Citation
The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe

Material Information

Title:
The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Series Title:
Warne's national books
Uniform Title:
Robinson Crusoe
Creator:
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Dalziel Brothers ( Engraver )
Frederick Warne and Co ( Publisher )
Place of Publication:
London ;
and New York
Publisher:
Frederick Warne and Co.
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
iv, 284 p., [8] leaves of plates : col. ill. ; 14 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Castaways -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1885 ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1885
Genre:
Imaginary voyages ( rbgenr )
fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London
United States -- New York -- New York
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

General Note:
Spine and cover title: Robinson Crusoe.
General Note:
Date estimated from imprint information. Warne opened a New York office in 1881.
General Note:
Ill. engraved by Dalziel.
General Note:
Series from spine.
General Note:
Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe. Part II originally published under title: Farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
Funding:
Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
Statement of Responsibility:
by Daniel Defoe ; with illustrations, printed in colours from original designs.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
028928428 ( ALEPH )
30060998 ( OCLC )
AJP2376 ( NOTIS )

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THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES

ROBINSON CRUSOE

With SFllustrations, Printed in Colours
FROM ORIGINAL DESIGNS



LONDON
FREDERICK WARNE AND CO.

AND NEW YORK







PREFACE,

ae \ ANIEL VE FOE, the author of ‘‘ Robinson Crusoe,” was
si! born in London, in 166z. At the age of fourteen he was



sent to school, to the Rev. Charles Morton, at Newington

Green, where he got a first-rate education. He was a
Dissenter and a devoted partizan of William III. De Foe was in
trade, it is believed, as a hosier, and about the year 1692 would have
‘ailed for 17,o00/., but that his creditors, convinced of his integrity,
allowed him to trade on his own security. However, in the year 1703,
when he had lost his royal friend and patron, King William, he was
totally ruined, and had to pay a fine of 3000/. to the Government,
for libel. From that period he became a political writer. For these
writings he underwent much persecution ; he had to stand in the
pillory and to pay fines, which twice ruined him, and he was thirteen
months in Newgate jail. The story of his release is this :—Harley,
the great minister, wrote to ask De Foe what he could do for him.
He replied, ‘‘ Lord, that I may receive my sight.” Queen Anne was
couched by the prayer ; he was released, and she afterwards treated
him kindly. | |

When nearly sixty years of age, he wrote his famous romance,
‘‘ Robinson Crusoe’’—being his huxdred and sixty-seventh work—
suggested, it has been supposed, by the real adventures of Alexandea



iv PREFACE.

Selkirk, We are sorry to add that che ingratitude ot his own son
embittered the last hours of the life of the man who has been so pre-
eminently the friend of boys, and that he died, as he had lived, in
trouble and sorrow. But he has left the legacy of many a happy
hout to the young, in his charming story; and we believe that the
boys of Britain will give their old friend ‘‘ Robinson Crusoe’ the
warmer welcome since he appears in an edition which may be slipt
into a pocket and carried forth to be read under the greenwood trees.
or lying on the hearthrug by the winter fire.



THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES

OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE.

ayyeg ea) WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good .
WA bey family, though not of that country, my father being a
sere; foreigner, of Bremen, who settled first at Hull: he gota
wryei good estate by merchandise, and leaving off his trade, lived
afterwards at York; from whence he had married my
mother, whose relations were named Robinson, a very good family
in that country, and from whom I was called Robinson Kreutznaer ;
but, by the usual corruption of words in England, we are now called,
—nay we call ourselves, and write our name, Crvsoe; and so my.
companions always called me.

I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-colonel to
an English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly commanded by the
famous Colonel Lockhart, and was killed at the battle near Dunkirk
against the Spaniards. What became of my second biother I never
knew, any more than my father and mother knew what was become
of me.

Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade, my
head began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts : my father,
who was very ancient, had given me a competent share of learning,
as far as house-education and a country free-school generally go, and
designed me for the law; but I would be satisfied with nothing but
going to sea; and my inclination to this led me so strongly against
the will, nay, the commands of my father, and against all the
entreaties and persuasions of my mother and other friends, that
there seemed to be something fatal in that propensity of nature,
tending directly to the life of misery which was to befal me.





2 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excellent
counsel against what he foresaw was my: design. -He called me one
morning into his chamber, where he was confined by the gout, and
expostulated very warmly with me upon this subject: he asked me
what reasons, more than a mere wandering inclination, I had for
leaving my father’s house and my native country, where I might be -
well introduced, and had a prospect of raising my fortune by applica-
tion and industry, with a life of ease and pleasure. He told me it
was men of desperate fortunes on one hand, or of aspiring, superior
fortunes on the other, who went abroad upon adventures, to rise by
enterprise, and make themselves famous in undertakings of a nature
out of the common road; and these things were all either too far
above me, or too far below me; that mine was the middle State, or
what might be called the upper station of low d2fe, which he had
found, by long experience, was the best state in the world, the most
suited to human happiness, not exposed to the miseries and hard-
ships, the labour and sufferings of the mechanic part of mankind,
and not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of
the upper part of mankind. He told me, I might judge of the hap- ©
piness of this state by this one thing, viz. that this was the state of
life which all other people envied ; that kings have frequently lamented
the miserable consequence of being born to great things, and wished
they had been piaced in the middle of the two extremes, betcveen the
mean and the great; that the wise man gave his testimony to this,
as the standard of felicity, when he prayed to have neither poverty
nor riches. 3

After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affectionate
manner, not to play the young man, nor to precipitate myself into
miseries which nature, and the station of life I was born in, seemed
to have provided against ; that I was under no necessity of seeking
my bread ; that he would do well for me, and endeavour to enter me
iairly into the station of life which he had been recommending to
he; and that if I was not very easy and happy in the world, it must
be my mere fate or fault that must hinder it; and that he should have
nothing to answer for, having thus discharged his duty in warning
me against measures which he knew would be to my hurt ; and to
close ali, he told me I had my elder brother for an example, to
whom he had used the same persuasions to keep him from going
to the Low Country wars, but could not prevail, his young desires
prompting him to run into the army, where he was killed; and
though he said he would not cease to pray for me, yet he would
venture to say to me, that if I did take this foolish step God would not
bless me, and I should have leisure hereafter-to reflect upon having



ROBINSON WISHES TO GO TO SEA. 3

neglected his counsel, when there might be none to assist in my
recovery.

I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was truly pro-
phetic, though I suppose my father did not know it to be so himself:
Isay, I observed the tears run down his face very plentifully, especially
when he spoke of my brother who was killed; and that when he
spoke of my having leisure to repent, and none to assist me, he was
so moved that he broke off the discourse, and told me his heart was
so full he could say no more to me.

{ was sincerely affected with this discourse, and, indeed, who could
be otherwise? and I resolved not to think of going abroad any more,
but to settle at home according to my father’s desire. But alas! a
few days wore it all off; and, in short, to prevent any of my father’s
further importunities, in a few weeks after, I resolved to run quite
away from him. However, I did not act quite so hastily as the first
heat of my resolution prompted, but I took my mother at a time when
I thought her a little more pleasant than ordinary, and teld her that
my thoughts were so entirely bent upon seeing the werld, that I
should never settle to anything with resolution enough to go through
with it, and my father had better give me his consent than force me
to go without it; that I was now eighteen years old, which was too
late to go apprentice to a trade, or clerk to an attorney; that I was
sure if I did I should never serve out my time, but I should certainly
run away from my master before my time was out, and goto sea; and
if she would speak to my father to let me go but one voyage abroad, if
I came home again, and did not like it, I would go no more; and I
would promise, by a double diligence, to recover that time I had lost.

This put my mother into a great passion ; she told me she knew it
would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon any such subject ;
that if I would ruin myself, there was no help for me; but I might
depend I should never have their consent to it; that for her part,
she would not have so much hand in my destruction ; and I should
never have it to say that my mother was willing when my father was
uot. Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet as I
have heard afterwards, she reported all the discourse to him, and
that my father, after showing a great concern at it, said to her, with
a sigh: ‘That boy might be happy if he would stay at home; but
if he goes abroad, he will be the miserablest wretch that ever was
born: I can give no consent toit.” -

It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose, though,
in the mean time, I continued obstinately deaf to all proposals oi
settling to business, and frequently expostulated with my father and
mother about their being so positively determined against what they

ey

ac



4 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

knew my inclinations prompted me to. But being one day at Hull,
where I went casually, and without any purpose of making an elope-
ment at that time; but, I say, being there, and one of my com-
panions being about to sail to London in his father’s ship, and
prompting me to go with them with the common allurement of sea-
faring men, viz., that it should cost me nothing for my passage, I
consulted neither father nor mother any more, nor so much as sent
them word of it; but leaving them to hear of it as they might, with-
out asking God’s blessing or my father’s, without any consideration
of circumstances or consequences, and in an ill hour God knows, on
the rst of September, 1651, I went on board a ship bound for London :
never any young adventurer’s misfortunes, I believe, began sooner, or
continued longer, than mine. The ship was no sooner gotten out of
the Humber, but the wind began to blow and the waves to rise in a
most frightful manner; and, as I had never been at sea before, I
was most inexpressibly sick in body, and terrified in mind. I began
now seriously to reflect upon what I had done, and how justly I was
overtaken by the judgment of Heaven for my wicked leaving my
father's house, and abandoning my duty ; all the good counsels of
my parents, my father’s tears and my mother’s entreaties, came now
fresh into my mind, and my conscience, which was not yet come to
the pitch of hardness to which it has been since, reproached me
with the breach of my duty to God and my father.

All this while the storm increased, and the sea, which I had never
been upon before, went very high, though nothing like what I have
seen many times since ; no, nor what I saw a few days after: but it
was enough to affect me then, who was but a young sailor, and had
never known anything of the matter, I expected every wave would
have swallowed us up, and that every time the ship fell down, as I
thought, in the trough or hollow of the sea, we should never rise
more; in this agony of mind, I made Many vows and resolutions,
that if it would please God to spare my life in this one voyage, if ever
I got once my foot upon dry land again, I would go directly home to
my father, and never set it intoa ship again while I lived ; that I would
take his advice, and never run myself into such miseries as these any
more. Now I saw plainly the goodness of his observations about
the middle station of life, how easy, how comfortably he had lived
all his days, and never had been exposed to tempests at sea. or
troubles on shore ; and I resolved that I would, like a true repenting
prodigal, go home to my father.

These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the storm
lasted, and indeed some time after ; but the next day the wind
was abated, and the sea calmer, and I began to be a little inured to



THE EFFECTS OF DISOBEDIENCE. 5

it : however, I was very grave for all that day, being also a little sea-
sick still; but towards night the weather cleared up, the wind was
quite over, and a charming fine evening followed; the sun went
down perfectly clear, and rose so the next morning; and having
little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun shining upon it, the
sight was, as I thought, the most delightful that ever I saw.

I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick, but
very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that was so rough
and terrible the day before, and could be so calm and so pleasant in
SO little a time after. And now, lest my good resolutions should
continue, my companion, who had enticed me away, comes to me:
‘‘Well, Bob,” says he, clapping me upon the shoulder, ‘‘ how do
you do after it? I warrant you were frighted, wer’n’t you, last night,
when it blew but a capful of wind?’—‘‘A capful d’you call it?”
said I; ‘‘’twasa terrible storm.’’—‘‘A storm, you fool you,” replies
he; ‘‘do you call that a storm? why, it was nothing at all; give us
but a good ship and sea-room, and we think nothing of such a squall
of wind as that ; but you're but a fresh-water sailor, Bob : come, let
us make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget all that ; d’ye see what
charming weather ’tis now?” ‘To make short this sad part of my
story, we went the old way of all sailors ; the punch was made, and
I was made half-drunk with it ; and in that one night's wickedness I
drowned all my repentance, all my reflections upon my past conduct,
all my resolutions for the future. In a word, as the sea was returned
to its smoothness of surface and settled calmness by the abatement
of that storm, so the hurry of my thoughts being over, my fears and
apprehensions of being swallowed up by the sea being forgotten, and
the current of my former desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows
and promises that I made in my distress. I found, indeed, some
intervals of reflection; and the serious thoughts did, as it were,
endeavour to return again sometimes; but I shook them off, and
roused myself from them, and applying myself to drink and com-
pany, soon mastered the return of those fits—for so I called ther ;
and I had in five or six days got as complete a victory over conscience
as any young fellow that resolved not to be troubled with it could
desire. But I was to have another trial for it still.

The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth Roads ;
the wind having been contrary, and the weather calm, we had made
but little way since the storm. Here we were obliged to come to an
anchor, and here we lay, the wind continuing contrary, viz., at south-
west, for seven or eight days, during which time a great many ships
from Newcastle came into the same roads, as the common harbour
where the ships might wait for a wind for the river. :



6 : ROBINSON CRUSOE,

We had not, however, rid here so long, but we should have tided
it up the river, but that the wind blew too fresh, and, after we had
Jain four or five days, blew very hard. However, the Roads being
reckoned as good as a harbour, the anchorage good, and our ground-
tackle very strong, our men were unconcerned, and not in the least
apprehensive of danger, but spent the time in rest and mirth, after
the manner of the sea ; but the eighth day, in the morning, the wind
increased, and we had all hands at work to strike our top-masts, and
make everything snug and close, that the ship might ride as easy as
possible. By noon the sea went very high indeed, and our ship rode
forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we thought once or twice our
anchor had come home; upon which our master ordered out the
sheet-anchor ; so that we rode with two anchors ahead, and the
cables veered out to the better end.

By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed ; and now I began to
see terror and amazement in the faces even of the seamen themselves,
The master, though vigilant in the business of preserving the ship,
yet as he went in and out of his cabin by me, I could hear him softly
to himself say, several times, ‘‘ Lord, be merciful to us ! we shall be
all lost ; we shall be all undone!” and the like. During these first
hurries I was stupid, lying still in my cabin, which was in the
steerage, and cannot describe my temper: I could ill-resume the first
penitence which I had so apparently trampled upon, and hardened
myself against : I thought the bitterness of death had been past ;
and that this would be nothing like the first. But when the master
himself came by me, as I said just now, and said we should be all
lost, I was dreadfully frighted. “I got up out of my cabin, and looked
out ; but such a dismal sight I never saw: the sea went mountains
high, and broke upon us every three or four minutes ; when I could
look about, I could see nothing but distress round us ; two ships
that rode near us, we found, had cut their masts by the board, being
deep laden ; and our men cried out, that a ship whichrode about a
mile ahead of us was foundered. Two more ships, being driven
from their anchors, were run out of the Roads: to sea, at all adven-
tures, and that with not a mast standing. ‘The light ships fared the
pest as ee SO ae cane in the sea ; but two or three of them

rove, and came ‘close us, running away wi itsai
pee ue ee y | g& away with oy their spritsail |

Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the master of
our ship to let them cut away the fore-mast, which he was ve
unwilling to do’; but the boatswain protesting to him, that if he did
not, the ship would founder, he consented, and when they had cut
away the fore-mast, the main-mast stood SO loose. and shaok the

at



A TERRIBLE STORM. 9

ship so much, they were obliged to cut her away also, and make a
clear deck.

Any one may judge what a condition I must be in at all this, who
was but a young sailor, and who had been in such a fright before at —
but a little. But if I can express at this distance the thoughts I had
about me at that time, I was in tenfold more horror of mind upon
account of my former convictions, and the having returned from
them to the resolutions I had wickedly taken at first, than I was at
death itself; and these, added to the terror of the storm, put me
into such a condition, that I can by no words deseribe it. - But the
worst was not come yet ; the storm continued With such fury, that
the seamen themselves acknowledged they had never known a worse.
We had a good ship, but she was deep laden, and wallowed in the
sea, that the seamen every now and then cried out she would founder.
It was my advantage in one respect that I did not know what they
meant by founder, till I inquired. However, the storm was so vio-
lent, that I saw what is not often seen, the master, the boatswain,
and some others more sensible than the rest, at their prayers, and
expecting every moment when the ship would go to the bottom.
In the middle ef She night, and under all the rest of our distresses,
one of the men that had been down on purpose to see, cried out we
had sprung a leak; another said, there was four foot water in the hold.
Then all hands were called to the pump. At that word, my heart, as
I thought, died within me, and I fell backwards upon the side of
my bed where I sat, into the cabin. However, the men roused me,
and told me, that I that was able to do nothing before, was as well
able to pump as another: at which I stirred up, and went to the
pump, and worked very heartily. While this was doing, the master
seeing some light colliers, who, not able to ride out the storm, were
obliged to slip, and run away to the sea, and would come near us,
ordered to fire a gun as a signal of distress. I, who knew nothing
what that meant, thought the ship had broke, or some dreadful thing
happened. Ina word, I wasso surprised that I fell down in a swoon.
As this was a time when everybody had his own life to think of, no- .
body minded me, or what was become of me; but another man
stepped up to the pump, and thrusting me aside with his foot, let
me lie, thinking I had been dead; and it was a great while before I
came to myself. ,

We worked on, but the water increasing in the hold, it was appa-
rent that the ship would founder; and though the storm began to
abate a little, yet as it was not possible she could swim till we might
run into a port; so the master continued firing guns for help; anda
light ship, who had rid it out just ahead of us, ventured a boat out



‘8B ROBINSON CRUSOE.

to help us. It was with the utmost hazard the boat came near us,
but it was impossible for us to get on board, or for the boat to lie
near the ship’s side; till at last the men rowing very heartily, and
venturing their lives to save ours, our men cast them a rope over
the stern with a buoyto it, and then veered it out a great length,
which they after great labour and hazard, took hold of, and we
hauled them close under our stern, and got all into their boat. It
was to no purpose for them or us, after we were in the boat, to think
of reaching their own ship, so all agreed to let her drive, and only to
pull her in towards shore as much as we could, and our master
promised them, that if the boat was staved upon shore, he would
make it good to their master: so partly rowing, and partly driving,
our boat went away to the northward, sloping towards the shore al-
most as far as Winterton Ness.

We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of our ship
before we saw her sink, and then I understood for the first time what
was meant by a ship foundering in the sea. I must acknowledge I
had hardly eyes to look up when the seamen told me she was sinking;
for from that moment they rather put me into the boat, than that I
might be said to go in, my heart was as it were dead within me,
partly with fright, partly with horror of mind, and the thoughts of
what was yet before me.

While we were in this condition, the men yet labouring at the oar
to bring the boat near the shore, we could see (when, our boat
mounting the waves, we were able to see the shore) a great many
people running along the strand, to assist us when we should come
near, but we made but slow way towards the shore, nor were we able
to reach it, till, being past the lighthouse at Winterton, the shore
falls off to the westward towards Cromer, and so the land broke off
a little the violence of the wind: here we got in, and, though not
without much difficulty, got all safe on shore, and walked afterwards
on foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we were used with
great humanity, as well by the magistrates of the town, who assigned
us good quarters, as by particular merchants and owners of ships,
and had money given us sufficient to carry us either to London or
back to Hull, as we thought fit.

Had I now had the sense to have gone home, I had been happy
and my father, an emblem of our blessed Saviour’s parable, had
even killed the fatted calf for me; for hearing the ship I went away
In was cast away in Yarmouth Road, it was a great while before he
had any assurances that I was not drowned. , |

But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that nothing
yould resist ; and though I had several times loud calls from my



ANGER OF THE SHIP'S CAPTAIN. 9

reason, and my more composed judgment, to go home, yet I did not
obey them.

My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who was
the master’s son, was now less forward than I; the first time he
spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth, which was not till two or
three days, for we were separated in the town to several quarters: |
say, the first time he saw me, it appeared his tone was altered; and,
looking very melancholy, and shaking his head, he asked me how I
did, and telling his father who I was, and how I had come this
voyage only for a trial, in order to go farther abroad ; his father
turning tome with a very grave and concerned tone, ‘‘ Young man,”
says he, ‘‘you ought never to go to sea any more; you ought to
take this for a plain and visible token that you are not to be a sea-
faring man.” ‘‘ Why, sir,” said I, ‘‘ will you go to sea no more?”
‘‘That is another case,” said he; ‘‘it is my calling, and therefore
my duty ; but as you made this voyage for a trial, you see what a
taste Heaven has given you of what you are to expect if you persist ;
perhaps this has all befallen us on your account, like: Jonah in the
ship of Tarshish. Pray,’ continued he, ‘‘what are you; and on
what account did you go to sea?” Upon that I told him some of
my story ; at the end of which he burst out with a strange kind of
passion ; ‘‘ What had I done,” says he, ‘‘that such an unhappy
wretch should come into my ship! I would not set my foot in the
same ship with thee again for a thousand pounds.” ‘This indeed
was, as I said, an excursion of his spirits, which were yet agitated
by the sense of his loss, and was farther than he could have autho-
rity to go. However, he afterwards talked very gravely to me, ex-
horted me to go back to my father, and not tempt Providence to
my ruin; told me I might see a visible hand of Heaven against
me; ‘‘and, young man,” said he, ‘‘depend upon it, if youdo nov
go back, wherever you go, you will meet with nothing but disasters
and disappointments, till your father’s words are fulfilled upon you.”’

We parted soon after; for I made him little answer, and I saw
him no more ; which way he went I know not. Having some money
in my pocket, I travelled to London by land ; and there, as well
as on the road, had many struggles with myself, what course of life
I should take, whether I should go home, or go to sea.

As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that offered to
my thoughts ; and it immediately occurred to me how I should be
laughed at among the neighbours, and should be ashamed to see,
not my father and mother only, but even everybody else; from
whence I have since often observed, how incongruous and irrational
the common temper of mankind is, especially of youth, to that



10 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

reason which ought to guide them in such cases, viz., that they are
not ashamed to sin, and yet.are ashamed to repent ; not ashamed of
the action for which they ought justly to be esteemed fools, but are
ashamed of the returning, which only can make them be esteemed
wise men.

In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncertain
what measures to take, and what course of life to lead. An irresis-
tible reluctance continued to going home; and as I stayed awhile,
the remembrance of the distress I had been in wore off ; and as that
abated, the little motion I had in my desires to a return wore off
with it, till at last I quite laid aside the thoughts of it, and looked
out for a voyage.

It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good company in
London, which does not always happen to such loose and misguided
young fellows as I then was ; the devil generally not omitting to lay
some snare for them very early ; but it was not so with me. I first
got acquainted with the master of a ship who had been on the coast
of Guinea; and who, having had very good success there, was re-
solved to go again; and who taking a fancy to my conversation,
which was not at all disagreeable at that time, hearing me say I had
a mind to see the world, told me if I would go the voyage with him
I should be at no expense ; I should be his messmate and his com-
panion ; and if I could carry anything with me, I should have ail
the advantage of it that the tradé would admit ; and perhaps I might
meet with some encouragement.

I embraced the offer; and entering into a strict friendship with
this captain, who was an honest, plain-dealing man, I went the
voyage with him, and carried a small adventure with me, which, by
the disinterested honesty of my friend the captain, I increased ve
considerably ; for I carried about £40 in such toys and trifles as the
captain directed me to buy. This 440 I had mustered together by
the assistance of some of my relations whom I corresponded with, and
who, I believe, got my father, or at least my mother, to contribute so
much as that to my first adventure.

This was the only voyage which I may Say was successful in all my
adventures, and which I owe to the integrity and honesty of my
friend the captain ; under whom also I got a competent knowledge
of the mathematics and the rules of navigation, learned how to keep an
account of the ship's course, take an observation, and, in short, to
understand some things that were needful to be understood by a

and, in a word, this voyage made me both a sailor and a merchant ;
for I brought home 5 pounds g ounces of gold-dust for my adventure

3



CRUSOE MADE A SLAVE, Ir

which yielded me in London, at my return, almost 4300; and this
es i with those aspiring thoughts which have since so completed

I was now set up for a Guinea trader ; and my friend, to my great
misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go the same
voyage again, and I embarked in the same vessel with one who was
his mate in the former voyage, and had now got the command of
the ship. This was the unhappiest voyage that ever man made; for
though I did not carry quite £100 of my new-gained wealth, so
that I had £200 left, which I had lodged with my friend’s widow,
who was very just to me, yet I fell into terrible misfortunes ; and the
first .was this—our ship making her course towards the Canary
Islands, or rather between those Islands and the African shore, was
surprised in the grey of the morning by a Turkish rover of Sallee,
who gave chase to us with all the sail she could make. We crowded
also as much canvas as our yards would spread, or our masts carry
to have got clear; but finding the pirate gained upon us, and would
certainly come up with us in a few hours, we prepared to fight ; our
ship having twelve guns, and the rogue eighteen. About three in
the afternoon he came up with us, and bringing to, by mistake, just
athwart our quarter, instead of athwart our stern, as he intended, we
brought eight of our guns to bear on that side, and poured in a
broadside upon him, which made him sheer off again, after return-
ing our fire, and pouring in also his small shot from near two hundred
men whicl: ne had on board. However, we had not a man touched,
all our men keeping close. He prepared to attack us again, and we
to defend ourselves ; but laying us on board the next time upon our
other quarter, he entered sixty men upon our decks, who immedi.
ately fell to cutting and hacking the decks and rigging. We plied
them with small shot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and such like, and
cleared our deck of them twice. However, to cut short this me-
lancholy part of our story, our ship being disabled, and three of our
men killed, and eight wounded, we were obliged to yield, and were
carried all prisoners into Sallee, a port belonging to the Moors.

The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I apprehended,
nor was I carried up the country to the emperor’s court, as the res?
of our men were, but was kept by the captain of the rover as his
proper prize, and made his slave, being young and nimble, and fit
for his business. At this surprising change of my circumstances,
from a merchant to a miserable slave, I was perfectly overwhelmed ;
and now I looked back upon my father’s prophetic discourse to me,
that I should be miserable and have none to relieve me, which I
thought was now so effectually brought to pass, that I could not be



12 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

worse ; that now the hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and I was
undone without redemption. But, alas! this was but a taste of the
misery I was to go through, as will appear in the sequel of the story.

AS my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his house,
so I was in hopes that he would take me with him when he went to
sea again, believing that it would some time or other be his fate to
be taken by a Spanish or Portugal man-of-war; and that then |
snould be set at liberty. But this hope of mine was soon taken
away ; for when he went to sea, he left me on shore to look after his
-ittle garden, and do the common drudgery of slaves about his house ;
and when he came home again from his cruise, he ordered me to lie
in the’cabin to look after the ship.

Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method I
might take to effect it, but found no way that had the least proba-
bility in it ; nothing presented to make the supposition of it rational;
for I had nobody to communicate it to that would embark with me :
no fellow-slave, no Englishman, Irishman, or Scotchman, there but
myself ; so that for two years, though I often pleased myself with the
:magination, yet I never had the least prospect of putting it in practice.

After about two years, an odd circumstance presented itself, which
put the old thought of making some attempt for my liberty again in
my head : my patron lying at home longer than usual, without fitting
out his ship, which, as I heard, was for want of money, he used,
constantly, once or twice a week, sometimes oftener, if the weather
was fair, to take the ship’s pinnace, and go out into the road a-fishing ;
and, as he always took meand a young Maresco with him to row the
boat, we made him very merry, and I proved very dexterous in
catching fish ; insomuch that sometimes he would send me with a
Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth, the Maresco, as they
called him, to catch a dish of fish for him.

It happened one time, that going a-fishing in a stark calm morn-
ing, a fog rose so thick that, though we were not half a league from
the shore, we lost sight of it: and rowing we knew not whither or
which way, we laboured all day, and all the next night : and when
the morning came, we found we had pulled off to sea instead of
pulling in for the shore ; and that we were at least two leagues from
the shore ; however, we got well in again, though with a great deal
of labour, and some danger ; for the wind began to blow pretty fresh
in the morning; but particularly we were all very hungry.

But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more
care of himself for the future ; and having lying by him the long-
boat of our English ship he had taken, he resolved he would not go
a-fishing any more without a compass and some provision; so he



filS PLANS TO EFFECT HIS ESCAPE, | 13

ordered the carpenter of his ship, who also was an English slave, to
build a little state-room, or cabin, in the middle of the long-boat,
like that of a barge, with a place to stand behind it to steer, and
hale home the main-sheet ; and room before for a hand or two to
stand and work the sails; she sailed with what we call a shoulder-
of-mutton sail ; and the boom gibed over the top of the cabin, which
lay very snug and low, and had in it room for him to lie, with a slave
or two, and a table to eat on, with some small lockers to put in some
bottles of such liquor as he thought fit to drink ; particularly his.
bread, rice, and coffee.

We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing ; and as I was
most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went without me. It
happened that he had appointed to go out in this boat, either for
pleasure or for fish, with two or three Moors of some distinction in
that place, and for whom he had provided extraordinarily ; and had
therefore sent on board the boat over-night a larger store of provi-
sions than ordinary; and had ordered me to get ready three fusees
with powder and shot, which were on board his ship; for that they
designed some sport of fowling as well as fishing.

I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited the next
morning with the boat washed clean, her ensign and pendents out,
and everything to accommodate his guests; when by-and-by my
patron came on board alone, and told me his guests had put off
going, from some business that fell out, and ordered me, with the
man and boy, as usual, to go out with the boat and catch them some
fish, for that his friends were to sup at his house ; and commanded
that as soon as I got some fish I should bring it home to his house ;
all which I prepared to do.

This moment, my former notions of deliverance darted into my
thoughts, for now I found I was like to have a little ship at my com-
mand ; and my master being gone, I prepared to furnish myself, not:
for fishing business, but for a voyage ; though I knew not, neither
did I so much as consider, whither 1 should steer; for anywhere to
get out of that place was my desire.

My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak io this
Moor, to get something for our subsistence on board ; for i! told
him we must not presume to eat of our patron’s bread ; he said that
was true; so he brought a large basket of rusk or biscuit of thin
kind, and three jars of fresh water, into the boat. I knew where my
patron's case of bottles stood, which it was evident by the make,
were taken out of some English prize, and I conveyed them into the
boat while the Moor was on shore, as if they had been there before
for our master; I conveyed also a great lump of bees-wax into the



14 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

boat, which weighed above half a hundred-weight, with a parcel of
twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all of which were
of great use to us afterwards, especially the wax to make candles.
Another trick I tried upon him, which he innocently came into also :
his name was Ismael, which they call Muley, or Moely ; so I called
to him :—‘‘ Moely,” said I, ‘‘our patron’s guns are on board the
boat ; can you not get a little powder and shot, it may be we may
kill some alcamies (a fowl like our curlews) for ourselves, for I
know he keeps the gunner’s stores in the ship.” ‘‘ Yes,” says he,
‘*T’ll bring some ;” and accordingly he brought a great leather pouch,
which held a pound and a half of powder, or rather more; and another
with shot, that had five or six pounds, with some bullets, and put all
into the boat ; at the same time, I had found some powder of my
master’s in the great cabin, with which I filled one of the large
bottles in the case, which was almost empty ; pouring what was in
it into another: and thus furnished with everything needful, we
sailed out of the port to fish. The castle, which is at the entrance
of the port, knew who we were, and took no notice of us ;.and we
were not above a mile out of the port before we hauled in our sail,
and set us down to fish ; the wind blew from the N.N.E., which was
contrary to my desire ; for had it blown southerly, I had been sure
to have made the coast of Spain, and at least reached to’the bay of
Cadiz; but my resolutions were, blow which way it would, I would
be gone from that horrid place where I was, and leave the rest to fate.

After we had fished some time and catched nothing, for when I
had fish on my hook, I would not pull them up, that he might. not
see them, I said to the Moor, ‘‘ This will not do-; our master will
not be thus served; we must stand farther off;” he, thinking no
harm, agreed, and, being in the head of the boat, set the sails ; and,
as I had the helm, I run the boat out near a league farther, and
then brought her to, as if I would fish, when, giving the boy the
helm, I stepped forward to where the Moor was, and making as if I
stooped for something behind him, I took him by surprise with my
arm under his twist, and tossed him clear overboard into the sea,
ie rose immediately, for he swam like a cork, and calling to me,
begged to be taken in, told me he would go all over the world with
me; he swam so strong after the boat, that he would have reached
me very quickly, there being but little wind ; upon which I stepped
into the cabin, and fetching one of the fowling-pieces, I presented it
at him, and told him I had done him no hurt, and if he would be
quiet I would do him none: ‘‘ But,” said I, ‘‘ you swim well enough
to reach to the shore, and the sea is calm; make the best of your
way to shore, and I will do you no harm; but if you come near the



LHE ESCAPE.—XURY. | 15

boat, I'll shoot you through the head, for Iam resolved to have my
liberty ;’’ so he turned himself about, and swam for the shore, and I
make no doubt but he reached it with ease, for he was an excellent
swimmer.

{ could have been content to have taken this Moor with me, and
have drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to trust him.
When he was gone, I turned to the boy, whom they called Xury,
and said to him, ‘‘ Xury, if you will be faithful to me, I'll make you
a great man; but if you will not stroke your face to be true to me,”
that is, swear by Mahomet and his father’s beard, ‘‘I must throw
you into the sea too.’’ The boy smiled in my face, and spoke so
innocently, that I could not distrust him, and swore to be faithful to
me, and go all over the world with me.

While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, I stood out
directly to sea with the boat, rather stretching to windward, that
they might think me gone towards the Straits’ mouth (as indeed any
one that had been in their wits must have been supposed to do): for
who would have supposed we were sailed on to the southward, to the
truly Barbarian coast, where whole nations of Negroes were sure to
surround us with their canoes, and destroy us; where we could not
go on shore but we should be devoured by savage beasts, or more
merciless savages of human kind.

But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my course,
and steered directly south and by east, bending my course a little
towards the east, that I might keep in with the shore: and having a
fair, fresh gale of wind, and a smooth, quiet sea, I made such sail
that I believe by the next day at three o'clock in the afternoon, when
I first made the land, I could not be less than 150 miles south of
Sallee : quite beyond the Emperor of Morocco’s dominions, or indeed
of any other king thereabouts, for we saw no people.

Yet such was the fright I had taken of the Moors, and the dreadful
apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that I would not
stop, or go on shore, or come to an anchor; the wind continuing
fair till I had sailed in that manner five days; and then the wind
shifting to the southward, I concluded also that if any of our vessels
were in chase of me, they also would now give over ; so i ventured
to make to the coast, and came to an anchor in the mouth of a little
river, I knew not what, nor where; neither what latitude, what
country, what nation, or what river. I neither saw, nor desired to
see any people; the principal thing I wanted was fresh water. We
came into this creek in the evening, resolving to swim on shore as
soon as it was dark, and discover the country; but as soon as it was
quite dark, we heard such dreadful noises of the barking, roaring,



16 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

and howling of wild creatures, of we knew not what kinds, that the
poor boy was ready to die with fear, and begged of me not to go on
shore till day. ‘‘ Well, Xury,” said I, ‘‘then I won't; but it may be
that we may see men by day, who will be as bad to us as those lions.”
‘Then we give them the shoot gun,” says Xury, laughing, ‘‘ make
them run wey.” Such English Xury spoke by conversing among us
slaves. However, I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave
him a dram (out of our patron's case of bottles) to cheer him up;
after all, Xury’s advice was good, and I took it; we dropped our
little anchor and lay still all night; I say still, for we slept none; for
in two or three hours we saw vast great creatures (we knew not what
to call them) of many sorts, come down to the sea-shore, and run
into the water, wallowing and washing themselves for the pleasure of
cooling themselves ; and they made such hideous howlings and yell-
ings, that I never indeed heard the like.

Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too; but we
were both more frighted when we heard one of these mighty creatures
come swimming towards our boat; we could not see him, but we
might hear him by his blowing to be a monstrous huge and furious
beast. Xury said it was a lion, and it might be so for aught I know;
but poor Xury cried to me to weigh the anchor and row away:
‘‘No,” says I, ‘‘Xury; we can slip our cable, with the buoy to it,
and go off to sea; they cannot follow us far.” I had no sooner said
so, but I perceived the creature (whatever it was) within two oars’
length, which something surprised me; however, I immediately
stepped to the cabin-door, and taking up my gun, fired at him, upon
which he immediately turned about, and swam towards the shore
again ,

But it is impossible to describe the horrid noises, and hideous cries
and howlings, that were raised, as well upon the edge of the shore as
higher within the country, upon the noise or report of the gun; a
ching I have some reason to believe those creatures had never heard
before: this convinced me that there was no going on shore for us in
the night on that coast, and how to venture on shore in the day was
another question too ; for to have fallen into the hands of any of the
savages, had been as bad as to have fallen into the hands of the lions
and tigers ; at least we were equally apprehensive of the danger of it.

Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore somewhere or
other for water, for we had not a pint left in the boat: when and
where to get to it was the point. Xury said, if I would let him go
on shore with one of the jars, he would find if there was any water
and bring some to me. I asked him why he would go? why I
should not go, and he stay in the boat? The boy answered with <¢



ew

XURY'S LOVE FOR HIS MASTER. 17

much affection; as made me love him ever after. Says he, ‘‘If wild
mans come, they eat me, you go wey.” —‘‘ Well, Xury,’ said I, ‘‘we
will both go, and if the wild mans come, we will kill them, they
shall eat neither of us.” So I gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to
eat, and a dram out of our patron’s case of bottles which I mentioned
before ; and we hauled the boat in as near the shore as we thought
was proper, and waded on shore; carrying nothing but our arms
and two jars for water.

I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the coming of
canoes with savages down the river; but the boy seeing a low place
about a mile up the country, rambled to it ; and by-and-by I saw
him come running towards me. I thought he was pursued by some
savage, or frighted with some wild beast, and I ran forwards towards
him to help him ; but when I came nearer to him, I saw something

‘hanging over his shoulders, which was a creature that he had shot,

like a hare, but different in colour, and longer legs: however, we
were very glad of it, and it was very good meat; but the great joy
that poor Xury came with, was to tell me he had found good water,
and seen no wild mans.

But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains for
water, for a little higher up the creek where we were we found the
water fresh when the tide was out, which flowed but a little way up ;
so we filled our jars, and feasted on the hare we had killed, and pre-
pared to go on our way, having seen no footsteps of any human
creature in that part of the country.

As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very well
that the islands of the Canaries and the Cape de Verd islands also,
lay not far off from the coast. But as I had no instruments to take an
observation to know what latitude we were in, and not exactly know-
ing, or at least remembering, what latitude they were in, I knew not
where to look for them, or when to stand off to sea towards them ;
otherwise I might now easily have found some of these islands. But
my hope was, that if I stood along this coast till 1 came to that part
where the English traded, I should find some of their vessels upon
their usual design of trade, that would relieve and take us in.

By the best of my calculation, that place where 1 now was must
be that country which, lying between the Emperor of Moroccos
dominions and the Negroes, lies waste and uninhabited ; the Negroes
having abandoned it, and gone farther south, for fear of the Moors;
and the Moors not thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason of its
barrenness ; and, indeed, both forsaking it because of the prodigious
numbers of tigers, lions, leopards, and other furious creatures which
harbour there‘ so that the Moors use it for their hunting onl. where

C



18 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

they go like an army, two or three thoysand men at a time: and,
indeed, for near a hundred miles together upon this coast, we saw
nothing but a waste uninhabited country by day, and heard nothing
but howlings and roarings of wild beasts by night.

Once or twice in the day-time, I thought I saw the Pico of Tene-
riffe, being the high top of the Mountain Teneriffe in the Canaries ;
and had a great mind to venture out, in hopes of reaching thither ;
but having tried twice, I was forced in again by contrary winds, the
sea also going too high for my little vessel; so I resolved to pursue
my first design, and keep along the shore.

Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after we had
left this place ; and once in particular, being early in the morning,
we came to an anchor under a little point of land, which was pretty
high ; and the tide begirning to flow, we lay still to go farther in.
Xury, whose eyes were more about him than it seems mine were, calls
softly to me, and tells me that we had best go farther off the shore ;
‘‘for,” says he, ‘‘look, yonder lies a dreadful monster on the side of
that hillock, fast asleep.” I looked where he pointed, and saw a
dreadful monster indeed, for it was a terrible great lion that lay on
the side of the shore, under the shade of a piece of the hill that hung
as it were a little over him. ‘‘ Xury,” says I, ‘‘ you shall go on shore
and kill him.” Xury looked frighted, and said, ‘‘Me kill! he eat
me at one mouth ;” one mouthful he meant. However, I said no
more to the boy, but bade him lie still, and took our biggest gun,
which was almost musket bore, and loaded it with a good charge of
powder, and with two slugs, and laid it down; then I loaded another
gun with two bullets; and the third (for we had three pieces) I loaded
with five smaller bullets. I took the best aim I could with the first
piece to have shot him into the head, but he lay so with his leg raised
a little above his nose that the slugs hit his leg about the knee, and
broke the bone. He started up, growling at first, but finding his
leg broken, fell down again ; and then got up upon three legs, and
gave the most hideous roar that ever I heard. I wasa little surprised
that I had not hit him on the head; however, I took up the second
plece immediately, and though he began to move off, fired again, and
shot him into the head, and had the pleasure to see him drop and
make but little noise, but lay struggling for life. Then Xury took
heart, and would have me let him go on shore. ‘Well, go,” said
!: so the boy jumped into the water, and taking a little gun in one
hand, swam to shore with the other hand, and coming close to the
creature, put the muzzle of the piece to his ear, and shot him in the
head again, which despatched him quite. i

This was game indeed to us, but this was no food; and I was

a



A

Ya rpm tne iat DRE ORE

ar

SRER

Se

im



SOE SHOOTS A LION.

CRU






CUTTING OFF THE LION'S FOOT. 19

very sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot upon a creature
that was good for nothing to us. However, Xury said he would
have some of him; so he comes on board, and asked me to give him
the hatchet. ‘‘ For what, Xury ?”’ said I. ‘‘ Me cut off his head,’’
said he. However, Xury could not cut off his head, but he cut off a
foot, and brought it with him, and it was a monstrous great one.

I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of him might
be of some value to us; and I resolved to take off his skin if I could.
So Xury and I went to work with him; but Xury was much the
better workman at it, for I knew very ill how to doit. Indeed, it
took us both up the whole day, but at last we got off the hide of
him, and spreading it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectually
dried it in two days’ time, and it afterwards served me to lie upon.

After this stop, we made on to the southward continually for ten
or twelve days, living very sparingly on our provisions, which began
to abate very much, and going no oftener to the shore than we were
obliged to for fresh water. My design in this was, to make the
River Gambia or Senegal, that is to say, anywhere about the Cape
de Verd, where I was in hopes to meet with some European ship ;
and if [ did not, I knew not what course I had to take, but to seek
for the islands, or perish there among the Negroes. I knew that all
the ships from Europe, which sailed either to the Coast of Guinea or
to Brazil, or to the East Indies, made this Cape, or those islands ;
and, in.a word, I put the whole of my fortune upon this single point,
either that I must meet with some ship, or must perish.

When [ had pursued this resolution about ten days longer, as I
have said, I began to see that the land was inhabited ; andin two or
three places, as we sailed by, we saw people stand upon the shore to
look at us; we could also perceive they were quite black, and
naked. I was once inclined to have gone on shore to them ; but
Xury was my better counsellor, and said to me, ‘‘ No go, no go.”
However, I hauled in nearer the shore that I might talk to them,
and I found_they ran along the shore by me a good way : I observed
they had no weapons in their hands, except one, who had a long
slender stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that they could
throw them a great way with good aim. So I kept at a distance,
but talked with them by signs as well as I could; and particularly
made signs for something to eat; they beckoned to me to stop my
boat, and they would fetch me some meat. Upon this, I lowered
the top of my sail, and lay by, and two of them ran up into the
country, and in less than half an hour came back, and brought with
them two pieces of dried flesh and some corn, such as is the produce
of their country ; but we neither knew what the one nor the other was ;

‘C2



20 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

however, we were willing to accept it, but how to come at it was our
next dispute, for I was not for venturing on shore to them, and they
were as much afraid of us ; but they took asafe way for us all, for they
brought it to the shore and laid it down, and went and stood a great
way off till we fetched it on board, and then came close to us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to make
them amends ; but an opportunity offered that very instant to oblige
them wonderfully : for while we were lying by the shore, came two
mighty creatures, one pursuing the other (as we took it) with great
fury from the mountains towards the sea ; whether it was the male pur-
suing the female, or whether they were in sport or in rage, we could
not tell, any more than we could tell whether it was usual or strange,
but I believe it was ihe latter; because, in the first place, those
ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the night; and, in the
second place, we found the people terribly frighted, especially the
women. ‘The man that had the lance or dart did not fly from them,
but the rest did ; however, as the two creatures ran directly into the
water, they did not offer to fall upon any of the Negroes, but plunged
themselves into the sea, and swam about, as if they had come for
their diversion. At last one of them began to come nearer our boat
than at first I expected ; but I lay ready for him, for I had loaded
my gun with all possible expedition, and bade Xury load both the
others. As soon as he came fairly within my reach, I fired, and
_ Shot him directly in the head : immediately he sank down into the
water, but rose instantly, and plunged up and down, as if he was
struggling for life, and so indeed ‘he was: he immediately made to
the shore ; but between the wound, which was his mortal hurt, and
the strangling of the water, he died just before he reached the shore.
It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor creatures ©
at the noise and fire of my gun; some of them were even ready to
die for fear, and fell down as dead with the very terror. But when
they saw the creature dead, and sunk in the water, and that I made ©
signs to them to come to the shore, they took heart and came, and
began to search for the creature. I found him by his blood staining
the waier: and by the help of a rope, which I slung round him, and
gave the Negroes to haul, they dragged him on shore, and found
that it was a most curious leopard, spotted, and fine to an admirable
degree ; and the Negroes held up their hands with admiration. to
think what it was I had killed him with,
eee other creature, frighted with the flash of fire and the noise of
gun, swam on shore, and ran up directly to the mountains from
whence they came ; nor could I, at that distance, know what it was.
T found quickly the Negroes were for eating the flesh of this creature,



THE KINDLY NEGROES. | 21

so I was willing to have them take it as a favour from me: which,
when I made signs to them that they might take him, they were very
pee for. gee they fell to work with him ; and though

ite a nife, yet, with a sharpened piece of wood, they took
Is skin as readily, and much more readily, than we could

ave done with a knife. ‘They offered me some of the flesh, which
I declined, making as if I would give it them ; but made signs for
the skin, which they gave me very freely, and brought me a great
deal more of their provisions, which, though I did not understand,
yet I accepted ; then I made signs to them for some water, and held
out one of my jars to them, turning it bottom upward, to show that
it was empty, and that I wanted to have it filled. They called im-
mediately to some of their friends, and there came two women, and
brought a great vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I supposed, in
the sun ; this they set down for me, as before, and I sent Xury on
shore with my jars, and filled them all three.

I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and
water; and leaving my friendly Negroes, I made forward for about
eleven days more, without offering to go near the shore, till I saw
the land run out a great length into the sea, at about a distance of
four or five leagues before me ; and the sea being very calm, I kept
a large offing to make this point : at length, doubling the point, at
about two leagues from the land, I saw plainly land on the other
side, to seaward : then I concluded, as it was most certain indeed,
that this was the Cape de Verd, and those the islands called, from
thence, Cape de Verd Islands. However, they were at a great dis-
tance, and I could not well tell what I had best to do; for if I should
be taken with a fresh of wind, I might neither reach one or other.

In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the cabin,
and sat down, Xury having the helm ; when, on a sudden, the boy
cried out, ‘‘ Master, master, a ship with a sail !’’ and the foolish boy
was frighted out of his wits, thinking it must needs be some of his
master’s ships sent to pursue us, but I knew we were gotten far
enough out of their reach. I jumped out of the cabin, and imme-
diately saw, not only the ship, but what she was, viz., a Portuguese
ship ; and, as I thought, was bound to the Coast of Guinea, for Ne-
groes. But, when I observed the course she steered, I was soon
convinced they were bound some other way, and did not design to
come any nearer to the shore : upon which I stretched out to sea as
much as I could, resolving to speak with them if possible.

With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able to
come in their way, but that they would be gone before I could make
any signal to them, But after I had crowded to the utmost, and



22 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

began to despair, they, it seems, saw me by the help of their perspec-
tive glasses, and that it was some European boat, which, as they
supposed, must belong to some ship that was lost ; so they shortened
sail to let mecomeup. Iwasencouraged with this, and as I had my
patron’s ancient on board, I made a waft of it to them, fora signal
of distress, and fired a gun, both which they saw ; for they told me
they saw the smoke, though they did not hear the gun._ Upon these
signals they very kindly brought to, and lay by for me; and in about
three hours’ time I came up with them.

They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish, and in
French, but I understood none of them ; but, at last, a Scots sailor,
who was on board, called to me, and I answered him, and told him
I was an Englishman, that I had made my escape out of slavery
from the Moors at Sallee. They then bade me come on board, and
very kindly took me in, and all my goods.

It was an inexpressible joy to me, that any one would believe, that
I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable and
almost hopeless condition as I was in, and I immediately offered all
I had to the captain of the ship, as a return for my deliverance ; but
he generously told me, he would take nothing from me, but that all
I had should be delivered safe to me, when I came to the Brazils.
‘‘ For,” says he, ‘‘I have saved your life on no other terms than I
would be glad to be saved myself; and it may, one time or other, be
my lot to be taken up in the same condition. Besides,” said he,
‘““when I carry you to the Brazils, so great a way from your own
country, if I should take from you what you have, you will be starved
there, and then I only take away that life I have given. No, no,”
says he, ‘‘Seignor Inglese’”’ (Mr. Englishman), ‘‘I will carry you
thither in charity, and those things will help to buy your subsistence
there, and your passage home again.”

As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the per-
formance to a tittle ; for he ordered the seamen, that none should
touch anything that I had: then he took everything into his own
possession, and gave me back an exact inventory of them, that I
might have them, even so much as my three earthen jars.

As to my boat, it was a very good one, and that he saw, and ‘told
me he would buy it of me for his ship’s use, and asked me what ]
would have for it? I told him, he had been so generous to me in,
everything, that I could not offer to make any price of the boat, but
left it entirely to him ; upon which he told me he would give mea note
of hand to pay me 80 pieces of eight for it at Brazil: and when it
came there, if any one offered to give more, he would make it up.
He offered me also 60 pieces of eight more for my boy Xury, which



THE GENEROUS CAPTAIN. 23

IT was loth to take; not that I was unwilling to let the captain
have him, but I was very loth to sell the poor boy’s liberty, who had
assisted me so faithfully in procuring my own. However, when I
let him know my reason, he owned it to be just, and offered me this
medium, that he would give the boy an obligation to set him free in
ten years, if he turned Christian. Upon this, and Aury saying he
was willing to go to him, I let the captain have him.

We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and I arrived in the
Bay de Todos los Santos, or All Saints’ Bay, in about twenty-two
days after. And now I was-once more delivered from the most
miserable of all conditions of life; and what to do next with myself.
I was to consider.

The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never enough
remember: he would take nothing of me for my passage, gave me
twenty ducats for the leopard’s skin, and forty for the lion’s skin,
which I had in my boat, and caused everything I had in the ship to
be punctually delivered to me; and what I was willing to sell he
bought of me, such as the case of bottles, two of my guns, and a
piece of the lump of bees-wax—for I had made candles of the rest :
in a word, I made about 220 pieces of eight of all my cargo: and
with this stock, I went on shore in the Brazils.

I had not been long here, before I was recommended to the house
of a good, honest man, like himself, who had an zz genzo, as they call
it (that is, a plantation and a sugar-house). I lived with him some
time, and acquainted myself, by that means, with the manner of
planting and making of sugar; and seeing how well the planters
lived, and how they got rich suddenly, I resolved, if I could geta
licence to settle there, I would turn planter among them, resolving,
jn the meantime, to find out some way to get my money, which I
‘had left in London, remitted to me. ‘To this purpose, getting a
kind of letter of naturalization, I purchased as much land that was
uncured as my money would reach, and formed a plan for my plan-
tation and settlement; such a one as might be suitable to the stock
which I proposed to myself to receive from England.

I had a neighbour a Portuguese of Lisbon, but born of Englisk
parents, whose name was Wells, and in much such circumstances ag
I was. I call him my neighbour, because his plantation lay next te
mine, and we went on very sociably together. My stock was but
low, as well as his; and we rather planted for food than anything
else, for about two years. However, we began to increase, and our
Jand began to come into order; so that the third year we planted
some tobacco, and made each of us a large piece of ground ready
for planting canes in the year to come. But we both wanted help ;,



‘BA ROBINSON CRUSOE.

and now I found, more than before, I had done wrong in parting
with my boy Xury. : oye

But, alas! for me to do wrong that never did right, was no great
wonder. I had no remedy but to go on: I had got into an employ-
ment quite remote to my genius, and directly contrary to the life 1
delighted in, and for which I forsook my father’s house, and broke
through all his good advice. Sis.

[ was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carrying on the
plantation, before my kind friend, the captain of the ship that took
me up at sea, went back; for the ship remained there, lading, and
preparing for his voyage, nearly three months ; when, telling him what
little stock I had left behind me in London, he gave me this friendly
and sincere advice :—‘‘Seignor Inglese,” says he (for so he always
called me), ‘‘if you will give me letters, and a procuration here in form
to me, with orders to the person who has your money in London, to
send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as I shall direct, and in
such goods as are proper for this country, I will bring you the pro-
duce of them, God willing, at my return; but, since human affairs
are all subject to changes and disasters, I would have you give orders
but for one hundred pounds sterling, which, you say, is half your
stock, and let the hazard be run for the first ; so that, if it come safe,
you may order the rest the same way ; and, if it miscarry, you may
have the other half to have recourse to for your supply.”

This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that I
could not but be convinced it was the best course I could take; so
I accordingly prepared letters to the gentlewoman with whom I had left
my money, and a procuration to the Portuguese captain, as he desired.

I wrote the English captain’s widow a full account of all my adven-
tures—my slavery, escape, and how I had met with the Portuguese
captain at sea, the humanity of his behaviour, and what condition I
was now in, with all other necessary directions for my supply ; and
when this honest captain came to Lisbon, he found means, by some
of the English merchants there, to send over, not the order only, but
a full account of my story to a merchant at London, who represented
it effectually to her; whereupon she not only delivered the money
but, out of her own pocket, sent the Portugal captain a very hand-
some present for his humanity and charity to me.

The merchant in London, vesting this hundred pounds in English
goods, such as the captain had written for, sent them directly to him
at Lisbon, and he brought them all safe to me to the Brazils ; among”
which, without my direction (for I was too young in my business to think. .
of them), he had taken care to have all sorts of tools, iron work, and
utensils, necessary for my plantation, and which were of greatusetome, |



CRUSOE BECOMES A PLANTER, | 25

When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortunes made, for I was
surprised with the joy of it; and my good steward, the captain, had
laid out the five pounds, which my friend had sent him for a present
for himself, to purchase and bring me over a servant, under bond for
$1x years’ service, and would not accept of any consideration, except a
little tobacco, which I would have him accept, being my own produce.

Neither was this all: for my goods being all English manufacture,
such as cloths, stuffs, baize, and things particularly valuable and
desirable in the country, I found means to sell them to a very great
advantage ; so that I might say, I had more than four times the
value of my first cargo, and was now infinitely beyond my poor neigh-
bour—I mean in the advancement of my plantation ; for the first thing
I did, I bought me a negro slave, and an European servant also—I
mean another besides that which the captain brought me from Lisbon,

To come by the just degrees, to the particulars of this part of my
story :—Having now lived almost four years in the Brazils, and be-
ginning to thrive and prosper very well upon my plantation, I had
not only learned the language, but had contracted acquaintance and
friendship among my fellow-planters, as well as among the merchants
at St. Salvador, which was our port; and in my discourses among
them, I had frequently given them an account of my two voyages to
the coast of Guinea; the manner of trading with the Negroes there,
and how easy it was to purchase upon the coast for trifles, such ag
beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits of glass, and the like, not
only gold dust, Guinea grains, elephants’ teeth, &c., but Negroes, for
the service of the Brazils, in great numbers.

They listened always very attentively to my ciscourses on these
heads, but especially to that part which related to the buying Negroes,
which was a trade, at that time, not only not far entered into, but, as
far as it was, had been carried on by Assientos, or permission of the
kings of Spain and Portugal, and engrossed in the public stock ; so
that few Negroes were bought, and those excessively dear.

It happened, being in company with some merchants and planters
of my acquaintance, and talking of those things very earnestly, three
of,them came to me next morning, and told me they had been musing
very much upon what I had discoursed with them of the last night,
and they.came to make a secret proposal to me; and, after enjoining
me secresy, they told me that they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to

_Guinea ; that they had all plantations as wellas I, and were straitened
for nothing so much as servants ; that as it was a trade that could
not be carried on, because they could not publicly sell the Negroes
when they came home, so they desired to make bul one voyage, to
bring the Negroes on shore privately, and divide them among their



26 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

own plantations; and, ina word, the question was, whather I would go
their supercargo in the ship, to manage the trading part upon the coast
of Guinea ; and they offered me that I should have my equal share o
the Negroes, without providing any part of the stock.

This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been made
to any one that had not had a settlement and a plantation of his own
to look after, which was in a fair way of coming to be very con-
siderable, and with a good stock upon it; but for me, that was
thus entered and established, and had nothing to do but to go on as
I had begun, for three or four years more, and to have sent for the
other hundred pounds from England, and who in that time, and
with that little addition, could scarce have failed of being worth three
or four thousand pounds sterling, and that increasing too; for me to
think of such a voyage was the most preposterous thing that ever
man in such circumstances could be guilty of.

But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no more resist
the offer than I could restrain my first rambling designs when my
father’s good counsel was lost upon me. Ina word, I told them I
would go with all my heart, if they would undertake to look after my
plantation in my absence, and would dispose of it to such as I should
direct, if I miscarried. ‘This they ail engaged to do, and entered into
writings or covenants to doso ; and I made a formal will disposing of
my plantation and effects in case of my death, making the captain of
the ship that had saved my life, as before, my universal heir, but ob- '
liging him to dispose of my effects as I had directed in my will, one-half
of the produce being to himself, and the otherto beshipped to England.

In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects, and to
keep up my plantation ; had I used half as much prudence to have
looked into my own interest, and have made a judgment of what I
ought to have done and not to have done, I had certainly never gone
away from so prosperous an undertaking, and gone upon a voyage
to sea, attended with all its hazards.

But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my fancy
rather than my reason; and, accordingly, the ship being fitted out
and the cargo furnished, and all things done, as by agreement, by
my partners in the voyage, I went on board in an evil hour, the rst
of September, 1659, being the same day eight years that I went from
my father and mother at Hull. |
me ue was about 120 tons burden, carried 6 guns, and 14 men,

esides the master, his boy, and myself; we had on board no large

cargo of goods, except of such toys as were fit for our trade with the

Negroes, such as beads, bits of glass, shells, and other trifl -

cially little looking-glasses, knives, scissors, h ad dite
3 &-giasses, knives, scissors, hatchets and the like.



THE VOVAGE TO GUINEA. | 27

The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away to the
northward upon our own coast, with design to stretch over for the
African coast when we came about ten or twelve degrees of northern
latitude, which, it seems, was the manner of their course in those
days. We had very good weather, only excessively hot, all the way
upon our own coast, till we came to the height of Cape St. Augus-
tino ; from whence, keeping further off at sea, we lost sight of land,
and steered as if we were bound for the isle Fernando de Noronha,
holding: our course N.E. by N., and leaving those isles on the east.
In this course we passed the line in about twelve days’ time, and
were, by our last observation, in 7 degrees 22’ northern latitude,
when a violent tornado, or hurricane, took us quite out of our know-
ledge. It blew in such a terrible manner, that for twelve days to-
gether we could do nothing but drive; and, scudding away before
it, let it carry us whither ever fate and the fury of the winds directed.

In this distress we had, besides the terror of the storm, one of our
men die of the calenture, and one man and the boy washed over-
board. About the twelfth day, the weather abating a little, the
master made an observation as well as he could, and found that he
was in about 11° north latitude, but that he was 22° of longitude
difference west from Cape St. Augustino ; so that he found he was
upon the coast of Guiana, or the north part of Brazil, beyond the
river. Amazon, towards that of the river Oroonoque, commonly
called the Great River; and began to consult with me what course
he should take, for the ship was leaky, and very much disabled, and
he was going directly back to the coast of Brazil.

I was positively against that ; and looking over the charts of the
sea-coasts of America with him, we concluded there was no in-
habited country for us to have recourse to, till we came within the
circle of the Caribbee Islands, and therefore resolved to stand away
_ for Barbadoes, which, by keeping off at sea, to avoid the indraft of
the Bay or Gulf of Mexico, we might easily perform, as we hoped,
in about fifteen days’ sail; whereas we could not possibly make our
voyage to the coast of Africa without some assistance both to our
ship and to ourselves. |

With this design we changed our course, and steered away N.W.
by W., in order to reach some of our English islands, where I hoped
for relief ; but our voyage was otherwise determined ; for, being in
the Jatitude of 12. deg. 18 min. a second storm came upon Us, which
carried us away with the same impetuosity westward, and drove us
so out of the very way of all human commerce, that, had all our
lives been saved as to the sea, we were rather in danger of heing
devoured by savages than ever returning to our county



28 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of\our men
early in the morning cried out, ‘‘ Land !” and we had no sooner ran
out of the cabin to look out, in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the
world we were, than the ship struck upon a sand, and in a moment,
her motion being so stopped, the sea broke over her in such a man-
ner, that we expected we should all have perished immediately ; and
we were immediately driven into our close quarters, to shelter us
from the very foam and spray of the sea. a

It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like condition
to describe or conceive. the consternation of men in such circum-
stances: we knew nothing where we were, or upon what land it
was we were driven, whether an island or the main, whether in-
habited or not inhabited ; and as the rage of the wind was still
great, though rather less than at first, we could not so much as hope
to have the ship hold many minutes without breaking in pieces,
unless the winds, by a kind of miracle, should turn immediately
apout. Ina word, we sat looking upon one another, and expecting
death every moment, and every man, acting accordingly, as pre-
paring for another world; for there was little or nothing more for
us to do in this; that which was our present comfort, and all the
comfort we had, was that, contrary to ourexpectation, the ship did
not break yet, and that the master said the wind began to abate.

Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate, yet the
ship having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast for us
to expect her getting off, we were in a dreadful condition indeed,
and had nothing to do but to think of saving our lives as well as we
could. We had a boat at our stern, just before the storm, but she
was first staved by dashing against the ship’s rudder, and in the next
place, she broke away, and either sunk, or was driven off to sea;
so there was no hope from her; we had another boat on board, but
now to get her off into the sea was a doubtful thing ; however, there
was no time to debate, for we fancied the ship would break in
pieces every minute, and some told us she was actually broken
already.

i this distress, the mate of our vessel lays hold of the boat, and
with the help of the rest of the men, they got her slung over the
ship’s side ; and getting all into her, let go, and committed ourselves,
being eleven in number, to God's mercy and the wild sea ; for though
the storm was abated considerably, yet the sea went dreadfully high

“

upon the shore, and might be well called dex wild zee, as the Dutch .

call the sea in a storm.
And now our cage was very dismal indeed ; for we all saw plainly,
that the sea went so high that the boat could not live. and that we



ke

THE SHIPWRECK. 29

should be inevitably drowned. As to making sail, we had none, nor,
if we had, could we have done anything with it ; so we worked at she
oar towards the land, though with heavy hearts, like men going to
execution ; for we all knew that when the boat came nearer the shore,
she would be dashed in a thousand pieces by the breach of the sea.
However, we committed our souls to God in the most earnest manner ;
and the wind driving us towards the shore, we hastened our destruc.
tion with our own hands, pulling as well as we could towards land.
What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether steep or shoat,
we knew not; the only hope that could rationally give us the least
shadow of expectation, was, if we might find some bay or gulf, or the
mouth of some river, where by great chance we might have run our
boat in, or got under the lee of the land, and perhaps made smooth:
water. But there was nothing of this appeared ; but as we made nearer
and nearer the shore, the land looked more frightful than the sea.
After we had rowed or rather driven about a league and a half, az.
we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountaintlike, came rolling astern of
us, and plainly bade us expect the coup de grace. Ina word, it took
us with such a fury, that it overset the boat at once; and separating”
us, as well from the boat as from one another, gave us not time to
say, ‘‘O God !” for we were all swallowed up in a moment.
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt, when
I sunk into the water ; for though I swam very well, yet I could not
deliver myself from the waves so as to draw breath, till that wave
having driven me, or rather carried me, a vast way on towards the
shore, and having spent itself, went back, and left me upon the land
almost dry, but half dead with the water I took in. 1 had so muck
presence of mind, as well as breath left, that, seeing myself nearer
the main land than I expected, I got upon my feet, and endeavoured
to make on towards the land as fast as I could, before another wave
should return and take me up again. But I soon found it was impos-
sible to avoid it; for I saw the sea come after me as high as a great
hill, and as furious as an enemy, which I had no means or strength to
contend with : my business was to hold my breath, and raise myself
upon the water, if I could: and so, by swimming, to preserve my
breathing and pilot myself towards the shore, if possible : my greatest
“concern now being, that the sea, as it would carry me a great way
towards the shore when it came on, might not carry me back again
with it when it gave back towards the sea. |
The wave that came upon me again, buried me at once 20 or 30
feet deep in its own body, and I could feel myself carried with a
_ mighty force and swiftness towards the shore a very great way ; but I
held my breath, and assisted myself to swim still forward with all my



30 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

might. I was ready to burst with holding my breath, when, as I felt
myself rising up, so, to my immediate relief, I found my head and
hands shoot out above the surface of the water; and though it was
not two seconds of time that I could keep myself so, yet it relieved me
greatly, gave me breath and new courage. - I was covered again with
water a good while, but not so long but I held it out ; and, finding the
water had spent itself and began to return, I struck forward against
the return of the waves, and felt ground again with my feet. I stood
still a few moments to recover breath and till the waters went from
me, and then took to my heels and ran, with what strength I had,
further towards the shore. But neither would this deliver me from
the fury of the sea, which came pouring in after me again ; and twice
more I was liffed up by the waves and carried forwards as before, the
shore being very flat.

The last time of these two had well-near been fatal to me; for the
sea having hurried me along, as before, landed me, or rather dashed
me, against a piece of a rock, and that with such force, as it left me
senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my own deliverance ; for the blow
taking my side and breast, beat the breath, as it were, quite out of
my body ; and had it returned again immediately, I must have been
strangled in the water; but I recovered a little before the return of
the waves, and seeing I should be covered again with the water, I
resolved to hold fast by a piece of the rock, and so to hold my breath,
if possible, till the wave went back. Now, as the waves were not so
high as at first, being nearer land, I held my hold till the wave abated,
and then fetched another run, which brought me so near the shore,
that the next wave, though it went over me, yet did not so swallow me
up as to carry me away; and the next run I took, I got to the main
land, where, to my great comfort, I clambered up the cliffs of the
shore, and sat me down upon the grass, free from danger and quite
out of the reach of the water. ,

I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to look up and

thank God that my life was saved, in a case wherein there was, some
minutes before, scarce any room to hope. I believe it is impossible
to express, to the life, what the ecstasies and transports of the soul are,
when it is so saved, as I may say, out of the very grave.
i I walked about on the shore lifting up my hands, and my whole
being, as I may say, wrapt up ina contemplation of my deliverance :
making a thousand gestures and motions, which I cannot describe,
reflecting upon all my comrades that were drowned, and that ther
should not be one soul saved but myself; for, as for them, I never saw
them afterwards, or any sign of them, except three of their hats, one
cep, and two shoes that were not fellows.

Ssh



A STRANGE RESTING-PLACE. | 31

I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when, the breach and froth
of the sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far off; and
considered, Lord ! how was it possible I could get on shore!

After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my con-
dition, I began to look round me, to see what kind of place I was in,
and what was next to be done: and I soon found my comforts abate,
and that, in a word, I had a dreadful deliverance: for I was wet, had
no clothes to shift me, nor anything either to eat or drink to comfort
me ; neither did I see any prospect before me, but that of perishing
with hunger, or being devoured by wild beasts; and that which was
particularly afflicting to me was, that I had no weapon, either to hunt
and kill any creature for my sustenance, or to defend myself against
any other creature that might desire to kill me for theirs; in aword, I
had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco
in a box; this was all my provisions ; and this threw me into terrible
agonies of mind, that for a while, I ran about like amadman. Night
coming upon me, I began, with a heavy heart, to consider what would
be my lot if there were any ravenous beasis in that country, as at night
they always come abroad for their prey.

All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that time, was to
get up into a thick bushy tree like a fir, but thorny, which grew near
me, and where I resolved to sit all night, and consider the next day
what death I should die, for as yet I saw no prospect of life. I
walked about a furlong from the shore, to see if I could find any fresh
water to drink, which I did, to my great joy; and having drank, and
put a little tobacco in my mouth to prevent hunger, I went to the
tree, and getting up into it, endeavoured to place myself so that if I
should sleep I might not fall; and having cut me a short stick, like
a truncheon, for my defence, I took up my lodging, and having been
excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I
believe, few could have done in my condition, and found myself ths
most refreshed with it that I think I ever was on such an occasion.

When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the storm
abated, so-that the sea did not rage and swell as before; but that
which surprised me most was, that the ship was lifted off in the night
from the sand where she lay, by the swelling of the tide, and was
driven up almost as far as the rock which I at first mentioned, where
I had been so bruised by the dashing me against it. ‘This being
within about a mile from the shore where I was, and the ship seeming
to stand upright still, I wished myself on board, that at least [ might
save some necessary things for my use.

When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked about
me again, and the first thing I found was the boat, which lay as the

ay Fo & 4



3f _ ROBINSON CRUSOE.

wind and the sea had tossed her, up upon the land, about two miles
on my right hand; I walked as far as I could upon the shore to have
got to her; but found a neck or inlet of water between me and the
boat which was about half a mile broad; so I came back for the
present, being more intent upon getting at the ship, where I hoped
to find something for my present subsistence.

A little after noon, I found the sea very calm, and the tide ebbed
so far out that I could come within a quarter of a mile of the ship;
and here I found a fresh renewing of my grief; for I saw evidently,
that if we had kept on board, we had been all safe, that is to say, we
had all got safe on shore, and I had not been so miserable as to be
left entirely destitute of all comfort and company as I now was ; this
forced tears to my eyes again; but as there was little relief in that, |
resolved, if possible, to get to the ship; so I pulled off my clothes, for
the weather was hot to extremity, and took the water; but when |
came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to know how to get
on board, for, as she lay aground, and high of&t of the water, there
was nothing within my reach to lay hold of. Iswam round her twice,
and the second time I spied a small piece of rope, which I wondered
I did not see at first, hang down by the fore-chains so low, as that
with great difficulty I got hold of it, and by the help of that rope got
up into the forecastle of the ship; here I found that the ship was
bulged, and had a great deal of water in her hold, but that she lay
so on the side of a bank of hard sand, or rather earth, that her stern
lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head ‘ow, almost to the water;
by this means all her quarter was free, and all that was in that part
was dry; for you may be sure my first work was to search, and to see
what was spoiled and what was free; and first, I found that all the
ship's provisions were dry and untouched by the water, and being
very well disposed to eat, I went to the bread-room and filled my
pockets with biscuit, and eat it as I went about other things, for I had
no time to lose. I also found some rum in the great cabin, of which
I took a large dram, and which I had, indeed, need enough of to
spirit me for what was before me. Now I wanted nothing but a boat
to furnish myself with many things which I foresaw would be very
necessary to me.

It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be had; and
this extremity roused my application. We had several spare yards,
and two or three large spars of wood, and a spare top-mast or two in \
the ship : I resolved to fall to work with these, and I flung as many
of them overboard as I could. manage for their weight, tying every \
one with a rope, that they might not drive away. When this was
uone, I went down the ship's side, and pulling them to me, I tied



CRUSOE MAKES A RAFT gy

four of them together at both ends, as well as I could, in the form of
a raft, and laying two or three short pieces of plank upon them cross-
ways, I found I could walk upon it very well, but that it was not _
able to bear any great weight, the pieces being too light ; so I went -
to work, and with a carpenter's saw I cut a spare top-mast into three’
lengths, and added them to my raft, with a great deal of labour and |
pains, but the hope of furnishing myself with necessaries, encouraged °
me to go beyond what I should have been able to have done upon *
another occasion.

My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable weight ;
my next care was what to load it with, and how to preserve what I!
laid upon it from the surf of the sea: but I was not long considering’ ©
this, I first laid all the planks or boards upon it that I could get, and’
having considered well what I most wanted, I first got three of tlie.’
seamen’s chests, which I had broken open and emptied, and lowered
them down upon my raft; the first of these I filled with provisions,
viz., bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried goat's flesh |
(which we lived much upon), and a little remainder of European
corn), which had been laid by for some fowls which we brought to
sea with us, but the fowls were killed; there had been some barley
and wheat together, but, to my great disappointment, I found after-
wards that the rats had eaten or spoiled it all; as for liquors, I found
several cases of bottles belonging to our skipper, in which were some
cordial waters ; and, in all, about five or six gallons of rack; these ©
I stowed by themselves, there being no need to put them into the ©
chest, nor no room forthem. While 1 was doing this, I found the —
tide began to fluw, though very calm; and I had the mortification te
see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left on the shore, upon -
the sand, swim away ; as for my breeches, which were only linen, and -
open-knee’d, I swam on board in them and my stockings; however, _
this set me on rummaging for clothes, of which I found enough, but ~
took no more than I wanted for present use, for I had other things ~
which my eye was more upon—as, first, tools to work with on shore ; °
and it was after long searching that I found out the carpenter's chest, ~
which was, indeed, a very useful prize to me, and much more vala- ~
able than a ship-load of gold would have been at that time : I got it
down to my raft, whole as it was, without losing time to look into it,.
for I knew in general what it contained.

My next care was for some ammunition and arms : there were two
very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two pistols ; these I
secured first, with some powder-horns and a small bag of shot, and
two old rusty swords. I knew there were three barrels of powder in
the ship, but knew not where our gunner had stowed them ; but

b



“34 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

~with much search I found them, two of them dry and good, the
“third had taken water; those two I got to my raft, with the arms ;
-and now I thought myself pretty well freighted, and began to think
how I should get to shore with them, having neither sail, oar, nor
‘rudder ; and the least cap-full of. wind would have overset all my
‘navigation. ha me |

I had three encouragements : 1st, a smooth, calm sea; e2ndly, the
‘tide rising, and setting in to the shore ; 3rdly, what little wind there
was blew me towards the land : and having found two or three broken
‘oars belonging to the boat—and, besides the tools which were in the
chest, I found two saws, an axe, and a hammer, with this cargo I put
to sea. Foramile, or thereabouts, my raft went very well, only that
T found it drive a little distant from the place where I had landed
‘before, by which I perceived that there was some indraft of the water,
and consequently, I hoped to find some creek or river there, which
I might make use of as a port to get to land with my cargo.

As I imagined, so it was; there appeared before me a little open-
ing of the land, and I found a strong current of the tide set into it,
so I guided my raft as well as I could, to keep in the middle of the
stream: but here I had like to have suffered a second shipwreck,
which, if I had, I think, verily, would have broke my heart ; for,
knowing nothing of the coast, my raft ran aground at one end of it

‘upon a shoal, and not being aground at the other end, it wanted but
a little that all my cargo had slipped off towards the end that was
afloat, and so fallen into the water. I did my utmost, by setting my
back against the chests, to keep them in their places, but could not
thrust off the raft with all my strength, neither durst I stir from the
posture I was in; but holding up the chests with all my might,
stood in that manner near half an hour, in which time the rising of

the water brought me a little more upon a level; and, a little after,
the water still rising, my raft floated again, and I thrust her off with

the oar I had, into the channel, and then driving up higher, I at
length found myself in the mouth of a little river, with land on both
sides, and a strong current of tide running up. I looked on both
sides for a proper place to get to shore, for I was not willing to be
driven too high up the river, hoping, in time, to see some ship at sea
and therefore resolved to place myself as near the coast as I could,

At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek, to
which, with great pain and difficulty, I guided my raft, and at last
got so near, as that, reaching ground with my oar, I could thrust her
directly in; but here I had liked to have dipped all my cargo into
the sea again; for that shore lying pretty steep, that is to say,

sloping, there was no place to land, but where one end of my float;



CRUSOE CHOOSES A PLACE FOR HIS HOUSE. 435

-if.it-ran on shore, would lie so high, and the other sink lower, as
‘before, that it would endanger my cargo again ; all that I could do,
-was to wait-till. the tide was at the highest, keeping the raft with my
oar like an anchor, to hold the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat
“piece of ground, which I expected the water would flow over; and
so it did. As soon as I found water enough, for my raft drew about
a foot of water, I thrust her on upon that flat piece of ground, and
there fastened or moored her, by sticking my two broken oars into
the ground, one on one side, near one end, and one on the other
side, near the other end ; and thus I lay till the water ebbed away,
and left my raft and all my cargo safe on shore. | |

My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper place
for my habitation, and where to stow my goods to secure them from
whatever might happen ; where I was, I yet knew not; whether on
the continent or on an island; whether inhabited or not inhabited ;
whether in danger of wild beasts or not. There was a hill not above
a mile from me, which rose up very steep and high, and which
seemed to overtop some other hills, which lay as in a ridge from it,
northward ; I took out one of the fowling-pieces, and one of the
pistols, and a horn of powder, and thus armed, I travelled for dis-
covery up to the top of that hill, where, after I had with great labour
and difficulty got to the top, I saw my fate, to my great affliction ;
viz., that I was in an island environed every way with the sea, no land
to be seen except some rocks, which lay a great way off; and two
small islands, less than this, which lay about three leagues to the west.

I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I saw
good reason to believe, uninhabited except by wild beasts, of whom,
however, I saw none; yet I saw abundance of fowls, but knew not
their kinds; neither when I killed them could I tell what was fit for
food, and what not. Atmy coming back, I shot at a great bird which
I saw sitting upon a tree on the side of a great wood ; I believe it
was the first gun that had been fired there since the creation of the
world. I had no sooner fired, than from all parts of the wood there
arose an innumerable number of fowls of many sorts, making a con-
fused screaming and crying, and every one according to his usual
note, but not one of them of any kind that I knew ; as for the crea-
ture I killed, I took it to be a kind of hawk, its colour and beak re-
sembling it, but it had no talons or claws more than common ; Its
flesh was carrion, and fit for nothing.

Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and fell to
work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me up the rest of that
day ; what to do with myself at night I knew not, nor indeed where
to rest, for I was afraid to lie down on the ground, not knowing but

qa @



36 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

some wild beast might devour me, though, as I afterwards found,
there was really no need for those fears. However, as well as I
could, I barricaded myself round with the chests and boards that I
had brought on shore, and made a kind of hut for that night's
lodging ; as for food, I yet saw not which way to supply myself, ex-
cept that I had seen two or three creatures, like hares, run out of the
wood where I shot the fowl. / ie
_ I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many things
out of the ship which would be useful to me, and particularly some
_of the rigging and sails, and such other things as might come to land,
and I resolved to make another voyage on board the vessel, if possi-
ble: and as I knew that the first storm that blew must necessarily
break her all in pieces, I resolved to set all other things apart till I
had got everything out of the ship that I could get: then I called a
council—that is to say, in my thoughts—whether I should take back
the raft; but this appeared impracticable: so I resolved to go as
before, when the tide was down, and I did so, only that I stripped
before I went from my hut, having nothing on but a chequered shirt,
a pair of linen drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.

I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second raft ;
-and, having had experience of the first, I neither made this so un-
wieldy, nor loaded it so hard, but yet I brought away several things
very useful to me ; as, first, in the carpenter's stores, I found two or
three bags full of nails and spikes, a great screw-jack, a dozen or two
of hatchets, and, above all, that most useful thing called a grind-
stone ; all these I secured, together with several things belonging te
the gunner, particularly two or three iron crows, and two barrels of
musket bullets, seven muskets, another fowling-piece, with some
small quantity of powder more ; a large bag full of small shot, and
a great roll of sheet-lead ; but this last was so heavy, I could not hoist
it up to get it over the ship's side.

Besides these things, I took all the men’s clothes that I could find,
and a spare fore-top sail, hammock, and some bedding; and with
this I loaded my second raft, and brought them all safe on shore, to
my very great comfort. :

I was under some apprehensions during my absence from the land,
that at least my provisions might be devoured on shore: but when I
came back, I found no sign of any visitor, only there sat a creature
like a wild cat, upon one of the chests, which, when I came towards
it, ran away a little distance, and then stood still ; she sat very com-
posed and unconcerned, and looked full in my face, as if she hada
mind to be acquainted with me ; I presented my gun at her, but, as ©
- She did not understand it, she was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor



THE TENT AND ITS CONTENTS. | 37

did she offer to stir away ; upon which I tossed her a bit of biscuit,
though, by the way, I was not very free of it, for my store was not
great : however, I spared her a bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled
at it, and ate it, and looked, as if pleased, for more; but I thanked
her, and could spare no more; so she marched off.

Having got my second cargo on shore, though I was fain to open
the barrels of powder, and_ bring them by parcels (for they were too
heavy, being large casks), I went to work to make me a little tent,
with the sail, and some poles which I cut for that purpose ; and into
this tent I brought everything that I knew would spoil either with
rain or sun, and I piled all the empty chests and casks up in a circle
round the tent, to fortify it from any sudden attempt, either from
man or beast.

When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent with
some boards within, and an empty chest set up on end without ; and
spreading one of the beds upon the ground, laying my two pistols just
at my head, and my gun at length by me, I went to bed for the first
time, and slept very quietly all night, for I was very weary and heavy ;
for the night before I had slept little, and had laboured very hard all
day, as well to fetch all those things from the ship, and to get them
on shore.

I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was laid up,
I believe, for one man: but I was not satisfied still, for while the ship
sat upright in that posture, I thought I ought to get everything out of
her that I could: so every day at low water I went on board, and
brought away something or other ; but particularly the third time I
went, I brought away as much of the rigging as I could, as also all the
small ropes and rope-twine I could get, with a piece of spare canvas,
which was to mend the sails upon occasion, and the barrel of wet
gunpowder : in a word, I brought away all the sails first and last ;
only that I was fain to cut them in pieces, and ‘bring as much ata
time as I could, for they were no more useful to be sails, but as mere
canvas only.

But that which comforted me more still, was, that last of all, after I
had made five or six such voyages as these, and thought I had nothing
more to expect from the ship that was worth my meddling with ; I say,
after all this, I found a great hogshead of bread, three large runlets
of rum, or spirits, and a box of sugar, and a barrel of fine flour : this
was surprising to me, because I had given over expecting any more
provisions, except what was spoiled by the water ; I soon emptied the
hogshead of that bread, and wrapped it up, parcel by parcel, in pieces
of the sails, which I cut out ; and, ina word, I got all this safe on

shore also.



38 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

The next day I made another voyage, and now, having plundered
the ship of what was portable and fit to hand out, I began with the
cables; and cutting the great cable into pieces, such as I could move,
I got two cables and a hawser on shore, with all the iron-work I could
get ; and having cut down the spritsail-yard, and the mizen-yard, and
everything I could, to make a large raft, I loaded it with all these
heavy goods, and came away ; but my good luck began now to leave
me; for this raft was so unwieldy, and so overladen, that, after I had
entered the little cove where I had landed the rest of my goods, not
being able to guide it so handily as I did the other, it overset, and
threw me and all my cargo into the water. As for myself, It was no
great harm, for I was near the shore; but as to my cargo, it was a
great part of it lost, especially the iron, which I expected would have
been of great use to me : however, when the tide was out, I got most
of the pieces of cable ashore, and'some of the iron, though with infi-
nite labour ; for I was fain to dip for it into the water, a work which
fatigued me very much. After this, I went every day on board, and
brought away what I could get.

I had been now 13 days on shore, and had been 11 times on board.
the ship, in which time I had brought away all that one pair of hands
could well be supposed capable to bring ; though I believe verily, had
the calm weather held, I should have brought away the whole ship,
piece by piece ; but preparing the twelfth time to goon board, I found
the wind began to rise : however, at low water I went on board, and
though I thought I had rummaged the cabin so effectually, as that
nothing more could be found, yet I discovered a locker with drawers.
in it, in one of which I found two or three razors, and one pair of
large scissors, with some ten or a dozen of good knives and forks:
in another I found about thirty-six pounds value in money, some
European coin, some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some gold, and
some silver. ta v

I smiled to myself at the sight of this money: ‘'O drug!” said I,
aloud, ‘‘ what art thou good for? Thou art not worth to me, no, not
the taking off the ground :. one of those knives is worth all this heap :-
I have no manner of use for thee—even remain where thou art, and go
to the bottom, as a creature whose life is not worth saving.”” However,
upon second thoughts, I took it away, and, wrapping all this in a
piece of canvas, I began to think of making another raft’: but while
I was preparing this, I found the sky overcast, and the wind began
torise, and in a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale from the shore. |
It occurred to me, that it was in vain to pretend to make a raft with
the wind off shore ; and that it was my business to be gone before the
tide of flood began, otherwise I might not be able to reach the shore



USELESS RICHES. 39

at all; accordingly, I let myself down into the water, and swam across
the channel which lay between the ship and the sands, and even that
with difficulty enough, partly with the weight of the things I had
about me, and partly the roughness of the water ; for the wind rose
very hastily, and before.it was quite high water it blew a storm.

But I had got home to my little tent, where I lay, with all my
wealth about me, very secure. It blew very hard all that night, and:
in the morning, when I looked out, behold no more ship was to be
seen! I was a little surprised, but recovered myself with the satis-
factory reflection, viz., that I had lost no time, nor abated any dili-
gence, to get everything out of her that could be vecful to me: and
that, indeed, there was little left in her that I was able to bring away,
if I had had more time. .

I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of anything out
of her, except what might drive on shore from her wreck; as, indeed,
divers pieces of her afterwards did; but those things were of small
use to me.

My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing myself
against either savages (if any should appear), or wild beasts, if any
were in the island; and I had many thoughts of the method how to
do this, and what kind of dwelling to make; whether I should make
me a cave in the earth, or a tent upon the earth; and, in short, I re-
solved upon both, of the manner and description of which, it may not
be improper to give an account. |

I soon found the place I was in was not for my settlement, because ~
it was upon a low, moorish ground, near the sea, and I believed
would not be wholesome, and more particularly because there was
no fresh water near it; so I resolved to find a more healthy and
convenient spot of ground.

I consulted several things in my situation, which I found wouid be
proper for me: 1st, health and fresh water, I just now mentioned:
andly, shelter from the heat of the sun; 3rdly, security from ravenous
creatures, whether man or beast; 4thly, a view to the sea, that if God
sent any ship in sight, I might not lose any advantage for my delive-
rance, of which I was not willing to banish all my expectation yet.

In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain on the
side of a rising hill, whose front towards this little plain was steep as
a house-side, so that nothing could come down upon me from the top;
on the side of the rock there was a hollow place, worn a little way in,
like the entrance or door of a cave; but there was not really any
cave, or way into the rock at all. |

On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place, I resolved to
pitch my tent: this plain was not above a hundred yards broad, and



“29° | ROBINSON CRUSOE.

about twice as long, and lay like a green before my door, and, at the
end of it descended irregularly every way down into the low grounds
by the sec-side. It was on the N.N.W. side of the hill, so that I
was sheltered from the heat every day, till it came to a W. and byS.
sun, or thereabouts, which, in those countries, 1s near the setting.
Before I set up my tent I drew a half-circle before the hollow place
which took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter, from the rock and
twenty yards in its diameter, trom its beginning and ending.
In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving them
into the ground till they stood very firm like piles, the biggest end being
put of the ground above five feet and a half, and sharpened on the to :
the two rows did not stand above six inches from one another i
‘Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship, and
laid them in rows, one upon another, within the circle pete these
two rows of stakes, up to the top, placing other stakes in the inside
leaning against them, about two feet and a half high, like a spur t
post ; and this fence was so strong, that neither man nor oe ald
ae ee 2 a ; this cost me a great deal of time and iabour
O cu iles 1 i
ave oo ds Mielec the woods, bring them to the place, and
he entrance into this place I made
short ladder to go elie top; oie Bogs a a ve
s he ae me ‘ a so I was completely fenced inand fortinele
aS ought, from a the world, and consequently slept 1 :
night, which otherwise I could not have d : hoe aoe ‘
Gee Ghee done ; though, as it appeared
a I apprehended danger fom. enn Cannes (ere
nto this fence : hes
riches, all my Se enae Ne aes rae aa ae ae
the account above ; and I made a fe ahs anced) Wale on a
from the rains, that in one part of ne aie oe
‘made double, one smaller tent within aie ea
and covered the uppermost with a large peaereon CT eee
among the sails. And now I lay no more f De ying
I had brought on shore, but ae Hanan i ae eae
oe eae belonged to the mate of the oo was ne ae
Into this tent I brough isi
PHONE oe aay the act Oe a ee eae and everything that
made up the entrance, which till now I had 1 f aoe my goods
and repassed, as I said, by a short ladder sh open and so
When I had done this, I began to work
bringing. all the earth and stones that I Ae any nt ee
tent, I laid them up within m fence, i ug down out ie
y e, in the nature of a terrace, so.



CRUSOE BEGINS MAKING A CAVE. 41

that it raised the ground within about a foot and a half: and thus I
made me a cave, just behind my tent, which served me like a cellar
to my house.

It cost me much labour and many days before all these things.
were brought to perfection ; and, therefore, I must go back to some
other things which took up some of my thoughts. At the same time
it happened, after I had laid my scheme for the setting up my tent,
and making the cave, that a storm of rain falling from a thick, dark
cloud, a sudden flash of lightning happened, and after that, a great
clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect of it. I was not so much
surprised with the lightning, as I was with a thought which darted
into my mind as swift as the lightning itself—O my powder ! my
very heart sank within me when I thought that, at one blast, all my
powder might be destroyed ; on which, not my defence only, but the
providing my food, as I thought, entirely depended : I was nothing
near so anxious about my own danger, though had the powder took
fire, I had never known who had hurt me.

Such impression did this make upon me, that after the storm was
over, I laid aside all my works, my building and fortifying, and
applied myself to make bags and boxes, to separate the powder, and
to keep it a little and a little in a parcel, in the hope that whatever
might come, it might not all take fire at once; and to keep it so
apart, that it should not be possible to make one part fire another.
I finished this work in about a fortnight ; and I think my powder,
which in all was about 240 pounds weight, was divided in not less
than a hundred parcels: as to the barrel that had been wet, I did not
apprehend any danger from that; so I placed it in my new cave,
which, in my fancy, I called my kitchen ; and the rest I hid up and
down in holes among the rocks, so that no wet might come to it,
marking very carefully where [I laid it.

In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out once at
least every day with my gun, as well to divert myself, as to see if I
could kill anything fit for food ; and, as near as I could, to acquaint
myself with what the island produced. The first time I went out, I
presently discovered that there were goats in the island, which was a
great satisfaction tome ; but then it was attended with this misfortune
to me, viz., that they were so shy, so subtle, and soswift of foot, that
it was the most difficult thing in the world to come at them; but I
was not discouraged at this, not doubting but I might now and then
shoot one, as it soon happened ; for after I had found their haunts a
little, I laid wait inthis manner for them : I observed if they saw me
in the valleys, though they were upon the rocks, they would run
away as ina terrible fright ; but if they were feeding in the valleys,



42 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

and I was upon the rocks, they took no notice of me; from whence I
concluded, that ‘by the position of their optics, their sight was so
directed downward, that they did not readily see objects that were
above them : so afterwards, I took this method,-—I always climbed
the rocks first, to get above them, and then had frequently a fair
mark. The first shot I made among these creatures, I killed a she-
goat, which had _ a little kid by her, which she gave suck to, which
grieved me heartily ; for, when the old one fell, the kid stood stock
still by her, till I came and took her up ; and not only so, but when
I carried the old one with me, upon my shoulders, the kid followed
me quite to my enclosure; upon which, I laid down the dam, and
took the kid in my arms, and carried it over my pale, in hopes to.
have bred it up tame, but it would not eat, so I was forced to kill it,
and eat it myself; these two supplied me with flesh a great while,
for I ate sparingly, and saved my provisions (my bread especially) as
much as possibly I could.

Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely necessary to
provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn; and what I did
for that, and also how I enlarged my cave, and what conveniences
made, I shall give a full account of in its place.

And now being to enter into a melancholy relation of a scene of
silent life, such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the world before,
I shall take it from its beginning, and continue it in its order. It
was, by my account, the 3oth of September, when, in the manner as
above said, I first set foot upon this horrid island, when the sun,
being to us in its autumnal equinox, was almost just over my head :
for I reckoned myself, by observation, to be in the latitude 9 deg. 22
min. north of the line.

After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came into my
thoughts that I should be losing my reckoning of time for want of
books, and pen and ink, and should even forget the Sabbath days ; but.
to prevent this, I cut with my knife upona large post, in capital letters,
and making it into a great cross, I set up on the shore where I first
landed, ‘‘I came on shore here on the goth of September, 1659.”
Upon the sides of this square post I cut every day a notch with my
knife, and every seventh notch was as long again as the rest, and every
first day of the month, as lgng again as that long one; and thus I kept
my calendar, or weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning of time.

In the next place, we are to observe that among the many things
which I brought out of the ship, in the several voyages which, as
above mentioned, I made to it, I got several things of less value, but
not at all less useful to me, which I omitted setting down before * as,
in particular, pens, ink, and paper ; several parcels in the captain’s,



CRUSOE SETS UP A CROSS ON THE SEASHORE, 43

mate’s, gunner's, and carpenter’s keeping ; three or four compasses,
some mathematical instruments, dials, perspectives, charts, and books
of navigation ; all which I huddled together, whether I might want
them or no: also, I found three very good Bibles, which came to me
in my cargo from England, and which I had packed up among my
things ; some Portuguese books also; and, among them, two or
three Popish prayer-books, and several other books, all which I
carefully secured. And I must not forget, that we had in the ship a
dog, and two cats, of whose eminent history I may have occasion to
say something in its place ; for I carried both the cats with me; and
as for the dog, he jumped out of the ship of himself, and swam on
Shore to me the day after I went on shore with my first cargo, and
was a trusty servant to me many years; I wanted nothing that he
could fetch me, nor any company that he could make up to me.
I only wanted to have him talk to me, but that would not do. As I
observed before, I found pens, ink, and paper, and I husbanded
them to the utmost; and I shall show that while my ink lasted, I
kept things very exact, but after that was gone I could not, for I
could not make any ink by any means that I could devise.

And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, notwith-
standing all that I had amassed together ; and of these, ink was one,
as also a spade, pick-axe, and shovel, to dig or remove the earth ;
needles, pins, and thread: as for linen, I soon learned to want that
without much difficulty.

‘This want of tools made every work I did goon heavily ; and it was
near a whole year before I had entirely finished my little pale, or
surrounded my habitation; the piles or stakes, which were as heavy
as I could well lift, were a long time in cutting and preparing in the
woods, and more, by far, in bringing home; so that I spent some-
times two days in cutting and bringing home one of those posts, and
a third day in driving it into the ground ; for which purpose, I got
a heavy piece of wood at first, but at last bethought myself of one
of the iron crows ; which, however, though I found it, made driving
those posts or piles very laborious and tedious work. But what
need I have been concerned at the tediousness of anything I had to
do, seeing I had time enough todo itin? nor had I any other employ-
ment, if that had been over, at least that I could foresee, except the
ranging the island to seek for food, which I did, more or less, every day.

I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the circum-
stances I was reduced to; and I drew up the state of my affairs
in writing, not so much to leave them to any that were to come after
me, for I was likely to have but few heirs, as to deliver my thoughts
from daily poring upon them, and afflicting my mind: and as my



44...

reason began now to master my despondency,

ROBINSON CRUSOE.

I began to comfort

myself as well as I could, and to set the good against the evil, that

I might have something to

stated very impartially, like debtor and creditor,

distinguish my case from worse ; and I

the comforts l

enjoyed against the miseries I suffered, thus :—

EVIL.

Iam cast upon a horrible, de-
solate island, void of all hope of
recovery.

I am singled out and separated,
as tt were, from all the world, to
be miserable.

Lam divided from mankind—
& Solitaire; one banished from
Aunian socrety.

f have not clothes to cover me.

L am without any defence, or
means to resist any violence of
gman or beast.

Lf have no soul to speak to or
re'veve me.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony, that there was -

GOOD. -

But I am alive; and not
drowned, as all my ships com-
pany were.

But I am singled out, too, from
all the ship's crew, to be spared
Jrom death; and Fle that mtra-
culously saved me from death,
can eter me from thtsconadition.

But I am not starved, and
perishing on a barren place, af-
Jording no sustenance.

But I am in a hot climate,
where, if I had clothes, I could
hardly wear them.

But I am cast on an tsland
where I see no wild beasts to hurt
me, us I saw on the coast of
Africa: and what tf I had beeit
shipwrecked there ?

But God wonderfully sent the
ship in near enough to the shore,

that [ have gotoutas many neces- |

sary things as will etther supply

my wants or enable me to supply —

myself, even as long as I leve.

scarce any condition in the world so miserable but there was some-
thing negative or something positive to be thankful for in it.
Having now brought my mind a little to relish_my condition, and

given over looking out to sea, to

see if I could spy-a ship—I say,

giving over these things, | began to apply myself to arrange my way
of living, and to make things as easy to me as I could.

I have already described my habitation, which was a tent under
the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of post and cables ;



CRUSOE TRIES TO MAKE A CHAIR AND TABLE. 4¢

but I might now rather call it a wall, for I raised a kind of wall up
against it of turfs, about two feet thick on the outside ; and after
some time (I think it was a year and a half) I raised rafters from it

leaning to the rock, and thatched or covered it with boughs of trees.
and such things as I could get, to keep out the rain; which I found
at some times of the year very violent.

I have already observed how I brought all my goods into this pale,
and into the cave which I had made behind me ; but I must observe,
too, that at first this was a confused heap of goods, which, as they
lay in no order, so they took up all my place, I had no room to turm
myself: so I set myself to enlarge my cave and work farther into
the earth ; for it was a loose sandy rock, which yielded easily to the
labour I bestowed on it: and so when I found I was pretty safe as:
to beasts of prey, I worked sideways, to the right hand, into the rock
and then, turning to the right again, worked quite out, and made me
a door to come out on the outside of my pale or fortification. This.
gave me not only egress and regress, as it was a back way to my
tent and to my storehouse, but gave me room to store my goods.

And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary things:
as I found I most wanted, particularly a chair and a table; for
without these I was not able to enjoy the few comforts I had in the
world ; I could not write or eat, or do several things, with so much
pleasure without a table. So I went to work ; and here I must needs
observe, that as reason is the substance and origin of the mathe-
matics, so by stating and squaring everything by reason, and by
making the most rational judgment of things, every man may be, in
time, master of every mechanic art. I had never handled a tool in
my life ; and yet, in time, by labour, application, and contrivance, I
found, at last, that I wanted nothing but I could have made it,
especially if I had had tools ; however, I made abundance of things,
even without tools ; and some with no more tools than an adze and
a hatchet, which perhaps were never made that way before, and that
with infinite labour ; for example, if I wanted a board, I had no
other way but to cut down a tree, set it on an edge before me, and
hew it flat on either side with my axe, till I had brought it to be
thin as a plank, and then dub it smooth with my adze. It is true,
by this method I could make but one board out of a whole tree ; but
this I had no remedy for but patience, any more than I had for the
prodigious deal of time and labour which it took me up to make a
plank or board: but my time or labour was little worth, and so it
was as well employed one way as another.

However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed above, mn
the first place ; and this I did out of the short pieces of boards that



46 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

-L brought on my-raft fromthe ship; but when I had wrought out
-some boards as above, I made large shelves, of the breadth of a foot
and a half, one over another all along one side of my cave, to lay all —
amy tools, nails, and iron-work on ; and, in a word, to separate every-

thing at large into their places, that I might come easily at them; I
knocked pieces into the wall of the rock to hang my guns and all
things that would hang up: so that, had my cave been to be seen,
it looked like a general magazine of all necessary things ; and I had
everything so ready'at my hand, that it was a great pleasure to me
to see all my goods in such. order, and especially to find my stock of
all necessaries so great. .

And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every day’s
employment ; for, indeed, at first, I was in too much hurry, and not
only hurry as to labour, but in too much discomposure of mind ;
and my journal would have been full of many dull things; for
example, I must have said thus: Seft. 30¢2.—After I had got to
shore, and had escaped drowning, instead of being thankful to God
for my deliverance, having first vomited, with the great quantity of
salt water which had got into my stomach, and recovering myself a
little, I ran about the shore wringing my hands and beating my
head and face, exclaiming at my misery, and crying out, ‘I was
undone, undone!’ till, tired and faint, I was forced to lie down on
the ground to repose, but durst not sleep, for fear of being devoured.”

Some days after this, and after I had been on board the ship, and
got all that I could out of her, yet I could not forbear getting up to
the top of a little mountain, and looked out to sea, in hopes of seeing”
a ship; then fancy at a vast distance I spied a sail, please myself with
_the hopes of it, and then after looking steadily, till I was almost blind,
lose it quite, and sit:down and weep like a child, and thus increase
my misery by my folly.

_ But having gotten over these things in some measure, and having

‘settled my household stuff and habitation, made mea table and a
chair, and all as handsome about me as I could, I began to keep my
journal ; of which I shall here give you the copy (though in it will be
told all these particulars over again) as long as it lasted ; for having
no more ink, I was forced to leave it off. i

THE JOURNAL. ,

September 30, 1659.—I, poor, miserable Robinson Crusoe, being
shipwrecked, during a dreadful storm, in the offing, came on shore on
this dismal, unfortunate island, which I called ‘‘The Island of

Despair ;"’ all the rest of the ship’s company bei
myself almost dead, P pany being drowned, and



CRUSOE BEGINS HIS JOURNAL. - 47

_All the rest of the day I spent in afflicting myself at the dismal
circumstances | was brought to; viz., I had neither food, house,
clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to; and, in despair of any relief,
saw nothing but death before me, either that I should be devoured
by wild beasts, murdered by savages, or starved to death for want of
food. At the approach of night I slept in a tree, for fear of wild
creatures ; but slept soundly, though it rained all night.

October 1.—In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the ship
had floated with the high tide, and was driven on shore again much
nearer the island ; which, as it was some comfort, on one hand—for,
seeing her set upright, and not broken to pieces, I hoped, if the wind
abated, I might get on board, and get some food and necessaries out
of her for my relief—so, on the other hand, it renewed my grief at
the loss of my comrades, who, I imagined, if we had all Stayed on
board, might have saved the ship, or, at least, that they would not
have been all drowned, as they were; and that, had the men been
saved, we might perhaps have built us a boat, out of the ruins of the
ship, to have carried us to some other part of the world. I spent
great part of this day in perplexing myself on these things ; but, at
length, seeing the ship almost dry, I went upon the sand as near as I
could, and then swam on board. This day also it continued raining,
though with no wind at all. |

From the 1st of Ocfoder to the 24th.—All these days entirely spent
in many several voyages to get all I could out of the ship, which J
brought on shore every tide of flood upon rafts. Much rain also in
‘the days, though with some intervals of fair weather ; but it seems
this was the rainy season.

Oct, 20.—I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got uponit:
but, being in shoal water, and the things being chiefly heavy, I
recovered many of them when the tide was out.

Oct. 25.—It rained all night and all day, with some gusts of wind ;
during which time the ship broke in pieces, the wind blowing a little
harder than before, and was no more to be seen, except the wreck of
her, and that only at lowwater. I spent this day in covering and se-
curing the goods which I had saved, that the rain might not spoil them.

Oct. 26.--I walked about the shore almost all day, to find out a
place to fix my habitation, greatly concerned to secure myself from
any attack in the night, either from wild beasts or men. ‘Towards
night, I fixed upon a proper place, under a rock, and marked out a
semicircle for my encampment; which I resolved to strengthen with
-a work, wall, or fortification, made of double piles, lined within with
cables, and without with turf. :

From the 26th to 30th, I worked very hard in carrying all my goods



i

48 . ROBINSON CRUSOE.

to my new habitation, though some part of the time it rained exceed-
mely hard. | ‘

The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island with my gun,
to see for some food, and discover the country; when I killed a she-
goat, and her kid followed me home, which I afterwards killed also,
because it would not feed.

November 1.—I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there for the
first night; making it as large as I could, with stakes driven in to
swing my hammock upon.

Nov. 2.—I set up all my chests. and boards, and the pieces of
timber which made my rafts, and with them formed a fence round
me, a little within the place I had marked out for my fortification.

Nov. 3.—I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls like ducks,
which were very good fcod. In the afternoon went to work to make
me a table. |

Nov. 4.—This morning I began to order my times of work, of
going out with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diversion; viz.,
every morning I walked out with my gun for two or three hours, if it
did not rain; then employed myself to work till about eleven o'clock ;
then eat what I had to live on; and from twelve till two I lay down
to sleep, the weather being excessively hot; and then, in the evening,
to work again. ‘The working part of this day and of the next were
wholly employed in making my table, for I-was yet but a very sorry
workman, though time and necessity made me a complete natural
mechanic soon after, as I believe they would do any one else.

Nov. 5.—This day, went abroad with my gun and my dog, and
killed a wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good for nothing; |
every creature that I killed I took off the skins and preserved them.
Coming back by the sea-shore, I saw many sorts of sea-fowls, which
I did not understand; but was surprised, and almost frightened, with
two or three seals, which, while I was gazing at, not well knowing
what they were, got into the sea, and escaped me for that time.

Nov. 6.—After my morning walk, I went to work with my table
again, and finished it, though not to my liking; nor was it long
before I learned to mend it.

Vov. 7.—Now it began to be settled fair weather. The 7th, 8th,
oth, roth, and part of the reth (for the 11th was Sunday), I took
wholly up to make me a chair, and with much ado brought it toa
tolerable shape, but never to please me; and even in the making I
pulled it in pieces several times. 7 "

Note.—I soon neglected my keeping Sundays; for, omitting my
mark for them cn my post, I forgot which was which.

Nov. 13.—This day it rained, which refreshed me exceedingly, and



CRUSOE MAKES A SPADE, ETC. — 49

cooled the earth ; but it was accompanied with terrible thunder and
lightning, which frightened me dreadfully, for fear of my powder. As
soon as it was over, I resolved to separate my stock of powder into ag
many little parcels as possible, that it might not be in danger.

WVov. 14, 15, 16.—These three days I spent in making little square
chests, or boxes, which might hold about a pound, or two pounds at â„¢
most, of powder ; and so, putting the powder in, I stowed it in places.
as secure and remote from one another as possible. On one of these
three days, I killed a large bird that was good to eat, but I knew not
what to call it.

iVov. 17.—This day I began to dig behind my tent into the rock,
to make room for my further conveniency. Note, Three things I
wanted exceedingly for this work; viz., a pickaxe, a shovel, and a
wheelbarrow, or basket ; so I desisted from my work, and began to.
consider how to supply that want, and make me some tools; as for
the pickaxe, I made use of the iron crows, which were proper enough,
though heavy; but the next thing was a shovel, or spade; this was
so absolutely necessary, that, indeed, I could do nothing effectually
without it; but what kind of one to make I knew not.

Nov. 18.—The next day, in searching the woods, I found a tree of
that wood, or like it, which, in the Brazils, they call the iron-tree, for
its exceeding hardness; of this, with great labour, and almost spoiling
my axe, I cut a piece, and brought it home, too, with difficulty enough,
for it was exceeding heavy. The excessive hardness of the wood, and
my having no other way, made me a long while upon this machine,
for I worked it effectually by little and little into the form of a shovek
or spade; the handle exactly shaped like ours in England, only that
the board part having no iron shod upon it at bottom, it would not
last me so long ; however, it served well enough for the uses which I
‘had occasion to put it to; but never was a shovel, I believe, made
after that fashion, or so long a making.

I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket, or a wheelbarrow. A
basket I could not make by any means, having no such things as
twigs that would bend to make wicker-ware, at least, none yet found
out; and as to a wheelbarrow, I fancied I could make all but the
wheel ; but that I had no notion of ; neither did I know how to go
about it ; besides I had no possible way to make the iron gudgeons
for the spindle or axis of the wheel to run in; so I gave it over, and
so, for carrying away the earth which I dug out of the cave, I made
me a thing like a hod which the labourers carry mortar in when they
serve the bricklayers. ‘This was not so difficult to me as the making
the shovel ; and yet this and the shovel, and the attempt which 1 made
in vain to make a wheelbarrow, took me up no less than four days

R



"50 ; ROBINSON CRUSOE.

—I mean always excepting my morning walk with my gun, which I
seldom failed, and very seldom failed also bringing home something
fit to eat. :

Nov. 23.—My other work having now stood still, because of my
making these tools, when they were finished I went on, and working .
every day, as my strength and time allowed, I spent eighteen days
entirely in widening and deepening my cave, that it might hold my
_ goods commodiously. Note.—During all this time, I worked to
make this room or cave spacious enough to accommodate me asa
“warehouse, or magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and a cellar as
for my lodging, I kept to the tent ; except that sometimes, in the wet
“season of the year, it rained so hard that I could not keep myself dry,
which caused me afterwards to cover all my place within my pale
with long poles, in the form of rafters, leaning against the rock, and
-load them with flags and large leaves of trees, like a thatch. |

December 1o.—I began now to think my cave or vault finished,
“when on a sudden (it seems I had made it too large) a great quantity
~Of earth fell down from the top and one side ; so much that, in short,
‘i frighted me, and not without reason, too, for if I had been under
it, I had never wanted a grave digger. I had nowa great deal of
work to do over again, for I had the loose earth to carry out ; and,
which was of more importance, I had the ceiling to prop up, so that
I might be sure no more would come down.

Dec. 11.—This day I went to work with it, and got two shores or
posts pitched upright to the top, with two pieces of boards across over
each post ; this I finished the next day; and setting more posts up
with boards, in about a week more I had the roof secured; and the:
posts, standing in rows, served me for partitions to part off the house.

Dec. 17.—F rom this day to the 2oth I placed shelves, and knocked
up nails on the posts, to hang everything up that could be hung up ;
and now I began to be in some order within doors,

Dec. 20.—Now I carried everything into the cave, and began to
furnish my house, and set up some pieces of boards like a dresser, to
order my victuals upon; but boards began to be very scarce with me ,
also, I made me another table.

Dee. 24.—Much rain all night and all day.—No stirring out.

Dec. 25.—Rain all day. 7

Dec. 26.—No rain, and the earth much cooler than before and
pleasanter.

_ Dec. 27.—Killed a young goat, and lamed another so that I caught
it and led it home in a string ; when I had it at home, I bound and
splintered up its leg, which was broke. N.B.— I] took such care of it
that it lived, and the leg grew well and as strong as ever ; but, by my



>

CRUSOE SHOOTS GOATS AND WILD PIGEONS. 51

nursing it so long, it grew tame, and fed upon the little green at my
door, and would not go away; this was the first time that I enter-
tained a thought of breeding up some tame creatures, that I might
have food when my powder and shot was all spent.

Dec. 28, 29, 30, 31.—Great heats, and no breeze, so that there was
no stirring abroad, except in the evening, for food ; this time I spent
iM putting all my things in order within doors.

Peay 1.—Very hot still: but I went abroad early and late with
my gun, and lay still in the middle of the day. This evening, going
farther into the valleys which lay towards the centre of the island, I
found there were plenty of goats, though exceedingly shy, and hard
to come at; however, I resolved to try if I could not bring my dog
to hunt them down.

Fan. 2.—Accordingly, the next day I went out with my dog, and
set him upon the goats; but I was mistaken, for they all faced about
upon the dog, and he knew his danger too well, for he would not
come near them.

Fan. 3.—I began my fence, or wall ; which, being still jealous of my
being attacked by somebody, I resolved to make very thick and strong.

N.B.—This wall being described before, it is sufficient to observe,
that I was no less time than from the 3rd of January to the r4th of
April working, finishing, and perfecting this wall, though it was n@
more than about twenty-four yards in length, being a half-circle,
from one place in the rock to another place, about eight yards. from
it, the door of the cave being in the centre behind it.

All this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering me many
days, nay, sometimes weeks together ; but I thought I should never
be perfectly secure till this wall was finished ; and it is scarce credible
what inexpressible labour everything was done with, especially the
bringing piles out of the woods, and driving them into the ground ;
for 1 made them much bigger than I need to have done.

When this wall was finished, and the outside doubly-fenced, with
a turf wall raised up close to it, I persuaded myself that if any people
were to come on shore there, they would not perceive anything likea
habitation ; and it was very well I did so, as may be observed here-
after, upon a very remarkable occasion.
~ During this time I made my rounds in the woods for game every
day when the rain permitted me, and made frequent discoveries in
these walks of something or other to my advantage ; particularly, I
found a kind of wild pigeons, which build, not as wood-pigeons in a
tree, but rather as house-pigeons, in the holes of the rocks; and
taking some young ones, I endeavoured to breed them up tame, and
did so; but when they grew older they flew away, which perhaps was

E2



52 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

at first for want of feeding them, for I had nothing to give them ;
however, I frequently found their nests, and got their young ones,
which were very good meat. And now, in the managing my house-
hold affairs, I found myself wanting in many things, which I thought
at first it was impossible for me to make ; as, indeed, with some of
them it was: for instance, I could never make a cask to be hooped ;.
I had a small runlet or two, as I observed before ; but I could never
arrive at the capacity of making one by them, though I spent many
weeks about it ; I could neither put in the heads, or join the staves so
true to one another as to make them hold water ; so I gave that also
over. In the next place, I was at a great loss for candles ; so that as
soon as ever it was dark, which was generally by seven o'clock, I was
obliged to go to bed. I remembered the lump of bees-wax with
which I made candles in my African adventure ; but I had none of
that now ; the only remedy I had was, that when I had killed a goat
I saved the tallow, and with a little dish made of clay, which I baked
in the sun, to which I added a wick of some oakum, I made me a
lamp ; and this gave me light, though not a clear steady light like a
candle. In the middle of all my labours it happened that, rammag-
ing my things, I found a little bag, which had been filled with
corn for the feeding of poultry, not for this voyage, but before, as
I suppose, when the ship came from Lisbon. The little remainder
of corn that had been in the bag was all devoured by the rats,
and I saw nothing in it but husks and dust; and being willing to)
have the bag for some other use (I think it was to put powder in,
when I divided it for fear of the lightning, or some such use), I
shook the husks of corn out of it on one side of my fortification
under the rock.

It was a little before the great rains just now mentioned that I
threw this stuff away, taking no notice, and not so much as remem-
bering that I had thrown anything there, when, about a month after,
or thereabouts, I saw some few stalks of something green shooting
out of the ground, which I fancied might be some plant I had not
_ seen; but I was perfectly astonished, when, after a little longer

time, I saw about ten or twelve ears come out, which were perfect
green barley, of the same kind as our English barley.

It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion of my
thoughts on this occasion. I had hitherto acted upon no religious
foundation at all; indeed, I had very few notions of religion in my
head, nor had entertained any sense of anything that had befallen
me, otherwise than as chance, or, as we lightly say, what pleases God,
without so much as inquiring into the end of Providence in these
things, or His order in governing events for the world ; but after I



a i

be



52

p

SOE REAPS THE BARLEY.

CRU






CRUSOE FINDS THE EARS OF BARLEY. 59

saw barley grow there, in a climate which I knew was not proper fof
corn, and especially that I knew not how it came there, it startled me
strangely, and I began to suggest that God had miraculously caused
His grain to grow without any help of seed sown, and that it was so
directed purely for my sustenance on that wild, miserable place.

This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out of my eyes,
and I began to bless myself that such a prodigy of nature should
happen upon my account; and this was the more strange to me,
because I saw near it still, all along by the side of the rock, some
other straggling stalks, which proved to be stalks of rice, and which
I knew, because I had seen it grow in Africa, when I was ashore
there. I not only thought these the pure productions of Providence
for my support, but, not doubting that there was more in the place,
I went all over that part of the island where I had been before,
peering in every corner, and under every rock, to see for more of it,
but I could not find any; at last it occurred to my thoughts, that I
shook a bag of chicken’s meat out in that piace; and then the wonder
began to cease; and I must confess, my religious thankfulness to
God's providence began to abate, too, upon the discovering that all
this was nothing but what was common; though I ought to have been
as thankful for so strange and unforeseen a providence, as if it had
been miraculous ; for it was really the work of Providence to me,
that should order or appoint that ten or twelve grains of corn should
remain unspoiled, when the rats had destroyed all the rest, as if it had
been dropped from heaven; as also, that I should throw it out in that
particular place, where, it being in the shade of a high rock, it sprang
up immediately ; whereas, if I had thrown it anywhere else, at that
time, it had been burnt up and destroyed.

I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in their
season, which was about the end of June; and, laying up every corn,
I resolved to sow them all again, hoping, in time, to have some
quantity, sufficient to supply me with bread. But it was not till the
fourth year.that I could allow myself the least grain of this corn to
eat, and even then but sparingly, as I shall say afterwards, in its order ;
for I lost all that I sowed the first season, by not observing the proper
time ; for I sowed it just before the dry season, so that it never came
up at all, at least not as it would have done ; of which in its place.

Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty stalks of
rice, which I preserved with the same care and for the same use, or
to the same purpose—to make me bread, or rather food ; for I found
ways to cook it without baking, though I did that also after some
time. But to return to my Journal.

I worked excessive hard these three or four months to get my wall

&



54 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

done, and the r4th of April I closed it up, contriving to go into it,
not by a door, but over the wall, by a ladder, that there might be no
sign on the outside of my habitation.
_ April 16.—I finished the ladder ; so I went up the ladder to the
top, and then pulled it up after me, and let it down in the inside.
This was a complete enclosure to me ; for within I had room enough,
and nothing could come at me from without, unless it could first
mount my wall. |

The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost had
all my labour overthrown at once, and myself killed. The case was
thus :—As I was busy in the inside, behind my tent, just at the en-
trance into my cave, I was terribly frighted with a most dreadful sur-
prising thing indeed ; for, all on a sudden, I found the earth come
crumbling down from the roof of my cave, and from the edge of the
hill over my head, and two of the posts I had set up in the cave
cracked in a frightful manner: I was heartily scared, but thought
nothing of what was really the cause, only thinking that the top of
my cave was fallen in, as some of it had done before: and for fear J
should be buried in it, I ran forward to my ladder, and not thinking
myself safe there neither, I got over my wall for fear of the pieces of
the hill, which I expected might roll down upon me; I was no sooner
stepped down upon the firm ground, but I plainly saw it was a
terrible earthquake, for the ground I stood on shook three times at
about eight minutes’ distance, with three such shocks as would have
overturned the strongest building that could be supposed to have
stood on the earth ; and a great piece of the top of a rock which
stood about half a mile from me next the'sea fell down, with such
a terrible noise as I never heard in all my life. I perceived also the
very sea was put into violent motion by it ; and I believe the shocks
were stronger under the water than on the island. ae
I was so much amazed with the thing itself, having never felt the
like, nor discoursed with any one that had, that I was like one dead
or stupefied ; and the motion of the earth made my stomach sick,
like one that was tossed at sea; but the noise of the falling of the
rock awaked me, and rousing me from the stupefied condition I
was In, filled me with horror ; and I thought of nothing but the hill
falling. upon my tent and all my household goods, and burying all
‘at once ; and this sunk my very soul within me a second time, |

After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some time,
I began to take courage ; and yet I had not heart enough to go over
my wall again, for fear of being buried alive, but sat still upon the ~
ground greatly cast down and diseonsolate, not knowing what to do ;
all this while, I had not the least serious religious thought ; nothing



IHE EARTHOUAKE AND STORM. ee
but the common ‘‘ Lord have mercy upon me!” and when it was
over, that went away too.

While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grow cloudy, as if
it would rain. Soon after that, the wind arose by little and little, so
that in less than half an hour it blew a most dreadful hurricane, the
sea was all on a sudden covered over with foam and froth ; the shore
was covered with the breach of the water ; the trees were torn up by
the roots ; and a terrible storm it was. This held about three hours,
and then began to abate; in two hours more it was quite calm, and
began to rain very hard. All this while I sat upon the ground, very
much terrified and dejected ; when on a sudden it came into my
thoughts, that these winds and rain being the consequences of the ©
earthquake, the earthquake itself was spent and over, and I might
venture into my cave again. With this thought, my spirits began to
revive ; and the rain also helping to persuade me, I went in and sat
downinmy tent. Butthe rain was so violent, that my tent was ready
to be beaten down with it; and I was forced to go into my cave,
though very much afraid lest it should fall on my head. ‘This violent
rain forced me to a new work, viz. to cut a hole through my new
fortification, like a sink, to let the water go out, which would else
have flooded my cave. After I had been in my cave for some time,
and found still no more shocks of the earthquake follow, I began to
be more composed. And now, to support my spirits, which indeed
wanted it very much, I went to my little store, and took a small sup
of rum; which, however, I did then and always very sparingly,
knowing I could have no more when that was gone. It continued
raining all that night, and great part of the next day, so that I could
not stir abroad ; but my mind being more composed, I began to think
of what I had best do; concluding, that if the island was subject to
these earthquakes, there would be no living for mein a cave, but I
must consider of building a little hut in an open place, which I might
surround with a wall, as I had done here, and so make myself secure
from wild beasts or men; for I concluded if I stayed where I was, I
should certainly, one time or other, be buried alive.

With these thoughts, I resolved to remove my tent from the place
where it stood, which was just under the hanging precipice of the
hill ; and which, if it should be shaken again, would certainly fall
upon my tent; and I spent the two next days, being the 19th and
zoth of April, in contriving where and how to remove my habitation,
The fear of being swallowed up alive made me that I never slept in
quiet ; and yet the apprehension of lying abroad without any fence
was almost equal to it ; but still, when I looked about, and saw how
everything was put in order, how pleasantly concealed I was, and



56 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

how safe from danger, it made me very loth to remove. In the
mean time, it occurred to me that it would require a vast deal of
time for me to do this, and that I must be contented to venture
where I was, till I had formed a camp for myself, and had secured it
So as to remove to it. So with this resolution I composed myself for
a time, and resolved that I would go to work with all speed to build
me a wall with piles and cables, &c., ina circle, as before, and set my
tent up in it, when it was finished ; but that I would venture to stay
where I was till it was finished, and fit to remove. This was the atst.
April 22.—The next morning I began to consider of means to put
‘this resolve into execution ; but I was at a great loss about my tools.
Thad three large axes, and abundance of hatchets (for we carried the
-hatchets for traffic with the Indians) ; but with much chopping and
cutting knotty hard wood, they were all full of notches, and dull; and
though I had a grindstone, I could not turn it and grind my tools too.
“This cost me as much thought as a statesman would have bestowed
upon a grand point of politics, or a judge upon the life and death of
‘aman. At length, I contrived a wheel with a string, to turn it with
‘my foot, that I might have both my hands at liberty.
April 28, 29.—These two whole days I took up in grinding my
_ ‘tools, my machine for turning my grindstone performing very well.
April 30.—Having perceived my bread had been low a great while,
now I took a survey of it, and reduced myself to one biscuit-cake a
day, which made my heart very heavy. |
May 1.—In the morning, looking towards the sea-side, the tide
being low, I saw something lie on the shore bigger than ordinary,
and it looked like a cask ; when I came to it, I found a small barrel,
and two or three pieces of the wreck of the ship, which were driven
on shore by the late hurricane ; and looking towards the wreck itself,
{ thought it seemed to lie higher out of the water than it used to do.
I examined the barrel which was driven on shore, and soon found it
was a barrel of gunpowder; but it had taken water, and the powder
‘was caked as hard as a stone: however, I rolled it farther on shore
for the present, and went on upon the sands, as near as I could to
the wreck of the ship, to look for more. |
When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely removed ; the
forecastle, which lay before buried in sand, was heaved up at least,
six feet, and the stern, which was broke in pieces and parted from
the rest by the force of the sea, soon after I had left rummaging her,
was tossed, as it were, up, and cast on one side, and the sand was
‘thrown so high on that side next her stern, that whereas there was 2
great place of water before, so that I could not come within a quarter
of a mile of the wreck without swimming, I could now walk quite up



CRUSOE CATCHES A DOLPHIN. | 57

to her when the tide was out. I was surprised with this at first, but
soon concluded it must be done by the earthquake; and as by this
violence the ship was more broke open than formerly, so many things
came daily on shore which the sea had loosened, and which the winds
and water rolled by degrees to the land.

This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of removing my
habitation, and I busied myself mightily, that day especially, in
searching whether I could make any way into the ship; but I found
nothing was to be expected of that kind, for all the inside of the ship
was choked up with sand. However, as I had learned not to despair
of anything, I resolved to pull everything to pieces that I could of the
ship, concluding that everything I could get from her would be of
some use or other to me.

May 3.—I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam through,
which I thought held some of the upper part or quarter-deck together,
and when I had cut it through, I cleared away the sand as well as [
could from the side which lay highest ; but the tide coming in, I was
obliged to give over for that time.

May 4.—I went a-fishing, but caught not one fish that I durst eat
of, till I was weary of my sport ; when, just going to leave off, I
caught a young dolphin. I had made me a long line of some rope-
yarn, but [had no hooks; yet I frequently caught fish enough, as much
as I cared to eat; all which I dried in the sun, and ate them dry.

May 5.—Worked on the wreck, cut another beam asunder, and
brought three great fir planks off from the decks, which I tied together,
and made to float on shore when the tide of flood came on.

May 6.—Worked on the wreck, got several iron bolts out of her,
and other pieces of iron-work. Worked very hard, and came home
very much tired, and had thoughts of giving it over.

May 7.—Went to the wreck again, but not with an intent to work, .,
but found the weignt of the wreck had broke itself down, the beams |
being cut; that several pieces of the ship seemed to lie loose, and the
inside of the hold lay so open that I could see into it, but almost full
of water and sand.

May 8.—Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow to wrench
up the deck, which lay now quite clear of the water or sand; |
wrenched open two planks, and brought them on shore also with the
tide ; I left the iron crow in the wreck for next day.

May 9.—Went to the wreck, and with the crow made way into the
body of the wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened them with the .
crow, but could not break them up; I felt also a roll of English lead,
and could stir it; but it was too heavy to remove.

_ May 10-14.—Went every day to the wreck ; and got a great many

»



58 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

pieces of timber, and boards, or plank, and two or three hundred-
weight of iron. :

May 15.—I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not cut a piece
off the roll of lead, by placing the edge of one hatchet, and driving
it with the other ; but as it lay about a foot and a half in the water,
I could not make any blow to drive the hatchet.

May 16.—It had blown hard in the night, and the wreck appeared
more broken by the force of the water; but I stayed so long in the
woods, to get pigeons for food, that the tide prevented my going to
the wreck that day, ;

May 17.—! saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore, at a great
distance, near two miles off me, but resolved to see what they were, and
found it was a piece of the head, but too heavy for me to bring away.

May 24.—-Every day, to this day, I worked on the wreck ;-and
with hard labour I loosened some things so much with the crow, that
the first blowing tide several casks floated out, and two of the seamen’s
chests ; but the wind blowing from the shore, nothing came to land
that day but pieces of timber, and a hogshead, which had some Brazil
pork init; but the salt water and the sand had spoiled it. I continued
this work every day to the 15th of June, except the time necessary to
get food, which I always appointed, during this part of my employ-
ment, to be when the tide was up, that I might be ready when it was _
ebbed out; and by this time I had got timber and plank and iron-
work enough to have built a good boat, if I had known how: and
n'so I got, at several times and in several pieces, near 100 weight of
the sheet-lead. | . ,

June 16.—Going down to the sea-side, I found a large tortoise, or
turtle ; this was the first I had seen, which, it seems, was only my
misfortune, not any defect of the place, or scarcity ; for had I happened
to be on the other side of the island, I might have had hundreds of
them every day, as I found afterwards; but perhaps had paid dear
enough for them. | ‘ty Tasiauti pn: 7

june 17.—I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her threescore
eggs; and her flesh was to me, at that time, the most savoury and
pleasant that ever I tasted in my life, having had no flesh, but.of. goats
and fowls, since.I landed in this horrid place. ne ee

_ June 18.—Rained all day, and I stayed within. 1thought, at this
time, the rain felt cold, and I was something chilly ; which I. knew
_ was not usualinthatlatitude. = | : ‘ioe

Fune 19.—Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had been cold.

June 20.—No restall night ; violent pains in my head, and feverish.

June 21.—Very ill; frighted almost to death with the appre-
_ hensions of my sad condition—to be. sick, and no help, Prayed to



CRUSOE’S TERRIBLE DREAM. | 59

God, for the first time since the storm off Hull, but scarce knew what
I said, or why, my thoughts being all confused.

_ June 22,—A little better, but under dreadful apprehensions of
sickness.

Fune 23.—Very bad again, cold and shivering, and then a violent
headache.

Fune 24.—Much better.

June 25.—An ague very violent : the fit held me seven hours; cold
fit, and hot, with faint sweats after it.

june 26.—Better; and having no victuals to eat, took my gun,
but found myself very weak. However, I killed a she-goat, and with
much difficulty got it home, and broiled some of it, and ate. I would
fain have stewed it, and made some broth, but had no pot.

Furné 27,—The ague again so violent that I lay a-bed all day, and
neither ate nor drank. I was ready to perish for thirst ; but so weak,
I had not strength to stand up, or to get myself any water to drink.
_ Prayed to God again, but was light-headed ; and when I was not, I
-was so ignorant that I knew not what to say ; only I lay and cried,

‘* Lord, look upon me! Lord, pity me! Lord have mercy upon me!”
I suppose I did nothing else for two or three hours; till, the fit
wearing off, I fell asleep, and did not wake till far in the night,
When I awoke, I found myself much refreshed, but weak, and ex-
ceeding thirsty. However, as I had no wafer in my habitation, I was
forced to lie till morning, and went to sleep again. In this second
. sleep, I had this terrible dream :—I thought that I was sitting on the
ground, on the outside of my wall, where I sat when the storm blew
after the earthquake, and that I saw a man descend from a great
black cloud, ina bright flame of fire, and light upon the ground.
He was all over as bright as a flame, so that I could but just bear to
look towards him ; his countenance was most inexpressibly dreadful,
‘impossible for words to describe. When he stepped upon the ground
with his feet, I thought the earth trembled, just as it had done before
in the earthquake, and all the air looked, to my apprehension, as if
it had been-filled with flashes of fire. He was no sooner landed upon
the earth, but he moved forward towards me, with a long spear or
weapon in his hand, to kill me ; and when he came to arising ground,
at some distance, he spoke to me—or I heard a voice so-terrible that
it is impossible to express the terror of it. All that I can say I un-
‘derstood, was this :—‘‘ Sezing all these things have not brought thee
to repentance, now thou shalt die ;’—at which words, I thought he
lifted up the spear that was in his hand to kill me.

“No one that shall ever read this account will expect that I should
be able to describe the horrors of my soul at this terrible ver,



_ 60 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Nor is it any more possible to describe the impression that remained
upon my mind when I awaked, and found it was but a dream.
I had, alas! no divine knowledge.. What I had received by the
good instruction of my father was then worn out by an uninterrupted
series, for eight years, of seafaring wickedness, and a constant con-
-versation with none but such as were, like myself, wicked and profane
to the last degree. In the relating what is already past of my story,
this will be the more easily believed, when I shall add, that through
all the variety of miseries that had to this day befallen me, I never
had so much as one thought of it being the hand of God, or that it
was a just punishment for my sin; my rebellious behaviour against
my father—or my present sins, which were great—or so much as a
punishment for the general course of my wicked life. When I was
on the desperate expedition on the desert shores of Africa, | never
had so much as one thought of what would become of me, or one
wish to God to direct me whither I should go, or to keep me from
the danger which apparently surrounded me, as well from voracious
creatures as cruel savages. But I was merely thoughtless of a God
or a Providence, acted like a mere brute, from the principles of nature,
and by the dictates of common sense only, and, indeed, hardly that.
When I was delivered and taken up at sea by the Portugal captain, well
used, and dealt justly and honourably with, as well as charitably, I
had not the least thankfulness in my thoughts. When, again, I was
shipwrecked, ruined, and in danger of drowning, on this island, I
was as far from remorse, or looking on it as a judgment. I only
said to myself often, that I was an unfortunate dog, and born to be
always miserable. But now, when I began to be sick, and a leisurely
view of the miseries of death came to place itself before me; when
my spirits began to sink under the burden of a strong distemper, and
nature was exhausted with the violence of the fever ; conscience, that
had slept so long, began to awake, and I began to reproach myself
with my past life. ‘‘Now,” said I aloud, ‘‘my dear father’s words
are come to pass ; God's justice has overtaken me, and I have none
to help or hear me. I rejected the voice of Providence, which had
mercifully put me in a posture or station of life wherein I might have
been happy and easy ;.but I would neither see it myself, nor learn to
know the blessing of it from my parents. I left them to mourn over
my folly, and now I am left to mourn under the consequences of it.
I refused their help and assistance, who would have lifted me in the
world, and would have made everything easy to me; and now! have
difficulties to struggle with, too great for even nature itself to support,
and no assistance, no help, no comfort, no advice.” Then I cried
out, ‘‘ Lord, be my help, for I am in great distress.” This was the



CRUSOE'S ILLNESS. 62

first prayer, if I may call it so, that I had made for many years. But
I return to my Journal :—

June 28.—Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep I had
had, and the fit being entirely off, I got up; and though the fright
and terror of my dream was very great, yet I considered that the fit
of the ague would return again the next day, and now was my time
to get something to refresh and support myself when I should be ill :
and the first thing I did, I filled a large square case-bottle with water,
and set it upon my table, in reach of my bed ; and to take off the chill
or aguish disposition of the water, I put about a quarter of a pint of
rum into it, and mixed them together. Then I got me a piece of the
goat's flesh, and broiled it on the coals, but could eat very little. If
walked about, but was very weak, and withal very sad and heavy-
hearted under a sense of my miserable condition, dreading the return
of my distemper the next day ; at night, I made my supper of three
of the turtle’s eggs, which I roasted in the ashes, and eat, as we call
it, in the shell, and this was the first bit of meat I had ever asked
God's blessing to, even as I could remember, in my whole life. After
I had eaten, I tried to walk, but found myself so weak, that I could
hardly carry the gun (for I never went out without that) ; so I went
but a little way, and sat down upon the ground looking out upon the
sea, which was just before me, and very calm and smooth. As I sat
here some such thoughts as these occurred to me :—Whatis this earth
and sea, of which I have seen so much? Whence is it produced ?
And what am I, and all the other creatures, wild and tame, human
and brutal? Whence are we? Sure we are all made by some secret
power, who formed the earth and sea, the air and sky ; and who is
that? Then it followed most naturally, it is God that has made all.
Well, but then, it came on strangely, if God has made all these
things, He guides and governs them all, and all things that concern
them ;.for the power that could make all things must certainly have
power to guide and direct them. Ifso, nothing can happen in the great
circuit of His works, either without His knowledge or appointment.

And if nothing happens without His knowledge, He knows that
am here, and am in this dreadful condition ; and if nothing happens
without His appointment, He has appointed all this to befal me.
Immediately it followed,—Why has God done this to me? My con-
science presently checked me in that inquiry, as if I had blasphemed,
and methought it spoke to me like a voice—‘‘ Wretch ! dost zou ask
what thou hast done? Look back upon a dreadful misspent life, and
ask thyself what thou hast zot done? Ask, why is it that thou wert not
long ago destroyed ? Why wert thou not drowned in Yarmouth Roads;
killed in the fight when the ship was taken by the Sallee man-of-war ;



62 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

devoured by the wild beasts on the coast of Africa ; or drowned HERE,
when all the crew perished but thyself? Dost z#ow ask, What have I
done?” I was struck dumb with these reflections, as one astonished,
and had not a word to say,—no, not to answer to myself, but rose up
pensive and sad, walked back to my retreat, and went up over my wall,
as if I had been going to bed ; but my thoughts were sadly disturbed,
and I had no inclination to sleep; so I sat down in my chair, and
lighted my lamp, for it began to be dark. Now, as the apprehension
of the return of my distemper terrified me very much, it occurred to
my thought that the Brazilians take no physic but their tobacco for
almost all distempers, and I hada piece of a roll of tobacco in one of
the chests, which was quite cured, and some also that was green, and
not quite cured.

I went, directed by Heaven no doubt! for in this chest I found a
cure both for soul and body. I opened the chest, and found what I
looked for, the tobacco; and as the few books I had saved lay there
too, I took out one of the Bibles which I mentioned before, and
which to this time I had not found leisure or inclination to look into ;
I say, I took it out, and brought both that and the tobacco with me
to the table. What use to make of the tobacco I knew not, in my
distemper, or whether it was good for it or no: but I tried several
experiments with it, as if I resolved it should hit one way or other : I
first took a piece of leaf, and chewed itin my mouth, which, indeed, at
first almost stupefied my brain, the tobacco being green and strong,
and that I had not been much used to it; then I took some and
steeped it an hour or two in some rum, and resolved to take a dose
of it when I lay down; and, lastly, I burnt some upon a pan of coals,
and held my nose close over the smoke of it as long as I could bear
it, as well for the heat as the virtue of it, and I held almost to suffo-
cation. In the interval of this operation, I took up the Bible, and
began to read; but my head was too much disturbed with the
tobacco to bear reading, at least at that time; only, having opened
the book casually, the first words that occurred to me were these,
' ‘Call on me in the day of trouble, and I will deliver thee, and thou
shalt glorify me.” The words were very apt to my case, and made
some impression upon my thoughts at the time of reading them,
though not so much as they did afterwards; for, as for being
delivered, the word had no sound, as I may say, to me; the thing
was so remote, so impossible in my apprehension of things, that I
began to say, as the children of Israel did when they were promised
flesh to eat, ‘‘ Can God spread a table in the wilderness ?”’ so I began
to say, ‘*Can God himself deliver me from this place?” And as it
was not for many years that any hopes appeared, this prevailed very



CRUSOE PRAYS. | 63

often upon my thoughts ; but, however, the words made a very great
impression upon me, and [ mused upon them very often. It grew now
late, and the tobacco had, as I said, dozed my head so much that I
inclined to sleep ; so I left my lamp burning in the cave, lest I should
want anything in the night, and went to bed ; but before I lay down, I
did what I never had done in all my life—I kneeled down, and prayed
to God to fulfil the promise to me, that if I called unon him in the
day of trouble, he would deliver me. After my broken and imner-
fect prayer was over, I drank the rum in which I had steeped the
tobacco, which was so strong and rank of the tobacco that I could
scarcely get it down. Immediately upon this I went to bed, and I
found presently it flew up into my head violently ; but I fell into a
sound sleep, and waked no more till, by the sun, it must necessarily
be near three o'clock in the afternoon the next day; nay, to this
hour I am partly of opinion that I slept all the next day and night,
and till almost three the day after ; for otherwise, I know not how
I should lose a day out of my reckoning in the days of the week,
as it appeared some years after I had done; for if I had lost it by
crossing and recrossing the Line, I should have lost more than a day ;
but in my account it was lost, and I never knew which way. Be
that, however, one way or other, when I awaked I found myself
exceedingly refreshed, and my spirits lively and cheerful. When |
got up [I was stronger than I was the day before, and my stomach
better, for I was hungry ; and, in short, I had no fit the next day,
but continued much altered for the better. ‘This was the 2oth.

The 30th was my well day, of course, and I went abroad with my
gun, but did not care to travel too far: I killed a sea-fowl or two,
something like a brand goose, and brought them home, but was not
very forward to eat them; so I eat some more of the turtle's eggs,
which were very good. ‘This evening I renewed the medicine, which
I had supposed did me good the day before, viz., the tobacco steeped
in rum ; only I did not take so much as before, nor did I chew any
of the leaf, or hold my head over the smoke ; however, I was not so
well the next day, which was the first of July, as I hoped I should
have been ; forI had alittle spice of the cold fit, but it was not much.

Fuly 2.—I renewed the medicine all the three ways; and dosed
myself with it as at first, and doubled the quantity which I drank.

Fuly 3.—1 missed the fit for good and all, though I did not
recover my full strength for some weeks after. While I was thus
gathering strength my thoughts ran exceedingly upon this scripture,
‘©T will deliver thee;” and the impossibility of my deliverance lay
much upon my mind, in bar of my ever expecting it: but as I was
discouraging myself with such thoughts, it occurred to my mind that



aie

we ee

64 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

1 pored so much upon my deliverance from the main affliction, that
» disregarded the deliverance I had received, and I was as it were

- made to ask myself such questions as these; viz. : Have I not been
s delivered, and wonderfully too, from sickness—from the most dis-

tressed condition that could be, and that was so frightful to me?
and what notice had I taken of it? Had I donemy part? God had
delivered me, but { had not glorified him—that is to say, I had not
owned and been thankful for that as a deliverance ; and how could I
expect greater deliverance? This touched my heart very much ;
and immediately I knelt down, and gave God thanks aloud for my
recovery from my sickness.

Fuly 4.—In the morning, I took the Bible ; and, beginning at the
New Testament, I began seriously to read it, and imposed upon
myself to read a while every morning and every night ; not tying
myself to the number of chapters, but long as my thoughts should
engage me ; it was not long after I set seriously to this work, but I
found.my heart more deeply and sincerely affected with the wicked-
ness of my past life ; the impression of my dream revived ; and the
words, ‘‘ All these things have not brought thee to repentance,’’ ran
seriously in my thoughts. 1 was earnestly begging of God to give
me repentance, when it happened providentially, the very day, that,
reading the Scripture, I came to these words: ‘‘ He is exalted a
Prince and a Saviour, to give repentance and to give remission.” I
threw down the book ; and with my heart as well as my hands lifted
up to heaven, in a kind of ecstasy of joy, I cried out aloud, ‘‘ Jesus,
thou son of David ! Jesus, thouexalted Prince and Saviour! give me
repentance !’’ ‘This was the first time I could say, in the true sense
of the words, that I prayed in all my life; for now I prayed with a
sense of my condition, and a true scripture view of hope, founded on
the encouragement of the Word of God ; and from this time, I may
say, I began to have hope that God would hear me.

But I return to my Journal :—

From the 4th of July to the 14th, I was chiefly employed in walking
about with my gun in my hand, a little and a little at a time, as a man
that was gathering up his strength after a fit of sickness; for it is
hardly to be imagined how low I was, and to what weakness I was
reduced. The application which I made use of was perfectly new,
and perhaps which had never cured an ague before ; neither can I
recommend it to any one to practise, by this experiment: and though
it did carry off the fit, yet it rather contributed to weakening me; for
I had frequent convulsions in my nerves and limbs for some time. I
fearned from it also this, in particular, that being abroad in the rainy
season was the most pernicious thing to my health that could be.



CRUSOE EXPLORES HIS ISLAND, — 65

_{ had been now in this unhappy island above ten months: all pos-
sibility of deliverance from this condition seemed to be entirely taken
from me; and I firmly believed that no human shape had ever set
foot upon that place. Having now secured my habitation, as I
thought, fully to my mind, I had a great desire to make a more
perfect discovery of the island, and to see what other productions I
might find, which I yet knew nothing of.

It was on the r5th of July that I began to take a more particular
survey of the island itself. I went up the creek first, where, as I
hinted, I brought my rafts on shore. I found, after I came about
two miles up, that the tide did not flow any higher, and that it was
no more than a little brook of running water, very fresh and good;
but this being the dry season, there was hardly any water in some
parts of it—at least, not enough to run in any stream, so as it could
be perceived. On the banks of this brook, I found many pleasant
savannahs or meadows, plain, smooth, and covered with grass; and
on the rising parts of them, next to the higher grounds, where the
water, as mignt be supposed, never overflowed, I found a great deal
of tobacco, green, and growing to a great and very strong stalk.
‘There were divers other plants, which I had no notion of or under-
standing about, that might, perhaps, have virtues of their own, which
I could not find out. I searched for the cassava root, which the
Indians, in all that climate, make their bread of, but I could find
none. I saw large plants of aloes, but did not understand them. I
saw several sugar-canes, but wild, and, for want of cultivation, im-
perfect. I contented myself with these discoveries for this time, and
came back, musing with myself what course I might take to know
the virtue and goodness of any of the fruits or plants which I should
discover, but could bring it to no conclusion; for, in short, I had
made so little observation while I was in the Brazils, that I knew
little of the plants in the field; at least, very little that might serve
me to any purpose now in my distress.

The next day, the 16th, I went up the same way again ; and, after
going something farther than I had gone the day before, I found the
brook and savannahs began to cease, and the country become more
woody than before. In this part, I found different fruits, and par-
ticularly I found melons upon the ground, in great abundance, and
grapes upon the trees; the vines had spread, indeed, over the trees,
and the clusters of grapes were just now in their prime, very ripe and
rich. This was a surprising discovery, and I was exceeding glad of
them; but I was warned by my experience to eat sparingly of them,
remembering that when I was ashore in Barbary, the eating of grapes
killed several of our Englishmen, who were slaves there, by throwing

g



66 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

them into fevers ; but I found an excellent use for these grapes ; that
was, to cure or dry them in the sun, and keep them as dried grapes
or raisins are kept, which I thought would be, as indeed they were,
wholesome and agreeable to eat when no grapes could be had.

I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my habitation,
which, by the way, was the first night, as I might say, I had lain from
home. In the night, I took my first contrivance, and got up ina
tree, where I slept well; and the next morning proceeded upon my
discovery, travelling nearly four miles, as I might judge by the length
of the valley, keeping still due north, with a ridge of hills on the
south and north side of me. At the end of this march, I came to an
opening, where the country seemed to descend to the west; and a
little spring of fresh water, which issued out of the side of the hill by
me, ran the other way, that is, due east; and the country appeared
so fresh, so green, so flourishing, everything being in a constant
verdure or flourish of spring, that it looked like a planted garden. I
descended a little on the side of that delicious vale, surveying it with
a secret kind of pleasure (though mixed with my other afflicting
thoughts) to think that this was all my own; that I was king and
lord of all this country indefeasibly, and had a right of possession ;
and, if I could convey it, I might have it in inheritance as completely
as any lord of a mamor in England. I saw here abundance of cocoa-
trees, orange, and lemon, and citron-trees ; but all wild, and very few
bearing any fruit, at least not then. However, the green limes that
I gathered were not only pleasant to eat, but very wholesome; and I
mixed their juice afterwards with water, which made it very whole-
some, and very cool and refreshing. I found now I had business
enough, to gather and carry home; and I resolved to lay up
a store as well of grapes as limes and lemons, to furnish myself
for the wet season, which I knew was approaching. In order
to do this, I gathered a great heap of grapes in one place, g
lesser heap in another place, and a great parcel of limes and
lemons in another place; and taking a few of each with me,
I travelled homewards; resolving to come again, and bring 2
‘ag or sack, or what I could make, to carry the rest home.
iccordingly, having spent three days in this journey, I came
home (so I must now call my tent and my cave); but before I
got thither the grapes were spoiled; the richness of the fruit and
the weight of the juice having broken them and bruised them,
they were good for little or nothing: as to the limes, they were
good, but I could bring but a few. |
_ The next day, being the roth, I went back, having made me two
“mall bags to bring home my harvest. But I was surprised, wher



CRUSOE'S COUNTRY HOUSE, | 67

coming to my heap of grapes, which were so rich and fine when I
gathered them, to find them all spread about, ,trod to pieces, and
dragged about, some here, some there, and abundance eaten and
devoured. By this, I concluded there were some wild creatures
thereabouts, which had done this; but what they were I knew not.
However, as I found there was no laying them up on heaps, and no
carrying them away in a sack, but that one way they would be
destroyed, and the other way they would be crushed with their own
weight, I took another course ; for I gathered a large quantity of
the grapes, and hung them upon the out branches of the trees, that
they might cure and dry in the sun; and as for the limes and lemons,
I carried as many back as I could well stand under.

When I came home from this journey, I contemplated with great
pleasure the fruitfulness of that valley, and the pleasantness of the
situation ; the security from storms on that side, the water, and the
wood : and concluded that I had pitched upon a place to fix my
abode, which was by far the worst part of the country. Upon the
whole, I began to consider of removing my habitation, and looking
out for a place equally safe as where now I was situated, if possible,
in that pleasant, fruitful part of the island.

This thought ran long in my head, and I was exceeding fond of it
for some time, the pleasantness of the place tempting me; but when
I came to a nearer view of it, I considered that I was now by the sea-
side, where it was at least possible that something might happen to
my advantage, and, that the same ill-fate that brought me hither,
might bring some other unhappy wretches to the same place; and
though it was scarce probable that any such thing should ever happen,
yet to inclose myself among the hills and woods in the centre of the
island, was to anticipate my bondage, and to render such an affair
not only improbable, but impossible ; and that therefore I ought not
by any means #0 remove. However, I was so enamoured of this place,
that I spent much of my time there for the whole of the remaining
part of the month of July; and though, upon second thoughts, I
resolved not to remove, yet I built me a little kind of a bower, and
surrounded it at a distance with a strong fence, being a double hedge,
as high as I could reach, well staked, and filled between with brush-
wood ; and here I lay very secure, sometimes two or three nights
together; always going over it with a ladder as before ; so that I
fancied now I had my country house and my sea-coast house; and
this work took me up to the beginning of August. _ :

[ had but newly finished my fence, and began to enjoy my labour,
but the rains came on, and made me stick close to my first habitation ;
for though I made mea tent like the other, with a piece of a sail, and

F 2



68 7 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

spread it very well, yet I had not the shelter of a hill to keep me from
storms, nor a cave behind me to retreat into when the rains were
extraordinary.

About the beginning of August, as I said, I had finished my bower,
and began to enjoy myself. The 3rd of August, 1 found the grapes
i had hung up perfectly dried, and indeed excellent raisins of the sun ;
so I began to take them down from the trees, and it was very happy
that I did so, for the rains which followed would have spoiled them,
and I had lost the best part of my winter food; for I had above two
hundred large bunches of them. No sooner had I taken them all
down, and carried most of them home to my cave, but it began to
rain ; and from hence, which was the 14th of August, it rained, more
or less, every day till the middle of October ; and sometimes so vio-
lently, that I could not stir out of my cave for several days.

In this season, I was much surprised with the increase of my family;
I had been concerned for the loss of one of my cats, who ran away
from me, or, as I thought, had been dead, and I heard no more
tidings of her, till, to my astonishment, she came home about the
end of August, with three kittens. This was the more strange to me,
because, though I had killed a wild cat, as I called it, with my gun,
yet I thought it was quite a different kind from our European cats ;
yet the young cats were the same kind of house-breed as the old one ;
from these three cats, I afterwards came to be so pestered with cats,
that I was forced to kill them like vermin, or wild beasts, and to
drive them from my house as much as possible.

From the 14th of August to the 26th, incessant rain, so that I could
not stir, and was now very careful not to be much wet. In this con-
finement, I began to be straitened for food: but venturing out twice,
I one day killed a goat; and the last day, which was the 26th, found
2. very large tortoise, which was a treat to me, and my food was re-
gulated thus :—I ate a bunch of raisins for my breakfast ; a piece of
the goat’s flesh, or of the turtle, for my dinner, broiled (fot, to my
great misfortune, I had no vessel to boil or stew anything), and two
or three of the turtle’s eggs for my supper.

During this confinement in my cover by the rain, I worked daily
two or three hours at enlarging my cave, and by degrees worked it
on towards one side, till I came to the outside of the hill, and made
a door or way out, which came beyond my fence or wall: and so I
came in and out this way. But I was not perfectly easy at lying so
open ; for, as I had managed myself before, I was in a perfect in-
closure ; whereas now, I thought I lay exposed ; and yet I could not
perceive that there was any living thing to fear, the biggest creature
that I had yet seen upon the island being a goat. 1



ANNIVERSARY OF HIS SHIPWRECK. 6g

Sept, 30.—I was now come to the unhappy anniversary of my-
landing. I cast up the notches on my post, and found I had been
on shore three hundred and sixty-five days. I kept this day as a
solemn fast, setting it apart for religious exercise, prostrating myself
on the ground with the most serious humiliation, confessing my sins
to God, acknowledging his righteous judgments upon me, and pray-
ing to him to have mercy on me through Jesus Christ; and not having
tasted the least refreshment for twelve hours, even till the going down
of the sun, I then eat a biscuit-cake and a bunch of grapes, and went
to bed, finishing the day as I began it. I had all this time observed
no Sabbath-day; for as at first I had no sense of religion upon my
mind, I had, after some time, omitted to distinguish the weeks, by
making a longer notch than ordinary for the Sabbath-day, and so did
not really know what any of the days were; but now, having cast up
the days as above, I found I had been there a year; so I divided it
into weeks, and set apart every seventh day for a Sabbath; though
I found at the end of my account, I had lost a day or two in my
reckoning. A little after this, my ink began to fail me, and so I con-
tented myself to use it more sparingly, and to write down only the
most remarkable events of my life.

The rainy season and the dry season began now to appear regular
to me, and I learned to divide them so as to provide for them accor-
dingly; but I bought all my experience before I had it, and this Iam
going to relate was one of the most discouraging experiments that £
made.

I have mentioned that I had saved the few ears of barley and rice,
which I had so surprisingly found spring up, as I thought, of them-
selves, and I believe there were about thirty stalks of rice, and about
twenty of barley; and now I thought it a proper time to sow it, after
the rains, the sun being in its southern position, going from me,
Accordingly, I dug up a piece of ground as well as I could with my
wooden spade, and dividing it into two parts, I sowed my grain; but
as I was sowing, it casually occurred to my thoughts that I would not
sow it all at first, because I did not know when was the proper time
for it, so I sowed about two-thirds of the seed, leaving about a handful
of each. It was a great comfort to me afterwards that I did so, for
not one grain of what I sowed this time came to anything: for the dry
months following, the earth having had no rain after the seed was
sown, it had no moisture to assist its growth, and never came up at
all till the wet season had come again, and then it grew as if it had
been but newly sown. Finding my first seed did not grow, which I
easily imagined was by the drought, I sought for a moister piece of
ground to make another trial in, and I dug up a piece af ground near



70 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

“my new bower, and sowed the rest of my seed in February, a little
before the vernal equinox; and this having the rainy months of
March and April to water it, sprung up very pleasantly, and yielded
a@ very good crop; but having part of the seed left only, and not
daring to sow all that I had, I had but a small quantity at last, my
whole crop not amounting to above half a peck of each kind. But
by this experiment I was made master of my business, and knew
exactly when the proper season was to sow, and that I might expect
two seed times, and two harvests every year.

While this corn was growing, I made a little discovery, which was
of use to me afterwards. As soon as the rains were over, and the
weather began to settle, which was about the month of November, I
made a visit up the country to my bower, where, though I had not
been some months, yet I found all things just as I. left them. The
double hedge that I had made was not only firm and entire, but the
stakes which I had cut out of some trees that grew thereabouts, were
all shot out and grown with long branches, as much as a willow-tree
usually shoots the first year after lopping its head. I could not tell
what tree to call it that these stakes were cut from. Iwas surprised,
and yet very well pleased, to see the young trees grow: and I pruned
them, and led them up to growas much alike as Icould. It isscarce
credible how beautiful a figure they grew into in three years; so that
though the hedge madea circle of about twenty-five yards in diameter,
yet the trees, for such I might now call them, soon covered it, and it
was a complete shade, sufficient to lodge under all the dry season.
‘This made me resolve to cut some more stakes, and make me a
hedge like this, in a semicircle round my wall (I mean that of my first
dwelling), which I did; and placing the trees or stakes in a double
row, at about eight yards distance from my first fence, they grew
presently, and were at first a fine cover to my habitation, and after-
wards served for a defence also, as I shall observe in its order.

I found now that the seasons of the year might generally be divided,
not into summer and winter, as in Europe, but into the rainy seasons
and the dry seasons, which were generally thus :—

The half of February, the whole of March, and the half of April—
rainy, the sun being then on or near the equinox.—The half of April,
the whole of May, June, and July, and the half of August—dry, the
sun being then to the north of the Line.—The half of August, the
whole of September, and the half of October—rainy, the sun being
then come back.—The half of October, the whole of November, De-
eember, and January, and the half of F ebruary—dry, the sun being
then to the south of the Line.—The rainy season sometimes held
songer or shorter as the winds happened to blow, but this was ths



BASKET-MAKING. | a

general observation I made. After I had found, by experience, the
111 consequences of being abroad in the rain, I took care to furnish
myself with provisions beforehand, that I might not be obliged to go
out, and I sat within doors as much as possible during the wet
months. In this time I found much employment, and very suitable
also to the time, for I found great occasion for many things which I
had no way to furnish myself with but by hard labour and constant
application ; particularly I tried many ways to make myself a basket,
but all the twigs I could get for the purpose proved so brittle that
they would do nothing. It proved of excellent advantage to me now,
that when I was a boy, I used to take great delight in standing at a
basket-maker’s, in the town where my father lived, to see them make
their wicker-ware ; and being, as boys usually are, very officious to
help, and a great observer of the manner in which they worked those
things, and sometimes lending a hand, I had by these means so full
knowledge of the methods of it, that I wanted nothing but the mate-
rials, when it came into my mind that the twigs of that tree from
whence I cut my stakes that grew, might possibly be as tough as the
sallows, willows, and osiers in England, and I resolved totry. Ac-
cordingly, the next day I went to my country house, as I called it,
and cutting some of the smaller twigs, I found them to my purpose
as much as I could desire; whereupon I came the next time prepared
with a hatchet to cut down a quantity, which I soon found, for there
was great plenty of them; these I set up to dry within my circle or
hedge, and when they were fit for use, I carried them to my cave;
and here, during the next season, I employed myself in making, as
well as I could, a great many baskets, both to carry earth or to carry
or lay up anything, as I had occasion ; and though I did not finish
them very handsomely, yet I made them sufficiently serviceable for
my purpose; and thus, afterwards, I took care never to be without
them; and as my wicker-ware decayed, I made more, especially
strong deep baskets to place my corn in, instead of sacks, when I
should come to have any quantity of it.
Having mastered this difficulty, and employed a world of time
about it, I bestirred myself to see, if possible, how to supply two
wants. I had no vessels to hold anything that was liquid, except
two runlets, which were almost full of rum, and some glass bottles,
some of the common size, and others which were case-bottles, square,
for the holding of water, spirits, &c. JI had not so much as a pot to
boil anything, except a great kettle, which I saved out of the ship,
and which was too big for such uses as I desired it for, viz., to make
broth, and stew a bit of meat by itself. The second thing I fain
would have had was a tobacco-pipe, but it was impossible to me to



72 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

make one ; however, I found a contrivance for that, too, at last. I
employed myself in planting my second rows of stakes or piles, and In
this wicker-working all the summer or dry season, when another busi-
ness took me up more time than it could be imagined I could spare.

I mentioned before that I had a great mind to see the whole island,
and that I had travelled up the brook, and so on to where I built my
bower, and where I had an opening quite to the sea, on the other
side of the island. 1 now resolved to travel quite acrossS to the sea-
shore on that side; so, taking my gun, a hatchet, and my dog, and
a larger quantity of powder and shot than usual, with two biscuit
cakes and a great bunch of raisins in my pouch for my store, I began
my journey. When I had passed the vale where my bower stocd, as
above, I came within view of the sea to the west, and it being a very
clear day, I fairly descried land, whether an island or continent I
could not tell; but it lay very high, extending from the W. to the
W.S.W. at a very great distance ; by my guess, it could not be less
than fifteen or twenty leagues off.

I could not tell what part of the world this might be, otherwise
than that I knew it must be part of America, and, as I concluded,
by all my observations, must be near the Sganish dominions. After
some thought, I considered that if this land was the Spanish coast, I
should certainly, one time or other, see some vessel pass or repass
one way or other ; but if not, then it was the savage coast between
the Spanish country and Brazils, where are found the worst of
savages ; for they are cannibals, er men-eaters, and fail not to mur-
der and devour all the human bodies that fall into their hands.

With these considerations, I walked very leisurely forward. |
found that side of the island where I now was much pleasanter than
mine, the open or savannah fields sweet, adorned with flowers and
grass, and full of very fine woods. I saw abundance of parrots, and
fain I would have caught one, if possible, to have kept it to be tame,
and taught it to speak to me. I did, after some painstaking, catch a
young parrot, for I knocked it down with a Stick, and having
recovered it, I brought it home; but it was some years before IJ
could make him speak. However, at last, I taught him to call me
by my name very familiarly ; but the accident that followed though it
be a trifle, will be very diverting-in its place.

I was exceedingly diverted with this journey. I found in the low
grounds hares (as 1 thought them to be) and foxes ; but they differed
greatly from all the other kinds I had met with, nor could I satisfy
myself to eat them, though I killed several ; but I had no need to be
venturous ; for I had no want of food, and of that which was very
Good, too, especially these three sorts, viz., goats, pigeons, and



CRUSOE FINDS GREAT NUMBERS OF TURTLES. 73

turtle, or tortoise, which, added to my grapes, Leadenhall-marke¢
could not have furnished a table better than I, in proportion to the
company: and though my case was deplorable enough, yet I had
great cause for thankfulness that I was not driven to any extremities
for food ; but had rather plenty, even to dainties.

I never travelled in this journey above two miles outright in a day,
or thereabouts ; but I took so many turns and returns to see what
discoveries I could make, that I came weary enough to the place
where I resolved to sit down all night; and then either reposed
myself in a tree, or surrounded myself with a row of stakes set
upright in the ground, either from one tree to another, or so as no
wild creature could come at me without waking me.

As scon as I came to the sea-shore, I was surprised to see that F
had taken up my lot on the worst side of the island ; for here, indeed,,.
the shore was covered with innumerable turtles, whereas on the other
side I had found but three in a year and a half. Here was also an
infinite numher of fowls of many kinds, some which I had not seer
before, and many of them very good meat, but such as I knew not
the names of, except those called penguins. I could have shot’ as
many as I pleased, but was very sparing of my powder and shot, ana
therefore had more mind to kill a she-goat, if I could, which I could
better feed on ; and though there were many goats here, more than
on my side the island, yet it was with much more difficulty that }
could come near them, the country being flat and even, and they
saw me much sooner than when I was on the hills.

{ confess this side of the country was much pleasanter than mine ;
but yet I had not the least inclination to remove, for as I was fixed
in my habitation it became natural to me, and I seemed all the while:
I was here to be as it were upon a journey, and from home. How-
ever, I travelled along the shore of the sea towards the east, I suppose:
about twelve miles, and then setting up a great pole upon the shore:
for a mark, I concluded I would go home again ; and the next journey
I took should be on the other side of the island east from my dwelling,
and so round till I came to my post again ; of which im its place.

I took another way to come back than that I went, thinking I
could easily keep all the island so much in my view, that I could not
miss finding my first dwelling by viewing the country ; but I found
myself mistaken, for, being come about two or three miles, I founc’
myself descended into a very large valley, but so surrounded with
hills, and those hills covered with wood, that I could not see which:
was my way by any direction but that of the sun, nor even then,,
unless 1 knéw very well the position of the sun at that time of the day..

It happened, to my further misfortune, that the weather proved



74 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

hazy for three or four days while I was in the valley ; and not being
able to see the sun, I wandered about very uncomfortably, and at
last was obliged to find the sea-side, look for my post, and come
back the same way as I went: and then, by easy journeys, I turned
homeward, the weather being exceeding hot, and my gun, ammuni-
tion, hatchet, and other things, very heavy.

In this journey my dog surprised a young kid, and seized upon it ;
and I, running in to take hold of it, caught it, and saved it alive from
the dog. I hada great mind to bring it home if I could, for I had
often been musing whether it might not be possible to get a kid or
two, and so raise a breed of tame goats, which might supply me
when my powder and shot should be all spent. I madea collar for
this little creature, and with a string, which I made of some rope-
yarn, which I always carried about me, I led him along, though
with some difficulty, till I came to my bower, and there I inclosed
him and left him, for I was very impatient to be at home, from
whence I had been absent above a month.

I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me to come
into my old hutch, and lie down in my hammock-bed ;: this little
wandering journey, without a settled place of abode, had been so
unpleasant to me, that my own house, as I called it to myself, was a
perfect settlement to me compared to that; and it rendered every-
thing about me so comfortable, that I resolved I would never go a
great way from itagain, while it should be my lotto stay on theisland.

I reposed myself here a week, to rest and regale myself after my
Long journey ; during which, most of the time was taken up in the
weighty affair of making a cage for my Poll, who began now to bea
mere domestic, and to be well acquainted with me. Then I began to
think of the poor kid which I had penned in within my little circle.
and resolved to go and fetch it home, or give it some food : accord-
ingly I went, and found it where I left it, for indeed it could not get
out, but was almost starved for want of food. I went and cut
boughs of trees, and branches of such shrubs as I could find, and
threw it over, and having fed it, I tied it as I did before, to lead it
away ; but it was so tame with being hungry, that I had no need to
have tied it, for it followed me like a dog ; and, as I continually fed
it, the creature became so loving, so gentle, and so fond, that it
would never leave me afterwards.

The rainy season of the autumnal equinox was now come, and I
kept the 30th of September in the same solemn manner as before,
being the anniversary of my landing on the island, having now been

there two years, and no more Prospect of being delivered than the
first day I came there. - |



CRUSOE'S FEELINGS OF DESOLATION. 75

Tt was now that I began sensibly to feel how much more happy
this life I now led was, with all its miserable circumstances, than the
wicked life I led all the past part of my days; my very desires
altered, my affections changed their gusts, and my delights were per-
fectly new from what they were at my first coming, or, indeed, for
the two years past.

Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting, or for viewing
the country, the anguish of my soul at my condition would break out
upon me on a sudden, and my very heart would die within me, to
think of the woods, the mountains, the deserts I was in, and how I
was a prisoner, locked up with the eternal bars and bolts of the ocean,
in an uninhabited wilderness, without redemption. In the midst of
the greatest composure of my mind, this would break out upon me
like a storm, and make me wring my hands and weep like a child.
Sometimes it would take me in the middle of my work, and I would
immediately sit down and sigh, and look upon the ground for an
hour or two together ; and this was still worse to me, for if I could
burst out into tears, or vent myself by words, it would go off, and
the grief, having exhausted itself, would abate.

But now I began to exercise myself with new thoughts: I daily
read the word of God, and applied all the comforts of it to my present
state ; and began to conclude in my mind, that it was possible for
me to be more happy in this forsaken, solitary condition, than it
was probable I should ever have been in any other state in the
world ; and with this thought I was going to give thanks to God for
bringing me to this place. I know not what it was, but something
shocked my mind at that thought, and I durst not speak the words.
‘* How canst thou become such a hypocrite,” said I, even audibly,
‘‘to pretend to be thankful for a condition, which, however thou
mayest endeavour to be contented with, thou wouldst rather pray
heartily to be delivered from?’ So I stopped there, but though I
could not say I thanked God for being there, yet I sincerely gave
thanks to God for opening my eyes, by whatever afflicting provi-
dences, to. see the former condition of my life, and to mourn for
my wickedness, and repent. I never opened the Bible, or shut it,
but my very soul within me blessed God for directing my friend in
England, without any order of mine, to pack it up among my goods,
and for assisting me afterwards to save it out of the wreck of the
ship. |

T hus, and in this disposition of mind, I began my third year ; and
though I have not given the reader the trouble of so particular an
account of my works this year as the first ; yet in general it may be
observed, that I was very selaym idle, but having regularly divided



76 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

my time according to the several daily employments that were before
me, such as, first, my duty to God, and the reading the Scriptures,
which I constantly set apart some time for, thrice every day ; secondly,
the going abroad with my gun for food, which generally took me up
three hours in every morning, when it did not rain; thirdly, the
ordering, cutting, preserving, and cooking, what I had killed or
caught for my supply : these took up great part of the day. Also, it
is to be considered, that in the middle of the day, when the sun was
in the zenith, the violence of the heat was too great to stir out; so
that about four hours in the evening was all the time I could be sup-
posed to work in, with this exception, that sometimes I changed my
hours of hunting and working, and went to work in the morning, and
abroad with my gun in the afternoon.

To this short time allowed for labour, I desire may be added the
exceeding laboriousness of my work ; the many hours which for want
of tools, want of help, and want of skill, everything I did took up out
of mytime. For example, I was full two and forty days in making a
board for a long shelf, which I wanted in my cave; whereas, two
Sawyers, with their tools and a saw-pit, would have cut six of them
out of the same tree in halfa day. My case was this: it was to bea.
large tree which was to be cut down, because my board was to be a
broad one. ‘This tree I was three days in cutting down, and two
more cutting off the boughs, and reducing it to a log, or piece of
timber. With inexpressible hacking and hewing, I reduced both the
sides of it into chips till it began to be light enough to move; then 1
turned it, and made one side of it smooth and flat as a board from
end to end; then, turning that side downward, cut the other side till
I brought the plank to be about three inches thick, and smooth on
oth sides. Any one may judge the labour of my hands in such a
piece of work ; but labour and patience carried me through that, and
any other things. I only observe this in particular, to show the
reason why so much of my time went away with so little work, viz.,
that what might be a little to be done with help and tools, was a vast
zabour and required a prodigious time to do alone, and by hand.
But notwithstanding this, with patience and labour I got through
everything that my circumstances made necessary to me to do.

I was now, in the months of November and December, expecting
my crop of barley and rice. The ground I had manured and dug up
for them was not great ; for, as I observed, my seed of each was not
above the quantity of half a peck, for I had lost one whole crop by
sowing in the dry season ; but now my crop promised very well, when
on a sudden I found I was in danger of losing it all again by enemies
of several sorts, which it was scarcely possible to keep from it; as,



CRUSOE'S CROP OF BARLEY SPRINGS UP. 17

first, the goats, and wild creatures which I called hares, which, tasting
the sweetness of the blade, lay in it night and day,-as soon as it came
up, and eat it so close, that it could get no time to shoot up into stalk.

This I saw no remedy for but by making an inclosure about it with
a hedge ; which I did with a great deal of toil, and the more, because
it required a great deal of speed, as the creatures daily spoiled my
corn. However, as my arable land was but small, suited to my crop,
I got it totally well fenced in about three weeks’ time; and shooting
some of the creatures in the day time, I set my dog to guard it in the
night, tying him up to a stake at the gate, where he would stand and
Dark all night long; so ina little time, the enemies forsook the place,
and the corn grew very strong and well, and began to ripen apace.

But as the beasts ruined me before, while my corn was in the blade,
so the birds were as liké@ly to ruin me now, when it was in the ear;
for, going along by the place to see how it throve, I saw my little
crop surrounded with fowls, of I know not how many sorts, which
stood, as it were, watching till I should be gone. I immediately let
fly among them, for I always had my gun with me. I had no sooner
shot, but there rose up a little cloud of fowls, which I had not seen
at all, from among the corn itself.

This touched me sensibly, for I foresaw that in a few days they
would devour all my hopes; that I should never be able to raise a
crop at all; and what to do I could not tell: however, T'resolved not
to lose my corn, if possible, though I should watch it night and day.
In the first place, I went among it, to see what damage was already
done, and found they had spoiled a good deal of it; but that as it
was yet too green for them, the loss was not so great but that the
remainder was likely to be a good crop, if it could be saved.

I stayed by it to load my gun, and then coming away, I could
easily see the thieves sitting upon all the trees about me, as if they
only waited till I was gone away, and the event proved it to be so;
for as I walked off, as if I was gone, I was no sooner out of their
sight, than they dropped down one by one into the corn again. |
was so provoked, that I could not have patience to stay till more
came-on, knowing that every grain that they eat now was, as it might
be said, a peck-loaf to me in the consequence ; but coming up to the
hedge, I fired again, and killed three of them. This was what l
wished for; so I took them up, and served them as we serve notorious
thieves in England, viz., hanged them in chains for a terror to others.
It is impossible to imagine that this should have such an effect as
it had: for the fowls would not only not come at the corn, but forsook
all that part of theisland, and I could never see a bird near the place
as long as my scarecrows hung there. ‘This I was very glad of, you



78 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

may be sure, and about the latter end of December, which was our
second harvest of the year, I reaped my corn. |

I was sadly put to it for a scythe or sickle to cut it down, and all
I could do was to make one, as well as I could,.out of one of the
broadswords, or cutlasses, which I saved among the arms out of the
ship. However, as my crop was but small, I had no great difficulty
to cut it down; in short, I reaped it my way, for I cut nothing off
but the ears, and carried it away in a great basket which I had made,
and so rubbed it out with my hands; and at the end of all my har-
vesting, I found that out of my half-peck of seed I had near two
bushels of rice, and above two bushels and a half of barley; that is to
say, by my guess, for I had no measure at that time.

However, this was a great encouragement to me, and I foresaw
that, in time, it would please God to supply me with bread ; and yet
here I was perplexed again, for I neither knew how to grind, or make
meal of my corn, or indeed, how to clean it and part it; nor, if made
into meal, how to make bread of it; and if how to make it, yet I
knew not how to bake it. These things being added to my desire of
having a good quantity for store, and to secure a constant supply, I
resolved not to taste any of this crop, but to preserve it all for seed
against the next season, and, in the mean time, to employ all my
study and hours of working to accomplish this great work of pro-
viding myself with corn and bread. .

It might be truly said, that now I worked for my bread. It is a
little wonderful, and what I believe few people have thought much
upon; viz., the strange multitude of little things necessary in the
providing, producing, curing, dressing, making, and finishing this
one article of bread. I, that was reduced to a mere state of nature,
found this to my daily discouragement, and was made more sensible _
of it every hour, even after I had got the first handful of seed-corn,
which, as I have said, came up unexpectedly, and indeed to asurprise.

First, I had no plough to turn up the earth—no spade or shovel to
dig it. Well, this I conquered by making me a wooden spade, as I
observed before, but this did my work but in a wooden manner: and
though it cost me a great many days to make it, yet for want of iron,
it not only wore out soon, but made my work the harder, and made
it be performed much worse. However, this I bore with, and was
content to work it out with patience, and bear with the badness of
the performance. When the corn was sowed, I had no harrow, but
was forced to go over it myself, and drag a great heavy bough of a
tree over it, to scratch the earth, as it may be called, rather than
rake or harrow it. When it was growing, and grown, I have ob-
served already how many things I wanted to fence it, secure it, mow



HE SOWS THE SEED AGAIN. 79
or reap it, cure and carry it home, thresh it, part it from the chaff, and
save it. Then I wanted a mill to grind it, sieves to dress it, yeast
and salt to make it into bread, and an oven to bake it; but all these
things I did without ; and yet the corn was an inestimable comfort
and advantage to me too; but this made everything laborious and
tedious to me; but that there was no help for; neither was my time
so much loss to me, because, as I had divided it, a certain part of it
was every day appointed to these works ; and as I resolved to use none
of the corn for bread till I had a greater quantity by me, I had the
next six months to apply myself wholly, by labour and invention, to
furnish myself with utensils proper for the performing all the opera-
tions necessary for the making the corn, when I had it, fit for my use.

But first I was to prepare more land, for I had now seed enough
to sow above an acre of ground. Before I did this, I had a week's
work at least to make me a spade, which, when it was done, was but
a sorry one indeed, and very heavy, and required double labour to
work with it ; however, I went through that, and sowed my seed in
two large flat pieces of ground, as near my house as I could find
them to my mind, and fenced them in with a good hedge, the stakes
of which were all cut off that wood which I had set before, which I
knew it would grow; so that, in a year’s time, I knew I should have
a quick or living hedge, that would want but little repair. This work
was not so little as to take me up less than three months, because a
great part of that time was the wet season, when I could not go
abroad. Within-doors, that is, when it rained, and I could not go
out, I found employment on the following occasions—always ob-
serving, that all the while I was at work, I diverted myself with
talking to my parrot, and teaching him to speak; and I quickly
taught him to know his own name, and at last to speak it out pretty
loud, ‘‘ Poll,’ which was the first word I ever heard spoken in the
island by any mouth but my own. This, therefore, was not my work,
but an assistant to my work; for now, as I said, I had a great em-
ployment upon my hands, as follows: I had long studied, by some
means or other, to make myself some earthen vessels, which, indeed,
{ wanted sorely, but knew not where to come at them; however,
considering the heat of the climate, I did not doubt but if I could
find out any such clay, I might botch up some such pot as might,
being dried in the sun, be hard enough and strong enough to bear
handling, and to hold anything that was dry, and required to be kept
so: and as this was necessary in the preparing corn, meal, &c. which
was the thing I was upon, I resolved to make some as largeas I could,
and fit only to stand like jars, to hold what should be put into them.

It would make the reader pity me, or rather laugh at me, to tell



BO ROBINSON CRUSOE.

ow many awkward ways I took to raise this paste, what odd, mis-
shapen, ugly things I made, how many of them fell in, and how many
tell out, the clay not being stiff enough to bear its own weight; how
many cracked by the over-violent heat of the sun, being set out too
hastily; and how many fell to pieces with only removing, as well
before as after they were dried; and, in a word, how, after having
laboured hard to find the clay, to dig it, to temper it, to bring it home,
and work it, I could not make above two large earthen ugly things
{I cannot call them jars) in about two months’ labour.

However, as the sun baked these two very dry and hard, I lifted
them very gently up, and set them down again in two great wicker
baskets, which I had made on purpose for them, that they might not
break; and as between the pot and the basket there was a little room
to spare, I stuffed it full of the rice and barley straw; and these two
pots being to stand always dry, I thought would hold my dry corn,
and perhaps the meal, when the corn was bruised.

Though I miscarried so much in my design for large pots, yet I
sade several smaller things with better success; such as little round
pots, flat dishes, pitchers, and pipkins, and anything my hand turned
to; and the heat of the sun baked them strangely hard. But all this
would not answer my end, which was to get an earthen pot to hold
what was liquid, and bear the fire—which none of these could do.
it happened after some time, making a pretty large fire for cooking
my meat, when I went to put it out after I had done with it, I found
a broken piece of one of my earthenware vessels in the fire, burnt as
hard as a stone, and red asa tile. I was agreeably surprised to see
it, and said to myself, that certainly they might be made to burn
whole, if they would burn broken.

This set me to study how to order my fire, so as to make it burn
some pots. I had no notion of a kiln, such as the potters burn in, or
of glazing them with lead, though I had some lead to do it with; but
i placed three large pipkins, and two or three pots, in a pile, one
upon another, and placed my firewood all round it with a great heap
of embers under them. I plied the fire with fresh fuel round the
outside, and upon the top, till I saw the pots in the inside red-hot
quite through, and observed that they. did not crack at all: when I
saw them clear red, I let them stand in that heat about five or Six.
hours, till I found one of them, though it did not crack, did melt or
run; for the sand which was mixed with the clay melted by ‘the,
violence of the heat, and would have run into glass if I had gone on;
so I slacked my fire gradually till the pots began to abate of the red”
colour; and, watching them all night, that I might not let the fire
abate too fast, in the morning I had three very good (I will not say



DIFFICULTIES IN THE WAY OF BREAD-MAKING, 83

handsome) pipkins, and two other earthen pots, as hard burnt as
could be desired, and one of them perfectly glazed with the running
of the sand. After this experiment, I need not say that I wanted
no sort of earthenware for my use; but as to the shapes of them,
they were very indifferent, as any one may suppose, when I had nq
way of making them but as the children make dirt pies, or as a
woman would make pies that never learned to raise paste.

No joy at a thing of so mean a nature was ever equal to mine,
when I found I had made an earthen pot that would bear the fire ;
and I had hardly patience to stay till they were cold, before I set one
on the fire again, with some water in it, to boil me some meat, which
at did admirably well; and with a piece of a kid I made some very
good broth, though I wanted oatmeal, and several other ingredients
requisite to make it so good as I would have had it.

My next concern was to get me a stone mortar to stamp or beat
some corn in; for as to the mill, there was no thought of arriving at
that perfection of art with one pair of hands. To supply this want,
I was at a great loss; for, of all the trades in the world, I was as
perfectly unqualified for a stone-cutter, as for any whatever ; neither
had I any tools to go about it with. I spent many a day to find out
a great stone big enough to cut hollow, and make fit for a mortar,
and could find none at all, except what was in the solid rock, and
which I had no way to dig or cut out ; nor indeed were the rocks in
the island of hardness sufficient, but were all of a sandy crumbling
stone, which neither would bear the weight of a heavy pestle, nor
would break the corn without filling it with sand; so, after a great
cleal of time lost in searching for a stone, I gave it over, and resolved
to look out for a great block of hard wood, which I found indeed
much easier; and getting one as big as I had strength to stir, 1
rounded it, and formed it on the outside with my axe and hatchet,
and then, with the help of fire, and infinite labour, made a hollow
place in it, as the Indians in Brazil make their canoes. After this, L
made a great heavy pestle, or beater, of the wood called the iron-
wood ; and this I prepared and laid by against I had my next crop
of corn, when I proposed to myself to grind, or rather pound, my
corn or meal, to make my bread.

My next difficulty was to make a sieve, or searce, to dress my meal,
and part it from the bran and the husk, without which I did not see
it possible I could have any bread.. This was a most difficult thing
to think on, for to be sure I had nothing like the necessary thing to
make it with; I mean no fine thin canvas or stuff to searce the meal
through. And here I was at a full stop for many months; nor did I

really know what to do; linen I had none left but what was mere rags;
3 G



82 : », ROBINSON: CRUSOE,

I had goats'-hair, but neither knew how to weave it or spin it; ana
had I known how, here were no tools to work it with. All the remedy
that I found for this was, that at last I did remember I had, among
the seamen’s clothes which were saved out of the ship, some neck-
cloths of calico or muslin; and with some pieces of these I made
three small sieves proper enough for the work; and thus I made shift
for some years: how I did afterwards, I shall show in its place.

The baking part was the next thing to be considered, and how I
should make bread when I came to have corn; for, first, I had no
yeast. As to that part, there was no supplying the want, so I did
not concern myself much about it. .But for an oven, I was indeed in
great pain. At length I found out an experiment for that also, which
was this: I made some earthen vessels very broad, but not deep, that
is to say, about two feet diameter, and not above nine inches deep;
these I burned in the fire, as I had done the other, and laid them by:
and when I wanted to bake, I made a great fire upon the hearth,
which I had paved with some square tiles, of my own baking and
burning also; but I should not call them square.

When the firewood was burned pretty much into embers, or live
coals, I drew them forward upon this hearth, so as to cover it all
over, and there I let them lie till the hearth was very hot: then,
Sweeping away all the embers, I set down my loaf or loaves, and
whelming down the earthen pot upon them, drew the embers all
round the outside of the pot, to keep in and add'to the heat; and
thus, as well as in the best oven in the world, I baked my barley-
loaves, and became, in little time, a good pastrycook into the bargain ;
for I made myself several cakes and puddings of the rice; indeed I
made no pies, neither had I anything to put into them, supposing I
had, except the flesh either of fowls or goats. |

It need not be wondered at if all these things took me up most
part of the third year of my abode here; for, it is to be observed,
that in the intervals of these things I had my new harvest and hus-
bandry to manage; for I reaped my corn in its season, and carried
it home as well as I could, and laid it up in the ear, in my large
baskets, till I had time to rub it out, for I had no floor to thrash it
on, or instrument to thrash it with. | |

And now, indeed, my stock of corn increasing, I really wanted to
build my barns bigger; I wanted a place to lay it up in, for the in-
crease of the corn now yielded me so much, that I had of the barley
about twenty bushels, and of the rice as much, or more ; insomuch
‘nat now I resolved to begin to use it freely; for my bread had been
quite gone a great while ; also I resolved to see what quantity would
Ye sufficient for me a whole year, and to sow but once ayear. Upon



CRUSOE ENDEAVOURS TO RIGHT THE BOAT. 83

the whole, I found that the forty bushels of barley and rice were much
more than I could consume in a year; so I resolved to sow just the
same quantity every year that I sowed the last, in hopes.that such a
quantity would fully provide me with bread, &c. . |.

All the while these things were doing, you may be sure-‘my thoughts
ran many times upon the prospect of land which I-had-seen from the
other side of the island; and I was not without secret wishes that I
was on shore there, fancying that, seeing the main-land, and-an in-
habited country, I might find some way. or other to. convey myself
farther, and perhaps at last find some means of escape.

Now I wished for my boy Xury, and the long-boat with the shoulder-
of-mutton sail, with which I sailed above a thousand miles on the
coast of Africa; but this was in vain. ‘Then I thought I would go
and look at our ship’s boat, which, as I have said, was blown up
upon the shore a great way, in the storm, when we were first cast
away. She lay almost where she did at first, but not quite ; and was
‘turned, by the force of the waves and the winds, almost bottom up-
wards against the high ridge of a beachy, rough sand, but no water
about her as before. If I had had hands to have refitted her, and to
have launched her into the water, the boat would have done well
enough, and I might have gone back into the Brazils with her easy
enough ; but I might have easily foreseen that I could no more turn
her and set her upright upon her bottom, than I could. remove the
island ; however, I went to the woods, and cut levers and rollers, and
brought them to the boat, resolving to try what I could do; sug-
gesting to myself, that if I could but turn her down, I might easily
repair the damage she had received, and she would be a very good
‘boat, and I might go to sea in her very easily.

I spared no pains, indeed, in this piece of fruitless toil, and spent,
I think, three or four weeks about it ; at last, finding it impossible to
heave it up with my little strength, I fell to digging away the sand,
to undermine it, and so to make it fall down, setting pieces of wood
to thrust and guide it right in the fall. But when I had done this,
I was unable to stir it up again, or to get under it, much less to move
it forwards towards the water; so I was forced to give it over; and
yet, though I gave over the hopes of the boat, my desire to venture
over for the main increased, rather than decreased, as the means for
it seemed impossible. |

This at length set me upon thinking whether it was not possible
to make myself a canoe, or periagua, such as the natives of those
climates make, even without tools, or, as I might say, without hands,
of the trunk of a great tree. This I not only thought possible, but
easy, and pleased myself extremely with. my thoughts of making it,

G 2



Bq - % ROBINSON CRUSOE.

and with my having much more convenience for it than any of the
‘Negroes or Indians ; but not at ali considering the particular incon-
veniences which I lay under more than the Indians did, viz., want of
hands to move it, when it was made, into the water—a difficulty much
harder for me to surmount than all the consequences of want of tools
could be to them ; for what was it to me, that when I had chosen a
vast tree in the woods, I might with much trouble cut it down, if
after I might be able with my tools to hew and dub the outside into
the proper shape of a boat, and burn or cut out the inside to make it
hollow, so as to make a boat of it, if after all this, I must leave it just
there where I found it, and was not able to launch it into the water?

I went to work upon this boat the most like a fool that ever man
did, who had any of his senses awake. I pleased myself with the
design, without determining whether I was ever able to undertake it :
not but that the difficulty of launching my boat came often into my
bead ; but I put a stop to my inquiries into it, by this foolish answer,
which I gave myself: ‘‘ Let me first make it; I warrant I will find
some way or other to get it along when it is done.”

This was a most preposterous method; but the eagerness of my
fancy prevailed, and to work I went and felled a cedar-tree ; I question
much whether Solomon ever had such a one for the building of the
Temple of Jerusalem ; it was five feet ten inches diameter at the lower
part next the stump, and four feet eleven inches diameter at the end
of twenty-two feet ; after which it lessened for a while, and then parted:
into branches. It was not without infinite labour that I felled this
tree ; I was twenty days hacking and hewing at it at the bottom ; Iwas ©
fourteen more getting the branches and limbs, and the vast spreading
head of it cut off, which I hacked and hewed through with my axe
and hatchet, with inexpressible labour ; after this it cost me a month
to shape it and dub it to a proportion, and to something like the
bottom of a boat, that it might swim upright as it ought to do. It
cost me near three months more to clear the inside, and work it out
so as to make an exact boat of it ; this I did, indeed, without fire, by
mere mallet and chisel, and by the dint of hard labour, till I had
brought it to be a very handsome periagua, and big enough to have

carried six and twenty men, and consequently big enough to have
carried me and all my cargo.

When I had gone through this work, I w
with it : the boat was really much bigger than ever I saw a canoe 0;
periagua, that was made of one tree, in my life ; many a weary stroke
it had cost, you may be sure, and had I gotten it into the water, I
make no question but I should have begun the maddest voyage, and
the most unlikely to be performed, that ever was undertaken,

as extremely delighted



CRUSOE LEARNS CONTENT. | 83

But all my devices to get it into the water failed me; though they
cost me infinite labour too ; it lay about one hundred yards from the
water, and not more; but the first inconvenience was, it was up hill
towards the creek, Well, to take away this discouragement, }
resolved to dig into the surface of the earth, and so makea declivity :
this I began, and it cost me a prodigious deal of pains, but who
grudge pains that have their deliverance in view ? But when this was
worked through, and this difficulty managed, it was still much at
one, for I could no more stir the canoe than I could the other boas.
‘Then I measured the distance of ground, and resolved to cut a dock
or canal, to bring the water up to the canoe, seeing I could not bring
the canoe down to the water. Well, I began this work, and when |}
began to enter into it, and calculate how deep it was to be dug, how
broad, how the stuff was to be thrown out, I found that, by the
number of hands I had, being none but my own, it must have bees
ten or twelve years before I sh;ule, have gone through with it; fos
the shore lay high ; so that at thu upper end it must have been at
least twenty feet deep ; so at length, though with great reluctancy, 5
gave this attempt over also.

This grieved me heartily; and now I saw, though too late, the
folly of beginning a work befnre we count the cost, and before we
judge rightly of our own strength to go through with it.

In the middle of this work, I finished my fourth year in this place,
and kept my anniversary with the same devotion, and with as much
comfort as ever before; for, by a constant study and serious appli-
cation to the Word of God, and by the assistance of His grace, }
gained a different knowledge from what I had before; I entertained
different notions of things.

I had now brought my state of life to be much easier in itself than
it was at first, and much easier to my mind, as well as to my body.
I frequently sat down to meat with thankfulness, and admired the
hand of God’s providence, which had thus spread my table in the
wilderness. I learned to look more upon the bright side of my con-
dition, and less upon the dark side, and to consider what I enjoyed
rather than what I wanted ; and this gave me sometimes such secret
eomforts, that I cannot express them ; and which I take notice of
here, to put those discontented people in mind of it, who cannot
enjoy comfortably what God has given them, because they see and
covet something that he has not given them. All our discontents,
about what we want appeared to me to spring from the want of
thankfulness for what we have.

I had now been here so long, that many things which I had brought
on shore for my help were either quite gone. or very much wasted



86 7 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

and near spent. : My ink, as I observed, nad been gone some time,
all but a very little, which I eked out with water, a little anda little,
‘till it ;was’so pale, it ‘scarce left any appearance of black upon the
paper tas long as it lasted I made use of it to minute down the days
‘of the month on which any remarkable thing happened to me ; and
first, by casting up times past, I remembered that there was astrange
concurrence of. days in the various providences which befel me, and
which, if I had been superstitiously inclined to observe days as fatal
or fortunate, I might have had reason to have looked upon with a
great deal of curiosity. |
First, I had observed, that the same day that I broke away from
my father and friends, and ran away to Hull, in order to go to sea, the
same day afterwards I was taken by the Sallee man-of-war, and made
aslave. The same day of the year that I escaped out of the wreck of
the ship in Yarmouth Roads, that same day year afterwards I made
my escape from Sallee. The same day of the year I was born on, viz.
the 3oth of September, that same day I had my life so miraculously
saved twenty-six years after, when I was cast on shore in this island,
so that my wicked life and my solitary life began both on a day.

‘The next thing to my ink’s being wasted, was that of my bread —
I mean the biscuit which I had brought out of the ship; this I had
husbanded to the last degree, allowing myself but oue cake of bread
a day for above a year; and yet I was quite without bread for near a
year before I got any corn of my own; and great reason I had to be
thankful that I had any at all, the getting it being, as has been already
observed, next to miraculous. )

My clothes, too, began to decay mightily ; as to linen I had none
a good while, except some chequered shirts which I found in the
chests of the other seamen, and which I carefully preserved, because
many times [ could bear no other clothes on but a shirt ; and it was
a very great help to me that I had, among all the men’s clothes of
the ship, almost three dozen of shirts. There were also several thick
watch-coats of the seamen which were left indeed, but they were too
hot to wear; and though it is true that the weather was so vio-
lently hot that there was no need ‘of clothes, yet I could not go quite
naked—no, though I had been inclined to It, which I was not :—nor
could I abide the thought of it, though I was all alone. The reason
why I could not go naked was, I could not bear the heat of the sun
so well when quite naked as with some clothes on: nay, the very
heat frequently blistered my skin ; whereas, with a shirt on, the air
itself made some motion, and whistling under the shirt, was twofold
‘cooler than without it; no more could I ever bring myself to go out
an the heat of the sun without a cap or a hat; the heat of the sun, |



Full Text

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114 ROBINSON CRUSOE. did, they would not venture to attack me here. The old goat whom I found expiring died in the mouth of the cave the next day after I made this discovery ; and I found it much easier to dig a great hole there, and throw him in and cover him with earth, than to drag him out ; so I interred him there, to prevent offence to my nose. I was now in the twenty-third year of my residence in this island, and was so naturalized to the place and the manner of living, that, could I but have enjoyed the certainty that no savages would come to the place to disturb me, I could have been content to have capitulated for spending the rest of my time there, even to the last moment, till I had laid me down and died, like the old goat in the cave. I had also arrived to some little diversions and amusements, which made the time pass a great deal more pleasantly with me than it did before; as first, I had taught my Poll, as I noted before, to speak ; and he did it so familiarly, and talked so articulately and plain, that it was very pleasant to me ; and he lived with me no less than sixand-twenty years; how long he might have lived afterwards I know not, though I know they have a notion in the Brazils that they live a hundred years. My dog was a very pleasant and loving companion to me for no less than sixteen years of my time, and then died of mere old age; as for my cats, they multiplied, as I have observed, to that degree, that I was obliged to shoot several of them at first, to keep them from devouring me and all I had; but, at length, when the two old ones I brought with me were gone, and after some time continually driving them from me, and letting them have no provision with me, they all ran wild into the woods, except two or three favourites, which I kept tame, and whose young, when they had any, I always drowned ; and these were part of my family. Besides these I always kept two or three household kids about me, whom I taught to feed out of my hand ; and I had two more parrots, which talked pretty well, and would all call Robin Crusoe," but none like my first ; nor, indeed, did I take the pains with any of them that I had done with him. I had Valso several tame sea-fowls, whose name I knew not, that I caught upon the shore, and cut their wings ; and the little stakes which I had planted before my castle-wall being now grown up to a good thick grove, these fowls all lived among these low trees, and bred there, which was very agreeable to me ; so that, as I said above, I began to be very well contented with the life I led, if I could have been secured from the dread of the savages. But it was otherwise directed ; and it may not be amiss for all people who shall meet with my story to make this just observation from it :How frequently, in the course of our lives, the evil which in itself we seek most to shun, and which, when we are fallen into it is the most



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The Baldwin Library I ) University [&mBM~rid



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264 ROBINSON CRUSOE. any concern with the East India Company, so it would be difficult to go from hence without their licence, unless with great favour of the captains of the ships, or the company's factors; and to both I was an utter stranger. Here I had the mortification to see the ship set sail without me; however, my nephew left me two servants, or rather one companion and one servant : the first was clerk to the purser, whom he engaged to go with me, and the other was his own servant. I -then took a good lodging in the house of an Englishwoman, where several merchants lodged. Here I stayed above nine months, considering what course to take. I had some English goods with me of value, and a considerable sum of money; my nephew furnishing me with a thousand pieces-of-eight, and a letter of credit for more, if I had occasion, that I might not be straitened, whatever might happen. I quickly disposed of my goods to advantage ; and, as I had originally intended, I bought here some very good diamonds, which, of all other things, ,were the most proper for me in my present circumstances, because I could always carry my whole estate about me. After a long stay here, many proposals were made for my return to England, but none falling out to my mind, the English merchant who. lodged with me, and whom I had contracted an intimate acquaintance with, came to me one morning, saying: Countryman, I have a project to communicate, which, as it suits with my thoughts, may, for aught I know, suit with yours also, when you shall have thoroughly considered it. Here we are posted, you by accident, and I by .my own choice, in a part of the world very remote from our own country; but it is in a country where, by us, who understand trade and busihess, a great deal of money is to be got. If you will put one thousand pounds to my one thousand pounds, we will hire a ship here, the first we can get to our minds. You shall be captain, I'll be merchant, and we'll go a trading voyage to China; for what should we stand still for ? The whole world is in motion; why should we be idle ?" I liked this proposal very well; and the more so because it seemed to be expressed with so much good will. It was, however, some tim'e before we could get a ship to our minds, and when we had got a vessel, it was not easy to get English sailors; that is to say, so many as were necessary to govern the voyage and manage the sailors which we should pick up there. After some time we got a mate, a hoatswain, and a gunner, English; a Dutch carpenter, and three Portuguese foremast men. With these we found we could do well enough, having Indian seamen, such as they were, to make up. We made the voyage to Achin, in the island of Sumatra, and from tence to Siam, where we exchanged some of our wares for opium



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r3 ROBINSON CRUSOE. worse; that now the hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and I was undone without redemption. But, alas this was but a taste of the misery I was to go through, as will appear in the sequel of the story. As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his house, so I was in hopes that he would take me with him when he went to -ea again, believing that it would some time or other be his fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portugal man-of-war; and _that then I chould be set at liberty. But this hope of mine was soon taken away; for when he went to sea, he left me on shore to look after his "ittle garden, and do the common drudgery of slaves about his house; and when he came home again from his cruise, he ordered me to lie in the"cabin to look after the ship. Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method I might take to effect it, but found no way that had the least probability in it ; nothing presented to make the supposition of it rational; for I had nobody to communicate it to that would embark with me; no fellow-slave, no Englishman, Irishman, or Scotchman, there but myself; so that for two years, though I often pleased myself with the inagination, yet I never had the least prospect of putting it in practice. After about two years, an odd circumstance presented itself, which put the old thought of making some attempt for my liberty again in my head : my patron lying at home longer than usual, without fitting out his ship, which, as I heard, was for want of money, he used, constantly, once or twice a week, sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the ship's pinnace, and go out into the road a-fishing; and, as he always took me and a young Maresco with him to row the boat, we made him very merry, and I proved very dexterous in catching fish; insomuch that sometimes he would send me with a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth, the Maresco, as they called him, to catch a dish of fish for him. It happened one time, that going a-fishing in a stark calm mornang, a fog rose so thick that, though we were not half a league from the shore, we lost sight of it; and rowing we knew not whither or which way, we laboured all day, and all the next night ; and when the morning came, we found we had pulled off to sea instead of pulling in for the shore ; and that we were at least two leagues from the shore; however, we got well in again, though with a great deal of labour, and some danger; for the wind began to blow pretty fresh in the morning; but particularly we were all very hungry. But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more care of himself for the future ; and having lying by him the longboat of our English ship he had taken, he resolved he would not go a-fishing any more without a compass and some provision; so he A^s



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346 RO03INSON CRUSOE. Mastek---Well, Friday, and what does your nation do with the men they take; do they carry them away and eat them, as these did Friday.-Yes, my nation eat mans too, eat all up. Master.-Where do they carry them ? Friday.-Go to other place, where they think. Master.-Do they come hither? Friday.-Yes, yes, they come hither; come other else place. Master.-Have you been here with them ? Friday.--Yes, I been here (points to the N.W. side of the island, which, it seems, was their side). By this,I understood that my man Friday had formerly been among the savages who used to come on shore on the farther part of the island, on the same man-eating occasions that he was now brought for : and, some time after, when I took the courage to carry him to that side, being the same I formerly mentioned, he presently knew the place, and told me he was there once, when they eat up twenty men, two women, and one child: he could not 'tell twenty in English, but he numbered them, by laying so many stones in a row, and pointing to me to tell them over. I have told this passage, because it introduces what follows; that 3fter this discourse I had with him, I asked him how far it was from our island to the shore, and whether the canoes were not often lost; he told me there was no danger, no canoes ever lost; but that after a little way out to sea, there was a current and wind, always one way in the morning, the other in the afternoon. This I understood to be no more than the sets of the tide, as going out or coming in; but I afterwards understood it was occasioned by the great draft and reflux of the mighty river Oronooko ; in the mouth or gulf of which river, as I found afterwards, our island lay; and this.land which I perceived to be W. and N.W. was the great island Trinidad, on the north point of the mouth of the river. I asked Friday a thousand questions about the country, the inhabitants, the sea, the coast, and what nations were near: he told me all he knew, with the greatest, openness imaginable; I asked him the names of the several nations of his sort of people, but could get no other name than Caribs: fronl whence I easily understood that these were the Caribbees, which 'ur maps place on the part of America which reaches from the mouth O the river Oronooko to Guinea, and onwards to St. Martha. Heiteq me, that up a great way bxeyond the moon, that was, beyond t setting of the moon, which must be west from their countmry. dwelt white bearded men, like me, and pointed to my great which I mentioned ti5ore; and that they had killed mack that was his word-: by all which I understood he meath



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CRUSOE JOURNIES HOMEWARDS. 3 It was the beginning of June when I left this remote place. We were now reduced to a very small caravan, having only thirty-two horses and camels in all. We had here the worst and the largest desert to pass over that we met with in our whole journey ; I call it the worst, because the way was very deep in some places, and very uneven in others ; the best we had to say for it was, that we thought we had no troops of Tartars or robbers to fear, as they never came on this side of the river Oby, or at least very seldom. We at length entered Europe, having passed the river Kama, which in these parts is the boundary between Europe and Asia, and the first city on the European side was called Soloy Kamaskoy, that is, the great city on the river Kama ; and here we thought to see some evident alteration in the people ; but we were mistaken; for as we had a vast desert to pass, which is near seven hundred miles long in some places, but not above two hundred miles over where we passed it, so, till we came past that horrible place, we found very little difference between that country and Mogul Tartary. The people are mostly Pagans; their houses and towns full of idols ; and their way of living wholly barbarous, except in the cities, and the villages near them, where they are Christians, of the Greek church. We came at last to Veussima upon the river Witzogda, and running into the Dwina: we were there, very happily, near the end of our travels by land, that river being navigable, in seven days' passage, to Archangel. From hence, we came to Lawrenskoy, the 3rd of July; and, providing ourselves with two luggage boats, and a barge for our own convenience, we embarked the 7th, and arrived all safe at Archangel the i8th ; having been a year, five months, and three days on the journey, including our stay of about eight months at Tobolski. We were obliged to stay at this place six weeks for the arrival of the ships, and must have tarried longer, had not a Hamburgher come in above a month sooner than any of the English ships ; when, after some consideration that the city of Hamburgh might happen to be as good a market for our goods as London, we all took freight with him. We set sail from Archangel the 20th of August, the same year; and, after no extraordinary bad voyage, arrived safe in the Elbe the 18th of September. Here my partner and I found a very good sale for our goods, as well those of China, as the sables, &c., of Siberia; and, dividing the produce, my share amounted to 34751. 17s. 3d., including about six hundred pounds' worth of diamonds, which I purchased at Bengal. "To conclude : having stayed near four months in Hamburgh, I



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56 ROBINSON CRUSOE. how safe from danger, it made me very loth to remove. In the mean time, it occurred to me that it would require a vast deal of time for me to do this, and that I must be contented to venture "where I was, till I had formed a camp for myself, and had secured it so as to remove to it. So with this resolution I composed myself for a time, and resolved that I would go to work with all speed to build me a wall with piles and cables, &c., in a circle, as before, and set my tent up in it, when it was finished ; but that I would venture to stay where I was till it was finished, and fit to remove. This was the 21st. April 22.-The next morning I began to consider of means to put ":this resolve into execution; but I was at a great loss about my tools. I had three large axes, and abundance of hatchets (for we carried the hatchets for traffic with the Indians); but with much chopping and cutting knotty hard wood, they were all full of notches, and dull; and though I had a grindstone, I could not turn it and grind my tools too. "This cost me as much thought as a statesman would have bestowed upon a grand point of politics, or a judge upon the life and death of a man. At length, I contrived a wheel with a string, to turn it with nmy foot, that I might have both my hands at liberty. April 28, 29.-These two whole days I took up in grinding my tools, my machine for turning my grindstone performing very well. April 30.-Having perceived my bread had been low a great while, now I took a survey of it, and reduced myself to one biscuit-cake a day, which made my heart very heavy. May I.-In the morning, looking towards the sea-side, the tide being low, I saw something lie on the shore bigger than ordinary, and it looked like a cask; when I came to it, I found a small barrel, and two or three pieces of the wreck of the ship, which were driven on shore by the late hurricane; and looking towards the wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie higher out of the water than it used to do. I examined the barrel which was driven on shore, and soon found it -was a barrel of gunpowder; but it had taken water, and the powder was caked as hard as a stone: however, I rolled it farther on shore -for the present, and went on upon the sands, as near as I could to the wreck of the ship, to look for more. When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely removed; the forecastle, which lay before buried in sand, was heaved up at least, six feet, and the stern, which was broke in pieces and parted from the rest by the force of the sea, soon after I had left rummaging her, was tossed, as it were, tp, and cast on one side, and the sand was thrown so high on that side next her stern, that whereas there was a great place of water before, so that I could not come within a quarter of a mile of the wreck without swimming, I could now walk quite up ... l



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HIS PLANS TO EFFECT HIS ESCAPE. 13 ordered the carpenter of his ship, who also was an English slave, to build a little state-room, or cabin, in the middle of the long-boat, like that of a barge, with a place to stand behind it to steer, and hale home the main-sheet; and room before for a hand pr two to stand and work the sails; she sailed with what we call a shoulderof-mutton sail; and the boom gibed over the top of the cabin, which lay very snug and low, and had in it room for him to lie, with a slave or two, and a table to eat on, with some small lockers to put in some bottles of such liquor as he thought fit to drink; particularly his bread, rice, and coffee. We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing; and as I was most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went without me. It happened that he had appointed to go out in this boat, either for pleasure or for fish, with two or three Moors of some distinction in that place, and for whom he had provided extraordinarily ; and had therefore sent on board the boat over-night a larger store of provisions than ordinary; and had ordered me to get ready three fusees with powder and shot, which were on board his ship; for that they designed some sport of fowling as well as fishing. I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited the next morning with the boat washed clean, her ensign and pendents out, and everything to accommodate his guests; when by-and-by my patron came on board alone, and told me his guests had put off going, from some business that fell out, and ordered me, with the man and boy, as usual, to go out with the boat and catch them some fish, for that his friends were to sup at his house ; and commanded that as soon as I got some fish I should bring it home to his house ; all which I prepared to do. This moment, my former notions of deliverance darted into my thoughts, for now I found I was like to have a little ship at my command ; and my master being gone, I prepared to furnish myself, not for fishing business, but for a voyage; though I knew not, neither did I so much as consider, whither I should steer; for any'where toget out of that place was my desire. My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to this. Moor, to get something for our subsistence on board; for I told him we must not presume to eat of tour patron's bread; he said that was true ; so he brought a large basket of rusk or biscuit of thin kind, and three jars of fresh water, into the boat. I knew where my patron's case of bottles stood, which it was evident by the make, were taken out of some English prize, and I conveyed them into the boat while the Moor was on shore, as if they had been there before for our master; I conveyed also a great lump of bees-wax into the



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54 ROBINSON CRUSOE. done, and the 14th of April I closed it up, contriving to go into it, not by a door, but over the wall, by a ladder, that there might be no sign on the outside of my habitation. April 16.-I finished the ladder; so I went up the ladder to the top, and then pulled it up after me, and let it down in the inside. This was a complete enclosure to me ; for within I had room enough, and nothing could come at me from without, unless it could first mount my wall. The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost had all my labour overthrown at once, and myself killed. The case was thus :-As I was busy in the inside, behind my tent, just at the entrance into my cave, I was terribly frighted with a most dreadful surprising thing indeed; for, all on a sudden, I found the earth come crumbling down from the roof of my cave, and from the edge of the hill over my head, and two of the posts I had set up in the cave cracked in a frightful manner: I was heartily scared, but thought nothing of what was really the cause, only thinking that the top of my cave was fallen in, as some of it had done before : and for fear I should be buried in it, I ran forward to my ladder, and not thinking myself safe there neither, I got over my wall for fear of the pieces of the hill, which I expected might roll down upon me ; I was no sooner stepped down upon the firm ground, but I plainly saw it was a terrible earthquake, for the ground I stood on shook three times at about eight minutes' distance, with three such shocks as would have overturned the strongest building that could be supposed to have stood on the earth; and a great piece of the top of a rock which stood about half a mile from me next the sea fell down, with such a terrible noise as I never heard in all my life. I perceived also the very sea was put into violent motion by it ; and I believe the shocks were stronger under the water than on the island. I was so much amazed with the thing itself, having never felt the like, nor discoursed with any one that had, that I was like one dead or stupefied; and the motion of the earth made my stomach sick, like one that was tossed at sea; but the noise of the falling of the rock awaked me, and rousing me from the stupefied condition I ,was in, filled me with horror; and I thought of nothing but the hill falling lpon my tent and all my household goods, and burying ill at once; and this sunk my very soul within ie a second time. After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some time, Ibegan to take courage; and yet I had not heart enough to,go oer ny wall again, for fear of being buried alive, but sat still the ground greatly cast down and diseonsolate, not knowing wha, to do'; 1.l this while, I had not the least seri eigiogius thought; hii As



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C92 ROBINSON CRUSOE. Phave no guns."-" No," says he, "no gun, but shoot great much 1ong arrow." This was a good diversion to us ; but we were still in a wild place, and our guide very much hurt, and what to do we bhardly knew; the howling of wolves ran much in my head ; and, indeed, except the noise I once heard on the shore of Africa, of which I have said something already, I never heard anything that filled me with so much horror. These things, and the approach of night, called us off, or else, as Friday would have had us, we should certainly have taken the skin of this monstrous creature off, which was worth saving ; but we had near three leagues to go, and our guide hastened us; so we left him, .and went forward on our journey. The ground was still covered with snow, though not so deep and idangerous as on the mountains, and the ravenous creatures, as we iheard afterwards, were come down into the forest and plain country, pressed by hunger, to seek for food, and had done a great deal of mischief in the villages, where they surprised the country people, killed a great many of their sheep and horses, and some people too. We had one dangerous place to pass, and our guide told us, if there ?were more wolves in the country we should find them there ; and this was a small plain surrounded with woods on every side, and a long narrow defile, or lane, which we were to pass to get through the wood, and then we should come to the village where we were to lodge. It was within half an hour of sunset when we entered the wood, and a little after sunset when we came into the plain : we met with nothing in the first wood, except that in a little plain within the wood, which was not above two furlongs over, we saw five great -wolves cross the road, full speed, one after another, as if they had been in chase of some prey, and had it in view ; they took no notice of us, and were gone out of sight in a few moments. Upon this, our guide, who by the way was but a faint-hearted fellow, bid us keep in a ready posture, for he believed there were more wolves a-coming. We kept our arms ready, and our eyes about us ; but we saw no more wolves till we came through that wood, which was noear half a league, and entered the plain ; as soon as we came into the plain, we had occasion enough to look about us. The first object we met with was a dead horse ; that is to say, a poor horse which the wolves had killed, and at least a dozen of them at work; we could not say eating him, but picking his bones rather; for they had eaten up all the flesh before. We did not think fit to disturb them at their feast, neither did they take much notice of us. Friday woula have let fly at them, but I would not suffer him by any means ; for I found we were like to have more business upon our hands than we



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2o4 ROBINSON CRUSOE. fire, and there was a possibility that some ship might happen to be at sea, and might take them in. In the midst of their consternation, every one being hopeless and ready to despair, the captain, with tears in his eyes, told me they were on a sudden surprised with the joy of hearing a gun fire, and after that four more : these were the five guns which I caused to be fired at first seeing the light: this revived their hearts, and gave them the notice, which, as above, I desired it should, that there was a ship at hand for their help. It was upon the hearing of these guns that they took down their masts and sails : the sound coming from the windward, they resolved to lie by till morning. Some time after this, hearing no more guns, they fired three muskets, one a considerable while after another; but these, the wind being contrary, we never heard. Some time after that again, they were still more agreeably surprised with seeing our lights, and hearing the guns which, as I have said, I caused to be fired all the rest of the night ; this set them to work with their oars, to keep their boats ahead, at least, that we might the sooner come up with them ; and, at last, to their inexpressible joy, they found we saw them. There were two priests among them: one an old man, and the other a young man. The captain and one of these priests came to me the next day, and desiring to speak with me and my nephew, the commander, began to consult with us what should be done with them ; and, first, they told us we had saved their lives, so all they had was little enough for a return to us for that kindness received. The captain said they had saved some money and some things of value in their boats, caught hastily out of the flames; and if we would accept it, they were ordered to make an offer of it all to us ; they only desired to be set on shore somewhere in our way, where, if possible, they might get a passage to France. My nephew was for accepting their money at first word, and to consider what to do with them afterwards; but I overruled him in that part, for I knew what it was to be set on shore in a strange country; and if the Portugal captain that took me up at sea had served me so, and taken all I had for my deliverance, I must have starved, or have been as much a slave at the Brazils as I had been at Barbary, the mere being sold to a Mahometan only excepted; and perhaps a Portuguese is not a much better master than a Turk, if not, in some cases, much worse. I therefore told the French captain that we had taken them up in their distress, it was true, but that it was our duty to do so, as we were fellow-creatures, and we would desire to be so delivered, if we were in the like or any other extremity; that we had done nothing



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120 ROBINSON CRUSOE loaded all my cargo in her, and then went home again for more. My second cargo was a great bagful of rice, the umbrella to set up over my head for shade, another large pot full of fresh water, and about tyo dozen of my small loaves, or barley cakes, more than before, with a bottle of goat's milk, and a cheese : all which with great labour and sweat I brought to my boat ; and praying to God to direct my voyage, I put out, and rowing or paddling the canoe along the'shore, I came at last to the utmost point of the island on that side N.E. And now I was to launch out into the ocean, ana either to venture or not to venture. I looked on the rapid currents which ran constantly on both sides of the island at a distance, and which were very terrible to me, from the remembrance of the hazard I had been in before, and my heart began to fail me; for I foresaw that if I was driven into either of those currents, I should be carried a great way out to sea, and perhaps out of sight of the island again; and that thW, as my boat was but small, if any little gale of wind should rise, I should be inevitably lost. These thoughts so oppressed my mind, that I began to give over my enterprise; and having haled my boat into a little creek on the shore, I stepped out, and sat down upon a rising bit of ground, very pensive and anxious, between fear and desire about my voyage; when, as I was musing, I could perceive that the tide was turned, and the flood come on ; upon which, my going was for so many hours impracticable. Upon this, presently it occurred to me, that I should go up to the highest piece of ground J could find, and observe, if I could, how the sets of the tide or currents lay when the flood came in, that I might judge whether if I was driven one way out, I might not expect to be driven another way home, with the same rapidness of the currents ; this thought was no sooner in my head than I cast my eye upon a little hill, which sufficiently overlooked the sea both ways, and from whence I had a clear view of the currents or sets of the tide, and which way I was to guide myself in my return ; here I found that as the current of the ebb set out close by the south point of 'the island, so the Icurrent of the flood set in close by the shore of the north side, and that I had nothing to do but to keep to the north side of the island in my return, and I should do well enough. Encouraged with this observation, I resolved, the next morning, to set out with the first of the tide; and, reposing myself for the night in the canoe, under the great watch-coat I mentioned, I launched out ; I made first a little out to sea, full north, till I began to feel the benefit of the current, which set eastward, and which carried me at a great rate, and yet did not so hurry me asthe cur-



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10 ROBINS ON CRUSOE. reason which ought to guide them in such cases, viz., that they are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent; not ashamed of the action for which they ought justly to be esteemed fools, but are ashamed of the returning, which only can make them be esteemed wise men. In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncertain what measures to take, and what course of life to lead. An irresistible reluctance continued to going home; and as I stayed awhile, the remembrance of the distress I had been in wore off; and as that abated, the little motion I had in my desires to a return wore off with it, till at last I quite laid aside the thoughts of it, and looked out for a voyage. It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good company in London, which does not always happen to such loose and misguided young fellows as I then was ; the devil generally not omitting to lay some snare for them very early ; but it was not so with me. I first got acquainted with the master of a ship who had been on the coast of Guinea; and who, having had very good success there, was resolved to go again; and who taking a fancy to my conversation, which was not at all disagreeable at that time, hearing me say I had a mind to see the world, told me if I would go the voyage with him I should be at no expense ; I should be his messmate and his companion ; and if I could carry anything with me, I should have all the advantage of it that the trade would admit ; and perhaps I might meet with some enc6uragement. I embraced the offer; and entering into a strict friendship with this captain, who was an honest, plain-dealing man, I went the voyage with him, and carried a small adventure with me, which, by the disinterested honesty of my friend the captain, I increased very considerably ; for I carried about Z40 in such toys and trifles as the captain directed me to buy. This £40 I had mustered together by the assistance of some of my relations whom I corresponded with, and who, I believe, got my father, or at least my mother, to contribute so much as that to my first adventure. This was the only voyage which I may say was successful in all my adventures, and which I owe to the integrity and honesty of my friend the captain ; under whom also I got a competent knowledge of the mathematics and the rules of navigation, learned how to keep an account of the ship's course, take an observation, and, in short, to understand some things that were needful to be understood by a sailor; for, as he took delight to instruct me, I took delight to learn; and, in a word, this voyage made me both a sailor and a merchant ; for I brought home 5 pounds 9 ounces of gold-dust for my adventure,



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-T76 ROBINSON CRUSOE. him of. Upon this, he called aloud to the boat, and bade his men bring the things ashore that were for the governor; and, indeed, it was a present as if I had been one, not that I was to be carried along with ithem, but as if I had been to dwell upon the island still, and they -were to go without me. First, he had brought me a case of bottles full of excellent cordial waters, six large bottles of Madeira wine (the !bottles held two quarts apiece), two pounds of excellent good tobacco, twelve good pieces of the ship's beef, and six pieces of pork, with a bag of peas, and about a hundredweight of biscuit. He ,brought me also a box of sugar, a box of flour, a bag full of lemons, and two bottles of lime-juice, and abundance of other things: but ,besides these, and what was a thousand times more useful to me, he `brought me six new clean shirts, six very good neckcloths, two pair of gloves, one pair of shoes, a hat, and one pair of stockings, with a very good suit of clothes of his own, which had been worn but very little : in a word, he clothed me from head to foot. It was a very `kind and agreeable present, as any one may imagine, to one in my -circumstances ; but never was anything in the world of that kind so anpleasant, awkward, and uneasy as it was to me to wear such sclothes at first putting on. After these ceremonies then past, and after all his good things were tbrought into my little apartment, we began to consult what was to ,be done with the prisoners we had; for it was worth considering whether we might venture to take them away with us or no, especially two ,of them, whom we knew to be incorrigible and refractory to the last degree ; and the captain said he knew they were such rogues that there was no obliging them, and if he did carry them away, it must ibe in irons, as malefactors, to be delivered over to justice at the first English colony he could come at; and I found that the captain ihimself was very anxious about it. Upon this, I told him that, if he desired it, I durst undertake to bring the two men he spoke of to make it their own request that he should leave them upon the island. I should be very glad of that," says the captain, "with all my heart." Well," says I, I will send for them up, and talk with them for you." So I caused Friday and the two hostages, for they were now discharged, their comrades having performed their promise; I say, I caused them to go to the cave, and bring up the five men, pinioned as they were, to the bower, and keep them there till I came. After some time, I came thither dressed in my new habit; and now I was called governor again. Being all met, and the captain with mre, I caused all the men to be brought before me, and I told them I had got a full account of their villanous behaviour to the captain, and how they had run away with the ship, and were preparing to



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THE CAPTAINATTACKS THE MUTINEERS. 163 all occasions, give them up to me, and do no prejudice to me or mine upon this island, and in the mean time be governed by my orders; secondly,-that if the ship is or may be recovered, you will carry me and my man to England passage free." He gave me all. the assurance that the invention or faith of man could devise, that'he would comply with these most reasonable demands, and besides, would owe his life to me, and acknowledge it upon all occasions as long as he lived. "Well, then," said I, "here are three muskets for you, with powder and ball; tell me next what you think is proper to be done." He showed all the testimonies of his gratitude that he was able, but offered to be wholly guided by me. I told him I thought it was hard venturing anything; but the best method I could think of was to fire on them at once as they lay, and if any were not killed at the first volley, and offered to submit, vwe might save them, and so put it wholly upon God's providence to direct the shot. He said, very modestly, that he was loth to kill them, if he could help it; but that those two were incorrigible villains, and had been the authors of all the mutiny in the ship, and if they escaped, we should be undone still, for they would go on board and bring the whole ship's company, and destroy us all. "Well, then," says I, necessity legitimates my advice, for it is the only way to save our lives." However, seeing him still cautious of shedding blood, I told him they should go themselves, and manage as they found convenient. In the middle of this discourse we heard some of them awake, and soon after we saw two of them on their feet. I asked if either of them were the men who he had said were the heads of the mutiny? He said, "No." "Well, then," said I, "you may let them escape; and Providence seems to have awakened them on purpose to save themselves. Now," says I, "if the rest escape you, it is your fault." Animated with this, he took the musket I had given him in his hand, and a pistol in his belt, and his two comrades with him, with each a piece in his hand; the two men who were with him going first made some noise, at which one of the seamen, who was awake, turned about, and seeing them coming, cried out to the rest; but it was too late then, for the moment he cried out they fired, I mean the two men, the captain wisely reserving his own piece: the) had so well aimed their shot at the men they knew, that one of them was killed on the spot, and the other very much wounded; but not being dead, he started up on his feet, and called eagerly for help to the other; but the captain stepping up to him, told him it was too iate to cry for help, he should call upon God to'forgive his villany, and with that word knocked him down with the stock of his musket,



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THE ESCAPE.-X UR Y. 15 boat, I'll shoot you through the head, for I am resolved to have my liberty :" so he turned himself about, and swam for the shore, and I make no doubt but he reached it with ease, for he was an excellent swimmer. I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me, and have drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to trust him. When he was gone, I turned to the boy, whom they called Xury, and said to him, Xury, if you will be faithful to me, I'll make you a great man; but if you will not stroke your face to be true to me, that is, swear by Mahomet and his father's beard, "I must throw you into the sea too." The boy smiled in my face, and spoke so innocently, that I could not distrust him, and swore to be faithful to me, and go all over the world with me. While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, I stood out directly to sea with the boat, rather stretching to windward, that they might think me gone towards the Straits' mouth (as indeed any one that had been in their wits must have been supposed to do): for who would have supposed we were sailed on to the southward, to the truly Barbarian coast, where whole nations of Negroes were sure to surround us with their canoes, and destroy us; where we could not go on shore but we should be devoured by savage beasts, or more merciless savages of human kind. But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my course, and steered directly south and by east, bending my course a little towards the east, that I might keep in with the shore : and having a fair, fresh gale of wind, and a smooth, quiet sea, I made such sail that I believe by the next day at three o'clock in the afternoon, when I first made the land, I could not be less than 150 miles south of Sallee : quite beyond the Emperor of Morocco's dominions, or indeed of any other king thereabouts, for we saw no people. Yet such was the fright I had taken of the Moors, and the dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that I would not stop, or go on shore, or come to an anchor; the wind continuing fair till I had sailed in that manner five days; and then the wind shifting to the southward, I concluded also that if any of our vessels were in chase of me, they also would now give over; so I ventured to make to the coast, and came to an anchor in the mouth of a little river, I knew not what, nor where; neither what latitude, what country, what nation, or what river. I neither saw, nor desired to see any people; the principal thing I. wanted was fresh water. We came into this creek in the evening, resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was dark, and discover the country; but as soon as it was quite dark, we heard such dreadful noises of the barking, roaring, 4



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42 ROBINSON CRUSOE. and I was upon the rocks, they took no notice of me; from whence I concluded, thatby the position of their optics, their sight was so directed downward, that they did not readily see objects that were above them; so afterwards, I took this method,-I always climbed the rocks first, to get above them, and then had frequently a fair mai'k. The first shot I made among these creatures, I killed a shegoat, which had a little kid by her, which she gave suck to, which grieved me heartily ; for, when the old one fell, the kid stood stock still by her, till I came and took her up ; and not only so, but when I carried the old one with me, upon my shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my enclosure; upon which, I laid down the dam, and took the kid in my arms, and carried it over my pale, in hopes to have bred it up tame, but it would not eat, so I was forced to kill it, and eat it myself; these two supplied me with flesh a great while, for I ate sparingly, and saved my provisions (my bread especially) as much as possibly I could. Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely necessary to provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn; and what I did for that, and also how I enlarged my cave, and what conveniences I made, I shall give a full account of in its place. And now being to enter into a melancholy relation of a scene of silent life, such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the world before, I shall take it from its beginning, and continue it in its order. It was, by my account, the 3oth of September, when, in the manner as above said, I first set foot upon this horrid island, when the sun, being to us in its autumnal equinox, was almost just over my head : for I reckoned myself, by observation, to be in the latitude 9 deg. 22 min. north of the line. After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came into my thoughts that I should be losing my reckoning of time for want of books, and pen and ink, and should even forget the Sabbath days ; but to prevent this, I cut with my knife upon a large post, in capital letters, and making it into a great cross, I set up on the shore where I first landed, I came on shore here on the 3oth of September, 1659. Upon the sides of this square post I cut every day a notch with my knife, and every seventh notch was as long again as the rest, and every first day of the month, as lqng again as that long one; and thus I kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning of time. I, n the next place, we are to observe that among the many things which I brought out of the ship, in the several voyages which, as above mentiored, I made to it, I got several things of less value, but not at all less usefuil to me, which I omitted setting.down befoire; as, in particular, pens, ink, and paper; several parcels in the ctain's, n





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272 ROBINSON CRUSOE. that he might perhaps deal for the ship too, and I ordered the interpreter to propose it to him. He shrunk up his shoulders at it, when it was first proposed to him ; but in a few days after he came to me, with one of the missionary priests for his interpreter, and told me he had a proposal to make to me, which was this: he had bought a great quantity of our goods, when he had no thoughts of proposals made to him of buying the ship; and that, therefore, he had not money to pay for the ship; but if I would let the same men who were in the ship navigate her, he would hire the ship to go to Japan; and would send them from thence to the Philippine Islands with another loading, which he would pay the freight of before they went from Japan: and that at their return he would buy the ship. I began to listen to his proposal, and so eager did my head still run upon rambling, that I could not but begin to entertain a notion of going myself with him, and so to set sail from the Philippine Islands away to the South Se'as ; accordingly, I asked the Japanese merchant if he would not hire us to the Philippine Islands and discharge us there. He said no, he could not do that, for then he could not have the return of his cargo; but he would discharge us in Japan, at the ship's return. Well, still I was for taking him at that proposal, and going myself; but my partner, wiser than myself, persuaded me from it, representing the dangers, as well of the seas as of the Japanese, -who are a false, cruel, and treacherous people; likewise those of the Spaniards at the Philippines, more false, cruel, and treacherous than they. But to bring this long turn of our affairs to a conclusion; the first thing we had to do was, to consult with the captain of the ship, and with his men, and know if they were willing to go to Japan. While I was doing this, the young man whom my nephew had left with me as my companion came up, and told me that he thought that voyage promised very fair, and that there was a great prospect of advantage, and he would be very glad if I undertook it ; but that if I would not, and would give him leave, he would go as a merchant, or as I pleased to order him; that if ever he came to England, and I was there and alive, he would render me a faithful account of his success, which should be as much mine as I pleased. I was loth to part with him ; but considering the prospect of advantage, which really was considerable, and that he was a young fellow likely to do well in it, I inclined to let him go; but I told him I would consult my partner, and give him an answer the next day. I discoursed about it with my partner, who thereupon made a most generous offer: "Youknow it has been an unlucky ship," said he, "and we both resolve nbt to go to sea in it again; if your steward (so he called my man) will



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224 ROBINSON CRUSOE. wooden swords, sixteen or seventeen of which they round in the field of battle, and as many bows, with a great many arrows ; these swords were strange, unwieldy things, and they must be very strong men that used them; most of those that were killed with them had their heads mashed to pieces, as we may say, or, as we call it in English, their brains knocked out, and several their arms and legs broken; so that it is evident they fight with inexpressible rage and fury; they found not one wounded man that was not stone dead; for either they stay by their enemy till they have quite killed him, or they carry all the wounded men that are not quite dead away with them. This deliverance tamed our Englishmen for a great while ; the sight had filled them with horror, and the consequences appeared terrible to the last degree, especially upon supposing that some time or other they should fall into the hands of those creatures, who would not only kill them as enemies, but for food, as we kill our cattle ; and they professed to me that the thoughts of being eaten up like beef and mutton, though it was supposed it was not to be till they were dead, had something in it so horrible that it nauseated their very stomachs, made them sick when they thought of it, and filled their minds with unusual terror, that they were not themselves for some weeks after. For a great while after they were tractable, and went about the common business of the whole society well enough ; but some time after this they fell into such simple measures again, as brought them into a great deal of trouble. They had taken three prisoners, as I had observed; and these three being lusty stout young fellows, they made them servants, and taught them to work for them; and as slaves they did well enough ; but they did not take their measures as I did by my man Friday, viz. to begin with them upon the principle of having saved their lives, and then instruct them in the rational principles of life, much less of religion, civilizing and reducing them by kind usage and affectionate arguings; but as they gave them their food every day, so they gave them their work too, and kept them fully employed in drudgery enough; but they failed in this by it, that they never had them to assist them and fight for them as I had my man Friday, who was as true to me as the very flesh upon my bones. Being all now good friends (for common danger, as I said above, had effectually reconciled them) they began to consider their general circumstances; and the first thing that came under their consideration was whether, seeing the savages particularly haunted that side of the island, and that there were more remote and retired parts of it equally adapted to their way of living, and manifestly to their advantage, they should not rather move their habitation, and plant in



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"FRIDAY LEARNS ENGLISH. x35 and in a little time, Friday was able to do all the work for me, as well as I could do it myself. I began now to consider, that having two mouths to feed instead of one, I must provide more ground for my harvest, and plant a larger quantity of corn than I used to do; so I marked out a larger piece of land, and began the fence in the same manner as before, in which Friday worked not only very willingly and very hard, but did it very cheerfully : and I told him what it was for; that it was for corn to make more bread, because he was now with me, and that I might have enough for him and myself too. He appeared very sensible of that part, and let me know that he thought I had much more labour upon me on his account, than I had for myself; and that he would work the harder for me, if I would tell him what to do. This was the pleasantest year of all the life I led in this place. Friday began to talk pretty well, and understand the names of almost everything I had occasion to call for, and of every place I had to send him to, and talk a great deal to me : so that, in short, I began now to have some use for my tongue again, which, indeed, I had very little occasion for before, that is to say, about speech. Besides the pleasure of talking to him, I Ead a singular satisfaction in the fellow himself: his simple, unfeigned honesty appeared to me more and more every day, and I began really to love the creature; and on his side, I believe he loved me more than it was possible for him ever to love anything before. I had a mind once to try if he had any inclination for his own country again; and having learned him English so well that he could answer me almost any questions, I asked him whether the nation that he belonged to never conquered in battle ? At which he smiled, and said, "Yes, yes, we always fight the better;" that is, he meant, always get the better in fight; and so we began the following discourse. You always fight the better, said I; how came you to be taken prisoner, then, Friday? Friday.-My nation beat much for all that. Master.-How beat ? If your nation beat them, how came you to "be taken? Friday.-They more many than my nation, in the place where me was; they take one, two, three, and me: my nation over-beat them in the yonder place, where me no was; there my nation take one, two, great thousand. Master.-But why did not your side recover you from the hands4.: your enemies then ? Friday.-They run, one, two, three, and me, and make go in canoe; my nation have no canoe that time.



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ROBINSON WISHES TO GO TO SEA. 3 neglected his counsel, when there might be none to assist in my recovery. I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was truly prophetic, though I suppose my father did not know it to be so himself; I say, I observed the tears run down his face very plentifully, especially when he spoke of my brother who was killed; and that when he spoke of my having leisure to repent, and none to assist me, he was so moved that he broke off the discourse, and told me his heart was so full he could say no more to me. I was sincerely affected with this discourse, and, indeed, who could be otherwise ? and I resolved not to think of going abroad any more, but to settle at home according to my father's desire. But alas a few days wore it all off; and, in short, to prevent any of my father's further importunities, in a few weeks after, I resolved to run quite away from him. However, I did not act quite so hastily as the first heat of my resolution prompted, but I took my mother at a time when I thought her a little more pleasant than ordinary, and told her that my thoughts were so entirely bent upon seeing the world, that I should never settle to anything with resolution enough to go through with it, and my father had better give me his consent than force me to go without it; that I was now eighteen years old, which was too late to goapprentice to a trade, or clerk to an attorney; that I was sure if I did I should never serve out my time, but I should certainly run away from my master before my time was out, and go to sea; and if she would speak to my father to let me go but one voyage abroad, if I came home again, and did not like it, I would go no more; and I vwould promise, by a double diligence, to recover that time I had lost. This put my mother into a great passion; she told me she knew it would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon any such subject; that if I would ruin myself, there was no help for me; but I might depend I should never have their consent to it; that for her part, she would not have so much hand in my destruction; and I should never have it to say that my mother was willing when my father was not. Thoughi my mother refused to move it to my father, yet as I have heard afterwards, she reported all the discourse to him, and that my father, after showing a great concern at it, said to her, with a sigh • "That boy might be happy if he would stay at home; but if he goes abroad, he will be the miserablest wretch that ever was born : I can give no consent to it." It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose, though, in the mean time, I continued obstinately deaf to all proposals of settling to business, and frequently expostulated with my father and mother about their being so positively determined against what they B 4



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PREFACE. ANIEL DE FOE, the author of Robinson Crusoe," was born in London, in 1661. At the age of fourteen he was sent to school, to the Rev. Charles Morton, at Newington Green, where he got a first-rate education. He was a Dissenter and a devoted partizan of William III. De Foe was in trade, it is believed, as a hosier, and about the year 1692 would have failed for 17,ooo., but that his creditors, convinced of his integrity, allowed him to trade on his own security. However, in the year 1703, when he had lost his royal friend and patron, King William, he was totally ruined, and had to pay a fine of 3000o. to the Government, for libel. From that period he became a political writer. For these writings he underwent much persecution; he had to stand in the pillory and to pay fines, which twice ruined him, and he was thirteen months in Newgate jail. The story of his release is this :-Harley, the great minister, wrote to ask De Foe what he could do for him. He replied, "Lord, that I may receive my sight." Queen Anne was touched by the prayer; he was released, and she afterwards treated him kindly. When nearly sixty years of age, he wrote his famous romance, Robinson Crusoe"-being his hundred and sixty-seventh worksuggested, it has been supposed, by the real adventures of AlexandeLr 4 __



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A FIRE UPON THE SHORE. 115 dreadful to us, is oftentimes the very means or door of our deliverance, by which alone we can be raised again from the affliction we are fallen into. I could give many examples of this in the course of my unaccountable life ; but in nothing was it more particularly remarkable than in the circumstances of my last years of solitary residence in this island. It was now the month of December, as I said above, in my twenty-third year ; and this, being the southern solstice, for winter I cannot call it, was the particular time of my harvest, and required my being pretty much abroad in the fields; when, going out early in the morning, even before it was thorough daylight, I was surprised with seeing a light of some fire upon the shore, at a distance from me of about two miles, toward that part of the island where I had observed some savages had been; and not, as before, on the other side, but, to my great affliction, it was on my side of the island. I was indeed terribly surprised at the sight, and stopped short within my grove, not daring to go out, lest I might be surprised ; and yet I had no more peace within, from the apprehensions I had that if these savages, in rambling over the island, should find my corn standing or cut, or any of my improvements, they would immediately conclude that there were people in the place, and would then never give over till they had found me out. In this extremity I went back directly to my castle, pulled up the ladder after me, and made all things without look as wild and natural as I could. Then I prepared myself within, putting myself in a posture of defence; I loaded all my cannon, as I called them; that is to say, my muskets, which were mounted upon my new fortification, and alt my pistols, and resolved to defend myself to the last gasp, not forgetting seriously to commend myself to the Divine protection, and earnestly to pray to God to deliver me out of the hands of the barbarians. In this posture I continued about two hours, and began tobe impatient for intelligence abroad, for I had no spies to send out. After sitting awhile longer, and musing what I should do in this case, I was not able to bear sitting in ignorance any longer ; so setting up my ladder to the side of the hill, where there was a flat place, as I observed before, and then pulling the ladder up after me, I set it up again and mounted the top of the hill; and pulling out my perspective glass, which I had taken on purpose, I laid me down flat on the ground, and began to look for the place. I presently found there were no less than nine naked savages, sitting round a small fire they had made, not to warm them, for they had no need of that, the weather being extremely hot, but, as I supposed, to dress some of 12 4



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A PROSPECT OF DELIVERANCE. 175 slept very sound, till I was surprised with the noise of a gun; and presently starting up, I heard a man call me by the name Governor Governor !" and presently I knew the captain's voice; when, climbing to the top of the hill, there he stood, and, pointing to the ship, he embraced me in his arms. "My dear friend and deliverer," says he, there's your ship ; for she is all yours, and so are we, and all that belong to her." I cast my eyes to the ship, and there she rode,, within little more than half a mile of the shore; for they had weighed her anchor as soon as they were masters of her, and, the weather being fair, had brought her to an anchor just against the mouth of the little creek; and, the tide being up, the captain had brought the pinnace in near the place where I had first landed my rafts, and s& landed just at my door. I was at first ready to sink down with the surprise; for I saw my deliverance, indeed, visibly put into my hands, all things easy, and a large ship just ready to carry me away whither I pleased to go. At first, for some time, I was not able to answer him one word; but as he had taken me in his arms, I held fast by him, or I should have fallen to the ground. He perceived the surprise, and immediately pulled a bottle out of his pocket and gave me a dram of cordial, which he had brought on purpose for me. After I drank it, I sat down upon the ground; and though itbrought me to myself, yet it was a good while before I could speak a word to him. All this time the poor man was in as great an ecstasy as I, only not under any surprise as I was; and he said au thousand kind tender things to me, to compose and bring me to, myself; but such was the flood of joy in my breast, that it put all my spirits into confusion: at last it broke out into tears, and, in a. little while after, I recovered my speech. I then took my turn, and embraced him as my deliverer, and we rejoiced together. I told him I looked upon him as a man sent by Heaven to deliver me, and that the whole transaction seemed to be a chain of wonders; that such things as these were the testimonies we had of a secret hand of Providence governing the world, and an evidence that the eye of an infinite Power could search into the remotest corner of the world,. and send help to the miserable whenever He pleased. I forgot not to lift up my heart in thankfulness to Heaven; and what heart could forbear to bless Him, who had not only in a miraculous manner provided for me in such a wilderness, and in such a desolate coni Sdition, but from whom every deliverance must always be acknowiedged to proceed ? When we had talked a while, the captain told me he had brought me some some little refreshments such as the ship afforded, and such I as the wretches that had been so long his masters had not plundered



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244 ROBINSON CRUSOE. imaginable; and as our men advanced swiftly towards them, they all ran screaming and yelling away, with a kind of howling noise, which our men did not understand, and had never heard before; and thus they ran up the hills into the country. At first our men had much rather the weather had been calm, and they had all gone away to sea ; but they did not then consider that this might probably have been the occasion of their coming again in such multitudes as not to be resisted, or, at least, to come so many and so often, as would quite desolate the island, and starve them. Will Atkins, therefore, who, notwithstanding his wound, kept always with them, proved the best counsellor in this case : his advice was, to take the advantage that offered, and step in between them and their boats, and so deprive them of the capacity of ever returning any more to plague the island. They consulted long about this; and some were against it, for fear of making the wretches fly to the woods and live there desperate, and so they should have them to hunt like wild beasts, be afraid to stir out about their business, and have their plantations continually rifled, all their tame goats destroyed, and, in short, be reduced to a life of continual distress. Will Atkins told them they had better have to do with a hundremen than with a hundred nations : that as they must destroy theii boats, so they must destroy the men, or be all of them destroyed themselves. In a word, he showed them the necessity of it so plainly, that they all came into it; so they went to work immediately with the boats, and getting some dry wood together from a dead tree, they tried to set some of them on fire, but they were so wet that they would not burn; however, the fire so burned the upper part, that it soon made them unfit for swimming in the sea as boats. When the Inc'ans saw what they were about, some of them came running out of the woods, and COming as near as they could to our men, kneeled down and cried, Oa, Oa, Waromokoa," and some other words of thnir language, which none of the others understood anything of ; but as they made pitiful gestures and strange noises, iT was easy to understand they begged to have their boats spared, and "hat they would be gone, and never come there again. But our mer were now satisfied that they had no way to preserve themselves, or to save their colony, but effectually to prevent any of these people fronm ever going home again: depending upon this, that if even so much as one of them got back into their country to tell the story, the colony was undone; so that, letting them know that they should not have any mercy, they fell to work with their canoes, and destroyed every one that the storm had not destroyed before ; at the sight of which, the savages raised a hideous cry in the woods, which our people



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EUROPEANS ARE NEAR. 139 good Christian, a much better than I; though I have reason to hope, and bless God for it, that we were equally penitent, and comforted, restored penitents. After Friday and I became more intimately acquainted, and that he could understand almost all I said to him, and speak pretty fluently, though in broken English, to me, I acquainted him with my own history, or at least so much of it as related to my coming to this place ; how I had lived there, and how long. I let him into the mystery, for such it was to him, of gunpowder and bullet, and taught him how to shoot. I gave him a knife, which he was wonderfully delighted with; and I made him a belt, with a frog hanging to it, such as in England we wear hangers in ; and in the frog, instead of a hanger, I gave him a hatchet, which was not only as good a weapon in some cases, but much more useful upon other occasions. I described to him the countries of Europe, particularly England, which I came from; how we lived, how we worshipped God, how we behaved to one another, and how we traded in ships to all parts of the world. I gave him an account of the wreck which I had been on board of, and showed him, as near as I could, the-place where she lay; but she was all beaten in pieces before, and gone. I showed him the ruins of our boat, which we lost when we escaped, and which I could not stir with my whole strength then ; but was now fallen almost all to pieces. Upon seeing this boat, Friday stood musing a great while, and said nothing. I asked him what it was he studied upon. At last says he, Me see such boat like come to place at my nation." I did not understand him for a good while; but, at last, when I had examined further into it, I understood by him, that a boat, such as that had been, came on shore upon the country where he lived : that is, as he explained it, was driven thither by stress of weather. I presently imagined that some European ship must have been cast away upon their coast, and the boat might get loose and drive ashore; but was so dull that I never once thought of men making their escape from a wreck thither, much less whence they might come : so I only inquired after a description of the boat. Friday described the boat to me well enough; but brought me better to understand him when he added with some warmth, "We save the white mans from drown." Then I presently asked if there were any white mans, as he called them, in the boat. "Yes, he said; "the boat full of white mans." I asked him how many. He told upon his fingers seventeen. I asked him then what became of them. He told me, They live, they dwell at my nation." This put new thoughts into my head ; for I presently imagined that these might be the men belonging to the ship that was cast away 4



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ANGER OF THE SHIP'S CAPTAIN. 9 reason, and my more composed judgment, to go home, yet I did not obey them. My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who was the master's son, was now less forward than I; the first time he spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth, which was not till two or three days, for we were separated in the town to several quarters; I say, the first time he saw me, it appeared his tone was altered; and, looking very melancholy, and shaking his head, he asked me how I did, and telling his father who I was, and how I had come this voyage only for a trial, in order to go farther abroad; his father turning to me with a very grave and concerned tone, Young man, says he, "you ought never to go to sea any more; you ought to take this for a plain and visible token that you are not to be a seafaring man." "Why, sir," said I, "will you go to sea no more?" "That is another case," said he ; "it is my calling, and therefore my duty ; but as you made this voyage for a trial, you see what a taste Heaven has given you of what you are to expect if you persist ; perhaps this has all befallen us on your account, like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish. Pray," continued he, "what are you; and on what account did you go to sea?" Upon that I told him some of mny story ; at the end of which he burst out with a strange kind of passion; "What had I done," says he, "that such an unhappy wretch should come into my ship I would not set my foot in the same ship with thee again for a thousand pounds." This indeed "was, as I said, an excursion of his spirits, which were yet agitated "by the sense of his loss, and was farther than he could have authority to go. However, he afterwards talked very gravely to me, exhorted me to go back to my father, and not tempt Providence to my ruin; told me I might see a visible hand of Heaven against me; and, young man," said he, "depend upon it, if you do noI go back, wherever you go, you will meet with nothing but disasters and disappointments, till your father's words are fulfilled upon you." We parted soon after; for I made him little answer, and I saw him no more ; which way he went I know not. Having some money in my pocket, I travelled to London by land; and there, as well as on the road, had many struggles with myself, what course of life I should take, whether I should go home, or go to sea. As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that offered to my thoughts ; and it immediately occurred to me how I should be laughed at among the neighbours, and should be ashamed to see, not my father and mother only, but even everybody else; from whence I have since often observed, how incongruous and irrational the common temper of mankind is, especially of youth, to that 4I



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22 ROBINSON CRUSOE. began to despair, they, it seems, saw me by the help of their perspective glasses, and that it was some European boat, which, as they supposed, must belong to some ship that was lost ; so they shortened sail to let me come up. I was encouraged with this, and as I had my patron's ancient on board, I made a waft of it to them, for a signal of distress, and fired a gun, both which they saw ; for they told me they saw the smoke, though they did not hear the gun. Upon these signals they very kindly brought to, and lay by for me; and in about ,three hours' time I came up with them. They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish, and in French, but I understood none of them; but, at last, a Scots sailor, who was on board, called to me, and I answered him, and told him I was an Englishman, that I had made my escape out of slavery from the Moors at Sallee. They then bade me come on board, and very kindly took me in, and all my goods. It was an inexpressible joy to me, that any one would believe, that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable and almost hopeless condition as I was in, and I immediately offered all I had to the captain of the ship, as a return for my deliverance ; but he generously told me, he would take nothing from me, but that all I had should be delivered safe to me, when I came to the Brazils. For," says he, I have saved your life on no other terms than I would be glad to be saved myself; and it may, one time or other, be my lot to be taken up in the same condition. Besides," said he, "when I carry you to the Brazils, so great a way from your own country, if I should take from you what you have, you will be starved there, and then I only take away that life I have given. No, no," says he, "Seignor Inglese" (Mr. Englishman), I will carry you thither in charity, and those things will help to buy your subsistence there, and your passage home again." As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the performance to a tittle ; for he ordered the seamen, that none should touch anything that I had: then he took everything into his own possession, and gave me back an exact inventory of them, that I might have them, even so much as my three earthen jars. As to my boat, it was a very good one, and that he saw, and told me he would buy it of me for his ship's use, and asked me what I would have for it? I told him, he had been so generous to me in. everything, that I could not offer to make any price of the boat, but left it entirely to him; upon which he told me he would give me anote of hand to pay me 8o pieces of eight for it at Brazil; and when it came there, if any one offered to give more, he would make it up. He offered me also 60 pieces of eight more for my boy Xury, which



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CRUSOE'S ILLNESS. 61 first prayer, if I may call it so, that I had made for many years. But I return to my Journal :7une 28.-Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep I had had, and the fit being entirely off, I got up; and though the fright and terror of my dream was very great, yet I considered, that the fit of the ague would return again the next day, and now was my time to get something to refresh and support myself when I should be ill; and the first thing I did, I filled a large square case-bottle with water, and set it upon my table, in reach of my bed ; and to take off the chill or aguish disposition of the water, I put about a quarter of a pint of rum into it, and mixed them together. Then I got me a piece of the goat's flesh, and broiled it on the coals, but could eat very little. I walked about, but was very weak, and withal very sad and heavyhearted under a sense of my miserable condition, dreading the return of my distemper the next day; at night, I made my supper of three of the turtle's eggs, which I roasted in the ashes, and eat, as we call it, in the shell, and this was the first bit of meat I had ever asked God's blessing to, even as I could remember, in my whole life. After I had eaten, I tried to walk, but found myself so weak, that I could hardly carry the gun (for I never went out without that); so I went but a little way, and sat down upon the ground looking out upon the sea, which was just before me, and very calm and smooth. As I sat here some such thoughts as these occurred to me :-What is this earth and sea, of which I have seen so much ? Whence is it produced ? And what am I, and all the other creatures, wild and tame, human and brutal? Whence are we ? Sure we are all made by some secret power, who formed the earth and sea, the air and sky; and who is that? Then it followed most naturally, it is God that has made all. Well, but then, it came on strangely, if God has made all these things, He guides and governs them all, Aand all things that concern them ; for the power that could make all things must certainly have power to guide and direct them. If so, nothing can happen in the great circuit of His works, either without His knowledge or appointment. And if nothing happens without His knowledge, He knows that I am here, and am in this dreadful condition; and if nothing happens without His appointment, He has appointed all this to befal me. Immediately it followed,-Why has God done this to me? My conscience presently checked me in that inquiry, as if I had blasphemed, and methought it spoke to me like a voice-" Wretch dost thou ask what thou hast done ? Look back upon a dreadful misspent life, and ask thyself what thou hast not done ? Ask, why is it that thou wert not long ago destroyed ? Why wert thou not drowned in Yarmouth Roads; killed in the fight when the shia was taken by the Sallee man-of-war;



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16 ROBINSON CRUSOE. and howling of wild creatures, of we knew not what kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die with fear, and begged of me not to go on shore till day. Well, Xury," said I, "then I won't; but it may be that we may see men by day, who will be as bad to us as those lions." Then we give them the shoot gun," says Xury, laughing, "make them run wey." Such English Xury spoke by conversing among us slaves. However, I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him a dram (out of our patron's case of bottles) to cheer him up; after all, Xury's advice was good, and I took it; we dropped our little anchor and lay still all night; I say still, for we slept none; for in two or three hours we saw vast great creatures (we knew not what to call them) of many sorts, come down to the sea-shore, and run into the water, wallowing and washing themselves for the pleasure of cooling themselves ; and they made such hideous howlings and yellings, that I never indeed heard the like. Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too; but we were both more frighted when we heard one of these mighty creatures come swimming towards our boat; we could not see him, but we might hear him by his blowing to be a monstrous huge and furious beast. Xury said it was a lion, and it might be so for aught I know; but poor Xury cried to me to weigh the anchor and row away: "No," says I, "Xury; we can slip our cable, with the buoy to it, and go off to sea; they cannot follow us far." I had no sooner said so, but I perceived the creature (whatever it was) within two oars' length; which something surprised me; however, I immediately stepped to the cabin-door, and taking up my gun, fired at him, upon which he immediately turned about, and swam towards the shore again But it is impossible to describe the horrid noises, and hideous cries and howlings, that were raised, as well upon the edge of the shore as higher within the country, upon the noise or report of the gun; a hing I have some reason to believe those creatures had never heard before: this convinced me that there was no going on shore for us in the night on that coast, and how to venture on shore in the day was another question too ; for to have fallen into the hands of any of the savages, had been as bad as to have fallen into the hands of the lions and tigers; at least we were equally apprehensive of the danger of it. Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore somewhere or other for water, for we had not a pint left in the boat; when and' where to get to it was the point. Xury said, if I would let him go on shore with one of the jars, he would find if there was any water, and bring some to me. I asked him why he would go? why I should not go, and he stay in the boat? The boy answered with q'



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THE TENT AND ITS CONTENTS. 37 did she offer to stir away ; upon which I tossed her a bit of biscuit, though, by the way, I was not very free of it, for my store was not, great: however, I spared her a bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled at it, and ate it, and looked, as if pleased, for more; but I thanked her, and could spare no more; so she marched off. Having got my second cargo on shore, though I was fain to open the barrels of powder, and bring them by parcels (for they were too heavy, being large casks), I went to work to make me a little tent, with the sail, and some poles which I cut for that purpose; and into this tent I brought everything that I knew would spoil either with rain or sun, and I piled all the empty chests and casks up in a circle round the tent, to fortify it from any sudden attempt, either from man or beast. When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent with some boards within, and an empty chest set up on end without ; and spreading one of the beds upon the ground, laying my two pistols just at my head, and my gun at length by me, I went to bed for the first time, and slept very quietly all night, for I was very weary and heavy; for the night before I had slept little, and had laboured very hard all day, as well to fetch all those things from the ship, and to get them on shore. I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was laid up, I believe, for one man : but I was not satisfied still, for while the ship sat tfpright in that posture, I thought I ought to get everything out of her that I could: so every day at low water I went on board, and brought away something or other ; but particularly the third time I went, I brought away as much of the rigging as I could, as also all the small ropes and rope-twine I could get, with a piece of spare canvas, which was to mend the sails upon occasion, and the barrel of wet gunpowder: in a word, I brought away all the sails first and last; only that I was fain to cut them in pieces, and -bring as much at a time as I could, for they were no more useful to be sails, but as mere canvas only. But that which comforted me more still, was, that last of all, after I had made five or six such voyages as these, and thought I had nothing more to expect from the ship that was worth my meddling with ; I say, after all this, I found a great hogshead of bread, three large runlets of rum, or spirits, and a box of sugar, and a barrel of fine flour : this was surprising to me, because I had given over expecting any more provisions, except what was spoiled by the water ; I soon emptied the hogshead of that bread, and wrapped it up, parcel by parcel, in pieces of the sails, which I cut out; and, in a word, I got all this safe on shore also. 4



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THE EFFECTS OF DISOBEDIENCE. 5 it : however, I was very grave for all that day, being also a little seasick still; but towards night the weather cleared up, the wind was quite over, and a charming fine evening followed ; the sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so the next morning; and having little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most delightful that ever I saw. I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick, but very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that was so rough and terrible the day before, and could be so calm and so pleasant in so little a time after. And now, lest my good resolutions should continue, my companion, who had enticed me away, comes to me : "Well, Bob," says he, clapping me upon the shoulder, "how do you do after it ? I warrant you were frighted, wer'n't you, last night, when it blew but a capful of wind ?"-"A capful d'you call it?" said I ; 'twas a terrible storm."-" A storm, you fool you," replies he; do you call that a storm ? why, it was nothing at all ; give us but a good ship and sea-room, and we think nothing of such a squall of wind as that ; but you're but a fresh-water sailor, Bob : come, let us make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget all that; d'ye see what charming weather 'tis now?" To make short this sad part of my story, we went the old way of all sailors ; the punch was made, and I was made half-drunk with it ; and in that one night's wickedness I drowned all my repentance, all my reflections upon my past conduct, all my resolutions for the future. In a word, as the sea was returned to its smoothness of surface and settled calmness by the abatement of that storm, so the hurry of my thoughts being over, my fears and apprehensions of being swallowed up by the sea being forgotten, and the current of my former desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows and promises that I made in my distress. I found, indeed, some intervals of reflection; and the serious thoughts did, as it were, endeavour to return again sometimes; but I shook them off, and roused myself from them, and applying myself to drink and company, soon mastered the return of those fits-for so I called them; and I had in five or six days got as complete a victory over conscience as any young fellow that resolved not to be troubled with it could desire. But I was to have another trial for it still. The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth Roads ; the wind having been contrary, and the weather calm, we had made but little way since the storm. Here we were obliged to come to an anchor, and here we lay, the wind continuing contrary, viz., at southwest, for seven or eight days, during which time a great many ships from Newcastle came into the same roads, as the common harbour where the ships might wait for a wind for the river. \



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£82 ROBINSON CRUSOE. me, how he had taken me up at sea, and how generously he had used me on all occasions, and particularly how sincere a friend he was now to me, I could hardly refrain weeping at what he had said to me; therefore I asked him if his circumstances admitted him to spare so much money at that time, and if it would not straiten him? He told me he could not say but it might straiten him a little; but, however, it was my money, and I might want it more than he. Everything the good man said was full of affection, and I could hardly refrain from tears while he spoke. In short, I took one hundred of the moidores, and called for a pen and ink to give him a receipt for them: then I returned him the rest, and told him if ever I had possession of the plantation I would return the other to him also (as, indeed, I afterwards did); and that as to the bill of sale of his part in his son's ship, I would not take it by any means; but that if I wanted the money, I found he was honest enough to pay me; and if I did not, but came to receive what he gave me reason to expect, I would never have a penny more from him. When this was past, the old man asked me if he should put me into a method to make my claim to my plantation. I told him I thought to go over to it myself. He said I might do so if I pleased; but that, if I did not, there were ways enough to secure my right, and immediately to appropriate the profits to my use; and as there were ships in the river of Lisbon just ready to go away to Brazil, he made me enter my name in a public register, with his affidavit, affirming, upon oath, that I was alive, and that I was the same person who took up the land for the planting the said plantation at first. This being regularly attested by a notary, and a procuration affixed, he directed me to send it, with a letter of his writing, to a merchant of his acquaintance at the place; and then proposed my staying with him till an account came of the return. Never was anything more honourable than the proceedings upon this procuration; for in less than seven months I received a large packet from the survivors of my trustees, the merchants, for whose account I went to sea, in which were the following particular letters and papers enclosed. First, there was the account-current of the produce of my farm or plantation, from the year when their fathers had balanced with my old Portugal captain, being for six years ; the balance appeared to be one thousand one hundred and seventy-four moidores in my favour. Secondly, there was the account of four years more, while they kept the effects in their hands, before the government claimed the administration, as being the effects of a person not to be found, which they called civil death ; and the balance of this, the value of



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260 ROBINSON CRUSOF. of the men : in a word, the captain told me he would go and help his men, let what would come. I was no more able to stay behind now, than I was to persuade them not to go; so the captain ordered two men to row back the pinnace, and fetch twelve men more, leaving the long boat at an anchor; and that, when they came back, six men should keep the two boats, and six more come after us ; so that he left only sixteen men in the ship ; for the whole ship's company consisted of sixty-five men, whereof two were lost in the late quarrel which brought this mischief on. Being now on the march, we felt little of the ground we trod on; and being guided by the fire, we kept no path, but went directly to the place of the flame. If the noise of the guns was surprising to us before, the cries of the poor people were now quite of another nature, and filled us with horror. We advanced a little way further, and behold, to our astonishment, three naked women, and crying in a most dreadful manner, came flying as if they had wings, and after them sixteen or seventeen men, natives, in the same terror and consternation, with three of our English butchers in the rear, who, when they could not overtake them, fired in among them, and one that was killed by their shot fell down in our sight. When the rest saw us, believing us to be their enemies, and that we would murder them as well as those that pursued them, they set up a most dreadful shriek, especially the women ; and two of them fell down, as if already dead, with the fright. My very soul shrunk within me, and my blood ran chill in my veins, when I saw this; and, I believe, had the three English sailors that pursued them come on, I had made our men kill them all ; however, we took some means to let the poor flying creatures know that we would not hurt them; and immediately they came up to us, and kneeling down, with their hands lifted up, made piteous lamentation to us to save them, which we let them know we would; whereupon they crept all together in a huddle close behind us, as for protection I could not understand one word they said; but I was so terrified that I could not stay there, but went back to my own men, and resolved to go through the fire, or whatever might be in the way, and put an end to it, cost what it would; accordingly, as I came back to my men, I told them my resolution, and commanded them to follow me, when, at the very moment, came four of our men, with the boatswain at their head. As soon as the boatswain saw us, he set up a halloo like a shout of triumph, for having, as he thought, more help come ; and, without waiting to hear me, "Captain," says he, "noble Captain! I am



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236 ROBINSON CRUSOE. would be together. The next halt was at the entrance into a very thick-grown part of the woods, and where an old trunk of a tree stood, which was hollow and very large ; and in this tree they both "took their standing, resolving to see there what might offer. They had not stood there long before two of the savages appeared running directly that way, as if they already had notice where they stood, and were coming up to attack them; and a little way further they espied three more coming after them, and five more beyond them, all coming the same way; besides which, they saw seven or eight more at a distance, running another way; for, in a word, they ran every way, like sportsmen beating for their game. The poor men were now in great perplexity whether they should stand and keep their posture, or fly; but, after a very short debate "with themselves, they considered, that if the savages ranged the country thus before help came, they might perhaps find out their retreat in the woods, and then all would be lost; so they resolved to stand them there, and if they were too many to deal with, then they would get up to the top of the tree, from whence they doubted not 'o defend themselves, fire excepted, as long as their ammunition -lasted, though all the savages that were landed, which was near fifty, were to attack them. Having resolved upon this, they next considered whether they should fire at the first two, or wait for the three, and so take the middle party, by which the two and the live that followed would be separated; at length they resolved to let the first two pass by, unless they should spy them in the tree, and come to attack them. The first two savages confirmed them also in this resolution, by turning a little from them towards another part of the wood; but the three, and the five after them, came forward directly to the tree, as if they had known the Englishmen were there. Seeing them come so straight towards them, they resolved to take them in a line as they came; and as they resolved to fire but one at a time, perhaps the first shot might hit them all three; for which purpose the man who was to fire put three or four small bullets into his piece; and having -a fair loop-hole, as it were, from a broken hole in the tree, he took a sure aim, without being seen, waiting till they were within about thirty yards of the tree, so that he could not miss. While they were thus waiting, and the savages came on, they plainly saw that one of the three was the runaway savage that had escaped from them; and they both ,new him distinctly, and resolved that, if possible, he should not escape, though they should both fire: so the other stood ready with his piece, that if they did not drop at the first shot, he should be sure to have a second. But the first was



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X02 ROBINSON CRUSOE. inclosure, destroy all my corn, and carry away all my flock of tame goats, and I should perish at last for mere want. Thus my fear banished all my religious hope, all that former confidence in God, which was founded upon such wonderful experience as I had had of His goodness ; as if He that had fed me by miracle hitherto could not preserve, by His power, the provision which He had made for me by His goodness. I reproached myself with my laziness, that would not sow any more corn one year than would just serve me till the next season, as if no accident could intervene to prevent my enjoying the crop that was upon the ground ; and this I thought so just a reproof, that I resolved for the future to have two or three years' corn beforehand ; so that, whatever might'come, I might not perish for want of bread. One morning early, lying in my bed, and filled with thoughts about my danger from the appearances of savages, I found it discomposed me very much; upon which these words of the Scripture came into my thoughts : Call upon Me in the day of trouble, and I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me." Upon this, rising cheerfully out of my bed, my heart was not only comforted, but I was guided and encouraged to pray earnestly to God for deliverance: when I had done praying, I took up my Bible, and opening it to read, the first words presented to me were, Wait on the Lord, and be of good cheer, and He shall strengthen thy heart; wait, I say, on the Lord." It is impossible to express the comfort this gave me. In answer, I thankfully laid down the book, and was no more sad. In the middle of these cogitations, apprehensions, and reflections, it came into my thoughts one day, that all this might be a mere chimera of my own, and that this foot might be the print of my own foot, when I came on shore from my boat: this cheered me up a little, too, and I began to persuade myself it was all a delusion; that at was nothing else but my own foot; and why might I not come that way from the boat, as well as I was going that way to the boat? Again I considered also, that I could by no means tell, for certain, where I had trod, and where I had not; and that if, at last, this was only the print of my own foot, I had played the part of those fools who strive to make stories of spectres and apparitions, and then are frightened at them more than anybody. Now I began to take courage, and to peep abroad again; for I had not stirred out of my castle for three days and nights; so that I began to starve for provision; for I had little or nothing within doors but some barley-cakes and water. Then I knew that my goats wanted to be milked too, which usually was my evening diversion; and the poor creatures were in great pain and inconvenience for want



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MARRIAGES ON THE ISLAND. 249 the maid, and, by the way, we made a wife of her before we went away. There were besides the two carpenters and the tailor, whom I brought with me for them : also the smith, who was a very neces, sary man to them, especially as a gunsmith, to take care of their arms; and my other man, whom I called Jack-of-all-trades, who was in himself as good almost as twenty men; for he was not only a very ingenious fellow, but a very merry fellow, and before I went away we married him to the honest maid that came with the youth in the ship I mentioned before; for having brought the affairs of the island to a narrow compass, I was preparing to go on board the ship, when the young man I had taken out of the famished ship's company came to me, and told me he understood I had a clergyman with me, and that I had caused the Englishmen to be married to the savages : that he had a match too, which he desired might be finished before I went, between two Christians; which he hoped would not be disagreeable to me. I knew this must be the young woman who was his mother's servant, so I began to persuade him not to do anything of that kind rashly. He interrupted me, smiling, and told me that he meant my Jack-ofall-trades and his maid Susan. We married them the same day. Being now settled in a kind of commonwealth among themselves, and having much business in hand, it was odd to have sevenand-thirty Indians live in a nook of the island, independent. I proposed, therefore, to the governor Spaniard, that he should go to them, with Friday's father, and propose to them to remove, and either plant for themselves, or be taken into their several families as servants, to be maintained for their labour, but without being absolute slaves; for I would not permit them to make them slaves by force, by any means: because they had their liberty given them by capitulation, as it were articles of surrender, which they ought not to break. They most willingly embraced the proposal: so we allotted them land and plantations, which three or four accepted of, the rest chose to be employed as servants in the several families we had selected. Amongst all the needful things I had to leave with them, I had not left them a Bible, in which I showed myself less considering for them than my good friend the widow was for me when she sent me the cargo of 100 pounds from Lisbon, where she packed up three Bibles and a Prayer-book. However, the good woman's charity had a greater extent than ever she imagined, for they were reserved for the comfort and instruction of those that made much better use of them than I had done, for I gave them to the colonists before I left. I have now done with the Island. I left them all in good circumstances, and in a flourishing condition, and went on board my ship



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r66 ROBINSON CRUSOE. proved fruitless, and they found the boat did not stir, we saw them, by the help of my glasses, hoist another boat out, and row' towards the shore; and we found, as they approached, that there were no less than ten men in her, and that they had fire-arms with them. As the ship lay almost two leagues from the shore, we had a full view of them as they came, and a plain sight even of their faces ; because the tide having set them a little to the east of the other boat, they rode up under shore, to come to the same place where the other had landed, and where the boat lay. By this means, I say, we had a full view of them, and the captain knew the persons and characters of all the men in the boat, of whom, he said, there were three very honest fellows, who, he was sure, were led into this conspiracy by the rest, being overpowered and frighted. But that as for the boatswain, who it seems was the chief officer among them, and all the rest, they were as outrageous as any of the ship's crew, and were no doubt made desperate in their, new enterprise; and terribly apprehensive he was that they would be too powerful for us. I smiled at "him, and told him that men in our circumstances were past the operation of fear ; that seeing almost every condition that could be was better than that which we were supposed to be in, we ought to expect that the consequence, whether death or life, would be sure to be a deliverance. I asked him what he thought of the circumstance of my life, and whether a deliverance were not worth venturing for? "And where, sir," said I, "is your belief of my being preserved here on purpose to save your life, which elevated you a little while ago? For my part," said I, "there seems to be but one thing amiss in all the prospect of it." "'What is that ?" says he. "Why," said I, "it is that, as you say, there are three or four honest fellows among them, which should be spared; had they been all of the wicked part of the crew, I should have thought God's providence had singled them out to deliver them into your hands; for depenj,. upon it, every man that comes ishore is our own, and shall die or live as they behave to us." As 1 spoke this with a raised voice and cheerful countenance, I found it greatly encouraged him ; so we set vigorously to our business : we had, upon the first appearance of the boats coming from the ship, considered of separating our prisoners; and we had, indeed, secured them effectually. Two of them, of whom the captain was less assured than ordinary, I sent with Friday, and one of the three delivered men, to my cave, where they were remote enough, and out of danger of being heard or discovered, or of finding their way out of the wopds, if they could have delivered themselves'; lere they left them boud,



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CRUSOE BECOMES A PLANTER. 25 When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortunes made, for I was surprised with the joy of it; and my good steward, the captain, had laid out the five pounds, which my friend had sent him for a present for himself, to purchase and bring me over a servant, under bond for Six years' service, and would not accept of any consideration, except a little tobacco, which I would have him accept, being my own produce. Neither was this all: for my goods being all English manufacture, such as cloths, stuffs, baize, and things particularly valuable and desirable in the country, I found means to sell them to a very great advantage; so that I might say, I had more than four times the value of my first cargo, and was now infinitely beyond my poor neighbour-I mean in the advancement of my plantation; for the first thing I did, I bought me a negro slave, and an European servant also-I mean another besides that which the captain brought me from Lisbon. To come by the just degrees, to the particulars of this part of my story :-Having now lived almost four years in the Brazils, and beginning to thrive and prosper very well upon my plantation, I had not only learned the language, but had contracted acquaintance and friendship among my fellow-planters, as well as among the merchants at St. Salvador, which was our port; and in my discourses among them, I had frequently given them an account of my two voyages to the coast of Guinea; the manner of trading with the Negroes there, and how easy it was to purchase upon the coast for trifles, such as beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits of glass, and the like, not only gold dust, Guinea grains, elephants' teeth, &c., but Negroes, for the service of the Brazils, in great numbers. They listened always very attentively to my discourses on these heads, but especially to that part which related to the buying Negroes, which was a trade, at that time, not only not far entered into, but, as far as it was, had been carried on by Assientos, or permission of the kings of Spain and Portugal, and engrossed in the public stock ; so that few Negroes were bought, and those excessively dear. It happened, being in company with some merchants and planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those things very earnestly, three ofthem came to me next morning, and told me they had been musing very much.upon what I had discoursed with them of the last night, and theycame to make a secret proposal to me; and, after enjoining me secresy, they told me that they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea; that they had all plantations as. well as I, and were straitened for nothing so much as servants; that as it was a trade that could. not be carried on, because they could not publicly sell the Negroes when they came home, so they desired to make but one voyage, to bring the Negroes on shore privately, and divide them among their 4



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274 ROBINSON CRUSOE. Portuguese pilot, he being desirous to see the court, we bore his charges for his company, and for our use of him as an interpreter, for he understood the language of the country, and spoke good French and a little English. Indeed, this old man was most useful to us everywhere; for we had not been above a week at Pekin, when he came laughing. "Ah, Seignior Inglese, says he, "I have something to tell will make your heart glad."-" My heart glad," says I ; "what can that be ? I don't know anything in this-country can either give me joy or grief to any great degree." Yes, yes," said the old man in broken English, "make you glad, me sorry.""Why," said I, "will it make you sorry?"-" Because," said he, "you have brought me here twenty-five days' journey, and will leave me to go back alone; and which way shall I get to my port afterwards, without a ship, without a horse, without fecune ? "-so he called money, being his broken Latin, of which he had abundance to make us merry with. In short, he told us there was a great caravan of Muscovite and Polish merchants in the city, preparing to set out on their journey by land to Muscovy, within four or five weeks; and he was sure we would take the opportunity to go with them, and leave him behind, to go back alone. I confess I was greatly surprised with this good news, and had scarce power to speak to him for some time, but at last I said to him, "How do you know this? are you sure it is true ?"--' Yes, says he ; I met this morning in the street an old acquaintance of mine, an Armenian, who is among them. He came last from Astracan, and was designing to go to Tonquin, where I formerly knew him, but has altered his mind, and is now resolved to go with the caravan to Moscow, and so down the river Wolga to Astragan." "-" Well, Seignior," says I, do not be uneasy about being left to go back alone; if this be a method for my return to England, it shall be your fault if you go back to Macao at all." We then went to consult together what was to be done; and I asked my partner what he thought of the pilot's news, and whether it would suit with his affairs? He told me he would do just as I would; for he had settled all his affairs so well at Bengal, and left his effects in such good hands, that as we had made a good voyage, if he could invest it in China silks, wrought and raw, he would be content to go to England, and then make his voyage back to Bengal by the Company s ships. Having resolved upon this, we agreed that if our Portuguese pilot would go with us, we would bear his charges tt) Moscow, or to England, if he pleased; nor, indeed, were we to be esteemed over generous in that either, if we had not rewarded him further, the



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THE POR TUG UESE PILOT COMES ON BOARD. 269 not to fall into any of their hands, especially in this country, where, as our circumstances were, we could not fail of being entirely ruined. Being now come to the latitude of 30 degrees, we resolved to put into the first trading port we should come at; and standing in for the shore, a boat came off two leagues to us with an old Portuguese pilot on board, who, knowing us to be an European ship, came to offer his service, which indeed we were glad of, and took him on board; upon which, without asking us whither we would go, he dismissed the boat he came in, and sent it back. I told him we were gentlemen as well as merchants, and that we had a mind to go and see the great city of Pekin, and the famous cqurt of the monarch of China. "Why, then," says the old man, "you should go to Ningpo, where, by the river which runs into the sea there, you may go up within five leagues of the great canal. This canal is a navigable stream, which goes through the heart of that vast empire of China, crosses all the rivers, passes some considerable hills by the help of sluices and gates, and goes up to the city of Pekin, being in length near two hundred and seventy leagues. "Well," said I, Seignior Portuguese, but that is not our business now; the great question is, if you can carry us up to the city of Nankin, from whence we can travel to Pekin afterwards? He said he could do so very well, and that there was a great Dutch ship gone up that way just before. This gave me a little shock, for a Dutch ship was now our terror. The old man found me a little confused, and under some concern when he named a Dutch ship, and said to me, Sir, you need be under no apprehensions of the Dutch; I suppose they are not now at war with your nation?" "No," said I, "that's true ; but I know not what liberties men may take when they are out of the reach of the laws of their own country." Why," says he, "you are no pirates ; what need you fear? They will not meddle with peaceable merchants, sure." These words put me into the greatest disorder and confusion imaginable ; nor was it possible for me to conceal it so but the old man easily perceived it. "Sir," says he, I find you are in some disorder in your thoughts at my talk; pray be pleased to go which way you think fit, and depend upon it, I'll do you all the service I can." Upon this we fell into further discourse, in which, to my alarm and amazement, he spoke of the villainous doings of a certain pirate ship that had long been the talk of mariners in those seas; no,other, in a word, than the very ship he was now on board of, and which we had so unluckily purchased. I presently saw there was no help for it but to tell him the plain truth, and explain all the danger and trouble we had suf4.



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THE SA VAGES SHOT. 237 too good a marksman to miss his aim ; for as the savages kept near one another; a little behind in a line, he fired, and hit two of them directly ; the foremost was killed outright, being shot in the head; the second, which was the runaway Indian, was shot through the body, and fell, but was not quite dead; and the third had a little scratch in the shoulder, perhaps by the same ball that went through the body of the second; and being dreadfully frightened, though not so much hurt, sat down upon the ground, screaming and yelling in a hideous manner. The five that were behind, more frightened with the noise than sensible of the danger, stood still at first; for the woods made the sound a thousand times bigger than it really was, the echoes rattling from one side to another, and the fowls rising from all parts, screaming, and every sort making a different noise, according to their kind; just as it was when I fired the first gun that perhaps was ever shot off in the island. However, all being silent again, and they not knowing what the matter was, came on unconcerned, till they came to the place where their companions lay in a condition miserable enough; and here the poor ignorant creatures, not sensible that they were within reach of the same mischief, stood altogether over the wounded man, talking, and, as may be supposed, inquiring of him, how he came to be hurt: and who, it is very rational to believe, told them, that a flash of fire first, and immediately after that thunder from their gods, had killed those two and wounded him. Our two men, though as they confessed to me, it grieved them to be obliged to kill so many poor creatures, who had no notion of their danger; yet, having them all thus in their power, and the first having loaded his piece again, resolved to let fly both together among them; and singling out, by agreement, which to aim at, they shot together, and killed, or very much wounded, four of them; the fifth, frighted even to death, though not hurt, fell with the rest ; so that our men, seeing them all fall together, thought they had killed them all. The belief that the savages were all killed made our two men come boldly out from the tree before they had charged their guns which was a wrong step; and they were under some surprise when they came to the place, and found no less than four of them alive, and of them two very little hurt, and one not at all. This obliged them to> fall upon them with the stocks of their muskets; and first they made sure of the runaway savage, that had been the cause of all the mischief, and of another that was hurt in the knee, and put them out of their pain ; then the man that was not hurt at all, came and kneeled down to them, with his two hands held up, and made piteous moans



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CRUSOE RE WARDS THE FAITHFUL PILOT. 275 service he had done us being really worth more than that; for he had not only been a pilot to us at sea, but he had been like a broker for us on shore ; and his procuring for us the Japan merchant was some hundreds of pounds in our pockets. So, being willing to gratif him, which was but doing him justice, and very willing also to have him with us besides, for he was a most necessary man on all occasions, we agreed to give him a quantity of coined gold, which, as I computed it, was worth one hundred and seventy-five pounds sterling, between us, and to bear all his charges, both for himself and horse, except only a horse to carry his goods. Having settled this between ourselves, we called him to let him know what we had resolved. I told him he had complained of our being willing to let him go back alone, and I was -now about to tell him we designed he should not go back at all. That as we had resolved to go to Europe with the caravan, we were very willing he should go with us ; and that wd called him to know his mind. He shook his head and said it was a long journey, and that he had no pecune to carry him thither, or to subsist himself when he came there. We told him we believed it was so, and therefore we had resolved to do something for him that should let him see how sensible we were of the service he had done us, and also how agreeable he was to us : and then I told him what we had resolved to give him here, which he might lay out as we would do our own; and that as for his charges, if he would go with us we would set him safe on shore (life and casualties excepted), either in Muscovy or England, as he would choose, at our own charge, except only the carriage of his goods. He received the proposal like a man transported, and told us he would go with us over the whole world; and so we all prepared for our journey. It was, however, the beginning of February, New Style, when we set out from Pekin. The company was very great, and, as near as I can remember, made between three and four hundred horse, and upwards of one hundred and twenty men, very well armed, and provided for all events ; for-as the eastern caravans are subject to be attacked by the Arabs, so are these by the Tartars. When we had travelled one day's journey, the guides, who were five in number, called all the passengers, except the servants, to a great council, as they called it. At this council, every one deposited a certain quantity of money to a common stock, for the necessary expense of buying forage on the way, where it was not otherwise to be had, and for satisfying the guides, getting horses, and the like. Hete, too, they constituted the journey, as they call it, viz.: they Damed captains and officers to draw us all up, and give the word of 4



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r4o ROBINSON CRUSOE. in the sight of my island, as I now called it ; and who after the ship was struck on the rock and they saw her inevitably lost, had saved themselves in their boat, and were landed upon that wild shore among the savages. Upon this I inquired of him more critically what was become of them. He assured me they lived still there; that they had been there about four years; that the savages left them alone, and gave them victuals to live on. I asked him -how it came to pass they did not kill them and eat them? He said, No, they make brother with them;" that is, as I understood him, a truce; and then he added, "They no eat mans but when make the war fight;" that is to say, they never eat any men but such as come to fight with them, and are taken in battle. It was after this some considerable time, that being upon the top of the hill, at the east side of the island, whence, as I have said, I had, in a clear day, discovered the main or continent of America, Friday, the weather beirg very serene, looks very earnestly towards the main land, and, in a kind of surprise, falls a jumping and dancing, and calls out to me, for I was at some distance from him. I asked him what was the matter. 0 joy !" says he ; "0 glad there see my country, there my nation !" I observed an extraordinary sense of pleasure appeared in his face, and his eyes sparkled, and his countenance discovered a strange eagerness, as if he had a mind to be in his own country again ; and this observation of mine put a great many thoughts into me, which made me, at first, not so easy about my new man Friday as I was before ; and I made no doubt but that, if Friday could get back to his own nation again, he would not only forget all his religion, but all his obligations to me, and would be forward enough to give his countrymen an account of me, and come back, perhaps, with a hundred or two of them, and make a feast upon me, at which he might be as merry as heused to be with those of his enemies, when they were taken in war. But I wronged the poor honest creature very-much, for which I was very sorry afterwards ; however, as my jealousy increased, and held me some weeks, I was a little more circumspect, and not so familiar and kind to him as before: in which I was certainly wrong too; the honest, grateful creature having no thought about. it, but what consisted with the best principles, both as a religious Christian, and as a grateful friend ; as appeared afterwards to my full satisfaction. Whilst my. jealousy of him lasted, you may be sure I was every day pumping him, to see if he would discover any of the new thoughts which I suspected were in him; but I found everything he said was so honest and so innocent, that I could find nothing to nourish my suspicion; and, in spite of all my uneasiness, he made



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iv PRE A CE. Selkirk, We are sorry to add that the ingratitude of his own son embittered the last hours of the life of the man who has been so preeminently the friend of boys, and that he died, as he had lived, in trouble and sorrow. But he has left the legacy of many a happy hour to the young, in his charming story; and we believe that the boys of Britain will give their old friend "Robinson Crusoe" the warmer welcome since he appears in an edition which may be slipt into a pocket and carried forth to be read under the greenwood trees: or lying on the hearthrug by the winter fire.



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r: I' )c I, 1 ~ L ~ rr~i i ~ rr iw"~~A~XT -4 CRSO AN FRDYLUC hEBA. p 4



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THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good. family, though not of that country, my father being a foreigner, of Bremen, who settled first at Hull: he got a good estate by merchandise, and leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at York; from whence he had married my mother, whose relations were named Robinson, a very good family in that country, and from whom I was called Robins-on Kreutznaer ; but, by the usual corruption of words in England, we are now called, -nay we call ourselves, and write our name, Crusoe ; and so my companions always called me. I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-colonel to an English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly commanded by the famous Colonel Lockhart, and was killed at the battle near Dunkirk against the Spaniards. What became of my second biother I never knew, any more than my father and mother knew what was become of me. Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade, my head began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts : my father, who was very ancient, had given me a competent share of learning, as far as house-education and a country free-school generally go, and designed me for the law; but I would be satisfied with nothing but going to sea; and my inclination to this led me so strongly against the will; nay, the commands of my father, and against all the entreaties and persuasions of my mother and other friends, that there seemed to be something fatal in that propensity of nature, tending directly to the life of misery which was to befal me.



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t62 ROBINSON CRUSOE. distress. I saw you when you landed; and when you seemed to make application to the brutes that came with you, I saw one of them lift up his sword to kill you." The poor man, with tears running down his face, and trembling, looking like one astonished, returned, "Am I talking to God, or man ? Is it a real man, or an angel ?"-" Be in-no fear about that, sir," said I ; "if God had sent an angel to relieve you, he would have come better clothed, and armed after another manner than you see me in; pray lay aside your fears ; I am a man, an Englishman, and disposed to assist you; you see I have one servant only; we have arms and ammunition; tell us freely, can we serve you? What is your case?" "Our case, sir," said he, is too long to tell you, while our murderers are so near us; but, in short, sir, I was commander of that ship : my men have mutinied against me; they have been hardly prevailed on not to murder me, and, at last, have set me on shore in this desolate place, with these two men with me,one my mate, the other a passenger; where we expected to perish, believing the place to be uninhabited, and know not what to think of it." Where are those brutes, your enemies," said I; do you know where they are gone?" "There they are, sir," said he, pointing to a thicket of trees ; "my heart trembles for fear they have seen us, and heard you speak ; if they have, they will certainly murder us all." Have they any fire-arms ?" said I. He answered, They had only two pieces, one of which they left in the boat." "Well, then," said I, "leave the rest to me; I see they are all asleep ; it is an easy thing to kill them all; but shall we rather take them prisoners?" He told me there were two desperate villains among them that it was scarce safe to show any mercy to; but if they were secured, he believed all the rest would return to their duty. I asked him which they were. He told me he could not at that dista ce distinguish them, but he would obey my orders in everything I would direct. "Well," says I, let us retreat out of their view or hearing, lest they awake, and we will resolve further." So they willingly went back with me, till the woods covered us from them. Look you, sir," said I, "if I venture upon your deliverance, are you willing to make two conditions with me?" He anticipated my proposals by telling me that both he and the ship, if recovered, should be wholly directed and commanded by me in everything; and if the ship was not recovered, he would live and die with me in what part of the world soever I would send him; and the two other men said the same. "Well," says, I, "my conditions are but two: first, -that while you stay in this island with me, you will not pretend to any authority here; and if I put arms in your hands, you will, upon



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26 ROBINSON CRUSOE. own plantations; and, in a word, the question was, whether I would go their supercargo in the ship, -to manage the trading part upon the coast of Guinea; and they offered me that I should have my equal share of the Negroes, without providing any part of the stock. This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been made to any one that had not had a settlement and a plantation of his own to look after, which was in a fair way of coming to be very considerable, and with a good stock upon it; but for me, that was thus entered and established, and had nothing to do but to go on as I had begun, for three or four years more, and to have sent for the other hundred pounds from England, and who in that time, and with that little addition, could scarce have failed of being worth three or four thousand pounds sterling, and that increasing too; for me to think of such a voyage was the most preposterous thing that ever man in such circumstances could be guilty of. But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no more resist the offer than I could restrain my first rambling designs when my father's good counsel was lost upon me. In a word, I told them I would go with all my heart, if they would undertake to look after my plantation in my absence, and would dispose of it to such as I should direct, if I miscarried. This they all engaged to do, and entered into writings or covenants to do so ; and I made a formal will disposing of my plantation and effects in case of my death, making the captain of the ship that had saved my life, as before, my universal heir, but obliging him to dispose of my effects as I had directed in my will, one-half of the produce being to himself, and the other tobe shipped to England. In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects, and to keep up my plantation; had I used half as much prudence to have looked into my own interest, and have made a judgment of what I ought to have done and not to have done, I had certainly never gone away from so prosperous an undertaking, and gone upon a voyage to sea, -attended with all its hazards. But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my fancy rather than my reason; and, accordingly, the ship being fitted out, and the cargo furnished, and all things done, as by agreement, by my partners in the voyage, I went on board in an evil hour, the ist of September, 1659, being the same day eight years that I went from my father and mother at Hull. Our ship was about 120 tons burden, carried 6 guns, and 14 men, besides the master, his boy, and myself; we had on board no large cargo of goods, except of such toys as were fit for our trade with the Negroes, such as beads, bits of glass, shells, and other trifles, espe. cially little looking-glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets .ind the like. S)iisad h ie



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138 ROBINSON CRUSOE. me, their religious, or clergy; and that they went to say O (so he called saying prayers), and. then came back and told them what Benamuckee said. I endeavoured to clear up this fraud to my man Friday ; and told him that the pretence of their old men going up to the mountains to say O to their god Benamuckee was a cheat ; and their bringing word from thence what he said was much more so ; that if they met with any answer, or spake with any one there, it must be with an evil spirit, and then I entered into a long discourse with him about the devil, the origin of him, his rebellion against God, his enmity to man, the reason of it, his setting himself up in the dark parts of the world to be worshipped instead of God, and as God, and the many stratagems he made use of to delude mankind to their ruin ; how he had a secret access to our passions and to our affections, and to adapt his snares to our inclinations, so as to cause us even to be our own tempters, and run upon our own destruction by our own choice. I had, God knows, more sincerity than knowledge in all the methods I took for this poor creature's instruction, and must acknowledge, what I believe all that act upon the same principle will find, that in laying things open to him, I really informed and instructed myself in many things that either I did not know, or had not fully considered before, but which occurred naturally to my mind upon searching into them, for the information of this poor savage ; and I had more affection in my inquiry after things upon this occasion than ever I felt before : so that, whether this poor wild wretch was the better for me or no, I had great reason to be thankful that ever he came to me ; my grief sat lighter upon me ; my habitation grew comfortable to me beyond measure : and when I reflected that in this solitary life which I had been confined to, I had not only been moved myself to look up to heaven, and to seek the hand that had brought me there, but was now to be made an instrument, under Providence, to save the life, and, for aught I knew, the soul of a poor savage, and bring him to the true knowledge of religion, and of the Christian doctrine, that he might know Christ Jesus, to know whom is life eternal; I say, when I reflected upon all these things, a secret joy ran through every part of my soul, and I frequently rejoiced that ever I was brought to this place, which I had so often thought the most dreadful, of all afflictions that could possibly have befallen me. In this thankful frame I continued all the remainder of my time; and the conversation which employed the hours between Friday and me was such as made the three years which we lived there together perfectly and completely happy, if any such thing as complete happiness can be found in a sublunary state. The savage was nowZ



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i68 ROBINSON CRUSOE. them all coming on shore again ; but with this new measure in their conduct, which it seems they consulted together upon, viz., to leave three men in the boat, and the rest to go on shore, and go up into the country to look for their fellows. This was a great disappointment to us, for now we were at a loss what to do, as our seizing those seven men on shore would be no advantage to us if we let the boat escape, because they would row away to the ship, and then the rest of them would be sure to weigh and set sail, and so our recovering the ship would be lost. However, we had no remedy but to wait and see what the issue of things might present : the seven men came on shore, and the three who remained in the boat put her off to a good distance from the shore, and came to an anchor to wait for them ; so that it was impossible for us to come at them in the boat. Those that came on shore kept close together, marching towards the top of the little hill under which my habitation lay; and we could see them plainly, though they could not perceive us : we should have been very glad if they would have come nearer to us, so that we might have fired at them, or that they would have gone farther off, that we might come abroad. But when they were come to the brow of the hill, where they could see a great way into the valleys and woods, which lay towards the north-east part, and where the island lay lowest, they shouted and hallooed till they were weary: and not caring, it seems, to venture far from the shore, nor far from one another, they sat down together, under a tree to consider it: had they thought fit to have gone to sleep there, as the other part of them had done, they had done the job for us; but they were too full of apprehensions of danger to venture to go to sleep, though they could not tell what the danger was they had to fear neither. The captain made a very just proposal to me upon this consultation of theirs, viz., that perhaps they would all fire a volley again, to endeavour to make their fellows hear, and that we should all sally upon them just at the juncture when their pieces were all discharged, and they would certainly yield, and we should have them without bloodshed. I liked the proposal, provided it was done while we were near enough to come up to them before they could load their pieces again. But this event did not happen; and we lay still a long time, very irresolute what course to take; at length, I told them there would be nothing done, in my opinion, till night; and then, if they did not return to the boat, perhaps we might find a way to get between them and the shore, and so might use some stratagem with them in the boat to get them on shore. We waited a great while, though very impatient for their removing; and were very



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THE MUTINEERS SURRENDER. 171 tain and Friday, starting up on their feet, let fly at them. The boatswain was killed upon the spot; the next man was shot in the body, and fell just by him, though he did not die till an hour or two after ; and the third ran for it. At the noise of the fire, I immediately advanced with my whole army, which was now eight men ; viz. myself, generalissimo; Friday, my lieutenant-general ; the captain and his two men, and the three prisoners of war whom we had trusted with arms. We came upon them, indeed, in the dark, so that they could not see our number ; and I made the man they had left in the boat, who was now one of us, to call them by name, to try if I could bring them to a parley, and so perhaps might reduce them to terms ; which fell out just as we desired : for, indeed, it was easy to think, as their condition then was, they would be very willing to capitulate. So he calls out as loud as he could to one of them, Tom Smith Tom Smith !" Tom Smith answered immediately, "Is that Robinson?" for it seems he knew the voice. The other answered, "Ay, ay; for God's sake, Tom Smith, throw down your arms and yield, or you are all dead men this moment." "Who must we yield to? Where are they ? says Smith again. Here they are," says he ; "here's our captain and fifty men with him, have been hunting you these two hours; the boatswain is killed, Will Fry is wounded, and I am a prisoner ; and if you do not yield you are all lost." Will they give us quarter then ?" says Tom Smith, and we will yield." I'll go and ask, if you promise to yield," said Robinson: so he asked the captain ; and the captain himself then calls out, "You, Smith, you know my voice ; if you lay down your arms immediately, and submit, you shall have your lives, all but Will Atkins." Upon this, Will Atkins cried out, "For God's sake, captain, give me quarter; what have I done? They have all been as bad as I :" (which, by the way, was not true; for, it seems, this Will Atkins was the first man that laid hold of the captain, when they first mutinied, and used him barbarously, in tying his hands, and giving him injurious language :) however, the captain told him he must lay down his arms at discretion, and trust to the governor's mercy : by which he meant me, for they all called me governor. In a word, they all laid down their arms, and begged their lives; and I sent the man that had parleyed with them, and two more, who bound them all; and then my great army of fifty men, which, with those three, were in all but eight, came up and seized upon them, and upon their boat; only that I kept myself and one more out of sight, for reasons of state. Our next work was to repair the boat, and think of seizing the ship; and as for the captain, now he had leisure to parley with them, he expostulated with them upon the villany of their practices with 4



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-34 ROBINSON CRUSOE. -with much search I found them, two of them dry and good, the third had taken water ; those two I got to my raft,-with the arms ; and now; I thought myself pretty well freighted, and began to think how I should get to shore with them, having neither sail, oar, nor rudder; and the least cap-full of wind would have overset all my navigation. I had three encouragements : ist, a smooth, calm sea; 2ndly, the tide rising, and setting in to the shore ; 3rdly, what little wind there was blew me towards the land : and having found two or three broken ,oars belonging to the boat-and, besides the tools which were in the "0chest, I found two saws, an axe, and a hammer, with this cargo I put ,to sea. For a mile, or thereabouts, my raft went very well, only that I found it drive a little distant from the place where I had landed "before, by which I perceived that there was some indraft of the water, and consequently, I hoped to find some creek or river there, which I might make use of as a port to get to land with my cargo. As I imagined, so it was ; there appeared before me a little opening of the land, and I found a strong current of the tide set into it, so I guided my raft as well as I could, to keep in the middle of the stream: but here I had like to have suffered a second shipwreck. which, if I had, I think, verily, would have broke my heart; for, knowing nothing of the coast, my raft ran aground at one end of it upon a shoal, and not being aground at the other end, it wanted but a little that all my cargo had slipped off towards the end that was afloat, and so fallen into the water. I did my utmost, by setting my back against the chests, to keep them in their places, but could not thrust off the raft with all my strength, neither durst I stir from the posture I was in; but holding up the chests with all my might, "stood in that manner near half an hour, in which time the rising of the water brought me a little more upon a level; and, a little after, the water still rising, my raft floated again, and I thrust her off with the oar I had, into the channel, and then driving up higher, I at length found myself in the mouth of a little river, with land on both sides, and a strong current of tide running up. I looked on both sides for a proper place to get to shore, for I was not willing to be driven too high up the river, hoping, in time, to see some ship at sea, and therefore resolved to place myself as near the coast as I could. At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek, to which, with great pain and difficulty, I guided my raft, and at last got so near, as that, reaching ground with my oar, I could thrust her directly in; but here I had liked to have dipped all my cargo into the sea again; for that shore lying pretty steep, that is to say, sloping, there was no place to land, but where one end of my float;



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AT SEA WITHOUT A COMPASS. 91 had no compass on board, and should never have known how to have steered. towards the island, if I had but once lost sight of it, but the weather continuing clear, I applied myself to get up my mast again, and spread my sail, standing away to the north as much as possible, to get out of the current. Just as I had set my mast and sail, and the. boat began to stretch away, I saw even by the clearness of the water some alteration of the current was near ; for where the current was so strong the water was foul; but perceiving the water clear, I found the current abate, and presently I found to the east, at about half a mile, a breach of the sea upon some rocks : these rocks I found caused the current to part again, and as the main stress of it ran away more southerly, leaving the rocks to the north-east, so the other returned by the repulse of the rocks, and made a strong eddy, which ran back again to the north-west, with a very sharp stream. They who know what it is to have a reprieve brought to them upon the ladder, or to be rescued from thieves just going to murder them, or who have been in such like extremities, may guess what my present surprise of joy was, and how gladly I put my boat into the stream of this eddy, and the wind also freshening, how gladly I spread my sail to it, running cheerfully before the wind, and with a strong tide or eddy under foot. This eddy carried me about a league in my way back again directly towards the island, but about two leagues more to the northward than the current which carried me away at first; so that when I came near the island, I found myself open to the northern shore of it, that is to say, the other end of the island, opposite to that which I went out from. When I had made something more than a league of way by the help of'this current or eddy, I found it was spent, and served me no farther. However, I found that being between two great currents, viz., that on the south side, which had hurried me away, and that on the north, whicn lay about a league on the other side ; I say, between these two, in the wake of the island, I found the water at least still, and running no way; and having still a breeze of wind fair for me, I kept on steering directly for the island, though not making such fresh way as I did before. About four o'clock in the evening, being then within a league of the island, I found the point of the rocks which occasioned this disaster, stretching out, as is described before, to the southward, and casting off the current more southerly, had of course made another eddy to the north, and this I found very strong, but not directly setting the way my course lay, which was due west, but almost full north. However, having a fresh gale, I stretched across this eddy, /4



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THE ENGLISH QUARREL AMONG T-HE MSEL VES. 215 having given them some corn for seed, and some of the peas which I had left them, they dug, planted, and enclosed, after the pattern I had set for them all, and began to live pretty well. Their first crop of corn was on the ground, and though it was but a little bit of land which they had dug up at first, having had but a little time, yet it was enough to relieve them, and find them with bread and other eatables; and one of the fellows being the cook's mate of the ship, was very ready at making soup, puddings, and such other prepara. tions as the rice and the milk, and such little flesh as they got, fur, nished him to do. They were going on in this little thriving posture when the three Sunnatural rogues, their own countrymen too, in mere humour, and to insult them, came and bullied them, and told them the island was theirs: that the governor, meaning me, had given them the possession of it, and nobody else had any right to it ; and that they should build no houses upon their ground, unless they would pay rent for them. The two men thought they had jested, at first, and asked them to come in and sit down, and see what fine houses they were that they had built, and to tell them what rent they demanded; and one of them merrily told them, if they were the ground-landlords, he hoped, if they built tenements upon their land, and made improvements, they would, according to the custom of landlords, grant a long lease : and desired they would get a scrivener to draw the writings. One of the three, cursing and raging, told them they should see they were not in jest ; and going to a little place at a distance, where the honest men had made a fire to dress their victuals, he takes a firebrand, and claps it to the outside of their hut, and very fairly set it on fire : indeed, it would have been all burned down in a few minutes, if one of the two had not run to the fellow, thrust him away, and trod the fire out with his feet, and that not without some difficulty too. The fellow was in such a rage at the honest man's thrusting him away, that he returned upon him, with a pole he had in his hand, and had not the man avoided the blow very nimbly, and run into the hut, he had ended his days at once. His comrade, seeing the danger they were both in, ran in after him, and immediately they came both out with their muskets, and the man that was first struck at with the pole knocked the fellow down that began the quarrel with the stock of his musket, and that before the other two could come to help him; and then seeing the rest come at them, they stood "iogether, and presenting the other ends of their pieces to ther, bade them stand off. The others had fire-arms with them too ; but one of the two honest



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268 ROBINSON CRUSOE. musket-bullets and small pieces of old iron, and what came next to hand. Thus we made ready for fight ; but all this while we kept out to sea, with wind enough, and could see the boats at a distance, being five large long boats, following us with all the sail they could make. Two of those boats (which by our glasses we could see were English) outsailed the rest, were near two leagues ahead of them, and gained upon us considerably, so that we found they would come up with us; upon which we fired a gun without ball, tointimate that they should bring to: and we put out a flag of truce, as a signal for parley: but they came crowding after us, till within shot, when we took in our white flag, they having made no answer to it, and hung out a red flag, and fired at them with a shot. Notwithstanding this, they came on till they were near enougt to call to them with a speaking-trumpet, bidding them keep off at their peril. It was all one; they crowded after us, and endeavoured to come under our stern, so as to board us on our quarter; upon which, seeing they were resolute for mischief, and depended upon the strength that followed them,-I ordered to bring the ship to, so that they lay upon our broadside; when immediately we fired five guns at them, one of which had been levelled so true as to carry away the stern of the hindermost boat, and we then forced them to take down their sail, and to run all to the head of the boat, to keep her from sinking; so she lay by, and had enough of it; but seeing the fore. most boat crowd on after us, we made ready to fire at her in par. ticular. While this was doing, one of the three boats that followel made up to the boat which we had disabled, to relieve her, and we could see her take out the men. And now we crowded all the sail we could make, and stood further out to sea; and we found that when the other boats came up to the first, they gave over their chase. Being delivered from this danger, we stood out to sea eastward, quite out of the course of all European ships, whether they were bound to China or anywhere else, within the commerce of the European nations. We kept on N.E., as if we would go to the Manillas or the Philippine Islands; and then we steered north, till we came to the latitude Df 220 30' by which means we made the island of Formosa directly, where we came to an anchor, in order to get water and fresh provisions, which the people there supplied us with willingly, and dealt very fairly and punctually with us in all their agreements and bargains. From thence we sailed still north, keeping the coast of China at an equal distance, till we knew we were beyond all the ports of China where our European ships usually come: being resolved, if possible,



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66 ROBINSON CRUSOE. them into fevers ; but I found an excellent use for these grapes ; that was, to cure or dry them in the sun, and keep them as dried grapes or raisins are kept, which I thought would be, as indeed they were, wholesome and agreeable to eat when no grapes could be had. I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my habitation, which, by the way, was the first night, as I might say, I had lain from home. In the night, I took my first contrivance, and, got up in a tree, where I slept well; and the next morning proceeded upon my discovery, travelling nearly four miles, as I might judge by the length of the valley, keeping still due north, with a ridge of hills on the south and north side of me. At the end of this march, I came to an opening, where the country seemed to descend to the west; and a little spring of fresh water, which issued out of the side of the hill by me, ran the other way, that is, due east; and the country appeared so fresh, so green, so flourishing, everything being in a constant verdure or flourish of spring, that it looked like a planted garden. I descended a little on the side of that delicious vale, surveying it with a secret kind of pleasure (though mixed with my other afflicting thoughts) to think that this was all my own; that I was king and lord of all this country indefeasibly, and had a right of possession; and, if I could convey it, I might have it in inheritance as completely as any lord of a manor in England. I saw here abundance of cocoatrees, orange, and lemon, and citron-trees ; but all wild, and very few bearing any fruit, at least not then. However, the green limes that I gathered were not only pleasant to eat, but very wholesome; and I mixed their juice afterwards with water, which made it very wholesome, and very cool and refreshing. I found now I had business enough, to gather and carry home; and I resolved to lay up a store as well of grapes as limes and lemons, to furnish myself for the wet season, which I knew was approaching. In order to do this, I gathered a great heap of grapes in one place, a lesser heap in another place, and a great parcel of limes and lemons in another place; and taking a few of each with me, I travelled homewards; resolving to come again, and bring a bag or sack, or what I could make, to carry the rest home. iccordingly, having spent three days in this journey, I came home (so I must now call my tent and my cave); but before I got thither the grapes were spoiled; the richness of the fruit and the weight of the juice _having broken them and bruised them, they were good for little or nothing: as to the limes, they were good, but I could bring but a few. The next day, being the i9th, I went back, having made me tw6 "rnall bags to bring home my harvest. But I was surprised, when



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THE CANNIBAL FEAST. 131 them. At this, I appeared very angry, expressed my abhorrence of it, made as if I would vomit at the thoughts of it, and beckoned with my hand to him to come away, which he did immediately, with great submission. I then led him up to the top of the hill, to see if his enemies were gone; and pulling out my glass, I looked, and saw plainly the place where they had been, but no appearance of them or their canoes ; so that it was plain they were gone, and had left their two comrades behind them, without any search after them. But I was not content with this discovery; but having now more courage, and consequently more curiosity, I took my man Friday with me, giving him the sword in his hand, with the bow and arrows at his back, which I found he could use very dexterously, making him carry one gun for me, and I two for myself; and away we marched to the place where these creatures had been ; for I had a mind now to get some fuller intelligence of them. When I came to the place, my very blood ran chill in my veins, and my heart sunk within me, at the horror of the spectacle ; indeed, it was a dreadful sight, at least it was so to me, though Friday made nothing of it. The place was covered with human bones, the ground dyed with their blood, and great pieces of flesh left here and there, half-eaten, mangled, and scorched ; and, in short, all the tokens of the triumphant feast they had been making there, after a victory over their enemies. I saw three skulls, five hands, and the bones of three or four legs and feet, and abundance of other parts of the bodies ; and Friday, by his signs, made me understand that they brought over four prisoners to feast upon; that three of them were eaten up, and that he, pointing to himself, was the fourth; that there had been a great battle between them and their next king, of whose subjects, it seems, he had been one; and that they had taken a great numbef of prisoners, all which were carried to several places, by those who lad taken them in the fight, in order to feast upon them, as was Jone here by these wretches upon those they brought hither. I caused Friday to gather all the skulls, bones, flesh, and whatever remained, and lay them together in a heap, and make a great fire upon it, and burn them all to ashes. I found Friday had still a hankering stomach after some of the flesh, and was still a cannibal in his nature; but I discovered so much abhorrence at the very thoughts of it, and at the least appearance of it, that he durst not discover it: for I had, by some means, let him know that I would kill him if he offered it. When he had done this, we came back to our castle ; and there I fell to work for my man Friday; and first of all, I gave him a pair of linen drawers, which I had out of the poor gunner's chest I men4



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DIFFICUL TIES IN THE WA Y OF BREAD-MAKING. Si handsome) pipkins, and two other earthen pots, as hard burnt as could be desired, and one of them perfectly glazed with the running of the sand. After this experiment, I need not say that I wanted no sort of earthenware for my use ; but as to the shapes of them, they were very indifferent, as any one may suppose, when I had no way of making them but as the children make dirt pies, or as a woman would make pies that never learned to raise paste. No joy at a thing of so mean a nature was ever equal to mine, when I found I had made an earthen pot that would bear the fire; and I had hardly patience to stay till they were cold, before I set one on the fire again, with some water in it, to boil me some meat, which it did admirably well; and with a piece of a kid I made some very good broth, though -I wanted oatmeal, and several other ingredients requisite to make it so good as I would have had it. My next concern was to get me a stone mortar to stamp or beaA some corn in; for as to the mill, there was no thought of arriving at that perfection of art with one pair of hands. To supply this want. I was at a great loss; for, of all the trades in the world, I was as perfectly unqualified for a stone-cutter, as for any whatever; neither had I any tools to go about it with. I spent many a day to find out a great stone big enough to cut hollow, and make fit for a mortar, and could find none at all, except what was in the solid rock, and which I had no way to dig or cut out; nor indeed were the rocks in the island of hardness sufficient, but were all of a sandy crumbling stone, which neither would bear the weight of a heavy pestle, nor would break the corn without filling it with sand; so, after a great deal of time lost in searching for a stone, I gave it over, and resolved to look out for a great block of hard wood, which I found indeed much easier; and getting one as big as I had strength to stir, 1 rounded it, and formed it on the outside with my axe and hatchet, and then, with the help of fire, and infinite labour, made a hollow place in it, as the Indians in Brazil make their canoes. After this, I made a great heavy pestle, or beater, of the wood called the ironwood; and this I prepared and laid by against I had my next crop of corn, when I proposed to myself to grind, or rather pound, my corn or meal, to make my bread. 'My next difficulty was to make a sieve, or searce, to dress my meal, and part it from the bran and the husk, without which I did not see it possible I could have any bread.This was a most difficult thing to think on, for to be sure I had nothing like the necessary thing to make it with; I mean no fine thin canvas or stuff to searce the meal through. And here I was at a full stop for many months; nor did I really know what to do; linen I had none left but what was mere rags 'C;



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98 ROBINSON CRUSOE. little saw and a hatchet, one on one side, one on the other. I had' another belt not so broad, and fastened in the same manner, which hung over my shoulder, and at the end of it, under my left arm, hung two pouches, both made of goat's skin too, in one of which hung my powder, in the other my shot. At my back I carried my basket, on my shoulder my gun, and over my head a great clumsy, ugly, goat's-skin umbrella, but which, after all, was the most necessary thing I had about me next to my gun ; as for my face, the colour of it was really not so mulatto-like as one might expect from a man not at all careful of it, and living within nineteen degrees of the equinox. My beard I had once suffered to grow till it was about a quarter of a yard long ; but as I had both scissors and razors sufficient, I had cut it pretty short, except what grew on my upper lip, which I had trimmed into a large pair of Mahometan whiskers, such as I had seen worn by some Turks at Sallee, for the Moors did not wear such, though the Turks did ; of these moustachios, or whiskers, I will not say they were long enough to hang my hat upon them, but they were of a length and shape monstrous enough, and such as in England would have passed for frightful. But all this is by the bye; for, as to my figure, I had so-few to observe me, that it was no manner of consequence. In this kind of figure I went my new journey, and was out five or six days. I travelled iirst along the sea-shore, directly to the place where I first brought my boat to an anchor to get upon the rocks ; and having no boat now to lake care of, I went over the land a nearer way to the same height that I was upon before; when, looking forward to the points of the rocks which lay out, and which I was obliged to double with my boat, I was surprised to see the sea all smooth and quiet, no rippling, no motion, 1o current, any more there than in any other places. I was at a strange loss to understand this, and resolved to spend some time in the observing it, to see if nothing from the sets of the tide had occasioned it; but I was presently convinced how it was, viz., that the tide of ebb setting from the west, and joining with the current of waters from some great river on the shore, must be the occasion of this curTent, and that, according as the wind blew more forcibly from the west or from the north, this current came near or went farther from the shore; for, waiting thereabouts till evening, I went up to the rock again, and then the tide of ebb being made, I plaiply saw the current again as before, only that it ran farther off, being near half a league from the shore; whereas in my case it set close upon the shore, and hurried me and my canoe along with it, which at another iime it would not have done. This observation convinced me that I had nothing to do but to



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CRUSOE REWARDS THE MEN. 273 venture the voyage, I will leave my share of the vessel to him, an 4 let him make the best of it ; and if we live to meet in England, and he 'meets with success abroad, he shall account for one half of the profits of the ship's freight to us; the other shall be his own." If my partner, who was no way concerned with my young man, made him such an offer, I could not do less than offer him the same; and all the ship's company being willing to go with him, we made over half the ship to him in property, and took a writing from him, obliging him to account for the other, and away he went to Japan. But, to return to our particular affairs : being now to part with the ship and ship's company, it came before us, of course, to consider what recompense we should give to the two men that gave us such timely notice of the design against us in the river Cambodia. I first ordered the money to be paid them which they said was due to them on board their respective ships : over and above that, I gave each of them a small sum of money in gold, which contented them very well. I then made the Englishman gunner in the ship, the gunner being now made second mate and purser; the Dutchman I made boatswain; so they were both very well pleased, and proved very serviceable, being both able seamen, and very stout fellows. I was now, as near as I can compute, in the heart of China, about thirty degrees north of the line. I had, indeed, a mind to see the city of Pekin, which I had heard so much of, and Father Simon importuned me daily to do it. At length, his time of going away being set, and the other missionary who was to go with him being arrived from Macao, it was necessary that we should resolve either to go, or not; so I referred it to my partner, and left it wholly to his choice, who at length resolved it in the affirmative, and we prepared for our journey. We set out with very good advantage, as to finding the way ; for we got leave to travel in the retinue of one of their mandarins, a kind of viceroy or principal magistrate in the province where they reside, and who take great state upon them, travelling with great attendance, and great homage from the people. We were twenty-five days travelling to Pekin, through a country exceeding populous, but I think badly cultivated; the husbandry, the economy, and the way of living miserable, though they boast so much of the industry of the people; I say miserable, if compared with our own, but not so to these poor wretches, who know no other. At length we arrived at Pekin. I had nobody with me but the youth whom my nephew had given me to attend me as a servant, and who proved very trusty and diligent; and my partner had nobody with him but one servant, who was a kinsman. As for the T



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t46 ROBINSON CRUSOE. them with large swan-shot, as big as small pistol-bullets; then I took four muskets, and loaded them with two slugs, and five small bullets each; and my two pistols I loaded with a brace of bullets each: I hung my great sword, as usual, naked by my side, and gave Friday his hatchet. When I had thus prepared myself, I took my perspective-glass, and went up to the side of the hill, to see what I could discover; and I found quickly by my glass, that there were one-and-twenty savages, three prisoners, and three canoes ; and that their whole business seemed to be the triumphant banquet upon these three human bodies; a barbarous feast, indeed, but nothing more than, as I had observed, was usual with them. I observed also, that they had landed, not where they had done when Friday made his escape, but nearer to my creek, where the shore was low, and where a thick wood came almost close down to the sea ; this, with the abhorrence of the inhuman errand these wretches came about, filled me with such indignation that I came down again to Friday, and told him I was resolved to go down to them, and kill them all; and asked him if he would stand by me. He had now got over his fright, and his spirits being a little raised with the dram I had given him, he was very cheerful, and told me, as before, he would die when I bid die. In this fit of fury I divided the arms which I had charged, as before, between us ; I gave Friday one pistol to stick in his girdle, and three guns upon his shoulder, and I took one pistol and the other three guns myself; and in this posture we marched out. I took a small bottle of rum in my pocket, and gave Friday a large bag with more powder and bullets ; and as to orders, I charged him to keep close behind me, and not to stir, or shoot, or do anything till I bid him, and in the mean time not to speak a word ; in this posture I fetched a compass to my right hand of near a mile, aswell to get over the creek as to get into the wood, so that I could come within shot of them before I should be discovered, which I had seen by my glass it was easy to do. While I was making this march, my former thoughts returning, I began to abate my resolution : I do not mean that I entertained any fear of their number, for, as they were naked, unarmed wretches, it is certain I was superior to them; nay, though I had been alone. But it occurred to my thoughts, what call, what occasion, much less what necessity, I was in to go and dip my hands in blood, to attack people who had neither done nor intended me any wrong? These things were so warmly pressed upon my thoughts all the way as I went, that I resolved I would only go and place myself near them that I might observe their barbarous feast, and that I would act



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CRUSOE AND FRIDAY BUILD A CANOE. 14E seventeen bearded men there; and therefore, without any more delay, I went to work with Friday to find out a great tree proper to fell, and make a large periagua, or canoe, to undertake the voyage. There were trees enough in the island to have built a little fleet, not of periaguas or canoes, but even of good large vessels; but the main thing I looked at was, to get one so near the water that we might launch it when it was made, to avoid the mistake I committed at first. At last, Friday pitched upon a tree; for I found he knew much "better than I what kind of wood was fittest for it; nor can I tell, to this day, what wood to call the tree we cut down, except that it was very like the tree we call fustic, or between that and the Nicaragua wood, for it was much of the same colour and smell. Friday was for burning the hollow or cavity of this tree out, to make it into a boat; but I showed him how to cut it with tools, which, after I had showed him how to use, he did very handily; and in about a month's hard labour, we finished it and made it very handsome; especially, when, with our axes, which I showed him how to handle, we cut and hewed the outside into the true shape of a boat. After this, however, it cost us near a fortnight's time to get her along, as it were inch by inch, upon great rollers into the water; but when she was in, she would have carried twenty men with great ease. When she was in the water, and though she was so big, it amazed me to see with what dexterity and how swift my man Friday could manage her, turn her, and paddle her along; so I asked him if he would go, and if we might venture over in her. "Yes," he said, "we venture over in her very well, though great blow wind." However, I had a further design that he knew nothing of, and that was, to make a mast and a sail, and to fit her with an anchor and cable. As to a mast, that was easy enough to get; so I pitched upon a straight young cedar-tree, which I found near the place, and which there were great plenty of in the island; and I set Friday to work to cut it down, and gave him directions how to shape and order it; but as to the sail, that was my particular care; I knew I had old sails, or rather pieces of old sails, enough; but as I had had them now sixand-twenty years by me, and had not been very careful to preserve them, not imagining that I should ever have this kind of use for them, I did not doubt but they were all fotten; and, indeed, most of them were so; however, I found two pieces, which appeared pretty good, and with these I went to work and with a great deal of pains, and awkward stitching (you may be sure), for want of needles, I at length made a three-cornered ugly thing, like what we call in England a shoulder-of-mutton sail, to go with a boom at bottom, and a little short sprit at the top, such as usually our ships' long-boats sail





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.*,, BR.O WN,, ,. ~. -* ~ ~ ~ ' ""-* 120, NORWICH ROAD, EAST DEREHAM,4



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TR'EA TY WITH THE SA VA GES. 245 heard plainly enough, after which they ran about the island like distracted men, so that, in a word, our men did not really know what at first to do with them. Nor did the Spaniards, with all their prudence, consider that while they made those people thus desperate, they ought to have kept a good guard at the same time upon their plantations; for though it is true, they had driven away their cattle, and the Indians did not find out their main retreat, I mean my old castle at the hill, nor the cave in the valley, yet they found out my plantation at the bower, and pulled it all to pieces, and all the fences and planting about it ; trod all the corn under foot, tore up the vines and grapes, being just then almost ripe, and did our men an inestimable damage, though to themselves not one farthing's-worth of service. Though our men were able to fight them upon all occasions, yet they were in no condition to pursue them, or hunt them up and down; for as they were too nimble of foot for our people when they found them single, so our men durst not go abroad single, for fear of being surrounded with their numbers ; the best was, they had no weapons; for though they had bows, they had no arrows left, nor any materials to make any; nor had they any edge-tool weapon among them. It was some while before any of them could be taken; but being ,eak and half-starved, one of them was at last surprised and made a prisoner. He was sullen at first, and would neither eat nor drink ; but finding himself kindly used, and victuals given to him, and no violence offered him, he at last grew tractable, and came to himself. They often brought old Friday to him, who talked often with him, and told him how kind the others would be to them all; that they would not only save their lives, but give them part of the island to live in, provided they would give satisfaction that they should keep in their own bounds, and not come beyond it to injure or prejudice others; and that they should have corn given them to plant and make it grow for their bread, and some bread given them for their present subsistence : and old Friday bade the fellow go and talk with the rest of his countrymen, and hear what they said to it; assuring them that, if they did not agree immediately, they should be all destroyed. The poor wretches, thoroughly humbled, and .reduced in number to about thirty-seven, closed with the proposal at the first offer, and begged to have some food given them ; upon which, twelve Spaniards and two Englishmen, well armed, with three Indian slaves and old Friday, marched to the place where they were; the three Indian slaves carried them a large quantity of bread, some rice boiled up to cakes and dried in the sun, and three live goats ; and they were ordered' ao to the side of a hill, v here they sat down, ate their 4.



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FR IDA Y FINDS HIS FA THER. 15t indeed, can I describe half the extravagances of his affection after this; for he went into the boat, and out of the boat, a great many tiien: when he went in to him, he would sit down by him, open hi breast, and hold his father's head close to his bosom for many Mninutes together, to nourish it ; then he took his arms and ankles, which Were numbed and stiff with the binding, and chafed and rubbed them with his hands; and I, perceiving what the case was, gave him some rum out of my bottle to rub them with, which did them a great deal of good. This action put an end to our pursuit of the canoe with the other savages, who were now almost out of sight ; and it was happy for us that we did not, for it blew so hard within two hours after, and before they could be got a quarter of their way, and continued blowing so hard all the night, and that from the north-west, which was against them, that I could not suppose their boat could live, or that they ever reached their own coast. But to return to Friday; he was so busy about his father, that I could not find in my heart to take him off for some time: but after I thought he could leave him a little, I called him to me, and he came jumping and laughing, and pleased to the highest extreme: then I asked him if he had given his father any bread. He shook his head, and said, None ; ugly dog eat all up self." So I gave him a cake of bread, out of a little pouch I carried on purpose; I also gave him a dram for himself; but he would not taste it, but carried it to his father. I had in my pocket also two or three bunches of raisins, so I gave him a handful of them for his father, He had no sooner given his father these raisins, but I saw him come out of the boat, and run away as if he had been bewitched (for he was the swiftest fellow on his feet that ever I saw), I say, he ran at such a rate that he was out of sight, as it were, in an instant ; and though I called, and hallooed out too, after him, it was all one; away he went ; and in a quarter of an hour I saw him come back again, though not so fast as he went ; and, as he came nearer, I found his pace slacker because he had something in his hand. When he came up to me, I found he had been quite home for an earthen jug or pot, to bring his father some fresh water, and that he had got two more cakes or loaves of bread. The bread he gave me, but the water he carried to his father; however, as I was very thirsty too, I took a little of it ; this water revived his father more than all the rum or spirits I had given him, for he was fainting with thirst. When his father had drunk, I called to him to know if there was any water let : he said "Yes ;" and I bade him give it to the poor 4



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COMBAT WITH THE SA VA GES. 241 The chief Spaniard, whom I described so often, commanded the whole ; and Will Atkins, who, though a dreadful fellow for wickedness, was a most daring, bold fellow, commanded under him. The savages came forward like lions ; and our men, which was the worst of their fate, had no advantage in their situation ; only that Will Atkins, who now proved a most useful fellow, with six men, way planted just behind a small thicket of bushes, as an advanced guard, with orders to let the first of them pass by, and then fire into tit: middle of them, and, as soon as he had fired, to make his retreat as nimbly as he could round a part of the wood, and so come in behindi the Spaniards, where they stood, having a thicket of trees before them.. When the savages came on, they ran straggling about every way in heaps, out of all manner of order, and Will Atkins let about fifty of them pass by him; then seeing the rest come in a very thick throng, he orders three of his men to fire, having loaded their muskets withsix or seven bullets apiece, about as big as large pistol bullets. How many they killed or wounded they knew not, but the consternation and surprise was inexpressible among the savages; they were frightened to the last degree to hear such a dreadful noise, and see their men killed and others hurt, but see nobody that did it; when, in the middle of their fright, Will Atkins and his other three let fly again among the thickest of them ; and in less than a minute, the first three being loaded again, gave them a third volley. Had Will Atkins and his men retired immediately, as soon as they had fired, as they were ordered to do, or had the rest of the body been at hand, to have poured in their shot continually, the savages had been effectually routed ; for the terror that was among them came principally from this, viz., that they were killed by the gods with thunder and lightning, and could see nobody that hurt them; but Will Atkins, staying to load again, discovered the cheat : some of the savages who were at a distance spying them, came upon themn behind ; and though Atkins and his men fired at them also, two or three times, and killed above twenty, retiring as fast as they could, yet they wounded Atkins himself, and killed one of his fellow Englishmen with their arrows, as they did afterwards one Spaniard, and one ol the Indian slaves who came with the women; this slave was a most gallant fellow, and fought most desperately, killing five of them with his own hand, having no weapon but one of the armed staves and a hatchet. Our men being thus hard laid at, Atkins wounded, and two other men killed, retreated to a rising ground in the wood; and the Spaniards, after firing three volleys upon them, retreated also; for their number was so great, and they were so desperate, that though above fifty of them were killed, and more than so many wounded,



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82 .ROBINSON CRUSOE. I had goats'-hair, but neither knew how to weave it or spin it; anC had I known how, here were no tools to work it with. All the remedy that I found for this was, that at last I did remember I had, among the seamen's clothes which were saved out of the ship, some neckcloths of calico or muslin; and with some pieces of these I made Athreesmall sieves proper enough for the work; and thus I made shift for some years: how I did afterwards, I shall show in its place. The baking part was the next thing to be considered, and how I should make bread when I came to have corn; for, first, I had no yeast. As to that part, there was no supplying the want, so I did not concern myself much about it. Put for an oven, I was indeed ia great pain. At length I found out an experiment for that also, which was this: I made some earthen vessels very broad, but not deep, that is to say, about two feet diameter, and not above nine inches deep-; these I burned in the fire, as I had done the other, and laid them by: and when I wanted to bake, I made a great fire upon the hearth, which I had paved with some square tiles, of my own baking and burning also; but I should not call them square. When the firewood was burned pretty much into embers, or live coals, I drew them forward upon this hearth, so as to cover it all over, and there I let them lie till the hearth was very hot : then, sweeping awayall the embers, I set down my loaf or loaves, and whelming down the earthen pot upon them, drew the embers all round the outside of the pot, to keep in and add to the heat; and thus, as well as in the best oven ir the world, I baked my barleyloaves, and became, in little time, a good pastrycook into the bargain; for I made myself several cakes and puddings of the rice; indeed I made no pies, neither had I anything to put into them, supposing I had, except the flesh either of fowls or goats. It need not be wondered at if all these things took me up most part of the third year of my abode here; for, it is to be observed, that in the intervals of these things I had my new harvest and husbandry to manage; for I reaped my corn in its season, and carried it home as well as I could, and laid it up in the ear, in my large baskets, till I had time to rub it out, for I had no floor to thrash it on, or instrument to thrash it with. And now, indeed, my stock of corn increasing, I really wanted to build my barns bigger; I wanted a place to lay it up in, for the increase of the corn now yielded me so much, that I had of the barley about twenty bushels, and of the rice as much, or more; insomuch that now I resolved to begin to use it freely; for my bread had been quite gone a great while; also I resolved to see what quantity would e sufficient for me a whole year, and to sow but once a year. Upon



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,4 ROBINSON CRUSOE. and with my having much more convenience for it than any of the .Negroes or Indians ; but not at all considering the particular inconreniences which I lay under more than the Indians did, viz., want of "hands to move it, when it was made, into the water-a difficulty much -harder for me to surmount than all the consequences of want of tools could be to them ; for what was it to me, that when I had chosen a vast tree in the woods, I might with much trouble cut it down, if after I might be able with my tools to hew and dub the outside into the proper shape of a boat, and burn or cut out the inside to make it hollow, so as to make a boat of it, if after all this, I must leave it just there where I found it, and was not able to launch it into the water? I went to work upon this boat the most like a fool that ever man did, who had any of his senses awake. I pleased myself with the design, without determining whether I was ever able to undertake it ; not but that the difficulty of launching my boat came often into my bead ; but I put a stop to my inquiries into it, by this foolish answer, which I gave myself: Let me first make it; I warrant I will find some way or other to get it along when it is done." This was a most preposterous method; but the eagerness of my fancy prevailed, and to work I went and felled a cedar-tree ; I question much whether Solomon ever had such a one for the building of the Temple of Jerusalem ; it was five feet ten inches diameter at the lower part next the stump, and four feet eleven inches diameter at the end of twenty-two feet; after which it lessened for a while, and then parted into branches. It was not without infinite labour that I felled thi6 tree ; I was twenty days hacking and hewing at it at the bottom ; I was fourteen more getting the branches and limbs, and the vast spreading head of it cut off, which I hacked and hewed through with my axe and hatchet, with inexpressible labour after this it cost me a month to shape it and dub it to a proportion, and to something like the bottom of a boat, that it might swim upright as it ought to do. It cost me near three months more to clear the inside, and work it out so as to make an exact boat of it; this I did, indeed, without fire, by mere mallet and chisel, and by the dint of hard labour, till I had brought it to be a very handsome periagua, and big enough to have carried six and twenty men, and consequently big enough to have carried me and all my cargo. When I had gone through this work, I was extremely delighted with it: the boat was really much bigger than ever I saw a canoe o;i periagua, that was made of one tree, in my life; many a weary stroke it had cost, you may be sure, and had I gotten it into the water, I make no question but I should have begun the maddest voyage, and the most unlikely to be performed, that ever was undertaken.



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134 i OBINSON CRUSOE. the astonishment this created in him was such as could not wear off for a long time; and, I believe, if I would have let him, he would have worshipped me and my gun ; as for the gun itself, he would not so much as touch it for several days after; but would speak to it and talk to it, as if it had answered him, when he was by himself; which, as I afterwards learned of him, was to desire it not to kill him. Well : after his astonishment was a little over at this, I pointed to him to run and fetch the bird I had shot, which he did, but stayed some time ; for the parrot, not being quite dead, had fluttered away a good distance from the place where she fell : however, he found her, took her up, and brought her to me ; and as I had perceived his ignorance about the gun before, I took this advantage to charge the gun again, and not to let him see me do it, that I might be ready for any other mark that might present ; but nothing more offered at that time ; so I brought home the kid, and the same evening I took the skin off, and cut it out as well as I could ; and having a pot for that purpose, I boiled or stewed some of the flesh, and made some very good broth ; and after I had begun to eat some, I gave some to my man, who seemed very glad of it, and liked it very well; but that which was strangest to him was to see me eat salt with it. He made a sign to me that the salt was not good to eat; an'd putting a little into his own mouth, he seemed to nauseate it, and would spit and sputter at it, washing his mouth with fresh water after it : on the other hand, I took some meat into my mouth without salt, and I pretended to spit and sputter for want of salt, as fast as he had done at the salt; but it would not do; he would never care for salt with meat or in his broth; at least, not for a great while, and then but a very little. Having thus fed him with boiled meat and broth, I was resolved to feast him the next day by roasting a piece of the kid : this I did by hanging it before the fire on a string, as I had seen many people do in England, setting two poles up, one on each side of the fire, and one across the top, and tying the string to the cross stick, letting the meat turn continually. This Friday admired very much; but when he came to taste the flesh, he took so many ways to tell me how well he liked it, that I could not but understand him : and at last he told me, as well as he could, he would never eat man's flesh any more, which I was very glad to hear. The next day, I set him to work to beating some corn out, and sifting it in the manner I used to do, as I observed before ; and he soon understood how to do it as well as I, especially after he had seen what the meaning of it was, and that it was to make bread of; for after that, I let him see me make my bread, and bake it too



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74 ROBINSON CRUSOE. hazy for three or four days while I was in the valley ; and not being able to see the sun, I wandered about very uncomfortably, and at last was obliged to find the sea-side, look for my post, and come back the same way as I went : and then, by easy journeys, I turned homeward, the weather being exceeding hot, and my gun, ammunition, hatchet, and other things, very heavy. In this journey my dog surprised a young kid, and seized upon it ; and I, running in to take hold of it, caught it, and saved it alive from the dog. I had a great mind to bring it home if I could, for I had often been musing whether it might not be possible to get a kid or two, and so raise a breed of tame goats, which might supply me when my powder and shot should be all spent. I made a collar for this little creature, and with a string, which I made of some ropeyarn, which I always carried about me, I led him along, though with some difficulty, till I came to my bower, and there I inclosed him and left him, for I was very impatient to be at home, from whence I had been absent above a month. I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me to come into my old hutch, and lie down in my hammock-bed ; this little wandering journey, without a settled place of abode, had been so unpleasant to me, that my own house, as I called it to myself, was a perfect settlement to me compared to that ; and it rendered everything about me so comfortable, that I resolved I would never go a great way from it again, while it should be my lot to stay on the island. I reposed myself here a week, to rest and regale myself after my long journey ; during which, most of the time was taken up in the weighty affair of making a cage for my Poll, who began now to be a mere domestic, and to be well acquainted with me. Then I began to think of the poor kid which I had penned in within my little circle and resolved to go and fetch it home, or give it some food ; accordangly I went, and found it where I left it, for indeed it could not get out, but was almost starved for want of food. I went and cut boughs of trees, and branches of such shrubs as I could find, and threw it over, and having fed it, I tied it as I did before, to lead it away; but it was so tame with being hungry, that I had no need to have tied it, for it followed me like a dog ; and, as I continually fed it, the creature became so loving, so gentle, and so fond, that it would never leave me afterwards. The rainy season of the autumnal equinox was now come, and I kept the 30th of September in the same solemn manner as before, being the anniversary of my landing on the island, having now been there two years, and no more prospect of being delivered than the first day I came there.



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";"W'-i- -i-I;-i-i-;;r; -...._ r I ii z I cr ' i " I: ' i t



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36 ROBINSON CRUSOE. some wild beast might devour me, though, as I afterwards found, there was really no need for those fears. However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself round with the chests and boards that I had brought on shore, and made a kind of hut for that night's lodging; as for food, I yet saw not which way to supply myself, except that I had seen two or three creatures, like hares, run out of the wood where I shot the fowl. I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many things out of the ship which would be useful to me, and particularly some of the rigging and sails, and such other things as might come to land, and I resolved to make another voyage on board the vessel, if possible; and as I knew that the first storm that blew must necessarily break her all in pieces, I resolved to set all other things apart till I had got everything out of the ship that I could get : then I called a council-that is to say, in my thoughts-whether I should take back the raft; but this appeared impracticable: so I resolved to go as before, when the tide was down, and I did so, only that I stripped before I went from my hut, having nothing on but a chequered shirt, a pair of linen drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet. I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second raft; and, having had experience of the first, I neither made this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard, but yet I brought away several things very useful to me ; as, first, in the carpenter's stores, I found two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a great screw-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and, above all, that most useful thing called a grindstone ; all these I secured, together with several things belonging to the gunner, particularly two or three iron crows, and two barrels ol musket bullets, seven muskets, another fowling-piece, with some small quantity of powder more ; a large bag full of small shot, and a great roll of sheet-lead ; but this last was so heavy, I could not hoist it up to get it over the ship's side. Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes that I could find, and a spare fore-top sail, hammock, and some bedding; and with this I loaded my second raft, and brought them all safe on shore, to my very great comfort. I was under some apprehensions during my absence from the land, that at least my provisions might be devoured on shore : but when I came back, I found no sign of any visitor, only there sat a creature like a wild cat, upon one of the chests, which, when I came towards it, ran away a little distance, and then stood still; she sat very composed and unconcerned, and looked full in my face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted with me ; I presented my gun at her, but, as she did not understand it, she was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor



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XURY'S LOVE FOR HIS MA STER. 17 much affection, as made me love him ever after. Says he, "If wild mans come, they eat me, you go wey."-" Well, Xury," said I, "we will both go, and if the wild mans come, we will kill them, they shall eat neither of us." So I gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to eat, and a dram out of our patron's case of bottles which I mentioned before ; and we hauled the boat in as near the shore as we thought was proper, and waded on shore; carrying nothing but our arms and two jars for water. I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the coming of canoes with savages down the river; but the boy seeing a low place about a mile up the country, rambled to it; and by-and-by I saw him come running towards me. I thought he was pursued by some savage, or frighted with some wild beast, and I ran forwards towards him to help him; but when I came nearer to him, I saw something "hanging over his shoulders, which was a creature that he had shot, like a hare, but different in colour, and longer legs: however, we were very glad of it, and it was very good meat; but the great joy that poor Xury came with, was to tell me he had found good water, and seen no wild mans. But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains for water, for a little higher up the creek where we were we found the water fresh when the tide was out, which flowed but a little way up; so we filled our jars, and feasted on the hare we had killed, and prepared to go on our way, having seen no footsteps of any human creature in that part of the country. As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very well that the islands of the Canaries and the Cape de Verd islands also, lay not far off from the coast. But as I had no instruments to take an observation to know what latitude we were in, and not exactly knowing, or at least remembering, what latitude they were in, I knew not where to look for them, or when to stand off to sea towards them; otherwise I might now easily have found some of these islands. But my hope was, that if I stood along this coast till I came to that part where the English traded, I should find some of their vessels upon their usual design of trade, that would relieve and take us in. By the best of my calculation, that place where I now was must be that country which, lying between the Emperor of Morocco s dominions and the Negroes, lies waste and uninhabited; the Negroes having abandoned it, and gone farther south, for fear of the Moors; and the Moors not thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason of its barrenness; and, indeed, both forsaking it because of the prodigious numbers of tigers, lions, leopards, and other furious creatures which harbour there so that the Moors use it for their hunting ony. where c



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156 0 ROBINSON CRUSOE with them about it, and return again, and bring me their answer that he would make conditions with them upon their. solemn oath that they should be absolutely under my direction, as their corr mander and captain; and they should swear upon the holy sacr. ments and gospel to be true to me, and go to such Christian country as I should agree to, and no other ; and to be directed wholly anc absolutely by my orders, till they were landed safely in such country as I intended ; and that he would bring a contract from them, unde their hands, for that purpose. Then he told me he would first sweal to me himself, that he would never stir from me as long as he lived, till I gave him order; and that he would take my side to the last drop of his blood, if there should happen the least breach of faith among his countrymen. He told me they were all of them very civil, honest men, and they were under the greatest distress imaginable, having neither weapons nor clothes, nor any food, but at the mercy and discretion of the savages ; out of all hopes of ever returning to their own country; and that he was sure, if I would undertake their relief, they would live and die by me. Upon these assurances, I resolved to venture to relieve them, if possible, and to send the old savage and this Spaniard over to them to treat. But when we had got all things in readiness to go, the Spaniard himself started an objection, which had so much prudence in it on one hand, and so much sincerity on the other hand, that I could not but be very well satisfied in it ; and, by his advice, put off the deliverance of his comrades for at least half a year. The case was thus: he had been with us now about a month, during which time I had let him see in what manner I had provided, with the assistance of Providence, for my support; and he saw evidently what stock of corn and rice I had laid up; which, though it was more than sufficient for myself, yet it was not sufficient, without good husbandry, for my family, now it was increased to four ; but much less would it be sufficient if his countrymen, who were, as he said, sixteen, still alive, should come over; and, least of all, would it be sufficient to victual our vessel, if we should build one, for a voyage to any of the Christian colonies of America. So he told me he thought it would be more advisable to let him and the other two dig and cultivate some more land, as much as I could spare seed to sow, and that we should wait another harvest, that we might have a supply of corn for his countrymen, when they should come; for want might be a temptation to them to disagree, or not to think themselves delivered, otherwise than out of one difficulty into another. His caution was so seasonable, and his advice so good, that could not but be very well pleased at his propDsal, as well as I wao



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A TTACK OF THE TARTARS. 277 Chinese empire, and is fortified in their fashion. We wanted above two days' journey of this city, when messengers were sent express to every part of the road to -ell all travellers and caravans to halt till they had a guard sent for them ; for that an unusual body of Tartars making ten thousand in all, had appeared in the way, about thirty miles beyond the city. This was very bad news to travellers: however, it was carefully done of the governor, and we were very glad to Jiear we should have a guard. Accordingly, two days after, we had two hundred soldiers sent us from a garrison of the Chinese on our left, and threehundred more from the city of Naum, and with these we advanced boldly; the three hundred soldiers from Naum marched in our front, the two hundred in our rear, and our men on each side of our camels, with our baggage and the whole caravan in the centre ; in this order, and well prepared for battle, we thought ourselves a match for the whole ten thousand Mogul Tartars, if they had appeared; but the next day, when they did appear, it was quite another thing. It was early in the morning, when, marching from a little town called Changu, we had a river to pass, which we were obliged to ferry, and had the Tartars had any intelligence, then had been the time to have attacked us, when the caravan being over, the rearguard was behind ; but they did not appear there. About three hours after, when we were entered upon a desert of about fifteen or sixteen miles over, we knew, by a cloud of dust they raised, that the enemy was at hand, and presently they came on upon the spur. An innumerable company they were; how many we could not tell, but ten thousand, we thought, at the least ; a party of them came on first, and viewed our posture, traversing the ground in the front of our line; and, as we found them within gunshot, our leader ordered the two wings to advance swiftly, and give them a salvo on each wing with their shot, which was done ; and they then went off, I suppose to give an account of the reception they were like to meet with ; indeed, that salute cloyed their stomachs, for they immediately halted, stood awhile to consider of it, and wheeling off to the left, they gave over their design. Two days after, we came to the city of Naun, or Naum; we thanked the governor for his care of us, and collected to the value of a hundred crowns, or thereabouts, which we gave to the soldiers sent to guard us; and here we rested one day. After this, we passed several great rivers, and two dreadful deserts; one of which we were sixteen days passing over; and, on the i3th of April, we came to the ,frontiers of the Muscovite dominions. II think the first town or



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FRIDA Y'S JOKE WIITH A BEAR. 189 was just as it were tumbling down by the disorder of the horse, when Friday came up and shot the wolf. it is easy to suppose that at the noise of Friday's pistol we all mended our pace, and rode up as fast as the way, which was very difficult, would give us leave, to see what was the matter. As soon as we came clear of the trees, which blinded us before, we saw clearly what had been the case, and how Friday had disengaged the poor guide; though we did not presently discern what kind of creature it was he had killed. But never was a fight managed so hardily, and in such a surprising manner, as that which followed between Friday and the bear, which gave us all (though at first we were surprised and afraid for him) the greatest diversion imaginable; as the bear is a heavy, clumsy creature, and does not gallop as the wolf does, who is swift and light, so he has two particular qualities, which generally are the rule of his actions; first, as to men, who are not his proper prey (he does not usually attempt them, except they first attack him, unless he be excessively hungry, which it is probable might now be the case, the ground being covered with snow), if you do not meddle with him, he will not meddle with you; but then you must take care to be very civil to him, and give him the road, for he is a very nice gentleman; he will not go a step out of his way for a prince; nay, if you are really afraid, your best way is to look another way and keep going on; for sometimes if you stop, and stand still, and look steadfastly at him, he takes it for an affront; but if you throw or toss anything at him, and it hits him, though it were but a bit of stick as big as your finger, he thinks himself abused, and sets all other business aside to pursue his revenge, and will have satisfaction in point of honour;that is his first quality: the next is, if he be once affronted, he will never leave you, night or day, till he has his revenge, but follows at a good round rate till he overtakes you. My man Friday had delivered our guide, and when we came up to him, he was helping him off his horse, for the man was both hurt and frighted, when on a sudden we espied the bear coming out of the wood, and a monstrous one it was, the biggest by far' that ever I saw. We were all a little surprised when we saw him; but when Friday saw him, it was easy to see joy and courage in the fellow's countenance: "O, O, O!" says Friday, three times, pointing to him; "O master! you give me te leave, me shakee te hand with him; me makee you good laugh." I was surprised to see the fellow so well pleased: "You fool," says I, "he will eat you up."" Eatee me up! eatee me up !" says Friday, twice ever again: me eatee him up: me make you good 4



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THE ATTACK OF I HE WOLVES. 93" were aware of. We were not half gone over the plain, but we began to hear the wolves howl in the woods on our left in a frightful manner; and presently after we saw about a hundred coming on directly towards us, all in a body, and most of them in a line, as regularly towards us as an army drawn up by experienced officers.. I scarce knew in what manner to receive them, but found to draw ourselves in a close line was the only way ; so we formed in a moment ; but that we might not have too much interval, I ordered that only every other man should fire, and that the others, who had not fired, should stand ready to give them a second volley immediately, if they continued to advance upon us ; and then that those who had fired at first, should not pretend to load their fusils again, but stand ready, every one with a pistol, for we were all armed with a fusee and a pair of pistols each man ; so we were, by this method, able to fire six volleys, half of us at a time : however, at present we had no necessity ; for upon firing the first volley, the enemy made a full stop, being terrified as well with the noise as with the fire. Four of them being shot in the head, dropped ; several others were wounded, and went bleeding off, as we could see by the snow. I found they stopped, but did not immediately retreat ; whereupon, remembering that I had been told that the fiercest creatures were terrified at the voice of a man, I caused all the company to halloo as loud as they could, and I found the notion not altogether mistaken ; for upon our shout they began to retire and turn about; I then ordered a second volley to be fired in their rear, which put them to tIe gallop, and away they went to the woods. This gave us leisure to charge our pieces again; and that we might lose no time, we kept going ; but we had but little more than loaded our fusees, and put ourselves in readiness, when we heard a terrible noise in the same wood on our left, only that it was farther onward, the same way we were to go. The night was coming on, and the light began to be dusky, which made it worse on our side ; but the noise increasing, we could easily perceive that it was the howling and yelling of those hellish creatures ; and, on a sudden, we perceived three troops of wolves, one on our left, one behind us, and one in our front, so that we seemed to be surrounded with them : however, as they did not fall upon us, we kept our way forward, as fast as we could make our horses go, which, the way being very rough, was only a good hard trot ; and in t1is manner we came in view of the entrance of a wood, through which we were to pass, at the farther side of the plain ; but we were greatly surprised, when coming nearer the lane or pass, we saw a confused number of wolves standing just at the entrance. On a sudden, at another opening of the wood, we heard the noise of a gun, and 0



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CRUSOE BEGINS HIS JOURNAL. 47 All the rest of the day I spent in afflicting myself at the dismal circumstances I was brought to; viz., I had neither food, house, clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to; and, in despair of any relief, saw nothing but death before me, either that I should be devoured by wild beasts, murdered by savages, or starved to death for want of food. At the approach of night I slept in a tree, for fear of wild creatures; but slept soundly, though it rained all night. October i.-In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the ship had floated with the high tide, and was driven on shore again much nearer the island ; which, as it was some comfort, on one hand-for, seeing her set "upright, and not broken to pieces, I hoped, if the wind abated, I might get on board, and get some food and necessaries out of her for my relief-so, on the other hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my comrades, who, I imagined, if we had all stayed on board, might have saved the ship, or, at least, that they would not have been all drowned, as they were; and that, had the men been saved, we might perhaps have built us a boat, out of the ruins of the ship, to have carried us to some other part of the world. I spent great part of this day in perplexing myself on these things ; but, at length, seeing the ship almost dry, I went upon the sand as near as I could, and then swam on board. This day also it continued raining, though with no wind at all. From the ist of October to the 24th.-Alr these days entirely spent in many several voyages to get all I could out of the ship, which I brought on shore every tide of flood upon rafts. Much rain also in the days, though with some intervals of fair weather; but it seems this was the rainy season. Oct. 20.-I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got upon it but, being in shoal water, and the things being chiefly heavy, I recovered many of them when the tide was out. Oct. 25.-It rained all night and all day, with some gusts of wind; during which time the ship broke in pieces, the wind blowing a little harder than before, and was no more to be seen, except the wreck of her, and that only at low water. I spent this day in covering and securing the goods which I had saved, that the rain might not spoil them. Oct. 26.-I walked about the shore almost all day, to find out a place to fix my habitation, greatly concerned to secure myself from any attack in the night, either from wild beasts or men. Towards night, I fixed upon a proper place, under a rock, and marked out a semicircle for my encampment; which I resolved to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortification, made of double piles, lined within with cables, and without with turf. From the 26th to 3oth, I worked very hard in carrying all my goods 4



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254 ROBINSON CRUSOE. came from little at first; and though he knew not that I had the least design of giving him anything, he sent me on board a present of fresh provisions, wine, and sweetmeats, worth above thirty moidores, including some tobacco, and three or four fine medals in gold : but I was even with him in my present, which, as I have said, consisted of fine broadcloth, English stuffs, lace, and fine holland. Also, I delivered him about the value of one hundred pounds sterling, in the same goods, for other uses ; and I obliged him to set up the sloop, which I had brought with me from England, as I have said, for the use of my colony, in order to send the refreshments I intended to my plantation. Accordingly, he got hands, and finished the sloop in a very few days, for she was already framed ; and I gave the master of her such instructions that he could not miss the place ; nor did he, as I had an account from my partner afterwards. I got him soon loaded with the small cargo I sent them ; and one of our seamen, that had been on shore with me there, offered to go with the sloop and settle there, upon my letter to the governor Spaniard to allot him a sufficient quantity of land for a plantation, and on my giving him some clothes and tools for his planting work, which he said he understood, having been an old planter at Maryland, and a bucaneer into the bargain. I encouraged the fellow by granting all he desired ; and, as an addition, I gave him the savage whom we had taken prisoner of war, to be his slave, and ordered the governor Spaniard to give him his share of everything he wanted with the rest. I have now done with the island, and all manner of discourse about it: and whoever reads the rest of my memorandums would do well to turn his thoughts entirely from it, and expect to read of the follies of an old man, not warned by his own harms, much less by those of other men, to beware; not cooled by almost forty years' miseries and disappointments-not satisfied with prosperity beyond expectation, nor made cautious by afflictions and distress beyond imitation. From the Brazils we made directly over the Atlantic Sea to the Cape of Good Hope, and had a tolerably good voyage, our course generally south-east, now and then a storm, and some contrary winds : but my disasters at sea were at an end-my future rubs and cross events were to befall me on shore, that it might appear the land was as well prepared to be our scourge as the sea. Our ship was on a trading voyage, and had a supercargo on board, who was to direct all her motions after she arrived at the Cape, only being limited to a certain number of days for stay, by charter-party, at the several ports she was to go to. We stayed at the Cape no



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180 ROBINSON CRUSOE. shipping for Lisbon, where I arrived in April following; my man Friday accompanying me very honestly in all these ramblings, and proving a most faithful servant upon all occasions. When I came to Lisbon, I found out, by inquiry, and to my particular satisfaction, my old friend, the captain of the ship, who first took me up at sea off the shore of Africa. He was now grown old, and had left off going to sea, having put his son, who was far from a young man, into his ship, and who still used the Brazil trade. The old man did not know me; and indeed I hardly knew him. But I soon brought myself to his remembrance, when I told him who I was. After some passionate expressions of the old acquaintance between us, I inquired, you may be sure, after my plantation and my partner. The old man told me he had not been in the Brazils for about nine years; but that he could assure me, that when he came away my partner was living; but the trustees, whom I had joined with him to take cognizance of my part, were both dead; that, however, he believed I would have a very good account of the improvement of the plantation; for that, upon the general belief of my being cast away and drowned, my trustees had given in the account of the produce of my part of the plantation to the procurator-fiscal, who had appropriated it, in case I never came to claim it, one-third to the king, and two-thirds to the monastery of St. Augustine, tobe expended for the benefit of the poor, and for the conversion of the Indians to the Catholic faith: but that, if I appeared, or any one for me, to claim the inheritance, it would be restored; only that the improvement, or annual production, being distributed to charitable uses, could not be restored: but he assured me that the steward of the king's revenue from lands, and the provedore, or steward of the monastery, had taken great care all along that the incumbent, that is to say, my partner, gave every year a faithful account of the produce, of which they had duly received my moiety. I asked him if he knew to what height of improvement he had brought the plantation, and whether he thought it might be worth looking after; or whether, on my going thither, I should meet with any obstruction to my possessing my just right in the moiety. He told me he could not tell exactly to what degree the plantation was improved; but this he knew, that my partner was grown exceeding rich upon the enjoying his part of it; and that, to the best of his remembrance, he had heard that the king's third of my part, which was, it seems, granted away to some other monastery or religious house, amounted to above two hundred moidores a year; that as to my being restored to a quiet possession of it, there was no question to be made of that, my partner being alive to witness my title, and my name being also enrolled in



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198 ROBINSON CRUSOE. and as to the improvement they made upon the island itself,-and how five of them madean attempt upon the mainland, and brought away eleven men and five women prisoners, by which, at my coming, I found about twenty young children on the island. Here I stayed about twenty days,-left them supplies of all necessary things, and particularly of arms, powder, shot, clothes, tools, and two workmen, which I had brought from England with me,viz., a carpenter and a smith. Besides this, I shared the lands into parts with them, reserved to myself the property of the whole, but gave them such parts respectively as they agreed on; and having settled all things with them, and engaged them not to leave the place, I left them there. From thence I touched at the Brazils, from whence I sent a bark, which I bought there, with more people to the island; and in it, besides other supplies, I sent seven women, being such as I found proper for service, or for wives to such as would take them. As to the Englishmen, I promised to send them some women from England, with a good cargo of necessaries, if they would apply themselves to planting,-which I afterwards performed. The fellows proved very honest and diligent after they were mastered, and had their properties set apart for them. I sent them, also, from the Brazils, five cows, some sheep, and some hogs, which when I came again were con Aderably increased. But all these things, with an account how three hundred Caribbees came and invaded them, and ruined their plantations, and how they fought with that whole number twice, and were at first defeated, and one of them killed ; but, at last, a storm destroying their enemies' canoes, they famished or destroyed almost all the rest, and renewed and recovered the possession of their plantation, and still lived upon the island. All these things, with some very surprising incidents in some new adventures of my own, for ten years more, I may, perhaps, give a further account of hereafter



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THE CAVE OF THE GOAT. 113 dies and a tinder-box, which I had made of the lock of one of the muskets, with some wildfire in the pan. Accordingly, the next day I came provided with six large candles of my own making; for I made very good candles now of goat's tallow; and going into this low place I was obliged to creep upon all-fours, as I have said, almost ten yards; which I thought was a venture bold enough, considering that I knew not how far it might go, nor what was beyond it. When I was got through the strait, I found the roof rose higher up, I believe near twenty feet; but never was such a glorious sight seen in the island, I dare say, as it was to look round the sides and roof of this vault or cave ; the walls reflected a hundred thousand lights to me from my two candles ; what it was in the rock-whether diamonds or any other precious stones, or gold--which I rather supposed it to be-I knew not. The place I was in was a most delightful cavity, or grotto, of its kind, though perfectly dark ; the floor was dry and' level, and had a sort of a small loose gravel upon it, so that there was no nauseous or venomous creature to be seen, neither was there any damp or wet on the sides or roof; the only difficulty in it was the entrance-which, however, as it was a place of security, and such a retreat as I wanted, I thought was a convenience ; so that I was really rejoiced at the discovery, and resolved, without any delay, to bring some of those things which I was most anxious about to this place; particularly, I resolved to bring hither my magazine of powder, and all my spare arms, viz., two fowling-pieces, for I had three in all; and three muskets, for of them I had eight in all; so I kept in my castle only five, which stood ready mounted like pieces of cannon on my outmost fence, and were ready also to take out upon any expedition. Upon this occasion of removing my ammunition I happened to open the barrel of powder which I took up out of the sea, and which had been wet, and I found that the water had penetrated about three or four inches into the powder on every side, which caking and growing hard, had preserved the inside like a kernel in the shell, so that I had near sixty pounds of very good powder in the centre of the cask. This was a very agreeable discovery to me at that time ; so I carried all away thither, never keeping above two or three pounds of powder with me in my castle, for fear of a surprise of any kind ; I also carried thither all the lead I had left for bullets. I fancied myself now like one of the ancient giants who were said to live in caves and holes in the rocks, where none could come at them ; for I persuaded myself, while I was here, that if five hundred savages were to hunt me, they could never find me out ; or if they 4



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TOM JEFFR Y FOUND. 259 When they came to the few Indian houses which they thought had been the town, which was not above half a mile off, they were under great disappointment, for there were not above twelve or thirteen houses; and where the town was, or how big, they knew not. Just as they had discovered these houses, three of them, who were a little before the rest, called out aloud to them, and told them, that they had found Tom Jeffry : they all ran up to the place, where they found the poor fellow hanging up naked by one arm, and his throat cut. There was an Indian house just by the tree, where they found sixteen or seventeen of the principal Indians, who had been concerned in the fray with us before, and two or three of them wounded with our shot; and our men found they were awake, and talking one to another in that house, but knew not their number. The sight of their poor mangled comrade so enraged them, that they swore to one another that they would be revenged, and that not an Indian that came into their hands should have any quarter; and to work they went immediately, and yet not so madly as might be expected from the rage and fury they were in. Their first care was to get something that would soon take fire, but, after a little search, they found that would be to no purpose; for most of the houses were low, and thatched with flags and rushes, of which the country is full; so they presently made some wildfire, as we call it, by wetting a little powder in the palm of their hands, and in a quarter of an hour they set the houses on fire in four or five places, and particularly that house where the Indians were not gone to bed. While this was doing, I must confess I was very uneasy, and especially when I saw the flames, which, it being night, seemed to be close by me. My nephew, the captain, who was roused by his men, seeing such a fire, was very uneasy, not knowing what the matter was, or what danger I was in, especially hearing the guns too, for by this time they began to use their fire-arms; a thousand thoughts oppressed his mind concerning me and the supercargo, what would become of us; and at last, though he could ill spare any more men, yet not knowing what exigence we might be in, he took another boat, and with thirteen men and himself came ashore to me. He was surprised to see me and the supercargo in the boat with no more than two men ; and though he was glad that we were well, yet he was in the same impatience with us to know what was doing; for the noise continued, and the flame increased; in short, it was next to an impossibility for any men in the world to restrain their curiosity to know what had happened, or their concern for the safety Sa



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124 ROBINSON CRUSOE. tions, it occurred to me to inquire, what part of the world these wretches lived in ? how far off the coast was from whence they came ? what they ventured over so far from home for? what kind of boats they had ? and why I might not order myself and my business so, that I might be able to go over thither, as they were to come to me ? I never so much as troubled myself to consider what I should do with myself when I went thither; what would become of me if I fell into the hands of these savages ; or how I should escape them if they attacked me; no, nor so much as how it was possible for me to reach the coast, and not b6 attacked by some or other of them, without any possibility of delivering myself: and if I should, not fall into their hands, what I should do for provision, or whither I should bend my course: none of these thoughts, I say, so much as came in my way ; but my mind was wholly bent upon fhe notion of my passing over in my boat to the main land. I looked upon my present condition as the most miserable that could possibly be ; that I was not able to throw myself into anything but death, that could be called worse ; and if I reached the shore of the main, I might perhaps meet with relief, or I might coast along, as I did on the African shore, till I came to some inhabited country, and where I might find some relief; and, after all, perhaps I might fall in with some Christian ship that might take me in ; and if the worst came to the worst, I could but die, which would put an end to all these miseries at once. Pray note, all this was the fruit of a disturbed mind, an impatient temper, made desperate, as it were, by the long continuance of my troubles, and the disappointments I had met in the wreck I had been on board of, and where I had been so near obtaining what I so earnestly longed for-somebody to speak to, and to learn some knowledge from them of the place where I was, and? of the probable means of my deliverance. I was agitated wholly by these thoughts; all my calm of mind, in my resignation to Providence, and waiting the issue of the dispositions of Heaven, seemed to be suspended ; and I had, as it were, no power to turn my thoughts to anything but to the project of a voyage to the main, which came upon me with such force, and such an impetuosity of desire, that it was not to be resisted. When this had agitated my thoughts for two hours or more, with such violence that it set my very blood into a ferment, and my pulse beat as if I had been in a fever, merely with the extraordinary fervour of my mind about it, Nature, as if I had been fatigued and exhausted with the very thoughts of it, threw me into a sound sleep. One would have thought I should have dreamed of it, but I did not, nor of anything relating to it: but I dreamed that as I was going out in the morning as usual, from my castle, I saw upon the shore two canoes



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\ CRUSOE PROJECTS A TRIP BY SEA. 89 I fixed my umbrella also in a step at the stern, like a mast, to, stand over my head, and keep the heat of the sun off me, like an, awning; and thus I every now and then took a little voyage upon the sea, but never went far out, nor far from the little creek; but, at. last, being eager to view the circumference of my little kingdom, I. resolved upon my tour, and accordingly I victualled my ship for the. voyage, putting in two dozen of loaves (cakes I should rather call them) of barley bread, an earthen pot full of parched rice (a food I ate a great deal of), a little bottle of rum, half a goat, and powder and shot for killing more, and two large watch-coats, of those which,. as I mentioned before, I had saved out of the seamen's chests; these I took, one to lie upon, and the other to cover me in the night. It was the 6th of November, in the sixth year of my reign, or my captivity, that I set out on this voyage, and I found it much longer than I expected ; for though the island itself was not very large, yet when I came to the east side of it, I found a great ledge of rocks lier out about two leagues into the sea, some above water, some under it ; and beyond, a shoal of sand, lying dry half a league more, so that L was obliged to go a great way out to sea to double the point. When first I discovered them, I was going to give over my enterprise, and come back again, not knowing how far it might oblige me to go out to sea: and, above all, doubting how I should get back again : so I came to an anchor ; for I had made a kind of an anchor with a piece of a broken grappling which I got out of the ship. Having secured my boat, I took my gun and went on shore, climbing up a hill, which seemed to overlook that point, where I saw the full extent of it, and resolved to venture. In my viewing the sea from that hill, I perceived a strong and most furious current, which ran to the east, and even came close to, the point; I took the more notice of it, because I saw there might be some danger, that when I came into it, I might be carried out tc sea by the strength of it, and not be able to make the island again and, indeed, had I not got first up upon this hill, I believe it would have been so; for there was the same current on the other side the, island, only that it set off at a farther distance, and I saw there was a strong eddy under the shore ; so I had nothing to do but to get out of the first current, and I should presently be in an eddy. I lay here, however, two days, because the wind blowing pretty fresh at E.S.E., and that being just contrary to the said currentg made a great breach of the sea upon the point; so that it was not .safe for me to keep too close to the shore for the breach, nor to go. too far off, because of the stream. The third day, in the morning, the wind having abated overnight, 4



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:ri ::' : ? : :;, i: _-i: .*-ItE-"liilq I -i (4':::: U,-fjl ;;:;:r .:d ".;.a --; -,i r:85 : i.lZi"'": ii =;sli f' .le ir: _? ::2:: 1 t it`j; r; ;s b.;`": T;*; :I .I: 1 1 I:: 'I, .ri -I ":":I;F r: :;I ::r at: i a-; : : ::r" -? ;":" (iihll : -^ "; :"-I: ------"I: ..:;$. z I. :;-I:DI i)_I -,_.I :s-i '2: -.; :* 1 .:,ie ii:, '::" 1 iY "9t ?r ;; ::VaL ol. :: ; n: tip:: uQY-Yr:-, n? r%5 i! \i r:'r._r :t::::: :s ,g: :'rt er """ ::;B rrcqggi :.r 1;, ;r "-1. : ) 1; :": r; n' Ir2i, 'I ," ;:-is-l: I;x.;.:.' := :: ; : c,L "":"--12 rj . ;;I ."". ...; "Lli i-.. R: :: ;:_::: :: ""':k:" :i i, 1. : : ;":%;); 4i :;rlll: ::::: ' : ::":;:_: ::::i :yr11""i :I; :::: a,? zi :"7 .1 ,7; - ,, g-;.C'" """cs8sc,;l '..::::':':'':"kajp. Si.l I": :'15 1": ;:r "CI--"i -_I..,. L111r2 d;i; -.;-""rr ;I -----*;I: `""*I n"rr .? f:jr"":rlI 'r'1:r",r-.:a:JS s;",;:=,r ;5'": ::il i ` *" ;:?."I:', .,i i"-rle i j,:r ,r b RUSSIAK ILIODE OF TRAVELLING P 279



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218 ROBINSON CRUSOE. soon, and suggested presently that the Spaniards had given them notice of it; and with that they shook hands, and swore to one another that they would be revenged of the Spaniards. As soon as they had made this bloody bargain, they fell to work with the poor men's habitation ; they did not set fire, indeed, to anything, but they pulled down both their houses, not leaving the least stick standing, or scarce any sign on the ground where they stood ; they tore all their little household stuff in pieces, and threw everything about in such a manner, that the poor men afterwards found some of thei things a mile off from their habitation. When they had done this, they pulled up all the young trees which the poor men had planted; broke down the inclosure they had made to secure their cattle and their corn; and, in a word, sacked and plundered everything as completely as a horde of Tartars would have done. The two men were, at this juncture, gone to find them out, and had resolved to fight them wherever they had been, though they were but two to three; so that, had they met, there certainly would have been bloodshed among them, for they were all very stout, resolute fellows, to give them their due. When the three came back like furious creatures, flushed with the rage which the work they had been about had put them into, they came up to the Spaniards, and told them what they had done, by way of scoff and bravado; and one of them stepping up to one of the Spaniards, as if they had been a couple of boys at play, taket hold of his hat as it was upon his head, and giving it a twirl about, fleering in his face, says he to him, "And you, SeigniorJack Spaniard, shall have the same sauce, if you do not mend your manners." The Spaniard, who, though a quiet civil man, was as brave as a man could be desired to be, and, withal, a strong, well-made man, looked steadily at him for a good while, and then, having no weapon in his hand, stepped gravely up to him, and, with one blow of his fist, knocked him down, as an ox is felled with a pole-axe, at which one of the rogues, as insolent as the first, fired his pistol at the Spaniard immediately: he missed his body, indeed, for the bullets went through his hair, but one of them touched the tip of his ear, and he bled pretty much. The blood made the Spaniard believe he "was more hurt than he really was, and that put him into some heat, for before heacted all in a perfect calm ; but now resolving to go through with his work, he stooped, and taking the fellow's musket whom he had knocked down, was just going to shoot the man who fired at him, when the rest of the Spaniards, being in the cave, came out, find calling to him not to shoot, they stepped in, secured the other two, and took their arms from them.



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,. r i: -i a up5 E i-i II ia "i :"s"ii i Ih j gC2;j !I_; I - ia iEi ;;Zn* -;" =a;cI `I P ,pxl. J hjt .C; "I:rt i -"l':""dli,;,, ;i I i rrle "i" j r"iqqi: r;7" ;i sr; ii sl I -"`" ur-. uC : ":: t;iaj r": rir: : *i,.,,ci ii: ':3T sYi si "'": i .II. tc I-" : 2:;.r ,Wi,""-"".:? t7:'"2 ,,, ::I-,,,:;::,i ; i ;.;T tid:l l(\pdt -i: :!"J11 /: ;ri? Y" ..-. iu 1: :fi-;:;":f;'" I:;rr: r"tilLc: T ii9;tis)J"iP. ?;)j;:1':-::, ;:i rI ;"C'" '; a ';-J: ,+185"-:' u sr*i: ,r 9" Jldlc i :u-r ii T ;LYI ii : ::: ;+iri;r :7 kic 3Llr(htl= ;i4'h41 '.3;i: ii;a5; r:^ I" ;-^i i;: :-:.;r-,i% """:;:"" 15c--11 ; Bj Ia!)T I ic :--------sl--;:-v:nr. Ir :It,cil .( I -r 1"" lia iI;--RI I ; a i: .;:: Ilis q nn;-:.8aiii ir I IjglPI 'PU ;,i. .I:i?a .? :1: x II -m w -; Ii_ '" , "" i) THE SPANIARD AND THE SLAVE. P 22,$



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ENGA GEMENT WITH THE SA VA GES. 149 being a little recovered, let me know, by all the signs he could possibly make, how much he was in my debt for his deliverance. "Seignior," said I, with as much Spanish as I could make up, we will talk afterwards, but we must fight now : if you have any strength left, take this pistol and sword, and lay about you." He took them very thankfully ; and no sooner had he the arms in his hands, but, as if they had put new vigour into him, he flew upon his murderers like a fury, and had cut two of them in pieces in an instant ; for the truth is, as the whole was a surprise to them, so the poor creatures were so much frightened with the noise of our pieces that they fell down for mere amazement and fear, and had no more power to attempt their own escape, than their flesh had to resist our shot : and that was the case of those five that Friday shot at in the boat; for as three of them fell with the hurt they received, so the other two fell with the fright. I kept my piece in my hand still without firing, being willing to keep my charge ready, because I had given the Spaniard my pistol and sword : so I called to Friday, and bade him run up to the tree from whence we first fired, and fetch the arms which lay there that had been discharged, which he did with great swiftness ; and then giving him my musket, I sat down myself to load all the rest again, and bade them come to me when they wanted. While I was loading these pieces, there happened afierce engagement between the Spaniard: and one of the savages, who made at him with one of their great wooden swords, the weapon that was to have killed him before, if I had not prevented it. The Spaniard, who was as bold and brave as could be imagined, though weak, had fought the Indian a good while, and had cut two great wounds on his head; but the savage being a stout, lusty fellow, closing in with him, had thrown him down, being faint, and was wringing my sword out of his hand; when the Spaniard, though undermost, wisely quitting the sword, drew the pistol from his girdle, shot the savage through the body, and killed him upon the spot, before I, who was running to help him, could come near him. Friday, being now left to his liberty, pursued the flying wretches with no weapon in his hand but his hatchet ; and with that he despatched those three who, as I said before, were wounded at first, and fallen, and all the rest he could come up with : and the Spaniard coming to me for a gun, I gave him one of the fowling-pieces, with which he pursued two of the savages, and wounded them both ; but, as he was not able to run, they both got from him into the wood, where Friday pursued them, and killed one of them, but the other was too nimble for him; and though he was wounded, yet plunged 4



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32 ROBINSON CRUSOE. wind and the sea had tossed her, up upon the land, about two miles on my right hand; I walked as far as I could upon the shore to have got to her; but found a neck or inlet of water between me and the boat which was about half a mile broad; so I came back for the present, being more intent upon getting at the ship, where I hoped to find something for my present subsistence. A little after noon, I found the sea very calm, and the tide ebbed so far out that I could come within a quarter of a mile of the ship; and here I found a fresh renewing of my grief; for I saw evidently, that if we had kept on board, we had been all safe, that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I had not been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all comfort and company as I now was ; this forced tears to my eyes again; but as there was little relief in that, I resolved, if possible, to get to the ship; so I pulled off my clothes, for the weather was hot to extremity, and took the water; but when I came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to know how to get on board, for, as she lay aground, and high oat of the water, there was nothing within my reach to lay hold of. I swam round her twice, and the second time I spied a small piece of rope, which I wondered I did not see at first, hang down by the fore-chains so low, as that with great difficulty I got hold of it, and by the help of that rope got up into the forecastle of the ship; here I found that the ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water in her hold, but that she lay so on the side of a bank of hard sand, or rather earth, that her stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head "ow, almost to the wate':; by this means all her quarter was free, and all that was in that part was dry; for you may be sure my first work was to search, and to see what was spoiled and what was free; and first, I found that all the ship's provisions were dry and untouched by the water, and being very well disposed to eat, I went to the bread-room and filled my pockets with biscuit, and eat it as I went about other things, for I had no time to lose. I also found some rum in the great cabin, of which I took a large dram, and which I had, indeed, need enough of to spirit me for what was before me. Now I wanted nothing but a boat to furnish myself with many things which I foresaw would be very necessary to me. It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be had ; and this extremity roused my application. We had several spare yards, and two or three large spars of wood, and a spare top-mast or two in \ the ship : I resolved to fall to work with these, and I flung as many of them overboard as I could manage for their weight, tying every one with a rope, that they might not drive away. When this was done, I went down the ship's side, and pulling them to me, I tied



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CRUSOE BE GINS MAKING A CA VE. 41 that it raised the ground within about a foot and a half; and thus I made me a cave, just behind my tent, which served me like a cellar to my house. It cost me much labour and many days before all these things were brought to perfection ; and, therefore, I must go back to some other things which took up some of my thoughts. At the same time it happened, after I had laid my scheme for the setting up my tent, and making the cave, that a storm of rain falling from a thick, dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning happened, and afcer that, a great clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect of it. I was not so much surprised with the lightning, as I was with a thought which darted into my mind as swift as the lightning itself-O my powder my very heart sank within me when I thought that, at one blast, all my powder might be destroyed; on which, not my defence only, but the providing my food, as I thought, entirely depended : I was nothing near so anxious about my own danger, though had the powder took fire, I had never known who had hurt me. Such impression did this make upon me, that after the storm was over, I laid aside all my works, my building and fortifying, and applied myself to make bags and boxes, to separate the powder, and to keep it a little and a little in a parcel, in the hope that whatever might come, it might not all take fire at once; and to keep it so apart, that it should not be possible to make one part fire another. I finished this work in about a fortnight, and I think my powder, which in all was about 240 pounds weight, was divided in not less than a hundred parcels : as to the barrel that had been wet, I did not apprehend any danger from that; so I placed it in my new cave, which, in my fancy, I called my kitchen ; and the rest I hid up and down in holes among the rocks, so that no wet might come to it, marking very carefully where I laid it. In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out once at least every day with my gun, as well to divert myself, as to see if I could kill anything fit for food ; and, as near as I could, to acquaint myself with what the island produced. The first time I went out, I presently discovered that there were goats in the island, which was a great satisfaction to me ; but then it was attended with this misfortune to me, viz., that they were so shy, so subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was the most difficult thing in the world to come at them; but I was not discouraged at this, not doubting but I might now and then shoot one, as it soon happened; for after I had found their haunts a little, I laid wait in. this manner for them : I observed if they saw me in the valleys, though they were upon the rocks, they would run away as in a terrible fright; but if they were feeding in the valleys,



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38 ROBINSON CRUSOE. The next day I made another voyage, and now, having plundered the ship of what was portable and fit to hand out, I began with the cables ; and cutting the great cable into pieces, such as I cbuld qe, I gdt two cables and a hawser on shore, with all the iroft-work I could get; and having cut down the spritsail-yard, and the mizen-yard, and everything I could, to make a large raft, I loaded it with all these heavy goods, and came away; but my good luck began now to leave me; for this raft was so unwieldy, and so overladen, that, after I had entered the little cove where I had landed the rest of my goods, not being able to guide it so handily as I did the other, it overset, and; threw me and all my cargo into the water. As for myself, it was no great harm, for I was near the shore ; but as to my cargo, it was a great part of it lost, especially the iron, which I expected would have been of great use to me : however, when the tide was out, I got most of the pieces of cable ashore, and some of the iron, though with infinite labour; for I was fain to dip for it into the water, a work which fatigued me very much. After this, I went every day on board, and brought away what I could get. I had been now 13 days on shore, and had been iI times on board the ship, in which time I had brought away all that one pair of hands could well be supposed capable to bring ; though I believe verily, had the calm weather held, I should have brought away the whole ship, piece by piece ; but preparing the twelfth time to go on board, I found the wind began to rise : however, at low water I went on board, and though I thought I had rummaged the cabin so effectually, as that nothing more could be found, yet I discovered a locker with drawers in it, in one of which I found two or three razors, and one pair of large scissors, with some ten or a dozen of good knives and forks: in another I found about thirty-six pounds value in money, some European coin, some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some gold, and some silver. I smiled to myself at the sight of this money: drug !" said I aloud," what art thou good for? Thou art not worth to me, no, not the taking off the ground :; one of those knives is worth all this heap : I have no manner of use for thee-even remain where thou art, and go to the bottom, as a creature whose life is not worth saving." However,. upon second thoughts, I took it away; and, wrapping all this in a piece of canvas, I beganto think of making another raft'; but while I was preparing this, I found the sky overcast, and the wind tiegan to rise, and in aquarterof an hour it blew a fresh galefrom the :Shor It occurred to me, that it was in vain to pretend to make a raft it the wind off shore ;, and thatit was my business to be gone before: tide of flood began, otherwise I might not be able to reach thei 90b 't ,ei e: §b



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0o6 ROBINSON CRUSOE. I never saw any human creature come near the island, and I had -now lived two, years under these uneasinesses, which, indeed, made any life much less comfortable than it was before; as may be well imagined by any who know what it is to live in the constant snare of the fear of man. But to go on: after I had thus secured one part of my little living rstock, I went about the whole island, searching for another private place to make such another deposit ; when, wandering more to the west point of the island than I had ever done yet, and looking out to ,sea, I thought I saw a boat upon the sea, at a great distance ; I had found a perspective glass or two in one of the seamen's chests, which I saved out of our ship, but I had it not about me ; and this was so remote that I could not tell what to make of it, though I looked at it till my eyes were not able to hold to look any longer : whether it -was a boat or not, I do not know, but as I descended from the hill I could see no more of it, so I gave it over; only I resolved to go no more out without a perspective glass in my pocket. When I was *come down the hill to the end of the island, where, indeed, I had never been before, I was presently convinced that the seeing the print of a man's foot was not such a strange thing in the island as I imagined ; and but that it was a special providence that I was cast upon the side of the island where the savages never came, I should easily have known that nothing was more frequent than for the canoes from the main, when they happened to be a little too far out at sea, to shoot over to that side of the island for harbour : likewise, as they often met and fought in their canoes, the victors, having taken any prisoners, would bring them over to this shore, where, according to their dreadful customs, being all cannibals, they would "kill and eat them ; of which hereafter. When I was come down the hill to the shore, as I said above, being the S.W. point of the island, I was perfectly confounded and amazed ; nor is it possible for me to express the horror of my mind, at seeing the shore spread with skulls, hands, feet, and other bones of human bodies ; and particularly, I observed a place where there had been a fire made, and a circle dug in the earth, like a cockpit, where I supposed the savage wretches had sat down to their inhuman feastings upon the bodies of their fellow-creatures. I was so astonished with the sight of these things, that I entertained no notions of any danger to myself from it for a long while: .all my apprehensions were buried in the thoughts of such a pitch of inhuman, hellish brutality, and the horror of the degeneracy of human nature, which, though I had heard of it often, yet I never bad so near a view of before; in short' I turned awav mx face from



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94 ROBINSON CRUSOE. was tobacco in the island ; and afterwards, when I searched the ship again, I could not come at any pipes at all. In my wickerware, also, I improved much, and made abundanie of necessary baskets, as well as my invention showed me; thbugh not very handsome, yet they were such as were very handy and convenient for laying things up in, or fetching things home in. For example, if I killed a goat abroad, I could hang it up in a tree, flay it, dress it, and cut it in pieces, and bring it home in a basket ; and the like by a turtle, I could cut it up, take out the eggs, and a piece or two of the flesh, which was enough for me, and bring them home in a basket, and leave the rest behind me. Also, large deep baskets were the receivers for my corn, which I always rubbed out as soon as it was dry, and cured, and kept it in great baskets. I began now to perceive my powder abated considerably, and this was a want which it was impossible for me to supply, and I began seriously to consider what I must do when I should have no more powder; that is to say, how I should kill any goats. I had, as is observed in the third year of my being here, kept a young kid, and bred her up tame, and I was in hopes of getting a he-goat : but I could not by any means bring it to pass, till my kid grew an old goat; and I could never find in my heart to kill her, till she died at last of mere age. But being now in the eleventh year of my residence, and, as I have said, my ammunition growing low, I set myself to study some art to trap and snare the goats, to see whether I could not catch some of them alive ; and particularly, I wanted a she-goat and her young. To this purpose I made snares to hamper them; and I do believe they were more than once. taken in them, but my tackle was not good, for I had no wire, and I always found them broken, and my bait devoured. At length, I resolved to try a pitfall, so I dug several large pits in the earth, in places where I had observed the goats used to feed, and over those pits I placed hurdles of my own making too, with a great weight upon them; and several times I put ears of barley and dry rice, without setting the trap, and I could easily per, ceive that the goats had gone in and eaten up the corn, for I could see the marks of their feet. At length, I set three traps in one night, and going the next morning, I found them all standing, and yet the bait eaten and gone. This was very discouraging; however, I altered my traps, and, not to trouble you with particulars, going one morning to see my traps, I found in one of them a large old he-goat, and in one of the others, three kids, a male and two females. As to the old one, I knew not what to do with him; he was so fierce, I durst not go into the pit to him; that is to say, to bring him



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CRUSOE EXPLORES HIS ISLAND. 6s I had been now in this unhappy island above ten months; all possibility of deliverance from this condition seemed to be entirely taken from me; and I firmly believed that no human shape had ever set foot upon that place. Having now secured my habitation, as I thought, fully to my mind, I had a great desire to make a more perfect discovery of the island, and to see what other productions I might find, which I yet knew nothing of. It was on the 15th of July that I began to take a more particular survey of the island itself. I went up the creek first, where, as I hinted, I brought my rafts on shore. I found, after I came about two miles up, that the tide did not flow any higher, and that it was no more than a little brook of running water, very fresh and good; but this being the dry season, there was hardly any water in some parts of it-at least, not enough to run in any stream, so as it could be perceived. On the banks of this brook, I found many pleasant savannahs or meadows, plain, smooth, and covered with grass ; and on the rising parts of them, next to the higher grounds, where the water, as might be supposed, never overflowed, I found a great deal of tobacco, green, and growing to a great and very strong stalk. There were divers other plants, which I had no notion of or understanding about, that might, perhaps, have virtues of their own, which I could not find out. I searched for the cassava root, which the Indians, in all that climate, make their bread of, but I could find none. I saw large plants of aloes, but did not understand them. I saw several sugar-canes, but wild, and, for want of cultivation, imperfect. I contented myself with these discoveries for this time, and came back, musing with myself what course I might take to know the virtue and goodness of any of the fruits or plants which I should discover, but could bring it to no conclusion; for, in short, I had made so little observation while I was in the Brazils, that I knew little of the plants in the field ; at last, very little that might serve me to any purpose now in my distress. The next day, the i6th, I went up the same way again ; and, after going something farther than I had gone the day before, I found the brook and savannahs began to cease, and the country become more woody than before. In this part, I found different fruits, and particularly I found melons upon the ground, in great abundance, and grapes upon the trees; the vines had spread, indeed, over the trees, and the clusters of grapes were just now in their prime, very ripe and rich. This was a surprising discovery, and I was exceeding glad of them; but I was warned by my experience to eat sparingly of them, remembering that when I was ashore in Barbary, the eating of grapes killed several of our Englishmen, who were slaves there, by throwing



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14 ROBINSON CRUSOE. boat, which weighed above half a hundred-weight, with a parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all of which were of great use to us afterwards, especially the wax to make candles. Another trick I tried upon him, which he innocently came into also : his name was Ismael, which they call Muley, or Moely ; so I called to him :-" Moely," said I, "our patron's guns are on board the boat; can you not get a little powder and shot, it may be we may kill some alcamies (a fowl like our curlews) for ourselves, for I know he keeps the gunner's stores in the ship." "Yes," says he, I'll bring some ;" and accordingly he brought a great leather pouch, which held a pound and a half of powder, or rather more; and another with shot, that had five or six pounds, with some bullets, and put all into the boat ; at the same time, I had found some powder of my master's in the great cabin, with which I filled one of the large bottles in the case, which was almost empty ; pouring what was in it into another: and thus furnished with everything needful, we sailed out of the port to fish. The castle, which is at the entrance of the port, knew who we were, and took no notice.of us ;. and we were not above a mile out of the port before we hauled in our sail, and set us down to fish ; the wind blew from the N.N.E., which was contrary to my desire ; for had it blown southerly, I had been sure to have made the coast of Spain, and at least reached to' the bay of Cadiz; but my resolutions were, blow which way it would, I would be gone from that horrid place where I was, and leave the rest to fate. After we had fished some time and catched nothing, for when I had fish on my hook, I would not pull them up, that he might, not see them, I said to the Moor, "This will not do-; our master will not be thus served; we must stand farther off;" he, thinking no harm, agreed, and, being in the head of the boat, set the sails; and, as I had the helm, I run the boat out near a league farther, and then brought her to, as if I would fish, when, giving the boy the helm, I stepped forward to where the Moor was, and making as if I stooped for something behind him, I took him by surprise with my arm under his twist, and tossed him clear overboard into the sea. He rose immediately, for he swam like a cork, and calling to me, begged to be taken in, told me he would go all over the world with me; he swam so strong after the boat, that he would have reached -me very quickly, there being but little wind; upon which I stepped into the cabin, and fetching one of the fowling-pieces, I presented it at him, and told him I had done him no hurt, and if he would be quiet I would do him none: But," said I, "you swim well enough to reach to the shore, and the sea is calm; make the best of your way to shore, and I will do yoi no harm ; but if you come near the



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CRUSOE PURSUED AS A PIRA TE. 267 get near two hours of them by the difference of the tide, not reckoning the length of the way : besides, as they are only boats, and not ships, they will not venture to follow you far out to sea, especially if it blows."-"Well," said I, "you have been very kind in this : what shall I do to make you amends ?"--" Sir," says he, "you may not be willing to make me any amends, because you may not be convinced of the truth of it. I will make an offer to you : I have nineteen months' pay due to me on board the ship -, which I came out of England in ; and the Dutchman that is with me has seven months' pay due to him. If you will make good our pay to us, we will go along with you ; if you find nothing more in it, we will desire no more; but if we do convince you that we have saved your lives, and the ship, and the lives of all the men in her, we will leave the rest to you." I consented to this readily, and went immediately on board, and the two men with me. As soon as I came to the ship's side, my partner, who was on board, came out on the quarter-deck, and called to me, with a great deal ofjoy, "We have stopped the leak-we have stopped the leak !"-" Say you so," said I ; "thank God but weigh anchor, then, immediately."-" Weigh !" says he; what do you mean by that ? What is the matter ?"Ask no questions," said I; but set all hands to work, and weigh without losing a minute." He was surprised; however, he called the captain, and he immediately ordered the anchor to be got up ; and though the tide was not quite down, yet a little land-breeze blowing, we stood out to sea. Then I called him into the cabin, and told him the story; and we called in the men, and they told us the rest of it; but as it took up a great deal of time before we had done, a seaman came to the cabin door, and called out to us that the captain bade him tell us we were chased by five sloops, or boats, full of men.--"Very well," said I, then it is apparent there is something in it." I then ordered all our men to be called up, and told them there was a design to seize the ship, and to take us for pirates, and asked them if they would stand by us, and by one another ; the men answered cheerfully, one and all, that they would live and die with us. Then I asked the captaini what way he thought best for us to manage a fight with them ; for resist them I was resolved we would, and that to the last drop. He said readily, that the way was to keep them off with our great shot as long as we could, and then to use our small arms, to keep them from boarding us ; but when neither of these would do any longer, we would retire to our close quarters, for perhaps they had not materials to break open our bulkheads, or get in upon us. The gunner had, in the meantime, orders to bring two guns to bear fore and aft, out of the steerage, to clear the deck, and load them with 4.



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MASSACRE OF THE NATIVES. 261 glad you are come ; we have not half done yet. I'll kill as many of them as poor Tom has hairs upon his head: we have sworn to spare none of them ; we'll root out the very nation of them from the earth ;" and thus he ran on, out of breath, too, with action, and would not give us leave to speak a word. At last, raising my voice, that I might silence him a little, Barbarous dog !" said I, "what are you doing? I wont have one creature touched more, upon pain of death: I charge you, upon your life, to stop your hands, and stand still here, or you are a dead man this minute."" Why, sir," says he, "do you know what you do, or what they have done? If you want a reason for what we have done, come hither ;" and with that he showed me the poor fellow ha.iging, with his throat cut. I confess I was urged then myself, and at another time would have been forward enough : but I thought they had carried their rage too far. But I had now a new task upon my hands ; for when the men I carried with me saw the sight, as I had done, I had as much to do to restrain them as I should have had with the others ; nay, my nephew himself fell in with them, and told me, in their hearing, that he was only concerned for fear of the men being overpowered ; and as to the people, he thought not one of them ought to live; for thev had all glutted themselves with the murder of the poor man, and that they ought to be used like murderers. Upon these words, away ran eight of my men with the boatswain and his crew, to complete their bloody work ; and I seeing it quite out of my power to restrain them, came away pensive and sad ; for I could not bear the sight, much less the horrible noise and cries of the poor wretches that fell into their hands. The boatswain defended this quarrel when we were afterwards on board. He said it was true that we seemed to break the truce, but really had not: and that the war was begun the night before by the natives themselves, who had shot at us, and killed one of our men without any just provocation; so that as we were in a capacity to fight them now, we might also be in a capacity to do ourselves justice upon them-in an extraordinary manner; and that they did nothing but what was just and what the laws of God allowed to be done tc murderers. One would think this should have been enough to have warned us against going on shore amongst heathens and barbarians; but it is impossible to make mankind wise but at their own expense, and their experience seems to be always of most use to them when it is dearest bought. We were now bound to the Gulf of Persia, and from thence to the coast of Coromandel, only to touch at Surat; but the chief of the supercargo's design lay at the Bay of BenPal; whe'reif he missed his 4



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THE ENGLISH SHIP. 159 morning, when my man Friday came running in to me, and called aloud, Master, master, they are come, they are come !" I jumped up, and, regardless of danger, I went as soon as I could get my clothes on, through my little grove, which, by the way, was by this; time grown to be a very thick wood ; I say, regardless of danger, I went without my arms, which was not my custom to do : but I was, surprised,, when, turning my eyes to the sea, I presently saw a boat at about a league and a half distance, standing in for the shore, with a shoulder-of-mutton sail, as they call it, and the wind blowing pretty fair to bring them in : also I observed presently, that they did not come from that side which the shore lay on, but from the southernmost end of the island. Upon this I called Friday in, and bade him lie close, for these were not the people we looked for, and that we might not know yet whether they were friends or enemies. In the next place, I went in to fetch my perspective glass, to see what I could make of them ; and, having taken the ladder out, I climbed up to the top of the hill, as I used to do when I was apprehensive of anything, and to take my view the plainer, without being discovered. I had scarce set my foot upon the hill, when my eye plainly discovered a ship lying at anchor, at about two leagues and a half distance from, me, S.S.E., but not above a league and a half from the shore. By my observation, it appeared plainly to be an English ship, and the boat appeared to be an English long-boat. I cannot express the confusion I was in, though the joy of seeing a ship, and one that I had reason to believe was manned by my own countrymen, and consequently friends, was such as I cannot describe; but yet I had some secret doubts hung about me-I cannot tell from whence they came-bidding me keep upon my guard. In the first place, it occurred to me to consider what business an English ship could have in that part of the world, since it was not the way to or from any part of the world where the English had any traffic ; and I knew there had been no storms to drive them in there, in distress; and that if they were really English, it was most probablethat they were here upon no good design; and that I had better continue as'I was, than fall into the hands of thieves and murderers. I saw the boat draw near the shore, as if they looked for a creek to thrust in at, for the convenience of landing; however, as they did not come quite far enough, they did not see the little inlet where I formerly landed my rafts, but ran their boat on shore upon the beach, at about half a mile from me; which was very happy for me; for otherwise they would have landed just at my door, as I may say, and would soon have beaten me out of my castle, and perhaps have plundered me of all I had. When they were on shore, I was fully 4



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THE CANNIBALS' GIFT. 23i They continued here four days, and inquired, as well as they could of them by signs, what nations were this way, and t at way, and were told of several fierce and terrible people that lived almost every way, who, as they made known by signs to them, used to eat men; but, as for themselves, they said, they never ate men or women, except only such as they took in the wars ; and then theS owned they made a great feast, and ate their prisoners. The Englishmen inquired when they had a feast of that kind ; and they told them about two moons ago, pointing to the moon and to two fingers; and that their great king had two hundred prisoners now, which he had taken in his war, and they were feeding them to make them fat for the next feast. The Englishmen seemed mighty desirous of seeing those prisoners; but the others mistaking them, thought they were desirous to have some of them to carry away for their own eating. So they beckoned to them, pointing to the setting of the sun, and then to the rising ; which was to signify that the next morning at sunrising they would bring some for them; and, accordingly, the next morning they brought down five women and eleven men, and gave them to the Englishmen, to carry with them on their voyage, just as we would bring so many cows and oxen down to a seaport town to victual a ship. As brutish and barbarous as these fellows were at home, their stomachs turned at this sight, and they did not know what to do; to refuse the prisoners would have been the highest affront to the savage gentry that could be offered them; and what to do with them they knew not: however, upon some debate, they resolved to accept of them; and, in return, they gave the savages that brought them one of their hatchets, an old key, a knife, and six or seven of their bullets, which, though they did not understand, they seemed particularly pleased with : and then-tying the poor creatures' hands behind them, they (the people) dragged the prisoners into the boat for our men. The Englishmen were obliged to come away as soon as they had hem, or else they that gave them this noble present would certainly have expected that they should have gone to work with them, have killed two or three of them the next morning, and, perhaps, have invited the donors to dinner. But having taken their leave, with all therespects and thanks that could wellpass between people, where, on either side, they understood not one word they could say, they put off with their boat, and came back towards the first island ; where, when they arrived, they set eight of their prisoners at liberty, there being too many of them for their occasion. In their voyage, they endeavoured to have some communication with their prisoners : but it was impossible to make them understand anything ; nothing they could say to



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CUTTING OFF THE LION'S FOOT. 19 very sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot upon a creature that was good for nothing to us. However, Xury said he would have some of him; so he comes on board, and asked me to give him the hatchet. For what, Xury?" said I. Me cut off his head," said he. However, Xury could not cut off his head, but he cut off a foot, and brought it with him, and it was a monstrous great one. I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of him might be of some value to us; and I resolved to take off his skin if I could. So Xury and I went to work with him; but Xury was much the better workman at it, for I knew very ill how to do it. Indeed, it took us both up the whole day, but at last we got off the hide of him, and spreading it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two days' time, and it afterwards served me to lie upon. After this stop, we made on to the southward continually for ten or twelve days, living very sparingly on our provisions, which began to abate very much, and going no oftener to the shore than we were obliged to for fresh water. My design in this was, to make the River Gambia or Senegal, that is to say, anywhere about the Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes to meet with some European ship; and if I did not, I knew not what course I had to take, but to seek for the islands, or perish there among the Negroes. I knew that all the ships from Europe, which sailed either to the Coast of Guinea or to Brazil, or to the East Indies, made this Cape, or those islands ; and, in a word, I put the whole of my fortune upon this single point, either that I must meet with some ship, or must perish. When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer, as I have said, I began to see that the land was inhabited ; and in two or three places, as we sailed by, we saw people stand upon the shore to look at us ; we could also perceive they were quite black, and naked. I was once inclined to have gone on shore to them ; but Xury was my better counsellor, and said to me, No go, no go." However, I hauled in nearer the shore that I might talk to them, and I found they ran along the shore by me a good way : I observed they had no weapons in their hands, except one, who had a long slender stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that they could throw them a great way with good aim. So I kept at a distance, but talked with them by signs as well as I could; and particularly made signs for something to eat; they beckoned to me to stop my boat, and they would fetch me some meat. Upon this, I lowered the top of my sail, and lay by, and two of them ran up into the country, and in less than half an hour came back, and brought with them two pieces of dried flesh and some corn, such as is the produce of their country ; but we neither knew what the orfe nor the other was; 'C2 4



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h



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'5o ROBINSON CRUSOE. -I mean always excepting my. morning walk with my gun, which I seldom failed, and very seldom failed also bringing home something fit to eat. Nov. 23.-My other work having now stood still, because of my making these tools, when they were finished I went on, and working every day, as my strength and time allowed, I spent eighteen days entirely in widening and deepening my cave, that it might hold my goods commodiously. Note.-During all this time, I worked to make this room or cave spacious enough to accommodate me as a warehouse, or magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and a cellar ; as for my lodging, I kept to the tent ; except that sometimes, in the wet season of the year, it rained so hard that I could not keep myself dry, which caused me afterwards to cover all my place within my pale with long poles, in the form of rafters, leaning against the rock, and _load them with flags and large leaves of trees, like a thatch. December Io.-I began now to think my cave or vault finished, when on a sudden (it seems I had made it too large) a great quantity .of earth fell down from the top and one side ; so much that, in short, it frighted me, and not without reason, too, for if I had been under it, I had never wanted a grave digger. I had now a great deal of work to do over again, for I had the loose earth to carry out ; and, which was of more importance, I had the ceiling to prop up, so that I might be sure no more would come down. Dec. II.-This day I went to work with it, and got two shores or posts pitched upright to the top, with two pieces of boards across over each post; this I finished the next day; and setting more posts up, with boards, m about a week more I had the roof secured, and the posts, standing in rows, served me for partitions to part off the house. Dec. 17.-From this day to the 20th I placed shelves, and knocked up nails on the posts, to hang everything up that could be hung up ; and now I began to be in some order within doors. Dec. 20.-Now I carried everything into the cave, and began to furnish my house, and set up some pieces of boards like a dresser, to order my victuals upon ; but boards began to be very scarce with me ; also, I made me another table. Dec. 24.-Much rain all night and all day.--No stirring out. Dec. 25.--Rain all day. Dec. 26.-No rain, and the earth much cooler than before and pleasanter. Dec. 27. -illed a young goat, and lamed another so that I caught it and led it home in a string; when I had it at home, I bound and splintered up its leg, which was broke. N.B.-I took such care of it that it lived, and the leg grew well and as strong as ever; but by my y \



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THE SHIP WRE C K. should be inevitably drowned. As to making sail, we had none, nor, if we had, could we have done anything with it; so we worked at tle oar towards the land, though with heavy hearts, like men going to execution ; for we all knew that when the boat came nearer the shore she would be dashed in a thousand pieces by the breach of the sea. However, we committed our souls to God in the most earnest manner; and the wind driving us towards the shore, we hastened our destruction with our own hands, pulling as well as we could towards land. What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether steep or shoal, we knew not; the only hope that could rationally give us the least shadow of expectation, was, if we might find some bay or gulf, or the mouth of some river, where by great chance we might have run our boat in, or got under the lee of the land, and perhaps made smooth water. But there was nothing of this appeared ; but as we made nearer and nearer the shore, the land looked more frightful than the sea. After we had rowed or rather driven about a league and a half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountaintlike, came rolling astern of us, and plainly bade us expect the coup degrace. In a word, it took us with such a fury, that it overset the boat at once; and separatingus, as well from the boat as from one another, gave us not time to say, O God !" for we were all swallowed up in a moment. Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt, when I sunk into the water; for though I swam very well, yet I could not deliver myself from the waves so as to draw breath, till that wave having driven me, or rather carried me, a vast way on towards the shore, and having spent itself, went back, and left me upon the land almost dry, but half dead with the water I took in. I had so much presence of mind, as well as breath left, that, seeing myself nearer the main land than I expected, I got upon my feet, and endeavoured to make on towards the land as fast as I could, before another wave should return and take me up again. But I soon found it was impossible to avoid it; for I saw the sea come after me as high as a great hill, and as furious as an enemy, which I had no means or strength to contend with : my business was to hold my breath, and raise myself upon the water, if I could: and so, by swimming, to preserve my breathing and pilot myself towards the shore, if possible : my greatest concern now being, that the sea, as it would carry me a great way towards the shore when it came on, might not carry me back again with it when it gave back towards the sea. The wave that came upon me again, buried me at once 20 or 30 'feet deep in its own body, and I could feel myself carried with a mighty force and swiftness towards the shore a very great way; but I held my breath, and assisted myself to swim still forward with all my



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THEY STA VE IN THE MUTINEERS' BOAT. 165 ne was perfectly at a loss what measures to take, for that there were still six-and-twenty hands on board, who, having entered into a cursed conspiracy, by which they had all forfeited their lives to the law, would be hardened in it now by desperation; and would carry it on, knowing that if they were subdued they would be brought to the gallows as soon as they came to England, or to any of the English colonies; and that, therefore, there would be no attacking them with so small a number as we were. I mused for some time upon what he had said, and found it was a very rational conclusion, and that therefore something was to be resolved on speedily, as well to draw the men on board into some snare for their surprise, as to prevent their landing upon us, and destroying us : upon this, it presently occurred to me that in a little while the ship's crew, wondering what was become of their comrades and of the boat, would certainly come on shore in their other boat to look for them, and that then, perhaps, they might come armed, and be too strong for us : this he allowe. -o be rational. Upon this, I ,old him the first thing we had to do ,was to stave the boat, which lay upon the beach, so that they might not carry her off; and taking everything out of her, leave her so far useless as not to be fit to swim ; accordingly we went on board, took the arms which were left on board out of her, and whatever else we found there, which was a bottle of brandy, and another of rum, a few biscuit-cakes, a horn of powder, and a great lump of sugar in a piece of canvas (the sugar was five or six pounds) ; all which was very welcome to me, especially the brandy and sugar, of which I had had none left for many years. When we had carried all these things on shore (the oars, mast, sail, and rudder of the boat were carried before), we knocked a great hole in her bottom, that if they had come strong enough to master us, yet they could not carry off the boat. Indeed, it was not much in my thoughts that we could be able to recover the ship ; but my view was, that if they went away without the boat, I did not much question to make her again fit to carry us to the Leeward Islands, and call upon our friends the Spaniards in my way ; for I had them still in my thoughts. While we were thus preparing our designs, and had first, by main strength, heaved the boat upon the beach, so high that the tide would not float her off at high-water mark; and besides, had broken a hole in her bottom too big to be quickly stopped, and were sat down musing what we should do, we heard the ship fire a gun, and make a waft with her ancient as a signal for the boat to come on board : but no boat stirred ; and they fired several times, making other signals for the boat. At last, when all their signals and firing 4.



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ROBINSON AND THE COLONISTS HA VE A FEAST. 247 years, and which it may be supposed they were very glad of. The Spaniards added to our feast five whole kids, which the cooks roasted: and three of them were sent, covered up close, on board the ship to the seamen, that they might feast on fresh meat from on shore, as we did with their salt meat from on board. After this feast, at which we were very innocently merry, I brought my cargo of goods; wherein, that there might be no dispute about dividing, I showed them that there was a sufficiency for them all, desiring that they might all take an equal quantity, when made.up, of the goods that were for wearing. As, first I distributed linen sufficient to make every one of them four shirts, and, at the Spaniard's request, afterwards made them up six ; these were exceeding comfortable to them, having been what they had long sinceforgot theuse of, or what it was to wear them. I allotted the thin English stuffs, which I mentioned before, to make every one a light coat, like a frock, which I judged fittest for the heat of the season, cool and loose; and ordered that whenever they decayed, they should make more, as they thought fit ; the like for pumps, shoes, stockings, hats, &c. I cannot express what pleasure sat upon the countenances of all these poor men, when they saw the care I had taken of them, and how well I had furnished them. They told me I was a fa'ther to them ; and that having such a correspondent as I was in so remote a part of the world, it would make them forget that they were left in a desolate place ; and they all voluntarily engaged to me not to leave the place without my consent. Then I presented to them the people I had brought with me, particularly the tailor, the smith, and the two carpenters, all of them most necessary people; but, above all, my general artificer, than whom they could not name anything that was more useful to them ; and: the tailor, to show his concern for them, went to work immediately, and, with my leave, made them every one a shirt, the first thing he did; and, what Was still more, he taught the women not only how to sew and stitch, and use the needle, but made them assist to make the shirts for their husbands, and for all the rest. As to the carpenters, I scarce need mention how useful they were ; for they took to pieces all my clumsy, unhandy things, and made clever convenient tables, stools, bedsteads, cupboards, lockers, shelves, and everything they wanted of that kind. Then I brought them out all my store of tools, and gave every man a digging-spade, a shovel, and a rake, for we had no harrows or plough ; and to every separate place a pickaxe, a crow, a broad axe, and a saw; always appointing, that as often as any were broken or worn. out, they should he supplied without grudging, out of the



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214 ROBINSON CRUSOE. in the former disorders, and let fall some ugly, dangerous words the second time, he threatened to carry them in irons to England, and have them hanged there for mutiny, and running away with the ship. This, it seems, though the captain did not intend to do it, frightened some other men in the ship ; and some of them had put it into the head of the rest, that the captain only gave them good words for the present, till they should come to some English port, and that then they should be all put into gaol, and tried for their lives. The mate got intelligence of this, and acquainted us with it, upon which it was desired that I, who still passed for a great man among them, should go down with the mate, and satisfy the men, and tell then thzft they might be assured, if they behaved well the rest of the voyage, all they had done for the time past should be pardoned. So I v ant, and after passing my honour's word to them, they appeared easy, and the more so when I caused the two men that were in irons to be released and forgiven. But this mutiny had brought us to an anchor for that night ; the wind also falling calm next morning, we found that our two men, who had been laid in irons, had stolen each of them v. musket, and some other weapons (what powder or shot they had we knew not), and had taken the ship's pinnace, which was not yet hauled up, and run away with her to their companions in roguery on shore. As soon as we found this, I ordered the long-boat on shore with twelve men and the mate, and away they went to seek the rogues ; but they could neither find them nor any of the rest, for they all fled into the woods when they saw the boat coming on shore. The mate having no orders, left everything as he found it, and, bringing the pinnace away, came on board without them. These two men made their number five ; but the other three villains were so much more wicked than they, that after they had been two or three days together, they turned the two new-comers out of doors to shift for themselves, and would have nothing to do with them ; nor could they, for a good while, be persuaded to give them any food : as for the Spaniards, they were not yet come. The Spaniards would have persuaded the three English brutes to have taken in their countrymen again, that, as they said, they might be all one family ; but they would not hear of it, so the two poor fellows lived by themselves ; and finding nothing but iridustry and application would make them live comfortably, they pitched their tents on the north shore of the island, but a little more to the west, to be out of danger of the savages, who always landed on the east parts of the island. Here they built two huts, one to lodge in, and the other to lay up their magazines and stores in; and the Spaniards



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CRUSOE TAKES THE SECOND BOAT. S69 uneasy, when, after a long consultation, we saw them all start upt and march down towards the sea: it seems they had such dreadful! apprehensions of the danger of the place, that they resolved to goon board the ship again, give their companions over for lost, and so, go on with their intended voyage with the ship. As soon as I perceived them go towards the shore, I imagined it to be as it really was, that they had given over their search, and were going back again; and the captain, as soon as I told him my thoughts, was ready to sink at the apprehensions of it : but I presently thought of a stratagem to fetch them back again, and which answered& my end to a tittle. I ordered Friday and the captain's mate to go( over the little creek westward, towards the place where the savages. came on shore when Friday was rescued, and so soon as they cameto a little rising ground, at about half a mile distance, I bade them halloo out, as loud as they could, and wait till they found the seamen, heard them; that as soon as ever they heard the seamen answer them, they should return it again; and then, keeping out of sight,, take a round, always answering when the others hallooed, to draw them as far into the island and among the woods as possible, andi then wheel about again to me by such ways as I directed them. They were just going into the boat when Friday and the mate hallooed ; and they presently heard them, and, answering, ran along, the shore westward, towards the voice they heard, when they were. stopped by the creek, where, the water being up, they could not geti over, and called for the boat to come up and set them over ; as, indeed, I expected. When they had set themselves over, I observed that the boat being gone a good way into the creek, and, as it were, in a harbour within the land, they took one of the three men out of her, to go along with them, and left only two in the boat, having fastened her to the stump of a little tree on the shore. This was what I wished for; and immediately leaving Friday and the captain's mate: to their business, I took the rest with me; and, crossing the creek out of their sight, we surprised the two men before they were awarerone of them lying on the shore, and the other being in the boat; thefellow on shore was between sleeping and waking, and going to start up; the captain, who was foremost, ran in upon him, and knockedi him down; and then called out to him in the boat to yield, or he was a dead man. There needed very few arguments to persuade a single man to yield, when he saw five men upon him, and his comrade knocked down ; besides, this was, it seems, one of the threewho were not so hearty in the mutiny as the rest of the crew, and therefore was easily persuaded not only to yield, but afterwards to join very sincerely with us. In the mean time Friday and the cap4



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€g ROBINSON CRUSOE. spread it very well, yet I had not the shelter of a hill to keep me from storms, nor a cave behind me to retreat into when the rains were extraordinary. About the beginning of August, as I said, I had finished my bower, and began to enjoy myself. The 3rd of August, I found the grapes I had hung up perfectly dried, and indeed excellent raisins of the sun; so I began to take them down from the trees, and it was very happy that I did so, for the rains which followed would have spoiled them, and I had lost the best part of my winter food; for I had above two hundred large bunches of them. No sooner had I taken them all down, and carried most of them home to my cave, but it began to rain ; and from hence, which was the i4th of August, it rained, more or less, every day till the middle of October; and sometimes so violently, that I could not stir out of my cave for several days. In this season, I was much surprised with the increase of my family; I had been concerned for the loss of one of my cats, who ran away from me, or, as I thought, had been dead, and I heard no more tidings of her, till, to my astonishment, she came home about the end of August, with three kittens. This was the more strange to me, because, though I had killed a wild cat, as I called it, with my gun, yet I thought it was quite a different kind from our European cats ; yet the young cats were the same kind of house-breed as the old one ; from these three cats, I afterwards came to be so pestered with cats, that I was forced to kill them like vermin, or wild beasts, and to drive them from my house as much as possible. From the i4th of August to the 26th, incessant rain, so that I could not stir, and was now very careful not to be much wet. In this confinement, I began to be straitened for food: but venturing out twice, I one day killed a goat; and the last day, which was the 26th, found a very large tortoise, which was a treat to me, and my food was regulated thus :-I ate a bunch of raisins for my breakfast; a piece of the goat's flesh, or of the turtle, for my dinner, broiled (fot, to my great misfortune, I had no vessel to boil or stew anything), and two or three of the turtle's eggs for my supper. During this confinement in my cover by the rain, I worked daily two or three hours at enlarging my cave, and by degrees worked it on towards one side, till I came to the outside of the hill, and made a door or way out, which came beyond my fence or wall; and so I came in and out this way. But I was not perfectly easy at lying so open; for, as I had managed myself before, I was in a perfect inclosure; whereas now, I thought I lay exposed; and yet I could not perceive that there was any living thing to fear, the biggest creature that I had yet seen upon the island being a goat.



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28 ROBINSON CRUSOE. In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our men early in the morning cried out, Land !" and we had no sooner ran out of the cabin to look out, in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the world we were, than the ship struck upon a sand, and in a moment, her motion being so stopped, the sea broke over her in such a manner, that we expected we should all have perished immediately ; and we were immediately driven into our close quarters, to shelter us from the very foam and spray of the sea. It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like condition to describe or conceive the consternation of men in -such circumstances: we knew nothing where we were, or upon what land it was we were driven, whether an island or the main, whether inhabited or not inhabited; and as the rage of the wind was still great, though rather less than at first, we could not so much as hope to have the ship hold many minutes without breaking in pieces, unless the winds, by a kind of miracle, 'should turn immediately aboat. In a word, we sat looking upon one another, and expecting death every moment, and every man, acting accordingly, as preparing for another world; for there was little or nothing more for us to do in this; that which was our present comfort, and all the comfort we had, was that, contrary to our-expectation, the ship did not break yet, and that the master said the wind began to abate. Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate, yet the ship having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast for us to expect her getting off, we were in a dreadful condition indeed, and had nothing to do but to think of saving our lives as well as we could. We had a boat at our stern, just before the storm, but she was first staved by dashing against the ship's rudder, and in the next place, she broke away, and either sunk, or was driven off to sea; so there was no hope from her; we had another boat on board, but how to get her off into the sea was a doubtful thing; however, there was no time to debate, for we fancied the ship would break in pieces every minute, and some told us she was actually broken already. Ig this distress, the mate of our vessel lays hold of the boat, and wits the help of the rest of the men, they got her slung over the ship's side ; and getting all into her, let go, and committed ourselves, being eleven in number, to God's mercy and the wild sea ; for though the storm was abated considerably, yet the sea went dreadfully high upon the shore, and might be well called den wild zee, as the Dutch ,call the sea in a storm. And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we all saw plainly, fhat the sea went so high that the boat could not live. and that we



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256 ROBINSON CR USO and getting some boughs of trees to cover us also in the boat, I spread the sail on the bottom of the boat, and lay under the cover of the branches of the trees all night in the boat. About two o'clock in the morning we heard one of our men make a terrible noise on the shore, calling out, for God's sake, to bring the boat in and come-and help them, for they were all like to be murdered ; at the same time, I heard the fire of five muskets, which was the number of guns they had, and that three times over; for, it seems, the natives here were not so easily frightened with guns as the savages were in America, where I had to do with them. All this while I knew not what was the matter, but rousing immediately from sleep with the noise, I caused the boat to be thrust in, and resolved, with three fusees we had on board, to land and assist our men. We got the boat soon to the shore, but our men were in too much haste; for being come to the shore, they plunged into the water, to get to the boat with all the expedition they could, being pursued by between three and four hundred men. Our men were but nine in all, and on'ly five of them had fusees with them ; the rest had pistols and swords, indeed, but they were of small use to them. We took up seven of our men, and with difficulty enough too, three of them being very ill wounded ; and that which was still worse was, that while we stood in the boat to take our men in, we were in as much danger as they were in on shore; for they poured their arrows in upon us so thick that we were glad to barricade the side of the boat up with the benches, and two or three loose boards, which, to our great satisfaction, we had by mere accident in the boat. And yet, had it been daylight, they are, it seems, such exact marksmen, that if they could have seen but the least part of any of us, they would have been sure of us. We had, by the light of the moon, a little sight of them, as they stood pelting us from the shore with darts and arrows; and having got ready our fire-arms, we gave them a volley, that we could hear, by the cries of some of them, had wounded several; however, they stood thus in battle array on the shore till break of day, which we supposed was that they might see the better to take their aim at us. In this condition we lay, and could not tell how to weigh our anchor, or set up our sail, because we must needs stand up in the boat, and they were as sure to hit us as we were to hit a bird in a tree with small shot. We made signals of distress to the ship, and, though she rode a league off, yet my nephew, the captain, hearing our firing, and by glasses perceiving the posture we lay in, and that we fired towards the shore, pretty well understood us ; and weighing anchor with all speed, he stood as near the shore as he durst with





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THE SA VAGES DEFEA TED. 243 desperately. They divided the fire-arms equally in each party, as well as the halberts and staves. They would have had the women keep back, but they said they were resolved to die with their husbands. Having thus formed their little army, they marched out from among the trees, and came up to the teeth of the enemy, shouting and hallooing as loud as they could; the savages stood all together, but were in the utmost confusion, hearing the noise of our men shouting from three quarters together: they would have fought if they had seen us ; for as soon as we came near enough to be seen, some arrows were shot, and poor old Friday was wounded, though not dangerously. But our men gave them no time, but running up to them, fired among them three ways, and then fell in with the butt ends of their muskets, their swords, armed staves, and hatchets, and laid about them so well, that, in a word, they set up a dismal screaming and howling, flying to save their lives which way soever they could. Our men were tired with the execution, and killed or mortally wounded in the two fights about one hundred and eighty of them; the rest, being frighted out of their wits, scoured through the woods and over the hills, with all the speed that fear and nimble feet could help them to ; and as we did not trouble ourselves much to pursue them, they got all together to the sea-side, where they landed, and where their canoes lay. But their disaster was not at an end yet ; for it blew a terrible storm of wind that evening from the sea, so that it was impossible for them to go off; nay, the storm continuing all night, when the tide came up, their canoes were most of them driven by the surge of the sea so high upon the shore that it required infinite toil to get them off; and some of them were even dashed to pieces against the beach. Our men, though glad of their victory, yet got little rest that night; but having refreshed themselves as well as they could, they resolved to march to that part of the island where the savages were fled, and see what posture they were in. At length they came in view of the place where the more considerable remains of the savages' army lay, where there appeared about Ioo still ; their posture was generally sitting upon the ground, with their knees up towards their mouth, and the head put between the two hands, leaning down upon their knees. When our men came within two musket shots of them, the Spaniard governor ordered two muskets to be fired, without ball, to alarm them; this he did, that by their countenance he might know what to expect, whether they were still in heart to fight, or were so heartily beaten as to be discouraged, and so he might manage accordingly. This stratagem took : for as soon as the savages heard the first gun, and saw the flash of the second, they started up upon their feet in the greatest consternation R2 4



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THE AMUTINEEZRS PUT TO SEA. 22. committed, brought mischief enough upon them, and had very near been the ruin of the whole colony; the three new associates began, it seems, to be weary of the laborious life they led, and that without hope of bettering their circumstances : and a whim took* them that they would make a voyage to the continent, from whence the savages came, and would try if they could seize upon somt prisoners among the natives there, and bring them home, so as to make them do the laborious part of the work for them. The project was not so preposterous, if they had gone no further. But they did nothing, and proposed nothing, but had either mischief in the design, or mischief in the event. The three fellows came down to the Spaniards one morning, and in very humble terms desired to be admitted to speak with them. The Spaniards very readily heard what they had to say, which was this :-that they were tired of living in the manner they did, and that they were not handy enough to make the necessaries they wanted; and that having no help, they found they should be starved ; but if the Spaniards would give them leave to take one of the canoes which they came over in, and give them arms and ammunition proportioned to their defence, they would go over to the main, and seek their fortunes, and so deliver them from the trouble of supplying them with any other provisions. The Spaniards were glad enough to get rid of them ; but yet very honestly represented to them the certain destruction they were running into ; told them they had suffered such hardships upon that very spot, that they could, without any spirit of prophecy, tell them they would be starved or murdered, and bade them consider of it. The men replied audaciously, they should be starved if they stayed here, for they could not work, and would not work. The Spaniards told them, with great kindness, that if they were resolved to go, they should not go like naked men, and be in no condition to defend themselves ; and that though they could ill spare fire-arms, not having enough for themselves, yet they would let them have two muskets, a pistol, and a cutlass, and each man a hatchet, which they thought was sufficient for them. In awoid, theyaccepted the offer; and, having baked bread enough to serve them a month given them, and as much goat's flesh as they could eat while it wa sweet, with a great basket of dried grapes, a pot of fresh water, and a young kid alive, they boldly set out in the canoe for a voyage over the sea, where it was at least forty miles broad. The boat, indeed, was a large one, and would have very well carried fifteen or twenty men, and therefore was rather too big for them to manage: but as they had a fair breeze and flood-tide with them, they did well



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PART II. HAT homely proverb, used on so many occasions in England, viz. "That what is bred in the bone will not go out of the flesh," was never more verified than in the story of my Life. Any one would think that after thirty-five years' affliction, and a variety of unhappy circumstances, which few men, if any, ever went through before, and after near seven years of peace and enjoyment in the fulness of all things ; grown old, and when, if ever, it might be allowed me to have had experience of every state of middle life, and to know which was most adapted to make a man completely happy ; I say, after all this, any one would have thought that the native propensity to rambling, which I gave an account of in my first setting out in the world to have been so predominant in my thoughts, should be worn out, and I might, at sixty-one years of age, have been a little inclined to stay at home, and have done venturing life and fortune any more. I had nothing, indeed, to do but to sit still, and fully enjoy what I had got, and see it increase daily upon my hands. Yet this had no effect upon me, or at least not enough to resist the strong inclination I had to go abroad again, which hung about me like a chronical distemper; particularly the desire of seeing my new plantation in the island, and the colony I left there, ran in my head continually. I dreamed of it all night, and my imagination run upon it all day : it was uppermost in all my thoughts; and my fancy worked so steadily and strongly upon it, that I talked of it in my sleep; in short, nothing could remove it out of my mind: it even broke so violently into all my discourses, that it made my conversation tiresome ; for I could talk of nothing else, all my discourse ran into it, even to impertinence, and I saw it myself. In this kind,of temper I lived some years ; I had no enjoyment of my life, no pleasant hours, no agreeable diversion, but what had something or other of this in it. I was like a ship without a pilot, that could only run afore the wind; my thoughts ran all away again into the old affair ; my head



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CRUSOE MADE A SLA VE. i which yielded me in London, at my return, almost £300 ; and this filled me with those aspiring thoughts which have since so completed my ruin. I was now set up for a Guinea trader ; and my friend, to my great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go the same voyage again, and I embarked in the same vessel with one who was his mate in the former voyage, and had now got the command of the ship. This was the unhappiest voyage that ever man made; for though I did not carry quite £1oo of my new-gained wealth, so that I had £200 left, which I had lodged with my friend's widow, who was very just to me, yet I fell into terrible misfortunes ; and the first .was this-our ship making her course towards the Canary Islands, or rather between those Islands and the African shore, was surprised in the grey of the morning by a Turkish rover of Sallee, who gave chase to us with all the sail she could make. We crowded also as much canvas as our yards would spread, or our masts carry to have got clear; but finding the pirate gained upon us, and would certainly come up with us in a few hours, we prepared to fight; our ship having twelve guns, and the rogue eighteen. About three in the afternoon he came up with us, and bringing to, by mistake, just athwart our quarter, instead of athwart our stern, as he intended, we brought eight of our guns to bear on that side, and poured in a broadside upon him, which made him sheer off again, after returning our fire, and pouring in also his small shot from near two hundred men whicL he: had on board. However, we had not a man touched, all our men keeping close. He prepared to attack us again, and we to defend ourselves; but laying us on board the next time upon our other quarter, he entered sixty men upon our decks, who immediately fell to cutting and hacking the decks and rigging. We plied them with small shot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and such like, and cleared our deck of them twice. However, to cut short this melancholy part of our story, our ship being disabled, and three of our men killed, and eight wounded, we were obliged to yield, and were carried all prisoners into Sallee, a port belonging to the Moors. The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I apprehended, nor was I carried up the country to the emperor's court, as the rest of our men were, but was kept by the captain of the rover as his proper prize, and made his slave, being young and nimble, and fit for his business. At this surprising change of my circumstances, from a merchant to a miserable slave, I was perfectly overwhelmed; and now I looked back upon my father's prophetic discourse to me, that I should be miserable and have none to relieve me, which I thought was now so effectually brought to pass, that I could not be 4



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1o4 ROBINSON CRUSOE. they had never thought fit to fix here upon any occasion to this time. That the most I could suggest any danger from was, from any casual accidental landing of straggling people from the main, who, as it was likely, if they were driven hither, were here against their wills; so they made no stay here, but went off again with all possible speed, seldom staying one night on shore, lest they should not have the help of the tides and daylight back again; and that, therefore, I had nothing to do but to consider of some safe retreat, in case I should see any savages land upon the spot. Now I began sorely to repent that I had dug my cave so large as to bring a door through again, which door, as I said, came out beyond where my fortification joined to the rock: upon maturely considering this, therefore, I resolved to draw me a second fortification, in the manner of a semicircle, at a distance from my wall, just where I had planted a double row of trees about twelve years before, of which I made mention: these trees having been planted so thick before, they wanted but few piles to be driven between them, that they might be thicker and stronger, and my wall would be soon finished. So that I had now a double wall; and my outer wall was thickened with pieces of timber, old cables, and everything I could think of, to make it strong; having in it seven little holes, about as ,big as I might put my arm out at. In the inside of this, I thickened my wall to about ten feet thick, with continually bringing earth out of my cave, and laying it at the foot of the wall, and walking upon it; and through the seven holes I contrived to plant the muskets, of which I took notice that I had got seven on shore out of the ship these I planted like my cannon, and fitted them into frames, that held them like a carriage, so that I could fire all the seven guns in two minutes' time; this wall I was many a weary month in finishing, and yet never thought myself safe till it was done. When this was done, I stuck all the ground without my wall, for a great length every way, as full with stakes or sticks of the osier-like wood, which I found so apt to grow, as they could well stand; insomuch, that I believe I might set in near twenty thousand of them leaving a pretty large space between them and my wall, that I might have room to see an enemy, and they might have no shelter from the young trees, if they attempted to approach my outer wall. Thus, in two years' time, I had a thick grove, and in five or six years time I had a wood before my dwelling, growing so monstrously thick and strong that it was indeed perfectly impassable; and no men, of what kind soever, could ever imagine that there was anything beyond it, much less a habitation. As for the way which I proposed to myself to go in and out (for I left no avenue), it was by setting two



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CRUSOE REACHES THE ISLANAD. 209 she would be very thankful for it, let us carry them where we would. The surgeon represented the case so affectionately to me that I yielded, and we took them both on board, with all their goods. I was now in the latitude of 190 32', and had hitherto a tolerable voyage as to weather, though, at first, the winds had been contrary. I shall trouble nobody with the little incidents of wind, weather, currents, &c., on the rest of our voyage ; but, to shorten my story, shall observe that I came to my old habitation, the island, on the ioth of April, 1695. As soon as I saw the place, I called for Friday, and asked him if he knew where he was? He looked about a little, and presently clapping his hands, cried, "0 yes, O there, O yes) O there !" pointing to our old habitation, and fell a dancing and capering like a mad fellow; and I had much ado to keep him from jumping into the sea, to swim ashore to the place. "Well, Friday," said I, "do you think we shall find anybody here or no? and what do you think, shall we see your father ?" The fellow stood mute as a stcck a good while; but, when I named his. father, the poor affectionate creature looked dejected, and I could see the tears run down his face very plentifully. What is the matter, Friday?" said I, "are you troubled because you may see your father ?"-" No, no," says he, shaking his head, no see him more: no, ever more see again." "Why so," said I, "Friday? how do you know that ?"-" O no, O no," says Friday, "he long ago die; long ago, he much old man." "Well, well," said I, Friday, you don't know; but shall we see any one else then?" The fellow, it seems, had better eyes than I, and he points to the hill just above my old house ; and though we lay half a league off, he cries out, Me see, me see, yes, yes, me see much man there, and there, and there." I looked, but I saw nobody, no, not with a perspective glass ; which was, I suppose, because I could not hit the place; for the fellow was right, as I found upon inquiry the next day, and there were five or six men all together, who stood to look at the ship, not knowing what to think of us. As soon as Friday told me he saw people, I caused the English ancient to be spread, and fired three guns, to give them notice we were friends ; and in about a quarter of an hour after we perceived a smoke arise from the side of the creek; so I immediately ordered the boat out, taking Friday with me, and, hanging out a white flag, or a flag of truce, I went directly on shore, taking with me the young friar I mentioned, to whom I had told the whole story of my living there, and the manner of it and every particular, both of myself and those I left there, and who was, on that account, extremely desirous to go with me. We had, beides, about sixteen men very well 4



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CRUSOE PRA YS. 63 often upon my thoughts ; but, however, the words made a very great impression upon me, and I mused upon them very often. It grew now late, and the tobacco had, as I said, dozed my head so much that I inclined to sleep ; so I left my lamp burning in the cave, lest I should want anything in the night, and went to bed ; but before I lay down, I did what I never had done in all my life-I kneeled down, and prayed to God to fulfil the promise to me, that if I called upon him in the day of trouble, he would deliver me. After my broken and imperfect prayer was over, I drank the rum in which I had steeped the tobacco, which was so strong and rank of the tobacco that I could scarcely get it down. Immediately upon this I went to bed, and I found presently it flew up into my head violently; but I fell into a sound sleep, and waked no more till, by the sun, it must necessarily be near three o'clock in the afternoon the next day ; nay, to this hour I am partly of opinion that I slept all the next day and night, and till almost three the day after; for otherwise, I know not how I should lose a day out of my reckoning in the days of the week, as it appeared some years after I had done; for if I had lost it by crossing and recrossing the Line, I should have lost more than a day; but in my account it was lost, and I never knew which way. Be that, however, one way or other, when I awaked I found myself exceedingly refreshed, and my spirits lively and cheerful. When I got up I was stronger than I was the day before, and my stomach better, for I was hungry; and, in short, I had no fit the next day, but continued much altered for the better. This was the 29th. The 3oth was my well day, of course, and I went abroad with my gun, but did not care to travel too far: I killed a sea-fowl or two, something like a brand goose, and brought them home, but was not very forward to eat them; so I eat some more of the turtle's eggs, which were very good. This evening I renewed the medicine, which I had supposed did me good the day before, viz., the tobacco steeped in rum ; only I did not take so much as before, nor did I chew any of the leaf, or hold my head over the smoke ; however, I was not so well the next day, which was the first of July, as I hoped I should have been ; for I had a little spice of the cold fit, but it was not much. July 2.-I renewed the medicine all the three ways; and dosed myself with it as at first, and doubled the quantity which I drank. Jdly 3.-I missed the fit for good and all, though I did not recover my full strength for some weeks after. While I was thus gathering strength my thoughts ran exceedingly upon this scripture, I will deliver thee;" and the impossibility of my deliverance lay much upon my mind, in bar of my ever expecting it : but as I was discouraging myself with such thoughts, it occurred to my mind that



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238 ROBINSON CRUSOE. to them, by gestures and signs, for his life, but could not say one word to them that they could understand. However, they made signs for him to sit down at the foot of a tree there by; and one of the Englishmen, with a piece of rope-yarn, which he had by great chance in his pocket, tied his feet fast together and his hands behind him, and there they left him; and with what speed they could, made after the other two, which were gone before, fearing they, or any more of them, should find their way to their covered place in the woods, where their wives, and the few goods they had left, lay: they came once in sight of the two men, but it was at a great distance: however, they had the satisfaction to see them cross over a valley towards the sea, quite the contrary way from that which led to their retreat, which they were afraid of; and being satisfied with that, they went back to the tree where they left their prisoner, who, as they supposed, was delivered by his comrades, for he was gone, and the two pieces of rope-yarn, with which they had bound him, lay just at the foot of the tree. They were now in as great concern as before, not knowing what course to take, or how near the enemy might be, or in what number; so they resolved to go away to the place where their wives were, to see if all was well there, and to make them easy, who were in fright enough, to be sure; for though the savages were their own countrymen, yet they were most terribly afraid of them, and perhaps the more for the knowledge they had of them. When they came thither, they found the savages had been in the wood, and very near that place, but had not found it; for it was indeed inaccessible, from the trees standing so thick, unless the persons seeking it had been directed by those that knew it, which these were not; they found, therefore, everything very safe, only the women in a terrible fright; while they were here, they had the comfort to have seven of the Spaniards coming to their assistance; the other ten, with their servants, and Friday's father, were gone in a body to defend their bower, and the corn and cattle that were kept there, in case the savages should have roved over to that side of the country, but they did not spread so far. With the seven Spaniards came one of the three savages, who, as I said, were their prisoners formerly; and with them also came the savage whom the Englishman had left bound hand and foot at the tree; for it seems they came that way, saw the slaughter of the seven men, and unbound the eighth, and brought him along with them; where, however, they were obliged to bind him again, as they had the two otters who were left when the third ran away. The prisoners began now to be a burden to them; and they were so afraid of their escaping, that they were once resolving to kill them



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188 ROBINSON CRUSOE. seen,; but, on a sudden, turning to his left, he approached the mountains another way; and though it is true the hili; and precipices looked dreadful, yet he made so many tours, such meanders, and led us by such winding ways, that we insensibly passed the height of the mountains without being much encumbered with the snow; and all on a sudden he showed us the pleasant and fruitful provinces of Languedoc and Gascony, all green and flourishing; though, indeed, at a great distance, and we had some rough way to pass still. We were a little uneasy, however, when we found it snowed one whole day and night so fast that we could not travel; but he bid us be easy; we should soon be past it all: we found, indeed, that we began to descend every day, and to come more north than before; and so, depending upon our guide, we went on. It was about two hours before night, when, our guide being something before us, and not just in sight, out rushed three monstrous wolves, and after them a bear, from a hollow way adjoining to a thick wood: two of the wolves flew upon the guide, and had he been half a mile before us, he would have been devoured before we could have helped him; one of them fastened upon his horse, and the other attacked the man with such violence, that he had not time or presence of mind enough to draw his pistol; but hallooed and cried out most lustily. My man Friday being next me, I bade him ride up, and see what was the matter. As soon as Friday came in sight of the man, he hallooed out as loud as the other, O master O master !" but like a bold fellow, rode directly up to the poor man, and with his pistol shot the wolf that attacked him in the head. It was happy for the poor man that it was my man Friday; for, having been used to such creatures in his country, he had no fear upon him, but went close up to him and shot him; whereas, any "other of us would have fired at a farther distance, and have peri haps either missed the wolf, or endangered shooting the man. But it was enough to have terrified a bolder man than I ; and, indeed, it alarmed all our company, when, with the noise of Friday's pistol, we heard on both sides the most dismal howlings of wolves and the noise redoubled by the echo of the mountains, appeared to us as if there had been a prodigious multitude of them ; and perhaps indeed there was not such a few as that we had no cause for apprehensions. However, as Friday had killed this wolf, the other that had fastened upon the horse left him immediately, and fled, having happily fastened upon his head, where the bosses of the bridle had stuck in his teeth, so that he had not done him much hurt; the man, indeed, was most hurt; for the raging creature had bit him twice, once in the arm, and the other time a little above his knee; and he 4.



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CRUSOE VISITS THE SPANISH VWRECK. 12 rent on the south side had done before, so as to take from me all government of the boat; but having a strong steerage with my paddle, I went, at a great rate, directly for the wreck, and in less, than two hours I came up to it. It was a dismal sight to look at: the ship, which, by its building, was Spanish, stuck fast, jammed in between two rocks; all the stern and quarter of her was beaten to pieces with the sea; and as her forecastle which stuck in the rocks, had run on with great violence, her mainmast and foremast were brought by the board ; that is to say, broken short off; but her bowsprit was sound, and the head and bow appeared firm ; when I came close to her, a dog appeared upon her, who, seeing me coming, yelped and cried ; and as soon as I called him, jumped into the sea to come to me, and I took him into the boat, but found him almost dead with hunger and thirst ; I gave him a cake of my bread, and he eat it like a ravenous wolf, that had been starving a fortnight in the snow; I then gave the poor creature some fresh water, with which, if I would have let him, he would have burst himself. After this I went on board ; but the first sight I met with was two men drowned in the cook-room, or forecastle of the ship, with their arms fast about one another: I concluded, as is indeed probable, that when the ship struck, it being in a storm, the sea broke so high and so continually over her, that the men were not able to bear it, and were strangled with the constant rushing in of the water, as much as if they had been under water. Besides th. dog, there was nothing left in the ship that had life; nor any goods;, that I could see, but what were spoiled by the water. There were some casks of liquor, whether wine or brandy I knew not, which lay lower in the hold, and which, the water being ebbed out, I could see ; but they were too big to meddle with : I saw several chests, which, I believe, belonged to some of the seamen; and I got two of them into the boat, without examining what was in them. Had the stern of the ship been fixed, and the forepart broken off, I am persuaded I might have made a good voyage; for, by what I found in these two chests, I had room to suppose the ship had a great deal of wealth on board ; and if I may guess from the course she steered, she must have been b9und from Buenos Ayres, or the Rio de la Plata, in the south part of America, beyond the Brazils to the Havannah, in the Gulf of Mexico, and so perhaps to Spain; she had, no doubt, a great treasure in her, but of no use, at that time, to anybody; and what became of her people I then knew not. I found, besides these chests, a little cask full of liquor, of about twerty gallons, which I got into my boat with much difficulty ; there were several muskets in the cabin, and a great powder-horn,



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92 ROBINSON CRUSOE. slanting north-west ; and in about an hour came within about'a mile of the shore, where it being smooth water, I soon got to land. When I was on shore, I fell on my knees, and gave God thanks for my deliverance, and refreshing myself with such things as I had, I brought my boat close to the shore, in a little cove that I had spied under some trees, and laid me down to sleep, being quite spent with the labour and fatigue of the voyage. I was now at a great loss which way to get home with my boat : I had run so much hazard, and knew too much of the case, to think of attempting it by the way I went out; and what might be at the other side (I mean the west side) I knew not, nor had I any mind to run any more ventures : so I only resolved in the morning to make my way westward along the shore, and to see if there was no creek where I might lay up my frigate in safety, so as to have her again, if I wanted her. In about three miles, or thereabout, coasting the shore, I came to a very good inlet or bay about a mile over, which narrowed till it came to a very little rivulet or brook, where I found a very convenient harbour for my boat, and where she lay as if she, had been in a little dock made on purpose for her. Here I put in, and having stowed my boat very safe, I went on shore to look about me, and see where I was. I soon found I had but a little passed by the place where I had been before, when I travelled on foot to that shore; so taking nothing out of my boat but my gun and umbrella, for it was exceedingly hot, I began my march. The way was comfortable enough after such a voyage as I had been upon, and I reached my old bower in the evening, where I found everything standing as I left it ; for I always kept it in good order, being, as I said before, my countryhouse. I got over the fence, and laid me down in the shade to rest my limbs, for I was very weary, and fell asleep; but judge you, if you can, that read my story, what a surprise I must be in when I was awaked out of my sleep by a voice, calling me by my name several times, Robin, Robin, Robin Crusoe: poor Robin Crusoe Where are you, Robin Crusoe ? Where are you? Where have you been?" I was so dead asleep at first, being fatigued with rowing, or paddling as it is called, the first part of the day, and with walking the latter part, that I did not wake thoroughly; but dozing between sleeping and waking, thought I dreamed that somebody spoke to me; but as the voice continued to repeat, Robin Crusoe, Robin Crusoe, at last I began to wake more perfectly, and was at first dreadfully frightened, and started up in the utmost consternation; but no sooner were my eyes open, but I saw my Poll sitting on the top of the hedge ; and immediately knew that it was he that spoke



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o ROBINSON CRUSOE. about twice as long, and lay like a green before my door, and, at the. end of it descended irregularly every way down into the low grounds by the sea-side. It was on the N.N.W. side of the hill, so that I was sheltered from the heat every day, till it came to a W. and by S. sun, or thereabouts, which, in those countries, is near the setting. Before I set up my tent I drew a half-circle before the hollow place, which took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter, from the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter, from its beginning and ending. In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving them into the ground till they stood very firm like piles, the biggest end being out of the ground above five feet and a half, and sharpened on the top; "the two rows did not stand above six inches from one another. Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship, and laid them in rows, one upon another, within the circle, between these two rows of stakes, up to the top, placing other stakes in the inside, leaning against them, about two feet and a half high, like a spur to a post; and this fence was so strong, that neither man nor beast could get into it or over it; this cost me a great deal of time and labour, especially to cut the piles in the woods, bring them to the place, and drive them into the earth. The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a door, but by a short ladder to go over the top ; which ladder, when I was in, I lifted over after me; and so I was completely fenced in and fortified,. as I thought, from all the world, and consequently slept secure in the night, which otherwise I could not have done; though, as it appeared afterwards, there was no need of all this caution from the enemies that I apprehended danger from. Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labour, I carried all my riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which you have the account above; and I made a large tent, which, to preserve me from the rains, that in one part of the year are very violent there, I 'made double, one smaller tent within, and one larger tent above it; and covered the uppermost with a large tarpaulin, which I had saved among the sails. And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which I had brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was indeed a very good one, and belonged to the mate of the ship. Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything that would spoil by the wet; and having thus enclosed all my goods, I made up the entrance, which till now I had left open, and so passed and repassed, as I said, by a short ladder. When I had done this, I began to work my way into the rock, and bringing.all the earth and stones that I dug down out through my tent, I laid them up within my fence, in the nature of a terrace, so



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30 ROBINSON CRUSOE. might. I was ready to burst with holding my breath, when, as I felt myself rising up, so, to my immediate relief, I found my head and hands shoot out above the surface of the water; and though it was not two seconds of time that I could keep myself so, yet it relieved me greatly, gave me breath and new courage. -I was covered again with water a good while, but not so long but I held it out; and, finding the water had spent itself and began to return, I struck forward against the return of the waves, and felt ground again with my feet. I stood still a few moments to recover breath and till the waters went from me, and then took to my heels and ran, with what strength I had, further towards the shore. But neither would this deliver me from the fury of the sea, which came pouring in after me again; and twice more I was lifted up by the waves and carried forwards as before, the shore being very flat. The last time of these two had well-near been fatal to me; for the sea having hurried me along, as before, landed me, or rather dashed me, against a piece of a rock, and that with such force, as it left me senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my own deliverance; for the blow taking my side and breast, beat the breath, as it were, quite out of my body; and had it returned again immediately, I must have been strangled in the water ; but I recovered a little before the return of the waves, and seeing I should be covered again with the water, I resolved to hold fast by a piece of the rock, and so to hold my breath, if possible, till the wave went back. Now, as the waves were not so high as at first, being nearer land, I held my hold till the wave abated, and then fetched another run, which brought me so near the shore, that the next wave, though it went over me, yet did not so swallow me up as to carry me away; and the next run I took, I got to the main land, where, to my great comfort, I clambered up the cliffs of the shore, and sat me down upon the grass, free from danger and quite out of the reach of the water. I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to look up and thank God that my life was saved, in a case wherein there was, some minutes before, scarce any room to hope. I believe it is impossible to express, to the life, what the ecstasies and transports of the soul are, when it is so saved, as I may say, out of the very grave. I walked about on the shore lifting up my hands, and my whole being, as I may say, wrapt up in a contemplation of my deliverance ; making a thousand gestures and motions, which I cannot describe reflecting upon all my comrades that were drowned, and that thern should not be one soul saved but myself; for, as for them, I never saw them afterwards, or any sign of them, except three of their hats, one eap, and two shoes that were not fellows.



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CRUSOE'S HORROR OF THE CANNIBALS. 107 the horrid spectacle; my stomach grew sick, and I was just at the point of fainting, when nature discharged the disorder from my stomach; a'nd having vomited with uncommon violence, I was a little relieved, but could not bear to stay in the place a moment; so I gat me up the hill again with all the speed I could, and walked on towards my own habitation. When I came a little out of that part of the island, I stood still awhile, as amazed, and then, recovering myself, I looked up with the utmost affection of my soul, and, with a flood of tears in my eyes, gave God thanks, that had cast my first lot in a part of the world where I was distinguished from such dreadful creatures as these; and that, though I had esteemed my present condition very miserable, had yet given me so many comforts in it that I had still more to give thanks for than to complain of: and this, above all, that I had, even in this miserable condition, been comforted with the knowledge of Himself, and the hope of His blessing, which was a felicity more than sufficiently equivalent to all the misery which I had suffered, or could suffer. In this frame of thankfulness, I went home to my castle, and began to be much easier now, as to the safety of my circumstances, than ever I was before : for I observed that these wretches never came to this island in search of what they could get ; perhaps not seeking, not wanting, or not expecting, anything here ; and having often, no doubt, been up the covered, woody part of it, without finding anything to their purpose. I knew I had been here now almost eighteen years, and never saw the least footsteps of human creature there before ; and I might be eighteen years more as entirely concealed as I was now, if I did not discover myself to them, which I had no manner of occasion to do ; it being my only business to keep myself entirely concealed where I was, unless I found a better sort of creatures than cannibals to make myself known to. Yet I entertained such an abhorrence of the savage wretches that I have been speaking of, and of the wretched inhuman custom of their devouring and eating one another up, that I continued pensive and sad, and kept close within my own circle, for almost two years after this : when I say my own circle, I mean by it my three plantations, viz. my castle, my country-seat (which I called my bower), and my inclosure in the woods : nor did I look after this for any other use than as an inclosure for my goats ; for the aversion which nature gave me to these hellish wretches was such, that I was as fearful of seeing them as of seeing the devil himself. I did not so much as go to look after my boat all this time, but began rather to think of making another; for I could not think of ever making any more attempts to bring the



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CRUSOES COUNTRY HOUSE. 67 coming to my heap of grapes, which were so rich and fine when I gathered them, to find them all spread about,,trod to pieces, and dragged about, some here, some there, and abundance eaten and devoured. By this, I concluded there were some wild creatures thereabouts, which had done this; but what they were I knew not. However, as I found there was no laying them up on heaps, and no carrying them away in a sack, but that one way they would be destroyed, and the other way they would be crushed with their own weight, I took another course; for I gathered a large quantity of the grapes, and hung them upon the out branches of the trees, that they might cure and dry in the sun ; and as for the limes and lemons, I carried as many back as I could well stand under. When I came home from this journey, I contemplated with great pleasure the fruitfulness of that valley, and the pleasantness of the situation; the security from storms on that side, the water, and the wood: and concluded that I had pitched upon a place to fix my abode, which was by far the worst part of the country. Upon the whole, I began to consider of removing my habitation, and looking out for a place equally safe as where now I was situated, if possible, in that pleasant, fruitful part of the island. This thought ran long in my head, and I was exceeding fond of it for some time, the pleasantness of the place tempting me ; but when I came to a nearer view of it, I considered that I was now by the seaside, where it was at least possible that something might happen to my advantage, and, that the same ill-fate that brought me hither, might bring some other unhappy wretches to the same place; and though it was scarce probable that any such thing should ever happen, yet to inclose myself among the hills and woods in the centre of the island, was to anticipate my bondage, and to render such an affair not only improbable, but impossible ; and that therefore I ought not by any means to remove. However, I was so enamoured of this place, that I spent much of my time there for the whole of the remaining part of the month of July; and though, upon second thoughts, I resolved not to remove, yet I built me a little kind of a bower, and surrounded it at a distance with a strong fence, being a double hedge, as high as I could reach, well staked, and filled between with brushwood; and here I lay very secure, sometimes two or three nights together; always going over it with a ladder as before; so that I fancied now I had my country house and my sea-coast house; and this work took me up to the beginning of August. SI had but newly finished my fence, and began to enjoy my labour, but the rains came on, and made me stick close to my first habitation; for though I made me a tent like the other, with a piece of a sail, and F2 4.



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172 ROBINSON CRUSOE. him, and at length upon the further wickedness of their design, and how certainly it must bring them to misery and distress in the end, and perhaps to the gallows, They all appeared very penitent, and begged hard for their lives. As for that, he told them they were not his prisoners, but the commander's of the island; that they thought they had set him on shore in a barren, uninhabited island; but it had pleased God so to direct them, that it was inhabited, and that the governor was an Englishman; that he might hang them all there, if he pleased; but, as he had given them all quarter, he supposed he would send them to England, to be dealt with there as justice required, except Atkins, whom he was commanded by the governor to advise to prepare for death; for that he would be hanged in the morning. Though this was all but a fiction of his own, yet it had its desired effect; Atkins fell upon his knees, to beg the captain to intercede with the governor for his life; and all the rest begged of him, for God's sake, that they might not be sent to England. It now occurred to me, that the time of our deliverance was come, and that it would be a most easy thing to bring these fellows in to be hearty in getting possession of the ship; so I retired in the dark from them, that they might not see what kind of a governor they had, and called the captain to me; when I called, as at a good distance, one of the men was ordered to speak again, and say to the captain, "Captain, the commander calls for you;" and presently the captain replied, "Tell his Excellency I am just a-coming." This more perfectly amused them, and they all believed that the commander was just by, with his fifty men. Upon the captain coming to me, I told him my project for seizing the ship, which he liked wonderfully well, and resolved to put it in execution the next morning. But, in order to execute it with more art, and to be secure of success, I told him we must divide the prisoners, and that he should go and take Atkins, and two more of the worst of them, and send them pinioned to the cave where the others lay: this was committed to Friday and the two men who came on shore with the captain. They conveyed them to the cave as to a prison; and it was, indeed, a dismal place, especially to men in their condition. The others I ordered to my bower, as I called it, of which I have given a full description; and as it was fenced in, and they pinioned, the place was secure enough, considering they were upon their behaviour. To these in the morning I sent the captain, who was to enter into a parley with them; in a word, to try them, and tell me whether he thought they might be trusted or not to go on board and surprise the ship. He talked to them of the injury done him, of the condi-



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THE SA VAGES QUIT THE ISLAND. 239 all, believing they were under an absolute necessity to do so for their own preservation; however, the Spaniard governor would not consent to it, but ordered, for the present, that they should be sent out of the way, to my old cave in the valley, and be kept there, with two Spaniards to guard them, and have food for their subsistence, which was done ; and they were bound there hand and foot for that night. When the Spaniards came, the two Englishmen were so encouraged, that they could not satisfy themselves to stay any longer there; but taking five of the Spaniards, and themselves, with four muskets and a pistol among them, and two stout quarter-staves, away they went in quest of the savages ; and first they came to the tree where the men lay that had been killed; but it was easy to see that some more of the savages had been there, for they had attempted to carry their dead men away, and had dragged two of them a good way, but had given it over; from thence they advanced to the first rising ground, where they had stood and seen their camp destroyed, and where they had the mortification still to see some of the smoke; but neither could they here see any of the savages ; they then res\ 'ved, though with all possible caution, to go forward towards their r 'ned plantation; but, a little before they came thither, coming in -ight of the sea-shore, they saw plainly the savages all embarked again in their canoes, in order to be gone. They seemed sorry at first, that there was no way to come at them, to give them a parting blow; but, upon the whole, they were very well satisfied to be rid of them. The poor Englishmen being now twice ruined, and all their improvements destroyed, the rest all agreed to come and help them to rebuild, and assist them with needful supplies. Their three countrymen, who were not yet noted for having the least inclination to do any good, yet as soon as they heard of it (for they, living remote eastward, knew nothing of the matter till all was over), came and offered their help and assistance, and did, very friendly, work for several days to restore their habitation, and make necessaries for them. And thus in a little time they were set upon their legs again. About two days after this they had the further satisfaction of seeing three of the savages' canoes come driving on shore, and, at some distance from them, two drowned men, by which they had reason to believe that they had met with a storm at sea, which had overset some of them, for it had blown very hard the night after they went off. However, as some might miscarry, so, on the other hand, enough of them escaped to inform the rest, as well of what they had done as of what had happened to them; and to whet them on to another enterprise of the same nature. 4.



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CL T2 ROBINSON CRUSOE. of smoke. But this is by the bye. While I was cutting down some wood here, I perceived that, behind a very thick branch of low brush-wood or underwood, there was a kind of hollow place : I was curious ?to look into it; and getting with difficulty into the mouth of it, I found it was pretty large, that is to say, sufficient for me to stand aipright in it, and perhaps another with me ; but I must confess to you that I made more haste out than I did in, when looking farther into the place, and which was perfectly dark, I saw two broad shin'ing eyes of some creature, whether devil or man I knew not, which twinkled like two stars; the dim light from the cave's mouth shining ,directly in, and making the reflection. However, after some pause, I recovered myself, and began to call myself a thousand fools, and tell myself that he that was afraid to see the devil, was not fit to live twenty years in an island all alone ; and that I durst to believe there ,was nothing in this cave that was more frightful than myself ; upon this, plucking up my courage, I took up a firebrand, and in I rushed .again, with the stick flaming in my hand : I had not gone three steps in, before I was almost as much frighted as I was before ; for I heard a very loud sigh, like that of a man in some pain, and it was followed by a broken noise, as of words half expressed, and then a deep sigh again. I stepped back, and was indeed struck with such a surprise that it put me into a cold sweat, and if I had had a hat on my head, I will not answer for it that my hair might not have lifted it off. But still plucking up my spirits as well as I could, and encouraging myself a little with considering that the power and presence of God was ,everywhere, and was able to protect me, I stepped forward again, -ind by the light of the firebrand, holding it up a little over my head, i saw lying on the ground a monstrous, frightful, old he-goat, just making his will, as we say, and gasping for life, and dying, indeed, of mere old age. I stirred him a little to see if I could get him out, .and he essayed to get up, but was not able to raise himself; and I thought with myself he might even lie there ; for if he had frighted me, so he would certainly fright any of the savages, if any of them hould be so hardy as to come in there while he had any life in him. I was now recovered from my surprise, and began to look round me, when I found the cave was btit very small, that is to say, it might be about twelve feet over, but in no manner of shape, neither round nor square, no hands having ever been employed in making it 'but those of mere Nature.' I observed also that there was a.place at the farther side of it that went in further, but was so low that it required me to creep upon my hands and knees to go into it, and whither it went I knew not; so, having no candle, I gave it over for that time, but resolved to go again the next day provided with can-



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CRUSOE IS ILL FROM JOY. 18S the plantation increasing, amounted to nineteen thousand four hundred and forty-six crusadoes, being about three thousand two hundred and forty moidores. Thirdly, there was the Prior of St. Augustine's account, who had received the profits for above fourteen years ; but not being to ac, count for what was disposed of by the hospital, very honestly declared he had eight hundred and seventy-two moidores not distributed, which he acknowledged to my account : as to the king's part, that refunded nothing. There was a letter of my partner's, congratulating me very affectionately upon my being alive, giving me an account how the estate was improved, and what it produced a year; with the particulars of the number of squares or acres that it contained, how planted, how many slaves there were upon it : and making two-and-twenty crosses for blessings, told me he had said so many Ave Marias to thank the Blessed Virgin that I was alive ; inviting me very passionately to come over and take possession of my own ; and, in the meantime, to give him orders to whom he should deliver my effects, if I did not come myself; concluding with a hearty tender of his friendship, and that of his family ; and sent me as a present, seven fine leopards' skins, which he had, it seems, received from Africa, by some other ship that he had sent thither, and which, it seems, had made a better voyage than I. He sent me also five chests of excellent sweetmeats, and a hun'dred pieces of gold uncoined, not quite so large as moidores. By the same fleet my two merchant-trustees shipped me 1200 chests of sugar, 80o rolls of tobacco, and the rest of the whole account in gold. I might well say now, indeed, that the latter end of Job was better than the beginning. It is impossible to express the flutterings of my very heart when I found all my wealth about me; for as the Brazil ships come all in fleets, the same ships which brought my letters brought my goods : and the effects were safe in the Tapes before the letters came to my hand. In a word, I turned pale, and grew sick; and, had not the old man run and fetched me a cordial, I believe the sudden surprise of joy had overset nature, and I had died upon the spot. Nay, after that, I continued very ill, and was so some hours, till a physician being sent for, and something of the real cause of my illness being known, he ordered me to be let blood, after which I had relief, and grew well : but I verily believe, if I had not been eased by a vent given in that manner to the spirits, I should have died. I was now master, all on a sudden, of above 5000 pounds sterling in money, and had an estate, as I might well call it, in the Brazils, 4f


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THE KINDLY NEGROES. 2 so I was willing to have them take it as a favour from me ; which, when I made signs to them that they might take him, they were very thankful for. Immediately they fell to work with him ; and though they had no knife, yet, with a sharpened piece of wood, they took off his skin as readily, and much more readily, than we could have done with a knife. They offered me some of the flesh, which I declined, making as if I would give it them; but made signs for the skin, which they gave me very freely, and brought me a great deal more of their provisions, which, though I did not understand, yet I accepted ; then I made signs to them for some water, and held out one of my jars to them, turning it bottom upward, to show that it was empty, and that I wanted to have it filled. They called immediately to some of their friends, and there came two women, and brought a great vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I supposed, in the sun ; this they set down for me, as before, and I sent Xury on shore with my jars, and filled them all three. I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and water; and leaving my friendly Negroes, I made forward for about eleven days more, without offering to go near the shore, till I saw the land run out a great length into the sea, at about a distance of four or five leagues before me; and the sea being very calm, I kept a large offing to make this point : at length, doubling the point, at about two leagues from the land, I saw plainly land on the other side, to seaward : then I concluded, as it was most certain indeed, that this was the Cape de Verd, and those the islands called, from thence, Cape de Verd Islands. However, they were at a great distance, and I could not well tell what I had best to do; for if I should be taken with a fresh of wind, I might neither reach one or other. In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the cabin, and sat down, Xury having the helm ; when, on a sudden, the boy cried out, Master, master, a ship with a sail and the foolish boy was frighted out of his wits, thinking it must needs be some of his master's ships sent to pursue us, but I knew we were gotten far enough out of their reach. I jumped out of the cabin, and immediately saw, not only the ship, but what she was, viz., a Portuguese ship ; and, as I thought, was bound to the Coast of Guinea, for Negroes. But, when I observed the course she steered, I was soon convinced they were bound some other way, and did not design to come any nearer to the shore : upon which I stretched out to sea as much as I could, resolving to speak with them if possible. With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able to come in their way, but that they would be gone before I could make any signal to them. But after I had crowded to the utmost, and 4



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: -48 ROBINSON CRUSOE. general stores that I left behind. Nails, staples, hinges, hammers, -chisels, knives, scissors, and all sorts of iron-work, they had withSout reserve, as they required; for no man would take more than he "wanted, and he must be a fool that would waste or spoil them on any account whatever; and for the use of the smith, I left two tons "of unwrought iron for a supply. My magazine of powder and arms which I brought them was -such, even to profusion, that they could not but rejoice at them ; for now they could march as I used to do, with a musket upon each shoulder, if there was occasion ; and were able to fight a thousand 'savages, if they had but some little advantages of situation, which also they could not miss, if they had occasion. I carried on shore with me the young man from the wreck and the maid also: she was a sober, well educated, religious young woman, and behaved so inoffensively that everyone gave her a good word ; she had, indeed, an unhappy life with us, there being no woman in the ship but herself, but she bore it with patience. After a while, seeing Athings so well ordered, and in so fine a way of thriving upon my island, and considering that they had neither business nor acquaintance in the East Indies, or reason for taking so long a voyage, both of them came to me, and desired I would give them leave to remain on the island, and be entered among my family, as they called it. I agreed to this readily ; and they had a little plot of ground allotted to them, where they had three tents or houses set up, surrounded with a basket-work, palisadoed like Atkins', adjoining to his plantation. Their tents were contrived so that they had each of them a room apart to lodge in, and a middle tent like a great storehouse, to "lay their goods in, and to eat and drink in. And now the other two Englishmen removed their habitation to the same place; and so the island was divided into three colonies, and no more, viz., the Spaniards, with old Friday and the first servants, at my old habitation under the hill, which was, in a word, the capital city, and where they had so enlarged and extended their works, as well under as on the outside of the hill, that they lived, though perfectly concealed, yet full at large. Never was there such a little city in a wood, and so hid, in any part of the world ; for I verily believe that a thousand men might have ranged the island a month, and, if they had not known there was such a thing, and looked on purpose for it, they would not have found it. The other colony was that of Will Atkins, where there were four families of Englishmen, I mean those I had left there, with their wives and children, three savages that were slaves, the widow and he children of the Englishman that was killed, the young man and



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270 ROBINSON CRUSOE. fered through this misadventure, and, in particular, our earnest wish to be speedily quit of the ship altogether: for which reason we had resolved to carry her up to Nankin. The old man was amazed at this relation, and told us we were in the right to go away to the north; and that, if he might advise us, it should be to sell the ship in China, which we might well do, and buy or build another in the country; adding, that I should meet with customers enough for the ship at Nankin, that a chinese_ junk would serve me very well to go back again; and that he would procure me people both to buy one and sell the other. Well, but, seignior," said I, "as you say they know the ship so well, I may, perhaps, if I follow your measures. be instrumental to bring some honest, innocent men into a terrible broil ; for wherever they find the ship they will prove the guilt upon the men, by proving this was the ship."" Why," says the old man, I'll find out a way to prevent that ; for as I know all those commanders you speak of very well, and shall see them all as they pass by, I will be sure to set them to rights in the thing, and let them know that they had been so much in the wrong; that though the people who were on board at first might run away with the ship, yet it was not true that they had turned pirates ; and that, in particular, these were not the men that first went off with the ship, but innocently bought her for their trade ; and I am persuaded they will so far believe me, as at least to act more cautiously for the time to come." In about thirteen days' sail we came to an anchor at the southwest point of the great Gulf of Nankin ; where I learned by accident that two Dutch ships were gone the length before me, and that I should certainly fall into their hands. I consulted my partner again in this exigency, and he was as much at a loss as I was. I then asked the old pilot if there was no creek or harbour which I might put into and pursue my business with the Chinese privately, and be in no danger of the enemy. He told me if I would sail to the southward about forty-two leagues, there was a little port called Quinchang, where the fathers of the mission usually landed from Macao, on their progress to teach the Christian religion to the Chinese, and where no European ships ever put in; and if I thought to put in there, I might consider what further course to take when I was on shore. As we were unanimous in our resolution to go to this place, we weighed the next day, having only gone twice on shore where we were, to get fresh water ; on both which occasions the people of the country were very civil, and brought abundance of provisions to sell to us : but nothing without money. We did not come to the other port (the wind being contrary) for



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THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE BV DANIEL DEFOE "tIitb 3IIustrations, IPrfnteb in Colours FROM ORIGINAL DESIGNS LONDON FREDERICK WARNE AND CO. AND NEW YORK '.i



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CRUSOE TRIES TO MAKE A CHAIR AND TABLE. 45 but I might now rather call it a wall, for I raised a kind of wall up against it of turfs, about two feet thick on the outside; and after some time (I think it was a year and a half) I raised rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and thatched or covered it with boughs of trees, and such things as I could get, to keep out the rain; which I found at some times of the year very violent. I have already observed how I brought all my goods into this pale,, and into the cave which I had made behind me; but I must observe, too, that at first this was a confused heap of goods, which, as they lay in no order, so they took up all my place, I had no room to turrn myself: so I set myself to enlarge my cave and work farther into, the earth ; for it was a loose sandy rock, which yielded easily to the labour I bestowed on it: and so when I found I was pretty safe as; to beasts of prey, I worked sideways, to the right hand, into the rock ; and then, turning to the right again, worked quite out, and made me a door to come out on the outside of my pale or fortification. This gave me not only egress and regress, as it was a back way to my tent and to my storehouse, but gave me room to store my goods. And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary things& as I found I most wanted, particularly a chair and a table; for without these I was not able to enjoy the few comforts I had in the world ; I could not write or eat, or do several things, with so much pleasure without a table. So I went to work ; and here I must needs observe, that as reason is the substance and origin of the mathematics, so by stating and squaring everything by reason, and by making the most rational judgment of things, every man may be, in time, master of every mechanic art. I had never handled a tool in my life ; and yet, in time, by labour, application, and contrivance, I found, at last, that I wanted nothing but I could have made it, especially if I had had tools ; however, I made abundance of things, even without tools ; and some with no more tools than an adze and a hatchet, which perhaps were never made that way before, and that with infinitelabour ; for example, if I wanted a board, I had no other way but to cut down a tree, set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on either side with my axe, till I had brought it to be thin as a plank, and then dub it smooth with my adze. It is true, by this method I could make but one board out of a whole tree; but this I had no remedy for but patience, any more than I had for the prodigious deal of time and labour which it took me up to make a plank or board: but my time or labour was little worth, and so it was as well employed one way as another. However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed above, in the first place ; and this I did out of the short pieces of boards that 4



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ROBINSON A T HOME. 197 of exchange for thirty-two thousand eight hundred pieces-of-eight for the estate, reserving the payment of one hundred moi1ores a year to him (the old man) during his life, and fifty moidores afterwards to his son for his life, which I had promised them, and which the plantation was to make good as a rent-charge. And thus I have given the first part of a life of fortune and adventure,--a life of Providence's chequer-work, and of a variety which the world will be seldom able to show the like of ;-beginning foolishly, but closing much more happily than any part of it ever gave me leave so much as to hope for. Any one would think that in this state of complicated good fortune, I was past running any more hazards,-and so, indeed, I had been, if other circumstances had concurred : but I was inured to a wandering life, had no family, nor many relations ; nor, however rich, had I contracted fresh acquaintance; and though I had sold my estate in the Brazils, yet I could not keep that country out of my head, and had a great mind to be upon the wing again; especially I could not resist the strong inclination I had to see my island. My true friend, the widow, earnestly dissuaded me from it, and so far prevailed with me, that for almost seven years she prevented my running abroad, during which time I took my two nephews, the children of one of my brothers, into my care; the eldest, having something of his own, I bred up as a gentleman, and gave him a settlement of some addition to his estate after my decease. The other I placed with the cap. tain of a ship; and after five years, finding him a sensible, bold, enterprising young fellow, I put him into a good ship, and sent him to sea ; and this young fellow afterwards drew me in, as old as I was, to further adventures myself. In the meantime, I in part settled myself here ; for, first of all, I married, and that not either to my disadvantage or dissatisfaction, and had three children, two sons and one daughter; but my wife dying, and my nephew coming home with good success from a voyage to Spain, my inclination to go abroad, and his importunity, prevailed, and engaged me to go in his ship as a private trader to the East Indies ; this was in the year 1694. In this voyage I visited my new colony in the island,-saw my successors the Spaniards,-had the whole story of their lives, and of the villains I left there,-how at first they insulted the poor Spaniards,how they afterwards agreed, disagreed, united, separated, and how at last the Spaniards were obliged to use violence with them,-how they were subjected to the Spaniards,-how honestly the Spaniards tued them ; a history, if it were entered into, as full of variety and wonderful accidents as my own part,-particularly, also, as to their battles with the Caribbeans, who landed several times upon the island, 4



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52 ROBINSON CRUSOE. at first for want of feeding them, for I had nothing to give them; however, I frequently found their nests, and got their young ones, which were very good meat. And now, in the managing my household affairs, I found myself wanting in many things, which I thought at first it was impossible for me to make ; as, indeed, with some of them it was : for instance, I could never make a cask to be hooped ;. I had a small runlet or two, as I observed before ; but I could never arrive at the capacity of making one by them, though I spent many weeks about it ; I could neither put in the heads, or join the staves so true to one another as to make them hold water; so I gave that also over. In the next place, I was at a great loss for candles; so that as soon as ever it was dark, which was generally by seven o'clock, I was obliged to go to bed. I remembered the lump of bees-wax with which I made candles in my African adventure; but I had none of that now; the only remedy I had was, that when I had killed a goat I saved the tallow, and with a little dish made of clay, which I baked in the sun, to which I added a wick of some oakum, I made me a lamp; and this gave me light, though not a clear steady light like a candle. In the middle of all my labours it happened that, rummaging my things, I found a little bag, which had been filled with corn for the feeding of poultry, not for this voyage, but before, as I suppose, when the ship came from Lisbon. The little remainder of corn that had been in the bag was all devoured by the rats, and I saw nothing in it but husks and dust; and being willing to have the bag for some other use (T think it was to put powder in, when I divided it for fear of the lightning, or some such use), I shook the husks of corn out of it on one side of my fortification under the rock. It was a little before the great rains just now mentioned that I threw this stuff away, taking no notice, and not so much as remembering that I had thrown anything there, when, about a month after, or thereabouts, I saw some few stalks of something green shooting out of the ground, which I fancied might be some plant I had not seen; but I was perfectly. astonished, when, after a little longer time, I saw about ten or twelve ears come out, which were perfect green barley, of the same kind as our English barley. It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion of my thoughts on this occasion. I had hitherto acted upon no religious foundation at all; indeed, I had very few notions of religion in my head, nor had entertained any sense of anything that had befallen me, otherwise than as chance, or, as we lightly say, what pleases God, without so much as inquiring into the end of Providence in these things, or His order in governing events for the world ; but after



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CRUSOE FINDS A FAITHFUL FRIEND. i81 the register of the country; also he told me that the survivors of my two trustees were very fair, honest people, and very wealthy; and he believed 1 would not only have their assistance for putting me in possession, but would find a very considerable sum of money in theit hands for my account, being the produce of the farm while their fathers held the trust, and before it was given up, as above; which, as he remembered, was for about twelve years. I showed myself a little concerned and uneasy at this account, and inquired of the old captain how it came to pass that the trustees should thus dispose of my effects, when he knew that I had made my will, and had made him, the Portuguese captain, my universal heir, &c. He told me that was true; but that as there was no proof of my being dead, he could not act as executor, until some certain account should come of my death; and, besides, he was not willing to intermeddle with a thing so remote; that it was true he had registered my will, and put in his claim; and could he have given any account of my being dead or alive, he would have acted by procuration, and taken possession of the ingenio (so they call the sugar-house), and have given his son, who was now at the Brazils, orders to do it. After a few days' further conference with this ancient friend, he brought me an account of the first six years' income of my plantation, signed by my partner and the merchant-trustees, being always delivered in goods, viz., tobacco in roll, and sugar in chests, besides rum, molasses, &c., which is the consequence of a sugar-work; and I found by this account, that every year the income considerably increased; but, as above, the disbursements being large, the sum at first was small: however, the old man let me see that he was debtor to me four hundred and seventy moidores of gold, besides sixty chests of sugar, and fifteen double rolls of tobacco, which were lost in his ship; he having been shipwrecked coming home to Lisbon, about eleven years after my leaving the place. The good man then began to complain of his misfortunes, and how he had been obliged to make use of my money to recover his losses, and buy him a share in a new ship. "However, my old friend," says he, you shall not want a supply in your necessity; and as soon as my son returns, you shall be fully satisfied." Upon this he pulls out an old pouch, and gives me two hundred Portugal moidores in gold; and giving me the writings of his title to the ship, which his son was gone to the Brazils in, of which he was quarter-part owner, and his son another, he put them both into my hands for security of the rest. I was too much moved with the honesty and kindness of the poor man to be able to bear this; and remembering what he had done for 4 „ .,* -----------------" ---I B B



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A EUROPEAN VICTIML. 47 then as God should direct; but that unless something offered that was more a call to me than yet I knew of, I would not meddle with them. With this resolution I entered the wood, and, with all possible wariness and silence, Friday following close at my heels, I marched till I came to the skirt of the wood on the side which was next to them, only that one corner of the wood lay between me and them. Here I called softly to Friday, and showing him a great tree which was just at the corner of the wood, I bade him go to the tree, and bring me word if he could see there plainly what they were doing. He did so, and came immediately back to me, and told me they might be plainly viewed there-that they were all about their fire eating the flesh of one of their prisoners, and that another lay bound upon the sand a little from them, whom he said they would kill next; and this fired the very soul within me. He told me it was not one of their nation, but one of the bearded men he told me of, that came to their country in the boat. I was filled with horror at the very naming of the white bearded man; and going to the tree, I saw plainly by my glass a white man, who lay upon the beach of the sea with his hands and his feet tied with flags, or things like rushes, and that he was an European, a.d had clothes on. There was another tree, and a little thicket beyond it, about fifty yards nearer to them than the place where I was, which, by going a little way about, I saw I might come at undiscovered, and that then I should be within half a shot of them; so I withheld my passion, though I was indeed enraged to the highest degree ; and going back about twenty paces, I got behind some bushes, which held all the way till I came to the other tree, and then came to a little rising ground, which gave me a full view of them, at the distance of about eighty yards. I had now not a moment to lose; for nineteen of the dreadful wretches sat upon the ground, all close huddled together, and had just sent the other two to butcher the poor Christian, and bring him perhaps limb by limb to their fire, and they were stooping down to untie the bands at his feet. I turned to Friday :-" Now, Friday, -aid I, "do as I bid thee." Friday said he would. "Then, Friday,' says I, "do exactly as you see me do ; fail in nothing." So I set down one of the muskets and the fowling-piece upon the ground, and Friday did the like by his, and with the other musket I took my aim at the savages, bidding him to do the like; then asking him if he was ready, he said "Yes." Then fire," and at the same moment I fired also. Friday took his aim so much better than I, that on the side that he shot hQ killed two of them, and wounded three more; and on my L2 4



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130 ROBINSON CRUSOE. sleep upon myself sometimes; so the poor creature lay down, and went to sleep. He was a comely, handsome fellow, perfectly well made, with straight strong limbs, not too large, tall and well shaped ; and, as I reckon, about twenty-six years of age. He had a very good countenance, not a fierce and surly aspect, but seemed to have something very manly in his face ; and yet he had all the sweetness and softness of a European in his countenance too, especially whein he smiled. His hair was long and black, not curled like wool; his forehead very high and large ; and a great vivacity and sparkling sharpness in his eyes. The colour of the skin was not quite black, but very tawny; and yet not an ugly, yellow, nauseou: tawny, as the Brazilians and Virginians, and other natives of America are, but of a bright kind of a dun olive-colour, that had in it something very agreeable, though not very easy to describe. His face was round and plump ; his nose small, not flat like the Negroes, a very good mouth, thin lips, and his fine teeth well set, and as white as ivory. After he had slumbered, rather than slept, about half an hour, he awoke again, and came out of the cave to me ; for I had been milking my goats, which I had in the inclosure just by : when he espied me, he came running to me, laying himself down again upon the ground, with all the possible signs of an humble, thankful disposition, making a great many antic gestures to show it; at last.he lays his head flat upon the ground, close to my foot, and sets my other foot upon his head, as he had done before ; and after this, made all the signs to me of subjection, servitude, and submission imaginable, to let me know how he would serve me so long as he lived. I understood him in many things, and let him know I was very well pleased with him. In a little time I began to speak to him, and teach him to speak to me ; and, first, I let him know his name should be FRIDAY, which was the day I saved his life: I called him so for the memory of the time ; I likewise ,a9.ught him to say Master; and then let him know that was to be my name: I likewise taught him to say Yes and No, and to know the meaning of them ; I gave him some milk in an earthen pot, and let him see me drink it before him, and sop my bread in it ; and I gave him a cake of bread to do the like, which he quickly complied with, and made signs that it was very good for him. I kept there with him all night; but, as soon as it was day, I beckoned to him to come with me, and let him know I would give him some clothes ; at which he seemed very glad, for he was stark naked. As we went by the place where he had buried the two men, he pointed exactly to the place, and showed me the marks that he had made to find them again, making signs to me that we should dig them up again and eat



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262 ROBINSON CRUSOE. business outward-bound, he was to go out to China, and return to the coast as he came home. The first disaster that befel us was in the Gulf of Persia, where five of our men, venturing on shore on the Arabian side of the Gulf, were surrounded by the Arabians, and either all killed, or carried away into slavery; the rest of the boat's crew were not able to rescue them, and had but just time to get off their boat. I began to upbraid them with the just retribution of Heaven in this case; but our men could not hear the word massacre with any patience. At last we reached the road at Bengal; and being willing to see the place, I went on shore with the supercargo, in the ship's boat, to divert myself; and towards evening was preparing to go on board, when one of the men came to me, and told me he would not ht.ve me trouble myself to come down to the boat, for they had orders not to carry me on board any more. Any one may guess what a surprise I was in at so insolent a message; and I asked the man, who bade him deliver that message to me. He told me the coxswain. I immediately found out the supercargo, and told him the story, adding, that I foresaw there would be a mutiny in the ship ; and ep treated him to go immediately on board in an Indian boat, ana acquaint the captain of it ; but I might have spared this intelligence, for before I had spoken to him on shore, the matter was effected on board. The boatswain, and all the inferior officers, as soon as I was gone off in the boat, came up, and desired to speak with the captain; and then the boatswain, making a long harangue, told the captain that as I was gone peaceably on shore, they were loth to use any violence with me, which, if I had not gone on shore, they would otherwise have done, to oblige me to have gone. They therefore thought fit to tell him, that as they shipped themselves to serve in the ship under his command, they would perform it well and faithfully; but if I would not quit the ship, or the captain oblige me to quit it, they would all leave the ship, and sail no further with him; and at that word all, he turned his face towards the mainmast, which was, it seems, a signal agreed on, when the seamen, being got together there, cried out, One and all! one and all!" My nephew, the captain, was a man of spirit, and of great presence of mind ; and though he was surprised, yet he told them calmly that he would -consider of the matter; but that he could do nothing in it till he had spoken to me about it. He used some arguments with them, to show them the unreasonableness and injustice of the thing -but it was all in vain ; they swore and shook hands round before his face, that they would all go on shore, unless he would engage to them not to suffer me to come any more on board the ship.



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20 ROBINSON CRUSOE. however, we were willing to accept it, but how to come at it was our next dispute, for I was not for venturing on shore to them, and they were as much afraid of us ; but they took a safe way for us all, for they brought it to the shore and laid it down, and went and stood a great way off till We fetched it on board, and then came close to us again. We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to make them amends ; but an opportunity offered that very instant to oblige them wonderfully: for while we were lying by the shore, came two mighty creatures, one pursuing the other (as we took it) with great fury from the mountains towards the sea ; whether it was the male pursuing the female, or whether they were in sport or in rage, we could not tell, any more than we could tell whether it was usual or strange, but I believe it was the latter; because, in the first place, those ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the night; and, in the second place, we found the people terribly frighted, especially the women. The man that had the lance or dart did not fly from them, but the rest did ; however, as the two creatures ran directly into the water, they did not offer to fall upon any of the Negroes, but plunged themselves into the sea, and swam about, as if they had come for their diversion. At last one of them began to come nearer our boat than at first I expected ; but I lay ready for him, for I had loaded my gun with all possible expedition, and bade Xury load both the others. As soon as he came fairly within my reach, I fired, and shot him directly in the head : immediately he sank down into the water, but rose instantly, and plunged up and down, as if he was struggling for life, and so indeed the was: he immediately made to the shore; but between the wound, which was his mortal hurt, and the strangling of the water, he died just before he reached the shore. It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor creatures at the noise and fire of my gun ; some of them were even ready to die for fear, and fell down as dead with the very terror. But when they saw the creature dead, and sunk in the water, and that I made signs to them to come to the shore, they took heart and came, and began to search for the creature. I found him by his blood staining the waler: and by the help of a rope, which I slung round him, and gave the Negroes to haul, they dragged him on shore, and found that it was a most curious leopard, spotted, and fine to an admirable degree; and the Negroes held up their hands with admiration, to think what it was I had killed him with. The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire and the noise of the gun, swam on shore, and ran up directly to the mountains from whence they came; nor could I, at that distance, know what it was. I found quickly the Negroes were for eating the flesh of this creature,



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70 ROBINSON CRUSOE. ay new bower, and sowed the rest of my seed in February, a little before the vernal equinox;, and this having the rainy months of March and April to water it, sprung up very pleasantly, and yielded a very good crop; but having part of the seed left only, and not daring to sow all that I had, I had but a small quantity at last, my whole crop not amounting to above half a peck of each kind. But by this experiment I was made master of my business, and knew exactly when the proper season was to sow, and that I might expect two seed times, and two harvests every year. While this corn was growing, I made a little discovery, which was of use to me afterwards. As soon as the rains were over, and the weather began to settle, which was about the month of November, I made a visit up the country to my bower, where, though I had not been some months, yet I found all things just as I, left them. The double hedge that I had made was not only firm and entire, but the stakes which I had cut out of some trees that grew thereabouts, were all shot out and grown with long branches, as much as a willow-tree usually shoots the first year after lopping its head. I could not tell what tree to call it that these stakes were cut from. I was surprised, and yet very well pleased, to see the young trees grow: and I pruned them, and led them up to grow as much alike as I could. It is scarce credible how beautiful a figure they grew into in three years; so that though the hedge made a circle of about twenty-five yards in diameter, yet the trees, for such I might now call them, soon covered it, and it was a complete shade, sufficient to lodge under all the dry season. This made me resolve to cut some more stakes, and make me a hedge like this, in a semicircle round my wall (I mean that of my first dwelling), which I did; and placing the trees or stakes in a double row, at about eight yards distance from my first fence, they grew presently, and were at first a fine cover to my habitation, and afterwards served for a defence also, as I shall observe in its order. I found now that the seasons of the year might generally be divided, not into summer and winter, as in Europe, but into the rainy seasons and the dry seasons, which were generally thus :The half of February, the whole of March, and the half of Aprilrainy, the sun being then on or near the equinox.-The half of April, the whole of May, June, and July, and the half of August-dry, the sun being then to the north of the Line.-The half of August, the whole of September, and the half of October-rainy, the sun being then come back.-The half of October, the whole of November, December, and January, and the half of February-dry, the sun being then to the south of the Line.-The rainy season sometimes held onger or shorter as the winds happened to blow, but this was the



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NEGOTIATIONS WITH THE MUTINEERS. 177 commit farther robberies; but that Providence had ensnared them in their own ways, and that they were fallen into the pit which they had dug for others. I let them know that by my direction the ship had been seized, that she lay now in the road ; and they might see byand-by that their new captain had received the reward of his villany ; for that they would see him hanging at the yard-arm; that, as to them, I wanted to know what they had to say why I should not execute them as pirates, taken in the fact, as by my commission they could not doubt I had authority to do. One of them answered in the name of the rest, that they had nothing to say but this, that when they were taken, the captain promised them their lives, and they humbly implored my mercy : bit I told them I knew not what mercy to show them ; for as for myself, I had resolved to quit the island with all my men, and had taken passage with the captain to go for England ; and as for the captain, he could not carry them to England, other than as prisoners in irons, to be tried for mutiny, and running away with the ship ; the consequence of which, they must needs know, would be the gallows ; so that I could not tell what was best for them, unless they had a mind to take their fate in the island ; if they desired that, I did not care, as I had liberty to leave it ; I had some inclination to give them their lives, if they thought they could shift on shore. They seemed very thankful for it, and said they would much rather venture to stay there than be carried to England to be hanged : so I left it on that issue. However, the captain seemed to make some difficulty of it, as if he durst not leave them there: upon this, I seemed a little angry with the captain, and told him they were my prisoners, not his; and that seeing I had offered them so much favour, I would be a good as my word ; and that if he did not think fit to consent to it, I would set them at liberty, as I found them; and if he did not like it, he might take them again if he could catch them. Upon this, they appeared very thankful, and I accordingly set them at liberty, and bade them retire into the woods, to the place whence they came, and I would leave them some fire-arms, some ammunition, and some directions how they should live very well, if they thought fit. Upon this I prepared to go on board the ship ; but told the captain I would stay that night to prepare my things, and desired him to go on board in the meantime, and keep all right in the ship, and send the boat on shore next day for me ; ordering him, at all events, to cause the new captain, who was killed, to be hanged at the yard-arm, that these men might see him. When the captain was gone, I sent for the men up to me to my apartment, and entered seriously into discourse with them on their N /~4.



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"FRIDA Y INSTRUCTED IN RELIGION. 137 whose cruelties in America had been spread over the whole country, and were remembered by all the nations from father to son. I inquired if he could tell me how I might go from this island, and. get among those white men: he told me, "Yes, yes, you may go in two canoe." I could not understand what he meant, or make hinm describe to me what .he meant by two canoe, till at last with great difficulty, I found he meant it must be in a large boat, as big as two, canoes. This part of Friday's discourse I began to relish very well, and from this time I entertained some hopes that, one time or other, I might find an opportunity to make my escape from this place, andL that this poor savage might be a means to help me to do it. During the long time that Friday had now been with me, and that fie began to speak to me, and understand me, I was not wanting to lay a foundation of religious knowledge in his mind; particularly I asked him one time, who made him? The poor creature did not understand me at all, but thought I had asked who was his father : but I took it by another handle, and asked him, who made the sea,, the ground we walked on, and the hills and woods. He told me,, It was one old Benamuckee, that lived beyond all;" he couldc describe nothing of this great person, but that he was very old,. "much older," he said, than the sea or the land, than the moon or the stars." I asked him then, if this old person had made all things, why did not all things worship him ? He looked very grave, and, with a perfect look of innocence, said, "All things say 0 to, him." I asked him, if the people who die in his country went away anywhere? He said "Yes, they all went to Benamuckee." Then I asked him whether those they eat up went thither too. He said" Yes." From these things, I began to instruct him in the knowledge of the, true God: I told him that the great Maker of all things lived up there, pointing up towards heaven : that he governs the world by the. same power and providence by which He made it; that he was omnipotent, and could do everything for us, give everything to us, take, everything from us; and thus, by degrees, I opened his eyes. He listened with great attention, and received with pleasure the notion of Jesus Christ being sent to redeem us, and of the manner of makingour prayers to God, and His being able to hear us, even in heaven. He told me one day, that if our God could hear us, up beyond the sun, he must needs be a greater God than their Benamuckee, wholived but a little way off, and yet could not hear till they went up tothe great mountains where he dwelt to speak to him. I asked him"if ever he went thither to speak to him ? He said, No; they never went that were young men; none went thither but the old men, whom he called their Oowokakee, that is, as I made him explain it to



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6 ROBINSON CRUSOE. We had not, however, rid here so long, but we should have tided it up the river, but that the wind blew too fresh, and, after we had lain four or five days, blew very hard. However, the Roads being reckoned as good as a harbour, the anchorage good, and our groundtackle very strong, our men were unconcerned, and not in the least apprehensive of danger, but spent the time in rest and mirth, after the manner of the sea; but the eighth day, in the morning, the wind increased, and we had all hands at work to strike our top-masts, and make everything snug and close, that the ship might ride as easy as possible. By noon the sea went very high indeed, and our ship rode forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we thought once or twice our anchor had come home; upon which our master ordered out the sheet-anchor; so that we rode with two anchors ahead, and the cables veered out to the better end. By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed ; and now I began to see terror and amazement in the faces even of the seamen themselves. The master, though vigilant in the business of preserving the ship, yet as he went in and out of his cabin by me, I could hear him softly to himself say, several times, "Lord, be merciful to us we shall be all lost ; we shall be all undone and the like. During these first hurries I was stupid, lying still in my cabin, which was in the steerage, and cannot describe my temper : I could ill-resume the first penitence which I had so apparently trampled upon, and hardened myself against: I thought the bitterness of death had been past ; and that this would be nothing like the first. But when the master himself came by me, as I said just now, and said we should be all lost, I was dreadfully frighted. I got up out of my cabin, and looked out; but such a dismal sightI never saw: the sea went mountains high, and broke upon us every three or four minutes ; when I could look about, I could see nothing but distress round us ; two ships that rode near us, we found, had cut their masts by the board, being deep laden ; and our men cried out, that a ship which rode about a mile ahead of us was foundered. Two more ships, being driven from their anchors, were run out of the Roads, to sea, at all adventures, and that with not a mast standing. The light ships fared the best, as not so much labouring in the sea ; but two or three of them drove, and came close by us, running away with only their spritsail irut before the wind. Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the master of our ship to let them cut away the fore-mast, which he was very unwilling to do-; but the boatswain protesting to him, that if he did not, the ship would founder, he consented, and when they had cut away the fore-mast, the main-mast stood so loose, and, sh,4k the -*-' ^H



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THE BATTLE OF THE SA VAGES. 223 to prevail, especially upon the Englishmen; their curiosity was so importunate, that they must run out and see the battle; however, they used some caution-viz., they did not go openly, just by their own dwelling, but went farther into the woods, and placed themselves to advantage, where they might securely see them manage the fight, and, as they thought, not be seen by them; but the savages did see them, as we shall find hereafter. The battle was very fierce ; and, if I might believe the Englishmen, one of them said he could perceive that some of them were men of great bravery, of invincible spirits, and of great policy in guiding the fight. The battle, they said, held two hours before they could guess which party would be beaten ; but then that party which was nearest our people's habitation began to appear weakest, and after some time more, some of them began to fly ; and this put our men again into a great consternation, lest any one of those that fled should run into the grove before their dwelling for shelter, and thereby involuntarily discover the place; and that, by consequence, the pursuers would also do the like in search of them. Upon this, they resolved that they would stand armed within the wall, and whoever came into the grove, they resolved to sally out over the wall and kill them, so that, if possible, not one should return to give an account of it ; they ordered also that it should be done with their swords, or by knocking them down with the stocks of their muskets, but not by shooting them, for fear of raising an alarm by the noise. As they expected, it fell out ; three of the routed army fled for life, and crossing the creek, ran directly into the place, not in the least knowing whither they went, but running as into a thick wood for shelter; the scout they kept to look abroad gave notice of this within, with this comforting addition, that the conquerors had not pursued them, or seen which way they were gone. Upon this, the Spaniard governor, a man of humanity, would not suffer them to kill the three fugitives, but sending three men out by the top of the hill, ordered them to go round, come in behind them, and surprise and take them prisoners, which was done ; the residue of the conquered people fled to their canoes, and got off to sea ; the victors retired, made no pursuit, or very little; but drawing themselves into a body together, gave two great screaming shouts, which they supposed were by way o: triumph, and so the fight ended : the same day, about three o'clock in the afternoon, they also marched to their canoes. SAfter they were all gone, the Spaniards came out of their den, and viewing the field of battle, they found about two-and-thirty men dead on the spot; some were killed with long arrows, which were found sticking in their bodies; but most of them were killed with great 4"



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86 ROBINSON CRUSOE. and ria irsentMy ink, as I observed, had been gone some time, all but ery little, which I eked out with water, a little and'a little, till it was spale, it scarce left any appearance of black upon the pa-er:a-rs long as it lasted I made use of it to minute down the days :ofthe month on' which any remarkable thing happened to me and first, by casting up times past, I remembered that there was a strange concurrence of days in the various providences which befel me, and which, if I had been superstitiously inclined to observe days as fatal or fortunate, I might have had reason to have looked upon with a great deal of curiosity. First, I had observed, that the same day that I broke away from my father and friends, and ran away to Hull, in order to go' to sea, the same day afterwards I wastaken by the Sallee man-of-war, and made a slave. The same day of the year that I escaped out of the wreck of the ship in Yarmouth Roads, that same day year afterwards I made my escape from Sallee. The same day of the year I was born on, viz. the 3oth of September, that same day I had my life so miraculously saved twenty-six years after, when I was cast on shore in this island, so that my wicked life and my solitary life began both on a day. The next thing to my ink's being wasted, was that of my breadI mean the biscuit which I had brought out of the ship; this I had husbanded to the last degree, allowing myself but one cake of bread a day for above a year; and yet I was quite without bread for near a year before I got any corn of my own ; and great reason I had to be thankful that I had any at all, the getting it being, as has been already observed, next to miraculous. My clothes, too, began to decay mightily; as to linen I had none a good while, except some chequered shirts which I found in the chests of the other seamen, and which I carefully preserved, because many times I could bear no other clothes on but a shirt; and it was a very great help to me that I had, among all the men's clothes of the ship, almost three dozen of shirts. There were also several thick watch-coats of the seamen which were left indeed, but they were too hot to wear; and though it is true that the weather was so violently hot that there was no need of clothes, yet I could not go quite niaked-no, though I had been inclined to it, which I was not ;-nor could I abide the thought of it, though I was all alone. The reason why I could not go naked was, I could not bear the heat of the sun so well when quite naked as with some clothes on; nay, the very heat frequently'blistered my skin; whereas, with a shirt on, the air itself made some motion, and whistling under the shirt, was twofold cooler than without it; no more could I ever bring myself to go out in the heat of the sun without a cap or a hat; the heat of the sun,



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242 ROBINSON CRUSOE. yet they came on in the teeth of our men, fearless of danger, and shot their arrows like a cloud ; and it was observed that their wounded men, who were not quite disabled, were made outrageous by their wounds, and fought like madmen. When our men retreated, they left the Spaniard and the English-. man that were killed behind them : and the savages, when they came up to them, killed them over again in a wretched manner, breaking their arms, legs, and heads, with their clubs and wooden swords, like true savages. But finding our men were gone, they did not seem inclined to pursue them, but drew themselves up in a kind of ring, which is, it seems, their custom, and shouted twice, in token of their victory; after which, they had the mortification to see several of their wounded men fall, dying with the mere loss of blood. The Spaniard governor having drawn his little body up together upon a rising ground, Atkins, though he was wounded, would have had them march and charge again all together at once; but the Spani'rd replied--Seignior Atkins, you see how their wounded men fight : let them alone till morning; all these wounded men will be stiff and sore with their wounds, and faint with the loss of blood; and so we shall have the fewer to engage." This advice was good : but Will Atkins replied merrily, "That is true, seignior, and so shall I too: and that is the reason I would go on while I am warm."" Well, Seignior Atkins," says the Spaniard, "you have behaved gallantly, and done your part; we will fight for you if you cannot come on; but I think it best to stay till.morning :" so they waited. But as it was a clear moonlight night, and they found the savages in great disorder about their dead and wounded men, and a great noise and hurry among them where they lay, they afterwards resolved to fall upon them in the night, especially if they could come to give them but one volley before they were discovered. This they had a fair opportunity to do; for one of the two Englishmen in whose quarter it was where the fight began, led them round between the woods and the sea-side westward, and then turning short south, they came so near where the thickest of them lay, that, before they were seen or heard, eight of them fired'in among them, and did dreadful execution upon them; in half a minute more, eight others fired after them, pouring in their small shot in such a quantity, that abundance were killed and wounded : and all this while they were not able to see who hurt them, or which way to fly. The Spaniards charged again with the utmost expedition, and thedivided themselves into three bodies, and resolved to fall in aong them all together; they had in each body eight persons ; that is to say, twenty-two men, and the two women, who, by the way, fought



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a8 ROBINSON CRUSOE. could walk out in the hottest of the weather with greater advantage than I could before in the coolest ; and wheir I had no need of it, could close it, and carry it under my arm. I cannot say that, after this, for five years, any extraordinary thing happened to me; I lived on in the same course as before ; the chief things I was employed in, besides my yearly labour of planting my barley and rice, and curing my raisins, of both which I always kept up just enough to have sufficient stock of one year's provisions beforehand ; I say, besides this yearly labour, and my daily labour of going out with my gun, I had to make a canoe, which at last I finished: so, that, by digging a canal to it of six feet wide and four feet deep, I brought it into the creek, almost half a mile. As for the first, which was so vastly big, as I made it without considering beforehand, as I ought to have done, how I should be able to launch it, so, never being able to bring it into the water, or bring the water to it, I was obliged to let it lie where it was as a memorandum to teach me to be wiser next time: indeed, the next time, though I could not get a tree proper for it, and was in a place where I could not get the water to it at any less distance than, as I have said, near half a mile, yet, as I saw it was practicable at last, I never gave it over; and though I was pear two years about it, yet I never grudged my labour, in hopes of having a boat to go off to sea at last. However, though my little periagua was finished, yet the size of it was not at all answerable to the design which I had in view when I made the first ; I mean of venturing over to the terra firma, where it was above forty miles broad; accordingly, the smallness of my boat assisted to put an end to that design, and now I thought no more of it: but as I had a boat, my next design was to make a cruise round the island ; for as I had been on the other side in one place, crossing, as I have already described it, over the land, so the discoveries I made in that little journey made me very eager to see other parts of the coast; and now I had a boat, I thought of nothing but sailing round the island. For this purpose, that I might do everything with discretion and consideration, I fitted up a little mast in my boat, and made a sail tor it out of some of the pieces of the ship's sail which lay in store, and of which I had a great stock by me. Having fitted my mast and sail, and tried the boat, I found she would sail very well: then 1 made little lockers, or boxes, at either end of my boat, to put pro\ visions, necessaries, and ammunition, &c., into, to be kept dry, either from rain or the spray of the sea; and a 'little, long, hollow place I cut in the inside of the boat, where I could lay my gun, makig a flap to hang down over it, to keep it dry.



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CONSULTATION WITH THE SPANIARD. 1i5 all the particulars of their voyage, and found they were a Spanish ship, bound from the Rio de la Plata to the Havanna, being directed to leave their loading there, which was chiefly hides and silver, and to bring back what European goods they could meet with there; that they had five Portuguese seamen on board, whom they took out of another wreck; that five of their own men were drowned when first the ship was lost, and that these escaped through infinite dangers and hazards, and arrived, almost starved, on the cannibal coast, where they expected to have been devoured every moment. He told me they had some arms with them, but they were perfectly useless, for that they had neither powder nor ball, the washing of the sea having spoiled all their powder, but a little, which they used at first landing, to provide themselves with some food. I asked him what he thought would become of them there, and if they had formed any design of making their escape. He said they had many consultations about it ; but that having neither vessel, nor tools to build one, nor provisions of any kind, their councils always ended in tears and despair. I asked him how he thought they would receive a proposal from me, which might tend towards an escape; and whether, if they were all here, it might not be done. I told him with freedom, I feared mostly their treachery and ill-usage of me, if I put my life in their hands ; for that gratitude was no inherent virtue in the nature of man, nor did men always square their dealings by the obligations they had received, so much as they did by the advantages they expected. I told him it would be very hard that I should be the instrument of their deliverance, and that they should afterwards make me their prisoner in New Spain, where an Englishman was certain to be made a sacrifice, what necessity, or what accident soever brought him thither ; and that I had rather be delivered up to the savages, and be devoured alive, than fall into the merciless claws of the priests, and be carried into the Inquisition. I added that, otherwise, I was persuaded, if they were all here, we might, with so many hands, build a barque large enough to carry us all away, either to the Brazils southward, or to the islands or Spanish coast northward; but that if, in requital, they should, when I had put weapons into their hands, carry me by force among their own people, I might be ill used for my kindness to them, and make my case worse than i was before. He answered, with a great deal of candour and ingenuousness, that their condition was so miserable, and that they were so sensible of it, that he believed they would abhor the thought of using any man unkindly that should contribute to their deliverance ; and that, if I pleased, he would go to them. with the old man, and discourse 4



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"PREPARATIONS FOR ESCAPE. 157 satisfied with his fidelity; so we fell to digging, all four of us, as well as the wooden tools we were furnished with permitted; and, in about a month's time, by the end of which it was seed-time, we had got as much land cured and trimmed up, as we sowed two-andtwenty bushels of barley on, and sixteen jars of rice, which was, in short, all the seed we had to spare; nor indeed did we leave ourselves barely sufficient for our own food for the six months that we had to expect our crop ; that is to say, reckoning from the time we set our seed aside for sowing ; for it is not to be supposed it is six months in the ground in that country. Having now society enough, and our number being sufficient to put us out of fear of the savages, if they had come, unless their number had been very great, we went freely all over the island, whenever we found occasion ; and as we had our escape or deliverance upon our thoughts, it was impossible, at least for me, to have the means of it out of mine ; to this purpose, I marked out several trees, which I thought fit for our work, and I set Friday and his father to cut them down; and then I caused the Spaniard, to whom I imparted my thoughts on that affair, to oversee and direct their work ; I showed them with what indefatigable pains I had hewed a large tree into single planks, and I caused them to do the like, till they made about a dozen large planks of good oak, near two feet broad, thirty-five feet long, and from two inches to four inches thick: what prodigious labour it took up, any one may imagine. At the same time, I contrived to increase my little flock of tame goats as much as I could ; and for this purpose I made Friday and the Spaniard go out one day, and myself with Friday the next day, (for we took our turns,) and by this means we got about twenty young kids to breed up with the rest; for whenever we shot the dam, we saved the kids, and added them to our flock ; but, above all, the season for curing the grapes coming on, I caused such a prodigious quantity to be hung up in the sun, that, I believe, had we been at Alicant, where the raisins of the sun are cured, we could have filled sixty or eighty barrels ; and these, with our bread, was a great part of our food-very good living, too, I assure you, for it is exceedingly nourishing food. It was now harvest, and our crop in good order: it was not the most plentiful increase I had seen in the island, but, however, it was enough to answer our end; for, from twenty-two bushels of barley, we brought in and thrashed out above two hundred and twenty bushels; and the like in proportion of the rice ; which was store enough for our food to the next harvest, though all the sixteen Spaniards had been on shore with me; or, if we had been ready for



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250 ROBINSON CRUSOE. again on the 6th of May, having been about twenty-five days among them: and as they were all resolved to stay upon the island till I came to remove them, I promised to send them further relief from the Brazils, if I could possibly find an opportunity. I particularly promised to send them some cattle, such as sheep, hogs, and cows: as to the two cows and calves which I brought from England, we had been obliged, by the length of our voyage, to kill them at sea, for want of hay to feed them. The next day, giving them a salute of five guns at parting, we set sail, and arrived at the bay of All Saints, in the Brazils, in about twenty-two days, meeting nothing remarkable in our passage but this : that about three days after we had sailed, being becalmed, and the current setting strong to the E.N.E., running, as it were, into a bay, or gulf on the land side, we were driven something out of our course, and once or twice our men cried out, Land to the eastward !" but whether it was the continent or islands we could not tell by any means. But the third day, towards evening, the sea smooth, and the weather calm, we saw the sea, as it were, covered towards the land with something very black; not being able to discover what it was till after some time, our chief mate, going up the main-shrouds a little way, and looking at them with a perspective, cried out it was an army. I could not imagine what he meant by an army, and spoke a little hastily, calling the fellow a fool, or some such word. Nay, sir," said he, do not be angry, for 'tis an army, and a fleet too; for I believe there are a thousand canoes, and you may see them paddle along, for they are coming towards us apace." I was a little surprised then indeed, and so was my nephew, the captain, for he had heard such terrible stories of them in the island, and having never been in those seas before, that he could not tell what to think of it, but said, two or three times, we should all be devoured. I must confess, considering we were becalmed, and the current set strong towards the shore, I liked it the worse; however, I bade him not be afraid, but bring the ship to an anchor as soon as we came so near as to know that we must engage them. The weather continued calm, and they came on apace towards us, so I gave orders to come to an anchor, and furl all our sails. As for the savages, I told them they had nothing to fear from them but fire; and therefore they should get their boats out, and fasten them, one close by the head, and the other by the stern, and man them both well, and wait the issue in that posture : this I did, that the men in the boats might be ready with sheets and buckets to put out any fire these savages might endeavour to fix to the outside of the ship. In this posture we .,, by for them, and in a little while they cam



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THE BURNING SHIP. 203 there was help for them at hand, and that they might endeavour to save themselves in their boat ;for though we could see the flames of the ship, yet they, it being night, could see nothing of us. We lay by some time upon this, only driving as the burning ship drove, waiting for daylight ; when, on a sudden, to our great terror, though we had reason to expect it, the ship blew up in the air ; and in a few minutes all the fire was out, that is to say, the rest of the ship sunk ; this was a terrible, and indeed an afflicting sight, for the sake of the poor men, who, I concluded, must be either all destroyed in the ship, or be in the utmost distress in their boat, in the middle of the ocean ; which, at present, as it was dark, I could not see; however, to direct them as well as I could, I caused lights to be hung out in all the parts of the ship where we could, and which we had lanterns for, and kept firing guns all the night long; letting them know by this that there was a ship not far off. About eight o'clock in the morning we discovered the ship's boats by the help of our perspective glasses, and found there were two of them, both thronged with people, and deep in the water. We perceived they rowed, the wind being against them ; that they saw our ship, and did their utmost to make us see them. We immediately spread our ancient, to let them know we saw them, and hung a waft out, as a signal for them to come on board, and then made more sail, standing directly to them. In little more than half an hour, we came up with them, and in a word took them all in, being no less than sixty-four men, women, and children ; for there were a great many passengers. Upon the whole we found it was a French merchant ship of 300 tons, home-bound from Quebec, in the river of Canada. The master gave us a long account of the distress of his ship, how the fire began in the steerage, by the negligence of the steersman; which, on his crying out for help, was, as everybody thought, entirely put out ; but they soon found that some sparks of the first fire had got into some part of the ship so difficult to come at that they could not effectually quench it; and afterwards getting in between the timbers, and within the ceiling of the ship, it proceeded into the hold, and mastered all the skill and all the application they were able to exert. They had no more to do then but to get into their boats, which, to their great comfort, were pretty large ; being their long-boat, and a great shallop, besides a small skiff, which was of no great service to them, other than to get some fresh water and provisions into her, after they had secured their lives from the fire. They had, indeed, small hopes of their lives by getting into these boats at that distance from any land ; only, as they said, that they thus escaped from the



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178 ROBINSON CRUSOE. circumstances. I told them I thought they had made a right choice, that if the captain had carried them away, they would certainly be hanged. I showed them the new captain hanging at the yard-arm of the ship, and told them they had nothing less to expect. When they had all declared their willingness to stay, I then told them I would let them into the story of my living there, and put them into the way of making it easy to them: accordingly, I gave them the whole history of the place, and of my coming to it : showed them my fortifications, the way I made my bread, planted my corn, cured my grapes; and, in a word, all that was necessary to make them easy. I told them the story also of the sixteen Spaniards that were to be expected, for whom I left a letter, and made them promise to treat them in common with themselves. I left them my fire-arms, viz. five muskets, three fowling-pieces, and three swords. I had above a barrel and a half of powder left ; for after the first year or two I used but little, and wasted none. I gave them a description of the way I managed the goats, and directions to milk and fatten them, and to make both butter and cheese. In a word, I gave them every part of my own story ; and told them I should prevail with the captain to leave them two barrels of gunpowder more, and some garden-seeds, which I told them I would have been very glad of. Also, I gave them the bag of peas which the captain had brought me to eat, and bade them to be sure to sow and increase them. Having done all this, I left them the next day, and went on board the ship. We prepared immediately to sail, but did not weigh that night. The next morning early, two of the five men came swimming to the ship's side, and, making the most lamentable complaint of the other three, begged to be taken into the ship for God's sake, for they should be murdered, and begged the captain to take them on board, though he hanged them immediately. Upon this, the captain pretended to have no power without me; but after some difficulty, and after solemn promises of amendment, they were taken on board, and were, some time after, soundly whipped and pickled; after which they proved very honest and quiet fellows. Some time after this, the boat was ordered on shore, the tide being up, with the things promised to the men; to which the captain, at my intercession, caused their chests and clothes to be added, which they took, and were very thankful for ; I also encouraged them, by telling them that if it lay in my power to send any vessel to take them in, I would not forget them. When I took leave of this island, I carried on board, for reliques, the great goat-skin cap I had made, my umbrella, and my parrot;



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nIo ROBINSON CRUSOE. actuated by some hellish degeneracy, could have run them into. But now, when, as I have said, I began to be weary of the fruitless excursion which I had made so long and so far every morning in vain, so my opinion of the action itself began to alter; and I began, with cooler and calmer thoughts, to consider what I was going to engage in; what authority or call I had to pretend to be judge and executioner upon these men as criminals, whom Heaven had thought fit, for so many ages, to suffer, unpunished, to go on, and to be, as it were, the executioners of His judgments one upon another; how far these people were offenders against me, and what right I had to engage in the quarrel of that blood which they shed promiscuously upon one another.When I considered this a little, it followed necessarily that I was certainly in the wrong ; that these people were not murderers, in the sense that I had before condemned them in my thoughts, any more than those Christians were murderers who often put to death the prisoners taken in battle ; or more frequently, upon many occasions, put whole troops of men to the sword, without giving quarter, though they threw down their arms, and submitted. These considerations really put me to a pause, and to a kind of a full stop ; and I began, by little and little, to be off my design, and to conclude I had taken wrong measures in my resolution to attack the savages; and that it was not my business to meddle with them, unless they first attacked me ; and this it was my business, if possible, to prevent; but that, if I were discovered and attacked by them, I knew my duty. In this disposition I continued for near a year after this ; and so far was I from desiring an occasion for failing upon these wretches, that in all that time I never once went up the hill to see whether there were any of them in sight, or to know whether any of them had been on shore there or not, that I might not be tempted to renew any of my contrivances against them, or be provoked by any advantage that might present itself, to fall upon them: only this I did; I went and removed my boat, which I had on the other side of the island, and carried it down to the east end of the whole island, where I ran it into a little cove, which I found under some high rocks, and where I knew, by reason of the currents, the savages durst not, at least would not, come with their boats upon any account whatever. With my boat I carried away everything that I had left there belonging to her, though not necessary for the bare going thither, viz., a mast and sail which I had made for her, and a thing like an anchor, but which indeed could not be called either anchor or grapnel; however, it was the best I could make of its kind: all these I removed, that there might not be the least shadow for discovery, or appearance of any



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240 ROBINSON CRUSOE. It was five or six months after this before they heard any more of the savages, in which time our men were in hopes they had either forgot their former bad luck, or had given over hopes of better; when, on a sudden, they were invaded with a most formidable fleet of no less than eight-and-twenty canoes, full of savages, armed with bows and arrows, great clubs, wooden swords, and such like engines of war ; and they brought such numbers with them, that, in short, it put all our people into the utmost consternation. As they came on shore in the evening, and at the easternmost side of the island, our men had that night to consult and consider what to do; and in the first place, knowing that their being entirely concealed was their only safety before, and would much more be so now, while the number of their enemies was so great, they resolved, first of all, to take down the huts which were built for the two Englishmen, and drive away their goats to the old cave; because they supposed the savages would go directly thither, as soon as it was day, to play the old game over again, though they did not now land within two leagues of it. In the next place they drove away all the flocks of goats they had at the old bower, as I called it, which belonged to the Spaniards; and, in short .eft as little appearance of inhabitants anywhere as was possible; ar the next morning early they posted themselves, with all their fo,? e, at the plantation of the two men, to wait for their coming. As they guessed, so it happened: these new invaders, leaving their canoes at the east end of the island, came ranging along the shore, directly towards the place, to the number of two hundred and fifty, as near as our men could judge. Our army was but small indeed ; but, that which was worse, they had not arms for all theit number. The whole account, it seems, stood thus : first, as to men, seventeen Spaniards, five Englishmen, old Friday, the three slaves taken with the women, who proved very faithful, and three othel slaves, who lived with the Spaniards. To arm these, they had eleven muskets, five pistols, three fowling-pieces, five muskets, or fowlingpieces, which were taken by me from the mutinous seamen whom I reduced, two swords, and three old halberts. To their slaves they did not give either musket or fusee ; but they had each a halbert, or a long staff, like a quarter-staff, with a great spike of iron fastened into each end of it, and by his side a hatchet: also every one of our men had hatchets. Two of the women could not be prevailed upon but they would come into the fight, and they had bows and arrows, which the Spaniards had taken from the savages when the first action happened, where the Indians fought with one another; and the women hall hatchets too.



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THE FRENCH PUT ON SHORE. 205 for them but what we believed they would have done for us, if we had been in their case, and they in ours : but that we took them up to serve them, not to plunder them ; and it would be a most barbarous thing to take that little from them which they had saved out of the fire, and then set them on shore and leave them ; that this would be first to save them from death, and then kill them ourselves ; save them from drowning, and abandon them to starving ; and, therefore, I would not let the least thing be taken from them. As to setting them on shore, I told them, indeed, that was an exceeding difficulty to us, for that the ship was bound to the East Indies ; and though we were driven out of our course to the westward a very great way, and perhaps were directed by Heaven on purpose for their deliverance, yet it was impossible for us wilfully to change our voyage on their particular account; nor could my nephew, the captain, answer it to the freighters, with whom he was under charter-party to pursue his voyage by way of Brazil ; and all I knew we could do for them was, to put ourselves in the way of meeting with other ships homeward bound from the West Indies, and get them a passage, if possible, to England or France. The first part of the proposal was so generous and kind, they could not but be very thankful for it; but they were in a great consternation, especially the passengers, at the notion of being carried away to the East Indies; they then entreated me, that as I was driven so far to the westward before I met with them, I would, at least, keep on the same course to the Banks of Newfoundland, where it was probable I might meet with some ship or sloop that they might hire to carry them back to Canada. I thought this was but a reasonable request on their part, and therefore I inclined to agree to it; for, indeed, I considered that to carry this whole company to the East Indies, would not only be an intolerable severity upon the poor people, but would be ruining our whole voyage, by devouring all our provisions ; so I thought it no breach of charter-party, but what an unforeseen accident made absolutely necessary to us, and in which no one could say we were to blame ; so I consented that we would carry them to Newfoundland, if wind and weather would permit; and if not, that I would carry them to, Martinico, in the West Indies. It was about a week after this that we made the Banks of Newfoundland ; where, to shorten my story, we put all our French people on board a bark, which they hired at sea there, to put them on shore, and afterwards to carry them to France, if they could get provisions to victual themselves with. When I say all the French went on shore, I should remember, that the young priest, hearing we were



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226 ROBINSON CRUSOE. struck into his shoulder, so that he thought he had cut the poor creature's arm off, ran to him, and, entreating him not to murder the poor man, placed himself between him and the savage, to prevent the mischief. The fellow, being enraged the more at this, struck at the Spaniard with his hatchet, and swore he would serve him as he intended to serve the savage : which the Spaniard perceiving, avoided the blow, and with a shovel which he had in his hand (for they were all working in the field about their corn land) knocked the brute down : another of the Englishmen, running up at the same time to help his comrade, knocked the Spaniard down ; and then two Spaniards more came in to help their man, and a third Englishman fell in upon them. They had none of them any fire-arms or any other weapons but hatchets and other tools, except this third Englishman; he had one of my rusty cutlasses, with which he made at the two last Spaniards, and wounded them both: this fray set the whole family in an uproar, and more help coming in, they took the three Englishmen prisoners. The next question was, what should be done with them? They had been so often mutinous, and were so very furious, so desperate, and so idle withal, they knew not what course to take with them, for, in short, it was not safeto live with them. The Spaniard who was governor told them, that if they had been of his own country, he would have hanged them; for all laws and all governors were to preserve society, and those who were dangerous to the society ought to be .expelled out of it; but as they were Englishmen, and that it was to the generous kindness of an Englishman that they all owed their preservation and deliverance, he would use them with all possible lenity, and would leave them to the judgment of the other two Englishmen, who were their countrymen. One of the two honest Englishmen stood up, and said they desired it might not be left to them : For," says he, I am sure we ought to sentence them to the gallows ;" and with that gives an account how Will Atkins, one of the three, had proposed to have all the five Englishmen join together, and murder all the Spaniards when they were in their sleep. When the Spanish governor heard this, he calls to Will Atkins, "How, Seignior Atkins," says he, "will you murder us all? What have you to say to that ?" That hardened villain was so far from denying it, that he said it was true, and swore they would do it still before they had done with them. "Well, but Seignior Atkins," says the Spaniard, "what have we done to you, that you will kill us ? And what would you get by killing us ? And what must we do to prevent your killing us ? Must we kill you, or you kill us ? Why will you put us to the necessity of this, Seignior Atkins?" says the



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4 ROBINSON CRUSOE. reason began now to master my despondency, I began to comfort myself as well as I could, and to set the good against the evil, that I might have something to distinguish my case from worse; and I stated very impartially, like debtor and creditor, the comforts I enjoyed against the miseries I suffered, thus :EVIL. GOOD. I am cast upon a horrible, deBut I am alive; and not rolate island, void of all hope of drowned, as all my ship's cornrecovery. pany were. I am singled out and separated, But I am singled out, too, from as it were, from all the world, to all the ship's crew, to be spared be miserable. from death; and He that miraculously saved me from death, can deliver me from this condition. I am divided from mankindBut I am not starved, and a solitaire; one banished from perishing on a barren place, afhuman society. fording no sustenance. I have not clothes to cover me. But I am in a hot climate, where, if I had clothes, I could hardly wear them. I am without any defence, or But I am cast on an island means to resist any violence of where I see no wild beasts to hurt man or beast. me, as I saw on the coast of Africa : and what if I had been -shipwrecked there ? .1 have no soul to speak to or But God wonderfully sent the reieve me. ship in near enough to the shore, that I have got out as many necessary things as will either supply my wants or enable me to supply myself even as long as I live. Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony, that there was scarce any condition in the world so miserable but there was something negative or something positive to be thankful for in it. Having now brought my mind a little to relish.my condition, and .given over looking out to sea, to see if I could spy-a ship-I say, giving over these things, I began to apply myself to arrange my way of living, and to make things as easy to me as I could. I have already described my habitation, which was a tent under the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of post and cables;



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CRUSOE MAKES CHARCOAL. boat, or of any human habitation upon the island. Besides this, I kept myself, as I said, more retired than ever, and seldom went from: my cell except upon my constant employment, to milk my she-goats, and manage my little flock in the wood, which, as it was quite onr the other part of the island, was out of danger; for certain it is that these savage people, who sometimes haunted this island, never came with any thoughts of finding anything here, and consequently never wandered off from the coast, and I doubt not but they might havebeen several times on shore after my apprehensions of them had made me cautious, as well as before. Indeed, I looked back with somehorror upon the thoughts of what my condition would have been, if I had chopped upon them and been discovered before that, when, naked, and unarmed, except with one gun, and that loaded often. only with small shot, I walked everywhere, peeping and peering about the island to see what I could get; what a surprise should I have been in, if, when I discovered the print of a man's foot, I had, instead of that, seen fifteen or twenty savages, and found them pur-suing me, and, by the swiftness of their running, no possibility of my escaping them. I had the care of my safety more now upon my hands than that of my food. I dared not to drive a nail, or chop a stick of wood now, for fear the noise I might make should be heard: much less would I fire a gun for the same reason: and, above all, I was intolerably uneasy at making any fire, lest the smoke, which is visible at a great distance in the day, should betray me. For this reason, I removed that part of my business which required fire, such as burning of potand pipes, &c. into my new apartment in the woods; where, after I had been some time, I found to my unspeakable consolation a mere natural cave in the earth, which went in a vast way, and where, I dare say, no savage, had he been at the mouth of it, would be so, hardy as to venture in; nor, indeed, would any man else, but onewho, like me, wanted nothing so much as a safe retreat. The mouth of this hollow was at the bottom of a great rock, where, by mere accident (I would say, if I did not see abundant reason to ascribe all such things now to Prpvidence), I was cutting down somethick branches of trees to make charcoal; and before I go on I must observe the reason of my making this charcoal, which was thus: I was afraid of making a smoke about my habitation, as I said before; and yet I could not live there without baking my bread, cooking my meat, &c.; so I contrived to burn some wood here, as I had seen, done in England, under turf, till it became chark or dry coal; and then putting the fire out, I preserved the coal to carry home, and perform the other services for which fire was wanting, without danget 4



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158 ROBINSON CRUSOE. a voyage, it would very plentifully have victualled our ship to have carried us to any part of the world, that is to say, of America. When we had thus housed and secured our magazine of corn, we fell to work to make more wicker-ware, viz., great baskets, in which we kept it; and the Spaniard was very handy and dexterous at this part, and often blamed me that I did not make some things for defence of this kind of work; but I saw no need of it. And now, having a full supply of food for all the guests I expected, I gave the Spaniard leave to go over to the main, to see what he could do with those he had left behind him there. I gave him a strict charge in writing not to bring any man who would not first swear, in the presence of himself and the old savage, that he would in no way injure, fight with, or attack the person he should find in the island, who was so kind as to send for them in order to their deliverance; but that they would stand by him and defend him against all such attempts, and wherever they went, would be entirely under and subjected to his command; and that this should be put in writing, and signed with their hands : how we were to have this done, when I knew they had neither pen nor ink, was a question which we never asked. Under these instructions, the Spaniard and the old savage, the father of Friday, went away in one of the canoes which they might be said to have come in, or rather were brought in, when they came as prisoners to be devoured by the savages. I gave each of them a musket, with a firelock on it, and about eight charges of powder and ball, charging them to be very good husbands of both, and not to use either of them but upon urgent occasions. This was a cheerful work, being the first measures used by me, in view of my deliverance, for now 27 years and some days. I gave them provisions of bread, and of dried grapes, sufficient for themselves for many days, and sufficient for all the Spaniards for about eight days' time; and wishing them a good voyage, I saw them go, agreeing with them about a signal they should hang out at their return, by which I should know them again, when they came back, at a distance, before they came on shore. They went away, with a fair gale, on the day that the moon was at full, by my account in the month of October; but as for an exact reckoning of days, after I had once lost it, I could never recover it again; nor had I kept even the number of years so punctually as to be sure I was right; though, as it proved, when I afterwards examined my account, I found I had kept a true reckoning of years. It was no less than eight days I waited for them, when a strange and unforeseen accident intervened, of which the like has not, perhaps, been heard of in history. I was fast asleep in my hutch one



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184 ROBINSON CRUSOE. of above a thousand pounds a year, as sure as an estate of lands in England: and, in a word, I was in a condition which I scarce knew how to understand, or how to compose myself for the enjoyment of it. The first thing I did was to recompense my original benefactor, my good old captain, who had been first charitable to me in my distress, kind to me in my beginning, and honest to me at the end. I showed him all that was sent to me ; I told him that, next to the providence of Heaven, which disposed all things, it was owing to him ; and that it now lay on me to reward him, which I would do a hundred-fold. So I first returned to him the hundred moidores I had received of him ; then I sent for a notary, and caused him to draw up a general release or discharge from the four hundred and seventy moidores, which he had acknowledged he owed me, in the fullest and firmest manner possible ; after which I caused a procuration to be drawn, empowering him to be my receiver of the annual profits of my plantation ; and appointing my partner to account to him, and make the returns, by the usual fleets, to him in my name; and by a clause in the end, made a grant of 100 moidores a year to him during his life, out of the effects, and 50 moidores a year to his son after him, for his life. And thus I requited my old man. I was now to consider which way to steer my course next, and what to do with the estate that Providence had thus put into my hands ; and indeed I had more care upon my head now than I had in my silent state of life in the island, where I wanted nothing but what I had, and had nothing but what I wanted ; whereas I had now a great charge upon me, and my business was how to secure it. I determined to go back to England myself, and take my effects with me. It was some months, however, before I resolved upon this; and therefore, as I had rewarded the old captain fully, and to his satisfaction, who had been my former benefactor, so I began to think of the poor widow, whose husband had been my first benefactor, and she, while it was in her power, my faithful steward and instructor. So, the first thing I did, I got a merchant in Lisbon to write to his correspondent in London, not only to pay a bill, but to find her out, and carry her, in money, a hundred pounds from me, and to talk with her, and comfort her in her poverty, by telling her she should, if I lived, have a further supply. At the same time, I sent my two sisters in the country a hundred pounds each, they being, though not in want, yet not in very good circumstances; one having been married and left a widow; and the other having a husband not so kind to her as he should be. But, among all my relations or acquaintances, I could not yet pitch upon one to whom I durst commit the gross of



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THE VOYAGE TO GUINEA. 27 The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away to the northward upon our own coast, with design to stretch over for the African coast when we came about ten or twelve legrees of northern latitude, which, it seems, was the manner of their coure in those days. We had very good weather, only excessively hot, all the way upon our own coast, till we came to the height of Cape St. Augustino ; from whence, keeping further off at sea, we lost sight of land, and steered as if we were bound for the isle Fernando de Noronha, holding our course N.E. by N., and leaving those isles on the east. In this course we passed the line in about twelve days' time, and were, by our last observation, in 7 degrees 22' northern latitude, when a violent tornado, or hurricane, took us quite out of our knowledge. It blew in such a terrible manner, that for twelve days together we could do nothing but drive; and, scudding away before it, let it carry us whither ever fate and the fury of the winds directed. In this distress we had, besides the terror of the storm, one of our men die of the calenture, and one man and the boy washed overboard. About the twelfth day, the weather abating a little, the master made an observation as well as he could, and found that he was in about -Ii north latitude, but that he was 220 of longitude difference west from Cape St. Augustino ; so that he found he was upon the coast of Guiana, or the north part of Brazil, beyond the river Amazon, towards that of the river Oroonoque, commonly called the Great River ; and began to consult with me what course he should take, for the ship was leaky, and very much disabled, and he was going directly back to the coast of Brazil. I was positively against that ; and looking over the charts of the sea-coasts of America with him, we concluded there was no inhabited country for us to have recourse to, till we came within the circle of the Caribbee Islands, and therefore resolved to stand away for Barbadoes, which, by keeping off at sea, to avoid the indraft of the Bay or Gulf of Mexico, we might easily perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen days' sail; whereas we could not possibly make our voyage to the coast of Africa without some assistance both to our ship and to ourselves. With this design we changed our course, and steered away N.W. by W., in order to reach some of our English islands, where I hoped for relief ; but our voyage was otherwise determined ; for, being in theatitude of 12 deg. 18 min. a second storm came upon us, which carried us away with the same impetuosity westward, and drove us so out of the very way of all human commerce, that, had all our lives been saved as to the sea, we were rather in danger of beina devoured by savages than ever returning to our countzX



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A TERRIBLE STORM. ship so much, they were obliged to cut her away also, and make a clear deck. Any one may judge what a condition I must be in at all this, who was but a young sailor, and who had been in such a fright before at but a little. But if I can express at this distance the thoughts I had about me at that time, I was in tenfold more horror of mind upon account of my former convictions, and the having returned from them to the resolutions I had wickedly taken at first, than I was at death itself; and these, added to the terror of the storm, put me into such a condition, that I can by no words describe it. -But the worst was not come yet; the storm continued 'With such fury, that the seamen themselves acknowledged they had never known a worse. We had a good ship, but she was deep laden, and wallowed in the sea, that the seamen every now and then cried out she would founder. It was my advantage in one respect that Idid not know what they meant by founder, till I inquired. However, the storm was so violent, that I saw what is not often seen, the master, the boatswain, and some others more sensible than the rest, at their prayers, and expecting every moment when the ship would go to the bottom. In the middle of he night, and under all the rest of our distresses, one of the men that had been down on purpose to see, cried out we had sprung a leak; another said, there was four foot water in the hold. Then all hands were called to the pump. At that word, my heart, as I thought, died within me, and I fell backwards upon the side of my bed where I sat, into the cabin. However, the men roused me, and told me, that I that was able to do nothing before, was as well able to pump as another: at which I stirred up, and went to the pump, and worked very heartily. While this was doing, the master seeing some light colliers, who, not able to ride out the storm, were obliged to slip, and run away to the sea, and would come near us, ordered to fire a gun as a signal of distress. I, who knew nothing what that meant, thought the ship had broke, or some dreadful thing happened. In a word, I was so surprised that I fell down in a swoon. As this was a time when everybody had his own life to think of, nobody minded me, or what was become of me; but another man stepped up to the pump, and thrusting me aside with his foot, let me lie, thinking I had been dead; and it was a great while before I came to myself. We worked on, but the water increasing in the hold, it was apparent that the ship would founder; and though the storm began to abate a little, yet as it was not possible she could swim till we might run into a port ; so the master continued firing guns for help; and a light ship, who had rid it out just ahead of us, ventured a boat out 4



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174 .ROBINSON CRUSOE. captain, who told them I was the person the governor had ordered to look after them; and that it was the governor's pleasure they should not stir anywhere but by my direction ; that if they did, they would be fetched into the castle, and be laid in irons ; so that as we never suffered them to see me as governor, I now appeared as another person, and spoke of the governor, the garrison, the castle, and the like, upon all occasions. The captain had now no difficulty before him, but to furnish his two boats, stop the breach of one, and man them. He made his passenger captain of one, with four of the men ; and himself, his mate, and five more, went in the other; and they contrived their business very well, for they came up to the ship about midnight. As soon as they came within call of the ship, he made Robinson hail them, and tell them he had brought off the men and the boat, but that it was a long time before they had found them, and the like; holding them in chat till they came to the ship's side; when the captain and mate entering first, with their arms immediately knocked down the second mate and carpenter with the butt-end of their muskets, being very faithfully seconded by their men; they secured all the rest that were upon the main and quarter-decks, and began to fasten the hatches, to keep them down that were below, when the other boat and their men, entering the forechains, secured the forecastle of the ship, and the scuttle which went down into the cook-room, making three men they found there prisoners. When this was done, and all safe upon deck, the captain ordered the mate, with three men, to break into the round-house, where the new rebel captain lay, who, having taken the alarm, had got up, and with two men and a boy had got firearms in their hands; and when the mate, with a crow, split open the door, the new captain and his men fired boldly among them, and wounded the mate with a musket ball, which broke his arm, and wounded two more of the men, but killed nobody. The mate, calling for help, rushed, however, into the round-house, wounded as he was, and, with his pistol, shot the new captain through the head, the bullet entering at his mouth, aind came out again behind one of his ears, so that he never spoke a word more: upon which the rest yielded, and the ship was taken effectually, without any more lives being lost. As soon as the ship was thus secured, the captain ordered seven guns to be fired, which was the signal agreed upon with me to give me notice of his success; which, you may be sure, I was very glad to hear, having sat watching upon the shore for it till nearly two of the clock in the morning. Having thus heard the signal plainly, I laid me down; and it having been a day of great fatigue to me, I



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194 ROBINSON CRUSOE. and now I found, more than before, I had done wrong in parting with my boy Xury. But, alas! for me to do wrong that never did right, was no great wonder. I had no remedy but to go on: I had got into an employment quite remote to my genius, and directly contrary to the life I delighted in, and for which I forsook my father's house, and broke through all his good advice. I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carrying on the plantation, before my kind friend, the captain of the ship that took me up at sea, went back; for the ship remained there, lading, and preparing for his voyage, nearly three months ; when, telling him what little stock I had left behind me in London, he gave me this friendly and sincere advice :-" Seignor Inglese," says he (for so he always called me), if you will give me letters, and a procuration here in form to me, with orders to the person who has your money in London, to send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as I shall direct, and in such goods as are proper for this country, I will bring you the produce of them, God willing, at my return; but, since human affairs are all subject to changes and disasters, I would have you give orders but for one hundred pounds sterling, which, you say, is half your stock, and let the hazard be run for the first; so that, if it come safe, you may order the rest the same way; and, if it miscarry, you may have the other half to have recourse to for your supply." This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that I could not but be convinced it was the best course I could take; so I accordingly prepared letters to the gentlewoman with whom I had left my money, and a procuration to the Portuguese captain, as he desired. I wrote the English captain's widow a full account of all my adventures-my slavery, escape, and how I had met with the Portuguese captain at sea, the humanity of his behaviour, and what condition I was now in, with all other necessary directions for my supply; and when this honest captain came to Lisbon, he found means, by some of the English merchants there, to send over, not the order only, but a full account of my story to a merchant at London, who represented it effectually to her; whereupon she not only delivered the money, but, out of her own pocket, sent the Portugal captain a very handsome present for his humanity and charity to me.. The merchant in London, vesting this hundred pounds in English goods, such as the captain had written for, sent them directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought them all safe to me to the Brazils; among, which, without my direction (for I was.too young in my business to think: of them), he had taken care to have all sorts of tools, iron work, and utensils, necessary for myplantation, and which were of great use to mip, MA,r;



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60 ROBINSON CRUSOE. Nor is it any more possible to describe the impression that remained upon my mind when I awaked, and found it was but a dream. I had, alas! no divine knowledge. What I had received by the good instruction of my father was then worn out by an uninterrupted series, for eight years, of seafaring wickedness, and a constant conversation with none but such as were, like myself, wicked and profane to the last degree. In the relating what is already past of my story, this will be the more easily believed, when I shall add, that through all the variety of miseries that had to this day befallen me, I never had so much as one thought of it being the hand of God, or that it was a just punishment for my sin; my rebellious behaviour against my father-or my present sins, which were great-or so much as a punishment for the general course of my wicked life. When I was on the desperate expedition on the desert shores of Africa, I never had so much as one thought of what would become of me, or one wish to God to direct me whither I should go, or to keep me from the danger which apparently surrounded me, as well from voracious creatures as cruel savages. But I was merely thoughtless of a God or a Providence, acted like a mere brute, from the principles of nature, and by the dictates of common sense only, and, indeed, hardly that. When I was delivered and taken up at sea by the Portugal captain, well used, and dealt justly and honourably with, as well as charitably, I had not the least thankfulness in my thoughts. When, again, I was shipwrecked, ruined, and in danger of drowning, on this island, I was as far from remorse, or looking on it as a judgment. I only said to myself often, that I was an unfortunate dog, and born to be always miserable. But now, when I began to be sick, and a leisurely view of the miseries of death came to place itself before me; when my spirits began to sink under the burden of a strong distemper, and nature was. exhausted with the violence of the fever; conscience, that had slept so long, began to awake, and I began to reproach myself with my past life. "Now," said I aloud, "my dear father's words are come to pass; God's justice has overtaken me, and I have none to help or hear me, I rejected the voice of Providence, which had mercifully put me in a posture or station of life wherein I might have been happy and easy ;.but I would neither see it myself, nor learn to know the blessing of it from my parents. I left them to mourn over my folly, and now I am left to mourn under the consequences of it. I refused their help and assistance, who would have lifted me in the world, and would have made everything easy to me; and now I have difficulties to struggle with, too great for even nature itself to support, and no assistance, no help, no comfort, no advice." Then I cried out, Lord, be my help, for I am in great distress." This was thei



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IR IDA Y IS BURIED A T SEA. 253 with an open throat. He told us, however, some time after, when we had taught him to speak a little English, that they were going with their kings to fight a great battle. When he said kings, we asked him how many kings? He said they were five nation (we could not make him understand the plural s), and that they all joined to go against two nation. We asked him what made them come up to us ? He said, "To makee te great wonder look." Here it is to be observed, that all those natives, as also those of Africa, when they learn English, always add two e's at the end of the words where we use one; and they place the accent upon them, as makde, takee, and the like; nay, I could hardly make Friday leave it off, though at last he did. And now I name the poor fellow once more, I must take my last leave of him. Poor honest Friday! We buried him with all the decency and solemnity possible, by putting him into a coffin, and throwing him into the sea; and I caused them to fire eleven guns for him. So ended the life of the most grateful, faithful, honest, and most affectionate servant that ever man had. We went now away with a fair wind for Brazil; and in about twelve days' time we made land, in the 12titude of five degrees south of the line, being the north-easternmost land of all that part of America. We kept on S. by E., in sirht of the shore four days, wher we made Cape St. Augustine, and in three days came to an anchor off the bay of All Saints, the old place of my deliverance, from whence came both my good and evil fate. Never ship came to this port that had less business than I had, and yet it was with great difficulty that we were admitted to hold the least correspondence on shore: not my partner himself, who was alive, and made a great figure among them, not my two merchant-trustees, -not the fame of my wonderful preservation in the island, could obtain me that favour. My partner, however, remembering that I had given five hundred moidores to the Prior of the Monastery of the Augustines, and two hundred and seventy-two to the poor, went to the monastery, and obliged the prior that then was to go to the governor, and get leave for me personally, with the captain and one more, besides eight seamen, to come on shore, and no more; and this upon condition, absolutely capitulated for, that we should not offer to land any goods out of the ship, or to carry any person away without licence. They were so strict with us, as to landing any goods, that it was vwith extreme difficulty that I got on shore three bales of English goods, such as fine broadcloths, stuffs, and some linen, which I had brought for a present to my partner. He was a very generous, broad-hearted man: though (like me.) b 4



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WELCOME TO HIS NE W SUBJECTS. 153 carried them both up together upon it between us; but when we got them to the outside of our wall, or fortification, we were at a worse, loss than before, for it was impossible to get them over, and I was resolved not to break it down: so I set to work again, and Friday; and I, in about two hours' time, made a very handsome tent, covered with old sails, and above that with boughs of trees, being in the space, without our outward fence, and between that and the grove of young wood which I had planted; and here we made two beds of such things as I had; viz., of good rice-straw, with blankets laid upon it to lie on, and another to cover them, on each bed. My island was now peopled, and I thought myself very rich in subjects; and it was a merry reflection, which I frequently made, how like a king I looked. First of all, the whole country was my own property, so that I had an undoubted right of dominion; secondly, my people were perfectly subjected; I was absolute lord and law-giver; they all owed their lives to me, and were ready to lay downr their lives, if there had been occasion for it, for me; it was remarkable, too, I had but three subjects, and they were of three different religions. My man Friday was a Protestant, his father was a Paganm and a cannibal, and the Spaniard was a Papist. However, I allowed liberty of conscience throughout my dominions:-But this is by the, way. As soon as I had secured my two weak rescued prisoners, and! given them shelter, and a place to rest them upon, I began to think of making some provision for them; and the first thing I did, I ordered Friday to take a yearling goat, bewixt a kid and a goat, out of my particular flock, to be killed; when I cut off the hinder-quarter, and chopping it into small pieces, I set Friday to work to boiling andi stewing, and made them a very good dish, I assure you, of flesh and broth, (having put some barley and rice also into the broth,) and as; I cooked it without doors, (for I made no fire within my inner wall, ) so I carried it all into the new tent, and having set a table there for them, I sat down, and ate my own dinner also with them, and, as well as I could, cheere I them and encouraged them, Friday being my interpreter, especially to his father, and, indeed, to the Spaniard too; for \he Spaniard spoke the language of the savages pretty well. After we had dined, or rather supped, I ordered Friday to take one of the canoes, and go and fetch our muskets and other fire-arms, which, for want of time, we had left upon the place of battle; and, the next day, I ordered him to go and bury the dead bodies of the savages, which lay open to the sun, and would presently be offensive ; and I also ordered him to bury the horrid remains of their barbarous feast, which I could not think of doing myself; nay, I could not bea



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CRUSOE LEARNS CONTENT. 8 But all my devices to get it into the water failed me; though they cost me infinite labour too ; it lay about one hundred yards from the water, and not more; but the first inconvenience was, it was up hill towards the creek. Well, to take away this discouragement, 1 resolved to dig into the surface of the earth, and so make a declivity : this I began, and it cost me a prodigious deal of pains, but who grudge pains that have their deliverance in view ? But when this was worked through, and this difficulty managed, it was still much at one, for I could no more stir the canoe than I could the other boat. Then I measured the distance of ground, and resolved to cut a dock or canal, to bring the water up to the canoe, seeing I could not bring the canoe down to the water. Well, I began this work, and when I began to enter into it, and calculate how deep it was to be dug, how broad, how the stuff was to be thrown out, I found that, by the number of hands I had, being none but my own, it must have been ten or twelve years before I sliuld, have gone through with it; foA the shore lay high ; so that at tha upper end it must have been at least twenty feet deep ; so at length, though with great reluctancy, I gave this attempt over also. This grieved me heartily; and now I saw, though too late, the folly of beginning a work before we count the cost, and before we judge rightly of our own strength to go through with it. In the middle of this work, I finished my fourth year in this place, and kept my anniversary with the same devotion, and with as much comfort as ever before; for, by a constant study and serious application to the Word of God, and by the assistance of His grace, I gained a different knowledge from what I had before; I entertained different notions of things. I had now brought my state of life to be much easier in itself than it was at first, and much easier to my mind, as well as to my body. I frequently sat down to meat with thankfulness, and admired thehand of God's providence, which had thus spread my table in the wilderness. I learned to look more upon the bright side of my condition, and less upon the dark side, and to consider what I enjoyed rather than what I wanted ; and this gave me sometimes such secret comforts, that I cannot express them; and which I take notice of here, to put those discontented people in mind of it, who cannot enjoy comfortably what God has given them, because they see and covet something that he has not given them. All our discontents about what we want appeared to me to spring from the want of thankfulness for what we have. I had now been here so long, that many things which I had brought on shore for my help were either quite gone, or very much wasted



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220 ROBINSON CRUSOE. reluctance ; but the Spaniards protested that they did it only to keep them from.bloodshed, and to make them all easy at last. In about five days' time the vagrants, tired with wandering, and almost starved with hunger, having chiefly lived on turtles'eggs all that while, came back to the grove; and, finding my Spaniard, who, as I have said, was the governor, and two more with him, walking by the side of the creek, they came up in a very submissive, humble manner, and begged to be received again into the family. The Spaniards used them civilly, but told them they had acted so unnaturally by their countrymen, and so very grossly by them (the Spaniards), that they could not come to any conclusion without consulting the two Englishmen and the rest ; but, however, they would go to them and discourse about it, and they should know in half an hour. It may be guessed that they were very hard put to it; for, as they were to wait this half-hour for an answer, they begged they would send them out some bread in the meantime, which they did, and sent them, at the same time, a large piece of goat's flesh, and a boiled parrot, which they ate very eagerly, for they were hungry indeed. After half an hour's consultation they were called in, and a long debate ensued, their two countrymen charging them with the ruin of all their labour, and a design to murder them; all which they owned before, and therefore could not deny now; upon the whole, the Spaniards acted the moderators between them; and as they had obliged the two Englishmen not to hurt the three while they were naked and unarmed, so they now obliged the three to go and rebuild their fellows' two huts, one to be of the same and the other of larger dimensions than they were before ; also to fence their ground again, plant trees in the room of those pulled up, dig up the land again for planting corn, and, in a word, to restore everything to the same state as they found it, that is, as near as they could. Well, they submitted to all this; and as they had plenty of provisions given them all the while, they grew very orderly, and the whole society began to live pleasantly and agreeably together again ; only that these three fellows could never be persuaded to work, I mean, not for themselves, except now and then a little, just as they pleased : however, the Spaniards told them plainly, that if they would' but live sociably and friendly together, and study the good of the whole plantation, they would be content to work for them, and let them walk about and be as idle as they pleased; and thus, having lived pretty well together for a month or two, the Spaniards 4et them have arms again, and gave them liberty to go abroad with them as before. It was not above a week after they had these arms, and went abroad,



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HE SOWS THE SEED AGAIN. 79 or reap it, cure and carry it home, thresh it, part it from the chaff, and save it. Then I wanted a mill to grind it, sieves to dress it, yeast and salt to make it into bread, and an oven to bake it; but all these things I did without ; and yet the corn was an inestimable comfort and advantage to me too; but this made everything laborious and tedious to me; but that there was no help for; neither was my time so much loss to me, because, as I had divided it, a certain part of it was every day appointed to these works ; and as I resolved to use none of the corn for bread till I had a greater quantity by me, I had the next six months to apply myself wholly, by labour and invention, to furnish myself with utensils proper for the performing all the operations necessary for the making the corn, when I had it, fit for my use. But first I was to prepare more land, for I had now seed enough to sow above an acre of ground. Before I did this, I had a week's work at least to make me a spade, which, when it was done, was but a sorry one indeed, and very heavy, and required double labour to work with it ; however, I went through that, and sowed my seed in two large flat pieces of ground, as near my house as I could find them to my mind, and fenced them in with a good hedge, the stakes of which were all cut off that wood which I had set before, which I knew it would grow; so that, in a year's time, I knew I should have a quick or living hedge, that would want but little repair. This work was not so little as to take me up less than three months, because a great part of that time was the wet season, when I could not go abroad. Within-doors, that is, when it rained, and I could not go out, I found employment on the following occasions-always observing, that all the while I was at work, I diverted myself with talking to my parrot, and teaching him to speak; and I quickly taught him to know his own name, and at last to speak it out pretty loud, Poll," which was the first word I ever heard spoken in the island by any mouth but my own. This, therefore, was not my work, but an assistant to my work; for now, as I said, I had a great employment upon my hands, as follows: I had long studied, by some means or other, to make myself some earthen vessels, which, indeed, I wanted sorely, but knew not where to come at them; however, considering the heat of the climate, I did not doubt but if I could find out any such clay, I might botch up some such pot as might, being dried in the sun, be hard enough and strong enough to bear handling, and to hold anything that was dry, and required to be kept so; and as this was necessary in the preparing corn, meal, &c. which was the thing I was upon, I resolved to make some as large as I could, and fit only to stand like jars, to hold what should be put into them. It would make the reader pity me, or rather laugh at me, to tell 4 _ „ „ „ ... ---





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THE FOOTPRINT ON THE SAND. bush and tree, and fancying every stump at a distance to be a man; nor is it possible to describe how many various shapes affrighted imagination represented things to me in ; how many wild ideas were found every moment in my fancy, and what strange, unaccountable whimseys came into my thoughts by the way. When I came to my castle (for so I think I called it after this), I fled into it like one pursued ; whether I went over by the ladder, a& first contrived, or went in at the hole in the rock, which I had called a door, I cannot remember; no, nor could I remember the next morning; for never frightened hare fled to cover, or fox ta earth, with more terror of mind than I to this retreat. I slept none that night; the farther I was from the occasion of my fright, the greater my apprehensions were; which is something conr trary to the nature of such things, and especially to the usual practice of all creatures in fear; but I was so embarrassed with my own frightful ideas of the thing, that I formed nothing but dismal imaginations to myself, even though I was now a great way off it. Sometimes I fancied it must be the devil; and reason joined in with me in this supposition ; for how should any other thing in human shape come into the place? Where was the vessel that brought them-? What marks were there of any other footstep ? And how was it pos-sible a man should come there? But then, to think that Satan. should take human shape upon him in such a place, where there could be no manner of occasion for it, but to leave the print of his. foot behind him, and that even for no purpose too, for he could not be sure I should see it; this was an amusement the other way; I considered that the devil might have found out abundance of other ways to have terrified me than this of the single print of a foot. That as I lived quite on the other side of the island, he would never have been so simple as to leave a mark in a place where it was ten thousand to one whether I should ever see it or not, and in the sand, too, which the first surge of the sea, upon a high wind, would have defaced entirely : all this seemed inconsistent with the thing itself, and with all the-notions we usually entertain of the subtilty of the devil. While these reflections were rolling in my mind, I was very thankful in my thoughts, that I was so happy as not to be thereabouts at that time, or that they did not see my boat, by which they would have concluded that some inhabitants had been in the place, and perhaps, have searched farther for me. Then terrible thoughts racked my imagination about their having found out my boat, and that there were people here; and that, if so, I should certainly have them come again in greater numbers, and devour me, that if it should happen that they should not find me, yet they would finnd my 4



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CRUSOE'S PLAN FOR TAKING THE SHIP. 173 Cion they were brought to; and that though the governor had given hem quarter for their lives as to the present action, yet that if they were sent to England, to be sure they would all be hanged in chains; jut that if they would join in so just an attempt as to recover the _,ip, he would have the governor's engagement for their pardon. Any one may guess how readily such a proposal would be accepted by men in their condition; they fell down on their knees to the captan, and promised, with the deepest imprecations, that they would Aw faithful to him to the last drop, and that they should owe their lives to him, and would go with him all over the world; that they would own him as a father to them as long as they lived. Well," says the captain, I must go and tell the governor what you say, and see what I can do to bring him to consent to it." So he brought me an account of the temper he found them in, and that he verily believed they would be faithful. However, that we might be very secure, I told him he should go back again and choose out five of them, and tell them, they might see he did not want men, that he would take out five of them to be his assistants, and that the governor would keep the other two and the three that were sent prisoners to the castle (my cave), as hostages for the fidelity of those five; and that if they proved unfaithful in the execution, the five hostages should be hanged in chains alive upon the shore. This looked severe, and convinced them that the governor was in earnest; however, they had no way left them but to accept it; and it was now the business of the prisoners, as much as of the captain, to persuade the other five to do their duty. Our strength was now thus ordered for the expedition: i, the captain, his mate, and passenger: 2, the two prisoners of the first gang, to whom, having their character from the captain, I had given their liberty, and trusted them with arms : 3, the other two that I had kept till now in my apartment pinioned, but, on the captain's motion, had now released : 4, the single man taken in the boat: 5, these five released at last ; so that there were 13 in all, besides five we kept prisoners in the cave for hostages. I asked the captain if he was willing to venture with these hands on board the ship; but as for me and my man Friday I did not think it was proper for us to stir, having seven men left behind ; and it was employment enough for us to keep them asunder, and supply them with victuals. As to the five in the cave, I resolved to keep them fast; but Friday went in twice a day to them, to supply them with necessaries; and I made the other two carry provisions to a certain distance, where Friday was to take them. When I showed myself to the two hostages, it was with the 4



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276 ROBINSON CRUSOE. command in case of an attack, and give every one their turn of command ; nor was this forming us into order any more than what we afterwards found needful on the way. In a few days we passed the great China Wall, made for a fortification against the Tartars: and a very great work it is, going over hills and mountains in an endless track, where the rocks are impassable, and the precipices such as no enemy could possibly enter, or indeed climb up, or where, if they did, no wall could hinder them. After we passed this mighty wall, something likejthe Picts' wall, so famous in Northumberland, built by the Romans, we began to find the country thinly inhabited, and the people rather confined to live in fortified towns, as being subject to the inroads and depredations of the Tartars, who rob in great armies, and therefore are not to be resisted by the naked inhabitants'of an open country. In about five days we entered a vast wild desert, which held us three days and nights' march: and we were obliged to carry our water with us in great leathern bottles, and to encamp all night, just as I have heard they do in the desert of Arabia. I asked our guides whose dominion this was in : cyd they told me this was a kind of border, that might be called no man's land, being a part of Great Karakathy, or Grand Tartary: that, however, it was all reckoned as belonging to China, but that there was no care taken here to preserve it from the inroads of thieves, and therefore it was reckoned the worst desert of the whole march, though we were to go over some much larger. In passing this frightful wilderness, we saw, two or three times, little parties of the Tartars, but they seemed to be upon their owa affairs, and to have no design upon us; and so, like the man who mot the devil, if they had nothing to say to us, we had nothing to say to them ; we let them go. Once, however, a party of them came so near as to stand and gaze at us. Whether it was to consider if they should attack us or not, we knew not: but when we had passed at some distance by them, we made a rear-guard of forty men, and stood ready for them, letting the caravan pass half a mile or there abouts before us. After a while they marched off, but they salutea us with five arrows at parting, which wounded a horse so that it disabled him, and we left him the next day, poor creature, in great need of a good farrier. We saw no more arrows or Tartars that time. We travelled near a month after this, the ways not being so good as at first, though still in the dominions of the Emperor of China, but lay for the most part in the villages, some of which were fortified, because of the incursions of the Tartars. The city of Neum, which we were approaching, is a frontier of the



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A STRANGE RESTING-PLACE. 31 I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when, the breach and froth of the sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far off; and considered, Lord how was it possible I could get on shore 1 After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my condition, I began to look round me, to see what kind of place I was in, and what was next to be done : and I soon found my comforts abate, and that, in a word, I had a dreadful deliverance: for I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor anything either to eat or drink to comfort me; neither did I see any prospect before me, but that of perishing with hunger, or being devoured by wild beasts; and that which was particularly afflicting to me was, that I had no weapon, either to hunt and kill any creature for my sustenance, or to defend myself against any other creature that might desire to kill me for theirs; in a word, I had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco in a box; this was all my provisions; and this threw me into terrible agonies of mind, that for a while, I ran about like a madman. Night coming upon me, I began, with a heavy heart, to consider what would be my lot if there were any ravenous beasts in that country, as at night they always come abroad for their prey. All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that time, was to get up into a thick bushy tree like a fir, but thorny, which grew near me, and where I resolved to sit all night, and consider the next day what death I should die, for as yet I saw no prospect of life. I walked about a furlong from the shore, to see if I could find any fresh water to drink, which I did, to my great joy; and having drank, and put a little tobacco in my mouth to prevent hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into it, endeavoured to place myself so that if I should sleep I might not fall; and having cut me a short stick, like a truncheon, for my defence, I took up my lodging, and having been excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I believe, few could have done in my condition, and found myself the most refreshed with it that I think I ever was on such an occasion. When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the storm abated, so-that the sea did not rage and swell as before; but that which surprised me most was, that the ship was lifted off in the night from the sand where shfe lay, by the swelling of the tide, and was driven up almost as far as the rock which I at first mentioned, where I had been so bruised by the dashing me against it. This being within about a mile from the shore where I was, and the ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished myself on board, that at least I might save some necessary things for my use. When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked about me again, and the first thing I found was the boat, which lay as the '"-\ '*.. "'



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THE KIDS CA UGHT IN A TRAP. 4 away alive, which was what I wanted. I could have killed him, but that was not my business, nor would it answer my end. So I even let him out, and he ran away as if he had been frighted out of hisr wits : but I had forgot then what I learned afterwards, that hunger will tame a lion. If I had let him stay there three or four days without food, and then have carried him some water to drink, and' then a little corn, he would have been as tame as one of the kids, for they are mighty sagacious, tractable creatures, where they are well used. However, for the present I let him go, knowing no better at that time: then I went to the three kids, and, taking them one by one, I tied them with strings together, and with some difficultybrought them all home. It was a good while before they would feed, but throwing them; some sweet corn, it tempted them, and they began to be tame: and. now I found that if I expected to supply myself with goats' flesh, when I had no powder or shot left, breeding some up tame was my only way, when, perhaps, I might have them about my house like a flock of sheep. But, then, it occurred to me that I must keep the tame from the wild, or else they would always run wild when they grew up ; and the only way for this was to have some inclosed piece of ground, well fenced either with hedge or pale, to keep them in so, effectually, that those within might, not break out, or those without break in. This was a great undertaking for one pair of hands; yet, as I sawthere was an absolute necessity for doing it, my first work was to find. out a proper piece of ground, viz., where there was likely to be herbage for them to eat, water for them to drink, and cover to keep them from the sun. Those who understand such inclosures will think I had very little contrivance, when I pitched upon a place very proper for all these, being a plain open piece of meadow land, or savannah (as our people call*it in the western colonies) which had two or three rills of fresh water in it, and at one end was very woody : I say, they will smile at my forecast, when I shall tell them I began by inclosing this piece of ground in such a manner, that my hedge or pale must have been at least two miles about. Nor was the madness of it so great as to the compass, for if it was ten miles about, I was like to have time enough to do it in; but I did not consider that my goats would be as wild in so much compass as if they had had the whole island, and then I should have so much room to chase them in that I should never catch them. My hedge was begun and carried on, I believe, about fifty yards when. this thought occurred to me; so I presently stopped short, 4



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CRUSOE MAKES A SPADE, ETC. 49 cooled the earth; but it was accompanied with terrible thunder and lightning, which frightened me dreadfully, for fear of my powder. As. soon as it was over, I resolved to separate my stock of powder into as many little parcels as possible, that it might not be in danger. Nov. 14, 15, i6.-These three days I spent in making little square chests, or boxes, which might hold about a pound, or two pounds at most, of powder; and so, putting the powder in, I stowed it in places. as secure and remote from one another as possible. On one of these three days, I killed a large bird that was good to eat, but I knew not what to call it. Nov. 17.-This day I began to dig behind my tent into the rock, to make room for my further conveniency. Note, Three things I wanted exceedingly for this work; viz., a pickaxe, a shovel, and a wheelbarrow, or basket; so I desisted from my work, and began to consider how to supply that want, and make me some tools; as for the pickaxe, I made use of the iron crows, which were proper enough, though heavy; but the next thing was a shovel, or spade; this was so absolutely necessary, that, indeed, I could do nothing effectually without it; but what kind of one to make I knew not. Nov. 18.-The next day, in searching the woods, I found a tree of that wood, or like it, which, in the Brazils, they call the iron-tree, for its exceeding hardness; of this, with great labour, and almost spoiling my axe, I cut a piece, and brought it home, too, with difficulty enough, for it was exceeding heavy. The excessive hardness of the wood, and my having no other way, made me a long while upon this machine, for I worked it effectually by little and little into the form of a shovel or spade; the handle exactly shaped like ours in England, only that the board part having no iron shod upon it at bottom, it would not last me so long ; however, it served well enough for the uses which I had occasion to put it to; but never was a shovel, I believe, made after that fashion, or so long a making. I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket, or a wheelbarrow. A basket I could not make by any means, having no such things as twigs that would bend to make wicker-ware, at least, none yet found out; and as to a wheelbarrow, I fancied I could make all but the wheel; but that I had no notion of; neither did I know how to go about it ; besides I had no possible way to make the iron gudgeons for the spindle or axis of the wheel to run in ; so I gave it over, and so, for carrying away the earth which I dug out of the cave, I made me a thing like a hod which the labourers carry mortar in when they serve the bricklayers. This was not so difficult to me as the making the shovel; and yet this and the shovel, and the attempt which 1 made in vain to make a wheelbarrow, took me up no less than four days ^V



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CRUSOE MAKIES A RAFT 4 four of them together at both ends, as well as I could, in the form of a raft, and laying two or three short pieces of plank upon them crossways, I found I could walk upon it very well, but that it was not able to bear any great weight, the pieces being too light; so I went to work, and with a carpenter's saw I cut a spare top-mast into three lengths, and added them to my raft, with a great deal of labour and pains, but the hope of furnishing myself with necessaries, encouraged me to go beyond what I should have been able to have done upon another occasion. My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable weight ; my next care was what to load it with, and how to preserve what 1laid upon it from the surf of the sea : but I was not long considering' this, I first laid all the planks or boards upon it that I could get, and" having considered well what I most wanted, I first got three of theseamen's chests, which I had broken open and emptied, and loweredt them down upon my raft; the first of these I filled with provisions,, viz., bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried goat's flesh' (which we lived much upon), and a little remainder of European, corn), which had been laid by for some fowls which we brought to" sea with us, but the fowls were killed; there had been some barley and wheat together, but, to my great disappointment, I found afterwards that the rats had eaten or spoiled it all; as for liquors, I found several cases of bottles belonging to our skipper, in which were some cordial waters ; and, in all, about five or six gallons of rack; these I stowed by themselves, there being no need to put them into the chest, nor no room for them. While I was doing this, I found the tide began to fluw, though very calm; and I had the mortification to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left on the shore, uporn the sand, swim away; as for my breeches, which were only linen, and open-knee'd, I swam on board in them and my stockings; however, this set me on rummaging for clothes, of which I found enough, bat took no more than I wanted for present use, for I had other things which my eye was more upon-as, first, tools to work with on shore; and it was after long searching that I found out the carpenter's chest, which was, indeed, a very useful prize to me, and much more valaable than a ship-load of gold would have been at that time : I got ite down to my raft, whole as it was, without losing time to look into it,, for I knew in general what it contained. My next care was for some ammunition and arms : there were two very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two pistols ; these I secured first, with some powder-horns and a small bag of shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew there were three barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not where our gunner had stowed them; but D 4



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258 ROBINSON CRUSOE. with had been under my command, before I engaged in a thing so hazardous and mischievous as I was brought into by it, without design. We took twenty as stout fellows with us as any in the ship, besides the supercargo and myself, and we landed two hours before midnight, at the same place where the Indians stood drawn up in the evening before. We landed without any noise, and divided our men into two bodies, whereof the boatswain commanded one, and-I the other. We neither saw nor heard anybody stir when we landed: and we marched up, one body at a distance from the other, to the place. At first we could see nothing, it being very dark; till by-and-by our boatswain, who led the first party, stumbled and fell over a dead body. This made them halt awhile; for knowing by the circumstances that they were at the place where the Indians had stood, they waited for my coming up there. Here we concluded to halt till the moon began to rise, which we knew would be in less than an hour, when we could easily discern the havoc we had made among them. We told thirty-two bodies upon the ground, whereof two were not quite dead; some had an arm, and some a leg shot off, and one his head ; those that were wounded, we supposed, they had carried away. When we had made, as I thought, a full discovery of all we could come to the knowledge of, I was for going on board again ; but the boatswain and his party sent me word that they were resolved to make a visit to the Indian town, where these dogs, as they called them, dwelt, and asked me to go along with them ; and if they could find them, as they still fancied they should, they did not doubt of getting a good booty; and it might be they might find Tom Jeffry there: that was the man's name we had lost. Had they sent to ask my leave to go, I knew well enough what answer to have given them; but as they sent me word they were reSolved to go, and only asked me and my company to go along with them, I positively refused it, and rose up, for I was sitting on the ground, in order to go to the boat. One or two of the men began to importune me to go ; and when I refused, began to grumble, and say they were not under my command, and they would go. In a word, they all left me but one, whom I persuaded to stay; so the supercargo and I, with one man, went back to the boat, where I told them we would stay for them, and take care to take in as many of them as should be left; for I told them it was a mad thing they were going about, and supposed most of them would run the fate of Tom Jeffry. They told me, like seamen, they would warrant it they would come off again, and they would take care, &c. ; so away they went.



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BA SKE T-MA KING. 7 general observation I made. After I had found, by experience, the ill consequences of being abroad in the rain, I took. care to furnish myself with provisions beforehand, that I might not be obliged to go out, and I sat within doors as much as possible during the wet months. In this time I found much employment, and very suitable also to the time, for I found great occasion for many things which I had no way to furnish myself with but by hard labour and constant application; particularly I tried many ways to make myself a basket, but all the twigs I could get for the purpose proved so brittle that they would do nothing. It proved of excellent advantage to me now, that when I was a boy, I used to take great delight in standing at a basket-maker's, in the town where my father lived, to see them make their wicker-ware; and being, as boys usually are, very officious to help, and a great observer of the manner in which they worked those things, and sometimes lending a hand, I had by these means so full knowledge of the methods of it, that I wanted nothing but the materials, when it came into my mind that the twigs of that tree from whence I cut my stakes that grew, might possibly be as tough as the sallows, willows, and osiers in England, and I resolved to try. Accordingly, the next day I went to my country house, as I called it, and cutting some of the smaller twigs, I found them to my purpose as much as I could desire; whereupon I came the next time prepared with a hatchet to cut down a quantity, which I soon found, for there was great plenty of them; these I set up to dry within my circle or hedge, and when they were fit for use, I carried them to my cave; and here, during the next season, I employed myself in making, as well as I could, a great many baskets, both to carry earth or to carry or lay up anything, as I had occasion ; and though I did not finish them very handsomely, yet I made them sufficiently serviceable for my purpose; and thus, afterwards, I took care never to be without them; and as my wicker-ware decayed, I made more, especially strong deep baskets to place my corn in, instead of sacks, when I should come to have any quantity of it. Having mastered this difficulty, and employed a world of time about it, I bestirred myself to see, if possible, how to supply two wants. I had no vessels to hold anything that was liquid, except two runlets, which were almost full of rum, and some glass bottles, some of the common size, and others which were case-bottles, square, for the holding of water, spirits, &c. I had not so much as a pot to boil anything, except a great kettle, which I saved out of the ship, and which was too big for such uses as I desired it for, viz., to make broth, and stew a bit of meat by itself. The second thing I fain would have had was a tobacco-pipe, but it was impossible to me to



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THE EXILES OF SIBERIA. 28 both myself and the people that were under me, just as I have since minuted it down. They were exceedingly taken with the story, and especially the prince, who told me, with a sigh, that the true greatness of life was to be masters of ourselves; that he would not have exchanged such a state of life as mine, to be Czar of Muscovy; and that he found more felicity in the retirement he seemed to be banished to there, than ever he found in the highest authority he enjoyed in the court of his master the Czar; that the height of human wisdom was to bring our tempers down to our circumstances, and to make a calm within, under the weight of the greatest storms without. When he came first hither, he said, he used to tear the hair from his head, and the clothes from his back, as others had done before him ; but a little time and consideration had made him look into himself, as well as round him, to things without: that he found the mind of man, if it was but once brought to reflect upon the state of universal life, and how little this world was concerned in its true felicity, was perfectly capable of making a felicity for itself, fully satisfying to itself, and suitable to its own best ends and desires, with but very little assistance from the world. That being now deprived of all the fancy felicity which he enjoyed in the full exercise of worldly pleasures, he said he was at leisure to look upon the dark side of them, where he found all manner of deformity; and was now convinced that virtue only makes a man truly wise, rich, and great, and preserves him in'the way to a superior happiness in a future state; and in this, he said, they were more happy in their banishment than all their enemies were, who had the full possession of all the wealth and power they had left behind them. Nor, sir," says he, do I bring my mind to this politically, from the necessity of my circumstances, which some call miserable; but if I know anything of myself, I would not now go back, though the Czar, my master, should call me, and reinstate me in all my former grandeur." He spoke thus with so much warmth in his temper, so much earnestness and motion of his spirits, that it was evident it was the true sense-of his soul; there was no room to doubt his sincerity. I told him I once thought myself a kind of monarch in my old station of which I had given him an account; but that I thought he was not only a monarch, but a great conqueror; for he that had got a victory over his own exorbitant desires, and the absolute dominion over himself, he whose reason entirely governs his will, is certainly greater than he that conquers a city. I had been here eight months, and a dark, dreadful winter I thought it; the cold so intense that I could not so much as look abroad without being wrapped in furs, and a kind of mask of fur 4



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266 ROBINSON CRUSOE. I, "but that my ship is leaky, and I cannot find it out; but I intend to lay her aground to-morrow, to see if I can find it,"-" But, sir," says he, "leaky or not leaky, you will be wiser than to lay your ship on shore to-morrow, when you hear what I have to say to you. Do you know, sir," said he, "the town of Cambodia lies about fifteen leagues up the river; and there are two large English ships about five leagues on this side, and three Dutch ?"-"Well," said I, "and what is that to me?"--"Why, sir," said he, "is it for a mail that is upon such adventures as you are, to come into a port, and not examine first what ships there are there, and whether he is able to deal with them ? I suppose you do not think you are a match for them ?" I could not conceive what he meant; and I turned short upon him and said : I wish you would explain yourself; I cannot imagine what reason I have to be afraid of any of the Company's ships or Dutch ships. I am no interloper. What can they have to say to me ?" "Well, sir," says he, with a smile, "if you think yourself secure, you must take your chance; but, take my advice, if you do not put to sea immediately, you will the very next tide be attacked by five long-boats full of men, and perhaps, if you are taken, you will be hanged for a pirate, and the particulars be examined afterwards." "But, sir," said I, I am ignorant of the cause of all this. Can you give me no further light into it?" I can tell you but part of the story, sir," says he; "but I have a Dutch seaman here with me, and I believe I could persuade him to aell you the rest; but there is scarce time for it. But the short of the story is this-the first part of which I suppose you know well enough -that you were with this ship at Sumatra; that there your captain was murdered by the Malays, with three of his men; and that you, or some of those that were on board with you, ran away with the ship, and are since turned pirates. This is the sum of the story, and you will all be seized as pirates, I can assure you, and executed with very little ceremony; for you know merchant ships show but little law to pirates, if they get them into their power."-" Now you speak plain English, said I, "and I thank you; and though I know nothing that we have done like what you talk of, for I am sure we came honestly and fairly by the ship, yet seeing such a work is doing, as you say, and that you seem to mean honestly, I will be upon my guard. -" Nay, sir," says he, "do not talk of being upon your guard; the best defence is to be out of danger. If you have any regard for your life, and the lives of all your men, put to sea without fail at high water; and as you have a whole tide before you, you will be gone too far out before they can come down: for they will come aw Iv at high water, and as they have twenty miles to come, you will



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Troo ROBINSON CRUSOE. cover me ; and here, whenever I had occasion to be absent from my seat, I took up my country habitation. Adjoining to this, I had my inclosures for my cattle, that is to say, my goats; and as I had taken an inconceivable deal of pains to fence and inclose this ground, so I was so uneasy to see it kept entire, lest the goats should break through, that I never left off till, with infinite labour, I had stuck the outside of the hedge so full of small stakes, and so near to one another, that it was rather a pale than a hedge, and there was scarce room to put a hand through between them, which afterwards, when those stakes grew, as they all did in the next rainy season, made the inclosure strong like a wall, indeed stronger than any wall. This will testify for me that I was not idle, and that I spared no pains to bring to pass whatever appeared necessary for my comfortable support. In this place also I had my grapes growing, which I principally depended on for my winter store of raisins, and which I never failed to preserve very carefully, as the best and most agreeable dainty of my whole diet,; and indeed they were not agreeable only, but medicinal, wholesome, nourishing, and refreshing to the last degree. As this was also about half-way between my other habitation and the place where I had laid up my boat, I generally staid and lay here in my way thither ; for I used frequently to visit my boat, and I kept all things about, or belonging to her, in very good order; sometimes I went out in her to divert myself, but no more hazardous voyages would I go, scarcely ever above a stone's cast or two from the shore, I was so apprehensive of being hurried out of my knowledge again by the currents or winds, or any other accident. But now I .ome to a new scene of my life. It happened one day, about noon, going towards my boat, I was exceedingly surprised with the print of a man's naked foot on the shore, which was very plain to be seen on the sand. I stood like one thunderstruck, or as if I had seen an apparition; I listened, I looked round me, I could hear nothing, nor see anything; I went uap to a rising ground, to look farther; I went up the shore, and down the shore, but it was all one, I could see no other impression but that one. I went to it again to see if there were any more, and to observe if it might not be my fancy; but there was no room for that for there was exactly the print of a foot, toes, heel, and every part of a foot; how it came thither I knew not, nor could I in the least imagine. But after innumerable fluttering thoughts, like a man perfectly confused and out of myself, I came home to my fortification, not feeling, as we say, the ground I went on, but terrified to the last degree, looking behind me at every two or three steps, mistaking every



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CRUSOE ENDEAVOURS TO RIGHT THE BOA T. 83 the whole, I found that the forty bushels of barley and rice were much more than I could consume in a year; so I resolved to sow just the same quantity every year that I sowed the last, in hopes that such a quantity would fully provide me with bread, &c. All the while these things were doing, you may be sure my thoughts ran many times upon the prospect of land which I had seen from the other side of the jsland; and I was not without secret wishes that I was on shore there, fancying that, seeing the main-land, and an inhabited country, I might find some way or other to convey myself farther, and perhaps at last find some means of escape. Now I wished for my boy Xury, and the long-boat with the shoulderof-mutton sail, with which I sailed above a thousand miles on the cpast of Africa; but this was in vain. Then I thought I would go and look at our ship's boat, which, as I have said, was blown up upon the shore a great way, in the storm, when we were first cast away. She lay almost where she did at first, but not quite ; and was, turned, by the force of the waves and the winds, almost bottom upwards against the high ridge of a beachy, rough sand, but no water about her as before. If I had had hands to have refitted her, and to have launched her into the water, the boat would have done well enough, and I might have gone back into the Brazils with her easy enough; but I might have easily foreseen that I could no more turn her and set her upright upon her bottom, than I could remove the island ; however, I went to the woods, and cut levers and rollers, and brought them to the boat, resolving to try what I could do; suggesting to myself, that if I could but turn her down, I might easily repair the damage she had received, and she would be a very good boat, and I might go to sea in her very easily. I spared no pains, indeed, in this piece of fruitless toil, and spent, I think, three or four weeks about it; at last, finding it impossible to heave it up with my little strength, I fell to digging away the sand, to undermine it, and so to make it fall down, setting pieces of wood to thrust and guide it right in the fall. But when I had done this, I was unable to stir it up again, or to get under it, much less to move it forwards towards the water ; so I was forced to give it over; and yet, though I gave over the hopes of the boat, my desire to venture over for the main increased, rather than decreased, as the means for it seemed impossible. This at length set me upon thinking whether it was not possible to make myself a canoe, or periagua, such as the natives of those climates make, even without tools,, or, as I might say, without hands, of the trunk of a great tree. This I not only thought possible, but easy, and pleased myself extremely with my thoughts of making it, G



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ADVENTURES AT MADAGASCAR. 255 longer than was needful to take in fresh water, but made the best of our way for the coast of Coromandel. We touched first at the island of Madagascar, where, though the people are fierce and treacherous, and very well armed with lances and bows, which they use with inconceivable dexterity, yet we fared very well with them awhile ; they treated us very civilly ; and for some trifles which we gave them, such as knives, scissors, &c., they brought us eleven good fat bullocks, of a middling size, which we took in, partly for fresh provisions for our present spending, and the rest to salt for the ship's use. We were obliged to stay here some time after we had furnished ourselves with provisions ; and I, who was always too curious to look into every nook of the world wherever I came, went on shore as often as I could. It was on the east side of the island that we went on shore one evening: and the people, who, by the way, are very numerous, came thronging about us, and stood gazing at us at a distance; but as we had traded freely with them,s and had been kindly used, we thought ourselves in no danger; but when we saw the people, we cut three boughs out of a tree, and stuck them up at a distance from us; which, it seems, is a mark in that country, not only of a truce and friendship, but when it is accepted, the other side set up three poles or boughs, which is a signal that they accept the truce too; but then this is a known condition of the truce, that you are not to pass beyond their three poles towards them, nor they to come past your three poles, or boughs, towards you; so that you are perfectly secure within the three poles, and all the space between your poles and theirs is allowed like a market for free converse, traffic, and commerce. When you go there, you must not carry your weapons with you ; and if they come into that space, they stick up their javelins and lances all at the first poles, and come on un armed ; but if any violence is offered them, and the truce thereby broken, away they run to the poles, and lay hold of their weapons, and the truce is at an end. It happened one evening, when we went on shore, that a greater number of their people came down than usual, but all very friendly and civil ; and they brought several kinds of provisions, for which we satisfied them with such toys as we had ; the women also brought us milk and roots, and several things very acceptable to us, and all was quiet; and we made us a little tent or hut of some boughs or trees and lay on shore all night. I know not what was the occasion, but I was not so well satisfied to lie on shore as the rest ; and the boa riding at an anchor at about a stone's cast from the land, with two men in her to take care of her, I made one of them come on shore.; 4



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750 ROBINSON CRUSOE. into the sea, and swam with all his might off to those two who were left in the canoe; which three in the canoe, with one wounded, that we knew not whether he died or no, were all that escaped our hands, of one-and-twenty. The account of the whole is as follows :-three killed at our first shot from the tree ; two killed at the next shot; two killed by Friday in the boat; two killed by Friday of those at first wounded; one killed by Friday in the wood; three killed by the Spaniard ; four killed, being found dropped here and'there, of the wounds, or killed by Friday in his chase of them; four escaped in the boat, whereof one wounded, if not dead-twenty-one in all. Those that were in the canoe worked hard to get out of gun-shot, and though Friday made two or three shots at them, I did not find that he hit any of them. Friday would fain have had me take one of their canoes, and pursue them ; and, indeed, I was very anxious about their escape, lest, carrying the news home to their people, they should come back perhaps with two or three hundred of the canoes, and devour us by mere multitude; so I consented to pursue them by :sea, and running to one of their canoes, I jumped in, and bade Friday follow me ; but when I was in the canoe, I was surprised to find another poor creature lie there, bound hand and foot, as the Spaniard was, for the slaughter, and almost dead with fear, not knowing what was the matter ; for he had not been able to look up over the side of the boat, he was tied so hard neck and heels, and lad been tied so long, that he had really but little life in him. I immediately cut the twisted flags or rushes, which they had bound him with, and would have helped him up; but he could not stand or speak, but groaned most piteously, believing, it seems, still, that he was only unbound in order to be killed. When Friday came to him, I bade him speak to him, and tell him of his deliverance; and pulling out my bottle, made him give the poor wretch a dram; which, with the news of his being delivered, revived him, and he sat up in the boat. But when Friday came to hear him speak, and look in his face, it would have moved any one to tears to have seen how Friday kissed him, embraced him, hugged him, cried, laughed, hallooed, jumped about, danced, sung; then cried again, wrung his hands, beat his own face and head ; and then sung and jumped about again like a distracted creature. It was a good while before I could make him speak to me, or tell me what was the matter; but when he came a little to himself, he told me that it was his father. It is not easy for me to express how it moved me to see what ecstacy and filial affection had worked in this poor savage at the sight of his father, and of his being delivered from death; nor.



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FRIDA Y TEA CHES THE BEAR TO DANCE. 1 9 weaker,-" Ha !" says he to us, "now you see me teachee the bear dance :" so he falls a jumping and shaking the bough, at which the bear began to totter, but stood still, and began to look behind him, to see how he should get back ; then, indeed, we did laugh heartily. But Friday had not done with him by a great deal; when seeing him stand still, he called out to him again, as if he had supposed the bear could speak English, "What, you come no further? pray you come further ;" so he left jumping and shaking the tree; and the bear, just as if he understood what he said, did come a little further; then he fell a jumping again, and the bear stopped again. We thought now was a good time to knock him in the head, andc called to Friday to stand still, and we would shoot the bear: but he cried out earnestly, 0 pray! 0 pray no shoot, me shoot by and "then he would have said by-and-by. However, to shorten the Itory, Friday danced so much, and the bear stood so ticklish, that Ye had laughing enough, but still could not imagine what the fellow Aould do: for first we thought he depended upon shaking the bear off; and we found the bear was too cunning for that too; for he would not go out far enough to be thrown down, but clung fast with his great broad claws and feet, so that we could not imagine what would be the end of it, and what the jest would be at last. But Friday put us out of doubt quickly: for seeing the bear cling fast to, the bough, and that he would not be persuaded to come any farther,. Well, well," says Friday, "you no come further, me go, me go; you no come to me, me come to you ;" and upon this he goes out to, the smallest end of the bough, where it would bend with his weight, and gently lets himself down by it, sliding down the bough till hecame near enough to jump down on his feet, and away he ran to his. gun, takes it up, and stands still. "Well," said I to him, Friday, what will you do now? Why don't you shoot him ?"-" No shoot," says Friday, "no yet ; me shoot now, me no kill; me stay, give you. one more laugh :" and, indeed, so he did ; for when the bear saw his enemy gone, he comes back from the bough where he stood, but did it mighty leisurely; looking behind him every step, and coming backward fill he got into the body of the tree ; then, with the same hinder end foremost, he came down the tree, grasping it with his, claws, and moving one foot at a time, very leisurely; at this juncture, and just before he could set his hind foot on the ground, Friday stepped up close to him, clapped the muzzle of his piece into his. ear, and shot him as dead as a stone. Then the rogue turned about to see if we did not laugh; and when he saw we were pleased, by our looks, he began to laugh very loud. So we kills bear in my country," says Friday. "So you kill them?" says I; "why, you 4



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A PRESENTIMENT. 221 before the ungrateful creatures began to be as insolent and troublesome as before : however, an accident happened presently upon this, which endangered the safety of them all, and they were obliged to. lay by all private resentments, and look to the preservation of theil lives. It happened one night that the governor, the Spaniard whose life I had saved, who was now the governor of the rest, found himself very uneasy in the night, and could by no means get any sleep : he was perfectly well in body, as he told me the story, only found his thoughts tumultuous; his mind ran upon men fighting and killing one another, but was broad awake, and could not by any means get .any sleep ; he resolved to rise. Being got up, he looked out; but, being dark, he could see little or nothing, but that it was a clear starlight night; and, hearing no noise, he returned and lay down again ; but it was all one, he could not sleep ; his thoughts were to the last degree uneasy, and he knew not for what. Having made some noise with rising and walking about, going out and coming in, another of them waked, and asked who it was that was up. The governor told him how it had been with him. "Say you so?" says the other Spaniard ; such things are not to be slighted, I assure you ; there is certainly some mischief working near us ;" and presently he asked him, "Where are the Englishmen ?"--" They are all in their huts," says he, "safe enough." It seems the Spaniards had kept possession of the main apartment, and had made a place for the three Englishmen, who, since their last mutiny, were always quartered by themselves, and could not come at the rest. "Well," says the Spaniard, "there is something in it, I am persuaded, from my own experience ; I am satisfied our spirits embodied have a converse with, and receive intelligence from, the spirits unembodied, and inhabiting the invisible world; and this friendly notice is given for our advantage, if we know how to make use of it. Come," says he, let us go and look abroad; and if we find nothing at all in it to justify the trouble, I'll tell you a story to the purpose, that shall convince you of the justice of my proposing it." In a word, they went out to go to the top of the hill, where I used .o go, when they were surprised with seeing a light as of fire, a very .ittle way off from them, and hearing the voices of men, not of one or two, but of a great number. We need not doubt but that the governor and the man with him, surprised with this sight, ran back immediately and raised their fellows, giving them an account of the imminent danger they were all in, and they again as readily took the alarm, but it was impossible to persuade them to stay close within where they were, but they must all 4s



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DANGER OF THE TWO HONEST ENGLISHMEN. 235 from the habitation of the two Englishmen, where this escaped man had been kept. As the chief Spaniard said, had they been all there, the damage would not have been so much, for not a man of them would have escaped ; but the case differed now very much, for two men to fifty was too much odds : the two men had the happiness to discover them about a league off, so that it was above an hour before they landed ; and as they landed a mile from their huts, it was some time before they could come at them. Now, having great reason to believe that they were betrayed, the first thing they did was to bind the two slaves which were left, and cause two of the three men whom they brought with the women (who, it seems, proved very faithful to them), to lead them, with their two wives, and whatever they could carry away with them, to their retired places in the woods, which I have spoken of above, and there to bind the two fellows hand and foot, till they heard further. In the next place, seeing the savages were all come on shore, and that they had bent their course directly that way, they opened the fences where their milch goats were kept, and drove them all out ; leaving their kids to straggle in the woods, whither they pleased, that the savages might think they were all bred wild ; but the rogue who came with them was too cunning for that, and gave them an account of it all, for they went directly to the place. When the two poor frightened men had secured their wives and goods, they sent the other slave they had of the three, who came with the women, and who was at their place by accident, away to the Spaniards with all speed, to give them the alarm, and desire speedy help; and, in the meantime, they took their arms, and what ammunition they had, and retreated towards the place in the wood where their wives were sent ; keeping at a distance, yet so that they might see, if possible, which way the savages took. They had not gone far, but. that from a rising ground they could see the little army of their enemies come on directly to their habitation, and, in a moment more, could see all their huts and household stuff flaming up together, to their great grief and mortification; for this was a great loss to them, irretrievable, indeed, for some time. They kept their station for a while,-till they found the savages, like wild beasts, spread themselves all over the place, rummaging every way, and every place they could think of, in search of prey; and in particular for the people, of whom now it plainly appeared they had intelligence. The two Englishmen seeing this, thinking themselves not secure where they stood, as it was likely some of the wild people might come that way, so they might come too many together, thought it proper to make another retreat about half a mile further; believing, as it afterwards happened, that the further -tev strolled, the fewer 4.



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284 ROBINSON CRUSOE. came from thence by land to the Hague, where I embarked in the packet, and arrived in London the ioth of January, 1705, having been absent from England ten years and nine months. And here, resolving to harass myself no more, I am preparing for a longer journey than all these, having lived seventy-two years a life of infinite variety, and learned sufficiently to know the value of retirement, and the blessing of ending our days in peace. *C



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72 ROBINSON CR USOE. make one ; however, I found a contrivance for that, too, at last. I employed myself in planting my second rows of stakes or piles, and in this wicker-working all the summer or dry season, when another business took me up more time than it could be imagined I could spare. I mentioned before that I had a great mind to see the whole island, and that I had travelled up the brook, and so on to where I built my bower, and where I had an opening quite to the sea, on the other side of the island. I now resolved to travel quite across to the seashore on that side; so, taking my gun, a hatchet, and my dog, and a larger quantity of powder and shot than usual, with two biscuit cakes and a great bunch of raisins in my pouch for my store, I began my journey. When I had passed the vale where my bower stood, as above, I came within view of the sea to the west, and it being a very clear day, I fairly descried land, whether an island or continent I could not tell; but it lay very high, extending from the W. to the W.S.WI. at a very great distance; by my guess, it could not be less than fifteen or twenty leagues off. I could not tell what part of the world this might be, otherwise than that I knew it must be part of America, and, as I concluded, by all my observations, must be near the Spanish dominions. After some thought, I considered that if this land was the Spanish coast, I should certainly, one time or other, see some vessel pass or repass one way or other ; but if not, then it was the savage coast between the Spanish country and Brazils, where are found the worst of savages ; for they are cannibals, or men-eaters, and fail not to murder and devour all the human bodies that fall into their hands. With these considerations, I walked very leisurely forward. I found that side of the island where I now was much pleasanter than mine. the open or savannah fields sweet, adorned with flowers and grass, and full of very fine woods. I saw abundance of parrots, and fain I would have caught one, if possible, to have kept it to be tame, and taught it to speak to me. I did, after some painstaking, catch a young parrot, for I knocked it down with a stick, and having recovered it, I brought it home; but it was some years before I could make him speak. However, at last, I taught him to call me by my name very familiarly ; but the accident that followed, though it be a trifle, will be very diverting in its place. I was exceedingly diverted with this journey. I found in the low grounds hares (as 1 thought them to be) and foxes ; but they differed greatly from all the other kinds I had met with, nor could I satisf myself to eat them, though I killed several; but I had no need to be venturous; for I had no want of food, and of that which was very good, too, especially these three sorts, viz., goats, pigeons, ani



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CRUSOE'S CROP OF BARLEY SPRINGS UP. 77 first, the goats, and wild creatures which I called hares, which, tasting the sweetness of the blade, lay in it night and day,-as soon as it came up, and eat it so close, that it could get no time to shoot up into stalk. This I saw no remedy for but by making an inclosure about it with a hedge; which I did with a great deal of toil, and the more, because it required a great deal of speed, as the creatures daily spoiled my corn. However, as my arable land was but small, suited to my crop, I got it totally well fenced in about three weeks' time; and shooting some of the creatures in the day time, I set my dog to guard it in the night, tying him up to a stake at the gate, where he would stand and bark all night long; so in a little time, the enemies forsook the place, and the corn grew very strong and well, and began to ripen apace. But as the beasts ruined me before, while my corn was in the blade, so the birds were as likely to ruin me now, when it was in the ear; for, going along by the place to see how it throve, I saw my little crop surrounded with fowls, of I know not how many sorts, which stood, as it were, watching till I should be gone. I immediately let fly among them, for I always had my gun with me. I had no sooner shot, but there rose up a little cloud of fowls, which I had not seen at all, from among the corn itself. This touched me sensibly, for I foresaw that in a few days they would devour all my hopes; that I should never be able to raise a crop at all ; and what to do I could not tell: however, I resolved not to lose my corn, if possible, though I should watch it night and day. In the first place, I went among it, to see what damage was already done, and found they had spoiled a good deal of it; but that as it was yet too green for them, the loss was not so great but that the remainder was likely to be a good crop, if it could be saved. I stayed by it to load my gun, and then coming away, I could easily see the thieves sitting upon all the trees about me, as if they only waited till I was gone away, and the event proved it to be so ; for as I walked off, as if I was gone, I was no sooner out of their sight, than they dropped down one by one into the corn again. I was so provoked, that I could not have patience to stay till more came on, knowing that every grain that they eat now was, as it might be said, a peck-loaf to me in the consequence; but coming up to the hedge, I fired again, and killed three of them. This was what I wished for; so I took them up, and served them as we serve notorious thieves in England, viz., hanged them in chains for a terror to others. It is impossible to imagine that this should have such an effect as it had; for the fowls would not only not come at the corn, but forsook all that part of the island, and I could never see a bird near the place as long as my scarecrows hung there. This I was -ery glad of, you 4



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CRUSOE MAKES HIMISELF SOME CLOTHES. 87 beating with such violence as it does. in that place, would give me the head-ache, presently, by darting so directly on my head, without, a cap or a hat on, so that I. could not bear it; whereas, if I put on my: hat, it would presently go away. Upon these views I began to consider about putting the few rags I had, which I called clothes, into some order; I had worn out all the waistcoats I had, and my business was now to try if I could not make jackets out. of the great watch-coats which I had by me, and with such other materials as I had; so I set to work, a-tailoring, or rather, indeed, a-botching, for I made most piteous work of it. However, I made shift to make two or three new waistcoats, which I hoped would serve me a great while; as for breeches or drawers, I made but a very sorry shift indeed till afterwards. I have mentioned that I saved the skins of all the creatures that I had killed, I mean four-footed ones, and I had them hung up, stretched out, with sticks in the sun; by which means some of them were so dry and hard that they were fit for little, but others, it seems, were very useful. The first thing I made of these was a great cap for my head, with the hair on the outside, to shoot off the rain ; and this I performed so well, that after this I made me a suit of clothes wholly of these skins ; that is to say, a waistcoat, and breeches open at the knees, and both loose, for they were rather wanted to keep me cool, than to keep me warm. I must not omit to acknowledge that they were wretchedly made ; for if I was a bad carpenter, I was a worse tailor; however, they were such as I made very good shift with, and when I was abroad, if it happened to rain, the hair of my waistcoat and cap being outermost, I was kept very dry. After this I spent a great deal of time and pains to make an umbrella; I was indeed in great want of one, and had a great mind to make one; I had seen them made in the Brazils, where they are very useful in the great heats which are there, and I felt the heats every jot as great here, and greater too, being nearer the equinox ; besides, as I was obliged to be much abroad, it was a most useful thing to me, as well-for the rains as the heats. I took a world of pains at it, and was a great while before I could make anything likely to hold: nay, after I thought I had hit the way, I spoiled two or three before I made one to my mind ; but at last I made one that answered indifferently well; the main difficulty I found was to make it let down. I could make it to spread ; but if it did not let down too, and draw. in, it would not be portable for me any way but just over my head, which would not do. However, at last, as I said, I made one to answer ; I covered it with skins, the hair upwards, so that it cast off the rain like a pent-house, and kept off the sun so effectually, that I 4



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9<> ROBINSON CRUSOE. the sea was calm, and I ventured : but I am a warning to all'rash -and ignorant pilots; for no sooner was I come to the point, when I "vwas not even my boat's length from the shore, but I found myself in. "a great depth of water, and a current like the sluice of a mill: it carried my boat along with it. with such violence that all I could do *could not keep her so much as on the edge of it ; but I found it hurried me farther and farther out from the eddy, which was on my left hand. There was no wind stirring to help me, and all I could ,do with my paddles signified nothing: and now I began to give myself over for lost; for as the current was on both sides of the 'island, I knew in a few leagues' distance they must join again, and then I was irrecoverably gone ; nor did I see any possibility of avoiding it ; so that I had no prospect before me but of perishing, not by the sea, for that was calm enough, but of starving from hunger. I had, indeed, found a tortoise on the shore, as big almost as I could lift, and had tossed it into the boat; and I had a great jar of fresh ,water, that is to say, one of my earthen pots ; but what was all this ito being driven into the vast ocean, where, to be sure, there was no :shore, no main land or island, for a thousand leagues at least ? And now I saw how easy it was for the providence of God to make even the most miserable condition of mankind worse. Now I looked back upon my desolate, solitary island, as the most pleasant place in the world, and all the happiness my heart could wish for was to be but there again. I stretched out my hands to it, with eager wishes : "O happy desert !" said I, I shall never see thee more. 0 miserable creature! whither am I going!" Then I reproached myself with my unthankful temper, and that I had repined at my solitary condition ; and now what would I give to be on shore there again! Thus, we never see the true state of our condition till it is illustrated to us by its contraries, nor know how to value what we enjoy, but by the want of it. It is scarcely possible to imagine the consternation I was now in, being driven from my beloved island (for so it appeared to me now to be) into the wide ocean, almost two leagues, and in the utmost despair of ever recovering it again. However, I worked hard till indeed my strength was almost exhausted, and kept my boat as much to the northward, that is, towards the side of the current which the eddy lay on, as possibly I could; when about noon, as the sun passed the meridian, I thought I felt a little breeze of wind in my face, springing up from S.S.E. This cheered my heart a little, and especially when, in about half an hour more, it blew a pretty small gentle gale. By this time, I had -got at a frightful distance from the island, and had the least cloudy or hazy weather intervened, I had been undone another way. too; for I



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I r r a I____Y_L_ I(L



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246 ROBINSON CRUSOE. provisions very thankfully, and were the most faithful fellows to their words that could be thought of; for, except when they came to beg victuals and directions, they never came out of their bounds : and there they lived when I came to the island, and I went to see them. They had taught them both to plant corn, make bread, breed tame goats, and milk them. They were confined to a neck of land, surrounded with high rocks behind them, and lying plain towards the sea before them, on the south-east corner of the island; they had land enough, and it was very good and fruitful; about a mile and a half broad, and three or four miles in length. Our men taught them to make wooden spades, such as I made for myself; and gave among them twelve hatchets and three or four knives; and there they lived, the most subjected, innocent creatures that ever were heard of. After this, the colony enjoyed a perfect tranquillity, with respect to the savages, till I came to revisit them, which was about two years after : not but that, now and then, some canoes of savages came on shore for their triumphal, unnatural feasts; but as they were of several nations, and perhaps had never heard of those that came before, or the reason of it, they did not make any search or inquiry after their countrymen ; and if they had, it would have been very hard to have found them out. My coming was a particular relief to these people, because we furnished them with knives, scissors, spades, shovels, pickaxes, and all things of that kind which they could want. With the help of those tools, they were so very handy that they came at last to build up their huts or houses, very handsomely, raddling or working it up like basket-work all the way round, which was a very extraordinary piece of ingenuity, and looked very odd, but was an exceeding good fence, as well against heat as against all sorts of vermin ; and our men were so taken with it, that they got the Indians to come and do the like for them; so that when I came to see the two Englishmen's colonies, they looked, at a distance, as if they all lived like bees in a hive. Having thus given a view of the state of things as I found them, I must relate the heads of what I did for these people, and the condition in which I left them. We appointed a day to dine all together; and, indeed, we made a splendid feast. I caused the ship's cook and his mate to come on shore and dress our dinner, and the old cook's mate we had on shore assisted. We brought on shore six pieces of good beef and four pieces of pork, out of the ship's provisions, with our punchbowl, and materials to fill it; and, in particular, I gave them ten bottles of French claret, and ten bottles of English beer; things that neither the Spaniards nor the English had tasted for many



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THOUGHTS OF LEAVING THE ISLAND. 141 me at last entirely his own again; nor did he in the least perceive that I was uneasy; and therefore I could not suspect him of deceit. One day, walking up the same hill, but the weather being hazy at sea, so that we could not see the continent, I called to him, and said, Friday, do not you wish yourself in your own country, your own nation ?" "Yes," he said, I be much O glad to be at Ly own nation." What would you do there ?" said I: "would yos turn wild again, eat men's flesh again, and be a savage, as you were before ?" He looked full of concern, and shaking his head, said, No, no, Friday tell them to live good; tell them to pray God; tell them to eat corn-bread, cattle-flesh, milk ; no eat man again."" Why then," said I to him, they will kill you." He looked grave at that, and then said, No, they no kill me, they willing love learn." He meant by this, they would be willing to learn. He added, they learned much of the bearded mans that came in the boat. Then I asked him if he would go back to them. He smiled at that, and told me that he could not swim so far. I told him, I would make a canoe for him. He told me he would go, if I would go with him. I go 1" says I; why, they will eat me if I come there. "No, no," says he, me make they no eat you; me make they much love you." He meant, he would tell them how I had killed his enemies, and saved his life, and so he would make them love me. Then he told me, as well as he could, how kind they were to seventeen white men, or bearded men, as he called them, who came on shore there in distress. From this time, I confess, I had a mind to venture over, and see if I could possibly join with those bearded men, who I made no doubt were Spaniards and Portuguese ; not doubting but, if I could, we might find some method to escape from thence, being upon the continent, and a good company together, better than I could from an island forty miles off the shore, alone, and without help. So, after some days, I took Friday to work again, by way of discourse, and told him I would give him a boat togo back to his own nation; and, accordingly, I carried him to my frigate, which lay on the other side of the island, and having cleared it of water (for I always kept it sunk in water), I brought it out, showed it him, and we both went into it. I found he was a most dexterous fellow at managing it, and would make it go almost as swift again as I could. So when he was in, I said to him, Well, now, Friday, shall we go to your nation ?" He looked very dull at my saying so; which it seems was because he thought the boat was too small to go so far. I then told him I had a bigger; so the next day I went to the place where the first boat lay which I had made, but which I could not get into the ; ._. _ ^ ... .. -__ ------4-



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"CRUSOE'S TERRIBLE DREAM. 59 God, for the first time since the storm off Hull, but scarce knew what I said, or why, my thoughts being all confused. J.une 22.-A little better, but under dreadful apprehensions of sickness. June 23.-Very bad again, cold and shivering, and then a violent headache. June 24.-Much better. rune 25.-An ague very violent : the fit held me seven hours; cold fit, and hot, with faint sweats after it. June 26.-Better; and having no victuals to eat, took my gun, but found myself very weak. However, I killed a she-goat, and with much difficulty got it home, and broiled some of it, and ate. I would fain have stewed it, and made some broth, but had no pot. Jult 27.-The ague again so violent that I lay a-bed all day, and neither ate nor drank. I was ready to perish for thirst ; but so weak, I had not strength to stand up, or to get myself any water to drink. Prayed to God again, but was light-headed ; and when I was not, I was so ignorant that I knew not what to say; only I lay and cried, Lord, look upon me Lord, pity me Lord have mercy upon me !" I suppose I did nothing else for two or three hours ; till, the fit wearing off, I fell asleep, and did not wake till far in the night. When I awoke, I found myself much refreshed, but weak, and exceeding thirsty. However, as I had no water in my habitation, I was forced to lie till morning, and went to sleep again. In this second Ssleep, I had this terrible dream :-I thought that I was sitting on the ground, on the outside of my wall, where I sat when the storm blew after the earthquake, and that I saw a man descend from a great black cloud, in a bright flame of fire, and light upon the ground. He was all over as bright as a flame, so that I could but just bear to look towards him; his countenance was most inexpressibly dreadful, impossible for words to describe. When he stepped upon the ground with his feet, I thought the earth trembled, just as it had done before in the earthquake, and all the air looked, to my apprehension, as if it had been-filled with flashes of fire. He was no sooner landed upon the earth, but he moved forward towards me, with a long spear or weapon in his hand, to kill me ; and when he came to a rising ground, at some distance, he spoke to me-or I heard a voice so-terrible that it is impossible to express the terror of it. All that I can say I understood, was this :-" Seeing all these things have not brought thee to repentance, now thou shalt die ;"-at which words, I thought he lifted up the spear that was in his hand to kill me. No one that shall ever read this account will expect that I should be able to describe the horrors of my soul at' this terrible vWP;i4



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FRIDAY BEHEADS THE SA VAGE. 29 hear; for they were the first sound of a man's voice that I had heard, my own excepted, for above twenty-five years. But there was no time for such reflections now; the savage who was knocked down recovered himself so far as to sit up upon the ground, and I perceived that my savage began to be afraid; but when I saw that, I presented my other piece at the man, as if I would shoot him : upon this, my savage, for so I call him now, made a motion to me to lend him my sword, which hung naked in a belt by my side ; so I did. He no sooner had it, but he runs to his enemy, and at one blow cut off his head as cleverly, no executioner in Germany could have done it sooner or better; which I thought very strange for one who, I had reason to believe, never saw a sword in his life before, except their own wooden swords: however, it seems, as I learned afterwards, they make their wooden swords so sharp, so heavy, and the wood is so hard, that they will even cut off heads with them, ay, and arms, and that at one blow too. When he had done this, he comes laughing to me in sign of triumph, and brought me the sword again, and with abundance of gestures which I did not understand, laid it down, with the head of the savage that he had killed, just before me. But that which astonished him most, was to know how I killed the other Indian so far off; so, pointing to him, he made signs to me tc let him go to him; and I bade him go, as well as I could; when hE came to him, he stood like one amazed, looking at him, turned him first on one side, then on the other, looked at the wound the bullet had made, which it seems was just in his breast, where it had made a hole, and no great quantity of blood had followed ; but he had bled inwardly, for he was quite dead. He took up his bow and arrows, and came back, so I .urned to go away, and beckoned him to follow me, making signs co him that more might come after them. Upon this he made signs to me that he should bury them with sand, that they might not be seen by the rest, if they followed; and so I made signs to him again to do so. He fell to work; and in an instant he had scraped a hole in the sand with his hands, big enough to bury the first in, and then dragged him into it, and covered him; and did so by the other also; I believe he had buried them both in a quarter of an hour. Then calling him away, I carried him, not to my castle, but quite away to my cave, on the farther part of the island: so I did not let my dream come to pass in that part, that he came into my grove for shelter. Here I gave him bread and a bunch of raisins to eat, and a draught of water, which I found he was indeed in great dis.ress for, from his running: and having refreshed him, I made signs for him to go and lie down to sleep, showing him a place where I had laid some rice-straw, and a blanket upon it, which I used to K



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Io8 ROBINS ON CR US OB. other boat round the island to me, lest I should meet with some of these creatures at sea; in which case if I had happened to have fallen into their hands, I knew what would have been my lot. Time, however, and the satisfaction I had that I was in no danger of being discovered by these people, began to wear off my uneasiness about them ; and I began to live just in the same composed manner as before, only with this difference, that I used more caution, and kept my eyes more about me than I did before, lest I should happen to be seen by any of them ; and I was more cautious of firing my gun, lest any of them, being on the island, should happen to hear it; it was, therefore, a good providence to me that I had furnished myself with a tame breed of goats, and that I needed not to hunt any more about the woods, or shoot at them ; and if I did catch any of them after this, it was by traps and snares, as I had done before ; so that for two years after this, I believe I never fired my gun once off, though I never went out without it; and which was more, as I had saved three pistols out of the ship, I always carried them out with me, or at least two of them, sticking them in my goat-skin belt ; I also furbished up one of the great cutlasses that I had out of the ship, and made me a belt to hang it on also ; so that I was now a most formidable fellow to look at when I went abroad, if you add to the former description of myself, the particular of two pistols, and a great broadsword hanging at my side in a belt, but without a scabbard. As in my present condition there were not really many things which I wanted, so, indeed, I thought that the frights I had been in about these savage wretches, and the concern I had been in for my own preservation, had taken off the edge of my invention for my own conveniences ; and I had dropped a good design, which I had once bent my thoughts upon, and that was to try if I could not make some of my barley into malt, and then to try and brew myself some beer. This was really a whimsical thought, and I reproved myself often for the simplicity of it: for I presently saw there would be the want of several things necessary to the making my beer, that it would be impossible for me to supply ; as, first, casks to preserve it in, which was a thing that, as I have observed already, I could never compass: no, though I spent not only many days, but weeks, nay nonths, in attempting it, but to no purpose. In the next place, I had no hops to make it keep, no yeast to make it work, no copper or kettle to make it boil; and yet with all these things wanting, I verily believe, had not the frights and terrors I was in about the savages intervened, I had undertaken it, and perhaps brought it to pass too ; for I seldom gave anything over without accomplishing it, when once I had it in my head to begin it. But my invention now ran quite



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MONEY OF NO USE TO CRUSOE. 123 but no gold: I suppose this belonged to a poorer man than the other, which seemed to belong to some officer. Well, however, I lugged this money home to my cave, and laid it up, as I had done that before which I brought from our own ship ; but it was great pity, as I said, that the other part of this ship had not come to my share, for I am satisfied I might have loaded my canoe several times over with money, which if I had ever escaped to England, would have lain here safe enough till I might have come again and fetched it. Having now brought all my things on shore, and secured them, I went back to my boat, and rowed or paddled her along the shore to her old harbour, where I laid her up, and made the best of my way to my old habitation, where I found everything safe and quiet ; so I began to repose myself, live after my old fashion, and take care of my family affairs ; and for a while I lived easy enough ; only that I was more vigilant than I used to be, looked out oftener, and did not go abroad so much; and if at any time I did stir with any freedom, it was always to the east part of the island, where I was pretty well satisfied the savages never came, and where I could go without so many precautions, and such a load of arms and ammunition as I always carried with me if I went the other way. I am now to be supposed retired in my castle, after my late voyage to the wreck, my frigate laid up and secured under water, and my condition restored to what it was before: I had more wealth than I had before, but was not at all the richer ; for I had no more use for it than the Indians of Peru had before the Spaniards came there. It was one of the nights in the rainy season in March, the four-andtwentieth year of my first setting foot in this island of solitariness ; I was lying in my bed or hammock, awake, very well in health, had no pain, no distemper, no uneasiness of body, nor any uneasiness of mind more than ordinary, but could by no means close my eyes ; that is, so as to sleep ; no, not a wink all night long. It is impossible to set down the innumerable crowd cf thoughts that whirled through that great thoroughfare of the brain, the memory, in this night's time: I ran over the whole history of my life in miniature, or by abridgment, as I may call it, to my coming to this island, and also of that part of my life since I came to this island. When these thoughts were over, my head was for some time taken up in considering the nature of those wretched creatures, the savages, and how it came to pass in the world, that the wise Governor of all things should give up any of his creatures to such inhumanity--nay, to something so much below even brutality itself-as to devour its own kind: but as this ended in some (at that time) fruitless specula4



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196 ROBINSON CRUSOE. of the train of powder, mastered them, it had been great odds but that we had been torn to pieces; whereas, had we been content to have sat still on horseback, and fired as horsemen, they would not have taken the horses so much for their own, when men were on their backs, as otherwise ; and, withal, they told us that at last, if we had stood all together, and left our horses, they would have been so eager to have devoured them, that we might have come off safe, especially having our firearms in our hands, being so many in number. For my part, I was never so sensible of danger in my life ; for, seeing above three hundred devils come roaring and open-mouthed to devour us, and having nothing to shelter us or retreat to, I gave myself over for lost; and, as it was, I believe I shall never care to cross those mountains again; I think I would much rather go a thousand leagues by sea, though I was sure to meet with a storm once a week. I have nothing uncommon to take notice of in my passage through France ; nothing but what other travellers have given an account of with much more advantage than I can. I travelled from Toulouse to Paris, and without any considerable stay came to Calais, and landed safe at Dover the I4th of January, after having had a severe cold season to travel in. I was now come to the centre of my travels, and had in a little time all my new-discovered estate safe about me, the bills of exchange which I brought with me having been very currently paid. My principal guide and privy-counsellor was my good ancient widow, who, in gratitude for the money I had sent her, thought no pains too much nor care too great to employ for me; and I trusted her so entirely with everything, that I was perfectly easy as to the security of my effects; and, indeed, I was very happy from the beginning, and now to the end, in the unspotted integrity of this good gentlewoman. And now I resolved to stay at home, and if I could find means for it, to dispose of my plantation. To this purpose I wrote to my old friend at Lisbon, who in return gave me notice that he could easily dispose of it there, but that if I thought fit to give him leave to offer it in my name to the two merchants, the survivors of my trustees, who lived in Brazil, he did not doubt but I should make 4000 or 5000 pieces-of-eight the more of it. Accordingly I agreed, gave him orders to offer it to them, and he did so ; and in about eight months nmore, the ship being then returned, he sent me an account that they had accepted the offer, and had remitted 33,000 pieces-of-eight to Lisbon, to pay for it. In return, I signed the instrument of sale in the form which they sent from Lisbon, and sent it to my old man, who sent me the bills



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CRUSOE CHOOSES A PLACE FOR HIS HOUSE. 35 ifitian on shorewould lie so high, and the other sink lower, as before, that it would endanger my cargo again ; all that I could do, -was to waiti-till the tide was at the -highest, keeping the raft with my oar like an afnhor, to hold the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of ground, which I'expected the water would flow over'; and so it did. As soon as I found water enough, for my raft drew about a foot of water, I thrust her on upon that flat piece of ground, and there fastened or moored her, by sticking my two broken oars into the ground, one on one side, near one end,, and one on the other side, near the other end ; and thus I lay till. the water ebbed away, and left my raft and all my cargo safe on shore. My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper place for my habitation, and where to stow my goods to secure them from whatever might happen ; where I was, I yet knew not; whether on the continent or on an island"; whether inhabited or not inhabited; whether in danger of wild beasts or not. There was a hill not above a mile from me, which rose up very steep and high, and which seemed to overtop some other hills, which lay as in a ridge from it, northward; I took out one of the fowling-pieces, and one of the pistols, and a horn of powder, and thus armed, I travelled for discovery up to the top of that hill, where, after I had with great labour and difficulty got to the top, I saw my fate, to my great affliction; viz., that I was in an island environed every way with the sea, no land to be seen except some rocks, which lay a great way off; and two small islands, less than this, which lay about three leagues to the west. I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I saw good reason to believe, uninhabited except by wild beasts, of whom, however, I saw none ; yet I saw abundance of fowls, but knew not their kinds; neither when I killed them could I tell what was fit for food, and what not. At my coming back, I shot at a great bird which I saw sitting upon a tree on the side of a great wood ; I believe it was the first gun that had been fired there since the creation of the world. I had no sooner fired, than from all parts of the wood there arose an innumerable number of fowls of many sorts, making a confused screaming and crying, and every one according to his usual note, but not one of them of any kind that I knew; as for the creature I killed, I took it to be a kind of hawk, its colour and beak resembling it, but it had no talons or claws more than common; its flesh was carrion, and fit for nothing. Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and fell to work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me up the rest of that day ; what to do with myself at night I knew not, nor indeed where to rest, for I was afraid to lie down on the ground, not knowing but



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CRUSOE STARTLED BY HIS PARROT. 93 to me I for just in such bemoaning language I had used to talk to him, and teach him; and he had learned it so perfectly that he would sit upon my finger, and lay his bill close to my face, and cry, Poor Robin Crusoe Where are you ? Where have you been? How came you here ? and such things as I had taught him. However, even though I knew it was the parrot, and that indeed it could be nobody else, it was a good while before I could compose myself. First, I was amazed how the creature got thither; and then, how he should just keep about the place, and nowhere else ; but as I was well satisfied it could be nobody but honest Poll, I got over it; and holding out my hand, and calling him by his name, Poll," the sociable creature came to me, and sat upon my thumb, as he used to do, and continued talking to me, Poor Robin Crusoe and how did I come here? and where had I been? just as if he had been overjoyed to see me again ; and so I carried him home along with me. I had now had enough of rambling to sea for some time, and had enough to do for many days to sit still, and reflect upon the danger I had been in. I would have been very glad to have had my boat again on my side of the island; but I knew not how it was practicable to get it about; so I contented myself to be without any boat, though it had been the product of so many months' labour to make it, and of so many more to get it into the sea. fn this government of my temper, I remained near a year, and lived a very sedate, retired life, as you may well suppose; and my thoughts being very much composed, as to my condition, and fully comforted in resigning myself to the dispositions of Providence, I thought I lived really very happily in all things, except that of society. I improved myself in this time in all the mechanic exercises which my necessities put me upon applying myself to; and I believe I should, upon occasion, have made a very good carpenter, especially considering how few tools I had. Besides this, I arrived at an unexpected perfection in my earthenware, and contrived well enough to make them with a wheel, which I found infinitely easier and better; because I made things round and shapeable which before were filthy things indeed to look on. But I think I was never more vain of my own performance, or more joyful for anything I found out, than for my being able to make a tobacco-pipe. And though it was a very ugly, clumsy thing when it was done, and only burned red, like other earthenware, yet as it was hard and firm, and would draw the smoke, I was exceedingly comforted with it; for I had been always used to smoke ; and there were pipes in the ship, but I forgot them at first, not knowing that there 4



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CRUSOE AND THE SPANIARD. 211 not a word, but, giving his musket to the man that was with him, threw his arms abroad, and saying something in Spanish that I did not perfectly hear, came forward and embraced me, telling me he was inexcusable not to know that face again that he had once seen, as, of an angel from Heaven, sent to save his life : he said abundance of very handsome things, as a well-bred Spaniard always knows how, and then, beckoning to the person that attended him, bade him go and call out his comrades. He then asked me if I would walk to my old habitation, where he would give me possession of my own house again, and where I should see they had made but mean improvements. So I walked along with him; but alas! I could no more find the place than if I had never been there; for they had planted so many trees, and placed them in such a position, so thick and close to one another, in ten years' time they were grown so big, that, in short, the place was inaccessible, except by such windings and blind ways as they themselves only, who made them, could find. I asked them what put them upon all these fortifications ? He told me I would say there was need enough of it, when they had given me ,an account how they had passed their time since their arriving in the island, especially after they had the misfortune to find that I was gone ; he told me he could not but have some satisfaction in my good fortune, when he heard that I was gone in a good ship ; and that he had oftentimes a strong persuasion that one time or other he should see me again ; but nothing that ever befell him in his life, he said, was so surprising and afflicting to him at first, as the disappointment he was under when he came back to the island, and found I was not there. As to the three brarbarians (so he called them) that were left behind, and of whom, he said, he had a long story to tell me, the Spaniards all thought themselves much better among the savages, only that their number was'so small, "and," says he, had they been strong enough, we had been all long ago in purgatory;" and with that he crossed himself on the breast. But sir," says he, "I hope you will not be displeased when I shall tell you how, forced by necessity, we were obliged, for our own preservation, to disarm them, and make them our subjects, who would not be content with being moderately our masters, but would be our murderers." I answered, I was afraid of it when I left them there, and nothing troubled me at my parting from the island but that they were not come back, that I might have put them in possession of everything first, and left the others in a state of subjection, as they deserved ; but if they had reduced them to itk I wa very glad, and should be very far from finding any fault "4



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ESCAPE FROM THE WOLVES, 195 to it, and some got upon it, when I, snapping an uncharged pistol close to the powder, set it on fire; and those that were upon the timber were scorched with it, and six or seven of them fell, or rather jumped in among us with the force and fright of the fire: we despatched these in an instant, and the rest were so frightened with the light, which the night-for it was now very near dark-made more terrible, that they drew back a little. Upon which I ordered our last pistols to be fired off in one volley, and after that we gave a shout; upon this the wolves turned tail, and we sallied immediately upon near twenty lame ones that we found struggling on the ground, and fell to cutting them with our swords, which answered our expectation, for the crying and howling they made were better understood by their fellows ; so that they all fled and left us. We had, first and last, killed about threescore of them, and had it been daylight, we had killed many more. The field of battle being thus cleared, we made forward again, for we had still near a league to go; we heard the ravenous creatures howl and yell in the woods as we went several times, and sometimes we fancied we saw some of them ; but the snow dazzling our eyes, we were not certain; so in about an hour more we came to the town where we were to lodge, which we found in a terrible fright and all in arms; for it seems that the night before, the wolves and some bears had broke into the village, and put them in a terrible fright, and they were obliged to keep guard night and day, but especially in the night, to preserve their cattle, and indeed their people. The next morning our guide was so ill, and his limbs swelled so much with the rankling of his two wounds, that he could go no farther; so we were obliged to take a new guide here, and go to Toulouse, where we found a warm climate, a fruitful, pleasant country, and no snow, no wolves, nor anything like them; but when we told our story at Toulouse, they told us it was nothing but what was ordinary in the great forest at the foot of the mountains, especially when the snow lay on the ground; but they inquired much what kind of guide we had got, that would venture to bring us that way in such a severe season ; and told us it was surprising we were not all devoured. When we told them how we placed ourselves and the horses in the middle, they blamed us exceedingly, and told us it was fifty to one but we had been all destroyed, for it was the sight of the horses which made the wolves so furious, seeing their prey, and that at other times they are really afraid of a gun; but they being excessive hungry, and raging on that account, the eagerness to come at the horses had made them senseless of danger: and that if we had not by the continued fire, and at last by the stratagem C )



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THE CA USE OF THE SA VAGES' ANGER. 25? the ship, and then sent another boat, with ten hands in her, to assist us; but we called to them not to come too near, telling them what condition we were in; however, they stood in near to us, and one of the men taking the end of a tow-line in his hand, and keeping one boat between him and the enemy, so that they could not perfectly see him, swam on board us, and made fast the line to the boat ; upon which we slipped our little cable, and, leaving our anchor behind, they towed us out of reach of the arrows ; we all the while lying close behind the barricado we had made. As soon as we were got from between the ship and the shore, that we could lay her side to the shore, she ran along just by them, and poured in a broadside among them, loaded with pieces of iron and lead, small bullets, and such stuff, besides the great shot, which made a terrible havoc among them. When we were got on board, and out of danger, we had time to examine into the occasion of this fray; and, indeed, our supercargo, who had been often in those parts, put me upon it; for he said he was sure the inhabitants would not have touched us after we had made a truce, if we had not done something to provoke them to it. At length, it came out that an old woman, who had come to sell us some milk, had brought it within our poles, and a young woman with her, who also brought some roots or herbs ; and while the old woman (whether she was mother to the young woman or no they could not tell) was selling us the milk, one of our men offero:d some rudeness to the girl that was with her. The old woman made a great noise ; and, as we may suppose, made an outcry among the people she came from ; who, upon notice, raised this great army upon us in three or four hours, and it was great odds but we had all been destroyed. One of our men was killed with a lance thrown at him just at the beginning of the attack, as he sallied out of the tent they had made; the rest came off free, all but the fellow who was the occasion of all the mischief, who paid dear enough for his brutality, for we could not hear what became of him for a great while. We lay upon the shore two days after, though the wind presented, and made signals for him, and made our boat sail up shore and down shore several leagues, but in vain; so we were obliged to give him over; and if he alone had suffered for it, the loss had been less. I could not satisfy myself, however, without venturing on shore once more, to try if I could learn anything of him or them: it was the third night after the action that I had a great mind to learn, if I could by any means, what mischief we had done, and how the game stood on the Indians' side. I was careful to do it in the dark, lest we should be attacked again : but I ought, indeed, to have been sure that the men I went



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252 ROBINSON CRUSOE. I was so annoyed at the loss of my old servant, the companion of all my sorrows and solitudes, that I immediately ordered five guns to be loaded with small shot, and four with great, and gave them such a broadside as they had never heard in their lives before. They were not above half a dozen cables length off when we fired, and our gunners took their aim so well, that three or four of their canoes were overset, as we had reason to believe, by one shot only. I had only resolved to have fired four or five guns at them with powder only, which I knew would frighten them stuficiently ; but when they shot at us directly, with all the fury they were capable of, and especially as they had killed my poor Friday, whom I so entirely loved and valued, and who, indeed, so well deserved it, I thought myself not only justifiable before God and man, but would have been very glad if I could have overset every canoe there, and drowned every one of them. I can neither tell how many we killed nor how many we wounded at this broadside, but sure such a fright and hurry never were seer) among such a multitude; there were thirteen or fourteen of their canoes split and overset in all, and the men all set a-swimming: the rest, frightened out of their wits, scoured away as fast as they could, taking but little care to save those whose boats were split or spoiled with our shot; so I suppose that many of them were lost; and our men took up one poor fellow swimming for his life, above an hour after they were all gone. The small shot from our cannon must needs kill and wound a great many; but, in short, we never knew how it went with them, for they fled so fast, that in three hours, or thereabouts, we could not see above three or four straggling canoes, nor did we ever see the rest any more; for a breeze of wind springing up the same evening, we weighed, and set sail for the Brazils. We were now under sail again, but I was the most disconsolate creature alive for want of my man Friday, and would have been very glad to have gone back to the island, to have taken one of the rest from thence for my occasion, but it could not be: so we went on. We had one prisoner, but it was a long time before we could make him understand anything; but, in time, our men taught him some English, and he began to be a little tractable. Afterwards, we inquired what country he came from, but could make nothing of what he said; for his speech was so odd, all gutturals, and he spoke in the throat m such a hollow, odd manner, that we could never form a word after him; and we were all of opinion that they might speak that language as well if they were gagged as otherwise; nor could we perceive that they had any occasion either for teeth, tongue, lips, or palate, but formed their words lust as a hunting-horn forms a tun



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CRUELTY OF THE MUTINEERS. 225, some more proper place for their safety, and especially for the security of their cattle and corn. Upon this, after long debate, it was conceived that they should not remove their habitation; because some time or other, they thought they might hear from their governor again, meaning me; and if I should send any one to seek them, I should be sure to direct them to that side, where, if they should find the place demolished, they would conclude the savages had killed us all, and we were gone, and so our supply would go too. But, as to their corn and cattle, they agreed to remove them into the valley where my cave was, where the landi was as proper for both, and where, indeed, there was land enough ; however, upon second thoughts, they altered one part of their resolution too, and resolved only to remove part of their cattle thither, and plant part of their corn there ; so that if one part was destroyed, the other might be saved : and one part of prudence they luckily used: they never trusted those three savages which they had taken prisoners, with knowing anything of the plantation they had made in that valley, or of any cattle they had there ; much less of the cave at that place, which they kept, in case of necessity, as a safe retreat; and thither they carried also the two barrels of powder, which I had left them at my coming away. However, they resolved not to change their habitation ; yet, as I had carefully covered it first with a wall or fortification, and then with a grove of trees, and as they were now fully convinced their safety consisted entirely in their being concealed, they set to work to cover and conceal the place yet more effectually than before: to this purpose, as I had planted trees, (or rather thrust in stakes, which in time all grew up to be trees), for some good disr tance before the entrance into my apartments, they went on in the same manner, and filled up the rest of that whole space of ground from the trees I had set quite down to the side of the creek, where as, I said I landed my floats, and even into the very ooze where the tideflowed, not so much as leaving any place to land, or any sign that there had been any landing thereabout; these stakes also being of a wood very forward to grow, they took care to have, them generally much larger and taller than those which I had planted. And now they had another broil with the three Englishmen ; one of whom, a most turbulent fellow, being in a rage at one of the three captive slaves, because the fellow had not done something right which he bid him do, and seemed a little untractable in his showing him, drew a hatchet out of a frog-belt, in which he wore it by his side, and fell upon the poor savage, not to correct him, but to kill him. One of the Spaniards, who was by, seeing him give the fellow a barbarous cut with the hatchet, which he aimed at his head, but Q 4.



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f ROBINSON CRUSOE. and for the first beginning, I resolved to inclose a piece of about 150 yards in length, and ioo yards in breadth, which, as it would maintain as many as I should have in any reasonable time, so, as my flock "increased, I could add more ground to my inclosure. This was acting with some prudence, and I went to work with courage. I was about three months hedging in the first piece, and, till I had done it, I tethered the three kids in the best part of it, and used them to feed as near me as possible to make them familiar; and very often I would go and carry them some ears of barley, or a handful of rice, and feed them out of my hand ; so that, after my inclosure was finished, and I let them loose, they would follow me up and down, bleating after me for a handful of corn. This answered my end, and in about a year and a half I had a flock of about twelve goats, kids and all; and in two years more I had three-and-forty, besides several that I took and killed for my food. After that, I inclosed five several pieces of ground to feed them in, with little pens to drive them into, to take them as I wanted, and gates out of one piece of ground into another. But this was not all : for now I not only had goat's flesh to feed on when I pleased, but milk too, a thing which, indeed, in the beginning, I did not so much as think of, and which, when it came into my thoughts, was really an agreeable surprise. For now I set up my dairy, and had sometimes a gallon or two of milk in a day. And as nature, who gives supplies of food to every creature, dictates even naturally how to make use of it ; so I, that had never milked a cow, much less a goat, or seen butter or cheese made, very readily and handily, though after a great many essays and miscarriages, made both butter and cheese at last, and never wanted it afterwards. How mercifully can our Creator treat His creatures, even in those conditions in which they seemed to be overwhelmed in destruction How can He sweeten the bitterest providences, and give us cause to praise Him for dungeons and prisons! What a table was here spread for me in the wilderness, where I saw nothing at first but to perish for hunger. It would have made a Stoic smile to have seen me and my little family sit doWn to dinner; there was my majesty, the prince and lord of the whole island ; I had the lives of all my subjects at my absolute command. I could hang, draw, give liberty, and take it away, and no rebels among all my subjects. Then, to see how like a king I dined too, all alone, attended by my servants ; Poll, as if he had been my favourite, was the only person permitted to talk to me. My dog, who was -now grown old and crazy, sat always at my right hand.; and two cats, one on one side of the table, and one on the



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CRUSOE FINDS GREA T NUMBERS OF TURTLES. 73 turtle, or tortoise, which, added to my grapes, Leadenhall-market could not have furnished a table better than I, in proportion to the company: and though my case was deplorable enough, yet I had great cause for thankfulness that I was not driven to any extremities: for food ; but had rather plenty, even to dainties. I never travelled in this journey above two miles outright in a day, or thereabouts ; but I took so many turns and returns to see what discoveries I could make, that I came weary enough to the place where I resolved to sit down all night; and then either reposed myself in a tree, or surrounded myself with a row of stakes set upright in the ground, either from one tree to another, or so as no wild creature could come at me without waking me. As soon as I came to the sea-shore, I was surprised to see that I had taken up my lot on the worst side of the island ; for here, indeed,, the shore was covered with innumerable turtles, whereas on the other side I had found but three in a year and a half. Here was also an infinite numtber of fowls of many kinds, some which I had not seer before, and many of them very good meat, but such as I knew not the names of, except those called penguins. I could have shot as many as I pleased, but was very sparing of my powder and shot, and therefore had more mind to kill a she-goat, if I could, which I could better feed on ; and though there were many goats here, more than on my side the island, yet it was with much more difficulty that I could come near them, the country being flat and even, and they saw me much sooner than when I was on the hills. I confess this side of the country was much pleasanter than mine r but yet I had not the least inclination to remove, for as I was fixed' in my habitation it became natural to me, and I seemed all the while I was here to be as it were upon a journey, and from home. However, I travelled along the shore of the sea towards the east, I supposeabout twelve miles, and then setting up a great pole upon the shorefor a mark, I concluded I would go home again ; and the next journey I took should be on the other side of the island east from my dwelling, and so round till I came to my post again ; of which in its place. I took another way to come back than that I went, thinking I could easily keep all the island so much in my view, that I could not miss finding my first dwelling by viewing the country; but I found myself mistaken, for, being come about two or three miles, I found' myself descended into a very large valley, but so surrounded with hills, and those hills covered with wood, that I could not see whichi was my way by any direction but that of the sun, nor even then,, unless I knew very well the position of the sun at that time of the day.. It happened, to my further misfortune, that the weather provedi



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THE EARTHQUAKE AND STORM. 55 but the common "Lord have mercy upon me and when it was over, that went away too. While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grow cloudy, as if it would rain. Soon after that, the wind arose by little and little, so that in less than half an hour it blew a most dreadful hurricane, the sea was all on a sudden covered over with foam and froth; the shore was covered with the breach of the water ; the trees were torn up by the roots ; and a terrible storm it was. This held about three hours, and then began to abate; in two hours more it was quite calm, and began to rain very hard. All this while I sat upon the ground, very much terrified and dejected; when on a sudden it came into my thoughts, that these winds and rain being the consequences of the earthquake, the earthquake itself was spent and over, and I might venture into my cave again. With this thought, my spirits began to revive ; and the rain also helping to persuade me, I went in and sat down in my tent. But the rain was so violent, that my tent was ready to be beaten down with it; and I was forced to go into my cave, though very much afraid lest it should fall on my head. This violent rain forced me to a new work, viz. to cut a hole through my new fortification, like a sink, to let the water go out, which would else have flooded my cave. After I had been in my cave for some time, and found still no more shocks of the earthquake follow, I began to be more composed. And now, to support my spirits, which indeed wanted it very much, I went to my little store, and took a small sup of rum; which, however, I did then and always very sparingly, knowing I could have no more when that was gone. It continued raining all that night, and great part of the next day, so that I could not stir abroad ; but my mind being more composed, I began to think of what I had best do; concluding, that if the island was subject to these earthquakes, there would be no living for me in a cave, but I must consider of building a little hut in an open place, which I might surround with a wall, as I had done here, and so make myself secure from wild beasts or men; for I concluded if I stayed where I was, I should certainly, one time or other, be buried alive. With these thoughts, I resolved to remove my tent from the place where it stood, which was just under the hanging precipice of the hill; and which, if it should be shaken again, would certainly fall upon my tent; and I spent the two next days, being the I9th and 20th of April, in contriving where and how to remove my habitation. The fear of being swallowed up alive made me that I never slept in quiet; and yet the apprehension of lying abroad without any fene was almost equal to it; but still, when I looked about, and saw ho1w everything was put in order, how pleasantly concealed I was, ard


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THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES

ROBINSON CRUSOE

With SFllustrations, Printed in Colours
FROM ORIGINAL DESIGNS



LONDON
FREDERICK WARNE AND CO.

AND NEW YORK

PREFACE,

ae \ ANIEL VE FOE, the author of ‘‘ Robinson Crusoe,” was
si! born in London, in 166z. At the age of fourteen he was



sent to school, to the Rev. Charles Morton, at Newington

Green, where he got a first-rate education. He was a
Dissenter and a devoted partizan of William III. De Foe was in
trade, it is believed, as a hosier, and about the year 1692 would have
‘ailed for 17,o00/., but that his creditors, convinced of his integrity,
allowed him to trade on his own security. However, in the year 1703,
when he had lost his royal friend and patron, King William, he was
totally ruined, and had to pay a fine of 3000/. to the Government,
for libel. From that period he became a political writer. For these
writings he underwent much persecution ; he had to stand in the
pillory and to pay fines, which twice ruined him, and he was thirteen
months in Newgate jail. The story of his release is this :—Harley,
the great minister, wrote to ask De Foe what he could do for him.
He replied, ‘‘ Lord, that I may receive my sight.” Queen Anne was
couched by the prayer ; he was released, and she afterwards treated
him kindly. | |

When nearly sixty years of age, he wrote his famous romance,
‘‘ Robinson Crusoe’’—being his huxdred and sixty-seventh work—
suggested, it has been supposed, by the real adventures of Alexandea
iv PREFACE.

Selkirk, We are sorry to add that che ingratitude ot his own son
embittered the last hours of the life of the man who has been so pre-
eminently the friend of boys, and that he died, as he had lived, in
trouble and sorrow. But he has left the legacy of many a happy
hout to the young, in his charming story; and we believe that the
boys of Britain will give their old friend ‘‘ Robinson Crusoe’ the
warmer welcome since he appears in an edition which may be slipt
into a pocket and carried forth to be read under the greenwood trees.
or lying on the hearthrug by the winter fire.
THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES

OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE.

ayyeg ea) WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good .
WA bey family, though not of that country, my father being a
sere; foreigner, of Bremen, who settled first at Hull: he gota
wryei good estate by merchandise, and leaving off his trade, lived
afterwards at York; from whence he had married my
mother, whose relations were named Robinson, a very good family
in that country, and from whom I was called Robinson Kreutznaer ;
but, by the usual corruption of words in England, we are now called,
—nay we call ourselves, and write our name, Crvsoe; and so my.
companions always called me.

I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-colonel to
an English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly commanded by the
famous Colonel Lockhart, and was killed at the battle near Dunkirk
against the Spaniards. What became of my second biother I never
knew, any more than my father and mother knew what was become
of me.

Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade, my
head began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts : my father,
who was very ancient, had given me a competent share of learning,
as far as house-education and a country free-school generally go, and
designed me for the law; but I would be satisfied with nothing but
going to sea; and my inclination to this led me so strongly against
the will, nay, the commands of my father, and against all the
entreaties and persuasions of my mother and other friends, that
there seemed to be something fatal in that propensity of nature,
tending directly to the life of misery which was to befal me.


2 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excellent
counsel against what he foresaw was my: design. -He called me one
morning into his chamber, where he was confined by the gout, and
expostulated very warmly with me upon this subject: he asked me
what reasons, more than a mere wandering inclination, I had for
leaving my father’s house and my native country, where I might be -
well introduced, and had a prospect of raising my fortune by applica-
tion and industry, with a life of ease and pleasure. He told me it
was men of desperate fortunes on one hand, or of aspiring, superior
fortunes on the other, who went abroad upon adventures, to rise by
enterprise, and make themselves famous in undertakings of a nature
out of the common road; and these things were all either too far
above me, or too far below me; that mine was the middle State, or
what might be called the upper station of low d2fe, which he had
found, by long experience, was the best state in the world, the most
suited to human happiness, not exposed to the miseries and hard-
ships, the labour and sufferings of the mechanic part of mankind,
and not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of
the upper part of mankind. He told me, I might judge of the hap- ©
piness of this state by this one thing, viz. that this was the state of
life which all other people envied ; that kings have frequently lamented
the miserable consequence of being born to great things, and wished
they had been piaced in the middle of the two extremes, betcveen the
mean and the great; that the wise man gave his testimony to this,
as the standard of felicity, when he prayed to have neither poverty
nor riches. 3

After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affectionate
manner, not to play the young man, nor to precipitate myself into
miseries which nature, and the station of life I was born in, seemed
to have provided against ; that I was under no necessity of seeking
my bread ; that he would do well for me, and endeavour to enter me
iairly into the station of life which he had been recommending to
he; and that if I was not very easy and happy in the world, it must
be my mere fate or fault that must hinder it; and that he should have
nothing to answer for, having thus discharged his duty in warning
me against measures which he knew would be to my hurt ; and to
close ali, he told me I had my elder brother for an example, to
whom he had used the same persuasions to keep him from going
to the Low Country wars, but could not prevail, his young desires
prompting him to run into the army, where he was killed; and
though he said he would not cease to pray for me, yet he would
venture to say to me, that if I did take this foolish step God would not
bless me, and I should have leisure hereafter-to reflect upon having
ROBINSON WISHES TO GO TO SEA. 3

neglected his counsel, when there might be none to assist in my
recovery.

I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was truly pro-
phetic, though I suppose my father did not know it to be so himself:
Isay, I observed the tears run down his face very plentifully, especially
when he spoke of my brother who was killed; and that when he
spoke of my having leisure to repent, and none to assist me, he was
so moved that he broke off the discourse, and told me his heart was
so full he could say no more to me.

{ was sincerely affected with this discourse, and, indeed, who could
be otherwise? and I resolved not to think of going abroad any more,
but to settle at home according to my father’s desire. But alas! a
few days wore it all off; and, in short, to prevent any of my father’s
further importunities, in a few weeks after, I resolved to run quite
away from him. However, I did not act quite so hastily as the first
heat of my resolution prompted, but I took my mother at a time when
I thought her a little more pleasant than ordinary, and teld her that
my thoughts were so entirely bent upon seeing the werld, that I
should never settle to anything with resolution enough to go through
with it, and my father had better give me his consent than force me
to go without it; that I was now eighteen years old, which was too
late to go apprentice to a trade, or clerk to an attorney; that I was
sure if I did I should never serve out my time, but I should certainly
run away from my master before my time was out, and goto sea; and
if she would speak to my father to let me go but one voyage abroad, if
I came home again, and did not like it, I would go no more; and I
would promise, by a double diligence, to recover that time I had lost.

This put my mother into a great passion ; she told me she knew it
would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon any such subject ;
that if I would ruin myself, there was no help for me; but I might
depend I should never have their consent to it; that for her part,
she would not have so much hand in my destruction ; and I should
never have it to say that my mother was willing when my father was
uot. Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet as I
have heard afterwards, she reported all the discourse to him, and
that my father, after showing a great concern at it, said to her, with
a sigh: ‘That boy might be happy if he would stay at home; but
if he goes abroad, he will be the miserablest wretch that ever was
born: I can give no consent toit.” -

It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose, though,
in the mean time, I continued obstinately deaf to all proposals oi
settling to business, and frequently expostulated with my father and
mother about their being so positively determined against what they

ey

ac
4 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

knew my inclinations prompted me to. But being one day at Hull,
where I went casually, and without any purpose of making an elope-
ment at that time; but, I say, being there, and one of my com-
panions being about to sail to London in his father’s ship, and
prompting me to go with them with the common allurement of sea-
faring men, viz., that it should cost me nothing for my passage, I
consulted neither father nor mother any more, nor so much as sent
them word of it; but leaving them to hear of it as they might, with-
out asking God’s blessing or my father’s, without any consideration
of circumstances or consequences, and in an ill hour God knows, on
the rst of September, 1651, I went on board a ship bound for London :
never any young adventurer’s misfortunes, I believe, began sooner, or
continued longer, than mine. The ship was no sooner gotten out of
the Humber, but the wind began to blow and the waves to rise in a
most frightful manner; and, as I had never been at sea before, I
was most inexpressibly sick in body, and terrified in mind. I began
now seriously to reflect upon what I had done, and how justly I was
overtaken by the judgment of Heaven for my wicked leaving my
father's house, and abandoning my duty ; all the good counsels of
my parents, my father’s tears and my mother’s entreaties, came now
fresh into my mind, and my conscience, which was not yet come to
the pitch of hardness to which it has been since, reproached me
with the breach of my duty to God and my father.

All this while the storm increased, and the sea, which I had never
been upon before, went very high, though nothing like what I have
seen many times since ; no, nor what I saw a few days after: but it
was enough to affect me then, who was but a young sailor, and had
never known anything of the matter, I expected every wave would
have swallowed us up, and that every time the ship fell down, as I
thought, in the trough or hollow of the sea, we should never rise
more; in this agony of mind, I made Many vows and resolutions,
that if it would please God to spare my life in this one voyage, if ever
I got once my foot upon dry land again, I would go directly home to
my father, and never set it intoa ship again while I lived ; that I would
take his advice, and never run myself into such miseries as these any
more. Now I saw plainly the goodness of his observations about
the middle station of life, how easy, how comfortably he had lived
all his days, and never had been exposed to tempests at sea. or
troubles on shore ; and I resolved that I would, like a true repenting
prodigal, go home to my father.

These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the storm
lasted, and indeed some time after ; but the next day the wind
was abated, and the sea calmer, and I began to be a little inured to
THE EFFECTS OF DISOBEDIENCE. 5

it : however, I was very grave for all that day, being also a little sea-
sick still; but towards night the weather cleared up, the wind was
quite over, and a charming fine evening followed; the sun went
down perfectly clear, and rose so the next morning; and having
little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun shining upon it, the
sight was, as I thought, the most delightful that ever I saw.

I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick, but
very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that was so rough
and terrible the day before, and could be so calm and so pleasant in
SO little a time after. And now, lest my good resolutions should
continue, my companion, who had enticed me away, comes to me:
‘‘Well, Bob,” says he, clapping me upon the shoulder, ‘‘ how do
you do after it? I warrant you were frighted, wer’n’t you, last night,
when it blew but a capful of wind?’—‘‘A capful d’you call it?”
said I; ‘‘’twasa terrible storm.’’—‘‘A storm, you fool you,” replies
he; ‘‘do you call that a storm? why, it was nothing at all; give us
but a good ship and sea-room, and we think nothing of such a squall
of wind as that ; but you're but a fresh-water sailor, Bob : come, let
us make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget all that ; d’ye see what
charming weather ’tis now?” ‘To make short this sad part of my
story, we went the old way of all sailors ; the punch was made, and
I was made half-drunk with it ; and in that one night's wickedness I
drowned all my repentance, all my reflections upon my past conduct,
all my resolutions for the future. In a word, as the sea was returned
to its smoothness of surface and settled calmness by the abatement
of that storm, so the hurry of my thoughts being over, my fears and
apprehensions of being swallowed up by the sea being forgotten, and
the current of my former desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows
and promises that I made in my distress. I found, indeed, some
intervals of reflection; and the serious thoughts did, as it were,
endeavour to return again sometimes; but I shook them off, and
roused myself from them, and applying myself to drink and com-
pany, soon mastered the return of those fits—for so I called ther ;
and I had in five or six days got as complete a victory over conscience
as any young fellow that resolved not to be troubled with it could
desire. But I was to have another trial for it still.

The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth Roads ;
the wind having been contrary, and the weather calm, we had made
but little way since the storm. Here we were obliged to come to an
anchor, and here we lay, the wind continuing contrary, viz., at south-
west, for seven or eight days, during which time a great many ships
from Newcastle came into the same roads, as the common harbour
where the ships might wait for a wind for the river. :
6 : ROBINSON CRUSOE,

We had not, however, rid here so long, but we should have tided
it up the river, but that the wind blew too fresh, and, after we had
Jain four or five days, blew very hard. However, the Roads being
reckoned as good as a harbour, the anchorage good, and our ground-
tackle very strong, our men were unconcerned, and not in the least
apprehensive of danger, but spent the time in rest and mirth, after
the manner of the sea ; but the eighth day, in the morning, the wind
increased, and we had all hands at work to strike our top-masts, and
make everything snug and close, that the ship might ride as easy as
possible. By noon the sea went very high indeed, and our ship rode
forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we thought once or twice our
anchor had come home; upon which our master ordered out the
sheet-anchor ; so that we rode with two anchors ahead, and the
cables veered out to the better end.

By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed ; and now I began to
see terror and amazement in the faces even of the seamen themselves,
The master, though vigilant in the business of preserving the ship,
yet as he went in and out of his cabin by me, I could hear him softly
to himself say, several times, ‘‘ Lord, be merciful to us ! we shall be
all lost ; we shall be all undone!” and the like. During these first
hurries I was stupid, lying still in my cabin, which was in the
steerage, and cannot describe my temper: I could ill-resume the first
penitence which I had so apparently trampled upon, and hardened
myself against : I thought the bitterness of death had been past ;
and that this would be nothing like the first. But when the master
himself came by me, as I said just now, and said we should be all
lost, I was dreadfully frighted. “I got up out of my cabin, and looked
out ; but such a dismal sight I never saw: the sea went mountains
high, and broke upon us every three or four minutes ; when I could
look about, I could see nothing but distress round us ; two ships
that rode near us, we found, had cut their masts by the board, being
deep laden ; and our men cried out, that a ship whichrode about a
mile ahead of us was foundered. Two more ships, being driven
from their anchors, were run out of the Roads: to sea, at all adven-
tures, and that with not a mast standing. ‘The light ships fared the
pest as ee SO ae cane in the sea ; but two or three of them

rove, and came ‘close us, running away wi itsai
pee ue ee y | g& away with oy their spritsail |

Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the master of
our ship to let them cut away the fore-mast, which he was ve
unwilling to do’; but the boatswain protesting to him, that if he did
not, the ship would founder, he consented, and when they had cut
away the fore-mast, the main-mast stood SO loose. and shaok the

at
A TERRIBLE STORM. 9

ship so much, they were obliged to cut her away also, and make a
clear deck.

Any one may judge what a condition I must be in at all this, who
was but a young sailor, and who had been in such a fright before at —
but a little. But if I can express at this distance the thoughts I had
about me at that time, I was in tenfold more horror of mind upon
account of my former convictions, and the having returned from
them to the resolutions I had wickedly taken at first, than I was at
death itself; and these, added to the terror of the storm, put me
into such a condition, that I can by no words deseribe it. - But the
worst was not come yet ; the storm continued With such fury, that
the seamen themselves acknowledged they had never known a worse.
We had a good ship, but she was deep laden, and wallowed in the
sea, that the seamen every now and then cried out she would founder.
It was my advantage in one respect that I did not know what they
meant by founder, till I inquired. However, the storm was so vio-
lent, that I saw what is not often seen, the master, the boatswain,
and some others more sensible than the rest, at their prayers, and
expecting every moment when the ship would go to the bottom.
In the middle ef She night, and under all the rest of our distresses,
one of the men that had been down on purpose to see, cried out we
had sprung a leak; another said, there was four foot water in the hold.
Then all hands were called to the pump. At that word, my heart, as
I thought, died within me, and I fell backwards upon the side of
my bed where I sat, into the cabin. However, the men roused me,
and told me, that I that was able to do nothing before, was as well
able to pump as another: at which I stirred up, and went to the
pump, and worked very heartily. While this was doing, the master
seeing some light colliers, who, not able to ride out the storm, were
obliged to slip, and run away to the sea, and would come near us,
ordered to fire a gun as a signal of distress. I, who knew nothing
what that meant, thought the ship had broke, or some dreadful thing
happened. Ina word, I wasso surprised that I fell down in a swoon.
As this was a time when everybody had his own life to think of, no- .
body minded me, or what was become of me; but another man
stepped up to the pump, and thrusting me aside with his foot, let
me lie, thinking I had been dead; and it was a great while before I
came to myself. ,

We worked on, but the water increasing in the hold, it was appa-
rent that the ship would founder; and though the storm began to
abate a little, yet as it was not possible she could swim till we might
run into a port; so the master continued firing guns for help; anda
light ship, who had rid it out just ahead of us, ventured a boat out
‘8B ROBINSON CRUSOE.

to help us. It was with the utmost hazard the boat came near us,
but it was impossible for us to get on board, or for the boat to lie
near the ship’s side; till at last the men rowing very heartily, and
venturing their lives to save ours, our men cast them a rope over
the stern with a buoyto it, and then veered it out a great length,
which they after great labour and hazard, took hold of, and we
hauled them close under our stern, and got all into their boat. It
was to no purpose for them or us, after we were in the boat, to think
of reaching their own ship, so all agreed to let her drive, and only to
pull her in towards shore as much as we could, and our master
promised them, that if the boat was staved upon shore, he would
make it good to their master: so partly rowing, and partly driving,
our boat went away to the northward, sloping towards the shore al-
most as far as Winterton Ness.

We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of our ship
before we saw her sink, and then I understood for the first time what
was meant by a ship foundering in the sea. I must acknowledge I
had hardly eyes to look up when the seamen told me she was sinking;
for from that moment they rather put me into the boat, than that I
might be said to go in, my heart was as it were dead within me,
partly with fright, partly with horror of mind, and the thoughts of
what was yet before me.

While we were in this condition, the men yet labouring at the oar
to bring the boat near the shore, we could see (when, our boat
mounting the waves, we were able to see the shore) a great many
people running along the strand, to assist us when we should come
near, but we made but slow way towards the shore, nor were we able
to reach it, till, being past the lighthouse at Winterton, the shore
falls off to the westward towards Cromer, and so the land broke off
a little the violence of the wind: here we got in, and, though not
without much difficulty, got all safe on shore, and walked afterwards
on foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we were used with
great humanity, as well by the magistrates of the town, who assigned
us good quarters, as by particular merchants and owners of ships,
and had money given us sufficient to carry us either to London or
back to Hull, as we thought fit.

Had I now had the sense to have gone home, I had been happy
and my father, an emblem of our blessed Saviour’s parable, had
even killed the fatted calf for me; for hearing the ship I went away
In was cast away in Yarmouth Road, it was a great while before he
had any assurances that I was not drowned. , |

But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that nothing
yould resist ; and though I had several times loud calls from my
ANGER OF THE SHIP'S CAPTAIN. 9

reason, and my more composed judgment, to go home, yet I did not
obey them.

My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who was
the master’s son, was now less forward than I; the first time he
spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth, which was not till two or
three days, for we were separated in the town to several quarters: |
say, the first time he saw me, it appeared his tone was altered; and,
looking very melancholy, and shaking his head, he asked me how I
did, and telling his father who I was, and how I had come this
voyage only for a trial, in order to go farther abroad ; his father
turning tome with a very grave and concerned tone, ‘‘ Young man,”
says he, ‘‘you ought never to go to sea any more; you ought to
take this for a plain and visible token that you are not to be a sea-
faring man.” ‘‘ Why, sir,” said I, ‘‘ will you go to sea no more?”
‘‘That is another case,” said he; ‘‘it is my calling, and therefore
my duty ; but as you made this voyage for a trial, you see what a
taste Heaven has given you of what you are to expect if you persist ;
perhaps this has all befallen us on your account, like: Jonah in the
ship of Tarshish. Pray,’ continued he, ‘‘what are you; and on
what account did you go to sea?” Upon that I told him some of
my story ; at the end of which he burst out with a strange kind of
passion ; ‘‘ What had I done,” says he, ‘‘that such an unhappy
wretch should come into my ship! I would not set my foot in the
same ship with thee again for a thousand pounds.” ‘This indeed
was, as I said, an excursion of his spirits, which were yet agitated
by the sense of his loss, and was farther than he could have autho-
rity to go. However, he afterwards talked very gravely to me, ex-
horted me to go back to my father, and not tempt Providence to
my ruin; told me I might see a visible hand of Heaven against
me; ‘‘and, young man,” said he, ‘‘depend upon it, if youdo nov
go back, wherever you go, you will meet with nothing but disasters
and disappointments, till your father’s words are fulfilled upon you.”’

We parted soon after; for I made him little answer, and I saw
him no more ; which way he went I know not. Having some money
in my pocket, I travelled to London by land ; and there, as well
as on the road, had many struggles with myself, what course of life
I should take, whether I should go home, or go to sea.

As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that offered to
my thoughts ; and it immediately occurred to me how I should be
laughed at among the neighbours, and should be ashamed to see,
not my father and mother only, but even everybody else; from
whence I have since often observed, how incongruous and irrational
the common temper of mankind is, especially of youth, to that
10 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

reason which ought to guide them in such cases, viz., that they are
not ashamed to sin, and yet.are ashamed to repent ; not ashamed of
the action for which they ought justly to be esteemed fools, but are
ashamed of the returning, which only can make them be esteemed
wise men.

In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncertain
what measures to take, and what course of life to lead. An irresis-
tible reluctance continued to going home; and as I stayed awhile,
the remembrance of the distress I had been in wore off ; and as that
abated, the little motion I had in my desires to a return wore off
with it, till at last I quite laid aside the thoughts of it, and looked
out for a voyage.

It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good company in
London, which does not always happen to such loose and misguided
young fellows as I then was ; the devil generally not omitting to lay
some snare for them very early ; but it was not so with me. I first
got acquainted with the master of a ship who had been on the coast
of Guinea; and who, having had very good success there, was re-
solved to go again; and who taking a fancy to my conversation,
which was not at all disagreeable at that time, hearing me say I had
a mind to see the world, told me if I would go the voyage with him
I should be at no expense ; I should be his messmate and his com-
panion ; and if I could carry anything with me, I should have ail
the advantage of it that the tradé would admit ; and perhaps I might
meet with some encouragement.

I embraced the offer; and entering into a strict friendship with
this captain, who was an honest, plain-dealing man, I went the
voyage with him, and carried a small adventure with me, which, by
the disinterested honesty of my friend the captain, I increased ve
considerably ; for I carried about £40 in such toys and trifles as the
captain directed me to buy. This 440 I had mustered together by
the assistance of some of my relations whom I corresponded with, and
who, I believe, got my father, or at least my mother, to contribute so
much as that to my first adventure.

This was the only voyage which I may Say was successful in all my
adventures, and which I owe to the integrity and honesty of my
friend the captain ; under whom also I got a competent knowledge
of the mathematics and the rules of navigation, learned how to keep an
account of the ship's course, take an observation, and, in short, to
understand some things that were needful to be understood by a

and, in a word, this voyage made me both a sailor and a merchant ;
for I brought home 5 pounds g ounces of gold-dust for my adventure

3
CRUSOE MADE A SLAVE, Ir

which yielded me in London, at my return, almost 4300; and this
es i with those aspiring thoughts which have since so completed

I was now set up for a Guinea trader ; and my friend, to my great
misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go the same
voyage again, and I embarked in the same vessel with one who was
his mate in the former voyage, and had now got the command of
the ship. This was the unhappiest voyage that ever man made; for
though I did not carry quite £100 of my new-gained wealth, so
that I had £200 left, which I had lodged with my friend’s widow,
who was very just to me, yet I fell into terrible misfortunes ; and the
first .was this—our ship making her course towards the Canary
Islands, or rather between those Islands and the African shore, was
surprised in the grey of the morning by a Turkish rover of Sallee,
who gave chase to us with all the sail she could make. We crowded
also as much canvas as our yards would spread, or our masts carry
to have got clear; but finding the pirate gained upon us, and would
certainly come up with us in a few hours, we prepared to fight ; our
ship having twelve guns, and the rogue eighteen. About three in
the afternoon he came up with us, and bringing to, by mistake, just
athwart our quarter, instead of athwart our stern, as he intended, we
brought eight of our guns to bear on that side, and poured in a
broadside upon him, which made him sheer off again, after return-
ing our fire, and pouring in also his small shot from near two hundred
men whicl: ne had on board. However, we had not a man touched,
all our men keeping close. He prepared to attack us again, and we
to defend ourselves ; but laying us on board the next time upon our
other quarter, he entered sixty men upon our decks, who immedi.
ately fell to cutting and hacking the decks and rigging. We plied
them with small shot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and such like, and
cleared our deck of them twice. However, to cut short this me-
lancholy part of our story, our ship being disabled, and three of our
men killed, and eight wounded, we were obliged to yield, and were
carried all prisoners into Sallee, a port belonging to the Moors.

The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I apprehended,
nor was I carried up the country to the emperor’s court, as the res?
of our men were, but was kept by the captain of the rover as his
proper prize, and made his slave, being young and nimble, and fit
for his business. At this surprising change of my circumstances,
from a merchant to a miserable slave, I was perfectly overwhelmed ;
and now I looked back upon my father’s prophetic discourse to me,
that I should be miserable and have none to relieve me, which I
thought was now so effectually brought to pass, that I could not be
12 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

worse ; that now the hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and I was
undone without redemption. But, alas! this was but a taste of the
misery I was to go through, as will appear in the sequel of the story.

AS my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his house,
so I was in hopes that he would take me with him when he went to
sea again, believing that it would some time or other be his fate to
be taken by a Spanish or Portugal man-of-war; and that then |
snould be set at liberty. But this hope of mine was soon taken
away ; for when he went to sea, he left me on shore to look after his
-ittle garden, and do the common drudgery of slaves about his house ;
and when he came home again from his cruise, he ordered me to lie
in the’cabin to look after the ship.

Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method I
might take to effect it, but found no way that had the least proba-
bility in it ; nothing presented to make the supposition of it rational;
for I had nobody to communicate it to that would embark with me :
no fellow-slave, no Englishman, Irishman, or Scotchman, there but
myself ; so that for two years, though I often pleased myself with the
:magination, yet I never had the least prospect of putting it in practice.

After about two years, an odd circumstance presented itself, which
put the old thought of making some attempt for my liberty again in
my head : my patron lying at home longer than usual, without fitting
out his ship, which, as I heard, was for want of money, he used,
constantly, once or twice a week, sometimes oftener, if the weather
was fair, to take the ship’s pinnace, and go out into the road a-fishing ;
and, as he always took meand a young Maresco with him to row the
boat, we made him very merry, and I proved very dexterous in
catching fish ; insomuch that sometimes he would send me with a
Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth, the Maresco, as they
called him, to catch a dish of fish for him.

It happened one time, that going a-fishing in a stark calm morn-
ing, a fog rose so thick that, though we were not half a league from
the shore, we lost sight of it: and rowing we knew not whither or
which way, we laboured all day, and all the next night : and when
the morning came, we found we had pulled off to sea instead of
pulling in for the shore ; and that we were at least two leagues from
the shore ; however, we got well in again, though with a great deal
of labour, and some danger ; for the wind began to blow pretty fresh
in the morning; but particularly we were all very hungry.

But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more
care of himself for the future ; and having lying by him the long-
boat of our English ship he had taken, he resolved he would not go
a-fishing any more without a compass and some provision; so he
filS PLANS TO EFFECT HIS ESCAPE, | 13

ordered the carpenter of his ship, who also was an English slave, to
build a little state-room, or cabin, in the middle of the long-boat,
like that of a barge, with a place to stand behind it to steer, and
hale home the main-sheet ; and room before for a hand or two to
stand and work the sails; she sailed with what we call a shoulder-
of-mutton sail ; and the boom gibed over the top of the cabin, which
lay very snug and low, and had in it room for him to lie, with a slave
or two, and a table to eat on, with some small lockers to put in some
bottles of such liquor as he thought fit to drink ; particularly his.
bread, rice, and coffee.

We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing ; and as I was
most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went without me. It
happened that he had appointed to go out in this boat, either for
pleasure or for fish, with two or three Moors of some distinction in
that place, and for whom he had provided extraordinarily ; and had
therefore sent on board the boat over-night a larger store of provi-
sions than ordinary; and had ordered me to get ready three fusees
with powder and shot, which were on board his ship; for that they
designed some sport of fowling as well as fishing.

I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited the next
morning with the boat washed clean, her ensign and pendents out,
and everything to accommodate his guests; when by-and-by my
patron came on board alone, and told me his guests had put off
going, from some business that fell out, and ordered me, with the
man and boy, as usual, to go out with the boat and catch them some
fish, for that his friends were to sup at his house ; and commanded
that as soon as I got some fish I should bring it home to his house ;
all which I prepared to do.

This moment, my former notions of deliverance darted into my
thoughts, for now I found I was like to have a little ship at my com-
mand ; and my master being gone, I prepared to furnish myself, not:
for fishing business, but for a voyage ; though I knew not, neither
did I so much as consider, whither 1 should steer; for anywhere to
get out of that place was my desire.

My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak io this
Moor, to get something for our subsistence on board ; for i! told
him we must not presume to eat of our patron’s bread ; he said that
was true; so he brought a large basket of rusk or biscuit of thin
kind, and three jars of fresh water, into the boat. I knew where my
patron's case of bottles stood, which it was evident by the make,
were taken out of some English prize, and I conveyed them into the
boat while the Moor was on shore, as if they had been there before
for our master; I conveyed also a great lump of bees-wax into the
14 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

boat, which weighed above half a hundred-weight, with a parcel of
twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all of which were
of great use to us afterwards, especially the wax to make candles.
Another trick I tried upon him, which he innocently came into also :
his name was Ismael, which they call Muley, or Moely ; so I called
to him :—‘‘ Moely,” said I, ‘‘our patron’s guns are on board the
boat ; can you not get a little powder and shot, it may be we may
kill some alcamies (a fowl like our curlews) for ourselves, for I
know he keeps the gunner’s stores in the ship.” ‘‘ Yes,” says he,
‘*T’ll bring some ;” and accordingly he brought a great leather pouch,
which held a pound and a half of powder, or rather more; and another
with shot, that had five or six pounds, with some bullets, and put all
into the boat ; at the same time, I had found some powder of my
master’s in the great cabin, with which I filled one of the large
bottles in the case, which was almost empty ; pouring what was in
it into another: and thus furnished with everything needful, we
sailed out of the port to fish. The castle, which is at the entrance
of the port, knew who we were, and took no notice of us ;.and we
were not above a mile out of the port before we hauled in our sail,
and set us down to fish ; the wind blew from the N.N.E., which was
contrary to my desire ; for had it blown southerly, I had been sure
to have made the coast of Spain, and at least reached to’the bay of
Cadiz; but my resolutions were, blow which way it would, I would
be gone from that horrid place where I was, and leave the rest to fate.

After we had fished some time and catched nothing, for when I
had fish on my hook, I would not pull them up, that he might. not
see them, I said to the Moor, ‘‘ This will not do-; our master will
not be thus served; we must stand farther off;” he, thinking no
harm, agreed, and, being in the head of the boat, set the sails ; and,
as I had the helm, I run the boat out near a league farther, and
then brought her to, as if I would fish, when, giving the boy the
helm, I stepped forward to where the Moor was, and making as if I
stooped for something behind him, I took him by surprise with my
arm under his twist, and tossed him clear overboard into the sea,
ie rose immediately, for he swam like a cork, and calling to me,
begged to be taken in, told me he would go all over the world with
me; he swam so strong after the boat, that he would have reached
me very quickly, there being but little wind ; upon which I stepped
into the cabin, and fetching one of the fowling-pieces, I presented it
at him, and told him I had done him no hurt, and if he would be
quiet I would do him none: ‘‘ But,” said I, ‘‘ you swim well enough
to reach to the shore, and the sea is calm; make the best of your
way to shore, and I will do you no harm; but if you come near the
LHE ESCAPE.—XURY. | 15

boat, I'll shoot you through the head, for Iam resolved to have my
liberty ;’’ so he turned himself about, and swam for the shore, and I
make no doubt but he reached it with ease, for he was an excellent
swimmer.

{ could have been content to have taken this Moor with me, and
have drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to trust him.
When he was gone, I turned to the boy, whom they called Xury,
and said to him, ‘‘ Xury, if you will be faithful to me, I'll make you
a great man; but if you will not stroke your face to be true to me,”
that is, swear by Mahomet and his father’s beard, ‘‘I must throw
you into the sea too.’’ The boy smiled in my face, and spoke so
innocently, that I could not distrust him, and swore to be faithful to
me, and go all over the world with me.

While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, I stood out
directly to sea with the boat, rather stretching to windward, that
they might think me gone towards the Straits’ mouth (as indeed any
one that had been in their wits must have been supposed to do): for
who would have supposed we were sailed on to the southward, to the
truly Barbarian coast, where whole nations of Negroes were sure to
surround us with their canoes, and destroy us; where we could not
go on shore but we should be devoured by savage beasts, or more
merciless savages of human kind.

But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my course,
and steered directly south and by east, bending my course a little
towards the east, that I might keep in with the shore: and having a
fair, fresh gale of wind, and a smooth, quiet sea, I made such sail
that I believe by the next day at three o'clock in the afternoon, when
I first made the land, I could not be less than 150 miles south of
Sallee : quite beyond the Emperor of Morocco’s dominions, or indeed
of any other king thereabouts, for we saw no people.

Yet such was the fright I had taken of the Moors, and the dreadful
apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that I would not
stop, or go on shore, or come to an anchor; the wind continuing
fair till I had sailed in that manner five days; and then the wind
shifting to the southward, I concluded also that if any of our vessels
were in chase of me, they also would now give over ; so i ventured
to make to the coast, and came to an anchor in the mouth of a little
river, I knew not what, nor where; neither what latitude, what
country, what nation, or what river. I neither saw, nor desired to
see any people; the principal thing I wanted was fresh water. We
came into this creek in the evening, resolving to swim on shore as
soon as it was dark, and discover the country; but as soon as it was
quite dark, we heard such dreadful noises of the barking, roaring,
16 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

and howling of wild creatures, of we knew not what kinds, that the
poor boy was ready to die with fear, and begged of me not to go on
shore till day. ‘‘ Well, Xury,” said I, ‘‘then I won't; but it may be
that we may see men by day, who will be as bad to us as those lions.”
‘Then we give them the shoot gun,” says Xury, laughing, ‘‘ make
them run wey.” Such English Xury spoke by conversing among us
slaves. However, I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave
him a dram (out of our patron's case of bottles) to cheer him up;
after all, Xury’s advice was good, and I took it; we dropped our
little anchor and lay still all night; I say still, for we slept none; for
in two or three hours we saw vast great creatures (we knew not what
to call them) of many sorts, come down to the sea-shore, and run
into the water, wallowing and washing themselves for the pleasure of
cooling themselves ; and they made such hideous howlings and yell-
ings, that I never indeed heard the like.

Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too; but we
were both more frighted when we heard one of these mighty creatures
come swimming towards our boat; we could not see him, but we
might hear him by his blowing to be a monstrous huge and furious
beast. Xury said it was a lion, and it might be so for aught I know;
but poor Xury cried to me to weigh the anchor and row away:
‘‘No,” says I, ‘‘Xury; we can slip our cable, with the buoy to it,
and go off to sea; they cannot follow us far.” I had no sooner said
so, but I perceived the creature (whatever it was) within two oars’
length, which something surprised me; however, I immediately
stepped to the cabin-door, and taking up my gun, fired at him, upon
which he immediately turned about, and swam towards the shore
again ,

But it is impossible to describe the horrid noises, and hideous cries
and howlings, that were raised, as well upon the edge of the shore as
higher within the country, upon the noise or report of the gun; a
ching I have some reason to believe those creatures had never heard
before: this convinced me that there was no going on shore for us in
the night on that coast, and how to venture on shore in the day was
another question too ; for to have fallen into the hands of any of the
savages, had been as bad as to have fallen into the hands of the lions
and tigers ; at least we were equally apprehensive of the danger of it.

Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore somewhere or
other for water, for we had not a pint left in the boat: when and
where to get to it was the point. Xury said, if I would let him go
on shore with one of the jars, he would find if there was any water
and bring some to me. I asked him why he would go? why I
should not go, and he stay in the boat? The boy answered with <¢
ew

XURY'S LOVE FOR HIS MASTER. 17

much affection; as made me love him ever after. Says he, ‘‘If wild
mans come, they eat me, you go wey.” —‘‘ Well, Xury,’ said I, ‘‘we
will both go, and if the wild mans come, we will kill them, they
shall eat neither of us.” So I gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to
eat, and a dram out of our patron’s case of bottles which I mentioned
before ; and we hauled the boat in as near the shore as we thought
was proper, and waded on shore; carrying nothing but our arms
and two jars for water.

I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the coming of
canoes with savages down the river; but the boy seeing a low place
about a mile up the country, rambled to it ; and by-and-by I saw
him come running towards me. I thought he was pursued by some
savage, or frighted with some wild beast, and I ran forwards towards
him to help him ; but when I came nearer to him, I saw something

‘hanging over his shoulders, which was a creature that he had shot,

like a hare, but different in colour, and longer legs: however, we
were very glad of it, and it was very good meat; but the great joy
that poor Xury came with, was to tell me he had found good water,
and seen no wild mans.

But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains for
water, for a little higher up the creek where we were we found the
water fresh when the tide was out, which flowed but a little way up ;
so we filled our jars, and feasted on the hare we had killed, and pre-
pared to go on our way, having seen no footsteps of any human
creature in that part of the country.

As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very well
that the islands of the Canaries and the Cape de Verd islands also,
lay not far off from the coast. But as I had no instruments to take an
observation to know what latitude we were in, and not exactly know-
ing, or at least remembering, what latitude they were in, I knew not
where to look for them, or when to stand off to sea towards them ;
otherwise I might now easily have found some of these islands. But
my hope was, that if I stood along this coast till 1 came to that part
where the English traded, I should find some of their vessels upon
their usual design of trade, that would relieve and take us in.

By the best of my calculation, that place where 1 now was must
be that country which, lying between the Emperor of Moroccos
dominions and the Negroes, lies waste and uninhabited ; the Negroes
having abandoned it, and gone farther south, for fear of the Moors;
and the Moors not thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason of its
barrenness ; and, indeed, both forsaking it because of the prodigious
numbers of tigers, lions, leopards, and other furious creatures which
harbour there‘ so that the Moors use it for their hunting onl. where

C
18 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

they go like an army, two or three thoysand men at a time: and,
indeed, for near a hundred miles together upon this coast, we saw
nothing but a waste uninhabited country by day, and heard nothing
but howlings and roarings of wild beasts by night.

Once or twice in the day-time, I thought I saw the Pico of Tene-
riffe, being the high top of the Mountain Teneriffe in the Canaries ;
and had a great mind to venture out, in hopes of reaching thither ;
but having tried twice, I was forced in again by contrary winds, the
sea also going too high for my little vessel; so I resolved to pursue
my first design, and keep along the shore.

Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after we had
left this place ; and once in particular, being early in the morning,
we came to an anchor under a little point of land, which was pretty
high ; and the tide begirning to flow, we lay still to go farther in.
Xury, whose eyes were more about him than it seems mine were, calls
softly to me, and tells me that we had best go farther off the shore ;
‘‘for,” says he, ‘‘look, yonder lies a dreadful monster on the side of
that hillock, fast asleep.” I looked where he pointed, and saw a
dreadful monster indeed, for it was a terrible great lion that lay on
the side of the shore, under the shade of a piece of the hill that hung
as it were a little over him. ‘‘ Xury,” says I, ‘‘ you shall go on shore
and kill him.” Xury looked frighted, and said, ‘‘Me kill! he eat
me at one mouth ;” one mouthful he meant. However, I said no
more to the boy, but bade him lie still, and took our biggest gun,
which was almost musket bore, and loaded it with a good charge of
powder, and with two slugs, and laid it down; then I loaded another
gun with two bullets; and the third (for we had three pieces) I loaded
with five smaller bullets. I took the best aim I could with the first
piece to have shot him into the head, but he lay so with his leg raised
a little above his nose that the slugs hit his leg about the knee, and
broke the bone. He started up, growling at first, but finding his
leg broken, fell down again ; and then got up upon three legs, and
gave the most hideous roar that ever I heard. I wasa little surprised
that I had not hit him on the head; however, I took up the second
plece immediately, and though he began to move off, fired again, and
shot him into the head, and had the pleasure to see him drop and
make but little noise, but lay struggling for life. Then Xury took
heart, and would have me let him go on shore. ‘Well, go,” said
!: so the boy jumped into the water, and taking a little gun in one
hand, swam to shore with the other hand, and coming close to the
creature, put the muzzle of the piece to his ear, and shot him in the
head again, which despatched him quite. i

This was game indeed to us, but this was no food; and I was

a
A

Ya rpm tne iat DRE ORE

ar

SRER

Se

im



SOE SHOOTS A LION.

CRU
CUTTING OFF THE LION'S FOOT. 19

very sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot upon a creature
that was good for nothing to us. However, Xury said he would
have some of him; so he comes on board, and asked me to give him
the hatchet. ‘‘ For what, Xury ?”’ said I. ‘‘ Me cut off his head,’’
said he. However, Xury could not cut off his head, but he cut off a
foot, and brought it with him, and it was a monstrous great one.

I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of him might
be of some value to us; and I resolved to take off his skin if I could.
So Xury and I went to work with him; but Xury was much the
better workman at it, for I knew very ill how to doit. Indeed, it
took us both up the whole day, but at last we got off the hide of
him, and spreading it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectually
dried it in two days’ time, and it afterwards served me to lie upon.

After this stop, we made on to the southward continually for ten
or twelve days, living very sparingly on our provisions, which began
to abate very much, and going no oftener to the shore than we were
obliged to for fresh water. My design in this was, to make the
River Gambia or Senegal, that is to say, anywhere about the Cape
de Verd, where I was in hopes to meet with some European ship ;
and if [ did not, I knew not what course I had to take, but to seek
for the islands, or perish there among the Negroes. I knew that all
the ships from Europe, which sailed either to the Coast of Guinea or
to Brazil, or to the East Indies, made this Cape, or those islands ;
and, in.a word, I put the whole of my fortune upon this single point,
either that I must meet with some ship, or must perish.

When [ had pursued this resolution about ten days longer, as I
have said, I began to see that the land was inhabited ; andin two or
three places, as we sailed by, we saw people stand upon the shore to
look at us; we could also perceive they were quite black, and
naked. I was once inclined to have gone on shore to them ; but
Xury was my better counsellor, and said to me, ‘‘ No go, no go.”
However, I hauled in nearer the shore that I might talk to them,
and I found_they ran along the shore by me a good way : I observed
they had no weapons in their hands, except one, who had a long
slender stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that they could
throw them a great way with good aim. So I kept at a distance,
but talked with them by signs as well as I could; and particularly
made signs for something to eat; they beckoned to me to stop my
boat, and they would fetch me some meat. Upon this, I lowered
the top of my sail, and lay by, and two of them ran up into the
country, and in less than half an hour came back, and brought with
them two pieces of dried flesh and some corn, such as is the produce
of their country ; but we neither knew what the one nor the other was ;

‘C2
20 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

however, we were willing to accept it, but how to come at it was our
next dispute, for I was not for venturing on shore to them, and they
were as much afraid of us ; but they took asafe way for us all, for they
brought it to the shore and laid it down, and went and stood a great
way off till we fetched it on board, and then came close to us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to make
them amends ; but an opportunity offered that very instant to oblige
them wonderfully : for while we were lying by the shore, came two
mighty creatures, one pursuing the other (as we took it) with great
fury from the mountains towards the sea ; whether it was the male pur-
suing the female, or whether they were in sport or in rage, we could
not tell, any more than we could tell whether it was usual or strange,
but I believe it was ihe latter; because, in the first place, those
ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the night; and, in the
second place, we found the people terribly frighted, especially the
women. ‘The man that had the lance or dart did not fly from them,
but the rest did ; however, as the two creatures ran directly into the
water, they did not offer to fall upon any of the Negroes, but plunged
themselves into the sea, and swam about, as if they had come for
their diversion. At last one of them began to come nearer our boat
than at first I expected ; but I lay ready for him, for I had loaded
my gun with all possible expedition, and bade Xury load both the
others. As soon as he came fairly within my reach, I fired, and
_ Shot him directly in the head : immediately he sank down into the
water, but rose instantly, and plunged up and down, as if he was
struggling for life, and so indeed ‘he was: he immediately made to
the shore ; but between the wound, which was his mortal hurt, and
the strangling of the water, he died just before he reached the shore.
It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor creatures ©
at the noise and fire of my gun; some of them were even ready to
die for fear, and fell down as dead with the very terror. But when
they saw the creature dead, and sunk in the water, and that I made ©
signs to them to come to the shore, they took heart and came, and
began to search for the creature. I found him by his blood staining
the waier: and by the help of a rope, which I slung round him, and
gave the Negroes to haul, they dragged him on shore, and found
that it was a most curious leopard, spotted, and fine to an admirable
degree ; and the Negroes held up their hands with admiration. to
think what it was I had killed him with,
eee other creature, frighted with the flash of fire and the noise of
gun, swam on shore, and ran up directly to the mountains from
whence they came ; nor could I, at that distance, know what it was.
T found quickly the Negroes were for eating the flesh of this creature,
THE KINDLY NEGROES. | 21

so I was willing to have them take it as a favour from me: which,
when I made signs to them that they might take him, they were very
pee for. gee they fell to work with him ; and though

ite a nife, yet, with a sharpened piece of wood, they took
Is skin as readily, and much more readily, than we could

ave done with a knife. ‘They offered me some of the flesh, which
I declined, making as if I would give it them ; but made signs for
the skin, which they gave me very freely, and brought me a great
deal more of their provisions, which, though I did not understand,
yet I accepted ; then I made signs to them for some water, and held
out one of my jars to them, turning it bottom upward, to show that
it was empty, and that I wanted to have it filled. They called im-
mediately to some of their friends, and there came two women, and
brought a great vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I supposed, in
the sun ; this they set down for me, as before, and I sent Xury on
shore with my jars, and filled them all three.

I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and
water; and leaving my friendly Negroes, I made forward for about
eleven days more, without offering to go near the shore, till I saw
the land run out a great length into the sea, at about a distance of
four or five leagues before me ; and the sea being very calm, I kept
a large offing to make this point : at length, doubling the point, at
about two leagues from the land, I saw plainly land on the other
side, to seaward : then I concluded, as it was most certain indeed,
that this was the Cape de Verd, and those the islands called, from
thence, Cape de Verd Islands. However, they were at a great dis-
tance, and I could not well tell what I had best to do; for if I should
be taken with a fresh of wind, I might neither reach one or other.

In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the cabin,
and sat down, Xury having the helm ; when, on a sudden, the boy
cried out, ‘‘ Master, master, a ship with a sail !’’ and the foolish boy
was frighted out of his wits, thinking it must needs be some of his
master’s ships sent to pursue us, but I knew we were gotten far
enough out of their reach. I jumped out of the cabin, and imme-
diately saw, not only the ship, but what she was, viz., a Portuguese
ship ; and, as I thought, was bound to the Coast of Guinea, for Ne-
groes. But, when I observed the course she steered, I was soon
convinced they were bound some other way, and did not design to
come any nearer to the shore : upon which I stretched out to sea as
much as I could, resolving to speak with them if possible.

With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able to
come in their way, but that they would be gone before I could make
any signal to them, But after I had crowded to the utmost, and
22 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

began to despair, they, it seems, saw me by the help of their perspec-
tive glasses, and that it was some European boat, which, as they
supposed, must belong to some ship that was lost ; so they shortened
sail to let mecomeup. Iwasencouraged with this, and as I had my
patron’s ancient on board, I made a waft of it to them, fora signal
of distress, and fired a gun, both which they saw ; for they told me
they saw the smoke, though they did not hear the gun._ Upon these
signals they very kindly brought to, and lay by for me; and in about
three hours’ time I came up with them.

They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish, and in
French, but I understood none of them ; but, at last, a Scots sailor,
who was on board, called to me, and I answered him, and told him
I was an Englishman, that I had made my escape out of slavery
from the Moors at Sallee. They then bade me come on board, and
very kindly took me in, and all my goods.

It was an inexpressible joy to me, that any one would believe, that
I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable and
almost hopeless condition as I was in, and I immediately offered all
I had to the captain of the ship, as a return for my deliverance ; but
he generously told me, he would take nothing from me, but that all
I had should be delivered safe to me, when I came to the Brazils.
‘‘ For,” says he, ‘‘I have saved your life on no other terms than I
would be glad to be saved myself; and it may, one time or other, be
my lot to be taken up in the same condition. Besides,” said he,
‘““when I carry you to the Brazils, so great a way from your own
country, if I should take from you what you have, you will be starved
there, and then I only take away that life I have given. No, no,”
says he, ‘‘Seignor Inglese’”’ (Mr. Englishman), ‘‘I will carry you
thither in charity, and those things will help to buy your subsistence
there, and your passage home again.”

As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the per-
formance to a tittle ; for he ordered the seamen, that none should
touch anything that I had: then he took everything into his own
possession, and gave me back an exact inventory of them, that I
might have them, even so much as my three earthen jars.

As to my boat, it was a very good one, and that he saw, and ‘told
me he would buy it of me for his ship’s use, and asked me what ]
would have for it? I told him, he had been so generous to me in,
everything, that I could not offer to make any price of the boat, but
left it entirely to him ; upon which he told me he would give mea note
of hand to pay me 80 pieces of eight for it at Brazil: and when it
came there, if any one offered to give more, he would make it up.
He offered me also 60 pieces of eight more for my boy Xury, which
THE GENEROUS CAPTAIN. 23

IT was loth to take; not that I was unwilling to let the captain
have him, but I was very loth to sell the poor boy’s liberty, who had
assisted me so faithfully in procuring my own. However, when I
let him know my reason, he owned it to be just, and offered me this
medium, that he would give the boy an obligation to set him free in
ten years, if he turned Christian. Upon this, and Aury saying he
was willing to go to him, I let the captain have him.

We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and I arrived in the
Bay de Todos los Santos, or All Saints’ Bay, in about twenty-two
days after. And now I was-once more delivered from the most
miserable of all conditions of life; and what to do next with myself.
I was to consider.

The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never enough
remember: he would take nothing of me for my passage, gave me
twenty ducats for the leopard’s skin, and forty for the lion’s skin,
which I had in my boat, and caused everything I had in the ship to
be punctually delivered to me; and what I was willing to sell he
bought of me, such as the case of bottles, two of my guns, and a
piece of the lump of bees-wax—for I had made candles of the rest :
in a word, I made about 220 pieces of eight of all my cargo: and
with this stock, I went on shore in the Brazils.

I had not been long here, before I was recommended to the house
of a good, honest man, like himself, who had an zz genzo, as they call
it (that is, a plantation and a sugar-house). I lived with him some
time, and acquainted myself, by that means, with the manner of
planting and making of sugar; and seeing how well the planters
lived, and how they got rich suddenly, I resolved, if I could geta
licence to settle there, I would turn planter among them, resolving,
jn the meantime, to find out some way to get my money, which I
‘had left in London, remitted to me. ‘To this purpose, getting a
kind of letter of naturalization, I purchased as much land that was
uncured as my money would reach, and formed a plan for my plan-
tation and settlement; such a one as might be suitable to the stock
which I proposed to myself to receive from England.

I had a neighbour a Portuguese of Lisbon, but born of Englisk
parents, whose name was Wells, and in much such circumstances ag
I was. I call him my neighbour, because his plantation lay next te
mine, and we went on very sociably together. My stock was but
low, as well as his; and we rather planted for food than anything
else, for about two years. However, we began to increase, and our
Jand began to come into order; so that the third year we planted
some tobacco, and made each of us a large piece of ground ready
for planting canes in the year to come. But we both wanted help ;,
‘BA ROBINSON CRUSOE.

and now I found, more than before, I had done wrong in parting
with my boy Xury. : oye

But, alas! for me to do wrong that never did right, was no great
wonder. I had no remedy but to go on: I had got into an employ-
ment quite remote to my genius, and directly contrary to the life 1
delighted in, and for which I forsook my father’s house, and broke
through all his good advice. Sis.

[ was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carrying on the
plantation, before my kind friend, the captain of the ship that took
me up at sea, went back; for the ship remained there, lading, and
preparing for his voyage, nearly three months ; when, telling him what
little stock I had left behind me in London, he gave me this friendly
and sincere advice :—‘‘Seignor Inglese,” says he (for so he always
called me), ‘‘if you will give me letters, and a procuration here in form
to me, with orders to the person who has your money in London, to
send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as I shall direct, and in
such goods as are proper for this country, I will bring you the pro-
duce of them, God willing, at my return; but, since human affairs
are all subject to changes and disasters, I would have you give orders
but for one hundred pounds sterling, which, you say, is half your
stock, and let the hazard be run for the first ; so that, if it come safe,
you may order the rest the same way ; and, if it miscarry, you may
have the other half to have recourse to for your supply.”

This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that I
could not but be convinced it was the best course I could take; so
I accordingly prepared letters to the gentlewoman with whom I had left
my money, and a procuration to the Portuguese captain, as he desired.

I wrote the English captain’s widow a full account of all my adven-
tures—my slavery, escape, and how I had met with the Portuguese
captain at sea, the humanity of his behaviour, and what condition I
was now in, with all other necessary directions for my supply ; and
when this honest captain came to Lisbon, he found means, by some
of the English merchants there, to send over, not the order only, but
a full account of my story to a merchant at London, who represented
it effectually to her; whereupon she not only delivered the money
but, out of her own pocket, sent the Portugal captain a very hand-
some present for his humanity and charity to me.

The merchant in London, vesting this hundred pounds in English
goods, such as the captain had written for, sent them directly to him
at Lisbon, and he brought them all safe to me to the Brazils ; among”
which, without my direction (for I was too young in my business to think. .
of them), he had taken care to have all sorts of tools, iron work, and
utensils, necessary for my plantation, and which were of greatusetome, |
CRUSOE BECOMES A PLANTER, | 25

When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortunes made, for I was
surprised with the joy of it; and my good steward, the captain, had
laid out the five pounds, which my friend had sent him for a present
for himself, to purchase and bring me over a servant, under bond for
$1x years’ service, and would not accept of any consideration, except a
little tobacco, which I would have him accept, being my own produce.

Neither was this all: for my goods being all English manufacture,
such as cloths, stuffs, baize, and things particularly valuable and
desirable in the country, I found means to sell them to a very great
advantage ; so that I might say, I had more than four times the
value of my first cargo, and was now infinitely beyond my poor neigh-
bour—I mean in the advancement of my plantation ; for the first thing
I did, I bought me a negro slave, and an European servant also—I
mean another besides that which the captain brought me from Lisbon,

To come by the just degrees, to the particulars of this part of my
story :—Having now lived almost four years in the Brazils, and be-
ginning to thrive and prosper very well upon my plantation, I had
not only learned the language, but had contracted acquaintance and
friendship among my fellow-planters, as well as among the merchants
at St. Salvador, which was our port; and in my discourses among
them, I had frequently given them an account of my two voyages to
the coast of Guinea; the manner of trading with the Negroes there,
and how easy it was to purchase upon the coast for trifles, such ag
beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits of glass, and the like, not
only gold dust, Guinea grains, elephants’ teeth, &c., but Negroes, for
the service of the Brazils, in great numbers.

They listened always very attentively to my ciscourses on these
heads, but especially to that part which related to the buying Negroes,
which was a trade, at that time, not only not far entered into, but, as
far as it was, had been carried on by Assientos, or permission of the
kings of Spain and Portugal, and engrossed in the public stock ; so
that few Negroes were bought, and those excessively dear.

It happened, being in company with some merchants and planters
of my acquaintance, and talking of those things very earnestly, three
of,them came to me next morning, and told me they had been musing
very much upon what I had discoursed with them of the last night,
and they.came to make a secret proposal to me; and, after enjoining
me secresy, they told me that they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to

_Guinea ; that they had all plantations as wellas I, and were straitened
for nothing so much as servants ; that as it was a trade that could
not be carried on, because they could not publicly sell the Negroes
when they came home, so they desired to make bul one voyage, to
bring the Negroes on shore privately, and divide them among their
26 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

own plantations; and, ina word, the question was, whather I would go
their supercargo in the ship, to manage the trading part upon the coast
of Guinea ; and they offered me that I should have my equal share o
the Negroes, without providing any part of the stock.

This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been made
to any one that had not had a settlement and a plantation of his own
to look after, which was in a fair way of coming to be very con-
siderable, and with a good stock upon it; but for me, that was
thus entered and established, and had nothing to do but to go on as
I had begun, for three or four years more, and to have sent for the
other hundred pounds from England, and who in that time, and
with that little addition, could scarce have failed of being worth three
or four thousand pounds sterling, and that increasing too; for me to
think of such a voyage was the most preposterous thing that ever
man in such circumstances could be guilty of.

But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no more resist
the offer than I could restrain my first rambling designs when my
father’s good counsel was lost upon me. Ina word, I told them I
would go with all my heart, if they would undertake to look after my
plantation in my absence, and would dispose of it to such as I should
direct, if I miscarried. ‘This they ail engaged to do, and entered into
writings or covenants to doso ; and I made a formal will disposing of
my plantation and effects in case of my death, making the captain of
the ship that had saved my life, as before, my universal heir, but ob- '
liging him to dispose of my effects as I had directed in my will, one-half
of the produce being to himself, and the otherto beshipped to England.

In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects, and to
keep up my plantation ; had I used half as much prudence to have
looked into my own interest, and have made a judgment of what I
ought to have done and not to have done, I had certainly never gone
away from so prosperous an undertaking, and gone upon a voyage
to sea, attended with all its hazards.

But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my fancy
rather than my reason; and, accordingly, the ship being fitted out
and the cargo furnished, and all things done, as by agreement, by
my partners in the voyage, I went on board in an evil hour, the rst
of September, 1659, being the same day eight years that I went from
my father and mother at Hull. |
me ue was about 120 tons burden, carried 6 guns, and 14 men,

esides the master, his boy, and myself; we had on board no large

cargo of goods, except of such toys as were fit for our trade with the

Negroes, such as beads, bits of glass, shells, and other trifl -

cially little looking-glasses, knives, scissors, h ad dite
3 &-giasses, knives, scissors, hatchets and the like.
THE VOVAGE TO GUINEA. | 27

The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away to the
northward upon our own coast, with design to stretch over for the
African coast when we came about ten or twelve degrees of northern
latitude, which, it seems, was the manner of their course in those
days. We had very good weather, only excessively hot, all the way
upon our own coast, till we came to the height of Cape St. Augus-
tino ; from whence, keeping further off at sea, we lost sight of land,
and steered as if we were bound for the isle Fernando de Noronha,
holding: our course N.E. by N., and leaving those isles on the east.
In this course we passed the line in about twelve days’ time, and
were, by our last observation, in 7 degrees 22’ northern latitude,
when a violent tornado, or hurricane, took us quite out of our know-
ledge. It blew in such a terrible manner, that for twelve days to-
gether we could do nothing but drive; and, scudding away before
it, let it carry us whither ever fate and the fury of the winds directed.

In this distress we had, besides the terror of the storm, one of our
men die of the calenture, and one man and the boy washed over-
board. About the twelfth day, the weather abating a little, the
master made an observation as well as he could, and found that he
was in about 11° north latitude, but that he was 22° of longitude
difference west from Cape St. Augustino ; so that he found he was
upon the coast of Guiana, or the north part of Brazil, beyond the
river. Amazon, towards that of the river Oroonoque, commonly
called the Great River; and began to consult with me what course
he should take, for the ship was leaky, and very much disabled, and
he was going directly back to the coast of Brazil.

I was positively against that ; and looking over the charts of the
sea-coasts of America with him, we concluded there was no in-
habited country for us to have recourse to, till we came within the
circle of the Caribbee Islands, and therefore resolved to stand away
_ for Barbadoes, which, by keeping off at sea, to avoid the indraft of
the Bay or Gulf of Mexico, we might easily perform, as we hoped,
in about fifteen days’ sail; whereas we could not possibly make our
voyage to the coast of Africa without some assistance both to our
ship and to ourselves. |

With this design we changed our course, and steered away N.W.
by W., in order to reach some of our English islands, where I hoped
for relief ; but our voyage was otherwise determined ; for, being in
the Jatitude of 12. deg. 18 min. a second storm came upon Us, which
carried us away with the same impetuosity westward, and drove us
so out of the very way of all human commerce, that, had all our
lives been saved as to the sea, we were rather in danger of heing
devoured by savages than ever returning to our county
28 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of\our men
early in the morning cried out, ‘‘ Land !” and we had no sooner ran
out of the cabin to look out, in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the
world we were, than the ship struck upon a sand, and in a moment,
her motion being so stopped, the sea broke over her in such a man-
ner, that we expected we should all have perished immediately ; and
we were immediately driven into our close quarters, to shelter us
from the very foam and spray of the sea. a

It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like condition
to describe or conceive. the consternation of men in such circum-
stances: we knew nothing where we were, or upon what land it
was we were driven, whether an island or the main, whether in-
habited or not inhabited ; and as the rage of the wind was still
great, though rather less than at first, we could not so much as hope
to have the ship hold many minutes without breaking in pieces,
unless the winds, by a kind of miracle, should turn immediately
apout. Ina word, we sat looking upon one another, and expecting
death every moment, and every man, acting accordingly, as pre-
paring for another world; for there was little or nothing more for
us to do in this; that which was our present comfort, and all the
comfort we had, was that, contrary to ourexpectation, the ship did
not break yet, and that the master said the wind began to abate.

Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate, yet the
ship having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast for us
to expect her getting off, we were in a dreadful condition indeed,
and had nothing to do but to think of saving our lives as well as we
could. We had a boat at our stern, just before the storm, but she
was first staved by dashing against the ship’s rudder, and in the next
place, she broke away, and either sunk, or was driven off to sea;
so there was no hope from her; we had another boat on board, but
now to get her off into the sea was a doubtful thing ; however, there
was no time to debate, for we fancied the ship would break in
pieces every minute, and some told us she was actually broken
already.

i this distress, the mate of our vessel lays hold of the boat, and
with the help of the rest of the men, they got her slung over the
ship’s side ; and getting all into her, let go, and committed ourselves,
being eleven in number, to God's mercy and the wild sea ; for though
the storm was abated considerably, yet the sea went dreadfully high

“

upon the shore, and might be well called dex wild zee, as the Dutch .

call the sea in a storm.
And now our cage was very dismal indeed ; for we all saw plainly,
that the sea went so high that the boat could not live. and that we
ke

THE SHIPWRECK. 29

should be inevitably drowned. As to making sail, we had none, nor,
if we had, could we have done anything with it ; so we worked at she
oar towards the land, though with heavy hearts, like men going to
execution ; for we all knew that when the boat came nearer the shore,
she would be dashed in a thousand pieces by the breach of the sea.
However, we committed our souls to God in the most earnest manner ;
and the wind driving us towards the shore, we hastened our destruc.
tion with our own hands, pulling as well as we could towards land.
What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether steep or shoat,
we knew not; the only hope that could rationally give us the least
shadow of expectation, was, if we might find some bay or gulf, or the
mouth of some river, where by great chance we might have run our
boat in, or got under the lee of the land, and perhaps made smooth:
water. But there was nothing of this appeared ; but as we made nearer
and nearer the shore, the land looked more frightful than the sea.
After we had rowed or rather driven about a league and a half, az.
we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountaintlike, came rolling astern of
us, and plainly bade us expect the coup de grace. Ina word, it took
us with such a fury, that it overset the boat at once; and separating”
us, as well from the boat as from one another, gave us not time to
say, ‘‘O God !” for we were all swallowed up in a moment.
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt, when
I sunk into the water ; for though I swam very well, yet I could not
deliver myself from the waves so as to draw breath, till that wave
having driven me, or rather carried me, a vast way on towards the
shore, and having spent itself, went back, and left me upon the land
almost dry, but half dead with the water I took in. 1 had so muck
presence of mind, as well as breath left, that, seeing myself nearer
the main land than I expected, I got upon my feet, and endeavoured
to make on towards the land as fast as I could, before another wave
should return and take me up again. But I soon found it was impos-
sible to avoid it; for I saw the sea come after me as high as a great
hill, and as furious as an enemy, which I had no means or strength to
contend with : my business was to hold my breath, and raise myself
upon the water, if I could: and so, by swimming, to preserve my
breathing and pilot myself towards the shore, if possible : my greatest
“concern now being, that the sea, as it would carry me a great way
towards the shore when it came on, might not carry me back again
with it when it gave back towards the sea. |
The wave that came upon me again, buried me at once 20 or 30
feet deep in its own body, and I could feel myself carried with a
_ mighty force and swiftness towards the shore a very great way ; but I
held my breath, and assisted myself to swim still forward with all my
30 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

might. I was ready to burst with holding my breath, when, as I felt
myself rising up, so, to my immediate relief, I found my head and
hands shoot out above the surface of the water; and though it was
not two seconds of time that I could keep myself so, yet it relieved me
greatly, gave me breath and new courage. - I was covered again with
water a good while, but not so long but I held it out ; and, finding the
water had spent itself and began to return, I struck forward against
the return of the waves, and felt ground again with my feet. I stood
still a few moments to recover breath and till the waters went from
me, and then took to my heels and ran, with what strength I had,
further towards the shore. But neither would this deliver me from
the fury of the sea, which came pouring in after me again ; and twice
more I was liffed up by the waves and carried forwards as before, the
shore being very flat.

The last time of these two had well-near been fatal to me; for the
sea having hurried me along, as before, landed me, or rather dashed
me, against a piece of a rock, and that with such force, as it left me
senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my own deliverance ; for the blow
taking my side and breast, beat the breath, as it were, quite out of
my body ; and had it returned again immediately, I must have been
strangled in the water; but I recovered a little before the return of
the waves, and seeing I should be covered again with the water, I
resolved to hold fast by a piece of the rock, and so to hold my breath,
if possible, till the wave went back. Now, as the waves were not so
high as at first, being nearer land, I held my hold till the wave abated,
and then fetched another run, which brought me so near the shore,
that the next wave, though it went over me, yet did not so swallow me
up as to carry me away; and the next run I took, I got to the main
land, where, to my great comfort, I clambered up the cliffs of the
shore, and sat me down upon the grass, free from danger and quite
out of the reach of the water. ,

I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to look up and

thank God that my life was saved, in a case wherein there was, some
minutes before, scarce any room to hope. I believe it is impossible
to express, to the life, what the ecstasies and transports of the soul are,
when it is so saved, as I may say, out of the very grave.
i I walked about on the shore lifting up my hands, and my whole
being, as I may say, wrapt up ina contemplation of my deliverance :
making a thousand gestures and motions, which I cannot describe,
reflecting upon all my comrades that were drowned, and that ther
should not be one soul saved but myself; for, as for them, I never saw
them afterwards, or any sign of them, except three of their hats, one
cep, and two shoes that were not fellows.

Ssh
A STRANGE RESTING-PLACE. | 31

I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when, the breach and froth
of the sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far off; and
considered, Lord ! how was it possible I could get on shore!

After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my con-
dition, I began to look round me, to see what kind of place I was in,
and what was next to be done: and I soon found my comforts abate,
and that, in a word, I had a dreadful deliverance: for I was wet, had
no clothes to shift me, nor anything either to eat or drink to comfort
me ; neither did I see any prospect before me, but that of perishing
with hunger, or being devoured by wild beasts; and that which was
particularly afflicting to me was, that I had no weapon, either to hunt
and kill any creature for my sustenance, or to defend myself against
any other creature that might desire to kill me for theirs; in aword, I
had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco
in a box; this was all my provisions ; and this threw me into terrible
agonies of mind, that for a while, I ran about like amadman. Night
coming upon me, I began, with a heavy heart, to consider what would
be my lot if there were any ravenous beasis in that country, as at night
they always come abroad for their prey.

All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that time, was to
get up into a thick bushy tree like a fir, but thorny, which grew near
me, and where I resolved to sit all night, and consider the next day
what death I should die, for as yet I saw no prospect of life. I
walked about a furlong from the shore, to see if I could find any fresh
water to drink, which I did, to my great joy; and having drank, and
put a little tobacco in my mouth to prevent hunger, I went to the
tree, and getting up into it, endeavoured to place myself so that if I
should sleep I might not fall; and having cut me a short stick, like
a truncheon, for my defence, I took up my lodging, and having been
excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I
believe, few could have done in my condition, and found myself ths
most refreshed with it that I think I ever was on such an occasion.

When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the storm
abated, so-that the sea did not rage and swell as before; but that
which surprised me most was, that the ship was lifted off in the night
from the sand where she lay, by the swelling of the tide, and was
driven up almost as far as the rock which I at first mentioned, where
I had been so bruised by the dashing me against it. ‘This being
within about a mile from the shore where I was, and the ship seeming
to stand upright still, I wished myself on board, that at least [ might
save some necessary things for my use.

When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked about
me again, and the first thing I found was the boat, which lay as the

ay Fo & 4
3f _ ROBINSON CRUSOE.

wind and the sea had tossed her, up upon the land, about two miles
on my right hand; I walked as far as I could upon the shore to have
got to her; but found a neck or inlet of water between me and the
boat which was about half a mile broad; so I came back for the
present, being more intent upon getting at the ship, where I hoped
to find something for my present subsistence.

A little after noon, I found the sea very calm, and the tide ebbed
so far out that I could come within a quarter of a mile of the ship;
and here I found a fresh renewing of my grief; for I saw evidently,
that if we had kept on board, we had been all safe, that is to say, we
had all got safe on shore, and I had not been so miserable as to be
left entirely destitute of all comfort and company as I now was ; this
forced tears to my eyes again; but as there was little relief in that, |
resolved, if possible, to get to the ship; so I pulled off my clothes, for
the weather was hot to extremity, and took the water; but when |
came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to know how to get
on board, for, as she lay aground, and high of&t of the water, there
was nothing within my reach to lay hold of. Iswam round her twice,
and the second time I spied a small piece of rope, which I wondered
I did not see at first, hang down by the fore-chains so low, as that
with great difficulty I got hold of it, and by the help of that rope got
up into the forecastle of the ship; here I found that the ship was
bulged, and had a great deal of water in her hold, but that she lay
so on the side of a bank of hard sand, or rather earth, that her stern
lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head ‘ow, almost to the water;
by this means all her quarter was free, and all that was in that part
was dry; for you may be sure my first work was to search, and to see
what was spoiled and what was free; and first, I found that all the
ship's provisions were dry and untouched by the water, and being
very well disposed to eat, I went to the bread-room and filled my
pockets with biscuit, and eat it as I went about other things, for I had
no time to lose. I also found some rum in the great cabin, of which
I took a large dram, and which I had, indeed, need enough of to
spirit me for what was before me. Now I wanted nothing but a boat
to furnish myself with many things which I foresaw would be very
necessary to me.

It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be had; and
this extremity roused my application. We had several spare yards,
and two or three large spars of wood, and a spare top-mast or two in \
the ship : I resolved to fall to work with these, and I flung as many
of them overboard as I could. manage for their weight, tying every \
one with a rope, that they might not drive away. When this was
uone, I went down the ship's side, and pulling them to me, I tied
CRUSOE MAKES A RAFT gy

four of them together at both ends, as well as I could, in the form of
a raft, and laying two or three short pieces of plank upon them cross-
ways, I found I could walk upon it very well, but that it was not _
able to bear any great weight, the pieces being too light ; so I went -
to work, and with a carpenter's saw I cut a spare top-mast into three’
lengths, and added them to my raft, with a great deal of labour and |
pains, but the hope of furnishing myself with necessaries, encouraged °
me to go beyond what I should have been able to have done upon *
another occasion.

My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable weight ;
my next care was what to load it with, and how to preserve what I!
laid upon it from the surf of the sea: but I was not long considering’ ©
this, I first laid all the planks or boards upon it that I could get, and’
having considered well what I most wanted, I first got three of tlie.’
seamen’s chests, which I had broken open and emptied, and lowered
them down upon my raft; the first of these I filled with provisions,
viz., bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried goat's flesh |
(which we lived much upon), and a little remainder of European
corn), which had been laid by for some fowls which we brought to
sea with us, but the fowls were killed; there had been some barley
and wheat together, but, to my great disappointment, I found after-
wards that the rats had eaten or spoiled it all; as for liquors, I found
several cases of bottles belonging to our skipper, in which were some
cordial waters ; and, in all, about five or six gallons of rack; these ©
I stowed by themselves, there being no need to put them into the ©
chest, nor no room forthem. While 1 was doing this, I found the —
tide began to fluw, though very calm; and I had the mortification te
see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left on the shore, upon -
the sand, swim away ; as for my breeches, which were only linen, and -
open-knee’d, I swam on board in them and my stockings; however, _
this set me on rummaging for clothes, of which I found enough, but ~
took no more than I wanted for present use, for I had other things ~
which my eye was more upon—as, first, tools to work with on shore ; °
and it was after long searching that I found out the carpenter's chest, ~
which was, indeed, a very useful prize to me, and much more vala- ~
able than a ship-load of gold would have been at that time : I got it
down to my raft, whole as it was, without losing time to look into it,.
for I knew in general what it contained.

My next care was for some ammunition and arms : there were two
very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two pistols ; these I
secured first, with some powder-horns and a small bag of shot, and
two old rusty swords. I knew there were three barrels of powder in
the ship, but knew not where our gunner had stowed them ; but

b
“34 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

~with much search I found them, two of them dry and good, the
“third had taken water; those two I got to my raft, with the arms ;
-and now I thought myself pretty well freighted, and began to think
how I should get to shore with them, having neither sail, oar, nor
‘rudder ; and the least cap-full of. wind would have overset all my
‘navigation. ha me |

I had three encouragements : 1st, a smooth, calm sea; e2ndly, the
‘tide rising, and setting in to the shore ; 3rdly, what little wind there
was blew me towards the land : and having found two or three broken
‘oars belonging to the boat—and, besides the tools which were in the
chest, I found two saws, an axe, and a hammer, with this cargo I put
to sea. Foramile, or thereabouts, my raft went very well, only that
T found it drive a little distant from the place where I had landed
‘before, by which I perceived that there was some indraft of the water,
and consequently, I hoped to find some creek or river there, which
I might make use of as a port to get to land with my cargo.

As I imagined, so it was; there appeared before me a little open-
ing of the land, and I found a strong current of the tide set into it,
so I guided my raft as well as I could, to keep in the middle of the
stream: but here I had like to have suffered a second shipwreck,
which, if I had, I think, verily, would have broke my heart ; for,
knowing nothing of the coast, my raft ran aground at one end of it

‘upon a shoal, and not being aground at the other end, it wanted but
a little that all my cargo had slipped off towards the end that was
afloat, and so fallen into the water. I did my utmost, by setting my
back against the chests, to keep them in their places, but could not
thrust off the raft with all my strength, neither durst I stir from the
posture I was in; but holding up the chests with all my might,
stood in that manner near half an hour, in which time the rising of

the water brought me a little more upon a level; and, a little after,
the water still rising, my raft floated again, and I thrust her off with

the oar I had, into the channel, and then driving up higher, I at
length found myself in the mouth of a little river, with land on both
sides, and a strong current of tide running up. I looked on both
sides for a proper place to get to shore, for I was not willing to be
driven too high up the river, hoping, in time, to see some ship at sea
and therefore resolved to place myself as near the coast as I could,

At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek, to
which, with great pain and difficulty, I guided my raft, and at last
got so near, as that, reaching ground with my oar, I could thrust her
directly in; but here I had liked to have dipped all my cargo into
the sea again; for that shore lying pretty steep, that is to say,

sloping, there was no place to land, but where one end of my float;
CRUSOE CHOOSES A PLACE FOR HIS HOUSE. 435

-if.it-ran on shore, would lie so high, and the other sink lower, as
‘before, that it would endanger my cargo again ; all that I could do,
-was to wait-till. the tide was at the highest, keeping the raft with my
oar like an anchor, to hold the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat
“piece of ground, which I expected the water would flow over; and
so it did. As soon as I found water enough, for my raft drew about
a foot of water, I thrust her on upon that flat piece of ground, and
there fastened or moored her, by sticking my two broken oars into
the ground, one on one side, near one end, and one on the other
side, near the other end ; and thus I lay till the water ebbed away,
and left my raft and all my cargo safe on shore. | |

My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper place
for my habitation, and where to stow my goods to secure them from
whatever might happen ; where I was, I yet knew not; whether on
the continent or on an island; whether inhabited or not inhabited ;
whether in danger of wild beasts or not. There was a hill not above
a mile from me, which rose up very steep and high, and which
seemed to overtop some other hills, which lay as in a ridge from it,
northward ; I took out one of the fowling-pieces, and one of the
pistols, and a horn of powder, and thus armed, I travelled for dis-
covery up to the top of that hill, where, after I had with great labour
and difficulty got to the top, I saw my fate, to my great affliction ;
viz., that I was in an island environed every way with the sea, no land
to be seen except some rocks, which lay a great way off; and two
small islands, less than this, which lay about three leagues to the west.

I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I saw
good reason to believe, uninhabited except by wild beasts, of whom,
however, I saw none; yet I saw abundance of fowls, but knew not
their kinds; neither when I killed them could I tell what was fit for
food, and what not. Atmy coming back, I shot at a great bird which
I saw sitting upon a tree on the side of a great wood ; I believe it
was the first gun that had been fired there since the creation of the
world. I had no sooner fired, than from all parts of the wood there
arose an innumerable number of fowls of many sorts, making a con-
fused screaming and crying, and every one according to his usual
note, but not one of them of any kind that I knew ; as for the crea-
ture I killed, I took it to be a kind of hawk, its colour and beak re-
sembling it, but it had no talons or claws more than common ; Its
flesh was carrion, and fit for nothing.

Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and fell to
work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me up the rest of that
day ; what to do with myself at night I