Title: Certain aboriginal remains of the Black Warrior River
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00024747/00001
 Material Information
Title: Certain aboriginal remains of the Black Warrior River Certain aboriginal remains of the lower Tombigbee River. Certain aboriginal remains of Mobile Bay and Mississippi Sound. Miscellaneous investigation in Florida
Series Title: Certain aboriginal remains of the Black Warrior River.
Physical Description: 1 p. l., p. 125-332. : illus., map. ; 35 x 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Moore, Clarence B ( Clarence Bloomfield ), 1852-1936
Publisher: P.C. Stockhausen, Printer
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Publication Date: 1905
Subject: Mounds -- Alabama   ( lcsh )
Mounds -- Mississippi   ( lcsh )
Mounds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Gulf States   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: By Clarence B. Moore ...
General Note: "Reprinted from the Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, volume XIII."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00024747
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAB6287
ltuf - AEN9117
oclc - 01542785
alephbibnum - 000928364
lccn - 05034970
lccn - 05034970

Full Text


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!;r. John G. Ruge





Aboriginal Remains of the Black






Lower Tombigbee River.


Aboriginal Remains

of Mobile Bay

and Mississippi Sound.

Miscellaneous Investigation in






of the




Certain Shell Heaps of the St. Johns River, Florida, hitherto unexplored. The
American Naturalist, Nov., 1892, to Jany., 1894, inclusive. Five papers
with illustrations in text, and maps.
Certain Sand Mounds of the St. Johns River, Florida. Parts I and II, Journal of
the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, 1894, Vol. X.
Quarto, 130 and 123 pages. Frontispieces, maps, plates, illustrations in the
Certain Sand Mounds of Duval County, Florida; Two Mounds on Murphy Island,
Florida; Certain Sand Mounds of the Ocklawaha River, Florida. Journ.
Acad. Nat. Sci. of Phila., 1895. Vol. X. Quarto, 108 pages. Frontispiece,
maps, plates, illustrations in text.
Additional Mounds of Duval and of Clay Counties, Florida; Mound Investigation
on the East Coast of Florida; Certain Florida Coast Mounds north of the
St. John's River. Privately printed, Philadelphia, 1896. Quarto, 30 pages.
Map, plates, illustrations in text.
Certain Aboriginal Mounds of the Georgia Coast. Journ. Acad. N :"ci. of Phila.,
1897. Vol. XI. Quarto, 144 pages. Frontispiece, map, illustra-
tions in text.
Certain Aboriginal Mounds of the Coast of South Carolina; Certa originalnl
Mounds of the Savannah River; Certain Aboriginal Mounds of. A ltamaha
River; Recent Acquisitions; A Cache of Pendent Ornaments. rn. Acad.
Nat. Sci. of Phila., 1898. Vol. XI. Quarto, 48 pages. Frontisbiece, maps,
illustrations in text.
Certain Aboriginal Remains of the Alabama River. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. of
Phila., 1899. Vol. XI. Quarto, 62 pages. Map, illustrations in text.
Certain Antiquities of the Florida West-Coast. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. of Phila.,
,. 19p0O .Voj. XI. Quarto, 46 pages. Maps, illustrations in text.
,eGrtaian '.criin l/.Remains of the Northwest Florida Coast, Part I; Certain
o.,'..O 'Aboriginal' ] Sis,pf the Tombigbee River. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. of
Phila., 1901. V'riaIol Quarto, 100 pages. Maps, illustrations in text.
:''" Cerftjip btbra- RemainsP'fohe Northwest Florida Coast, Part II. Journ. Acad.
S *Nt t ',~:i.~j. ila., 1961):ol. XII. Quarto, 235 pages. Maps, illustrations
in text. ..
Certain Aboriginal Mounds of the Central Florida West-Coast; Certain Aboriginal
Mounds of the Apalachicola River. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. of Phila., 1903.
Vol. XII. Quarto, 136 pages. Maps, illustrations in text.
Sheet-copper from the Mounds is not Necessarily of European Origin. American
Anthropologist. Jan.-March, 1903. Plates in text.
The So-called "Hoe-shaped Implement." American Anthropologist, July-Sept.,
1903. Illustrations in text.
Aboriginal Urn-burial in the United States. American Anthropologist, Oct.-
Dec., 1904. Plate.
A Form of Urn-burial on Mobile Bay. American Anthropologist, Jan.-March, 1905.
Certain Aboriginal Remains of the Black Warrior River [Moundville] ; Certain
Aboriginal Remains of the Lower Tombigbee River; Certain Aboriginal
Remains of Mobile Bay and Mississippi Sound; Miscellaneous Investiga-
tion in Florida. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. of Phila., 1905. Vol. XIII. Quarto,
about 200 pages. Maps, illustrations in text.


Bohannon's Ldq
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Scale inmiles
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M A R E N G 0



The Black Warrior river,1 having its sources in northern Alabama, pursues a
southerly course, and passing the city of Tuscaloosa and the town of Moundville,
enters the Tombigbee river just above Demopolis.
The Black Warrior river, with the aid of dams and locks, is navigable at the
present time, the spring of 1905, from its union with the Tombigbee to a .point a
short distance above Tuscaloosa,2139 miles, by water. It is with this portion of the
river, our course being northward, that the present report of our work during part
of the season of 1905 has to do.
Mr. J. S. Raybon, captain of the flat-bottomed steamer from which our archmeo-
logical work is done, previously had spent considerable time on the river, from
Tuscaloosa down, with a companion, in a small boat, stopping at each landing to
make careful inquiries as to the location of cemeteries and mounds. The names
and addresses of owners of these were furnished us, and, permission to dig having
been obtained, there was little to do upon our arrival on the river but to proceed
with the digging.
The warm thanks of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia are
tendered all owners of mounds or cemeteries, who so kindly placed their property
at its disposal.
Mounds and Cemeteries.
Mound near Arcola, Hale County.
Mounds near Candy's Landing, Hale County.
Mounds near McAlpin's Woodyard, Greene County.
Mound near Stephen's Bluff, Greene County.
Mound below Lock Number 7, Hale County. :
Mound at Calvin's Landing, Greene County.
Mound near Bohannon's Landing, Hale County.
Mound near Gray's Landing, Tuscaloosa County.
Mounds and cemeteries in Tuscaloosa and Hale Counties, near Moundville,
Hale County.
Mound in Moundville, Hale County.
Mound near McCowin's Bluff, Tuscaloosa County.
1 It is said on the authority of the United States Engineer Office, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, that the
old name of the river from Demopolis to Tuscaloosa was Warrior, and above Tuscaloosa, Black War-
rior; but that the entire river is known now as the Black Warrior.
2 Additional locks, soon to be completed, will permit navigation a considerable distance farther
up the river.
16* JOURN. A. N. S. PHILA., VOL. XIII. -

:;: :


Mound and cemetery near R. H. Foster Landing, Tuscaloosa County.
Mound near Jones' Ferry Landing, Tuscaloosa County.
Mound near Hill's Gin Landing, Tuscaloosa County.
Mound and cemetery below Foster's Ferry Landbridge, Tuscaloosa County.
Cemetery above Foster's Ferry Landbridge, Tuscaloosa County.

In a cultivated field bordering the water, on property of Mr. B. G. Gibbs, of
Demopolis, Alabama, is a mound about one-quarter mile in a southerly direction
from the landing. The mound, which apparently had long been under cultivation,
was a trifle more than 7 feet in height. Its basal diameter, N. and S., was 200
feet; E. and W., 160 feet. In corresponding directions the diameters of the summit
plateau were 130 feet and 90 feet. An excavation previously made in the central
part of the mound showed it to be of clay at that point.
We shall say here, reverting to the subject more fully later in the report, that
southern mounds of the class of which this one is, have been found to be domi-
ciliary and not to contain burials as a rule. Sometimes, however, the flat plateaus
of such mounds were used as cemeteries, which may be detected by comparatively
superficial digging. This mound, dug into in many places by us, yielded no indica-
tion of burials.
These two small mounds are 1.5 miles SSE. from the landing, near the northern
side of Big Prairie creek. They were located by our agent, but as we were unable
to obtain permission to.investigate them, they were not visited by us.

These mounds, all in the swamp, required the services of a guide to locate
them,, ,All evidently were domiciliary and all were dug into superficially by us,
., "'. ,w'ih 1uu i miiria) result. They are composed of sand and clay, in varying pro-
portions '.
Qpe of these'ai'.nds, about one-half mile in an easterly direction from the
." "'.'."' .: ':'laiyi s approximatelyy 6 feet in height. The basal diameters are 55 feet E. and
".. '" W., and 44 feet N. and S. The diameters of the summit plateau in the corres-
ponding directions are 33 feet and 23 feet.
About one-quarter mile in a SSW. direction from the other is a mound 4 feet
9 inches high. The basal diameters are 62 feet and 50 feet; those of the summit
plateau, 25 feet and 17 feet. This mound is of irregular outline through wash of
About one-quarter mile NE. from the landing is the third mound, very sym-
metrical and almost exactly square. Its height is 6 feet; its basal diameter, 80
feet; the diameter of its summit plateau, 45 feet. Its sides almost correspond with
the cardinal points of the compass. To the east is a great excavation with steep
sides, whence came the material for its making.



This mound, at the landing, oblong and very symmetrical, with steep sides,
and summit plateau as level as a floor, is on property belonging to Dr. J. W.
Clements of Bartow, Polk County, Florida. Its height is 9 feet 9 inches. Its
diameters are: at base, NNE. and SSW., 150 feet; ESE. and WNW., 195 feet;
summit plateau in corresponding directions, 100 feet and 135 feet. The mound was
dug into superficially by us in many places, in a vain search for human remains or
Within sight from the water, on the eastern bank of the river, about three-
quarters of a mile below lock and dam Number 7, on property belonging to the
Black Warrior Lumber Co., of Demopolis, Alabama, is a mound of somewhat
irregular outline, 5 feet 6 inches high, 48 feet and 40 feet in basal diameters. The
mound was dug into by us without success.

Within sight from the landing, almost at the edge of the bank, on property
of Mr. W. B. Inge, of Greensboro, Alabama, is a square mound of clay, 4.5 feet in
height, having a basal diameter of 40 feet. No measurement was taken of the
summit plateau, which seemed to have been enlarged for the foundation of a house
that had been upon it. No burial or artifact was met with, though considerable
digging was done by us.

Following a road from the landing, through the swamp about three-fourths of
a mile in an ESE. direction, one reaches a clearing on property of Mr. C. D. Cum-
mings, Stewart Station, Alabama, in high swamp, where is a deserted house, and,
nearby, the mound with a small building upon it. This mound, the sides of which
almost correspond with the cardinal points of the compass, is 13.5 feet in height.
Neighboring trees show a deposit of mud left by freshets, almost 8 feet from the
ground; hence this mound must have afforded a welcome refuge to the aborigines
in flood-time. The western end of the mound is raised about 2.5 feet higher than
the rest of the mound. The maximum diameter of the mound, E. and W., is as
follows: 25 feet under each slope; the lower part of the summit plateau, 34 feet;
beneath slope leading to higher part of summit plateau, 18 feet; higher part of
summit plateau, 27 feet; total 129 feet. The maximum diameter N. and S. is 115
feet, 65 feet of which belong to the summit plateau. Considerable digging to a
depth of from 4 to 5 feet yielded in one place fragments of a human skull.

In a cultivated field, on property of Mr. James W. Strudwick, of Tuscaloosa,
Alabama, near the landing, was a mound which had been so much ploughed over
that a mere rise in the ground remained. Considerable digging failed to show that
it had been used for burial purposes.


This famous group of mounds, near Moundville,1 lies between the town and
the Black Warrior river which is about one mile distant from the town. The
larger, better preserved, and more important mounds belonging to this group are in
Tuscaloosa county, on property of Mr. Hardy Clements, of Tuscaloosa, Alabama.
Other interesting mounds completing the group, belonging to Mr. C. S. Prince, of
Moundville, are in Hale county, the county line dividing the Clements and Prince
estates. The cordial thanks of the Academy are tendered Messrs. Clements and
Prince for full permission to dig, both in the mounds and in the level country sur-
rounding them, a permission which, coming as it did in the planting season when
our presence was an inconvenience, is especially appreciated.
So far as we can learn, no report of investigation at Moundville has been pub-
lished, though an occasional reference, not always entirely correct, has appeared in
archeological publications.
We here give a survey of these mounds, prepared at the time of our visit to
Moundville by Dr. M. G. Miller, who, in addition, as in all our former archaeological
field studies, had charge of the anatomical work of the expedition.
The heights of the various mounds, which depend on the side whence the alti-
tude was taken, are as follows:
Mound A.-21 feet 10 inches.
Mound B.-57 feet.
Mound C.-From 18 feet 9 inches to 20 feet 6 inches.
Mound D.-16 feet 6 inches.
Mound E.-From 15 feet 7 inches to 19 feet 6 inches.
Mound F.-From 15 feet 9 inches to 21 feet 2 inches.
Mound G.-From 20 feet 9 inches to 22 feet 6 inches.
Mound H.-From 9 feet 6 inches to 10 feet 4 inches.
Mound I.-13 feet.
Mound J.-From 13 feet 10 inches to 16 feet.
Mound K.-From 13 feet 9 inches to 14 feet 2 inches.
Mound L.-From 12 feet 9 inches to 14 feet 10 inches.
Mound M.-From 11 feet 7 inches to 12 feet 9 inches.
Mound N.-From 18 feet 11 inches to 21 feet 2 inches.
Mound O.-From 16 feet 9 inches to 21 feet 7 inches.
Mound P.-From 23 feet 6 inches to 26 feet 10 inches.
Mound Q.-From 11 feet 5 inches to 17 feet.
Mound R.-20 feet 10.5 inches.
Mound S.-3 feet.
Mound T.-6 feet 5 inches.
This great group of mounds, all above the highest level attained by the river,
SThe town, until recently, was called Carthage, and is thus spoken of in various publications.


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so that no need for refuge from flood impelled their building, lies on a level plain
extending back from the river bluff. This plain could have afforded ample space
at all stages of the river for the games and ceremonies of an aboriginal center,
which at one time Moundville must have been. Evidence of aboriginal occupancy
extends in all directions beyond the limits of the circle.
The mounds, which have been approximately oblong or square in outline, with
summit plateaus usually level, are so arranged that two principal ones are sur-
rounded by the rest. One of these, Mound A in the survey, fairly central, exceeds
in area any of the others, the basal diameters being 195 feet and 351 feet; while
Mound B surpasses the others in altitude, its height being 57 feet.
Near many of the mounds are depressions, formed by excavating the material
for their building, some containing water, others drained by means of ditches.
These depressions are not present within what, for convenience, we call the circle
formed by the mounds (although it is not exactly circular), but are sometimes to
one side of the mounds, sometimes outside the circle; and the mounds within the
enclosed space do not have such depressions. It is evident, then, that the mounds
were built according to some fixed plan, and that these shallow ponds were inten-
tionally placed outside the area of the circle, perhaps that those living on the plain
within could have more convenient access to the mounds.
Certain of the mounds have graded ways, more or less distinct, leading to their
summits. These ways are shown on the survey. Others of the mounds may have
had similar ways; but if so they have become effaced through cultivation or wash
of rain, or both.
At the northern side of Mound B is an artificial plateau, marked V on the
survey, one and two-thirds acres in extent, roughly speaking. This plateau ranges
in height from 2 feet 6 inches to 16 feet 5 inches, the greatest altitude being.at the
northeastern part.
On.the survey are shown deep gullies formed by wash of rain which seems
gradually to be eating away the territory on which the mounds are situated.
The ridge north of Mound R, particularly described in the report, is marked
U on the survey; and W is the field north of Mound D, where much digging was
Excavations made previous to-our visit to Moundville are shown on the plans
of the various mounds.
Although we were provided with efficient apparatus in abundance to take pho-
tographs, and there were those on our steamer amply able to do so, no photographic
illustrations of the Moundville mounds will be given in this report. Long experi-
ence has shown us that a photograph of a mound, through undue exaggeration of
the foreground, is worse than valueless; it is misleading. A mound, stupendous to
the human eye, appears quite ordinary in size in a photograph.
Although there had been considerable digging into the smaller mounds of
Moundville previous to our visit, no record has been kept of the result, and the
artifacts, if any were found, are not available.


On the other hand, one continually hears of interesting "finds" made in the
level ground in the vicinity of the mounds, and the history of the objects dis-
covered can be traced.
We are indebted to Mr. C. S. Prince, of whom *e have spoken as one of the
present owners of the Moundville mounds, for exact details of the discovery there
of effigy-pipes of stone, many years ago.
Mr. O. T. Prince, father of Mr. C. S. Prince, acquired the property on which
the mounds are in 1857, and died in 1862. The pipes were found at the time of
Mr. O. T. Prince's tenure of the property, by two colored men who were digging a
ditch near one of the smaller mounds of the group-the one marked M on our
These pipes were held for a long time in the Prince family, and were shown,
with certain other relics, before a scientific society in 1875, when a photograph of
them was made (Fig. 1). Later, one of the pipes was disposed of and, fortunately,
fell into the hands of Gen. Gates P. Thruston, who describes and figures it.1

FIG. 1.-Antiquities found at Moundville.

Two of the pipes shown, and one that was excluded from the photograph on
account of its inferior condition, with equal good fortune to science, were procured
by Professor F. W. Putnam, for Peabody Museum, Cambridge, Mass. They are
shown in Figs. 2, 3, from photographs kindly furnished by Professor Putnam.
At the time the pipes went to Cambridge, a stone disc, 8.75 inches in diameter,
found in the level ground at Moundville, was disposed of to Professor Putnam and
is shown here in Fig. 4, from a photograph also courteously furnished by him. A
reproduction of a drawing of the design on the disc, made by Mr. C. C. Willoughby,
is given in Fig. 5. Mr. Willoughby informs us that a part of the design at the
1 "Antiquities of Tennessee," p. 187.

FIG. 2.-Effigy-pipes of stone. Moundville.

FIG. 3.-Effigy-pipes of stone. Side view. Moundville.


lower left hand side has scaled off. The dotted lines show where the stone has
come off in thin flakes. The design is apparent on the stone in these places, but
it lacks distinctness.
Some years ago, a colored man, ploughing near one of the larger mounds at
Moundville, found a superb hatchet and handle carved from a solid mass, probably
amphibolite,1 and highly polished. This hatchet (Fig. 6) was procured by Mr. C.
S. Prince, from whom it was obtained by the Academy of Natural Sciences.

FIG. 4.-Disc of stone. Mouudville. (Diameter 8.75 inches.)

The hatchet, 11.6 inches in length, with a neatly made ring at the end of the
handle (not clearly shown in the reproduction), resembles, to a certain extent, the
one found by Dr. Joseph Jones, near Nashville, Tenn., and described and figured
1 All determinations of rock in this paper and in the three which follow it, have been made by
Dr. E. Goldsmith, of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. As it has not been deemed
advisable to mutilate specimens for analysis and for microscopical examination, Doctor Goldsmith has
not alh .ys been able to identify materials with the exactness he otherwise could.


by him.1 C. C. Jones describes and figures 2 this same hatchet, and speaks of the
finding of another exactly similar in South Carolina.
Thruston also describes and illustrates3 the Jones hatchet, and refers to the
South Carolina specimen, and to still another, somewhat ruder in form, as coming
from Arkansas.
It is interesting in this connection to note the presence of "celts" with stone
handles in Santo Domingo,4 though these hatchets are much inferior to the speci-
men from Moundville.

FIG. 5.-Design on disc from Moundville. (Half size.)

The monolithic hatchet from Moundville seems to be much more beautiful than
the one discovered by Doctor Jones, for it leaves nothing to be desired as to finish,
and the graceful backward curve of the part of the handle above the blade seems
more artistic than the form of the corresponding portion of the Jones hatchet,
which is straight.
Some years ago Prof. E. A. Smith, State Geologist of Alabama, visited Mound-
"Explorations of the Aboriginal Remains of Tennessee," p. 46.
Antiquities of the Southern Indians," p. 280; Plate XII.
3 Op. cit., p. 259.
SJ. Walter Fewkes, "Preliminary Report on an Archaeological Trip to the West Indies," Smith-
sonian Miscellaneous Collections, Quarterly Issue, Vol. I, 1904. Plate XXXIX.


FIG. 6.-Monolithic hatchet from Moundville. (Length 11.6 inches.)


ville and received as a gift a disc about 12.5 inches in diameter, said to be of sand-
stone, of the same well-known type as the one referred to as being in Peabody
Museum. This type is characterized by marginal notches or scallops usually with
incised, circular lines on one side below them. The disc obtained by Professor
Smith, however, like the one in the Peabody Museum, has an interesting incised

o ... '. .. .... .


FIG. 7.-Dis of stone from Moundville (Diameter about 12.5 inches )

decoration on the side opposite that bearing the incised circles, in which it differs
from the ordinary discs of this type. The disc in question has on the reverse side
an incised design of two horned rattlesnakes knotted, forming a circle,2 within
1 Rau, Archmeological Collection of the United States National Museum, p. 37 et seq. Also
Holmes, "Art in Shell," Second Rep. Bur. Eth., 1880-81, Plate LVII, p. 277 et seq.
2 Our friend Senflor Juan B. Ambrosetti, Curator of the National Museum, Buenos Aires, who, it

Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires, Tomo XI (Ser. 3a, t. IV), pp. 286, 287, describes and
the margin of which two serpents form a circle.
the margin of which two serpents form a circle.



which is a representation of an open human hand bearing an eye upon it. This
disc was lent to the National. Museum, where it remained a long time, but is at
present in the Museum of the University of Alabama, near Tuscaloosa, where we
had the pleasure of examining it in company of Professor Smith, through whose
kindness and that of Mr. James A. Anderson of the Geological Survey of Alabama
we are able to give a photographic reproduction of it (Fig. 7). This interest-
ing disc is described and figured by Professor Holmes,' who, as any cautious arche-
ologist would have done at that time, rather discredited its genuineness. In view
of discoveries made since, however, the disc may be accepted without suspicion,
and such is Professor Holmes' opinion at the present time.

FIG. 8.-Water-bottle from Moundville. (Diameter 6.12 inches.)

In the museum of the University of Alabama, near Tuscaloosa, is part of a
water-bottle, said to have been found at Carthage, which place, the reader will recall,
is now known as Moundville. This vessel,2 which was courteously lent to the
Academy of Natural Sciences by Prof. E. A. Smith and Mr. James A. Anderson, and
is shown in Fig. 8, bears upon the base an incised design. Around the body of the
vessel, which is somewhat broken, have been four designs similar, in the main, to
SOp. cit., p. 278, Plate LXVI, fig. 6.
2All measurements of earthenware vessels given in this report and in the three papers which
follow it are approximate.
We quote from our preceding reports: "It must be borne in mind in respect to process work that.
reductions in size are made with regard to diameter and not area. If a diagram 4 inches by 2 inches
is to be reduced one-half, each diameter is divided by two, and the reproduction, which is called half
size, is two inches by one inch. The area of the original diagram, however, is eight square inches,
while that of the so-called half size reproduction is two square inches or one-quarter the area." In
other words the reduction is linear.



that on the base. One of these designs is given in diagram 1 in Fig. 9. Near the
head, in certain instances, where space has allowed it (Fig. 10), and on each tail, is
a swastika enclosed within a circle. Professor Putnam writes us This design [the
bird-figure] shows the characteristic duplication of parts in a most interesting man-
ner. In the centre of the figure we notice the symbol which is common to many of
the shell gorgets from Tennessee and which corresponds to the symbol on the
Korean flag as well as to the well-known Chinese symbol indicating the positive
and negative, or male and female." Professor Putnam next points out how, from
this central symbol two heads of a bird which he identifies as a woodpecker, extend

FIG. 10.-Vessel from Moundville. Decoration.
FIG. 9.-Vessel from Moundville. Decoration. (About half size.) (About half size.)

and how on each side of these heads a symbolical wing of the bird is seen. Then
on the right and left of the central portion are two tails of the bird, on each of
which is the symbol of the swastika. "Altogether," says Professor Putnam,
referring to the whole design, this is a beautiful symbolic figure and in general
workmanship and design it resembles some of the sculptures on bone from the Ohio
The bird shown in the design has been identified by Mr. Witmer Stone, of the
Academy of Natural Sciences, as the ivory-billed woodpecker (Campep/ilus prziczz-
falis Linn.), a bird now found in one part of Mississippi and in parts of Florida,
but having ranged well north of Moundville in former times. The aboriginal
artist shows the tongue of the bird extended to a somewhat exaggerated degree,
although the thrusting out of the tongue is a habit common to woodpeckers.
Emerging from within the open bill are various symbols, perhaps emblematic of
bird-speech. The call of the ivory-billed woodpecker resembles that of a young
child, according to Wilson.
The tail of the woodpecker, when spread, is fan-shaped and the individual
feathers at the extremity are pointed-peculiarities carefully shown by the abor-
iginal artist. When spread, the tail of the woodpecker is used by the bird to
It may be said here, as applying to. these diagrams and others of the Moundville specimens,
that proportions have been so far modified as was necessary to portray a curved field on a flat surface,
though otherwise the representation is exact.


prop itself up and thus steady it at its work. This feature would no doubt strike
the aboriginal eye and thus cause it to attach more importance to the tail of
the woodpecker than to its wings.
Among the wonderful objects of wood found by Cushing at the settlement of
Marco, Island of Marco, one of the Ten Thousand Islands, which lie off the south-
western Florida coast, is the picture of a bird painted in colors on a tablet of wood.'
Mr. Cushing believes the painting to be that of a jay or kingfisher, or more prob-
ably still, of a crested mythic bird or bird-god, combining attributes of both."
Four contiguous circles in line are represented as leaving the open bill of this bird,
which Mr. Cushing believes to be speech symbols.
The ivory-billed woodpecker was held in high esteem by the aborigines. Its
head, modelled in gold, has been found in Florida.2 Catesby3 tells us that "the
Bills of these Birds are much valued by the Canada Indians, who make Coronets
of 'em for their Princes and great warriors, by fixing them round a wreath, with
their points outward. The Northern Indians having none of these Birds in their
cold country, purchase them of the Southern People at the price of two, and some-
times three Buck-skins a Bill."
We shall now describe our digging at Moundville, with certain details discussed
in advance, to avoid repetition.
This work occupied thirty-five days with thirteen trained diggers from our
boat and five men to supervise. In addition, local help, ten men per day on an
average, was employed, mainly to fill excavations and to sink trial-holes in the
summit plateaus of the mounds. Long experience had shown us that square and
oblong mounds, in the south at least, were not designed primarily as burial mounds,
although sometimes burials were made in them, locally, in graves dug from the
surface. These trial-holes, averaging four feet square and four feet deep, when
made in sufficient number on the plateau of a mound, were considered to be an
excellent method of detecting the presence of burials, for, although the entire
surface of the plateau was not dug through, it was extremely unlikely that skele-
tons or bundles of bones could all lie in an area not dug into by at least one of a
number of well distributed shafts. When the presence of human bones was
detected, more complete methods of investigation were adopted.
The material of which the mounds were made was clay, clay with admixture
of sand, and, in places, to a limited extent, almost pure sand. On the whole, how-
ever, the mounds were chiefly of clay with an admixture of sand, often a very small
Inside as well as outside the circle, on the level ground, were many sites
giving evidence of aboriginal occupancy. These sites were more or less thoroughly
investigated by us by means of trial-holes. These holes were not always as deep
1Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Phila., Vol. XXXV, No. 153, Plate
XXXIV, p. 98 et seq.
R au, Smithsonian Report, 1878, p. 299.
"The Natural History of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands," London, 1731, Vol. I,
p. 16.


as those that we dug into the mounds, since, when undisturbed soil was reached, con-
tinuance was unnecessary. In our report we give records only of sites where tan-
gible results were obtained. In some sites no burials were met; in others, burials
were few and without artifacts.
The form of burial at Moundville did not include urn-burial so far as we were
able to determine, but did not vary otherwise from methods of burial found in
various southern states. When the entire skeleton was present, as a general rule
it lay at full length on the back. There was no orientation of skeletons, the skulls
being directed toward all points of the compass. Had it been otherwise, our fortune
at Moundville would have been better, as vessels of earthenware almost always lay
near the skull, hence by following the skeleton from the feet up, we could have
reached these vessels with the aid of a trowel rather than, as was too often the case,
by unintentional blows from a spade.
All human remains at Moundville were badly decayed and nearly all were
represented by fragments only. No crania were saved.
Parts of crania found by us were carefully examined for evidence of ante-
mortem compression, but none was met with, save in one case where it seemed to
us to be evident. This fragment, the anterior part of a skull, was sent by us to
the National Museum. The following report as to the fragment was received from
Dr. Ales Hrdlicka: "The skull shows in a moderate degree an artificial frontal
flattening. This variety of deformation was produced when an infant, by the pro-
longed application of a direct pressure (pad or board) over the forehead, a custom
which existed in several of the Gulf States." Therefore, frontal flattening was
not unknown at Moundville. It must be borne in mind, also, that as the crania
examined were usually in small fragments, evidence of compression in many
could well have escaped us.
The earthenware of Moundville is shell-tempered as a rule, but not always.
In large cooking vessels the particles of shell are coarse and show on the surface.
In the better ware the pounded shell is less noticeable, because it is more finely
ground and for the reason that the Moundville ware, except in the case of cooking-
vessels, is almost invariably covered with a coating of black, more or less highly
polished on the outer surface. This coating was not produced by the heat in firing
the clay, but was a mixture intentionally put on by the potters. Scrapings from
the surface of a number of vessels were furnished by us to Harry F. Keller, Ph.D.,
who, by analysis, arrived at the conclusion that the black coating on the earthen-
ware is carbonaceous matter. Under the microscope it appears as a lustrous
coating, which must have been in a liquid state when applied. Chemicals have
little effect upon the coating; it is insoluble in alcohol and in ether, not attacked
by acids, and but slightly affected by caustic alkali. From its appearance and
chemical behavior, Dr. Keller concludes that it must have been applied in the form
of a tarry or bituminous matter which, upon heating out of contact with air, was
converted into a dense variety of carbon. Doctor Keller is of opinion that a mix-
ture of soot and fat or oil might produce the effect, though the numerous lustrous
particles resembling graphite rather suggest the carbonization of a tar-like substance.



The earthenware of Moundville is characterized by monotony of form, the
water-bottle, the bowl, and the pot being almost the sole representatives of the
potter's art met with in its graves. It is to the striking incised decoration that we
must look for the great interest attached to the earthenware of the place.
Stamped decoration was absent. Not only was the complicated stamp of the
south Appalachian region, which extends across to southern Alabama, not met with
in a single instance, but our old, intimate, and hitherto ever-present friend, the
small check-stamp, was absent also.
The custom of perforating the base of vessels placed with the dead, in order
to kill" the vessels that their souls might be free to accompany the spirit of the
departed, was not practised at Moundville, though it extended for a distance up
the Tombigbee river, below its junction with the Black Warrior.
The reader will note in the detailed description of the discoveries at Mound-
ville, which follows, that not one object met with by us, either through its method
of manufacture or the material of which it was made, gave indication of influence
of Europeans. The greatest pains were taken by us during the entire investigation
to note the presence of any object obtained from the whites. Presumably, later
Indians did not use Moundville as a center for burials.
All objects found at Moundville by us, with the exception of certain dupli-
cates, which were sent to Phillips Academy Museum, Andover, Mass., are to be
seen at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.


Mound A, the central one of the Moundville group, about 22 feet in height
and irregularly oblong in horizontal section, has a summit plateau 155 by 271 feet.
Thirty-three trial-holes were sunk in the plateau, showing yellow clay with a slight
admixture of sand. One small arrowhead of jasper alone rewarded our search.

Mound B, 57 feet in height, seems stupendous when viewed from the level
ground. Two steep causeways, one at the north, the other at the east, lessen some-
what the angle of ascent, which, on the western side, is thirty-eight degrees. The
summit plateau, roughly oblong, is 118 feet in width by 149 feet in length. Twenty-
two trial-holes sunk by us yielded neither human bones nor artifact. The super-
ficial part of the mound is of yellow clay with a small percentage of sand.

This field, probably between one and two acres in extent, and bordering the
northern side of Mound B, is under cultivation and shows on its surface numerous
traces of aboriginal occupancy. Eighteen trial-holes and 150 feet of narrow trench,


all about 2.5 feet deep, were excavated through loamy material to undisturbed soil.
No human remains were encountered. The only object of interest met with among
the usual midden debris was a hoe-shaped implement of granitic rock, 5 inches long
by 4.75 inches wide. An attempt at perforation has been almost carried through
on one side, but has been barely started on the other side (Fig. 11).
In a paper by us, published
in 1903,' we adduced considerable
evidence to prove, what others
had suggested before, that the so-
called hoe-shaped implement is a
ceremonial axe.

This field, lying directly to
the west of Mound B, and con-
siderably smaller than the one
just described, was rather un-
promising in appearance. Eight
trial-holes gave no material result,
and, from the appearance of the
soil, no promise of success.
On the border of this field,
overlooking a deep gully made
by wash of rain, were several
slight eminences consisting of a
mixture of loamy sand and clay,
in part washed away. These undu-
FIG. 11.-Ceremonial axe. Trench near Mound B. nations, small, low, and of irregular
(Length 5 inches.)
shape, were thoroughly searched.
In a mingling of bones in which at least three adults and one child were rep-
resented, was Vessel No. 1, a small bowl with three protuberances on one side and
three on the other-doubtless conventionalized head, tail, and four legs (Fig. 12).

FIG. 12.-Vessel No. 1. Field west of Mound B. FIG. 13.-Vessel No. 3. Field west of Mound B.
(Diameter, 5.4.inches.) (Diameter 6 inches.)
1 "The So-called 'Hoe-shaped Implement,'" Amer. Anthropologist, Vol. V, pp. 498-502, July-
September, 1903.



Near Vessel No. I were Vessel No. 2 (a small, undecorated water-bottle with
wide mouth), and a discoidal stone 1 inch in diameter.
Near the skull of a child, whose skeleton lay at full length on the back, was
Vessel No. 3, a bowl with semiglobular body and flaring
rim, undecorated save for a notched margin (Fig. 13).
Besides the usual midden debris there were in the /I
soil, apart from human remains, a human head and the
head of a fish, imitated in earthenware, which had formed .
parts of vessels; a rough arrowhead or knife, of chert; six :.
discs made from potsherds, one very neatly rounded; and -
an interesting representation of a human hand, done in C..J
hard and polished earthenware, having two holes for sus- FIG. 14.-Pendant of earthen-
pension (Fig. 14). \ware. Field west of Mound
pension (Fig. 14). B. (Full size.)
Mound C, overlooking the river, an irregular pentagon in horizontal section,
has a basal circumference of'about 485 feet while the circumference of its summit
plateau is 295 feet. As the mound is on a decided slope, near land seemingly arti-
ficially depressed, and is bordered by a ravine on one side, the height is difficult to
determine, varying locally between 9 feet and 20 feet, approximately.
Twenty-one trial-holes were sunk in the summit plateau, in some of which we
came upon human remains almost at once.
In one hole, 4 feet down, was a bunched burial.
In another hole, 2 feet from the surface, was a single skull with a -bunch of
bones badly decayed and crushed. With these bones were a small quantity of mica
and Vessel No. 1-a water-bottle painted red, with decoration in cream-colored
paint (Fig. 15). Half of the decoration, which is similar to the other half, is shown
in diagram in Fig. 16. This water-bottle proved to be the only vessel with painted
decoration found by us at Moundville. Near it was Vessel No. 2 in fragments.
This vessel, a cup, since put together, has a rather rude, incised decoration shown
in Fig. 17. In the same hole, 3 feet distant, were small fragments of human bone
and bits of pottery.
From other excavations came the usual hones, pebble-hammers, and bits of
pottery, and two shells.
While digging the trial-holes it was noticed that no human remains were dis-
covered in the southern half of the plateau, and that the soil of almost the entire
northern half of the plateau was blackened with admixture of organic matter.
With these facts in mind, we determined to dig superficially that part of the plateau
which seemed to promise favorable results, but first it was decided to get some idea
as to the body of the mound by an excavation of considerable size. Consequently
an excavation 24 feet square, near the central part of the plateau, was carried to a
depth of 16.5 feet, or 1 foot below previously undisturbed ground, where the exca-
vation had converged to dimensions of 14 feet by 16 feet. A small hole, carried


FIG. 15.-Vessel No. 1. Mound C. (Height 8 inches.)



FIG. 16.-Vessel No. 1. Decoration. Mound C. (About half size.)

FIG. 18.-Plan of excavations. Mound C.

FIG. 17.-Vessel No. 2. Mound C. (Diameter 4 inches.)

considerably deeper, substantiated our belief that the base of the mound had been
reached. A plan showing the excavation and the superficial work done by us in
this mound is given in Fig. 18.
In the northeastern part of the great excavation burials were met with at a
depth of from 2.5 feet to 4.5 feet.
Two and one-half feet from the surface, with no burial remaining, was a hand-
some disc of metamorphic gneiss, 10.25 inches in diameter, with scalloped rim and
with incised decoration on one side only (Fig. 19). On one side of the disc are
traces of paint.
In an earlier part of this report we have described the finding of two stone
discs at Moundville, previous to our visit, and have given references to works in
which the area of distribution of large stone discs and slabs is described and their
probable use discussed. Stone discs and slabs1 were found by us on many occasions
at Moundville, as will be noted in this report, and in each case the disc or the slab
was more or less thickly smeared with paint, sometimes cream-colored, sometimes
Compare, Jesse Walter Fewkes, "Two Summers' Work in Pueblo Ruins," 22nd Ann. Rep. Bur.
Am. Eth., Part I, p. 185 et seq., where ceremonial slabs found in Arizona are described.


red. The cream-colored paint upon one of the discs, analyzed by Dr. H. F. Keller,
proved to be an impure white-lead. White-lead, as the reader is aware, is lead car-
bonate and of the same composition as the incrustation frequently found on the sul-
phide ore of lead. Masses of galena (lead sulphide) are often found in the mounds,

FIG. 19.-Stone disc. Mound C. (Diameter 10.25 inches.)

and as the reader will see, such masses were met with by us at Moundville. Accord-
ing to Dr. Keller, even a careful quantitative analysis of the carbonate deposit from
galena would not show whether it was originally the manufactured pigment or the


native carbonate; therefore we cannot determine chemically whether or not the
paint on the disc is European white-lead.
It is out of the question to suppose that aborigines manufactured white-lead
from the sulphide ore, the process being too complicated, necessitating, as it does,
the reduction of the sulphide ore to metallic lead and the production of the carbo-
nate paint from the metal. Therefore, as to the provenance of this paint we have
three hypotheses:
1. That the paint was made by Europeans.
2. That the paint is carbonate of lead scraped by the aborigines from masses
of galena.
3. That the paint, originally of silver color, was ground from masses of galena
and that this finely-ground lead sulphide, during long lapse of time in the mounds,
became the carbonate. This hypothesis is strengthened by the fact that in very
many cases we have found masses of galena in the mounds presenting facets pro-
duced by rubbing, and in some cases hollows probably made in the same way.
Doctor Keller, however, is of opinion that paint made in this way would show, at
the present time, glittering particles of galena that had not undergone change'
As the result of our investigations, we believe the foregoing to be the only
ways of accounting for the presence of white-lead in the mounds. In view of the
fact that no object surely of European provenance was found in the mounds or
cemeteries of Moundville, and the knowledge that the aborigines had the material
at hand to manufacture a lead paint with the aid of bear's grease, it seems conclu-
sive to us that the paint on the discs and slabs is purely of aboriginal origin.
The universal presence of paint upon these discs and slabs seems to offer a
clue to the purpose for which they were used, and, until a better suggestion is
offered, we shall consider them palettes for the mixing of paint.
Beneath this disc in Mound C were three vessels, two badly crushed (Vessels
Nos. 3 and 4), the third (Vessel No. 5), with a handle broken and missing, having
an incised scroll decoration of a pattern to be figured several times in other parts
of this report
Vessel No. 3, when pieced together, proved to be a broad-mouthed water-bottle
decorated with a kind of incised meander in a cross-hatched field (Fig. 20).
Vessel No. 4, repaired and partly restored (Fig. 21), has around the body eight
incised open hands alternately pointing upward and downward. On each hand is
an open eye. Part of this design is shown in diagram in Fig. 22.
Thirty inches from the surface were friable fragments of sheet-copper corroded
through and through.
Many shell beads and bits of sheet-copper lay with a fragment of a tibia, about
3 feet from the surface.
A skeleton at full length, about 3 feet down, had on one side of the skull a
copper ear-plug of the usual type, and on the chest the crumbling remains of what
must have been a sheet-copper ornament of considerable size.
A trifle more than 3 feet from the surface was a skeleton at full length on the


FIG. 20.-Vessel No. 3. Mound C. (Height 5.4 inches.)

FIG. 21.-Vessel No. 4. Mound C. (Diameter 5.7 inches.)


FIG. 22.-Vessel No. 4. Decoration.
Mound C. (About half size.)

back, with fragments of sheet-copper at the head
and a few bits on the upper part of the chest. At
both knees were beads, some round, some tubular,
each about half an inch in length. At each ankle,
on the outer side, was a deposit of small, spherical
pebbles that evidently belonged to rattles. A small
quantity of mica lay near one knee.
A skeleton at full length on the back, at about
the same depth as the last, had near the head a drill-
point wrought from a jasper pebble, and a disc of
metamorphic gneiss (Fig. 23), 7.8 inches in diame-
ter, with an oblong slab of sedimentary rock, 4.75
inches broad by 5.75 inches long, beside it (Fig. 24).

.FIG. 23.-Stone disc. Mound C. (Diameter 7.8 inches.)



Resting on these two was another disc of metamorphic gneiss, of the same diameter
as the other. The whole deposit was covered with decayed wood. The discs, some-
what crushed, have been repaired. On each are traces of pigment. Neither on
these discs and slabs nor on any others found by us at Moundville was there incised
decoration on both sides; and on neither side had an attempt been made to repre-
sent figures.

FIG. 24.-Stone slab. Mound C. FIG. 25.-Vessel No. 6. Mound C.
(Length 5.75 inches.) (Height 6.75 inches.)

Another skeleton at full length on the back lay at the same depth, with no
artifacts in association; and not far distant, at a somewhat lower level, was still
another burial of the same kind. Near the skull of the latter were fragments of
of what seemingly had been a flat, tapering blade of sheet-copper, with the point
and certain other parts remaining; also bits of corroded sheet-copper belonging to
one or more ornaments, with fragments of matting. Nearby was a thin, even,
oblong layer, of small, spherical pebbles, covering a space 8 by 10 inches in extent,
enclosed above and below in a black substance decayed beyond recognition. With
these pebbles, was a diminutive disc of earthenware or soft clay-stone, having a cir-
cular marking in the center on one side.



At 52 and 56 inches from the surface, respectively, were a bunch of loosely-
spread bones, including one skull, and a skull lying alone. With the bunch was a
small quantity of mica.
Vessel No. 6 lay in fragments in the wall of the excavation and presumably
belonged to human remains that had been removed. Pieced together, the vessel
proved to be a truncated cone in shape (Fig. 25).

FIG. 26.-Ceremonial axe of stone. Mound C. (Length 6.5 inches.)

When the great excavation, in the northeastern part of which lay the burials
and relics we have just described, had reached a depth of 6.5 feet, a change in the
material of which the mound was composed was noted, the upper part having been
brown and red-brown clay with an admixture of sand and organic matter here and
there. While there had been more or less stratification in places in the upper part,
the material in the main was homogeneous. Below this level of 6.5 feet from the
surface, the mound was more stratified, and the clay contained much less sand and
was of various shades of gray. It became evident that we had reached a level
which, at an earlier period, had been part of a summit plateau of the mound. Con-
firming this view, various pits were discovered, each extending from this lower
level several feet down into the mound. In two of these pits were human remains.
In one, 4.5 feet below this lower, or original plateau, were crowns of teeth and a
line of bones in the last stage of decay. In another pit, 5 feet across and 34 inches
down from this former summit plateau, teeth and a line of decayed bones again
were present. A number of similar pits were noted by us, but either the bones
had entirely disappeared through decay or the fragments were so small that they
were thrown back before the presence of the pit was discovered. One pit, with a
layer of decayed bark along its base, was disturbed by our men while we were
absent from that part of the mound. In this instance bones may have been
present, but if so their fragments were too minute to-attract attention in the dirt
thrown out.
In the clay taken from the excavation at a depth of about 8.5 feet from the
second, or present, summit plateau of the mound, or 2 feet below the lower level,
was an imitation in wood copper-coated, of a canine of a large carnivore, with a
perforation at one end for suspension. This ornament, 2.75 inches in length, had
been wrapped in matting, some of which remained.


At a depth of 9.5 feet from the upper level, or 3 feet below the lower one,
where certain pits were, was an interesting ceremonial axe of plutonic rock, with
flaring edge, about 6.5 inches in length (Fig. 26). This axe, which much resembles
one found by us in the famous mound at Mt. Royal, Florida, had red oxide of iron
adhering to it at one place. About 2 inches of the upper part, away from the
blade, where the handle had been, was not polished like the rest of the implement,
being finished more or less in the rough.
Perhaps a recapitulation of the results of this excavation may not be out of
We have here a mound 15.5 feet high at the central part, which originally had
a height of but 9 feet. It was occupied for a period while at the latter level, and
burials were made in pits dug from its surface. Later, the height of the mound was
increased by 6.5 feet, and the summit plateau of this enlarged mound was again
used locally as a place for burials.

FIG. 27.-Ceremonial axe of copper, with part of handle in place. Mound C. (Full size.)

It was evident to us that the mound had undergone but two stages of occu-
pancy, as there were no change in the material below the lower level of which we
hive spoken, and no sign of a pit having a beginning lower than this level 9 feet
above the base.
It occurred to us, as a point of interest, carefully to note the earthenware from
the lower part of this mound in order to learn whether or not a difference existed
between it and the earthenware found above, but as no vessels were found in the
original mound, and as but two small, undecorated sherds were obtained by our men
there, means for comparison were wanting.

.-, n 1



Having disposed of the deep excavation, we turned our attention to the
northern part of the summit plateau of the mound through which we dug to a
depth of fully 5 feet. The area excavated, as before said, is given in the plan
showing the great excavation.
All burials, so far as could be determined, were in pits that had been dug from
the surface, though often, on account of aboriginal disturbance, the exact limits of
these pits could not be traced.
Four feet below the surface, with a few, soft fragments of human bone, was a
ceremonial axe of copper, 8 inches long, 3 inches across the blade, and 1.75 to 2
inches broad in other parts. Remains of a wooden handle, 2 inches in width, still
adhere to the metal, showing that 1 inch of the implement projected behind the
handle (Fig. 27). C. C. Jones' describes a somewhat similar axe from Georgia and
rightly places it in the ceremonial class, calling attention to its light weight and
delicate structure.
A skeleton complete down to, and including, part of the thorax had, under the
chin, small fragments of a sheet-copper ornament that had been encased in matting.
Near a femur, lying alone, was a considerable number of tubular shell beads,
each somewhat less than 1 inch in length.
At a depth of 16 inches from the surface were certain scattered human bones
near a small pocket of fragments of calcined bone, also human, with-more unburnt
bones beyond.
A skull and a few bones in disorder lay together. With the skull was Vessel
No. 7, in fragments, and a small cup with incised, ribbon-fold decoration, resembling
in form and in design Vessel No. 21 from this mound and Vessel No. 15 from
Mound O.
In the same pit, but not immediately with the bones, was a ceremonial axe of
copper, to which fragments of a wooden handle still adhered. This axe, like most
copper objects found in the mounds, was encased in decayed material-wood, in this
instance. The length of the axe is 6.4 inches; it is 1.5 inches across the blade,
and 1 inch in breadth at the opposite end. The breadth of the space covered by
the handle is 1.25 inches; 1.5 inches of the axe projected behind the handle (Fig.
28 D).
In this same pit lay a skeleton at full length on the back. At each side of the
skull was an ear-plug of the ordinary form, made of wood, coated with sheet-copper
on the upper surface. The companion parts of these ear-plugs, which were worn
behind the lobes of the ears, were not found; presumably they had been made of
some perishable material. Below the chin was an ornament of sheet-copper in small
fragments which, put together, form in part a gorget with scalloped margin, having
three roughly circular lines surrounding a swastika defined by excised portions
(Fig. 29).. Near the skull were Vessels Nos. 8 and 9, both crushed to fragments.
Vessel No. 8, pieced together, bears an incised design several times found by us at
"Antiquities of the Southern Indians," p. 226 et seq.



Moundville (Fig. 30). Vessel No. 9, repaired, shows an incised meander around
the body (Fig. 31).
Near a dark stain in the soil, which
possibly indicated where a skeleton had
disappeared through decay, was a pend-
ant of sheet-copper, encased in decayed
wood. In the upper part are excisions
to form a swastika, and an excised trian-
gle below (Fig. 32). With this pendant
were small fragments of another.
In a pit in which were other bones,
apart from artifacts, was a mass of galena
about the size of a child's fist, with frag-
ments of bone. This galena, or sulphide
of lead, was heavily coated with carbonate FIG. 29.-Part of sheet-copper gorget. Mound C.
of lead, which could readily be used as (Full size.)
paint. In the same pit, but deeper, lying near a few small bits of skull, was a disc,
probably of fine-grained gneiss, 16 inches in diameter, without decoration. Nearby,
above the disc, were small fragments of sheet-copper and Vessel No. 9a, crushed to

FIG. 30.-Vessel No. 8. Mound C. (Height 7 inches.)


FIG. 31.-Vessel No. 9. Mound C. (Height 7 inches.)

FIG. 32.-Pendant of sheet-copper.
Mound C. (Full size.)

FIG. 33.-Ceremonial axe of copper. Mound C. (Length 13.75 inches.)


small fragments. With Vessel No. 9a was Vessel No. 10, also in fragments, which,
cemented together, proved to be a small, wide-mouthed water-bottle with a scroll
decoration on a cross-hatch field.
Somewhat more than 4.5 feet down was a dark line in the soil, perhaps the
last trace of a decayed skeleton. With it, together, were two small masses of
galena, minute fragments of sheet-copper, and a neatly made discoidal stone of
quartz, 2 inches in diameter.
Slightly more than a foot below the surface was a small deposit of fragments
of calcined human bones, accompanied with a little charcoal and burnt clay in
small masses. It appeared as if these foreign substances had been gathered up
with the bones at the place of cremation.
Near a dark line, probably left by decayed bones, was a ceremonial axe of
copper, 13.75 inches long, 1.9 inches across the flaring blade, and .4 inch wide at
the opposite end (Fig. 33). This implement, encased in wood, as usual, has no
handle remaining upon it, but it plainly shows where a handle has been, with part
of the body of the axe behind it.
Scattered fragments of calcined human bones, with part of one unburnt bone
among them, lay 2 feet from the surface.
Remnants of a skull and part of a long-bone lay together; with them were
fragments of corroded sheet-copper.
Apparently apart from human remains was an undecorated but gracefully
shaped water-bottle (Vessel No. 11), which, unfortunately, received a blow from a
Four feet from the surface, with a few fragments of human bone and many
tubular shell-beads, each slightly less than an inch in length, was the remainder of
what presumably had been a shell drinking-cup. Pieces separated through decay
lay near it. The large fragment, which had upon it parts of two engraved fighting
figures, received a blow from a spade, which, however, did no material harm, inas-
much as the parts separated by the blow had lost through decay all trace of
engraving. That which remains of the engraved design shows what is left of two
fighting figures. Below, a figure with parts of the trunk missing, as well as the
legs and the lower part of the left arm, has the right arm upraised to strike with a
weapon of some kind-perhaps a war-club. In the ear of this figure is represented
a large ear-plug, and ornaments, probably copper, are on the head. The second
figure is represented by a leg and part of a foot. An unidentifiable object, but per-
haps the handle of an axe, is between the figures (Fig. 34).
Engraved figures on shell, of the same class1 as those from Moundville, have
been found in Missouri, in Tennessee, and in Georgia, and on copper in Georgia.
W. H. Holmes, "Art in Shell," Second Rep. Bur. ]ith., 1880-81; also same author in Siith.
Misc. Col., Vol. XLV, Quarterly issue, Vol. I, Pt. I.
Thruston, "Antiquities of Tennessee," 2nd ed., chap. ix and supplement to chap. ix.
Thomas, in Fourth Rep. Bur. Eth., 1883-4, p. 100 et seq.
See also Starr, in Proc. Davenport Acad. Nat. Sci., Vol. VI, p. 173 et seq.
Saville, in Bul. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y., Vol. XIII, p. 99 et seq.


Incidentally, it may be said that the statement made by Doctor Thomas that the
famous Etowah plates show European influence, is not now accepted by competent
With a lone skull was a beautiful, little bird arrow-head, of transparent quartz.
Vessel No. 12, in fragments, was found away from human remains, though in
all probability bones buried with it had disappeared through decay, or perhaps the

FIG. 34.-Part of engraved shell. Mound C. (Full size.)

vessel had been cast aside in an aboriginal disturbance. This vessel, pieced together,
shows a series of central crosses and a cross-hatch design (Fig. 35). Nearby lay
a mass of galena (lead sulphide), showing many facets as if worked down for a
specific purpose (Fig. 36).
Two burials, one above the other, which had been skeletons at full length, as



FIG. 35.-Vessel No. 12. Mound C. (Height 6.25 inches.)

FIG. 36.-Mass of sulphide of lead showing the white carbonate used for paint. Mound C. (Full size.)

indicated by fragments of bone still remaining, had each a number of shell beads.
A bit of sheet-copper lay not far away.
With an irregularly bunched burial was a small quantity of charcoal.
Vessel No. 13, a wide-mouthed water-bottle with numerous shallow depres-
sions surrounded by incised line decoration (Fig. 37), a favorite pattern at Mound-
ville, lay apart from any visible trace of human remains. Near where the vessel
lay was an interesting fire-place that formed the base of the pit in which the vessel
was found. This fire-place, having the form of a basin 11 inches deep and 40
inches in diameter, was made of clay, hardened and burnt red by fire to a thickness
of 6 inches. On the bottom of the basin was a quantity of gray material mingled



FIG. 37.--essel No. 13. Mound C. (Height 6 inches.)

with clay; this was covered with a black substance 2.5 inches thick, possibly de-
cayed vegetable matter. The gray material, analyzed by Dr. H. F. Keller, proved
to consist principally of carbonate of lime with admixed sea-sand. The color, a
dirty brownish, is due to a .hydrated oxide of manganese, of which the mixture
contains a verynotable amount. The brown specks are distinctly visible under the
magnifying glass, and evolve chlorine from hydrochloric acid when the material is
treated with this solvent."
Vessel No. 14, a broad-mouthed
water-bottle, with rude, incised scroll
decoration, lay in fragments, apart from
human remains.
With a few fragments of bones of a
child lay, one upon the other, what was
left by decay and the blow of a spade, of
two circular sheet-copper ornaments. In
the center of each, four excised spaces
form a swastika. On one of the discs are
rows composed of many small pearls re-
maining as when strung (Fig. 38).
A highly-polished and beautifully FIG. 38.-Gorget of sheet-opper with string of pearls.
0Mound C. (Full size.)
made discoidal stone of brown and white
conglomerate, presenting a striking appearance, lay apart from human remains.



With no bones visible nearby were Vessels No. 14a and No. 15, in fragments.
Each of these is a broad-mouthed water-bottle with a decoration common at Mound-
ville, having depressions in the body, surrounded byincised scroll-work.
Forty-five inches below the surface a great shell drinking-cup (Fulgur per-
versum), 13 inches in length, was found; and inverted over it was Vessel No. 16,
a bowl with beaded margin, somewhat broken when unearthed. In the shell cup
was a black substance in which was a splinter of bone, probably remains of food.
We found similar material in a number of vessels at Moundville. Nearby was a
well-made "celt" of volcanic stone and a wide-mouthed water-bottle (Vessel No.
17), in fragments. This vessel (Fig. 39), pieced together, bears on each side an
incised meander surrounding small, shallow depressions. With this water-bottle
was a coarse, brown-ware cooking vessel, with two loop-handles (Vessel No. 18).

FIG. 39.-Vessel No. 17. Mound C. (Height 5.9 inches.)

A broken shell drinking-cup, without decoration, lay apart from bones, so far
as we could determine.
About 4 feet below the surface were a few human teeth, probably all that
remained of an entire 'skeleton. Beneath the teeth, where the neck had been,
was part of a pendant of much corroded sheet-copper, similar to one already
illustrated (Fig. 32), as coming from this mound. At each side of the place where
the head had been was an ear-plug of ordinary type, consisting of a disc of wood
with, sheet-copper on the outer side (Fig. 40). The parts which, placed behind



the lobes of the ears, held these ornaments in place, were not found, hence it is pre-
sumed they had been entirely of wood.
With some fragments of badly decayed bone was a ceremonial axe of copper,
with part of the wooden handle still remaining upon it in fairly good condition, the
wood maintaining a rounded surface. The length of this axe"is 5.75 inches; width
of blade, 2 inches. The blade projected .25 of an inch behind the handle (Fig.
28 F). Above this implement was a copper-coated bead of shell, somewhat broken.
A ceremonial axe of
copper fell with caved mate-
rial. Length, 7.8 inches;
width of blade, 3.2 inches
(Fig. 28 C). In the neigh-
borhood from which the axe
fell were fragments of what
had been a large breast-piece
of sheet-copper. Unfortu-
nately the badly corroded
FIG. 40.-Wooden ear-plugs, copper-coated. MIound C. (Full size.)
state of the metal precluded
any chance of recovering this ornament save in very minute fragments.
Somewhat below scattered fragments of bone in a pit, with bits of much de-
cayed skeletal remains, were parts of what probably had been a hair-ornament of
sheet-copper, similar to one to be described in connection with Burial No. 37 in
this mound. With the fragments of this ornament was what Prof. F. A. Lucas
kindly has identified as a strip of bison-horn. This material readily could have
taken the place of a pin of bone. A similar strip of bison-horn lay with the hair-
ornament near Burial No. 37.
Near the ceremonial axe and the breast-piece, but not with them, occurred a
dark line in the soil, probably all that remained of a human skeleton. On this
line was a ceremonial axe of copper, about 9.6 inches long and 2.25 inches across
the flaring blade (Fig. 28 B). On the cutting edge is a series of nicks, or tally-
marks, similar to those so often found on ceremonial objects. If farther proof
were needed to assign these copper axes to the ceremonial class, these notches along
the edge of the blade certainly would supply the deficiency.
Vessels Nos. 19 and 20, small, undecorated, broad-mouthed water-bottles, lay
together, with no bones remaining in association.
A small deposit of fragments of calcined human bone lay 18 inches from the
We now come to Burial No. 37, a most noteworthy one. Forty inches below
the surface was a dark line, doubtless marking the former presence of a skeleton.
Near the eastern extremity of this line were a few human teeth and part of a lower
jaw. Assuming that this black line was almost the last trace of a skeleton that
once lay at full length on its back, heading eastward (an assumption borne out by
the position of the jaw and by finding the lower ends of the tibia and fibula at a


proper distance therefrom), we can say with reasonable accuracy where the objects
found with this burial had been placed originally.
Forty-five globular beads of wood, copper-coated, each about 1.1 inch in
diameter were around the ankles, the bones of which were preserved by the pres-
ence of the copper. With these beads were a few perforated pearls, the size of a
pea and smaller.
Across the knees was a ceremo-
nial axe of copper, about 11.5 inches
in length and 1.9 inches across the
flaring blade (Fig. 28 A).
At each wrist were sixteen copper-
coated beads similar to the others.
At the lower part of the chest,
the broad end with two perforations
for suspension being toward the head,
was a pendant of sheet-copper, about
6.75 inches in length, with excised
parts forming a swastika and having a
triangle cut out from the copper below
(Fig. 41).
On the chest, below the chin, were
two gorgets of sheet-copper, one lying
on the other. The larger (Fig. 42),
roughly circular, was uppermost. The
smaller (Fig. 43), an eight-pointed star
within a circle, still has cord in two
perforations made for suspension. Be-
low the chin was a number of small
perforated pearls, badly decayed; and
parts of several strings of pearls ad-
hered to the larger gorget.
Under the head was a curious
object of copper (Fig. 44), doubtless a
hair-ornament, 14.5 inches in length,
flat, pointed at each end, with a maxi-
mum width of .6 of an inch.
At the left side of the head was a
curious hook-shaped ornament (Fig.
45), with a strip of bison-horn, which,
presumably, had taken the place of a
pin of bone. This hair-ornament is FIG. 41.-Pendant of sheet-copper. Mound C. (Full size.)
similar to one found with another burial in Mound C.
But the gem of the objects worn by this important personage who, perhaps, at



FIG. 42.-Gorget of sheet-copper. Mound C. (Full size.)

one time owned the great mound wherein he now figures as Burial No. 37, is an
effigy of a human head (Fig. 46), which lay with the gorgets on the chest and,
possibly, formed a center-piece to the annular one. This interesting little gem,
carved from amethyst and perforated behind for attachment, is shown in four posi-
tions in Fig. 47.
Aboriginal work in amethyst is uncommon. We found a beautifully made pen-
dant of amethystine quartz in the rich mound at Crystal river, Florida; and inves-
tigation under supervision of Mr.- Warren K. Moorehead resulted in the discovery
of a pendant of amethyst, somewhat more rudely made than ours, in southern
Mr. George F. Kunz, who is so familiar with gems and hard stones, writes of
this amethyst head: "The drilling was undoubtedly done by no other agents
than quartz, either with a stick or a hollow reed; and the sawings by drawing a
string or a thong across the object, using sand as an abrasive, possibly wet. The



FIG. 43.-Gorget of sheet-copper. Mound C. (Full size.)

i .
, 1

/ /

S. (' ,




FIG. 44.--Hair-ornament of copper. Mound C.
(One-third size.)

FIG. 46.-Amethyst head.
Mound C. (Full size.)

FIG. 45.-Hair-ornament of sheet-copper.
Mound C. (Full size.)


grooving and notching were apparently done partly with a narrow bit of hard
mineral, or by means of sticks, the parties using sand again as an abrasive, which
was pushed or rubbed into the spot to be worked upon."
This ends the list of objects found with Burial No. 37, with the exception of
a black material in the soil nearby, which was submitted for analysis to Dr. H. F.
Keller who writes : The material you sent me yesterday is a typical specimen of
mineral pitch. It gives all the characteristic reactions of asphaltum, and contains
2.65 per cent. of mineral matter."
Asphalt is found in Alabama.1
Vessel No. 21, a cup in fragments, since put together, has incised decoration
showing the ribbon-fold design (Fig. 48).
But one burial in the mound was found at a depth of 5 feet, although a number
were 4.5 feet and 4 feet from the surface. In addition to burials particularly de-
scribed, eight bunches or aboriginal disturbances were met with, having no arti-
facts in association. There were present in the mound, away from human remains,
fragments of sheet-copper in two places and one bird-arrowpoint of quartz.
With a full-length burial the number of which is not given in our field notes,
were two shells (Tuloloma magnifica). We are indebted to Dr. II. A. Pilsbry and
to Mr. E. G. Vanatta, of the Academy of Natural Sciences, for all determinations
of shells given in this report and in the three other reports in this volume.

FIG. 47.-Amethyst effigy of head. Four positions. Mound C. (Full size.)

FIG. 48.-Vessel-No. 21. Mound C. (Diameter of body 3.8 inches.)
"Asphaltum in 1893." U. S. Geological Survey. Extract from "Mineral Resources of the
United States, Calendar Year, 1893." Washington, 1894.



Directly northeast of Mound C is a plot of wooded ground having the mound
as a base, a deep gully on one side, and the river bluff on the other.
A certain amount of digging was done in this ground, first near the end
farthest from the mound, and afterward not far from the base of Mound C, resulting
in the discovery of thirty burials of the same general form as those we have
minutely described in the account of Mound C.
The artifacts found with these burials seemed to indicate that their former
owners had belonged to a class less prosperous than was represented by remains
found by us in other places of burial at Moundville. No copper was met with, and
in many cases cooking pots of coarse ware were used as burial accompaniments.
Where vessels of other forms were found they were undecorated as a rule, and
when decoration was present it was often of inferior execution.

FIG. 49.-Vessel No. 1. Ground NE. of Mound C. FIG. 50.-Vessel No. 3. Ground NE. of Mound C.
(Diameter 4.8 inches.) (Diameter 6 inches.)

A skeleton flexed on the right side had mica, and shell beads at each wrist.
The skulls of two infants lay together without the other bones, which, owing
to their extremely delicate condition, may have been thrown back unobserved by
our diggers. Near these skulls were two small pots, Vessels Nos. 1 and 2, of coarse,
unblackened ware, both having loop-handles,-Vessel No. 1 having had nine
originally (Fig. 49).
The skeleton of a child, cut off at the pelvis by aboriginal disturbance, had
near the head Vessel No. 3,-a pot of coarse, red ware, with two loop-handles
(Fig. 50).
A skeleton lying at full length on the back had near the head an undecorated,
broad-mouthed water-bottle (Vessel No. 4), and a large fragment of another vessel.
Shell beads were at the neck, the left wrist, and at both ankles.
In a pit 4 feet below the surface, was the skeleton of an infant, extended on
the back, surrounded by almost pure clay, while the soil at this place had a large


FIG. 51.-Vessel No. 6. Ground NE. of Mound C. (Diameter 7.6 inches.)

FIG. 52.-Vessel No. 9. Ground NE. of Mound C. (Height 8.1 inches.)


admixture of sand. At the head of the skeleton were two large sherds, one on the
other, each carefully worked to an elliptical outline.
Vessel No. 5 lay apparently unassociated with human remains and crushed to
fragments. After the parts were cemented together the vessel proved to have a
broad, short handle projecting horizontally from one side. The decoration, rather
coarsely done, is a variety of scroll in a field of cross-hatch.
SIn a pit, where a number of burials were, lay two vessels (Nos. 6 and 7) near
the lower part of a skeleton, the upper part of which doubtless had been cut away
in placing:a burial at a lower level. Vessel No. 6, a small bowl of inferior, black

FIG. 53.-Vessel No. 9. Ground NE. of Mound C. (Height 6 inches.)



ware with incised decoration of the ribbon-fold design, had a rudely imitated head
of an animal looking inward and a conventional tail at the opposite side of the
bowl (Fig. 51). Vessel No. 7, a pot of coarse, black ware, had two loop-handles
with two small knobs on each. In the general disturbance in this pit these pots
presumably had been shifted from a position near the head of a skeleton.

FIG. 54.-Vessel No. 9. Decoration. Ground NE. of Mound C. (About half size.)

Vessel No. 8, badly crushed, lay apart from human remains. Put together, it
proved to be a beautiful jar of highly polished ware. The decoration is made up
of scrolls, depressions, and incised'encircling lines (Fig. 52).
Vessel No. 9 (Fig. 53), with incised design, somewhat similar to others shown
before, has, in addition, a representation of fingers projecting downward, as shown
in diagram in Fig. 54. The cross and cross-hatch design are shown four times on
this vessel, as are the downturned fingers. This vessel lay, unconnected with any
burial, in a pit where there had been much aboriginal disturbance.
Near the skull of a burial lay
a pot, Vessel No. 10, of coarse, red-
yellow ware, with four loop-han-
dles (Fig. 55), and Vessel No. 11,
a wide-mouthed water-bottle (Fig.
56) bearing on each of two sides an
incised design consisting of a cen-
tral symbol, to which is attached,
at each side, the triangular tail of
the woodpecker, with its pointed,
individual feathers, shown dia-
grammatically in Fig. 57.
At the-heads of two skeletons
lying at full length, side by side,
FIG. 55.-Vessel No. 10. Ground NE. of Mound C.
(Diameter 5.75 inches.) was Vessel No. 12, a pot of coarse,



unblackened ware with seven loop-handles, and Vessel No. 13, a small bowl with
undecorated body and a rudely imitated animal head looking inward above the rim.
Beneath the skull of an infant lay a large slab of limonite.

FIG. 56.-Vessel No. 11. Ground NE. of Mound C. (Height 7.4 inches.)

FIG. 57.-Vessel No. 11. Decoration. Ground NE. of Mound C. (About half size.)



On the chest of the skeleton of an adult, lying at full length on the back, was
a gorget of shell, thickly coated with patina and with a deposit from the surrounding
clay and sand. This gorget, bearing a complicated design on one side, after an
unsuccessful effort on our part to clean it, was entrusted to experts who, though
removing the accumulated material to a certain extent, were unable to make clear
the design.
Forty-six inches below the surface lay a skeleton at full length on the back, as
usual, having shell beads at the neck, and at the shoulder a slab of sedimentary
rock, 9.5 inches by 14 inches by 1.1 inch thick. This slab, carefully dressed on all
sides but one, where two deep grooves, front and back, show how it was separated
from another portion, has for its only decoration two incised, parallel lines at each
end on one side. On this slab are remains of red and of white pigment.
Vessel No. 14, a cooking pot of coarse, yellow-brown ware, lay near several
cervical vertebrae in a pit where great aboriginal disturbance had taken place.
Near decaying fragments of a skull was found Vessel No. 15, an undecorated,
broad-mouthed water-bottle.
Apart from human remains, singly, were several fragments of "celts;" one
small disc of stone; several discs wrought from bits of pottery; slabs of stone;
hammer-stones; a circular stone doubly pitted; mica in a number of places; a
piercing implement of bone with the articular portion remaining; a part of a
smoking-pipe of coarse earthenware, with rough incised lines on two opposite sides.
It is worthy of remark how, in northwestern Florida and westward along the Gulf, as
well as in the middle Mississippi district as pointed out by Holmes,1 where pottery
vessels are of such excellent ware and of such variety of form and decoration, we
find pipes of the same material so inferior in ware and characterized by such uniform
want of originality as to shape and ornamentation.
As we shall have occasion to refer to the finding of a number of pipes at
Moundville, we may say here that we fully share Professor Holmes' belief2 "that
the pipe was in use in America on the arrival of Europeans," and the more the
mounds are investigated, the more forcibly is this belief corroborated.

Mound D, with a summit plateau measuring approximately 60 feet by 90 feet,
.yielded to our trial-holes dark, disturbed soil and burials in the middle half of the
eastern side and in the northern part of the western side. Therefore, we deemed
it advisable to dig out the northern part of the plateau, to the depth of from 3 to
4 feet, where the loamy soil ended and more solid clay began. The area dug through
by us and the parts in which burials proved to be are shown in the plan (Fig. 58).
Ten trial-holes were sunk into the southern half of the mound without material
There were present in the soil, apart from human remains (though bones with
S"Aboriginal Pottery of Eastern United States," 20th An. Rep. Bur. Am. Eth., p. 83.
2 Op. cit., p. 45.


which they may have been perhaps had decayed away or may have been disturbed
by other burials), the following: A small amount of sheet-copper of about the con-
sistency of moistened bread-crust; other bits of sheet-copper; a small amount of
sheet-copper in another place; a pipe of very coarse earthenware, rudely made,
round in horizontal section, with flaring rim (Fig. 59); two roughly made discoidal
stones and one more neatly rounded; one disc of pottery; a small, roughly made

I'.. ". ,

FIG. 58.-Plan of excavation. Mound D. FIG. 59.-Pipe of earthenware. Mound D. (Full size.)

"celt"; a "celt" of greenstone or kindred rock, with cutting edge at either end,
and beveled (Fig. 60); a slab of ferruginous sedimentary rock, oval in out-
line; and a barrel-shaped bead, probably of resin, 1.75 inches in length. Doctor
Keller, who analyzed part of this bead, found it to be a resin which, though in
some respects resembling amber, is not fossilized. The interior is perfectly clear and
almost colorless. The specific gravity is 1.091; it softens at about 1500 C., but
does not melt until heated to above 3000. It is strongly electrified by friction.
Unlike amber, it is largely soluble in alcohol and other solvents. On burning it
leaves very little ash, containing oxide of iron."
In addition to the usual dwelling-site debris, hones, hammers, pitted stones,
etc., there were present: a small quantity of rather coarse, shell-tempered ware in
fragments, one sherd having projecting from its rim the head of a frog, rudely rep-
resented; three pointed implements of bone and one less pointed, perhaps used in
basketry; and a bone, kindly identified by Prof. F. A. Lucas, as having belonged to
a swan.
Eighteen inches from the surface, with no human bones remaining nearby,
completely inclosed in decayed wood, was a ceremonial axe of copper, 14.25 inches
in length, with flaring cutting edge 1.5 inches broad, varying in breadth between
.5 inch and 1 inch, with a maximum thickness of .4 inch where there is a kind of
offset made by the hammering of the copper. Part of a wooden handle still adheres
to the metal (Fig. 61).


FIG. 60.-" Celt." Mound D. (Full size.)

FIG. 61.-Ceremonial axe of copper. Mound D.
(Length 14.25 inches.)

FIG. 62.-Vessel No. 4. Mound D. (Diameter 4.75 inches.)



With the skeleton of a child, cut off below the pelvis, doubtless an aboriginal
disturbance, was a mussel-shell (Lampsilis rectus), much worn at one end as if by
From 2 to.3 feet below the surface, covering a considerable area, was a deposit
of bones, including eleven skulls. With this deposit, at its southern margin, were
Vessels Nos. 1 and 2,-a small, undecorated water-bottle of coarse material, and a
small bowl with rude, incised-line decoration below the rim, having an upright
head, seemingly that of a dog, looking inward. Farther along in this deposit were
three vessels (Nos. 10, 11 and 12), which will be described in their proper order.
With a burial represented by crowns of teeth alone was an ornament of badly
corroded sheet-copper, and a water-bottle (Vessel No. 3), with incised decoration
consisting of the open hand with the open eye upon it, six times repeated. The
neck of this bottle was not recovered.
In a pit was a skeleton at full length on its back, having shell beads near the
head and at one wrist. Crushed to fragments, near this skull, was Vessel No. 4, a
bowl of black ware that has since been put together (Fig. 62), having upon it an
engraved design representing three human skulls, one inverted, with three human
hands alternating with them, two pointing downward, one upward. On each hand
is the open eye (Fig. 63). An especially curious feature in respect to the skulls is
that the articular part of the lower jaw, or possibly the whole ramus, is represented
as projecting beyond the base of the skull. Later in this report we shall have
something farther to say on this point.

FIG. 63.-Vessel No. 4. Decoration. Mound D. (About half size.)

In the same pit was another skeleton lying at full length, face downward,
having a sheet-copper ear-plug and shell beads near the skull. On a clavicle was
the lower part of what was probably a sheet-copper pendant with a refousse eye
upon it, somewhat similar to those found in Mound H at Moundville.
About three feet from the surface was a skeleton at full length on the back,
having at the legs Vessel No. 5, crushed flat. This vessel, pieced together (Fig.
64), shows an incised decoration consisting of fingers and conventionalized bodies
with a tail of a bird projecting from each side. In the soil about 6 inches above
the pelvis of the same skeleton was a disc of metamorphic gneiss, 10.25 inches in
diameter, in an upright position, having a scalloped margin and two concentric
circles incised below it on one side (Fig. 65). The customary paint was present.
The position of this disc seemed to indicate that it had been thrown back after an


aboriginal disturbance and, presumably, the vessel found near the legs of the
skeleton had been thrown there at the same time. At the head of the same skeleton
was Vessel No. 6, crushed flat into bits, and Vessel No. 7, an undecorated bowl with
inverted rim, badly broken, and containing another bowl (Vessel No. 8) with scal-
loped projections around the margin.
Vessel No. 6, since repaired and the missing parts restored, has for decoration,
on two opposite sides, the woodpecker, with two heads, one pointing upward, the
other downward, and a tail projecting from the common body at each side. No
speech symbols are represented as leaving the open bill, nor is the tongue extended.
Three skeletons lay radiating from a common center represented by the skulls.
Two of these skeletons lay at full length on the back; the other had the upper
part of the trunk lying on the back, but was turned on the left side from the pelvis
downward. The left humerus of the last skeleton showed a former break with
considerable bending of the bone and development of new tissue. This specimen
was sent to the Army Medical Museum at Washington.

FIG. 64.-Vessel No. 5. Mound D. (Height 5.5 inches.)

With part of a skeleton, including bones from the dorsal vertebra downward,
was Vessel No. 9, a small, undecorated pot of very coarse ware, with two loop-
A skeleton at full length on the back had three shell beads of medium size at
one ankle.


A rough, discoidal stone lay near the skeleton of a child, extended on the back.
The skeleton of an adolescent, in a similar position, had with it a number of
fresh-water shells of the following kinds: Obovaria circulus, Quadrula ebena, Q.
stapes, Q. pernodosa, Unio congarcus, Obliquaria reflexa, Truncilla penita.
Near the farther extremity of the large deposit of bones of which we have
spoken were Vessel No. 10, a small, undecorated, wide-mouthed water-bottle;

FIG. 65.-Stone disc. Mound D. (Diameter 10.25 inches.)


Vessel No. 11, a small, undecorated bowl; and Vessel No. 12, a water-bottle, also
small and undecorated.
In addition to the burials already described, there were in the mound, without
Skeletons full length on back, one of an adolescent-8.
Skeleton at full length, face down-1.
Scattered deposits of bones-2.
Aboriginal disturbances-5.
Infant skeletons, badly decayed, two side by side-4.
There were also instances where bones had been widely scattered in pits over
burials. In one case the bones of a child were mingled with the soil that filled a
pit, on the bottom of which lay a skeleton.

A short distance north of Mound D is a cultivated field, about two acres in
extent, having rising ground, artificially made, on the northern and southern ex-
tremities, and dark soil such as is found in dwelling sites. We were guided to this
field (marked W on the survey) by a colored man who sold to us a disc of meta-
morphic gneiss, 7.25 inches in diameter (Fig. 66), which he said he had ploughed
up at-that place.
Two days were devoted by us to this field, with a digging force averaging six-
teen men. In the southern part of the field alone were artifacts discovered, with
the exception of one shell bead.
Burials ranged in depth from superficial to 4.5 feet. Those near the surface
lay in the dark soil that covered the field, made up of sand, clay, and the remains
of organic matter. The deeper burials were in pits extending into yellow sand in
places, into yellow clay in others, which underlay the artificial soil that had accu-
mulated during and since the use of the field as an aboriginal place of abode. Other
pits present in the field, including one 6 feet deep, contained no human remains.
In the southern end of the field were:
Bunched burials-2.
Skeletons flexed on the right side-3.
Skeletons flexed on the left side-3.
Skeleton closely flexed on the left side-1.
Skeletons at full length on the back-15.
Skeleton of an infant, badly decayed-1.
Skeleton of a child, badly decayed-1.
In addition, there were recent disturbances rising from cultivation of the soil,
aboriginal disturbances, and many scattered bones whose form of burial we were
unable to classify.
On the surface and in the dark soil of the dwelling site were many pebbles;
pebble-hammers; sandstone hones; pitted stones, triangular as a rule; and frag-
ments of coarse earthenware, many having loop-handles. There were present, also,


drills; discs made from earthenware vessels; several bird-arrowheads of jasper and
one of quartz; three rough arrowheads or knives, one of chert; and a long, slender
arrowhead of jasper.
Near certain loose bones were a mass of limonite and an implement of bone
decorated with notches and incised lines.

FIG. 68.-Stone disc. Field north of Mound D. (Diameter 7.25 inches.)

One of the bunched burials referred to was in reality a deposit of bones ex-
tending over a number of square feet. Near a skull in this mass of bones were
two carefully made lanceheads of quartzite, one 6.25 inches, the other 8 inches, in
length. With these were masses of limonite and of hematite, a small jasper arrow-
head, and a thin slab of ferruginous sandstone. At another part of this deposit of
bones were two lanceheads of quartzite, 7 inches and 7.5 inches in length, respec-
tively, having notches at the base for attachment, which the other two lanceheads




did not have. With the lanceheads found last was a number of beads made by
grinding down small shells (Anculosa talniata and Lithasia showalterii).
The badly decayed skeleton of a child had shell beads at the wrists and at the
Another skeleton had, near the lower part of the trunk, shell ornaments, very
badly decayed, made from small sections of conch, pierced at one end. At the right
shoulder, where the wrist of one hand had rested, were shell beads.
With several burials were small quantities of mica.
Vessel No. 1.-A shallow basin of
coarse, shell-tempered ware, undecorated
save for notches around the margin (Fig.
67). This vessel lay alone near the sur-
face, the skeleton to which it belonged
presumably having been ploughed away.
Vessels Nos. 2 and 3.-A skeleton
lying at full length on the back, had on the

FIG. 67.-Vessel No. 1. Field north of Mound D. FIG. 68.-Vessel No. 3. Field north of Mound D.
(Diameter 9.5 inches.) (Height 4 inches.)
upper part of the thorax a fragment of coarse earthenware, 6 inches by 8 inches,
approximately. The skull was somewhat elevated. Some inches below it was a
fragment of pottery of about the same size as the other, and beneath it Vessel No.
2, a small bowl with notches around the margin. By the side of this bowl, but not
covered by the pottery fragment, was a small, undecorated water-bottle, Vessel No.
3 (Fig. 68).
Vessel No. 4.-Two feet from a skeleton and somewhat below it, standing
upright on the floor of a shallow pit, was a wide-mouthed water-bottle of black ware,
having around the body a decoration of depressions and incised lines forming a
scroll, a popular pattern at Moundville.
Vessel No. 5.-An undecorated water-bottle of coarse, red ware, found lying at
the head of a skeleton. Under the skull was a slab of a derivative of trap-rock,
irregularly oblong, 4 inches in length by 3 inches broad. At the feet were frag-
ments of sheet-copper and two small, neatly-made discoidal stones. A femur from
this skeleton, showing pathological condition, was sent to the Army Medical Museum
at Washington.


FIG. 69.-Vessel No. 6. Field north of Mound D. (Diameter 8.3 inches.)

Vessel No. 6.-This vessel (Fig. 69), found lying by the skull of a skeleton,
presumably represents a frog.
Vessels Nos. 7, 8, 9, 10.-Twenty-two inches from the surface was a skeleton
extended on the back. Immediately at the left of the skull, which had a fragment
of pottery beneath it, was Vessel No. 10, and two others (Vessels Nos. 8 and 9),
were just beyond it. All these were of inferior ware, and each had two loop-
handles below the rim and two small projections equidistant therefrom. Within
Vessel No. 9 was a pot of coarse ware, in fragments. The photograph of this
skeleton, reproduced in Fig. 70, unfortunately could not be taken in a position to
show all the vessels.

FIG. 70.-Skeleton with certain accompanying vessels. Field north of Mound D.


Vessel No. 11.-This vessel, a wide-mouthed water-bottle (Fig. 71), with incised
scroll design surrounding depressions, had -been placed-beside the skull of an ex-
tended skeleton. Beneath this vessel, but not in contact with it, was a fragment of
a pot.
Vessel No. 12.--An interesting
water-bottle, with handles, as shown
in Fig. 72.. Near this vessel was a
large fragment of pottery.
Vessels Nos. 13 and 14.-Ves-
sel No. 13, a small bowl with incised
decoration of the ribbon-fold pattern
(Fig. 73), and Vessel No. 14 (Fig.
74), a wide-mouthed water-bottle
with four incised designs, all similar
(two of which are shown), lay near
the remains of the skull of an infant
or of an older child, from which the
remainder of the skeleton, in all
probability, had crumbled away.
Vessels Nos. 15 and 16.-Ves-
Fsel No. 15, a small, decorated F. 71.-Vessel No. 11. Field north of Mound D.
sel No. 15, a small, undecorated (Height 5.8 inches.)
bowl, and Vessel No. 16, a broad-
mouthed water-bottle bearing a decoration consisting of the characteristic depres-
sions surrounded by incised scrolls, lay together beside the skull of a skeleton at
full length.
Vessel No. 17.-A bowl badly broken, but since put together (Fig. 75), having
as decoration incised scrolls partly interlocked, lay by the shoulder of an extended
Vessel No. 18.-This vessel, found in fragments just below the surface, has
upright bands with cross-hatch decoration.
Vessel No. 19.-Into a pit, probably roughly circular, 4 feet deep and 3 feet
in diameter, another pit had been dug. This second pit, 28 inches deep and 30
inches in diameter, extended 6 inches beyond the margin of the lower pit on one
side. At the bottom of the upper pit was a skull, several cervical vertebrae, and one
clavicle. With the clavicle were decaying fragments of a sheet-copper ornament
and certain shell beads. Considerably above these.bones was a bunch of parallel
long-bones made up of what remained of two humeri, two femurs, two .tibia, one
patella, and one ulna. Near the skull of the lower deposit was a small, broad-
mouthed water-bottle (Vessel No. 19a), having two holes for suspension.
Vessel No. 20.-Part of a vessel of eccentric shape, having a portion of the
rim much lower than the remainder which has been scalloped. The base is flat
(Fig. 76). This vessel belongs to an unfamiliar type of which more will be said in
connection with Vessel No. 37, Mound 0.




FIG. 73.-Vessel No. 13. Field north of Mound D.
(Height 4.7 inches.)

FIG. 72.-Vessel No. 12. Field north of Mound D. (Height 8.6 inches.)

FIG. 74.-Vessel No. 14. Field north of Mound D.
(Diameter 4.4 inches.)

FIG. 75.-Vessel No. 17. Field north of Mound D. (Diameter 4.4 inches.)


The head of a duck (Fig. 77), an ornament belonging to an earthenware vessel,
lay alone in the soil.

. 76.-Vessel No. 20. Field north of Mound D.
(Height 3.4 inches.)

FIG. 77.-Duck's head of earthenware. Field north of Mou
(Full size.)

Between the cultivated field that borders Mound B on the east and the southern
side of Mound D is a strip of land covered with small trees, and having a deep
gully on two sides. This strip, running very nearly north and south, is about 500
feet long and varies from 75 to 140 feet in width. Nineteen trial-holes, considerably
larger than those sunk by us in summit plateaus of mounds, were dug in the eastern,
or higher part of this strip. These holes were about 3 feet deep except where pits
were encountered, in which event they were correspondingly enlarged and deepened.
Twenty-five burials, including two skeletons together, were met with. These
were similar in form to other burials found at Moundville.
All earthenware found with the dead came from two pits.
At the head of a skeleton, 20 inches down, was Vessel No. 1, a small, un-
decorated, wide-mouthed water-bottle; and Vessel No. 2, a handsome pot of polished,
black ware, with two loop-handles, made in the effigy of a frog (Fig. 78). Else-
where in this cemetery various fragments were met with which indicated that the
concept of the frog had been a popular one during the time the burial place was in
use. With the same skeleton was a small "celt" with one side smooth and the
other rough, except at the cutting edge.
Vessel No. 3.-A little toy bowl, representing a tortoise, having the head and
one flipper missing (Fig. 79), lay near the surface apart from human remains.


nd D.



FIG. 78.-Vessel No. 2. Ground south of Mound D. (Diameter 6.75 inches.)

In the same pit as the frog effigy-vessel were a
skull and certain disturbed bones. Near the skull
were Vessel No. 4 (Fig. 80), a small, wide-mouthed
water-bottle having the popular decoration consisting
of incised scrolls surrounding depressions in the body
of the vessel, and fragments of another vessel that
had been broken by an aboriginal disturbance.
Still in the same pit were the skull and upper
part of a skeleton, the remainder having been cut
away to make room for another burial. Near the
FIG. 79.-Vessel No. 3. Ground south
of Mound D. (Full size.) skull was Vessel' No. 5, a pot of coarse, red ware,
the shell-tempering showing all over it, with two
loop-handles, and having below the margin a circle of projecting knobs. With this
pot was Vessel No. 6, a wide-mouthed water-bottle with globular body and rounded
base, an exception to the style that prevailed at Moundville, where the bases were
usually flat. On part of the body of the vessel is a faintly outlined pattern where
decoration has been started and abandoned (Fig. 81).
An extended skeleton lying on its back had over the face a portion of a large



FIG. 80.-Vessel No. 4. Ground south of Mound D.
(Diameter 4.4 inches.)

FIG. 81.-Vessel No. 6. Ground south of Mound D.
(Diameter 6.6 inches.)

bowl, inverted. The neck was not covered, but over the chest and abdomen to the
pelvis had been placed a layer of sherds.
In another pit was a full-length skeleton on its back, having near the left side
of the skull Vessel No. 7, a small, undecorated bowl, in fragments. At the right
shoulder were two smoking-pipes of inferior ware (Figs. 82, 83). Near the right
humerus was Vessel No. 8, a small, undecorated bowl, broken into two parts. With
the bowl was Vessel No. 9 (Fig. 84), in fragments, a wide-mouthed water-bottle
bearing on each of two opposite sides a design of a bird with two heads, one pointing

FIG. 82.-Pipe of earthenware. Ground south of Mound D.
(Full size.)

FIG. 83.-Pipe of earthenware. Ground south of Mound D.
(Full size.)



FIG. 84.-Vessel No. 9. Ground south of Mound D. (Height 5.2 inches.)

upward, one downward, and a circular symbol, perhaps denoting the body in common.
At each side of this body is a triangular tail with pointed, individual feathers (Fig.
85). The bird, presumably, is intended to represent the heron, which still frequents
the Black Warrior near the Moundville mounds. To this heron, or these herons,
however, have been given tails of the woodpecker, which were a popular device in
Moundville pottery decoration. Aboriginal artists were not always consistent.
Another inconsistency, if the heads are intended for those of herons, is the extended
tongue, this bird not using its tongue in the manner common to woodpeckers.
In the. same pit, at the head of a skeleton flexed on the right side, was a
broad-mouthed water-bottle, Vessel No. 10 (Fig. 86), with scroll, finger, and cross-
hatch decoration; and an undecorated bowl, Vessel No. 11, with notched margin.
With the skeleton of an infant were two canine teeth of large carnivores, each
perforated for suspension.
Apart from human remains was a fragment, 5 inches in length including the
point, of what had been a sword or dagger, of chert.
Several discs cut from sherds of earthenware vessels were found singly.



FIG. 85.-Vessel No. 9. Decoration. Ground south of Mound D.
(About half size.)

FIG. 86.-Vessel No. 10. Ground south of Mound D.
(Diameter 5.9 inches.)
Mound E, about square as to its summit plateau, each side being about 140
feet in length, has undergone much cultivation, and there is much slant to the
northwestern part of the plateau where heavy and repeated wash of rain has eaten
deeply into the mound. Thirty-three trial-holes yielded no indication of burials.

Mound F, seamed with gullies on every side, evidently has lost a considerable
part of its summit plateau through wash of rain, after cultivation. The part of
the plateau remaining is about 40 feet east and west by 70 feet north and south.
Eleven trial-holes showed the presence of burials in the northeastern part of
the mound. Considerable trenching was next undertaken, extending the full length
of the mound on each side. One of these trenches showed additional burials in the
same part of the plateau.
Eventually a space 38 feet long by 28 feet wide, was marked out on the northern
part of the plateau, and well to the eastward, excluding northern and western por-
tions of the plateau where no indication of burial had been found. The area thus
selected was completely dug through to a depth of 4 feet, and deeper when necessary
in following pits.
Burials proved to be confined to a limited area along the eastern side of the
plateau, in the northern part. Presumably the burial area had been greater, but
had washed away with parts of the northeastern limit of the mound. The burials,
nineteen in number, were very fragmentary, being in the last stage of decay, and
often represented merely by a few crumbling bits.
Vessel No. 1 is a small, broad-mouthed water-bottle, undecorated, found in
Vessel No. 2, a small bowl with rough, incised decoration, lay with a disc, 6



inches in diameter, made from a portion of a pottery vessel. No bones were with
these objects, though presumably they had been present.
Apart from human remains was a discoidal stone about an inch in diameter,
probably of tufa, of a type of which we found a number at Moundville, and else-
where, namely, with the base somewhat larger than the upper surface, giving the
stone the appearance of a much truncated cone. Somewhat later a discoidal of
amphibolite was met with, of the same type but a trifle larger. This stone had in

FIG. 87.-Vessel No. 3. Mound F. (Height 6.2 inches.)

the middle of each of its flat surfaces a hole drilled so deeply that the two nearly
met. The day succeeding the finding of this stone, while digging trial-holes in a
field immediately north of Mound H, we came upon a beautiful discoidal stone
having, at first glance, the appearance of hematite, but being in reality limonite
that had undergone change to hematite on the surface only. This discoidal, 1.5
inch in diameter, was drilled completely through. With the discoidal stone found
in Mound F was a carefully rounded disc of pottery, seemingly made from a frag-



ment of a vessel, having five small perforations forming an irregular circle some-
what below the margin.
Vessel No. 3, a broad-mouthed water-bottle, lay in small fragments near the
skull of an extended skeleton. The vessel, pieced together (Fig. 87), bears a series
of curious symbols. The rosette figures represent the sun, according to Professor
Holmes.1 We have also, according to Professor Putnam, an arrow and the sun,
possibly a winged sun. This symbol bears some resemblance to the ollin of the
Mexicans. It would be quite in keeping to represent an arrow with the sun, the
arrow representing a ray or dart of the Sun-god, and the sun representing his shield
as portrayed by our Indians down to the present time." The group of symbols on
this vessel is shown in diagram in Fig. 88.
Vessel No. 4, a wide-mouthed water-bottle, lay apart from human remains.

FIG. 88.-Vessel No. 3. Decoration. Mound F. (About half size.)

Pieced together (Fig. 89), the vessel shows four triangular tails of the woodpecker
with their individual, pointed feathers, two tails pointing upward and two down-
ward. On each tail is a swastika (Fig. 90), incomplete in two instances.
Lying apart from where burials were, was a grotesque figurine of earthenware
(Fig. 91), evidently a toy, with the legs broken off at the junction with the body.
There is a hump on the back. Two projections on the head probably represent
copper hair-ornaments; two similar projections have been broken off.
Vessel No. 5, a small, undecorated pot with flaring rim and two loop-shaped
handles, lay near fragments of a skull.
SOp. cit., p. 9r.
"He took from pegs where they hung around the room and gave to each * a chain-light-
ning arrow, a sheet-lightning arrow, a sunbeam arrow, a rainbow arrow," * *. "Navaho Legends,"
Washington Matthews, Memoirs of the Am. Folklore Soc., Vol. V, p. 111.
"For the orb of day is to the Navaho, only the luminous shield of the god, behind which the
bearer walks or rides, invisible to those on earth." "The Night Chant, a Navaho Ceremony," Wash-
ington Matthews, Memoirs Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y., Vol. VI, p. 30.



FIG. 89.-Vessel No. 4. Mound F. (Diameter 6.5 inches.)

FIG. 90.-Vessel No. 4. Decoration. Mound F. (About half size.)

Vessel No. 6, a shallow bowl with scalloped, margin and rudely incised interior
decoration (Fig. 92), was found near what remained of a cranium.
At the head of a skeleton extended, was Vessel No. 7, crushed to fragments,


an undecorated, broad-mouthed water-bottle of the coarsest ware of any vessel of
that class found by us at Moundville.
In caved soil was Vessel No. 8, a small, undecorated bowl of very inferior ware.
At the right elbow of an extended skeleton was Vessel No. 9, a pot of coarse
ware with loop-handles.

FIG. 92.-Vessel No6.6. Mound F. (Diameter 8 inches.)

FIG. 91.-Part of figurine. Mound
F. (About full size.)

FIG. 91.-Vessel No. 12. Mound F. (Diameter 5.75 inches.)

FIG. 93.-Vessel No. 10. Mound F. (Height 6.3 inches.)

FIG. 95.--Pipe of soapstone. Mound F. (Full size.)


FIG. 96.-Vessel No. 13. Mound F. (Height 5.2 inches.)

FIG. 98.-Vessel No. 15. Mound F. (Height 4.3 inches.)


FI. 97.-Vessel No. 14. Mound F. (Height 7 inches.) FIG. 99.-Earthenware effigy of owl. Mound F. (Full size.)

Vessel No. 10, not identified with any burial, is a broad-mouthed water-bottle,
badly broken. On each of two sides of the body of the bottle is a rude attempt to
delineate the human head, now partly weathered away (Fig. 93).
Near the skull of a full-length burial was Vessel No. 11, a pot of coarse, brown
ware, broken to bits; and Vessel No. 12, a bowl, somewhat crushed, with a number
of small knobs in a group on one side, near the rim (Fig. 94),-perhaps a conven-
tional shell form. -We found a number of fragments of similar vessels at Moundville.
Burial No. 17, so decayed that only with difficulty could the bones be identified



as belonging to an extended skeleton, had near what was left of the skull, a
beautiful pipe of soapstone, blackened and highly polished (Fig. 95). From the
general appearance of this pipe and from its decoration of projecting knobs one
would not refer it to the Moundville region, but consider it rather a Georgia form,
though in that State similar pipes are of earthenware. C. C. Jones figures one
from a mound near Macon, and we obtained one on the Georgia coast and another
in a mound on the bank of the Savannah river. With the burial with which
the pipe was, was Vessel No. 13, a small, undecorated, broad-mouthed water-bottle
(Fig. 96).
At the head of a skeleton was Vessel No. 14, a broad-mouthed water-bottle
of a well-known southern type (Fig. 97). At the knees of the same skeleton was a
small, broad-mouthed water-bottle, badly broken.
A full-length skeleton had a small, undecorated water-bottle (Vessel No. 15) at
the head (Fig. 98).
Apart from human remains was a curious little effigy of an owl, rather rudely
made, standing on four legs (Fig. 99).

MouND G.
Mound G, the sides of which have been much washed by rain, has a summit
plateau that measures about 65 feet by 80 feet. There are no signs of previous cul-
tivation of the plateau, but an unimportant trench has been carried in from the
eastern side, partly across the plateau. Twenty-five trial-holes gave no indication
of pit, of burial, or of artifact.
Mound H, evidently a much smaller mound, originally, than its companions,
has been ploughed away and dug
through to such an extent that it is
no longer possible to conclude as to its
former height or shape. The height
of the mound given in our list is per-
haps misleading, including as it does a

FIG. 101.-Shell beads. Mound H. (Full size.)

mass of flattened debris thrown out by
former diggers. A small part, which
had escaped forminer excavators, proved
FIG. 100.-Vessel No. 3. Mound H. (Diameter 5.5 inches.) of considerable interest.



Vessels Nos. 1 and 2, a water-bottle and a bowl, respectively, both of coarse
ware, and each with rude, incised decoration, were found apart from human remains,
which, probably, had been dug away. The water-bottle, which stood upright, had
on its neck the bowl inverted.
Vessel No. 3, an undecorated water-bottle, found somewhat broken, has since
been pieced together (Fig. 100).
Burial No. 1, an adult lying at full length, had fourteen shell beads, each .75
inch in diameter, at the ankles, and eight of about the same size at the right
wrist. On the chest were 407 spool-shaped shell beads, neatly made, ranging be-
tween .4 and .6 of an inch in length (Fig. 101), and also a number badly broken.
At the right shoulder and arm were 266 tubular beads of shell, ranging from 1 inch
to 1.75 inch in length. With these beads were three of the kind found at the
ankles, and several bits of shell, the use of which was not apparent. Under the

FIG. 102.-Gorget of copper. Mound H. (Full size.)

chin were fragments of a sheet-copper gorget which, partly pieced together, is seen
to have been a six-pointed star enclosed within a circle and having a refousse eye
in the center (Fig. 102). With this gorget was a number of small, perforated pearls
used as beads. Near the head, where the hair had been, was an ornament of sheet-
copper that fell into small fragments on removal. On the other side of the head
was a button-shaped object of wood, perhaps an ear-plug, about .75 inch in diameter,
with an encircling groove, and copper-coated on the upper, or convex side.
Apart from human remains, and alone, was a small, circular ornament of sheet-
copper, with a beaded margin and a central concavo-convex boss. A broken jasper
arrowhead also lay alone.


Burial No. 2, the skeleton of a powerfully built, but not especially tall, adult
male. At the right foot was a disc of fine-grained gneiss, 7.5 inches in diameter,
with incised scallops around the margin and three encircling, parallel lines below
(Fig. 103). On this disc was a considerable amount of red pigment. At the ankles
of the skeleton were sixteen beads of shell, 1 inch and 1.25 inch in their minor and
major axes. At each knee were many spool-shaped shell beads. At the right
margin of the pelvis was a copper ceremonial hatchet (Fig. 28E), 5.75 inches in length

FIG. 103.-Stone disc. -Mound H. (Diameter 7.5 inches.)

and 1.9 inch across the flaring blade. The part formerly occupied by the handle,
with 1 inch of the implement projecting behind it, is clearly apparent. At the right
wrist were seven great beads of shell and many spool-shaped beads of the same
material. Near the right elbow were thirteen pendants of sheet-copper, all similar,
but no two exactly alike, each in the form of an arrowhead bearing a repousse eye


FIG. 105.-Hair-ornament of sheet-copper,
with bone pin in place. Mound H.
(Full size.)

FIG. 104.-Pendants of sheet-copper. Mound H.
(Full size.)


(Fig. 104). These lay with the bases together, the pointed ends spread in fan-
shaped fashion as if the bases had been strung together through a perforation in
each and the points had spread somewhat on the arm. At the left wrist and fore-
arm were eight beads of shell, each about an inch in diameter, and a quantity of
spool-shaped beads. At the neck were a number of small shell beads. At each
side of the head was a wooden ear-plug, copper-coated, the part belonging behind
the lobe of the ear being absent, probably through decay. At the skull was a hair-
ornament of sheet-copper (Fig. 105) with a pin of bone in place in a socket riveted
together to receive it. On the body of the ornament is refousse work, including a
delineation of the human head. The small projection at the top of the ornament
is fastened on by means of a rivet. Lying on this orna-
ment was a small circle of sheet-copper, .75 inch in diame-
ter, enclosing a five-pointed star (Fig. 106). There is a per-
foration in the margin and two in the center of the orna-
O ment, in which cord remains in place.
FIG. 106.-Ornament of, sheet- In addition to the burials noted, we found in the rem-
copper. Mound H. (Full nant of the mound dug through by us one skeleton full
length on the back, and an aboriginal disturbance consist-
ing of a skull and a femur together.
A shell drinking-cup lay apart from human remains.

Mound I, its soil loosened by cultivation and greatly washed by rain, is a mere
wreck of its former self. The area of what is left of the summit plateau is approxi-
mately 85 feet north and south by 40 feet east and west. Seventeen trial-holes in
the plateau indicated that it had not been used for burial purposes.

Mound J, somewhat affected by wash, has a shallow and narrow trench fol-
lowing its slope upward on the southern side and continuing part way through the
plateau. The sides of the plateau are irregular in length, measuring about 80 feet
east and west by 30 feet north and south. Nineteen trial-holes yielded in one in-
stance a few fragments of human bone just below the surface.

Mound K, largely washed away, has what is left of a summit plateau now 60
feet long by 20 feet broad. An unimportant trench had been dug in from the
northern side, expanding considerably in the central part of the plateau. Nine
trial-holes were sunk by us, one of which, on the eastern side, came upon half of a
large slab of sedimentary rock, with a scalloped margin at the unbroken end, and
having a quantity of red paint on one side and red and cream-colored paint on the
other. With this fragment was part of a coarse vessel of yellow-brown ware, square
in horizontal section, with rude, incised decoration.



Encouraged by this discovery, two more' trial-holes were made and a trench
was dug, 22 feet 6 inches long by 6 feet broad, 4 feet deep on the summit plateau,
and 3 feet deep on the slope, over a part of which it extended. With the exception
of a rough ball of earthenware, about 2 inches in diameter, no objects were found.
As the summit plateau had been thoroughly covered by us, the investigation
was abandoned with the conviction on our part that while burials had been present,
doubtless in the eastern part of the original plateau, they had washed away with
the mound, leaving the artifacts found by us, which were near the eastern edge.

Mound L, the sides of which almost exactly coincide with the cardinal points,
is bounded on the north and west by a cultivated field, and on the south and east
by an artificial pool of water that marks the place whence material for the mound
was taken. The summit plateau, which has been under cultivation, is 93 feet long
E. and W., and 80 feet broad N. and S., approximately.
The height of the mound is 12 feet 9 inches from the north; from the west,
13 feet 4 inches; from the south, 14 feet 10 inches.
Twenty-five trial-holes, covering the entire plateau, were sunk by us with only
negative result.
Next, an excavation 18 feet square, having for its center the central part of
the summit plateau, was carried to a depth of 14 feet 10 inches, at which level the
excavation was about 13 feet 6 inches by 12 feet 4 inches. The mound showed no
distinct stratification. No pits were met, and no sign of dual occupancy; the only
artifacts found were several small bits of pottery.
As the base of our excavation, however, still seemed to be composed of dis-
turbed clay, a circular hole 4 feet in diameter was made, which, at a depth of 1
foot 10 inches, came upon homogeneous material, clayey sand of lead color, which
extended downward to an unascertained depth. Here we have a domiciliary mound,
similar, we believe, to the majority of such mounds, that is, one not put to secondary
use as a place of burial.
Mound M, is simply the remnant of what has been a small domiciliary mound,
now partly washed away. The dimensions of what remains of its summit plateau
are 36 feet by 22 feet. Thirteen trial-holes were without material result.

Mound N, fairly symmetrical, has a summit plateau, about 65 feet square,
which has been under cultivation. Twenty-nine trial-holes, without discovery of
any sort, convinced us that this mound had not been used for burial purposes.

Mound O, a symmetrical, little mound but slightly affected by wash of rain,
and previous to our visit, a stranger to the plough, had been trenched from the


eastern side to beyond the center of the summit plateau. This trench, 8 feet wide
at the top, expanded at the end to a circular hole about 13 feet in diameter. Both
trench and hole were comparatively shallow, the depth being perhaps from 3 to 4
The mound, 11 feet 9 inches high from the east and 16 feet 7 inches high from
the south, has its longer sides extending almost due north and south. The plateau
is about 33 feet by 53 feet in extent.
Nine trial-holes almost at once resulted in the discovery of human remains in
two places, and of artifacts in the extreme northeastern part of the mound at a con-
siderable distance from these burials.
As the plateau seemed to have been extensively used for burial, it was com-
pletely dug through by us to a minimum depth of from 4 to 5 feet.
Burial No. 1.-This burial lay beneath artifacts discovered by means of one of
our trial-holes. Nine inches from the surface was a disc of sedimentary rock, 12.5
inches in diameter (Fig. 107). Around its upper surface, which is somewhat con-

-' -1"' -. -' - - -- -- - ':"

FIG. 107.-Stone disc. Mound O. (One-quarter size.)

cave, are two parallel, encircling lines, rather roughly incised. From the lower sur-
face projects a circular core, the diameter of which is about 2 inches less than that
of the upper part.
Nine inches below the slab, was a skull, with a left clavicle, a left humerus,
and a few cervical vertebrae. The skull rested on part of the upper surface of a
disc of fine-grained gneiss, 9 inches in diameter, having nineteen notches on the
margin and two encircling, incised lines on one side. On one-surface of the disc are
traces of cream-colored paint; on the other surface is much red pigment. Resting
on the disc, near the skull, lay an ear-plug of wood, copper-coated, 1.5 inch in


diameter, with a central boss perforated through the middle. In soil thrown out
by the digger was found a somewhat smaller disc of wood, overlaid with copper on
one side and having a similar central perforated boss. This disc probably formed
the part of the ear-plug referred to as being behind the lobe of the ear, while
the larger one was worn in front.
Where the left shoulder of the skeleton would have been were two other discs,
similar to those just described. These discs, however, were on the same side of the
head as the one first found, and therefore, presumably, had undergone disturbance
in burial.
A skeleton at full length on the back had on the chest a mass of glauconite, or
.green earth.
Another skeleton, also extended, had near the skull Vessel No. 1, a small,
undecorated bowl.
Vessel No. 2, a bowl of very inferior ware, lay apart from human remains.
Four feet down was a small quantity of decaying, fibrous wood. The former
presence of copper with it was shown by a green stain only.

FIG. 108.-Vessel No. 3. Mound O. (Diameter 5.8 inches.) FIG. 109.-Vessel No. 5. Mound O. (Height 5.75 in

A skeleton at full length to the hips, the rest having been removed by an
aboriginal disturbance, had at the skull, Vessel No. 3, a bowl with a rude effigy of
an animal-head, and a conventional tail on the opposite side. A fore-leg is indicated
on one side of the bowl and a corresponding member doubtless was on the other
side; this was missing, but has been restored (Fig. 108). With Vessel No. 3 was
Vessel No. 4, an undecorated, wide-mouthed water-bottle in fragments.
An extended skeleton had large shell beads at each wrist, with a few smaller
ones intermingled. At the ankles were fifteen great beads of shell, about 2 inches
by 1.75 inch by .75 of an inch. Below the chin were a few pearls used as beads,
and fragments of sheet-copper. There were also copper-coated objects of wood,
resembling ear-plugs, less than an inch in diameter.

01~ 0 0 0 0 0
0' 0' 0 :, 0 0 0
0 000 0





FIG. ll110.--Stone slab. Mound 0. (Length 14 inches.)

(C C

Cc c (c ,'r
( Cccc ,c C

CC c "c c c c cc
CC c' c(
cc cC cc cc ( 2 ~ c
c c c c c c c
~~~c c cc c r


Shell beads, badly decayed, were with disturbed bones, as was also a fragment,
4.75 inches in length, of what had been a long, pointed implement of cherty
About a foot from a skeleton at full length was a broad-mouthed water-bottle,
Vessel No. 5, with parallel, vertical bands alternately cross-hatched (Fig. 109).
With a few fragments of bones were nine large shell beads.
Burial No.. 14, 38 inches from the surface, was represented by a single tooth,

FIG. 111.-Stone disc. Mound 0. (Diameter 8.5 inches.)



so far as we could determine. Nearby was a slab of fine-grained gneiss (Fig. 110),
14 inches by 9.5 inches, with scalloped ends and incised line decoration on one side.
On one major surface of this slab is red pigment, and cream-colored paint is on the
other. With the slab was a disc of fine-grained gneiss, 8.5 inches in diameter (Fig.
111), with notches around the margin, and three encircling lines and faint traces of
a kind of meander on one side only. As in the case of the slab, the disc has red
paint on one side and white paint on the other. Nearby lay a shell gorget, hope-

FIG. 112.-Vessel No..6. Mound O. (Height 6.75 inches.)

lessly decayed. With this burial was Vessel No. 6, having on two sides the double-
headed woodpecker design with a tail extending from each side of the body. The
speech symbols are present, but not the extended tongue (Fig. 112). In addition,
three fingers are shown near the head of the bird, at each side (Fig. 113).
A copper-coated ear-plug and fragments of sheet-copper were found apart from



FIG. 113.-Vessel No. 6. Decoration. Mound O. (About half size.)

FIG. 114.-Vessel No. 9. Mound O. (Height 5.9 inches.)



human bones. Elsewhere in the mound a green stain alone denoted the former
presence of copper.
With a bunch of bones, perhaps an aboriginal disturbance, was a cylindrical
fragment of wood that had been copper-coated.
Vessel No. 7, a small, rude, undecorated bowl, and Vessel No. 8, a rude bowl
of inferior ware, were together, with fragments of a wooden ornament, copper-coated,
apart from human remains.
About 39 inches from the surface was Burial No. 19. By the order in which
they lay, small fragments of bone here and there indicated a full-length burial.

FIG. 115.-Vessel No. 9. Decoration. Mound O. (About half size.)
Near the skull was Vessel No. 9, a wide-mouthed water-bottle showing an engraved
Eagle on each side (Fig. 114). The two designs, though similar in the main, vary
somewhat in detail, especially as to the eye. In the accompanying diagram (Fig.
115), is shown the eagle from the side opposite the one in the half-tone reproduc-
tion. Holmes' shows engraved eagles, one on a vessel from Mississippi, the other
on a water-bottle found by us in northwestern Florida. With the striking water-
bottle in Mound O was a disc of fine-grained gneiss, 8,5 inches in diameter, having
the customary notches and line decoration (Fig. 116), with paint of three shades,-
white, cream-color, and pink-on one side, and red pigment on the other. Placed
centrally on this disc was another disc, undecorated, also of fine-grained gneiss, 5.4
inches in diameter, showing considerable pigment.
With a burial of scattered bones, perhaps an aboriginal disturbance, near the
skull, was Vessel No. 10, in fragments. Cemented together, the vessel shows the
design of the woodpecker on each of two sides, with speech symbols and extended
tongue, but with a variation in the tails where the individual feathers are not rep-
resented as pointed (Fig. 117). Probably, for the purpose of gaining space, the
lower head has been made smaller than the upper one, as shown in diagram in Fig.
SOp. cit., P1. LI (fig. e), and P1. LXIX.



FIG. 116.-Stone disc. Mound O. (Diameter about 8.5 inches.)'

118. With Vessel No. 10 was Vessel No. 11, a wide-mouthed water-bottle in
Near an isolated skull were Vessels Nos. 12 and 13, respectively a small pot
with loop-handles and a rude bowl in fragments, having incised line decoration
under the rim.
Lying apart from human bones, which perhaps had decayed away or had been
disturbed in aboriginal times, were the outer half of an ear-plug of wood, copper-


FIG. 117.-Vessel No. 10. Mound O. (Height 6.25 inches.)

FIG. 118.-Vessel No. 10. Decoration. Mound 0. (About half size.)


coated; Vessel No. 14 (Fig. 119), a broad-mouthed water-bottle, having for decora-
tion depressions surrounded by scrolls; and Vessel No. 15 (Fig. 120), a cup with
incised ribbon-fold decoration, which was found inverted on the neck of the water-

FIG. 119. -Vessel No. 14. Mound O. (Diameter 5.4 inches.) FIG. 120.-Vessel No. 15. Mound 0. (Diameter of body 4 inches.)

FIG. 121.-Vessel No. 16. Mound 0. (Height 5.5 inches.)



Vessel No. 16 is a broad-mouthed water-bottle, found in fragments which, put
together (Fig. 121), present a design shown in diagram in Fig. 122.
A burial represented by a few teeth had with it Vessels Nos. 17, 18,'19.
Vessel No. 17, of inferior ware, lay in fragments. Vessel No. 18 (Fig. 123), a wide-
mouthed water-bottle, has a decoration consisting of down-turned hands alternating
with open eyes. On each hand is a symbol, perhaps a conventionalized eye.

FIG. 122.-Vessel No. 16. Decoration. Mound 0. (About half size.)

FIG. 123.-Vessel No. t1. Mound 0. (Height 6.75 inches.)


FIG. 124.-Vessel No. 19. Mound O. (Diameter of bowl 4 inches.)

Vessel No. 19 (Fig. 124), a cup with a meander decoration, was found partly
filled with a mass of material which analysis by Dr. H. F. Keller showed to be
glauconite, or green earth, the green color being derived from the presence of iron
in the ferrous state. This earth might have been, and doubtless was, used as a tem-
porary paint. The color, however, would soon darken through oxidation when

FIG. 125.-Vessel No. 20. Mound 0. (Height 5.2 inches.)



exposed to the air. On the glauconite within the cup was a mussel-shell containing
red pigment. With these vessels was a slab of stone, undressed as to its sides,
having a certain concavity of each
broad surface, on one of which was
red paint.
Vessel No. 20 (Fig. 125) lay in
fragments in a pit near bones, but
was not attributable to any burial in
particular. The design, similar to

FIG. 126.-Vessel No. 20. Decoration. Mound 0.
(About half size.)

several found at Moundville, but not
noted elsewhere, so far as we know,
consists of the sign of the four quar-
ters represented by series of three
digits pointing in the four directions.
Centrally are series of concentric cros-
ses and circles. Between each series
of digits is cross-hatch, as shown in
diagram in Fig. 126.
Vessel No. 21, a small, undecora-
ted, wide-mouthed water-bottle, lay
inverted in a pit where, seemingly, it
had been tossed in a disturbance in
aboriginal times. This vessel bears a
perforation in the base, presumably
the result of accident at its first dis-
Near a disturbed burial was a
disc of fine-grained gneiss, 7 inches in
diameter, having the usual decoration,
with traces of white paint on one side
and red on the other. FIG. 127.-Ceremonial weapon of
chert. Mound 0. (Full size.)


Near the surface of a pit containing several burials at greater depth, was a
ceremonial weapon of cherty material, shown in Fig. 127.
Vessels Nos. 23, 24, and 25, are all undecorated bowls found in fragments,
away from human remains.
Vessel No. 26, with only a fragment of decaying bone nearby, in caved soil,
was a graceful water-bottle with a decoration so faint that it can just be distinguished
in the half-tone reproduction (Fig. 128).

FIG. 128.-Vessel No. 26. Mound 0. (Diameter 4.75 inches.)

With disturbed bones were corroded fragments of what seem to have been hair-
ornaments of sheet-copper, but their incomplete condition make absolute identifica-
tion impossible.
Vessel No. 27, found alone, is an undecorated, wide-mouthed water-bottle (Fig.
Apart from human remains was Vessel No. 28, a broad-mouthed, undecorated
water-bottle (Fig. 130), with Vessel No. 29, a small, undecorated pot that once had
been provided with two loop-handles.
Burial No. 37 consisted of a deposit of fragments of calcined human bones at
the bottom of a pit 32 inches deep. This pit, which had a maximum diameter of
19 inches, had contracted to 13 inches where the calcined fragments were. The
calcined deposit, somewhat less in diameter than the pit, had a depth of 9 inches.
Throughout the soil above the deposit were other fragments of calcined bone.
Vessel No. 30, a bowl in fragments, unassociated with human remains, has five
encircling, incised lines below the rim.


FIG. 129.-Vessel No. 27. Mound 0.
(Height 6.5 inches.)

FIc. 130.-Vessel No. 28. Mound 0.
(Height 5.5 inches.) ,

FIG. 131.-Effigy-pipe of stone. Mound 0. (Height 8 inches.)

In the southwestern corner of the mound, 3 feet down, were two effigy-pipes.
One, of carbonate of lime, representing an animal, had so deteriorated through lapse
of time and long contact with moisture that the consistency was about that of clay;
in fact, the clay surrounding the pipe was of greater tenacity than it, as, upon
removal, the pipe left small particles adhering to the soil. The other, found lying



FIG. 132.-Effigy-pipe of stone. Mound O. (Height 8 inches.)

on its side, immediately with the one just described, is a fine effigy-pipe of soft, red
claystone, 8 inches high, representing a squatting male figure, shown in both front
and side view in Figs. 131, 132. Unfortunately the knees, part of the right arm,
the right hand, and part of the left hand, of the effigy, had all been broken off



FIG. 133.-Vessel No. 31. Mound O. (Diameter of bowl 4.75 inches.)

FIG. 131.-Gorget of sheet-copper. Mound O. (Full size.)



before interment and hence were not found. These pipes were not immediately
associated with burials, though human bones were found not far distant.
With disturbed bones, together,
were Vessels Nos. 31, 32, and 33. Ves-
sel No. 31, a cup, has a kind of mean-
der in a cross-hatch field (Fig. 133).
Vessel No. 32 was badly broken. Ves-
sel No. 33, also in fragments, proved
to be a small bowl with slightly inver-
ted rim and incised decoration consist-
ing of two encircling, parallel lines
passing under four equidistant protu-
berances situated slightly below the
With Burial No. 40, a skull and
a few decaying bones probably repre-
FIG. 135.-Vessel No. 37. Mound O. (Diameter 4.25 inches.) sending a skeleton, were Vessels Nos.
34 and 35. Nearby were Vessel No.
36, in fragments, and a mass of galena (lead sulphide) the surface of which is coated
with a cream-colored deposit of carbonate of lead, suitable for use as paint. Vessel
No. 34 is a small, coarse, undecorated, wide-mouthed water-bottle. Vessel No. 35,
a small, coarse bowl, has rudely executed, incised, curved lines below an in-turned
rim. Vessel No. 36 was badly broken. Adhering to fragments of bone belonging to
the trunk of this burial, enveloped in decayed wood or bark, was a circular gorget
of sheet-copper, 6.5 inches in diameter, which broke slightly on removal. This gor-
get, pieced together, shows a central swastika formed by excision, surrounded by
many repouss' circles (Fig. 134).
Vessel No. 37, of eccentric form (Fig. 135), is of a type once before represented
in our search at Moundville, in which a portion of the rim is much lower than the
remainder. This vessel has been repaired and slightly restored.
In the northeastern corner of the mound, near a disturbed burial, was an orna-
ment of sheet-copper in fragments and a small mass of lead sulphide. At the distal
end of one femur belonging to this burial were large shell beads, and similar shell
beads were at the distal extremities of the leg bones, which were in the pit at some
distance from the femurs.
With a burial was a ball of black substance, about two inches in diameter,
showing various facets where presumably material had been rubbed off for use as
paint. Analysis by Dr. H. F. Keller proved the mineral to be psilomelane, a
hydrated peroxide of manganese containing considerable quantities of oxide of
Shell beads twice, fragments of sheet-copper twice, and single ear-plugs three
times, were found in this mound in addition to examples given in detailed description.
In this mound human bones were met with in forty-two places, exclusive of



small fragments here and there. The burials, very badly decayed, were scattered
to a much greater extent than were most of those encountered by us at Mound-
ville. Presumably the superficial part of the mound had been dug and redug for
burial purposes to such an extent that but few entire burials remained.
The situation in which burials occurred in this mound was contrary to what
had been found to be the general rule, for while two or three burials were present
in the northeastern corner, no other burials were met with in the eastern part of
the mound until the southeastern corner was reached. On the other hand, burials
were numerous along the entire western side with the exception of the southwestern
corner. Certain burials were present in the northwestern part and some in central
This symmetrical mound was carefully filled by us, as were all others at
Moundville where dug into by us; in addition, as we had encroached somewhat on
the sides of Mound O, boards were placed at marginal points, projecting above the
soil, to prevent subsequent wash of the soft material.

Near the base of Mound O, on the eastern side, a number of trial-holes were
dug by us in a cultivated field, resulting in the finding of an adult skeleton, ex-
tended on the back, and, in another place, the skeleton of an infant, having near
the head an interesting little vessel with incised line decoration and projections at
each end (Fig. 136).

FIG. 136.-Vessel No. 1. Field east of Mound 0. FIG. 137.-Ornament of earthenware.
(Maximum diameter 3.75 inches.) Field east of Mound 0. (Full size.)

Apart from human remains, in other holes, were a small discoidal of amphi-
bolite and a flat, polished, annular ornament of hard earthenware, about 1.75 inch
in diameter (Fig. 137). This ornament is provided with two holes for suspension
and a central opening surrounded by incised decoration. The object seems to have
been made expressly for an ornament and not shaped from a fragment of vessel.

Mound P has a summit plateau 75 feet in width on the north and on the south,
and 95 feet long on the west. Its length on the eastern side is 120 feet. The
plateau has a very decided slope downward from south to north. Twenty trial-
holes revealed no sign of burials or of pits.

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