Title: Foods, nutrition and health
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026127/00001
 Material Information
Title: Foods, nutrition and health
Alternate Title: Bulletin 56 ; Florida Agricultural Extension Service
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Stennis, Mary A.
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Publication Date: October, 1929
Copyright Date: 1929
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026127
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aab7708 - LTQF
amt6829 - LTUF
47284842 - OCLC
002570516 - AlephBibNum


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The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.

Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida

October, 1929

(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)



Florida's Healthiest 4-H Club Girls, 1929

Bulletins will be sent free upon application to the
State Home Demonstration Department, Tallahassee, Florida

Bulletin 56


P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola
W. B. DAVIS, Perry
FRANK J. WIDEMAN, West Palm Beach
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee


JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University
WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc.. Director
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
R. M. FULGHUM, B.S.A., Assistant Editor
E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest

W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairy Specialist
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citrus Pathologist and Entomologist
N. R. MEHRHOF, M. AGR., Poultryman

VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Assistant State Agent
LUCY BELLE SETTLE, B.S., District Agent
RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent
MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., District Agent
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Food and Marketing Agent
MARY A. STENNIS, M.A., Extension Nutritionist

Food, Nutrition and Health Score ----- --.......... --- --- 5
Food and Nutrition Program Outline.-------....-.... ------..... 7
Body Needs, and Foods to Meet these Needs..--....--.. ...----.- 8
Milk ----..........----------- ----.. 11
Eggs ...----------....-- ----- .......... 20
Vegetables ------ --.. ......---------.. ----------- .. 24
Fruits .....- .......-- ----------- -.-- ... 31
Cereals .- ....---... .-------- -------------. .. 33
Meal Planning and Serving .-.- -...... . ...... ...... ..-. 36
Suggestions for County Contest Day ----.. --..... .... ...... .- ...-- 38


The nutrition program for 4-H Club Girls stresses food selec-
tion and preparation, posture, sunshine, and exercise and rest.
This program begins with the plan of learning how to score
nutrition and health, and continues with a definite plan of study
and demonstration of improvement in nutrition and health.
The first year girls (ages 10 to 12) carry a program of "Watch
Us Grow." The second and third year club members will use
this bulletin with the Nutrition Record Book, and the third and
fourth year girls carry a school lunch program which combines
a plan of service for the school and community as well as for

The completion of the girls' program in Food, Nutrition and
Health, qualifies a club girl to take the Women's Program, or,
with the recommendation of her home demonstration agent, to
be a project leader for a girls' club beginning the Food, Nutrition
and Health Program.

Food, Nutrition and Health

"An adequate diet, a wholesome program of living, and a state
of optimum nutrition and health" is the purpose. How shall
we score? How shall we know good nutrition?
Too often weight has been the one and only deciding measure.
The weight standard selects the children below the average (and
usually they are undernourished) but it fails to select a great
number of children who weigh, according to the tables, the
average number of pounds, but who are, at the same time, poorly
nourished. Then let's get away from the idea that "I'm all
right" or "I'm perfect" because the scales tip at average.
Score (See Record Book, Pages 2-5)
I. Weight
Weigh first. Record the weight, height, age and aver-
age weight. If the bones are not unusually small bring
weight at least to average according to height-weight-age
II. General Appearance
a. Flesh
1. Too much for activity; for appearance.
2. Body well rounded; bones of neck, arms, legs,
ribs well covered.
3. Body thin or very thin.
4. Flesh firm, fairly firm or soft.
b. Skin and mucous membrane
1. Face
a. Color (color varies with natural color
of skin). Good. Fair. Poor.
b. Color under eyes. Natural color of
face. Dark circles.
2. Hair glossy.
3. Mucous membrane of mouth and eyelids.
a. Deep pink (no inflammation). Good.
Fair. Poor.
c. Posture
1. Erectness. Ear, shoulder cap, hip bone, and
ankle bone in line. Head erect (neck in line
with trunk).
2. Shoulders even.
3. Shoulder blades flat across the back.
4. Back: No lateral curve.
Normal curves correct.
5. Abdomen flat in lower part.
6. Weight balanced equally on ball and heel of
feet and carried over center.

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7. Feet parallel. Arches strong and limber.
Ankle joints same inside and outside.
d. Facial Expression
1. Bright in conversation or attention.
2. Calm, happy, free from strain and worry in
e. Other points of well built, well used body
1. Arms and legs straight and strong; joints
not enlarged.
2. Teeth regular, meeting perfectly; well kept;
jaws well formed making teeth even.
3. Breathing easy and deep with mouth closed
when exercising or sleeping.
III. Health habits necessary in a program of good nutrition
a. Regular eating. No solid food between meals.
b. Elimination regular and thorough.
c. Sleep-nine to 10 hours.
d. Rest period during the day.
e. Exercise out-of-doors every day; some work, some
f. Generous amount of Florida sunshine every day.
g. A demonstration to others in better nutrition, bet-
ter health.
The following materials will prove helpful, and
can be secured:
Bulletins: United States Department of Agricul-
ture Leaflet 42, "Good Food Habits for Children,"
C. Rowena Schmidt. "Building a Good Body,"
Hilda Faust, Calif. Ext. Dpt. "Sunlight the Health
Giver," Metropolitan Life Ins. Co.
Slides: Build Early for Good Growth. United
States Department of Agriculture, Washington,
D. C.
Films: Posture. Children's Bureau, Washing-
ton, D. C. Posture for Health and Beauty, United
States Department of Agriculture, Washington,
D. C.
Mimeographed Material, Florida Home Demon-
stration Department: 1. Exercise for Posture.
2. The Posture Play.
Charts: Superintendent of Documents, United
States Department of Agriculture. The American
Posture League, No. 1, Madison Avenue, New York

Food, Nutrition and Health


1. Body Needs Building and Repairing
Growth and Health
2. Foods to Meet the Needs. Proteins Minerals
Sugars Vitamins
Starches Water

1. Milk, eggs, vegetables, fruits, cereals and their food value
and preparation.

1. Meal Planning. To meet body needs
2. Meal Serving. (See F.S.C.W. Bulletin 28, pages 9-12.)

1. Prepare two dishes under each program (II, III, IV, V,
and VI).
2. Plan, prepare, and serve one meal (breakfast, dinner
or supper).
1. Prepare four dishes under each program (II, III, IV,
V, and VI).
2. Plan, prepare, and serve breakfast, dinner and supper
for the family.

1. Recipes for dishes prepared.
2. Menu for meal served.
1. Recipes for dishes prepared.
2. Menu for meals served.

Florida Cooperative Extension


What is to you the most interesting building? You may think
of many, but the real answer is the human body. How is it
made? Much has been learned, but there remain many mys-
teries. How long does it take to build it? As long as life lasts,
for it is a living building. Who builds it? Given the material,
it builds itself. Does it "work" all the time? Yes. Even when
actual work and play cease and sleep and rest come, breathing,
digestion, and circulation continue. Then what is the wonder-
ful material which-
1st. Builds and repairs the body?
.2nd. Makes the body "go"?
3rd. Keeps every part in working order?
The answer is "food."
Now since these buildings of ours are made of so many differ-
ent kinds of tissues-muscle, fat, bones, teeth, skin-and since
there are bodies of so many different ages and sizes, there must
be not one food, but a combination of many foods to meet all
the needs.
The feeding of the body to "make it go," to supply the power
for work and play, is in some ways like the feeding of an engine.
1. The food (fuel) must be of the best quality.
2. Food (fuel) must be supplied regularly.
3. The waste matter must be handled correctly.
Are you a good engineer? Do you
1. Make a wise choice of food?
2. Have regular meal hours?
3. Clear the digestive tract of waste matter?
Or do you fire the furnace too much at times and not enough
at others? Do you forget to clean the furnace some days?
When you have made for yourself regular food habits, then you
are ready to study different kinds of foods and how they do
their work.
We may classify our foods in six groups.
1. Proteins Build, repair, and furnish energy.
2. Fats Supply energy.
3. Starches Supply energy.
4. Sugars Supply energy.
5. Minerals Build tissue and regulate body processes.
6. Vitamins Protect from disease, keep well.
7. Water Regulate. Supply building material.
8. Cellulose, or Fiber Regulate digestion.

Food, Nutrition and Health

All foods supply some energy to the body, but fats, starches,
and sugars furnish the bulk of our supply. Bread, butter, milk,
yolk of egg, and cereals are among the best energy producers.
What will happen if we do not eat enough of these foods? If
the furnace is not fed enough fuel the fire goes out. Happily
for our bodies, they can last a short while. However, they must
use the fat already in the bodies. When the fat is gone the
body draws on the muscle. Then the body is weakened.
What happens if we eat too much?
1. We become too fat.
2. Digestion does not work well.
Why does the girl of 10 to 14 need a generous amount of food?
1. She is growing; she needs building material.
2. She is always "on the go," and needs energy material.
How can she tell when she is getting enough energy food?
Use the standard table of age, weight, and height, and weigh
every month. If she is average weight and steadily making
gains according to age and height she may take that as a sign
of enough fuel.
Proteins are builders of tissues,-muscle, nerve, blood, and
bone. Building or growing is the most important business of
children-steady growth upward until full height at about 20
or earlier, then continual broadening and developing until per-
haps 25. The following foods contain much protein: Milk,
skimmilk, buttermilk, cheese, eggs, lean meat, beans, peas, nuts,
fish, and fowl. Watch this list and don't crowd out proteins
with desserts, ice creams, sodas, and candies.
Which are the best protein foods? Milk and eggs.
If the milk and eggs are used freely, very little meat is neces-
sary (see lesson on milk). What building material does milk
contain? Why is its protein the best?
Minerals help
1. To build bones and teeth.
2. To keep the inside organs in working order.
There are 12 minerals required, but only three that we must
remember: Lime, phosphorus, and iron.
These minerals are found in plant foods and in the tissues of
the cells of some animal foods. Milk stands first in supplying
lime and phosphorus. Egg yolk furnishes phosphorus and iron.
Vegetables are our next best supply of minerals.
Vitamins, though slightly known since 1911, remain one of
the mysteries of foods. We know, however, that if they are
omitted growth stops and health is affected, and the body be-
comes subject to disease. Vitamins are found in everyday foods

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if we know where to look. The following table shows where we
may find vitamins A, B, or C:
Milk Milk Oranges
Butter Natural grains Tomatoes
Egg yolk (bran and germs) Lemons
Green vegetables Fresh vegetables Grapefruit
Carrots Nuts Cabbage (raw)
Cod liver oil Egg yolk Lettuce (raw)
Vitamin D is found in egg yolk, butter, cod liver oil, and green
Diets low in calcium and in vitamin C seem unfavorable to
best tooth development.
From the foods listed here we readily see that fresh milk,
butter, vegetables, fruits, and whole grain cereals are required
in the diet.
Water in generous amounts is necessary: (1), because the
body tissues are three-fourths water, and (2), because water
aids digestion and prevents constipation. Water should not be
used to save chewing of food, but may be taken at meal time,
between meals, before breakfast, and before going to bed. Six
or eight full glasses a day are not too much.
Cellulose (the woody part or fiber of grains, fruits, and vege-
tables) helps to keep the digestive tract active and to take the
finely divided food through its course.

Food, Nutrition and Health


"Milk is the best possible foundation for an adequate diet."-
Mary Swartz Rose.


1. Milk is the best single food.
It supplies:
(a) Easily digested proteins for body building.
(b) Mineral salts for blood, bones, and teeth.
(c) Vitamins for health and growth.
(d) Easily digested fat and sugar for energy and
gain in weight.
2. Milk is economical.
(a) As a supply of lime.
1 glass gives 1/3 amount lime needed daily.
1 glass equals (in lime supply) 81/2 eggs, 11/
cabbage, 51/2 lbs. potatoes, 81/ lbs. meat.
(b) As supply of body builders.
1 quart milk gives as much protein as 4 large
3. Milk makes meal planning easy.
Egg yolk or vegetables will add the iron; tomato or
orange juice, the vitamins needed, and fruits, vege-
tables, whole cereals, and bread will supply the
4. Milk and milk products are easily used in cooking.
(a) The following dishes are based on milk:
Cocoa Custards
Soup Puddings
Milk gravy Ice cream
Creamed dishes Sherbet
(b) The following form good combinations with milk:
Cereals and breads
Fruits and fruit juices

1. To learn use of milk in the diet.
2. To learn ways of preparing milk.

Florida Cooperative Extension

1. First Year.
Prepare two milk dishes.
Keep record of amount of milk used in diet daily for 1
2. Second Year.
Prepare four milk dishes.
Keep record of amount of milk used daily in diet for 1
1. Response to roll call. Answer with amount of milk taken
daily by each club member, and the number of pounds
each member is under or over average weight.
2. Demonstration: Preparation of one or two milk dishes.
(See recipes following.)
3. Experiments:
I. To show effect of high temperature on milk protein.
Put 1 cup sour milk, which is solid enough for mak-
ing cottage cheese, into a double boiler. Cook with the
water in lower part of double boiler at boiling tem-
perature until curd separates from whey. Strain
through cheesecloth and note the texture of curd.
II. To show effect of low temperature on milk protein:
Make same preparations as in I. Cook with water in
lower part of double boiler at very low temperature.
Strain and note texture-of curd. Compare with I.

1. What rule holds good for cooking both milk and eggs?
2. Why should milk dishes be washed in cold water first,
then in hot, soapy water? Is the same true of uncooked
egg dishes? Why?
3. Why does scalded milk keep better than unscalded milk?
4. Why should all milk utensils be scalded? How does sun-
shine help in purifying milk vessels?
Milk is the most nearly perfect food known. Adults need at
least a pint (whole or skimmed), growing children (up to 25
years) need 1 quart of whole milk, either as plain drink or com-
bined in other foods. Iron is lacking in milk and must be sup-
plied by some other food. Babies are born with several months'
iron supply. Their iron from the 3rd to the 6th months should
be supplied by juice of vegetable greens and later (in second
year) eggs and other foods containing iron may be added to the

Food, Nutrition and Health

diet. Vitamin C, in sufficient quantity, is lacking and can be
supplied by strained tomato or orange juice. A quart of milk
supplies 675 calories, one-half amount needed for a five year
old; about one-third amount needed for a girl of 10 years.


1. Milk protein is easily used by the body. Experiments
show that 98% of protein is absorbed. This protein is "com-
plete" in that it supplies all the protein material necessary for
making body cells. It is therefore a good supplement for those
foods that do not supply complete protein. Such foods are
bread, oatmeal, hominy, and other grain products.
2. Sugar: The sugar in milk is lactose. It is not as sweet
as ordinary sugar and is more easily used by the body. It fur-
nishes heat.
3. Fat: All whole milk contains fat in the form of cream.
It is in the form of "emulsion" and is therefore easily digested.
4. Minerals: Lime and phosphorus, especially needed in
bones and teeth, are there in the proper combination for best
work. One quart of milk gives the day's supply of lime and
about 1/3 the supply of phosphorus.
Whole milk thus supplies many needs of the body, and should
always be given growing children.
Skimmilk gives to adults many needed helps but supplies less
vitamin and fat.
Butter is essential in that it eontains-more vitamins than but-
ter substitutes. Unless the child gets plenty of fresh whole milk,
it should get an extra amount of good fresh butter.
Cheese is a valuable food in its natural form or in combina-
tions if cooked at a low temperature. Pressed cheese, for chil-
dren, should be grated and should be given in small amounts.
It is a concentrated food.

To make a milk soup, almost any vegetable may be used, such
as spinach, beans, peas, corn, celery, tomatoes, asparagus, on-
ions, potatoes, and okra. Cook any of these until tender. Chop
finely or run through a strainer. Add chopped vegetable or
strained juice to white sauce as made below. Usually 1 cup
vegetable to 2 cups of milk is used. If necessary thin with milk
,or vegetable water.

*In all recipes in this bulletin, T. represents a tablespoonful, and t. a

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White Sauce
1 cup milk 1 T. flour
1 T. butter % t. salt
% t. pepper
Mix flour with a little cold milk to make smooth, thin paste.
Add slowly heated milk, add seasonings. Use a double boiler if
possible, and cook 15 or 20 minutes. Add butter just before
Never waste the water in which vegetables are cooked. Use
it in soups. Tomatoes, to be used in soup, should have a little
soda (1/2 t. to 1 No. 2 can tomatoes) added to prevent curdling
of milk. Always rinse vegetable cans with water and add water
to soup. Don't waste any water in which vegetables are cooked.
It often contains the mineral.
Celery Soup: May be made of outside stalks, leaves, etc.-2
cups water to 1 of chopped celery. Cook until tender, adding
salt just before it is done. Add this mixture, water and celery,
to 2 cups thin white sauce.
Vegetable Soup: Cook vegetables until tender, then mash.
Add both pulp and juice to thickening. Work into a smooth
paste 1 T. flour and a little cold milk or water. Add gradually
to the juice of the cooked vegetable, and add as much milk as
Serve With Soups
Croutons-Cut stale bread into 1-inch cubes and brown in
Crackers-Brown in oven.
All cream soups are made most nourishing by addition of egg.
Beat egg. Add slowly scalding hot soup, 1 cup to the egg. Mix
well and serve at once.
Other 'Milk Recipes
1. Whole sweet milk.
2. Buttermilk, 1 glass. Medium cream, 1 T.
Mix thoroughly. (This recipe serves for those who "do
not like sweet milk.")
3. Egg-Nog.
% cup milk 1 egg
2 t. sugar Flavoring
4. Egg Milk Shake.
3 cups milk Few grains nutmeg
3 eggs Few grains cinnamon
4 T. sugar %a t. salt
Beat the eggs until very light; add sugar, salt, vanilla, and
spices, then the milk. Stir until sugar dissolves. Milk should
be very cold. Beat or shake well. An easy seal fruit jar makes
a convenient utensil for preparing milk shake.

Food, Nutrition and Health

5. Junket.
(a) Plain
3 cups milk 1 T. cold water
1 cup sugar 1 T. vanilla
1 junket tablet

Crush and dissolve junket tablet in cold water. Warm milk
and sugar to temperature just below luke-warm. Add vanilla
and junket. Pour at once into serving cups and let stand in
warm place until settled. Then chill. Season with nutmeg or
cinnamon just before serving.
(b) Chocolate
Put 3 T. cocoa paste in cup and fill with milk, mak-
ing total 3 cups. Proceed as above.
(c) Caramel
Caramelize /2 cup sugar by stirring constantly in
a pan at oven heat until it is a light brown syrup.
Add 2/% cup milk and heat until sugar is dissolved.
Add remaining 2/3 cups milk and proceed as in
plain junket.

Chocolate Corn Starch Pudding
2 cups milk 1% squares chocolate
Y cup sugar % t. salt
6 T. cornstarch % t. vanilla
Mix dry ingredients and make into thin, smooth paste with a
little milk. Add to heated milk in top of double boiler. Add
melted chocolate. Stir to prevent lumps. Cook 20 minutes, add
vanilla and pour into molds rinsed in cold water. Chill and
serve with cream or whipped cream.
Fluffy Chocolate Pudding

Proceed as under cornstarch chocolate pudding with follow-
ing change: Use 21/3 cups milk, 5 tablespoonfuls cornstarch,
3 egg yolks, 1 t. vanilla and whites of three eggs stiffly beaten.
Fold in egg whites last.
Blanc Mange

Proceed as under fluffy chocolate pudding, omitting choco-
late. Serve with crushed and sweetened fresh or canned fruit
of bright color.
Floating Island
2 eggs /s t. salt
3 egg yolks % t. vanilla
4 T. sugar 1% cups scalded milk
%. cup sugar

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Beat the whites until stiff. Add 4 tablespoons sugar. Drop
by tablespoonfuls into a shallow pan of hot water. Bake in a
moderate oven until delicately brown. Remove cooked whites
into a serving dish.
Prepare custard sauce: Mix yolks, sugar and salt in a bowl,
add scalded milk slowly. Return to double boiler and cook until
a coating is formed on metal spoon. Remove immediately. Add
flavoring. Pour around cooked whites in a large shallow bowl.
Chill before serving.

1 quart milk 14 t. salt
6 eggs % cup sugar
% t. vanilla or nutmeg
Scald the milk (use double boiler if possible). Beat the eggs
slightly, add sugar and salt. Gradually add the milk to egg mix-
ture, stirring constantly. Cook either as baked or thin custard.

Baked Custard

Proceed as under custard. Pour the mixture into buttered
custard cups or a baking dish. Set in a pan of warm water and
bake in a slow oven. Test with a knife blade, and when blade
comes out clean remove from oven. Custard may be sprinkled
with nuts or nutmeg before baking, to vary.

Thin Custard
Proceed as under custard. Cook in double boiler, stirring
until mixture thickens and coats a metal spoon. Strain immedi-
ately, chill and flavor. If cooked too long the custard will cur-
dle. Should this happen, by using an egg beater it may be re-
stored to a smooth consistency, but custard will not be thick.
Eggs should be beaten slightly so that custard may be smooth.
When eggs are expensive use 4 eggs and 1 tablespoonful corn-
starch. Thin custard may be used in many ways as a sauce-
with stale cake, with fruit, with cocoanut added, or as a pud-
ding sauce.
Orange Custard
Arrange slices of sweet oranges in glass dish, pour over them
boiled custard, chill, and cover with meringue.


Beat the whites of 2 eggs until stiff, and add gradually, while
beating constantly 1% cup sugar, 1/2 teaspoon vanilla, a few
grains of salt.

Food, Nutrition and Health 17

Baked Caramel Custard

4 cups scalded milk 1 cup sugar
1 t. salt 1 t. vanilla
5 eggs
Melt sugar (to prevent burning, use a heavy pan and stir
constantly) until a light brown. Add hot milk and cook until
free from lumps. Add to slightly beaten eggs, salt and flavor-
ing. Strain into a buttered mold and set in pan of hot water.
Bake in moderate oven until knife will come out clean.
Bread Pudding

Into a well-buttered baking dish put layers of buttered slices
of dried bread, sprinkle over with raisins. Cover with custard
mixture made as follows: To 2 slightly beaten eggs add 4 table-
spoons sugar and 1/8 teaspoon vanilla, mix with 2 cups milk.
Sec dish in pan of hot water. Bake in a moderate oven until
custard is firm and well browned.

Cake Pudding

Make the same as bread pudding, except use dried cookies or
cake in place of buttered bread.
Poor Man's Pudding
6 cups whole milk 1 cup rice
% t. nutmeg % cup sugar
1 t. salt / cup raisins
Put all together in a buttered pan in a moderate oven. Stir
frequently at first, and then occasionally. Bake 2 hours. Should
be creamy. Better cold than hot.
Tapioca Cream
4 T. pearl tapioca 4 eggs
4 cups milk 2 t. vanilla
4 T. sugar
Soak tapioca in 1 cup cold water several hours, or overnight:
Cook in double boiler in the milk until tapioca is perfectly clear.
Add sugar and egg yolks beaten smooth, a pinch of salt, any
flavoring to taste. Cook 3 minutes, pour in buttered pudding
dish. Garnish top with meringue made of well-beaten egg
whites and 3 tablespoons sugar. Brown in oven for a few min-
utes. Serve, when cold, with whipped or plain cream.
Spanish Cream

21/2 T. granulated sugar 3 cups milk
White 3 eggs Yolks 3 eggs
cup sugar 3' t. salt
1 t. vanilla

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Soak gelatin in a little of the cold milk, then dissolve in scald-
ed milk. Mix sugar and slightly beaten egg, add hot milk to this
slowly. Return to double boiler and cook until thickened, stir-
ring constantly. Remove from range and add salt. Add flavor-
ing and white of egg beaten stiff. Turn into individual molds
first dipped in cold water, and chill; serve with cream. May be
garnished with whipped cream. Serves eight.


Use freshly coagulated or clabbered milk. Skim off cream.
Set pan of clabbered milk in hot water and heat slowly until
curd separates from whey. Be careful not to let milk become
too hot or curd will be tough. Place in a strainer on a piece of
cheesecloth rinsed in hot water. Strain heated curd mixture
until well drained. (Save whey for use in cooking.) Crush curd
in a bowl with fork. Mixing with a wooden potato masher will
break up lumps and give cheese a finer texture. Season to
taste with sweet or sour cream, butter, salt and pepper. Finely
chopped onion, parsley, celery, pimiento, or green pepper may
be added.
Cottage Cheese Jelly
On a flat dish put mounds of cottage cheese and tart jelly.
Garnish with watercress or other greens. Mix cheese well with
sweet or sour cream or melted butter. Season with salt and
pepper. Serve with toasted crackers.

Cottage Cheese Uses
The curd of milk is an excellent food. It belongs to the same
class of foods as meat; that is, it builds and repairs muscle tis-
sues. Cottage cheese is made from the curd of milk.
Cottage cheese is easily digested and efficiently used in body-
building. Because cottage cheese is very cheap and of excellent
food value, the housekeeper will find it a desirable addition to
her meals. It can be used as a relish, in cottage cheese salads,
and in sandwiches. Cottage cheese makes excellent sandwich
filling when combined with chopped nuts, chopped olives, chop-
ped celery, chopped onion, chopped pickles, jelly, horseradish,
chopped raisins, chopped dates, chopped pimientos, honey, mar-
malade, or crushed mint leaves. Mix cottage cheese with any of
these and use as a spread for buttered bread, such as whole
wheat, graham, oatmeal, or brown bread.

Pineapple Salad
On crisp lettuce place a slice of pineapple, on this a mound of
well-seasoned cottage cheese mixed with sweet or sour cream,

Food, Nutrition and Health

a cherry or bright-colored berry on top. Serve cold with French
or boiled dressing.
Stuffed Prune Salad
Through a lengthwise cut remove stones from large cooked
or steamed prunes. Fill with cottage cheese seasoned and mixed
with sweet or sour cream. On crisp lettuce leaves arrange
stuffed prunes star fashion around a small mound of cottage
cheese. Serve with Russian or any desired dressing.
Serve the following on crisp lettuce leaves with any desired
salad dressing.
1. Cheese Balls-Mix seasoned cottage cheese with salad
dressing and shape it into balls. Roll the balls in ground pea-
nuts, chopped parsley, or chopped green or red pepper.
2. Cheese Nest-Form the seasoned cheese in shape of nest.
Fill cavity with cubes of cranberry or other tart jelly.
3. Tomato Salad-Remove the centers from medium-sized
tomatoes and fill cavities with seasoned cottage cheese. In the
winter, tomato gelatine may be used.
4. Pear or Peach Salad-Fill the centers of canned pears or
peaches with seasoned cottage cheese.
5. Stuffed Celery-Fill the celery stalks of uniform size with
cottage cheese that has been seasoned with paprika, salt and
lemon juice or olives.
6. Cheese and Pineapple-Shape cheese balls round and
make about 1 inch thick. Roll in chopped parsley, peanuts or
walnuts (chopped), or sprinkle with paprika. Place on rings
of pineapple.
7. Snow Flake-Place on lettuce, slices of fresh or canned
peaches or other desired fruits. Put seasoned cottage cheese
in a potato ricer and shake in flakes on fruit.
The following bulletins will be helpful.
Farmers' Bulletin 960-Neufchatel and Cream Cheese.
Farmers' Bulletin 1451-Cottage Cheese.
U. S. D. A. Circular 109-Cottage Cheese Dishes (with Reci-
(These three obtainable from the United States Department
of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.)
Directions for Making Cottage, Cream and Other Cheeses-
Freeman G. Martin, University of Florida. College of Agricul-
Write Children's Bureau, Washington, D. C., for material on

Florida Cooperative Extension


Eggs are one-third yolk and two-thirds white by weight. The
yolk consists of about one-half water, one-third fat, and one-
sixth protein, phosphorus, lime and iron. The white is com-
posed of about seven-eighths water and one-eighth protein, with
some salt. The egg yolk contains about 14 times as much en-
ergy as the white, has a larger amount of mineral, and contains
the vitamins.
Eggs supply: (1) body builders, (2) fuel, and (3) health and
growth helpers-vitamins.
1. The body builders consist of protein in an easily used
form, which is found in both yolk and white, and of minerals,
such as lime, phosphorus, and iron, which are found mostly in
the yolk.
2. The fuel contained in eggs is fat in an easily digested
form, and it is found largely in the yolk.
3. The vitamins found in the yolks of eggs are vitamins A,
B and D.

1. Eggs soft cooked at a temperature below that of boiling
water are more easily and quickly digested. Hard-boiled eggs
or eggs cooked at high temperature require thorough chewing
and longer period for complete digestion.
2. Eggs supplement milk. They have everything for growth
except enough lime and vitamin C. They have a good supply of
iron which milk lacks. Therefore they should be added early to
milk diet, yolk first, whole egg later.
3. Eggs are, everything considered, more economical than
meat, less economical than milk.
4. Eggs are easily cooked in many ways. They add flavor,
texture, and color to many other foods.
5. Egg yolk may be given to very small children. It is usu-
ally cooked hard and mashed thoroughly or put through a sieve.
From one-half to a whole yolk at a time may be given during
the second year if given cautiously in the beginning. Occasion-
ally for a change, the whole egg may be given, but the young
child does not need the white if he has a quart of milk a day.
6. Whole egg may be given to the three-year-old child once
a day. It should never be hardened by frying nor by high tem-
peratures. It may be hard cooked, soft cooked, or uncooked.
It may be included in desserts, drinks, or soups.

Food, Nutrition and Health

Objects: 1. To learn the function of eggs in the diet.
2. To learn ways of preparing eggs.
Home Work: 1st year-Prepare eggs 2 ways.
2nd year-Prepare eggs 4 ways.
Suggestions for Club Meetings:
Response to roll call with "ways of serving eggs."
Demonstration: Make an egg dish. (See recipes.)
I. Cooked and Boiled Eggs. (1) Put an egg in a pan
of cold water. Let water come to boiling point.
Remove to back of stove and let cook very slowly
20 minutes. (2) Put an egg in boiling water. Boil
hard for 12 to 15 minutes. Shell both eggs and
test for tenderness of both.
Questions: Why should eggs be cooked at low temperature?
Why do we say hard and soft cooked eggs rather
than hard and soft boiled eggs?
II. Break into saucers a fresh egg and one that has been
kept for a long period in cold storage or for a shorter
period under household conditions. Point out differ-
Fresh Egg-White, firm and thick. Yolk, sphere-shaped, firm.
Chick spot small, color uniform but varying in different eggs
from light yellow to deep orange.
Storage Egg-White, thin. Yolk flattened. Color, light, mot-
tled areas in darker yolk. The air, in first-class storage rooms
is kept dry. Moisture from the egg evaporates. Another change
is that sometimes the egg white sticks to the shell membrane.
Water passes from the white to the yolk, weakens the mem-
brane around the yolk, and causes the yolk to spread into the
1. Failure of eggs to hold shape well in cooking.
2. Difference in flavor.
3. No proven change in wholesomeness if eggs are used di-
rectly from first-class storage. If the storage is not dry, musti-
ness results. Eggs spoil quickly after being removed from stor-
Discussion: How to preserve eggs for future use.
"Eggs and their Uses as Food"-U. S. Department of Agri-
culture, Farmers' Bulletin No. 128.
"Eggs and their Uses as Food"-U. S. Department of Agri-
culture, Farmers' Bulletin No. 471.
"Preserving Eggs"-Farmers' Bulletin No. 1109.
"Eggs at Any Meal"-Bureau of Home Economics Leaflet 39.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Cooked in shell according to experiment. Low temperature
Poached Eggs
Fill a shallow pan 2/3 full of water, add 1/2 t. salt to 1 pint of
water. Let boil. Drop into it strictly fresh eggs and continue
the boiling 1 minute to prevent the settling of the eggs to the
bottom of the pan. Then decrease the heat until the white is
firm. "Basting" the top of the eggs with the hot water occa-
sionally will firm the yolks also. Drain and serve on hot but-
tered toast.
Scrambled Eggs
6 eggs % cup of milk
Few grains pepper 3 strips of bacon cut fine
2 t. butter or and fried to provide fat
1 % t. salt
Add milk and eggs partially beaten. Then season. Keep stir-
ring to prevent scorching.

Goldenrod Eggs
3 or 4 hard-cooked eggs 2 T. flour
% t. pepper % t. salt
1 T. lULter or substitute 1 cup milk
6 pieces of toast Parsley
Separate the yolk and whites of the cooked eggs, and chop the
whites. Make a white sauce of flour, seasoning, fat and milk.
Add the chopped whites to the sauce and pour it over the toast.
Press the yolks through a strainer or crush them with a fork
and sprinkle over the top of the toast. Garnish with green
leaves and serve hot.
Sunrise Eggs
Make a small mound of spinach or turnip greens (cooked
without meat). Over this pour a small amount of white sauce
prepared as in "Goldenrod Eggs." Run the yolk through a sieve
or mash with a fork, and place in a small circle on top of the
Sunset Eggs
Toast lightly a slice of bread. Separate the yolk and white of
an egg. Beat white thoroughly, salt, heap on toast. Slip yolk
into center of white, add a little pinch of salt and bake inside
the oven.
Eggs in Custard-Baked
1 pint milk 2 or 3 eggs
% cup sugar 1% t. salt
2 T. caramel syrup or
1/16 t. nutmeg

Food, Nutrition and Health

Scald the milk in a double boiler. Beat the eggs slightly, add
the sugar and salt, mix. Add the hot milk to this mixture.
Strain the mixture, flavor, and pour into a mold into which has
been placed a little of the caramel syrup. Place the cups of cus-
tard in a pan of hot water and bake in a moderate oven until
firm. Test for sufficient cooking by inserting a knife into the
custard. If it comes out clean, the custard is done.
If a baked custard is to be turned out of the mold, 3 or 4 eggs
should be used with each pint of milk.
When eggs are expensive, omit 1 or 2 from a custard recipe.
Substitute 1/2 tablespoonful of cornstarch for each omitted egg.

Floating Island
1 pint milk 3 egg whites
3 egg yolks 3 T. powdered sugar
1/ c. sugar
% t. salt
t. vanilla
The custard may be made thicker by using 4 (instead of 3)
eggs. Mix the materials in the same way as for baked custard.
Instead of pouring mixture into molds, return it to the double
boiler and cook (stirring constantly) until it thickens or forms
a thin coating over the spoon. Strain, cool, and flavor.
Prepare the meringue by beating the whites of eggs stiff and
then adding 1 tablespoonful of sugar for each white of egg.
Drop the meringue by spoonfuls on the custard. If desired, gar-
nish the meringue by bits of jelly or colored gelatine.

Florida Cooperative Extension


Why More Vegetables?
1. Vegetables furnish bulk and stimulate intestinal action,
thus preventing constipation. The bulkiness and the acid make
them laxative foods. Onions and cauliflower are gas-forming
foods and prevent constipation. Cellulose or woody fiber in some
vegetables is coarser than that in others. This fiber or "broom-
food" forms the indigestible part of the diet and helps to carry
the more finely divided food through the alimentary canal. The
fiber, rubbing the sides of the intestines, stimulates action and
causes the food to pass on out of the intestines before it ferments
or causes illness. Cabbage, carrots, rutabagas, and celery fur-
nish cellulose in generous amounts. All vegetables to a certain
extent supply fiber or bulk.
2. They give us minerals needed to keep the blood in good
condition, to build strong bones and teeth, to make the heart
beat properly, and to regulate digestion.
Vegetables are a source of lime, iron and phosphorus.
(a) Lime. Practically all vegetables supply some lime.
(Milk, and outer layers of grain also supply lime.) Turnips, cel-
ery, cauliflower, lettuce, and carrots are rich in lime, but even
then milk must supply the greater amount.
(b) Iron. This mineral in vegetables is more easily used
by the body than the iron in beef. Spinach, turnip greens, cab-
bage, peas, and beans furnish iron. (Eggs, meat, and outer lay-
ers of grain also contain iron.)
(c) Phosphorus. Peas and beans are especially rich in this
mineral. (Milk, eggs, meat, fish, nuts, and outer coats of grain
are rich in phosphorus. Milk must supply a portion of phos-
phorus in the diet.)
3. They give us vitamins and thus good health. All fresh
vegetables and fruits give us the water-soluble vitamins. Leafy
vegetables give us these and also the fat-soluble vitamins.
4. They supply a limited amount of protein or body builders.
Peas and beans have protein easily digested, but not complete.
Milk and eggs are needed to supplement the vegetable protein.
5. They have an energy value. Peas, beans, carrots, turnips
and other root vegetables contain starch.
6. They give us variety and attractiveness in diet.
1. Wash thoroughly, using a vegetable brush.
2. Baking and steaming are the best methods of cooking

Food, Nutrition and Health

vegetables. Flavor and food value are thus kept. In baking or
boiling, retain the peeling.
3. If green vegetables must be cooked, use as little water as
possible and do not throw away the juice. Use it with the vege-
table or in milk sauces or soups. It contains much of the min-
4. Salt in the water slightly toughens the skins and fibers.
It is better to add salt just before vegetables are sufficiently
cooked. For very tender vegetables it may be necessary to add
salt to water before cooking. This retains flavor.
5. The custom of adding salt pork or bacon or the fat of these
to water in which vegetables are being cooked should not be en-
couraged. The vegetables become soaked in fat and therefore
indigestible. It is better to add the seasoning after cooking.
6. Greens, beets, green peas, asparagus, turnips, snap beans,
squash, onions, carrots, and cabbage are usually served hot with
butter, pepper and salt. Cauliflower, celery, and sometimes cab-
bage and onion, are served with white sauce.
7. Above all, cook vegetables just enough to make them ten-
der. Over-cooking loses flavor and value. The time depends
upon size, age, and variety.
8. Pressure cooking (above 212) partially destroys vitamin
B. Ordinary cooking usually destroys vitamin C.
Fuel Foods-Starch.
Body Builders-Mineral and protein.
Body Regulators-Cellulose, acid properties, and vitamins.
To learn food value of vegetables.
To learn to prepare vegetables.
First Year-Prepare 2 vegetables.
Second Year-Prepare 4 vegetables.
Reports: Amount and kind of vegetables eaten during past
Selection of vegetable for table use. (Ask club members to
bring vegetables from their gardens.) Point out difference be-
tween root and green vegetables, between fresh and withered
vegetables, and between raw and cooked vegetables.
Prepare one cooked vegetable or soup and one salad.
Plan for club members to have salad contest.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Use starchy vegetable like potato. Peel and cut into pieces.
Cover with water. Let stand 15 to 30 minutes. Pour off the
water into another pan and boil it. Cool and test with iodine.
Iodine turns starch blue. What is your conclusion about soak-
ing starch vegetables in water before cooking? Is food value
saved by cooking vegetables in the peeling? Cover a piece of
white potato with strong salt water 24 hours. Note effect. Sug-
gest the effect of too much salt on stomach lining.
Discussion by Leader: "Use of vegetables in diet."
What is the required amount of cooked and raw vegetables
for each girl per day?
Why "raw" vegetables?
(1) Cooking destroys some of the vitamins.
(2) Cooking lessens mineral value.
Name vegetables which can be grown in each month of the
year in Florida.
Why home gardens?
Why home canning of vegetables?
BULLETINS: Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee,
Bulletins No. 1 and No. 28.

Cabbage should never be cooked until it is brown-over-cook-
ing toughens it, and destroys the natural flavor. Cook cabbage
in an uncovered vessel, with water boiling constantly. From 30
minutes to an hour is sufficient time for boiling a head, the time
depending upon the size of the head.
Serve hot with butter, pepper and salt, using 1 tablespoonful
of butter and one-half teaspoonful of salt to each pint of cab-
bage. One cup of thin white sauce may be used instead of the
butter. A small head of cabbage may be boiled whole. When
tender, drain head and cut into eighths, allowing the eighths to
fall apart from heart as the petals of a flower. Pour melted
butter into the center.
A small head of cabbage may be boiled until tender, the cen-
ter removed and the cavity filled with a mixture of ground meat
or cheese crumbs, seasoning, and a few left-over vegetables.
The mixture should be blended with an egg. Sprinkle crumbs
over the top. Place the stuffed cabbage in a buttered baking
dish and heat in the oven to brown crumbs and cook egg. Re-
move and serve plain or with tomato sauce.

Food, Nutrition and Health

Scalloped Cabbage with Cheese
2 quarts cabbage 1 cup diced or grated cheese
1 pint white sauce (gravy) 3 pimientos
Shred a white cabbage to make 2 quarts. Cook in salted wa-
ter until tender; drain and put into a greased baking dish. To
the white sauce, add cheese. Cook at a low temperature until
cheese is melted, then whip until smooth. Add chopped pimien-
tos and pour this sauce over the cabbage. Mix lightly and brown
in hot oven. Buttered crumbs on top may be mixed with 2 table-
spoonfuls of grated cheese.

Raw Cabbage
Generous use of raw cabbage provides the salad dish for fam-
ilies unable to obtain lettuce in winter. Green cabbage rather
than white should be selected.
Shredded cabbage mixed with a simple dressing of sour cream
and ginger is delicious, or chopped cabbage combined with boiled
salad dressing is relished.

Baked Potatoes
Wash six medium-sized potatoes; cut off small bit of peeling
at each end to allow escape of steam, or prick when removing
from oven. When the steam remains, it causes the potato to
become soggy. Rub melted lard over the skin. Put in oven.
The heat should be moderate for the first 30 minutes. Then
finish with higher temperature. Cook until soft when pierced
with a fork. Cut, insert lump of butter, and serve. The baked
potatoes may be cut open lengthwise, mashed, and salt, pepper
and milk added as in mashed potatoes. Pile lightly in the shell
and bake in hot oven until top is brown. Sprinkling of cheese
over the top adds much to the taste and appearance of the potato.

Mashed Potatoes
6 potatoes 1 t. salt
% cup milk /s t. pepper
2 T. butter
Wash potatoes and cook in boiling water until soft. Drain,
peel and mash potatoes. Add butter and salt. Mix thoroughly
and add hot milk, beating well. Mashed potatoes should be
beaten until soft and light.

White Sauce
(This amount makes one cup)
White Sauce Milk Fat Flour Salt
Thin 1 cup 1 T. 1 T. t.
Medium 1 cup 2 T. 2 T. % t.
Thick 1 cup 3 T. 3 T. 1A t.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Put butter in pan, stir until melted, add flour mixed with
seasonings and stir until thorough blended, then pour the milk
on gradually while stirring constantly. Cook until thick and
mixture does not taste starchy. To avoid burning, cook in
double boiler. Flour may be browned dry in the oven before
using. This insures thorough cooking, but of course gives color
to the sauce.
Creamed Carrots
2 cups cooked carrots 1 cup medium white sauce
Cook carrots as directed under general directions for vege-
tables and serve with medium white sauce.

Creamed Peas
2 cups cooked peas 1 cup medium white sauce
Prepare as directed for carrots.
Buttered Vegetables
3 cups cooked vegetables (beets, carrots, peas, okra, onions, turnips, celery,
This is a very simple way of serving vegetables. Cook as di-
rected under general directions for vegetables. Slice or dice
and season with melted butter, salt, and pepper. Vinegar and
sugar instead of butter, may be poured over beets.

Remove roots, carefully pick over (discarding wilted leaves)
and wash in several waters to be sure that it is free from all
sand. When young and tender, spinach may be steamed, or it
may be put in a stew-pan and 12 inch of boiling water added
and cooked in its own juices until tender. Drain thoroughly,
saving liquid for soup. Cut up with sharp knife and season
with butter, salt, pepper, and vinegar if desired. This dish
will look very appetizing if garnished with hard-cooked eggs.

Asparagus on Toast
3 cups asparagus 6 T. melted butter
Put asparagus on toast. Cover with melted butter. Some
people use sugar and cream in serving this.

Summer Squash
Cut in thick slices or cubes. Boil in very small amount of
salted water (enough to keep from scorching). Drain any sur-
plus liquid. Place in hot serving dish, dot with butter on top
slices so it will melt and run over the lower ones, and serve. If

Food, Nutrition and Health

not over or under-cooked, squash will be very delicate and pal-
atable cooked in this manner.

Summer Squash Baked with Cheese

Cut in small squares-3/4 inches. Boil or steam until slightly
tender. Put in buttered baking dish. Prepare a white sauce
using any leftover liquid from the squash and milk. Pour over
squash enough to moisten well. Cover with grated cheese and
buttered crumbs and bake to a golden brown.


Tomatoes, lettuce, grated carrots, and cabbage should be
served raw often. They are especially valuable for their vita-
mins and minerals, which are to some extent lost in cooking.
Raw vegetables, properly chewed, give needed exercise to the
teeth. Preparation as a salad tempts the appetite.

Carrot and Celery Salad

1% cups grated carrots Salad dressing
1% cups diced celery
Mix the carrots and celery with boiled or mayonnaise dress-
ing. Place on lettuce leaf, garnish with small amount of dress-
ing mixed with cream, and a dash of paprika. Ground peanuts
or pecans add much to the flavor. Diced apple may be added.

Carrot and Cabbage Salad

Use same method as for carrot and celery.
(Cabbage and apple may be used likewise.)

Tomato and Lettuce Salad

Crisp green lettuce served with sliced tomato and a simple
salad dressing (French dressing with lemon juice, or an egg
dressing), is the most popular of all salads.

Salad Dressing
3 T. butter 1% t. salt
4 T. flour % t. mustard
2 T. sugar 1% cups milk (sweet or sour)
Pepper % cup vinegar
1 or 2 eggs
Make sauce of the fat, flour, and milk. Beat the eggs, add
the seasonings. Add the first mixture gradually to the egg mix-
ture and cook over hot water as a custard. Add the vinegar and
strain. Cool before serving.

30 Florida Cooperative Extension

French Dressing
French dressing is the simplest-yet, at the same time, the
most sophisticated of all salad dressings.
6 T. salad oil % t. salt
2 T. vinegar or lemon juice Pepper
Mix thoroughly, adding paprika if desired.
It can be made in quantity as desired by merely increasing the
amount of the various ingredients used, maintaining the proper
proportions of oil and vinegar-one part of vinegar to three
parts of salad oil.
When made in quantity, this dressing can be kept in a covered
jar in the ice-box, and is ready for use at any time, merely need-
ing a thorough shaking to break up the oil and blend it with the

Food, Nutrition and Health


Why More Fruit?
1. Fruits supply bulk, and mildly laxative substances to pre-
vent constipation.
2. They protect us from diseases by giving us minerals and
3. They lend attractiveness and variety of flavor to diet.
4. They give some energy; they add calories, and should not
be taken simply as a relish or appetizer.
5. They are a natural tonic, superior to the drug store supply.
Eat some every day-oranges, grapes, bananas, grapefruit,
lemons, pears, pineapples, berries, apples, figs, guavas.
Be very careful to wash thoroughly all raw fruit before peel-
ing or eating. The person with normal digestion should eat peel-
ings of apples, grapes, pears. Young children should not.
1. Consult a physician about giving raw fruit to small chil-
dren. Tomato or orange juice strained may be given to chil-
dren-one teaspoonful for babies three to six months, one table-
spoonful for babies at six months, and the juice of an orange by
the time the baby is one year old. Cooked fruits and juices of
fresh fruit may be given until about the age of five. After that
age, a child may eat a moderate amount of raw fruit.
2. Bananas should be eaten only when ripe. They are ripe
when the outside skin is dark brown. They are overripe when
not firm. Always scrape away the white stringy material and
% inch at ends.
3. No minerals or vitamins are lost from fresh fruit.
4. Cook fruit (when it must be cooked) in a small amount of
water, cover tightly, and only until tender. Use very little sugar,
and add it just before removing from fire. Only 1/ the usual
quantity is then necessary.
5. Baking is a good method for cooking apples, bananas, and
6. Prunes, dates and figs may be added to cereal just before
cooking is completed. They add natural sugar and make the
cereal more palatable.
1. They have much less vitamin than fresh fruits.
2. They are often less easily digested than fresh fruits.

Florida Cooperative Extension

3. They are comparatively cheap.
4. They should be thoroughly washed, then soaked in luke-
warm water and cooked tightly covered in the same water in
which they were soaked. Sugar is not usually necessary. If
used add only a small quantity just before removing from fire.
Much flavor and health value are lost in over-cooking. Cook
only enough to make tender. Use the juice! Raw fruits, for
those old enough or well enough to digest them, are best.


1. Dates, figs, prunes and raisins are rich in iron.
2. Bananas, alligator pears, and plums are rich in energy
3. Oranges, lemons, grapefruit and tomatoes are especially
rich in vitamin C.

Object: 1. To learn the food value of fruits.
2. To learn to prepare fruits.
Answer to roll call with suggestions as to ways of preparing
fruit for the table, plain, cooked, salads and desserts.
Home Work: 1st year-Prepare 2 fruit dishes.
2nd year-Prepare 4 fruit dishes.
Demonstration: Use fruit to make milk attractive and palat-
able to children.
Prepare drinks, custards, whips, or other simple combina-
tions of fruit and milk.
Experiment: To show change of starch to sugar in ripening
fruit. Peel a ripe and an unripe banana. Cut through center of
each. Place small amount of iodine on each cut. Iodine turns
starch blue. Which banana contains greater amount of starch?
Which is more easily digested?
Suggested Work: Have members keep a chart of amount of
fruit used in the home for a week. Make plans for increased
supply of fruit on the farm.

Food, Nutrition and Health



Whole grain cereals give us heat and strength, furnish us a
cheap food, help us to use more milk, give us bulk, mineral and
vitamin content.
The four groups of cereals are:
1. Whole grains ground.
2. Whole grains steamed and then ground or rolled.
3. Predigested (by malt). These are expensive and highly
over-rated. (Farmers' Bulletin No. 249.)
4. "Milled Products" freed of bulky cellulose or outside bran.
Whole cereals are better than refined cereals. They contain
Lime to build strong teeth and bones.
Iron to make good blood.
Bulk to prevent constipation.
Vitamins to keep us well.
Fat or oil of the germ of the seed.
Both have energy value, but whole cereals have mineral and
vitamin and bulk in addition. Some whole cereals and whole
cereal preparations:
Oatmeal or rolled oats Ralston
Cracked wheat Wheatena
Unpolished rice Shredded wheat
Pettijohn Whole wheat or graham bread
Refined Cereals: Post toasties
Cream of wheat White bread
Farina Muffins and biscuits (white)
Corn flakes White crackers
Oat products, as a rule, keep better and cost less, according to
the amount of nourishment contained. Oatmeal and rolled oats
represent almost the whole oats. They are rich in fat and in

1. Boil the necessary amount of water.
2. Add one level teaspoonful salt for every quart of water.
3. Add cereal slowly, stirring well.
4. Cook at least five minutes over the fire, then cook in
double boiler. The time varies with cereal and with person.
Cereals for babies, small children, and sick people should have
long cooking. The fireless cooker method is best.
5. If it is hard to get the child to take enough milk, try cook-
ing the cereal in milk instead of water.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Use as little sugar as possible. Use fruit such as dates, figs
and raisins slightly cooked in the cereal. Milk is preferable to
cream; butter may be used for variety. In cases of constipa-
tion bran may be added to cereal before cooking.
Cooked cereals, rather than dry products, are to be recom-
mended for regular use with young children. The child gets
more nourishment according to bulk from the cooked cereal.
Occasional use of dry cereals is not objectionable for older chil-
dren. No child should make an entire meal of cereals.
Subject: Cooking Starch Foods.
Study of Sugar.
Home Work: First year-Prepare 2 cereals.
Second year-Prepare 4 cereals.
I. Effect of water on sugar:
Place one teaspoonful granulated sugar in a test tube;
add a little cold water; shake. Does it dissolve? Set
it aside. Does it separate from the water? Make the
same experiment with hot water. What is the differ-
ence in results?
Experiment II:
1. Effect of cold water on starch.
Mix 1/2 teaspoonful corn starch or flour with cold wa-
ter in test tube or glass cup. What happens? Is starch
soluble in cold water?
2. Effect of heat on starch.
Put the starch mixture into a pan and heat. Return
to cup. What change has taken place? Set mixture
aside for a few minutes. Have starch and water sepa-
rated? How does it differ from sugar? From uncooked
Experiment III:
Cook 2 cup oatmeal 20 minutes. Have one member
bring from home cup oatmeal cooked 2 hours in
double boiler or in fireless cooker. Serve both hot.
Compare taste.
Experiment IV:
Have club member take small amount of cereal and
chew until taste becomes sweet. What is happening?
Test crumb and crust of bread in the same way. Which
is sweeter? What effect does cooking have on starch?
Does it aid digestion? Why should cereals have long

Food, Nutrition and Health 35

Starches and sugars are both energy foods. Nature stores
starch instead of sugar in many foods for us because sugar will
ferment. Later Nature turns this starch into sugar. However,
we eat some of the foods as starch. Then we must, by cooking
or by digestion, turn this starch into sugar and then into simple
sugars so that it may go throughout the body as nourishment.
Seeds, roots, and some stalks have a large amount of stored
starch. It is well to remember that sweets, breads and cereals,
as well as fats (such as butter), give us fuel and some of these
classes should be in each day's food. It is better to get our
sweets in combination with building material as in cereals.
Candy if taken on an empty stomach mixes with the acid of the
stomach and ferments. Therefore, candy or sweets should be
taken only at the end of the meal.

Florida Cooperative Extension


The club member is her own best exhibit of what she has ac-
tually learned about nutrition. The meal she can plan now is
the test of what she has learned about foods.
Milk first! Green vegetables! Whole grains! Fruits. Eggs.
A cow. A garden. And chickens. All are necessary for the club
girl in the rural home.
The basis of meals for every day should be one quart of milk
for children, one pint for adults. With this should go at least
two vegetables other than potato, preferably green leafy vege-
tables. Whole grain cereals (as breakfast food or in bread)
and fruits (fresh, canned or dried) should be served often. Eggs
should be used in generous amounts in cooking and often as a
main dish for breakfast or supper.
Economy will be practiced by:
1. Choosing foods in season.
2. Using home-grown products.
3. Conserving garden products for future use.
4. Serving a generous amount of a few foods each meal,
rather than too many foods at one time.
Appetites will be stimulated by:
1. Choosing different foods from day to day.
2. Finding new ways to prepare common foods.
3. Selecting foods of color to lend attractiveness.
"Fat" and "well-fed" do not mean the same. Health-giving,
growth-promoting, and regulating foods are needed as much
as energy and building foods. Age and activity and size of the
members of the family count too in choosing kind and amount
of food. Children should keep up to or above average weight,
and grown-ups should be average or below. Calories will not
be discussed yet, but generous servings of each food should be
allowed in the planning of the meal.
If not enough food is taken, what happens? One uses the
stored fat in the body. When that is all gone the muscle is used.
No wonder the person who is ill and cannot eat gets thin. No
wonder the girl who says, "I don't like this and I don't like
that," remains underweight.
If one forms the habit of eating too much of certain foods,
such as meat or sweets, he crowds out other better foods, such
as milk.
The best plan, then, is to learn as much as possible about
foods for health; to plan meals according to what is learned, and
to eat regularly a generous amount of different kinds of foods;
to weigh at least once each month on the same scales and re-

Food, Nutrition and Health

cord the weight, finding out whether or not the average gain is
being made; to think health, happiness, and service. If results
are not satisfactory, have a thorough examination by a good
physician and find out what is standing in the way.

Home Work: First Year-Plan, cook, and serve one meal
(breakfast, dinner, or supper) for the family.
Second year-Plan, cook, and serve one day's
meals for the family.
Menu for one meal.
Criticism by club as menus are read.
Talk by Leader:
"Points to be considered in Meal Planning."
1. Serve a balanced picnic supper.
Plan meals using food models.
2. Writing of menus (by each member) of the meals to
be prepared at home for exhibit. Base menus upon the
preceding lessons on milk, eggs, vegetables, fruits, and
cereals. Reread "Body Needs and Foods to Meet These
3. Check health and food record of club member.
Florida State College for Women, Bulletin No. 28, "Serv-
Farmers' Bulletin No. 1313, "Good Proportions in the Diet."
Food Models by Lydia Roberts, University of Chicago Press.

38 Florida Cooperative Extension



Exhibit all records.
Exhibit, by food models or actual food, well balanced meals
for day for girl 12 to 14 years.
1. Reports:
a. Best menu.
b. Best record in improved nutrition by club member.
c. Best record in food production and utilization.
2. Health Play.
3. Selection of Healthiest Club Girl to enter State Contest.
4. Selection of Best Posture Girl among group selected in
Club Contests.
5. County Salad Demonstration Contest.


I. Energy-giving Foods

Starches Sugars Fats

II. Body Building and Regulating Foods

Muscle Bone, Teeth and Regulating

Proteins Lime

III. Protective Foods


Iron Roughage A.



fats and

S Milk
Lean meat

Plan meals with plenty of milk, eggs, fresh
fruits, green vegetables, whole grain cereals.

Vitamin D prevents rickets and is found in
egg yolk, and in milk. Vitamin E, the reproduc-
tive vitamin, is found in some vegetable oils,
green leaves, grain germs, and in lettuce. Each
of the vitamins is necessary. Study food selec-
tion to include them all.

Skim milk

Egg Yolk
Red Meat

String Butter
Beans Cream
Spinach Milk
Lettuce Egg Yolk
(raw) Spinach
Cabbage Greens
(raw) Liver
Fruits Kidney
(raw) Raw, fresh
Asparagus Cabbage
Celery Carrots
Onions Tomatoes
Dried Yellow
Fruits Corn
Whole Sweet
Grain Potatoes
Cereals Pineapple

Basis of good meals for each day
1. One qt. milk
2. Two salads
3. Two green vegetables cooked,
4. Fruit

SNearly all
if water
in which
they are
cooked is
Apples and
many fresh

Use water in which fruits and
vegetables are cooked.


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