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Title: When is library cooperation cost effective?
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 Material Information
Title: When is library cooperation cost effective?
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Phillips, Richard F. ( Principal investigator )
Publisher: University of Florida
Publication Date: 1996
Subject: University of Florida.   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
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Bibliographic ID: UF00026150
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida

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University Project # 5501-481-12-0

Title of Proposal: "When is Library Cooperation Cost Effective?"

Submitted to Agency/Program: Association of Research Libraries
(NOTE TO THE P.I.: Please provide mailing instructions on page 2)
UNIVERSITY ENDORSEMENTS: The attached proposal has been examined by the officials whose signatures appear below. The principal academic review
of the proposal is the responsibility of the Department/Center and College. If additional space is needed for signatures, please provide them on a separate
sheet of paper.

Princip I vestige tor: (P je Director)

NAME: Richard F. Phillips Date
TITLE: Head, Latin American Collections
CAMPUSADDRESS: 414 Library West
TELEPHONE: 392-0360

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TITLE: Director of University Libraries

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11 P T U A

I '13-hillin

Is Cooperation Cost-Effective? A Study of Latin American Collections and Resource Sharing

By: Dr. Jennifer Cobb
Supervising: Dr. Sanford Berg
Date: December 12, 1996

I. Introduction

Do libraries receive beneficial cost savings from cooperative agreements to specialize their
acquisition of foreign publications? The instinctive response to this question would support
specialization: cooperation would eliminate unnecessary duplication of resources, allowing
libraries to redirect funds towards the needs of their local consumers. However, the past
breakdown of cooperative collection development plans and current concerns that acquisition
efforts have not kept up with the growth in foreign publication suggest that the cooperative
efforts may be difficult to achieve. The purpose of this project is to examine the benefits and
costs of cooperative collection development in contrast to alternatives such as the "stand alone"
library. By analyzing both the explicit and implicit costs and benefits to cooperation, we hope to
construct possible mechanisms by which cooperative collection development can be managed
and maintained for the benefit of all member libraries.

II. Cooperation versus the "Stand Alone" Library

To correctly evaluate the cost savings that we believe will arise from cooperative collection
development, we need to define the alternative outcome of non-cooperation. We will call this
non-cooperative result the "stand alone" library. The stand alone library does not collect
cooperatively with other libraries; its acquisition efforts are completely derived from its local
constituents' demands for library services. To a certain extent, libraries contain a "stand alone",
or nontraded, component: those high usage, short waiting time items which would be very costly
to borrow when compared to their cost of acquisition and management. As a result, all libraries
will have some duplication of resources, mainly at the instructional level, but will also want to
borrow materials whose usage level is so low that acquisition is not cost-effective.

An obvious problem with the stand alone position is that the libraries will not have access to very
specialized foreign language material that is useful for research purposes. Individual libraries
cannot acquire all titles published; they are subject to a budget constraint, so materials that have
immediate high-demand characteristics will receive preference in acquisition. Hence library
users will be forced to bear the costs of acquiring that information not collected by their local
library. These costs may involve a researcher traveling to another library to obtain the needed
information, or possibly to the country of publication. The cost of non-acquisition might also
include research foregone, as the lack of information encourages shifts toward research utilizing
more available materials. Libraries do not observe this cost of acquiring information, since it is
not something they are paying for explicitly. However, someone in the university community
does end up "paying" for a more homogeneous collection. These opportunity costs must be
accounted for and incorporated into analysis along with the more obvious costs of acquisition
and management.

III. Acquisition versus Borrowing

Information is an intermediate good, used as an input in the researcher's production process.
Hence, demand patterns, combined with transactions costs, will lead libraries to acquire certain
materials and not acquire others. The pattern of acquisition should follow from the specialized
research talent employed by the university. The intensity of usage of a particular item may lead
the library to acquire the publication instead of borrowing it from another library.

Another acquisition issue that must be considered if there is a lack of cooperative collection
effort is the uncertainty factor. After acquiring the high demand, instructional level materials that
they all need for their user community, libraries face the thorny question, "Do we really want to
acquire this research-oriented, lower demand material, if..." The "big if" is: if the individual
library does not acquire the item, can they borrow the item from another library if a user actually
does appear, or will no one acquire the item? This is a difficult decision. In economic terms, it
means {1 }estimating the probability the item will be requested in the future (or number of future
requests), {2}estimating the probabilities that another library will acquire, or that the library can
buy the item on the OP market at that time, versus no one acquires, {3 }figuring the explicit and
implicit costs under each of the above scenarios, then {4} calculating an "expected", or weighted
average, cost of not acquiring the item, then comparing that to the costs associated with
upfront acquisition.

In reality, librarians "guesstimate" or apply some rule of thumb to the acquisition decision, but
their thought process probably contains elements of the above analysis. Either way, one thing
stands out: the higher perceived local demand for the item, the more likely that item will be
acquired even though the item is also likely to be acquired by another library. Conversely, even
if the probability of no one else acquiring the item is high and the costs associated with that
scenario are very high, if local demand is predicted to be very low, that item may not be acquired.
As a result, collections across libraries begin to look similar, not just in the basic instructional
material, but in their collection of lower level research material as well. There may be
"somewhat specialized" library collections oriented towards faculty concentrations, but because
libraries in a non-cooperative environment are "hedging their bets" by acquiring a more diverse
research collection, monies are diverted from in depth acquisitions in one area. To the extent that
cooperation removes the uncertainty aspect from marginal items, libraries can rest assured that
they can forego acquisition and still have access via interlibrary loans. This just leaves the
acquisition decision contingent on local demand, the cost of borrowing, and the cooperative
collection development agreement.

Determining what items would be acquired or not acquired under non-cooperation is an
important component of this analysis. By predicting what publications would not be acquired,
we can begin to construct costs of non-acquisition for the user community. Acquisition entails
the cost of the item, as well as overhead and management costs, and opportunity costs reflecting
alternative uses for the money spent. Borrowing entails delivery costs, processing costs for both
libraries involved, as well as time costs for the ultimate user. When the costs of acquisition are

less than the cost of borrowing, the library should acquire these items. This leads to the ultimate
question: how high do the costs of non-cooperation have to be such that cooperation pays for
itself? Cooperation is not costless; the dissolution of previous cooperative arrangements
suggests that cooperation has not always been viewed as desirable by member libraries.

IV. Problems Underlying Cooperation

While cooperation has many appealing characteristics, it imposes special costs on member
libraries as well. Cooperation means sacrificing some local autonomy in collection management
for the greater good of the consortium. In times of budgetary hardship, or when the local demand
for library services changes substantially, it becomes difficult to maintain adherence to the
cooperative arrangement. In fact, beliefs that other members are not maintaining their designated
collection efforts will lead to a breakdown in the cooperative collection development plan. One
way of overcoming this problem is to develop an intermediary organization that monitors the
collection efforts of the member libraries. This approach is more appealing as the number of
libraries participating in the cooperative program rises.

The development of a coordinated collection that can be shared among libraries creates a product
that has some of the characteristics of a public good. As a result, some libraries will attempt to
free ride on the collection efforts of others without investing in specialized acquisitions that they
could trade. Both members and non-members of the cooperative arrangement stand to benefit
from free riding. Building the cooperative system yields benefits to non-members since they now
have access to items they would not have acquired, at low cost. Also, some members may be at
relatively early stages of collection development, and will have a tendency to borrow more than
they lend out. The combined effects lead to some libraries being persistent net lenders while
others are persistent net borrowers. Libraries who are net lenders will find they are losing money
and possibly local loans, as local users may find that the item they seek is unavailable. Since
libraries do not charge each other the true economic cost of borrowing the material, the
acquisition decisions of the libraries will be affected as well.

V. Assessing the Benefits and Costs of Cooperation

A. Benefits

1. Specialization means that library resources are not used inefficiently in trying to cover a wider
scope of materials. Trying to acquire materials incrementally in all areas may be costlier than
focused acquisitions in one specific area. These benefits are not arising from differences in
acquisition prices (though we will want to examine this point), but from the use of resources in
areas where their talents dictate they should be used.
2. Reduces purchases of certain low demand materials that now can be borrowed from other
member libraries. On net, this means some other library in the system must make the purchase,
but that the per unit cost of "producing" the material for borrowing will be lower.
3. Resources are available somewhere in the system, if not at the user's local library. One major
problem with non-cooperation is the possibility that some materials may not be acquired by any
of the libraries. Member libraries are willing to pay, either through an in-kind mechanism such

as monies allocated for their specialized collection, or in cash premiums, for this "insurance".

B. Costs

1. Organizational and monitoring costs: We need to measure the costs of maintaining
cooperation between the libraries. This does not include borrowing or lending costs. Such costs
would be the development of information resources regarding the collection holdings for each
member library, membership fees, travel costs, costs of meetings to plan acquisition
2. Lending and borrowing costs: Delivery fees, cost of labor involved in processing the material,
etc. Specialization will raise the volume of trade between libraries, so this will be significantly
3. The costs associated with extra efforts required to obtain specialized materials in the
designated collection area. As more items are acquired at greater depth, the acquisition costs will
be expected to rise. Whether this is greater than or less than the offsetting reduction in non-
acquired materials, while taking into consideration the benefits of specialization in reducing unit
labor costs remains to be seen.
4. Time costs: Some estimate of how long the user has to wait for delivery of the material to
their local library. This should be weighted by some measure of demand for the item, if possible.

C. Data

It is not cost effective to get data regarding every single item in the Latin American collection.
One possibility is to draw a random sample of titles from the collection, then try to get usage data
(both within library and across libraries) for the sample. Information on imports and exports of
Latin American materials needs to be collected. Examination of the material traded may allow
for a measure of trade composition to be constructed. With the above information, we may be
able to predict what material would or would not be acquired if cooperation was not possible.
This would measure the duplication of resources cost and could help quantify the cost of non-
acquisition that a library user might incur in order to find materials not located at a local library.

VI. Product and Timeline

A conservative estimate of what could be produced by this study is a cost-benefit analysis of
cooperative collection development in Latin American publications, and recommendations of
some organizational mechanisms that will facilitate cooperation by consortium members. A
general methodology of the acquisition decision using the University of Florida's Latin American
collection should be developed, and that technique could be applied to other libraries in another

The time period for the above project is one year, at six month full-time equivalent (FTE),
beginning in 1997. Approximately $5,000 would be budgeted toward data collection by a
research assistant. My preliminary timeline is as follows:

Stage I: Spring 1997 (January through May)

(1) Research the acquisition decision process and interlibrary loans for the Latin American
(2) Define the cost-benefit accounting data if possible, try to find monetized or non-monetized
(qualitative) measures of costs and benefits.
(3) Plan modelling effort. Begin setup of data entry process. Acquire any needed software.
(4) Hire research assistant.

Goal: Preliminary outline of cost-benefit analysis and status report on data collection efforts.

Stage II: Summer 1997 (May through August)

(1) Collection of Data by research assistantss.
(2) Begin modelling effort, calculation of costs and benefits.
(3) Scenario modelling?: Possibly some "What If..." scenarios.

Goal: Updated report with preliminary statistics

Stage III: Winter 1997 (September through December)

(1) Finish data collection
(2) Pull data together

Goal: Final cost-benefit analysis to be ready by January 1, 1998.

VII. References

Berg, Sanford V., "Planning for Computer Networks: The Trade Analogy", Management
Science, Volume 21, No. 12, August 1975.

Ordover, J.A. & R.D. Willig, "On the Optimal Provisions of Journals qua Sometimes Shared
Goods", American Economic Review, Volume 68, No. 3, June 1978.

Schauer, Bruce P., The Economics of Managing Library Service, American Library Association,

Weimer, David L. & Aidan R. Vining, Policy Analysis: Concepts and Practice, Prentice Hall,


5400-N126 NW 39th Ave.
Gainesville, FL 32606

Department of Economics
Matherly Hall 224
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
(352) 392-8784 [office]
(352) 392-0151 [messages]


Date of Birth: May 5, 1968
Citizenship: United States
Marital Status: Single

Fields of Study

Primary: Monetary and Macroeconomic Theory, Econometrics
Secondary: Finance, International Economics






University of Florida (May 1996)

University of Florida (December 1992)

B.B.A., cum laude

Business Economics George Washington University,
and Public Policy Washington, D.C. (May 1990)


"Essays in Empirical Monetary and Macroeconomics" (Abstract Enclosed)
Dissertation Supervisor: Dr. Mark Rush


"The Recession of 1990-91 and Its Impact on Auto Sales in Florida SMSA's", March
"The Effectiveness of World Bank Lending in Determining Growth", October 1994.

"The Impact of Price Controls on Interest Rates: An Empirical Study of the Wage and
Price Controls of 1971-1974", March 1993.

Teaching Experience

Fall 1996

Instructor for Managerial Economics

Spring 1996

Fall 1995

Spring 1995

Fall 1993


Instructor for Principles of Macroeconomics (Honors Program)

Instructor for Principles of Macroeconomics (Honors Program),
and Managerial Economics

Instructor for Managerial Economics

Instructor for Intermediate Macroeconomics

Graduate Teaching Assistant for Principles of Macroeconomics,
Principles of Microeconomics, and Intermediate Macroeconomics

Summer 1996

Fall 1994

Research Assistant, Regional Economic Institute, Weatherhead
School of Business, Case Western Reserve University.

Research Assistant, Policy Studies Division of the Bureau of
Business and Economic Research, University of Florida.

Dr. Mark Rush
Department of Economics
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
(904) 392-0318

Dr. David Denslow
Department of Economics
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
(904) 392-0171

Dr. William Bomberger
Department of Economics
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
(904) 392-0135

Dr. Lawrence Kenny
Department of Economics
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
(904) 392-0151

Research Experience


October 1996
Sanford V. Berg

Home: 3009 NW 1st Avenue Office: Department of Economics
Gainesville, FL 32607 P. 0. Box 117140 (224 Matherly Bldg.)
Phone: 352-373-0467 University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
Phone: 352-392-0151
352-392-0132 FAX (352) 392-7796
E-mail: berg@dale.cba.ufl.edu
Date of birth: July 26, 1944. Place of birth: Seattle, Washington.
Citizenship: U.S.A. Marital status: Married, 3 children.

Undergraduate. B.A. in Economics, University of Washington, June 1966, magna cum laude.

Graduate. Master of Philosophy in Economics, Yale University, June 1968.
Ph.D. in Economics, Yale University, June 1970.

Market Organization; Public Utilities Economics.

"Structure, Behavior and Performance in the Scientific Journal Market."

University of New Haven, New Haven, Connecticut, Adjunct Assistant Professor, September 1970 -
December 1970.

Southern Connecticut State College, New Haven, Lecturer, January June 1971.

University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, Assistant Professor, September 1971 1976.

Uppsala University, Sweden, Visiting Professor at Institute for National Economics, Spring 1975.

University of Florida, Gainesville, Associate Professor, September 1976 1988.

University of Florida, Professor of Economics, September 1988 to present.

Florida Public Utilities Professor, 1989 to present.

Distinguished Service Professor, April 1995 to present.


Research Associate, National Bureau of Economic Research, 1969-1977.

Consultant: Center for Applied Linguistics, 1970-1971; National Bureau of Standards--Committee
on Automation Opportunities in the Service Areas, 1971-1976; Government Development Bank of
Puerto Rico, "Strategy for the Development of the Service Sectors in Puerto Rico," December 1977;
National Technical Information Service, Department of Commerce, July 1978; Office of Technology
Assessment, 1981, 1990. Arent, Fox, Kintner, Plotkin and Kahn, Washington, D.C., 1981; Holland
& Knight, Tampa, Florida, 1981; Parker, Johnson, Owen, McGuire, Michaud, Lang and
Kruppenbacher, P.A., 1989; Technology Futures, Inc., 1982; Florida Electric Power Coordinating
Group, Inc. 1986-87; CSX, 1993; Oglethorpe Power Corporation, 1994; Quantum Health Resources,
1994; World Bank, 1994; Akerman, Senterfitt & Eidson, P.A., 1994.

Associate Director, Public Utility Research Center, University of Florida, 1974. Executive Director
of PURC, 1978-1995. Director of PURC, 1996-present.

Testimony before the Florida Public Service Commission on "Declining Block Rate Structure,"
December 1979, and "Peak Load Pricing," January 1980.

Tampa Electric Company Citizen's Advisory Task Force Siting, 1989-90.

Office of Technology Assessment, "Regulatory Structures and the Deployment of Information
Technologies in Rural America," May-August 1990.

New York Public Service Commission, "Analysis of External Performance Indices for Application
to Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation," July-December 1992.

Mexico Ministry of Energy, Mines and State-Owned Industries (SEMIP), Seminar for the Regulatory
Commission for the Power Sector Electricity Costing and Pricing, 9/21-24/93.

Florida Power Plant Licensing Siting Task Force, Technical Advisory Group -- Department of
Community Affairs, September December 1993.

Telecommunications Industry Analysis Project, Project Co-Director, March 1994 present.

Bureau of Industry Economics, Australian Department of Industry, Science, and Technology, "What
Can We Learn from the U.S. Experience in Regulatory Monopolies?" and "Reconciling Social Issues
and Infrastructure Provision: The U.S. Experience," July August 1995.

Southern Company College -- Course development and instruction, Financial Analysis, 1995.

World Bank/PURC International Training Course on Utility Regulation and Strategy, Project
Director, 1996-present.


Principal Investigator, with Philip Friedman, "Government Policy Toward Joint Ventures as a
Mechanism Affecting Research and Development," National Science Foundation (RDA 75-19064),
1975 1977, $134,200.

Co-Investigator, with Edna Loehman and Alex Green (ICAAS), "Health-Economic Analyses and
Decision Modeling of Sulphur Oxide Pollution in Florida," contract from Florida Sulphur Oxides
Study, Inc., 1976 1977, $59,000.

Cooperating Investigator for 1974 1978 EDUCOM Project, "A Planning Study for a Simulation and
Gaming Project for Inter-Institutional Computer Net-Working." Faculty Associate, "Effects of
Priority Pricing and Income Faculty Research Computing" (NSP #77-07985 Computer Science
Section), Richard Elnicki, Principal Investigator, September 1977 to August 1979, $52,400.

Principal Investigator, "Environmental Regulations in Florida: Economic Impact on Electric
Utilities," September 1977 to August 1978, $16,400 from Board of Regents.

"Metering for Innovative Electric Rates: A Framework for Benefit-Cost Analysis," December 14,
1981. Report to Department of Energy-PURPA Section 461-32(c) for FPSC: $226,000.

Principal Investigator, "Forecasts of Energy Consumption in Florida: 1987-2006," with Prakash
Loungani, Report to Governor's Energy Office, April 1989, $37,000.

Principal Investigator, "Manufactured Housing Energy Efficiency Incentives," with Barney Capehart,
for Governor's Energy Office, June 1990 September 1991, $48,045.

Principal Investigator, "Telecommunications: Research, Training and Reports," for Florida Public
Service Commission, 1990-91: $58,000, 1991-92: $56,000.
Principal Investigator, "Florida Energy Forum," for FPSC, July November 1996: $75,000.
Principal Investigator, World Bank International Training Course on Utility Regulation and Strategy,
1996-97: $175,000.

Phi Beta Kappa, 1966.
Woodrow Wilson Fellow, 1966-1967.
NDEA Fellowship, 1966-1968.
Brookings Institute Research Fellow, 1968-1969.
Michigan State University Institute for Public Utilities Awards for Paper in Public Utilities
Economics and Regulation, 1983.
Public Utilities Reports Awards First Place Papers, 1988, 1991.
College of Business Outstanding Undergraduate Teaching Award, 1989-90, 1992-93.
Department of Economics -- Outstanding Teacher of the Year Award, 1990-91.
Beta Gamma Sigma, National Business Honorary, Faculty Inductee, 1991.
Florida Blue Key Distinguished Faculty Award, 1994.
University of Florida -- Outstanding Undergraduate Teacher of the Year, 1992-93.
University of Florida -- Teaching Improvement Program (TIP) Award, 1993.
University of Florida -- Nominee for Professor of the Year Award (Carnegie Foundation for the
Advancement of Teaching), 1994.


Managing Editor, Review of Income and Wealth, 1969-1971.
Annals of Economic and Social Measurement, 1971-1977.
Editorial Board, Land Economics, 1994-present.
Referee, Public Finance Quarterly, Journal of Political Economy, Journal of Economic Literature,
Swedish Journal of Economics, Journal of Economics and Business, Journal of Economics and
Management Strategy, Decision Science, Economic Inquiry, Energy Economics, Energy Journal,
Energy Policy, European Journal of Political Economy, Financial Review, Land Economics, American
Economic Review, Journal of Economics and Management Strategy, Industrial Organization Review.
Reviewer of proposals for Prentice-Hall, Macmillan Publishing Co., St. Martin's Press, University
of Michigan Press, MIT Press, Cambridge University Press and National Science Foundation.

American Economic Association. Industrial Organization Society.
Southern Economic Association. International Telecommunications Society.
International Association of Energy Economists.


"Copyright, Conflict, and a Theory of Property Rights," Journal of Economics Issues, June 1971, 71-
79. Reprinted in Volume 1, The Economy as a System of Power, Warren J. Samuels, ed., Transaction
Books, 1979, 395-403.

"Increasing the Efficiency of the Economics Journal Market," Journal of Economic Literature, Vol.
9, No. 3, September 11, 1971, 798-813.

"An Economic Analysis of the Demand for Scientific Journals," Journal of the American Society of
Information Science, Vol. 23, No. 1, January/February 1972, 23-29.

"Interdependent Tastes and Fashion Behavior," Quarterly Review of Economics and Business, Vol.
13, No. 2, Summer 1973, 49-58.

"Determinants of Technological Change in the Service Industries," Technological Forecasting and
Social Change, Vol. 5, May 1973, 407-426.

"Scale Economies: An Ambiguity in the Theory of Limit Pricing," with Charles Needy, Industrial
Organization Review, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1973, 137-141.

"Sectoral Employment and Shifts in the Aggregate Phillips Curve," with Thomas R. Dalton, Southern
Economic Journal, Vol. 41, No. 4, April 1975, 593-601.

"Planning for Computer Networks: The Trade Analogy," Management Science, Vol. 21, No. 12,
August 1975, 1458-1465.

"Labor Force Participation in Goods and Services: 1958-1971," with Thomas R. Dalton, Review of
Economics and Statistics, Vol. 57, No. 4, November 1975, 518-522.



"Entry and Performance in the Journal Market," Nebraska Journal of Economics and Business, Vol.
15, No. 1, Winter 1975, 5-19.

"Electricity Price Structures: Efficiency, Equity, and the Composition of Demand," with James D.
Herden, Land Economics, Vol. 52, No. 2, May 1976, 169-178.

"Profits, Payments, and Complementary Products: Additional Ways to Improve Pari-Mutual
Taxation," with Emery Jay Yelton, National Tax Journal, Vol., 29, No. 2, June 1976, 191-199.

"Some Remarks on Residential Electricity Consumption and Social Rate Restructuring," with William
Roth, Bell Journal of Economics, Vol. 7, No. 2, Autumn 1976, 690-698.

"Joint Ventures, Competition, and Technological Complementarities: Evidence from Chemicals,"
with Philip Friedman, Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 43, No. 3, January 1977, 1330-1337.

"United Kingdom Labour Force Activity Rates: Unemployment and Real Wages," with Thomas R.
Dalton, Applied Economics, Vol. 9, No. 3, September 1977, 265-270.

"Technological Complementarities and Industrial Patterns of Joint Venture Activity, 1964-1975," with
Philip Friedman, Industrial Organizational Review, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1978, 110-116.

"External vs. Internal Knowledge Acquisition: Joint Venture Activity and R&D Intensity," with Philip
Friedman and Jerome Duncan, Journal of Economics and Business, Vol. 31, No. 2, February 1979,

"Distributional Analysis of Regional Benefits and Costs of Air Quality Control," with E. Loehman.
A. Arroyo, R. Hedinger, J. Schwartz, M. Shaw, R. Fahien, V. De, R. Fishe, D. Rio, W. Rossley,
and A.E.S. Green, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Vol. 6, No. 3, September
1979, 222-243.

"Federal Policies on Utilities' Research and Development Expenses," Public Utilities Fortnightly, Vol.
104, No. 8, October 11, 1979, 18-24.

"The Phillips Curve for Italy: A Comment on Structural Change," with Thomas R. Dalton, Economia
Internazionale, Vol. 32, Nos. 2-3, May/August 1979, 1-7.

"Causes and Effects of Joint Venture Activity: Knowledge Acquisition vs. Parent Horizontality," with
Philip Friedman, Antitrust Bulletin, Vol. 25, No. 1, Spring 1980, 143-168.

"Corporate Courtship and Successful Joint Ventures," with Philip Friedman, California Management
Review, Vol. 22, No 2, Spring 1980, 85-91.

"Impacts of Domestic Joint Ventures on Industrial Rates of Return: A Cross-Pool Analysis, 1964-
1975," with Philip Friedman, Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 63, No. 2, May 1981, 293-

"Load Management: Rationing vs. Peak Load Pricing," The Energy Journal, Vol. 2, No. 1, January
1981, 89-98.



"PURPA: Benefit-Cost Analysis for Innovative Rates," Public Utilities Fortnightly, Vol. 108, No.
8, October 8, 1981, 21-30.

"Causal Responsibility and Peak Load Pricing," Energy Economics, Vol. 4, No. 4, October 1982,

"Metering Technology for Innovative Electric Rates," with Barney Capehart, Michael Storin, and
Robert L. Sullivan, International Journal of Energy Systems, Vol. 2, No. 2, 1982, 87-92.

"Impact of Deregulation on Point-to-Point Demand in the USA," with Patricia Pacey,
Telecommunications Policy, Vol. 6, No. 4, December 1982, 308-314.

"The Theory of Maximum KW Demand Charges for Electricity," with Andreas Sawides, Energy
Economics, Vol. 5, No. 4, October 1983, 258-266.

"An Interdisciplinary Approach to Cost/Benefit Analysis of Innovative Electric Rates," with Barney
Capehart, Jack Feldman, Stephen LaTour, and Robert Sullivan, Resources and Energy, Vol. No. 4,
1983, 313-330.

"Power Factors and the Efficient Pricing and Production of Reactive Power," with James Adams and
Robert Niekum, The Energy Journal, Special Electricity Issue, Vol. 4, 1983, 93-102.

"The Identification of Predatory Behavior in the Presence of Uncertainty," with Richard E. Romano,
International Journal of Industrial Organization, Vol. 3, 1985, 231-243.

"Microprocessor-Based Electrical Energy Cost and Consumption Monitors," with Barney L. Capehart
and Robert L. Sullivan, International Journal of Energy Systems, Vol. 6, No. 1, 6-10.

"Simulation of Costs and Benefits for Electric Utility Direct Load Control," with Barney Capehart and
Robert L. Sullivan, International Journal of Energy Systems, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1986, 42-46.

"Predatory Intent Under Uncertainty" with Richard E. Romano, Review of Industrial Organization,
Vol. 3, No. 1, 1986, 1-9.

"Impact of Residential Time of Day Pricing on Generation System Expansion Planning," with Robert
Sullivan et. al., International Journal of Energy Systems, Vol. 6, No. 3, 1986, 99-102.

"Duopoly Compatibility Standards with Partial Cooperation and Standards Leadership," Information
Economics and Policy, Vol. 3, 1988, 35-53.

"Technical Standards as Public Goods: Demand Incentives for Cooperative Behavior," Public
Finance Quarterly, Vol. 17, No. 1, January 1989, 29-54.

"The Production of Compatibility: Technical Standards as Collective Goods," Kyklos, Vol. 42, FASC
3, 1989, 361-383.



"Modeling State Energy Consumption: Forecasts for Florida, 1987-2006," with P. Loungani, Energy
Economics, Vol. 12, No. 3, July 1990, 216-226.

"Multinational Enterprises, Tax Policy and R & D Expenses," with Martin Grace, Southern Economic
Journal, Vol. 57, No. 1, July 1990, 125-138.

"An Evaluation of Incentive Regulation for Electric Utilities," with Jinook Jeong, Journal of
Regulatory Economics, Vol. 3, No. 1, March 1991, 45-55.

"Frameworks for State Energy Policy: The Case of Florida," with Prakash Loungani, Strategic
Planning for Energy and the Environment, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1991, 56-69.

"The Measurement and Encouragement of Telephone Service Quality," with John Lynch,
Telecommunications Policy, Vol. 16, No. 3, April 1992, 210-224.

"A Guide to Cross-Subsidization and Price Predation: Ten Myths," with Dennis L. Weisman,
Telecommunications Policy, Vol. 16, No. 6, August 1992, 447-459.

"Telecommunications: Balancing Regulation and the Marketplace," Public Utilities Fortnightly, Vol.
131, May 15, 1993, 15-17.

"Electricity Consumption in Manufactured Housing," with Chris Taylor, Energy Economics, Vol. 16,
No. 1, January 1994, 54-62.

"Regulatory Measurement and Evaluation of Telephone Service Quality," with T. Buzas and J. Lynch,
Management Science, Vol. 40, No. 2, February 1994, 169-194.

"The Customer Bill as an Index of Performance," Electricity Journal, January/February 1995.

"Contributions of Neoclassical Economics to Public Utility Analysis," with John Tschirhart, Land
Economics, August 1995.

"A Market Test for Natural Monopoly," with John Tschirhart, Journal of Regulatory Economics,

"Price Cap Policies in the Transition from Monopoly to Competitive Markets," with R. Dean
Foreman, Industrial and Corporate Change, 1995.

"Incentive Regulation and Telco Performance: A Primer," with R. Dean Foreman,
Telecommunications Policy, October 1996.

"A Comparison of Costs in Privately-Owned and Publicly-Owned Electric Utilities: The Role of Scale,"
with Dong Soo Koh and Lawrence W. Kenny, Land Economics, February 1996.


Joint Venture Strategy and Corporate Innovation, with P. Friedman and J. Duncan. Cambridge, MA:
Olgeschlagen, Gunn & Hain, Inc., 1982, xvi-192.

Innovative Electric Rates: Issues in Cost-Benefit Analysis, editor and contributor. Lexington, MA:
Lexington Books, 1983, ix-335.

Natural Monopoly Regulation: Principles and Practice, with John Tschirhart. New York: Cambridge
University Press, 1988, xii-564.


"Utility Regulation in Florida." In Florida's Politics and Government, edited by Manning Dauer,
Gainesville, Florida: University Presses of Florida, 1980, 342-346.

"Pollution Dispersion Modeling and Regional Public Policy Implications," with A. Green, E.
Loehman, et. al. In Environmental and Climatic Impact of Coal Utilization, edited by J. J. Singh and
A. Deepak, New York: Academic Press, 1979, 481-539.

"Introduction to Innovative Rates" (3-8); "Innovative Rates and Regulatory Goals" (31-52);
"Consumer Responses to Innovative Electric Rates" (55-78); "An Engineering/Economic Model of
the Benefits and Costs of Time-of-Use Pricing," with Robert L. Sullivan (227-248); "Directions for
Load Management Research," (283-304). In Innovative Electric Rates: Issues in Cost-Benefit
Analysis, Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1983 .

"Benefit-Cost Comparisons of Load Management Strategies." In Award Papers in Public Utility
Economics and Regulation, edited by Harry Trebing, East Lansing, Michigan: Institute of Public
Utilities at Michigan State University, 1982, 66-93.

"Public Policy and Corporate Strategies in the AM Stereo Market," in Product Standardization and
Competitive Strategy, H. Landis Gabel, (ed). New York: North Holland, 1987, 149-169.

"Entrepreneurship Over the Product Life Cycle: Joint Venture Strategies in the Netherlands," with
Jacob M. Hockman in Cooperative Strategies in International Business, edited by F. J. Contractor and
P. Lorange, Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1988, 145-167.

"Electric and Telecommunications Utilities" with Thomas Moore, in The Economy of Florida, edited
by David Denslow et al, Gainesville, Florida: University of Florida Press, 1990, 207-222.

"Technical Standards and Technological Change in the Telecommunications Industry," in Volume 5,
Advances in Applied Micro-Economics, Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press, 1990, 105-127.

"Issues in the Measurement of Telephone Service Quality," with T. Buzas and J. Lynch, Chapter in
After the Breakup: Assessing the New Post AT&T Divestiture Era, edited by Barry Cole, New York:
Columbia University Press, 1991, 268-276.

"A New Index of Telephone Service Quality: Academic and Regulatory Review," Chapter in Quality
and Reliability of Telecommunication Infrastructure, edited by William Lehr, New Jersey: Erlbaum
Publishers, forthcoming (1994).


CHAPTERS (continued)

"Reconciling Social Issues and Infrastructure Provision: The U.S. Experience," in Infrastructure
Pricing Policy Forum 1995, Australia Bureau of Industry Economics, May 1996.

"What Can We Learn from the U.S. Experience in Regulatory Monopolies?," in Infrastructure Pricing
Policy Forum 1995, Australia Bureau of Industry Economics, May 1996.

"Regulatory Developments in the USA: An Overview," in Regulatory Review 1995, ed. Peter Vass,
UK: Centre for the Study of Regulated Industries, 1995.

"Effect of Industrial Concentration: A Cross-Section Analysis for the Common Market," by Louis
Philips, in Journal of Political Economy, March/April, 1973, 507-509.

"Alienation and Economics," by Walter A. Weisskopf, in Journal of Economic Issues, March 1973,

"Regulation and Markets," by Daniel F. Spulber (MIT Press), in Managerial and Decision
Economics, Vol. 12, 1990.

Public Utility Regulation, eds. Nowotny, Smith and Trebing (Kluwer), in Review of Industrial
Organization, Vol. 6, 1991, 99-101.

Regulation and Economic Analysis: A Critique over Two Centuries, by Richard L. Gordon (Kluwer),
in Journal of Economic Literature, 1995.

Incentive Regulation and the Regulation of Incentives, by Glenn Blackmon (Kluwer), in Prometheus,
June 1996.

"Innovations in Communication: The National Bureau of Economic Research and the Computer," with
Neville Beharie, American Statistician, Vol. 25, No. 5, December 1971, 28-32.

"Computers, Information Retrieval and Research Methodology," Annals of Economic Social
Measurement, Vol. 1, No. 1, January 1972, 1-5.

"The CPS Viewed from the Outside," Annals of Economic and Social Measurement, Vol. 2, No. 2,
April 1973, 99-104.

"Networks in Economics," Paper presented at the EDUCOM Fall Conference, October 12, 1972, in
Networks and Disciplines, EDUCOM, 1973, 25-37.

"R&D in Finnish Industry: 1967-73," with Pecca A. Luukkainen, Journal of the Economic Society
of Finland, (Ekonomista Samundets Tidskriff), Vol. 1, 1977, 9-16.

"Regulation Means Higher Electric Bills, But the Alternative Could Be Worse," Business and
Economic Dimensions, Winter 1987, Vol. 15, No. 4, 8-15.




"CEO and Board Chairman: A Quantitative Study of Dual vs. Unitary Board Leadership," with
Stanley K. Smith, Directors and Board, Vol. 3, No. 1, Spring 1987, 34-39.

"Joint Ventures in American Industry," with Philip Friedman, Mergers and Acquisitions, Vol. 13, No.
2, Summer 1978, 28-41.

"Joint Ventures in American Industry: Part II: Case Studies in Managerial Policy," with Philip
Friedman, Mergers and Acquisitions, Vol. 13, No. 3, Fall 1978, 9-17.

"Joint Ventures in American Industry: Public Policy," with Philip Friedman, Mergers and
Acquisitions, Vol. 13, No. 4, Winter 1979, 18-29.

"An Evaluation of Incentive Regulation: Corrections," with Jinook Jeong, Journal of Regulatory
Economics, Vol. 6, No. 3, September 1994, 321-328.

"Promoting Production Efficiency in a Competitive Market," TB&A inforum, Vol. 1, no. 6,
September-October 1994, 1.

"Economic Analysis of Innovative Rates," Public Utilities Fortnightly, Vol. 105, No. 13, Observers'
Forum, June 19, 1980, 115-116.

"Network Economics and Funding," contributor in Networks for Research and Education. Edited by
Martin Greenberger, Julius Aronfsky, James L. McKenny, and William G. Massey (MIT Press,
1974). From a NSF-EDUCOM Workshop, January 1973, 55-73.

Panel Chairman, "Report of Conference on Making the Service Industries More Productive Through
Computers and Automation Conference." Sponsored by National Bureau of Standards and
Engineering Foundation, August 12-17, 1973. Issued June 1974, NBSIR 74-515, 7-11.

Contributor to Chapters 4 and 5, Automation Criteria and Segment Reporting. Report of the Federal
Council of Science and Technology Committee on Automation Opportunities, NSF 74-500, May
1975, 73-78.

"Comment on Twombley," Disclosure Criteria and Segment Reporting. Proceedings of an
Accounting Research Center Conference, January 27-28, 1977, University of Florida, 1979.

"Governmental Policy Towards Joint Venture as a Mechanism Affecting R&D," with Philip
Friedman. Executive Summary-Final Report for NSF grant RDA 75-19064, December 1978.

"Environmental Regulations in Florida: Economic Impacts on Electric Utilities." Final Report,
STAR grant 77-232, April 4, 1979, 111.

"Quantification and Development of Marginal Cost Based Electric Rates: The Perturbation Method,"
with Larry Brockman. Final Report of STAR grant 78-1212, April 18, 1980, 152.



"Strategic Responses to Environmental Regulation: Long Range Transport of Air Pollution." Report
to Office of Technology Assessment, U.S. Congress, prepared under Contract No. 133-4680.0,
August 10, 1980.

"Executive Summary: Metering for Innovative Electric Rates: A Framework for Benefit-Cost
Analysis," Report to Department of Energy-PURPA Section 461-32(c) for Florida Public Service
Commission, December 14, 1981.

"Several Lessons in Deregulation," Telephony: The Journal of the Telephone Industry, Vol. 205, No.
27, July 4, 1983, 38-46.

"The Clean Clothes Act: A Fable," Regulation, November/December 1981, 43. Reprinted as "The
Laundering of America," in Across the Board, April 1984 (The Conference Board).

Interview in Technology Illustrated, "The Cost of Commuting by Telephone," Vol. 4, No. 3, March
1984, 76.

Contributor to Principles for Electric Power Policy, edited by Technology Futures, Inc., and Scientific
Foresight, Inc., Westport, CT: Quorum Books, 1984, supported by NSF Grant No. PRA-8019781,

"Cross Industry Survey of Approaches to Regulation: United States and Canada," Report to the World
Bank, August 1994.

"White Paper on Telecommunications Legislation Approaches to Resolving Telecommunications
Issues in Florida," prepared for Florida Legislature, November 1994.

"Recovery of Joint Costs in a Competitive Environment," presented at the American Public Power
Association workshop, September 20, 1995, September 7, 1995.

"Regulatory Wild Cards: Unforeseen Impacts on Investment Decisions in Regulated Companies," with
Paul Vasington, for AEA Meetings, January 1997.


"Regulation and Technological Change."

"Evolution of U.S. Electricity Regulation."



Introductory Microeconomics (TV lecture and small sections, undergraduate).
Intermediate Microeconomic Theory (undergraduate).
Government Regulation of Business (undergraduate).
Public Utility Economics (undergraduate and graduate).
Industrial Organization (graduate).
Economics of Technological Change (undergraduate).
Industrial Policy in the US & UK (undergraduate).
Managerial Economics (MBA).


1971-1994, Chairperson or active member of 24 Economics Ph.D.'s.
Chairperson for 9 Economics M.A.'s.
Active Committee Member for 7 Engineering Ph.D.'s or M.A.'s.
Active Committee Member for 12 Business Ph.D.'s.


President's Council 1984-1987.
Faculty Senate, 1975-1977, 1979-1981, 1987-1989.
Chairman, University Nominating Committee, 1988-89.
Member, UF Academic Advisory Committee, 1990-1993.
Chairman, University Faculty Sabbatical Program Evaluation Committee, 1992-93.
Technical Advisory Committee-U of F Cogeneration Project, 1986-1988.
Minority Mentor, 1992-1995.

Chairman, Dean Search Committee, 1989-1990.
Member, BEBR Director Search Committee, 1989-1990.
Member, Dean's Advisory Committee, 1989-1992.
Member, College Tenure and Promotion Committee, 1989-1992, 1995-98, Chairman, 1991-1992.
Chairman, College Undergraduate Committee, 1995-96.
College of Business Petitions and Admissions Committee, 1972-1973.
College and University Sabbatical Committees, 1986, 1988.
College MBA Committee, 1986-1988.
College TIP (Teaching Improvement Program) Awards Selection Committee, 1994-present.

Department Chairperson Recruitment Committee, 1976, 1987, and 1988.
Department Graduate Committee, 1991.
Department Undergraduate Committee, 1979, 1981-1984, 1994-present.
Faculty Advisor, Omicron Delta Epsilon (Economics Honorary), 1979-1984.


Assist in obtaining research support ($295,400, 1996-1997).
Organize annual conference.
Lead seminars and organize workshops for FPSC, NARUC, IEEE, APPA, and other organizations.


I. Summary of Future Analysis During Phase III
Phase III: Upcoming Events
1. Finish the analysis of the interlibrary lending data.
2. Finish the analysis of the interlibrary borrowing data (Latin
American and Caribbean materials requested by UF community
from other institutions).
3. Finish collecting and analyzing cost data: acquisition, labor,
cataloging, maintenance, storage and interlibrary lending costs.
4. Tracking a random sample of UF Latin American Collection
acquisitions to determine if other libraries have acquired.
5. Interview with members of UF's Latin American Studies group
to survey their reactions to specialization, how they locate
citations to certain materials, their usage of interlibrary loan, etc.
II. Chapter 1: Introduction (from earlier proposal)
III. Chapter 2: Resource Sharing and Collection Development: What Does It Take
To Be A "Specialized" Library?
Contains a statistical analysis of the Latin American Collection's
interlibrary loans for the first quarter of 1997,

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