge, and when they were fit for
use, I carried them to my cave ; and here, during the next season,
1 employed myself in making, as well as I could, a great many
baskets, both to carry earth, or to carry or lay up anything as I
had occasion: and though I did not finish them very hand-
somely, yet I made them sufficiently serviceable for my purpose :
and thus, afterwards, I took care never to be without them,—
and as my wicker-ware decayed, I made more, especially I made
strong deep baskets to place my corn in, instead of sacks, when I
should come to have any quantity of it.

Having mastered this difficulty, and employed a world of time
about it, I bestirred myself to see, if possible, how to supply two
_ wants. I had no vessels to hold anything that was liquid, except
two runlets, which were almost full of rum, and some glass
bottles, some of the common size, and others, which were case-
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 95

bottles, square, for the holding of waters, spirits, &c. I had not
so much as a pot to boil anything, except a great kettle which I
saved out of the ship, and which was too big for such use as I
desired it for, viz., to make broth and stew a bit of meat by itself.
The second thing I would fain have had was a tobacco-pipe, but
it was impossible for me to make one; however, I found a con-
trivance for that, too, at last.

I employed myself in planting my second rows of stakes or
piles, and in this wicker-work, all the summer, or dry season,
when another business took me up more time than it could be
imagined I could spare.

I mentioned before that I had a great mind to see the whole
island, and that I had travelled up the brook, and so on to where
I built my bower, and where I had an opening quite to the sea,
on the other side of the island. I now resolved to travel quite
across to the seashore, on that side. So, taking my gun, and
hatchet, and my dog, and a larger quantity of powder and shot
than usual, with two biscuit-cakes and a great bunch of raisins in
my pouch, for my store, I began my journey. When I had
passed the vale where my bower stood, as above, I came within
view of the sea, to the west; and it being a very clear day, I
fairly descried and whether an island or continent I could not
tell, but it lay very high, extending from the west to the west-
south-west, at a very great distance: by my guess, it could not
be less than fifteen or twenty leagues off.

I could not tell what part of the world this might be, otherwise
than that I knew it must be part of America, and; as I concluded |
by all my observations, must be near the Spanish dominions, and
perhaps was all inhabited by savages, where, if I should have
landed, I had been in a worse condition than, I was now; and
therefore I acquiesced in the dispositions of Providence, which I
began now to own and to believe ordered everything for the best,
—I say, I quieted my mind with this, and left afflicting myself
with fruitless wishes of being there.

Besides, after some pause upon this affair, I considered that, if
this land was the Spanish coast, I should certainly, one time or
other, see some vessel pass or repass one way or other; but if
not, then it was the savage coast between the Spanish country
and Brazil, the inhabitants of which are indeed the worst of
savages, for they are cannibals, or men-eaters, and fail not to
96 ADVENTURES OF

murder, and devour all the human bodies that fall into their
hands.

With these considerations I walked very leisurely forward. I
found that side of the island where I now was much pleasanter
than mine, the open or savannah fields sweet, adorned with
flowers and grass, and full of very fine woods. I saw abundance
of parrots, and fain I would have caught one, if possible, to have
kept it to be tame, and taught it to speak to me. I did, after
some painstaking, catch a young parrot, for I knocked it down
with a stick, and having recovered it, I brought it home; but it
was some years before I could make him speak : however, at last
I taught him to call me by my name very familiarly. But the
accident that followed, though it be a trifle, will be very diverting
in its place.

I was exceedingly diverted with this journey. I found, in the
low grounds, hares—as I thought them to be—and foxes, but
they differed greatly ftom all the other kinds I had met with, nor
could I satisfy myself to eat them, though I killed several. But
I had no need to be venturous, er I had no want of food, and-of
that which was .very good too, especially these three sorts, viz.,
goats, pigeons, and turtle, or tortoise,—which, added to my grapes,
Leadenhall market could not have furnished a table better than JI,
in proportion to the company; and though my case was deplor-
able enough, yet I had great cause for thankfulness that I was
not driven to any extremities for food, but had rather plenty, even
to dainties. -

I never travelled, in this journey, above two miles outright in
a day, or thereabouts, but I took so many turns and returns, to
see what discoveries I could make, that I came wearied enough
to the place where I resolved to sit down for all night, and then
I either reposed myself in a tree, or surrounded myself with a
row of stakes, set upright in the ground, either from one tree to
another, or so as no wild creature could come at me without
waking me.

As soon as I came to the seashore, I was surprised to see that
I had taken up my lot on the worst side of the island ; for here,
indeed, the shore was covered with innumerable turtles, whereas,
on the other side, I had found but three in a year and a half.
Here was also an infinite number of fowls of many kinds, some
of which I had not seen before, and many of them very good
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 97

meat, but such as I knew not the names of, except those called
penguins.

I could have shot as many as I pleased, but was very sparing
of my powder and shot, and therefore had more mind to kill a
she-goat, if I could, which I could better feed on: and though
there were many goats here, more than on the other side of the
island, yet it was with much more difficulty that I could come
near them, the country being flat and even, and they saw me
much sooner than when I was on the hills.

I confess this side of the country was much pleasanter than
mine; but yet I had not the least inclination to remove, for, as I
was fixed in my habitation, it became natural to me, and I seemed
all the while I was here to be as it were upon a journey, and from
home. However, I travelled along the shore of the sea towards
the east, I suppose about twelve miles, and then, setting up a
great pole upon the shore for a mark, I concluded I would go
_ home again, and that the next journey I took should be on the
_ other side of the island, east from my dwelling, and so round till
I came to my post again; of which in its place.

I took another way to come back than that I went, thinking I
could easily keep all the island so much in my view that I could
not miss my first dwelling by viewing the country; but I found
myself mistaken, for being come about two or three miles, I found
myself descended into a very large valley, but so surrounded with
hills, and those hills covered with woods, that I could not see
which was my way by any direction but that of the sun, nor even
then, unless I knew very well the position of the sun at that time
of the day.

It happened, to my farther misfortune, that the weather proved
hazy for three or four days while I was in this valley, and not
being able to see the sun, I wandered about very uncomfortably,
and at last was obliged to find out the seaside, look for my post,
and come back the same way I went: and then by easy journeys
I turned homeward, the weather being exceeding hot, and my
gun, ammunition, hatchet, and other things very heavy.

In this journey, my dog surprised a young kid, and seized upon
it, and I running in to take hold of it, caught it, and saved it alive
from the dog. I had a great mind to bring it home if I could,
for I had often been musing whether it might not be possible
to get a kid or two, and so raise a breed of tame goats, which
; G
98 ADVENTURES OF

might supply me when my powder and shot should be all’
spent. |

I made a collar for this little creature, and with a string which
I made out of some rope yarn, which I always carried about me,
I led him along, though with some difficulty, till I came to my
bower, and there I enclosed him and left him, for I was very im-
patient to be at home, from whence I had been absent above a
month.

I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me to come into
my old hutch, and lie down in my hammock bed. This little
wandering journey, without settled place of abode, had been so
unpleasant to me that my own house, as I called it to myself, was
a perfect settlement to me compared to that; and it rendered
everything about me so comfortable, that I resolved I would
never go a great way from it again, while it should be my lot to
stay on the island.

I reposed myself here a week, to rest and regale myself after
my long journey, during which most of the time was taken up in
the weighty affair of making a cage for my Poll, who began now to
be a mere domestic, and to be mighty well acquainted with me.
Then I began to think of the poor kid which I had pent in within
my little circle, and resolved to go and fetch it home, and give it
some food : accordingly I went, and found it where I left it, for
indeed it could not get out, but was almost starved for want of
food. I went and cut boughs of trees, and branches of such
shrubs as I could find, and threw it over, and having fed it, I tied
it as I did before, to lead it away; but it was so tame with being
hungry, that I had no need to have tied it, for it followed me like
a dog, and as I continually fed it, the creature became so loving,
so gentle, and so fond, that it became from that time one of my
domestics also, and would never leave me afterwards.

The rainy season of the autumnal equinox was now come, and
I kept the 3oth of September in the same solemn manner as be-
fore, being the anniversary of my landing on the island, having
now been there two years, and no more prospect of being de-
livered than the first day I came there. I spent the whole day
in humble and thankful acknowledgments of the many wonderful
mercies which my solitary condition was attended with, and with-
out which it might have been infinitely more miserable. JI gave
humble and hearty thanks, that God had been pleased to discover
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 99

to me even that it was possible I might be more happy in this
solitary condition than I should have been in a liberty of society
and in all the pleasures of the world,—that He could fully make
up to me the deficiencies of my solitary state and the want of
human society, by His presence, and the communications of His
grace to my soul, supporting, comforting, and encouraging me
to depend upon His providence here, and hope for His eternal
presence hereafter. It was now that I began sensibly to feel,
how much more happy the life I now led was, with all its miser-
able circumstances, than the wicked, cursed, abominable life I
led all the past part of my days; and now I changed both my
sorrows and my joys,—my very desires altered, my affections
changed their.gusts, and my delights were perfectly new from what
they were at my first coming, or indeed for the two years past.

Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting, or for view-
ing the country, the anguish of my soul at my condition would
break out upon me on a sudden, and my very heart would die
within me, to think of the woods, the mountains, the deserts I
was in, and how I was a prisoner locked up with the eternal bars
and bolts of the ocean, in an uninhabited wilderness without
redemption. In the midst of the greatest composures of my
mind, this would break out upon me like a storm, and make me:
wring my hands and weep like a child : sometimes it would take
me in the middle of my work, and I would immediately sit down
and sigh, and look upon the ground for an hour or two to-
gether, and this was still worse to me, for if I could burst out into
tears, or vent myself by words, it would go off, and the grief,
having exhausted itself, would abate.

But now I began to exercise myself with new thoughts. I
daily read the Word of God, and applied all the comforts of it to
_ my present state. One morning, being very sad, I opened the
Bible upon these words, “‘I will mever leave thee, nor forsake
thee.” Immediately it occurred that these words were to me:
why else should they be directed in such a manner, just at the
moment when I was mourning over my condition as one forsaken
of God and man? “ Well, then,” said I, “if God does not for-
sake me, of what ill consequence can it be, or what matters it,
though the world should all forsake me, seeing, on the other hand,
if I had all the world and should lose the favour and blessing of
God, there would be no comparison in the loss 2?”
100 ADVENTURES OF

From this moment I began to conclude in my mind that it was
possible for me to be more happy in this forsaken, solitary condi-
tion, than it was probable I should have ever been in any other
particular state of the world, and with this thought I was going to
give thanks to God for bringing me to this place.

I know not what it was, but something shocked my mind at
that thought, and I durst not speak the words. ‘‘ How canst
thou be such a hypocrite,” said I, even audibly, “to pretend to be
thankful for a condition which, however thou mayest endeavour
to be contented with, thou wouldst rather pray heartily to be
delivered from?” SoTI stopped there; but though I could not
say I thanked God for being there, yet I sincerely gave thanks to
God for opening my eyes, by whatever afflicting providences, to
see the former condition of my life, and to mourn for my wicked-
ness, and repent. I never opened the Bible, or shut it, but my
very soul within me blessed God for directing my friend in Eng-
land, without any order of mine, to pack it up among my goods,
and for assisting me afterwards to save it out of the wreck of the
ship.

Thus, and in this disposition of mind, I began my third year ;
and though I have not given the reader the trouble of so particular
an account of my works this year as at the first, yet in general
it may be observed that I was very seldom idle, but having regu-
larly divided my time according to the several daily employments
that were before me,—such as, first, my duty to God and the
reading the Scriptures, which I constantly set apart some time for,
thrice every day: secondly, the going abroad with my gun for
food, which generally took me up three hours every morning,
when it did not rain: thirdly, the ordering, curing, preserving, and
cooking what I had killed or catched for my supply: these took
up great part of the day. Also it is to be considered that, in the
middle of the day, when the sun was in the zenith, the violence
of the heat was too great to stir out, so that about four hours in
the evening was all the time I could be supposed to work in, with
this exception, that sometimes I changed my hours of hunting
and working, and went to work in the morning, and abroad with
my gun in the afternoon.

T’o this short time allowed for labour I desire may be added
the exceeding laboriousness of my work, the many hours which,
for want of tools, want of help, and want of skill, everything that
ROBINSON CRUSOE. IOI

I did took up out of my time: for example, I was full two and
forty days making me a board for a long shelf, which I wanted in
my cave, whereas, two sawyers, with their tools and sawpit, would
have cut six of them out of the same tree in half a day.

My case was this—it was to be a large tree which was to be
cut down, because my board was to be a broad one. This tree
I was three days cutting down, and two more cutting off the
boughs and reducing it to a log or piece of timber. With inex-
pressible hacking and hewing, I reduced both the sides of it into
chips, till it began to be light enough to move ; then I turned it,
and made one side of it smooth and flat as a board from end to
end; then, turning that side downward, cut the other side, till I
brought the plank to be about three inches thick, and smooth on
both sides. Any one may judge the labour of my hands in such
a piece of work, but labour and patience-carried me through that
and many other things: I only observe this in particular, to show
the reason why so much of my time went away with so little work,
viz., that what might be a little to be done with help and tools, |
was a vast labour, and required a prodigious time to do alone,
and by hand.

But notwithstanding this, with patience and labour I went
through many things, and indeed everything that my circum-
stances made necessary for me to do, as will appear by what
follows.


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CHAPTER IX.

Crusoe in trouble about his growing crops, which are attacked by goats and birds—
He delivers himself from these enemies, and reaps his corn—Is perplexed how
to make bread of it, and determines to preserve the whole crop for seed—Makes
a spade—In-door employment in the rainy season—Teaches his parrot to talk—
Makes pottery, and a mortar to grind his corn in—His first baking—A new
harvest—Contemplates escaping from the island—Constructs a boat, but is
unable to launch it—Begins to cut a canal, but gives up the attempt in de-
spair—Fresh reflections.

WAS now, in the months of November and Decem-
ber, expecting my crop of barley and rice. The
ground I had manured or dug up for them was not
great, for, as I observed, my seed of each was not

above the quantity of half a peck, for I had lost
one whole crop by sowing in the dry season; but now my crop
promised very well, when on a sudden I found I was in danger
of losing it all again by enemies of several sorts, which it was
scarce possible to keep from it; as, first, the goats and wild
creatures which I called hares, which, tasting the sweetness of the
blade, lay in it night and day, as soon as it came up, and ate it
so close that it could get no time to shoot up into stalk.

This I saw no remedy for, but by making an enclosure about
it with a hedge, which I did with a great deal of toil, and the
more because it required a great deal of speed, the creatures daily
spoiling my corn. However, as my arable land was but small,
suited to my crop, I got it totally well fenced in about three
weeks’ time, and shooting some of the creatures in the daytime,
I set my dog to guard it in the night, tying him up to a stake at
the gate, where he would stand and bark all night long; soina
little time the enemies forsook the place, and the corn grew very
strong and well, and began to ripen apace.

But as the beasts ruined me before, while my corn was in the
blade, so. the birds were as likely to ruin me now, when it was in


ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 103

the ear ; for, going along by the place to see how it throve, I saw
my fae crop surrounded with fowls, of I know not eos, many
sorts, which stood, as it were, watching till I should be gone. I
immediately let fly among them (for I always had my gun with
me): I had no sooner shot, but there rose up a little cloud of
fowls, which I had not seen at all, from among the corn itself.

This touched me sensibly, for I foresaw that in a few days they
would devour all my hopes; that I should be starved, and never
be able to raise a crop at all; and what to do I could not tell:
however, I resolved not to lose my corn, if possible, though I
should watch it night and day. In the first place, I went among
it, to see what damage was already done, and found they had
spoiled a good deal of it; but that as it was yet too green for
them, the loss was not so great, but that the remainder was like
to be a good crop, if it could be saved.

I stayed by it to load my gun, and then, coming away, I could
easily see the thieves sitting upon all the trees about me, as if
they only waited till I was gone away; and the event proved it
to be so, for as I walked off, as if I was gone, I was no sooner
out of their sight, but they dropped down one by one into the
corn again. J was so provoked ‘that I could not have patience
to stay till more came on, knowing that every grain that they ate
now was, as it might be said, a peck loaf to me in the con-'
sequence ; but, coming up to the hedge, I fired again, and killed
three of them. This was what I wished for; so I took them up,
and served them as we serve notorious thieves in England, viz.,
hanged them in chains, for a terror to others. It is impossible to
imagine almost that this should have such an effect as it had ;
for the fowls would not only not come at the corn, but, in Diane
they forsook all that part of the island, and I could never see a
bird near the place as long as my scarecrows hung there.

This I was very glad of, you may be sure, and about the latter
end of December, which was our second harvest of the year, I
reaped my corn.

I was sadly put to it for a scythe or sickle to eut it down: and
all I could do was to make one as well as I could out of one of the
broadswords, or cutlasses, which I saved among the arms out of
the ship. However, as my crop was but small, I had no great
difficulty to cut it down ; in short, I reaped it my way, for I cut
nothing off but the ears, and carried it away in a great basket
104 ADVENTURES OF

which I had made, and so rubbed it out with my hands, and at
the end of all my harvesting, I found that out of my half peck of
seed I had near two bushels of rice, and above two bushels and
a half of barley; that 1s to say, by my guess, tor I had no mea-
sure at that time.

However, this was great encouragement to me, and I foresaw
that in time it would please God to supply me with bread ; and
yet here I was perplexed again, for I neither knew how to grind
nor make meal of my corn, nor indeed how to clean it and part
it : nor, if made into meal, how to make bread of it; and if how -
to make it, yet I knew not how to bake it: these things being
added to my desire of having a good quantity for store, and to
secure a constant supply, I resolved not to taste any of this crop,
but to preserve it all for seed against the next season, and in the
meantime, to employ all my study and hours of working to
accomplish this great work of providing myself with corn and
breadse:

It might be truly said that now I worked for my bread. It is
a little wonderful, and what I believe few people have thought
much upon, viz., the strange multitude of little things necessary
in the providing, producing, curing, dressing, making, and finish-
ing this one article of bread..

‘I, that was reduced to a mere state of nature, found this to
be my daily discouragement, and was made more and more sen-
sible of it every hour, even after I had got the first handful of
seed-corn, which, as I have said, came up unexpectedly, and
indeed to a surprise.

First, I had no plough to turn up the earth, no spade or shovel
to dig it: well, this I conquered by making a wooden spade,
as I observed before; but this did my work but in a wooden
manner, and though it cost me a great many days to make it,
yet, for want of iron, it not only wore out the sooner, but made
my work the harder, and made it be performed much worse.

However, this I bore with, too, and was content to work it out
with patience, and bear i the badness of the performance.
When the corn was sowed, I had no harrow, but was forced to go
over it myself, and drag a great heavy bough of a tree over it,
to scratch the earth, as it may be called, rather than rake or
harrow it.

When it was growing and grown, I have observed already how
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 108

any things I wanted to fence it, secure it, mow or reap it, cure
a carry it home, thresh, part it from the chaff, and save it:
then I wanted a mill to grind it, sieves to dress it, yeast and salt
to make it into bread, and an oven to bake it ; and yet all these
things I did without, as shall be observed : and yet the corn was
an inestimable comfort and advantage to me, too. But all this,
as I said, made everything laborious and tedious to me, but that
there was no help for; neither was my time so much loss to me,
because, as I had divided it, a certain part of it was every day
appointed to these works ; and as I resolved to use none of the
corn for bread till I had a greater quantity by me, I had the next
six months to apply myself wholly, by labour and invention, to
furnish myself with utensils proper for the performing all the
operations necessary for the making the corn, when I had it, fit
for my use.

But first I was to prepare more land, for I had now seed
enough to sow above an acre of ground. Before I did this, I
had a week’s work, at least, to make me a spade, which, when it
was done, was but a sorry one indeed, and very heavy, and
required double labour to work witlr it: however, I went through
that, and sowed my seed in two large flat pieces of ground, as
near my house as I could find them to my mind, and fenced
them in with a good hedge, the stakes of which were all cut off
that wood which I had set before, which I knew would grow ; so
that, in one year’s time, I knew I should have a quick, or living
hedge, that would want but little repair. This work was not so
little as to take me up less than three months, because great part
of that time was in the wet ‘season, when I could not go abroad.

Within doors, that is, when it rained, and I could not go out,
I found employment on the following occasions, always observing
that all the while I was at work, I diverted myself with talking
to my parrot, and teaching him to speak ; and -I quickly learnt
him to know his own name, and at last to speak it out pretty
loud, “ Poll,” which was the first word I ever heard spoken in the
island by any mouth but my own. This, therefore, was not my
work, but’ an assistant to my work; for now, as I said, I hada
great employment upon my hands, as follows: viz. I had long
studied, by some means or other, to make myself. some earthen
vessels, which indeed I wanted sorely, but knew not where to
come at them: however, considering the heat of the climate, I.
106 ADVENTURES OF

did not doubt but, if I could find out any suitable clay, I might
botch up some such pot as might, being dried by the sun, be
hard enough and strong enough to bear handling, and to hold
anything that was dry, and required to be kept so; and as this
was necessary in the preparing corn, meal, &c., which was the
thing I was upon, I resolved to make some as large as I could, and
fit only to stand like jars, to hold what should be put into them.

It would make the reader pity me, or rather laugh at me, to
tell how many awkward ways I took to raise this paste,—what
odd, misshapen, ugly things I made, how many of them fell in,
and how many fell out, the clay not being stiff enough to bear its
own weight; how many cracked by the over violent heat of the
sun, being set out too hastily, and how many fell to pieces with
only removing, as well before as after they were dried ; and, in
a word, how, after having laboured hard to find the clay, to dig
it, to temper it, to bring it home, and work it, I could not make
above tivo large earthen ugly things (I cannot call them jars) in
about two months’ labour.

However, as the sun baked these two very dry and hard, I

lifted them very gently up, and set them down again in two great
wicker baskets, which I had made on purpose for them, that they
might not break; and as, between the pot and the basket, there
was a little room to spare, I stuffed it full of the rice and barley
straw, and these two pots being to stand always dry, I thought
would hold my dry corn, and perhaps the meal, when the corn
was bruised.
- Though I miscarried so much in my design for large pots, yet
I made several smaller things with better success, such as little
round pots, flat dishes, pitchers, and pipkins, and anything my
hand turned to, and the heat of the sun baked them strangely
hard. ; :

But all this would not answer my end, which was to get an
earthen pot to hold what was liquid, and bear the fire, which
none of these could do. It happened, after some time, making
a pretty large fire for cooking my meat, when I went to put it out
after I had done with it, I found a broken piece of one of my
earthenware vessels in the fire, burnt as hard as a stone, and red
as a tile. I was agreeably surprised to see it, and said to myself,
that certainly they might. be made to burn whole, if they would
_ burn broken.
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 107

This set me to study how to order my fire, so as to make it
burn me some pots. I had no notion of a kiln, such as the
potters burn in, or of glazing them with lead, though I had some
lead to do it with ; but I placed three large pipkins and two or
three pots in a pile, one upon another, and placed my firewood
all round it, with a great heap of embers under them. I plied
the fire with fresh fuel round the outside, and upon the top, till I
saw the pots in the inside red hot quite through, and observed
that they did not crack at all: when I saw them clear red, I let
them stand in that heat about five or six hours, till I found one
of them, though it did not crack, did melt or run,—for the sand
which was mixed with the clay melted by the violence of the heat,
and would have run into glass if I had gone on; so I slacked my
fire gradually, till my pots began to, abate of the red colour, and
watching them all night, that I might not let the fire abate too
fast, in the morning I had three very good—I will not say hand-
some—pipkins, and two other earthen pots, as hard burnt as could
be desired, and one of them perfectly glazed with the running of
the sand.

After this experiment, I need not say that [ wanted no sort of
earthenware for my use; but I must needs say, as to the shapes
of them, they were very indifferent, as any one may suppose, when
I had no way of making them but as the children make dirt pies,
or as a woman would make pies that never learned to raise paste.

No joy at a thing of so mean a nature was ever equal to mine,
when I found I had made an earthen pot that would bear the fire,
and I had hardly patience to stay till they were cold, before I set
one upon the fire again, with some water in it, to boil me some
meat, which. it did admirably well; and with a piece of a kid I
made ‘some very good broth, though I wanted oatmeal and several
other ingredients requisite to make it so good as I would have
had it. 7 alee

My next concern was to get me a stone mortar to stamp or
beat some corn in; for, as to the mill, there was no thought of
arriving to that perfection of -art with one pair of hands. To
supply this want I was at a great loss, for, of eall trades in the
- world, I was as perfectly unqualified for a stonecutter as for any
whatever ; neither had I any tools to go about it with. I spent
many a day to find out a great stone big enough to cut hollow,
and make fit for a mortar, and could find none at all, except what
108 , ADVENTURES OF

was in the solid rock, and which I had no way to dig or cut out ;
nor, indeed, were the rocks in the island of hardness sufficient,
but were all of a sandy crumbling stone, which would neither
bear the weight of a heavy pestle, nor would break the corn with-
out filling it with sand: so, after a great deal of time lost in
searching for a stone, I gave it over, and resolved to look out a
great block of hard wood, which I found indeed much easier, and
getting one as big as I had strength to stir, I rounded it, and
formed it on the outside with my axe and hatchet, and then, with
the help of fire, and infinite labour, made a hollow place in it, as
the Indians in Brazil make their canoes. After this, I made a
great heavy pestle, or beater, of the wood called the ironwood,
and this I prepared and laid by against I had my next crop of
corn, when I proposed to myself to grind, or rather pound, my
corn into meal to make my bread.

My next difficulty was to make a sieve, or searce, to dress my
meal and to part it from the bran and the husk, without which
I did not see it possible I could have any bread. This was a
most difficult thing, so much as but to think on, for to be sure I
had nothing like the necessary things to make it with—I mean
fine thin canvas or stuff, to searce the meal through. And here
I was at a full stop for many months, nor did I really know what
to do. Linen I had none left but what was mere rags; I had
goats’-hair, but neither knew I how to weave it nor spin it; and
had I known how, here were no tools to work it with. All the
remedy that I found for this was, that at last I did remember I
had, among the seamen’s clothes which were saved out of the
ship, some neckcloths of calico or muslin, and with some pieces .
of these I made three small sieves, but proper enough for the
work ; and thus I made shift for some years. How I did after-
wards, I shall show in its place.

The baking part was the next thing to be considered, and how
I should make bread when I came to have corn ; for, first, I had
no yeast—as to that part, there was no supplying the want, so I
did not concern myself much about it: but for an oven I was
indeed in great pain. At length I found out an expedient for
that also, which was this—I made some earthen vessels very
broad, but not deep,—that is to say, about two feet diameter, and
not above nine inches deep: these I burnt in the fire, as I had
done the others, and laid them by, and when I wanted to bake,
~

ROBINSON CRUSOE. 109

I made a great fire upon the hearth, which I had paved with some
square tiles of my own making and burning also; but I should
not call them square.

When the firewood was burnt pretty much into embers, or live
coals, I drew them forward upon this hearth, so as to cover it all
over, and there I let them lie till the hearth was very hot; then,
sweeping away all the embers, I set down my loaf, or loaves, and
whelming down the earthen pot upon them, drew the embers all
round the outside of the pot, to keep in and add to the heat ;
and thus, as well as in the best oven in the world, I baked my
barley loaves, and became, in a little time, a good pastrycook into
the bargain: for I made myself several cakes of the rice and
puddings—indeed I made no pies, neither had I any thing to put
into them, supposing I had, except the flesh either of fowls or
goats,

It need not be wondered at, if all these things took me up most
part of the third year of my abode here : for, it is to be observed
that in the intervals of these things, I had my new harvest and
husbandry to manage ; for I reaped my corn in its season, and
carried it home as well'as I could, and laid it up in the ear, in my
large baskets, till I had time to rub it out; for I had no floor to

thresh it on, or instrument to thresh it with.

And now, indeed, my stock of corn increasing, I really wanted
to build my barns bigger: I wanted a place to lay it up in, forthe
increase of the corn now yielded me so much, that I had of the

barley about twenty bushels, and of the rice as much, or more,

insomuch that I now resolved to begin to use it freely, for my
bread had been quite gone a great while: also I resolved to see
what quantity would be sufficient for me a whole year, and to sow
but once a year.

Upon the whole, I found that the forty bushels of barley and
rice were much more than I could consume in a year; so I
resolved to sow just the same quantity every year that I sowed
the last, in hopes that such a quantity would fully provide me
with bread, &c.

All the while these things were doing, you may be sure my
thoughts ran many times upon the prospect of land which I had
seen from the other side of the island, and I was not without
secret wishes that I was on shore there, fancying that, seeing the
main land and an inhabited country, I might find some way or
IIo ADVENTURES OF

other to convey myself farther, and perhaps at last find some
means of escape.

But all this while I made no allowance for the dangers of suc
a condition, and how I might fall into the hands of savages, and
_ perhaps such as I might have reason to think far worse than the
lions and tigers of Africa,—that if I once came into their power,
I should run a hazard of more than a thousand to one of being
killed, and perhaps of being eaten, for I had heard that the people
of the Caribbean coast were cannibals, or men-eaters, and I knew,
by the latitude, that I could not be far off from that shore,—that,
suppose they were not cannibals, yet they might kill me, as many
Europeans who had fallen into their hands had been served, even
when they have been ten or twenty together ; much more I, that
was but one, and could make little or no defence. All these
things, I say, which I ought to have considered well of, and I
did cast up in my thoughts afterwards, yet took up none of my
apprehensions at first ; and my head ran mightily upon the thought
of getting over to that shore.

Now I wished for my boy Xury, and the long-boat with the
shoulder-of-mutton sail with which I sailed above a thousand miles
on the coast of Africa; but this was in vain: then I thought I
would go and look on our ship’s boat, which, as I have said, was
blown up upon the shore a great way, in the storm when we were
first cast away. She lay almost where she did at first, but not
quite, and was turned by the force of the waves and the winds
almost bottom upward against the high ridge of beachy rough
sands, but no water about her, as before. |

If I had had hands to have refitted her, and to have launched
her into the water, the boat would have done very well, and I
might have gone back into the Brazils with her easy enough ; but
I might have easily foreseen that I could no more turn her and set
her upright upon her bottom, than I could remove the island,
However, I went to the wood, and cut levers and rollers, and
brought them to the boat, resolving to try what I could do,
suggesting to myself, that if I could but turn her down, I might
easily repair the damage she had received, and she would be a
very good boat, and I might go to sea in her very easily.

1 spared no pains, indeed, in this piece of fruitless toil, and
spent, I think, three or four weeks about it: at last, finding it
impossible to heave it up with my little strength, I fell to digging
ROBINSON CRUSOE. III

away the sand, to undermine it, and so to make it fall down,
setting pieces of wood to thrust and guide it right in the fall.

But when I had done this, I was unable to stir it up again, or
to get under it, much less to move it forwards towards the water ;
so I was forced to give it over, and yet, though I gave over the
hopes of the boat, my desire to venture over for the main
increased, rather than decreased, as the means for it seemed
impossible. |

This at length set me upon thinking whether it was not possible
to make myself a canoe, or periagua, such as the natives of those
climates make, even without tools, or, as I might say, without
hands, viz., of the trunk of a great tree. This I not only thought
possible, but easy, and pleased myself extremely with the thoughts
of making it, and with my having much more convenience for it
than any of the Negroes or Indians ; but not at all considering the
particular inconveniences which I lay under more than the
Indians did, viz., want of hands to move it, when it was made,
into the water—a difficulty much harder for me to surmount than
all the consequences of want of tools could be to them ; for what
was it to me that, when I had chosen a vast tree in the woods, I
might with great trouble cut it down, if after I might be able with
my tools to hew and dub the outside into a proper shape of a
boat, and burn or cut out the inside to make it hollow, so to make
a boat of 1t—if, after all this, I must leave it just there where I
found it, and was not able to launch it into the water.

One would have thought I could not have had the least reflec-
tion upon my mind of my circumstance, while I was making this
boat, but I should have immediately thought how I should get it
into the sea; but my thoughts were so intent upon my voyage
over the sea in it, that I never once considered how I should get
it off the land ; and it was really, in its own nature, more easy for
me to guide it over forty-five miles of sea, than about forty-five
fathoms of land, where it lay, to set it afloat in the water.

I went to work upon this boat most like a fool that ever man
did, who had any of his senses awake. I pleased myself with the
design, without determining whether I was ever able to undertake
it; not but that the difficulty of launching my boat came often
into my head, but I put a stop to my own inquiries into it, by
this foolish answer which i gave myself: ‘ Let me first inake it, ’ll
warrant I’ll find some way or other to get it along when it is done.”
112 ADVENTURES OF

This was a most preposterous method; but the eagerness of
my fancy prevailed, and to work I went and felled a cedar tree—
I question much whether Solomon ever had such a one for the
building of the Temple at Jerusalem; it was five feet ten inches
diameter at the lower part next the stump, and four feet eleven
inches diameter at the end of twenty-two feet, after which it
lessened for a while, and then parted into branches. It was not
without infinite labour that I felled this tree; I was twenty days
hacking and hewing at it at the bottom; I was fourteen more
getting the branches and limbs, and the vast spreading head of it,
cut off, which I hacked and hewed through with my axe and
hatchet, with inexpressible labour : after this, it cost me a month
to shape it and dub it to a proportion, and to something like the
bottom of a boat, that it might swim upright as it ought to do.
It cost me near three months more to clear the inside, and work
it out so as to make an exact boat of it ; this I did, indeed, with-
out fire, by mere mallet and chisel, and by the dint of hard labour,
till I had brought it to be a very handsome periagua, and big
enough to have carried six-and-twenty men, and consequently big
enough to have carried me and all my cargo.

When I had gone through this work, I was extremely delighted
with it. The boat was really much bigger than I ever saw a
canoe, or perlagua, that was made of one tree, in my life. Many
a weary stroke it had cost, you may be sure, for there remained
nothing but to get it into the water; and had I gotten it into the
water, I make no question but I should have begun the maddest
voyage, and the most unlikely to be performed, that ever was
undertaken. |

But all my devices to get it into the water failed me, though
they cost me infinite labour, too. It lay about one hundred yards
from the water, and not more; but the first inconvenience was,
it was up hill towards the creek. Well, to take away this dis-
couragement, I resolved to dig into the surface of the earth, and
so make a declivity: this I began, and it cost mea prodigious
deal of pains—but who grudge pains that have their deliverance
in view? but when this was worked through, and this difficulty
managed, it was still much at one, for I could no more stir the
canoe than I could the other boat. ;

Then I measured the distance of ground, and resolved to cut
a dock or canal, to bring water up to the canoe, seeing I could
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 113

not bring the canoe down to the water. Well, I began this work,
and when I began to enter upon it, and calculated how deep it
was to be dug, how broad, how the stuff was to be thrown out, I
found that by the number of hands I had, being none but my
- Own, it must have been ten or twelve years, before I should have
gone through with it; for the shore lay high, so that at the upper
end, it must have been at least twenty feet deep: so at length,
though with great reluctance, I gave this attempt over also.

This grieved me heartily, and now I saw, though too late, the
folly of beginning a work before we count the cost, and before
we judge rightly of our own strength to go through with it.

In the middle of this work, I finished my fourth year in this
place, and kept my anniversary with the same devotion, and with
as much comfort as ever before; for by a constant study and
serious application of the Word of God, and by the assistance of
His grace, I gained a different knowledge from what I had before.
I entertained different notions of things. I looked now upon
the world as a thing remote, which I had nothing to do with, no
expectation from, and indeed no desires about: in a word, I had
nothing indeed to do with it, nor was ever like to have; so I
thought it looked, as we may perhaps look upon it hereafter, viz.,
as a place I had lived in, but was come out of it,—and well might
I say, as father Abraham to Dives, “‘ Between me and you there
is a great gulf fixed.”

In the first place, I was removed from all the wickedness of
the world here: I had neither the lust of the flesh, the lust of the
eye, nor the pride of life. I had nothing to covet, for I had all
that I was now capable of enjoying: I was lord of the whole
manor; or, if I pleased, I might call myself king or emperor
over the whole country which I had possession of. ‘There were
no rivals; I had no competitor, none to dispute sovereignty or
command with me: I might have raised ship-loadings of corn,
but I had no use for it; so I let as little grow as I thought
enough for my occasion. I had tortoises or turtles enough, but
now and then one was as much as I could put to any use. I had
timber enough to have built a fleet of ships; I had grapes enough
to have made wine, or to have cured into raisins, to have loaded
that fleet when they had been built.

But all I could make use of was all that was valuable. I had

enough to eat and to supply my wants, and what was the rest to
H

-_
114 ADVENTURES OF

me? IfI killed more flesh than I could eat, the dog must eat it,
or the vermin ; if I sowed more corn than I could eat, it must be
spoiled: the trees that I cut down were lying to rot on the ground,
—-I could make no more use of them than for fuel, and that I
had no occasion for but to dress my food.

In a word, the nature and experience of things dictated to me,
upon just reflection, that all the good things of this world are no
farther good to us than as they are for our use, and that whatever
we may heap up to give others, we enjoy as much as we can use,
and no more. The most covetous griping miser in the world
would have been cured of the vice of covetousness, if he had
been in my case, for I possessed infinitely more than I knew
what to do with. I had no room for desire, except it was of
things which I had not, and they were but trifles, though indeed
of great use to me. I had, as I hinted before, a parcel of money,
as well gold as silver, above thirty-six pounds sterling. Alas!
there the nasty, sorry, useless stuff lay: I had no manner of
business fer it, and I often thought with myself, that I would
have given a handful of it for a gross of tobacco-pipes, or for a
hand-mill to grind my corn; nay, I would have given it all for
sixpenny-worth of turnip and carrot seed out of England, or for
a handful of peas and beans, and a bottle of ink. As it was, I
had not the least advantage by it, or benefit from it, but there it
lay in a drawer, and grew mouldy with the damp of the cave in
the wet season ; and if I had had the drawer full of diamonds it
had been the same case, and they had been of no manner of
value to me, because of no use.

I had now brought my state of life to be much easier in itself
than it was at first, and much easier to my mind, as well as to my
body: I frequently sat down to meat with thankfulness, and
admired the hand of God’s providence, which had thus spread
my table in the wilderness. I learned to look more upon the
bright side of my condition, and less upon the dark side, and to
consider what I enjoyed, rather than what I wanted ; and this
gave me sometimes such secret comforts, that I cannot express
them, and which I take notice of here, to put those discontented
people in mind of it, who cannot enjoy comfortably what God
has given them, because they see and covet something that He has
not giventhem. Allour discontents about what we want appeared
to me to spring from the want of thankfulness for what we have.
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 115

Another reflection was of great use to me, and doubtless would
be so to any one that should fall into’such distress as mine was ;
and this was, to compare my present condition with what I at
first expected it should be,—nay, with what it would certainly
have’ been, if the good providence of God had not wonderfully
ordered the ship to be cast up near to the shore, where I not
only could come at her, but could bring what I got out of her to
the shore, for my relief and comfort; without which, I had
wanted for tools to work, weapons for defence, or gunpowder and
shot for getting my food.

I spent whole hours, I may say whole days, in representing to
myself in the most lively colours how I must have acted if I had
got nothing out of the ship; how I could not have so much as
got any food, except fish and turtles, and that, as it was long
before I found any of them, I must have perished first; that I
should have lived, if I had not perished, like a mere savage ;
_ that if I had killed a goat or a fowl by any contrivance, I had
no way to flay or open it, or part the flesh from the skin and the
bowels, or to cut it up, but must gnaw it with my teeth, and pull
it with my claws like a beast.

These reflections made me very sensible of the goodness of
Providence to me, and very thankful for my present condition,
with all its Handel ae and misfortunes ; and this part also I cannot
but recommend ito the reflection of those who are apt, in their
misery, to say, ‘Is any affliction like mine?” Let them con-
sider how much worse the cases of some people are, and their
case might have been, if Providence had thought fit.

I had another reflection which assisted me also to comfort my
mind with hopes, and this was—comparing my present condition
with what I had deserved, and had therefore reason to expect
from the hand of Providence. I had lived a dreadful life, per-
fectly destitute of the knowledge and fear of God. I had been
well instructed by father and mother, neither had they been
wanting to me, in their early endeavours to infuse a religious
awe of God into my mind, a sense of my duty, and of what the
nature and end of my being required of me. But, alas! falling
early into the seafaring life, which, of all lives, is the most desti-
tute of the fear of God, though His terrors are always before
them,—I say, falling early into the seafaring life, and into sea-
faring company, all that little sense of religion which I had
116 ADVENTURES OF

entertained was laughed out of me by my messmates,—by a
hardened despising of dangers, and the views of death, which
grew habitual to me,—by my long absence from all manner of
opportunities to converse with anything but was like myself, or
to hear anything of what was good, or tended towards it. .

So void was I of everything that was good, or of the least
sense of what I was, or was to be, that, in the greatest deliver-
ances I enjoyed (such as my escape from Sallee, my being taken
up by the Portuguese master of a ship, my being planted so well
in Brazil, my receiving the cargo from England, and the like), I
never had once the words, “‘ Thank God,” so much as on my
mind or in my mouth; nor, in the greatest distress, had I so
much as a thought to pray to Him, or as much as to say, “ Lord,
have mercy upon me!”—no, not to mention the name of God,
unless it was to swear by, and blaspheme it.

I had terrible reflections upon my mind for many months, as
I have already observed, on the account of my wicked and
hardened life past ; and when I looked about me, and considered
what particular providences had attended me since my coming
into this place, and how God had dealt bountifully with me,—
had not only punished me less than my iniquity had deserved,
but had so plentifully provided for me,—this gave me great hopes
that my repentance was accepted, and that God had yet mercies
in store for me.

With these reflections, I worked my mind up, not only to
resignation to the will of God in the present disposition of my
circumstances, but even to a sincere thankfulness for my con-
dition, and that I, who was yet a living man, ought not to com-
plain,.seeing I had not the due punishment of my sins; that I
enjoyed so many mercies which I had no reason to have expected ©
in that place, that I ought never more to repine at my condition,
but to rejoice, and to give daily thanks for that daily bread which
nothing but a crowd of wonders could have brought ; that I ought
to consider I had been fed even by a miracle as great as that of
feeding Elijah by ravens,—nay, by a long series of miracles ; and
that I could hardly have named a place in the uninhabited part
of the world where I could have been cast more to my advan-
tage,—a place where, as I had no society, which was my afflic-
tion on one hand, so I found no ravenous beasts, no furious
wolves or tigers, to threaten my life,—no venomous creatures, or
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 177

poisonous, which I might have fed on to my hurt,—no savages
to murder and devour me.

In a word, as my life was a life of sorrow one way, so it was a
life of mercy another, and I wanted nothing to make it a life of
comfort, but to be able to make my sense of God’s goodness to
me, and care over me, in this condition, be my daily consolation ;
and after I made a just improvement of these things I went away
and was no more sad.

_I had now been here so long, that many things which I brought
on shore for my help were either quite gone, or very much wasted,
and near spent.

My ink, as I observed, had been gone for some time, all but a
very little, which I eked out with water, a little and a little, till
it was so pale, it scarce left any appearance of black upon the
paper. As long as it lasted, I made use of it to minute down
the days of the month on which any remarkable thing happened
to me; and first, by casting up times past, I remembered that
there was a strange concurrence of days in the various provi-
dences which befel me, and which, if I had been superstitiously
inclined to observe days as fatal or fortunate, I might have had
reason to have looked upon with a great deal of curiosity.

First, I had observed that the same day that I broke away from
my father and my friends, and ran away to Hull, in order to go
to sea, the same day afterwards I was taken by the Sallee man-of-
war, and made a slave; the same day of the year that I escaped
out of the wreck of the ship in Yarmouth Roads, that same day
of the year afterwards I made my escape from Sallee in the boat ;
the same day of the year I was born on, viz, the 30th of Sep-
tember, the same day I had my life so miraculously saved twenty-
six years after, when I was cast on shore in this island,—so that
my wicked life, and my solitary life, began both on a day.

The next thing to my ink being wasted, was that of my bread
—I mean the biscuit which I brought out of the ship: this I had
husbanded to the last degree, allowing myself but one cake of
bread a day for above a year; and yet I was quite without bread
for near a year before I got any corn of my own, and great reason |
I had to be thankful that I had any at all, the getting it being, as
it has been already observed, next to miraculous.

My clothes, too, began to decay mightily: as to linen, I had
none a good while, except some chequered shirts which I found
118 ADVENTURES OF

in the chests of the other seamen, and which I carefully pre-
served, because many times I could bear no clothes on but a
shirt, and it was a very great help to me that I had, among all
the men’s clothes of the ship, almost three dozen of shirts. There
were also several thick watch-coats of the seamen, which were left,
indeed, but they were too hot to wear, and though it is true that
the weather was so violently hot that there was no need of clothes,
yet I could not go quite naked, no, though I had been inclined
to it, which I was not, nor could I abide the thought of it, though
I was all alone. |

One reason why I could not go quite naked was—I could not
bear the heat of the sun so well when quite naked as with some
clothes on; nay, the very heat frequently blistered my skin,
whereas, with a shirt on, the air itself made some motion, and
whistling under the shirt, was twofold cooler than without It.
No more could I ever bring myself to go out in the heat of the
sun without a cap or hat: the heat of the sun beating with such
violence as it does in that place, would give me the headache
presently, by darting so directly on my head, without a cap or
hat on, so that I could not bear it, whereas, if I put on my hat,
it would presently gO away.

Upon these views, I began to consider about putting the few
rags I had, which I called clothes, into some order. I had worn
out all the waistcoats I had, and my business was now to try if I
could not make jackets out of the great watch-coats which I had
by me, and with such other materials as I had; so I set to work
a-tailoring, or rather, indeed, a-botching, for I made most piteous
work of it. However, I made shift to make two or three waist-
coats, which I hoped would serve me a great while: as for
breeches, or drawers, I made but very sorry shift, indeed, till
afterwards.

I have mentioned that I saved the skins of all the creatures
that I killed,—I mean four-footed ones; and I had hung them
up, stretched out with sticks, in the sun, by which means some
of them were so dry and hard that they were fit for little, but
others, it seems, were very useful. The first thing I made of
these was a great cap for my head, with the hair on the outside,
_ to shoot off the rain; and this I performed so well that, after
this, I made me a suit of clothes wholly of those skins,—that is
to say, a waistcoat, and breeches open at the knees, and both
ROBINSON CRUSOE. ' TIg

loose, for they were rather wanted to keep me cool than to keep
me warm. I must not omit to acknowledge that they were
wretchedly made, for, if I was a bad carpenter, I was a worse
tailor ; however, they were such as I made very good shift with,
and when I was abroad, if it happened to rain, the hair of the
waistcoat and cap being outmost, I was kept very dry.

After this, I spent a great deal of time and pains to make me
an umbrella. I was indeed in great want of one, and had a great
mind to make one. I had seen them made in the Brazils, where
they are very useful in the great heats which are there, and I felt
the heats every jot as great here, and greater, too, being nearer
the equinox ; besides, as I was obliged to be much abroad, it
was a most useful thing to me, as well for the rains as the heats.
I took a world of pains at it, and was a great while before I
could make anything likely to hold,—nay, after I thought I had
hit the way, I spoiled two or three before I made one to my
mind ; but at last I made one that answered indifferently well.
The main difficulty I found was to make it to let down: I could
make it to spread, but if it did not let down too, and draw in, it
would not be portable for me any way but just over my head,
which would not do. However, at last, as I said, I made one to
answer ; I covered it with skins, the hair upwards, so that it cast
off the rain like a pent-house, and kept off the sun so effectually
that I could walk out in the hottest of the weather, with greater
advantage than I could before in the coolest ; and, when I had
no need of it, I could close it, and carry it under my arm.

Thus I lived mighty comfortably, my mind being entirely com-
posed by resigning to the will of God, and throwing myself wholly
upon the disposal of His providence. This made my life better
than sociable ; for when I began to regret the want of conversa-
tion, I would ask myself whether thus conversing mutually with
my own thoughts—and, as I hope I may say, even with my Maker,
by ejaculations and petitions—was not better than the utmost
enjoyment of human society in the world?




CHAPTER X.

Crusoe makes and launches a boat—Leaves the island in search of the mainland,
and encounters unexpected dangers—He despairs of getting back again—
Returns to the island, and on reaching home is startled by the greeting of his
parrot—Perfects himself in the making of earthenware and baskets— His con-
trivances to snare the goats which devour his corn—He catches and tames
them—At home with his family—He describes his personal appearance—Sets
out on a new journey through the island.

CANNOT say that, after this, for five years, any
extraordinary thing happened to me, but I lived on
in the same course, in the same posture and place,
just as before; the chief thing I was employed in,
besides my yearly planting my barley and rice and

curing my raisins, of both which I always kept up just enough to

have a sufficient stock of the year’s provisions beforehand,—I say,
besides this yearly labour, and my daily labour of going out with

my gun, I had one labour—to make me a canoe, which at last I

finished ; so that by digging a canal to it of six feet wide and

four feet deep, I brought it into the creek, almost half a mile.

As for the first, that was so vastly big,—as I made it without

considering: beforehand, as I ought to do, how I should be able

to launch it—so, never being able to bring it to the water, or bring
the water to it, I was obliged to let it lie where it was, as‘a memor-
andum to teach me to be wiser next time. Indeed, the next time,
though I could not get a tree proper for it, and was in a place
where I could not get the water to it at any less distance than, as

I have said, of near half a mile, yet as I saw it was practicable at

last, I never gave it over; and though I was near two years about

it, yet I never grudged my labour, in hopes of having a boat to
go off to sea at last.

However, though my little periagua was finished, yet the size
of it was not at all answerable to the design which I had in view


ROBINSON CRUSOE. 121

when I made the first,—I mean, of venturing over to the terra
jirma, where it was above forty miles broad; accordingly, the
smallness of the boat assisted to put an end to that design,
and now I thought no more of it. But as I hada boat my
next design was to make a. tour round the island; for, as I had
been on the other side in one place, crossing, as I have already
described it, over the land, so the discoveries I made in that
journey made me very eager to see the other parts of the coast :
and now I had a boat, I thought of nothing but sailing round the
island.

For this purpose, and that I might do everything with discre-
tion and consideration, I fitted up a little mast to my boat, and
made a sail to it out of some of the pieces of the ship’s sails
which lay in store, and of which I had a great store by me.

Having fitted my mast and sail, and tried the boat, I found

she would sail very well: then I made little lockers, or boxes, at
either end of my boat, to put provisions, necessaries, and
ammunition, &c., into, to be kept dry, either from rain‘ or the
spray of the sea; and a little long hollow place I cut in the inside
of the boat where I could lay my gun, making a flap to hang
down over it to keep it dry.

I fixed my umbrella also in a step at the stern, like a mast, to
stand over my head, and keep the heat of the sun off me, like an
awning ; and thus I every now and then took a little voyage
upon the sea, but never went far out, nor far from the little creek.
But at last, being eager to view the circumference of my little
kingdom, I resolved upon my tour ; and accordingly I victualled
my ship for the voyage, putting in two dozen of my loaves (cakes
I should rather call them) of barley bread, an earthen pot full of
parched rice (a food I ate a great deal of), a little bottle of rum,
half a goat, and powder and shot for killing more, and two large
watch-coats of those which, as I mentioned before, I had saved
out of the seamen’s chests ; these I took, one to le upon, and
the other to cover me in the night.

It was the sixth of November, in the sixth year of my reign, or
my captivity—which you please—that I set out on this voyage,
and I found it much longer than I expected; for though the
island itself was not very large, yet, when I came to the east side
of it, I found a great ledge of rocks lie out about two leagues into
the sea, some above water, some under it, and beyond this a
122 : ADVENTURES OF

shoal of sand, lying dry half a league more,—so that I was obliged
to go a great way out to sea to double that point.

When I first discovered them, I was going to give over my
enterprise, and come back again, not knowing how far it might
oblige me to go out to sea, and, above all, doubting how I should
get back again ; so I came to an anchor, for I had made mea
kind of an anchor with a piece of broken grappling which I got
out of the ship.

Having secured my boat, I took my gun and went on shore,
climbing up a hill which seemed to overlook that point, where I
saw the full extent of it, and resolved to venture.

In my viewing the sea from that hill where I stood, I perceived
a strong, and indeed a most furious current, which ran to the
east, and even came close to the point; and I took the more
notice of it, because I saw there might be some danger that,
when I came into it, I might be carried out to sea by the strength
of it, and not be able to make the island again: and indeed had
I not gotten first upon this hill, I believe it would have been so,
for there was the same current on the other side of the island,
only that it set off at a farther distance, and I saw there was a
strong eddy under the shore,—so I had nothing to do but to get
out of the first current, and I should presently be in an eddy.

I lay here, however, two days, because the wind blowing pretty
fresh (at east-south-east, and that being just contrary to the said
current) made a great breach of the sea upon the point, so that it
was not safe for me to keep too close to the shore, for the breach,
nor to go too far off, because of the stream.

The third day, in the morning, the wind having abated over
night, the sea was calm, and I ventured ; but I am a warning
piece again to all rash and ignorant pilots, for no sooner was I
come to the point, when I was not my boat’s length from the
shore, but I found myself in a great depth of water, and a current
like the sluice of a mill; it carried my boat along with it with
such violence, that all I could do could not keep her so much as
on the edge of it; but I found it hurried me farther and farther
out from the eddy, which was on the left hand. There was no
wind stirring to help me, and all that I could do with my paddles
signified nothing. And now I began to give myself over for lost ;
for as the current was on both sides of the island, I knew in a_
few leagues’ distance they must join again, and then I was
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 123

irrecoverably gone, nor did I see any possibility of avoiding it:
so that I had no prospect before me but of perishing, not by the
sea, for that was calm enough, but of starving for hunger. I had
indeed found a tortoise on the shore, as big almost as I could
lift, and had tossed it into the boat; and I had a great jar of
fresh water, that is to say, one of my earthen pots; but what was
all this to being driven into the vast ocean, where, to be sure,
there was no shore, no main land or island, for a thousand
leagues at least P

And now I saw how easy it was for the providence of God to
make the most miserable condition that mankind could be in,
worse. Now, I looked back upon my desolate, solitary island as
the most pleasant place in the world, and all the happiness my
heart could wish for was to be there again. I stretched out my
hands to it, with eager wishes. ‘“O happy desert!” said I, “I
shall never see thee more. O miserable creature !” said I, ‘‘whither
am I going!” Then I reproached myself with my unthankful
temper, and how I had repined at my solitary condition ; and now
what would I give to be on shore there again! Thus we never
see the true state of our condition till it 1s illustrated to us by its
contraries, nor know how to value what we enjoy, but by the want
of it. It 1s scarce possible to imagine the consternation I was in,
being driven from my beloved island (for so it appeared to me
now to be) into the wide ocean, almost two leagues, and in the
utmost despair of ever recovering it again. However, I worked
hard, till indeed my strength was almost exhausted, and kept my
boat as much to the northward—that is, towards the side of the
current which the eddy lay on—as possibly I could, when about
noon, as the sun passed the meridian, I thought I felt a little
breeze of wind in my face, springing up from the south-south-east.
This cheered my heart a little, and especially when, in about half
an hour more, it blew a pretty small gentle gale. By this time I
was gotten at a frightful distance from the island, and had the least
cloud or hazy weather intervened, I had been undone another
way too, for I had no compass on board, and should never have
known how to have steered towards the island, if I had but once
lost sight of it; but the weather continuing clear, I applied myself
to get up my mast again, and spread my sail, standing away to the
north as much-as possible, to get out of the current. ,

Just as I had set my mast and sail, and the boat began to
124 ADVENTURES OF

stretch away, I saw, even by the clearness: of the water, some
alteration of the current was near; for where the current was so
strong the water was foul, but perceiving the water clear, I found
the current abate, and presently I found, to the east, at about half
a mile, a breach of the sea upon some rocks: these rocks, I found,
caused the current to part again, and as the main stress of it ran
away more southerly, leaving the rocks to the north-east, so the
other returned by the repulse of the rocks, and made a strong
eddy, which ran back again to the north-west with a very sharp
stream. | |

They who know what it is to have a reprieve brought to them
upon the ladder, or to be rescued from thieves just going to
murder them, or who have been in such like extremities, may
guess what my present surprise of joy was, and how gladly I put
my boat into the stream of this eddy, and the wind also freshen-
ing, how gladly I spread my sail to it, running cheerfully before
the wind, and with a strong tide or eddy under foot.

This eddy carried me about a league in my way back again
directly towards the island, but about two leagues more to the
northward than the current lay which carried me away at first, —
so that when I came near the island, I found myself open to the
northern shore of it, that is to say, the other end of the island,
opposite to that which I went out from.

When I had made something more than a league of way by
the help of this current or eddy, I found it was spent, and served
me no farther. However, I found that being between the two
great currents, viz., that on the south side, which had hurried me
away, and that on the north, which lay about two leagues on
the other side,—I say, between these two, in the wake of the
island, 1 found the water at least still, and running no way; and
having still a breeze of wind fair for me, I kept on steering
directly for the island, though not making such fresh way as I
did before.

About four o’clock in the evening, being then within about a
league of the island, I found the point of the rocks which occa-
sioned this distance stretching out, as is described before, to the
southward, and casting off the current more southwardly, had, of
course, made another eddy to the north; and this I found very
strong, but not directly setting the way my course lay, which was
due west, but almost full north. However, having a fresh gale,
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 125

I stretched across this eddy, slanting north-west ; and, in about
an hour, came within about a mile of the shore, where, it being
smooth water, I soon got to land.

When I was on shore, I fell on my knees, and gave God thanks
for my deliverance, resolving to lay aside all thoughts of my
deliverance by my boat ; and refreshing myself with such things
as I had, I brought my boat close to the shore, in a little cove
that I had spied under some trees, and laid me down to sleep,
being quite spent with the labour and fatigue of the voyage.

I was now at a great loss which way to get home with my
boat: I had run so much hazard, and knew too much the
cause, to think of attempting it by the way I went out; and what
might be at the other side (I mean the west side) I knew not,
nor had I any mind to run any more ventures: so I only resolved
in the morning to make my way westward along the shore, and
to see if there was no creek where I might lay up my frigate in
safety, so as to have her again if I wanted her. In about three
miles, or thereabouts, coasting the shore, I came to a very good
inlet, or bay, about a mile over, which narrowed till it came to
a very little rivulet or brook, where I found a convenient harbour
for my boat, and where she lay as if she had been in a little dock
made on purpose for her. Here I put in, and having stowed my
boat very safe, I went on shore to look about me and see where
I was.

I soon found I had but a little passed by the place where I
had been before when I travelled on foot to that shore, so taking
nothing out of my boat but my gun and my umbrella, for it was
exceeding hot, I began my march. ‘The way was comfortable
enough after such a voyage as I had been upon, and I reached
my old bower in the evening, where I found everything standing
as I left it, for I always kept it in good order, being, as I said
before, my country house.

I got over the fence, and laid me down in the shade, to rest
my limbs, for I was very weary, and fell asleep 3 but judge, if you
can—you that read my story—what a surprise I must be in,
when I was awaked out of my sleep by a voice calling me by my
name several times, “‘ Robin, Robin, Robin Crusoe, poor Robin
Crusoe! Where are you, Robin Crusoe ? Where are you? Where
have you been?”

I was so dead asleep at first, being fatigued with rowing, or
126 ADVENTURES OF

paddling, as it is called, the first part of the day, and walking
the latter part, that I did not awake thoroughly, and dozing
between sleeping and waking, thought I dreamed that somebody
spoke to me; but as the voice continued to repeat, “ Robin
Crusoe, Robin Crusoe,” at last I began to awake more perfectly,
and was at first dreadfully frighted, and started up in the-utmost
consternation: but no sooner were my eyes open, but I saw my
Poll sitting on the top of the hedge, and immediately knew that
this was he that spoke to me, for just in such bemoaning language
I had used to talk to him and teach him, and he had learned it
so perfectly, that he would sit upon my finger and lay his bill
close to my face and cry, “‘Poor Robin Crusoe! Where are
your Where have you been? How came you here?” and
such things as I had taught him.

However, even though I knew it was the parrot, and that
indeed it could be nobody else, it was a good while before I
could compose myself. First, I was amazed how the creature
got thither ; and then, how he should just keep about the place,
and nowhere else : but as I was well satisfied it could be nobody
but honest Poll, I got over it, and holding out my hand, and
calling him by his name, “ Poll,” the sociable creature came to
me and sat upon my thumb, as he used to do, and continued
talking to me, ‘ Poor Robin Crusoe!” and how did I
come here? and where had I been? just as if he had been
overjoyed to see me again: and so I carried him home along
with me.

I had now had enough of rambling to sea for some time, and
had enough to do for many days, to sit still and reflect upon the
danger I had been in. I would have been very glad to have had
my boat again on my side of the island, but I knew not how it was
practicable to get it about. As to the east side of the island,
which I had gone round, I knew well enough there was no ventur-
ing that way; my very heart would shrink, and my very blood
run chill, but to think of it; and as to the other side of the
island, I did not know how it might be there, but supposing the
current ran with the same force against the shore at the east as it
passed by it on the other, I might run the same risk of being
driven down the stream and carried by the island, as I had been
_ before of being carried away from it. So with these thoughts I

contented myself to be without any boat, though it had been the
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 127

product of so many months’ labour to make it, and of so many
more to get it into the sea.

In this government of my temper I remained near a year, lived
a very sedate, retired life, as you may well suppose; and my
thoughts being very much composed, as to my condition, and fully
comforted in resigning myself to the dispositions of Providence,
I thought I lived really very happily in all things, except that of
society. I improved myself in this time in all the mechanic
exercises which my necessities put me upon applying myself to,
and I believe could, upon occasion, have made a very good
carpenter, especially considering how few tools I had.

Besides this, I arrived at an unexpected perfection in my
earthenware, and contrived well enough to make them with a
wheel, which I found infinitely easier and better, because I made
things round and shapeable, which before were filthy things indeed
to look upon. But I think I never was more vain of my own
performance, or more joyful for anything I found out, than for
my being able to make a tobacco-pipe ; and though it was a very
ugly clumsy thing when it was done, and only burnt red like other
earthenware, yet as it was hard and firm and would draw the
smoke, I was exceedingly comforted with it, for I had been always
used to smoke: and there were pipes in the ship, but I forgot
them at first, not knowing there was tobacco in the island; and
afterwards, when I searched the ship again, I could not come at
any pipes at all.

In my wickerware also I improved much, and made abundance
of necessary baskets, as well as my invention showed me,—though
not very handsome, yet convenient for my laying things up in, or
fetching things home in. For example, if I killed a goat abroad,
I could hang it up in a tree, flay it and dress it, and cut it in
pieces, and bring it home in a basket ; and the like by a turtle—
I could cut it up, take out the eggs, and a piece or two of the
flesh, which was enough for me, and bring them home in a basket,
‘and leave the rest behind me. Also, large deep baskets were my
receivers for my corn, which I always rubbed out as soon as it was
dry, and cured, and kept it in great baskets instead of a granary.

I began now to perceive my powder abated considerably, and
this was a want which it was impossible for me to supply, and I
began seriously to consider what I must do when I should have
no more powder,—that is to say, how I should do to kill any
128 ADVENTURES OF

goats. JI had, as I_observed, in the third year of my being here,
kept a young kid, and bred her tame: I was in hopes of getting
a he-kid, but I could not by any means bring it to pass, till my
kid grew an old goat, and I could never find in my heart to kill.
her, till she died at last of mere age. — .

But being now in the eleventh year of my residence, and, as I
have said, my ammunition growing low, I set myself to study
some art to trap and snare the goats, to see whether I could not
catch some of them alive ; and particularly I wished to possess a
she-goat great with young. |

For this purpose, I made snares to hamper them, and believe

they were more than once taken in them ; but my tackle was not
good, for I had no wire, and I always found them broken, and
my bait devoured.
- At length I resolved to try a pitfall,—so I dug several large pits
in the earth, in places where I had observed the goats used to
feed, and over these pits I placed hurdles of my own making, too,
with,a great weight upon them, and several times I put ears of
barley and dry rice, without setting the trap; and I could easily
perceive that the goats had gone in and eaten up the corn, for I
could see the marks of their feet. At length I set three traps in
one night, and going the next morning, I found them all standing,
and yet the bait eaten and gone. ‘This was very discouraging.
However, I altered my traps; and not to trouble you with
particulars, going one morning to see my traps, I found in one of
them a large old he-goat, and in one of the other, three kids—a
male and two females.

As to the old one, I knew not what to do with him ; he was so
fierce, I durst not go into the pit to him,—that is to say, to bring
him away alive, which was what I wanted: I could have killed
him, but that was not my business, nor would it answer my end ;
so I even let him out, and he ran away, as if he had been frighted
out of his wits. But I did not then know, what I afterwards
learned, that hunger will tame a lion. If I had let him stay there
three or four days without food, and then have carried him some
water to drink, and then a little corn, he would have been as tame
as one of the kids, for they are mighty sagacious and tractable
creatures, where they are well used. |

However, for the present I let him go, knowing no better at
that time: then I went to the three kids, and taking them one
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 129

by one, I tied them with strings together, and with considerable
difficulty brought them home.

It was a good while before they would feed ; but throwing them
some sweet corn, it tempted them, and they began to be tame.
And now I found that if I expected to supply myself with goat’s
flesh when I had no powder or shot left, breeding some up tame
was my only way; when perhaps I might have them about my
house like a flock of sheep.

But then it presently occurred to me that I must keep the tame
from the wild, or else they would always run wild when they grew
up ; and the ony way for this was to have some enclosed piece
of ground, well fenced, either with hedge or pale, to keep them
in so effectually that those within might not break out, or those
without break in.

This was a great undertaking for one pair of hands; yet, as I
saw there was an absolute necessity for doing it, my first piece of
work was to find out a proper piece of ground, where there was
likely to be herbage for them to eat, water for them to drink, and
- cover to keep them from the sun.

Those who understand such enclosures will think I had very
little contrivance, when I pitched upon a place very proper for
all these (being a plain open piece of meadow land, or savannah,
as our people call it in the western colonies), which had two or
three drills of fresh water in it, and at one end was very woody,—
I say they will smile at my forecast, when I shall tell them I
began my enclosing of this piece of ground in such a manner that
my: hedge or pale must have been at least two miles about. Nor
_ was the madness of it so great as to the compass, for if it was ten
miles about, I was like to have time enough to do it in; but I
did not consider that my goats would be as wild in so much
compass as if they had had the whole island, and I should have so
much room to chase them in, that I should never catch them.

My hedge was begun and carried on, I believe about fifty
yards, when this thought occurred to me; so I presently stopped
short, and for the first beginning, I resolved to enclose a piece
of about one hundred and fifty yards in length, and one hundred
yards in breadth, which, as it would maintain as many as I should
have in any reasonable time, so, as my flock increased, I could
add more ground to my enclosure.

This was acting with some prudence, and I went to work with

courage. I was about three months hedging in the first piece,
I
130 ADVENTURES OF

and, till I had done it, I tethered the three kids in the best part
of it, and used them to feed as near me as possible, to make them
familiar; and very often I would go and carry them some ears of
barley, or a handful of rice, and feed them out of my hand,—so that,
after my enclosure was finished and I let them loose, they would
follow me up and down, bleating after me for a handful of corn.

This answered my end, and in about a year and a half I had
a flock of about twelve goats, kids and all; and in two years
more, I had three and forty, besides several that I took and killed
for my food. And after that I enclosed five several pieces of ground
to feed them in, with little pens to drive them into, to take them
as I wanted, and gates out of one piece of ground into another.

But this was not all; for now I not only had goat’s flesh to feed
on when I pleased, but milk too, a thing which, indeed, in my
beginning, I did not so much as think of, and which, when it
came into my thoughts, was really an agreeable surprise : for now
I set up my dairy, and had sometimes a gallon or two of milk in
a day. And as Nature, who gives supplies of food to every crea-
ture, dictates even naturally how to make use of it, so I that had
never milked a cow, much less a goat, or seen butter or cheese made,
very readily and handily, though after many miscarriages, made me
both butter and cheese at last, and never wanted it afterwards.

How mercifully can our great Creator treat His creatures, even
in those conditions in which they seemed to be overwhelmed in
destruction. How can He sweeten the bitterest providences, and
give us cause to praise Him for dungeons and prisons. What a
table was here spread for me in a wilderness where I saw nothing
at first, but to perish for hunger.

It would have made a stoic smile to have seen me and my little
family sit down to dinner. There was my majesty, the prince
and lord of the whole island: I had the lives of all my subjects
at my absolute command ; I could hang, draw, give liberty, and
take it away,—and no rebels among my subjects. Then to see
how like a king I dined too, all alone, attended by my servants !
Poll, as if he had been my favourite, was the only person per-
mitted to talk tome. My dog, who was now grown very old and
crazy, and had found no species to multiply his kind upon, sat
always at my right hand, and two cats, one on one side of the
table, and one on the other, expecting now and then a bit from
my hand, as a mark of special favour.

But these were not the two cats which I brought on shore at
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 131

first, for they were both of them dead, and had been interred near
my habitation by my own hand ; but one of them having multi-
plied by I know not what kind of creature, these were two which
I had preserved tame ; whereas the rest ran wild in the woods,
and became indeed troublesome to me at last, for they would
often come into my house, and plunder me too, till at last I was
obliged to shoot them, and did kill a great many: and at length
they left me. With this attendance, and in this plentiful manner,
I lived ; neither could I be said to want anything but society,
and of that in some time after this, I was like to have too much.

I was something impatient, as I have observed, to have the use
of my boat, though very loth to run any more hazards, and
therefore sometimes I sat contriving ways to get her about the
island, and at other times I sat myself down contented enough
without her. But I had a strange uneasiness in my mind to go
down to the point of the island where, as I have said in my last
ramble, I went up to the hill to see how the shore lay, and how
the current set, that I might see what I had to do. This inclina-
tion increased upon me every day, and at length I resolved to
‘ travel thither by land, following the edge of the shore. I did so;
but had any one in England been to meet such a man as I was,
it must: either have frighted him or raised a great deal of laughter ;
and as I frequently stood still to look at myself,,I could not but
smile at the notion of my travelling through Yorkshire, with such
an equipage and in such a dress. |

I had a great high shapeless cap, made of a goat’s skin, with a
flap hanging down behind, as well to keep the sun from me as
to shoot the rain off from running into my neck ; nothing being
so hurtful in these climates as the rain upon the flesh, under the
clothes. I had a short jacket of goat’s skin, the skirts coming
down to about the middle of my thighs, and a pair of open-kneed
breeches of the same, made of the skin of an old he goat, whose
hair hung down such a length on either side, that, like pantaloons
it reached to the middle of my legs. Stockings and shoes I had
none, but I had made me a pair of something—I scarce know
what to call them—like buskins, to flap over my legs, and lace -
on either side like spatterdashes, but of a most barbarous shape,
as were all the rest of my clothes. I had on a broad belt of
goat’s skin dried, which I drew together with two thongs of the
same, instead of buckles; and in a kind of a frog on either side
of this, instead of a sword and a dagger, hung a little saw and a
132 ADVENTURES OF

hatchet—one on one side, and one on the other. had another
belt, not so broad, and fastened in the same manner, which hung
over my shoulder ; and at the end of it, under my left arm, hung
two pouches, both made of goat’s skin too, in one of which hung
my powder, in the other my shot. At my back I carried my
basket, on my shoulder my gun, and over my head a great clumsy
ugly goat’s skin umbrella, but which, after all, was the most
necessary thing I had about me, next to my gun. As for my
face, the colour of it was really not so mulatto-like as one might
expect from a man not at all careful of it, and living within nine
or ten degrees of the equinox. My beard I had once suffered to
grow till it was about a quarter of a yard long; but as I had both
scissors and razors sufficient, I had cut it pretty short, except
what grew on my upper lip, which I had trimmed into a large
pair of Mahometan whiskers, such as I had seen worn by some
Turks at Sallee—for the Moors did not wear such, though the
Turks did: I will not say they were long enough to hang my
hat upon them, but they were of a length and shape monstrous
enough, and such as, in England, would have passed for frightful.

But all this is by the by ; for, as to my figure, I had so few to
observe me that it was of no manner of consequence, so I say no
more to that part. In this kind of figure I went my new journey,
and was out five or six days. I travelled first along the seashore,
directly to the place where I first brought my boat to an anchor, to
get upon. the rocks, and having no boat now to take care of, I went
over the land a nearer way to the same height that I was upon be-
fore, when looking forward to the point of the rocks which lay out,
and which I was obliged to double with my boat, as I said above,
I was surprised to see the sea smooth and quiet ;—no rippling,
no motion, no current, any more there than in other places.

I was at a strange loss to understand this, and resolved to
spend some time in the observing it, to see if nothing from the
sets of the tide had occasioned it: but I was presently convinced
how it was, viz., that the tide of ebb setting from the west, and
joining with the current of waters from some great river on the
shore, must be the occasion of this current ; and that, according
as the wind blew more forcibly from the west, or from the north,
this current came nearer, or went farther from the shore: for
waiting thereabouts till the evening, I went up to the rock again,
and then the tide of ebb being made, I plainly saw the current
again as before, only that it ran farther off, being near half a
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 133

league from the shore,—whereas, in my case, it set close from
the shore, and hurried me and my canoe along with it, which at
another time it would not have done.

This observation convinced me that I had nothing to do but
to observe the ebbing and flowing of the tide, and I might very
easily bring my boat about the island again: but when I began
to think of putting it in practice, I had such a terror upon my
spirits at the remembrance of the danger I had been 1m, that I
could not think of it again with any patience; but, on the
contrary, I took up another resolution, and this was, that I would
build, or rather make me another periagua or canoe, and so have
one for one side of the island, and one for the other.

You are to understand that now I had, as I may call it, two
plantations in the island ; one, my little fortification or tent, with
the wall about it under the rock, and with the cave behind me,
which by this time I had enlarged into several apartments or
caves, one within another. One of these, which was the driest
and largest, and had a door out beyond my wall or fortification
—that is to say, beyond where my wall joined to the rock—was
all filled up with the large earthen pots of which I have given an
account, and with fourteen or fifteen great baskets, which would
hold five or six bushels each, where I laid up my stores of provi-
sion, especially my corn, some in the ear, cut off short from the
straw, and the other rubbed out with my hand. As for my wall,
made, as before, with long stakes or piles, those piles grew all
like trees, and were by this time grown so big and spread so very
much, that there was not the least appearance, to any one’s view,
of any habitation behind them.

Near this dwelling of mine, but a little farther within the land,
and upon lower ground, lay my two pieces of corn ground, which
I kept cultivated, and which duly yielded me their harvest in its
season ; and whenever I had occasion for more corn, I had more
land adjoining as fit as that.

Besides this I had my country seat, and I had_now a tolerable
plantation there also ; for first, 1 had my little bower, as I called
it, which I kept in repair,—that is to say, I kept the hedge which
circled it in constantly fitted up to its usual height, the ladder
standing always in the inside: I kept the trees, which at first
were no more than my stakes, but were now grown very firm and
tall—I kept them always so cut, that they might spread, and
grow thick and wild, and make the more agreeable shade, which
134 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

they did effectually to my mind. In the middle of this I had my
tent always standing, being a piece of a sail spread over poles,
set up for that purpose, and which never wanted any repair or
renewing; and under this I had made me a couch, with the skins
of the creatures I had killed, and with other soft things, and a
blanket laid on them, such as belonged to our sea bedding, and
a great watch-coat, to cover me ; and here, whenever absent from
my chief seat, I took up my country habitation.

Adjoining to this I had my enclosures for my cattle,—that 1s
to say, my goats; and as I had taken an inconceivable deal of
pains to fence and enclose this ground, so I was so uneasy to see
it kept entire, lest the goats should break through, that I never
left off till, with infinite labour, I had stuck the outside of the
hedge so full of small stakes, and so near to one another, that it
was rather a pale than a hedge, and there was scarce room to put
a hand through between them; which afterwards, when those
stakes grew, as they all did in the next rainy season, made the
enclosure strong like a wall, indeed, stronger than any wall.

This will testify for me that I was not idle, and that I spared =
no pains to bring to pass whatever appeared necessary for my
comfortable support ; for I considered the keeping up a breed of
tame creatures thus at my hand would be a living magazine of
flesh, milk, butter, and cheese for me as long as I lived in the —
place, if it were to be forty years ; and that keeping them in my
reach depended entirely upon my perfecting my enclosures to
such a degree that I might be sure of keeping them together.

In this place also I had my grapes growing, which I principally
depended on for my winter store of raisins, and which I never failed
to preserve very carefully, asthe best and most agreeable dainty of
my whole diet ; and indeed they were not agreeable only, but phy-
sical, wholesome, nourishing, and refreshing to the last degree.

As this was also about half-way between my other habitation
and the place where I had laid up my boat, I generally stayed and
lay here in my way thither; for. 1 used frequently to visit my
boat, and I kept all things about, or belonging to her, in very
good order. Sometimes I went out in her to divert myself, but
no more hazardous voyages would I go, nor scarce ever above a
stone’s cast or two from the shore, I was so apprehensive of being
hurried out of my knowledge again by the currents, or winds, or
any other accident. But now I come to a new scene of my life.


CHAPTER XI.

Crusoe is surprised by the print of a man’s naked foot on the shore, and fears an
_ attack from savages—Erects a second fortification round his dwelling—Dis-
covers the remains of a feast of cannibals.

2<-|T happened one day, about noon, going towards my
* boat, I was exceedingly surprised with the print of
a man’s naked foot on the shore, which was very
plain to be seen in the sand. I stood like one
thunderstruck, or as if I had seen an apparition : I
listened, I eS round me; I could hear nothing, nor see any-
thing. I went up toa rising ground, to look farther—I went up
the shore, and down the shore; but it was all one,—I could see
no other impression but that one. I went to it again to see if
there were any more, and to observe if it might not be my fancy ;
but there was no room for that, for there was exactly the very
print of a foot—toes, heel, and every part of a foot: how it came
thither I know not, nor could in the least imagine; but after
innumerable fluttering thoughts, like a man perfectly confused
and out of myself, I came home to my fortification, not feeling,
as we say, the ground I went on, but terrified to the last degree—
looking behind me at every two or three steps, mistaking every
bush and tree, and fancying every stump at a distance to be a
man. Nor is it possible to describe how many various shapes
affrighted imagination represented things to me in, how many
wild ideas were found every moment in my fancy, and what strange
unaccountable whimsies came into my thoughts by the way.
When I came to my castle (for so I think I called it ever after
this), I fled into it like one pursued ; whether I went over by the
ladder, as first ‘contrived, or went in at the hole in the rock, which
I called a door, I cannot remember: no, nor could I remember


136 | ADVENTURES OF

the next morning ; for never frighted hare fled to cover, or fox to
earth, with more terror of mind than I to this retreat.

I slept none that night: the farther I was from the occasion
of my fright, the greater my apprehensions were, which is some-
thing contrary to the nature of such things, and especially to the
usual practice of all creatures in fear; but I was so embarrassed
with my own frightful ideas of the thing, that I formed nothing
but dismal imaginations to myself, even though I was now a great
way off it. Sometimes I fancied it must be the devil, and reason
joined in with me upon this supposition ; for how should any
other thing in human shape come into the place? Where was
the vessel that brought them? What marks were there of any
other footsteps? And how was it possible a man should come
there? But then to think that Satan should take human shape
upon him in such a place, where there could be no manner of
occasion for it, but to leave the print of his foot behind him, and
that even for no purpose too, for he could not be sure I should
see it,—this was an amusement the other way. I considered
that the devil might have found out abundance of other ways to
have terrified me, than this of the single print of a foot ; that, as
I lived quite on the other side of the island, he would never have
been so simple as to leave a mark in a place where it was ten
thousand to one whether I should ever see it or not, and in the
sand too, which the first surge of the sea, upon a high wind,.
would have defaced entirely: all this seemed inconsistent with
the thing itself, and with all the notions we usually entertain of
the subtilty of the devil.

Abundance of such things as these assisted to argue me out
of all apprehensions of its being the devil ; and I presently con-
cluded, then, that-it must be some more dangerous creature, viz.,
that it must be some of the savages of the main land over against
me, who had wandered out to sea in their canoes, and either
driven by the currents or by contrary winds, had made the island,
and had been on shore, but were gone away again to sea; being
as loth, perhaps, to have stayed in this desolate island as I would »
have been to have had them.

While these reflections were rolling upon my mind, I was very
thankful in my thoughts that I was so happy as not to be there-
abouts at that time, or that they did not see my boat, by which
they would have concluded that some inhabitants had been in the
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 137

place, and perhaps have searched farther for me: then terrible
thoughts racked my imagination about their having found my
boat, and that there were people here ; and that if so, I should cer-
tainly have them come again in greater numbers, and devour me:
that if it should happen so that they should not find me, yet they
would find my enclosure, destroy all my corn, carry away all my
flock of tame goats, and I should perish at last for mere want.

Thus my fear banished all my religious hope: all that former
confidence in God, which was founded upon such wonderful
experience as I had had of His goodness, now vanished, as if He
that had fed me by miracle hitherto, could not preserve by His
power the provision which He had made for me by His goodness,
I reproached myself with my easiness, that would not sow any
more corn one year than would just serve me till the next season,
as if no accident could intervene to prevent my enjoying the crop
that was upon the ground; and this I thought so just a reproof
that I resolved for the future to have two or three years’ corn
beforehand, so that whatever might come, I might not perish for
want-or bread: =). 2)

How strange a chequer-work of Providence is the life of man ;
and by what secret differing springs are the affections hurried
about, as differing circumstances present! ‘To-day we love what
to-morrow we hate; to-day we seek what to-morrow we shun !
to-day we desire what to-morrow we fear, nay, even tremble at the
apprehensions of: this was exemplified in me at this ime; in the
most lively manner imaginable ; for I, whose only affliction was
that I seemed banished from human society, that I was alone,
. circumscribed by the boundless ocean, cut off from mankind, and
condemned to what I called silent life; that I was as one whom
Heaven thought not worthy to be numbered among the living, or
to,appear among the rest of His creatures ; that to have seen one
of my own species would have seemed to me a raising me from
death to life, and the greatest blessing that Heaven itself, next to
the supreme blessing of salvation, could bestow—lI say that I
should now tremble at the very apprehensions of seeing a man,
and was ready to sink into the ground at but the shadow,’ or
silent appearance, of a man’s having set his foot on the island.

Such is the uneven state of human life; and it afforded me a
great many curious speculations afterwards, when I had a little
recovered my first surprise. I considered that this was the station
eG. ADVENTURES OF

of life the infinitely wise and good providence of God had deter-
mined for me; that as I could not foresee what the ends of divine
wisdom might be in all this, so I was not to dispute His sove-
reignty, who, as I was His creature, had an undoubted right, by
creation, to govern and dispose of me absolutely as He thought
fit; and who, as I was a creature who had offended Him, had
likewise a judicial right to condemn me to what gonictanarent He
thought fit, and that it was my part to submit to bear His indigna- _
tion, because I had sinned against Him. I then reflected that
God, who was not only righteous but omnipotent, as He had
thought fit thus to punish and afflict me, so He was able to deliver
me; that, if He did not think fit to do it, it was my unquestioned

duty to resign myself absolutely and entirely to His will; and, on
- the other hand, it was my duty also to hope in Him, pray to Him,
and quietly to attend to the dictates and directions of His ay
providence.

These thoughts took me up many hours, days, nay,—I may say
weeks and months ; and one particular effect of my cogitations on
this occasion I cannot’ omit, viz., one morning early, lying in my
bed, and filled with thoughts about my danger from the appear-
ance of savages, I found it discomposed me very much; upon
which these words of the Scripture came into my thoughts, “ Call
upon me in the day of trouble: I will deliver thee, and thou shalt
glorify me.” Upon this, rising cheerfully out of my bed, my heart
was not only comforted, but I was guided and encouraged to pray
earnestly to God for deliverance: when I had done praying, I
took up my Bible, and opening it to read, the first words that
presented to me were, “ Wait on the Lord, and be of good cheer,
and He shall strengthen thy heart ; wait, I say, on the Lord.” It
is impossible to express the comfort this gave me. In answer, I
thankfully laid down the book, and was no more sad, at least, not
on that occasion.

In the middle of these cogitations, apprehensions, and reflec-
tions, it came into my thought one day, that all this might be a
mere chimera of my own, and that this foot might be the print of
my own foot, when I came on shore from my boat: this cheered
me up a little too, and I ‘began to persuade myself it was all a
delusion; that it was nothing else but my own foot; and why
might I not come that way from the boat, as well as I was going
that way to the boat? Again, I considered also, that I could by
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 139

no means tell, for certain, where I had trod, and where I had
not; and that if, at last, this was only the print of my own foot, I
had played the part of those fools who strive to make stories of
spectres and apparitions, and then are frighted at them more than
anybody.
' Now I began to take courage, and to peep abroad again, for I
had not stirred out of my castle for three days and nights, so that
I began to starve for provisions ; for I had little or nothing within
doors but some barley cakes and water. Then I knew that my
goats wanted to be milked too, which usually was my evening
diversion, and the poor creatures were in great pain and incon-
venience for want of it; and indeed it almost spoilt some of
them, and almost dried up their, milk.
_ Heartening myself, therefore, with the belief that this was
nothing but the print of one of my own feet, and so I might be
truly said to start at my own shadow, I began to go abroad again,
and went to my country house to milk my flock ; but to see with
what fear I went forward, how often I looked behind me, how I
was ready every now and then to lay down my basket and run for
my life, it would have made any one have thought I was haunted
with an evil conscience, or that I had been lately most terribly
frighted ; and so, indeed, I had. |
However, as I went down thus two or three days, and having
seen nothing, I began to be a little bolder, and to think there was
really nothing in it but my own imagination; but I could not per-
suade myself fully of this till I should go down to the shore again,
and see this print of a foot, and measure it by my own, and see
if there was any similitude or fitness, that I might be assured it
| was my own foot: but when I came to the place, first, it appeared
evidently to me, that when I laid up my boat, I could not possibly
be on shore anywhere thereabout; secondly, when I came to.
measure the mark with my own foot, I found my foot not so
large by a great deal. Both these things filled my head with new
imaginations, and gave me the vapours again to the highest degree,
so that I shook with cold like one in an ague, and I went home
again, filled with the belief that some man or men had been on
shore there; or, in short, that the island was inhabited, and I
might be a before I was aware,—and what course to take
for my security I knew not. | |
Oh, what ridiculous resolutions men take. when possessed with
140 ADVENTURES OF

fear! It deprives them of the use of those means which reason —
offers for their relief. The first thing I proposed to myself was,
to throw down my enclosures and turn all my tame cattle wild
into the woods, that the enemy might not find them, and then
frequent the island in prospect of the same or the like booty; then
to the simple thing of digging up my two corn fields, that they
might not find such a grain there, and still be prompted to fre-
quent the island; then to demolish my bower and tent, that they
might not see any vestiges of habitation, and be prompted to look
farther, in order to find out the persons inhabiting.

These were the subject of the first night’s cogitations ee I
was come home again, while the apprehensions which had so
overrun my mind were fresh upon me, and my head was full of
vapours as above. ‘Thus fear of danger is ten thousand times
more terrifying than danger itself, when apparent to the eyes;
and we find the burden of anxiety greater, by much, than the evil
which we: are anxious about: and, which was worse than all this,
I had not that relief in this trouble from the resignation I used
to practise, that I hoped to have. I looked, I thought, like Saul,
who ¢omplained not only that the Philistines were upon him, but
that God had forsaken him; for I did not now take due ways to’
compose my mind, by ae to God in my distress, and resting
upon His providence, as I had done before, for my defence and
deliverance ; which, if I had done, I had at least been more
cheerfully paged under this new surprise, and perhaps carried
through it with more resolution.

This confusion of my thoughts kept me waking all night; but
in the morning I fell asleep, and having, by the amusement of
my mind, been, as it were tired, and my spirits exhausted, I slept.
very soundly, and waked much better composed than I had ever
been before. And now I began to think sedately ; and, upon the
utmost debate with myself, I concluded that this island, which
was so exceeding pleasant, fruitful, and no farther from the main
land than as I had seen, was not.so entirely abandoned as I
might imagine; that, although there were no stated inhabitants
who lived on the spot, yet that there might sometimes come
boats off from the shore, who, either with design, or, perhaps,
never but when they were driven by cross winds, might come to
_ this place ; that I had lived here fifteen years now, and had not
met with the least shadow or figure of any people yet; and that,
ROBINSON CRUSOE. I4I

if at any time they should be driven here, it was probable they
went away again as soon as ever they could, seeing they had never
thought fit to fix there upon any occasion to this time: that the
most I could suggest any danger from, was from any such casual
accidental landing of straggling people from the main, who, as it
was likely, if they were driven hither, were here against their wills,
so they made no stay here, but went off again with all possible
speed—seldom staying one night on shore, lest they should not
_ have the help of the tides and daylight back again; and that,
therefore, I had nothing to do but to consider of some safe retreat,
in case I should see any savages land upon the spot.

Now I began sorely to repent that I had dug my cave so large
as to bring a door through again, which door, as I said, came
‘out beyond where my fortification joined to the rock. Upon
maturely considering this, therefore, I resolved to draw me a
second fortification, in the same manner of a semicircle, at a dis-
tance from my wall, just where I had planted a double row of
trees about twelve years before, of which I made mention : these
trees having been planted so thick before, there wanted but
a few piles to be driven between them, that they should be thicker
and stronger, and my-wall would be soon finished.

So that I had now a double wall, and my outer wall was thick-
ened with pieces of timber, old cables, and everything I could
think of to make it strong, having in it seven little holes, about as
big as I might put my arm out at. In the inside of this, I thick-

ened my wall to about ten feet thick, with continually bringing
' earth out of my cave, and laying it at the foot of the wall, and
walking upon it; and through the seven holes I contrived to
plant the muskets, of which I took notice that I got seven on
shore out of the ship: these I say I planted like my cannon and
fitted them into frames, that held them like a carriage, that so I
could fire all the seven guns in two minutes’ time. This wall I
was many a weary month in finishing, and yet never a my-
self safe till it was done.

When this was done, I stuck all the ground without my wall,
for a great way every way, as full with stakes, or sticks, of the
osier-like wood, which I found so apt to grow, as they could well
stand ; insomuch, that I believe I might set in near twenty thou-
sand of them, leaving a pretty large space between them and my
wall, that I might have room to see an enemy, and they might
142 ADVENTURES OF

have no shelter from the young trees, if they attempted to
approach my outer wall.

Thus in two years’ time, I had a thick grove, and in five or
six years’ time I had a wood before my dwelling, growing so
monstrous thick and strong, that it was indeed perfectly impass-
able ; and no man, of what kind soever, would ever imagine that
there was anything beyond it, much less a habitation. As for
the way which I proposed to myself to go in and out (for I left
no avenue), it was by setting two ladders, one to a part of the
rock which was low, and then broke in, and left room to place
another ladder upon that: so, when the two ladders were taken
down, no man living could come down to me without mischiefing
himself, and if they had come down, they were still on the outside
of my outer wall.

Thus I took all the measures human prudence could suggest
for my own preservation ; and it will be seen, at length, that they
were not altogether without just reason, though I foresaw nothing
at that time more than my mere fear suggested to me.

While this was doing, I was not altogether careless of my other
affairs ; for I had a great concern upon me for my little herd of
goats: they were not only a present supply to me on every occa-
sion, and began to be sufficient for me, without the expense of
powder and shot, but also without the fatigue of hunting after the
wild ones ; and I was loth to lose the advantage of them, and to
have them all to nurse up over again.

To this purpose, after long consideration, I could think of but
two ways to preserve them ; one was, to find another convenient
place to dig a cave under ground, and to drive them into it every
night ; and the other was, to enclose two or three little bits of
land, remote from one another, and as much concealed as I could,
where I might keep about half a dozen young goats in each place,
so that if any disaster happened to the flock in general, I might
be able to raise them again with little trouble and time ; and this,
though it would require a great deal of, time and about I thought
was the most rational design.

Accordingly, I spent some time to find out the most retired
parts of the island ; and I pitched upon one, which was as private,
indeed, as my ales could wish for: it was a little damp piece of
3 ground, in the middle of the hollow and thick woods, where, as
is observed, I almost lost myself once before, endeavouring to
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 143

come back that way from the eastern part of the island. Here I
found a clear piece of land, near three acres, so surrounded with
woods that it was almost an enclosure by nature; at least, it-did
not want near so much labour to make it so as the other pieces of
ground I had worked so hard at.

I immediately went to work with this piece of ground, and
in less than a month’s time I had so fenced it round, that my
flock, or herd, call it which you please, who were not so wild now
as at first they might be supposed to be, were well enough secured
in it. So, without any farther delay, I removed ten she-goats and
two he-goats to this piece; and when they were there, I continued
to perfect the fence, till I had made it as secure as the other,
which, however, I did at more leisure, and it took me up more
time by a great deal.

All this labour I was at the expense of, purely from my appre-
hensions on the account of the print of a man’s foot which I had
seen; for, as yet, I never saw any human creature come near the
island, and I had now lived two years under these uneasinesses,
which, indeed, made my life much less comfortable than it was
before, as may well be imagined by any who know what it is to
live in the constant snare of the fear of man. And this I must
observe, with grief too, that the discomposure of my mind had
too great impressions also upon the religious part of my thoughts ;
for the dread and terror of falling into the hands of savages and
cannibals lay so upon my spirits, that I seldom found myself in a
due temper for application to my Maker,—at least not with the
sedate calmness and resignation of soul which I was wont to do.
I rather prayed to God. as under great affliction and pressure of
mind, surrounded with danger, and in expectation every night of
being murdered and devoured before morning ; and I must
testify from my experience, that a temper of peace, thankfulness,
love, and affection, is much the more proper frame for prayer than
that of terror and discomposure ; and that, under the dread of
mischief impending, a man is no more fit for a comforting per-
formance of the duty of praying to God, than he is for a repent-
ance ona sick bed; for these discomposures affect the mind as
the others do the body, and the discomposure of the mind must
necessarily be as great a disability as that of the body, and much
greater,—praying to God being properly an act of the mind, not ©
of the body.
144 | ADVENTURES OF

But to go on: After I had thus secured one part of my little
living stock, I went about the whole island searching for another
private place to make such another deposit ; when, wandering
more to the west point of the island than I had ever done yet, and
looking out to sea, I thought I saw a boat upon the sea, at a
great distance. I had found a perspective glass or two in one of
the seamen’s chests which I saved out of our ship; but I had it
not about me, and this was so remote that I could not tell what
to make of it, though I looked at it till my eyes were not able to
hold to look any longer: whether it was a boat or not, I do not
know ; but as I descended from the hill I could see no more of
it, so I gave it over, only I resolved to go no more out without a
perspective glass in my pocket.

When I was come down the hill to the end of the island, where
indeed I had never been before, I was presently convinced that
the seeing the print of a man’s foot was not such a strange thing
in the island as I imagined; and but that it was a special pro-
vidence that I was cast upon the side of the island where the
savages never came, I should easily have known that nothing was
more frequent than for the canoes from the main, when they
happened to be a little too far out at sea, to shoot over to that
side of the island for harbour: likewise, as they often met and
fought in their canoes, the victors, having taken any prisoners,
would bring them over to this shore, where, according to their
dreadful customs, being all cannibals, they would kill and eat
them,—of which hereafter.

When I was come down the hill to the shore, as I said above,
being the south-west point of the island, I was perfectly con-
founded and amazed; nor is it possible for me to express the
horror of my mind at seeing the shore spread with skulls, hands,
feet, and other bones of human bodies ; and, particularly, I ob-
served a place where there had been a ae made, and a circle dug
in the earth, like a cockpit, where I supposed the savage wretches
had sat down to their inhuman feastings ae the bodies of their
fellow-creatures. :

I was so astonished with the sight of these things that I enter-
tained no notions of any danger to myself from it fora long while ;
all my apprehensions were buried in the thoughts of such a pitch
of inhuman, hellish brutality, and the horror of the degeneracy of
_ human nature, which, though I had heard of often, yet I never had
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 145

so near a view of before: in short, I turned away my face from
the horrid spectacle; my stomach grew sick, and I was just at
the point of fainting, when nature discharged the disorder from
my stomach, and having vomited with an uncommon violence, I
was a little relieved, but could not bear to stay in the place a
moment. So I got me up the hill again with all the speed I
could, and walked on towards my own habitation.

When I came a little out of that part of the island, I stood still
awhile as amazed, and then recovering myself, I looked up with
the utmost affection of my soul, and with a flood of tears in my
eyes, gave God thanks, that had cast my first lot in a part of the
world where I was distinguished from such dreadful creatures as
these ; and that, though I had esteemed my present condition
very miserable, had yet given me so many comforts in it, that I
had still more to give thanks for than to complain of; and this,
above all, that I had, even in this miserable condition, been
comforted with the knowledge of Himself, and the hope of His
blessing, which was a felicity more than sufficiently equivalent to
all the misery which I had suffered or could suffer.

In this frame of thankfulness, I went home to my castle, and
began to be much easier now, as to the safety of my circum-
stances, than ever I was before; for I observed that these
wretches never came to this island in search of what they could
get,—perhaps not seeking, not wanting, or not expecting any-
thing here, and having often, no doubt, been up in the covered
woody part of it, without finding anything to their purpose. J
knew I had been here now almost eighteen years, and never saw
the least footsteps of human creature there before ; and I might
be eighteen more as entirely concealed as I was now, if I did not
' discover myself to them, which I had no manner of occasion to
do, it being my only business to keep myself entirely concealed
where I was, unless I found a better sort of creatures than
cannibals to make myself known to.

Yet I entertained such an abhorrence of the savage wretches
that I have been speaking of, and of the wretched inhuman
custom of their devouring and eating one another up, that I
continued pensive and sad, and kept close within my own circle
for almost two years after this: when I say my own eirele, 1
mean by it my three plantations, viz., my castle, my country seat
—which I called my bower,—and my enclosure in, the woods:

K
146 ADVENTURES OF

nor did I look after this for any other use than as an enclosure
for my goats; for the aversion which nature gave me to these
hellish wretches was such, that I was fearful of seeing them as of
seeing the devil himself. Nor did Iso much as go to look after
my boat in all this time, but began rather to think of making me
another ; for I could not think of ever making any more attempts
to bring the other boat round the island to me, lest I should
meet with some of these creatures at sea, in which, if I had
happened to have fallen into their hands, I knew what would
have been my lot. |

Time, however, and the satisfaction I had that I was in no
danger of being discovered by these people, began to wear off my
uneasiness about them, and I began to live just in the same com-
posed manner as before,—only with this difference, that I used
more caution, and kept my eyes more about me than I did before,
lest I should happen to be seen by any of them ; and particularly,
I was more cautious of firing my gun, lest any of them, being on
the island, should happen to hear it. And it was therefore a very
good providence to me that I had furnished myself with a tame
breed of goats, and that I needed not hunt any more about the
woods, or shoot at them,—and if I did catch any of them after
this, it was by traps and snares, as I had done before: so that
for two years after this, I believe I never fired my gun once off,
though I never went out without it; and, which was more, as I
had saved three pistols out of the ship, I always carried them ‘out
with me, or at least two of them, sticking them in my goat’s-skin
belt. I also furbished up one of the great ecutlasses that I had out
of the ship, and made me a belt to put it in also; so that I was
now a most formidable fellow to look at when I went abroad, if
you add to the former description of myself, the particular of two
pistols, and a great broadsword hanging at my side in a belt, but
without a scabbard. ,

Things going on thus, as I have said, for some time, I seemed,
excepting these cautions, to be reduced to my former calm sedate
way of living. All these things tended to show me, more and
more, how far my condition was from being miserable, compared
to some others—nay, to many other particulars of life, which it
might have pleased God to have made my lot. It put me upon
reflecting how little repining there would be among mankind at
any condition of life, if people would rather compare their con-
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 147

dition with those that are worse, in order to be thankful, than be
always comparing them with those which are better, to assist
their murmurings and complainings.

As in my present condition there were not really many things
which I wanted, so, indeed, I thought that the frights I had been
in about these savage ones and the concern I had been in
for my own preservation, had taken off the edge of my invention
for my own conveniences, and I had dropped a good design, which
I had once bent my thoughts too much upon,—and that was, to
try if I could not make some of my barley into malt, and then
try to brew myself some beer. This was really a whimsical
thought, and I reproved myself often for the simplicity of it; for
I presently saw there would be the want of several things neces-
sary to the making my beer, that it would be impossible for me to
supply,—as, first, casks to preserve it in, which was'a thing that,
as I have observed already, I could never compass—no, though
I spent not only many days, but weeks, nay, months, in attempt-
ing it, but to no purpose. In the next place, I had no hops to
make it keep, no yeast to make it work, no copper or kettle to
make it boil; and yet, all these things notwithstanding, I verily
believe, had not.these things intervened—I mean the frights and
terrors I was in about the savages—I had undertaken it, and
perhaps brought it to pass too; for I seldom gave anything over
without accomplishing it, when I once had it in my head enough
to begin it.

But my invention now tan quite another way ; for, night and
day I could think of nothing but how I might destroy some of
these monsters in their cruel, bloody entertainment, and, if pos-
sible, save the victim they should bring hither to destroy. It
would take up a larger volume than this whole work is intended
to be, to set down all the contrivances I hatched, or rather
- brooded upon in my thoughts, for the destroying these creatures,
or at least frightening them, so as to prevent their coming hither
any more; but all was abortive,—nothing could be possible to
take effect, unless I was to be there to do it myself; and what
could one man’do among them, when perhaps there might be
twenty or thirty of them together, with their darts, or their bows
and arrows, with which they could shoot as true to a mark as I
could with my gun?

Sometimes I contrived to dig a hole under the place where
148 ADVENTURES OF

they made their fire, and put in five or six pounds of gunpowder,
which, when they kindled their fire, would consequently take fre,
and blow up all that was near it; but as, in the first place, I
should be very loth to waste so much powder upon them, my
store being now within the quantity of one barrel, so neither
could I be sure of its going off at any certain time, when it might
surprise them, and, at best, that it would do little more than just
blow the fire about their ears and fright them, but not sufficient
to make them forsake the place: so I laid it aside, and then
proposed that I would place myself in ambush in some con-
venient place, with my three guns all double-loaded, and in the
middle of their bloody ceremony, let fly at them, when I should
be sure to kill or wound perhaps two or three at every shot ; and
then falling in upon them with my three pistols, and my sword, I
made no doubt but that, if there were twenty, I should kill them
all. This fancy pleased my thoughts for some weeks, and I was
so full of it that I often dreamt of it, and sometimes that I was
just going to let fly at them in my sleep.

I went so far with it in my imagination, that I employed myself
several days to find out proper places to put myself in ambuscade,
as I said, to watch for them ; and I went frequently to the place
itself, which was now grown more familiar to me: and especially
while my mind was thus filled with thoughts of revenge, and of
a bloody putting twenty or thirty of them to the sword, as I may
call it, the horror I had at the place, and at the signals of the
barbarous wretches devouring one another, abated my malice.

Well, at length I found a place in the side of the hill, where I
was satisfied I might securely wait till I saw any of their boats
coming ; and might then, even before they would be ready to come
on shore, convey myself, unseen, into thickets of trees, in one of
which there was a hollow large enough to conceal me entirely,
and where I might sit and observe all their bloody doings, and
take my full aim at their heads, when they were so close together
as that it would be next to impossible that I should miss my shot, or
that I could fail wounding three or four of them at the first shot.

In this place, then, I resolved to fix my design; and accord-
ingly, I prepared two muskets and my ordinary fowling-piece.
The two muskets I loaded with a brace of slugs each, and four
or five smaller bullets, about the size of pistol bullets ; and the
fowling piece I loaded with near a handful of swan-shot, of the
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 149

largest size ; I also loaded my pistols with about four bullets each ;
and in this posture, well provided with ammunition for a second
and third charge, I prepared myself for my expedition.

After I had thus laid the scheme of my design, and, in my
imagination, put it in practice, I continually made my tour every
morning, up to the top of the hill, which was from my castle, as I
called it, about three miles, or more, to see if I could observe any
boats upon the sea, coming near the island, or standing over
towards it ; but I began to tire of this hard duty, after I had for
two or three months constantly kept my watch, but came always
back without any discovery, there having not in all that time been
the least appearance, not only on or near the shore, but not on the
whole ocean, so far as my eyes or glasses could reach every way.

As long as I kept up my daily tour to the hill to look out, so
long also I kept up the vigour of my design, and my spirits seemed
to be all the while in a suitable form for so outrageous an execu-
tion as the killing twenty or thirty naked savages, for an offence
which I had not at all entered into a discussion of in my thoughts,
any further than my passions were at first fired by the horror I
conceived at the unnatural custom of the people of that country,
who, it seems, had been suffered by Providence, in His wise dis-
position of the world, to have no other guide than that of their
own abominable and vitiated passions; and, consequently, were left,
and perhaps had been so for some ages, to act such horrid things,
and receive such dreadful customs, as nothing but nature, entirely
abandoned of Heaven, and actuated by some hellish degeneracy,
could have run them into. But now, when, as I have said, I began
to be weary of the fruitless excursion, which I had made so long
and so far every morning in vain, so my opinion of the action
itself began to alter; and I began, with cooler and calmer thoughts,
to consider what it was I was going to engage in—what ‘authority,
or call, I had to pretend to be judge and executioner upon these
men as criminals, whom Heaven had thought fit, for so many ages,
to suffer, unpunished, to go on, and to be, as it were, the execu-
tioners of His judgments one upon another ; also how far these
people were offenders against me, and what right I had to engage
in the quarrel of that blood which they shed promiscuously one
upon another. I debated this very often with myself, thus :—
‘¢ How do I know what God Himself judges in this particular case ?
It is certain these people do not commit this as a crime; it is not
150 ADVENTURES OF

against their own consciences reproving, or their light reproaching
them. They do not know it to be an offence, and then commit
it in defiance of divine justice, as we do in almost all the sins we
commit. They think it no more a crime to kill a captive taken
in war, than we do to kill an ox; nor to eat human flesh than we
do to eat mutton.” |

When I considered this a little, it followed necessarily that I
was certainly in the wrong in it,—that these people were not
murderers in the sense that I had before condemned them in my
thoughts, any more than those Christians were murderers who
often put to death the prisoners taken in battle; or more fre-
quently, upon many occasions, put whole troops of men to the
sword, without giving quarter, though they threw down their arms
and submitted.

In the next place, it occurred to me, that albeit the usage they
gave one another was thus brutish and inhuman, yet it was really
nothing tome: these people had done me no injury,—that if they
attempted me, or I saw it necessary, for my immediate preserva-
tion, to fall upon them, something might be said for it; but that
I was yet out of their power, and they had really no knowledge of
me, and consequently no design upon me, and therefore it could
not be just for me to fall upon them: that this would justify the
conduct of the Spaniards in all their barbarities practised in
America, where they destroyed millions of these people, who—
however they were idolaters and barbarians, and had several
bloody and barbarous rites in their customs, such as sacrificing
human bodies to their idols—were yet, as to the Spaniards, very
innocent people, and that the rooting them out of the country is
spoken of with the utmost abhorrence and detestation by even the
Spaniards themselves, at this time, and by all other Christian
nations of Europe, as a mere butchery—a bloody and unnatural
piece of cruelty, unjustifiable either to God or man, and such as
for which the very name of a Spaniard is reckoned to be frightful
and terrible to all people of humanity, or of Christian compassion ;
as if the kingdom of Spain were particularly eminent for the pro-.
duct of a race of men who were without principles of tenderness,
or the common bowels of pity to the miserable, which is reckoned
to be a mark of generous temper in the mind.

These considerations really put me to a pause, and to a kind of.
a full stop ; and I began, by little and little, to be off my design,
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 151

and to conclude I had taken wrong measures in my resolution to
attack the savages—that it was not my business to meddle with
them, unless they first attacked me, and this it was my business,
if possible, to prevent ; but that if I were discovered and attacked,
then I knew my duty.

On the other hand, I argued with myself, that this really was
the way, not to deliver myself, but entirely to ruin and destroy
myself; for unless I was sure to kill every one that not only
should be on shore at that time, but that should ever come on
shore afterwards, if but one of them escaped to tell their country-
people what had happened, they would come over again by
thousands to revenge the death of their fellows, and I should
only bring upon myself a certain destruction, which at present I
had no manner of occasion for. |

Upon the whole, I concluded that neither in principle nor in
policy I ought, one way or other, to concern myself in this affair ;
that my business was by all possible means to conceal myself from
_ them, and not to leave the least signal to them to guess by that
there were any living creatures upon the island,—I mean of
human shape.

Religion joined in with this prudential resolution, and I was
convinced now, many ways, that I was perfectly out of my duty
when I was laying all my bloody schemes for the destruction of
innocent creatures,—I mean innocent as to me. As to the
crimes they were guilty of towards one another, I had nothing to
do with them ; they were national, and I ought to leave them to
the justice of God, who is the governor of nations, and knows
how, by national punishments, to make a just retribution for
national offences, and to bring public judgments upon those who
offend in a public manner, by such ways as best please Him.

This appeared so clear to me now, that nothing was a greater
satisfaction to me—than that I had not been suffered to do a
thing which I now saw so much reason to believe would have
been no less a sin than that of wilful murder, if I had committed
it; and I gave most humble thanks on my knees to God, that
had thus delivered me from blood-guiltiness, beseeching Him to
grant me the protection of His providence, that I might not fall
into the hands of barbarians, or that I might not lay my hands
upon them, unless I had a more clear call from Heaven to do it
in defence of my own life.


CHAPTER XH.

Crusoe takes precautions against an incursion of the savages—Lives a more retired
hfe—His principal employment, the milking of his goats, and the management

_ of his flock—Is surprised by an old he-goat in a cave—Discovers a party of
cannibals on the shore—A ship in distress—Finds the body of a drowned boy
cast on shore—Laments that not one of the crew has been saved, and feels
more solitary than ever—Goes off to the wreck in his boat, and finds the only

living thing on board to be a dog—Loads his boat with money-bags, clothes,
&c., and returns to the shore—Reflections.

= “Ba, N this disposition I continued for near a year after

jg, this; and.so far was I from desiring an occasion
for falling upon these wretches, that in all that
time I never once went up the hill to see whether ~
there were any of them in sight, or to know
whether any of them had been on shore there or not, that I might
not be tempted to renew any of my contrivances against them,
or be provoked by any advantage which might present itself, to
fall upon them: only this I did, I went and removed my boat,
which I had on the other side of the island, and carried it down
to the east end of the whole island, where I ran it into a little
cove which I found under ‘some high rocks, and where I knew,
by reason of the currents, the savages durst not, at least would
not, come with their boats, upon any account whatsoever.

With my boat I carried away everything that I had left there
belonging to her, though not necessary for the bare going thither,
viz., a mast and sail which I had made for her, and a thing like
an anchor, but indeed, which could not be called either anchor or
grappling ; however, it was the best I could make of its kind.
All these I removed, that there might not be the least shadow of
any discovery, or any appearance of any boat, or of any human
habitation, upon the island.

Besides this, I kept myself, as I said, more retired than ever,


ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 153

and seldom went from my cell, other than upon my constant
employment, viz., to milk my she-goats, and manage my little
flock in the wood, which, as it was quite on the other part of the
island, was quite out of danger; for certain it 1s, that these savage
people, who sometimes haunted this island, never came with any
thoughts of finding anything here, and consequently never wan-
dered off from the coast, and I doubt not but they might have
been several times on shore after my apprehensions of them had
made me cautious, as well as before; and indeed, I looked back
with some horror upon the thoughts of what my condition would
have been if I had chopped upon them and been discovered
before that, when—naked and unarmed, except with one gun,
and that loaded often only with small shot—I walked everywhere,
peeping and peering about the island to see what I could get,—
what a surprise should I have been in, if, when I discovered the
print of a man’s foot, I had, instead of that, seen fifteen or twenty
savages, and found them pursuing me, and by the swiftness of
their running, no possibility of my escaping them?

The thoughts of this sometimes sank my very soul within me,
and distressed my mind so much that I could not soon recover
it; to think what I should have done, and how I not only should
not have been able to resist them, but even should not have had
presence of mind enough to do what I might have done, much
‘less what now, after so much consideration and preparation, I
might be able to do. Indeed, after serious thinking of these
things, I would be very melancholy, and sometimes it would last
a great while ; but I resolved it at last all into thankfulness to that
Providence which had delivered me from so many unseen dangers,
and had kept me from those mischiefs which I could no way have
been the agent in delivering myself from, because I had not the
least notion of any such thing depending, or the least supposition
of it being possible.

This renewed a contemplation which often had come to my
thoughts in former time, when first I began to see the merciful
dispositions of Heaven in the dangers we run through in this life,
—how wonderfully we are delivered when we know nothing of it ;
how, when we are in a quandary (as we call it)—a doubt or
hesitation whether to go this way or that way, a secret hint shall
direct us this way, when we intended to go that way ; nay, when
sense, our own inclination, and perhaps business, has called to go
154 ADVENTURES OF

the other way,—yet a strange impression upon the mind, from we
know not what springs, and by we know not what power, shall
overrule us to go this way, and it shall afterwards appear, that
had we gone that way which we should have gone, and even to
our imagination ought to have gone, we should have been ruined
and lost. Upon these, and many like reflections, I afterwards
made it a certain rule with me, that whenever I found those
secret hints or pressings of my mind, to doing or not doing any-
thing that presented, or to going this way or that way, I never
failed to obey the secret dictate, though I knew no other reason
for it than that such a pressure, or such a hint, hung upon my
mind. I could give many examples of the success of this
conduct in the course of my life, but more especially in the latter
part of my inhabiting this unhappy island ; besides many occasions
which it is very likely I might have taken notice of, if I had seen
with the same eyes then that I saw with now. But it is never
too late to be wise ; and I cannot but advise all considering men,
whose lives are attended with such extraordinary incidents as
‘mine, or even though not so extraordinary, not to slight such
secret intimations of Providence, let them come from what
invisible intelligence they will: that I shall not discuss, and
perhaps cannot account for, but certainly they are a proof of the
converse of spirits, and a secret communication between those
embodied and those unembodied, and such a proof as can never
be withstood,—of which I shall have occasion to give some very
remarkable instances in the remainder of my solitary residence in
this dismal place.

I believe the reader of this will not think it strange if I confess
that these anxieties—these constant dangers I lived in, and the
concern that was now upon me—put an end to all invention, and
to all the contrivances that I had laid for my future accommoda-
tions and conveniences. I had the care of my safety more now
upon my hands than that of my food. I cared not to drive a
nail, or chop a stick of wood now, for fear the noise I should
make should be heard; much less would I fire a gun, for the
same reason, and, above all, I was intolerably uneasy at making
any fire, lest the smoke, which is visible at a great distance in the
day, should betray me ; and for this reason I removed that part
of my business which required fire, such as burning of pots and
pipes, &c,, into my new apartment in the woods, where, after I
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 155

had been some time, I found, to my unspeakable consolation, a
mere natural cave in the earth, which went in a vast way, and
where, I daresay, no savage, had he been at the mouth of it,
would be so hardy as to venture in, nor, indeed, would any man
else, but one who, like me, wanted nothing so much as a safe
retreat.

The mouth of this hollow was at the bottom of a great rock,
where, by mere accident (I would say, if I did not see abundant
reason to ascribe all such things now to Providence), I was cutting
down some thick branches of trees to make charcoal; and before
I go on, I must observe the reason of my making ne charcoal,
which was thus:

I was afraid of making a smoke about my habitation, as I said
before ; and yet I could not live there without baking my bread,
cooking my meat, &c.: so I contrived to burn some wood here,
as I had seen done in England, under turf, till it became chark,
or dry coal; and then, putting the fire out, I preserved the coal
to carry home, and perform the services for which fire was
wanting, without danger of smoke. 3

But this is by the by. While I was cutting down some wood
here, I perceived that, behind a very thick branch of low brush-
wood or underwood, there was a kind of hollow place: I was
curious to look into it, and getting with difficulty into the mouth
of it, I found it was pretty large,—that is to say, sufficient for me
to stand upright in it, and perhaps another with me; but I must
confess to you I made more haste out than I did in, when,
looking farther into the place, and which was perfectly dark, I
saw two broad shining eyes of some creature—whether devil or
man I knew not—which twinkled like two stars, the dim light
from the cave’s mouth shining directly in, and making the
reflection.

However, after some pause, I recovered myself, and began to
call myself a thousand fools, and tell myself that he that was
afraid to see the devil was not fit to live twenty years in an island
all alone, and that I durst to believe there was nothing in this
cave that was more frightful than myself. Upon this, plucking
up my courage, I took up a great firebrand, and in I rushed
again, with the stick flaming in my hand: I had not got three
steps in, but I was almost as much frighted as I was before, for I
heard a very loud sigh, like that of a man in some pain, and it
156 | ADVENTURES OF

was followed by a broken noise, as if of words half expressed, and
then a deep sigh again. I stepped back, and was indeed struck
with such a surprise that it put me into a cold sweat; and if I
had had a hat on my head, I will not answer for it that my hair
might not have lifted it off. But still plucking up my spirits as
well as I could, and encouraging myself a little with considering
that the power and presence of God was everywhere, and was
able to protect me—upon this I stepped forward again, and by
the light of the firebrand, holding it up a little over my head, I
saw lying on the ground a most monstrous, frightful, old he-goat,
just making his will, as we say, and gasping for life, and dying,
indeed, of mere old age.

I stirred him a little to see if I could get him out, and he
essayed to get up, but was not able to raise himself; and I thought
with myself he might even lie there, for if he had frighted me so,
he would certainly fright any of the savages, if any of them should
be so hardy as to come in there while he had any life in him.

I was now recovered from my surprise, and began to look
round me, when I found the cave was but very small,—that is to
say, it might be about twelve feet over, but in no manner of
shape, either round or square, no hands having ever been employed
in making it but those of mere nature. I observed also that
there was a place at the farther side of it that went in further, but
was so low that it required me to creep upon my hands and
knees to go into it, and whither it went I knew not: so, having no
candle, I gave it over for some time, but resolved to come again
the next day, provided with candles and a tinder box, which I had
made of the lock of one of the eee, with some wildfire in
- the pan.

Accordingly, the next day I came provided with six large
candles of my own making, for I had made very good candles
now of goat’s tallow; and going into this low place, I was obliged
to creep upon all fours, as I have said, almost ten yards, which,
by the way, I thought was a venture bold enough, considering
that I knew not how far it might go, nor what was beyond it.
When I was got through the strait, I found the roof rose higher
up, I believe near twenty feet ; but never was such a glorious
sight seen in the island, I eae as it was to look round the
sides and roof of this vault or cave. The wall reflected a hundred
thousand lights to me from my two candles; what it was in the
ROBINSON CRUSOE. as 157

rock, whether diamonds, or any other precious stones, or gold,
which I rather supposed it to be, I knew not.

‘The place I was in was a most delightful cavity or grotto of its
kind, as could be expected, though perfectly dark ; the floor was
dry and level, and had a sort of small loose gravel upon it, so
that there was no nauseous or venomous creature to be seen,
neither was there any damp or wet on the sides or roof: the only
difficulty in it was the entrance, which, however, as it was a place
of security, and such a retreat as I wanted, I thought that was
a conyenience,—so that I was really rejoiced at the discovery,
and resolved, without any delay, to bring some of those things
which I was most anxious about to this place; particularly, I
resolved to bring hither my magazine of powder, and all my spare
arms, viz., two fowling-pieces (for I had three in all), and three
muskets (for of them I had eight in all), so I kept at my castle
only five, which stood ready mounted like pieces of cannon, on
my outmost fence, and were ready also to take out upon any
expedition.

Upon this occasion of removing my ammunition, I took
occasion to open the barrel of powder which I took up out of
the sea, and which had been wet, and I found that the water had
penetrated about three or four inches into the powder on every
side, which caking and growing hard, had preserved the inside
like a kernel in a shell, so that I had near sixty pounds of very
good powder in the centre of the cask; and this was an agreeable
discovery to me at that time: so I carried all away thither, never
keeping above two or three pounds of powder with me in my
castle, for fear of a surprise of any kind: I also carried thither
all the lead I had left for bullets.

I fancied myself now like one of the ancient giants, which
were said to live in caves and holes in the rocks, where none
could come at them ; for I persuaded myself while I was here, if
five hundred savages were to hunt me, they could never find me
out ; or, if they did, they would not venture to attack me here.

The old goat, which I found expiring, died in the mouth of
the cave the next day after I made this discovery, and I found it
much easier to dig a great hole there, and throw him in and cover
him with earth, than to drag him out; so I interred him there, to
prevent offence to my nose.

I was now in my twenty-third year of residence in this island,
158 | ADVENTURES OF

and was so naturalised to the place and to the manner of living
that could I have but enjoyed the certainty that no savages would
come to the place to disturb me, I could ‘have been content to
have capitulated for spending the rest of my time there, even to
the last moment, till I had laid me down and died, like the old
goat in the cave. I had also arrived at some little diversions and
amusements, which made the time pass more pleasantly with me
a great deal than it did before; as, first, I had taught my Poll,
as I noted before, to speak, and he did it so familiarly, and talked
so articulately and plain, that it was very pleasant to me, and he
lived with me no less than six-and-twenty years; how long he
might live afterwards I know not, though I know they have a
notion in the Brazils that they live a hundred years. Perhaps
poor Poll may be alive there still, calling after “Poor Robin
Crusoe” to this day. I wish no Englishman the ill-luck to come
there and hear him; but, if he did, he would certainly believe it
was the devil. My dog was a very pleasant and loving com-
panion to me for no less than sixteen years of my time, and then
died ‘of mere old age. As for my cats, they multiplied, as I have
observed, to that degree that I was obliged to shoot several of
them at first, to keep them from devouring me and all I had; but
at length, when the two old ones I brought with me were gone, and
after some time continually driving them from me, and letting
them have no provision with me, they all ran wild into the woods,
except two or three favourites, which I kept tame, and whose
young, when they had any, I always drowned, and these were
part of my family. Besides these, I always kept two or three
household kids about me, which I taught to feed out of my hand;
and I had two more parrots, which talked pretty well, and would
all call Robin Crusoe, but none like my first, nor, indeed, did I
take the pains with any of them that I had done with him. I
had also several tame seafowls, whose names I knew not, which I
caught upon the shore, and cut their wings ; and the little stakes
which I had planted before my castle wall being now grown up
to a good thick grove, these fowls all lived among these low trees,
and bred there, which was very agreeable tome. So that, as I
said above, I began to be very well contented with the life I led,
if it might but have been secured from the dread of the savages.
But it was otherwise directed ; and it may not be amiss for all
people who shall meet with my story, to make this just observation
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 150

from it, viz., how frequently, in the course of our lives, the evil
which in itself we seek most to shun, and which, when we are
fallen into, is the most dreadful to us, is oftentimes the very means
or door of our deliverance, by which alone we can be raised again
from the affliction we are fallen into. I could give many examples
of this in the course of my unaccountable life, but in nothing was
it more particularly remarkable than in the circumstances of my
last years of solitary residence in this island.

It was now the month of December, as I said above, in my
twenty-third year ; and this, being the southern solstice—for winter
I cannot call it—was the particular time of my harvest, and
required my being pretty much abroad in the fields: when going
out pretty early in the morning, even before it was thorough day-
light, I was surprised with seeing a light of some fire upon the
shore, at a distance from me of about two miles, towards the end
of the island where I had observed some savages had been, as
before; but not on the other side, but, to my great affliction, it
was on my side of the island.

I was, indeed, terribly surprised at the sight, and stopped short
within my grove, not daring to go out, lest I might be surprised ;
and yet I had no more peace within, from the apprehensions I
had that, if these savages, in rambling over. the island, should find
my corn standing or cut, or any of my works and improvements,
they would immediately conclude that there were people in the
place, and would then never give over till they had found me out.
In this extremity, I went back directly to my castle, pulled up the
ladder after me, and made all things without look as wild and
natural as I could.

Then I prepared myself within, putting myself in a posture of
defence: I loaded all my cannon, as I called them, that is to say,
my muskets, which were mounted upon my new fortification, and
all my pistols, and resolved to defend myself to the last gasp ; not
forgetting seriously to commend myself to the Divine protection,
and earnestly to pray to God to, deliver me out of the hands of
the barbarians.

After sitting awhile, and musing what I should do in this case,
I was not able to bear sitting in ignorance any longer ; so, setting
up my ladder to the side of the hill, where there was a flat place,
as I observed before, and then pulling the ladder up after me, I
set it up again, and mounted to the top of the hill, and pulling out
160 ADVENTURES OF

my perspective glass, which I had taken on purpose, I laid me
down flat on my belly on the ground, and began to look for the
place. I presently found there were no less than nine naked
. savages, sitting round a small fire they had made, not to warm
them,—for they had no need of that, the weather being extremely
hot, but, as I supposed, to dress their barbarous diet of human
flesh, which they had brought, whether alive or dead I could not
know.

They had two canoes with them, which they had haled up upon
the shore ; and as it was then tide of ebb, they seemed to me to
wait for the return of the flood to go away again. It is not easy
to imagine what confusion this sight put me into, especially seeing
them come on my side the island, and so near me too; but when
I observed their coming must be always with the current of the
ebb, I began afterwards to be more sedate in my mind, being
satisfied that I might go abroad with safety all the time of the
tide of flood, if they were not on shore before: and having made
this observation, I went abroad about my work with the more
composure.

As I expected, so it proved; for as soon as the tide made to
the westward, I saw them all take boat, and row (or paddle, as
we call it) all away. I should have observed, that for an hour or
more before they went off they went to dancing, and I could
easily discern their postures and gestures by my glasses: I could
not perceive by my nicest observation but that they were stark
naked, and had not the least covering upon them; but whether
they were men or women, that I could not distinguish.

As soon as I saw them shipped and gone, I took two guns upon
my shoulders, and two pistols at my girdle, and my great sword
by my side, without a scabbard, and with all the speed I was able
to make, I went away to the hill where I had discovered the first
appearance of all. Assoon as I got thither, which was not less
than two hours (for I: could not go apace, being so loaden with
arms as I was), I perceived there had been three canoes more of
savages on that place ; and looking out farther, I saw they were
all at sea together, making over for the main.

This was a dreadful sight to me, especially when, going to the
shore, I could see the marks of horror which the dismal work they
had been about had left behind it, viz., the blood, the bones, and
part of the flesh of human bodies, eaten and devoured by those
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 161

wretches with merriment and sport. I was so filled with indigna-
tion, that I began now to premeditate the destruction of the next
that I saw there, let them be who or how many soever. |

It seemed evident to me that the visits which they thus made
to this island were not very frequent, for it was above fifteen
months before any more of them came on shore there again,—
that is to say, I never saw them, nor any footsteps or signals of
them, in all that time ; for, as to the rainy seasons, then they are
sure not to come abroad, at least not so far: yet all this while I
lived uncomfortably, by reason of constant apprehensions I was
in of their coming upon me by surprise. From whence I observe,
that the expectation of evil is more bitter than the suffering,
especially if there is no room to shake off that expectation, or
those apprehensions. a

During all this time I was in the murdering humour, and took
up most of my hours, which should have been better employed,
in contriving how to circumvent and fall upon them, the very
next time I should see them, especially if they should be divided,
as they were the last time, into two parties; nor did I consider
at all, that if I killed one party, suppose ten or a dozen, I was
still the next day, or week, or month, to kill another, and so
another, even ad infinitum, till I should be at length no less a
murderer than they were in being men-eaters, and perhaps much
more so.

I spent my days now in great perplexity and anxiety of mind,
expecting that I should one day or other fall into the hands of
these merciless creatures; and if I did at any time venture
abroad, it was not without looking round me with the greatest
care and caution imaginable. And now I found, to my great
comfort, how happy it was that I had provided a tame flock or
herd of goats; for I durst not, upon any account, fire my gun,
especially near that side of the island where they usually came,
lest I should alarm the savages: and if they had fled from me
now, I was sure to have them come back again, with perhaps
two or three hundred canoes with them, in a few days, and then
I knew what to expect. However, I wore out a year and three
months more before I ever saw any more of the savages, and then
I found them again, as I shall soon observe. It is true, they
might have been there once or twice, but either they made no
stay, or at least I did not hear them; but in the month of May,

L
162 ADVENTURES OF

as near as I could calculate, and in my four-and-twentieth year,
I had a very strange encounter with them,—of which in its
place. |

The perturbation of my mind during this fifteen or sixteen
months’ interval was very great; I slept unquiet, dreamed always
frightful dreams, and often started out of my sleep in the night:
in the day, great troubles overwhelmed my mind, and in the night
I dreamed often of killing the savages, and of the reasons why I
might justify the doing of it. But to waive all this for a while:
it was in the middle of May, on the sixteenth day, I think, as
well as my poor wooden calendar would reckon, for I marked all
upon the post still; I say, it was on the sixteenth of May that it
blew a very great storm of wind all day, with a great deal of light-
ning and thunder, and a very foul night it was after it. I know
not what was the particular occasion of it, but as I was reading
in the Bible, and taken up with serious thoughts about my present
condition, I was surprised with the noise of a gun, as I thought,
fired at sea. This was, to be sure, a surprise of a quite different
nature from any I had met with before; for the notions this put
into my thoughts were quite of another kind. I started up in the
greatest haste imaginable, and in a trice clapped up my ladder to
the middle place of the rock and pulled it after me, and mounting
it the second time, got to the top of the hill the very moment that
a flash of fire bade me hsten for a second gun, which accordingly,
in about half a moment, I heard, and by the sound knew that it
was from that part of the sea where I was driven out with the
current in my boat.

I immediately considered that this must be some ship in dis-
tress, and that they had some comrade, or some other ship in
company, and fired these guns for signals of distress, and to obtain
help. I had this presence of mind at that minute, as to think
that though I could not help them, it might be they might help
me: so I brought together all the dry wood I could get at hand,
and making a good handsome pile, I set it on fire upon the hill.
The wood was dry, and blazed freely, and though the wind blew
very hard, yet it burnt fairly out, so that I was certain, if there was
any such thing as a ship, they must needs see it; and no doubt
they did, for as soon as ever my fire blazed up I heard another
' gun, and after that several others all from the same quarter.
I plied my fire all night long, till day broke; and when it was
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 163

broad day, and the air cleared up, I saw something at a great
distance at sea, full east of the island—whether a sail or a hull I
could not distinguish, the distance was so great, and the weather
still continuing hazy also—at least it was so out at sea.

I looked frequently at it all that day, and soon perceived that
it did not move, so I presently concluded that it was-a ship at
anchor: and being eager, you may be sure, to be satisfied, I took
my gun in my hand, and ran towards the south-east side of the
island, to the rocks where I had formerly been carried away with
the current ; and getting up there, the weather by this time being
perfectly clear, I could plainly see, to my great sorrow, the wreck
of a ship cast away in the night upon those concealed rocks which
I found when I was out in my boat,—and which rocks, as they
checked the violence of the stream, and made a counter-stream,
or eddy, were the occasion of my recovering then from the most
desperate, hopeless condition that ever I had been in in all my life.

Thus, what is one man’s safety is another man’s destruction ;
for it seems these men, whoever they were, being out of their
knowledge, and the rocks being wholly under water, had been
driven upon them in the night, the wind blowing hard at east and
east-north-east. Had they seen the island, as I must necessarily
suppose they did not, they must, as I thought, have endeavoured
to have saved themselves on shore by the help of their boat; but
the firing of their guns for help, especially when they saw, as I
imagined, my fire, filled me with many thoughts: First, I ima-
gined that upon seeing my light, they might have put themselves
into their boat, and have endeavoured to make the shore, but
that the sea going very high, they might have been cast away;
other times I imagined that they might have lost their boat before, |
as might be the case many ways—as, particularly, by the breaking
of the sea upon their ship, which many times obliges men to stave,
or take in pieces, their boat, and sometimes to throw it overboard
with their own hands; other times I imagined they had some
other ship or ships in company, who, upon the signals of distress
they had made, had taken them up and carried them off: other
whiles I fancied they were all gone off to sea in their boat, and
being hurried away by the current, were carried out into the great
ocean, where there was nothing but misery and perishing,—and
that, perhaps, they might by this time be starving, and in a con-

dition to think of eating one another.
164 ADVENTURES OF

As all these were but conjectures at best, so, in the condition I
was in, I could do no more than look on upon the misery of the:
poor men, and pity them,—which had still this good effect on
my side, that 1t gave me more and more cause to give thanks to
God, who had so happily and comfortably provided for me in my
desolate condition, and that of two ships’ companies, who were now
cast upon this part of the world, not one life should be spared
but mine. I learnt here again to observe, that it is very rare that
the providence of God casts us into any condition of life so low,
or any misery so great, but we may see something or other to be
thankful for, and may see others in worse circumstances than our
own. |

Such certainly was the case of these men, of whom I could not
sO much as see room to suppose any of them were saved ; nothing
could make it rational so much as to wish or expect that they did
not all perish there, except the possibility only of their being
taken up by another ship in company; and this was but mere
possibility indeed, for I saw not the least signal or appearance of
any such thing.

I cannot explain, by any possible energy of words, what a
strange longing or hankering of desire I felt in my soul upon this
sight,—-breaking out sometimes thus: ‘Oh, that there had been”
but one or two, nay, or but one soul saved out of the ship, to
have escaped to me, that I might but have had one companion,
one fellow-creature, to have spoken to me, and to have conversed
with!” In all the time of my solitary life, I never felt so earnest,
so strong a desire after the society of my fellow-creatures, or so
deep a regret at the want of it. |

There are some secret moving springs in the affections, which,
when they are set a-going by some object in view—or be it some
object though not in view, yet rendered present to the mind by
the power of imagination—that motion carries out the soul, by
its impetuosity, to such violent eager embracings of the object,
that the absence of it is insupportable.

Such were these earnest wishings that but one man had been
saved. Oh, that it had beenbut one! I believe I repeated the
_ words, “‘Oh, that it had been but one!” a thousand times, and
my desires were so moved by it, that when I spoke the words my
hands would clinch together, and my fingers press the palms of
my hands, that if I had had any soft thing in my hand it would
ROBINSON CRUSOE, 165

have crushed it involuntarily ; and my teeth in my head would
strike together, and set against one another so strong, that for
some time I could not part them again.

Let the naturalist explain these things, and the reason and
manner of them: all I can say to them is—to describe the fact,
which was even surprising to me, when I found it: though I
knew not from what it should proceed, it was doubtless the effect
of ardent wishes, and of strong ideas formed in my mind, realis- .
ing the comfort which the conversation of one of my fellow
Christians would have been to me. |

But it was not to be: either their fate or mine, or both, forbade
it; for till the last year of my being on this island, I never knew
whether any were saved out of that ship or no; and had only the
affliction, some days after, to see the corpse of a drowned boy
come on shore at the end of the island which was next the ship-
wreck. He had on no clothes but a seaman’s waistcoat, a pair
of open-kneed linen drawers, and a blue linen shirt ; but nothing
to direct me so much as to guess what nation he was of: he had
nothing in his pockets but two pieces-of-eight and a tobacco-pipe :
the last was to me of ten times more value than the first.

It was now calm, and IJ had a great mind to venture out in my
boat to this wreck, not doubting but I might find something on
board that might be useful to me; but that did not altogether
press me so much as the possibility that there might be yet some.
living creature on board, whose life I might not only save, but
might, by saving that life, comfort my own to the last degree.
And this thought clung so to my heart, that I could not be quiet
night nor day, but I must venture out in my boat on board this
wreck ; and committing the rest to God’s providence, I thought
the impression was so strong upon my mind that it could not
be resisted, that it must come from some invisible direction, and
that I should be wanting to myself if I did not go.

Under the power of this impression, I hastened back to my
castle, prepared everything for my voyage, took a quantity of bread,
a great pot of fresh water, a compass to Steer by, a bottle of rum
(for I had still a great deal of that left), and a basket full of raisins ;
and thus loading myself with everything necessary, I went down
to my boat, got the water out of her, and got her afloat, loaded all
my cargo in her, and then went home again formore. My second
cargo was a great bag full of rice, the umbrella to set up over my
166 ADVENTURES OF

head for a shade, another large pot full of fresh water, and about
two dozen of my small loaves or barley-cakes, more than before,
with a bottle of goat’s milk and a cheese: all which, with great
labour and sweat, I brought to my boat, and praying to God to
direct my voyage, I put out; and rowing, or paddling, the canoe
_along the shore, I came at last to the utmost point of the island
on the north-east side. And now I was to launch out into the
ocean, and either to venture or not to venture. J looked on the
rapid currents which ran constantly on both sides of the island at
a distance, and which were very terrible to me, from the remem-
brance of the hazard I had been in before, and my heart began
to fail me ; for I foresaw that if I was driven into either of those
currents, I should be carried a vast way out to sea, and perhaps
out of reach or sight of the island again, and that then, as my
boat was but small, if any little gale of wind should rise, I should
be inevitably lost.

These thoughts so oppressed my mind, that I began to give over
my enterprise, and having haled my boat into a little creek on the
shore, I stepped out, and sat me down upon a little spot of rising
ground, very pensive and anxious between fear and desire about —
my voyage ; when, as I was musing, I could. perceive that the tide
was turned, and the flood came on, upon which my going was for
so many hours impracticable. Upon this, it presently occurred to
me that I should go up to the highest piece of ground I could
find, and observe, if I could, how the sets of the tide or currents
lay, when the flood came in, that I might judge whether if I was
driven one way out, I might not expect to be driven another way
home, with the same rapidness of the currents. This thought was
no sooner in my head but I cast my eye upon a little hill which
sufficiently overlooked the sea both ways, and from whence I had
a clear view of the currents or sets of the tide, and which way I
was to guide myself in my return. Here I found that, as the
current of the ebb set out close by the south point of the island,
so the current of the flood set in close by the shore of the north
side, and that I had nothing to do but to keep to the north side
of the island in my return, and I should do weil enough.

Encouraged with this observation, I resolved the next morning
to set out with the first of the tide; and reposing myself for the
night in my canoe, under the great watch-coat I mentioned, I
launched out. I first made a little out to sea, full north, till I
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 167

began to feel the benefit of the current, which set eastward, and
which carried me at a great rate, and yet did not so hurry me as
the southern side current had done before, and so as to take from
me all government of the boat ; but having a strong steerage with
my paddle, I went, I say, at a great rate directly for the wreck,
and in less than two hours I came up to it. It was a dismal sight
to look at: the ship, which, by its building, was Spanish, stuck
fast, jammed in between two rocks: all the stern and quarter of
her was beaten to pieces with the sea; and as her forecastle, which |
stuck in the rocks, had run on with great violence, her mainmast
and foremast were brought by the board,—that is to say, broken
short off; but her boltsprit was sound, and the head and bow
appeared firm. When I came close to her, a dog appeared upon
her, which, seeing me coming, yelped and cried, and as soon as I
called him jumped into the sea to come to me, and I took him
into the boat, but found him almost dead for hunger and thirst.
I gave him a cake of my bread, and he ate it like a ravenous
wolf that had been starving a fortnight in the snow. I then gave
the poor creature some fresh water, with which, if I had let him,
he would have burst himself. : |

After this, I went on board. ‘The first sight I met with was two
men drowned in the cook-room, or forecastle of the ship, with
their arms fast about one another. I concluded, as is indeed
probable, that when the ship struck, it being in a storm, the sea
broke so high and so continually over her, that the men were not
able to bear it, and were strangled with the constant rushing in of
the water as much as if they had been under water. Besides the
dog, there was nothing left in the ship that had life, nor any goods,
that I could see, but what were spoiled bythe water. ‘There were
some casks of liquor, whether wine or brandy I knew not, which ~
lay lower in the hold, and which, the water being ebbed out, I
could see; but they were too big to meddle with. I saw several
chests, which I believe belonged to some of the seamen, and I got
two of. them into the boat, without examining what was in them.
. Had the stern of the ship been fixed, and the fore part broken off,
I am persuaded I might have made a good voyage ; for, by what
I found in these two chests, I had room to suppose the ship had
a great deal of wealth on board: and if I may guess from the
course she steered, she must have been bound from Buenos Ayres,
or the Rio de la Plata, in the south part of America, beyond the
168 ADVENTURES OF

Brazils, to the Havan:)a, in the Gulf of Mexico, and so perhaps to
Spain. She had, no doubt, a great treasure in her, but of no use ©
at that time to anybody; and what became of the rest of her
people I then knew not.

I found, besides these chests, a little cask full of liquor, of .
about twenty gallons, which I got into my boat with much diff-
culty. There were several muskets in the cabin, and a great
powder-horn, with about four pounds of powder in it: as for the
muskets, I had no occasion for them, so I left them, but took:
the powder-horn. I took a fire-shovel and tongs, which I wanted ©
extremely ; as also two little brass kettles, a copper pot to make
chocolate, and a gridiron: and with this cargo and the dog, I
came away, the tide beginning to make home again; and the
same evening, about an hour within night, I reached the island
again, weary and fatigued to the last degree.

I reposed that night in the boat, and in the morning I resolved
to harbour what I had gotten in my new cave,—not to carry it
home to my castle. After refreshing myself, I got all my cargo
on shore, and began to examine the particulars. The cask of
liquor I found to be a kind of rum, but not such as we had at
the Brazils, and, in a word, not at all good ; but when I came to
open the chests, I found several things which I wanted,—for
example, I found in one a fine case of bottles, of an extraordinary
kind, and filled with cordial waters, fine and very good: the
bottles held about three pints each, and were tipped with silver.
I found two pots of very good succades, or sweatmeats, so fastened
also. on the top that the salt water had not hurt them ; and
two more of the same, which the water had spoiled. I found
some very good shirts, which were very welcome to me; and
about a dozen and a half of white linen handkerchiefs and
coloured neckcloths: the former were also very welcome, being
exceeding refreshing to wipe my face in a hot day. Besides this,
when I came to the till in the chest, I found three great bags of
pleces-of-eight, which held about eleven hundred pleces in all;
and in one of them, wrapped up in a paper, six doubloons of gold
and some small bars or wedges of gold,—I suppose they might
all weigh near a pound.

The other chest I found had some clothes in it, but of little
value: but by the circumstances, it must have belonged to the
gunner’s mate, though there was no powder in it, but about two
ROBINSON CRUSOE. .° 169

pounds of glazed powder in three small flusks, kept, I suppose,
for charging their fowling-pieces on occasion. Upon the whole,
I got very little by this voyage that was of much use to me: for
as to the money, I had no manner of occasion for it ; it was to
me as the dirt under my feet, and I would have given it all for
three or four pair of English shoes and stockings, which were
things I greatly wanted, but had not had on my feet now for
many years. I had indeed gotten two pair of shoes now, which
I took off the feet of the two drowned men whom I saw in the
wreck, and I found two pair more in one of the chests, which
were very welcome to me; but they were not like our English
shoes, either for ease or service, being rather what we call pumps
than shoes. I found in this seaman’s chest about fifty pieces-of-
eight in royals, but no gold: I suppose this belonged to a poorer
man than the other, which seemed to belong to some officer.

Well, however, I lugged the money home to my cave, and laid
it up, as I had done that before which I brought from our own
ship ; but it was great pity, as I said, that the other part of this
ship had not come to my share, for I am satisfied that I might
have loaded my canoe several times over with money, which, if I
ever escaped to England, would have lain here safe enough till
I might have come again and fetched it.

Having now brought all my things on shore, and secured them,
I went back to my boat, and rowed or paddled her along the
shore to her old harbour, where I laid her up, and made the best
of my way to my old habitation, where I found everything safe
and quiet. So I began to repose myself, live after my old fashion,
and take care of my family affairs ; and, for a while, I lived easy
enough, only that I was more vigilant than I used to be, looked
out oftener, and did not go abroad so much; and if at any time
I did stir with any freedom, it was always to the east part of the
island, where I was pretty well satisfied the savages never came,
and where I could go without so many precautions and such a
load of arms and ammunition as I always carried with me if I
went the other way.

I lived in this condition near two years more ; but my unlucky
head, that was always to let me know it was born to make my
body miserable, was all these two years filled with projects and
designs, how, if it were possible, I might get away from this
island ; for sometimes I was for making another voyage to the
170 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

wreck, though my reason told me that there was nothing left
there worth the hazard of my voyage,—sometimes for a ramble
one way, sometimes another ; and I believe, verily, if I had had
the boat that I went from Sallee in, I should have ventured to
sea, bound anywhere—I knew not whither.

I have been, in all my circumstances, a memento to those ii
are touched with that general plague of mankind, whence, for
aught I know, one half of their miseries flow,—I mean that of not
being satisfied with the station wherein God and nature hath
placed them ; for, not to look back upon my primitive condition,
and the excellent advice of my father—the opposition to which
was, as I may call it, my original sin—my subsequent mistakes
of the same kind had been the means of my coming into this
miserable condition ; for had that Providence, which so happily
had seated me at the Brazils as a planter, blessed me with con-
fined desires, and I could have been contented to have gone on
gradually, I might have been, by this time,—I mean in the time
of my being in this island,—one of the most considerable planters
in the Brazils. Nay, I am persuaded, that by the improvements
I had made in that little time I lived there, and the increase I
should probably have made if I had stayed, I might have been
worth a hundred thousand moidores. And what business had I
to leave a settled fortune, a well-stocked plantation, improving
and increasing, to turn supercargo to Guinea to fetch negroes,
when patience and time would have so increased our stock at
home, that we could have bought them at our door from those
whose business it was to fetch them; and though it had cost us
something more, yet the difference of that price was by no means
worth saving at so great a hazard?

But as this is ordinarily the fate of young heads, so reflection
upon the folly of it is as ordinarily the exercise of more years, or
of the dear-bought experience of time,—and so it was with me
now ; and yet so deep had the mistake taken root in my temper,
that I could not satisfy myself in my station, but was continually
poring upon the means and possibility of my escape from this
place. And that I may, with the greater pleasure to the reader,
bring on the remaining part of my story, it may not be i improper
to give some account of my first conceptions on the subject of
this foolish scheme for my escape, and how, and upon what
foundation, I acted.


CHAPTER XIII.

The four-and-twentieth year of Crusoe’s sojourn on the island—He dreams about
the savages—He conceives the design of getting a savage into his possession—
The cannibals visit the island again, and proceed to slay the prisoners they bring
with them—The dream is fulfilled—One of the savages escapes, but is pursued
—Crusoe knocks down one of the pursuers, and shoots the other—He welcomes
the fugitive, whom he encourages to slay the second of his enemies—Names
his savage Friday—lInstructs and clothes him—Human companionship almost
reconciles him to his lot.

Ba AM now to be supposed to be retired into my castle,

ote after my late voyage to the wreck—my frigate laid
up and secured under water, as usual, and my con-
dition restored to what it was before: I had more
wealth, indeed, than I had before, but was not at
all the richer, for I had no more use for it than the Indians of
Peru had before the Spaniards came thither.

It was one of the nights in the rainy season in March, the four-
and-twentieth year of my first setting foot on this island of
solitariness, I was lying in my bed, or hammock, awake and very
well in health,—had no pain, no distemper, no uneasiness of
body, no, nor any uneasiness of mind, more than ordinary, but
could by no means close my eyes, that is, so as to sleep; no, not. .
a wink all night long, otherwise than as follows:

It is as impossible as needless to set down the innumerable
crowd of thoughts that whirled through that great thoroughfare
of the brain, the memory, in this night’s time: I ran over the
whole history of my life in miniature, or by abridgment, as I may
call it, to my coming to this island, and also of that part of my
life since I came to this island. In my reflections upon the
state of my case since I came on shore on this island, I was com-
paring the happy posture of my affairs in the first years of my
‘habitation here, to that course of anxiety, fear, and care which I


472 ADVENTURES OF

had lived in ever since I had seen the print of a foot in the sand ;
—not that I did not believe the savages had frequented the island
even all the while, and might have been several hundreds of them
at times on shore there; but as I had never known it, and was
incapable of any apprehensions about it, my satisfaction was
perfect though my danger was the same, and I was as happy in
not knowing my danger as if I had never really been exposed to
it. This furnished my thoughts with many very profitable reflec-
tions, and particularly this one: How infinitely good that Pro-
vidence is, which has provided, in its government of mankind,
such narrow bounds to his sight and knowledge of things; and
though he walks in the midst of so many thousand dangers, the
sight of which, if discovered to him, would distract his mind and
sink his spirits, he is kept serene and calm, by having the events
of things hid from his eyes, and knowing nothing of the dangers
which surrounded him.

After these thoughts had for some time entertained me, I came
to reflect seriously upon the real danger I had been in for so
many years in this very island, and how I had walked about in ~
the greatest security, and with all possible tranquillity, even when
perhaps nothing but a brow of a hill, a great tree, or the casual
approach of night, had been between me and the worst kind of
destruction, viz., that of falling into the hands of cannibals and
savages, who would have seized on me with the same view as I
did on a goat or a turtle, and have thought it no more a crime to
kill and devour me, than I did of a pigeon or curlew. I should
unjustly slander myself, if I should say I was not sincerely thank-
ful to my great Preserver, to whose singular protection I acknow-
ledged, with great humility, that all these unknown deliverances
were due, and without which I must inevitably have fallen into
their merciless hands.

When these thoughts were over, my head was for some time
taken up in considering the nature of these wretched creatures,
—I mean the savages, and how it came to pass in the world, that
the wise Governor of all things should give up any of His creatures
to such inhumanity, nay, to something so much below even
brutality itself, as to devour its own kind; but as this ended in
some (at that time) fruitless speculations, it occurred to me to
inquire what part of the world these wretches lived in? how far
off the coast was from whence they came? what they ventured
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 173

so far from home for? what kind of boats they had? and why I
might not order myself and my business so, that I might be as
able to go over thither as they were to come to me?

I never so much as troubled myself to consider what I should
do with myself when I came thither: what would become of me,
if I fell into the hands of the savages; or how I should escape
from them, if they attempted me;—no, nor so much as how it
was possible for me to reach the coast, and not be attempted by
some or other of them, without any possibility of delivering
myself; and if I should not fall into their hands, what I should
do for provision, or whither I should bend my course: none
of these thoughts, I say, so much as came in my way; but my
mind was wholly bent upon the notion of my passing over in my
boat to the main land. I looked upon my present condition as
the most miserable that could possibly be; that I was not able
to throw myself into anything, but death, that could be called
worse ; that if I reached the shore of the main, I might perhaps
meet with relief, or I might coast along, as I did on the shore of
Africa, till I-came to some inhabited country, and where I might
find some relief ; and after all, perhaps, I might fall in with some
Christian ship that might take me in; and if the worst came to
the worst, I could but die, which would put an end to all these
miseries at once. Pray note, all this was the fruit of a disturbed
mind, an impatient temper, made, as it were, desperate by the
long continuance of my troubles, and the disappointments I had
met in the wreck I had been on board of, and where I had been
so near the obtaining what I so earnestly longed for, viz., some-
body to speak to, and to learn some knowledge from, of the
place where I was and of the probable means of my deliverance,
—I say I was agitated wholly by these thoughts. All my calm of
mind, in my resignation to Providence, and waiting the issue of
the dispositions of Heaven, seemed to be suspended, and I had,
as it were, no power to turn my thoughts to anything but to the
project of a voyage to the main, which came upon me with such
force, and such an impetuosity of desire, that it was not to be
resisted.

When this had agitated my thoughts for two hours or more,
with such violence that it set my very blood into a ferment, and
my pulse beat as high as if I had been in a fever, merely with the
extraordinary fervour of my mind about it, nature—as if I had
174 ADVENTURES OF

been fatigued and exhausted with the very thought of it—threw
me into a sound sleep. One would have thought I should have
dreamt of it, but I did not, nor of anything relating to it; but I
drearnt that as I was going out in the morning, as usual, from my
castle, I saw upon the shore two canoes and eleven savages com-
ing to land, and that they brought with them another savage
whom they were going to kill, in order to eat him,—when, on a
sudden, the savage that they were going to kill jumped away, and
ran for his life; and I thought, in my sleep, that he came run-
ning into my little thick grove before my fortification, to hide
himself, and that I seeing him alone, and not perceiving that the
others sought him that way, showed myself to him, and smiling
upon him, encouraged him; that he kneeled down to me, seeming
to pray me to assist him, upon which I showed my ladder, made
him go up, and carried him into my cave, and he became my
servant; and that as soon as I had gotten this man, I said to
myself, ‘‘ Now I may certainly venture to the main land; for this
fellow will serve me as pilot, and will tell me what to do, and
whither to go for provisions, and whither not to go for fear of
being devoured ; what places to venture into, and what to escape.” -
I waked with this thought, and was under such inexpressible im-
pressions of joy at the prospect of my escape in my dream, that
the disappointments which I felt upon coming to myself and
finding it was no more than a dream, were equally extravagant
the other way, and threw me into a very great dejection of spirit. —
Upon this, however, I made this conclusion—that my only
way to go about an attempt for an escape was, if possible, to get
a savage into my possession ; and, if possible, it should be one of
their prisoners whom they had condemned to be eaten, and
should bring hither to kill, But these thoughts still were attended
with this difficulty, that it was impossible to effect this without
attacking a whole caravan of them, and killing them all: and this
was not only a very desperate attempt, and might miscarry, but,
on the other hand, I had greatly scrupled the lawfulness of it to
me, and my heart trembled at the thoughts of shedding so much
blood, though it was for my deliverance. I need not repeat the
arguments which occurred to me against this, they being the same
mentioned before: but though I had other reasons to offer now,
viz., that those men were enemies to my life, and would devour
me if they could; that it was selfpreservation, in the highest
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 175

degree, to deliver myself from this death of a life, and was acting
in my own defence as much as if they were actually assaulting me,
and the like ;—I say, though these things argued for it, yet the
thoughts of shedding human blood for my deliverance were very
terrible to me, and such as I could by no means reconcile myself
to a great while.

However, at last, after many secret disputes with myself, and
',after great perplexities about it (for all these arguments, one way
and another struggled in my head a long time), the eager prevail-
ing desire of deliverance at length mastered all the rest; and I
resolved, if possible, to get one of these savages into my hands,
cost what it would. My next thing, then, was to contrive how to
do it, and this indeed was very difficult to resolve on; but as I
could pitch upon no probable means for it, so I resolved to put
myself upon the watch, to see them when they came on shore,
and leave the rest to the event, taking such measures as the
opportunity should present, let be what would be.

With these resolutions in my thoughts, I set myself upon the
scout as often as possible, and indeed so often, till I was heartily
tired of it; for it was above a year and a half that I waited, and
for great part of that time went out to the west end and to the
south-west corner of the island, almost every day, to see for
canoes, but none appeared. This was very discouraging, and
began to trouble me much, though I cannot say that it did in this
‘case—as it had done some time before that—wear off the edge
of my desire to the thing; but the longer it seemed to be delayed,
the more eager I was for it: in a word, I was not at first so care-
ful to shun the sight ofthese savages, and avoid being seen by
them, as I was now eager to be upon them.

Besides, I fancied myself able to manage one,—nay, two or
three savages, if I had them, so as to make them entirely slaves
to me, to do whatever I should direct them, and to prevent their
being able at any time to do me any hurt. It was a great while
that I pleased myself with this affair, but nothing still presented ;
all my fancies and schemes came to nothing, for no savages came
near me for a great while.

About a year and a half after I had entertained these notions,
and by long musing had, as it were, resolved them all into
nothing, for want of an occasion to put them in execution, I was
surprised, one morning early, with seeing no less than five canoes
176 ADVENTURES OF

all on shore together on my side the island, and the people who ;
belonged to them all landed, and out of my sight. The number

of them broke all my measures,—for seeing so many, and know-

ing that they always came four or six, or sometimes more, in a
boat, I could not tell what to think of it, or how to take my
measures to attack twenty or thirty men single-handed ; so I lay
still in my castle, perplexed and discomforted : however, I put
myself into all the same postures for an attack that I had formerly
provided, and was just ready for action, if anything had pre-
sented. Having waited a good while, listening to hear if they —
made any noise, at length, being very impatient, I set my guns at
the foot of my ladder, and clambered up to the top of the hill
by my two stages, as usual, standing so, however, that my head
did not appear above the hill, so that they could not perceive me
by any means. Here I observed, by the help of my perspective
glass, that they were no less than thirty in number, that they had
a fire kindled, and that they had had meat dressed ; how they
had cooked it, that I knew not, or what it was, but they were all
dancing, in I know not how many barbarous gestures and figures,
their own way, round the fire.

While I was thus looking on them, I perceived, by my per-
spective, two miserable wretches dragged from the boats, where,
it seems, they were laid by, and were now brought out for the
slaughter. I perceived one of them immediately fell, being
knocked down, I suppose, with a club or wooden sword, for that
was their way, and two or three others were at work immediately,
cutting him open for their cookery, while the other victim was
left standing by himself, till they should be ready for him. In
that very moment this poor wretch, seeing himself a little at
liberty, nature inspired him with hopes of life, and he started
away from them, and ran with incredible swiftness along the sands
directly towards me—I mean towards that part of the coast where
my habitation was.

I was dreadfully frighted (that I must acknowledge) when I
perceived him to run my way, and especially when, as I thought I »
saw him pursued by the whole body; and now I expected that
part of my dream was coming to pass, and that he would certainly
take shelter in my grove,—but I could not depend, by any means,
upon my dream for the rest of it, viz., that the other savages
would not pursue him thither, and find him there. However, I
ROBINSON CRUSOE. Ley

kept my station, and my spirits began to recover when I found
that there were not above three men that followed him, and still
more was I encouraged when I found that he outstripped them
exceedingly in running, and gained ground of them, so that, if he
could but hold it for half an hour, I saw easily he would fairly
get away from them all. |

There was between them and my castle the creek, which I
mentioned often at the first part of my story, when I landed my
cargoes out of the ship; and this I saw plainly he must neces-
sarily swim over, or the poor wretch would be taken there: but
when the savage escaping came thither, he made nothing of it,
though the tide was then up, but plunging in, swam through in
about thirty strokes, or thereabouts, landed, and ran on with ex-
ceeding strength and swiftness. When the three persons came to
the creek, I found that two of them could swim, but the third
— could not, and that, standing on the other side, he looked at the
others, but went no farther, and soon after went softly back again,
which, as it happened, was very well for him in the main.

I observed that the two who swam were yet more than twice
as long swimming over the creek as the fellow was that fled from
them. It came now very warmly upon my thoughts, and indeed
irresistibly, that now was my time to get me a servant, and per- |
haps a companion or assistant, and that I was called plainly by
Providence to save this poor creature’s life. I immediately ran
down the ladders with all possible expedition, fetched my two
guns, for they were both but at the foot of the ladders, as I
observed above; and, getting up again with the same haste, to
the top of the hill, I crossed toward the sea, and having a very
short cut, and all down hill, clapped myself in the way between
the pursuers and the pursued, hallooing aloud to him that fled,
who, looking back, was at first, perhaps, as much frighted at me
as at them; but I beckoned with my hand to him to come back,
and in the meantime I slowly advanced towards the two that fol-
lowed, then rushing at once upon the foremost, I knocked him
down with the stock of my piece. I was-loth to fire, because I
would not have the rest hear, though, at that distance, it would
not have been easily heard, and being out of sight of the smoke

~ . too, they would not have easily known what to make of it. Having

knocked this fellow down, the other who pursued him stopped,

as if he had been frighted, and I advanced apace towards him ;
. | | M
178 ADVENTURES OF :

but as I came nearer, I perceived presently he had a bow and
arrow, and was fitting it to shoot at me,—so I was then necessi-
tated to shoot at him first, which I did, and killed him at the
first shot. ‘The poor savage who fled, but had stopped, though
he saw both his enemies fallen and killed (as he thought), yet
was so frighted with the fire and noise of my piece, that he-stood
stock-still, and neither came forward nor went backward, though
he seemed rather inclined to fly still, than to come on. I
hallooed again to him, and made signs to come forward, which
he easily understood, and came a little way—then stopped again,
and then a little farther, and stopped again; and. I could then
perceive that he stood trembling, as if he had been taken
prisoner, and had just been to be killed, as his two enemies were.
I beckoned him again to come to me, and gave him all the signs
of encouragement that I could think of; and he came nearer and
nearer, kneeling down every ten or twelve steps, in token of
acknowledgment for my saving his life. I smiled at him, and
looked pleasantly, and beckoned to him to come still nearer prtag
length he came close to me, and then he kneeled down again,
kissed the ground, and laid his head upon the ground, and taking
me by the foot, set my foot upon his head : this, it seems, was in
token of swearing to be my slave for ever. I took him up, and
made much of him, and encouraged him all I could. But there
was more work to do yet; for I perceived the savage whom I
knocked down was not killed, but stunned with the blow, and
began to come to himself: so I pointed to him, and showed him
the savage, that he was not dead: upon this he spoke some words
to me, and though I could not understand them, yet I thought
they were pleasant to hear, for they were the first sound of a man’s
voice that I had heard, my own excepted, for above twenty-five
years. But there was no time for such reflections now: the
savage who was knocked down recovered himself so far as to sit
up upon the ground, and I perceived that my savage began to be
afraid ; but when I saw that, I presented my other piece at the
man, as if I would shoot him: upon this my savage, for so I call
him now, made a motion to me to lend him my sword which
hung naked in a belt by my side ;—so I did: he no sooner had
it, but he runs to his enemy, and, at one blow, cuts off his head
as Cleverly, no executioner in Germany could have done it sooner
or better,—which I thought very strange for one who, I had
Ee

CRUSOE MEEBIS WITH FRIDAY.



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 179

reason to believe, never saw a sword in his life before, except
their own wooden swords: however, it seems, as I learned after-
wards, they make their wooden swords so sharp, so heavy,
and the wood is so hard that they will cut off heads even with
them, ay and arms, and that at one blow too. When he had
done this, he comes laughing to me, in sign of triumph, and
brought me the sword again, and with abundance of gestures
which I did not understand, laid it down with the head of the
savage that he had killed, just before me.

But that which astonished him most was to know how I had
killed the other Indian so far off; so, pointing to him, he made
signs to me to let him go to him: so I bade him go, as well as I
could. When hecame to him, he stood like one amazed, looking
at him,—turned him first on one side, then on the other, looked
at the wound the bullet had made, which it seems was just in his
breast where it had made a hole, and no great quantity of blood
had followed ; but he had bled inwardly, for he was quite dead.
He took up his bow and arrows, and came back; so I turned to
go away, and beckoned to him to follow me, making signs to him
that more might come after them. Upon this, he signed to me
that he should bury them with sand, that they might not be seen
by the rest, if they followed ; and so I made signs again to him
to do so. He fell to work, and in an instant he had scraped a
hole in the sand with his hands big enough to bury the first in,
and then dragged him into it and covered him, and did so also
by the other: I believe he had buried them both in a quarter of
an hour. Then calling him away, I carried him not to my castle,
but quite away, to my cave on the farther part of the island; so
I did not let my dream come to pass in that part, viz., that he
came into my grove for shelter.

Here I gave him bread and a bunch of raisins to eat, anda
draught of water, which I found he was indeed in great distress
for, by his running ; and having refreshed him, I made signs for
him to go lie down and sleep, pointing to a place where I had
laid a great parcel of rice-straw, and a blanket upon it, which I
used to sleep upon myself sometimes. So the poor creature lay
down, and went to sleep.

He was a comely, handsome fellow—perfectly well made, with
straight, strong limbs, not too large—tall, and well shaped, and,
as I reckon, about twenty-six years of age. He had a very good
180 ADVENTURES OF

countenance, not a fierce and surly aspect, but seemed to have
something very manly in his face ; and yet he had all the sweet-
ness and softness of a European in his countenance too, especially
when he smiled. His hair was long and black, not curled like
wool ; his forehead very high and large, and a great vivacity and
sparkling sharpness in his eyes. The colour of his skin was not
quite black, but very tawny, and yet not of an ugly, yellow,
nauseous tawny, as‘the Brazilians and Virginians, and other
natives of America are, but of a bright kind of a dun olive colour, »
that had in it something very agreeable, though not ‘very easy to
describe. His face was round and plump; his nose small, not
flat like the Negroes ; a very good mouth, thin lips, and his fine
teeth well set, and white as ivory. After he had slumbered—
rather than slept—about half an hour, he waked again, and comes
out of the cave to me, for I had been milking my goats, which I
had in the enclosure just by: when he espied me, he came
running to me, laying himself down again upon the ground, with
all the possible signs of an humble, thankful disposition, making —
a great many antic gestures to show it. At-last, he lays his head
flat upon the ground, close to my foot, and sets my other foot
upon his head, as he had done before ; and after this made all
the signs to me of subjection, servitude, and submission imagin-
able, to let me know how he would serve me as long as he lived.
1 understood him in many things, and let him know I was very
well pleased with him. In a little time I began to speak to him,
and teach him to speak to me; and, first, I made him know his
name should be Fripay, which was the day I saved his life: I
called him so for the memory of the time. I likewise taught him
to say “Master:” and then let him know that was to be my
name: I likewise taught him to say “Yes” and “No,” and to
know the meaning of them. I gave him some milk in an earthen
pot, and let him see me drink it before him, and sop my bread
in it; and I gave him a cake of bread to do the like, which he
quickly complied with, and made signs that it was very good for
him. :

I kept there with him all that night, but as soon as it was day
I beckoned to him to come with me, and let him know I would
give him some clothes, at which he seemed very glad, for he was
stark naked. As we went by the place where he had buried the
two men, he pointed exactly to the place, and showed me the
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 181

marks that he had made to find them again, making signs to me
that we should dig them up again, and eat them. At this I
appeared very angry, expressed my abhorrence of it, made as if I
would vomit at the thoughts of it, and beckoned with my hand
to him to come away, which he did immediately, with great sub-
mission. I then led him up to the top of the hill, to see if his
enemies were gone ; and pulling out my glass, I looked, and saw
plainly the place where they had been, but no appearance of
them or their canoes,—so that it was plain they were gone, and
had left their two comrades behind them, without any search
after them.

But I was not content with this discovery; but having now
more courage, and consequently more curiosity, 1 took my man
Friday with me, giving him the sword in his hand, with the bow
and arrows at his back, which I found he could use very dexter-
ously, making him carry one gun for me, and I two for myself;
and away we marched to the place where these creatures had
been, for I had a mind now to get some fuller intelligence of
them. When I came to the place, my very blood ran chill in my
veins and my heart sunk within me at the horror of the spectacle :
indeed, it was a dreadful sight, at least it was so to me, though
Friday made nothing of it. The place was covered with human
bones, the ground dyed with their blood, great pieces of flesh left _
here and there, half-eaten, mangled, and scorched, and, in short,
all the tokens of the triumphant feast they had been making
there, after a victory over their enemies. I saw three skulls, five
hands, and the bones of three or four legs and feet, and abund-
ance of other parts of the bodies ; and Friday, by his signs, made
me understand that they brought over four prisoners to feast
upon—that three of them were eaten up, and that he, pointing
to himself, was the fourth ; that there had been a great battle
between them and their next king, whosé subjects, it seems, he
had been one of, and that they had taken a great number of
prisoners, all which were carried to several places by those that
had taken them in the fight, in order to feast upon them, as was
done here by these wretches upon those they brought hither.

I caused Friday to gather all the skulls, bones, flesh, and
whatever remained, and lay them together in a heap, and make a
great fire upon it, and burn them all to ashes. I found Friday
had still a hankering stomach after some of the flesh, and was
182 ADVENTURES OF

still a cannibal in his nature; but I discovered so much abhor-
rence at the very thoughts of it, and at the least appearance of it,
that he durst not discover it,—for I had, by some means, let
him know that I would kill him if he offered it.

When we had done this we came back to our castle, and there
I fell to work for my man Friday; and, first. of all, I gave him
a pair of linen drawers which I had out of the poor gunner’s
chest I mentioned, which I found in the wreck, and which, with
a little alteration, fitted him very well; then I made him a jerkin
of goat’s skin, as well as my skill would allow, and I was now
grown a tolerable good tailor; and I gave him a cap, which I
made of a hare’s skin, very convenient and fashionable enough :
and thus he was clothed for the present, tolerably well, and was
mighty well pleased to-see himself almost as well clothed as his
master. It is true, he went awkwardly in these things at first :
wearing the drawers was very awkward to him, and the sleeves of -
the waistcoat galled his shoulders, and the inside of his arms ;
but a little easing them where he complained they hurt him, and
using himself to them, at length he took to them very well.’

The next day, after I came home to my hutch with him, I
began to consider where I should lodge him; and that I might
do well for him, and yet be perfectly easy myself, I made a little
tent for him, in the vacant place between my two fortifications, in
the inside of the last, and in the outside of the first: and as there
was a door or entrance there into my cave, I made a formal
framed doorcase, and a door to it of boards, and'set it up in the
passage a little within the entrance; and causing the door to open
on the inside, I barred it up in the night, taking in my ladders
too ; so that Friday could no way come at me in the inside of my
innermost wall, without making so much noise in getting over
that it must needs waken me: for my first wall had now a com-
plete roof over it of long poles, covering all my tent, and leaning
up to the side of the hill, which was again laid across with smaller
sticks, instead of laths, and then thatched over a great thickness
with the rice-straw, which was strong, like reeds ; and at the hole
or place which was left to goin or out by the ladder, I had placed
a kind of trap-door, which, if it had been attempted on the outside
would not have opened at all, but would have fallen down, and
made a great noise: and as to weapons, I took them all into my
side every night.
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 133

But I needed none of all this precaution ; for never man had
a more faithful, loving, sincere servant than Friday was to me:
without passions, sullenness, or designs, perfectly obliged and
engaged, his very affections were tied to me like those of a child
to a father ; and I daresay he would have sacrificed his life for
the saving mine, upon any occasion whatsoever; the many
testimonies he gave me of this put it out of doubt, and soon
convinced me that I needed to use no precautions as to my
safety on his account.

This frequently gave me occasion to observe, and that with
wonder, that however it had pleased God, in His providence, and in
the government of the works of His hands, to take from so great a
part of the world of His creatures the best uses to which their facul-
ties and the powers of their souls are adapted,—yet that He has
bestowed upon them the same powers, the same reason, the same
affections, the same sentiments of kindness and obligation, the
same passions and resentments of wrongs, the same sense of
gratitude, sincerity, fidelity, and all the capacities of doing good,
and receiving good, that He has given to us; and that when He
pleases to offer them occasions of exerting these, they are as
ready, nay, more ready, to apply them to the right uses for which
they were bestowed, than we are. And this made me very
melancholy sometimes, in reflecting, as the several occasions
presented, how mean a use we make of all these, even though we
have these powers enlightened by the great lamp of instruction,
the Spirit of God, and by the knowledge of His Word added to
our understanding; and why it has pleased God to hide the like
saving knowledge from so many millions of souls, who, if I might
judge by this poor savage, would make a much better use of it
than we did.

From hence I sometimes was led too far to invade the sovereignty
of Providence, and, as it were, arraign the justice of so arbitrary
a disposition of things, that should hide that light from some,
and reveal it to others, and yet expect a like duty from both; but
I shut it up, and checked my thoughts with this conclusion—
first, that we do not know by what light and law these should be
condemned ; but that, as God was necessarily, and by the nature
of His being, infinitely holy and just, so it could not be but that
if these creatures were all sentenced to absence from Himself, it
was on account of sinning against that light, which, as the
184 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Scripture says, was alaw to themselves, and by such rules as their
consciences would acknowledge to be just, though the foundation
was not discovered to us; and, secondly, that still, as we are all
clay in the hands of the potter, no vessel could say to Him, ‘‘ Why
hast Thou formed me thus ?”

But to return to my new companion. I was greatly delighted
with him, and made it my business to teach-him everything that
was proper to make him useful, handy, and helpful, but especially
to make him speak, and understand me when I spoke: and he
was the aptest scholar that ever was; and particularly was so
merry, so constantly diligent, and so pleased when he could but
understand me, or make me understand him, that it was very
pleasant to me to talk to him. And. now my life began to be so
easy, that I began to say to myself, that could I but have been
safe from more savages, I cared not if I was never to remove
from the place while I lived.




> CHAPTER XIV.

Crusoe attempts to reclaim Friday from cannibalism, and converses with him about
his country and its inhabitants—Instructs him in the knowledge of the true
God, and exposes the delusions of Pagan priestcraft—Friday finds it difficult
to account for the existence of evil—The savage becomes a Christian, and
Crusoe is completely happy.

s{F'TER I had been two or three days returned to my
castle, I thought that, in order to bring Friday off
from his horrid way of feeding, and from the relish
of a cannibal’s stomach, I ought to let him taste
other flesh ; so I took him out with me one morn-
ing to the woods. I one indeed, intending to kill a kid out of
my own flock, and bring it home and dress it; but as I was
going, I saw a she-goat lying down in the shade, and two young
kids sitting by her. I catched hold of Friday. ‘‘ Hold,” said
I; “* stand still;” and made signs to him not tostir. Immediately
I presented: my piece, shot, and killed one of the kids. The
poor creature, who had, at a distance indeed, seen me kill the
savage—his enemy, but did not know, nor could imagine, how it
was done, was sensibly surprised, trembled and shook, and looked
so amazed, that I thought he would have sunk down. He did
not see the kid I had shot at, or perceive that I had killed it, but
ripped up his waistcoat, to feel if he was not wounded ; and, as
I found presently, thought I was resalved to kill him, for he
came and kneeled down to me, and embracing my knees, said a
great many things I did not understand,—but I could easily see
that his meaning was, to pray me not to kill him.

I soon found a way to convince him that I would do him no
harm ; and, taking him up by the hand, laughed at him, and,
pointing to the kid which I had killed, beckoned to him to run
and fetch it, which he did: and while he was wondering, and
looking to see how the creature was killed, I loaded my gun


186 ADVENTURES OF ’

again: and, by and by, I sawa great fowl, like a hawk, sit upon
a tree, within shot ;—so, to let Friday understand a little what I
would do, I called him to me again, pointing at the fowl, which
was indeed a parrot, thuogh I thought it had been a hawk,—l
say, pointing to the parrot, and to my gun, and to the ground
under the parrot, to let him see I would make it fall, 1 made him
understand that I would shoot and kill that bird. Accordingly,
I fired, and bade him look, and immediately he saw the parrot
fall. He stood like one frighted again, notwithstanding all that’
I had said to him; and I found he was the more amazed, because
he did not see me put anything into the gun, but thought there
must be some wonderful fund of death and destruction in that
thing, able to kill man, beast, bird, or anything, near or far off :
and the astonishment this created in him was such as could not
wear off for a long time, and I believe, if I would have let him,
he would have worshipped me and my gun. As for the gun
itself, he would not so much as touch it for several days after:
but would speak to it and talk to it as if it had answered him,
when he was by himself; which, as I afterwards learned of him,
_ was to desire it not to kill him.

Well, after his astonishment was a little over at this, I pointed
to him to run and fetch the bird I had shot, which he did, but
stayed some time; for the parrot, not being quite dead, had
fluttered a good way from the place where she fell: however, he
found her, took her up, and brought her to me; and as I had
perceived his ignorance about the gun before, I took this advan-
tage to charge the gun again, and not let him see me do it, that
I might be ready for any other mark that might present. But
nothing else ‘offered at that time,—so I brought home the kid, and
the same evening I took the skin off, and cut it out as well as I
could ; and having a pot for that purpose, I boiled or stewed some
of the flesh, and made some very good broth. After I had begun
to eat some, I gave some to my man, who seemed very glad of
it, and liked it very well; but that which was strangest to him,
was to see me eat salt with it. He made a sign to me that the
salt was not good to eat ; and putting a little into his own mouth,
he seemed to nauseate it, and would spit and sputter at it, wash-
ing his mouth with fresh water after it: on the other hand, I took.
some meat in my mouth without salt, and I pretended to spit and
sputter for want of salt, as fast as he had done at the salt ; but it
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 187

would not do—he would never care for salt with his meat or in
his broth, at least not a great while, and then but a very little.

Having thus fed him with boiled meat and broth, I was resolved
to feast him the next day with roasting a piece of the kid: this I
did, by hanging it before the fire in a string, as I had seen many
people do in England, setting two poles up, one on each side of
the fire, and one cross on the top, and tying the string to the cross
stick, letting the meat turn continually. This Friday admired
very much ; but when he came to taste the flesh, he took so many
ways to tell me how well he liked it, that I could not but under-
stand him, and at last he told me that he would never eat man’s
flesh any more, which I was very glad to hear.

The next day I set him to work to beating some corn out, and
sifting it in the manner I used to do, as I observed before ; and
he soon understood how to do it as well as I, especially after he
had seen what the meaning of it was, and that it was to make
bread of: for after that I let him see me make my bread, and
bake it too; and in a little time Friday was able to do all the
work for me, as well as I could do it myself.

I began now to consider that, having two mouths to feed
instead of one, J must provide more ground for my harvest, and
plant a larger quantity of corn than I used to do: so I marked
out a larger piece of land, and began the fence in the same manner
as before, in which Friday not only worked very willingly and
very hard, but did it very cheerfully: and I told him what it was
for—that it was for corn to make more bread, because he was now
with me, and that I might have enough for him and myself too.
He appeared. very sensible of that part, and let me know that he
thought I had much more labour upon me on his account than I
had for myself; and that he would work the harder for me, il
would tell him what to do.

This was the pleasantest year of all the life I led in this place.
Friday began to talk pretty well, and understand the names of
almost everything I had occasion to call for, and of every place I
had to send him to, and talk a great deal to me,—so that, in short,
I began now to have some use for my tongue again, which, indeed,
I had very little occasion fot before, that is to say, about speech.
Besides the pleasure of talking to him, I had a singular satisfac-
tion in the fellow himself: his simple, unfeigned honesty appeared
to me more and more every day, and I began really to love the
188 ADVENTURES OF

creature ; and, on his side, I believe he loved me more than it was
possible for him ever to love anything before.

I had a mind once to try if he had any hankering inclination
to his own country again; and having learned him English so

well that he could answer me almost any questions, I asked
him whether the nation that he belonged to never conquered in
battle? At which he smiled, and said, “Yes, yes, we always
fight the better,”—that is, he meant, always get the better in
fight; and so we began jae following discourse: ‘‘ You always
fight the better?” said I, “how came you to be taken prisoner
then, Friday?”

Fripay. My nation beat much, for all that.

Master. How beat? If your nation beat them, how came you
to be taken?

Fripay. They more many than my nation in the place where
me was; they take one, two, three, and me; my nation overbeat
them in the yonder place, where me no was; there my nation
take one, two, great thousand.

Master. But why did not your side recover you from the
hands of your enemies, then ? ,

Fripay. They run one, two, three, and me, and make go in
the canoe; my nation have no canoe that time.

Master. Well, Friday, and what does your nation do with the
men they take? Do they carry them away and eat them, as
these did?

Fripay. Yes, my nation eat mans too; eat all up.

Master. Where do they carry them?

Fripay. Go to other place, where they think.

Master. Do they come hither ?

Fripay. Yes, yes, they come hither; come other else place.

Master. Have you been here with them?

Fripay. Yes, I have been here ; (points to the north-west side
of the island, which, it seems, was their side.)

By this I understood that my man Friday had formerly been
among the savages who used to come on shore on the farther part
of the island, on the said man-eating occasions that he was now
brought for; and some time after, when 1 took the courage to
carry him to that side, being the same I formerly mentioned, he.
presently knew the place, and told me he was there once when
they ate up twenty men, two women, and one child: he could
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 189

not tell twenty in English, but he numbered them by laying so
many stones in a row, and pointing to me to tell them over.

I have told this passage, because it introduces what follows,—
that after I had had this discourse with him, I asked him how
far it was from our island to the shore, and whether the canoes
were not often lost. He told me there was no danger, no canoes
ever lost; but that, after a little way out to sea, there was a
current il a wind, always one way in the morning, the other in
the afternoon.

This I understood to be no more iad the sets of the tide, as
going out or coming in; but I afterwards understood it was occa-
sioned by the great draft and reflux of the mighty river Oroonoque,
in the mouth of which river, as If ound afterwards, our island
lay ; and that the land which I perceived to the west and north-
west was the great island Trinidad, on the north point of the
mouth of the river. I asked Friday a thousand questions about
the country, the inhabitants, the sea, the coast, and what nations
were near: he told me all he knew, with the greatest openness
imaginable. I asked him the names of the several nations of his
sort of people, but could get no other name than Caribs: from
whence I easily understood that these were the Caribbees, which
our maps place on that part of America which reaches from the
~mouth of the river Oroonoque to Guiana, and onwards to St.
Martha. He told me that up a great way beyond the moon—
that was, beyond the setting of the moon, which must be west
from their country, there dwelt white bearded men, like me, and
pointed to my great whiskers, which I mentioned before, and that
they had killed much mans—that was his word,—by which I
understood, he meant the Spaniards, whose cruelties in America
had been spread over whole countries, and were remembered by
all the nations, from father to son.

I inquired if he could tell me how I might come from this
island, and get among ee white men: he told me, “Yes, yes,
I might go in two canoe.” I could not understand what he
meant, or make him describe to.me what he meant, by two canoe,
till at last, with great difficulty, I found he meant that it must be
in a large great boat, as big as two canoes.

This part of Friday’s discourse began to relish with me very well ;
and from this time I entertained some hopes that, one time or éther:
I might find an opportunity to make my escape from this place,
190 ADVENTURES OF

and that this poor savage might be a means to help me to do it.
During the long time that Friday had now been with me, and
that he began to speak to me, and understand me, I was not
wanting to lay a foundation of religious knowledge in his mind.
I asked him, one time, who made him? The poor creature did
not understand me at all, but thought I had asked who was his
father? but I took it by another handle, and asked him who made
the sea, the ground we walked on, and the hills and woods? He
told me, it was one old Benamuckee, that lived beyond all: he
could describe nothing of this great person, but that he was very
old, much older, he said, than the sea or the land, than the moon
or the stars. I asked him then, if this old person had made all
things, why did not all things worship him? He looked very
grave, and with a perfect look of innocence said, “ All things said
O to him!” TI asked him if the people who die in his country
went away anywhere? He said, ‘Yes; they all went to Bena-
muckee.” ‘Then I asked him whether those they ate up went
thither too? He said, “ Yes.”

From these things I began to instruct him in the knowledge of .
the true God. JI told him that the great Maker of all things lived
up there, pointing up towards heaven ; that He governs the world
by the same power and providence by which He:made it ; that
He was omnipotent, could do everything for us, give everything»
to us, take everything from us; and thus, by degrees, I opened
his eyes. He listened with great attention, and received with
pleasure the notion of Jesus Christ being sent to redeem us, and
of the manner of making our prayers to God, and His being able
to hear us, even in heaven. He told me one day, that if our
God could hear us up beyond the sun, he must needs be a greater
God than their Benamuckee, who lived but a little way off, and
yet could not hear till they went up to the great mountains where
he dwelt to speak to him. I asked him if ever he went thither
to speak to him? He said, “‘No; they never went that were
young men: none went thither but the old men,” whom he called
their Oowookakee,—that is, as I made him explain it to me,
their religious, or clergy ; and that they went to say, “O” (so he
called saying prayers), and then came back, and told them what
Benamuckee said. By this I observed, that there is priestcraft even
among the most blinded, ignorant pagans in the world; and the
policy of making a secret of religion, in order to preserve the venera-
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 191

tion of the people to the clergy, is to be found among all religions
in the world, even among the most brutish and barbarous savages.
"I endeavoured to clear up this fraud to my man Friday, and
told him that the pretence of their old men going up to the
mountains to say “O” to their god Benamuckee was a cheat,
and their bringing word from thence what he said was much more
so; that if they met with any answer, or spoke with any one there,
it must be with an evil spirit; and then I entered into a long
discourse with him about the devil, the original of him, his
rebellion against God, his enmity to man, the reason of it, his
setting himself up in the dark parts of the world to be worshipped
instead of God, and as God, and the many stratagems he made
use of to delude mankind to their ruin; how he had a secret
access to our passions and to our affections, to adapt his snares
so to our inclinations as to cause us even to be our own tempters,
and to run upon our destruction by our own choice.

I found it was not so easy to imprint right notions in his mind
about the devil, as it was about the being of a God: nature
assisted all my arguments to evidence to him even the necessity
of a great First Cause, and overruling governing Power, a secret,
directing Providence—and of the equity and justice of paying
homage to Him that made us, and the like. But there appeared
* nothing of all this in the notion of an evil spirit,—of his original,
his being, his nature, and, above all, of his inclination to do evil,
and to draw us in to do so too; and the poor creature puzzled
me once in such a manner, by a question merely natural and
innocent, that I scarce knew what to say to him.

I had been talking a great deal to him of the power of God,
His omnipotence, His dreadful aversion to sin—His being a con-
suming fire to the workers of iniquity,—how, as He had made us
all, He could destroy us and all the world in a moment ; and he
listened with great seriousness to me all the while. After this,
I had been telling him how the devil was God’s enemy in the
hearts of men, and used all his malice and skill to defeat the
good designs of Providence, and to ruin the kingdom of Christ
in the world, and the like. ‘“ Well,” says Friday, ‘but you say
God is so strong, so great ; is He not much strong, much might
as the devil?” ‘Yes, yes,” says I, “Friday, God is stronger
than the devil: God is above the devil, and therefore we pray to
God to tread him under our feet, and enable us to resist his
192 ADVENTURES OF

temptations, and quench his fiery darts.” ‘‘ But,” says he again,
“if God much strong, much might as the devil, why God no kill
the devil, so make him no more do wicked ?”

I was strangely surprised at his question ; and, after all, though
I was now an old man, yet I was but a young doctor, and ill
enough qualified for a casuist, or a solver of difficulties,—and,
at first, I could not tell what to say, so I pretended not to hear
him, and asked him what he said ? but he was too earnest for an
answer to forget his question, so that he repeated it in the very
same broken words as above. By this time I had recovered —
myself a little, and I said, “God will at last punish him severely ;
he is reserved for the judgment, and is to be cast into the bottom-
less pit, to dwell with everlasting fire.” This did not satisfy
Friday ; but he returns upon me, repeating my words, ‘“‘ Reserve
at last: me no understand ; but why not kill the devil now—not
kill great ago?” “You may as well ask me,” said I, “ why God
does not kill you and me, when we do wicked things here that
offend Him? We are preserved to repent and be pardoned.”
He muses a while at this. ‘Well, well,” says he, mighty affec-
tionately, “that well: so you, I, devil, all wicked, all preserve,
repent, God pardon all.” Here I was run down again by him
to the last degree ; and it was a testimony to me, how the mere.
notions of nature, though they will guide reasonable Creatures to
the knowledge of a God, and of a worship or homage due to the
supreme being of God, as the consequence of our nature, yet
nothing but divine revelation can form the knowledge of Jesus
Christ, and of a redemption purchased for us; of a Mediator ;
of a new covenant ; and of an Intercessor at the footstool of
God’s throne: I say, nothing but a revelation from Heaven can
form these in the soul, and that, therefore, the gospel of our Lord
and Saviour Jesus Christ, I mean the Word of God, and the
Spirit of God, promised for the guide and sanctifier of His people,
are the absolutely necessary instructors of the souls of men in the
saving knowledge of God, and the means of salvation.

I therefore diverted the present discourse between me and my
man, rising up hastily, as upon some sudden occasion of going
out: then sending him for something a great way off, I seriously
prayed to God, that He would enable me to instruct savingly this
poor savage, assisting, by His Spirit, the heart of the poor ignorant -
creature to receive the light of the knowledge of God in Christ
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 193

reconciling him to Himself, and would guide me to speak so to
him from the Word of God, as his conscience might be convinced,
his eyes opened, and his soul saved. When he came again to
me, I entered into a long discourse with him upon the subject of
the redemption of man by the Saviour of the world, and of the
doctrine of the gospel preached from heaven, viz., of repentance
towards God, and faith in our blessed Lord Jesus. I then
explained to him, as well as I could, why our blessed Redeemer
took not on Him the nature of angels, but the seed of Abraham ;
and’how, for that reason, the fallen angels had no share in the
redemption,—that He came only to the lost sheep of the house of
Israel, and the like.

I: had, God knows, more sincerity than knowledge in all the
methods I took for this poor creature’s instruction, and must
acknowledge, what I believe all that act upon the same principle
will find—that, in laying things open to him, I really informed
and instructed myself in many things that either I did not know,
or had not fully considered before, but which occurred naturally
to my mind upon my searching into them, for the information of
this poor savage ; and I had more affection in my inquiry after
things upon this occasion than ever I felt before: so that, whether
this poor wild wretch was the better for me or no, I had great
reason to be thankful that ever he came to me. My grief sat
lighter upon me; my habitation grew comfortable to me beyond
measure ; and when I reflected that, in this solitary life which I
had been confined to, I had not only been moved myself to look
up to Heaven, and to seek to the hand that brought me thither,
but was now to be made an instrument, under Providence, to
save the life, and, for aught 1 knew, the soul, of a poor savage,
and bring him to the true knowledge of religion, and of the
Christian doctrine, that he might know Christ Jesus, to know
whom is life eternal ;—I say, when I reflected upon all these
things, a secret joy ran through every part of my soul, and I fre-
quently rejoiced that ever I was brought to this place, which I
had often thought the most dreadful of all afflictions that could
possibly have befallen me.

In this thankful frame I continued all the remainder of my
time, and the conversation which employed the hours between
Friday and me was such as made the three years which we lived
there together perfectly and completely happy, if any such thing

N
194 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

as complete happiness can be found in a sublunary state. The
savage was now a good Christian, a much better than I,—though
. I have reason to hope, and bless God for it, that we were equally
penitent, and comforted, restored penitents. We had here the
Word of God to read, and no farther off from His Spirit to instruct,
than if we had been in England. I always applied myself to
reading the Scripture, and to let him know as well as I could the
meaning of what I read; and he again, by his serious inquiries
and questionings, made me, as I said before, a much better scholar
in the Scripture-knowledge than I should ever have been by my
own mere private reading. Another thing I cannot refrain from
observing here also, from experience in this retired part of my
life, viz., how infinite and inexpressible a blessing it is that the
knowledge of God, and of the doctrine of salvation by Christ Jesus,
is so plainly laid down in the Word of God,—so easy to be received
and understood, that, as the bare reading the Scripture made me
capable of understanding enough of my duty to carry me directly
on to the great work of sincere repentance for my sins, and laying
hold of a Saviour for life and salvation, to a stated reformation in -
practice, and obedience to all God’s commands, and this without
any teacher or instructor, I mean human,—so, the same plain
instruction sufficiently served to the enlightening this savage
creature, and bringing him to be such a Christian as I have known
few equal to him in my life.

As to the disputes, wrangling, strife, and contention, which have
happened in the world about religion, whether niceties in doctrines,
or schemes of Church government, they were all perfectly useless
to us, as for aught I can yet see, they have been to all the rest in
the world. We had the sure guide to heaven, viz., the Word of
God ; and we had, blessed be God, comfortable views of the
Spirit of God teaching and instructing us by His Word, leading us
into all truth, and making us both willing and obedient to the
instruction of His Word. And I cannot see the least use that the
greatest knowledge of the disputed points in religion, which have
made such confusions in the world, would have been to us, if we
could have obtained it. But I must go on with the historical
part of things, and take every part in its order.


CHAPTER XV.

Crusoe teaches Friday the use of fire-arms, and describes to him the countries of
Europe—They make a boat, and fit it with masts and sails—Friday is instructed
how to navigate it—The savages again visit the island—They are attacked and

routed—Crusoe rescues a Spaniard, their prisoner, and Friday discovers his
father.



(TER Friday and I became more intimately ac-
238 //\\E quainted, and that he could understand almost all
Sy | ey I said to him, and speak fluently, though ig broken
5 Sew English, to me, I acquainted him with my own
Lamia story, or at least so much of it as related to my
coming into this place ; how I had lived here, and how long: I
let him into the mystery, for such it was to him, of gunpowder
and bullet, and taught him how to shoot. I gave him a knife,
which he was wonderfully delighted with ; and I made him a belt
with a frog hanging to it, such as in England we wear hangers
in,—and in the frog, instead of a hanger, I gave him a hatchet,
which was not only as good a weapon, in some cases, but much
more useful upon other occasions.

I described to him the countries of Europe, and particularly
England, which I came from ; how we lived, how we worshipped
God, how we behaved to one another, and how we traded in
ships to all parts of the world. I gave him an account of the
wreck which I had been on board of, and showed him, as near as
I could, the place where she lay; but she was all beaten in pieces
béfore, and gone. I showed him the ruins of our boat, which we
lost when we escaped, and which I could not stir with my whole |
strength then, but was now fallen almost all to pieces. Upon
seeing this boat, Friday stood musing a great while, and. said
nothing. I asked him what it was he studied upon? At last, says
he, “‘ Me see such boat like come to place at my nation.” I did





196: ADVENTURES OF

not understand him for a good while; but, at last, when I had
examined farther into it, I understood by him, that a boat, such
as that had been, came on shore upon the country where he
lived: that is, as he explained it, was driven thither by stress of
weather. I presently imagined that some European ship must
have been cast away upon their coast, and the boat might get _
loose, and drive ashore; but was so dull, that I never once
thought of men making escape from a wreck thither, much less
whence they might come: so I only inquired after a description
of the boat. | .

Friday described the boat to.me well enough, but brought me
better to understand him when he added, with some warmth,
‘We save the white mans from drown.” ‘Then I presently asked
him, if there were any white mans, as he called them, in the
boat 2? “Yes,” he said; “the boat full of white mans.” I asked
him how many? He told upon his fingers seventeen. I asked
him then what became of them? He told me, “ They live, they
dwell at my nation.”

This put new thoughts into my head; for I presently imagined
that these might be the men belonging to the ship that was cast
away in sight of my island, as I now called it ; and who, after the
ship was struck on the rock, and they saw her inevitably lost, had
saved themselves in their boat, and were landed upon that wild
shore among the savages. Upon this, I inquired of him more
critically what was become of them; he assured me they lived
still there ; that they had been there about four years ; that the |
savages let them alone, and gave them victuals to live on. I
asked him how it came to pass they did not kill them and eat
them? He said, ‘‘ No, they make brother with them;” that is, as
I understood him, a truce; and then he added, “They no eat
mans but when make the war fight ;” that is to say, they never
eat any men but such as come to fight with them, and are taken
in battle.

It was after this some considerable time, that, being upon the
top of the hill, at the east side of the island, from whence, as I
have said, I had, in a clear day, discovered the main or continent
of America, Friday, the weather being very serene, looks very
earnestly towards the main land, and, in a kind of surprise, falls
a jumping and dancing, and calls out to me, for I was at some
distance from him. I asked him’ what was the matter? “Oh
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 197

| 7?

joy!” says he; “Oh glad! there see my country, there my
nation!” I observed an extraordinary sense of pleasure appeared
in his face, and his eyes sparkled, and his countenance discovered
a strange eagerness, as if he had a mind to be in his own country
again. This observation of mine put a great many thoughts into
me, which made me at first not so easy about my new man,
Friday, as I was before; and I made no doubt but that if Friday
could get back to his own nation again, he would not only forget
all his religion, but all his obligation to me, and would be forward
enough to give his countrymen an account of me, and come back
perhaps with a hundred or two of them, and make a feast upon
. me, at which he might be as merry as he used to be with those
of his enemies, when they were taken in war. But I wronged
the poor honest creature very much, for which I was very sorry
afterwards. However, as my jealousy increased, and held me
some weeks, I was a little more circumspect, and not so familiar
and kind to him as before : in which I was certainly in the wrong
too, the honest, grateful creature having no thought about it, but
what consisted with the best principles, both as a religious
Christian, and as a grateful friend, as appeared afterwards to my
full satisfaction.

While my jealousy of him lasted, you may be sure I was every
day pumping him, to see if he would discover any of the new
thoughts which I suspected were in him ; but I found everything
he said was so honest and so innocent, that I could find nothing
to nourish my suspicion ; and, in spite of all my uneasiness, he
made me at last entirely his own again: nor did he, in the least,
perceive that I was uneasy, and therefore I could not suspect him
of deceit.

One day, walking up the same hill, but the weather being hazy
at sea, so that we could not see the continent, I called to him,
and said, “Friday, do not you wish yourself in your own country,
your own nation?” ‘‘ Yes,” he said, ‘‘I be much oh glad to be
at my own nation.” ‘What would you do there?” said I;
‘‘would you turn wild again, eat men’s flesh again, and be a
savage as you were before?” He looked full of concern, and
shaking his head, said, “‘No, no; Friday tell them to live good,
tell them to pray God, tell them to eat corn-bread, cattle-flesh,
milk ; no eat man again.” ‘Why then,” said I to him, “ they
will killyou.” He looked grave at that, and then said, ‘‘ No, they
198 ADVENTURES OF

no kill me, they willingly love learn.” He meant by this, they
would: be willing to learn. He added, “they learned much of
the bearded mans that came in the boat.” Then I asked him if
he would go back to them. He smiled at that, and told me he
could not swim so far. I told him I would make a canoe for
him. He told me he would go, if I would go withhim. “I go?”
says I; “why, they will eat me, if I come there.” ‘ No, no,”
_ says he; “me make they no eat you; me make they much love
you.” He meant, he would tell them how I had killed his
enemies, and saved his life, and so he would make them love me.
Then he told me, as well as he could, how kind they were to
seventeen white men, or bearded men, as he called them, who
came on shore there in distress.

From this time, I confess I had a mind to venture over, and
see if I could possibly join with those bearded men, who, I made
no doubt, were Spaniards, or Portuguese ; not doubting but if I
could, we might find some method to escape from thence, being
upon the continent, and a good company together, better than I
could from an island forty miles off the shore, and alone, without
help. So, after some days, I took Friday to work again, by way
of discourse; and told him I would give him a boat to go back
to his own nation; and accordingly I carried him to my frigate,
which lay on the other side of the island, and having cleared it of
water (for I always kept it sunk in the water) I brought it out,
showed it him and we both went into it. I found he was a most
dexterous fellow at managing it, and would make it go almost as
swift again as I could. So when he was in, I said to him, “ Well,
now, Friday, shall we go to your nation?” He looked very dull
at my saying so; which, it seems, was because he thought the
boat too small to go so far: I then told him I had a bigger; so
the next day I went to the place where the first boat lay which I
had made, but which I could not get into the water. He said that
was big enough: but then, as I had taken no care of it, and it
had lain two or three-and-twenty years there, the sun had split
and dried it, that it was in a manner rotten. Friday told me
such a boat would do very well, and would carry “much enough
vittle, drink, bread ;” that was his way of talking.

Upon the whole, I was by this time, so fixed upon my design |
of going over with him to the continent, that I told him we would
go and make one as big as that, and he should go home in it.
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 199

He answered not one word, but looked very grave and sad. I
asked him what was the matter with him? He asked me again,
‘Why you angry mad with Friday? What me done?” I asked
him what he meant? I told him I was not angry with him at
all. ‘No angry?” says he, repeating the words several times.
‘‘Why send Friday home away to my nation?” ‘‘Why,” says I,
“Friday, did you not say you wished you were there?” “ Yes,
yes,” says he, “wish be both there; no wish Friday there, no
master there.” In a word, he would not think of going there
without me. ‘I go there, Friday!” says 1, “what shall I do
there?” He turned very quick upon me at this: ‘‘ You do great
deal much good,” says he ; “you teach wild mans be good, sober,
tame mans; you tell them know God, pray God, and live new
life.” “Alas! Friday,” says I, ‘“‘thou knowest not what thou
sayest ; I am but an ignorant man myself.” “Yes, yes,” says he,
“you teachee me good, you teachee them good.” “No, no,
Friday,” says I, “‘ you shall go without me; leave me here to live
by myself, as I did before.” He looked confused again at that
word: and running to one of the hatchets which he used to wear,
he takes it up hastily, and gives ittome. ‘What must I do with
this?” saysItohim. “You take kill Friday,” says he. “What must
I kill you for?” said I again. He returns very quick, ‘‘ What
you send Friday away for? Take kill Friday, no send Friday
away.” This he spoke so earnestly, that I saw tears stand in his
eyes: in a word, I so plainly discovered the utmost affection in
him to me, and a firm resolution in him, that I told him then and
often after, that I would never send him away from me, if he was
willing to stay with me.

Upon the whole, as I found by all his discourse, a settled affec-
tion to me, and that nothing should part him from me, so I found
all the foundation of his desire to go to his own country was laid
in his ardent affection to the people, and his hopes of my doing
them good; a thing which, as I had no notion of myself, so I had
not the least thought, or. intention, or desire, of undertaking it.
But still I found a strong inclination to my attempting an escape,
as above, founded on the supposition gathered from the discourse,
viz., that there were seventeen bearded men there ; and, there-
fore, without any more delay, I went to work with Friday, to find
out a great tree proper to fell, and make a large perlagua, or
canoe, to undertake the voyage.
200 ' ADVENTURES OF

There were trees enough in the island to have built a little
fleet, not of periaguas and canoes, but even of good large vessels ;
but the main thing I looked at was, to get one so near the water
that we might launch it when it was made, to avoid the mistake
I committed at first. At last, Friday pitched upon a tree; for I
found he knew much better than I what kind of wood was fittest
for it; nor can I tell, to this day, what wood to call the tree we
cut down, except that it was very like the tree we call fustic, or
between that and the Nicaragua wood, for it was much of the
same colour and smell. Friday was for burning the hollow or
cavity of this tree out, to make it for a boat; but I showed him
how to cut it with tools, which, after I showed him how to use,
he did very handily: and in about a month’s hard labour we
finished it, and made it very handsome; especially, when, with
our axes, which I showed him how to handle, we cut and hewed
the outside into the true shape of a boat. After this, however,
it cost us near a fortnight’s time to get her along, as it were inch
by inch, upon great rollers into the water ; but when she was in
she would have carried twenty men with great ease.

When she was in the water, and though she was so big, it
amazed me to see with what dexterity, and how swift my man
Friday would manage her, turn her, and paddle her along. So
I asked him if he would, and if we might, venture over in her.
‘¢Ves,” he said, ‘‘he venture over in her very well, though great
blow wind.” However, I had a further design that he knew
nothing of, and that was to make a mast and a sail, and to fit |
her with an anchor and cable. As to a mast, that was easy
enough to get: so I pitched upon a straight young cedar tree, ©
which I found near the place, and which there were great plenty
of in the island; and I set Friday to work to cut it down, and
gave him directions how to shape and order it. But as to the
sail, that was my particular care. I knew I had old sails, or rather
pieces of old sails enough; but as I had had them now six-and-
twenty years by me, and had not been very careful to preserve
them, not imagining that I should ever have this kind of use for
them, I did not doubt but they were all rotten, and, indeed, most
of them were so. However, I found two pieces, which appeared
pretty good ; and with these I went to work, and with a great
deal of pains, and awkward stitching—you may be sure, for want
of needles—I at length made a three-cornered ugly thing, like
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 201

what we call in England a shoulder-of-mutton sail, to go with a
boom at bottom, and a little short sprit at the top, such as usually
our ships’ long boats sail with, and such as I best knew how to
manage, for it was such a one as I had to the boat in which I
made my escape from Barbary, as related in the first part of my
story.

i was near two months performing this last work, viz., rigging
and fitting my mast and sails; for I finished them, very com-
plete, making a small stay, and asail, or foresail, to it, to assist, if we
should turn to windward ; and, which was more than all, I fixed
a rudder to the stern of her to steer with ; and though I was but
a bungling shipwright, yet, as I knew the usefulness, and even
necessity of such a thing, I applied myself with so much pains to
do it, that at last I brought it to pass,—though, considering the
many dull contrivances I had for it that failed, I think it cost me
aoe much labour as making the boat.

Afterall this was done, too, I had my man Friday to teach as
to what belonged to the navigation of my boat; for, though he
knew very well how to paddle the canoe, he knew nothing what
belonged to a sail and a rudder, and was the most amazed when
he saw me work the boat to and again in the sea by the rudder,
and how the sail gibbed, and filled this way or that way, as the
course we sailed changed ;—I say, when he saw this, he stood like
one astonished and amazed. However, with a little use, I made
all these things familiar to him, and he became an expert sailor,
except that, as to the compass, I could make him understand very
little of that. On the other hand, as there was. very little cloudy
weather, and seldom or never any fogs in those parts, there was
‘the less occasion for a compass, seeing the stars were always to be
seen by night, and the shore by day, except in the rainy reasons,
and then nobody cared to stir abroad, either by land or sea.

I was now entered on the seven-and-twentieth year of my cap
tivity in this place ; though the three last years that I had this
creature with me ought rather to be left out of account, my
habitation being quite of another kind than in all the rest of the
time. I kept the anniversary of my landing here with the same '
thankfulness to God for His mercies as at first : and if I had such
cause of acknowledgment at first, I had much more so now, having
such additional testimonies of the care of Providence over me, and
the great hopes I had of being effectually and speedily delivered ;
202 ADVENTURES OF

for I had an invincible impression upon my thoughts that my
deliverance was at hand, and that I should not be another year in
this place. However, I went on with my husbandry—digging,
planting, and fencing, as usual. I gathered and cured my grapes,
and did every necessary thing as before.

The rainy season was, in the meantime, upon me, wien I kept
more within doors than at other times ; so I had stowed our new
vessel as secure as I could scubdunsite her up into the creek,
where, as I said in the beginning, I landed my rafts from the ship,
and haling her up to the shore, at high water mark, I made my
man Friday dig a little dock, just big enough to hold her, and just
deep enough to give her water enough to float in; and then, when
the tide was out, we made a strong dam across the end of it, to
keep the water out,—and so she lay dry as to the tide from the
sea: and to keep the rain off, we laid a great many boughs of trees
so thick, that she was as well thatched as a house, and thus we
waited for the months of November and December in which I
designed to make my adventure.

When the settled season began to come in, as the thought of
my design returned with the fair weather, I was preparing daily
for the voyage; and the first thing I did was to lay by a certain
quantity of provisions, being the stores for our voyage, and
intended, in a week or a fortnight’s time, to open the dock, and
launch out our boat. J was busy one morning upon something
of this kind, when I called to Friday, and bid him go to the sea-
shore, and see if he could find a turtle, or tortoise, a thing which
we generally got once a week, for the sake of the eggs as well as
the flesh. Friday had not been long gone, when he came running
back, and flew over my outer wall, or fence, like one that felt not
the ground, or the steps he set his feet on ; and before I had time
to speak to him, he cries out to me, ‘“‘O master! O master! O
sorrow! O bad!” “What's the matter, Friday?” saysI. “O
yonder, there,” says he, “one, two, three canoe: one, two, three !”
By his way of speaking I concluded there were six; but on
inquiry, I found it was but three. ‘Well, Friday,” says I, “do
not be frighted.” So I heartened him up as well as I could: ©
however, I saw the poor fellow was most terribly scared, for
‘nothing ran in his head but that they were come to look for him,
and would cut him in pieces, and eat him ; and the poor fellow
trembled so, that I scarce knew what to do with him. I com-
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 203

forted him as well as I could, and told him I was in as. much
danger as he, and that they would eat me as well as him. “ But,”
says I, “ Friday, we must resolve to fight them. Can you fight,
Friday ?” “Me shoot,” says he, “but there come many great
number.” ‘No matter for that,” said I again; “our guns will
fright them that we do not kill.” So I asked him whether, if I
resolved to defend him, he would defend me and stand by me;
and do just as I bid him. He said, ‘“ Me die, when you bid die,
master.” So I went and fetched a good dram of rum and gave
him ; for I had been so good a husband of my rum, that I had a
great deal left. When he had drank it, I made him take the two
fowling-pieces, which we always carried, and loaded them with
large swan-shot, as big'as small pistol-bullets; then I took four
muskets, and loaded them with two slugs, and five small bullets
-each, and my two pistols I loaded with a brace of bullets each: I
hung my great sword, as usual, naked by my side, and gave
Friday his hatchet.

When I had thus prophied myself, I took my perspective glass,
and went up to the side of the hill, to see what I could discover ;
and I found quickly, by my glass, that there were ie anaenventy
savages, three prisoners, and three canoes; and that their whole
business seemed to be the triumphant banquet upon these three
human bodies,—a barbarous feast indeed! but nothing more than,
as I had observed, was usual with them. I observed also, that
they were landed, not where they had done when Friday made
his escape, but nearer to my creek: where the shore was low,
and where.a thick wood came almost close down to the sea.
This, with the abhorrence of the inhuman errand these wretches
came about, filled me with such indignation, that I came down again
to Friday, and told him I was resolved to go down to them and
kill them all, and asked him if he would stand by me. He had
now gotten over his-fright, and his spirits being a little raised with
the dram I had given him, he was very cheerful, and told me, as
before, he would die when I bid die.

In this fit of fury, I took, and divided the arms which I had
charged, as before, between us. I gave Friday one pistol to stick
in his girdle, and three guns upon his shoulder, and I took one
pistol, and the other three guns myself; and in this posture we
marched out. I took a small bottle of rum in my pocket, and
gave Friday a large bag with more powder and bullets ; and, as
204 ADVENTURES OF

to orders, 1 charged him to keep close behind me, and not to stir,
or shoot, or do anything, till I bid him; and, in the meantime,
not to speak a word. In this posture, I fetched a compass to
my right hand of near a mile, as well to get over the creek as to
get into the wood, so that I might come within shot of them”
before I should be discovered, which I had seen, by my glass, it
was easy to do.

While I was making this march; my former thoughts returning,
I began to abate my resolution:—I do not mean that I entertained
any fear of their number; for, as they were naked, unarmed
wretches, it is certain I was superior to them,—nay, though I
had been alone. But it occurred to my thoughts, what call, what
occasion, much less what necessity I was in, to go and dip my
hands in blood, to attack people who had neither done nor
intended me any wrong? who, as to me, were innocent, and
whose barbarous customs were their own disaster; being, in them,
a token indeed of God’s having left them, with the other nations
of that part of the world, to such stupidity and to such inhuman
courses, but did not call me to take upon me to be a judge of
their actions, much less an executioner of His justice ; that, when-
ever He thought fit, He would take the cause into His own hands,
and, by national vengeance, punish them as a people, for national
crimes ; but that, in the meantime, it was none of my business ;
that, it was true, Friday might justify it, because he was a declared
enemy, and in a state of war with those very particular people,
and it was lawful for him to attack them; but I could not say
the same with respect to myself. These things were so warmly —
pressed upon my thoughts all the way as I went, that I resolved
I would only go and place myself near them, that I might observe
their barbarous feast, and that I would act then as God should
direct: but that, unless something offered that was more a call
to me than yet I knew of, I would not meddle with them.

With this resolution I entered the wood, and with all possible
wariness and silence, Friday following ‘close at my heels, I
marched till I came to the skirt of the wood, on the side which
was next to them, only that one corner of the wood lay between
me and them. Here I called softly to Friday, and showing him
_ a great tree, which was just at the corner of the wood, I bade him
go to the tree, and bring me word if he could see there plainly
what they were doing. He did so, and came immediately back
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 205

to me, and told me they might be plainly viewed there ; that they
were all about their fire, eating the flesh of one of their prisoners,
and that another lay bound upon the sand, a little from them,
which, he said, they would kill next, and which fired all the very
soul within me. He told me it was not one of their nation, but
one of the bearded men whom he had told me of, that came to
their country in the boat. I was filled with horror at the very
naming the white bearded man; and, going to the tree, I. saw
plainly, by my glass, a white man, who lay upon the beach of the
sea, with his hands and his feet tied with flags, or things like
rushes, and that he was an European, and had clothes on. —

There was another tree, and a little thicket beyond it, about
fifty yards nearer to them than the place where I was, which, by
going a little way about, I saw I might come at undiscovered,
and that then I should be within half shot of them; so I with-
held my passion, though I was indeed enraged to the highest
degree, and going back about twenty paces, I got behind some
bushes, which held all the way till I came to the other tree, and
then I came to a little rising ground, which gave me a full view
of them, at the distance of about eighty yards.

I had not a moment to lose, for nineteen of the dreadful
wretches sat upon the ground, all close-huddled together, and
had just sent the other two to butcher the poor Christian, and
bring him, perhaps, limb by limb, to their fire ; and they were
stooped down to untie the bands at his feet. I turned to Friday.
“Now, Friday,” said I, “do as I bid thee.” Friday said he
would. ‘Then, Friday,” says I, “do exactly as you see me do ;
fail in nothing.” So I set down one of the muskets and the
fowling-piece upon the ground, and Friday did the like by his ;
and with the other musket I took my aim at the savages, bidding
him do the like: then asking him if he was ready, he said, “ Yes.”
“Then fire at them,” said I; and the same moment I fired also.

Friday took his aim so much better than I, that on the side
that he shot, he killed two of them, and wounded three more ;
and on my side, I killed one, and wounded two. They were,
you may be sure, in a dreadful consternation, and all of them
who were not hurt jumped upon their feet, but did not immediately
know which way to run, or which way to look, for they knew not
from whence their destruction came. Friday kept his eyes close
upon me, that, as I had bid him, he might observe what I did ;
206 ADVENTURES OF

so, as soon as the first shot was made; I threw down the piece,
and took up the fowling-piece, and Friday did the like: he saw
me cock and present ; he did the same again. “ Are you ready, .
Friday?” said 1 “Ves,” says he. ‘ Let fly, then,” says I, ‘in _
the name of God!” And with that I fired again among the
amazed wretches, and so did Friday ; and as our pieces were now
loaden with what I called swan-shot, or small pistol-bullets, we
found only two drop, but so many were wounded, that they ran
about yelling and screaming like mad creatures, all bloody, and
miserably wounded most of them, whereof three more fell quickly
after, though not quite dead.

‘‘Now, Friday,” says I, laying down the discharged pieces,
and taking up the musket which was yet loaden, ‘ follow me,”—
which he did, with a great deal of courage, upon which I rushed
out of the wood, and showed myself, and Friday close at my foot.
As soon as I perceived they saw me, I shouted as loud as I could,
and bade Friday do so too; and running as fast as I could, —
which, by the way, was not very fast, being loaden with arms as I
was, I made directly towards the poor victim, who was, as I said,
lying upon the beach, or shore, between the place where they sat
and the sea. ‘The two butchers, who were just going to work
with him, had left him at the surprise of our first fire, and fled in
a terrible fright to the seaside, and had jumped into a canoe,
and three more of the rest made the same way. I turned to
Friday, and bade him step forwards, and fire at them ; he under-
stood me immediately, and running about forty yards, to be near
them, he shot at them, and I thought he had killed them all, for
I saw them all fall of a heap into the boat, though I saw two of
them up again quickly: however, he killed two of them, and
wounded the third, so that he lay down in the bottom of the
boat as if he had been dead.

While my man Friday fired at them, I pulled out my knife,
and cut the flags that bound the poor victim; and loosing his |
hands and feet, I lifted him up, and asked him in the Portuguese
tongue, what he was. He answered in Latin, ‘‘ Christianus,” but
was so weak and faint that he could scarce stand or speak. I
took my bottle out of my pocket, and gave it him, making signs
that he should drink, which he did; and I gave him a piece of
bread, which he ate. Then I asked him what countryman he
was, and he said, ‘‘ Espagniole ;” and being a little recovered,
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 207

let me know, by all the signs he could possibly make, how much
he was in my debt for his deliverance. ‘‘ Seignior,” said I, with
as much Spanish as I could make up, “we will talk afterwards,
but we must fight now: if you have any strength left, take this
pistol and sword, and lay about you.” He took them very thank-
fully ; and no sooner had he the arms in his hands, but, as if
they had put new vigour into him, he flew upon his murderers
like a fury, and had cut two of them in pieces in an instant ; forthe
truth is, as the whole was a surprise to them, so the poor creatures
were so much frighted with the noise of our pieces, that they fell
down for mere amazement and fear, and had no more power to
attempt their own escape, than their flesh had to resist our shot ;
and that was the case of those five that Friday shot at in the
boat ; for as three of them fell with the hurt they received, so the
other two fell with the fright.

I kept my piece in my hand still without firing, being willing
to keep my charge ready, because I had given the Spaniard my
pistol and sword ; so I called to Friday, and bade him run up to
the tree from whence we first fired, and fetch the arms which lay
there that had been discharged, which he did with great swiftness ;
and then, giving him my musket, I sat down myself to load all
the rest again and bade them come to me when they wanted.
While I was loading these pieces, there happened a fierce engage-
ment between the Spaniard and one of the savages, who made at
him with one of their great wooden swords, the same like weapon
that was to have killed him before, if I had not'prevented it.
The Spaniard, who was as bold and brave as could be imagined,
though weak, had fought this Indian a good while, and had cut

him two great wounds on his head; but the savage being a stout,
lusty fellow, closing in with him, had thrown him down, being
faint, and was wringing my sword out of his hand, when the
Spaniard, though undermost, wisely quitting the sword, drew the
pistol from his girdle, shot the savage through the body, and
killed him upon the spot, before I, who was running to help him,
could come near him.

Friday being now left to his liberty, pursued the flying wretches
with no weapon in his hand but his hatchet; and with that he
despatched those three, who, as I said before, were wounded at
first, and fallen, and all the rest he could come up with: and the
Spaniard coming to me for a gun, I gave him one of the fowling-
208 | ADVENTURES OF

pieces, with which he pursued two of the savages, and wounded
them both ; but as he was not able to run, they both got from
him into the wood, where Friday pursued them, and killed one
of them, but the other was too nimble for him; and though he
was wounded, yet had plunged himself into the sea, and swam
with all his might off to those two who were left in the canoe,
which three in the canoe, with one wounded, who we knew not
whether he died or no, were all that escaped our hands of one-
and-twenty. The account of the whole is as follows :—Three
killed at our first shot from the tree ; two killed at the next shot;
two killed by Friday in the boat; two killed by Friday of those
at first wounded ; one killed by Friday in the wood ; three killed
by the Spaniard ; four killed, being found dropped here and there
of their. wounds, or killed by Friday in his chase of them; four
escaped in the boat, whereof one wounded, if not dead —twenty
one in all.

Those that were in the canoe worked hard to get out of gun-
shot, and though Friday made two or three shots at them, I did
not find that he hit any of them. Friday would fain age had
me take one of their canoes, and pursue them ; and indeed, I
was very anxious about their escape, lest, carrying the news home
to their people, they should come back perhaps with two or three |
hundred of their canoes, and devour us by mere multitude: so I
consented to pursue them by sea, and running to one of their
canoes, I jumped in, and bade Friday follow me; but when I
was in the canoe, I was surprised to find another poor creature
lie there, bound hand and foot, as the Spaniard was, for the
slaughter, and almost dead with fear, not knowing what the
matter was,—for he had not been able to look up over the side
of the boat: he was tied so hard neck and heels, and had been
tied so long, that he had really little life in him.

I immediately cut the twisted flags or rushes, which they had
bound him with, and would have helped him up; but he could
not stand or speak, but groaned most piteously, believing, it
seems, still, that he was only unbound in order to be killed.

When Friday came to him, I bade him speak to him, and tell
him of his deliverance; and, pulling out my bottle, made him
give the poor wretch a dram, which, with the news of his being
delivered, revived him, and he sat up in the boat. But when
Friday came to hear him speak, and looked in his face, it would
ROBINSON CRUSOE. | 209

have moved any one to tears to have seen how Friday kissed him,
embraced him, hugged him, cried, laughed, hallooed, jumped
about, danced, sung,—then cried again, wrung his hands, beat
his own face and head, and then sung and jumped about again,
like a distracted creature. It was a good while before I could
make him speak to me, or tell me what was the matter ; but when
he came a little to himself, he told me that it was his father.

It is not easy for me to express how it moved me to see what
ecstasy and filial affection had worked in this poor savage at the
sight of his father, and of his being delivered from death ; nor,
indeed, can I describe half the extravagancies of his affection
after this ; for he went into the boat and out of the boat a great
many times: when he went in to him, he would sit down by him,
open his breast, and hold his father’s head close to his bosom
half an hour together, to nourish it; then he took his arms and
ankles, which were numbed and stiff with the binding, and chafed
and rubbed them with his hands; and I, perceiving what the
case was, gave him some rum out of my Bottle to rub them with,
which did them a great deal of good.

This action put an end to our pursuit of the canoe with the

~ other savages, who were now gotten almost out of sight ; and it

was happy for us that we did not, for it blew so hard within two
hours after, and before they could be gotten a quarter of their
way, and continued blowing so hard all night, and that from the
north-west, which was against them, that I could not suppose
their boat could live, or that they ever reached to their own
coast.

But, to return to Friday, he was so busy about ‘his father, that
I could not find in my heart to take him off for some time: but
after I thought he could leave him a little, 1 called him to me,
and he came jumping and laughing, and pleased to the highest
extreme. Then I asked him if he had given his father any bread P
He shook his head, and said, ‘‘ None, ugly dog eat all up self.”
So I gave him a cake of bread, out of a little pouch I carried on
purpose ; I also gave him a dram for himself, but he would not
taste it, but carried it to his father. I had in my pocket also two
or three bunches of my raisins,—so I gave him a handful of them
for his father. He had no sooner given his father these raisins,
but I saw him come out of the boat, and run away, as if he had
been bewitched, he ran at such a rate,—for he was the swiftest

O
210 | ADVENTURES OF

fellow of his foot that ever I saw: I say he ran at such a rate
that he was out of sight, as it were, In an instant; and though I
called, and hallooed too, after him, it was all one, away he went ;
and in a quarter of an hour I saw him come back again, though
not so fast as he went, and as he came nearer, I found his pace
was slacker, because he had something in his hand. When he
came up to me, I found he had been quite home for an earthen
jug or pot, to bring his father some fresh water, and that he had
got two more cakes or loaves of bread. ‘The bread he gave me,
but the water he carried to his father: however, as I was very
thirsty too, I took a little sup of it. The water revived his father
more than all the rum or spirits I had given him, for he was just
fainting with thirst. 7
When his father had drunk, I called to him to know if there
was any water left. He said, ‘‘Yes;” and I bade him give it to
the poor Spaniard, who was in as much want of it as his father:
and I sent one of the cakes that Friday brought to the Spaniard
too, who was indeed very weak, and was reposing himself upon a
green place under the shade of a tree, and whose limbs were also
very stiff, and very much swelled with the rude bandage he had
been tied with. When I saw that, upon Friday’s coming to him
with the water, he sat up and drank, and took the bread, and
_began to eat, I went to him and gave him a handful of raisins.
He looked up in my face with all the tokens of gratitude and
thankfulness that could appear in any countenance ; but was so
weak, notwithstanding he had so exerted himself in the fight,
that he could not stand up upon his feet: he tried to do it two
or three times, but was really not able, his ankles were so swelled
and so painful to him ; so I bade him sit still, and caused Friday
to rub his ankles and bathe them with rum, as he had done his
father’s. : |
I observed the poor affectionate creature, every two minutes,
or perhaps less, all the while he was here, turned his head about
to see if his father was in the same place and posture as he left
him sitting; and at last he found he was not to be seen,—at
which he started up, and without speaking a word, flew with that
swiftness to him, that one could scarce perceive his feet to touch
_the ground as he went: but when he came he only found he had:
lain himself down to ease his limbs, so Friday came back to me
presently, and I then spoke to the Spaniard to let Friday help
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 211

him up, if he could, and lead him to the boat, and then he should
carry him to our dwelling, where I would take care of him. But
Friday, a lusty strong fellow, took the Spaniard quite up upon
his back, and carried him away to the boat, and set him down
softly upon the side, or gunnel, of the canoe, with his feet in the
inside of it, and then lifted him quite in, and set him close to his
father ; and presently, stepping out again, launched the boat off,
and paddled it along the shore faster than I could walk, though
the wind blew pretty hard too: so he brought them safe into
our creek, and leaving them in the boat, ran away to fetch the
other canoe. As he passed me, I spoke to him, and asked him
whither he went. He told me, “‘ Go fetch more boat :” so away
he went like the wind, for sure never man or horse ran like him ;
and he had the other canoe in the creek almost as soon as I
got to it by land. So he wafted me over, and then went to help
our new guests out of the boat, which he did; but they were
neither of them able to walk, so that poor Friday knew not what
to do. |

To remedy this, I went to work in my thought, and calling to
Friday to bid them sit down on the bank while he came to me,
I soon made a kind of a hand-barrow to lay them on, and Friday
and I carried them up both together upon it, between us. But
when we got them to the outside of our wall, or fortification, we
were at a worse loss than before, for it was impossible to get them
over, and I was resolved not to break it down: so I set to work
again, and Friday and I, in about two hours’ time, made a very
handsome tent, covered with old sails, and above that with
boughs of trees, being in the space without our outward fence,
and between that and the grove of young wood which I had’
planted ; and here we made them two beds of such things as I
had, viz.; of good rice straw, with blankets laid upon it, to lie on,
and another to cover them, on each bed. '




CHAPTER. XVI.

Crusoe’s subjects and their religions—The dead bodies of the slain savages are buried
-—The Spaniard and Friday’s father set out for the mainland to fetch Europeans
who had been shipwrecked there—In their absence Crusoe is surprised by the
appearance of a boat-load of mutinous sailors, who bring their officers to the
island to murder them—Crusoe releases the prisoners—The mutineers are
attacked and defeated.



(05724 Y island was now peopled, and I thought myself very

cay Af rich in subjects; and it was a merry reflection,
which I frequently made, how like a king I looked.
BM b First of all, the whole country was my own mere
~~ property, so. that I had an undoubted right of
dominion. Secondly, my people were perfectly subjected,—I was
absolute lord and lawgiver; they all owed their lives to me, and
were ready to lay down their lives, if there had been occasion of
it, for me. It was remarkable, too, I had but three subjects, and
they were of three different religions: my man Friday was a Pro-
testant, his father was a Pagan and a cannibal, and the Spaniard
was a Papist. However, I allowed liberty of conscience throughout
my dominions. But this is by the way.

As soon as I had secured my two weak rescued prisoners, and
given them shelter, and a place to rest them upon, I began to think
of making some provision for them; and the first thing I did, I
ordered Friday to take a yearling goat, betwixt a kid and a goat,
out of my particular flock, to be killed,—when I cut off the hinder
quarter, and chopping it into small pieces, I set Friday to work
to boiling and stewing, and made them a very good dish, I assure
you, of flesh and broth, having put some barley and rice also into
the broth: and as I cooked it without doors, for I made no fire
within my inner wall, so I carried it all into the new tent, and
having set a table there for them, I sat down and ate my own
- dinner also with them, and, as well as I could, cheered them and
ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. es

encouraged them; Friday being my interpreter, especially to his
father, and, indeed, to the Spaniard too,—for the Spaniard spoke
the language of the savages pretty well.

After we had dined, or rather supped, I ordered Friday to take
one of the canoes, and go and fetch our muskets and other fire-
arms, which, for want of time, we had left upon the place of battle ;
and the next day, I ordered him to go and bury the dead bodies
of the savages, which lay open to the sun, and would presently be
offensive. I also ordered him to bury the horrid remains of their
barbarous feast, which I knew were pretty much, and which I
could not think of doing myself,—nay, I could not bear to see
them, if I went that way ; all which he punctually performed, and
effaced the very appearance of the savages being there,—so that
when I went again, I could scarce know where it was, otherwise
than by the corner of the wood pointing to the place.

I then began to enter into a little conversation with my two new
subjects ; and first, I set Friday to inquire of his father what he
thought of the escape of the savages in that canoe, and whether
we might expect a return of them, with a power too great for us
to resist. His first opinion was that the savages in the boat never
could live out the storm which blew that night they went off, but
must of necessity be drowned, or driven south to those other shores,
where they were as sure to be devoured, as they were to be drowned
if they were cast away: but as to what they would do if they came
safe on shore, he said he knew not; but it was his opinion that
they were so dreadfully frighted with the manner of their being
attacked, the noise, and the fire, that he believed they would tell
their people they were all killed by thunder and lightning, not by
the hand of man; and that the two which appeared, viz., Friday
and I, were two heavenly spirits, or furies, come down to destroy
them, and not men with weapons. ‘This, he said, he knew, because
he heard them all cry out so in their language to one another ; for
it was impossible to them to conceive that a man could dart fire,
and speak thunder, and kill at a distance, without lifting up the
hand, as was done now. And this’old savage was in the right ; for,
as I understood since, by other hands, the savages never attempted
to go over to the island afterwards,—they were so terrified with the
accounts given by those four men (for, it seems, they did escape
the sea), that they believed whoever went to that enchanted island
would be destroyed with fire from the gods.
214 ADVENTURES OF

This, however, I knew not ; and therefore was under continual
apprehensions for a good while, and kept always upon my guard, I
and all my army; for, as there were now four of us, I would have ven-
tured upon a hundred of them, fairly in the open field at any time.

In a little time, however, no more canoes appearing, the fear of
their coming wore off, and I began to take my former thoughts of
a voyage to the main into consideration,—being likewise assured
by Friday’s father that I might depend upon good usage from their
nation, on his account, if I would go.

But my thoughts were a little suspended when I had a serious
discourse with the Spaniard, and when I understood that there
were fourteen more of his countrymen and Portuguese, who, having
been cast away, and made their escape to that side, lived there at
peace, indeed, with the savages, but were very sore put to it for
necessaries, and indeed for life. I asked him all the particulars
of their voyage, and found they were a Spanish ship, bound from
the Rio de la Plata to the Havanna, being directed to leave their
loading there, which was chiefly hides and silver, and to bring
back what European goods they could meet with there ; that they
had five Portuguese seamen on board, whom they took out ‘of
another wreck ; that five of their own men were drowned, when
first the ship was lost, and that these escaped through infinite
dangers and hazards, and arrived, almost starved, on the cannibal
coast, where they expected to have been devoured every moment.
He told me they had some arms with them, but they were perfectly
useless, for that they had neither powder nor ball, the washing of
the sea having spoiled all their powder but a little, which they
used, at their first landing, to provide themselves some food.

I asked him what he thought would become of them there, and
if they had formed no design of making any escape. He said
they had many consultations about it, but that having neither
vessel, nor tools to build one, nor provisions of any kind, their
councils always ended in tears and despair. I asked him how he
thought they would receive a proposal from me which might tend
towards an escape; and whether, if they were all here, it might
not be done. I told him, with freedom, I feared mostly their
treachery and ill usage of me, if I put my life in their hands ; for
that gratitude was no inherent virtue in the nature of man, nor did
_men always square their dealings by the obligations they had
received, so much as they did by the advantages they expected.
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 215

I told him it would be very hard that I should be the instrument
of their deliverance, and that they should afterwards make me
their prisoner in New Spain, where an Englishman was certain to
be made a sacrifice, what necessity or what accident soever brought
him thither ; and that I had rather be delivered up to the savages,
and be devoured alive, than fall into the merciless claws of the
priests, and be carried into the Inquisition. I added, that other-
wise I was persuaded, if ,they were all here, we might, with so
many hands, build a bark large enough to carry us all away, either
to the Brazils, southward, or to the islands, or Spanish coast, .
northward ; but that if, in requital, they should, when I had put
weapons into their hands, carry me by force among their own
people, I might be ill used for my kindness to them, and make
my case worse than it was before.

He answered with a great deal of candour and ingenuity, that
their condition was so miserable, and they were so sensible of it,
that he believed they would abhor the thought of using any man
unkindly that should contribute to their deliverance ; and that,
if I pleased, he would go to them with the old man, and discourse
with them about it, and return again, and bring me their answer ;
that he would make conditions with them upon their solemn oath,
that they would be absolutely under my leading, as their com-
mander and captain ; and that they should swear upon the holy
sacraments and gospel to be true to me, and go to such Christian
country as that I should agree to, and no other, and to be directed
wholly and absolutely by my orders, till they were landed safely
in such country as I intended; and that he would bring a con-
tract from them, under their hands, for that purpose.

Then he told me he would first swear to me himself, that he
~ would never stir from me as long as he lived, till I gave him orders ;
and that he would take my side to the last drop of his blood, if there
should happen the least breach of faith among his countrymen.

He told me they were all of them very civil, honest men, and
they were under the greatest distress imaginable, having neither
weapons nor clothes, nor any food, but at the mercy and discretion
of the savages, out of all hopes of ever returning to their own
country ; and that he was sure, if I would undertake their relief,
they would live and die by me.

Upon these assurances, I resolved to venture to relieve them,
if possible, and to send the old savage and this Spaniard over to.
216 ADVENTURES OF

them to treat. But when we had gotten all things in a readiness
to go, the Spaniard himself started an objection, which had so
much prudence in it, on one hand, and so much sincerity
on the other hand, that I could not but be very well satis-
fied in it; and, by his advice, put off the deliverance of his:
comrades for at least half a year. The case was thus: He had
been with us now about a month, during which time I had let him
see in what manner I had provided, with the assistance of Provi-
dence, for my support ; and he saw evidently what stock of corn
and rice I had laid up, which, as it was more than sufficient for
myself, so it was not sufficient, at least without good husbandry,
for my. family, now it was increased to four ; but much less would
it be sufficient if his countrymen, who were, as he said, fourteen
still alive, should come over; and least of all would it be suffi-
cient to victual our vessel, if we should build one, fora voyage
to any of the Christian colonies of America: so he told me he
thought it would be more advisable to let him and the two other
dig and cultivate some more land, as much as I could spare seed
to sow, and that we should wait another harvest, that we might
have a supply of corn for his countrymen, when they should
come: for want might be a temptation to them to disagree, or
not to think themselves delivered, otherwise than out of one
difficulty into another. You know, says he, the children of
Israel, though they rejoiced at first for their being delivered out
of Egypt, yet rebelled even against God Himself, that delivered
them, when they came to want bread in the Wilderness.

His caution was so seasonable, and his advice so good, that I
could not but be very well pleased with his proposal, as well as I
was satisfied with his fidelity: so we fell to digging all four of us,
as well as the wooden tools we were furnished with permitted ;
and in about a month’s time, by the end of which it was seed-
time, we had gotten as much land cured and trimmed up as we
sowed two and twenty bushels of barley on, and sixteen jars of
rice, which was, in short, all the seed we had to spare: nor,
indeed, did we leave ourselves barley sufficient for our own food
for the six months that we had to expect our crop,—that is to say,
reckoning from the time we set our seed aside for sowing ; for it is
not to be supposed it is six months in the ground in that country.

Having now society enough, and our number being sufficient
to put us out of fear of the savages, if they had come, unless their
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 7 DAG

number had been very great, we went freely all over the island,
wherever we found occasion ; and as here we had our escape or
_ deliverance upon our thoughts, it was impossible, at least for me,
to have the means of it out of mine. To this purpose, I marked
out several trees which I thought fit for our work, and I set
Friday and his father to cutting them down; and then I caused
the Spaniard, to whom I imparted my thought on that affair, to
oversee and direct their work. I showed them with what inde-
fatigable pains I had hewed a large tree into single planks, and I
caused them to do the like, till they had made about a dozen
large planks of good oak, near two feet broad, thirty-five feet
long, and from two inches to four inches thick: what prodigious
labour it took up, any one may imagine.

At the same time I contrived to increase my little flock of tame
goats as much as I could, and, to this purpose, I made Friday
and the Spaniard go out one day, and myself with Friday the
next day (for we took our turns), and by this means we got about
twenty young kids to breed up with the rest ; for whenever we
shot the dam, we saved the kids, and added them to our flock.
But, above all, the season for curing the grapes coming on, I
caused such a prodigious quantity to be hung up in the sun, that,
_I believe, had we been at Alicant, where the raisins of the sun
are cured, we could have filled sixty or eighty barrels ; and these,
with our bread, was a great part of our food, and very good living
too, I assure you, for it is an exceeding nourishing food.

It was now harvest, and our crop in good order: it was not the
- most plentiful increase I had seen in the island; but, however, it
was enough to answer our end,—for from our twenty-two bushels
of barley we brought in and threshed out above two hundred and
twenty bushels, and the like in proportion of the rice; which was
store enough for our food to the next harvest, though all the four-
teen Spaniards had been on shore with me; or if we had been ready
for a voyage, it would very plentifully fave victualled our ship to
have carried us to any part of the world, that is to say, of America.

When we had thus housed and secured our magazine of corn,
" we fell to work to make more wickerwork, viz., great baskets, in
which we kept it, and the Spaniard was very handy and dexterous

at this part, and often blamed me that I did not make some things
for defence of this kind of work; but I saw no need of it.

And now, having a full supply of food for all the guests I ex-
218 ADVENTURES OF .

pected, I gave the Spaniard leave to go over to the main, to see
what he could do with those he had left behind them there. I
gave him a strict charge, in writing, not to bring any man with
- him who would not first swear, in the presence of himself and of.
the old savage, that he would in no way injure, fight with, or attack
the person he would find in the island, who was so kind as.to send |
for them in order to their deliverance ; but that they would stand
by, and defend him against all such attempts, and wherever they
went, would be entirely under and subjected to his command; and
that this should be put in writing, and signed with their hands.
How we were to have this done, when I knew they had neither
pen nor ink, that indeed was a question which we never asked.

Under these instructions, the Spaniard and the old savage, the
father of Friday, went away in one of the canoes which they
might be'said to come in, or rather were brought in, when they
came as prisoners to be devoured by the savages. I gave each of
them a musket, with a firelock on it, and about eight charges of
powder and ball, charging them to be very good husbands of
both, and not to use either of them but upon urgent occasions. —

This was a cheerful work, being the first measures used by me,
in view of my deliverance, for now twenty-seven years and some
days. I gave them provisions of bread, and of dried grapes, suffi-
cient for themselves for many days, and sufficient forallthe Spaniards
for about eight days’ time ; and wishing them a good voyage, I saw
them go, agreeing with non about a signal they should hang out
at their return, by which I should know them again, when they
came back, at a distance, before they came on siaes

They went away with a fair gale, on the day that the moon was
at full, by my account in the month of October ; but as for an exact
reckoning of days, after I had once lost it, I could never recover it
again, nor had I kept even the number of years so punctually as to
be sure I was right, though, as it proved, when I afterwards examined
my account, I found I had kept a true reckoning of years.

It was no less than eight days I had waited for them, when a
strange and unforeseen accident intervened, of which the like has
not perhaps been heard of in history. I was fast asleep in my hutch
one morning, when my man Friday came running in to me, and
called aloud, “‘ Master, master, they are come, they are come!”

I jumped up, and, regardless of danger, I went out as soon as
I could get my clothes on, through my little grove, which, by
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 219

the way, was by this time grown to be a very thick wood ;—I say,
regardless of danger, I went without my arms, which it was not
my custom to do; but I was surprised, when turning my eyes to
the sea, I presently saw a boat at about a league and a half’s
distance, standing in for the shore, with a shoulder-of-mutton sail,
as they call it, and the wind blowing pretty fair to bring them in:
also I observed presently, that they did not come from that side
which the shore lay on, but from the southernmost end of the
island. Upon this I called Friday in, and bade him lie close,
for these were not the people we looked for, and that we might
not know yet whether they were friends or enemies.

In the next place, I went in to fetch my perspective glass, to
see what I could make of them; and having taken the ladder
out, I climbed up to the top of the hill, as I used to do when I
was apprehensive of anything, and to take my view the plainer
without being discovered.

I had scarce set my foot upon the hill, when my eye plainly dis-
covered a ship lying at an anchor, at about two leagues and a half’s
distance from me, south-south-east, but not above a league and a
half from the shore. By my observation, it appeared plainly to be
an English ship, and the boat appeared to be an English long-boat.

I cannot express the confusion I was in; though the joy of
seeing a ship, and one that I had reason to alee was manned
by my own countrymen, and, consequently, friends, was such as
I cannot describe ; but yet I had some secret doubts hang about
me—lI cannot tell from whence they came—bidding me keep
upon my guard. In the first place, it occurred to me to consider
what business an English ship could have in that part of the
world, since it was not the way to or from any part of the
world where the English had any traffic: and I knew there had
been no storms to drive them in there, as in distress ; and that
if they were really English, it was most probable that che were
here upon no good design, and that I had better continue as I
was, than fall into the hands of thieves and murderers.

Let no man despise the secret hints and notices of danger,
which sometimes are given him when he may think there is no
possibility of its being real. That such hints and notices are
given us, I believe few that have made any observations of things
can deny ; that they are certain discoveries of an invisible world,
and a converse of spirits, we cannot doubt ; and if the tendency
220 ADVENTURES OF

of them seems to be to warn us of danger, why should we not
suppose they are from some friendly agent (whether supreme, or
inferior and subordinate, is not the question), and that they are
given for our good?

The present question abundantly confirms me in the justice of
this reasoning ; for had I not been made cautious by this secret
admonition, come it from whence it will, I had been undone
inevitably, and in a far worse condition than before, as you will
see presently. I had not kept myself long in this posture, but I
saw the boat draw near the shore, as if they looked for a creek
to thrust in at, for the convenience of landing ; however, as they
did not .come quite far enough, they did not see the little inlet
where I formerly landed my rafts, but ran their boat on shore
upon the beach at about half a mile from me, which was very
happy for me; for otherwise they would have landed just, as I
may say, at my door, and would soon have beaten me out of my
castle, and perhaps have plundered me of all I had.

When they were on shore, I was fully satisfied they were
Englishmen, at least most of them; one or two I thought were .
Dutch, but it did not prove so; there were in all eleven men,
whereof three of them I found were unarmed, and, as I thought,
bound ; and when the first four or five of them were jumped on
shore, they took those three out of the boat, as prisoners: one of
the three I could perceive using the most passionate gestures of
entreaty, affliction, and despair, even to a kind of extravagance ;
the other two, I could perceive, lifted up their hands sometimes,
and appeared concerned, indeed, but not to such a degree as the
first. I was perfectly confounded at the sight, and knew not
what the meaning of it should be. Friday called out to me in
English, as well as he could, “O master! you see English mans
eat prisoner as well as savage mans.” “ Why,” says I, “ Friday,
do you think they are going to eat them then?” “Yes,” says
Friday, ‘‘they will eat them.” ‘No, no,” says I, ‘‘ Friday, I am
afraid they will murder them, indeed ; but you may be sure they
will not eat them.”

All this while I had no thought of what the matter really was,
but stood trembling with the horror of the sight, expecting every
moment when the three prisoners should be killed ; nay, once I
saw one of the villains lift up his arm with a great cutlass, as the
seamen call it, or sword, to strike one of the poor men, and I
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 22

expected to see him fall every moment, at which all the blood in
my body seemed to run chill in my veins. I wished heartily now
for my Spaniard, and the savage that was gone with him, or that
I had any way to have come undiscovered within shot of them,
that I might have rescued the three men, for I saw no firearms
they had among them: but it fell out to my mind another way.
After I had observed the outrageous usage of the three men by
the insolent seamen, I observed the fellows run scattering about
the island, as if they wanted to see the country. I observed that
the three other men had liberty to go also where they pleased ;
but they sat down all three upon the ground, very pensive, and
looked like men in despair.

This put me in mind of the first time when I came on shore
and began to look-about me: how I gave myself over for lost ;
how wildly I looked around me; what dreadful apprehensions I
had ; and how I lodged in the tree all night, for fear of being
devoured by wild’ beasts. As I knew nothing that night of the
supply I was to receive by the providential driving of the ship
nearer the land by the storms and tide, by which I have since
been so long nourished and supported : so these three poor deso-
late men knew nothing how certain of deliverance and supply
they were, how near it was to them, and how effectually and really
they were in a condition of safety, at the same time that they
thought themselves lost, and their case desperate. So little do
we see before us in the world, and so much reason have we to
depend cheerfully upon the great Maker of the world, that He
does not leave His creatures so absolutely destitute, but that,
in the worst circumstances, they have always something to be
thankful for, and sometimes are nearer their deliverance than they
Imagine ; nay, are even brought to their deliverance by the means
by which they seem to be brought to their destruction.

It was just at the top of high water when these people came on
shore ; and while partly they stood parleying with the prisoners |
they brought, and partly while they rambled about to see what
kind of a place they were in, they had carelessly stayed till the
tide was spent, and the water was ebbed considerably away,
leaving their boat aground. They had left two men in the boat,
who, as I found afterwards, having drunk a little too much brandy,
fell asleep ; however, one of them waking sooner than the other,
and finding the boat too fast aground for him to stir it, hallooed
222 ADVENTURES oe

for the rest, who were straggling about, upon which they all soon
came to the boat ; but it was past all their strength to launch her,
the boat being very heavy, and the shore on that side being a soft
oozy sand, almost like a quicksand.

In this condition, like true seamen, who are perhaps the least -
of all mankind given to forethought, they gave it over, and away
they strolled about the country again ; and I heard one of them
say aloud to another, calling them off from the boat, ‘‘ Why, let her
alone, Jack, can’t you ? she'll float next tide,” by which I was fully
confirmed in the main inquiry of what countrymen they were.

All this while I kept myself very close, not once daring to stir
out of my castle, any farther than to my place of observation near
the top of the hill; and very glad I was to think how well it was
fortified. I knew it was no less than ten hours before the boat
could be on float again, and by that time it would be dark, and I
might be at more liberty to see their motions, and to hear their
discourse, if they had any.

In,the meantime I fitted myself up for a battle, as before, though
with more caution, knowing I had to do with another kind of
enemy than I had at first. I ordered Friday also, whom I had
made an excellent marksman with his gun, to load himself witharms.
I took myself two fowling-pieces, and I gave him three muskets. .
My figure, indeed, was very fierce: I had my formidable goat’s
skin coat on, with the great cap I have mentioned, a naked sword
by my side, two pistols in my belt, and a gun upon each shoulder.

It was my design, as I said above, not to have made any attempt
till it was dark ; but, about two o'clock, being the heat of the day,
~ I found, that, in short, they were all gone straggling into the woods,
and, as I thought, laid down to sleep. The three poor distressed
men, too anxious for their condition to get any sleep, were, how-
ever, set down under the shelter of a great tree, at about a quarter
of a mile from me, and, as I thought, out of sight of any of the rest.

Upon this I resolved to discover myself to them, and learn

something of their condition. Immediately I marched in the
figure as above, my man Friday at a good distance behind me, as
formidable for his arms as I, but not making quite so staring a
spectre-like figure as I did.

I came as near them undiscovered as I could, and then, before
any of them saw me, I called aloud to them in Spanish, “ What
are ye, gentlemen?”


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ROBINSON CRUSOE. 222

They started up at the noise ; but were ten times more con-
founded when they saw me, and the uncouth figure that I made.
They made no answer at all, but I thought I perceived them just
going to fly from me, when I spoke to them in English. ‘“‘ Gentle-
men,” said I, “‘do not be surprised at me ; perhaps you may have
a friend near, when you did not expect it.” “He must be sent
directly from Heaven, then,” said one of them very gravely to me,
and pulling off his hat at the same time to me, “ for our condition
is past the help of man.” ‘All help is from Heaven, sir,” said I ;
‘but can you put a stranger in the way howto help you? for you
seem to be in some great distress. JI saw you when you landed ;
and when you seemed to make supplication to the brutes that
came with you, I saw one of them lift up his sword to kill you.”

The poor man, with tears running down his face, and trembling, —
looking like one astonished, returned, ‘‘ Am I talking to God or

-man? Isitareal man or an angel?” “Be in no fear about that,

sir,” said I; ‘if God had sent an angel to relieve you, he would
have come better clothed, and better armed after another manner
than you see me: pray lay aside your fears; I am a man, an
Englishman, and disposed to assist you: you see I have one ser-
vant only ; we have arms and ammunition,—tell us freely, can we
serve you? What is your case?”

“Our case,” said the; "sir, is*too long to tell you, while our
murderers are so near us: but, in short, sir, I was commander of
that ship; my men have mutinied against me; they have been
hardly prevailed on not to murder me; and at last have set me on
shore in this desolate place, with these two men with me, one my
mate, the other a passenger, where we expected to perish, believing
the place to be uninhabited, and know not yet what to think of it.”

‘Where are these brutes, your enemies?” said I: ‘‘do you know
where they are gone?” ‘There they lie, sir,” said he, pointing

toa thicket of trees ; ‘‘ my heart trembles for fear they have seen us,

and heard you speak; if they have, they will certainly murder us all.”

“ Have they any firearms?” said I. He answered, “ They have
only two pieces, one of which they have left in the boat.” “ Well,
then,” said I, ‘“‘leave the rest to me; I see they are all asleep, it
is an easy thing to kill them all: but shall we rather take them
prisoners?” He told me there were two desperate villains among
them, that it was scarce safe to show any mercy to; but if they
were secured, he believed all the rest would return to their duty.
224 ADVENTURES OF

I asked him which they were? He told me he could not at that
distance distinguish them, but he would obey my orders in anything
I would direct. ‘‘ Well,” said I, “let us retreat out of their view
or hearing, lest they awake, and we will resolve farther.” So they
willingly went back with me, till the woods covered us from them.

‘Look you, sir,” said I, “if I venture upon your deliverance,
are you willing to make two conditions with me?” He antici-
pated my proposals, by telling me, that both he and the ship, if
recovered, should be wholly directed and commanded by me in
everything ; and if the ship was not recovered, he would live and
die with me in what part of the world soever I would send him ;
and the two other men said the same. ]

“Well,” says I, ‘my conditions are but two—First, That while
you stay in this island with me, you will not pretend to any
authority here ; and if I put arms into your hands, you will, upon
all occasions, give them up to me, and do no prejudice to me or
mine upon this island, and, in the meantime, be governed by my
orders. Second, That if the ship is, or may be recovered, you
will carry me and my man to England passage free.” :

He gave me all the assurances that the invention or faith of
man could devise, that he would comply with these most reason-
able demands; and, besides, would owe his life to me, and
acknowledge it upon all occasions, as long as he lived,

“Well, then,” said I, “here are three muskets for you, with
powder and ball: tell me next what you think is proper to be
done.” He showed all the testimony of his gratitude that he
_ was able, but offered to be wholly guided by me. I told him I
thought it was hard venturing anything ; but the best method I
could think of was to fire upon them at once, as they lay, and if
any were .not killed at the first volley, and offered to submit, we
might save them, and so put it wholly upon God’s providence to
direct the shot. 3

He said very modestly, that he was loath to kill them, if he
could help it—but that those two were incorrigible villains, and
had been the authors of all the mutiny in the ship, and if they
escaped, we should be undone still ; for they would go on board
and bring the whole ship’s company, and destroy us all. “ Well,
then,” says IJ, “necessity legitimates my advice, for it is the only
way to save our lives.” However, seeing him still cautious of
shedding blood, I told him they should go themselves, and
manage as they found convenient.
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 225

In the middle of this discourse we heard some of them awake,
and soon after we saw two of them on their feet. I asked him
if either of them were the heads of the mutiny? He said, “No.”
“Well, then,” said I, “ you may let them escape ; and Providence
seems to have awakened them on purpose to save themselves.
Now,” says I, “if the rest escape you, it is your fault.”

Animated with this, he took the musket I had given him in his
hand, and a pistol in his belt, and his two comrades with him,
each man a piece in his hand: the two men who were with him
going first, made some noise, at which one of the seamen who
was awake turned about, and seeing them coming, cried out to
the rest ; but it was too late then, for the moment he cried out
they fired ; I mean the two men, the captain wisely reserving his
own piece. They had so well aimed their shot at the men they
knew, that one of them was killed on the spot, and the other very
much wounded ; but. not being dead, he started up on his feet,
and called eagerly for help to the others, but the captain, stepping
to him, told him it was too late to cry for help, he should call
upon God to forgive his villany, and with that word knocked
him down with the stock of his musket, so that he never spoke
more: there were three more in the company, and one of them
was also slightly wounded. By this time I was come; and when
they saw their danger, and that it was in vain to resist, they begged
for mercy. The captain told them he would spare their lives, if
they would give him any assurance of their abhorrence of the
treachery they had been guilty of, and would swear to be faithful
to him in recovering the ship, and afterwards in carrying her
back to Jamaica, from whence they came. ‘They gave him all the
protestations of their sincerity that could be desired, and he was
willing to believe them, and spare their lives, which I was not
against,—only I was obliged to keep them bound hand and foot
while they were upon the island.

While this was doing, I sent Friday with the captain’s mate to
the boat, with orders to secure. her, and bring away the oars and
sail, which they did; and by and by three straggling men, that
were (happily for them) parted from the rest, came back upon
hearing the guns fired, and seeing their captain, who before was
their prisoner, now their conqueror, they submitted to be bound
also ; and so our victory was complete.


CHAPTER XVII.

Crusoe and the captain consult how they may recover the ship from the mutineers—
In the meanwhile a fresh party come ashore—An ambuscade is contrived, and'
the mutineers lay down their arms—The captain promises mercy to all except
Will Atkins—The ship taken from the mutineers—-Crusoe leaves the island, in
which he had lived for twenty-eight years.

©]T now remained that the captain and I should inquire
into one another’s circumstances. I began first,
and told him my whole history, which he heard
with an attention even to amazement, and particu-
po larly at the wonderful manner of my being furnished
with provisions and ammunition ; and, indeed, as my story is a
whole collection of wonders, it affected him deeply. But when
he reflected from thence upon himself, and how I seemed to have
been preserved there on purpose to save his life, the tears ran
down his face, and he could not speak a word more.

After this communication was at an end, I carried him and his
two men into my apartment, leading them in just where I came
out, viz., at the top of the house, where I refreshed them with
such provisions as I had, and showed them all the contrivances
I had made, during my long, long inhabiting that place.

All I showed them, all I said to them, was perfectly amazing ;
but, above all, the captain admired my fortification, and how
perfectly I had concealed my retreat with a grove of trees, which,
having been now planted near twenty years, and the trees growing
much faster than in England, was become a little wood, and so
thick, that it was impassable in any part of it, but at that one side
where I had reserved my little winding passage into it. This I
told him was my castle and my residence, but that I had a seat
in the country, as most princes have, whither I could retreat
upon occasion, and I would show him that too another time ;


ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 227

but at present our business was to consider how to recover the
ship. He agreed with me as to that; but told me he was per-
fectly at a loss what measures to take, for that there were still six-
and-twenty hands on board, who having entered into a cursed
conspiracy, by which they had all forfeited their lives to the law,
would be hardened in it now by desperation, and would carry it
on, knowing that, if they were subdued, they would be brought
to the gallows as soon as they came to England, or to any of the
English colonies ; and that, therefore, there would be no attacking
them with so small a number as we were.

I mused for some time upon what he had said, and found it
was a very rational conclusion, and that, therefore, something
was to be resolved on speedily, as well to draw the men on board
into some snare for their surprise, as to prevent their landing
upon us, and destroying us. Upon this, it presently occurred to
me that, in a little while, the ship’s crew, wondering what was
become of their comrades and of the boat, would certainly come
on shore in their other boat, to look for them; and that then,
perhaps, they might come armed, and be too strong for us: this
he allowed was rational. |

Upon this, I told him the first thing we had to do was to stave
the boat, which lay upon the beach, so that they might not carry
her off; and taking everything out of her, leave her so far use-
less as not to be fit to swim : accordingly we went on board, took
the arms which were left on board out of her, and whatever else
we found there, which was a bottle of brandy, and another of
rum, a few biscuit-cakes, a horn of powder, and a great lump of
sugar in a piece of canvas (the sugar was five or six pounds), all
which was very welcome to me, especially the brandy and sugar,
of which I had had none left for many years.

When we had carried all these things on shore (the oars, mast,
sail and rudder of the boat were carried away before, as above),
we knocked a great hole in her bottom, that if they had come
strong enough to master us, yet they could not carry off the boat.
Indeed, it was not much in my thoughts that we could be able to .
recover the ship ; but my view was, that if they went away with-
out the boat, I did not much question to make her fit again to
carry us to the Leeward Islands, and call upon our friends the
Spaniards in my way, for I had them still in my thoughts.

While we were thus preparing our designs, and had first, by
228 ADVENTURES OF

main strength, heaved the boat upon the beach so high that the
tide would not float her off at high-water mark, and besides had
broken a hole in her bottom too big to be quickly stopped, and
were set down musing what we should do, we heard the ship fire _
a gun, and saw her make a waft with her ancient as a signal for
the boat to come on board; but no boat stirred, and they fired »
several times, making other signals for the boat.

At last, when all their signals and firing proved fruitless, and
they found the boat did not stir, we saw them (by the help of my
glasses) hoist another boat out, and row towards the shore; and
we found, as they approached, that thereewere no less than ten
men in her, and that they had fire-arms with them. |

As the ship lay almost two leagues from the shore, we had a
full view of them as they came, and a plain sight even of their
faces, because the tide having set them a little to the east of the
other boat, they rowed up under shore, to come to the same
place where the other had landed, and where the boat lay.

By this means, I say, we had a full view of them, and the
captain knew the persons and characters of all the men in the
boat, of whom, he said, that there were three very honest fellows, .
who, he was sure, were led into this conspiracy by the rest, being
overpowered and frighted ; but that as for the boatswain, who,
it seems, was the chief officer among them, and all the rest, they
were as outrageous as any of the ship’s crew, and were no doubt
made desperate in their new enterprise ; and terribly apprehensive
he was that they would be too powerful for us.

I smiled at him, and told him that men in our circumstances
were past the operation of fear,—that, considering every condition
that could be was better than that we were supposed to be in,
we ought to expect that the consequence, whether death or life,
would be sure to bea deliverance. I asked him what he thought
of the circumstances of my life, and whether a deliverance were
not worth venturing for? ‘And where, sir,” said I, “is your
belief of my being preserved here on purpose to save your life, ©
which elevated you a little while ago? For my part,” said I,
‘there seems to me but one thing amiss in all the prospect of
it.’ “ What is that?” says he ‘‘ Why,” said I, “it is, that as
you say there are three or four honest fellows among them, which
should be spared ; had they been all of the wicked part of the
crew I should have thought God’s providence had singled them
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 229

out to deliver them into your hands; for, depend upon it, every
man of them that comes ashore are our own, and shall die or
live as they behave to us.”

As I spoke this with a raised voice and cheerful countenance,
I found it greatly encouraged him ; so we set vigorously to our
business. We had, upon the first appearance of the boat’s
coming from the ship, considered of separating our prisoners,
and had, indeed, secured them effectually. Two of them, of
whom the captain was less assured than ordinary, I sent with
Friday and one of the three delivered men to my cave, where they
were remote enough, and out of danger of being heard or dis-
covered, or of finding their way out of the woods if they could
have delivered themselves: here they left them bound, but gave
them provisions ; and promised them, if they continued there:
quietly, to give them their liberty in a day or two, but that if
they attempted their escape, they should be put to death without
mercy. They promised faithfully to bear their confinement with
patience, and were very thankful that they had such good usage
as to have provisions and a light left them, for Friday gave them
candles (such as we made ourselves) for their comfort, and they did
not know but that he stood sentinel over them at the entrance.

The other prisoners had better usage: two of them were kept
pinioned, indeed, because the captain was not free to trust them ;
but the other two were taken into my service, upon the captain’s
recommendation, and upon their solemnly engaging to live and
die with us. So with them and the three honest men we were
seven men well armed, and I made no doubt we should be able
to deal well enough with the ten that were coming, considering
that the captain had said there were three or four honest men
among them also.

As soon as they got to the place where their other boat lay,
they run their boat into the beach, and came all on shore, hauling
the boat up after them, which I was glad to see ; for I was afraid
they would rather have left the boat at an anchor, some distance
from-the shore, with some hands in her to guard her, and so we
should not be able to seize the boat.

Being on shore, the first thing they did, they ran all to their
other boat, and it was easy to see they were under a great surprise
to find her stripped, as above, of all that was in her, and a great
hole in her bottom.
230 ADVENTURES OF

After they had mused awhile upon this, they set up two or
three great shouts, hallooing with all their might, to try if they
could make their companions hear ; but all was to no purpose :
then they came all close in a ring, and fired a volley of their -
small arms,.which, indeed, we heard, and the echoes made the
woods ring. But it was all one: those in the cave we were sure |
could not hear; and those in our keeping, though they heard it
well enough, yet durst give no answer to them.

They were so astonished at the surprise of this, that, as they ~
told us afterwards, they resolved to go all on board again to their
ship, and let them know there that the men were all murdered,
and the long-boat staved : accordingly, they immediately launched
their boat again, and got all of them on board. 3

The captain was terribly amazed and even confounded at this,
believing they would go on board the ship again, and set sail,
giving their comrades up for lost, and so he should still lose the
ship, which he was in hopes we should have recovered; but he
was quickly as much frighted the other way.

They had not been long put off with the boat, but we perceived
them all coming on shore again; but with this new measure in
their conduct, which it seems they consulted together upon, viz.,
to leave three men in the boat, and the rest to go on shore, and
go up into the country to look for their fellows.

_ This was a great disappointment to us, for we were now at a

loss what to do; for our seizing those seven men on shore would
be no advantage to us, if we let the boat escape, because they
would then row away to the ship, and then the rest of them would
be sure to weigh and set sail, and so our recovery of the ship
would be lost.

However, we had no remedy but to wait and see what the issue
of things-might present. The seven men came on shore, and the
three who remained in the boat put her off to a good distance
from the shore, and came to an anchor to wait for them; so that
it was impossible for us to come at them in the boat. |

Those that came on shore kept close together, marching
towards the top of the little hill under which my habitation lay ;
and we could see them plainly, though they could not perceive
us: we could have been very glad they would have come nearer
to us, so that we might have fired at them, or that they would:
have gone farther off, that we might have come abroad.
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 231

But when they were come to the brow of the hill, where they
could see a great way into the valleys and woods, which lay
towards the north-east part, and where the island lay lowest, they
shouted and hallooed till they were weary; and not caring, it
seems, to venture far from the shore, nor far from one another,
they sat down together under a tree, to consider of it. Had they
thought fit to have gone to sleep there, as the other party of
them had done, they had done the job for us; but they were too
full of apprehensions of danger to venture to go to sleep, though
they could not tell what the danger was they had to fear neither.

The captain made a very just proposal to me upon this con-
sultation of theirs, viz., that perhaps they would all fire a volley
again, to endeavour to make their fellows hear, and that we
should all sally upon them, just at the juncture when their pieces
were all discharged, and they would certainly yield, and we
should have them without bloodshed. I liked this proposal, pro-
vided it was done while we were near enough to come up to
them before they could load their pieces again.

But this event did not happen, and we lay still a long time,
very irresolute what course to take. At length I told him there
would be nothing done, in my opinion, till night; and then, if
they did not return to the boat, perhaps we might find a way to
get between them and the shore, and so might use some strata-
gem with them in the boat to get.them on shore.

We waited a great while, though very impatient for their remov-
ing, and were very uneasy, when, after long consultations, we saw.
them all start up, and march down towards the sea: it seems they
had such dreadful apprehensions upon them of the danger of the
place, that they resolved to go on board the ship again, give their
companions over for lost, and so go on with their intended voyage
with the ship.

As soon as I perceived them to go towards the shore, I imagined
it to be, as it really was, that they had given over their search, and
were for going back again ; and the captain, as soon as I told him
my thoughts, was ready to sink at the apprehensions of:it; but I
presently thought of a stratagem to fetch them back again, and
which answered my end to a tittle.

I ordered Friday and the captain’s mate to go over the little
creek westward, towards the place where the savages came on
shore when Friday was rescued, and as soon as they came to a
232 ADVENTURES OF.

little rising ground, at about half a mile’s distance, I bade them
halloo as loud as they could, and wait till they found the seamen
heard them; that as soon as ever they heard the seamen answer
them, they should return it again, and then, keeping out of sight,
take a round, always answering them when the others hallooed,
to draw them as far into the island, and among the woods, as
possible, and then wheel about again to me, by such ways as I
directed.

They were just going into the boat when Friday and the mate
hallooed ; and they presently heard them, and answering, ran
along ie shore westward, towards the voice they heard, when
they were presently stopped by the creek, where, the water being
up, they could not get over, and called for the boat to come up
and set them over,—as, indeed, I expected.

When they had set themselves over, I observed that the boat
being gone a good way into the creek, and, as it were, in a harbour
within the land, they took one of the three men out of her to go -
along with them, and left only two in the boat, having fastened her
to the stump of a little tree on the shore.

This was what I wished for; and immediately leaving Friday
and the captain’s mate to their business, I took the rest with me,
and crossing the creek out of their sight, we surprised the two men
before they were aware,—one of them lying on the shore, and the
other being in the boat: the fellow on shore was between sleeping
and waking, and, going to start up, the captain, who was foremost,
ran in upon him, and knocked him down, and then calied out to
him in the boat to yield, or he was a dead man.

There néeded very few arguments to persuade a single man to
yield, when he saw five men upon him, and his comrade knocked
down ; besides, this was, it seems, one of the three who were not
so hearty in the mutiny as the rest of the crew, and therefore was
easily persuaded not only to ue but. afterwards to join very
sincerely with us.

In-the meantime, Friday and the captain’ s mate so well managed
their business with the rest, that they drew them, by hallooing and
answering, from one hill to another, and from one wood to another,
till they not only heartily tired them, but left them where they were
very sure they could not reach back to the boat before it was dark ;
and indeed they were heartily tired themselves also by the time:
they came back to us.
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 233

We had nothing now to do but to watch for them in the dark,
and to fall upon them, so as to make sure work with them.

It was several hours after Friday came back to me before they
came back to their boat, and we could hear the foremost of them,
long before they came quite up, calling to those behind to come
along, and could also hear them answer, and complain how lame
and tired they were, and not able to come any faster, which was
very welcome news to us. :

At length they came up to the boat; but it is impossible to
express their confusion when they found the boat fast aground in
the creek, the tide ebbed out, and their two men gone. We could
hear them call to one another in a most lamentable manner, telling
one another they were gotten into an enchanted island ; that either
there were inhabitants in it, and they should all be murdered, or
else there were devils or spirits in it, and they should be all carried
away and devoured. |

They hallooed again, and called their two comrades by their
names a great many times; but no answer: after some time, we
could see them by the little light there was, run about, wringing
their hands like men in despair, and that sometimes they would
go and sit.down in the boat to rest themselves, then come ashore
again, and walk about again, and so the same thing over again.

My men would fain have had me give them leave to fall upon
them in the dark; but I was willing to take them at some advan-
tage, so to spare them, and kill as few of them as I could: and
especially I was unwilling to hazard the killing any of our men,
knowing the others were very well armed. I resolved to wait, to
see if they did not separate ; and, therefore, to make sure of them,
I drew my ambuscade nearer, and ordered Friday and the captain
to creep upon their hands and feet as close to the ground as they
could, that they might not be discovered, and get as near them as
they could possibly, before they offered to fire.

They had not been long in that posture, when the boatswain,
who was the principal ringleader of the mutiny, and had now shown
himself the most dejected and dispirited of all the rest, came walking
towards them with two more of the crew : the captain was So eager
at having the principal rogue so much in his power, that he could
hardly have patience to let him come so near as to be sure of him,
for they only heard his tongue before: but when they came nearer,
the captaifi and Friday, starting upon their feet, let fly at them.
234 ADVENTURES OF

The boatswain was killed upon the spot ; the next man was shot .
in the body, and fell just by him, though he did not die till an hour
or two after; and the third ran for it.

At the noise of the fire, I immediately advanced with my whole —
army, which was now eight men, viz., myself, generalissimo; Friday,
my lieutenant-general ; the captain and his two men, and the three
prisoners of war, whom we had trusted with arms.

We came upon them, indeed, in the dark, so that they could not |
see our number; and I made the man they had left in the boat,
who was now one of us, to call them by name, to try if I could
bring them to a parley, and so might perhaps reduce them to terms,
which fell out just as we desired, for, indeed, it was easy-to think,
as their condition then was, they would be very willing to capitu-
late. So he calls out, as loud as he could, to one of them, “Tom
Smith! Tom Smith!” Tom Smith answered immediately, ‘“‘Who’s
that? Robinson?” For it seems he knewthevoice. The other
answered, “ Ay, ay; for God’s sake, Tom Smith, throw down your
arms and yield, or you are all dead men this moment.”

“Who must we yield to? Where are they?” says Smith,
again. ‘‘ Here they are,” says he, “here’s our captain and fifty
men with him, have been hunting you these two hours: the boat-
swain is killed, Will Fry is wounded, and I am a prisoner; and
if you do not yield, you are all lost.” ‘* Will they give us quarter
then ?” says Tom Smith, “and we will yield.”—“I will go ask, if |
you promise to yield,” says Robinson. So he asked the captain ;
and the captain himself then calls out, “You, Smith, you know
my voice; if you lay down your arms immediately, and submit, |
you shall have your lives, all but Will Atkins.” |

Upon this Will Atkins cried out, “ For God’s sake, captain, give
me quarter ; what have I done? they have all been as bad as I,”—
which by the way was not true neither, for it seems this Will Atkins
was the first man that laid hold of the captain when they first
mutinied, and used him barbarously, in tying his hands, and giving
him injurious language. However, the captain told him he must
lay down his arms at discrétion, and trust to the governor’s ee |
by which he meant me, for they all called me governor.

In a word, they all laid down their arms, and begged their
lives ; and I sent the man who had parleyed coe them, and two.
more, who bound them all: and then my great army of fifty.

men, which, particularly with those three, were in all but eight,
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 235

came up and seized upon them all, and upon their boat, only that
I kept myself and one more out of sight for reasons of state.

Our next work was to repair the boat, and to think of seizing
the ship; and as for the captain, now he had leisure to parley
with them, he expostulated with them upon the villany of their
practices with him, and at length upon the further wickedness of
their design, and how certainly it must bring them to misery and
distress in the end, and perhaps to the ellen

They all appeared very penitent, and begged hard for their
lives. As for that, he told them they were none of his prisoners,
but the commander’s of the island; that they thought they
had set him on shore in a barren, uninhabited island, but it
had pleased God so to direct them, that the island was inhabited,
and that the governor was an Englishman ; that he might hang
them all there, if he pleased; but, as he had given them all
quarter, he supposed he would send them to England, to be
dealt with there as justice required, except Atkins, whom he was
commanded by the governor to advise to prepare for death, for
. that he would be hanged in the morning.

Though all this was but a fiction of his own, yet it had its
desired effect: Atkins fell upon his knees, to beg the captain to
intercede with the governor for his life; and all the rest begged
of him, for God’s sake, that they might not be sent to England.

It now occurred to me that the time of our deliverance was
come, and that it would be a most easy thing to bring these
fellows in to be hearty in getting possession of the ship; so I
retired in the dark from them, that they might not see what kind
of a governor they hadyand called the captain to me: when I
called, as at a good distance, one of the men was ordered to speak
again, and say to the captain, ‘‘ Captain, the commander calls for
you ;” and presently the captain replied, ‘‘ Tell his excellency I
am just a-coming.” This more perfectly amused them, and they
all believed that the commander was just by with his fifty men.

Upon the captain’s coming to me, I told him my project for
seizing the ship, which he liked wonderfully well, and resolved .
to put it in execution the next morning.

But in order to execute it with more heart, and to be secure
of success, I told him we must divide the prisoners, and that he
should go and take Atkins and two more of the worst of them,
and send them pinioned to the’ cave where the others lay. This
236 ADVENTURES OF

was committed to Friday and the two men who carne on shore
with the captain.

They conveyed them to the cave as to a prison; and it was,
indeed, a dismal place, especially to men in their condition.

The others I ordered to my bower, as I called it, of which I
have given a full description; and as it was fenced in, and they
pinioned, the place was secure enough, considering they were
upon their behaviour. To these in the morning I sent the captain,
who was to enter into a parley with them,—in a word, to try them,
and tell me whether he thought they might be trusted or no to go
on board and surprise the ship. He talked to them of the injury
done him, of the condition they were brought to, and that though
the governor had given them quarter for their lives as to the pre-
sent action, yet that if they were sent to England, they would all
be hanged ‘in chains, to be sure; but that if they would join in
such an attempt as to recover the ship, he would have the gover-
nor’s engagement for their pardon.

Any one may guess how readily such a proposal would be |
accepted by men in their condition; they fell down on their
knees to the captain, and promised, with the deepest imprecations,
that they would be faithful to him to the last drop, and that they
should owe their lives to him, and would go with him all over the
world ; that they would own him for a father as long as they lived.
“Well,” says the captain, “1 must go and tell the governor what
you say, and see what I can do to bring him to consent to it.”
So he brought me an account of the temper he found them in,
and that he verily believed they would be faithful.

However, that we might be very secure, I told him he should
go back again and choose out five, and tell them that they might
see he did not want men, but that he would take out those five to
be his assistants, and that the governor would keep the other two,
and the three that were sent prisoners to the castle (my cave) as
hostages for the fidelity of those five; and that, if they proved
unfaithful in the execution, the five hostages should be hanged in
chains alive on the shore.

This looked severe, and convinced them that the governor was
in earnest : however, they had no way left them but to accept it ;
and it was now the business of the prisoners, as much as of the
captain, to persuade the other five to do their duty. |

Our strength was now thus ordered for the expedition :—1.
ROBINSON CRUSOE. | 237

The captain, his mate, and passenger.—2. Then the two prisoners
of the first gang, to whom, having their characters from the captain,
Thad given their liberty, and trusted them with arms.—3. The
other two that I had kept till now in my bower pinioned, but,
upon the captain’s motion, had now released.—4. These five
released at last; so that they were twelve in all, besides five we
kept prisoners in the cave for hostages. 7

I asked the captain if he was willing to venture with these hands
on board the ship; but as for me and my man Friday, I did
not think it was proper for us to stir, having seven men left
behind: and it was employment enough for us to keep them
asunder, and supply them with victuals. |

As to the five in the cave, I resolved to keep them fast, but
Friday went in twice a day to them, to supply them with neces-
saries ; and I made the other two carry provisions to a certain
distance, where Friday was to take it.

When I showed myself to the two hostages, it was with the
captain, who told them I was the person the governor had ordered
_ to look after them, and that it was the governor’s pleasure they
should not, stir anywhere but by my direction ; that if they did,
they should be fetched into the castle, and be laid in irons: so
that, as we never suffered them to see me as a governor, I now
appeared as another person, and spoke of the governor, the
garrison, the castle, and the like, upon all occasions.

The captain now had no difficulty before him, but to furnish
his two boats, stop the breach of one, and man them. He made
his passenger captain of one, with four of the men; and himself,
his mate, and five more, went in the other: and they contrived
their business very well, for they came up to the ship about mid-
night. As soon as they came within call of the ship, he made
Robinson hail them, and tell them they had brought off the men
and the boat, but that it was a long time before they had found
them, and the like, holding them in a chat till they came to the
ship’s side; when the captain and the mate entering first, with
their arms, immediately knocked down the second mate and car-
penter with the butt end of their muskets. Being very faithfully
seconded by their men, they secured all the rest that were upon
the main and quarter decks, and began to fasten the hatches, to
keep them down that were below ; when the other boat and their
men, entering at the fore-chains, secured the forecastle of the ship
238 ADVENTURES OF —

and the scuttle which went down into the cockroom, making —
three men they found there prisoners. When this was done, and
all safe upon deck, the captain ordered the mate, with three men,
to break into the round house, where the new rebel captain lay, who
having taken the alarm, had got up, and with two men and a boy
had gotten firearms in their hands; and when the mate, with a
crow, split open the door, the new captain and his men fired boldly
among them,and wounded the mate with a musket ball, which broke
his arm, and wounded two more of the men, but killed nobody.

_ The mate, calling for help, rushed, however, into the round-
house, wounded as he was, and with his pistol shot the new
captain through the head, the bullet entering at his mouth, and
came out again behind one of his ears, so that he never spoke a
word: upon which the rest yielded, and the ship was taken
effectually, without any more lives lost. As soon as the ship was
thus secured, the captain ordered seven guns to be fired, which was
the signal agreed upon with me to give me notice of his success,
which you may be sure I was very glad to hear, having sat watch- -
ing upon the shore for it till near two o’clock in the morning.

Having thus heard the signal plainly, I laid-me down ; and it
having been a day of great fatigue to me, I slept very sound, till
I was something surprised at the noise of a gun: and presently
starting up, I heard a man call me by the name of “Governor,
Governor,” and presently I knew the captain’s voice,—when
climbing up to the top of the hill, there he stood, and pointing to _
the ship, he embraced me in his arms. ‘‘ My dear friend and
deliverer,” says he, ‘there’s your ship, for she is all yours, and so
are we, and all that belong to her.” I cast my eyes to the ship
and there she rode within little more than half a mile of the
shore ; for they had weighed her anchor as soon as they were
masters of her, and the weather being fair, had brought her to an
anchor just against the mouth of a little creek; and the tide
being up, the captain had brought the pinnace in near the place
where I first landed my rafts, and so landed just at my door.

I was at first ready to sink down with the surprise ; for I saw
my deliverance, indeed, visibly put into my hands, all things easy,
and a large ship just ready to carry me away whither I pleased to
go. At first, for some time, I was not able to answer him one
word ; but as he had taken me in his arms, I held fast by him,
or I should have fallen to the ground.
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 239

He perceived the surprise, and immediately pulls a bottle out
of his pocket, and gave me a dram of cordial, which he had
brought on purpose forme. After I drank it, I sat down on the
ground ; and though it brought me to myself, yet it was a good
while before I could speak a word to him.

All this time the poor man was in as great an ecstasy as I, only
not under any surprise, as I was; and he said a thousand kind
and tender things to me, to compose and bring me to myself:
but such was the flood of joy in my breast, that it put all my
spirits into confusion ; at last 1t broke out into tears, and ina
little while after I recovered my speech. |

Then I took my turn, and embraced him as my deliverer, and
we rejoiced together. I told him I looked upon him as a man
sent from Heaven to deliver me, and that the whole transaction
seemed to be a chain of wonders ; that such things as these were
the testimonies we had of a secret hand of Providence governing
tne world, and an evidence that the eyes of an Infinite Power
could search into the remotest corner of the world, and send help
to the miserable whenever He pleased.

I forgot not to lift up my heart in thankfulness to Heaven ;
and what heart could forbear to bless Him who had not only in
a miraculous manner provided for me in such a wilderness,-and
in such a desolate condition, but from whom every deliverance
must always be acknowledged to proceed ?.

When we had taiked a while, the captain told me he had
brought me some little refreshment, such as the ship afforded,
and such as the wretches that had been so long his masters had
not plundered him of. Upon this he called aloud to the boat, |
and bade his men bring the things ashore that were for the
“governor ; and, indeed, it was a present as if I had been one that
was not to be carried away with them, but as if I had been to
dwell upon the island still.

First, he brought me a case of bottles full of excellent cordial
waters ; six large bottles of Madeira wine (the bottles held two
- quarts each) ; two pounds of excellent good tobacco, twelve good
pieces of the ship’s beef, and six pieces of pork, with a bag of
peas, and about a hundred weight of biscuit: he brought also a
box of sugar, a box of flour, a bag full of lemons, and two bottles
of lime juice, and abundance of other things. But, besides these,
and what was a thousand times more useful to me, he brought
240 ADVENTURES OF

me six clean new shirts, six very good neckcloths, two pair of
gloves, one pair of shoes, a hat, and one pair of stockings, with a
very good suit of clothes of his own, which had been worn but °
very little ; in a word, he clothed me from head to foot.

It was a very kind and agreeable present, as any one may
imagine, to one in my circumstances ; but never was any thing in
the world of that kind so unpleasant, awkward, and uneasy, as it
was to me to wear such clothes at their first putting: on.

After these ceremonies were past, and after all his good things
were brought into my little apartment, we began to consult what
was to be done with the prisoners we had: for it was worth
considering whether we might venture to take them away with us
or no,—especially two of them, whom we knew to be incorrigible
and refractory to the last degree; and the captain said he knew
they were such rogues, that there was no obliging them, and if he
did carry them away, it must be in irons, as malefactors, to be
delivered over to justice at the first English colony he could
come,at; and I found that the captain himself was very anxious
about it. Upon this I told him, that if he desired it, I durst
undertake to bring the two men he spoke of to make it their own
request that he should leave them upon the island. ‘I should be
very glad of that,” says the captain, ‘‘ with all my heart.”

‘‘Well,” says I, ‘I will send for them up, and talk with them
for you.” So I caused Friday and the two hostages, for they were
now discharged, their comrades having performed their promise,
—I say, I caused them to go to the cave, and bring up the five
men, pinioned as they were, to the bower, and.keep them there
till Icame. After some time, I came thither dressed in my new
habit ; and now I was called governor again. Being all met, and
the captain with me, I caused the men to be brought before me,
and I told them I had had a full account of their villanous be-
haviour to the captain, and how they had run away with the ship,
and were preparing to commit further robberies, but that Providence
had ensnared them in their own ways, and that they were fallen
into the pit which they had digged for others.

I let them know that by my direction the ship had been seized,
that she lay now in the road, and they might see, by and by, that
their new captain had received the reward of his villany, for that
_ they would see him hanging at the yard-arm: that as to them, |
wanted to know what they had to say why I should not execute
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 241

them as pirates taken in the fact, as by my commission they could
not doubt I had authority to do.

One of them answered in the name of the rest, that they had
nothing to say but this, that when they were taken, the captain
promised them their lives, and they humbly implored my mercy ;
but I told them I knew not what mercy to show them, for, as for
- myself, I had resolved to quit the island with all my men, and had
taken passage with the captain to go for England ; and as for the
captain, he could not carry them to England, other than as prisoners
in irons, to be tried for mutiny and running away with the ship— |
the consequence of which they must needs know would be the
gallows; so that I could not tell what was best for them, unless
they had a mind to take their fate in the island: if they desired
that, as I had liberty to leave it, I had some inclination to give
them their lives, if they thought they could shift on shore. _

They seemed very thankful. for it, and said they would much
rather venture to stay there than be carried to England to be
hanged; so I left it on that issue.

However, the captain seemed to make some difficulty of it, as if
he durst not leave them there. Upon this I seemed a little angry
with the captain, and told him that they were my prisoners, not
his; that, seeing I had offered them so much favour, I would be
as good as my word; and that if he did not think fit to consent to
it, I would set them at liberty as I found them ; and if he did not
like that, he might take them again if he could catch them.

Upon this they appeared very thankful, and I accordingly set
them at liberty, and bade them retire into the woods to the place
whence they came, and I would leave them some firearms, some
ammunition, and some directions how they should live very well,
if they thought fit.

Upon this I prepared to go on board the ship, but told the
captain that I would stay that night to prepare my things, and
desired him to go on board in the meantime, and keep all right
in the ship, and send the boat on shore the next day for me,—
ordering him in the meantime to cause the new captain, who was
killed, to be hanged at the yard-arm, that these men might see him.

When the captain was gone, I sent for the men up to me to my
apartment, and entered seriously into discourse with them of their
circumstances. I told them I thought they had made a night
choice; that if the captain carried them away, they would certainly

Q
242 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

be hanged. I showed them the new captain hanging at the yard-.
arm of the ship, and told them they had nothing less to expect.

When they had all declared their willingness to stay, I then told

them I would let them into the story of my living there, and put
them into the way of making it easy to them: accordingly, I gave
them the whole history of the place, and of my coming to it;
showed them my fortifications, the way I made my bread, planted
my corn, cured my grapes ; and, in a word, all that was necessary
to make them easy. I told them the story also of the fifteen
Spaniards that were to be expected, for whom I left a letter, and
. made them promise to treat them in common with themselves.
' I left them my firearms, viz., five muskets, three fowling-pieces,
and three swords. I had about a barrel and a half of powder left;
for after the first year or two I used but little, and wasted none.
I gave them a description of the way I managed the goats, and
directions to milk and fatten them, and to make both butter and
cheese : in a word, I gave them every part of my own story, and
I told them I should prevail with the captain to leave them two
barrels of gunpowder more, and some garden seeds, which I told
them I would have been very glad of: also I gave them the bag
of peas which the captain had brought me to eat, and bade them
be sure to sow and increase them.

Having done all this, I left them the next day, and went on
board the ship. We prepared immediately to sail, but did not
weigh that night. The next morning early, two of the five men
came swimming to the ship’s side, and making a most lamentable
complaint of the other three, begged to be taken into the ship, for
-God’s sake, for they should be murdered, and begged the captain
to take them on board, though he hanged them immediately.

Upon this, the captain pretended to have no power without
me ; but after some difficulty, and after their solemn promises of
amendment, they were taken on board, and were some time after
soundly whipped and pickled, after which they proved very
honest and quiet fellows.

Some time after this the boat was ordered on shore, the tide |
being up, with the things promised to the men, to which the
captain, at my intercession, caused their chests and clothes to be
added, which they took, and were very thankful for. I also
encouraged them, by telling them that if it lay in my way to send |
any vessel to take them in, I would not forget them.


CHAPTER XVIII.

Crusoe arrives in England, and finds that most of his relations are dead, and that
his benefactor and steward has fallen into misfortune—He goes to Lisbon,
where he makes himself known to the captain of the ship who took him up at
sea, and is put in the way of recovering his property in the Brazils—His posses-
sions are restored, and he finds himself a wealthy man—Makes arrangements
for the conduct of his estate, and sets out for England by way of Spain—An
encounter with wolves—Friday makes merry with a bear—Crusoe arrives in
England, and settles there.

HEN I took leave of this island, I carried on board for
reliques, the great goat-skin cap I had made, my
umbrella, and one of my parrots ; also I forgot not

_to take the money I formerly mentioned, which had
lain by me so long useless, that it was grown rusty
or tarnished, and could hardly pass for silver, till it had been a little
rubbed and handled ; as also the money I found in the wreck of
the Spanish ship.

And thus I left the island, the 19th of December, as I sand
by the ship’s account, in the year 1686, after I.had been upon it
eight and twenty years, two months, and nineteen days; being
delivered from the second captivity the same day of the month
that I first made my escape in the barcolongo, from among the
Moors of Sallee. In this vessel, aftera long voyage, I arrived in
England the 11th of June, in the year 1687, having been thirty and
five years absent. When I came to England, I was as perfect a
stranger to all the world as if I had never been known there. My
benefactor and faithful steward, whom I had left in trust with my
money, was alive, but had had great misfortunes in the world—
was become a widow the second time, and very low in the world.
I made her very easy as to what she owed me, assuring her I would
give her no trouble ; but, on the contrary, in gratitude for her former
care and faithfulness to me, I relieved her as my little stock would


244 ADVENTURES OF :

afford, which at that time would indeed allow me to do but little ©
for her: but I assured her I would never forget her former kind-
ness to me,—nor did I forget her when I had sufficient to help
her, as shall be observed in its proper place.

I went down afterwards into Yorkshire ; but my father was dead,
and my mother and all the family extinct, except that I found two
sisters, and two of the children of one of my brothers; and as I
had been long ago given over for dead, there had been no provi-
sion made for me: so that, in a word, I found nothing to relieve
or assist me; and that littlke money I had would not do much for
me as to settling in the world.

I met with one piece of gratitude, indeed, which I did not
expect ; and this was, that the master of the ship whom I had so
happily delivered, and by the same means saved the ship and cargo,
having given a very handsome account to the owners of the
manner how I had saved the lives of the men, and the ship, they
invited me to meet them and some other merchants concerned, and
altogether made me a very handsomecompliment upon that subject,
and a present of almost two hundred pounds sterling. |

But after making several reflections upon the circumstances of
my life, and how little way this would go towards settling me in
the world, I resolved to go to Lisbon, and see if I might not come
by some information of the state of my plantation in the Brazils,
and of what was become of my partner, who, I had reason to
suppose, had some years now given me over for dead.

With this view I took shipping for Lisbon, where I arrived in
April following ; my man Friday accompanying me very honestly
in all these ramblings, and proving a most faithful servant upon all
occasions. |

When I came to Lisbon, I found out, by inquiry, and to my
particular satisfaction, my old friend the captain of the ship who |
first took me up at sea off the shore of Africa. He was now grown
old, and had left off the sea, having put his son, who was far from
a young man, into his ship, and who still used the Brazil trade. The
old man did not know me, and, indeed, I hardly knew him ; but
-I soon brought him to my remembrance, and as soon brought my-
self to his remembrance, when I told him who I was.

After some passionate expressions of the old acquaintance, I
inquired, you may be sure, after my plantation and my partner.
The old man told me he had not been in the Brazils for about
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 245

nine years ; but that he could assure me that, when he came away,
my partner was living, but the trustees whom I had joined with
him to take cognizance.of my part, were both dead ; that, however,
he believed I would have a very good account of the improvement
of the plantation, for that upon the general belief of my being cast
away and drowned, my trustees had given in the account of the
produce of my part of the plantation to the procurator-fiscal, who
had appropriated it, in case I never came to claim it, one-third to
the king, and two-thirds to the monastery of St. Augustine, to be
expended for the benefit of the poor, and for the conversion of the
Indians to the Catholic faith ; but that if I appeared, or any one
for me, to claim the inheritance, 1t would be restored,—only that the
improvement, or annual production, being distributed to charitable
uses, could not be restored. But he assured me that the steward
of the king’s revenue from lands, and the provedore, or steward of
the monastery, had taken great care all along that the incumbent,
that is to say, my partner, gave every year a faithful account of the
produce, of which they received duly my moiety.

I asked him if he knew to what height of improvement he had
brought the plantation, and whether he thought it might be worth
looking after, or whether, on my going thither, I should meet with
no obstruction to my possessing my just right in the moiety ?

He told me he could not tell exactly to what degree the planta-
tion was improved ; but this he knew, that my partner was grown
exceeding rich upon the enjoying but one-half of it, and that, to
the best of his remembrance, he had heard that the king’s third of
my part, which was, it seems, granted away to some other monastery
or religious house, amounted to above two hundred moidores a-year :
that, as to my being restored to a quiet possession of it, there was
no question to be made of that, my partner being alive to witness
my title, and my name being also enrolled in the register of the
country. Also he told me that the survivors of my two trustees
were very fair, honest people, and very wealthy ; and he believed
I would not only have their assistance for putting me in possession,
but would find a very considerable sum of money in their hands
for my account, being the produce of the farm while their fathers
held the trust, and before it was given up, as above,—which; as he
remembered, was for about twelve years.

I slowed myself a little concerned and uneasy at this account,
and inquired of the old captain how it came to pass that the
246 ADVENTURES OF

trustees should thus dispose of my effects, when he knew that I
had made my will, and had made him, the Portuguese captain,
my universal heir, &c.

He told me that was true, but that, as there was no proof of
my being dead, he could not act as executor, until some certain
account should come of my death ; and that, besides, he was not
willing to intermeddle with a thing so remote ; that it was true he
had registered my will, and put in his claim, and, could he have
given any account of my being dead or alive, he would have acted
by procuration, and taken possession of the ingenio (so they called
the sugar-house), and have given his son, who was now at the
Brazils, order to do it. ‘“‘ But,” says the old man, “I have one
piece of news .to tell you, which, perhaps, may not be so accept-
able to you as the rest ; and that is, that, believing you were lost,
and all the world believing so also, your partner and trustees did.
offer to account to me in your name for six or eight of the first”
years of profit, which I received ; but there being at that time,”
says he, “great disbursements for increasing the works, building
an ingenio, and buying slaves, it did not amount to near so much
as afterwards it produced. However,” says the old man, “I
shall give you a true account of what I have received in all, and
how I have disposed of it.”

After a few days’ farther conference with this ancient friend, he
brought me an account of the first six years’ income of my planta-
tion, signed by my partner and the merchant trustees, being
always delivered in goods; viz., tobacco in roll, and sugar in
chests, besides rum, molasses, &c., which is the consequence of a
sugar-work: and I found by this account, that every year the
income considerably increased ; but, as above, the disbursements
being large, the sum at first was small. However, the old man
let me see that he was debtor to me four hundred and seventy
moidores of gold, besides sixty chests of sugar, and fifteen double
rolls of tobacco, which were lost in his ship, he having been ship-
wrecked coming home to. Lisbon, about eleven years after my
leaving the place.

The good man then began to complain of his misfortunes, and
how he had been obliged to make use of my money to recover his
losses, and buy him a share in a new ship. ‘ However, my old
friend,” says he, “you shall not want a supply in your necessity ;
and as soon as my son returns, you shall be fully satisfied.” Upon
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 247

this, he pulls out an old pouch, and gives me one hundred and
sixty Portugal moidores in gold, and giving me the writings of his
title to the ship, which his son was gone to the Brazils in, of
which he was a quarter part owner, and his son another, he puts
them both into my hands for security of the rest. |

I was too much moved with the honesty and kindness of the
poor man to be able to bear this ; and, remembering what he had
done for me, how he had taken me up at sea, and how generously
he had used me on all occasions, and particularly how sincere a
friend he was now to me, I could hardly refrain weeping at what
he had said to me ; therefore first I asked him if his circumstances
admitted him to spare so much money at that time, and if it
would not straiten him? He told me he could not say but it
might straiten him a little; but, however, it was my money, and
I might want it more than he.

Everything the good man said was full of affection, and I
could hardly refrain from tears while he spoke; in short, I took |
one hundred of the moidores, and called for a pen and ink to
give him a receipt for them: then I returned him the rest, and told _
him if ever I had possession of the plantation, I would return the
other to him also (as, indeed, I afterwards did) ; and that, as to
the bill of sail of his part in his son’s ship, I would not take it by
any means, but that if I wanted the money, I found he was honest
enough to pay me; and, if I did not, but came to receive what he gave
me reason to expect, I would never have a penny more from him.

When this was past, the old man began to ask me if he should
put me on a method to make my claim to my plantation? I told
him I thought to go over to it myself. He said. I might do so, if
I pleased, but that, if I did not, there were ways enough to secure
my right, and immediately to appropriate the profits to my use ;
and as there were ships in the river of Lisbon just ready to go
away to Brazil, he made me enter my name in a public register,
with this affidavit, affirming upon oath that I was alive, and that
I was the same person who took up the land for the planting the
said plantation at first. This being regularly attested by a notary,
and a procuration affixed, he directed me to send it, with a letter of
his writing, toa merchant of his acquaintance at the place, and then
proposed my staying with him till an account came of the return.

Never anything was more honourable than the proceedings upon
this procuration ; for in less than seven months | received a large
248 ADVENTURES OF

packet from the survivors of my trustees, the merchants, on whose
account I went to sea, in which were the following een esoutlh
letters and papers enclosed :—

First, ‘There was the account-current of the produce of my farm
or plantation, from the year when their fathers had balanced with my —
old Portugal captain, being for six years: the balance appeared to be
one thousand one hundred and seventy-four moidores in my favour.

Secondly, There was the account of four years more, while they
kept the effects in their hands, before the government claimed the
administration, as being the effects of a person not to be found,
which they called civil death ; and the balance of this, the value
of the plantation increasing, amounted to nineteen thousand four
hundred crusadoes, being about three thousand two hundred and
forty-one moidores. |

Thirdly, There was the prior of the Augustine’s account, who
had received the profits for above fourteen years; but not being
able to account for what was disposed to the hospital, very honestly -
declared he had eight hundred and seventy-two moidores not dis-
tributed, which he acknowledged to my account: as to the king’s
part, that refunded nothing.

There was also a letter of my partner’ s congratulating me very |
affectionately upon my being alive, giving me an account how the:
estate was improved, and what it produced a year: with a particular
of the number of squares or acres that it contained, how planted, how »
many slaves there were upon it, and making two and twenty crosses
for blessings, told me he had said so many “ Ave Marias” to thank
the blessed Virgin that I was alive ; inviting me very passionately
to come over and take possession of my own; and in the meantime,
to give him orders to whom he should deliver my effects, if I did
not come myself; concluding with a hearty tender of his friendship,
and that of his family: and sent me, as a present, seven fine
leopards’ skins ; which he had, it seems, received from Africa, by
some other ship that he had sent thither, and who, it seems, had
made a better voyage than I. He sent me also five chests of
excellent sweetmeats, and a hundred pieces of gold uncoined, not
quite so large as moidores. .

By the same fleet, my merchant trustees shipped me twelve
hundred chests of sugar, eight hundred rolls of tobacco, and ne |
rest of the whole account in gold. |

I might well say now, indeed, that the latter end of Job was
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 249

better than the beginning. It is impossible to express the flutterings
of my very heart, when I looked over these letters, and especially
when I found all my wealth about me ; for as the Brazil ships come
all in fleets, the same ships which brought my letters brought my
goods, and the effects were safe in the river before the letters came
tomy hand. In a word I turned pale, and grew sick ; and had not
the old man run and fetched me a cordial, I believe the sudden sur-
prise of joy had overset nature, and I had died upon the spot. Nay,
after that I continued very ill, and was so some hours, till, a physician
being sent for and something of the real cause of my illness being
known, he ordered me to be let blood, after which I had relief,
and grew well; but I verily believe, if it had not been eased by the
vent given in that manner to the spirits, I should have died.

I was now master, all on a sudden, of above fifty thousand
pounds sterling in money, and had an estate, as I might well call
it, in the Brazils, of above a thousand pounds a-year, as sure as an
estate of lands in England ; and, in a word, I was in a condition
which I scarce knew how to understand, or how to compose myself
for the enjoyment of. The first thing I did was to recompense
my original benefactor, my good old captain, who had been first
charitable to me in my distress, kind to me in the beginning, and
honest to me at the end. I showed him all that was sent to me;
I told him that next to the Providence of Heaven, which disposes
all things, it was owing to him; and that it now lay on me to
reward him, which I would do an hundredfold: so I first returned
to him the hundred moidores I had received of him; then I sent
for a notary, and caused him to draw up a general release or dis-
charge for the four hundred and seventy moidores which he had
acknowledged he owed me, in the fullest and firmest manner pos-
sible. After which I caused a procuration to be drawn, empowering
him to be my receiver of the annual profits of my plantation, and .
appointing my partner to account to him, and make the returns
by the usual fleets to him in my name; and a clause in the end,
being a grant of one hundred moidores a-year to him during his
life, out of the effects, and fifty moidores a year to his son after
him, for his life ; and thus I requited my old man. -

I was now to consider which way to steer my course next, and
what to do with the estate that Providence had thus put into my
hands; and, indeed, I had more care upon my head now than I
had in my silent state of life in the island, where I wanted nothing
250 ADVENTURES OF

but what I had, and had nothing but what I wanted ; whereas, I
had now a great charge upon me, and my business was how to
secure it. I had never a cave now to hide my money in, or a
place where it might lie without lock or key, till it grew mouldy
and tarnished before anybody would meddle with it ; on the con-
trary, I knew not where to put it, or whom to trust with it. My
old patron, the captain, indeed, was honest, and that was the only
refuge I had.

In the next place, my interest in the Brazils seemed to summon
me thither ; but now I could not tell how to think of going thither
till I had settled my affairs, and left my effects in some safe hands
behind me. At first I thought of my old friend the widow, who I
knew was honest, and would be just to me; but then she was in
years, and but poor, and, for aught I knew, might be in debt: so
that, in a word, I had no way but to go back to England myself,
and take my effects with me.

It was some months, however, before I resolved upon this ; and,
therefore, as I had rewarded the old captain fully, and to his satis-
faction, who had been my former benefactor, so I began to think
of my poor widow, whose husband had been my first benefactor,
and she, while it was in her power, my faithful steward and instructor.
So the first thing I did, I got a merchant in Lisbon to write to his
correspondent in London, not only to pay a bill, but to go find her
out, and carry her in money a hundred pounds from me, and to
talk with her, and comfort her in her poverty, by telling her she
should, if I lived, have a further supply: at the same time I sent
my two sisters in the country a hundred pounds each, they being,
though not in want, yet not in very good circumstances—one
having been married and left a widow, and the other having a
husband not so kind to her as he should be.

But among all my relations or acquaintances, I could not yet
pitch upon one to whom I durst commit the gross of my stock, that
I might go away to the Brazils, and leave things safe behind me;
and this greatly perplexed me.

I had once a mind to have gone to the Brazils, and have settled
myself there,—for I was, as it were, naturalised to the place; but
I had some little scruple in my mind about religion,* which insen-
sibly drew me back. However, it was not religion that kept me
from going thither for the present ; and as I had made no scruple of
being openly of the religion of the country all the while I was among
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 251

them, so neither did I yet ; only that, now and then, having of late
thought more of it than formerly, when I began to think of living and
dying among them, I began to regret my having professed myself a
Papist, and thought it might not be the best religion to die in.

But, as I have said, this was not the main thing that kept me from
going to the Brazils, but that really I did not know with whom to
leave my effects behind me: so I resolved, at last, to go to England
with them, where, if I arrived, I concluded I should make some
acquaintance, or find some relations that would be faithful to me;
and, accordingly, I prepared to go to England with all my wealth.

In order to prepare things for my going home, I first—the Brazil
fleet being just going away—resolved to give answers suitable to the
just and faithful account of things I had from thence ; and, first, to
the prior of St. Augustine I wrote a letter full of thanks for his just
. dealings, and the offer of the eight hundred and seventy-two moi-
dores which were undisposed of, which I desired might be given,
five hundred to the monastery, and three hundred and seventy-two
to the poor, as the prior should direct ; desiring the good padre’s
prayers for me, and the like.

I wrote next a letter of thanks to my two trustees, with all the
acknowledgment that so much justice and honesty called for; as
for sending them any present, they were far above having any
occasion of it. | } |

Lastly, I wrote to my partner, acknowledging his industry in the
improving the plantation, and his integrity in increasing the stock
of the works; giving him instructions for his future government of
my part, according to the powers I had left with my old patron, to_
whom I desired him to send whatever came due to me, till he should
hear from me more particularly ; assuring him that it was my inten-
tion not only to come to him, but to settle myself there for the —
remainder of my life. To this I added a very handsome present
of some Italian silks for his wife and two daughters, for such the
captain’s son informed me he had ; with two pieces of fine English
broadcloth, the best I could get in Lisbon, five pieces of black
baize, and some Flanders lace of a good value.

Having thus settled my affairs, sold my cargo, and turned all my
effects into good bills of exchange, my next difficulty was, which way
to go to England: I had been accustomed enough to the sea, and
yet I had a strange aversion to go to England by sea at that time ;
and though I could give no reason for it, yet the difficulty increased
252 | ADVENTURES OF

upon me so much, that, though I had once shipped my baggage
-in order to go, yet I altered my ae and that not once, but two
or three times.

It is true I had been very unfortunate by sea, and this might
be one of the reasons; but let no man slight the strong impulses
of his own thoughts in cases of such moment: two of the ships
which I had singled out to go in,—I mean more particularly
singled out than any other, having put my things on board one of
them, and, in the other, agreed with the captain ; I say, two of
these ship miscarried, viz., one was taken by the Algerines, and
the other was cast away on the Start, near Torbay, and all the
people drowned, except three ; so that in either of those vessels I
had been made miserable, and in which most, it was hard to say.

Having been thus harassed in my thoughts, my old pilot, to
whom I communicated everything, pressed me earnestly not to go
by sea, but either to go by land to the Groyne (Corunna), and cross
over the Bay of Biscay to Rochelle, from whence it was but an easy
and safe journey by land to Paris, and so to Calais and Dover ; or
to go up to Madrid, and so all the way by land through France.

In a word, I was so prepossessed against my going by sea at
all, except from Calais to Dover, that I resolved to travel all the
way by land ; which, as I was not in haste, and did not value the
charge, was by much the pleasanter way : and to make it more so,
-my old captain brought an English gentleman, the son of a
merchant in Lisbon, who was willing to travel with me; after
which we picked up two English merchants and two young
Portuguese gentlemen, the last going to Paris only ; so that in all
there were six of us, and five servants,—the two merchants and
the two Portuguese contenting themselves with one servant be-
tween two, to save the charge. As for me, I got an English sailor
to travel with me as a servant, besides my man Friday, who was
too much a stranger to be capable of supplying the place of a
servant on the road.

In this manner I set out from Lisbon ; and our company being
very well mounted and armed, we made a little troop, whereof
they did me the honour to call me captain, as well because I was
the oldest man, as because I had two servants, and, indeed, was
the original of the whole journey.

As I have troubled you with none of my sea journals, so I shall
trouble you now with none of my land journals; but some adven-
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 258

tures that happened to us in this tedious and difficult journey I
must not omit.

When we came to Madrid, we being all of us strangers to Spain,
were willing to stay some time to see the court of Spain, and to
see what was worth observing ; but it being the latter part of the
summer, we hastened away, and set out from Madrid about the
middle of October. But when we came to the edge of Navarre,
we were alarmed, at several towns on the way, with an account
that so much snow was fallen on the French side of the mountains,
that several travellers were obliged to come back to Pampeluna,
after having attempted, at an extreme hazard, to pass on.

When we came to Pampeluna itself, we found it so, indeed ;
and to me, that had been always used to a hot climate, and to
countries where I could scarce bear any clothes on, the cold was
insufferable : nor, indeed, was it more painful than surprising, to
come but ten days before out of Old Castile, where the weather
was not only warm, but very hot, and immediately to feel a wind
from the Pyrenean mountains, so very keen, so severely cold, as
to be intolerable, and to endanger the benumbing and perishing
of our fingers and toes. Poor Friday was really frighted when he
saw the mountains all covered with snow, and felt cold weather,
which he had never seen or felt before in his life.

To mend the matter, when we came to Pampeluna, it continued
snowing with so much violence, and so long, that the people said
winter was come before its time; and the roads, which were
difficult before, were now quite impassable: for, in a word, the
snow lay in some places too thick for us to travel, and being not
hard frozen, as is the case in the northern countries, there was no
going without being in danger of being buried alive every step.
We stayed no less than twenty days at Pampeluna ; when, seeing
the winter coming on, and no likelihood of its being better, for it
was the severest winter all over Europe that had been known in
the memory of man, I proposed that we should all go away to
Fontarabia, and there take shipping for Bourdeaux, which was a
very little voyage.

But while we were considering this, there came in four French
gentlemen, who having been stopped on the French side of the
passes, as we were on the Spanish, had found out a guide, who, tra-
versing the country near the head of Languedoc, had brought them
over thé mountains by such ways that they were not much incom-
254 ADVENTURES OF

moded with the snow, and, where they met with snow in any quantity,
they said it was frozen hard enough to bear them and their horses, ©

We sent for this guide, who told us he would undertake to carry
us the same way with no hazard from the snow, provided we were
armed sufficiently to protect ourselves from wild beasts ; for, he
said, upon these great snows it was frequent for some wolves to
show themselves at the foot of the mountains, being made ravenous
for want of food, the ground being covered with snow. We told
him we were well enough prepared for such creatures as they
were, if he would insure us from a kind of two-legged wolves,
which, we were told, we were in most danger from, especially on
the French side of the mountains. He satisfied us there was no
danger of that kind in the way that we were to go; so we readily
agreed to follow him, as did also twelve other gentlemen, with
their servants, some French, some Spanish, who, as I said, had
attempted to go, and were obliged to come back again.

Accordingly, we all set out from Pampeluna, with our guide, on
the 15th of November ; and, indeed, I was surprised, when, instead
of going forward, he came directly back with us on the same road
that we came from Madrid, above twenty miles, when, having
passed two rivers, and come into the plain country, we found our-
selves in a warm climate again, where the country was pleasant,
and no snow to be seen ; but on a sudden turning to his left, he
approached the mountains another way, and though it is true the
hills and precipices looked dreadful, yet he made so many tours,
such meanders, and led us by such winding ways, we insensibly
passed the height of the mountains without being much encumbered
with the snow ; and all on a sudden he showed us the pleasant
fruitful provinces of Languedoc and Gascoigne, all green and
flourishing, though, indeed, at a great distance, and we had some
rough way to pass yet.

We were a little uneasy, however, when we found it snowed one
whole day and a night so fast that we could not travel ; but he
bade us be easy, we should soon be past it all. We found, indeed,
that we began to descend every day, and to come more north
than before ; and so, depending upon our guide, we went on.

It was about two hours before night, when, our guide being
something before us and not just in sight, out rushed three
monstrous wolves, and after them a bear, out of a hollow way
adjoining to a thick wood. Two of the wolves flew upon the
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 258

guide, and had he been half-a-mile before us, he had been
devoured, indeed, before we could have helped him : one of them
fastened upon his horse, and the other attacked the man with that
violence, that he had not time, or not presence of mind enough,
to draw his pistol, but hallooed and cried out to us most lustily.
My man Friday being next me, I bade him ride up, and see what
was the matter. As soon as Friday came in sight of the man, he
hallooed out as loud as the other, ‘‘O master! O master!” but,
like a bold fellow, rode up directly to the man, and with his pistol
shot the wolf that attacked him in the head.

It was happy for the poor man that it was my man Friday ; for
he, having been used to such creatures in his country, had no fear
upon him, but went close up to him and shot him, as above : where-
as, any other of us would have fired at a greater distance, and have
perhaps either missed the wolf, or endangered shooting the man.

But it was enough to have terrified a bolder man than JI, and,
indeed, it alarmed all our company, when, with the noise of
Friday’s pistol, we heard on both sides the dismallest howlings of
wolves, and the noise redoubled by the echo of the mountains,
that it was to us as if there had been a prodigious multitude of
them ; and, perhaps, indeed, there was not such a few as that we
had no cause of apprehension.

However, as Friday had killed this wolf, the other that had
fastened upon the horse left him immediately, and fled, having
"happily fastened upon his head, where the bosses of the bridle
stuck in his teeth, so that he had not done him much hurt: the
man, indeed, was most hurt, for the raging creature had bit him
twice, once on the arm, and the other time a little above his
knee, and he was just as it were tumbling down by the disorder of
the horse, when Friday came up and shot the wolf.

It is easy to suppose that, at the noise of Friday’s pistol, we all
mended our pace, and rode up as fast as the way, which was very
difficult, would give us leave, to. seé what was the matter. As soon
as we came clear of the trees which blinded us before, we saw clearly .
what:had been the case, and how Friday had disengaged the poor
_ guide, though we did not presently discern what kind of creature
it was he had killed.

But never was a fight managed so hardily, and in such a sur-
prising manner, as that which followed between Friday and the
bear, which gave us all (though at first we were surprised and
266 ADVENTURES OF

afraid for him) the greatest diversion imaginable. As the bear is
a heavy, clumsy creature, and does not gallop as the wolf dees,
which is swift and light, so he has two particular qualities which
generally are the rule of his actions ; first, as to men, who are not
his proper prey—I say not his proper prey, because, though I
can’t say what excessive hunger might do, which was now their case,
the ground being all covered with snow, yet as to men, he does
not usually attempt them, unless they first attack him; on the
contrary, if you meet him in the woods, if you don’t meee with
him, he won’t meddle with you : but then you must take care to be
very civil to him, and give him the road, for he is a very nice gentle-
man: he won’t go astep out of his way for a prince—nay, if you are
really afraid, your best way is to look another way, and keep going
on, for sometimes, if you stop and stand still, and look steadfastly
at him, he takes it for an affront, and if you throw or toss anything
at him, and it hits him, though it were but a bit of stick as big as
your finger, he takes it for an affront, and sets all other business
aside to pursue his revenge, for he will have satisfaction in point of
honour, and this is his first quality: the next is, that if he be once
affronted, he will never leave you, night nor day, till he has his
revenge, but follow at a good round rate till he overtakes you.

My man Friday had delivered our guide, and when we came up
to him, he was helping him off his horse, for the man was both
hurt and frighted—and, indeed, the last more than the first—
when, on a sudden, we espied the bear come out of the wood, and
a vast monstrous one it was, the biggest by far that ever I saw.
We were all a little surprised when we saw him ; but when Friday
saw him, it was easy to see joy and courage in the fellow’s coun-
tenance. “O! O! O!” says Friday, three times, pointing to
him ; ‘““O master! you give me te leave, me shakee te hand with
him ; me makee you good laugh.”

I was surprised to see the fellow so pleased. ‘You fool,” says
I, “he will eat you up.” ‘“ Eatee me up! eatee me up!” says
Friday, twice over again ; ‘‘meeatee him up ; me makee you good
laugh. You all stay here, me show you good laugh.” So down
he sits, and gets his boots off in a moment, and puts on a pair of
pumps (as we call the flat shoes they wear), which he had in his
pocket, gives my other servant his horse, and with his gun away
he flew, swift like the wind.

The bear was walking softly on, and offered to meddle with no-
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 257

body, till Friday, coming pretty near, calls to him, as if the bear
could understand him, “Hark ye, hark ye,” says Friday, “me
speakee wit you.” We followed at a distance, for now being come
down on the Gascoigne side of the mountains, we were entered a
vast great forest, where the country was plain and pretty open,
though many trees in it scattered here and there.

Friday, who had, as we say, the heels of the bear, came up with
him quickly, and takes up a great stone and throws at him, and'
hit him just on the head, but did him no more harm than if he
had thrown it against a wall; but it answered Friday’s end, for the
rogue was so void of fear that he did it purely to make the bear
follow him, and show us some laugh, as he called it. As soon as
the bear felt the stone, and saw him, he turns about, and comes
after him, taking devilish long strides, and shuffling along ata
strange rate, so as would put a horse to a middling gallop: away
runs Friday, and takes his course as if he ran towards us for help ;
so we all resolved to fire at once upon the bear, and deliver my
man—though I was angry at him heartily for bringing the bear
back upon us, when he was going about his own business another
way; and especially I was angry that he had turned the bear
upon us, and then run away, and I called out, ‘‘ You dog, is this
your making us laugh ?.. Come away, and take your horse, that we
may shoot the creature.” He hears me, and cries out, ‘“ No shoot,
no shoot; stand still, and you get much laugh;” and as the
nimble creature ran two feet for the beast’s one, he turned on a
sudden on one side of us, and seeing a great oak tree fit for his
purpose, he beckoned us to follow, and, doubling his pace, he gets
nimbly up the tree, laying his gun down upon the ground at about
five or six yards from the bottom of the tree.

The bear soon came to the tree, and we followed at a distance:
the first thing he did, he stopped at the gun, smelt to it, but let it
lie, and up he scrambles into the tree, climbing like a cat, though
so monstrously heavy. I was amazed at the folly, as I thought it,
of my man, and could not for my life see anything to laugh at
yet, till, seeing the bear get up the tree, we all rode nearer to him.

When we came to the tree, there was Friday got out to the
small of a large limb of the tree, and the bear got about half way
to him. As soon as the bear got out to that part where the limb
of the tree was weaker, “‘ Ha!” says he to us, “‘now you see me

teachee the bear dance ;” so he falls a jumping and shaking the
R
258 ADVENTURES OF

bough, at which the bear began to totter, but stood still, and
began to look behind him, to see how he should get back ; then,
indeed, we did laugh heartily. But Friday had not done with him
by a great deal: when he sees him stand still, he calls out to him
again, as if he had supposed the bear could speak English, “‘ What,
you come no farther ? pray you come farther ;” so he left jumping
and shaking the bough, and the bear, just as if he had understood
what he said, did come a little farther; then he fell a jumping
again, and the bear stopped again. |

We thought now was a good time to knock him on the head,
and called to Friday to stand still, and we would shoot the bear;
but he cried out earnestly, “‘O pray ! O pray! no shoot, me shoot by
and then ;”—he would have said, by and by. However, to shorten
the story, Friday danced so much, and the bear stood so ticklish, that
we had laughing enough indeed, but still could not imagine what
the fellow would do ; for first we thought he depended upon shaking
the bear off, and we found the bear was too cunning for that too, for
he would not go out far enough to be thrown down, but clings fast
with his great broad claws.and feet, so that we could not imagine
what would be the end of it, and where the jest would be at last.

But Friday put us out of doubt quickly; for, seeing the bear
cling fast to the bough, and that he would not be persuaded to
come any farther, ‘‘ Well, well,” says Friday, “ you no come farther,
me go, me go; you no come to me, me come to you,” and upon
this, he goes out to the smallest end of the bough, where it would
bend with his weight, and gently lets himself down by it, sliding
down the bough, till he came near enough to jump down on his
feet, and away he runs to his gun, takes it up, and stands still.

“Well,” said I to him, “ Friday, what will you do now? Why
don’t you shoot him?” ‘No shoot,” says Friday, ‘‘no yet ; me
shoot now me no kill; me stay, give you one more laugh.” And,
indeed, so he did, as you will see presently : for when the bear saw
his enemy gone, he comes back from the bough where he stood,
but did it mighty leisurely, looking behind him at every step, and
coming backward till he got into the body of the tree ; then, with
the same hinder end foremost, he came down the tree, grasping it
with his claws, and moving one foot at a time, very leisurely. At:
this juncture, and just before he could set his hind feet on the
ground, Friday stepped up close to him, clapped the muzzle of his
piece into his ear, and shot him dead as a stone.
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 259

Then the rogue turned about, to see if we did not laugh ; and
when he saw we were pleased, by our looks, he falls a-laughing
himself very loud. “So we kill bear in my country,” says Friday.
‘© So you kill them ?” says I; ‘why, you have no guns.” “No,”
says he, “‘no gun, but shoot great much long arrow.”

This was a good diversion to us; but we were still in a wild
place, and our guide very much hurt, and what to do we hardly
knew: the howling of wolves ran much in my head ; and, indeed,
except the noise I once heard on the shore of Africa, of which I
have said something already, I never heard anything that filled
me with so much horror.

These things, and the approach of night, called us off, or else, as
Friday would have had us, we should certainly have taken the
skin of this monstrous creature off, which was worth saving ; but
we had near three leagues to go, and our guide hastened us, so
we left him, and went forward on our journey.

The ground was still covered with snow, though not so deep
and dangerous as on the mountains ; and the ravenous creatures,
as we heard afterwards, were come down into the forest and plain
country, pressed by hunger, to seek for food, and had done a great
deal of mischief in the villages, where they surprised the country
people, killed a great many of their sheep and horses, and some
people too.

We had one dangerous place to pass, of which our guide told
us, if there were more wolves in’the country we should find them
there; and this was a small plain surrounded with woods on
every side, and a long narrow defile, or lane, which we were to
pass to get through the wood, and then we should come to the
village where we were to lodge.

It was within half an hour of sunset when we entered the first
wood, and a little after sunset when we came into the plain. We
met with nothing in the first wood, exceptthat, in a little plain
within the wood which was not above two furlongs over, we saw
five great wolves cross the road, full speed, one after another, as
if they had been in chase of some prey, and had it in view; they
took no notice of us, and were gone out of sight in a few moments.

Upon this our guide, who, by the way, was but a faint-hearted
fellow, bid us keep in a ready posture, for he believed there were
more wolves a-coming. |

We kept our arms ready, and our eyes about us; but we saw

a
260 ADVENTURES OF

no more wolves till we came through that wood, which was near
half a league, and entered the plain. As soon as we came into
the plain, we had occasion enough to look about us: the first
object we met with was a dead horse, that is to say, a poor horse
which the wolves had killed, and at least a dozen of them at
work,—we could not say eating of him, but picking of his bones
rather, for they had eaten up all the flesh before.

We did not think fit to disturb them at their feast ; neither did
they take much notice of us. Friday would have let fly at them,
but I would not suffer him by any means; for I found we were
like to have more business upon our hands than we were aware
of. We were not gone half over the plain when we began to hear
the wolves howl on our left in a frightful manner, and presently
after we saw about a hundred. coming on directly towards us, all
ina body, and most of them in a line, as regularly as an army
drawn up by an experienced officer. I scarce knew in what
manner to receive them, but found to draw ourselves in a close
line was the only way: so we formed in a moment. But that we
might not have too much interval, I ordered that only every other
man should fire, and that the others who had not fired should stand
ready to give them a second volley immediately, if they continued
to advance upon us; and then that those who had fired at first
should not pretend to load their fusils again, but stand ready every
one with a pistol, for we were all armed with a fusil and a pair of
pistols each man; so we were by this method able to fire six
volleys, half of us at a time. However, at present, we had no
necessity ; for upon firing the first volley, the enemy made a full
stop, being terrified as well with the noise as with the fire ; four
of them, being shot in the head, dropped ; several others were
wounded, and-went bleeding off, as we could see by the snow.
I found they stopped, but did not immediately retreat ; whereupon,
remembering that I had been told that the fiercest creatures were
terrified at the voice of a man, I caused all our company to halloo
as loud as they could: and I found the notion was not altogether
mistaken ; for, upon our shout, they began to retire, and turn
about. I then ordered a second volley to be fired in their rear,
which put them to the gallop, and away they went to the woods.

This gave us leisure to charge our pleces again ; and that we
might lose no time, we kept going: but we had but little more
than loaded our fusils, and put ourselves in readiness, when we
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 261

heard a terrible noise in the same wood, on our left, only that it
was farther onward, the same way we were to go.

The night was coming on, and the light began to be dusky,
which made it worse on our side; but the noise increasing, we
could easily perceive that it was the howling and yelling of those
hellish creatures; and on a sudden, we perceived two or three
troops of wolves, one on our left, one behind us, and one in
our front, so that we seemed to be surrounded with them: how-
ever, as they did not fall ypon us, we kept our way forward, as
fast as we could make our horses go, which, the way being very
rough, was only a good hard trot. In this manner we came in
view of the entrance of the wood, through which we were to pass,
at the farther side of the plain; but we were greatly surprised,

when, coming near the lane or pass, we saw a confused number of

wolves standing just at the entrance.

On a sudden, at another opening of the wood, we heard the
noise of a gun; and, looking that way, out rushed a horse, with
a saddle and bridle on him, flying like the wind, and sixteen or
seventeen wolves after him, full speed ; indeed, the horse had the
heels of them, but as we supposed that he could not hold it at
that rate, we doubted not but they would get up with him at
last,—and no question but they did. |

Here we had a most horrible sight; for riding up to the
entrance where the horse came out, we found the carcass of
another horse and of two men, devoured by the ravenous creatures.
One of them was no doubt the same whom we heard fire a gun,
for there lay a gun just by him fired off; but as to the man, his
head and upper part of his body were eaten up.

This filled us with horror, and we knew not what course to
take, but the creatures resolved us soon, for they gathered about us
presently, in hopes of prey ; and I verily believe that there were
three hundred of them. It happened very much to our advantage,
that, at the entrance into the wood, but at a little way from it,
there lay some large timber trees, which had been cut down the
summer before, and I suppose lay there for carriage. I drew my
little troop in among these trees, and placing ourselves in a line
behind one long tree, I advised them all to alight, and keeping
that tree before us for a breastwork, to stand in a triangle, ‘or
three fronts, enclosing our horses in the centre. |

We did so, and it was well we did; for never was a more

\
262 - ADVENTURES OF

furious charge than the creatures made upon us in this place.
_ They came on with a growling kind of noise, and mounted the
piece of timber, which, as I said, was our breastwork, as if they
were only rushing upon their prey; and this fury of theirs, it
seems, was principally occasioned by their seeing our: horses
behind us, which was the prey they aimed at. I ordered our
men to fire as before, every other man; and they took their aim
so sure, that they killed several of the wolves at the first volley :
but there was a necessity to keep a continual firing, for they came
on like devils, those behind pushing on those before.

When we had fired a second volley of fusils, we thought they
stopped a little, and I hoped they would have gone off; but it
was but a moment, for others came forward again: so we fired
two volleys of pistols; and I believe in these four firings we
killed seventeen or eighteen of them, and lamed twice as many,—
yet they came on again.

I was loath to spend our shot too hastily; so I called my
servant,—not my man Friday, for he was better employed,—
foy, with the greatest dexterity imaginable, he charged my fusil
and his own while we were engaged,—but as I said, I called my
other man, and, giving him a horn of powder, I bade him lay a
train all along the piece of timber, and let it be a large train. He
did so; and had just time to get away, when the wolves came up
to it, arid some were got upon it, when I, snapping an uncharged
pistol close to the powder, set it on fire, and those that were upon
the timber were scorched with it, and six or seven of them fell, or
rather jumped in among us, with the force and fright of the fire:
we despatched these in an instant, and the rest were so frighted
with the light, which the night, for it was now very near dark,
made more terrible, that they drew back a little Upon which I
ordered our last pistols to be fired off in one volley, and after that
we gave a shout: upon this the wolves turned tail, and we sallied
immediately upon near twenty lame. ones, which we found strug-
gling on the ground, and fell a-cutting them with our swords,
which answered our expectation; for the crying and howling
they made was better understood by their fellows, so that they all
fled and left us.

We had, first and last, killed about threescore of them; and
had it been daylight, we had killed many more. The field of
battle being thus cleared, we made forward again, for we had
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 263

still near a league to go. We heard the ravenous creatures howl
and yell in the woods, as we went, several times; and sometimes
we fancied we saw some of them, but the snow dazzling our eyes,
we were not certain. Soin about an hour more we came to the
town where we were to lodge, which we found in a terrible fright,
and all in arms; for it seems that the night before, the wolves
and some bears had broke into that village, and put them ina
terrible fright, and they were obliged to keep guard night and
day, but especially in the night, to preserve their cattle, and,
— indeed, their people.

The next morning our guide was so ill, and his limbs swelled
so much with the rankling of his two wounds, that he could go no
farther ; so we were obliged to take a new guide here, and go to
Tholouse, where we found a warm climate, a fruitful pleasant
country, and no snow, no wolves, or anything like them; but
when we told our story at Tholouse, they told us it was nothing
but what was ordinary in the great forest at the foot of the
mountains, especially when the snow lay on the ground; but they
inquired much what kind of a guide we had gotten, that would
venture to bring us that way in such a severe season, and told us
it was very strange we were not all devoured. When we told
them how we placed ourselves, and the horses in the middle,
they blamed us exceedingly, and told us it was fifty to one but
we had been all destroyed, for it was the sight of the horses that
made the wolves so furious, seeing their prey, and that, at other
times, they are really afraid of a gun; but they, being excessive
hungry, and raging on that account, the eagerness to come at
the horses had made them senseless of danger,—and if we had -
not, by the continued fire, and at last by the stratagem of the
train of powder, mastered them, it had been great odds but that
we had been torn to pieces: whereas, had we been content to |
have sat still on horseback, and fired as horsemen, they would
not have taken the horses so much for their own, when men were
on their backs, as otherwise : and withal they told us, that, at last,
if we had stood altogether, and left our horses, they would have
been so eager to have devoured them, that we might have come
off safe, especially having our firearms in our hands, and being
so many in number.

For my part, I was never so sensible of danger i in my life ; for see-
ing above three hundred devils come roaring and open- one! to
264 ADVENTURES OF

devour us, and having nothing to shelter us, or retreat to, I gave my-
self over for lost ; and, as it was, I believe I shall never care to cross
those mountains again: I think I would much rather go a thousand
leagues by sea, though I was sure to meet with a storm once a week.

I have nothing uncommon to take notice of in my passage
through France, nothing but what other travellers have. given an
account of, with much more advantage than I can. I travelled
from Tholouse to Paris, and without any considerable stay came
to Calais, and landed safe at Dover, the 14th of January, after
having had a severe cold season to travel in.

I was now come to the centre of my travels, and had in a little
time all my new discovered estate safe about me; the bills of
exchange which I brought with me having been very eee paid.

My principal guide and privy counsellor was my good ancient
widow, who, in gratitude for the money I had sent her, thought
no pains too much, or care too great, to employ for me; and I
trusted her so entirely with everything, that I was perfectly easy
as to the security of my effects: and, indeed, I was very happy
from the beginning, and now to the end, in the unspotted integrity
of this good gentlewoman.

And now I began to think of leaving my effects with this woman,
and setting out for Lisbon, and so to the Brazils. But now another
scruple came in the way, and that was religion ; for as I had enter-
tained some doubts about the Roman religion, even while I was
abroad, especially in my state of solitude, so I knew there was no
going to the Brazils for me, much less going to settle there, unless
I resolved to embrace the Roman Catholic religion, without any
reserve ;—unless, on the other hand, I resolved to be a sacrifice to
my principles, be a martyr for religion, and die in the Inquisition.
So I resolved to stay at home, and, if I could find means for a
to dispose of my plantation.

To this purpose I wrote to my old friend at Lisbon, who in
return gave me notice that he could easily dispose of it there; but
that if I thought fit to give him leave to offer it in my name es the
two merchants, the survivors of my trustees, who lived in the
Brazils, who must fully understand the value of it, who lived just
upon the spot, and whom I knew to be very rich, so that he believed
they would be fond of buying it, he did not doubt but I should
make four or five thousand pieces of eight the more of it.

Accordingly I agreed, gave him orders to offer it to them, and
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 255

he did so; and in about eight months more, the ship being then
returned, he sent me an account that they had accepted the offer,
and had remitted thirty-three thousand pieces of eight to a corre-
spondent of theirs at Lisbon to pay for it. In return, I signed the
Instrument of sale in the form which they sent from Lisbon, and
sent it to my old man, who sent me the bills of exchange for thirty-
three thousand pieces of eight for the estate; reserving the pay-
ment of one hundred moidores a-year to him (the old man) during
his life, and fifty moidores afterwards to his son for his life, which
I had promised them, and which the plantation was to make good
as a rent-charge.

And thus I have given the first part of a life of fortune and adven-
ture, a life of Providence’s chequer work, and of a variety which the
_ world will seldom be able to show the like of: beginning foolishly,

but closing much more happily than any part of it ever gave me
leave so much as to hope for.

Any one would think that in this state of complicated good
fortune, I was past running any more hazards, and so indeed I had
been, if other circumstances had concurred: but I was inured to
a wandering life, had no family, nor many relations, nor, however
rich, had I contracted much acquaintance ; and though I had sold
my estate in the Brazils, yet I could not keep that country out
of my head, and had a great mind to be upon the wing again :
especially I could not resist the strong inclination I had to see my
island, and to know if the poor Spaniards were in being there ;
and how the rogues I left there had used them.

My true friend, the widow, earnestly dissuaded me from it, and
so far prevailed with me, that almost for seven years she prevented
my running abroad, during which time I took my two nephews,
the children of one of my brothers, into my care: the eldest having
something of his own, I bred up as a gentleman, and gave him a
settlement of some addition to his estate, after my decease; the
other I put out to a captain of a ship: and after five years, finding ©
him a sensible, bold, enterprising young fellow, I put him into a
good ship, and sént him to sea; and this young fellow afterwards
drew me in, as old as I was, to farther adventures myself.

In the meantime I in part settled myself here ; for, first of all,
I married, and that not either to my disadvantage or dissatisfaction,
—and had three children, two sons and one daughter.


CHAPTER XIX.

Crusoe’s reflections in England—He dreams of his island, and conceives a desire
to return to it, which his wife discovers—Resolves to divert his thoughts, and
begins farming in Bedfordshire—On the death of his wife he determines to
revisit his island, and sets sail in an Indiaman, which is to touch at the Brazils—
The vessel is driven by contrary winds on to the coast of Galway, which leads to
new adventures— Falls in with a French merchant vessel on fire, and delivers the
crew, who are carried to Newfoundland—Steers thence for the West Indies,

and falls in with a Bristol ship, the crew and passengers of which are famishing.
*%

HAT homely proverb used on so many occasions in
England, viz., ‘‘ That what is bred in the bone will
not go out of the flesh,” was never more verified than
in the story of my life. Any one would think that,
after thirty-five years’ affliction, and a variety of

unhappy circumstances, which few men, if any, ever went through

before, and after near seven years of peace and enjoyment in the
fulness of all things, grown old, and when, if ever, it might be allowed
me to have had experience of every state of middle life, and to know
which was most adapted to make a man completely happy,—I say;
after all this, any one would have thought that the native propensity
to rambling, which I gave an account of in my first setting out in
the world to have been so predominant in my thoughts, should be
worn out, the volatile part be fully evacuated, or at least condensed,
and I might, at sixty-one years of age, have been a little inclined to
stay at home, and have done venturing life and fortune any more.

Nay, further, the common motive of foreign adventures was taken
away in me; for I had no fortune to make—I had nothing to seek :

if I had gained ten thousand pounds, I had been no richer, for I

had already sufficient for me, and for those I had to leave it to’; and

that I had was visibly increasing, for, having no great family, I could
not spend the income of what I had, unless I would set up for an
expensive way of living, such as a great family, servants, equipage,


ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 267

gaiety, and the like, which were things I had no notion of, or incli-
nation to: so that I had nothing indeed to do but to sit still, and
fully enjoy what I had got, and see it increase daily upon my hands.

Yet all these things had no effect upon me, or at least not
enough to resist the strong inclination I had to go abroad again,
which hung about me like a chronic distemper ; particularly,
the desire of seeing my new plantation in the island, and the
colony I left there, ran in my head continually. I dreamed of
it all night, and my imagination ran upon it all day: it was
uppermost in all my thoughts, and my fancy worked so steadily.
and strongly upon it, that I talked of it in my sleep. In short,
nothing could remove it out of my mind: it even broke so vio-
lently,into all my discourses, that it made my conversation tire-
some, for I could talk of nothing else; all my discourse ran into
it, even to impertinence, and I saw it myself.

I have often heard persons of good judgment say, that all the
stir people make in the world about ghosts and apparitions is
Owing to the strength of imagination, and the powerful operation
of fancy in their minds,—that there is no such thing as a spirit
appearing, or a ghost walking, and the like: that people’s poring
affectionately upon the past conversation of their deceased friends,
so realises it to them, that they are capable of fancying, upon
some extraordinary circumstances, that they see them, talk to
_ them, and are answered by them, when, in truth, there is nothing
but shadow and vapour in the thing, and they really know
nothing of the matter.

For my part, I know not to this hour whether there are any ~
such things as real apparitions, spectres, or walking of people after
they are dead; or whether there is anything in the stories they
tell us of that kind, more than the product of vapours, sick
minds, and wandering fancies: but this I know, that my imagina-
tion worked up to such a height, and brought me into such
excess of vapours, or what else I may call it, that I actually sup-
posed myself oftentimes upon the spot, at my old castle behind
the trees—saw my old Spaniard, Friday’s-father, and the reprobate
sailors I left upon the island—nay, I fancied I talked with them,
and’ looked at them so steadily, though I was broad awake, as at.
persons just before me; and this I did till I often frighted myself
with the images my fancy represented to me. One time, in my
sleep, I had the villany of the three pirate sailors so lively related
268 : ADVENTURES OF

to me by the first Spaniard and Friday’s father, that it was sur- _
prising : they told me how they barbarously attempted to murder
all the Spaniards, and that they set fire to the provisions they
had laid up, on purpose to distress and starve them,—things that
I had never heard of, and that were yet all of them true in fact.
But it was so warm in my imagination, and so realised to me,
that, to the hour I saw them, I could not be persuaded but that
it was, or would be, true: also how I resented it, when the
Spaniard complained to me; and how I brought them to justice,
tried them before me, and ordered them all three to be hanged.
What there was really in this shall be seen in its place ; for how-
ever I came to form such things in my dream, and what secret
converse of spirits injected it, yet there was, I say, very much of
it true. I own that this dream had nothing literally and speci-
fically true; but the general part was so true, the base and
villanous behaviour of these three hardened rogues was such, and
had been so much worse than all I can describe, that the dream
had too much similitude of the fact; and as I would afterwards
have punished them severely, so, if I had hanged them all, I had
been much in the right, and should have been justifiable both
by’the laws of God and man.

But to return to my story. In this kind of temper I lived
Some years ; I had no enjoyment of my life, no pleasant hours,
no agreeable diversion, but what had something or other of this
in it ; so that my wife, who saw my mind so wholly bent upon it,
told me very seriously one night, that she believed there was
some secret powerful impulse of Providence upon me, which had
determined me to go thither again; and that she found nothing
hindered my going, but my being engaged to a wife and children.
She told me, that it was true she could not think of parting with
me ; but as she was assured, that if she was dead it would be the
first thing I would do, so, as it seemed to her that the thing was
determined above, she would not be the only obstruction ; for,
if I thought fit, and resolved to go here she found me very
intent upon her words, and that I looked very earnestly at her,
so that it a little disordered her, and she stopped. I asked her,
why she did not go on, and say out what she was going to say ?
But I perceived that her heart was too full, and some tears stood
in her eyes. ‘Speak out, my dear,” said I, “are you willing I
should go?” “No,” says she, very affectionately, “I am far




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ROBINSON CRUSOE. 269

from willing; but if you are resolved to go,” says she, “and
rather than I would be the only hindrance, I will go with you:
for though I think it a preposterous thing for one of your years,
and in your condition, yet, if it must be,” said she, again weeping,
‘“T won’t leave you; for if it be of Heaven, you must do it;
there is no resisting it; and if Heaven makes it your duty to go,
He will make it also mine to go with you, or otherwise dispose of
me, that I may not obstruct it.”

This affectionate behaviour of my wife brought me a little out
of the vapours, and I began to consider what I was doing: I cor-
rected my wandering fancy, and began to argue with myself sedately
what business I had, after threescore years, and after such a life
of tedious sufferings and disasters, and closed in so happy and
easy a manner,—I say, what business had I to rush into new
hazards, and put myself upon adventures fit only for youth and
poverty to run into?

With those thoughts, I considered my new engagement—that I
had a wife, one child born, and my wife then great with child of
another—that I had all the world could give me, and had no need
to seek hazards for gain—that I was declining in years, and ought
to think rather’ of leaving what I had gained than of seeking to
increase it—that, as to what my wife had said, of its.being a secret
impulse from Heaven, and that it should be my duty to go, I had
no notion of that: so, after many of these cogitations, I struggled
with the power of my imagination, reasoned myself out of it, as I
believe people may always do in like cases, if they will ; and, ina
word, I conquered it; composed myself with such’ arguments as

occurred to my thoughts, and which my present condition fur-

nished me plentifully with ; and, particularly, as the most effectual
method, I resolved to divert myself with other things, and to
engage in some business that might effectually tie me up from any
more excursions of this kind; for I found the thing return upon
me chiefly when I was idle, had nothing to do, or anything of
moment immediately before me.

To this purpose I bought a little farm in the county of Bedford,
and resolved to remove myself thither. I had a little convenient
house upon it, and the land about it I found was capable of great
improvement, and that it was many ways suited to my inclination,
which delighted in cultivating, managing, planting, and improving
of land; and, particularly, being an inland county, I was removed
270 ADVENTURES OF

from conversing among ships, sailors, and things relating to the
remote part of the world.

In.a word, I went down to my farm, settled my family, bought
me ploughs, harrows, a cart, waggon, horses, cows, sheep, and
setting seriously to work, became in one half-year a mere country
gentleman. My thoughts were entirely taken up in managing my
servants, cultivating the ground, enclosing, planting; &c. ; and I
lived, as I thought, the most agreeable life that nature was capable
of directing, or that a man always bred to misfortunes was capable
of being retreated to. :

I farmed upon my own land—I had no rent to pay—was limited
by no articles—I could pull up or cut down as I pleased—what I
planted was for myself, and what I improved was for my family ;
and, having thus left off the thoughts of wandering, I had not the
least discomfort in any part of my life as to this world. Now, I
thought, indeed, that I enjoyed the middle state of life, which my
father so earnestly recommended to me—a kind of heavenly life,
something like what is described by the poet upon the subject

of a country life :—

‘* Free from vices, free from care,
; Age has no pains, and youth no snare.”

But in the middle of all this felicity, one blow from unforeseen
Providence unhinged me at once, and not only made a breach
upon me, inevitable and incurable, but drove me, by its conse-
quence, upon a deep relapse into the wanderin gdisposition, which,
as I may say, being born in my very blood, soon recovered its
hold of me, and, like the returns of a violent distemper, came
on with an irresistible force upon me, so that nothing could
make any more impression upon me. ‘This blow was the loss of
my wife. 7

It is not my business here to write an elegy upon my wife, to
give a character of her particular virtues, and make my court to
the sex by the flattery of a funeral sermon. She was, in a few words,
the stay of all my affairs, the centre of all my enterprises, the engine
that, by her prudence, reduced me to that happy compass I was
in, from the most extravagant and ruinous project that fluttered in
my head, as above, and-did more to guide my rambling genius
than a mother’s tears, a father’s instructions, a friend’s counsel, or
all my own reasoning powers could do. I was happy in listening
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 271

to her entreaties, and in being moved by her tears, and, to the last
degree, desolate and dislocated in the world, by the loss of her.

When she was gone, the world looked awkwardly round me; I
was as much a stranger in it in my thoughts as I was in the Brazils
when I went first on shore, and as much alone, except as to the
assistance of servants, as I was in my island. I knew neither what
to do, or what not to do; I saw the world busy round me, one part
labouring for bread, and the other part squandering in vile excesses,
or empty pleasures equally miserable, because the end they pro-
posed still fled from them ; for the men of pleasure every day sur-
feited of their vice, and heaped up work for sorrow and repentance,
and the men of labour spent their strength in daily strugglings for
bread to maintain the vital strength they laboured with ; so living
in a daily circulation of sorrow—living but to work, and working but
to live, as if. daily bread were the only end of a wearisome life,
and a wearisome life the only occasion of daily bread.

This put me in mind of the life I lived in my kingdom, the island,
where I suffered no more corn to grow, because I did not want
it, and bred no more goats, because I had no more use for them
—where the money lay in the drawer till it grew mildewed, and
had scarce the favour to be looked upon in twenty years.

All these things, had I improved them as I ought to have
done, and. as reason and religion had dictated to me, would have
taught me to search farther than human enjoyments for a full fell-
city, and that there was something which certainly was the reason
and end of life, superior to all these things, and which was either
to be possessed, or, at least, hoped for, on this side of the grave.

But my sage counsellor was gone ; I was like a ship without a
pilot, that could only run before the wind ; my thoughts ran all
away again into the old affair—my head was quite turned with the
whimsies of foreign adventures; and all the pleasing innocent
amusements of my farm and my garden, my cattle and my family,
which before entirely possessed me, were nothing to me,—had no
relish, and were like music to one that has no ear, or food to one that
has ho taste: in a word, I resolved to leave off housekeeping, let
my farm, and return to London ; and in a few months after I did so.

When I came to London, I was still as uneasy as before; I
had no relish to the place, no employment in it, nothing to do
but to saunter about like an idle person, of whom it may be said,
he is perfectly useless in God’s creation, and it is not one farthing
272 _ ADVENTURES OF

matter to the rest of his kind whether he be dead or alive. This —
also was the thing which, of all circumstances of life, was the most
my aversion, who had been all my days used to an active life ;
and I would often say to myself, ‘A state of idleness“1s the very
dregs of life:” and, indeed, I thought I was much more, suitably |
employed when I was twenty-six days making me a deal board. 7

It was now the beginning of the year 1693, when my nephew,
whom, as I observed before, I had brought up to the sea, and had
made him commander of a ship, was come home from a short
voyage to Bilboa, being the first he had made. He came to me,
and told me, that some merchants of his acquaintance had been
proposing to him to go a voyage for them to the East Indies and
to China, as private traders. “And now, uncle,” says he, “if
you will go to sea with me, I’ll engage to land you upon your old
habitation in the island, for we are to touch at the Brazils.”

Nothing can be a greater demonstration of a future state, and of