Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Part I.
 Part II.
 Back Cover

Group Title: Universal library (Glasgow, Scotland)
Title: The pilgrim's progress
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026169/00001
 Material Information
Title: The pilgrim's progress
Series Title: Universal library (Glasgow, Scotland)
Physical Description: 196 p., 23 leaves of plates : col. ill. ; 13 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bunyan, John, 1628-1688
Thomas Murray & Son ( Publisher )
Arch. K. Murray and Co ( Printer )
Publisher: Thomas Murray and Son
Place of Publication: Glasgow
Manufacturer: Arch. K. Murray and Co.
Publication Date: [1872?]
Edition: New ed.
Subject: Christian life -- Fiction   ( lcsh )
Salvation -- Fiction   ( lcsh )
Christian pilgrims and pilgrimages -- Fiction   ( lcsh )
Allegories -- 1871   ( rbgenr )
Prize books (Provenance) -- 1871   ( rbprov )
Bldn -- 1872
Genre: Allegories   ( rbgenr )
Prize books (Provenance)   ( rbprov )
novel   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Scotland -- Glasgow
Statement of Responsibility: by John Bunyan.
General Note: Date from prize inscription.
Funding: Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026169
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002448060
notis - AMF3324
oclc - 58045673

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Front Matter
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Title Page
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    Part I.
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    Part II.
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4j ^Hgrinx's Brongres5PART I.As I walked through the wilderness of this world, I lighted on acertain place where was a Den, and I laid me down in that place tosleep; and, as I slept, I dreamed a dream. I dreamed, and behold,I saw a man clothed with rags, standing in a certain place, with hisface from his own house, a book in his hand, and a great burdenupon his back. Isa. lxiv. 6; Luke xiv. 33; Psa. xxxviii. 4; Hab. ii. 2.I looked, and saw him open the book, and read therein; and, as heread, he wept, and trembled; and, not being able longer to contain,he brake out with a lamentable cry, saying, "What shall I do?"Acts ii. 37; xv1. 30, 31.In this plight, therefore, he went home and refrained himself aslong as he could, that his wife and children should not perceive hisdistress; but he could not be silent long, because that his troubleincreased. Wherefore at length he brake his mind to his wife andchildren; and thus he began to talk to them: O my dear wife, saidhe, and you the children of my bowels, I, your dear friend, am inmyself undone by reason of a burden that lieth hard upon me; more-over, I am for certain informed that this our city will be burned withfire from heaven; in which fearful overthrow, both myself, with thee,my wife, and you, my sweet babes, shall miserably come to ruin,except (the which yet I see not) some way of escape can be found,whereby we may be delivered. At this his relations were sore amazed;not for that they believed that what he had said to them was true,but because they thought that some frenzy distemper had got intohis head; therefore, it drawing towards night, and they hoping thatsleep might settle his brains, with all haste they got him to bed. Butthe night was as troublesome to him as the day; wherefore, insteadof sleeping, he spent it in sighs and tears. So, when the morning wascome, they would know how he did. He told them, Worse andworse: he also set to talking to them again; but they began to behardened. They also thought to drive away his distemper by harshand surly carriages to him; sometimes they would deride, sometimestl ey would chide, and sometimes they would quite neglect him.

4 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.Wherefore he began to retire himself to his chamber, to pray for andpity them, and also to condole his own misery; he would also walksolitarily in the fields, sometimes reading, and sometimes praying:and thus for some days he spent his time.Now, I saw, upon a time, when he was walking in the fields, thathe was, as he was wont, reading in his book, and greatly distressedin his mind; and, as he read, he burst out, as he had done before,crying, "What shall I do to be saved?"I saw also that he looked this way and that way, as if he wouldrun; yet he stood still, because, as I perceived, he could not tellwhich way to go. I looked then, and saw a man named Evangelistcoming to him, who asked, W.herefore dost thou cry ?He answered, Sir, I perceive by the book in my hand, that I amcondemned to die, and after that to come to judgment, Heb. ix. 27;and I find that I am not willing to do the first, Job xvi. 21, nor ableto do the second. Ezek. xxii. 14."Christian no sooner leaves the World but meetsEvangelist, who lovingly him greetsWith tidings of another; and doth showHim how to mount to that from this below."Then said Evangelist, Why not willing to die, since this life Isattended with so many evils? The man answered, Because I fearthat this burden that is upon my back will sink me lower than thegrave, and I shall fall into Tophet. Isa. xxx. 33. And, Sir, if I benot fit to go to prison, I am not fit, I am sure, to go to judgment, andfrom thence to execution; and the thoughts of these things makeme cry.Then said Evangelist, If this be thy condition, why standest thoustill? He answered, Because I know not whither to go. Then hegave him a parchment roll, and there was written within, " Flee fromthe wrath to come." Matt. iii. 7.The man, therefore, read it, and looking upon Evangelist verycarefully, said, Whither must I fly? Then said Evangelist, pointingwith his finger over a very wide field, Do you see yonder wicket-gate? Matt. vii. 13, 14. The man said, No. Then said the other,Do you see yonder shining light? Psa. cxix. 105; 2 Pet. i. 19. Hesaid, I think I do. Then said Evangelist, Keep that light in youreye, and go up directly thereto; so shalt thou see the gate; at which,when thou knockest, it shall be told thee what thou shalt do. So Isaw in my dream that the man began to run. Now, he had not runfar from his own door, but his wife and children, perceiving it, beganto cry after him to return; but the man put his fingers in his ears, andran on, crying, Life! life eternal life! Luke xiv. 26. So he lookednot behind him, but fled towards the middle of the plain. Gen. xix. 17.The neighbours also came out to see him run, Jer. xx. io; and, ashe ran, some mocked, others threatened, and some cried after him toreturn; and, among those that did so, there were two that resolved

THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. 5to fetch him back by force. The name of the one was Obstinate andthe name of the other Pliable. Now, by this time, the man was gota good distance from them; but, however, they were resolved to pur-sue him, which they did, and in a little time they overtook him.Then said the man, Neighbours, wherefore are ye come ? They said,To persuade you to go back with us. But he said, That can by nomeans be; you dwell, said he, in the City of Destruction, the placealso where I was born: I see it to be so; and, dying there, sooner orlater, you will sink lower than the grave, into a place that burns withfire and brimstone: be content, good neighbours, and go along withmeOBST. What! said Obstinate, and leave our friends and our com-forts behind us ?CHR. Yes, said Christian, for that was his name, because that ALLwhich you shall forsake is not worthy to be compared with a little ofthat which I am seeking to enjoy, 2 Cor. v. 17; and, if you will goalong with me, and hold it, you shall fare as I myself; for there,where I go, is enough and to spare. Luke xv. 17. Come away, andprove my words.OBST. What are the things you seek, since you leave all the worldto find them ?'CHR. I seek an inheritance incorruptible, undefiled, and that fadethnot away, I Pet. i. 4, and it is laid up in heaven, and safe there, Heb.xi. 16, to be bestowed, at the time appointed, on them that diligentlyseek it. Read it so, if you will, in my book.OBST. Tush! said Obstinate, away with your book; will you goback with us or no ?CHR. No, not I, said the other, because I have laid my hand tothe plough. Luke ix. 62.OBST. Come, then, neighbour Pliable, let us turn again, and gohome without him; there is a company of these crazy-headed cox-combs, that, when they take a fancy by the end, are wiser in theirown eyes than seven men that can render a reason. Prov. xxvi. 16.PLI. Then said Pliable, Don't revile; if what the good Christiansays is true, the things he looks after are better than ours: my heartinclines to go with my neighbour.OBST. What! more fools still! Be ruled by me, and go back;who knows whither such a brain-sick fellow may lead you ? Go back,go back, and be wise.CHR. Nay, but do thou come with thy neighbour, Pliable; thereare such things to be had which I spoke of, and many more gloriesbesides. If you believe not me, read here in this book; and for thetruth of what is expressed therein, behold, all is confirmed by theblood of Him that made it. Heb. xi. 17-22; xiii. 20.PLI. Well, neighbour Obstinate, saith Pliable, I begin to come toa point; I intend to go along with this good man, and to cast in mylot with him: but, my good companion, do you know the way to thisdesired place?

6 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.CHR. I am directed by a man, whose name is Evangelist, to speedme to a little gate that is before us, where we shall receive instruc-tions about the way.PLI. Come, then, good neighbour, let us be going. Then theywent both together.OBST. And I will go back to my place, said Obstinate; I will be nocompanion of such misled, fantastical fellows.Now, I saw in my dream, that, when Obstinate was gone back,Christian and Pliable went talking over the plain; and thus theybegan their discourse.CHR. Come, neighbour Pliable, how do you do ? I am glad youare persuaded to go along with me. Had even Obstinate himself ibutfelt what I have felt of the powers and terrors of what is yet unseen,he would not thus lightly have given us the back.PLI. Come, neighbour Christian, since there are none but us twohere, tell me now, further what the things are, and how to be enjoyed,whither we are going.CHR. I can better conceive of them with my mind, than speak ofthem with my tongue; but yet, since you are desirous to know, I willread of them in my book.PLI. And do you think that the words of your book are certainlytrue?CHR. Yes, verily; for it was made by him that cannot lie. Tit. L 2,PLI. Well said; what things are they ?CHR. There is an endless kingdom to be inhabited, and everlastinglife to be given us, that we may inhabit that kingdom for ever. Isa.xlv. 17; John x. 28, 29.PLI. Well said; and what else ?CHR. There are crowns of glory to be given us, and garments thatwill make us shine like the sun in the firmament of heaven. 2 Tim.iv. 8; Rev. iii. 4; Matt. xiii. 43.PLI. This is very pleasant; and what else ?CHR. There shall be no more crying, nor sorrow: for He that isowner of the place will wipe all tears from our eyes. Isa. xxv. 6-8;Rev. vii. 17; xxi. 4.PLI. And what company shall we have there?CHR. There we shall be with seraphims and cherubims, creaturesthat will dazzle your eyes to look on them. Isa. vi. 2. There alsoyou shall meet with thousands and ten thousands that have gone beforeus to that place; none of them are hurtful, but loving and holy; everyone walking in the sight of God, and standing in his presence withacceptance for ever. i Thess. iv. 16, 17; Rev. v. ii. In a word,there we shall see the elders with their golden crowns, Rev. iv. 4;there we shall see the holy virgins with their golden harps, Rev. xiv.1-5; there we shall see men that by the world were cut in pieces,burnt in flames, eaten of beasts, drowned in the seas, for the lovethat they bare to the Lord of the place, all well, and clothed withimmortality as with a garment, John xii. 25; 2 Cor. v. 4.

THE 'TLGRIM'S PROGRESS. 7PLI. The hearing of this is enough to ravish one's heart. But arothese things to be enjoyed? How shall we get to be sharers thereofCHR. The Lord, the Governor of the country, hath recorded thatin this book; the substance of which is, If we be truly willing to haveit, he will bestow it upon us freely, Isa. Iv. I, 2; John vi. 37; vii. 37;Rev. xxi. 6; xxii. 17.PLI. Well, my good companion, glad am I to hear of these things:come on, let us mend our pace.CHR. I cannot go so fast as I would, by reason of this burden thatis on my back.Now, I saw in my dream, that just as they had ended this talk theydrew near to a very miry slough, that was in the midst of the plain;and they, being heedless, did both fall suddenly into the bog. Thename of the slough was Despond. Here, therefore, they wallowedfor a time, being grievously bedaubed with the dirt; and Christian,because of the burden that was on his back, began to sink in themire.PLI. Then said Pliable, Ah! neighbour Christian, where are younow?CHR. Truly, said Christian, I do not know.PLI. At this Pliable began to be offended, and angrily said to hisfellow, Is this the happiness you have told me all this while of? Ifwe have such ill speed at our first setting out, what may we expectbetwixt this and our journey's end? May I get out again with mylife, you shall possess the brave country alone for me. And, withthat, he gave a desperate struggle or two, and got out of the mire onthat side of the slough which was next to his own house; so away hewent, and Christian saw him no more.Wherefore Christian was left to tumble in the Slough of Despondalone: but still he endeavoured to struggle to that side of the sloughthat was still further from his own house, and next to the wicket-gate;the which he did, b&t could not get out, because of the burden thatwas upon his back: but I beheld in my dream, that a man came tohim, whose name was Help, and asked him, What he did there ?CHR. Sir, said Christian, I was bid go this way by a man calledEvangelist, who directed me also to yonder gate, that I might escapethe wrath to come; and as I was going thither I fell in here.HELP. But why did not you look for the steps ?CHR. Fear followed me so hard, that I fled the next way, and fellin.HELP. Then said he, Give me thy hand: so he gave him his hand,and he drew him out, and set him upon sound ground, and bid himgo on his way. Psa. xl. 2.Then I stepped to him that plucked him out, and said, Sir,wherefore, since over this place is the way from the City ofDestruction to yonder gate, is it that this plat is not mended,that poor travellers might go thither with more security? Andhe said unto me, This miry slough is such a place as caAiot be

8 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.mended; it is the descent whither the scum and filth that attendsconviction for sin doth continually run, and therefore it is called theSlough of Despond; for still, as the sinner is awakened about his lostcondition, there ariseth in his soul many fears, and doubts, and dis-couraging apprehensions, which all of them get together, and settlein this place. And this is the reason of the badness of this ground.It is not the pleasure of the King that this place should remain sobad. Isa. xxxv. 3, 4. His labourers also have, by the direction ofHis Majesty's surveyors, been for above these sixteen hundred yearsemployed about this patch of ground, if perhaps it might have beenmended: yea, and to my knowledge, said he, here have been swal-lowed up at least twenty thousand cart-loads, yea, millions of whole-some instructions, that have at all seasons been brought from allplaces of the King's dominions, and they that can tell, say they arethe best materials to make good ground of the place; if so be, it mighthave been mended, but it is the Slough of Despond still, and so willbe when they have done what they can.True, there are, by the direction of the Lawgiver, certain good andsubstantial steps, placed even through the very midst of this slough;but at such time as this place doth much spcw out its filth, as it dothagainst change of weather, these steps are hardly seen; or, if theybe, men, through the dizziness of their heads, step beside, and thenthey are bemired to purpose, notwithstanding the steps be there; but theground is good when they are once got in at the gate. i Sam. xii. 23.Now, I saw in my dream, that by this time Pliable was got hometo his house again, so that his neighbours came to visit him; and someof them called him wise man for coming back, and some called himfool for hazarding himself with Christian: others again did mock athis cowardliness; saying, Surely, since you began to venture, I wouldnot have been so base to have given out for a few difficulties. SoPliable sat sneaking among them. But at last he got more confidence,and then they all turned their tales, and began to deride poorChristian behind his back. And thus much concerning Pliable.Now, as Christian was walking solitarily by himself, he espied oneafar off, come crossing over the field to meet him; and their hap wasto meet just as they were crossing the way of each other. Thegentleman's name that met him was Mr Worldly Wiseman: he dweltin the town of Carnal Policy, a very great town, and also hard-byfrom whence Christian came. This man, then; meeting withChristian, and having some inkling of him,-for Christian's settingforth from the City of Destruction was much noised abroad, not onlyin the town where he dwelt, but also it began to be the town talk insome other places,-Mr Worldly Wiseman, therefore, having someguess of him, by beholding his laborious going, by observing his sighsand groans, and the like, began thus to enter into some talk withChristian.\VORLD. How now, good fellow, whither away after this burdenedmanner?

THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. 9CHR. A burdened manner, indeed, as ever, I think, poor creaturehad! And whereas you ask me, Whither away? I tell you, Sir, Iam going to yonder wicket-gate before me; for there, as I aminformed, I shall be put into a way to be rid of my heavy burden.WORLD. Hast thou a wife and children ?CHR. Yes; but I am so laden with this burden, that I cannot takethat pleasure in them as formerly; methinks I am as if I had none.I Cor. vii. 29.WORLD. Wilt thou hearken unto me if I give thee counsel?CHR. If it be good, I will; for I stand in need of good counsel.WORLD. I would advise thee, then, that thou with all speed getthyself rid of thy burden; for thou wilt never be settled in thy mindtill then; nor canst thou enjoy the benefits of the blessing which Godhath bestowed upon thee till then.CHR. That is that which I seek, for even to be rid of this heavyburden; but get it off myself, I cannot; nor is there any man in ourcountry that can take it off my shoulders; therefore am I going thisway, as I told you, that I may be rid of my burden.WORLD. Who bid thee go this way to be rid of thy burden ?CHR. A man that appeared to me to be a very great and honourableperson; his name, as I remember, is Evangelist.WORLD. I beshrew him for his counsel! there is not a more dan-gerous and troublesome way in the world than is that unto which hehath directed thee; and that thou shalt find, if thou will be ruled byhis counsel. Thou hast met with something, as I perceive already;for I see the dirt of the Slough of Despond is upon thee; but thatslough is the beginning of the sorrows that do attend those that go onin that way. Hear me, I am older than thou; thou art like to meetwith, in the way which thou goest, wearisomeness, painfulness,hunger, perils, nakedness, sword, lions, dragons, darkness, and, in aword, death, and what not! These things are certainly true, havingbeen confirmed by many testimonies. And why should a man socarelessly cast away himself by giving heed to a stranger ?CHR. Why, Sir, this burden upon my back is more terrible to methan are all these things which you have mentioned; nay, methinks Icare not what I meet with in the way, if so be I can also meet withdeliverance from my burden.WORLD. How camest thou by the burden at first?CHR. By reading this book in my hand.WORLD. I thought so; and it is happened unto thee as to otherweak men, who, meddling with things too high for them, do suddenlyfall into thy distractions; which distractions do not only unman men,as thine, I perceive has done thee, but they run them upon desperateventures to obtain they know not what.CHR. I know what I would obtain; it is ease for my heavy burden.WORLD. But why wilt thou seek for ease this way, seeing so manydangers attend it? especially since, hadst thou but patience to hearme, I could direct thee to the obtaining of what thou desirest, without

TO THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.the dangers that thou in this way wilt run thyself into; yea, and theremedy is at hand. Besides, I will add, that, instead of those dangers,thou shalt meet with much safety, friendship, and content.CHR. Pray, Sir, open this secret to me.WORLD. Why, in yonder village-the village is named Morality-there dwells a gentleman whose name is Legality, a very judiciousman, and a man of a very good name, that has skill to help men offwith such burdens as thine are from their shoulders: yea, to myknowledge, he hath done a great deal of good this way; ay, andbesides, he hath skill to cure those that are somewhat crazed in theirwits with their burdens. To him, as I said, thou mayest go, and behelped presently. His house is not quite a mile from this place, andif he should not be at home himself, he hath a pretty young man tohis son, whose name is Civility, that can do it (o it speak on) as well asthe old gentleman himself; there, I say, thou mayest be eased of thyburden; and if thou art not minded to go back to thy former habita-tion, as, indeed, I would not wish thee, thou mayest send for thywife and children to thee to this village, where there are houses nowstand empty, one of which thou mayest have at reasonable rates;provision is there also cheap and good; and that which will make thylife the more happy is, to be sure, there thou shalt live by honestneighbours, in credit and good fashion.Now was Christian somewhat at a stand; but presently he con-cluded, if this be true, which this gentleman hath said, my wisestcourse is to take his advice; and with that he thus further spoke.CHR. Sir, which is my way to this honest man's house ?WORLD. Do you see yonder hill?CHR. Yes, very well.WORLD. By that hill you must go, and the first house you come atis his.So Christian turned out of his way to go to Mr Legality's house forhelp; but, behold, when he was got now hard by the hill, it seemedso high, and also that side of it that was next the wayside, did hangso much over, that Christian was afraid to venture further, lest thehill should fall on his head; wherefore there he stood still, and wottednot what to do. Also his burden now seemed heavier to him thanwhile he was in his way. There came also flashes of fire out of thehill, that made Christian afraid that he should be burned. Ex. xix.16, 18. Here, therefore, he sweat and did quake for fear. Heb.Xli. 21.When Christians unto carnal men give ear,Out of their way they go, and pay for't dear;For Master Worldly Wiseman can but showA saint the way to bondage and to woe.And now he began to be sorry that he had taken Mr Worldly Wise-man's counsel. And with that he saw Evangelist coming to meethim: at the sight also of whom he began to blush for shame. So

THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. ITEvangelist drew nearer and nearer; and coming up to him, he lookedupon him with a severe and dreadful countenance, and thus began toreason with Christian.EVAN. What dost thou here, Christian? said he: at which wordsChristian knew not what to answer; wherefore at present he stoodspeechless before him. Then said Evangelist further, Art not thou theman that I found crying without the walls of the City of Destruction ?CHR. Yes, dear Sir, I am the man.EVAN. Did not I direct thee the way to the little wicket-gate?CHR. Yes, dear Sir, said Christain.EVAN. How is it, then, that thou art so quickly turned aside? forthou art now out of the way.CHR. I met with a gentleman so soon as I had got over the Sloughof Despond, who persuaded me that I might, in the village before me,find a man that could take off my burden.EVAN. What was he?CHR. He looked like a gentleman, and talked much to me, and gotme at last to yield; so I came hither: but when I beheld this hill,and how it hangs over the way, I suddenly made a stand, lest itshould fall on my head.EVAN. What said that gentleman to you?CHR. Why, he asked me whither I was going? And I told him.EVAN. And what said he then ?CHR. He asked me if I had a family? And I told him. But, saidI, I am so loaden with the burden that is on my back, that I cannottake pleasure in them as formerly.EVAN. And what said he then ?CHR. He bid me with speed get rid of my burden; and I told himit was ease that I sought. And, said I, I am therefore going to yon-der gate, to receive further direction how I may get to the place ofdeliverance. So he said that he would show me a better way, andshort, not so attended with difficulties as the way, Sir, that you setme in; which way, said he, will direct you to a gentleman's house thathath skill to take off these burdens, so I believed him, and turned outof that way into this, if haply I might be soon eased of my burden.But when I came to this place, and beheld things as they are, I stoppedfor fear (as I said) of danger: but I now know not what to do.EVAN. Then, said Evangelist, stand still a little, that I may showthee the words of God. So he stood trembling. Then said Evan-gelist, "See that ye refuse not him that speaketh. For if theyescaped not who refused him that spake on earth, much more shallnot we escape, if we turn away from him that speaketh from heaven."Heb. xii. 25. He said, moreover, " Now the just shall live by faith:but if any man draw back, my soul shall have no pleasure in him."Heb. x. 38. He also did thus apply them: Thou art the man thatart running into this misery; thou hast begun to reject the counsel ofthe Most High, and to draw back thy foot from the way of peace,even almost to the hazarding of thy perdition.

12 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.Then Christian fell down at his foot as dead, crying, " Woe is me,for I am undone!" At the sight of which, Evangelist caught him bythe right hand, saying, " All manner of sin and blasphemies shall beforgiven unto men." Matt. xii. 31, Mark iii. 28; " Be not faithless,but believing." John xx. 27. Then did Christian again a littlerevive, and stood up trembling, as at first, before Evangelist.Then Evangelist proceeded, saying, Give more earnest heed to thethings that I shall tell thee of. I will now show thee who it was thatdeluded thee, and who it was also to whom he sent thee.-The manthat met thee is one Worldly Wiseman, and rightly is he so called;partly, because he savoureth only the doctrine of this world, i Johniv. 5, (therefore he always goes to the town of Morality to church):and partly because he loveth that doctrine best, for it saveth himbest from the cross. Gal. vi. 12. And because he is of this carnaltemper, therefore he seeketh to prevent my ways, though rightNow there are three things in this man's counsel, that thou mustutterly abhor.i. His turning thee out of the way. 2. His labouring to render'.the cross odious to thee. And, 3. His setting thy feet in that waythat leadeth unto the administration of death.First, thou must abhor his turning thee out of the way; and thineown consenting thereto: because this is to reject the counsel of Godfor the sake of the counsel of a Worldly Wiseman. The Lord says," Strive to enter in at the strait gate," Luke xiii. 24, the gate towhich I send thee; for " strait is the gate that leadeth unto life, andfew there be that find it." Matt. vii. 14. From this little wicket-gate, and from the way thereto, hath this wicked man turned thee,to the bringing of thee almost to destruction; hate, therefore, histurning thee out of the way, and abhor thyself for hearkening to him.Secondly, Thou must abhor his labouring to render the cross odiousunto thee; for thou art to prefer it " before the treasures in Egypt."Ifeb. xi. 25, 26. Besides, the King of glory hath told thee, that hethat "will save his life shall lose it." Mark viii. 35; John xii. 25;Matt. x. 39. And, " He that cometh after me, and hateth not hisfather, and mother, and wife, and children, and brethren, and sisters,vea, and his own life also, he cannot be my disciple." Luke xiv. 26.1 say, therefore, for man to labour to persuade thee, that that shallbe thy death, without which, THE TRUTH hath said, thou canst nothave eternal life; this doctrine thou must abhor.Thirdly, Thou must hate his setting of thy feet in the way thatleadeth to the ministration of death. And for this thou must considerto whom he sent thee, and also how unable that person was to deliverthee from thy burden.He to whom thou wast sent for ease, being by name Legality, isthe son of the bond-woman, which now is, and is in bondage with herchildren, Gal. iv. 21-27; and is, in a mystery, this mount Sinai,which thou hast feared will fall on thy head. Now, if she, with herchildren, are in bondage, how canst thou expect by them to be mad&

THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. 13free? This Legality, therefore, is not able to free thee from thyburden. No man was as yet ever rid of his burden by him; no, norever is like to be: ye cannot be justified by the works of the law; forby the deeds of the law no man living can be rid of his burden: there-fore, Mr Worldly Wiseman is an alien, and Mr Legality is a cheat;and for his son Civility, notwithstanding his simpering looks, he isbut a hypocrite and cannot help thee. Believe me, there is nothingin all this noise, that thou hast heard, of these sottish men, but adesign to beguile thee of thy salvation, by turning thee from the wayin which I had set thee. After this, Evangelist called aloud to theheavens for confirmation of what he had said: and with that therecame words and fire out of the mountain under which poor Christianstood, that made the hair of his flesh stand up. The words were thuspronounced: " As many as are of the works of the law are under thecurse; for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in allthings which are written in the book of the law to do them." Gal.^ m. I0.SNow Christian looked for nothing but death, and began to cry out"#lamentably; even cursing the time in which he met with Mr WorldlyWiseman; still calling himself a thousand fools for hearkening to hiscounsel: he also was greatly ashamed to think that this gentleman'sarguments, flowing only from the flesh, should have the prevalencywith him as to cause him to forsake the right way. This done, heapplied himself again to Evangelist in words and sense as follow:-CHR. Sir, what think you? Is there hope? May I now go backand go up to the wicket-gate ? Shall I not be abandoned for this, andsent back from thence ashamed ? I am sorry I have hearkened to thisman's counsel. But may my sin be forgiven?EVAN. Then said Evangelist to him, Thy sin is very great, for byit thou hast committed two evils: thou hast forsaken the way that isgood, to tread in forbidden paths; yet will the man at the gate receivethee, for he has good-will for men; only, said he, take heed that thouturn not aside again, "lest thou perish from the way, when his wrathis kindled but a little." Psa. ii. 12. Then did Christian address him-self to go back; and Evangelist, after he had kissed him, gave him onesmile, and bid him God-speed. So he went on with haste, neitherspake he to any man by the way; nor, if any asked him, would hevouchsafe them an answer. He went like one that was all the whiletreading on forbidden ground, and could by no means think himselfsafe, till again he was got into the way which he left, to follow MrWorldly Wiseman's counsel. So in process of time Christian got upto the gate. Now, over the gate there was written, "Knock, and itshall be opened unto you." Matt. vii. 8."He that will enter in must first withoutStand knocking at the Gate, nor need he doubtThat is A KNOCKER but to enter in;For God can love him, and forgive his sin."

14 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.He knocked, therefore, more than once or twice, saying-"May I now enter here: Will he withinOpen to sorry me, though I have beenAn undeserving rebel? Then shall INot fail to sing his lasting praise on high."At last there came a grave person to the gate, named Good-will,who asked who was there ? and whence he came ? and what he wouldhave?CHR. Here is a poor burdened sinner. I come from the City ofDestruction, but am going to Mount Zion, that I may be deliveredfrom the wrath to come. I would, therefore, Sir, since I am in-formed that by this gate is the way thither, know if you are willingto let me in!GOOD-WILL. I am willing with all my heart, said he; and with thathe opened the gate. ,So when Christian was stepping in, the other gave him a pul .Then said Christian, What means that? The other told him. A *'ilittle distance from this gate, there is erected a strong castle, of whichleelzebub is the captain; from thence, both he and them that arewith him shoot arrows at those that come up to this gate, if haplythey may die before they can enter in.Then said Christian, I rejoice and tremble. So when he was gotIn, the man of the gate asked him who directed him thither ?CHR. Evangelist bid me come hither, and knock (as I did); and hesaid that you, Sir, would tell me what I must do.GooD-WILL. An open door is set before thee, and no man can shutitCHR. Now I begin to reap the benefits of my hazards.GOOD-WILL. But how is it that you came alone?CHR. Because none of my neighbours saw their danger, as I sawmine.GOOD-WILL. Did any of them know of your coming?CHR. Yes; my wife and children saw me at the first, and calledafter me to turn again; also, some of my neighbours stood crying andcalling after me to return; but I put my fingers in my ears, and socame on my way.GOOD-WILL. But did none of them follow you, to persuade you togo back ?CHR. Yes, both Obstinate and Pliable; but when they saw thatthey could not prevail, Obstinate went railing back, but Pliable camewith me a little way.GOOD-WILL. But why did he not come through?CHR. We, indeed, came both together, until we came at the Sloughof Despond, into the which we also suddenly fell. And then was myneighbour, Pliable, discouraged, and would not adventure further.Wherefore, getting out again on that side next to his own house, he

THE PILGRLM'S PROGRESS. .5told me I should possess the brave country alone for him; so he wenthis way, and I came mine-he after Obstinate, and I to this gate.GOOD-WILL. Then said Good-will, Alas, poor man! is the celestialglory of so small esteem with him, that he counteth it not worthrunning the hazards of a few difficulties to obtain it ?* CHR. Truly, said Christian, I have said the truth of Pliable, andif I should also say all the truth of myself, it will appear there is nobetterment betwixt him and myself. It is true, he went back to hisown house, but I also turned aside to go in the way of death, beingi persuaded thereto by the carnal arguments of one Mr WorldlyWiseman.GOOD-WILL. Oh! did he light upon you? What! he would havehad you a sought for ease at the hands of Mr Legality. They are,both of them, a very cheat. But did you take his counsel?CHR. Yes, as far as I durst; I went to find out Mr Legality, untilI thought that the mountain that .stands by his house would havefallen upon my head; wherefore, there I was forced to stop.GOOD-WILL. That mountain has been the death of many, and willbe the death of many more; it is well you escaped being by it dashedin pieces.CHR. Why, truly, I do not know what had become of me there,had not Evangelist happily met me again, as I was musing in themidst of my dumps; but it was God's mercy that he came to meagain, for else I had never come hither. But now I am come, sucha one as I am, more fit, indeed, for death, by that mountain, thanthus to stand talking with my Lord; but, oh, what a favour is this tome, that yet I am admitted entrance here!GOOD-WILL. We make no objections against any, notwithstandingall that they have done before they came hither. They are "in nowise cast out," John vi. 37; and therefore, good Christian, come alittle way with me, and I will teach thee about the way thou must go.Look before thee; dost thou see this narrow way? THAT is the waythou must go; it was cast up by the patriarchs, prophets, Christ, andhis apostles; and it is as straight as a rule can make it. This is theway thou must go.CHR. But, said Christian, are there no turnings or windings, bywhich a stranger may lose his way ?GOOD-WILL. Yes, there are many ways butt down upon this, andthey are crooked and wide. But thus thou mayest distinguish theright from the wrong, the right only being straight and narrow.Matt. vii. 14.Then I saw in my dream, that Christian asked him further if hecould not help him off with his burden that was upon his back; for asyet he had not got rid thereof, nor could he by any means get it offwithout help.He told him, As to thy burden, be content to bear it, until thoucomest to the place of deliverance; for there it will fall from thy backof itself.

6 Ti4B PILGRIM S PROGRESS.Then Christian began to gird up his loins, and to address himselfto his journey. So the other told him, That by that he was gonesome distance from the gate, he would come at the house of theInterpreter, at whose door he should knock, and he would show himexcellent things. Then Christian took his leave of his friend, and heagain bid him God-speed.Then he went on till he came to the house of the Interpreter, wherehe knocked over and over; at last one came to the door, and askedwho was there.CHR. Sir, here is a traveller, who was bid by an acquaintance ofthe good-man of this house to call here for my profit; I would there-fore speak with the master of the house. So he called for the masterof the house, who, after a little time, came to Christian, and askedhim what he would have.CHR. Sir, said Christian, I am a man that am come from the Cityof Destruction, and am going to the Mount Zion; and I was told bythe man that stands at the gate, at the head of this way, that if Icalled here, you would show me excellent things, such as would be ahelp to me in my journey.INTER. Then said the Interpreter, Come in; I will show that whichwill be profitable to thee. So he commanded his man to light thecandle, and bid Christian follow him: so he had him into a privateroom, and bid his man open a door; the which when he had done,Christian saw the picture of a very grave person hang up against thewall; and this was the fashion of it. It had eyes lifted up to heaven,the best of books in his hand, the law of truth was written upon hislips, the world was behind his back. It stood as if it pleaded withmen, and a crown of gold did hang over his head.CHR. Then said Christian, What meaneth this ?INTER. The man whose picture this is, is one of a thousand; hecan beget children, i Cor. iv. 15, travail in birth with children,Gal. iv. 19, and nurse them himself when they are born. Andwhereas thou seest him with his eyes lift up to heaven, the best ofbooks in his hand, and the law of truth writ on his lips, it is to showthee that his work is to know and unfold dark things to sinners; evenas also thou seest him stand as if he pleaded with men; and whereasthou seest the world as cast behind him, and a crown hangs over hishead, that is to show thee that slighting and despising the things thatare present, for the love that he hath to his Master's service, he issure in the world that comes next to have glory for his reward. Now,said the Interpreter, I have showed thee this picture first, becausethe man whose picture this is, is the only man whom the Lord of theplace whither thou art going, hath authorized to be thy guide in alldifficult places thou mayest meet with in the way; wherefore, takegood heed what I have showed thee, and bear well in thy mind whatthou hast seen, lest in thy journey thou meet with some that pretendto lead thee right, but their way goes down to death.Then he took him by the hand, and led him into a very large par.

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TIT PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.lour that was full of dust, because never swept; the which after hehad reviewed a little while, the Interpreter called for a man to sweep.Now, when he began to sweep, the dust began so abundantly to flyabout, that Christian had almost therewith been choked. Then saidthe Interpreter to a damsel that stood by, Bring hither the water,and sprinkle the room; the which, when she had done, it was sweptand cleansed with pleasure.CHR. Then said Christian, what means this ?INTER. The Interpreter answered, This parlour is the heart of aman that was never sanctified by the sweet grace of the gospel; thedust is his original sin and inward corruptions, that have defiled thewhole man. He that began to sweep at first, is the Law; but shethat brought water, and did sprinkle it, is the Gospel. Now, whereasthou sawest, that so soon as the first began to sweep, the dust did sofly about that the room by him could not be cleansed, but that thouwas almost choked therewith; this is to show thee, that the law, in-stead of cleansing the heart (by its working) from sin, doth revive,put strength into, and increase it in the soul, even as it doth discoverand forbid it, for it doth not give power to subdue. Rom. vii. 6,t Cor. xv. 56, Rom. v. 20.Again, as thou sawest the damsel sprinkle the room with water,upon which it was cleansed with pleasure; this is to show thee, thatwhen the gospel comes in the sweet and precious influences thereofto the heart, then, I say, even as thou sawest the damsel lay the dustby sprinkling the floor with water, so is sin vanquished and subdued,and the soul made clean through the faith of it, and consequently fitfor the King of glory to inhabit. John xv. 3, Eph. v. 26, Acts xv. 9.Rom. xvi. 25, 26, John xv. 13.I saw, moreover, in my dream, that the Interpreter took him bythe hand, and had him into a little room, where sat two little chil-dren, each one in his chair. The name of the eldest was Passion,and the name of the other Patience. Passion seemed to be muchdiscontented; but Patience was very quiet. Then Christian asked,What is the reason of the discontent of Passion? The Interpreteranswered, The Governor of them would have him stay for his bestthings till the beginning of the next year; but he will have all now;but Patience is willing to wait.Then I saw that one came to Passion, and brought him a bag oftreasure, and poured it down at his feet, the which he took up andrejoiced therein, and withal laughed Patience to scorn. But I be-held but a while, and he had lavished all away and had nothing lefthim but rags.CHR. Then said Christian to the Interpreter, Expound this mattermore fully to me.INTER. So he said, These two lads are figures: Passion, of themen of this world; and Patience, of the men of that which is to come;for as here thou seest, Passion will have all now this year, that is tosay, in this world; so are the men of this world; they must have a-lB

8 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.their good things now, they cannot stay till next year, that is, untilnext world, for their portion of good. That proverb, "A bird in thehand is worth two in the bush," is of more authority with them thanare all the Divine testimonies of the good of the world to come. Butas thou sawest that he had quickly lavished all away, and had pre-sently left him nothing but rags; so will it be with all such men atthe end of this world.CHR. Then said Christian, Now I see that Patience has the bestwisdom, and that upon many accounts. First, because he stays forthe best things. Second, and also because he will have the glory ofhis, when the other has nothing but rags.INTER. Nay, you may add another, to wit, the glory of the nextworld will never wear out; but these are suddenly gone. ThereforePassion had not so much reason to laugh at Patience, because he hadhis good things first, as Patience will have to laugh at Passion, be-cause he had his best things last; for first must give place to last,because last must have his time to come; but last gives place tonothing; for there is not another to succeed. He, therefore, thathath his portion first, must needs have a time to spend it; but he thathath his portion last, must have it lastingly; therefore it is said ofDives, "Thou in thy lifetime receivedst thy good things, and like-wise Lazarus evil things; but now he is comforted, and thou arttormented." Luke xvi. 25.CHR. Then I perceive it is not best to covet things that are now,but to wait for things to come.INTER. You say the truth: "For the things which are seen aretemporal; but the things which are not seen are eternal." 2 Cor. iv.18. But though this be so, yet since things present and our fleshyappetite are such near neighbours one to another; and again, becausethings to come and carnal sense are such strangers one to another;therefore it is that the first of these so suddenly fall into amity, andthat distance is so continued between the second.Then I saw in my dream that the Interpreter took Christian by thehand, and led him into a place where was a fire burning against awall, and one standing by it, always casting much water upon it, toquench it; yet did the fire burn higher and hotter.Then said Christian, What means this?The Interpreter answered, This fire is the work of grace that iswrought in the heart; he that casts water upon it, to extinguish andput it out is the Devil; but in that thou seest the fire notwithstandingbur higher and hotter, thou shalt also see the reason of that. So hehad him about to the backside of the wall, where he saw a man witha vessel of oil in his hand, of the which he did also continually cast,but secretly, into the fire.Then said Christian, What means this ?The Interpreter answered, This is Christ, who continually, withthe oil of his grace, maintains the work already begun in the heart:by the means of which, notwithstanding what the devil can do, the

THI PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. 19souls of his people prove gracious still. 2 Cor. xi. 9. And in thatthou sawest that the man stood behind the wall to maintain the fire,that is to teach thee that it is hard for the tempted to see how thiswork of grace is maintained in the soul.I saw also, that the Interpreter took him again by the hand, andled him into a pleasant place, where was builded a stately palace,beautiful to behold; at the sight of which Christian was greatly de-lighted. He saw also, upon the top thereof, certain persons walking,who were clothed all in gold.Then said Christian, May we go in thither?Then the Interpreter took him, and led him up towards the door ofthe palace; and behold, at the door stood a great company of men, asdesirous to go in, but durst not. There also sat a man at a littledistance from the door, at a table-side, with a book and his inkhornbefore him, to take the name of him that should enter therein; he sawalso, that in the doorway stood many men in armour to keep it, beingresolved to do the men that would enter what hurt and mischief theycould. Now was Christian somewhat in amaze. At last, when everyman started back for fear of the armed men, Christian saw a man ofa very stout countenance come up to the man that sat there to write,saying, " Set down my name, Sir:" the which when he had done, hesaw the man draw his sword, and put an helmet upon his head, andrush toward the door upon the armed men, who laid upon him withdeadly force; but the man, not at all discouraged, fell to cutting andhacking most fiercely. So after he had received and given manywounds to those that attempted to keep him out, he cut his waythrough them all, Acts xiv. 22, and pressed forward into the palace,at which there was a pleasant voice heard from those that werewithin, even of those that walked upon the top of the palace, saying--"Come in, come in;Eternal glory thou shalt win."So he went in, and was clothed with such garments as they. ThenChristian smiled and said, I think verily I know the meaning of this.Now, said Christian, let me go hence. Nay, stay, said the Inter-preter, till I have showed thee a little more, and after that thou shaltgo on thy way. So he took him by the hand again, and led him intoa very dark room, where there sat a man in an iron cage.Now the man, to look on, seemed very sad; he sat with his eyeslooking down to the ground, his hands folded together, and he sighedas if he would break his heart. Then said Christian, What meansthis ? At which the Interpreter bid him talk with the man.Then said Christian to the man, What art thou? The mananswered, I am what I was not once.CHR. What wast thou once?MAN. The man said, I was once a fair and flourishing professor,both in mine own eyes, and also in the eyes of others; I once was, as

20 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.I thought, fair for the Celestial City, and had then even joy at thethoughts that I should get thither, Luke viii. 13.CHR. Well, but what art thou now?MAN. I am now a man of despair, and am shut up in it, as in thisiron cage. I cannot get out. Oh, now I cannot!CHR. But how camest thou in this condition?MAN. I left off to watch and be sober; I laid the reins upon theneck of my lusts; I sinned against the light of the Word and thegoodness of God; I have grieved the Spirit, and he is gone; I temptedthe devil, and he is come to me; I have provoked God to anger.and he has left me; I have so hardened my heart, that I cannotrepent.Then said Christian to the Interpreter, But is there no hope forsuch a man as this? Ask him, said the Interpreter. Nay, saidChristian, pray, Sir, do you.INTER. Then said the Interpreter, Is there no hope, but you mustbe kept in the iron cage of despair ?MAN. No, none at all.INTER. Why, the Son of the Blessed is very pitiful.MAN. I have crucified him to myself afresh, Heb. vi. 6; I havedespised his person, Luke xix. 14; I have despised his righteousness:I have "counted his blood an unholy thing;" I have "done despiteto the Spirit of Grace," Heb. x. 28, 29. Therefore I have shut my-self out of all the promises, and there now remains to me nothing butthreatening, dreadful threatening, fearful threatening of certainjudgment and fiery indignation, -which shall devour me as anadversary.INTER. For what did you bring yourself into this condition ?MAN. For the lusts, pleasures, and profits of this world; in theenjoyment of which I did then promise myself much delight, butnow every one of those things also bite me, and gnaw me like aburning worm.INTER. But canst thou not now repent and turn ?MAN. God hath denied me repentance. His Word gives me noencouragement to believe; yea, himself hath shut me up in this ironcage; nor can all the men in the world let me out. O eternity;eternity! how shall I grapple with the misery that I must meet within eternity!INTER. Then said the Interpreter to Christian, Let this man'smisery be remembered by thee, and be an everlasting caution to thee.CHR. Well, said Christian, this is fearful! God help me to watchand be sober, and to pray that I may shun the cause of this man'smisery! Sir, is it not time for me to go on my way now?INTER. Tarry till I shall show thee one thing more, and then thoushalt go on thy way.So he took Christian by the hand again, and led him into a cham-ber, where there was one rising out of bed; and as he put on hisraiment, he shook and trembled. Then said Christian, Why doth

tFill'MIi1 "P-trJP L f I -10ItCof11 9 .1", 11 !.IP*tI I I I I "P I I I r rlrii~iii mAil, 4 #4171"There sat a man, with a book and an inkhorn before him, t,write tAwn the names of those who should enter."

THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. 21this man thus tremble? The Interpreter then bid him tell to Chris-tian the reason of his so doing. So he began and said, This night, asI was in my sleep, I dreamed, and behold the heavens grew exceed-ing black; also it thundered and lightened in most fearful wise, thatit put me into an agony; so I looked up in my dream, and saw theclouds rack at an unusual rate, upon which I heard a great sound ofa trumpet, and saw also a man sit upon a cloud, attended with thethousands of heaven; they were all in flaming fire: also the heavenswere in a burning flame. I heard then a voice saying, " Arise, yedead, and come to judgment;" and with that the rocks rent, thegraves opened, and the dead that were therein came forth. Some ofthem were exceeding glad, and looked upward; and some sought tohide themselves under the mountains, i Cor. xv. 52; i Thess. iv. 16;Jude 14; John v. 28, 29; 2 Thess. i. 7, 8; Rev. xx. I1-14; Is. xxvi.2T; Micah vii. 16, 17; Ps. xcv. 1-3; Dan. vii. 1o. Then I saw theman that sat upon the cloud open the book, and bid the world drawnear. Yet there was, by reason of a fierce flame which issued outand came from before him, a convenient distance betwixt him andthem, as betwixt the judge and the prisoners at the bar, Mal. iii. 2, 3;Dan. vii. 9, 1o. I heard it also proclaimed to them that attended onthe man that sat on the cloud, " Gather together the tares, the chaff,and stubble, and cast them into the burning lake," Matt. iii. 12; xiii.30; Mal. iv. i. And with that, the bottomless pit opened, justwhereabout I stood; out of the mouth of which there came, in anabundant manner, smoke and coals of fire, with hideous noises. Itwas also said to the same persons, "Gather my wheat into thegarner," Luke iii. 17. And with that I saw many catched up andcarried away into the clouds, but I was left behind, i Thess. iv. 16, 17.I also sought to hide myself, but I could not,jfor the man that satupon the cloud still kept his eye upon me: my sins also came into mymind; and my conscience did accuse me on every side, Rom. ii.14, i5. Upon this I awaked from my sleep.CHR. But what was it that made you so afraid of this sight?MAN. Why, I thought that the day of judgment was come, andthat I was not ready for it: but this frighted me most, that the angelsgathered up several, and left me behind; also the pit of hell openedher mouth just where I stood. My conscience, too, afflicted me;and, as I thought, the Judge had always his eye upon me, showingindignation in his countenance.Then said the Interpreter to Christian, Hast thou considered allthese things?CHR. Yes, and they put me in hope and fear.INTER. Well, keep all things so in thy mind that they may be as agoad in thy sides, to prick thee forward in the way thou must go."-Then Christian began to gird up his loins, and to address himself tohis journey. Then said the Interpreter, The Comforter be alwayswith thee, good Christian, to guide thee in the way that leads to theCity. So Christian went on his way, saying-

f2 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS." Here I have seen things rare and profitable;Things pleasant, dreadful, things to make me stableIn what I have begun to take in hand;Then let me think on them, and understandWherefore they showed me were, and let me beThankful, 0 good Interpreter, to thee."Now I saw in my dream, that the highway up which Christian wasto go, was fenced on either side with a wall, and that wall was calledSalvation, Is. xxvi. i. Up this way, therefore, did burdened Chris-tian run, but not without great difficulty, because of the load on hisback.He ran thus till he came at a place somewhat ascending, and uponthat place stood a cross, and a little below, in the bottom, a sepulchre.So I saw in my dream, that just as Christian came up with the cross,his burden loosed from off his shoulders, and fell from off.his back,and began to tumble, and so continued to do, till it came to the mouthof the spulchre, where it fell in, and I saw it no more.Then was Christian glad and lightsome, and said, with a merryheart, " He hath given me rest by his sorrow, and life by his death."Then he stood still awhile to look and wonder; for it was very sur-prising to him, that the sight of the cross should thus ease him of hisburden. He looked therefore, and looked again, even till the springsthat were in his head sent the waters down his cheeks, Zech. xii. 1o.Now, as he stood looking and weeping, behold three Shining Onescame to him, and saluted him with "Peace be to thee." So the firstsaid to him, "Thy sins be forgiven thee," Mark ii. 5; the secondstripped him of his rags, and clothed him "with change of raiment,"Zech. in. 4; the third also set a mark on his forehead, and gave hima roll with a seal upon it, which he bade him look on as he ran, andthat he should give it in at the Celestial Gate, Eph. i. 13. So theywent their way."Who's this? the Pilgrim. How! 'tis very true,Old things are past away, all's become new.Strange! he's another man, upon my word,They be fine feathers that make a fine bird.Then Christian gave three leaps for joy, and went on singing-."Thus far I did come laden with my sin;Nor could aught ease the grief that I was inTill I came hither: What a place is this!Must here be the beginning of my bliss ?Must here the burden fall from off my back?Must here the strings that bound it to me crack?Blest cross! blest sepulchre! blest rather beThe man that there was put to shame for me!"! saw then in my dream that he went on thus, even until he cameat a bottom, where he saw, a little out of the way, three men fast

THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. 23asleep, with fetters upon their heels. The name of the one wasSimple, another Sloth, and the third Presumption.Christian then seeing them lie in this case went to them, if per-adventure he might awake them, and cried, You are like them thatsleep on the top of a mast, for the Dead Sea is under you-a gulfthat hath no bottom, Prov. xxiii. 34. Awake, therefore, and comeaway; be willing also, and I will help you off with your irons. Healso told them, If he that "goeth about like a roaring lion" comesby, you will certainly become a prey to his teeth, i Pet. v. 8. Withthat they looked upon him, and began to reply in this sort: Simplesaid, " I see no danger; " Sloth said, "Yet a little more sleep; " andPresumption said, " Every fat must stand upon its own bottom; whatis the answer else that I should give thee ?" And so they lay downto sleep again, and Christian went on his way.Yet was he troubled to think that men in that danger should solittle esteem the kindness of him that so freely offered to help them,both by awakening of them, counselling of them, and proffering tohelp them off with their irons. And as he was troubled thereabout,he espied two men come tumbling over the wall, on the left hand ofthe narrow way; and they made up apace to him. The name of theone was Formalist, and the name of the other Hypocrisy. So, as Isaid, they drew up unto him, who thus entered with them into discourse.CHR. Gentlemen, whence came you, and whither go you?FORM. and HyP. We were born in the land of Vain-glory, and aregoing for praise to Mount Sion.CHR. Why came you not in at the gate which standeth at the be-ginning of the way? Know you not that it is written, that he thatcometh not in by the door, " but climbeth up some other way, thesame is a thief and a robber?" John x; i.FORM. and HYP. They said, That to go to the gate for entrancewas, by all their countrymen, counted too far about; and that, there-fore, their usual way was to make a short cut of it, and to climb overthe wall, as they had done.CHR. But will it not be counted a trespass against the Lord of thecity whither we are bound, thus to violate his revealed will?FORM. and HYP. They told him, that, as for that, he needed notto trouble his head thereabout; for what they did they had customfor; and could produce, if need were, testimony that would witness itfor more than a thousand years.CHR. But, said Christian, will your practice stand a trial at law?FORM. and HyP. They told him, That custom, it being of so longa standing as above a thousand years, would, doubtless, now be ad-mitted as a thing legal by any impartial judge; and beside, said they,if we get into the way, what's matter which way we get in ? if we arein, we are in; thou art but in the way, who, as we perceive, came inat the gate; and we are also in the way, that came tumbling over thewall; wherein, now, is thy condition better than ours ?CHR. I walk by the rule of my Master; you walk by the rude

24 TTE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.working of your fancies. You are counted thieves already, by theLord of the way; therefore, I doubt you will not be found true menat the end of the way. You come in by yourselves, without hisdirection; and shall go out by yourselves, without his mercy.To this they made him but httle answer; only they bid him look tohimself. Then I saw that they went on every man m his way, with-out much conference one with another; save that these two men toldChristian, that as to laws and ordinances, they doubted not but theyshould as conscientiously do them as he; therefore, said they, we seenot wherein thou different from us but by the coat that is on thy back,which was, as we trow, given thee by some of thy neighbours, to hidethe shame of thy nakedness.CHR. By laws and ordinances you will not be saved, since youcame not in by the door, Gal. ii. 16. And as for this coat that is onmy back, it was given me by the Lord of the place whither I go;and that, as you say, to cover my nakedness with. And I takeit as a token of his kindness to me; for I had nothing but ragsbefore. And besides, thus I comfort myself as I go: Surely, think I,when I come to the gate of the city, the Lord thereof will know mefor good, since I have his coat on my back-a coat that he gave mefreely in the day that he stripped me of my rags. I have, moreover,a mark in my forehead, of which, perhaps, you have taken no notice,which one of my Lord's most intimate associates fixed there in theday that my burden fell off my shoulders. I will tell you, moreover,that I had then given me a roll, sealed, to comfort me by reading as Igo on the way; I was also bid to give it in at the Celestial Gate, intoken of my certain going in after it; all which things, I doubt, youwant, and want them because you came not in at the gate.To these things they gave him no answer; only they looked uponeach other, and laughed. Then I saw that they went on all, savethat Christian kept before, who had no more talk but with himself,and that sometimes sighingly, and sometimes comfortably; also hewould be often reading in the roll that one of the Shining Ones gavehim, by which he was refreshed.I beheld, then, that they all went on till they came to the foot ofthe Hill Difficulty; at the bottom of which was a spring. There werealso in the same place two other ways besides that which came straightfrom the gate; one turned to the left hand, and the other to the right,at the bottom of the hill; but the narrow way lay right up the hill,and the name of the going up the side of the hill is called Difficulty.Christian now went to the spring, and drank thereof, to refresh him-self, Isa. xlix. io, and then began to go up the hill, saying-" The hill, though high, I covet to ascend,The difficulty will not me offend;For I perceive the way to life lies here.Come, pluck up heart, let's neither faint nor fear;Better, though difficult, the right way to go,Than wrong, though easy, where the end is woe."

THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. 25The other two also came to the foot of the hill; but when they sawthat the hill was steep and high, and that there were two other waysto go; and supposing also that these two ways might meet again, withthat up which Christian went, on the other side of the hill; thereforethey were resolved to go in those ways. Now the name of one ofthose ways was Danger, and the name of the other Destruction. Sothe one took the way which is called Danger, which led him into agreat wood, and the other took directly up the way to destruction,which led him into a wide field, full of dark mountains, where hestumbled and fell, and rose no more."Shall they who wrong begin yet rightly end ?Shall they at all have safety for their friend ?No, no; in headstrong manner they set out,And headlong will they fall at last no doubt."I looked, then, after Christian, to see him go up the hill, where Iperceived he fell from running to going, and from going to clamber-ing upon his hands and his knees, because of the steepness of theplace. Now, about the midway to the top of the hill was a pleasantarbour, made by the Lord of the hill for the refreshing of wearytravellers; thither, therefore, Christian got, where also he sat down torest him. Then he pulled his roll out of his bosom, and read thereinto his comfort; he also now began afresh to take a review of the coatcr garment that was given him as he stood by the cross. Thus pleas-it g himself awhile, he at last fell into a slumber, and thence into afast sleep, which detained him in. that place until it was almost night;and in his sleep his roll fell out of his hand. Now, as he was sleep-ing, there came one to him, and awaked him, saying, "Go to theant, thou sluggard; consider her ways, and be wise." Prov. vi. 6.And with that Christian started up, and sped him on his way, andwent apace, till he came to the top of the hill.Now, when he was got up to the top of the hill, there came twomen running to meet him amain; the name of the one was Timorous,and of the other, Mistrust; to whom Christian said, Sirs, what's thematter? You run the wrong way. Timorous answered, that theywere going to the City of Zion, and had got up that difficult place;but, said he, the further we go, the more danger we meet with;wherefore we turned, and are going back again.Yes, said Mistrust, for just before us lie a couple of lions in theway, whether sleeping or waking we know not, and we could notthink, if we came within reach, but they would presently pull us inpieces.CHR. Then said Christian, You make me afraid, but whither shall:I fly to be safe? If I go back to mine own country, that is preparedfor fire and brimstone, and I shall certainly perish there. If I canget to the Celestial City, I am sure to be in safety there. I mustventure. To go back is nothing but death; to go forward is fear ofdeath, and life everlasting beyond it. I will yet go forward. So

26 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.Mistrust and Timorous ran down the hill, and Christian went on hisway. But, thinking again of what he had heard from the men, hefelt in his bosom for his roll, that he might read therein, and be com-forted; but he felt, and found it not. Then was Christian in greatdistress, and knew not what to do; for he wanted that which used torelieve him, and that which should have been his pass into theCelestial City. Here, therefore, he began to be much perplexed, andknew not what to do. At last he bethought himself that he had sleptin the arbour that is on the side of the hill; and, falling down uponhis knees, he asked God's forgiveness for that his foolish act, andthen went back to look for his roll. But all the way he went back,who can sufficiently set forth the sorrow of Christian's heart! Some-times he sighed, sometimes he wept, and oftentimes he chid himselffor being so foolish to fall asleep in that place, which was erectedonly for a little refreshment for his weariness. Thus, therefore, hewent back, carefully looking on this side and on that, all the way ashe went, if happily he might find his roll, that had been his comfortso many times in his journey. He went thus,till he came againwithin sight of the arbour where he sat and slept; but that sight re-newed his sorrow the more, by bringing again, even afresh, his evilof sleeping into his mind. Rev. ii. 5, i Thess. v. 7, 8. Thus, there-fore, he now went on bewailing his sinful sleep, saying, " O wretchedman that I am!" that I should sleep in the day-time! that I shouldsleep in the midst of difficulty! that I should so indulge the flesh, asto use that rest for ease to my flesh, which the Lord of the hill hatherected only for the relief of the spirits of pilgrims!How many steps have I took in vain! Thus it happened to Israelfor their sin; they were sent back again by the way of the Red Sea;and I am made to tread those steps with sorrow, which I might havetrod with delight, had it not been for this sinful sleep. How farmight I have been on my way by this time! I am made to treadthose steps thrice over, which I needed not to have trod but once;yea, now also I am like to be benighted, for the day is almost spent.Oh, that I had not slept!Now, by this time he was come to the arbour again, where for awhile he sat down and wept; but at last, as Christian would have it,looking sorrowfully down under the settle, there he espied his roll;the which he, with trembling and haste, catched up, and put it intohis bosom. But who can tell how joyful this man was when he hadgotten his roll again! for this roll was the assurance of his life and ac-ceptance at the desired haven. Therefore he laid it up in his bosom,gave thanks to God for directing his eye to the place where it lay, andwith joy and tears betook himself again to his journey. But oh, hownimbly now did he go up the rest of the hill! Yet, before he got up,the sun went down upon Christian; and this made him again recallthe vanity of his sleeping to his remembrance; and thus he againbegan to condole with himself. O thou sinful sleep: how, for thysake am I like to be benighted in my journey! I must walk without

THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. 27the sun; darkness must cover the path of my feet; and I must hearthe noise of the doleful creatures, because of my sinful sleep, i Thes.v. 6, 7. Now also he remembered the story that Mistrust andTimorous told him of, how they were frighted with the sight of thelions. Then said Christian to himself again, These beasts range inthe night for their prey; and if they should meet with me in the dark,how should I shift them? How should I escape being by them tornin pieces? Thus he went on his way. But while he was thus be-wailing his unhappy miscarriage, he lift up his eyes, and behold therewas a very stately palace before him, the name of which was Beau-tiful; and it stood just by the highway side.So I saw in my dream that he made haste and went forward, thatif possible he might get lodging there. Now, before he had gone far,he entered into a very narrow passage, which was about a furlong offof the porter's lodge; and looking very narrowly before him as hewent, he espied two lions in the way. Now, thought he, I see thedangers that Mistrust and Timorous were driven back by. (Thelions were chained, but he saw not the chains.) Then he was afraid,and thought also himself to go back after them, for he thoughtnothing but death was before him. But the porter at the lodge,whose name is Watchful, perceiving that Christian made a halt as ifhe would go back, cried unto him, saying, Is thy strength so small ?Mark xiii. 34-37. Fear not the lions, for they are chained, and areplaced there for trial of faith where it is, and for discovery of thosethat had none. Keep in the midst of the path, and no hurt shallcome unto thee."Difficulty is behind, Fear is before,Though he's got on the hill, the lions roar;A Christian man is never long at ease,When one fright's gone, another doth him seize."Then I saw that he went on; trembling for fear of the lions, buttaking good heed to the directions of the porter; he heard them roar,but they did him no harm. Then he clapped his hands, and went ontill he came and stood before the gate where the porter was. Thensaid Christian to the porter, Sir, what house is this? And may Ilodge here to-night ? The porter answered, This house was built bythe Lord of the hill, and he built it for the relief and security of pil-grims. The porter also asked whence he was, and whither he wasgoing.CHR.. I am come from the City of Destruction, and am going toMount Zion; but because the sun is now set, I desire, if I may, tolodge here to-night.POR. What is your name ?CHR. My name is now Christian, but my name at the first wasGraceless; I came of the race of Japheth, whom God will persuade todwell in the tents of Shem. Gen. ix. 27.

28 THIE PILGRIM S PROGRESS.POR. But how doth it happen that you come so late ? The sun isset.CHR. I had been here sooner, but that, "wretched man that Iam! " I slept in the arbour that stands on the hill-side; nay, I had, not-withstanding that, been here much sooner, but that, in my sleep, I lostny evidence, and came without it to the brow of the hill; and thenfeeling for it, and finding it not, I was forced with sorrow of heart,to go back to the place where I slept my sleep, where I found it,and now I am come.POR. Well, I will call out one of the virgins of this place, who will,if she likes your talk, bring you in to the rest of the family, accordingto the rules of the house. So Watchful, the porter, rang a bell, atthe sound of which came out at the door of the house, a grave andbeautiful damsel, named Discretion, and asked why she was called.The porter answered, This man is in a journey from the City ofDestruction to Mount Zion, but being weary and benighted, he askedme if he might lodge here to-night; so I told him I would call forthee, who, after discourse had with him, mayest do as seemeth theegood, even according to the law of the house.Then she asked him whence he was, and whither he was going; andhe told her. She asked him also how he got into the way; and hetold her. Then she asked him what he had seen and met with in theway; and he told her. And last she asked his name; so he said, it isChristian, and I have so much the more a desire to lodge here to-night, because, by what I perceive, this place was built by the Lordof the hill, for the relief and security of pilgrims. So she smiled, butthe water stood in her eyes; and after a little pause, she said, I willcall forth two or three more of the family. So she ran to the door,and called out Prudence, Piety, and Charity, who, after a little morediscourse with him, had him into the family; and many of themmeeting him at the threshold of the house, said, " Come in, thoublessed of the Lord;" this house was built by the Lord of the hill, onpurpose to entertain such pilgrims in. Then he bowed his head andfollowed them into the house. So when he was come in and satdown, they gave him something to drink, and consented together,that until supper was ready, some of them should have some particu-lar discourse with Christian, for the best improvement of time; andthey appointed Piety, and Prudence, and Charity to discourse withhim; and thus they began:PIETY. Come, good Christian, since we have been so loving to you,to receive you in our house this night, let us, if perhaps we maybetter ourselves thereby, talk with you of all things that have hap-pened to you in your pilgrimage.CHR. With a very good will, and I am glad that you are so welldisposed.PIETY. What moved you at first to betake yourself to a pilgrim'slife ?CHR. I was driven out of my native country, by a dreadful sound

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THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. 29that was in mine ears: to wit, that unavoidable destruction didattend me, if I abode in that place where I was.PIETY. But how did it happen that you came out of your countrythis way ?CHR. It was as God would have it; for when I was under the fearsof destruction, I did not know whither to go; but by chance therecame a man, even to me, as I was trembling and weeping, whosename is Evangelist, and he directed me to the wicket-gate, which elseI should never have found, and so set me into the way that hath ledme directly to this house.PIETY. But did you not come by the house of the Interpreter?CHR. Yes, and did see such things there, the remembrance ofwhich will stick by me as long as I live; especially three things: towit, how Christ, in despite of Satan, maintains his work of grace inthe heart; how the man had sinned himself quite out of hopes ofGod's mercy; and also the dream of him that thought in his sleep theday of judgment was come.PIETY. Why, did you hear him tell his dream?CHR. Yes, and a dreadful one it was. I thought it made my heartache as he was telling of it; but yet I am glad I heard it.PIETY. Was that all that you saw at the house of the Interpreter?CHR. No; he took me and had me where he showed me a statelypalace, and how the people were clad in gold that were in it; andhow there came a venturous man and cut his way through the armedmen that stood in the door to keep him out, and how he was bid tocome, and win eternal glory. Methought those things did ravish myheart! I would have stayed at that good man's house a twelvemonth,but that I knew I had further to go.PIETY. And what saw you else in the way?CHR. Saw! why, I went but a little further, and I saw one, as Ithought in my mind, hang bleeding upon the tree; and the very sightof him made my burden fall off my back (for I groaned under a veryheavy burden), but then it fell down from off me. It was a strangething to me, for I never saw such a thing before; yea, and while Istood looking up, for then I could not forbear looking, three ShininOnes came to me. One of them testified that my sins were forgivenme; another stripped me of my rags, and gave me this broidered coatwhich you see; and the third set the mark which you see in my fore-head, and gave me this sealed roll. (And with that he plucked it outof his bosom.)PIETY. But you saw more than this, did you not?CHR. The things that I have told you were the best; yet someother matters I saw, as, namely: I saw three men, Simple, Sloth,and Presumption, lie asleep a little out of the way, as I came, withirons upon their heels; but do you think I could awake them? I alsosaw Formality and Hypocrisy come tumbling over the wall, to go, asthey pretended, to Zion, but they were quickly lost, even as I myselfdid tell them; but they would not believe. But above all, I found it

30 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.ha rd work to get up this hill, and as hard to come by the lions'mouths; and truly if it had not been for the good man, the porterthat stands at the gate, I do not know but that after all I might havegone back again; but now, I thank God I am here, and I thank youfor receiving of me.Then Prudence thought good to ask him a few questions, and de-sired his answer to them.PRUD. Do you not think sometimes of the country from whenceyou came?CHR. Yes, but with much shame and detestation: "truly, if I hadbeen mindful of that country from whence I came out, I might havehad opportunity to have returned; but now I desire a better country,that is, an heavenly." Heb. xi. 15, 16.PRUD. Do you not yet bear away with you some of the things thatthen you were conversant withal?CHR. Yes, but greatly against my will; especially my inward andcarnal cogitations, with which all my countrymen, as well as myself,were delighted; but now all those things are my grief; and might Ibut choose mine own things, I would choose never to think of thosethings more; but when I would be doing of that which is best, thatwhich is worst is with me. Rom. vii.PRUD. Do you not find sometimes, as if those things were van-q wished, which at other times are your perplexity?CHR. Yes, but that is seldom; but they are to me golden hours inwhich such things happen to me.PRUD. Can you remember by what means you find your annoy-ances, at times, as if they were vanquished?CHR. Yes, when I think what I saw at the cross, that will do it;and when I look upon my broidered coat, that will do it; also when Ilook into the roll that I carry in my bosom, that will do it; and whenmy thoughts wax warm about whither I am going, that will do it.PRUD. And what is it that makes you so desirous to go to MountZion?CHR. Why, there I hope to see him alive that did hang dead onthe cross; and there I hope to be rid of all those things that to thisday are in me an annoyance to me; there, they say, there is no death;and there I shall dwell with such company as I like best. Is. xxv. 8;Rev. xxi. 4. For, to tell you truth, I love him, because I was by himeased of my burden; and I am weary of my inward sickness. Iwould fain be where I shall die no more, and with the company thatshall continually cry, "Holy, Holy, Holy!"Then said Charity to Christian, Have you a family? Are you amarried man ?CHR. I have a wife and four small children.CHAR. And why did you not bring them along with you?CHR. Then Christian wept, and said, Oh, how willingly would Ihave done it! but they were all of them utterly averse to my going onpilgrimage.

THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. 31CHAR. PBt you should have talked to them, and have endeavouredto have shown them the danger of being behind.CHR. So I did; and told them also what God had shown to me ofthe destruction of our city; "but I seemed to them as one thatmocked," and they believed me not. Gen. xix. 14.CHAR. And did you pray to God that he would bless your counselto them?CHR. Yes, and that with much affection: for you must think thatmy wife and poor children were very dear unto me.CHAR. But did you tell them of your own sorrow, and fear ofdestruction ? for I suppose that destruction was visible enough to you.CHR. Yes, over, and over, and over. They might also see my fearsin my countenance, in my tears, and also in my trembling under theapprehension of the judgment that did hang over our heads, but allwas not sufficient to prevail with them to come with me.CHAR. But what could they say for themselves, why they came not ?CHR. Why, my wife was afraid of losing this world, and my chil-dren were given to the foolish delights of youth: so what by onething, and what by another, they left me to wander in this manneralone.CHAR. But did you not, with your vain life, damp all that you bywords used by way of persuasion to bring them away with you?CHR. Indeed, I cannot commend my life; for I am conscious tomyself of many failings therein: I know also, that a man by his con-versation may soon overthrow, what by argument or persuasion hedoth labour to fasten upon others for their good. Yet this I can say,I was very wary of giving them occasion, by any unseemly action, tomake them averse to going on pilgrimage. Yea, for this very thingthey would tell me I was too precise, and that I denied myself ofthings, for their sakes, in which they saw no evil. Nay, I think Imay say, that if what they saw in me did hinder them, it was mypreat tenderness in sinning against God, or of doing any wrong tomiy neighbour.CHAR. Indeed Cain hated his brother, "because his own workswere evil, and his brother's righteous," i John iii. 12; and if thy wifeand children have been offended with thee for this, they thereby showthemselves to be implacable to good, and " thou hast delivered thysoul from their blood." Ezek. iii. 19.Now I saw in my dream, that thus they sat talking together untilsupper was ready. So when they had made ready they sat down tomeat. Now the table was furnished " with fat things, and with winethat was well refined:" and all their talk at the table was about theLord of the hill; as, namely, about what he had done, and where-fore he did what he did, and why he had builded that house. Andby what they said, I perceived that he had been a great warrior, andhad fought with and slain "him that had the power of death," butnot without great danger to himself, which made me love him themore. Heb. ii. 14, 15.

32 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.For, as they said, and as I believe (said Christian), he did it withthe loss of much blood; but that which put glory of grace into all hedid, was, that he did it out of pure love to his country. And besides,there were some of them of the household that said they had beenand spoke with him since he did die on the cross; and they haveattested that they had it from his own lips, that he is such a lover ofpoor pilgrims, that the like is not to be found from the east to the west.They, moreover, gave an instance of what they affirmed, and thatwas, he had stripped himself of his glory, that he might do this forthe poor; and that they heard him say and affirm, "that he wouldnot dwell in the mountain of Zion alone." They said, moreover, thathe had made many pilgrims princes, though by nature they werebeggars born, and their original had been the dunghill. i Sam. ii. 8:Ps. cxiii. 7.Thus they discoursed together till late at night; and after they hadcommitted themselves to their Lord for protection, they betook them-selves to rest: the Pilgrim they laid in a large upper chamber, whosewindow opened toward the sun-rising: the name of the chamber wasPeace; where he slept till break of day, and then he awoke and sang-"Where am I now? Is this the love and careOf Jesus for the men that pilgrims are?Thus to provide! that I should be forgiven!And dwell already the next door to heaven!"So in the morning they all got up; and, after some more discourse,they told him that he should not depart till they had shown him therarities of that place. And first they had him into the study, wherethey showed him records of the greatest antiquity; in which, as Iremember my dream, they showed him first the pedigree of the Lordof the hill, that he was the son of the Ancient of Days, and came bythat eternal generation. Here also was more fully recorded the actsthat he had done, and the names of many hundreds that he had takeninto his service; and how he had placed them in such habitations,that could neither by length of days, nor decays of nature, bedissolved.Then they read to him some of the worthy acts that some of hisservants had done: as, how they had "subdued kingdoms, wroughtrighteousness, obtained promises, stopped the mouths of lions,quenched the violence of fire, escaped the edge of the sword, out ofweakness were made strong, waxed valiant in fight, and turned toflight the armies of the aliens." Heb. xi. 33, 34.They then read again, in another part of the records of the house,where it was showed how willing their Lord was to receive into hisfavour any, even any, though they in time past had offered greataffronts to his person and proceedings. Here also were several otherhistories of many other famous things, of all which Christian had aview; as of things both ancient and modern; together with prophecies

THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. 33and predictions of things that have their certain accomplishment,both to the dread and amazement of enemies, and the comfort andsolace of pilgrims.The next day they took him and had him into the armoury, wherethey showed him all manner of furniture, which their Lord had pro-vided for pilgrims, as sword, shield, helmet, breastplate, all-prayer,and shoes that would not wear out. And there was here enough ofthis to harness out as many men for the service of their Lord as therebe stars in the heaven for multitude.They also showed him some of the engines with which some of hisservants had done wonderful things. They showed him Moses' rod;the hammer and nail with which Jael slew Sisera; the pitchers,trumpets, and lamps too, with which Gideon put to flight the armiesof Midian. Then they showed him the ox's goad wherewith Shamgarslew six hundred men. They showed him also the jaw-bone withwhich Samson did such mighty feats. They showed him, moreover,the sling and stone with which David slew Goliath of Gath; and thesword, also, with which their Lord will kill the Man of Sin, in theday that he shall rise up to the prey. They showed him, besides,many excellent things, with which Christian was much delighted.This done, they went to their rest again.Then I saw in my dream, that on the morrow he got up to go for-ward; but they desired him to stay till the next day also; and then,said they, we will, if the day be clear, show you the DelectableMountains, which, they said, would yet further add to his comfort,because they were nearer the desired haven than the place where atpresent he was; so he consented and stayed. When the morning wasup, they had him to the top of the house, and bid him look south; sohe did: and behold, at a great distance, he saw a most pleasantmountainous country, beautified with woods, vineyards, fruits of allsorts, flowers also, with springs and fountains, very delectable tobehold. Isa. xxxiii. 16, 17. Then he asked the name of the coun-try. They said it was Immanuel's Land; and it is as common, saidthey, as this hill is, to and for all the pilgrims. And when thoucomest there from thence, said they, thou mayest see to the gate ofthe Celestial City, as the shepherds that live there will make appear.Now he bethought himself of setting forward, and they were will-ing he should. But first, said they, let us go again into the armoury.So they did; and when they came there, they harnessed him fromhead to foot with what was of proof, lest, perhaps, he should meetwith assaults in the way. He being, therefore, thus accoutred,walketh out with his friends to the gate, and there he asked theporter if he saw any pilgrims pass by. Then the porter answered, Yes.CHR. Pray, did you know him? said he.POR. I asked him his name, and he told me it was Faithful.CHR. Oh, said Christian, I know him; he is my townsman, mynear neighbour; he comes from the place where I was born. Howfar do you think he may be before?C

34 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.POR. He is got by this time below the hill.CHR. Well, said Christian, good Porter, the Lord be with thee,and add to all thy blessings much increase, for the kindness that thouhast showed to me.Then he began to go forward; but Discretion, Piety, Charity, andPrudence, would accompany him down to the foot of the hill. Sothey went on together, reiterating their former discourses, till theycame to go down the hill. Then said Christian, As it was difficult com-ing up, so, so far as I can see, it is dangerous going down. Yes, saidPrudence, so it is, for it is a hard matter for a man to go down intothe Valley of Humiliation, as thou art now, and to catch no slip bythe way; therefore, said they, are we come out to accompany theedown the hill. So he began to go down, but very warily; yet hecaught a slip or two.Then I saw in my dream that these good companions, when Chris-tian was gone to the bottom of the hill, gave him a loaf of bread, abottle of wine, and a cluster of raisins; and then he went on hisway.But now, in this Valley of Humiliation, poor Christian was hardput to it; for he had gone but a little way, before he espied a foulfiend coming over the field to meet him; his name is Apollyon. Thendid Christian begin to be afraid, and to cast in his mind whether togo back or to stand his ground. But he considered again that he hadno armour for his back; and therefore thought that to turn the backto him might give him the greater advantage with ease to pierce himwith his darts. Therefore he resolved to venture and stand hisground; for, thought he, had I no more in mine eye than the savingof my life, it would be the best way to stand.So he went on, and Apollyon met him. Now the monster washideous to behold; he was clothed with scales, like a fish (and theyare his pride), he had wings like a dragon, feet like a bear, and outof his belly came fire and smoke, and his mouth was as the mouth ola lion. When he was come up to Christian he beheld him with a dis-dainful countenance, and thus began to question with him.APOL. Whence come you? and whither are you bound?CHR. I am come from the City of Destruction, which is the placeof all evil, and am going to the City of Zion.APOL. By this I perceive thou art one of my subjects, for all thatcountry is mine, and I am the prince and god of it. How is it, then,that thou hast run away from thy king? Were it not that I hope thoumayest do me more service, I would strike thee now, at one blow, tothe ground.CHR. I was born, indeed, in your dominions, but your service washard, and your wages such as a man could not live on, " for the wagesof sin is death," Rom. vi. 23; therefore, when I was come to years, Idid as other considerate persons do, look out, if, perhaps, I mightmend myself.APOL. There is no prince that will thus lightly lose his subjects,

THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. 35neither will I as yet lose thee; but since thpu complalnest of thyservice and wages, be content to go back: what our country willaflurd, I do here promise to give thee.CnR. But I have let myself to another, even to the King of princes;and how can I, with fairness, go back with thee?APOL. Thou hast done in this, according to the proverb, " Changeda bad for a worse; " but it is ordinary for those that have professedthemselves his servants, after a while to give him the slip, and returnagain to me. Do thou so, too, and all shall be well.CHR. I have given him my faith, and sworn my allegiance to him;how, then, can I go back from this, and not be hanged as a traitor?APOL. Thou didst the same to me, and yet I am willing to pass byall, if now thou wilt yet turn again and go back.CHR. What I promised thee was in my nonage; and besides, Icount the Prince under whose banner now I stand is able to absolveme; yea, and to pardon also what I did as to my compliance withthee; and besides, 0 thou destroying Apollyon! to speak truth, I likehis service, his wages, his servants, his government, his company andcountry, better than thine; and therefore, leave off to persuade mefurther; I am his servant, and I will follow him.APOL. Consider, again, when thou art in cool blood, what thou artlike to meet with in the way that thou goest. Thou knowest that,for the most part, his servants come to an ill end, because they aretransgressors against me and my ways. How many of them havebeen put to shameful deaths; and, besides, thou contest his servicebetter than mine, whereas, he never came yet from the place where heis to deliver any that served him out of their hands; but as for me, howmany times, as all the world very well knows, have I delivered, eitherby power, or fraud, those that hath faithfully served me, from himand his, though taken by them; and so I will deliver thee.CHR. His forbearing at present to deliver them is on purpose totry their love, whether they will cleave to him to the end; and as forthe ill end thou sayest they come to, that is most glorious in theiraccount; for, for present deliverance, they do not much expect it, forthey stay for their glory, and then they shall have it, when theirPrince comes in his and the glory of the angels.APOL. Thou hast already been unfaithful in thy service to him;and how dost thou think to receive wages of him ?CHR. Wherein, O Apollyon have I been unfaithful to him ?APOL. Thou didst faint at first setting out, when thou wast almostchoked in the Gulf of Despond; thou didst attempt wrong ways to berid of thy burden, whereas thou shouldest have stayed till thy Princehad taken it off; thou didst sinfully sleep and lose thy choice thing;thou wast, also, almost persuaded to go back, at the sight of thelions; and when thou talkest of thy journey, and of what thou hastheard and seen, thou art inwardly desirous of vain-glory in all thatthou sayest or doest.CaR. All this is true, and much more which thou hast left out: but

36 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.the Prince whom I serve and honour is merciful, and ready to for-give; but, besides, these infirmities possessed me in thy country, forthere I sucked them in; and I have groaned under them, been sorryfor them, and have obtained pardon of my Prince.APOL. Then Apollyon broke out into a grievous rage, saying, I aman enemy to this Prince; I hate his person, his laws, and people; Iam come out on purpose to withstand thee.CHR. Apollyon, beware what you do; for I am in the king's high-way, the way of holiness; therefore take heed to yourself.APOL. Then Apollyon straddled quite over the whole breadth ofthe way, and said, I am void of fear in this matter: prepare thyselfto die; for I swear by my infernal den, that thou shalt go no further;here will I spill thy soul.And with that he threw a flaming dart at his breast; but Christianhad a shield in his hand, with which he caught it, and so preventedthe danger of that.Then did Christian draw, for he saw it was time to bestir him: andApollyon as fast made at him, throwing darts as thick as hail; bythe which, notwithstanding all that Christian could do to avoid it,Apollyon wounded him in his head, his hand, and foot. This madeChristian give a little back; Apollyon, therefore, followed his workamain, and Christian again took courage, and resisted as manfully ashe could. This sore combat lasted for above half a day, even tillChristian was almost quite spent; for you must know that Christian,by reason of his wounds, must needs grow weaker and weaker.Then Apollyon, espying his opportunity, began to gather up closeto Christian, and wrestling with him, gave him a dreadful fall; andwith that Christian's sword flew out of his hand. Then said Apollyon,I am sure of thee now. And with that he had almost pressed him todeath, so that Christian began to despair of life: but as God wouldhave it, while Apollyon was fetching of his last blow, thereby to makea full end of this good man, Christian nimbly stretched out his handfor his sword, and caught it, saying, "Rejoice not against me, 0mine enemy: when I fall I shall arise," Micah vii. 8; and with thatgave him a deadly thrust, which made him give back, as one that hadreceived his mortal wound. Christian perceiving that, made at himagain, saying, " Nay, in all these things we are more than conquerorsthrough him that loved us." Rom. viii. 37. And with that Apollyonspread forth his dragon's wings, and sped him away, that Christianfor a season saw him no more. James iv. 7.In this combat no man can imagine, unless he had seen and heardas I did, what yelling and hideous roaring Apollyon made all thetime of the fight-he spake like a dragon; and, on the other side,what sighs and groans burst from Christian's heart. I never saw himall the while give so much as one pleasant look, till he perceived hehad wounded Apollyon with his two-edged sword; then, indeed, hedid smile, and look upward; but it was the dreadfulest sight that everI saw.

. ; .. 1. .1, 'l" " -'*"' ,.*' ''* .."dr_.. .I -,,o l .,, ..,,_ ,IjIF,'.t.; ,,.'_" Z . _\ '"-'1.. .. "- -odt f lrlrjot AFTT`~.,,,-Z...J .i _C-4ristia. perceives Faitiaful.

THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. 37A more unequal match can hardly be,-Christian must fight an Angel; but you see,The valiant man by handling Sword and Shield,Doth make him, tho' a Dragon, quit the field.So when the battle was over, Christian said, "I will here givethanks to him that delivered me out of the mouth of the lion, to himthat did help me against Apollyon." And so he did, saying-Great Beelzebub, the captain of this fiend,Designed my ruin; therefore to this endHe sent him harness'd out: and he with rageThat hellish was, did fiercely me engage.But blessed Michael helped me, and I,By dint of sword, did quickly make him fly.Therefore to him let me give lasting praise,And thank and bless his holy name always.Then there came to him a hand, with some of the leaves of the treeof life, the which Christian took, and applied to the wounds that hehad received in the battle, and was healed immediately. He also satdown in that place to eat bread, and to drink of the bottle that wasgiven him a little before; so, being refreshed, he addressed himself tohis journey, with his sword drawn in his hand; for he said, I knownot but some other enemy may be at hand. But he met with no otheraffront from Apollyon quite through this valley.Now, at the end of this valley was another, called the Valley of theShadow of Death, and Christian must needs go through it, becausethe way to the Celestial City lay through the midst of it. Now, thisvalley is a very solitary place. The prophet Jeremiah thus describesit: "A wilderness, a land of deserts and of pits, a land of drought,and of the shadow of death, a land that no man" (but a Christian)" passed through, and where no man dwelt." Jer. ii. 6.Now here Christian was worse put to it than in his fight withApollyon: as by the sequel you shall see.I saw then in my dream, that when Christian was got to theborders of the Shadow of Death, there met him two men, children ofthem that brought up an evil report of the good land, Num. xiii.,making haste to go back; to whom Christian spake as follows:-CHR. Whither are you going?MEN. They said, Back, back! and we would have you to do so too,if either life or peace is prized by you.CHR. Why, what's the matter? said Christian.MEN. Matter! said they; we were going that way as you are going,crnd went as far as we durst, and indeed we were almost past comingback; for had we gone a little further, we had not been here to bringthe news to thee.CHR. But what have you met with ? said Christian.MEN. Why, we were almost in the Valley of the Shadow of Death;

38 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.but that, by good hap, we looked before us, and saw the danger be-fore we came to it. Ps. xliv. 19; cvii. 10.CHR. But what have you seen? said Christian.MEN. Seen! Why, the Valley itself, which is as dark as pitch; wealso saw there the hobgoblins, satyrs, and dragons of the pit; weheard also in that Valley a continual howling and yelling, as of apeople under unutterable misery, who there sat bound in afflictionand irons; and over that Valley hangs the discouraging clouds of con-fusion. Death also doth always spread his wings over it. In a word,it is every whit dreadful, being utterly without order. Job iii. 5;x. 26.CHR. Then, said Christian, I perceive not yet, by what you havesaid, but that this is my way to the desired haven. Jer. ii. 6.MEN. Be it thy way; we will not choose it for ours. So theyparted, and Christian went on his way, but still with his sword drawnin his hand, for fear lest he should be assaulted.I saw then in my dream so far as this valley reached, there was onthe right hand a very deep ditch; that ditch is it into which the blindhave led the blind in all ages, and have both there miserably per-ished. Psa. lxix. 14, i5. Again, behold, on the left hand, there wasa very dangerous quag, into which, if even a good man falls, he canfind no bottom for his foot to stand on. Into that quag king Davidonce did fall, and had no doubt therein been smothered, had not HEthat is able plucked him out.The pathway was here also exceeding narrow, and therefore goodChristian was the more put to it; for when he sought, in the dark, toshun the ditch on the one hand, he was ready to tip over into themire on the other; also, when he sought to escape the mire, withoutgreat carefulness he would be ready to fall into the ditch. Thus hewent on, and I heard him here sigh bitterly; for, besides the dangersmentioned above, the pathway was here so dark, that ofttimes, whenhe lift up his foot to set forward, he knew not where or upon what heshould set it next.Poor man, where art thou now? thy day is nightGood man, be not cast down, thou yet art right,Thy way to Heaven lies by the gates of Hell;Cheer up, hold out, with thee it shall go well.About the midst of this valley, I perceived the mouth of hell to be,and it stood also hard by the way-side. Now, thought Christian,what shall I do? And ever and anon the flame and smoke wouldcome out in such abundance, with sparks and hideous noises, (thingsthat cared not for Christian's sword, as did Apollyon before,) that hewas forced to put up his sword, and betake himself to anotherweapon, called All-prayer, Eph. vi. 18. So he cried in my hearing,"O Lord, I beseech thee, deliver my soul!" Ps. cxvi. 4. Thus hewent on a great while, yet still the flames would be reaching towards

THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. 39him. Also he heard doleful voices, and rushing to and fro, so thatsometimes he thought he should be torn in pieces, or trodden downlike mire in the streets. This frightful sight was seen, and thesedreadful noises were heard by him for several miles together; and,coming to a place where he thought he heard a company of fiendscoming forward to meet him, he stopped, and began to muse what hehad best to do. Sometimes he had half a thought to go back; thenagain he thought he might be half way through the valley; he re-membered also how he had already vanquished many a danger, andthat the danger of going back might be much more than for to goforward; so he resolved to go on. Yet the fiends seemed to comenearer and nearer; but when they were come even almost at him, hecried out with a most vehement voice, " I will walk in the strength ofthe Lord God!" so they gave back, and came no further.One thing I would not let slip; I took notice that now poor Chris-tian was so confounded, that he did not know his own voice; andthus I perceived it. Just when he was come over against the mouthof the burning pit, one of the wicked ones got behind him, and steptup softly to him, and whisperingly suggested many grievous blasphe-mies to him, which he verily thought had proceeded from his ownmind. This put Christian more to it than anything that he met withbefore, even to think that he should now blaspheme him that he lovedso much before; yet, if he could have helped it, he would not havedone it; but he had not the discretion either to stop his ears, or toknow from whence these blasphemies came.When Christian had travelled in this disconsolate condition someconsiderable time, he thought he heard the voice of a man, as goingbefore him, saying, "Though I walk through the valley of theshadow of death, I will fear no evil, for thou art with me." Ps.xiii1. 4.Then he was glad, and that for these reasons:First, Because he gathered from thence, that some who fearedGod were in this valley as well as himself.Secondly, For that he perceived God was with them, though inthat dark and dismal state; and why not, thought he, with me?though, by reason of the impediment that attends this place, I cannotperceive it. Job ix. i.Thirdly, For that he hoped, could he overtake them, to havecompany by and by. So he went on, and called to him that wasbefore, but he knew not what to answer; for that he also thoughthimself to be alone. And by and by the day broke; then saidChristian, He hath turned "the shadow of death into the morning."Amos v. 8.Now morning being come, he looked back, not out of desire toreturn, but to see, by the light of the day, what hazards he had gonethrough in the dark. So he saw more perfectly the ditch that was onthe one hand, and the quag that was on the other; also how narrowthe way was which led betwixt them both; also now he saw the hob-

0 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.goblins, and satyrs, and dragons of the pit, but all afar off (for afterbreak of day, they came not nigh); yet they were discovered to him,according to that which is written, " He discovereth deep things outof darkness, and bringeth out to light the shadow of death." Jobxii. 22.Now was Christian much affected with his deliverance from all thedangers of his solitary way; which dangers, though he feared themmore before, yet he saw them more clearly now, because the light oithe day made them conspicuous to him. And about this time thesun was rising, and this was another mercy to Christian; for youmust note, that though the first part of the Valley of the Shadow ofDeath was dangerous, yet this second part which he was yet to go,was, if possible, far more dangerous: for from the place where henow stood, even to the end of the valley, the way was all along set sofull of snares, traps, gins, and nets here, and so full of pits, pitfalls,deep holes, and shelvings down there, that, had it now been dark, asit was when he came the first part of the way, had he had a thousandsouls, they had in reason been cast away; but, as I said just now,the sun was rising. Then, said he, " His candle shineth upon myhead, and by his light I walk through darkness." Job xxix. 3.In this light, therefore, he came to the end of the valley. Now Isaw in my dream, that at the end of this valley lay blood, bones,ashes, and mangled bodies of men, even of pilgrims that had gonethis way formerly; and while I was musing what should be the reason,I espied a little before me a cave, where two giants, POPE andPAGAN, dwelt in old time; by whose power and tyranny the menwhose bones, blood, ashes, etc., lay there, were cruelly put to death.But by this place Christian went without much danger, whereat Isomewhat wondered; but I have learnt since, that PAGAN has beendead many a day; and as for the other, though he be yet alive, he is,by reason of age, and also of the many shrewd brushes that he metwith in his younger days, grown so crazy and stiff in his joints, thathe can now do little more than sit in his cave's mouth, grinning atpilgrims as they go by, and biting his nails because they cannot comeat them.So I saw that Christian went on his way; yet, at the sight of theOld Man that sat in the mouth of the cave, he could not tell what tothink, especially because he spake to him, though he could not goafter him, saying, " You will never mend till more of you be burned."But he held his peace, and set a good face on it, and so went by andcatched no hurt. Then sang Christian-O world of wonders! (I can say no less)That I should be preserved in that distressThat I have met with here! 0 blessed beThat hand that from it hath delivered me!Dangers in darkness, devils, hell, and sin,Uid compass me, while I this vale was in:

THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. 41Yea, snares and pits, and traps, and nets, did lieMy path about, that worthless, silly IMight have been catch'd entangled, and cast down;But since I live, let JESUS wear the crown.Now, as Christian went on his way, he came to a little ascent,which was cast up on purpose that pilgrims might see before them.Up there, therefore, Christian went, and looking forward, he sawFaithful before him, upon his journey. Then said Christian aloud,"Ho! ho! Soho! stay, and I will be your companion!" At thatFaithful looked behind him; to whom Christian cried again, " Stay,stay, till I come up to you." But Faithful answered, "No, I amupon my life, and the avenger of blood is behind me."At this, Christian was somewhat moved, and putting to all hisstrength, he quickly got up with Faithful, and did also overrun him;so the last was first. Then did Christian vain-gloriously smile,because he had gotten the start of his brother; but not taking goodheed to his feet, he suddenly stumbled and fell, and could not riseagain until Faithful came up to help him.Then I saw in my dream they went very lovingly on together, andhad sweet discourse of all things that had happened to them in theirpilgrimage; and thus Christian began:CHR. My honoured and well-beloved brother, Faithful, I am gladthat I have overtaken you; and that God has so tempered our spirits,that we can walk as companions in so pleasant a path.FAITH. I had thought, dear friend, to have had your companyquite from our town; but you did get the start of me, wherefore I wasforced to come thus much of the way alone.CHR. How long did you stay in the City of Destruction, beforeyou set out after me on your pilgrimage ?FAITH. Till I could stay no longer; for there was great talk pre-sently after you were gone out, that our city would, in short time,with fire from heaven, be burned down to the ground.CHR. What! did your neighbours talk so ?FAITH. Yes, it was for a while in everybody's mouth.CHR. What! and did no more of them but you come out to escapethe danger ?FAITH. Though there was, as I said, a great talk thereabout, yetI do not think they did firmly believe it. For in the heat of the dis-course, I heard some of them deridingly speak of you and of yourdesperate journey (for so they called this your pilgrimage), but I didbelieve, and do still, that the end of our city will be with fire andbrimstone from above; and therefore I have made my escape.CHR. Did you hear no talk of neighbour Pliable ?FAITH. Yes, Christian, I heard that he followed you till he cameat the Slough of Despond, where, as some said, he fell in; but hewould not be known to have so done; but I sure he was soundly be-dabbled with that kind of dirt.CaR. And what said the neighbours to him I

42 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.FAITH. He hath, since his going back, been had greatly in deri-sion, and that among all sorts of people; some do mock and despisehim; and scarce will any set him on work. He is now seven timesworse than if he had never gone out of the city.CHR. But why should they be so set against him, since they alsodespise the way that he forsook ?FAITH. Oh, they say, hang him, he is a turn-coat! he was net trueto his profession. I think God has stirred up even his enemies to hissat him, and make him a proverb, because he hath forsaken the way.Jer. xxix. 1i, 19.CHR. Had you no talk with him before you came out?FAITH. I met him once in the streets, but he leered away on theother side, as one ashamed of what he had done; so I spake not tohim.CHR. Well, at my first setting out, I had hopes of that man; butnow I fear he will perish in the overthrow of the city. For it hashappened to him according to the true proverb, "The dog is turnedto his own vomit again; and the sow that was washed, to her wallow-ing in the mire." 2 Pet. ii. 22.FAITH. These are my fears of him too; but who can hinder thatwhich will be?CHR. Well, neighbour Faithful, said Christian, let us leave him,and talk of things that more immediately concern ourselves. Tellme now, what you have met with in the way as you came; for I knowyou have met with some things, or else it may be writ for a wonder.FAITH. I escaped the Slough that I perceived you fell into, andgot up to the gate without that danger; only I met with one whosename was Wanton, who had like to have done me a mischief.CHR. It was well you escaped her net; Joseph was hard put to itby her, and he escaped her as you did; but it had like to have costuim his life. Gen. xxxix. 11-13. But what did she do to you?FAITH. You cannot think, but that you know something, what aflattering tongue she had; she lay at me hard to turn aside with her,promising me all manner of content.CHR. Nay, she did not promise you the content of a good con-science.FAITH. You know what I mean; all carnal and fleshly content.CHR. Thank God you have escaped her: "The abhorred of theLord shall fall into her ditch." Ps. xxii. 14.FAITH. Nay, I know not whether I did wholly escape her or no.CHR. Why, I trow, you did not consent to her desires?FAITH. No, not to defile myself; for I remembered an old writingthat I had seen, which said, " Her steps take hold on hell." Ps. v. 5.So I shut mine eyes, because I would not be bewitched with herlooks. Job. xxxi. I. Then she railed on me, and I went my way.CHR. Did you meet with no other assault as you came ?FAITH. When I came to the foot of the hill called Difficulty, I metwith a very aged man, who asked me what I was, and whither bound.

THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. 43I told him that I am a pilgrim, going to the Celestial City. Thensaid the old man, Thou lookest like an honest fellow; wilt thou becontent to dwell with me for the wages that I shall give thee ? ThenI asked him his name, and where he dwelt. He said his name wasAdam the First, and that he dwelt in the town of Deceit. Eph. iv. 22.I asked him then what was his work, and what the wages that hewould give. He told me, that his work was many delights; and hiswages, that I should be his heir at last. I further asked him whathouse he kept, and what other servants he had. So he told me, thathis house was maintained with all the dainties in the world; and thathis servants were those of his own begetting. Then I asked if he hadany children. He said that he had but three daughters: the Lust ofthe Flesh, the Lust of the Eyes, and the Pride of Life, and that Ishould marry them all if I would. i John ii. 16. Then I asked howlong time he would have me live with him? And he told me, As longas he lived himself.CHR. Well, and what conclusion came the old man and you to atlast ?FAITH. Why, at first, I found myself somewhat inclinable to gowith the man, for I thought he spake very fair; but looking in hisforehead, as I talked with him, I saw there written, " Put off the oldman with his deeds."CHR. And how then ?FAITH. Then it came burning hot into my mind, whatever he said,and however he flattered, when he got me home to his house, hewould sell me for a slave. So I bid him forbear to talk, for I wouldnot come near the door of his house. Then he reviled me, and toldme that he would send such a one after me, that should make myway bitter to my soul. So I turned to go away from him; but justas I turned myself to go thence, I felt him take hold of my flesh, andgive me such a deadly twitch back, that I thought he had pulled partof me after himself. This made me cry, "Oh, wretched man!"Rom. vii. 24. So I went on my way up the hill.Now when I had got about half way up, I looked behind, and sawone coming after me, swift as the wind; so he overtook me just aboutthe place where the settle stands.CHR. Just there, said Christian, did I sit down to rest me; butbeing overcome with sleep, I there lost this roll out of my bosom.FAITH. But, good brother, hear me out. So soon as the manovertook me, he was but a word and a blow, for down he knockedme, and laid me for dead. But when I was a little come to myselfagain, I asked him wherefore he served me so. He said, because ofmy secret inclining to Adam the First: and with that he struck meanother deadly blow on the breast, and beat me down backward; soI lay at his foot as dead as before. So, when I came to myself again,I cried him mercy; but he said, I know not how to show mercy; andwith that knocked me down again. He had doubtless made an endof me, but that one came by, and bid him forbear.

44 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.CHR. Who was that that bid him forbear?FAITH. I did not know him at first, but as he went by, I perceivedthe holes in his hands and in his side; then I concluded that he wasour Lord. So I went up the hill.CHR. That man that overtook you was Moses. He spareth none,neither knoweth he how to show mercy to those that transgress hislaw.FAITH. I know it very well; it was not the first time that he hasmet with me. It was he that came to me when I dwelt securely athome, and that told me he would burn my house over my head if Istayed there.CHR. But did you not see the house that stood there on the top ofthe hill, on the side of which Moses met you?FAITH. Yes, and the lions too, before I came at it: but for thelions, I think they were asleep, for it was about noon; and because Ihad so much of the day before me, I passed by the porter and camedown the hill.CHR. He told me, indeed, that he saw you go by, but I wish youhad called at the house, for they would have showed you so manyrarities, that you would scarce have forgot them to the day of yourdeath. But pray tell me, Did you meet nobody in the Valley ofHumility?FAITH. Yes, I met with one Discontent, who would willingly havepersuaded me to go back again with him; his reason was, for that thevalley was altogether without honour. He told me, moreover, thatthere to go was the way to disobey all my friends, as Pride, Arro-gancy, Self-conceit, Worldly-glory, with others, who, he knew, as hesaid, would be very much offended, if I made such a fool of myself asto wade through this valley.CHR. Well, and how did you answer him ?FAITH. I told him that although all these that he named mightcaim kindred of me, and that rightly, for indeed they were my rela-tions according to the flesh; yet since I became a pilgrim, they havedisowned me, as I also have rejected them; and therefore they wereto me now no more than if they had never been of my lineage.I told him, moreover, that as to this valley, he had quite misrepre-sented the thing; "for before honour is humility, and a haughtyspirit before a fall." Therefore, said I, I had rather go through thisvalley to the honour that was so accounted by the wisest, than choosethat which he esteemed most worthy our affections.CHR. Met you with nothing else m that valley ?FAITH. Yes, I met with Shame; but of all the men that I met within my pilgrimage, he, I think, bears the wrong name. The otherswould be said nay, after a little argumentation, and somewhat else;but this bold-faced Shame would never have done.CHR. Why, what did he say to you ?FAITH. What! why he objected against religion itself; he said itwas a pitiful, low, sneaking business, for a man to mind religion; he

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THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. 4Ssaid that a tender conscience was an unmanly thing; and that for aman to watch over his words and ways, so as to tie up himself fromthat hectoring liberty that the brave spirits of the times accustomthemselves unto, would make him the ridicule of the times. Heobjected, also, that but few of the mighty, rich, or wise, were ever ofmy opinion. x Cor. i. 26, iii. 18; Phil. iii 7, 8; nor any of themneither, John vii. 48, before they were persuaded to be fools, and tobe of a voluntary fondness, to venture the loss of all, for nobodyknows what. He, moreover, objected to the base and low estate andcondition of those that were chiefly the pilgrims of the times in whichthey lived: also their ignorance and want of understanding in allnatural science. Yea, he did hold me to it at that rate also, about agreat many more things than here I relate; as, that it was a shame tosit whining and mourning under a sermon, and a shame to comesighing and groaning home; that it was a shame to ask my neighbourforgiveness for petty faults, or to make restitution where I have takenfrom any. He said, also, that religion made a man grow strange tothe great, because of a few vices, which he called by finer names;and made him own and respect the base, because of the same religiousfraternity. And is not this, said he, a shame.?CHR. And what did you say to him?FAITH. Say! I could not tell what to say at the first. Yea, he putme so to it, that my blood came up in my face; even this Shamefetched it up, and had almost beat me quite off. But at last I beganto consider, that "that which is highly esteemed among men, is hadin abomination with God." Luke xvi. z5. And I thought again,this Shame tells me what men are; but it tells me nothing what Godor the Word of God is. And I thought, moreover, that at the day ofdoom, we shall not be doomed to death or life according to the hec-toring spirits of the world, but according to the wisdom and law ofthe Highest. Therefore, thought I, what God says is best, indeed isbest, though all the'men in the world are against it. Seeing, then,that God prefers his religion; seeing God prefers a tender conscience;seeing they that make themselves fools for the kingdom of heaven arewisest; and that the poor man that loveth Christ is richer than thegreatest man in the world that hates him; Shame, depart, thou artan enemy to my salvation! Shall I entertain thee agamst my sove-reign Lord? How then shall I look him in the face at his coming?Should I now be ashamed of hisways and servants, how can I expectthe blessing? Mark viii. 38. But, indeed, this Shame was a boldvillain; I could scarce shake him out of my company; yea, he wouldbe haunting of me, and continually whispering me in the ear, withsome one or other of the infirmities that attend religion; but at last Itold him it was but in vain to attempt further in this business; forthose things that he disdained, in those did I see most glory; and soat last I got past this importunate one. And when I had shaken himoff, then I began to sing-

46 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.The trials that those men do meet withal,That are obedient to the heavenly call,Are manifold, and suited to the flesh,And come, and come, and come again afresh;That now, or sometime else, we by them mayBe taken, overcome, and cast away.Oh, let the pilgrims, let the pilgrims thenBe vigilant, and quit themselves like men.CHR. I am glad, my brother, that thou didst withstand this villainso bravely; for of all, as thou sayest, I think he has the wrongname; for he is so bold as to follow us in the streets, and to attemptto put us to shame before all men: that is, to make us ashamed ofthat which is good; but if he was not himself audacious, he wouldnever attempt to do as he does. But let us still resist him; for not-withstanding all his bravadoes, he promoteth the fool and none else."The wise man shall inherit glory," said Solomon; "but shameshall be the promotion of fools." Prov. iii. 35.FAITH. I think we must cry to Him for help against Shame, whowould have us to be valiant for the truth upon the earth.CHR. You say true; but did you meet nobody else in that valley?FAITH. No, not I; for I had sunshine all the rest of the waythrough that, and also through the Valley of the Shadow of Death.CHR. It was well for you. I am sure it fared far otherwise withme; I had for a long season, as soon almost as I entered into thatvalley, a dreadful combat with that foul fiend Apollyon; yea, Ithought verily he would have killed me, especially when he got medown and crushed me under him, as if he would have crushed me topieces; for as he threw me, my sword flew out of my hand; nay, hetold me he was sure of me: but I cried to God, and he heard me, anddelivered me out of all my troubles. Then I entered into the Valleyof the Shadow of Death, and had no light for almost half the waythrough it. I thought I should have been killed there, over and over;but at last day broke, and the sun rose, and I went through thatwhich was behind with far more case and quiet.Moreover, I saw in my dream, that as they went on, Faithful, ashe chanced to look on one side, saw a man whose name is Talkative,walking at a distance beside them; for in this place there was roomenough for them all to walk. He was a tall man, and somethingmore comely at a distance than at hand. To this man Faithfuladdressed himself in this manner.FAITH. Friend, whither away? Are you going to the heavenlycountry?TALK. I am going to the same place.FAITH. That is well; then I hope we may have your good company.TALK. With a very good will will I be your companion.FAITH. Come on, then, and let us go together, and let us spendour time in discoursing of things that are profitable.

THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. 47TALK. To talk of things that are good, to me is very acceptable,with you or with any other; and I am glad that I have met withthose that incline to so good a work; for, to speak the truth, there arebut few that care thus to spend their time (as they are in their tra-vels), but choose much rather to be speaking of things to no profit;and this hath been a trouble to me.FAITH. That is indeed a thing to be lamented; for what things soworthy of the use of the tongue and mouth of men on earth, as arethe things of the God of heaven ?TALK. I like you wonderful well, for your sayings are full of con-viction; and I will add, what thing is so pleasant, and what so profit-able, as to talk of the things of God? What things so pleasant (thatis, if a man hath any delight in things that are wonderful?) For in-stance, if a man doth delight to talk of the history or the mystery ofthings; or if a man doth love to talk of miracles, wonders, or signs,where shall he find things recorded so delightful, and so sweetlypenned, as in the Holy Scripture?FAITH. That is true; but to be profited by such things in our talkshould be that which we design.TALK. That is it that I said; for to talk of such things is most pro-fitable; for by so doing, a man may get knowledge of many things;as of the vanity of earthly things, and the benefit of things above.Thus, in general, but more particularly, by this, a man may learnthe necessity of the new birth, the insufficiency of our works, theneed of Christ's righteousness, etc. Besides, by this a man maylearn, by talk, what it is to repent, to believe, to pray, to suffer, orthe like; by this also a man may learn what are the great promisesand consolations of the gospel, to his own comfort. Further, by thisa man may learn to refute false opinions, to vindicate the truth, andalso to instruct the ignorant.FAITH All this is true, and glad am I to hear these things from you.TALK. Alas the want of this is the cause why so few understandthe need of faith, and the necessity of a work of grace in their soul,in order to eternal lie ; but ignorantly live in the works of the law, bywhich a man can by no means obtain the kingdom of heaven.FAITH. But, by your leave, heavenly knowledge of these is thegift of God; no man attaineth to them by human industry, or only bythe talk of them.TALK. All this I know very well; for a man can receive nothing,except it be given him from heaven; all is of grace, not of works. Icould give you a hundred scriptures for the confirmation of this.FAITH. Well, then, said Faithful, what is that one thing that weshall at this time found our discourse upon ?TALK. What you will. I will talk of things heavenly, or thingsearthly; things moral, or things evangelical; things sacred, or thingsprofane; things past, or things to come; things foreign, or things athome; things more essential, or things circumstantial; provided thatall be done to our profit.

48 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.FAITH. Now did Faithful begin to wonder; and stepping to Chris-tian (for he walked all this while by himself), he said to him (butsoftly), What a brave companion have we got! Surely this man willmake a very excellent pilgrim.CHR. At this Christian modestly smiled, and said, This man, withwhom you are so taken, will beguile, with that tongue of his, twentyof them that know him not.FAITH. Do you know him then ?CHR. Know him! Yes, better than he knows himself.FAITH. Pray, what is he ?CHR. His name is Talkative; he dwelleth in our town. I wonderthat you should be a stranger to him, only I consider that our townis large.FAITH. Whose son is he? And whereabout does he dwell?CHR. He is the son of one Say-well; he dwelt in Prating Row;and is known of all that are acquainted with him, by the name ofTalkative in Prating Row; and notwithstanding his fine tongue, heis but a sorry fellow.FAITH. Well, he seems to be a very pretty man.CHR. That is, to them who have not thorough acquaintance withhim; for he is best abroad; near home, he is ugly enough. Yoursaying that he is a pretty man, brings to my mind what I haveobserved in the work of the painter, whose pictures show best at adistance, but, very near, more unpleasing.FAITH. But I am ready to think you do but jest, because yousmiled.CHR. God forbid that I should jest (although I smiled) in thismatter, or that I should accuse any falsely! I will give you a furtherdiscovery of him. This man is for any company, and for any talk;as he talketh now with you, so will he talk when he is on the ale-bench; and the more drink he hath in his crown, the more of thesethings he hath in his mouth; religion hath no place in his heart, orhouse, or conversation; all he hath, lieth in his tongue, and hisreligion is, to make a noise therewith.FAITH. Say you so! then am I in this man greatly deceived.CHR. Deceived! you may be sure of it; remember the proverb,"They say and do not." Matt. xxiii. 3. But the " kingdom of Godis not m word, but in power." I Cor. iv. 20. He talketh of prayer,of repentance, of faith, and of the new birth; but he knows but onlyto talk of them. I have been in his family, and have observed himboth at home and abroad; and I know what I say of him is the truth.His house is as empty of religion as the white of an egg is of savour.There is there neither prayer, nor sign of repentance for sin; yea, thebrute in his kind serves God far better than he. He is the very stain,reproach, and shame of religion, to all that know him; it can hardlyhave a good word in all that end of the town where he dwells, throughhim. Rom. ii. 24, 25. Thus say the common people that know him,A saint abroad, and a devil at home. His poor family finds it so: he

THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.is such a churl, such a railer at, and so unreasonable with his ser-vants, that they neither know how to do for, or speak to him. Menthat have any dealings with him, say it is better to deal with a Turkthan with him; for fairer dealing they shall have at their hands."This Talkative (if it be possible) will go beyond them, defraud,beguile, and overreach them. Besides, he brings up his sons tofollow his steps: and if he findeth in any of them a foolish timorous-ness (for so he calls the first appearance of a tender conscience), hecalls them fools and blockheads, and by no means will employ themin much, or speak to their commendations before others. For mypart, I am of opinion, that he has, by his wicked life, caused many tostumble and fall; and will be, if God prevent not, the ruin of manymore.FAITH. Well, my brother, I am bound to believe you: not onlybecause you say you know him, but also because, like a Christian,you make your reports of men. For I cannot think that you speakthese things of ill-will, but because it is even so as you say.CHR. Had I known him no more than you, I might perhaps havethought of him, as, at the first, you did; yea, had he received thisreport at their hands only that are enemies to religion, I should havethought it had been a slander-a lot that often falls from bad men'smouths upon good men's names and professions; but all these things,yea, and a great many more as bad, of my own knowledge, I canprove him guilty of. Besides, good men are ashamed of him; theycan neither call him brother, nor friend: the very naming of himamong them makes them blush, if they know him.FAITH. Well, I see that saying and doing are two things, andhereafter I shall better observe this distinction.CHR. They are two things, indeed, and are as diverse as are thesoul and the body; for as the body without the soul is but a dead car-cass, so saying, if it be alone, is but a dead carcass also. The soulof religion is the practical part: " Pure religion and undefiled, beforeGod and the Father, is this, to visit the fatherless and widows in theiraffliction, and to keep himself unspotted from the world." Jamesi. 27; see ver. 22-26. This Talkative is not aware of; he thinks thathearing and saying will make a good Christian, and thus he deceivethhis own soul. Hearing is but as the sowing of the seed, talking isnot sufficient to prove that fruit is indeed in the heart and life; andlet us assure ourselves, that at the day of doom men shall be judgedaccording to their fruits. Matt. xiii., xxv. It will not be said then,Did you believe? but, Were you doers, or talkers only? and accord-ingly shall they be judged. The end of the world is compared toour harvest; and you know men at harvest regard nothing but fruit.Not that anything can be accepted that is not of faith, but 1 speakthis to show you how insignificant the profession of Talkative will beat that day.FAITH. This brings to my mind that of Moses, by which he de-scribeth the beast that is clean. Lev. xi.; Deut. xiv. He is such aD

50 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.one that parteth the hoof and cheweth the cud; not that parteth thehoof only, or that cheweth the cud only. The hare cheweth the cud',but yet is unclean, because he parteth not the hoof. And this trulyresembleth Talkative; he cheweth the cud, he seeketh knowledge, hecheweth upon the word; but he divideth not the hoof, he parteth notwith the way of sinners; but, as the hare, he retaineth the foot of adog or bear, and therefore he is unclean.CHR. You have spoken, for aught I know, the true gospel-sense ofthose texts. And I will add another thing: Paul calleth some men,yea, and those great talkers, too, "sounding brass and tinklingcymbals," that is, as he expounds them in another place, "thingswithout life, giving sound." i Cor. xiii. 1-3; xiv. 7. Things withoutlife, that is, without the true faith and grace of the gospel; and conse-quently, things that shall never be placed in the kingdom of heavenamong those that are the children of life; though their sound, by theirtalk, be as if it were the tongue or voice of an angel.FAITH. Well, I was not so fond of his company at first, but I amas sick of it now. What shall we do to be rid of him ?CHR. Take my advice, and do as I bid you, and you shall findthat he will soon be sick of your company too, except God shall touchhis heart, and turn it.FAITH. What would you have me to do?CHR. Why, go to him, and enter into some serious discourse aboutthe power of religion; and ask him plainly (when he has approved ofit, for that he will) whether this thing be set up in his heart, house, orconversation.FAITH. Then Faithful stepped forward again, and said to Talka-tive, Come, what cheer? How is it now?TALK. Thank you, well. I thought we should have had a greatdeal of talk by this time.FAITH. Well, if you will, we will fall to it now; and since you leftit with me to state the question, let it be this: How doth the savinggrace of God discover itself, when it is in the heart of man?TALK. I perceive then, that our talk must be about the power ofthings. Well, it is a very good question, and I shall be willing toanswer you. And take my answer in brief, thus: First, Where thegrace of God is in the heart, it causeth there a great outcry againstsin. Secondly-FAITH. Nay, hold, let us consider of one at once. I think youshould rather say, It shows itself by inclining the soul to abhor its sin.TALK. Why, what difference is there between crying out against,and abhorring of sin?FAITH. Oh, a great deal. A man may cry out against sin of policy,but he cannot abhor it, but by virtue of a godly antipathy against it.I have heard many cry out against sin in the pulpit, who yet canabide it well enough in the heart, house, and conversation. Joseph'smistress cried out with a loud voice, as if she had been very holy; butshe would willingly, notwithstanding that, have committed unclean-

THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. 51tiess with him. Gen. xxxix.. 15. Some cry out against sin, even asthe mother cries out against her child in her lap, when she calleth itslut and naughty girl, and then falls to hugging and kissing it.TALK. You lie at the catch, I perceive.FAITH. No, not I; I am only for setting things right. But whatis the second thing whereby you would prove a discovery of a workof grace in the heart?TALK. Great knowledge of gospel mysteries.FAITH. This sign should have been first; but first or last, it is alsofalse; for knowledge, great knowledge, may be obtained in the mys-teries of the gospel, and yet no work of grace in the soul. i Cor. xiii.Yea, if a man have all knowledge, he may yet be nothing, and so con-sequently, be no child of God. When Christ said, "Do you knowall these things ?" and the disciples had answered, Yes; he addeth," Blessed are ye if ye do them." He doth not lay the blessing in theknowing of them, but in the doing of them. For there is a know-ledge that is not attended with doing: " He that knoweth his master'swill, and doeth it not." A man may know like an angel, and yet beno Christian, therefore your sign of it is not true. Indeed, to knowis a thing that pleaseth talkers and boasters; but to do is that whichpleaseth God. Not that the heart can be good without knowledge;for without that, the heart is naught. There is, therefore, knowledgeand knowledge. Knowledge that resteth in the bare speculation ofthings; and knowledge that is accompanied with the grace of faithand love; which puts a man upon doing even the will of God fromthe heart: the first of these will serve the talker, but without the otherthe true Christian is not content. "Give me understanding, and 1shall keep thy law; yea, I shall observe it with my whole heart.'Ps. cxix. 34.TALK. You lie at the catch again; this is not for edification.FAITH. Well, if you please, propound another sign how this wor:of grace discovereth itself where it is.TALK. Not I, for I see we shall not agree.FAITH. Well, if you will not, will you give me leave to do it ?TALK. You may use your liberty.FAITH. A work of grace in the soul discovereth itself, either to himthat hath it, or to standers by.To him that hath it thus: It gives him conviction of sin, especiallyof the defilement of his nature and the sin of unbelief (for the sake ofwhich he is sure to be damned, if he findeth not mercy at God's hand.by faith in Jesus Christ). John xvi. 8. Rom. vii. 24. John xvi. 9.Mark xvi. 16. This sight and sense of things worketh in him sor-row and shame for sin; he findeth, moreover, revealed in him theSaviour of the world, and the absolute necessity of closing with himfor life, at the which he findeth hungerings and thirstings after him:to which hungerings, etc., the promise is made. Ps. xxxviii. i8. Jer.xxxi. 19. Gal. ii. 16. Acts iv. 12. Matt. v. 6. Rev. xxi. 6. Now,according to the strength or weakness of his faith in his Saviour, so

52 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.is his joy and peace, so is his love to holiness, so are his desires toknow him more, and also to serve him in this world. But though Isay it discovereth itself thus unto him, yet it is but seldom that he isable to conclude that this is a work of grace: because his corruptionnow, and his abused reason, make his mind to rmisjudge in this mat-ter; therefore, in him that hath this work, there is required a verysound judgment before he can, with steadiness, conclude that this Lsa work of grace.To others, it is thus discovered:t. By an experimental confession of his faith in Christ. Rom. x.io. Phil. i. 27. Matt. v. 19.2. By a life answerable to that confession; to wit, a life of holiness,heart-holiness, family-holiness (if he hath a family), and by conversa-tion-holiness in the world; which, in the general, teacheth him,inwardly, to abhor his sin, and himself for that, in secret: to suppressit in his family, and to promote holiness in the world: not by talkonly, as a hypocrite or talkative person may do, but by a practicalsubjection, in faith and love, to the power of the Word. Johnxiv. 15. Ps. 1. 23. Job xlii. 5, 6. Ezekiel xx. 43. And now, Sir,as to this brief description of the work of grace, and also the disco-very of it, if you have aught to object, object; if not, then give meleave to propound to you a second question.TALK. Nay, my part is not now to object, but to hear; let me,therefore, have your second question.FAITH. It is this: Do you experience this first part of this descrip-tion of it? and doth your life and conversation testify the same? orstandeth your religion in word or in tongue, and not in deed andtruth? Pray, if you incline to answer me in this, say no more thanyou know the God above will say Amen to; and also nothing butwhat your conscience can justify you in; for, not he that commnendethhimself is approved, but whom the Lord commendeth." Besides, tosay I am thus and thus, when my conversation, and all my neigh-bours, tell me I lie, is great wickedness.TALK. Then Talkative at first began to blush; but, recoveringhimself, thus he replied: You come now to experience, to conscience,and God; and to appeal to him for justification of what is spoken.This kind of discourse I did not expect: nor am I disposed to give ananswer to such questions, because I count not myself bound thereto,unless you take upon you to be a catechiser, and, though you shouldso do, yet I may refuse to make you my judge. But, 1 pray, willyou tell me why you ask me such questions?FAITH. Because I saw you forward to talk, and because I knewnot that you had aught else but notion. Besides, to tell you all thetruth, I have heard of you, that you are a man whose religion lies intalk, and that your conversation gives this your mouth-profession thelie. They say, you are a spot among Christians; and that religionfareth the worse for your ungodly conversation; that some havealready stumbled at your wicked ways, and that more are in danger

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"THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. 53of being destroyed thereby; your religion, and an alehouse, andcovetousness, and uncleanness, and swearing, and lying, and vain-company keeping, etc., will stand together. The proverb is true ofyou which is said of a whore, to wit, that she is a shame to allwomen; so are you a shame to all professors?TALK. Since you are ready to take up reports and to judge sorashly as you do, 1 cannot but conclude you are some peevish ormelancholy man, not fit to be discoursed with; and so adieu.CHR. Then came up Christian, and said to his brother, I told youhow it would happen: your words and his lusts could not agree; hehad rather leave your company than reform his life. But he isgone, as I said; let him go, the loss is no man's but his own; he hassaved us the trouble of going from him; for he continuing (as I sup-pose he will do) as he is, he would have been but a blot in our com-pany: besides, the apostle says, " From such withdraw thyself."FAITH. But I am glad we had this little discourse with him; it mayhappen that he will think of it again: however, I have dealt plainlywith him, and so am clear of his blood, if he perisheth.CHR. You did well to talk so plainly to him as you did; there isbut little of this faithful'dealing with men now-a-days, and that makesreligion to stink so in the nostrils of many, as it doth; for they arethese talkative fools whose religion is only in word, and are debauchedand vain in their conversation, that (being so much admitted into thefellowship of the godly) do puzzle the world, blemish Christianity,and grieve the sincere. I wish that all men would deal with such asyou have done: then should they either be made more conformableto religion, or the company of saints would be too hot for them. Thendid Faithful say,How Talkative at first lifts up h;s plumes!How bravely doth he speak! How he presumesTo drive down all before him! But so soonAs Faithful talks of heart-work, like the moonThat's past the full, into the wane he goes.And so will all, but he that HEART-WORK knows.Thus they went on talking of what they had seen by the way, andso made that way easy which would otherwise, no doubt, have beentedious to them; for now they went through a wilderness.Now, when they were got almost quite out of this wilderness,Faithful chanced to cast his eye back, and espied one coming afterthem, and he knew him. Oh! said Faithful to his brother, Whocomes yonder? Then Christian looked, and said, It is my good friendEvangelist. Ay, and my good friend too, said Faithful, for it washe that set me the way to the gate. Now was Evangelist come upto them, and thus saluted them:EVAN. Peace be with you, dearly beloved; and peace be to yourhelpers.

.4 TIE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.CHR. Welcome, welcome, my good Evangelist; the sight of thycountenance brings to my remembrance thy ancient kindness andunwearied labouring for my eternal good.FAITH. And a thousand times welcome, said good Faithful. Thycompany, O sweet Evangelist, how desirable it is to us poor pilgrims!EVAN. Then said Evangelist, How hath it fared with you, myfriends, since the time of our last parting ? What have you met with,and how have you behaved yourselves ?Then Christian and Faithful told him of all things that hadhappened to them in the way; and how, and with what difficulty,they had arrived to that place.EVAN. Right glad am I, said Evangelist, not that you have metwith trials, but that you have been victors; and for that you have,notwithstanding many weaknesses, continued in the way to this veryday.I say, right glad am I of this thing, and that for mine own sakeand yours. I have sowed, and you have reaped: and the day iscoming, when both he that sowed and they that reaped shall rejoicetogether; that is, if you hold out: "for in due season ye shall reap,if ye faint not," John iv. 36; Gal. vi. 9. The crown is before you,and it is an incorruptible one; "so run, that you may obtain it,"i Cor. ix. 24-27. Some there be that set out for this crown, and,after they have gone far for it, another comes in, and takes it fromthem: hold fast, therefore, that you have; let no man take yourcrown, Rev. iii. ii. You are not yet out of the gun-shot of the devil;you have not resisted unto blood, striving against sin; let the kingdom1-e always before you, and believe steadfastly concerning things thatare invisible. Let nothing that is on this side the other world getwithin you; and, above all, look well to your own hearts, and to thelusts thereof, " for they are deceitful above all things, and desperatelywicked;" set your faces like a flint; you have all power in heavenand earth on your side.CHR. Then Christian thanked him for his exhortation; but toldhim, withal, that they would have him speak further to them for theirhelp the rest of the way, and the rather, for that they well knew thathe was a prophet, and could tell them of things that might happenunto them, and also how they might resist and overcome them. Towhich request Faithful also consented. So Evangelist began asfolloweth:-EVAN. My sons, you have heard, in the words of the truth of thegospel, that you must, through many tribulations, enter into thekingdom of heaven. And, again, that in every city bonds andafflictions abide in you; and therefore you cannot expect that youshould go long on your pilgrimage without them, in some sort orother. You have found something of the truth of these testimoniesupon you already, and more will immediately follow: for now, as yousee, you are almost out of this wilderness, and therefore you will sooncome into a town that you will by and by see before you; and in that

THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. 55town you will be hardly beset with enemies, who will strain hard butthey will kill you; and be you sure that one or both of you must sealthe testimony which you hold, with blood; but be you faithful untodeath, and the King will give you a crown of life. He that shall diethere, although his death will be unnatural, and his pain perhapsgreat, he will yet have the better of his fellow; not only because hewill be arrived at the Celestial City soonest, but because he willescape many miseries that the other will meet with in the rest of hisjourney. But when you are come to the town, and shall find fulfilledwhat I have here related, then remember your friend, and quit your-selves like men, and commit the keeping of your souls to your Godin well-doing, as unto a faithful Creator.Then I saw in my dream, that when they were got out of the wil-derness, they presently saw a town before them, and the name ofthat town is Vanity; and at the town there is a fair kept, calledVanity Fair: it is kept all the year long; it beareth the name ofVanity Fair, because the town where it is kept is lighter than vanity;and also because all that is there sold, or that cometh thither, isvanity. As is the saying of the wise, " all that cometh is vanity."Eccles. i.; ii. 11, 17; xi. 8. Isa. xi. 17.This fair is no new-erected business, but a thing of ancient stand-ing; I will show you the original of it.Almost five thousand years agone, there were pilgrims walking tothe Celestial City, as these two honest persons are; and Beelzebub,Apollyon, and Legion, with their companions, perceiving by the paththat the pilgrims made, that their way to the city lay through thistown of Vanity, they contrived here to set up a fair; a fair whereinshould be sold all sorts of vanity, and that it should last all the yearlong: therefore at this fair are all such merchandise sold, as houses,lands, trades, places, honours, preferments, titles, countries, king-doms, lusts, pleasures, and delights of all sorts, as whores, bawds,wives, husbands, children, masters, servants, lives, blood, bodies,,ouls, silver, gold, pearls, precious stones, and what not.And moreover, at this fair there is at all times to be seen jug-gling, cheats, games, plays, fools, apes, knaves, and rogues, and thatof every kind.Here are to be seen, too, and that for nothing, thefts, murders,adulteries, false swearers, and that of a blood-red colour.And as in other fairs of less moment, there are the several rows andstreets, under their proper names, where such and such wares arevended; so here likewise you have the proper places, rows, streets(viz. countries and kingdoms), where the wares of this fair are soonestto be found. Here is the Britain Row, the French Row, the ItalianRow, the Spanish Row, the German Row, where several sorts ofvanities are to be sold. But, as in other fairs, some one commodityis as the chief of all the fair, so the ware of Rome and her merchan-dise is greatly promoted in this fair; only our English nation, withsome others, have taken a dislike threat.

56 THEi PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.Now, as I said, the way to the Celestial City lies just through thistown where this lusty fair is kept; and he that will go to the City, andyet not go through this town, must needs "go out of the world."i Cor. v. xo. The Prince of princes himself, when here, wentthrough this town to his own country, and that upon a fair day too;yea, and as I chink, it was Beelzebub, the chief lord of this fair, thatinvited him to buy of his vanities; yea, would have made him lord ofthe fair, would he but have done hun reverence as he went throughthe town. Matt. iv. 8. Luke iv. 5-7. Yea, because he was sucha person of honour, Beelzebub had him from street to street, andshowed him all the kingdoms of the world in a little time, that hemight, if possible, allure the Blessed One to cheapen and buy someof his vanities; but he had no mind to the merchandise, and thereforeleft the town, without laying out so much as one farthing upon thesevanities. This fair, therefore, is an ancient thing, of long standing,and a very great fair. Now these Pilgrims, as I said, must needs gothrough this fair. Well, so they did; but, behold, even as theyentered into the fair, all the people in the fair were moved, and thetown itself as it were in a hubbub about them; and that for severalreasons: for-First, The pilgrims were clothed with such kind of raiment as wasdiverse from the rainent of any that traded in that fair. The people,therefore, of the fair, made a great gazing upon them: some said theywere fools, some they were bedlams, and some they are outlandishmen. i Cor. ii. 7, 8.Secondly, And as they wondered at their apparel, so they did like-wise at their speech; for few could understand what they said; theynaturally spoke the language of Canaan, but they that kept the fairwere the men of this world; so that, from one end of the fair to theother, they seemed barbarians each to the other.Thirdly, But that which did not a little amuse the merchandiserswas, that these pilgrims set very light by all their wares; they carednot so much as to look upon them; and if they called upon them tobuy, they would put their fingers in their ears, and cry, " Turn awaymine eyes from beholding vanity," and look upwards, signifying thattheir trade and traffic was in heaven. Ps. cxix. 37; Phil. iii. L9, 20.One chanced mockingly, beholding the carriage of the men, to sayunto them, What will ye buy? But they, looking gravely upon him,answered, " We buy the truth." Prov. xxiii. 23. At that there wasan occasion taken to despise the men the more; some mocking, sometaunting, some speaking reproachfully, and some calling upon others tosmite them. At last things caine to a hubbub and great stir in the fair,insomuch that all order was confounded. Now was word presentlybrought to the great one of the fair, who quickly came down and deputedsome of his most trusty friends to take these men into examination, aboutwhom the fair was almost overturned. So the men were brought toexamination; and they that sat upon them, asked them whence theycame, whither they went, and what they did there, in such an unusual

TH R PILGRIM'S PROGR.ESS,garb? The men told them that they were pilgrnms and strangers inthe world, and that they were going to their own country, which wasthe heavenly Jerusalem, Heb. ix. 13-16; and that they had given nooccasion to the men of the town, nor yet to the merchandisers, thusto abuse them, and to let them in their journey, except it was forthat, when one asked them what they would buy, they said theywould buy the truth. But they that were appointed to examine themdid not believe them to be any other than bedlams and umad, or elsesuch as came to put all things into a confusion in the fair. Thereforethey took them and beat them, and besmeared them with dirt, andthen put then into the cage, that they might be made a spectacle tLall the men of the fair.Behold Vanity Fair! the Pilgrims thereAre chain'd and stand beside:Even so it was our Lord passed here.And on Mount Calvary died.There, therefore, they lay for some time, and were made the objectsof any man's sport, or malice, or revenge, the great one of the fairlaughing still at all that befell them. But the men being patient, andnot rendering railing for railing, but contrariwise, blessing, and givinggood words for bad, and kindness for injuries done, some mnen in thefair that were more observing, and less prejudiced than the rest,began to check and blame the baser sort for their continual abusesdone by them to the men; they, therefore, in angry manner, let fly atthem again, counting them as bad as the men in the cage, and tellingthem that they seemed confederates, and should be made partakersof their misfortunes. The other replied; that for aught they couldsee, the men were quiet, and sober, and intended nobody any harm;and that there were many that traded in their fair that were moreworthy to be put into the cage, yea, and pillory too, than were themen they had abused. Thus, after divers words had passed on bothsides, the men behaving themselves all the while very wisely andsoberly before them, they fell to some blows among themselves, anddid harm one to another. Then were these two poor men broughtbefore their examiners again, and there charged as being guilty of thelate hubbub that had been in the fair. So they beat them pitifully,and hanged irons upon them, and led them in chains up and down thefair, for an example and a terror to others, lest any should speak intheir behalf, or join themselves unto them. But Christian and Faith-ful behaved themselves yet more wisely, and received the ignominyand shame that was cast upon them, with so much meekness andpatience, that it won to their side, though but few in comparison ofthe rest, several of the men in the fair. This put the other party yetinto greater rage, insomuch that they concluded the death of thesetwo men. Wherefore they threatened, that the cage nor irons shouldserve their turn, but that they should die, for the abuse they haddone, and for deluding the men of the fair.

58 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.Then were they remanded to the cage again, until further ordershould be taken with them. So they put them in, and made theirfeet fast in the stocks.Here, therefore, they called again to mind what they had heardfrom their faithful friend Evangelist, and were the more confirmed intheir way and sufferings, by what he told them would happen tothem. They also now comforted each other, that whose lot it was tosuffer, even he should have the best of it; therefore each man secretlywished that he might have that preferment: but committing them-selves to the all-wise disposal of Him that ruleth all things, withmuch content, they abode in the condition in which they were, untilthey should be otherwise.disposed of.Then a convenient time being appointed, they brought them forthto their trial, in order to their condemnation. When the time wascome, they were brought before their enemies and arraigned. TheJudge's name was Lord Hate-good. Their indictment was one andthe same in substance, though somewhat varying in form, the contentswhereof were this:-"That they were enemies to and disturbers of their trade; thatthey had made commotions and divisions in the town, and had won aparty to their own most dangerous opinions, in contempt of the lawof their prince."Now, Faithful, play the man, speak for thy God:Fear not the wicked's malice, nor their rod:Speak boldly, man, the truth is on thy side:Die for it, and to life in triumph ride.Then Faithful began to answer, that he had only set himselfagainst that which hath set itself against Him that is higher than thehighest. And, said he, as for disturbance, I make none, being myselfa man of peace; the parties that were won to us, were won by behold-ing our truth and innocence, and they are only turned from the worseto the better. And as to the king you talk of, since he is Beelzebub,the enemy of our Lord, I defy him and all his angels.Then proclamation was made, that they that had aught to say fortheir lord the king against the prisoner at the bar, should forthwithappear and give in their evidence. So there came in three witnesses,to wit, Envy, Superstition, and Pickthank. They were then askedif they knew the prisoner at the bar; and what they had to say fortheir lord the king against him.Then stood forth Envy, and said to this effect: My Lord, I haveknown this man a long time, and will attest upon my oath before thishonourable bench that he is-JUDGE. Hold! Give him his oath. (So they sware him.) Thenhe said-ENVY. My Lord, this man, notwithstanding his plausible name,is one of the vilest men in our country. He neither regardeth prince

THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. .Anor people, law nor custom; but doth all that he can to possess allmen with certain of his disloyal notions, which he in the general callsprinciples of faith and holiness. And, in particular, I heard him oncemyself affirm that Christianity and the customs of our town of Vanitywere diametrically opposite, and could not be reconciled. By whichsaying, my Lord, he doth at once not only condemn all our laudabledoings, but us in the doing of them.JUDGE. Then did the Judge say to him, Hast thou any more tosay ?ENVY. My Lord, I could say much more, only I would not betedious to the court. Yet, if need be, when the other gentlemen havegiven in their evidence, rather than anything shall be wanting thatwill despatch him, I will enlarge my testimony against him. So hewas bid to stand by.Then they called Superstition, and bid him look upon the prisoner.They also asked, what he could say for their lord the king againsthim. Then they sware him; so he began.SUPER. My Lord, I have no great acquaintance with this man, nordo I desire to have further knowledge of him; however, this I know,that he is a very pestilent fellow, from some discourse that, the otherday, I had with him in this town; for then, talking with him, I heardhim say, that our religion was nought, and such by which a mancould by no means please God. Which sayings of his, my Lord,your Lordship very well knows, what necessarily thence will follow,to wit, that we do still worship in vain, are yet in our sins, and finallyshall be damned; and this is that which I have to say.Then was Pickthank sworn, and bid say what he knew, in behalfof their lord the king, against the prisoner at the bar.PICK. My Lord, and you gentlemen all, This fellow I have knownof a long time, and have heard him speak things that ought not to bespoke; for he hath railed on our noble prince Beelzebub, and hathspoken contemptibly of his honourable friends, whose names are theLord Old Man, the Lord Carnal Delight, the Lord Luxurious, theLord Desire of Vain Glory, my old Lord Lechery, Sir HavingGreedy, with all the rest of our nobility; and he hath said, moreover,That if all men were of his mind, if possible, there is not one of thesenoblemen should have any longer a being in this town. Besides, hehath not been afraid to rail on you, my Lord, who are now appointedto be his judge, calling you an ungodly villain, with many other suchlike vilifying terms, with which he hath bespattered most of thegentry of our town.When this Pickthank had told his tale, the Judge directed hisspeech to the prisoner at the bar, saying, Thou runagate, heretic,and traitor, hast thou heard what these honest gentlemen have wit-nessed against thee ?FAITH. May I speak a few words in my own defence?JUDGE. Sirrah! Sirrah! thou deserves to live no longer, but to beslain immediately upon the place; yet,-that all men may see our

60 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.gentleness towards thee, let us hear what thou, vile runagate. hast tosay.FAITH. i. I say, then, In answer to what Mr Envy hath spoken,I never said aught but this, That what rule, or laws, or customs, orpeople, were flat against the Word of God, are diametrically oppositeto Christianity. If I have said amiss in this, convince me of myerror, and I am ready here before you to make my recantation.2. As to the second, to wit, Mr Superstition, and his charge againstme, I said only this, That in the worship of God there is required aDivine faith; but there can be no Divine faith without a Divinerevelation of the will of God. Therefore, whatever is thrust into theworship of God that is not agreeable to Divine revelation, cannot bedone but by a human faith, which faith will not be profitable to eter-nal life.3. As to what Mr Pickthank hath said, I say (avoiding terms, asthat I am said to rail, and the like), that the prince of this town, withall the rabblement, his attendants, by this gentleman named, aremore fit for a being in hell, than in this town and country: and so,the Lord have mercy upon me!Then the Judge called to the jury (who all this while stood by, tohear and observe): Gentlemen of the jury, you see this man aboutwhom so great an uproar hath been made in this town. You havealso heard what these worthy gentlemen have witnessed against him.Also you have heard his reply and confession. It lieth now in yourbreasts to hang him or save his life; but yet I think meet to instructyou into our law.There was an Act made in the days of Pharaoh the Great, servantto our prince, that lest those of a contrary religion should multiplyand grow too strong for him, their males should be thrown into theriver. Exod. i. There was also an Act made in the days of Nebu-chadnezzar the Great, another of his servants, that whosoever wouldnot fall down and worship his golden image, should be thrown into afiery furnace. Dan. iii. There was also an Act made in the days ofDarius, that whoso, for some time, called upon any God but him,should be cast into the lions' den. Dan. vi. Now the substance ofthese laws this rebel has broken, not only in thought (which is not tobe borne), but also in word and deed: which must therefore needs beintolerable.For that of Pharaoh, his law was made upon a supposition, to pre-vent mischief, no crime being yet apparent; but here is a crimeapparent. For the second and third, you see he disputeth againstour religion; and for the treason he hath confessed, he deserveth todie the death.Then went the jury out, whose names were, Mr Blind-man MrNo-good, Mr Malice, Mr Love-lust, Mr Live-loose, Mr Heady,Mr High-mind, Mr Enmity, Mr Liar, Mr Cruelty, Mr Hate-light, and Mr Implacable: who every ),ne gave in his private verdictagainst him among themselves, and afterwards unanimously con-

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THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.eluded to bring him in guilty before the Judge. And first, amongthemselves, Mr Blind-man, the foreman, said, I see clearly that thisman is a heretic. Then said Mr No-good, Away with such a fellowfrom the earth. Ay, said Mr Malice, for I hate the very looks ofhim. Then said Mr Love-lust, I could never endure him. Nor I,said Mr Live-loose, for he would always be condemning my way.Hang him, hang him, said Mr Heady. A sorry scrub, said MrHigh-mind. My heart riseth against him, said Mr Enmity. He isa rogue, said Mr Liar. Hanging is too good for him, said MrCruelty. Let us despatch him out of the way, said Mr Hate-light.Then said Mr Implacable, Might I have all the world given me, Icould not be reconciled to him: therefore, let us forthwith bring himin guilty of death. And so they did; therefore he was presently con-demned to be had from the place where he was, to the place fromwhence he came, and there to be put to the most cruel death thatcould be invented.They, therefore, brought him out, to do with him according totheir law; and, first, they scourged him, then they buffeted him, thenthey lanced his flesh with knives; after that, they stoned him withstones, then pricked him with their swords; and, last of all, theyburned him to ashes at the stake. Thus came Faithful to his end.Now I saw that there stood behind the multitude a chariot and acouple of horses, waiting for Faithful, who (as soon as his adversarieshad despatched him) was taken up into it, and straightway was car.ried up through the clouds, with sound of trumpet, the nearest wayto the celestial gate.Brave Faithful, bravely done in word and deed;Judge, witnesses, and jury have, insteadOf overcoming thee, but shown their rage:When they are dead, thou'lt live from age to age.But as for Christian, he had some respite, and was remanded backto prison. So he there remained for a space; but He that overrulesall things, having the power of their rage in his own hand, so wroughtit about, that Christian for that time escaped them, and went his way:and as he went, he sang, saying-Well, Faithful, thou hast faithfully profestUnto thy Lord; with whom thou shalt be blest,When faithless ones, with all their vain delights,Are crying out under their hellish plights:Sing, Faithful, sing, and let thy name survive;For, though they killed thee, thou art yet alive.Now I saw in my dream, that Christian went not forth alone, forthere was one whose name was Hopeful (being made so by the behold-ing of Christian and Faithful in their words and beha viour, in their

62 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.sufferings at the Fair), who joined himself unto them, and, enteringinto a brotherly covenant, told him that he would be his companion.Thus, one died to bear testimony to the truth, and another rises outof his ashes, to be a companion with Christian in his pilgrimage.This Hopeful also told Christian, that there were many more of themen in the Fair, that would take their time and follow after..So I saw that quickly after they were got out of the Fair, theyovertook one that was going before them, whose name was By-ends:so they said to him, What countryman, Sir? and how far go you thisway ? He told them that he came from the town of Fair-speech, andhe was going to the Celestial City, but told them not his name.From Fair-speech! said Christian. Is there any good that livesthere? Prov. xxvi. 25.BY-ENDS. Yes; said By-ends, I hope.CHR. Pray, Sir, what may I call you ? said Christian.BY-ENDS. I am a stranger to you, and you to me: if you be goingthis way, I shall be glad of your company; if not, I must be content.CHR. This town of Fair-speech, said Christian, I have heard ofand, as I remember, they say it is a wealthy place.BY-ENDS. Yes, I will assure you that it is; and I have very manyrich kindred there.CHR. Pray, who are your kindred there? if a man may be so bold.BY-ENDS. Almost the whole town; and in particular, my LordTurn-about, my Lord Time-server, my Lord Fair-speech (fromwhose ancestors that town first took its name), also Mr Smooth-man,M r Facing-both-ways, Mr Any-thing; and the parson of our parish,Mr Two-tongues, was my mother's own brother by father's side;and to tell you the truth, I am become a gentleman of good quality,yet my great-grandfather was but a waterman, looking one way androwing another, and I got most of my estate by the same occupation.CHR. Are you a married man?BY-ENDS. Yes, and my wife is a very virtuous woman, daughter ofa'virtuous woman; she was my Lady Fleming's daughter, thereforeshe came of a very honourable family, and is arrived to such a pitchof breeding, that she knows how to carry it to all, even to prince andpeasant. It is true we somewhat differ in religion from those of thestricter sort, yet but in two small points: first, we never strive againstwind and tide; secondly, we are always most zealous when religiongoes in his silver slippers; we love much to walk with him in thestreet, if the sun shines, and the people applaud him.Then Christian stepped a little aside to his fellow, Hopeful, saying,It runs in my mind that this is one By-ends of Fair-speech; and if itbe he, we have as very a knave in our company as dwelleth in allthese parts. Then said Hopeful, Ask him; methinks he should notbe ashamed of his name. So Christian came up with him again, andsaid, Sir, you talk as if you knew something more than all the worlddoth; and if I take not my mark amiss, I deem I have half a guess ofyou: Is not your name Mr By-ends, of Fair-speech ?

THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. 63BY-ENDS, This is not my name, but indeed it is a nickname that igiven me by some that cannot abide me; and I must be content tobear it as a reproach, as other good men have borne theirs before me.CHR. But did you never give an occasion to men to call you bythis name ?BY-ENDS. Never, never! The worst that ever I did to give theman occasion to give me this name was, that I had always the luck tojump in my judgment with the present way of the times, whatever itwas, and my chance was to get thereby; but if things are thus castupon me, let me count them a blessing; but let not the malicious loadme therefore with reproach.CHR. 1 thought, indeed, that you were the man that I heard of;and to tell you what I think, I fear this name belongs to you moreproperly than you are willing we should think it doth.BY-ENDS. Well, if you will thus imagine, I cannot help it; youshall find me a fair company-keeper, if you will still admit me yourassociate.CHR. If you will go with us you must go against wind and tide;the which, I perceive, is against your opinion; you must also ownreligion in his rags, as well as when in his silver slippers; and standby him, too, when bound in irons, as well as when he walketh thestreets with applause.BY-ENDS. You must not impose, nor lord it over my faith; leaveme to my liberty, and let me go with you.CHR. Not a step further, unless you will do in what I propound aswe.Then said By-ends, I shall never desert my old principles, sincethey are harmless and profitable. If I may not go with you, I mustdo as I did before you overtook me, even go by myself, until someovertake me that will be glad of my company.Now I saw in my dream, that Christian and Hopeful forsook him,and kept their distance before him; but one of them looking back,saw three men following Mr By-ends, and behold, as they came upwith him, he made them a very low congd; and they also gave him ncompliment. The men's names were Mr Hold-the-world, MrMoney-love, and Mr Save-all; men that Mr By-ends had formerlybeen acquainted with; for in their minority they were schoolfellows,and were taught by one Mr Gripe-man, a schoolmaster in Love-gain,which is a market town in the county of Coveting, in the north. Thisschoolmaster taught them the art of getting, either by violence,cozenage, flattery, lying, or by putting on a guise of religion; andthese four gentlemen had attained much of the art of their master, sothat they could each of them have kept such a school themselves.Well, when they had, as I said, thus saluted each other, Mr Money-love said to Mr By-ends, Who are they upon the road before us i(for Christian and Hopeful were yet within view.)BY-ENDS. They are a couple of far countrymen, that, after theirmode, are going on pilgrimmage.

64 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.MONEY-LOVE. Alas! Why did they not stay, that we might havehad their good company ? for they, and we, and you, Sir, I hope, areall going on a pilgrimage.BY-ENDS. We are so, indeed; but the men before us are so rigid,and love so much their own notions, and do also so lightly esteem theopinions of others, that let a man be never so godly, yet if he jumpsnot with them in all things, they thrust him quite out of their com-pany.SAVE-ALL. That is bad, but we read of some that are righteousovermuch; and such men's rigidness prevails with them to judge andcondemn all but themselves. But, I pray, what, and how many,were the things wherein you differed?BY-ENDS. Why, they after their headstrong manner, conclude thatit is duty to rush on their journey all weathers; and I am waiting forwind and tide. They are for hazarding all for God at a clap; and Iam for taking all advantages to secure my life and estate. They arefor holding their notions, though all other men are against them; butI am for religion in what, and so far as the times, and my safety, willbear it. They are for Religion when in rags and contempt; but I amfor him when he walks in his golden slippers, in the sunshine, andwith applause.MR HOLD-THE-WORLD. Aye, and hold you there still, good MtBy-ends; for, for my part, I can count him but a fool, that, havingthe liberty to keep what he has, shall be so unwise as to lose it. Letus be wise as serpents; it is best to make hay when the sun shines,you see how the bee lieth still all winter, and bestirs her only whenshe can have profit with pleasure. God sends sometimes rain, andsometimes sunshine; if they be such fools to go through the first, yetlet us be content to take fair weather along with us. For my part, Ilike that religion best that will stand with the security of God's goodblessings unto us; for who can imagine, that is ruled by his reason,since God has bestowed upon us the good things of this life, but thathe would have us keep them for his sake? Abraham and Solomongrew rich in religion. And Job says, that a good man shall lay upgold as dust. But he must not be such as the men before us, if theybe as you have described them.MR SAVE-ALL. I think that we are all agreed in this matter, andtherefore there needs no more words about it.MR MONEY-LOVE. No, there needs no more words about thismatter, indeed: for he that believes neither Scripture nor reason (andyou see we have both on our side), neither knows his own liberty, norseeks his own safety.MR Bv-ENDS. My brethren, we are, as you see, going all on pil-grimage; and for our better diversion from things that are bad, giveme leave to propound unto you this question:-Suppose a man, a minister, or a tradesman, etc., should have anadvantage lie before him, to get the good blessings of this life, yet so asthat he can by no means come by them except, in appearance at least,

THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. 65he becomes extraordinarily zealous in some points of religion that hemeddled not with before; may he not use these means to attain hisend, and yet be a right honest man?MR MONEY-LOVE. I see the bottom of your question; and, withthese gentlemen's good leave, I will endeavour to shape you ananswer. And first, to speak to your question as it concerns aminister himself: Suppose a minister, a worthy man, possessed butof a very small benefice, and has in his eye a greater, more fat, andplump by far; he has also now an opportunity of getting of it, yet soas by being more studious, by preaching more frequently, and zea-lously, and, because the temper of the people requires it, by alteringof some of his principles; for my part, I see no reason but a man maydo this (provided he has a call), aye, and more a great deal besides,and yet be an honest man. For why-i. His desire of a greater benefice is lawful (this cannot be contra-dicted), since it is set before him by Providence; so then, he may getit, if he can, making no question for conscience sake.2. Besides, his desire after that benefice makes him more studious,a more zealous preacher, etc., and so makes him a better man; yea,makes him better improve his parts, which is according to the mindof God.3. Now, as for his complying with the temper of his people, bydissenting, to serve them, some of his principles, this argueth-(i)That he is of a self-denying temper; (2) Of a sweet and winningdeportment; and so (3) more fit for the ministerial function.4. I conclude, then, that a minister that changes a small for a great,should not, for so doing, be judged as covetous; but rather, since hehas improved in his parts and industry thereby, be counted as onethat pursues his call, and the opportunity put into his hand to dogood.And now to the second part of the question, which concerns thetradesman you mentioned. Suppose such an one to have but a pooremploy in the world, but by becoming religious, he may mend hismarket, perhaps get a rich wife, or more and far better customers tohis shop; for my part, I see no reason but that this may be lawfullydone. For why-i. To become religious is a virtue, by what means soever a manbecomes so.2. Nor is it unlawful to get a rich wife, or more custom to myshop.3. Besides, the man that gets these by becoming religious, getsthat which is good, of them that are good, by becoming good himself;so then here is a good wife, and good customers, and good gain, andall these by becoming religious; therefore, to become religious, to getall these, is a good and profitable design.This answer, thus made by this Mr Money-love to Mr By-ends'question, was highly applauded by them all; wherefore they con-cluded, upon the whole, that it was most wholesome and advanta-E

66 THR PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.geous. And because, as they thought, no man was able to contradictit, and because Christian and Hopeful were yet within call, theyjointly agreed to assault them with the question as soon as they over-took them; and the rather because they had opposed Mr By-endsbefore. So they called after them, and they stopped, and stood stilltill they came up to them; but they concluded, as they went, that notMr By-ends, but old Mr Hold-the-world, should propound thequestion to them, because, as they supposed, their answer to himwould be without the remainder of that heat that was kindled betwixtMr By-ends and them, at their parting a little before.So they came up to each other, and after a short salutation, MrHold-the-world propounded the question to Christian and his fellow,and bid them to answer it if they could.CHR. Then said Christian, Even a babe in religion may answerten thousand such questions. For if it be unlawful to follow Christfor loaves (as it is in the sixth of John), how much more abominableis it to make of him and religion a stalking-horse, to get and enjoythe world! Nor do we find any other than heathens, hypocrites,devils, and witches, that are of this opinion.I. Heathens; for when Hamor and Shechem had a mind to thedaughter and cattle of Jacob, and saw that there was no ways, forthem to come at them, but by becoming circumcised; they say totheir companions, if every male of us be circumcised, as they are cir-cumcised, shall not their cattle, and their substance, and every beastof theirs, be ours! Their daughter and their cattle were that whichthey sought to obtain, and their religion the stalking-horse theymade use of to come at them. Read the whole story. Gen. xxxiv.20-23.2. The hypocritical Pharisees were also of this religion; longprayers were their pretence, but to get widows' houses was theirtent; and greater damnation was from God their judgment. Lukexx. 46, 47.3. Judas the devil was also of this religion; he was religious for thebag, that he might be possessed of what was therein; but he was lost,cast away, and the very son of perdition.4. Simon the witch was of this religion too; for he would have hadthe Holy Ghost, that he might have got money therewith; and hissentence from Peter's mouth was according. Acts viii. 19-22.5. Neither will it out of my mind, but that that man that takes upreligion for the world, will throw away religion for the world; for sosurely as Judas resigned the world in becoming religious, so surelydid he also sell religion and his Master for the same. To answer thequestion, therefore, affirmatively, as I perceive you have done, andto accept of, as authentic, such answer, is both heathenish, hypocri-tical, and devilish; and your reward will be according to your works.Then they stood staring one upon another, but had not wherewith toanswer Christian. Hopeful also approved of the soundness of Chris-tian's answer; so there was a great silence among them. Mr By-

THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. 67ends and his company also staggered and kept behind, that Christianand Hopeful might outgo them. Then said Christian to his fellow,if these men cannot stand before the sentence of men, what will theydo with the sentence of God ? And if they are mute when dealt withby vessels of clay, what will they do when they shall be rebuked bythe flames of a devouring fire.Then Christian and Hopeful outwent them again, and went tillthey came at a delicate plain called Ease, where they went withmuch content; but that plain was but narrow, so they were quicklygot over it. Now at the further side of that plain was a little hillcalled Lucre, and in that hill a silver mine, which some of them thathad formerly gone that way, because of the rarity of it, had turnedaside to see, but going too near the brink of the pit, the groundbeing deceitful under them, broke, and they were slain; some alsohad been maimed there, and could not, to their dying day, be theirown men again.Then I saw in my dream, that a little off the road, over against thesilver mine, stood Demas (gentleman-like) to call to passengers tocome and see; who said to Christian and his fellow, Ho! turn asidehither, and I will show you a thing.CHR. What thing so deserving as to turn us out of the way to seeit?DEMAS. Here is a silver mine, and some digging in it for treasure.If you will come, with a little pains, you may richly provide for your-selves.HOPE. Then said Hopeful, Let us go see.CHR. Not I, said Christian, I have heard of this place before now;and how many have there been slain; and besides that, treasure is asnare to those that seek it; for it hindereth them in their pilgrimage.Then Christian called to Demas, saying, Is not the place dangerous?Hath it not hindered many in their pilgrimage ? Hos. xiv. 8.DEMAS. Not very dangerous, except to those that are careless (butwithal, he blushed as he spake).CHR. Then said Christian to Hopeful, Let us not stir a step, butstill keep on our way.HOPE. I will warrant you, when By-ends comes up, if he hath thesame invitation as we, he will turn in thither to see.CHR. No doubt thereof, for his principles lead him that way, anda hundred to one but he dies there.DEMAS. Then Demas called again, saying, But will you not comeover and see ?CHR. Then Christian roundly answered, saying, Demas, thou artan enemy to the right ways of the Lord of this way, and hast beenalready condemned for thine own turning aside, by one of hisMajesty's judges, 2 Tim. iv. io; and why seekest thou to bring usinto the like condemnation? Besides, if we at all turn aside, ourLord the King will certainly hear thereof, and will there put us toshame, where we would stand with boldness before him.

68 TH PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.Demas cried again, that he also was one of their fraternity: andthat if they would tarry a little, he also himself would walk withthem.CHR. Then said Christian, What is thy name ? Is it not the sameby the which I have called thee?DEMAS. Yes, my name is Demas; I am the son of Abraham.CHR. I know you; Gehazi was your great-grandfather, and Judasyour father; and you have trod in their steps. 2 Kings v. 20; Matt.xxvi. 14, I5; xxviX. 1-5. It is but a devilish prank that thou usest;thy father was hanged for a traitor, and thou deserves no betterreward. Assure thyself, that when we come to the King, we will dohim word of this thy behaviour. Thus they went their way.By this time By-ends and his companions were come again withinsight, and they, at the first beck, went over to Demas. Now,whether they fell into the pit by looking over the brink thereof, orwhether they went down to dig, or whether they were smothered inthe bottom by the damps that commonly arise, of these things I amnot certain; but this I observed, that they never were seen again inthe way. Then sang Christian-By-ends and silver Demas both agree;One calls, the other runs, that he may beA sharer in his lucre; so these doTake up in this world, and no further go.Now I saw that, just on the other side of this plain, the Pilgrimscame to a place where stood an old monument, hard by the highwayside, at the sight of which they were both concerned, because of thestrangeness of the form thereof; for it seemed to them as if it hadbeen,a woman transformed into the shape of a pillar; here thereforethey stood looking, and looking upon it, but could not for a time tellwhat they should make thereof. At last Hopeful espied writtenabove the head thereof, a writing in an unusual hand: but he beingno scholar, called to Christian (for he was learned) to see if he couldpick out the meaning; so he came, and after a little laying of letterstogether, he found the same to be this, "Remember Lot's wife." Sohe read it to his fellow: after which they both concluded that thatwas the pillar of salt into which Lot's wife was turned, for her lookingback with a covetous heart, when she was going from Sodom forsafety. Gen. xix. 26. Which sudden and amazing sight gave themoccasion of this discourse.CHR. Ah, my brother! this is a seasonable sight; it came oppor-tunely to us after the invitation which Demas gave us to come overto view the Hill Lucre; and had we gone over, as he desired us, andas thou wast inclining to do, my brother, we had, for aught I know,been made ourselves like this woman, a spectacle for those that shallcome after to behold.HoPE. I am sorry that I was so foolish, and am made to wonder

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THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. 69that I am not now as Lot's wife; for wherein was the differencebetwixt her sin and mine ? She only looked back; and I had a desireto go see. Let grace be adored, and let me be ashamed that eversuch a thing should be in mine heart.CHR. Let us take notice of what we see here, for our help for timeto come. This woman escaped one judgment, for she fell not by thedestruction of Sodom; yet she was destroyed by another, as we seeshe is turned into a pillar of salt.HOPE. True; and she may be to us both caution and example;caution, that we should shun her sin; or a sign of what judgment willovertake such as shall not be prevented by this caution; so Korah,Dathan, and Abiram, with the two hundred and fifty men thatperished in their sin, did also become a sign or example to others tobeware. Num. xxvi. 9, xo. But above all, I muse at one thing, to wit,how Demas and his fellows can stand so confidently yonder to lookfor that treasure, which this woman, but for looking behind her after(for we read not that she stepped one foot out of the way), was turnedinto a pillar of salt; especially since the judgment which overtook herdid make her an example, within sight of where they are; for theycannot choose but see her, did they but lift up their eyes.CHR. It is a thing to be wondered at, and it argueth that theirhearts are grown desperate in the case; and I cannot tell who to com-pare them to so fitly, as to them that pick pockets in the presence ofthe judge, or that will cut purses under the gallows. It is said of themen of Sodom, that they were sinners exceedingly, because theywere sinners before the Lord, that is, in his eyesight, and notwith-standing the kindnesses that he had showed them, Gen. xiii. 13; forthe land of Sodom was now like the garden of Eden heretofore. Gen.xiii. Io. This, therefore, provoked him the more to jealousy, andmade their plague as hot as the fire of the Lord out of heaven couldmake it. And it is most rationally to be concluded, that such, even suchas these are, that shall sin in the sight, yea, and that too in despite ofsuch examples that are set continually before them, to caution themto the contrary, must be partakers of severest judgments.HOPE. Doubtless thou hast said the truth; but what a mercy is it,that neither thou, but especially I, am not made myself this example!This ministereth occasion to us to thank God, to fear before him, andalways to remember Lot's wife.I saw, then, that they went on their way to a pleasant river; whichDavid the king called "the river of God," but John, " the river ofthe water of life." Psa. lxv. 9; Rev. xxii.; Ezek. xlvii. Now theirway lay just upon the bank of the river; here, therefore, Christianand his companion walked with great delight; they drank also of thewater of the river, which was pleasant and enlivening to their wearyspirits: besides, on the banks of this river, on either side, were greentrees, that bore all manner of fruit; and the leaves of the trees weregood for medicine; with the fruit of these trees they were also muchdelighted, and the leaves they eat to prevent surfeits. and other dis-

70 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.eases that are Incident to those that heat their blood by travels. Oneither side of the river was also a meadow, curiously beautified withlilies, and it was green all the year long. In this meadow they laydown, and slept; for here they might he down safely. When theyawoke, they gathered again of the fruit of the trees, and drank againof the water of the river, and then lay down again to sleep. Psa.xxiii. 2; Isaiah xiv. 30. Thus they did several days and nights.Then they sang-Behold ye how these crystal streams do glide,To comfort pilgrims by the highway side;The meadows green, beside their fragrant smell,Yield dainties for them: and he that can tellWhat pleasant fruit, yea, leaves, these trees do yield,Will soon sell all, that he may buy this field.So when they were disposed to go on (for they were not, as yet, attheir journey's end), they ate and drank, and departed.Now, I beheld in my dream, that they had not journeyed far, butthe river and the way for a time parted; at which they were not alittle sorry; yet they durst not go out of the way. Now the wayfrom the river was rough, and their feet tender, by reason of theirtravels; " so the souls of the pilgrims were much discouraged becauseof the way." Num. xxi. 4. Wherefore, still as they went on, theywished for better way. Now, a little before them, there was on theleft hand of the road a meadow, and a stile to go over into it; andthat meadow is called By-path Meadow. Then said Christian to hisfellow, If this meadow lieth along by our wayside, let us go over intoIt. Then he went to the stile to see, and behold, a path lay along bythe way, on the other side of the fence. It is according to my wish,said Christian. Here is the easiest going; come, good Hopeful, andlet us go over.HOPE. But how if this path should lead us out of the way?CHR. That is not like, said the other. Look, doth it not go alongby the wayside? So Hopeful, being persuaded by his fellow, wentafter him over the stile. When they were gone over, and were gotinto the path, they found it very easy for their feet; and withal, theylooking before them, espied a man walking as they did (and his namewas Vain-confidence): so they called after him, and asked himwhither that way led. He said, To the Celestial Gate. Look, saidChristian, did not I tell you so? By this you may see we are right.So they followed, and he went before them. But, behold, the nightcame on, and it grew very dark; so that they that were behind lostthe sight of him that went before.He, therefore, that went before (Vain-confidence by name), notseeing the way before him, fell into a deep pit, Isa. ix. 16, which wason purpose there made, by the Prince of those grounds, to catchvain-glorious fools withal, and was dashed in pieces with his fall

THE PILGRIM S PROGRESS. TfNow Christian and his fellow heard him fall. So they called toknow the matter, but there was none to answer, only they heard agroaning. Then said Hopeful, Where are we now? Then was hisfellow silent, as mistrusting that he had led him out of the way; andnow it began to rain, and thunder, and lighten in a very dreadfulmanner; and the water rose amain.Then Hopeful groaned in himself, saying, Oh, that I had kept onmy way ?CHR. Who could have thought that this path should have led usout of the way?HOPE. I was afraid on it at the very first, and therefore gave youthat gentle caution. I would have spoken plainer, but that you areolder than I.CHR. Good brother, be not offended; I am sorry I have broughtthee out of the way, and that I have put thee into such imminentdanger; pray, my brother, forgive me; 1 did not do it of an evilintent.HOPE. Be comforted, my brother, for I forgive thee; and believe,too, that this shall be for our good.CHR. I am glad I have with me a merciful brother; but we mustnot stand thus: let us try to go back again.HOPE. But, good brother, let me go before.CHR. No, if you please, let me go first, that if there be any danger,I may be first therein, because by my means we are both gone out ofthe way.HOPE. No, said Hopeful, you shall not go first; for your mindbeing troubled may lead you out of the way again. Then, for theirencouragement, they heard the voice of one saying, " Set thine hearttoward the highway, even the way which thou wentest; turn again."Jer. xxxi. 21. But by this time the waters were greatly risen, byreason of which the way of going back was very dangerous. (ThenI thought that it is easier going out of the way, when we are in, thangoing in when we are out.) Yet they adventured to go back, but itwas so dark, and the flood was so high, that in their going back theyhad like to have been drowned nine or ten times.Neither eould they, with all the skill they had, get again to thestile that night. Wherefore, at last, lighting under a little shelter,they sat down there until the day-break; but being weary, they fellasleep. Now there was, not far from the place where they lay, acastle called Doubting Castle, the owner whereof was Giant Despair;and it was in his grounds they now were sleeping; wherefore he,getting up in the morning early, and walking up and down in hisfields; caught Christian and Hopeful asleep in his grounds. Then,with a grim and surly voice, he bid them awake; and asked themwhence they were, and what they did in his grounds. They told himthey were pilgrims, and that they had lost their way. Then said theGiant, You have this night trespassed on me, by trampling in, andlying on my grounds, and therefore you must go along with me. So

72 THlf PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.they were forced to go, because he was stronger than they. Theyalso had but little to say, for they knew themselves in a fault. Thegant, therefore, drove them before him, and put them into his castle,into a very dark dungeon, nasty and stinking to the spirits of thesetwo men. Psa. lxxxviii. 18. Here, then, they lay from Wednesdaymorning till Saturday night, without one bit of bread, or drop ofdrink, or light, or any to ask how they did; they were, therefore,here in evil case, and were far from friends and acquaintance. Nowin this place Christian had double sorrow, because it was through hisunadvised counsel that they were brought into this distress.The Pilgrims now, to gratify the flesh,Will seek its ease; but oh! how they afreshDo thereby plunge themselves new griefs into!Who seek to please the flesh themselves undo.Now, Giant Despair had a wife, and her name was Diffidence. Sowhen he was gone to bed, he told his wife what he had done; to wit,that he had taken a couple of prisoners and cast them into his dun-geon, for trespassing on his grounds. Then he asked her also whathe had best to do further to them. So she asked him what theywere, whence they came, and whither they were bound; and he toldher. Then she counselled him that when he arose in the morning heshould beat them without any mercy. So, when he arose, he gettethhim a grievous crab-tree cudgel, and goes down into the dungeon tothem, and there first falls to rating of them as if they were dogs,although they never gave him a word of distaste. Then he fallsupon them, and beats them fearfully, in such sort, that they were notable to help themselves, or to turn them upon the floor. This done,he withdraws and leaves them, there to condole their misery, and tomourn under their distress. So all that day they spent the time innothing but sighs and bitter lamentations. The next night, she,talking with her husband about them further, and understandingthey were yet alive, did advise him to counsel them to make awaythemselves. So when morning was come, he goes to them in a surlymanner as before, and perceiving them to be very sore with thestripes that he had given them the day before, he told them, thatsince they were never like to come out of that place, their only waywould be forthwith to make an end of themselves, either withknife, halter, or poison, for why, said he, should you choose life,seeing it is attended with so much bitterness ? But they desired him1) let them go. With that he looked ugly upon them, and, rushingto them, had doubtless made an end of them himself, but that he fellinto one of his fits (for he sometimes, in sunshiny weather, fell intofits), and lost for a time the use of his hand; wherefore he withdrew,and left them as before, to consider what to do Then did the pri-soners consult between themselves, whether it was best to take hiscounsel or no; and thus they began to discourse:--

THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. 73CHR. Brother, said Christian, what shall we do The life that wenow live is miserable. For my part I know not whether is best, tolive thus, or to die out of hand " My soul chooseth stranglingrather than life," and the grave is more easy for me than this dun-geon. Job vii. 15. Shall we be ruled by the Giant?HOPE. Indeed, our present condition is dreadful, and death wouldbe far more welcome to me than thus for ever to abide; but yet, letus consider, the Lord of the country to which we are going hath said,Thou shalt do no murder: no, not to another man's person; muchmore, then, are we forbidden to take his counsel to kill ourselves.Besides, he that kills another, can but commit murder upon his body;but for one to kill himself is to kill body and soul at once. And,moreover, my brother, thou talkest of ease in the grave; but hastthou forgotten the hell, whither for certain the murderers go? For"no murderer hath eternal life," etc. And let us consider, again,that all the law is not in the hand of Giant Despair. Others, so far as[ can understand, have been taken by him, as well as we; and yethave escaped out of his hand. Who knows, but that God that madethe world may cause that Giant Despair may die? or that, at sometime or other, he may forget to lock us in ? or that he may, in a shorttime, have another of his fits before us, and may lose the use of hislimbs ? and if ever that should come to pass again, for my part, I amresolved to pluck up the heart of a man, and to try my utmost to getfrom under his hand. I was a fool that I did not try to do it before;but, however, my brother, let us be patient, and endure a while.The time may come that may give us a happy release; but let us notbe our own murderers. With these words, Hopeful at present didmoderate the mind of his brother: so they continued together (in thedark) that day, in their sad and doleful condition.Well, towards evening, the Giant goes down into the dungeonagain, to see if his prisoners had taken his counsel; but when hecame there he found them alive; and truly, alive was all; for now,what for want of bread and water, and by reason of the wounds theyreceived when he beat them, they could do little but breathe. But,I say, he found them alive; at which he fell into a grievous rage, andtold them that, seeing they had disobeyed his counsel, it should beworse with them than if they had never been born.At this they trembled greatly, and I think that Christian fell into aswoon; but coming a little to himself again, they renewed their dis-course about the Giant's counsel; and whether yet they had best totake it or no. Now Christian again seemed to be for doing it, butHopeful made his second reply as followeth:-HOPE. My brother, said he, rememberest thou not how valiantthou hast been heretofore ? Apollyon could not crush thee, nor couldall that thou didst hear, or see, or feel, in the Valley of the Shadowof Death. What hardship, terror, and amazement hast thou alreadygone through! And art thou now nothing but fear! Thou seest thatI am in the dungeon with thee, a far weaker man by nature than thou

74 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.art; also, this Giant has wounded me as well as thee, and hath alsocut off the bread and water from my mouth; and with thee I mournwithout the light. But let us exercise a little more patience; remem-ber how thou playedst the man at Vanity Fair, and wast neitherafraid of the chain, nor cage, nor yet of bloody death. Whereforelet us (at least to avoid the shame, that becomes not a Christian to Lbfound in) bear up with patience as well as we can.Now, night being come again, and the Giant and his wife being inbed, she asked him concerning the prisoners, and if they had takenhis counsel. To which he replied, They are sturdy rogues, theychoose rather to bear all hardship, than to make away themselves.Then said she, Take them into the castle-yard to-morrow, and showthem the bones and skulls of those that thou hast already despatched,and make them believe, ere a week comes to an end, thou also willtear them in pieces, as thou hast done their fellows before them.So when the morning was come, the Giant goes to them again, andtakes them into the castle-yard, and shows them, as his wife hadbidden him. These, said he, were pilgrims as you are, once, andthey trespassed in my grounds, as you have done; and when Ithought fit, I tore them in pieces, and so, within ten days, I will doyou. Go, get you down to your den again; and with that he beatthem all the way thither. They lay, therefore, all day on Saturdayin a lamentable case, as before. Now, when night was come, andwhen Mrs Diffidence and her husband, the Giant, were got to bed,they began to renew their discourse of their prisoners; and withal theold Giant wondered, that he could neither by his blows nor his coun-sel bring them to an end. And with that his wife replied, I fear, saidshe, that they live in hope that some will come to relieve them, orthat they have picklocks about them, by the means of which theyhope to escape. And sayest thou so, my dear? said the Giant; Iwill, therefore, search them in the morning.Well, on Saturday, about midnight, they began to pray, and con-tinued in prayer till almost break of day.Now, a little before it was day, good Christian, as one half amazed,brake out in this passionate speech: What a fool, quoth he, am I,thus to lie in a stinking dungeon, when I may as well walk at liberty!I have a key in my bosom, called Promise, that will, I am persuaded,open any lock in Doubting Castle. Then said Hopeful, that is goodnews, good brother; pluck it out of thy bosom, and try.Then Christian pulled it out of his bosom, and began to try at thedungeon door, whose bolt (as he turned the key) gave back, and thedoor flew open with ease, and Christian and Hopeful both came out.Then he went to the outward door that leads into the castle-yard,and, with his key, opened that door also. After, he went to the irongate, for that must be opened too; but that lock went damnable hard,yet the key did open it. Then they thrust open the gate to maketheir escape with speed, but that gate, as it opened, made such acreaking, that it waked Giant Despair, who, hastily rising to pursue

THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. 73his prisoners, felt his limbs to fail, for his fits took him again, so thathe could by no means go after them. Then they went on, and cameto the King's highway, and so were safe, because they were out ofhis jurisdiction.Now, when they were gone over the stile, they began to contrivewith themselves what they should do at that stile, to prevent thosethat should come after, from falling into the hands of Giant Despair.So they consented to erect there a pillar, and to engrave upon theside thereof this sentence-" Over this stile is the way to DoubtingCastle, which is kept by Giant Despair, who despiseth the King ofthe Celestial Country, and seeks to destroy his holy pilgrims."Many, therefore, that followed after, read what was written, andescaped the danger. This done, they sang as follow:-Out of the way we went, and then we foundWhat 'twas to tread upon forbidden ground;And let them that come after have a care,Lest heedlessness makes them, as we, to fare.Lest they for trespassing his prisoners are,Whose castle's Doubting, and whose name's Despair.They went then till they came to the Delectable Mountains, whichmountains belong to the Lord of that hill of which we have spokenbefore; so they went up to the mountains, to behold the gardens andorchards, the vineyards and fountains of water; where also theydrank and washed themselves, and did freely eat of the vineyards.Now there were on the tops of these mountains shepherds feedingtheir flocks, and they stood by the highway side. The Pilgrimstherefore went to them, and leaning upon their staves (as is commonwith weary pilgrims, when they stand to talk with any by the way),they asked, Whose Delectable Mountains are these ? And whose bethe sheep that feed upon them?Mountains delectable they now ascend,Where Shepherds be, which to them do commendAlluring things, and things that cautious are,Pilgrims are steady kept by faith and fear.SHEP. These mountains are Immanuel's Land, and they are withinsight of his city; and the sheep also are his, and he laid down his lifefor them. John x. ii.CHR. Is this the way to the Celestial City?SHEP.' You are just in your way.CHR. How far is it thither?SHEP. Too far for any but those that shall get thither indeed.CHR. Is the way safe or dangerous ?SHEP. Safe for those for whom it is to be safe; " but the trans-gressors shall fall therein." Hos. xiv. 9.

76 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.CHR. Is there, in this place, any relief for pilgrims that are wearyand faint in the way?SHEP. The Lord of these mountains hath given us a charge not tobe "forgetful to entertain strangers," Heb. xiii. 2; therefore the goodof the place is before you.I saw also in my dream, that when the Shepherds perceived thatthey were wayfaring men, they also put questions to them, to whichthey made answer as in other places; as, Whence came you ? and,How got you into the way ? and, By what means have you so perse-vered therein ? For but few of them that begin to come hither, doshow their face on these mountains. But when the Shepherds heardtheir answers, being pleased therewith, they looked very lovinglyupon them, and said, Welcome to the Delectable Mountains.The Shepherds, I say, whose names were Knowledge, Experience,Watchful, aod Sincere, took them by the hand, and had them totheir tents, and made them partake of that which was ready at pre-sent. They said, moreover, We would that ye should stay hereawhile, to be acquainted with us; and yet more to solace yourselveswith the good of these Delectable Mountains. They then told them,that they were content to stay; so they went to their rest that night,because it was very late.Then I saw in my dream, that in the morning the Shepherds calledup Christian and Hopeful to walk with them upon the mountains; sothey went forth with them, and walked a while, having a pleasantprospect on every side. Then said the Shepherds one to another,Shall we show these pilgrims some wonders? So when they hadconcluded to do it, they had them first to the top of a hill calledError, which was very steep on the furthest side, and bid them lookdown to the bottom. So Christian and Hopeful looked down, andsaw at the bottom several men dashed all to pieces by a fall that theyhad from the top. Then said Christian, What meaneth this? TheShepherds answered, Have you not heard of them that were madeto err, by hearkening to Hymeneus and Philetus, as concerning thefaith of the resurrection of the body? 2 Tim. ii. 17, i8. Theyanswered, Yes. Then said the Shepherds, Those that you see liedashed in pieces at the bottom of this mountain are they; and theyhave continued to this day unburied, as you see, for an example toothers to take heed how they clamber too high, or how they come toonear the brink of this mountain.Then I saw that they had them to the top of another mountain,and the name of that is Caution, and bid them look afar off; which,when they did, they perceived, as they thought, several men walkingup and down among the tombs that were there; and they perceivedthat the men were blind, because they stumbled sometimes upon thetombs, and because they could not get out from among them. Thensaid Christian, What means this?The Shepherds then answered, Did you not see a little below thesemountains a stile, that led into a meadow, on the left hand of this

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THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. 77way ? They answered, Yes. Then said the Shepherds, From thatstile there goes a path that leads directly to Doubting Castle, whichis kept by Giant Despair, and these, pointing to them among thetombs, came once on pilgrimage, as you do now, even till theycame to that same stile; and because the right way was rough in thatplace, they chose to go out of it into that meadow, and there weretaken by Giant Despair, and cast into Doubting Castle: where, afterthey had been a while kept in the dungeon, he at last did put outtheir eyes, and led them among those tombs, where he has left themto wander to this very day, that the saying of the wise man might befulfilled, " He that wandereth out of the way of understanding, shallremain in the congregation of the dead." Prov. xxi. i6. ThenChristian and Hopeful looked upon one another, with tears gushingout, but yet said nothing to the Shepherds.Then I saw in my dream, that the Shepherds had them to anotherplace, in a bottom, where was a door in the side of a hill, and theyopened the door, and bid them look in. They looked in, therefore,and saw that within it was very dark and smoky; they also thoughtthat they heard there a rumbling noise as of fire, and a cry of sometormented, and that they smelt the scent of brimstone. Then saidChristian, What means this ? The Shepherds told them, This is aby-way to hell, a way that hypocrites go in at; namely, such as selltheir birthright, with Esau; such as sell their master, with Judas;such as blaspheme the gospel, with Alexander; and that lie and dis-semble, with Ananias and Sapphira his wife. Then said Hopeful tothe Shepherds, I perceive that these had on them, even every one, ashow of pilgrimage, as we have now; had they not ?SHEP. Yes, and held it a long time too.HOPE. How far might they go on in pilgrimage in their day, sincethey notwithstanding were thus miserably cast away ?SHEP. Some further, and some not so far, as these mountains.Then said the Pilgrims one to another, We have need to cry to theStrong for strength.SHEP. Aye, and you will have need to use it, when you have it,too.By this time the Pilgrims had a desire to go forward, and theShepherds a desire they should; so they walked together towards theend of the mountains. Then said the Shepherds one to another, Letus here show to the Pilgrims the gates of the Celestial City, if theyhave skill to look through our perspective glass. The Pilgrims thenlovingly accepted the motion; so they had them to the top of a highhill, called Clear, and gave them their glass to look.Then they essayed to look, but the remembrance of that last thingthat the Shepherds had shown them, made their hands shake; bymeans of which impediment, they could not look steadily through theglass; yet they thought they saw something like the gate, and alsosome of the glory of the place. Then they went away, and sang thissong-

78 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.Thus, by the Shepherds, secrets are revealed,Which from all other men are kept concealed.Come to the Shepherds, then, if you would seeThings deep, things hid, and that mysterious be.When they were about to depart, one of the Shepherds gave thema note of the way. Another of them bid them beware of the Flat-terer. The third bid them take heed that they sleep not upon theEnchanted Ground. And the fourth bid them God-speed. So Iawoke from my dream.And I slept, and dreamed again, and saw the same two Pilgrimsgoing down the mountains along the highway towards the city.Now, a little below these mountains, on the left hand, lieth thecountry of Conceit; from which country there comes into the way inwhich the Pilgrims walked, a little crooked lane. Here, therefore,they met with a very brisk lad, that came out of that country; andhis name was Ignorance. So Christian asked him from what partshe came, and whither he was going.IGNOR. Sir, I was born in the country that lieth off there a little onthe left hand, and I am going to the Celestial City.CHR. But how do you think to get in at the gate ? for you may findsome difficulty there.IGNOR. As other good people do, said he.CHR. what have you to show at that gate, that may cause thatthe gate should be opened to you ?IGNOR. I know my Lord's will, and I have been a good liver; Ipay every man his own; I pray, fast, pay tithes, and give alms, andhave left my country for whither I am going.CHR. But thou camest not in at the wicket-gate that is at the headof this way; thou camest in hither through that same crooked lane,and therefore, I fear, however thou mayest think of thyself, when thereckoning day shall come, thou wilt have laid to thy charge thatthou art a thief and a robber, instead of getting admittance into thecity.IGNOR. Gentlemen, ye be utter strangers to me, I know you not;be content to follow the religion of your country, and I will followthe religion of mine. I hope all will be well. And as for the gatethat you talk of, all the world knows that that is a great way off ofour country. I cannot think that any man in all our parts doth somuch as know the way to it, nor need they matter whether they door no, since we have, as you see, a fine, pleasant green lane, thatcomes down from our country, the next way into the way.When Christian saw that the man was "wise in his own conceit,"he said to Hopeful whisperingly, " There is more hope of a fool thanof him." Prov. xxvi. 12. And said, moreover, " When he that is afool walketh by the way, his wisdom faileth him, and he saith toevery one that he is a fool." Eccles. x. 3. What, shall we talkfurther with him, or out-go him at present; and so leave him to think

THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. 79of what he hath heard already, and then stop again for him after-wards, and see if by degrees we can do any good to him ? Thensaid Hopeful-Let Ignorance a little while now museOn what is said, and let him not refuseGood counsel to embrace, lest he remainStill ignorant of what's the chiefest gain.God saith, those that no understanding have,Although he made them, them he will not save.HOPE. He further added, It is not good, I think, to say all to himat once; let us pass him by, if you will, and talk to him anon, evenas he is able to bear it.So they both went on, and Ignorance he came after. Now whenthey had passed him a little way, they entered into a very dark lane,where they met a man whom seven devils had bound with sevenstrong cords, and were carrying of him back to the door that theysaw on the side of the hill. Matt. xii. 45; Prov. v. 22. Now goodChristian began to tremble, and so did Hopeful his companion, yetas the devils led away the man, Christian looked to see if he knewhim; and he thought it might be one Turn-away, that dwelt in thetown of Apostasy. But he did not perfectly see his face, for he didhang his head like a thief that is found. But being once p',jt, Hope-ful looked after him, and espied on his back a paper with t0 inscrip-tion, "Wanton professor and damnable apostate." Then saidChristian to his fellow, Now I call to remembrance, that which wastold me of a thing that happened to a good man hereabout. Thename of the man was Little-faith, but a good man, and he dwelt inthe town of Sincere. The thing was this: At the entering in at thispassage, there comes down from Broad-way Gate, a lane called DeadMan's Lane; so called because of the murders that are commonlydone there; and this Little-faith going on pilgrimage, as we do now,chanced to sit down there, and slept. Now there happened, at thattime, to come down the lane from Broad-way Gate, three sturdyrogues, and their names were Faint-heart, Mistrust, and Guilt (threebrothers), and they espying Little-faith, where he was, came gallop-ing up with speed. Now the good man was just awake from hissleep, and was getting up to go on his journey. So they came up allto him, and with threatening language bid him stand. At this Little-faith looked as white as a clout, and had neither power to fight norfly. Then said Faint-heart, Deliver thy purse. But he making nohaste to do it (for he was loth to lose his money), Mistrust ran up tohim, and thrusting his hand into his pocket, pulled out thence a bagof silver. Then he cried out, Thieves! Thieves! With that Guilt,with a great club that was in his hand, struck Little-faith on thehead, and with that blow felled him flat to the ground; where he laybleeding as one that would bleed to death. Al this while the thieves

8o THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.stood by. But, at last, they hearing that some were upon the road,and fearing lest it should be one Great-grace, that dwells in the cityof Good-confidence, they betook themselves to their heels, and leftthis good man to shift for himself. Now, after a while, Little-faithcame to himself, and getting up made shift to scrabble on his way.This was the story.HOPE. But did they take from him all that ever he had?CHR. No; the place where his jewels were they never ransacked,so those he kept still. But, as I was told, the good man was muchafflicted for his loss, for the thieves got most of his spending-money.That which they got not (as I said) were jewels, also he had a littleodd money left, but scarce enough to bring him to his journey's end,i Pet. iv. 18; nay, if I was not misinformed, he was forced to beg ashe went, to keep himself alive; for his jewels he might not sell. Butbeg, and do what he could, he went (as we say) with many a hungrybelly the most part of the rest of the way.HOPE. But is it not a wonder they got not from him his certificate,by which he was to receive his admittance at the Celestial Gate?t-HR. It is a wonder; but they got not that, though they missed itnot through any good cunning of his; for he, being dismayed withtheir coming upon him, had neither power nor skill to hide anything;so it was more by good Providence than by his endeavour, that theymissed of that good thing.HOPE. But it must needs be a comfort to him, that they got nothis jewels from him.CHR. It might have been great comfort to him, had he used it ashe should; but they that told me the story said, that he made butlittle use of it all the rest of the way, and that because of the dismaythat he had in the taking away his money; indeed, he forgot it agreat part of the rest of his journey; and besides, when at any timeit came into his mind, and he began to be comforted therewith, thenwould fresh thoughts of his loss come again upon him, and thosethoughts would swallow up all. i Pet. i. 9.HOPE. Alas! poor man. This could not but be a great grief tohim.CHR. Grief! ay, a grief indeed. Would it not have been so to anyof us, had we been used as he, to be robbed, and wounded too, andthat in a strange place; as he was? It is a wonder he did not diewith grief, poor heart! I was told that he scattered almost all therest of the way with nothing but doleful and bitter complaints; tellingalso to all that overtook him, or that he overtook in the way as hewent, where he was robbed, and how; who they were that did it, andwhat he lost; how he was wounded, and that he hardly escaped withhis life.HOPE. But it is a wonder that his necessity did not put him uponselling or pawning some of his jewels, that he might have wherewithto relieve himself in his journey.CHR. Thou talkest like one upon whose head is the shell to this

THE PILGRIMS S PROGRESS. 81very day; for what should he pawn them, or to whom should he sellthem? In all that country where he was robbed, his jewels were notaccounted of; nor did he want that relief which could from thence beadministered to him. Besides, had his jewels been missing at thegate of the Celestial City, he had (and that he knew well enough)been excluded from an inheritance there; and that would have beenworse to him than the appearance and villany of ten thousand thieves.HoP. Why art thou so tart, my brother? Esau sold his birthright,and that for a mess of pottage, and that birthright was his greatestjewel; and if he, why might not Little-faith do so too ? Heb. xii. I6.CHR. Esau did sell his birthright indeed, and so do many besides,and by so doing exclude themselves from the chief blessing, as alsothat caitiff did; but you must put a difference betwixt Esau andLittle-faith, and also betwixt their estates. Esau's birthright wastypical, but Little-faith's jewels were not so; Esau's belly was hisgod, but Little-faith's belly was not so; Esau's want lay in his fleshlyappetite, Little-faith's did not so. Besides, Esau could see no furtherthan to the fulfilling of his lusts; " Behold I am at the point to die(said he), and what profit shall this birthright do me ?" Gen. xxv. 32.But Little-faith, though it was his lot to have but a little faith, wasby his little faith kept from such extravagances, and made to see andprize his jewels more than to sell them, as Esau did his birthright.You read not anywhere that Esau had faith, no, not so much as alittle; therefore no marvel if, where the flesh only bears sway (as itwill in that man where no faith is to resist), if he sells his birthright,and his soul and all, and that to the devil of hell; for it is with such,as it is with the ass, who in her occasions cannot be turned away.Jer. ii. 24. When their minds are set upon their lusts, they will havethem whatever they cost. But Little-faith was of another temper, hismind was on things divine; his livelihood was upon things that werespiritual, and from above; therefore, to what end should he that is ofsuch a temper sell his jewels (had there been any that would havebought them) to fill his mind with empty things ? Will a man give apenny to fill his belly with hay; or can you persuade the turtle-doveto live upon carrion like the crow? Though faithless ones can, forcarnal lusts, pawn, or mortgage, or sell what they have, and them-selves outright to boot; yet they that have faith, saving faith, thoughbut a little of it, cannot do so. Here, therefore, my brother, is thymistake.HOPE. I acknowledge it; but yet your severe reflection had almostmade me angry.CHR. Why, I did but compare thee to some of the birds that are ofthe brisker sort, who will run to and fro in untrodden paths, with theshell upon their heads; but pass by that, and consider the matterunder debate, and all shall be well betwixt thee and me.HOPE. But, Christian, these three fellows, I am persuaded in myheart, are but a company of cowards; would they have run else, thinlyyou, as they did, at the noise of one that was coming on the road?F

82 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.Why did not Little-faith pluck up a greater heart ? He might, me-thinks, have stood one brush with them, and have yielded when therehad been no remedy.CHR. That they are cowards, many have said, but few have foundit so in the time of trial. As for a great heart, Little-faith had none;and I perceive by thee, my brother, hadst thou been the man con-cerned, thou art but for a brush, and then to yield. And, verily,since this is the height of thy stomach, now they are at a distancefrom us, should they appear to thee as they did to him, they mightput thee to second thoughts.But, consider again, they are but journeymen thieves, they serveunder the king of the bottomless pit, who, if need be, will come in totheir aid himself, and his voice is as the roaring of a lion. Psa.vii. 2; I Pet. v. 8. I myself have been engaged as this Little-faithwas, and I found it a terrible thing. These three villains set uponine, and I beginning, like a Christian, to resist, they gave but a call,and in came their master. I would, as the saying is, have given mylife for a penny; but that, as God would have it, I was clothed witharmour of proof. Aye, and yet, though I was so harnessed, I foundit hard work to quit myself like a man. No man can tell what inthat combat attends us, but he that hath been in the battle himself.HOPE. Well, but they ran, you see, when they did but supposethat one Great-grace was in the way.CHR. True, they have often fled, both they and their master, whenGreat-grace hath but appeared; and no marvel; for he is the King'sChampion. But, I trow, you will put some difference betwixt Little-faith and the King's Champion All the King's subjects are not hischampions, nor can they, when tried, do such feats of war, as he. Isit meet to think that a little child should handle Goliah as David did ?Or that there should be the strength of an ox in a wren? Some arestrong, some are weak; some have great faith, some have little.This man was one of the weak, and therefore he went to the wall.HOPE. I would it had been Great-grace for their sakes.CHR. If it had been, he might have had his hands full; for I musttell you, that though Great-grace is excellent good at his weapons,and has, and can, so long as he keeps them at sword's point, do wellenough with them: yet, if they get within him, even Faint-heart,Mistrust, or the other, it shall go hard but they will throw up hisheels. And when a man is down, you know, what can he do?Whoso looks well upon Great-grace's face, shall see those scars andcuts there, that shall easily give demonstration of what I say. Yea,once I heard that he should say (and that when he was in the com-bat), " We despaired even of life." How did these sturdy rogues andtheir fellows make David groan, mourn, and roar? Yea, Heman,and Hezekiah, too, though champions in their day, were forced tob)estir them, when by these assaulted: and yet, notwithstanding, theyhad their coats soundly brushed by them. Peter, upon a time, wouldgo try what he could do: but though some do say of him that he is the

THEIT PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. 83pFrince of the apostles, they handled him so, that they made him at"iat afraid of a sorry girl.Besides their king is at their whistle. He is never out of hearing;and if at any time they be put to the worst, he, if possible, comes into help them; and of him it is said, "The sword of him that layethat him cannot hold the spear, the dart, nor the habergeon: he esteem-eth iron as straw, and brass as rotten wood. The arrow cannot makehim flee; sling stones are turned with him into stubble. Darts arecounted as stubble: he laugheth at the shaking of a spear." Job xli.26-29. What can a man do in this case It is true, if a man could,at every turn, have Job's horse, and had skill and courage to ridehim, he might do notable things; "for his neck is clothed with thun-der, he will not be afraid of the grasshopper; the glory of his nostrilsis terrible: he paweth in the valley, and rejoiceth in his strength, hegoeth on to meet the armed men. He mocketh at fear, and is notaffrighted, neither turneth he back from the sword. The quiver rat-tleth against him, the glittering spear, and the shield. He swalloweththe ground with fierceness and rage, neither believeth he that it is thesound of the trumpet. He saith among the trumpets, Ha, ha! andhe smelleth the battle afar off, the thunder of the captains, and theshouting." Job xxxix. 19-25.But for such footmen as thee and I are, let us never desire to meetwith an enemy, nor vaunt as if we could do better, when we hear ofothers that they have been foiled, nor be tickled at the thoughts ofour own manhood; for such commonly come by the worst when tried.Witness Peter, of whom I made mention before. He would swagger,ay, he would; he would, as his vain mind prompted him to say, dobetter, and stand more for his Master than all men; but who sofoiled, and run down by these villains, as he?When, therefore, we hear that such robberies are done on theKing's highway, two things become us to do: i. To go out harnessedand to be sure to take a shield with us; for it was for want of that,that he that laid so lustily at Leviathan could not make him yield:for, indeed, if that be wanting, he fears us not at all. Therefore.he that had skill hath said, "Above all, taking the shield of faith,wherewith ye shall be able to quench all the fiery darts of thewicked." Eph. vi. 16.2. It is good, also, that we desire of the King a convoy, yea, thathe will go with us himself. This made David rejoice when in theValley of the Shadow of Death; and Moses was rather for dyingwhere he stood, than to go one step without his God. Exod. xxxiii.15. Oh, my brother, if he will but go along with us, what need webe afraid of ten thousands that shall set themselves against us ? Psa.iii. 5-8; xxvii. 1-3. But, without him, the proud helpers " fall underthe slain." Isa. x. 4.I, for my part, have been in the fray before now; and though,through the goodness of him that is best, I am, as you see, alive; yetI cannot boast of my manhood. Glad shall 1 be, if I am:et with no

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84 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.more such brunts; though I fear we are not got beyond all danger.However, since the lion and the bear have not as yet devoured me, Ihope God will also deliver us from the next uncircumcised Philistine.Then sang Christian-Poor Little-faith! Hast been among the thievesWast robb'd ? Remember this, whoso believes,And gets more faith, shall then a victor beOver ten thousand, else scarce over three.So they went on, and Ignorance followed. They went then till theycame at a place where they saw a way put itself into their way, andseemed withal to lie as straight as the way which they should go: andhere they knew not which of the two to take, for both seemedstraight before them; therefore, here they stood still to consider.And as they were thinking about the way, behold a man, black offlesh, but covered with a very light robe, came to them, and askedthem why they stood there. They answered they were going to theCelestial City, but knew not which of these ways to take. Followme, said the man, it is thither that I am going. So they followedhim in the way that but now came into the road, which by degreesturned, and turned them so from the city that they desired to go to,that, in little time, their faces were turned away from it; yet they fol.lowed him. But by and by, before they were aware, he led them bothwithin the compass of a net, in which they were both so entangled,that they knew not what to do; and with that the white robe fell offthe black man's back. Then they saw where they were. Where-fore, there they lay crying some time, for they could not get them-selves out.CHR. Then said Christian to his fellow, Now do I see myself inerror. Did not the Shepherds bid us beware of the flatterers ? As isthe saying of the wise man, so we have found it this day. "A manthat flattereth his neighbour, spreadeth a net for his feet." Prov.xxix. 5.HOPE. They also gave us a note of directions about the way, forour more sure finding thereof; but therein we have also forgotten toread, and have not kept ourselves from the paths of the destroyer.Here David was wiser than we; for, saith he, " Concerning the worksof men, by the word of thy lips, I have kept me from the paths of thedestroyer." Psa. xvii. 4. Thus they lay bewailing themselves in thenet. At last they espied a Shining One coming towards them with awhip of small cord in his hand. When he was come to the placewhere they were, he asked them whence they came, and what theydid there. They told him that they were poor pilgrims going toZion, but were led out of their way by a black man, clothed in white,who bid us, said they, follow him, for he was going thither too. Thensaid he with the whip, It is Flatterer, a false apostle, that hath trans-formed himself into an angel of light. Prov. xxix. 5; Dan. xi. 32;

THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. 852 Cor. xl. r3, T4. So he rent the net, and let the men out. Thensaid he to them, Follow me, that I may set you in your way again.So he led them back to the way which they had left to follow theFlatterer. Then he asked them, saying, Where did you lie the lastnight ? They said, With the Shepherds, upon the Delectable Moun-tains. He asked them then, if they had not of those Shepherds anote of direction for the way. They answered, Yes. But did you,said he, when you were at a stand, pluck out and read your note?They answered, No. He asked them, Why? They said, they for-got. He asked, moreover, if the Shepherds did not bid them bewareof the Flatterer. They answered, Yes, but we did not imagine, saidthey, that this fine-spoken man had been he. Rom. xvi. 18.Then I saw in my dream, that he commanded them to lie down:which, when they did, he chastised them sore, to teach them the goodway wherein they should walk, Deut. xxv. 2; and as he chastisedthem he said, "As many as I love, I rebuke and chasten; be zealous,therefore, and repent." Rev. iii. I9; 2 Chron. vi. 26, 27. Thisdone, he bid them go on their way, and take good heed to the otherdirections of the Shepherds. So they thanked him for all his kind-ness, and went softly along the right way, singing-Come hither, you that walk along the way;See how the pilgrims fare that go astray!They catched are in an entangling net,'Cause they good counsel lightly did forget:'Tis true they rescued were, but yet you see,They're scourged to boot. Let this your caution be.Now, after a while, they perceived, afar off, one coming softly andalone, all along the highway to meet them. Then said Christian tohis fellow, Yonder is a man with his back towards Zion, and he iscoming to meet us.HOPE. I see him; let us take heed to ourselves now, lest he shouldprove a flatterer also. So he drew nearer and nearer, and at lastcame up unto them. His name was Atheist, and he asked themwhither they were going.CHR. We are going to Mount Sion.Then Atheist fell into a very great laughter.CHR. What is the meaning of your laughter?ATHEIST. I laugh to see what ignorant persons you are, to takeupon you so tedious a journey, and you are like to have nothing butyour travel for your pains.CHR. Why, man, do you think we shall not be received ?ATHEIST. Received! There is no such place as you dream of inall this world.CHR. But there is in the world to come.ATHEIST. When I was at home in mine own country, I heard asyou now affirm, and from that hearing went out to see, and have been

86 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.seeking this city this twenty years, but find no more of it than I didthe first day I set out. Jer. xxii. 12; Eccles. x. 15.CHR. We have both heard and believe that there is such a place tobe found.ATHEIST. Had not I, when at home, believed, I had not comethus far to seek; but finding none (and yet I should, had there beensuch a place to be found, for I have gone to seek it further thanyou), I am going back again, and will seek to refresh myself with thethings that I then cast away, for hopes of that which, I now see, isnot.CHR. Then said Christian to Hopeful his fellow, Is it true whichthis man hath said ?HOPE. Take heed, he is one of the flatterers; remember what ithath cost us once already for our hearkening to such kind of fellows.What! no Mount Zion ? Did we not see, from the Delectable Moun-tains, the gate of the city ? Also, are we not now to walk by faith ?Let us go on, said Hopeful, lest the man with the whip overtake usagain. 2 Cor. v. 7.You should have taught me that lesson, which I will round you inthe ears withal: " Cease, my son, to hear the instruction that causethto err from the words of knowledge." Prov. xix. 27. I say, mybrother, cease to hear him, and let us "believe to the saving of thesoul." Heb. x. 39.CHR. My brother, I did not put the question to thee for that Idoubted of the truth of our belief myself, but to prove thee, and tofetch from thee a fruit of the honesty of thy heart. As for this man,I know that he is blinded by the god of this world. Let thee and Igo on, knowing that we have belief of the truth, " and no lie is of thetruth." I John ii. 21.HOPE. Now, I rejoice in hope of the glory of God. So they turnedaway from the man; and he, laughing at them, went his way.I saw then in my dream, that they went till they came into a cer-tain country, whose air naturally tended to make one drowsy, if hecame a stranger into it. And here Hopeful began to be very dull andheavy of sleep; wherefore he said unto Christian, I do now begin togrow so drowsy that I can scarcely hold up mine eyes; let us lie downhere and take one nap.CHR. By no means, said the other; lest sleeping, we never awakemore.HOPE. Why, my brother? Sleep is sweet to the labouring man;we may be refreshed if we take a nap.CHR. Do you not remember that one of the Shepherds bid us be-ware of the Enchanted Ground? He meant by that, that we shouldbeware of sleeping; " Therefore let us not sleep, as do others, but letus watch and be sober." i Thess. v. 6.HOPE. I acknowledge myself in a fault; and had I been here alone,I had by sleeping run the danger of death. I see it is true that thewise man saith, " Two are better than one." Hitherto hath thy com-

THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. 87pany been my mercy, and thou shalt have a good reward for tnylabour. Eccles. iv. 9.CHR. Now then, said Christian, to prevent drowsiness in this place,let us fall into good discourse.HOPE. With all my heart, said the other.CHR. Where shall we begin?HOPE. Where God began with us. But do you begin, if youplease.CHR. I will sing you first this song:-When saints do sleepy grow, let them come hither,And hear how these two pilgrims talk together:Yea, let them learn of them, in any wise,Thus to keep ope their drowsy slumb'ring eyes.Saints' fellowship, if it be managed well,Keeps them awake, and that in spite of hell.CHR. Then Christian began and said, I will ask you a question.How came you to think at first of so doing as you do now?HOPE. Do you mean, how came I at first to look after the good ofmy soul ?CHR. Yes, that is my meaning.HOPE. I continued a great while in the delight of those thingswhich were seen and sold at our fair: things which I believe now,would have, had I continued in them, still drowned me in perditionand destruction.CHR. What things are they?HOPE. All the treasures and riches of the world. Also I delightedmuch in rioting, revelling, drinking, swearing, lying, uncleanness,Sabbath-breaking, and what not, that tended to destroy the soul.But I found at last, by hearing and considering of things that areDivine, which indeed I heard of you, as also of beloved Faithful, thatwas put to death for his faith and good living in Vanity Fair, that"the end of these things is death." Rom. vi. 21-23. And that forthese things' sake "cometh the wrath of God upon the children ofdisobedience." Ephes. v. 6.CHR. And did you presently fall under the power of this conviction?HOPE. No, I was not willing presently to know the evil of sin, northe damnation that follows upon the commission of it; but endea-voured, when my mind at first began to be shaken with the Word, toshut mine eyes against the light thereof.CHR. But what was the cause of your carrying of it thus to the firstworkings of God's blessed Spirit upon you ?HOPE. The causes were, I. I was ignorant that this was the workof God upon me. I never thought that, by awakenings for sin, Godat first begins the conversion of a sinner. 2. Sin was yet very sweetto my flesh, and I was loath to leave it. 3. I could not tell how topart with mine old companions, their presence and actions were so

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