Members of the institute
 Members' meetings
 Additions to the Library
 Art and archaeology

Group Title: Journal of the Institute of Jamaica ...
Title: Journal of the Institute of Jamaica
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00024651/00004
 Material Information
Title: Journal of the Institute of Jamaica
Physical Description: 2v. : front.,illus.,plates,ports.,maps. ; 26cm.
Language: English
Creator: Institute of Jamaica
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Kingston Jamaica
Publication Date: 1894-99
Frequency: completely irregular
Subject: Periodicals -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol.I-II. (1891/93-1894/99)
Numbering Peculiarities: Vol.I is composed of 8 parts; v.2 of 6 parts.
General Note: No more published.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00024651
Volume ID: VID00004
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001366390
oclc - 05507203
notis - AGM7876
lccn - ca 05002337

Table of Contents
    Members of the institute
        Page 189
    Members' meetings
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
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        Page 200
        Page 201
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        Page 203
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        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
    Additions to the Library
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
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        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
    Art and archaeology
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 306a
        Page 307
Full Text



JULY, 1896.



LIST of those who have
been nominated members
of the Board and of those
who have been elected
members of the Institute
since the publication of
the last list in the Journal
is given below:
K.C.M.G., Chief Justice of Jaunnici.
lion. C. B. MossE, C.B., Superintending
Medical Officer.
Prof. C. H. TYLER TOWNSEND, Temporary
Field Agent, Brownsville, Texas, U.S.A.
JAMES R. BoosE, Librarian, Royal Colonial
Institute, London.
MRs. SWATNSON, Jamaica.
Rev. W. W RuM EY, Jamaica.
Mrs. J. D'AETII, Kingston.
Hon. PHILIP STERN, Kingston.
LUTHIE FAcY, Kingston.
K.C.M.G.. St. Andrew.
Lady BURFORD- HANCOOK, St. Andrew.
Miss ADA F. GREEN, Milk River.
E. G. OSBORNE SMITH, Kingston.
R. M. WATSON, Kingston.
W. CLOTHIER, Kingston.
Mrs. J. M. GIBB, Kingston.
Mrs. C. E. PARSONS, Kingston.
II. E. VAUGHAN, Kingston.
D. B. CALLAGHAN, Kingston.
F. M. ISAACS, Kingston.
W. I. HARRISON, Kingston.
M. L. HENDRICKS, Kingston.

.J. S. IlOWN. Kingston.
HE-NHY P. DEANS, Priestman's River, P.O.
J. R. WILLIAMS, M.A., Bethel Town.
A'rrTHU STIIACHAN. Kingston.
C. B. RIKEl, Maplewood. New Jersey, U.S.A.
Rev. J. H. II. GaMIAM, Port Antonio.
F. A. PE'TGIAVE, Port Antonio.
D. C. EnwARDS, Port Antonio.
Rev. II HUNTER, R.N., H.M.S. "Urgent,"
Port Royal.
Mi*s ISABEL PIKE, Constant Spring.
NMrs. C. 'IIOMAS, Constant Spring.
G. A. H. MOULD, Palisadoes.
T. C. GARMETT, Mandeville.
W. T. JAMI sON, Non-resident Member.
W. W. FISHER, Mandeville.
A. M. FRENCH, H.M.S. "Tourmaline," Port
F, S. DeMoNTAGNAC, Kingston.
B. WILLIAIMS, Kingston.
KAL DI)EPASS, Kingston.
Miss E. L. DeCoIDovA, Kingston.
J. R. DECoReDOVA, Kingston.
Mrs. LOUISA BAUROW, Kingston.
Miss (COLIN MiURAY, Kingston.
Mrs. E. A. CUNDALL, St. Andrew.
U. M. HEuNRY, Kingston.
C. E. BIAHAM, Mandeville.
ANDREW M. SCOTT, Kingston.
AnrTHUI MAGNAN, Kingston.
A. W. FINL.YSON, Kingston.
lion. and Rev. HENRY CLARKE, M.L.C., Sav-
HEV. H. 1PECKOVEi. Kingston.
CECIL PFCKovEn, Kingston.
JOHN C. I)UFFIN, Kingston.
FcIn). C. FIGUEROA, Kingston.




C. W. MAGNAN, Kingston.
A. J. MoIIrMAN, Kingston.
J. E. FLETCIIER, Kingston,
E. NUTTALL, B.A., LL.M, St. Andrew.

Miss A. C. DONNELLY. Kingston.
G. M. BAINES, Kingston.
Rev. H. H. KILBURN, Kingston.
F. J. W. DAVIS, St. Andrew.
Louis S. THOMAS, Kingston.


At the Twenty-fifth meeting held at the
Institute on the 25th of January, 1895. the
Rev. Wm Simms, M.A., read a paper on
"The Literary Spirit of the Age," which
formed the first of a series dealing with
" The Literary, Scientific, Social and other
developments of the Victorian Era." The
Secretary of the Institute was present.

THE Literature of a period springs out of, and
in its term influences the life of the period, and all
great outbursts of literary vigour have occurred at
periods of exceptionally vivid and energetic life.
The study therefore of the Literature of an age
should be carried on pari pssu with the study of
the life of the age. The Victorian period is well
spoken of by Bishop Lightfoot as the age of Eman-
cipation: it began with the emancipation in the Bri-
tish West Indies; it ends with slavery dead or
moribund in all civillised countries, whilst its areain
uncivilised countries is steadily growing ess.Further,
this particular form of emancipation is only one of
many. The emancipation of women now in pro-
gress is another, and the idea that "a man's a man
for a' that is in the air, and has acted upon and
been reacted upon by all the great writers of the age.
The horizon is receding in every realm of life and
thought:-first, the physical horizon; Constantinople
or even San Fiancisco now being as near London
as Edinburgh was a few generations ago ; the line
dividing readers from non-readers too is receding,
a fact which is influencing the ;whole tone and
spirit of our Literature ; the study of primitive in-
stitutions and primitive religions is widening our
knowledge of man and breaking down imaginary
partition, walls in every direction; whilst the dis-
coveries of Biology have broken down partition
walls of another sort. The growing knowledge of
the evolution of all things in the past gives a new
note and a new tone to much of our highest litera-
ture: the fin de siecle pessimism: is the mood of a
peculiar temperament or a small school, and the
prevailing note is that of the optimism of a civili-
sation which feels that it is not decadent and effete,
but that it is alive and growing, daily gaining new
knowledge, new powers, and new skill in using the

old experience. I am inclined therefore to place
the keynote of the spirit of our literature in this
sense of the'actual and possible development of our
race, in the sense of the value of a man apart
from his external accidents of wealth or culture
or position. Shakespeare's idea of a man of the
lower orders is Bottom the weaver or Dogberry or
Verges; compare this with the characters of modern
In spite of what we hear of the decay of poetry,
much of the best work has been.done by poets; but
the most striking feature of the age is the growth of
the novel which amongst the readers of to-day holds
the same sort of place as the drama did in the days
of Elizabeth, and conveys much of the best teaching
of some of our noblest minds. What was originally
said of Balzac, that his writings are one of the most
important means of culture possessed by the edu-
cated leader of the nineteenth century, is also true
of Thackeray or George Eliot, and in a lower de-
gree of many others.
We are apt to underrate the importance of peri-
odical literature, the newspaper, the review, the
magazine, bet its influence is rapidly increasing at
both ends. Every decade gives an increase in the
class of those who did not read but now do read:
and at the other end great writers are more and
more coming to condense their thought into a mag-
azine article or a shilling manual-with some dan-
ger to clearness of thought and thoroughness of
understanding on the part-of hasty and impatient
readers, with some encouragement of the super-
ficiality which gains readers in such numbers for 'a
writer like Martin Tupper. We must take the fact
with its evil and its good-a tendency to superfi-
ciality on the one hand, but on the other a great
mass of elevating writing read by people who a
generation ago did not read at all. The great writer,
partly directly, but much more through the small
writers who echo him, influences all the literature
of the age, and in his turn is influenced by the
feeling and tone of his audience, an audience much
more extensive, and in many ways different to that
of fifty years ago. The novel is perhaps the most
typical form of the literature of the age and' I must
state my dissent from those who considerit waste'of
time to read a novel, though no doubt much time is
wasted in reading novels which shew neither sane
thought nor artistic power. Many, second rate
novelists give an accurate and to a certain extent


profitable and interesting photograph of the exter-
nal circumstances of life and peculiarities of char-
acter, but this has the same relation to the work of
a great writer that a photograph or a painting of
which the sitter's friends say how like it is has to
a great picture like Titian's Portrait of a Venetian
Nobleman," or Leonardo da Vinci's La Joconde."
The former convey external truth ; whilst the latter
carry our thoughts to the pathos of human life and
.the relationship of character to life and to the gene-
ral scheme of things.
We must remember that in our expressed judg-
ment of books we are really making autobiographi-
cal remarks and giving the measure of our own tastes
and powers-- heard not long since the remark
'There was never anyone like Don Quixote:' pro-
bably there was not, but there is more reality in him,
a deeper relation to life and the world, a truer
setting forth of the contrast between the ideal and
the commonplace, of the meanness of much success
and the greatness of much so called failure than
there is in the photographic transcript from life.
The greatest writer is uneven: Homer nods at
times; Shakespeare and Dante have much that is
trivial and in bad taste; David's writing is not
always at the level of the twenty-third Psalm or St.
Paul's at that of the hymn on Charity; but any
writer must be placed high who has given a consi-
derable amount of good work. To take an example,
Dickens in spite of many faults, shews us often and
fully the human value of the ignorant, the prejudiced
and the uncouth, and his caricatures often get to the
heart of the truth. He peoples the streets and
inn-yards and wharves of London with a population
more real than their actual inhabitants; caricatures
they are, but they often get nearer the truth than
the smaller man's photograph.
To take another example of the change that has
come over literature in dealing with those of low
estate, the combat in the soul of Hamlet or Mac-
beth or Othello may be more powerfully depicted
than a that in the soul of aggie Tliver ; but there
is the same truth in the latter to the heart of things,
the same pathos, the same questioning on the part
of the writer of the problems of life, in dealing with
the humble maiden as Shakespeare shewed in the
case of those dwellers in high places. Or again
Miss Mary Wilkins brings before us the struggle to
see the right and follow it in the soul of a poor post-
mistress deservedly dismissed for incompetency,
and makes that struggle as interesting as if it were
in the mind of some great man who has to make a
decision which will affect the history of the world.
Many novels remind one of Punch's account of
some of the trains in Bradshaw, that neither start
nor arrive, but stop at intermediate stations: they
have no tale, no description of scenery, no fun, no
complication. of plot or variety of character, but
initiate us into the elaborate perplexities of the
lady, for example, who when she has the oppor-
tunity, decides that she does not love a man enough
to marry him, then when it is too late decides that
she does and did, and so marries some one else.
(The lecturer went on to speak of W. D Howells,
Ryder Haggard, Charles Kingsley, W. E. Norris and
Charlotte Bronte.) I
In poetry Wordsworth ruled at the beginning of
the period, and the present kings ale the two great
poets who have lately left us. In the poet we
should look for value of thought and for beauty of

expression; the beauty being sometimes severely
simple and sometimes rich in ornament: we should
keep our standard high by continually steeping our
minds and imaginations in the best work of the
great masters, though we may fairly have personal
favourites among the dii minores. A great poet
must be a religious (I do not mean orthodox) char-
acter, who sees life steadily and sees it whole' and
helps us to attain inward clearness and serenity.
Wordsworth communicates to us joy in the beauty
and life of nature and of man, joy in the worthy
acceptance of simple affections and duties.
In dealing with Brownirg and Tennyson we can-
not help being more or less led by personal feeling,
but they express in its highest poems the spirit of
the age; their teaching has become part of our
mind. Browning seems to me the greater; but
Tennyson is much more melodious and more popu-
lar, and will probably always address a larger pub-
The lecturer went on to'speak of the beauty of
Tennyson's lyrics, of his painting of scenery not only
beautiful in itself, but essential in most places to
complete the feeling of the poem, of his portraits of
women; and concluded, "I find it hard to place
Tennyson high amongst great poets; but it is cer-
tain that he treats nobly of high things, that his
melody clings to us, and that he is a fairly full and
entirely worthy exponent of the spirit of the age."
After allowing for Browning's frequent failure in
art and frequent obscurity, we must consider his
searching into the hearts and souls of men, end into
the motives which rules our lives; what splendid
pictures, what illuminating thought, what hopeful
strength he gives us. With his own "Faultless
Painter" we may say.
Thus the line should go!
Ay, but the soul I he's Raphael.
He has been well described as not a dramatist but
a dramatic thinker, his dramatic power dealing only
with speculative interests and not with the prac-
tical forces which make a great drama. The
Ring and the Book" is probably his greatest as well
as his longest work, and the characters of Pom-
pilia, Caponsacehi, Guido, and the Pope are su-
premely good. Well may Swinburne speak of the
piercing and overpowering tenderness which glori-
fies the poet of Pompilia."
After speaking of Carlyle as a rugged and splen-
did piece of Scottish bravura, and of the exquisite
style of Ruskin and his thoughts that lift us above
the plane of sensual and mechanical existence, the
lecturer continued, If we are to enter into the inner
court of the better literature of the period we must
have a deep sense of the importance of life and
its issues; a feeling of our relationship not only to
all other men but to the whole animated creation,
of the worthlessness of external distinctions of tank
and wealth and position of the unimportance even
of differences in education and culture compared
with the deeper things of life and character. I
think we may see, even in the midst of the wood
Nel mezzo del camm;n di no.tra vita
that we are living in no mean age, but in one which
will in time to come be spoken of as golden, one
that has wothily kept the torch alight to hand to
its successor.


AT the twenty-sixth meeting, held at the
Institute on the 2nd of February 1895, Dr.
Grabham read a paper on "The Advancement
of Science," which formed the second of a
series dealing with The Literary, Scientific,
Social and other developments of the Vic-
torian Era."
The Rev. W\m. Simms, M.A. Ch:iirnmn of
the Board. was in the chair The Secretary
of the Institute was also present.

Dr. Grabham commenced by reviewing the posi-
tion of biological science at the beginning of the
present century. Natural history in those days was
an affair of the herbarium or cabinet: a mere obser-
vation of facts and tabulation of phenomena, with-
out any endeavour to theorise on their philosophical
importance. .Every species of animal or plant was
regarded as a special creation or as being eternal,
and many explanations of the origin of species were
given which would be regarded by us now as posi-
tively absurd.
Lamarck's theory was then briefly described. The
effects of use and disuse were supposed to be trans-
mitted to the offspring, and, after many generations,
would probably become permanent. Lamarck
imagined that the elongated bodies of snakes had
been produced by the exertions they make to force
themselves through narrow holes-just as a rope or
piece of india-rubber tubing by repeated stretching
out can at last be made permanently longer.
Darwin's idea of the survival of the fittest was next
dealt with. After giving a general outline of the
theory of Natural Selection and citing several
examples in proof of it, Dr. Grabham went on to
mention some of the objections which had been
raised against it The most important one was the
difficulty of explaining by the theory of the survival
of the fittest the preservation of the first beginnings
of structures which are then useless, though after-
wards, when more fully developed, they become
useful. For it belongs to the very essence of the
theory that a structure must be supposed already
useful before it can come under the influence of
Natural Selection; thereforethe theory seems in-
capable of explaining the origin and conservation
of incipient organs, or organs which are not yet
sufficiently developed to be of any service to the
organisms possessing them. This difficulty has been
advanced by all the critics of Darwinism, and has
been presented with most activity and fo;ce by the
Duke of Argyll. The electric organs in certain fish
were examples. It was well-known that some fish
have the most perfect electric batteries in various
parts of their bodies, which are capable of discharg-
ing electricity in the form, often, of powerful shocks.
These organs are composed of muscular tissue which
has been wonderfully transformed. Thousands of
separately formed elements or cells are arranged in
row after row, all electrically insulated one from the
other, and packed away into the smallest possible
space, with the obvious end or purpose of conspir-
ing together for the simultaneous delivery of an
electric shock. Diagrams of the structures were

shown, in the cases of the Electric Ray and Electric
Eel; the plates and direction of the currents were
also illustrated and described. The luminous or-
gans which are found in many insects were referred
to; special mention being made of those in a small
crustacean, Nyetophanes Norvegica, common on the
English coasts, which had recently been carefully
studied. Drawings of the light-producing apparatus
were explained, and some physical experiments car-
ried out for the purpose of ascertaining the nature
of the light an'd its mode of production were briefly
Dr. Grabham then discussed some questions re-
latini to the variability of species and heredity in
general. Although we were so well acquainted
with variations having taken place under domesti-
cation, was there any evidence of animals or plants
having changed their specific forms in their wild
state ? Bearing on this question some very inter-
esting discoveries had recently been made with re-
ference to plants. Prof. Carruthers had described
how in the recent exploration of the unopened
tombs belonging to an early period in the his-
tory of the Egyptian people the plants at that
time were found in a condition which has permitted
their minute examination The plant remains were
included in the mummy wrapping, and being thus
hermetically sealed have been preserved with
scarcely any change. The colours of the flowers are
still present, even the most evanescent, such as the
violet of the larkspur and the scarlet of the poppy,
although gathered four thousand years ago. The
remarkable point is, that all these species are found
to resemble exactly those growing in Egypt at the
present day. No appreciable changes have been
effected. The modification of species evidently re-
quires enormous periods of time-periods compared
with which the few thousand years of the history
of the Egyptian civilization may be as a moment
compared with the individual growth of any species
of animal or plant.
Weismann's views of heredity were then gone into.
The transmission of mutilations and acquired men-
tal faculties called for particular notice. Instincts,
which must be regarded as inherited experience,
were very complex in some animals and afforded
strong proofs of the transmission of acquired char-
.cters. The curious instinct of the ordinary mud
wasp in paralysing its prey was described. Dr.
Grabham in conclusion, referred to Galton's le-
searches into the hereditary nature of genius, and
reviewed some of the arguments both for and
against the transmission of acquired character-
one of the greatest biological problems of the


AT the twenty-seventh meeting, held at
the Institute on the 27th February, 18!5, Mr.
Frank Cundall, F.S.A., Secretary of the Insti-
tute, read a paper on The Progress of Art
and the spread of artistic influence," which
formed the third of a series dealing with
"The Literary, Scientific, Social and other
developments of the Victorian Era."


In beginning, the lecturer said that he undertook
the preparation of the paper with some misgivings
due to the consciousness that the chief of his studies
had been amongst the old masters and not the
modern schools. Art embraced many forms of
artistic expression from the Madonna di San
Sisto" to a tea-tray, and he thought it would be
well that evening to view it in its widest sense.
During the era under consideration, three or four
movements had taken place in art in England, of
special importance : (i) The writings of Professor
Ruskin; akin to which was (ii) The Pre-Raphaelite
movement; (iii) The founding of the Newlyn
school of out-of-door painters : (iv) the rise of the
Impressionists; (v) A new birth in Sculpture. and
(vi) State aid in art education as applied to In-
dustry. Less important, but also worthy of con-
sideration, were the revival of Etching in England
(the work of the painter-etcher): the assistance
which art has lent to and has received from illus-
trated books, magazines and newspapers; and the
effect of international exhibitions held in England
and elsewhere since 185 1.
First of all, he would deal with the fine arts.
Architecture, Sculpture and Painting. He ex-
plained that the pictures exhibited, had been
selected, from the limited material at com-
mand, chiefly with a view to illustrating some of
the masterpieces of the Victorian era. but also
with a view to giving examples of the various re-
productive methods employed in representing
works of art-line-engraving, wood-engraving,
etching, photography, photogravure and photo-
type, both plain and coloured.
PAINTING-At the close of the 18th century,
English Art had thrown off foreign influence, to
which it was however much indebted, and became
truly national ; albeit the Pre-Raphaelite move-
ment was mainly the work of a London-born
Italian, and many of England's foremost painters
had assimilated what was best in French Art,
When our present Queen ascended the throne. Sir
Joshua eynolds the true founder of the e one o eEnglish
School, and Gainsborough, who was almost his
equal, had been dead nearly half a century. Blake,
the poet-painter, half genius, half madman, had
been dead nearly ten years; but Constable, one of
the most truly English of painters and the embodi-
ment of all that is best in English landscape art,
died in the year of the accession. He was a better
painter than prophet. In 1821, lhe had said "In
thirty years English art will have ceased to exist."
In exactly thirty years, England saw the first of a
series of institutions, which were destined to have
a wide reaching influence on'the spread of artistic
feeling, not only in England, but throughout the
civilized world.
After dealing with the painters of that period
including Landseer and Turner, the lecturer said,
at this time arose a champion in the form of an
undergraduate of Oxford, whose writings, preach-
ing sincerity in all things, and teaching English
people to see the poetry of art, have had a far-
reaching effect on artistic thought and practice in
England-John Ruskin. The works of Turner
have given rise to some of the most eloquent of

Ruskin's writing, but it has been pointed out that
it is in part more eloquent than true. Art critics
fought around Turner living, and they fought
around him dead.
The revolt against traditional rules and the
tyranny of the academy began with some intensely
earnest students in the Royal Academy Schools of
whom the chief were Rossetti, Holman Hunt and
Millais, who received the sympathetic help of Ford
Maddox Brown the;r senior. Rossetti's first picture
"The Girlhood of the Virgin Mary" appeared in
1849, acd was greeted bymany with ridicule; thirty
years later he was recognized as the head 'not
merely of a school but almost of a religion.'
Amongst the storm of criticism which their truth
to nature brought down upon the Pre-Raphaelites,
they were supported, almost too zealously perhaps,
by Professor Ruskin. And it is interesting to note
that while abuse was heaped upon them in the
metropolis, they were encouraged and received
prizes in a provincial town-Liverpool. One of
the most curious phases of the movement was the
leaving it in 1854 of Sir John Millais. when he was
elected A.R.A.; his portrait of Ruskin being his
last Pre-Raphaelite work. Some considered that
he was unable to maintain his early level without
the constant inspiration of Rossetti and Hunt; and
others that Pre-Raphaelitism was a mere incident
in the growth of his genius. True it is, at all
events, that he elected to paint for the world, and
that success has spoiled him. Allied to the Pre-
Raphelite brotherhood though not of them, were
Sir Edward Burne-Jones and Mr. Watts,
Briefly passing over painters who died during
the Victorian era, the lecturer went on to speak
of Mr. Whistler, whom he characterized as a true
genius, but one whose paintings Professor Rus-
kin compared to a paint-pot flung in the public
face. Historical painters, such as, Alma-Tadma
and Sir James Linton ; landscape painters such as
Sir John Millais, Vicat Cole and Mr. Leader, sea
painters, like Mr. James' Moore and Mr. Wyllie,
and water colour painters were referred to; after
which decorative art was dealt with.
The characteristics of the present school of Eng-
lish painting has been claimed by its head, the
President of the Royal Academy, as being 'sin-
cerity, healthiness and versatility,' and in these
qualities we plainly see every prospect of a bright,
if not a glorious future.
SCUITPTlrttE-That Sculpture in England does
not take higher rank than it does, is due rather to
lack of patronage than lack of men. The noblest
of the arts, it does not appeal to the multitude.
The new school of English sculpture is in a meas.,
ure founded on that of France.
AROHITECTU!IE--n architecture there has been
much activity, but no certain marks have been left.
The lecturer continued by attributing a certain
amount of the spread of artistic influence in the
Victorian era, to illustrations, in books, periodicals
and newspapers-even daily newspapers. It was
certain that many had been induced by art jour,
nals to take an interest in art, who otherwise
would not have done so; and these publications
had undoubtedly played an important part in the
improvement which has taken place in popular
taste in the last half century, To have established


a wholesoine distaste for Berlin woolwork anti-
macassars and carpets with gigantic bunches of
flowers and such like atrocities was something.
PHOTOGRAPHY-For years, said the lecturer,
a war has been waging between those who main-
tain that photography is an art, and those who
deny it. Personally I have no sympathy with the
former class. It is true that, with equal technical
ability, a man with taste and artistic judgment
will take a better photographic view than one
without; but neither could take it without very
substantial aid from the chemist and optician. In
my mind a good cabinet-maker who designs his
own work, possesses more true art than the best
photographic amateur that ever lived. Taking
photographs out of focus is not Art, as some people
imagine. The aid which photography has lent to
Art-helping lame or lazy logs over stiles-has, it
is to be feared, had a baneful effect. All the Mny-
bridge photographs in the world will never, one
would think, alter the appearance which the gal-
loping of a horse has on the human eye. Until
instantaneous photography has altered human
vision, the artist should be content to paint what
he now sees, not what the camera tells him he
ought to see.
State-aid was dilated upon, and the lecturer con-
cluded t)y saying that State-aid in Art had, by
means of temporary and permanent exhibitions
and by precept in the schools, assisted in the eleva-
ting of public taste which has undoubtedly taken
place during the era; but if one might gauge the
public taste in England of to-day, by the bonnets
which some of his lady friends had imported.
modern England is either colour blind or has
learnt to like colour discords, as violent as a
bougainvillea blossom on a red brick, wall, with a
flamboyant flower in the vicinity. That inter-
national exhibitions and private societies had also
done much good for Art was pointed out by the
lecturer who went on to deal with foreign painters;
stating that all present schools were more or less
influenced by that of France.
In conclusion, he said It is said that when the
Dutch founded a colony in South Africa they took
with them master-pieces by their countrymen: but
that they have either perished or been re-imported
back to Europe.
The sugar planters of Jamaica brought paintings,
it is true, to adorn their 'great houses,' but few
of them were apparently of merit. Little was done
for Art in Jamaica in the early days, and little has
been done in the Victorian era ; at least if it has,
its state must indeed have been bad in the
When 1 had the honour to read before this In-
stitute, just three years ago, a paper entitled A
plea for Art,' I briefly outlined what might be ac-
complished in the direction of an art museum and
picture gallery in Jamaica. and of the spread of
art influence by means of schools. Something has,
in the meantime, been attempted in the way of a
picture gallery--I trust not altogether without
success. It is modest, but the funds spent upon it
have been but small. With the extension given to
the library, by the removal of the museum to its
new premises, space will be.made, and the funds
will. I hope. be forthcoming, for the further ex-
tension of the art gallery.

As Professer Hodgson says-' The sight of beau-
tiful things is the best perhaps only panacea to
cure that worst of the maladies of taste, the canker
of all good art, namely, vulgarity.'
South Kensington Examinations in Art are now
held in several of the British Colonies. So soon as
we prove to ourselves that we are fit for examina-
tion, and express our desire to be examined. South
Kensington will examine us too, and by healthy
emulation some amount of proficiency may per-
chance be acquired.
SBut it is not in the mere acquisition of facility with
the pencil that the great truths of art tire centred.
All cannot become artists or even artistic crafts-
men: but all can. if they will, learn something of
the ennobling and elevating influences of art,
without which no country can be said to be pro-
gressing. and can use their influence for the com-
mon weal. In matters artistic we are in Jamaica
not much indebted to past generations. But let it
not be said hereafter that this generation left
Kingston as ugly as it found it. The raising of
fine flavoured coffee, and big bananas, and the
breeding of fat cattle, should not be the sole
aim of life.

AT the twenty-eighth meeting, held at the
Institute, on the 20th March, 189i), the Rev,
Win. Gillies read a paper on The Devel-
opments in Education," which formed the
fourth of a series dealing with "'The
Literary, Scientific, Social and other devel-
opments of the Victorian Era."
The Rev. Wm. Simmus, M.A., Chairman of
the Board was in the chair. The Secretary
'of the Institute was also present.
The following is an abstract of the paper :

To form a correct conception of the educational
'developments that have taken place during the
Victorian Era it is necessary, Mr. Gillies said, to
go back a little and take note of the movements
that led up to these developments. The Revival
of Learning deeply affected the whole civilized
world. So did the Reformation in religion in the
sixteenth century. Both have had intimate con-
nections with the educational developments of the
present century. But it was not till the time of
the French Revolution that the education of the
people really became a subject of concern with the
leaders of the people. From that time down to
the Queen's accession it was easy to trace the
growth of the new ideas which have made Her
Majesty's reign a period of marvellous educa-
tional progress, not in England only but in every
part of her dominions. The low state of popular
education in England at the beginning of the
century was then briefly described. More than
one half of the children were growing up without
any education. Forty per cent. of the men and
sixty-five per cent. of the women were unable to
write their own names. And large numbers of
educated people wished the mass of the people to
be ignorant as well as poor. The first public
attempt to remedy this state of things was. made in


1807, when Mr. Whitbread, the member for Bedford,
introduced into the House of Commons his Paro-
chial Schools Bill." The real question discussed in
connection with the bill was whether it was pro-
per that education should be diffused among the
lower classes A favourite idea of the opponents
of the bill was that education would teach the poor
to despise their lot. Popular education was re-
garded by them as one of the rash delusions of the
time." The principle of the bill was, however,
affirmed, but the proposed measure went no farther.
Lord Brougham took up the question in 1816, again
in 1818. and yet again in 1820. From that year
down to 1835 was.the age of mechanics institutes
and penny cyclopedias and other enterprises of
like character leading on to further efforts towards
establishing state-aided education. In 1836 the
Home and Colonial Society began its work in aid
of the education of the people The new views as
to the wants and the privileges of the mass of the
people led to the Reform Bill of 1832, and, the year
following, to the first vote for the promotion of Ele-
mentary Education in England. The sum voted was
20,000. The same parliament voted 20.000,000
for the emancipation of the slaves, in the British
colonies. In 1834, Lord Althorp got a Committee
appointed to enquire into the state of education in
England and Wae's. In 1837 when the Queen
ascended the throne, the London Statistical Society
reported that the country did not afford the means
of education for more than one half of those in a
condition to receive it. In most of the large towns
it was found that only 1 in 17 of the population
was being educated, and in some districts only 1 in
35. In parts of Lancashire, towns of 25,000 inhab-
itants were without a single school. The propor-
tion of children who received no instruction of any
kind in school was found to be; in Manchester 30
per cent, Liverpool 50, York 34, and Birmingham
All this has been changed during the Victorian
Era. The 20.000 vote has gone up to over
6,000 000, and this is going to be increased. The
forming of the Committee of Council on Education
took place in 1839. In the formation and the work
of it the Queen took, a deep personal interest from
the very first. The Committee's grants-in-aid were
upt to only for uildins; then aid to salaries
began. The conditions on which grants were made
came to be codified, and hence the use of the word
Code in connection with English Education. The
Code of 1862 was the famous Revised Code." The
Prince Consort's Conference of 1857 and the Duke
of Newcastle's commissionn of 1858 were powerful
means of advance. These led up to Mr. Forster's
Act of 1870, an act rhat will long be regarded as
the most important ever passed by the English par-
liament on the subject of education. The Educa-
tion Act of 1891 introduced the era of free or
assisted education. From 1780 down to 1839, when
the Committee of Council was formed, there was a
period of fifty years preparation for direct state ac-
tion in the furtherance of popular education, and
from 1839 to the present day the State has been in-
creasingly committed to the work of seeing all
grasses of the people cared for through the medium
of its schools.
In closing Mr. Gillies said :-
It seems to me that we would have had very
little education of the people, if there had not

been a new view about the people, a new benevo-
lence towards them, a new appreciation of men
as men. Poets give voice to the common heart
when it cannot speak for itself, and Burns sang the
new humanity when he wrote-
'Is there for honest poverty
That hangs his head, and a' that
The coward slave, we pass him by,
We dare be poor for a' that.
For a' that and a' that.
Our toils obscure and a' that:
The rank is but the guinea stamp,
The man's the gowd for a' that,
But where did the new humanity come from t
Not from the French revolution: that was a mon-
ster, vengeance was in its heart ; its thirst was for
blood. The new humanity was slumbering in Chris-
tian hearts. It had been buried, but it was not
dead. It was waiting there for a glorious resurrec-
tion, and it sprang up and has covered with its
creations all England in the course of the century
that is drawing to a close. It has taught us to be
just to our mothers and our sisters and our daugh-
ters. It has thrown wide open to women the doors
of all our educational institutions, and offered to
them the honours and distinctions that used to be
reserved for men This new humanity has been
doing for the children of all Scotland and Ireland
what it has done for England, and it has invaded
and taken possession of every colony and depen-
dency in the Empire. Canada has during the Vic-
torian Era been to the front in educational reform.
The young nations of the Australian continent
have seen that their very life depended on liberally
educating every child that God gave them. New
Zealand has been animated by the same spirit;
South Africa has not been one whit behind. And
in India a few Englishmen have been struggling
with the biggest educational problem ever rulers
handled-how to educate 240 millions of people
toiling on in the darkness and waiting for the light.
But beyond the Empire there is another Empire-
that of the English-speaking people of the world.
Nowhere is the humanity that would educate every
child so universally spread as in the United States
of America. The Republic has lived by its intelli-
gence. and it is the common belief of all its citizens,
that it is to stand by its schools. In the beginning
of the century, Prussia began to educate all her chil-
dren. because she had discovered her weakness and
had to be made strong. All Germany followed her
example. When Austria was humbled in 1866 by
Prussia, she immediately proceeded to repair her
losses by the education of her people. Ever since
the .disasters of 1870, France has been drilling whole
battalions of schoolmasters that she may he able to
defend herself and hold her own. not only in the
military conflicts that may be before her, but in the
race of competition in the industries and the coin-
merce of the world. As soon as Italy was free, she
began to open schools. Even Russia is becoming
zealous on the subject of popular education and is
about to experiment in one of herdepartments with
the principle of compulsion; while, in the far East,
Japan is winning victories, both in peace and in
war, because years ago she borrowed a school system
partly from Britain and partly from the United
States And almostall these things have happened
during the Victorian Era! We may well say that
the latter half of the nineteenth century has


been the Era of the People's Education. By a liv-
ing author it has been said that no exact date can
be fixed for the birth of a new idea. When I look
back along the line of history it appears to me that
a grand evolution has been going on, and that the
modern idea that a good education is the birthright
of every child that comes into the world is after all
a very old one. It seems but one ofthe outcomes
of the redemption idea that burned in rapt
Isaiah's holy fire" and one of the manifested pur-
poses of Him, with whom a thousand years are as
one day and one day as a thousand years In our
own island we have caught the fire of the new (so
far as new) and blessed movement, and with ymur
help and that of others we may confidently look
forward to the attainment of the most precious re-
sults that have been elsewhere gathered.

AT the twenty-ninth meeting, held at the
Institute on the 27th of March, 1895, Mr.
John D'Aeth, M.I.C.E., read a paper on
"The Great Engineering Enterprises of the
Age," forming the fifth of a series dealing
with the Literary, Scientific, Social and
other developments of the -Victorian Era."
The Rev. Wim. Simms M.A., Chairman of
the Board, was in the chair, and the Secre-
tary was also present.
The following is an abstract of the
MR. D'AETH said that, in complying with the
request of the Governors of the Institute of Ja-
maica, that he should read before it a paper on the
subject of the Great Engineering Enterprises of
the Age, it was perhaps fitting that he should com-
mence with a definition of Civil Engineering. It
had been defined as the "Art of directing the
great sources of power in Nature to the use and
convenience of Man," and he proposed in what
must necessarily be but a rapid survey to describe
some of the prominent examples by which, in this
great Victorian Age, mankind had been the better
served and his conveniences had been the better
supplied by the works of the Engineer. He claimed
to be allowed to take a certain amount of liberty
with his subject, and, with the view of making it
more generally interesting, to deal not only with
works noted for their magnitude and for the bene-
fits arising from them. but to refer also to the pro-
cesses ant the methods which had made those
works possible, the credit of which was to be
given not alone to the engineer but to all his co-
workers in science and the arts The researches
of the chemist and the metallurgist had been of
the most vital importance to the engineer. As an
example of this he referred to the world-wide
effects produced by the labours of Dr. Percy, Sir
Henry Bessemer and Sir William Siemens, who
had given to us in cheap and reliable steel a mate-
rial which had brought about some of the most
marked changes and advances in all departments
of engineering practice. The labours and studies
of the geologist had had a very direct and impor-

tant bearing on the profession of the engineer, in
enabling him to enter upon his work in many di-
rections, mining, tunnelling, railway, and canal
.work, and especially water supply, with a confi,
dence, which, but for a knowledge of the soils
afforded him by these studies, might have been so
slender as to have prevented the inception of the
undertakings. In connection with this subject he
referred to a representation which he had made to
the Governors of this Institute some time ago
in which he brought before them what appeared
to him the very special and exceptional opportu-
nity afforded at that time and almost equally so at
the present time, of reviewing and extending the
work done thirty years ago by Sawkins in his geo-
logical survey of this Island. He was confident
that such a revision and extension were nt only
desirable for scientific purposes, but also a grow-
ing necessity for the practical purposes of water
supply in this island, two-thirds of which was on a
waterless limestone formation and subject at
intervals to droughts, attended with the most dis,
astrous consequences.
The paper was profusely illustrated with views
and photographs of the leading engineering works,
of the age, and diagrams were exhibited in ex-
planation of some of the subjects referred to in
it. A working model of the recently constructed
Tower Bridge was on the table, and specimens
of cable. There were also test pieces used by the
author in his experiments as to the reliability of
marl for use as a substitute for sand in the com-
position of cement concrete.
Before entering upon the immediate subject of his
address, a review was given of the condition of the
engineering world previous to the present reign.
This showed that, with few exceptions, engineering
works had been the product of little movie than the
last century. Previous to that date, London had
had the New River water supply, Vermuyden had
drained the Fens; Holland, France, Germany and
Russia too had made some progress in their canal
systems, and in 1761 the Duke of Bridgewater's
Canal was constructed. Forty years before this the
only stone lighthouse-the Tour de Corduan-had
been built on a flat rock off the mouth of the Garonne,
and in 1759 Smeaton erected his ever memorable
and enduring Eddystone lighthouse. a view of
which was shown. In 1776 Watt erected and sold
his first steam engine, and in 1783 Henry Cort, by
the invention of the puddling process, enabled
Great Britain to supply her wrought iron from her
own mines instead of, as formerly, having to import
from the continent. About that time the names
of Telford and Rennie came to the front and the age
of the engineer had fairly begun To the former
were due the Ellesmere, the Caledonian, the Bir-
mingham and Liverpool and other great canals,
the improvement-one might almost say the con-
struction-of the roads of the country, the harbours
at Wick. Peterhead and other seaports, and
numerous bridges, prominent among which are the
Menai and the Conway suspension bridges.
Rennie built many of -the canals in England
and Ireland and devised the draining of the Lin-
colnshire and Cambridgeshire Fens. London was
indebted to him for two of its finest bridges and
the world at large for the Bell Rock lighthouse.
The London and East India Docks and other
Naval Docks and the Plymouth Blackwatcr were
also among his works. In 180] Murdoch first lit


up the front of the Soho manufactory with gas;
in the same year, Trevethick used the first high
pressure locomotive, and Symington ran a steam-
boat in the Firth of Clyde.
In 1814 George Stephenson invented his loco-
motive for colliery use. The Stockton and Dar-
lington the first railway line, was opened in 1825,
but for some years was run mainly for the transport
of coal. The locomotive was as yet so much in dis-
favour that in their second prospectus in 1825 the
Manchester and Liverpool Railway Committee
pledged themselves not to require in their bill be-
fore Parliament any clause empowering its use.
But the greatest revolution which the world had
seen was at hand; that was the revolution of the
wheels of George Stephenson's engine the Roc-
ket" at the Rainhill trials in October of 1829, when,
in competition with three other engines, Ste-
phenson's showed its entire superiority and, to the
amazement of all spectators, travelled at the rate of
35 miles per hour. The Liverpool and Manchester
railway was opened in 1830, and its complete suc-
cess in every way led to the construction of rail-
way lines between the more important centres of
commerce at an early date. So at the commence-
ment of the present reign the Railway had taken
its place as the means of high speed locomotion,
and from that time up to the present its devel-
opment had been increasing; and it had, probably
more than any other invention of man, possibly ex-
cepting that of the printing press, influenced and
altered the destinies of the human race. On the
continent the construction of railways proceeded
with almost as much energy as in England, and, as
perhaps may be expected, they were at once
adopted to an enormous extent in the United
States, which to-day operates nearly half the mile-
age of the world. The chart which he had prepared
showed the mileage of railways in the different
countries. In Europe, Germany came first with
about 27,000 miles, Great Britain next with
about 22,000, while the United States showed the
enormous total of about 158,000 miles, a length
sufficient to reach more than halfway from the
earth to the moon. America had its four lines
of trans-continental railway connecting the east
with Washington Territory, Oregon and Cahfornia
on the west, and involving a journey of six or
seven days for the passage from the Atlantic to
the Pacific Coast; and, further north, Canada had
its Canadian Pacific Railway connecting Montreal
with Vancouver and Victoria. In Asia the rail-
way system was gradually being extended across
the barren steppes, and some considerable pro-
gress had been made in the direction of accom-
plishing the projected trans-Siberian railway. To
the south there were the great railways of our
Indian Empire, some of them in the plains, others
penetrating the heights of the north-west fron-
tier on the borders of Afghanistan and Beloochis-
tan. Africa had as yet participated but to a
small extent in railway work which has been con-
fined principally to Egypt and to the settled colo-
nies and countries near the Cape. In Australasia,
New South Wales and Victoria had taken the lead
in railway construction, and had built their lines
at a cost about that of our own extensions. 12,000
to 13,000 per mile. Queensland, South Aus-
tralia, and West Australia had also laid down
lines and the total length in the island continent
amounted to about 10,000 miles Nearly all the
other colonies of the Empire -New Zealand, Tas-

mania, Ceylon, Mauritius, British Guiana and the
more important of the West India Islands-had
also their lines built, and in some cases, as in our
own, in course of extension. The Victorian age then
might be looked on as specially the age of the
Railway, but the speaker considered that it might
be called with more certainty and accuracy the
age of the Steam Locomotive, for it would be
rash, in view of the enormous advances being
made in the application of electricity to motive
power, to predict that the steam locomotive would
always hold the place which if now had as the
iron horse. He mentioned that in the very
early days of the railway, and when Stephenson
was struggling to get the merits of his locomotive
system admitted, he found the principal rival to it
was the fixed engine and ropes. The locomotive
triumphed completely. Later on atmospheric sys-
tems were brought out. The sturdy old inventor
after carefully examining the appliances remarked
to a friend "It won't do, it's only the fixed en-
gine and ropes pver again in another form, and, to
tell you the truth I do not think the rope of wind
will answer as well as the rope of wire did." But
what would he have said of a rope of elec-
tricity ? The fixed engine and ropes had come back
to us for our cable cars and there were now tens of
thousands of miles of street tramways worked by the
" electric rope in America. These were, it was true,
examples of slow speed traction, but other
applications of the system, such as the Liver-
pool Overhead Railway, and the City and South
London Railway appeared to show that the steam
locomotive which came in with the Victorian age
might possibly not survive it, and that in conse-
quence the age might be identified with that of the
steam locomotive, while that of the railway
would certainly outlive it. Some brief notice was
then given of lines which were of more than ordinary
interest by reason either of their special construc-
tion or of exceptional works in connection with
them. The great Western Railway of England
would at once suggest itself on account of its gauge,
which Brunel decided on making 7 feet instead of
4 feet 8J inches. Brunel determined that the Great
Western should be a Giant's road, and that trav-
elling should be conducted on it at double speed,
and so he adopted the 7 foot gauge with longi-
tudinal sleepers. Only two or three years ago we
heard of the removal of the last of the Great
Western broad gauge, and in England and Scot-
land the use of the standard gauge is now almost
universal; but the opinion had been expressed that
in this matter, as in others, Brunel's ideas
were only ahead of his time, and that, were
the railway system to be inaugurated with the
knowledge which we now have of its necessities,
his gauge of 7 feet would be the one that would
be adopted. It succumbed from the fact that the
world was not ready for it and it could not wait
for the world. Brunel however was not content
that the Great Western line should end at Bristol,
he determined that it should do so at New York,
and accordingly be projected the transatlantic pas-
sage in the Sirius and the Great Western."
No doubt had he lived in somewhat later days
his ambition would have been to touch the Pacific.
The Canadian Pacific Railway, of which a chart was
exhibited, was then referred io. As a strategic rail,
way and in connection with the defences of the
Canadian Dominion and with our vast interests in
the East, its importance had already been recognized


and its usefulness tested in the despatch of troops
and sailors. The first goods train that passed
over its entire length from ocean to ocean was
loaded with Naval Stores belonging to the Im-
perial War Department, and it would be of interest
to know that the first car of ordinary merchan-
dise was a cargo of Jamaica sugar, refined at
Halifax and sent overland nearly 4.000 miles to
the Pacific terminus. The line was commenced
first by the Canadian Government hut was after-
wards handed over by them to the Canadian Paci-
fic Railway Co., who received, besides valuable
privileges, a subsidy of 25 million dollars and also 25
million acres of land, all of which was reported to
be fit for settlement. Another one of the great
mountain railways of the world was that known as
the Callao, Lima and Oroya railway, crossing the
Andes at an elevation of 15,000 feet above sea
level, only t60 feet lower than Mount Blanc.
The original scheme of an extension of the line to
the Amazon had to be abandoned on account of
want of funds. Perhaps one of the works in con-
nection with railways which was, at the time of
its execution looked on as the greatest feat of en-
gineering, was the Mont Cenis tunnel, connecting the
railways of Italy with those of France. Progress
by hand drilling was at first slow, but in 1861
Sommeiller brought out his machine for rock bor-
ing, utiliziug the water power of the streams in the
locality of the tunnel for compressing tne air to drive
it, and by this means the rate of progress was in-
creased to about three times its former amount, and
the tunnel--7 miles long-was completed in about
13 years. So accurate had been the alignment of the
work, that the two headings met near the centre of
the tunnel, with a difference of only a few inches
in the centre lines.
The St. Gothard Railway and tunnel were next de-
scribed. The line as a whole was one of the engineer-
ing marvels of the world, studded as it was from
beginning to end with important works of construc-
tion. The great tunnel itself was 91 miles long and
was carried at a level of about 4,000 feet above sea
level, and under a mountain range that rises 11,000
feet above it. In addition to this work, which took
but 94 years to complete, the line presented a unique
feature in the approaches to the tunnel. Twenty-four
miles or more than one-fifth of the whole line con-
sisted of tunnels, 65 in number, and on account of
the difficulties in the conformation of the country
recourse was had to spiral tunnels in the moun-
tains enclosing the valley, the railway entering the
side of the hill, winding up inside of it in cork-
screw fashion, and emerging again on the valley
at an increased elevation, again to enter the hill
side at a point further on and again to attain in-
side it a height which it was impossible to get by
any other means. There were in addition to the
tunnels lofty viaducts, bridges, shelter galleries
and other works which make the St. Gothard line
one of the most remarkable achievements of
modern engineering.
In the Metropolitan railway in London the
line was made to go for the most part below
the streets. Those who had seen the streets
of London laid open, and the almost endless
lines of sewers, gas and water mains thus ex-
posed to view, could form some slight idea of
the difficulty incurred in connection with these
alone. And whilst this difficulty presented itself
in the portion of lines below ;the streets, another
equally serious one was involved in underpinning

the buildings erected on other portions of the
route. In the City and South London railway
recently constructed, these difficulties were entirely
obviated by the simple expedient of running the
line in tunnel at such a great depth below the
surface, some 60 or 70 feet, that no sewers or other
obstructions were met with, nor was it found neces-
sary to underpin buildings that were passed under.
The line was worked by electricity and the venti-
lation difficulty, so pronounced in the Metropolitan
line, was in consequence entirely avoided.
The great tunnel of the age to connect the shores
of England and France had yet to be carried out. A
commencement had been made in the preliminary
borings on each side, which had augured well for
the success of the undertaking. The author
referred to the military objections to the work,
and ventured to express his personal opinion
that with the powerful means of destruction
open to us in dynamite and other high ex-
plosives, the country, so long as the navy had
command of the sea, would have, in powerful mines
laid by our vessels, a sure means of destruction of
the tunnel, should such a course ever become neces-
Closely connected with the subject of Railways
was that of Bridges. Eleven years before the
commencement of the present reign. Telford's two
suspension bridges, the one over the Conway and the
other over the Menai Straits, had been opened, and
the latter especially excited the the wonder of the
world from its unprecedented size; but the advent of
the railway, with its high speed and its heavv concen-
trated rolling loads demanded a stiffness and rigidity
of bridge construction which the suspension principle
could not afford. And, in one of the early railway
bridges, the High Level bridge at Newcastle. of
which a photograph was exhibited, we found
adopted the system of the bowstring, a cast iron
arch with wrought iron tie to take the thrust. The
appearance of the bridge from the valley below. con-
necting the almostprecipitous banks of Gateshead and
Newcastle was very fine, and must produce, even in
the mind of those who were unacquainted with
the feats of later day engineering, a very high
regard for the ability and the good taste of the
fathers of the art. Not many years after the erec-
tion of the High Level bridge, the genius of Robert
Stephenson, aided by the careful investigation of Sir
William (then Mr.) Fairbairn, on the strength of
beams of wrought iron, gave to the nation one of its
most imposing and unique structures, the Britannia
bridge over the Menai Straits carrying the London
and Holyhead railway. (A fine view of the bridge
was on the wall). The two central spans were each
of 460 feet, the land spans 260 feet, and the centre
tower built on a rock in the middle of the strait was
230 feet high. The land spans were built in position
on scaffolding, but the two centre ones were built on
shore floated into place between the piers and then
lifted bodily up to their final position. The floating of
these vast tubes in a tideway running at some 9 miles
an hour and their subsequent lifting by hydraulic
presses were among the most stirring incidents of
engineering operations. It was not generally known
that these gigantic tubes were at first intended to
act only as the stiffened flooring of what was to have
teen a suspension bridge. The experiments of Fair-
balrn convinced Stephenson that the tubes could be
made sufficiently strong to be self supporting, the
chains were dropped out of the design and the
wrought iron box girder was inaugurated.


The feature which prevented the general adop-
tion of the suspension bridge for railway traffic-its
flexibility and want of rigidity under heavy rolling
loads-had already been mentioned. There were,
however, one or two examples of suspension bridges
used for the purpose, the principal one being the
Niagara bridge not far above the Whirlpool Rapids.
In this structure the roadway (as in the High Level
bridge at Newcastle) was double, the two floors being
connected by a lattice framework,thus forming an open
box 800 feet long, suspended from the towers by four
cables each 10 inches in diameter. The greatest of
Suspension Bridges-that connecting New York and
Brooklyn and stretching over the East River with a
central span of 1595 feet at a height of 135 feet above
water level-was then described by the aid of an il-
lustration on the wall. The enormous roadway, 80
feet wide, accommodated two lines of cable cars,
two roadways for ordinary wheeled traffic, and a
raised footpath, and was suspended from four steel
cables each 16 inches in diameter. Reference was
then- made to the introduction of caissons by the
use of which, either open topped as adopted in
building our own bridges in Portland, or closed
as in the case of the Brooklyn and many other
bridges, depth can be obtained for foundations
which would be otherwise impossible. In the case
of the Hawke4bury railway bridge in New South
Wales foundations were put in by open caissons at
a depth of 175 feet below water level by dredges or
grabs working through that depth of water. In the
use of the closed or pneumatic caisson, which
was simply a huge open bottomed box with an enor-
mously strong roof, the caisson was floated to
the position for the pier and sunk on to an even
bed, the water was forced out under air pressure,
and the workmen entered and excavated the mate-
rial, the masonry of the pier being built on the top
of the caisson while the whole structure gradually
sank through the bed of the river; the air pressure
was increased, as increased depth was reached.
In Poetch's freezing process for foundations,
used when running sand was met with, the
soil was converted into a solid block of ice by means
of freezing pipes let into it, and the excavation was
then carried, on in solid ice rock. By the use of
this system, of which an illustration was given
shafts and piers had been sunk. which, attempted
by other methods, had proved a costly waste of time
and money.
Capt. Eads' Bridge over the Mississippi at St. LI uis
was unique in its construction and was one of the
boldest feats of its time. It consist of three steel
arches, a central one of 520 feel anl two side ones
each of 502 feet span, each arch composed of 4 double
ribs' of chromium steel. The ribs were built
outwards from the piers, stretching towards
each other and without any scaffolding beneath
them, supported, when the amount of overhang re-
quired it, from ties from temporary towers on the
piers and at length closed up and made slf-support-
ing by the insertion of the keystone tubes.
The type of bridge mainly adopted at the present
day was the open webbed trellis or lattice girder, of
which the Crumlin-viaduct, spanning the Ebbw val-
ley in South Wales, was one of the earliest and finest
examples, being a third of a mile long and 200 feet
above the valley itself. Some of the finest speci-
mens of bridge work, especially in the United States
and India. are of this useful but generally plain and

often very unsightly pattern. No one contrast-
ing the two bridges over the Catherine Hall river
near to Montego Bay, one the old stone arch struc-
ture of five spans and the other the modern rail-
way bridge, a gaunt skeleton of steel could fail to
be impressed with the fact, that the advance of
mechanical construction has in some cases been at
the expense of artistic effect. One of the latest de-
velopments of the lattice girder had been the
cantilever bridge, adapted especially for positions
wheie the span must be of great length, and where
scaffolding in the bed of the river would not be fea-
sible. Self-supporting and self-contained in its con-
struction, the cantilever bridge stretched over
space that must otherwise be unbridged. It would
be impossible to pass over without some notice the
largest bridge in the world, the stupendous structure
over the Forth, with its two spans each of 1710 feet
stretching over channels 200 feet deep, and its
towers each founded on four caissons 70 feet in
diameter and in some cases 90 feet under water, the
towers rising 350 feet in the air. The views which
were given and which showed the comparative size
of the Forth bridge, the Eiffel tower, and the May
Pen railway bridge would give some idea of the
vast size of the work and the method of building up
the superstructure. Alittle idea of the size might
be gained from the fact that to take in at one view
the whole of the bridge and approaches, one had to
view them from a distance of about a mile and a
half, and that the contract for painting the bridge,
skeleton as it was, involved the covering of 135 acres
of surface, quite a new standard of measurement of
painter's work.
Possibly none of the great works of the age
had had a more far reaching effect than the
successful laying of the Atlantic cable, the first of
our great ocean telegraph lines, originated by
Cyrus Field the American business man and Pro-
fessor William Thompson the distinguished man of
science. The laying of the first cable (of which a
small piece was shown) was attempted in 1857 by
two men-of-war. The attempt failed, but in the
following year another was made and was success.
ful, but after a few days working the cable was
silent. The breaking out of the American war
stopped further operations for a time, but by the
end of it the Leviathan of Brunel and Scott-Russell
-the Great Eastern-was afloat on the ocean and
ready for the work. The breakage of the cable in
mid ocean and the immediate resolve of Cyrus
Field to make another attempt-it is said that he
was writing out his new prospectus before the
broken end of th e cable had well settled on to the
ocean bed-these are matters of history. In the next
year on the 27th July 1866 another cable was suc-
cessfully laid and a fortnight afterwards the broken
ends of the 1865 cable were recovered and spliced.
Nine or ten cables now spanned the intervening
space, and it is stated that the cables of the world
total up to a length of one and a quarter million
Another of the striking features of our period
was the development of steam shipping by
which travel to distant parts was rendered swift,
safe and comfortable, attributable chiefly to the use
of the screw propeller and the compound engine, and
to the system of sub-division of the ship by means of
bulk heads into a number of separate compartments.
Mention was here made of one vessel of very special
construction, the Cleopatra, the ship which brought


to England the Egyptian obelisk called Cleo-
patra's Needle," and which :was built as a closed
cylinder round the obelisk as itlay on the beach at
Alexandria, and was then rolled into the sea, bal-
lasted in the lower portion, fitted with masts and
sails, and after an adventurous voyage reached the
Thames in safety.
In no instances perhaps had the mastery of man
over Nature been more clearly shown than in some
of the Harbour work that had been carried out.
Among others there were mentioned the breakwater
at Table Bay at the Cape of Good Hope, nearly
three-fourths of a mile l1ng, the breakwater at Co-
lombo 4.500 feet long sheltering 500 acres of har-
bour with a depth of 28 feet and upwards, and the
Manora breakwater at Kurrachee. The system
adopted in these works is that of depositing on a
base of rubble-stone immense blocks of concrete
weighing from 20 to 30 tons each, in some cases con-
nected with each other by tongues and grooves on
the adjacent faces.
One of the principal works undertaken for the
improvement of navigation was the removal of the
reefs at Hallett's Point or Hell Gate on the East
River entrance to New York, which formed a most
dangerous obstruction to navigation. A plan on
the wall showed the passage and the means taken
to remove the obstructions. Shafts were sunk in
the two principal rocks to a depth of about 35 feet
below water level and from the bottom of these
there extended galleries or passages intersected by
cross galleries as shewn leaving pillars from 10 to
15 feet thick. The pillars and roof were then drilled
with holes about 2 inches in diameter and charged
with explosives, the water was then let in and all
the charges simultaneously exploded. A view of the
effect of the explosion taken from a photograph
was exhibited.
The erection of lighthouses had called forth
some of the most scientific thought and skilled
workmanship. The towers of the Bell Rock;
the Wolf, the Dhu Heartach, the Bishop, the
New Eddystone and many others were examples of
perfect design and construction, and the optical ap-
paratus and lamps now in use cast over the sea a
flood of light which is in some cases many thousand
times that which in the earlier days of the century
was possible.
This result was attributable chiefly to two things,
-the improvement in the optical apparatus and the
use of mineral oil. It was stated that the result of
the adoption of new apparatus and mineral oil at
Plumb Point lighthouse was to give a light of sixtimes
the intensity of the old one at a cost for oil of about one
quarter of that formerly incurred. Illustrations of
the Wolf and of the new Eddystone lighthouses
were laid on the table as well as examples of the
carbons used in electric lamps for lighthouses.
The immense improvements to our great ports in
the way of quays, docks, dredging and river chan-
nels, such as are exemplified at Liverpool, South-
ampton, Glasgow, and London, and the construction
of the Amsterdam Ship Canal were briefly noticed,
and the author then went on to describe the Suez
Canal as the most important canal work of the age,
although by no means the greatest as an engineer-
ing work. The canal was 99 miles in length, stretch-
ing across the sandy wastes and through the lakes
between Port Said and Suez Since its construction,
its width and depth had been increased to meet the
increasing demand of traffic; the depth of water in the


Canal is 28 or 29 feet so that vessels of the largest
draught could use it. The corv6e or forced labour
system was largely made use of in its construction;
with this aid the canal which was estimated at four
millions was in 1869 completed at a cost of four
times that amount, in spite of which it has been as a
financial undertaking one of the greatest successes of
the times. The blind confidence which the French
people had in its founder the Great Frenchman,"
and which afterwards led to the Panama Canal
disaster, was illustrated by the following story.
At the time when a call was being made for
subscriptions for the Suez Canal project, a well
dressed man entered the office saying, I have
come to subscribe to the railway in the island of
Sweden." An official replied to him "It is not a
railway but a canal, not an island but an isthmus,
not in Sweden but in Suez." "It is all the same."
said the would be shareholder. "I have faith in
M. De Lesseps and I will subscribe."
Of the Panama Canal so well known to us, it was
stated that its cost, estimated at about 25 millions,
had more than doubled that amount, while the work
could not be considered to be one half completed.
Among great works of sanitary engineering the
greatest were those of the main drainage of Lon-
don, Paris and other large cities, and the water
works which gave to our cities a plentiful and un-
interrupted supply of wholesome water. New York
had a supply from Croton lake of about 125 gallons
per head per day. Chicago drew its water from an
intake four miles from the shore in Lake Michigan,
by means of a tunnel under the bed of the lake,
and Liverpool had its recently enlarged supply
from the Vyrnwy Lake which was artificially made
by throwing an immense dam across the river of
that name, and submerging a village to satisfy the
needs of a city.
To the labours of the sanitary engineer in these
and the thousands of similar although smaller works
in our towns and villages was to be attributed in the
greatest degree the increased health and comfort of
the civilized world, and the vastly diminished death-
rate which it now showed, as seen in the diagram on
the wall. The author expressed the hope that the day
was not far distant when it would be universally, as
it was now partially, recognized that questions of
sanitation form the domain of the sanitary engineer
far more than that of the physician to whom they
had too often been yielded.
In the transmission of power, the result obtained
at the Frankfort Electrical Exhibition, where :00
11. P. derived from the fall at Lauffen was trans-
mitted to the Exhibition grounds, a distance' of 108
miles, with a loss of only 25 per cent., was a preg-
nant instance of the capabilities of the later
day wonder, electricity. The development of this
power was shown in the final example mentioned
by the speaker of the direction of the sources
of power in Nature for the use and conven.
ience of e of man-the works of the Niagara Falls
Power Company. In this enterprise a quantity
of water, only about one-hundreth of that passing
over the fall-, was taken in above them and led by
means of a canal to turbines and then to a tunnel
discharging below the falls. The turbines already
fixed would give off 15,t0U0 H. P., and work direct
on to dynamos, the current from which would be
transmitted to factories in Buffalo 20 miles away
and to other cities, where it would be reproduced
as power for driving machinery.

M11'. 11:f.lE,.S MEETINGS.

In laying before his hearers in what must, he said,
necessarily be a' brief and sketchy review an account
of some of the great Engineering Enterprises of the
Victorian age, the age of the engineer, the author
stated that he recognized that many works of im-
portance had not been referred to, or only very
lightly touched on, the time at his disposal not per-
mitting of extended notice. And it might be re-
marked that no reference had been made to the de-
velopments of engineering art as applied to na-
val and military purposes. The general tendency
of engineering progress was towards civilization
and inter communication between communities and
nations. In other words it made directly for peace,
and it was questionable whether, even in those
branches of it dealing with armaments and defen-
sive operations, it did not after all tend indirectly in
the same direction. It might be of interest in con-
cluding, to enquire what were the great factors to
which the enormous advance in engineering prac-
tice was due. He thought there 'was little doubt as
to the reply. The non-material factors were educa-
tion and the increased knowledge of science The
material factors were wrought iron, steel and Port-
land cement as constructive agents, and dynamite
and other high explosives as destructive ones. The
safety with which these latter could be handled and
the power which they develop put into our hands
means of breaking down obstructions which were
formerly quite invincible. In wrought iron and
still more in steel, as made by the more recent
processes, we had cheap and reliable material but
for which many of the greatest works could never
have been undertaken, and the largest bridge span
would probably have been one-eighth of what is now
considered possible. With regard to the introduc-
tion of Portland Cement concrete there was hardly
any description of work which had not been ren-
dered safer, easier and more secure, through the use
of this material. No one could have failed to no-
tice the very extended use of it as a building mate-
rial in Jamaica since its adoption by Mr. Bell,
the Director of Public Works, in the railway exten-
sion to Ewarton-a point especially referred to by
Mr. Woods in his presidential address to the Insti-
tution of Civil Engineers in 1886. It might be of
interest and use to know that recent experiments con-
du ted by the author himself at Mandeville had shown
the great value of the marl of the white limestone as
a superior substitute for sand in the making of ce-
ment concrete, and had thus made that material
available in the large districts, where on account
of the absence of sand it was not formerly used.
The marl concrete was first adopted by him in the
arches of Mandeville Church, subsequently by the
Government in public buildings and by the Railway
Company in the construction of their tunnels and
other works, and it had uniformly given satisfaction.
Samples of the material, some of the f broken
test blocks, were on view on the table. But to
return to the use of the ordinary cement concrete,
the Island might justly take pride in its very early
adoption of it for important structural works on
the Railway Extensions of 1881. A view on the
wall showed one of the viadocts on the Ewarton
line with four arches, each of 50 feet span, which
was described last year in the "Engineering News,"
an American paper, as one of the largest, if not
the largest of the structures in cement concrete that
had then been erected. There were others each of five
spans on the same line, all designed by Mr. Bell.
At a later date the same newspaper described as an

interesting and successful experiment the construc-
tionin the United States of a concrete arch of only
about half the span of the Ewarton line arches, from
which it would appear that this little Island which
it was sometimes said was 50 years behind the
age might justly boast of an Engineering Enterprise
evidenced in works not only stated to be the largest
of their kind, but also very far in advance of any-
thing yet erected in that country, which claimed
(and perhaps justly so) to be the most progressive
in the world.

AT the thirtieth meeting held at the
Institute on the 17th April 1895, the lion.
Thomas Capper, B. A., read a paper on
"The Growth of Modern Sociology and
its present political applications" which
formed the sixth of a series dealing with
"The Literary, Scientific, Social and other
developments of the Victorian Era."
The Rev. Wm. Simms, Chairman of the
Board, was in the chair, and the Rev. Wm.
Gillies, a member of the Board, and the
Secretary of the Institute were also present.
There is no article on Sociology in the Encyclo-
poedia Britannica, but under the head of Ethnog-
raphy we find the following:-
Sociology narrates how men became grouped in
political communities, bow they constituted author-
ity and property, how they originated castes and
and guilds, and by degrees separated into high and
low, rich and poor. Of all the fields in ethnology
none is at present cultivated with more care and
intelligence than that which deals with the history
of society, and none perhaps with greater prospect
of fruitful results."
In the article on Auguste Comte, whom Prof.
Sidgwick calls the original and powerful thinker,
who must certainly be regarded as the founder of
the science o ef society (if there is such a science)", a'
tolerably full account is given of his conception of
Sociology as the crowning science of his hierarchy,
embracing and depending upon all the less general
sciences of Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Astronomy
and Mathematics. The modern conception of Soci-
ology may be said to have been non-existent before
Comte, though some of its branches, History, Poli-
tical Economy, etc., etc., had been the subjects of
more or less full and scientific study. But whilst,
Comte admitted the claims of all the inferior sciences
of his hierarchy above mentioned to be "effec-
tively established as sciences in the positive stage,"
his own criterion disposes absolutely even at this
later day of all pretensions to such. effective estab-
lishment on behalf of the science of which he is the
admitted founder. "When we find that recent
works, instead of being the result and development
of what has gone before, have a character as per-
sonal as that of their authors, and bring the most
fundamental ideas into question," then, he assures
us, we may be sure that we are not dealing with any
doctrine deserving the name of positive science. If
we accept this criterion, to again quote Professor
Henry iidgwick, it is easy to show that the social


science is not yet effectively constructed, since it is
certain that every writer on the subject does exactly
what is described in the above sentence. He starts
de novo and builds on his own foundation." The
modern science of Sociology, if it may indeed be so
called, is pronounced by Mr. Leslie Stephen to be
" a heap of vague empirical observation, too flimsy
to he useful." Mr. Benjamin Kidd says There is
at present no science of human society." That such
a science is possible however is shown by Herbert
Spencer who in his book on "The study of Soci-
ology points out in reply to Froude. Kingsley and
other critics that the "character of an aggregate de-
pends to a great extent upon the character of the
units composing it, and that if we know something
about the units we know something also negatively,
if not positively, about the aggregate made up
of these units." That is to say whilst circum-
stances may modify the characters of the aggregate
they can never give to it characters that do not con-
sist with the characters of the units. He concludes
therefore that there must be a social science ex-
pressing the relations between the properties of the
units and the properties of the aggregate with as
much definiteness as the natures of the phenomena
permit. He then points out with great force the
almost insuperable difficulties in the way of the col-
lection of accurate data for the establishment of the
science, arising from the personal prepossessions of
observers and the extreme complexity of the phe-
nomena observed, and rendering any generalizations
it is possible to form extremely hazardous and inade-
quate. Moreover the extremely complex concept.
tions resulting from generalizations from Sociologi-
cal data can only be grasped by trained faculties of
equal complexity; whilst the absence of such facul-
ties is not accompanied by any consciousness of in-
capacity. Deficiency in the required kind of mental
grasp is often accompanied by extreme confidence
of judgment on Sociological questions. This has
been fully exemplified in recent literature as I think
I shall be able to show. Spencer's final conclusion
is that very little is to be expected" in the way of
preparing men for the study of social science, and
that it is only the few to whom such a science is
conceivable who may to some extent be influ-
enced by what the writer has been saying regarding
the study of it."
It seems clear then that the growth of Sociology
has so far consisted merely in the collection of
materials for the establishment of a future science,
supposing that this prove to be in any degree
practicable. Even Spencer's larger work, the "Prin-
ciples of Sociology,' consists mainly of a collection of
great masses of Sociological phenomena, in the de-
duction from them of certain elementary general
principles, and in particular in the elaboration of an
analogy between the evolution of the individual
andthe evolution of Society. But although even
the foundations of anything like an exact science
cannot be said to have been laid, the constant dis-
cussion of social questions in the newspapers and re-
views, and the propaganda of the Socialists, chiefly on
the continent of Europe, has had a great effect upon
general politics. Professor Marshall points out that
in the modern view of economics as compared with
that which prevailed at the beginning of the cen-
tury there is a fundamental change in treatment:
modern economists realizing, as the earlier did not,
that man's character and efficiency are not to be re-
garded as a fixed quantity, but as a product of the

circumstances under which he has lived. This, he
says, has been partly due to the changes in human
nature during the last 50 years having been so rapid
as to force themselves on the attention, and partly
to the influence of individual writers, socialists and
others. The net result has been a general move-
ment of all civilized governments in the direction
of Socialism and Collectivism, and the great problem
of the day is whether this movement is to continue
until individualism is entirely extinguished and
society is framed on the model described in Mr.
Bellamy's "Looking Backward," or whether it is
to be, and will be, kept within strict limits to pass
which would be to throw back human development
indefinitely. So far undoubtedly the effect upon
public opinion and upon legislation and g government
of the discussion of socialist ideals has been to a
large extent beneficial; because governments have
not yet lost sight of the cardinal truth that the im-
provement of the social organism can only be
effected by a moral development, and never by any
changes in mere political mechanism, or any vio-
lences in the way of an artificial distribution of
wealth. A moral transformation must precede any
real advance. The aim both in public and private
life, should be to secure to the utmost possible extent
the victory of the social feeling over self-love, or At-
truism over Egoism. This is the key to the regenc-
ration of social existence, as it is the key to that
unity of individual life which makes all our energies
converge freely and without wasteful friction to-
wards a common end. What are the instruments
for securing the preponderance of Altruism ? Clea,-
ly they must work from the strongest element in
human nature, and this element is Feeling or the
Heart "
In spite, however, of the failure of Comte's
Religion of Humanity to secure more than an in-
finitesimal number of adherents, distinguished
though those adherents may individually be, there
can be no doubt that the sociological theories and
ideals which his Religion was designed to promote
have profoundly influenced not only socialistic spe-
culations, but the feelings and opinions of the civil-
ized world generally, and through them government
and legislation. Altruism the name given by
Comte to a principle enunciated 2,000 years ago
in the Sermon on the Mount and accepted 'ever
since in theory by the whole Christian world has
become during this century a more and more
prominent factor in social theories and action.
Voluntary associations of all kinds for the amelio-
ration of the condition of our fellow-creatures both
human and non-human, have sprung up one after
another. By the efforts and chiefly at the expense
of the section of Society which did not directly
profit by it, elementary education, which our fathers
would have considered much more than element'
tary, has been provided for the whole population;
and no subject more closely engages the attention
of some of the most active and powerful minds of
the day than how to make this education more and
more calculated not only to expand the mind and
refine, elevate and civilize the whole nature, but at
the same time to give that practical aptitude for the
work of life, that ability to turn all the powers, phy-
sical and mental, to the best advantage, that physi-
cal and mental alertnesss which will best and most
effectually promote the happiness and efficiency, not
only of the individual but of Society in general.
And besides this elementary training and instruc-
tion given to all, we have seen in the course of the


century the advantages of higher education thrown
open more and more freely to all who show them-
selves capable of benefiting by them. The benefits
of old foundations, long practically monopolized by
the upper class, have been made accessible to those
who start in life with the fewest advantages; and
new scholarships and aids of different kinds have
been introduced, so that a clever boy (I regret that
I cannot as yet, except to a very limited extent,
include girls) starting in the free elementary school,
may make his way without expense through high
schools and Universities to the highest places of
honour in the State. Coupled with this advance in
education and educational facilities the century has
seen an absolutely unprecedented increase in the
comfort of the class which lives by daily labour, an
increase which, until statistics are carefully studied,
we are all disposed to underrate. Everything of
course is comparative, and those whose attention
is chiefly directed, with the view of alleviating it,
to the misery and want which are inevitable in the
lowest strata of an industrial population, are apt to
think no condition of society could be worse, But
when we see it clearly demonstrated that with a
general rise in wages has gone an enormous reduc-
tion in the cost of the necessaries of existence we
realize what a stupendous increase in the happi-
ness of the greatest number" has taken place And
together with this process of levelling up,
the reverse process has also been going on. The
old prejudice against trade or work.of any kind is
fast dying out. On every side members of the old
aristocratic caste are entering into one form or
another of industrial or commercial enterprise.

Perhaps the most striking effect of the principle of
altruism is shown in the change since the beginning
of the century in the position of Women. The ex-
tent and rapidity of the change in public opinion
on this subject may best be gauged by the extraor-
dinary persistence of the old and exploded ideas of
the past in the face of the unanimous trend of the
advanced and enlightened opinion of the present
day. There are many still who think with Fielding
in his "Amelia" that a woman who knows Latin is
a sort of monstrosity who has gone out of her proper
sphere and divested herself of every feminine charm.
Less than thirty years ago when John Stuart Mill
published his great work on the Subjection of
Women" he could write It is but of yesterday that
women have either been qualified by literary ac-
complishments, or permitted by society to tell any-
thing to the general public. The social subordina-
tion of women stands out an isolated factin modern
social institutions, a solitary breach of what has be-
come their fundamental law (equality of opportu-
nity to all) a single relic of an old world of thought
and practice exploded in everything else." Mill's ar-
guments are by this ti-ne accepted by most thought-
ful persons as conclusive ; though all do not yet see
the absurdity of enactingor maintaining laws which
prevent women from filling positions which they
are naturally disqualified for, instead of leaving the
matter to be settled by the ordinary laws of compe-
tition, which will always exclude them from em-
ployments in which they are naturally inferior to
men ; and the obvious injustice of preventing them
from doing anything which they can do as well as
den. Freedom of individual choice is now known
to be the only thing which procures the adoption of
the best processes and throws each operation into
the hands of those who are best adapted for it. No-

body thinks it necessary to make a law that only a
strong-armed man shall be a blacksmith. Freedom
and competition suffice to make blacksmiths strong-
armed men, because the weak-armed can earn more
by engaging in occupations for which they are more
fit. Even if in the majority of cases there be a
well-grounded presumption that a certain class of
persons is not fit to do certain things. there will
be a minority of exceptional cases in which this pre-
sumption will net hold; and in these it is now ad-
mitted to be an injustice to individuals, and a detri-
ment to society, to place barriers in the way of their
using their own faculties for their own benefit or
that of others. In the cases, on the other hand, in
which the unfitness is real, the ordinary motives of
human conduct will on the whole suffice to prevent
the incompetent person from making or from per-
sisting in the attempt. In accordance with these
ideas we have seen during the past 30 years a
breaking down. one after another, of the artificial
barriers which have existed from time immemo-
rial in the way of women desiring to' engage in any
occupation other than household work or the lowest
form of manual labour. In many branches of edu-
cational and lite:'ary work women have so clearly
established their position that they are now in the
majority; and they have in de a distinct place for
themselves in politics, medicine and science As
might be expected, it is in the United States that
the greatest advance has been made, and it is in the
United States alone, that women have been allowed
to enter, and have to any extent entered the legal
profession. It is strange that anything should have
excluded women from public speaking of any kind,
for which they are certainly as well adapted as men.
A few figures will show the enormous strides which
have been made, almost all within the last few years,
so to speak, in the education of women and their
admission to the liberal professions.! To begin with
America-in 1889 women were admitted to 18 medi-
cal schools, 18 theological schools,i 6 law schools,
and 64 colleges, without counting the large colleges
exclusively for women such as Vassar, Wellesley,
Smith and Bryn Mawr. During 1892, 7 great Ameri-
can Universities opened their doors to women. The
great State Universities make no distinction what-
ever between men and women, and two important
endowed institutions, Cornell University and Boston
University, have,been co-educational since their foun-
dation. From the latest census reports 2,438 women
were practising medicine in the United States;
whilst no fewer than 24 States, including the largest
and most important, have admitted women to the
bar, and 120 women have been so admitted, 8 of
them to the Supreme Court.

In Great Britain the University of London is open
to women on precisely the same terms as men. One
sixth of the candidates for the degree of B.A and
one-seventh of those for the degree: B.Sc., last year
were women, and the percentage of passes for the
respective degrees were for women 76 and 58 as
against 59 and 48 for men. The Royal University
of Ireland has appointed two women on its Com-
mittee of Examination, both of whom lecture at
Alexandra College, one on French literature and
one on Physics. In the new Welsh University at
Radnor, women are to be on an 'absolute equality
with men, being eligible for all positions created
by the University and as members of any of the
bodies exercising authority under the Act con-
ferring the charter. The courses in 8 medical


schools are open to women and 259 women students
attend them. There are 114 women practising
medicine in the United Kindom, 45 of whom prac-
tice in London.
In Paris on Dec. 31, 1893, there were 34"3 women
students in the various faculties, of whom only 72
were French. 155 of these students were studying
medicine and only 3 law, but one student a Rou-
manian, took the degree of Doctor of Laws with
honours in 1890: another also took the same degree,
and was at once elected Professor of Laws in the
Iyc6e for young girls. In Russia a medical school
for women was opened from 1872 to 1881, at which
1,209 girls took the examinations and 959 were ad-
mitted as students. Of 24 doctors employed by the
City of St. Petersburg 15 are women,. who hold on
the average more consultations and pay more visits
to patients at their homes than the 9 men.
In all other European countries, except Spain and
Austria, women are admitted to the University
courses; and in Austria it is a foregone conclusion
that the restriction will be speedily removed. In
no European country are women admitted, as in the
United States, to practise at the bar.
In politics the influence and direct activity of
women has been steadily growing, and has received
an immense impulse from the foundation of the
Primrose League, as to which Mr. Stead says "no
other association has done so much to democratize
Society and to promote the enfranchisement of wo-
men." Of the last election to Parish Councils in
England and Wales, Mr. Heath says in the Contem-
porary Review that even in the partial returns he
had come across the number of women returned
was between 80 and 90; and a remarkable feature
of the election was that the women candidates in
most cases headed the polls; in one place, Dorking,
the woman candidate getting 63:9 votes as against
359 cast for the next candidate on the list." In the
daily press we constantly come across evidences of
the active part taken by women in modern public
life. The dependence of this movement on the ad-
vance of the altruistic principle will be sufficiently
apparent. As Mill has shown, the unnatural and in-
defensible subordination of women in social and
public life has been the result of the superiority of
men in physical force, a superiority which, having
the upper hand, they have taken care should
remain unimpaired; and which in fact is prac-
tically. as conspicuous now as it ever was. This
being so it is clear that any improvement in
the position of women must be effected by, or with
the voluntary concurrence of men, and this is the
way in which the movement has been, and is being,
now promoted. Nor will it, I believe, stop short
until all arbitrary and artificial restrictions on the
choice of employment, or the attainment of educa-
tion, culture and positions of usefulness or profit
are removed, and every human being irrespective of
sex, has absolute equality of opportunity.
The increasing influence of Altruism is also seen in
the immense strides made by Democracy since the
beginning of the century. In every country of Europe,
except Russia and Turkey, power has been trans-
ferred from an oligarchy or an autocracy to larger
and larger classes of the population, till now we
have practically universal suffrage over the whole
continent, excludifig the two countries named. This
transfer could never have taken place without the
consent and assistance of a considerable proportion

of the power-holding classes. Even in the case of
the French Revolution, there can be little doubt
that if the upper classes had held together and
acted with sagacity, not to say common prudence,
they might have maintained their position. As Mr.
Benjamin Kidd very truly bser tr moves in his well-
known book, "it is the release into our social life
of an immense and all pervading fund of altruistic
feeling which has provided the real motive force
behind the whole onward movement with which
our age is identified. All classes of Society have
become sensitive in a high degree to the sight of
suffering or wrong of any kind. The effect on the
power-holding classes is to take away their faith in
their own cause. With all the enormous latent
strength of their position these classes do not make,
and either consciously or unconsciously realize that
they cannot make any effective resistance to the
onward movement which is gradually uplifting the
people at their expense." These words are used by
Mr. Kidd with reference to England alone; but
there can be no doubt that in a less degree they
apply to all other European countries where the
same process has been going on. Had the power-
holding classes unitedly and determinedly made full
use of e r the natural strength of their position the ad-
vent of democracy might have been delayed for a
long time, perhaps indefinitely.
But whilstg the wave of altruistic feeling which
has been such a characteris-ic of our century, has
unquestionably been productive of immense good, it
has had, also, effects of a different, nay. in some
cases of an opposite character It sounds paradoxical
to say that the originating impulse of the movement
which finds its outward expression in the assassi-
nation of Czars and Presidents, in the throwing of
bombs into crowded theatres and public places and
in attempts to destroy human life on the largest
possible scale was altruistic, yet such is undoubtedly
the case. Socialism, is the theory of society which
holds that the present economic order, in which
industry is carried on by private competitive capital,
must, and ought to, pass away, and that the normal
economic order of the future will be one with col-
lective means of production and associated labour
working for the general good. This is the only car-
dinal and fundamental principle of sodialism, and is
wellillustrated by Mr. Bellamy's book, already re-
ferred to, in which, readers of it will remember, the
vast changes supposed to take place in the coming
century are entirely peaceful and orderly and with-
out any spoliation or confiscation.
All the other theories so often connected with
socialism and so important in relation to religion,
philosophy, marriage, &c., are non-essential. Ques-
tions of Method must also be distinguished from the
essential principle. There are of course forms as-
sumed by socialism which are antagonistic to all
civilization, in their aims as well as their methods.
*The typical Anarchist or Nihilist, as distinguished
from the criminal who adopts Anarchism and
.Nihilism as an excuse for the indulgence of his de-
praved instincts and desires, is a man or woman
driven to madness by the wrong and misery which
he sees, and which is nearly all he can see in the
world, or perhaps in some circumscribed portion of
it, and who thinks any means whatever justi-
fiable for the attainment of his end, the overturn-
Sing of the existing social order, bince any change
he thinks must be for the better. This is the most
striking and obvious of the forms assumed by dis-

.11.,ll i;. 1.'4" MEETINGS.

torted Altruism, but it is probably not nearly so
mischievous in its total effect as the morbid and
,excessive sensitiveness to accounts of suffering of
all kinds, even such as is indispensable from human
existence as we know it, and such as we cannot
Prof. Max Nordau, in a book on Degeneration"
which has lately had a great success in Germany
France, England and America, states that he finds
in the cultivated of the present generation, consi-
dered as a whole, as a result of the exhaustion pro-
duced by the constant intellectual excitement of
the last fifty years, a form of insanity, described by
specialists as "Degeneration ;" one form of which is
characterized by a maudlin and usually sterile lia-
bility to emotion, especially the emotion of pity."
Readers of the '" Spectator" will have noticed the
insistence of that journal for a good many years
back on the weakening of the moral fibre of Euro-
peans and particularly of the English. This is mani-
fested in innumerable ways, in the morbid sympathy
with notorious criminals, from murderers down-
wards, as shown by the strenuous efforts to mini-
mize their well-deserved punishment, in the immo-
derate andill-regulated sympathy (which within rea-
sonable bounds, and guided by discretion, is of
course laudable and beneficent) for the unemployed,
who for the most part are the unemployable ; in the
indiscriminate rehefproposed to be given to evicted
tenants. who in some cases, all will agree. are sim-

that degeneration and retrogression anticipated by
Mr. Kidd, the progressive amelioration of the con-
dition of the less fortunately placed members of the
human family now in progress, combined with a
gradual restriction of the power of individuals to
accumulate enormous wealth in their own hands,
will continue until the glaring contrasts of luxury
and misery have disappeared, and a reasonable
amount of ease and comfort, combined with the
possibility of the attainment of the highest moral,
spiritual and intellectual development of which his
nature is capable, will be placed within the reach
of every member of our race. The attainment of
such an ideal will at all events be admitted to be
an end well worth striving for.

AT the thirty-first meeting, held at the
Institute on Wednesday the 24th April, 1895,
the Rev. Win. Gillies was in the chair. The
Secretary was also present. r'he Rev. Wm.
Simms, Chairman of the Boanrd of Governors,
delivered an address on Jamaica in the Vic-
torian Era," the last of the series of papers
on the "Literary, scientific, social and other
developments of the Victorian Era."

ply incapable or dishonest; and in the ridiculous JAMAICA IN THE VICTORIAN ERA.
extremes to which the movement begun by Howard MR. SIMMS explained that he had at the eleventh
and Mrs. Fry for rendering more tolerable the hour undertaken to give an address in the place of
position of prisoners has in some instances, espe- the paper which Bishop Douet had found himself
cially in America, been carried, unable to read: and that therefore he had been
Of the books on sociological subjects published unable to devote that attention to the subject
within the last few years, two call for special notice, which it deserved and required.
Drummond's Ascent of Man," and Kidd's Social He had intended, as Chairman of the Board,
Evolution." Both apply theprinciple of Evolutionto briefly to sum up the subjects which had been
Sociology, and both have been widely circulated and treated by the various lecturers during the series of
read within England and America. Professor Drum- lectures of which this was the last, and would pro-
mond traces Altruism back to its first well- ceed to do so before entering upon the special sub-
nigh and imperceptible beginnings in the earliest ject for the evening.
and lowest forms of life, and shows how it has The first was Literature, and they were made
been as indispensable to the continuance of the aware of the great increase in the reading popula-
race as self-preservation to the life of the indivi- tion of the island, the progress of the daily press,
dual. Mr. Kidd in his in many respects interest- the expansion of the minds of the people by in-
ing and suggestive book, tries to establish a startling creased communication, the emancipation of woman
paradox. He considers that it would be possible and the rise of the lower orders. It had been
for men, guided by reason, to secure comfort and maintained that the tone of literature was more
happiness for all; but that this would result in altruistic than in any previous age of the world.
putting a stop to the struggle for existence which
is the only security for progress, and that a relapse The next lecture was on Science by Dr. Grabham
into barbarism" would inevitably ensue. What who had confined his attention to one branch. No
keeps the masses who work and suffer" in their doubt there was nothing in the scientific world
proper place and prevents them from sharing in the more interesting and important than Darwinism
"leisure and ease," the monopoly of which by the and the biological studies to which it led. It took
cultured few is essential to progress, is religion, the same place in Biology as the discovery of the.
The fact that religion has done and is still doing Copernican system did in Astronomy, or Sir Isaac
this proves, he seems to think, its reality and truth. Newton's in Mechanics. At the ;same time the
These are at all events the impressions left on the "fairy tales" of the discoveries in chemistry, elec.
minds of many after reading Mr. Kidd's book, and tricity and other scientific subjects, were almost
no doctrine could to a large proportion of them ap- equally interesting and in them all gigantic strides
pear more irreligious and revolting, or more con- have been reported.
trary to facts and experience. The altruistic doc- He was unfortunately unable to be present at
trines of the Christian religion are taking, in the Mr. Cundall's lecture on Art; but he lead the
present day, a far firmer hold of the guiding and di- reports in the papers and saw that Mr. Cundall
reacting minds of the human race than at any time treated, as every one who knew the subject must: the
since they were first proclaimed ; and we may trust influence of Ruskin's writings on art as being some-
that without any diminution, but rather with an in- thing the same as Darwin's in biological matters.
crease of social efficiency, and without any risk of It was not so much the value of what Ruskin said,


as the immense impulse it gave to interest in art, mean by the word, and I have here an interesting
and in dealing with art as a subject to interest the address delivered by Mr. Hicks of the Education
general community. Then he spoke of the growth Department to a Congress of Educators at the Ex-
and rise of the Pre-Raphaelite school and the start hibition at New Orleans: which enters into that
it gave to art education as applied to art industry ; question. Here the lecturer quoted from the ad-
and he also spoke of the leading painters, and, fol- dress, and then proceeded.
lowing in the same lines as in the lecture on litera- I have said that the country has progressed and
ture, of the enormous opportunities people had of I mentioned first politically. This is, of course, a
studying art in the illustrated journals, and how point on which very many will differ, but it re-
there was at least one good illustrated daily journal. mains when we take the question of representa-
What had been the luxury of a few was becoming tion in the old times, we must ask what repre-
the property of the whole community, sentative government means, representative gov-
When they came to the lecture on Education, ernment not in the middle ages but in the Vic-
that was a subject with which he was more directly torian Era. Tnere was a small minority, some
interested. Those who were present would remem- 1,600 or 1,700 of the people, who were represented
her how fully Mr. Gillies went through the progress and the large bulk of the country had no say in the
of elementary education. They heard what had government whatever; I consider therefore that at
taken place in Jamaica; and they heard what had a period in which the voters numbered pretty
been none abroad. nearly 40,000, the government has advanced from a
Then there was Mr. D'Aeth's lecture on Engi- period in which the Legislature represented so
neeringwhich seemed afairystory. At the beginning small a minority. Of course you are aware that,
of the Victorian era, railways were in their infancy, there are occasions when the elected members find
steamers were non-existent, and so little were they they cannot do this, and are our. of order when they
foreseen that no less a person than Lord Derby do that. and are apt to think they cannot do any-
ventured to state that he would eat the boiler of thing at all. But look over the whole period since
the first steamship that crossed the Atlantic: look- the beginning of the present constitution and see
ing again at bridges and telegraphs he had told the what has been done. For instance the greatest
same tale of rapid advance and progress. work done in Jamaica during the last twenty years
has been the building of the railway. That was
The previous week Mr. Capper closed the course entirely done by the elected members against the
by showing how, so far as it concerned the Empire opinion and vote of all the official members except
at large, Social Science, the uprising, he might say, one. And in fact in everything the elected mem-
of the oppressed classes and the classes which were bers have influenced very largely the course of
more backward or less fortunate in the world, had legislation. We should see where we started from,
gone on. and with regard to that let us look at the Assembly
Now they were to close by looking at the ques- in the year 1851 as described by themselves:-
tion of how the progress, so striking throughout the
whole British speaking world, had affected Jamaica, "The Assembly made an attempt to preserve
whether, they could say that Jamaica too had pro- public morality by expelling a member who had
gressed, or whether, as some people would tell received sums of money on account of roads which
them, it had not. he had not expended, and suspended certain others

Continuing Mr. Simms said: We know that
there are a considerable number of persons though
they are getting fewer, who will tell you that there
is no progress in Jamaica and I saw an article a
few years ago which summed up by describing it as
a very one-horse country. This is much the im-
pression that Mr. Froude formed about the island;
and generally speaking the people who come to
study us as interesting specimens find we are in a
very primitive state: It is only fair to remember
that a good many of ns here present have gone
through the process of landing in Jamaica for the
first time, and certainly when we have struggled
over that coal heap and jumped over a few gutters
in Harbour Street and been driven off the pave-
ment in a way that I have never seen in other
civilized countries by boxes in front of the stores,
one does begin to wonder how the word progress
can apply to a country where such things go on.
But progress is a relative word and before we can
see how far we have progressed, we have to enquire
and think what it is that we started from. We are
dealing with the Victorian Era, and there can be no
doubt that Jamaica has advanced as much as any
country. It started behind and it may be behind
now, but its advance has been practically as great
as any other country-whether it be looked at
politically, materially or socially, in the spread of
religious teachingorin education. When we speak
of progress we must make up our minds what we

for forty-eight hours for disturbing the dignity of
the house by a fracas in which glasses, books and
inkstands were used as missiles. It also appointed
a committee to report on the condition of the place
in which it held its sittings and thus secured an
official statement that the furniture was in a very
dilapidated condition not only endangering the
raiment of honourable members but their limbs :
that the walls of the Assembly-room were stained
and dirty and like Joseph's coat of many colours;
that from lamps and chandeliers, oil and candle-
grease fell on the heads of tue assembled legislators,
and that in the retiring room, the only place of es-
cape from uninteresting speeches, there was no
chair, but a large collection of old bottles, inkjars
and oilcans." Some people may regret and others
rejoice that we are now to spend 100,000 on build-
ing amongst other things a legislative chamber,
but at any rate the room at present used is better
than that. Nor do we hear of ink bottles being
thrown, or members expelled for receiving public
money and not expending it. That was the state
of things at the beginning of the Victorian Era.
The increase in the number of electors has in-
creased the general interest in national and poli-
tical questions.
Mr. Hicks gives an unexaggerated account of the
condition of the people at the beginning of our
period: let us look at it now and mark the material


We have roads as good as they are anywhere
in the world and better than in most countries, the
railway, improved houses, improved clothing-I am
speaking of the peasantry and not of the upper
classes; in place of the wattled huts which fell
to pieces in a day or two, you see good houses;
the clothing and food used by the peasant class
are much more varied even since I came to
Jamaica; a reading class is growing up amongst us,
and the increase in the sale of books in this island
has been something one may fairly say phenomenal
in the last ten or twenty years. We find new
wants springing up; and civilization and progress
start from new wants. A person who wants
nothing is a savage As soon as the new wants
arise, the want for better clothing and houses for
example, the people labour to obtain what they
want-and we must rememberthat the material im-
provement made in any country is made by the
labour of the people.
By this labour we improve and progress. The
bridges have been produced by the labour of the
people; markets, hospitals, the telegraph, and water-
works all have sprung up, and all have been pro-
duced by the labour of the people of Jamaica and
by nothing else. Foreign capital, foreign enter-
prise and leadership and help have been most
valuable in guiding, but the labour of the people of
Jamaica has paid for it.
With regard to the improved houses of the pea-
sant class they are not so noticeable around King-
ston as in the parish I lived in when I first came to
Jamaica, St. Elizabeth. The number of good
decent four, five, and six roomed houses built by
people of the yeoman class, as they would be called
in England, has very much increased. The houses
are well kept and neatly painted and have pretty gar-
dens. And their good repair and good order is an
important indication of the civilization of the peo-
ple who live in them. With regard to social pro-
gress let us refer to a report of the committee of
the Legislative Council in 1828, nine years before
the beginning of the Victorian Era. Let us see
what was in the opinion of the Legislative Council
the condition of the country socially. Your Com-
mittee appointed to inquire into the establishment
and proceedings of the sectarians in this Island
report that they have taken the examinations of
sundry persons whose examinations are annexed
and find that the principal object of the mis-
sionaries in this Island is to extort money from their
congregations by every possible pretext, to obtain
which recourse has been had to the most indecent
expedients. That in order to further this object
and to gain an ascendancy over the negro mind,
they inculcate the doctrines of equality and the
rights of man. They preach and teach sedition
even from the pulpit and by misrepresentation and
falsehood, endeavour to cast odium upon all the
public authorities of the Island, not even excepting
the representative of majesty itself. That the con-
sequences had been abject poverty, loss of comfort
and discontent among the slaves, and deterioration
of property to the masters. Your Committee therefore
feel themselves bound toreport that theinterference
of the missionaries between the master and the slave
is dangerous and incompatible with the political
state of society in this island and recommend to the
house to adopt the most positive and exemplary
enactments to restrain them." Whether the report
is to be looked upon as exaggerated, and therefore

reflecting on the Committee that prepared it, or as
not exaggerated and reflecting upon the peasantry
and their spiritual advisers, equally it shows a state
of things socially from which we have improved;
I think we may fairly take credit that the difficult
question of the living together and the approxima-
tion of the black and white races, a question which
has caused difficulties in many countries of the
world, has advanced nearer solution in Jamaica than
anywhere else. I have heard and read a good deal
and have spoken to people from different countries,
and whether we look at the other West Indian
Islands or the United States or other parts of the
world where the two peoples live together, I do
believe, whatever difficulties there may be still-
and there are many-that Jamaica has reached
nearer to a solution of the question than any other
country. If you look at education the start was
from zero and in the last census we find there were
177,000 people in the island that could read and
write, a very much larger proportion than there is
even now in the more advanced states of the south
in the United States. We have only to look at the
history of the last few years to see advance all
along the line. Go back to the time when the
different church bodies started in a humble way-it
was all they could do, but they did start, and the
credit belongs to them-to give elementary educa-
tion. Then the Government took it. up and after
reaching a considerable amount of success pro-
ceeded to take up higher education, to found the
Island Scholarship, to give a subvention to the High
School, &c. Then within the last year or two, the
Education Law has added very largely to'the num-
ber of children at school, to the value of teaching
in the schools, and to the number of schools. In
the present session we have the beginning of what
I hope will be a great and important movement, in
the passing of a vote for the formation of a secon-
dary school at Montego Bay. There has been ad-
vance all along the line. Again the Board of
Education is feeling its way, and doing something
for Techical Education. It is a very difficult ques-
tion and one that means money. The town of
Sheffield found itself unable to give the Technical
Education it wanted for want of means, and what
the town of Sheffield that was willing to spend
200,000, 300,000 or 400,000 a year on Educa-
tion could not do, the Government of this Island
will find great difficulty in attempting. We have
seen growing up schoolhouses, teachers' houses,
churches-every few weeks we read of some church
being built or repaired. Every year the education
report has to tell us of the growth of the schools, the
creation of new schools, all built by the people.
The clergy are maintained by the people of this
Island, directly; the teachers are indirectly main-
tained being paid out of the taxes, which
come from the labour of the people. Surely then
the country which finds itself able to meet the re-
quirements of civilization as far as Jamaica does,
must be considered on the whole a progressive one,
and the results, the products of the labour of the
people, show that the pessimists have gone a great
deal too far in their remarks about the laziness of
the people and their want of progressive advance.
The Savings Bank is another mark, not only that the
people of the island are making money but of the
growth of what is a most important part of national
character, thrift. Nearly all the enterprising nations
of the world are thrifty nations and a most impor-
tant matter of character, apart f;om the material


value of having the money in the bank, is the thrift
that put it there. Then again, whilst it is impossi-
ble to shut one's eyes to blots on the moral and
religious progress of the island, it remains that
nearly all the competent observers that I have
talked to about it, agree in saying that there is a
gradual and slow rise of a class of decent yeomen.
If that is correct, and as I say the evidence I have
got is unanimous about it, it is perhaps the most
promising feature in the progress of this country.
These people will act as a leaven in their own class.
They set an example of intelligence, enterprise,
thrift, a decent standard of life, to the people in
their neighbourhood.
Another important matter in dealing with the
civilization of the country and its progress is the
newspapers of the country. In this matter I think
we are apt to be led astray by comparing our Ja-
maica newspapers, with the Times and the leading
London or provincial papers in England. Of course
no paper here has the staff, the money and re-
sources or anything of the sort to compete with
papers like those, but when you compare them not
with papers like the great London journals, or like
the Licerpool Post the Manchester Guardian or the
Leeds Mercury. which are practically not provincial
lint Impera erial papers, but with the ordinary English
country papers produced with the same sort of re-
sources and in the same way, I think anu4 I men-
tion this paper simply for the reason that it is the
one I take regularly-that a paper like the
Gleaner compares very favourably indeed with the
average English county or small town paper.
I have not had time in a very busy ten days, ten o
get up this address in the way I should have done
if I had undertaken of my own accord to give a
lecture on the subject, nor have 1 had time to look
up authorities, but have merely been able to read a
few books of my own and to think over what I have
seen myself. I have been here somewhat more than
twenty years. no very long time, but far the larger
part of my own period of mature life and work in
the world, and the progress during the time has
been enormous. I remember when I came to begin
with that even the jumping over the gutters was
worse than it is now, though it is still capable of
improvement. On landing I went to St. Elizabeth
and people said, You are going by railway; you
had better go by buggy. You are sure to spend
some time in the swamp." They might have been
trying to alarm a traveller, but as a matter of fact
the engine did go off the line. Then some half a
dozen men with wooden poles tried to put it on again
without much success. We did however reach Old
Harbour which was as far as you could go then.
We got Into a buggy, and the buggy broke down.
I don't think this was an unusual way of travelling
in Jamaica. As to communication at the outports,
two or three ships came in crop time so as to sailbefore
the hurricane season and you had to obtain all
you wanted then. There was no steamer com-
ing two or three times a week from England or
America. You had to look out for six months be-
forehand and make up your mind what you wanted.
Here again, communication is a most important
part of progress, and progress in this respect has
been enormous. I seem to see improvement in
every matter during the time I have been here, im-
provement in production and in means of produc-
tion (it may be backward enough still but it is far
better than it was) in the means of communication,

in the housing of the people, in the food of the
people, in the education of the people, in their
interest in reading. Under these circumstances it is a
little difficult to be even patient with the extreme
pessimists who say that a country that according to
its own Legislature was on the verge of ruin in 1849,
and which not only has advanced, but has the man-
hood, the means and the intelligence to improve its
defects and correct them, is not progressing. Trade
may be bad here as it is all over the world I dare
say you know that political economists reckon that
there are three years of bad trade and one year of
collapse out of every ten in England and America.
We cannot hope to be exempt from similar
variations, but a temporary fall of the tide does not
mean that the sea is disappearing, and a temporary
fall in trade does not mean that it is going. Of
course the present price of sugar is a very startling
difficulty, but the people are getting over it as other
progressive countries get over the difficulties that
overtake them. For my part when anyone tells
me. as I have been told within the last year by an
intelligent person, that Jamaica is going backwards,
I can only say, if it is going backwards. I don't
know what going backwards means, and I would
rather go backwards than go in the direction that
some people call progress. If the changes we have
considered are not progress, I don't know what pro-
gresss means.


Mr. J. J. BOWREY said his experience of Jamaica
was nearly 25 years and he was able to say that it
was not only in Kingston that there had been a
very great advance and progress. About seven
years ago there were a number of meetings in the
island in connection with the Jubilee of Emancipa-
tion and he had the privilege of hearing some gen-
tlemen and also some of, the peasantry, whose
memory went back 40 or 50 years, speak. To hear
them tell what was the condition of things then
showed that progress had been enormous. He had'
been much struck with one thing, that the real
start was not, he thought, from slavery; the really
great start forward had only been something like 20
or 25 years ago from about the time when those
who had actually been slaves and slave-owners left
the scene. So long as they were present, the in-
fluence of slavery was still present. About 22 years
ago, a friend of his. an engineer was called to an
estate where something was wrong and the ma-
chinery would not work. He came in a few days
bringing some very heavy machinery to be repaired
in Kingston. He (Mr. Bowrey) asked why can't
that be done on the estate ?" and the reply was :
"It could have been done but for a very foolish
prejudice" The engineer had found a black black-
smith, one of the yeoman class owning his own little
place and making about 60 a year off his piece of
land and of whom his opinion was that in all Scot-
land he had never found a better blacksmith. He
called him in and found he could do what was
necessary but he wanted 4s. a day. As soon as the
attorney heard what was being paid he sent orders
to stop the work and bring the machinery to King-
Sston with the remark "no man can be paid more
than Is. 6d a day on my estate." Just when he came
to the island an attempt was made to establish a
College in spanish Town; but it was before its day.
Now they had a University College at Hope that
was doing good work and he hoped it would have


more students. As to reading, that had increased
enormously. He was associated with the Rev. Mr.
Gardner in starting a little book depot at a time
when there were two, or at most three book shops
in Kingston, and out of it there was a little place in
Falmouth and another in Montego Bay where tracts
could be obtained. They had nine colporteurs at
work and 900 worth of books were sold in one
year. But that came to an end, for the increase in
reading had made it practicable for shop-keepers to
carry on the business, without putting on 100 or 150
per cent. on the price of books. In connection
with educational matters he noticed the Jamaicans
seemed to have more difficulty in catching hold of
scientific ideas than anything else. They were
quite unfamiliar with the very words used in science
and he did not see the use being made of science
either in agriculture or sugar-boiling operations he
would like to see. Of course improvements in
agriculture could only be carried out in a scientific
manner and on a large scale and the estates here
were not on a large scale, this being one of the chief
reasons probably for the little advance. The tools
used in agriculture were very primitive. Some
eight years ago it was an easy thing to find the
pickaxe being used in the mountains instead of the
hoe; but those people would not use them on the
level. People at home spoke of ploughing the land,
here they spoke of pickaxing it. Manures ought to
be used much more freely. The understanding of
manures had advanced enormously in Europe and
America but very little had been done in Jamaica
yet. One reason might be the enormous difference
in climate and soil; there were here all climates
except very cold, and all kinds of soils. He tho-
roughly coincided with what the Chairman said
about the people having advanced.
The Rev. J. BALFOUR, M.A., said the subject was
so fertile he hardly knew where to begin. With re-
gard to the improvement in the dwellings of the
people, he was in the Dry Harbour Mountains a few
weeks ago in what one might call the backlands of
Jamaica and if he had been a stranger and not
known the geography of the place he would have
imagined he was on the outskirts of some large city,
because the houses were really as good as the resi-
dences of city gentlemen. He certainly would
never have believed they were the houses of pea-
sants if he had not known it. He did not think he
had ever come across a class of people in the same
condition of life, who were in better circumstances,
With regard to agriculture, he was not long ago at
a meeting of farmers in the country and spoke on
the subject. He was surprised to see the way in
which they took it up. They felt they did not know
everything and were aware of their ignorance.
What they wanted was instruction and several
came to him to ask how to get it. They could now
speak about the awakening of Jamaica. The coun-
try had awakened.
Rev. WM. GILLIES said he had been longer
connected with Jamaica than any person present.
When he arrived, the railway only went as far as
Spanish Town, and people going to the north-
side invariably took a buggy from Kingston.
The other day he went with some American gentle.
men to the northside and he had recalled to him
through enquiries as to the progress of Jamaica his
first trip. The road then was narrow and very
rough, the ruts deep, and if another buggy were
coming down the buggy going up had to find a place

somewhere and pull in to the side. The roads had
been expanded ever since he came to the island,
until now they were as good as any in the world.
Over the steepest hills there were good roads or
good bridle paths in all cases, such as were never
seen in America except between New York and
Albapy. He had travelled American roads in 14 or
15 States, and the Jamaica roads were much superior.
He was glad Mr. Bowrey had mentioned the pick-
axes; they wanted to introduce them a good deal
more, and the pickaxe would be the best fertilizer
they could use. They wanted an instrument that
would disintegrate the soil and expose it to the air,
and a million pickaxes sent into the soil of Jamaica
would do more good than any amount of fertilizers.
One thing which had not been referred to was the
new industries-one of the most hopeful signs. IHe
did not refer simply to banana cultivation which
had proved so great a success during the past fifteen
years. This meant improvement in every thing
and there was a yeoman class springing up which
would be to its credit as well as add to its strength.
In all possible ways in which we had looked at the
development of Jamaica, politically, socially, com-
mercially there had been improvement And progress.
Mr. Gillies then went on to speak of books and said
that in 1889 he went to Mr. Batten, the Collector
General, to get some information. In the year
1837, when the Queen ascended the throne the
value of the books imported into the island was
about 2,117. Last year, the value was over 20,000
-a most surprising progress. The civil service and
the professions were being rapidly filled with Ja-
maicans and if emancipation had come 50 or 100
years sooner, Jamaica would now be as far advanced
as other places.
Mr. SIMMS closed the debate in a few words and
the members dispersed.

AT the thirty-second meeting, held at the
Institute on the 19th of June, 1895, Mr.
J. E. Duerden, read a paper entitled Notes
on the Marine Zoology of Kingston Har.
bour," which will be found printed further
The Rev Wm. Simms, M.A., Chairman of
the Board, was in the Chair. The Rev. Win.
Gillies and Mr. H. Vendryes, members of
the Board, were also present.

AT the thirty-third meeting, held at the
Institute on the 19th of February, 1896, the
Hon. Wm. Fawcett, B.Sc., F.L.S., read -'Notes
on the Structure of Trees." 'The Rev. Winm.
Gillies, a member of the Board, was in the
Chair, and the Secretary of the Institute was
also present.
The structure of the root of a seedling tree was
first explained. Sections made across the young
root, as well as longitudinally, showed when thrown
on the lantern screen, a central portion distinct from


an outer part. Thetip of the root however is composed and may be
of cells which are all alike, and it is covered with a ducting bun
protective sheath of cells, called the root-cap. As from the lea
the cells near the tip increase in number, and grow cambium cy
in size, the tip is pushed through the soil. The it contains
outer cells of the root-cap are damaged and die arts, it may
away. and new cells are constantly being formed at of the bund
the tip, both to increase the root, and to provide These two
new cells for the sheath. ing through
The outer cells of young rootlets absorb food from and protect
the soil. In order to increase the absorbing surface, more easy b
root-hairs grow out from these cells. They attach and so savin
themselves to particles of soil, and by means of an wood gives
acid which they exnde, dissolve mineral food for the flexibility ar
plant, and absorb it in solution. As the wo
The outer absorbing cells of the young rootlets come more
pass on the dissolved mineral food and water to the doctors of f
conducting portion of the root in the centre, in The hard
which there are several fine threads arranged at than one tw
equal distances round the central pith. Theqe an inch long
threads are alternately different, and are made up long in Ram
in great part of tubular cells. has been esa
One kind of these threads has tubular cells with but they ha
are far more
woody cell-walls, beautifully marked with spiral are ar more
thickening or small pits. These tubular cells are ect to brea
accompanied by numerous wood-cells, and conduct The arran
water in which the mineral substances are dissolved, in a twig or
np the root to the stem. pecially in r
The other kind of thread has also tabular cells, for instance,
but their walls are thin and soft, and full of sap a consider of t
which has come down from the stem. recton of
side are fore
As the growing and absorbing portions of roots are compares
are confined to the younger portions near the tips not affected
of the rootlets one condition of a rational method strengthening
of cultivation is to preserve and increase the num- cumference
her of root-tips. bending fo
In the stem thereis the same distinction between two strength
threads of cells which conduct water and mineral stem conne
food upwards from the roots, and those which carry through the
sap downwards. the youngest
endless vari
Carbonic acid is absorbed by leaves, and chemi- methods use
cally united with the food from the roots. Thiscan also be t
food-material passes from the leaves to whatever tresses throne
part of the plant is growing, and in need of struc-
tural matter.
The two kinds of conducting cells are united T
together, forming the veins of leaves, and a great AT the
part of the trunks of trees. Institute,
Besides cells which are actually engaged in con- Grabbami
ducting substances, there are also other cells added and Vriab
to the bundles in order to give the necessary firm- Va
ness and elasticity, so that these conducting bundles a member
are only composed to a small extent of cells which and the S
actually transport food-material. present :-
When a young branch of an ordinary tree is cut YBR
across, the vertical conducting bundles are seen to
form a ring round the central pith, and between Dr. Grabl
them horizontal cells run outwards.like rays from' the imports
the pith, forming the pith-rays. animal and
The two portions of the bundles are distinct not current id
only in the work which they have to do but also in Darwin's tl
the form of their cells. They are also divided from was essenti
one another by a layer of growing cells which is ganisms v
called the cambium. variation b
That portion which conducts water and minerals struggle fo
from the roots is mostly woody it is situated on the dispute as t
inner side of the cylinder of cambinm in most trees, Plants in

called the wood-portion" of the con-
idle. The portion which transports food
lives is situated on the outer side of the
linder forming part of the bark, and as
in it the fibres which are so useful in the
be distinguished am the "fibre-portion"
kinds of conducting apparatus, pass-
many feet of stem must be strengthened
ed in their position, and this is rendered
y their being combined into one bundle
Ig, as it were, building materials. The
a firm support, while the fibre affords
nd elasticity.
'od-cells and fibres grow older, they be-
important mechanically, than as con-
fibre cells which usually are not more
entieth of an inch long, are more than
in Flax, and are from 5 to 10 inches
ie. The bearing capacity of these cells
imated as equal to that of wrought iron,
ve this advantage over iron, that they
extensible and consequently less sub-
gement of the strengthening materials
stern is of the greatest importance, es-
esistance to bending A Cocoa-nut palm,
has a large head on which wind exerts
le force, and the palm is bentin the di-
he wind. The cells on the windward
ibly lengthened, those on the other side
sed, whilst the cells in the centre are
I. It is evident therefore that the
ig strands, must be applied near the cir-
flattened against the direction of the
rce. In fact the arrangement of
lening strands on opposite sides of the
tcted together by the cells passing
centre, is that of a girder." From
t twig to the oldest trunk there is an
ety of combinations of girders. Other
d by architects to strengthen buildings
raced in stem structures. e g., the but-
n out by many trees.

thirty-fourth meeting held at the
on the 26th February, 1896, Dr.
read a paper on Hybridization
ility." The Rev. William Gillies,
of the Board was in the ('hair :
secretary of the Institute was also

ham set out by making mention of
nt bearing which variations in the
vegetable kingdoms had on some
eas of heredity and evolution.
leory of the survival of the fittest
ally founded on the fact that all or-
ary-those possessing advantageous
being most likely to succeed in the
r existence. There was still much
o the immediate causes' of variation.
their wild state vary considerably.


Botanists were frequently puzzled in classifying
specimens not knowing whether to regard them
as distinct species or as varieties. DeCandolle's
careful researches on the variation of the English
oak were quoted. Instances were also given of
variation in the Turkey weed (Tribulus Cys-
toides) and Vernoma arborea, both common
West Indian plants ; as many as seven varieties
of the latter had been described. The beauty
of this plant and its tendency to vary should
recommend it to horticulturists, there being no
reason why it should not rival its nearer relative
the Cineraria. Variations are also frequent in
ferns, mosses, seaweeds and eten in bacteria.
Prof. Hansen, of Copenhagen, had shown that
the minute fungus of yeast varied very greatly.
Cultivated flowers, fruit and vegetables pre-
sented innumerable variations. The study of
the origin and improvement of our cultivated
plants is one of the most fascinating in horticul-
ture and of vast economical importance. It
might be interesting to review the methods
usually employed by the horticulturist in obtain-
ing varieties. Hitherto little or nothing had
been done in this direction in the tropics: we
are still dealing with the original wild species
without paying any regard to their improvement,
but there is little doubt that the gradual diffus-
ion and appreciation of scientific methods in
horticulture, of which we are just now becom-
ing sensible, will result in bringing many of our
esteemed vegetable products to a high state of
perfection. Rapidity of growth and speedy re-
sults alone, to say nothing of the wonderful self-
fertilizing properties of the soil, are eminently
in favour of this advancement.
Seed variation was first dealt with. No two
seedling plants are exactly alike. By continuous
selection of seedlings presenting desirable quali-
ties many garden flowers had been improved-
such as the dahlia, carnation and hyacinths, and
such vegetables as peas, beans and cabbages.
The difference in sucrose content of sugar cane
seedlings was a point of great interest. It had
been found that canes raised from seeds differed
much in the amount of sugar they contained,
some yielding an unusually high percentage.
Mr. Sutton's well-known experiments in potato
culture were next described. Secondly, varia-
tions may be obtained by watching for bud
variations or sports; it sometimes happen that
one or more isolated branches of the same plant
produce flowers and fruit which differ in some
noticeable respect from those borne by the rest
of the plant. This is frequently the case with
the mango, nectarine and peach, hibiscus, and
croton. Systematic search might be advantage-
ously undertaken for bud variations in such
plants as the coffee, nutmeg, orange, cocoa.
Thirdly, graft variations were sometimes but
very rarely produced. The stock had generally
little or no perceptible influence on the scion.
The qualities of the potato had been altered by
grafting the tubers together. The colours of
hyacinths had also been modified in this way.
Details of the processes in each case had been

described in the Gardener's Chronicle from time
to time. Fourthly, Hybridization or Crossing
was frequently resorted to in order to combine
suitable qualities. Crosses were difficult to pro-
pagate as they often produce no seed. Roses,
petunias, verbenas, fuchsias and orchids were
plants that had been much experimented on.
Grapes of different kinds had been much crossed
and improved. The crossing of Cannas was then
described in detail. The anther could be easily
removed before the flower opened and pollen
from another flower placed on the stigma by the
aid of a camel-hair brush. The pollen was
usually carried from one flower to another by
insects or humming birds, random crosses being
obtained in this way. The mechanisms of the
more complex flowers of Aristolochia and Malva
were briefly noticed and also some peculiarities
in pollen grains which facilitate their transport.
Variation in the Animal Kingdom had been
studied carefully. Among invertebrates, land
shells, moths and butterflies presented innumer-
able differences which sometimes made it very
difficult to name specimens. Prof. Milne
Edward had made special researches on the.
variation of the wall lizard; and wild birds had
been similarly studied by other naturalists.
Among domesticated animals, the pigeon was
mentioned as an instructive example of varia-
tion, all breeds having been derived from the
wild rock-pigeon Although so different in their
adult state, amongst pigeons nestling, young
dragons, runts, tumblers, pouters, barbs and
jacobins, when compared were hardly distin-
guishable. The classification of variations in the
human race had been much aided recently by.
the development of anthropology and espe-
cially anthropometry. The Bertillon system of
measurement in operation in France was re-
ferred to. Photography had proved of great
value in identification but only in conjunction
with other systems, owing to the great difficulty
of classifying photographs. In Paris there were
said to be upwards of 100,000 photographs of
persons interesting to the police: one can
imagine how arduous a task it must be to make
a comparison between the portrait of a suspect-
ed person and those in this immense stock. Mr.
Francis Galton had elaborated a system which
was now being experimentally tried in England,
namely, the finger-mark system. It is a matter
of common observation that if the fingers are
soiled, with ink for instance, and then im-
pressed on a clean white surface that a print
is left of the ridges of the finger. These
patterns remained unaltered throughout life, if
not disturbed by scars, and moreover they were
different for every person : hence they formed a
valuable basis for identification. The patterns
of arches, loops and whorls were shown digram-
matically, and the further refinement of counting
the ridges on the loops was explained.
Variations in human beings of different races
were practically insignificant when compared
with those in domesticated and even wild ani-
mals. Although they might appear large to us,


yet, front a biological point of view, they were
extremely small. In physical features the range
of differences was comparatively narrow, and, as
regards mind, we had to find out how far quali-
ties which distinguish different races are con-
genital and hereditary or the result of education
and surroundings. Darwin had pointed out that,
in the mode of expressing their emotions there
was a singular unity in the human species.
Unfortunately we were not able to make prac-
tical use of variations in human races and start
man culture in the same sense as cattle culture
or oyster culture, with a view of maximising
good qualities and minimising bad ones. In
conclusion reference was made to the apparent
antagonism between the principles of heredity
and variations.
Mr. T. W. Jarvis exhibited a number of
-Jamaica crabs which he had collected, and
which had been named for him by Miss Riathbun
of the Smithsonian Institution.
Sir Henry Trueman Wood, M.A., Secretary
of the Society of Arts, London, who was then
on a visit to Jamaica, proposed a vote of thanks
to Dr. Grabham and to Mr. Jarvis. He re-
ferred to the investigations of his friend Mr.
Galton, but stated it as his opinion that the
finger-mark system was not at all equal to the
beautiful system of 'measurements so success-
fully adopted by the French police.

AT the thirty-fifth members' meeting
held at the Rooms of the ;Institute on the
18th of March. 1896, Mr J. E. Briggs, M.A.
read a paper on ; Capillarity," which was
illustrated by experiments.
The Rev. Win. Simms. M A, Chairman
of the Board was in the chair: and the Rev.
Win. Gillies, a member of the Board, and
the Secretary were also present.
The following is an abstract of the
All solids and liquids are possessed of a property
known as cohesion, which consists in a force that
binds together the molecular parts.
Two pieces of marble, each of which has got a
sufficiently large plane surface worked on it, will, if
these surfaces are brought firmly together, even in
vacuo, adhere so as to overcome the weight of
either, so that the one remains suspended from the
other. Again it has been shown that a dozen copper
cubes with very true surfaces, when placed on one
another adhere together when the upper one is
This force is specially familiar to us in the pro-
cesses of silver or nickel plating.
This cohesive power is likewise present in liquids
though to a less degree.

There is an essential difference in state between
parts of a liquid close to the surface and others in
the interior of the mass. For if we describe round
any particle of the liquid an imaginary sphere whose
radius is the utmost range at which the cohesive
forces are sensible, the only parts of the liquid
which act directly on that particle are those con-
tained within the sphere. So long as the sphere
lies wholly within the liquid surface, the resultant
effect on the particle is zero, but if this sphere is
partly without the surface, we can no longer make
this assertion ; indeed it is clear that the effect of
forces, such as cohesion must be different in the
bounding film, and this accounts for peculiarities
noticed in the surface film.
The boundaries of liquids are in a perpetual state
of strain : just as if they were enclosed by a film of
their own material endowed with elastic properties.
The principle of minimum potential energy serves
to account for the spherical form which a liquid
assumes when freed from all forces except its own
surface tension: and also for the fact than when
two spheres of the same liquid come in contact,
they unite to form one compound sphere. Drops
in a rain-cloud are spherical and the larga ones con-
tinually grow at the expense of the smaller ones
until condensation takes place.
Solids do not exhibit these properties because
they possess rigidity, but directly a solid is melted
the characteristic effects appear.
If a piece of sealing-wax is melted the sharp edges
become more and more rounded off as meling pro-
ceeds: and if matters are arranged so as to coun-
teract the effect of gravity, it will finally assume a
spherical form.
Soap bubbles are liquid films enclosing gas, they
float about because the weight of the film is very
little, and a slight difference in density of the con-
tained gas is sufficient to determine whether the
bubble will rise or fall, the pressure inside the bubble
is greater than that outside owing to the contractile
force of the film: Faraday showed this by blowing
out a candle with the air expelled from a bubble.
The following experiment serves to show the sur-
face tension in such a film. Place on a soap-film,
lifted by a ring, a short endless silk thread, tho-
roughly wetted with the soap solution. As soon as
the- film is broken inside the coil, the thread is
stretched out into a circle bounding the hole in the
If a quantity of air be enclosed between two close
funnels, by compressing or extending the funnels
we can make the film assume various shapes,
viz., spheroidal, cylindrical or hour-glass shaped.
When the film is in the last mentioned form, by
further pulling the funnels apart, it at last becomes
unstable; the wall collapses into a neck of liquid
which breaks and leaves a film on each funnel.
This helps us to understand what happens when a
complete bubble is detached from a single funnel,
always leaving a film on the funnel ready to pro-
duce a second. It is perfectly clear from these
experiments that work must be done on a liquid to
extend its surface and conversely that it can do work
by diminishing its surface.
Here was given an explanation of the fact that
some liquids mix while others do not: and why some
liquids wet or spread themselves over a solid while
others curl up and make the area of contact as small
as possible.


Rise of liquids in narrow tubes.
When a liquid wets the tube there is a resultant
upward surface tension acting at the position of con-
tact round the internal circumference; and it is
occupied in supporting the column of liquid which
is above the free liquid surface outside. Now this
surface tension will vary directly as the internal cir-
cumference; that is, as the internal radius: but the
cubical content will vary as the square of the
radius. If then we use a tube with radius twice as
great, then the supporting surface tension will be
doubled, but the cubical content per unit length will
be four times as great, with the result that the
height of the column will only be one half of what
it was before. Stated generally the height to which
a liquid will rise in a tube due to capillary attrac-
tion, is inversely proportioned to the radius.
We at once realize what important results, this
capillary force has in nature: it is due to it in great
part, that liquids are able to circulate in the mater-
ial of animal and vegetable organisms. The sur-
face tension of different liquids varies a good deal,
that of alcohol is much less than that of water
while ether has a very low surface tension indeed.
Advantage is taken of this to remove grease spots
from clothing by means of benzine; the benzine
must be applied to one side of the cloth in a ring
surrounding the spot and be gradually made to close
in on the grease spot, which having a g heater Fur-
face tension than the benzine, will run through to
the other side of the cloth and thence into the
blotting pad which ought to be placed beneath.
An experiment was performed to show the dis-
astrous effects of applying the benzine to the centre
of the spot.
Also experiments were performed in which capil-
lary force was used as a motive power, as an elec-
trometer, etc.

AT a members' meeting, held at the Insti-
tute on the 15th of April. 1896, Dr. W H.
Strachan, read a paper on "The Parasite of
Malarial Fever." The Rev. Wn. Gillies, a
member of the Board of Governors, was in
the chair, and the Secretary of the Institute
was also present. The following is an ab-
stract of the paper:-
A lecture on the parasite which is now believed
by almost all scientific men to be the cause of the
diseases known as -' Malarial Fevers," would in-
volve the discussion of so many matters of a purely
medical and technical nature, interesting only to a
medical audience, that I do not propose to give that
high-sounding title to the few words I have to say,
to-night. I prefer to ask you to glance with me at
one of the most interesting chapters in Nature's
great book, from the biologist's point of view rather
than from the doctor's; but if-like Mr. Dick and
King Charles' head-I find it impossible to leave
out an occasional reference to a medical fact, I hope
you will forgive me, and I promise it shall not occur
often if I can help it.
We will therefore take a brief glance to-night at
the LIFE HISTORY, so far as it is at present known,
of the parasite of malaria.

Parasites, as you know, are living creatures who
take up their abode on, or in. other living creatures
on whose tissues they feed. Vast numbers of animals
are afflicted with such unwelcome guests, and man
himself is not exempt. Doctors have long been ac-
quainted with the fact that many of the ills which
human flesh is heir to, are caused by the existence
of parasites. Some attack the alimentary canal, some
the muscles, some the skin, some the hair, and
some the blood. They belong both to the animal and
vegetable kingdoms-and one of the chief tasks of
the doctor is to wage war against these unwelcome
intruders. Among those animals which are para-
sites in the blood, the malaria parasite is found.
It has been called by many names, and biologists
are still discussing its exact classification and the
most appropriate title by which it shall be known.
That is why I prefer to call it, to-night simply
The Malaria Parasite"-and to tell you only what
is actually settled as to its position in nature.
Down near the very beginning of the animal
kingdom-I might almost say of Evident Life-
there is a group of microscopic creatures called
" Rhizopods." Those little creatures have been
described to you by Mr. Duerden in his charming
and instructive lectures on Biology. You will
remember that they are tiny masses of animated
jelly-that some of them form for themselves shells
-and that these shells, falling in countless myriads
to the bottom of the sea, have helped to build up
great continents by forming that part of the earth's
surface known as the chalk. Among them, to be
found in almost any drop of pond water, is one known
as the Amneba, from a Greek word meaning
changing, or exchanging, as it is constantly
exchanging one shape for another by thrusting out
from one or more parts of itself a bit of its jellylike
body (a pseudopod, or false foot, as it is called). It
has no mouth or stomach, so when it wishes to eat,
it literally "puts itself outside" of its food, by flow-
ing round it engulphing it at its jelly-mass, absorbing
what is good for its nourishment, and quietly flow-
ing away from what is indigestible: it is quite im-
possible for an amoeba to suffer from indigestion.
When reproduction is to occur, the amoeba calmly
divides himself into two, and each half goes off, a
perfect amoeba.
The protoplasm of which they, and indeed all liv-
ing beings are formed, is, the chemist will tell you,
a combination of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitro-
gen (and perhaps a little sulphur or phosphorous).
The biologist will tell you that it is endued with life,
as it moves, grows, assimilates to its own tissue
substances unlike itself, and reproduces its kind.
But what this LIFE is, no chemist or biologist can
yet tell you.
'You will forgive my repeating all this which you
know already, when I inform you of the interest-
ing fact that it is to this group of creatures that the
Malaria Parasite belongs.
This very objectionable personage, whom we who
live in the tropics hate so cordially, is just such an
amoeba. A little mass of jelly, changing his shape
by thrusting out his pseudopodia, and differing from
the simple amoeba I have spoken of, only in certain
minor phases of his life history and his habitat and
The latter, unfortunately for humanity, is, when
the parasite has procured admission to a human
host, the red corpuscles of the Blood.


THE BLooD.-You know that the blood of warm- Also the possibility of the flagellate form being
blooded creaturesis a fluid in which aie floating mil- that of the extra-human stage of development, was
lions of tiny straw-coloured discs. When you see them discussed, as also the possible fate of the separate
inassed together they look red: hence the name red- flagellum.
blood-discs. Their shape, to be more exact, in man, A few brief suggestions as to boiling of drink-
is biconcave-like a penny with a bit scooped out of ing water, avoiding of ma'arial neighborhoods,
each side. The great function of these red-blood-discs sleeping on an upper story when possible, and
is to convey oxygen from the lungs to all parts of the similar quasi-medical hints, closed the lecture.
body, in order that the life may be carried on ; ard
when they are few in number, or diseased, the
animal to which they belong becomes very ill. THIRTY-SEVENTF MEETING.
There are also in the blood as one of its important At the thirty-seventh amembprs' meeting,
constituents, colourless bodies extremely like the Institute, on W es the 13t
amceba we first spoke of, one of whose functions is held at the Institute, on Wy the 3th
to act as scavengers-attacking and devouring when of May, Dr Strachan, L.R.C P., F L.S.. a
they can, all harmful things which get into the member of the Board. was in the chair, and
blood and which would work evil to the animal. the Secretary was also present.
With these we shall not have much to say to-
night, though I shall have to make a brief allusion Dr. Plaxton read a paper on Cilia,"
to them later on. and Mr. Iuerden, A.R.Sc (Lond.), the
It is to the red-blood-discs I must direct your Curator of the Museum, read a paper on
attention, for it is in them that the malaria parasite Zoanthidr." from Port Henderson. an
lives, and it is they who form his food supply. f P ti
Ever since Celsus recognized the form of fever we abstract of which will be found further on.
call malarial, medical men have endeavoured to
find out the cause of it and many have been the CILIA.
theories brought forward. Dr. Plaxton in his paper described very fully the
The name given by the Italians, who suffer so structure and physiology of cilia in general, and
much from it-" Mal-aria," shows how early the referred more particular to the action of those in
fact was recognized that "bad air was either the various parts of the human body. Microscopic sec.
cause, or a means of conveying the cause, into the tions, microphotographs, and lantern slides were
human system, while the names "marsh fever" exhibited, showing the cilia lining the walls of the
and "paludism"-showed that the fact was also urinary tubules of the human kidney, a compara-
recognized that stagnant and marshy water was in tively recent discovery.
some way connected with the presence of the
Fever. T Y- HT E'ING.
Various water animals and plants have been at THIRTY-EIGHTH MEETING.
one time or another suggested as the cause; and AT a members meeting held at the Insti-
for a short time a bacillus was by some believed tute on Wednesday the 15th of July, Dr.
in. But the great aim of science is always to put W Pl on, a e er of th oard
truth before all things and to accept nothing with- 1. W. Plaxton, a member of the Board of
out the strictest investigation, and each of the Governors, was in the Chair, and Dr.
theories brought forward was demolished when sub- Strachan, Mr. Vendryes and the Secretary
ejected to close and careful study and examination. were also present. The Members of the
It was not until some 12 or 14 years ago that John Hopkins University Marine Labora-
Laveran, then a surgeon in the French army in p
Algierst while investigating this subject, saw in the tory, at present stationed at Port Hender-
blood of a patient suffering from malarial fever, son, gave an account of the work now being
certain bodies, which excited his attention-and performed by them on the Fauna of Jamaica,
caused him to study them closely. The result was under the supervision of Dr. W. K. Brooks.
the discovery of the malaria parasite. His inves-
tigations have daring the succeeding years been Mir. F. S. Conant described the Chatognaths,
carefully scrutinized by observers in all parts of or Arrow-worms; Mr. H. L. Clark describe?
the world, with the result that even those who at the Holothurians, or Sea-cucumbers ; and
first opposed his views now support them. Of those Mr. Sudler described Lucifer, a genus of
who have worked hardest at the subject Dr. Patrick
Manson-whose name is associated with the dis- Crustacea. Illustrative diagrams were shown
cover of the life history of another blood parasite, by means of the lantern, and specimens
the filaria-is deserving of our gratitude for the were exhibited.
patient and careful way he has worked at the
matter, and for the ingenious theory he has re- ARROW-WORMS.
cently brought forward as to the probable life his- Mr. Conant said it was with a great deal of
tory of the parasite outside the human body. pleasure that they appeared before the members
LIFE HISTORY OF PARASITE.-The lecturer of the Institute, for more reasons than one. Not
then, by means of lantern-slides, showed the life only was it an agreeable duty for them to speak
history of the parasite, in the human host. on the animals that had been their daily, and in
First the small spore, then the amoeboid some respects nightly, companions for the past
body first attached to and then entered into the red- three months, but it would be a great pleasure to
blood-discs (and gradually becoming larger as a them if they could express their gratitude for
general rule) to the spore-forming, daisy.like, or what had been done for them and previous mem-
to the crescent-shaped form. bers of the Johns Hopkins University who had


come to Jamaica to study its fauna. Not alone
the Chairman, the Secretary and the Curator, but
all with whom they had come into contact had
shown such unfailing kindness that it was with no
small pleasure they tried to make that little re-
turn. The animals, he continued, upon which he
was going to speak constituted a group of which
he was especially fond though they were not the
subject he had come down particularly to study.
Alluding to a delineation of an arrow-worm
thrown upon the screen, he pointed out certain
hairs or bristles on the head which represented
the animal's jaws that were used to hold its
food and press it into its mouth. It spent
its life upon the surface of the water except
during rough weather when it went into deeper
water. Mr. Conant described the means and
method of the animals's motion in the water.
Their fins were not like those of fishes in being
movable, but consisted of four lateral expansions
of the epidermis. which offered resistance to the
water like the blade of a paddle. By means of
longitudinal bands of muscle it bent its body
upwards and downwards, and thus brought about
its movements through the water. The motion
was a kind of intermittent darting, resembling the
flight of an arrow: hence their name. There were
three genera of arrow-worms. In Kingston har-
bour three species of only one genus have been
found. These were only about half an inch in
length and their width was inconsiderable, the
shape being somewhat like an elongated cigar or
cigarette. Living an active life in the water, it of
course had a nervous system to control its move-
ments, and he proceeded to direct attention to the
sensory and motor nervous centres, and the various
sensory organs; and, by means of a cross section,
showed the digestive tract, the muscle bands,
eggs, &c. The animals, he said, on occasions ate
one another, and if any one wished an exhibition
of total depravity in the animal world he advised
them to keep a few of them under observation.
With an abundance of its ordinary food at hand,
one might occasionally be seen to deliberately turn
aside and catch a fellow chatognath in its jaws,
and force it down its digestive tract. It was
only a question in the case of two of them,
which should be the first to get its jaws around
the other one's head, whether it or the other
would become the victim or the cannibal. An
interesting fact with regard to their egg laying
was that it occurred with remarkable regularity at
a certain hour in the morning, usually about 5
o'clock. It was thought by some that, in the case
of certain other animals showing a like period-
icity, external influences had nothing to do with
this peculiarity, but his own experiment of
putting them into an ice chest proved that with
the chatognaths, temperature has some influence,
as he was able to delay the egg-laying operation
for some three hours.

Mr. Conant referred to certain divergencies in
the digestive tract of certain species and con-
cluded by expressing the hope that he had not
vilified the arrow-worms too much by his allusion
to their cannibalism. There was a Jamaica pro-
verb that every John Crow thinks his own
picaniny white", and while he might depreciate
the arrow-worms in his own conversation he did
not want to hear any one else say a bad word of

Mr. H. L. Clark, said that the Holothurians had
a more or less bilateral symmetry, two sides being
alike, and were worm-like animals. Some of them
had a great many small feet and could thus crawl
along the bottom, but their motion was very slow
and it was impossible for them to escape from
their enemies. The group was most simply divided
into those that had feet and those that had not.
That classification was not considered satisfactory
by most scientific men, who divided them into
divisions according to the position from which the
tentacles around the mouth started. One remark-
able feature about one of the Synantas, an animal
in the group without feet and described fifty years
ago, was that it brought forth its young alive.
This had been forgotten and was re-discovered five
years ago by members of their university. Last
winter, Dr. Brooks gave the speaker it to study in
the laboratory at Baltimore, and he came down
here to study it alive and was fortunate enough to
find specimens in great abundance. By means of a
diagram, he described the organization of the ani-
mal in detail. They were to be found, he said, in
great numbers in the mangrove swamps at Port
Royal. Being very sensitive they would not live
in an aquarium. An interesting thing about the
Holothurians consisted in particles of lime that
were found in their skin, which took certain de-
fined shapes. Those in Syuapta were like a
shield and anchor, the ends of which hooked on to
the sea-weed and assisted the animal to hold on.
The lime particles in other Holothurians were
wheel-shaped, and one resembled a little table.
They were all very small and could only be ob-
served under the microscope. From Drunken-
man's Cay he took one of the largest species he
had ever seen, three or four feet in length, but
only an inch or so in thickness. Dealing with the
division that had feet, Mr. Clark said that these
were divided again into two groups, those that had
tentacles, branching like the branches of a tree,
irregularly, and those that were peltate. The
former group he had not found represented in
Jamaica, being generally confined to northern
waters. The other group, however, was well repre-
sented ; probably in no place in the world were they
more abundant than in Kingston harbour. Very
few species were recorded, but he believed that he
had found about a dozen different species since he
had come to Jamaica. Some of the specimens
were there on the table. At Montego Bay he only
found one species. Their habits were not very in-
teresting as they were very sluggish and slow in
their movements. They varied considerably in
size and colour and were an interesting group to
study, because they were so well represented in
Jamaica, and there was a good opportunity to com-
pare a large number of species.
Mr. Sudler was the last speaker, his subject
being Lucifer, a genus of Crustacea. an animal of an
entirely different group from that which the other
students had dealt with. It was taken up by Dr.
Brooks and studied by him at Beaufort in the
summer of 1880 and much valuable information
concerning it obtained. The animal, which on the
diagram looked like a shrimp of some kind, the
speaker said, had been taken by a great many
scientists to be a young or immature animal of
some higher crustacea, but Dr. Brooks proved it to


be a distinct species. It was about half an inch
long, very transparent and hard to see in the
water. It lived on the surface and had to be
studied from 9 p. m. up to the morning, and being
very small and transparent a strong artificial
light had to be used for studying it. Near Port
Henderson it was very abundant, but he found it
impossible to raise the animal in an aquarium. The
eggs which were laid about 9 o'clock were lightly
fastened, about 20 in a bunch, to two posterior tho-
racic limbs and were carried by the mother until
hatched out into the young animal, a sketch
of which was thrown on the screen. Mr. Sudler
mentioned several points with regard to the eggs,
and spoke of some of the theoretical considera-
tions involved in the fact that a free nauplius stage
existed. There were five stages in its develop-
ment in the case of the male, but a peculiar thing
was that the female only reached the fourth stage.
He had only been engaged in its study for four
weeks and hoped to learn much more about it, the
subject being one of interest.
Dr. Strachan proposed a hearty vote of thanks
to the lecturers who had given them the benefit of
their original and most valuable researches into
the inhabitants of these waters. They ought to
congratulate themselves that the biology of the
future rested in the hands of such students as
those, who were not content with simply satu-
rating their minds with work done by others, but
themselves took voyages of some distance, and, on
the spot, investigated and followed out life his-
tories in order that the work they did might be of
real value. They might congratulate themselves
that our future biologists would be men studying
in the way in which those gentlemen were
Mr. Vendryes had much pleasure in seconding
the vote of thanks. The lectures had been most
interesting and instructive, and, if he might find
fault in any respect, it was that they were too
short. He could only re-echo the words of Dr.
Strachan that there was something in the future
of biology when they found gentlemen trained in
that way to examine into the phenomena of life.
They were thankful that the students had gene-

rously bestowed upon the museum a series of pre-
served specimens that would be of great aid to
further study.
Mr. J. E. Duerden desired to add a few words of
congratulation on the presence of the gentlemen
now with them. In looking over the past history
of what had been done by the students of the Johns
Hopkins University, they should allregard with ex-
pectancy those students now before them. Others
who had been here before and had passed through
the university were now amongst the leading
modern biologists. He called to mind the names
of Professor McMurrich, 'Professor E. H. Wilson,
Professor T. H. Morgan and others, now among
America's greatest biologists. He knew of
no university giving such a complete course
of study, for, after three or four years of a general
course, the students gave three to five entire years
to specialists' work, such as they had heard of that
evening, and he could imagine no students better
fitted for carrying on original research after they
left a university than those who had passed through
the Johns Hopkins. He expressed the great in-
debtedness of the Museum to the three students
present for the specimens they had prepared and
given to them, and called special attention to the
beautiful jelly-fish that was to be seen in one of
the glass jars. They had been extremely generous
in offering examples of the different species they
had captured and which were thus of .local in-
terest. It had been arranged with Dr. Brooks that
the connection between the Institute and the Uni-
versity should be of a closer nature. They would
try to work up here the whole of the invertebrates
and vertebrates as far as possible and get good
specimens in their cases and cabinets, so that the
students coming down in the future might have
them for purposes of reference. On the other hand,
Dr. Brooks had promised to render any assistance in
his power, and the students would give the Museum
of the Institute examples of their duplicate speci-
mens. Jamaica as a whole was to be congratu-
lated, therefore, upon the presence in it of those
students and they would all look forward to a re-
currence of the visit and also bear in mind the
present one with a considerable degree of appre-


IN September, 1895, the Board of Gov-
ernors of the Institute formed itself into a
Committee of Management of a Jamaica
Branch of the National Home Reading
Union. A conference was held on June
23rd 1896 at the Institute for the purpose
of furthering the objects of the Union,
which are as follows :-" The purpose of de-
veloping a taste for recreative and instruc-
tive reading among all classes of the com-
munity, and directing home study to definite

ends, so as, on the one hand, to check the
spread of pernicious literature among the
young, and on the other, to remedy the
waste of energy and lack of purpose so
often found among those who have time
and opportunity for a considerable amount
of reading."
The Hon. C. B. Mosse, C.B., Chairman of
the Board, presided, and there were also pre-
sent the Rev. W. Gillies, the Rev. W.
Simms and Dr. Cargill, members of the


Board, with the Secretary of the Institute
and the Curator of the Museum.
The Secretary made an explanatory state-
ment of the aims and advantages of the
Union, and gave a general sketch of the
way in which it was proposed that local
circles should be conducted.
Mrs. Lewis, the Rev. W. Gillies, Mr. J. E.
Duerden, the Rev. W. Pratt, M. A., the
Rev. H. II. Kilburn, the Rev. Win. Simms,
M. A., and Miss Johnson spoke in support
of the movement
On the proposal of Mrs. Lewis, seconded
by the Rev, Wm. Gillies it was unanimously

resolved: "That this meeting learns with
satisfaction that the Board of Governors of
the Institute of Jamaica have constituted
themselves a Committee for the extension
to Jamaica of the advantages of the National
Home Reading Union, and resolves to com-
mend the project to the people of Jamaica
by every means in its power, and pledges
itself to give it the fullest support possible."

All information concerning the Jamaica
Branch of the National Home Reading
Union can be obtained on application to the
Secretary of the Institute.




son of the Rev. John
Anderson of the Estab-
lished Church of Scot-
land and minister of the
united parishes of Stron-
say and Eday in the Ork-
ney Islands, was born in Edinburgh on
the 7th of December 1802. He received
his early education at first in a private
school and afterwards in the high school of
Edinburgh. He then entered the Univer-
sity of Edinburgh, attending principally the
art and law classes, and, while there, asso-
ciated himself with, and took an active part
in several literary societies. After com-
pleting his education, he was admitted as a
solicitor of the supreme court of Scotland,
and shortly afterwards became a partner of
Henry Tod a well-known and respected soli-
citor in Edinburgh. In 1833 Anderson
arrived in .Jamaica, and became a partner
of the legal firm of Whitehorne and For-
syth. He afterwards was for some time in
partnership with the late H. J. Kemble (who
died Custos of Kingston), and on the disso-
lution of this firm was joined by L. R.
Valpy, nephew of the then Chief Justice ,of
Jamaica, Sir Joshua Rowe. After some
years, Valpy retired to England and other
partnership arrangements were subsequently
entered into.
Anderson was a very able lawyer. His
forte lay in the department of Equity, and
the practice he liked best was in the Court
of Chancery, but he confined himself a good
deal to chamber practice in which he ac-
quired a first class reputation. He was a
man of stern unbending integrity, and no
one ever considered him capable of any de-
viation from the strictest line of honour, and
those who suggested anything otherwise did
not soon forget the lesson they received.

*In preparing this paper much assistance has been
obtained from obituary notices which appeared in the
Jamaica press, as also from diaries and other private
papers, in the possession of the writer.

In the later years of his life he was for a
long time Clerk of the Peace of Portland
and on the change of Government, caused
by the outbreak of 1865, was made Clerk of
the District Court, a position which how-
ever, he soon resigned, as it was impossible
for any one with a manly spirit of self-res-
pect to retain it under the conditions that
were then imposed.
In 1834, Anderson married a. daughter
of George Kingdon of Frome, Somerset.
England, by whom he had a large family.
On Anderson's arrival in the island, he at
once identified himself with the cause of the
coloured races, and was soon on intimate
terms with the champions of freedom here
and in England. He was appointed by the
Government, Protector of Slaves" and as
such did good service in the defence of the
oppressed. He was also an intimate friend
of that devoted band of nonconformist min-
isters, who (although perhaps mistaken in
some of their methods) did a noble work in
christianizing and ameliorating the condi-
tion of the lowest classes. A.t this period of
the island's history, the position assumed by
Anderson was not conducive to popularity
or to his own interests among the so-called
better class, but he maintained it with un-
varying calmness and made himself univer-
sally respected. He was the intimate friend
of all the Governors of the island for more
thin 30 yeirs and when the Earl of Elgin
was Governor-General of India, he met
there a gentleman from Jamaica, and the
only man he enquired after in that island
was his friend Wemyss Anderson. Of the
Governors administering Crown Govern-
ment he knew little and cared less.
In 1837. Anderson received a numerously
signed application to allow himself to be
proposed for election as a member of the
House of Assembly for the the parish of Port-
land, and earnestly entreated "on this oc-
"casion to come forward and exert your
" moral worth, so to endeavour to improve
"the condition of our fellow-men." As re-


gards this application, the following is An-
derson's entry in his diary. I have sev-
eral times been asked to accept the office
of representative of parishes, but have
declined. In this case it has, however,
come in a way that I hope I may without
presumption regard it as a call of God on
me to serve him in that way : and espe-
cially so, as I feel that I shall now be able
to do so in a better spirit than I could have
done some time ago. A single mind to
the duties of the office it shall be my
prayer to have." He was elected by a
large majority of votes, and served for many
years as a member of the House of Assembly,
and while there his influence was ever
exercised in the interests of progress, moral-
ity, justice and the equalisation of creed
and colour.

Among other good works achieved by
Anderson was the establishment of the Ja-
maica Mutual Life Assurance Society, and it
was one which, singularly modest as he was,
he regarded as one of the most important
benefits conferred on Jamaica. Up to the
year 1844 the rates for life assurance in
Jamaica were so high as to be almost pro-
hibitive, and it was in this year that after
much trouble he aroused interest in this
matter, and induced a few others to join
him in founding this society. Others have
been awarded praise as being the originators
of it, but that the credit is solely due to
Anderson is clearly proved by a resolu-
tion passed at a special meeting of the mem-
bers of the society held on the 19th of De-
cember 1851, granting asum of fifty guineas
to W. W. Anderson, Esq.. the originator of
this Institution as an acknowledgement of
his exertions in first proposing and forming
this Society, at a time when Local Life
"Assurance was unheeded in this Island
and considered impracticable." It is be-
lieved that this was the first local assurance
company established in the West Indies.
Had Anderson done nothing but this, his
name would deserve to be remembered as a
benefactor to thousands in Jamaica.

About the year 1851, Anderson was by
the House of Assembly appointed a Commis-
sioner to visit the United States and Canada,
with the view of ascertaining whether it
would not be practicable to'offer induce-
ments to the coloured polila;liou to become
small settlers in Jamaica. He therefore
travelled a good deal in those countries lec-

during at different places. No practical re-
sults, however, appear to have resulted.
In 1865, occurred the disturbance at
Morant Bay, which led to the abolition of
the House of Assembly and the establish-
ment of Crown Government. Whether
rightly or wrongly there can be no doubt
that George William Gordon was, by the
majority of the intelligent inhabitants of the
island at that time, considered either directly
or indirectly responsible for the outbreak
which caused so much bloodshed and terror.
Gordon was arrested in Kingston, which
was not under martial law and conveyed
on board H. M. S. Wolverine to Morant Bay,
which was under martial law; and was there
subsequently tried by court martial and
executed in accordance with the sentence
thereof. Anderson was on board the
Wolverine on his way to Portland, in pur-
suit of his duties as Clerk of the Peace of
that parish, and seeing Gordon a prisoner on
board asked permission to communicate with
him as he had at one time been his friend
and legal adviser. This was refused. An-
derson then wrote a letter to Gordon ad-
vising him on the several points he should
urge in his defence when brought before the
court martial; and handed it to Brigadier
General Nelson open, with a request that he
would have it given to Gordon. This was
not done, and the letter was wilfully des-
troyed. As regards this, the Lord Chief
Justice of England said 1""even a letter
written to him by a friend suggesting a
line of defence is purposely kept from him
"alone and helpless." And again "possibly
but for that unfortunately intercepted
letter in which a friend suggested to him
the fitting line of defence, but which this
"doomed and helpless man was not allowed
"to see, the point might have been brought
to the attention of the tribunal, in which
"case possibly, I dare not say probably, it
might have had the desired effect." An-
derson was a man who would always stand
up for the right no matter the hazard to him-
self, and it was well described in the press
many years after as An act done at some
"peril during that reign of terror." It
was a comfort to poor Gordon which he
gratefully remembered on the gallows. It
was a good deed which no doubt is regis-
tered in heaven.

*In his charge to the Grand Jury in the case of
the Queen versus Nelson & Brand charged with the
murder of Gordon, 1867.


Anderson was a voluminous writer in
the Island press, and an eloquent speaker,
and no one can doubt but that many of his
ideas and proposals were far in advance of
the age in which he lived, and many of them
were considered in the highest degree
Utopian and chimerical. He continually
pointed out that in the management of a
sugar estate there should be a good agricul-
turist well up in all modern methods, that
the manufacture of sugar and rum required
the skill of a chemist, that a practical know-
ledge of machinery was necessary, that the
care of the necessary live stock required one
experienced in their management, and that
to expect all these qualifications to be com-
bined in the person of one man was an ab-
surdity. He therefore advocated central facto-
ries, with a highly skilled manager in charge
of each department, and maintained that
under such conditions alone could sugar be
made to pay. He strongly advocated the
use of machinery in agricultural operations
--the plough instead of the hoe-the corn
seller instead of hand picking the grains
from the cobs-and many other labour sav-
ing devices which at that time were seldom
used in Jamaica. Long before the fruit.
trade was heard of, he advocated the culti-
vation and export of the minor products
such as fruits fresh or preserved, the manu-
facture of plantain and banana flour, the use
of bread-fruit sliced and dried as an anti-
scorbutic for sailors, or in the form of meal.
the extended cultivation of arrowroot and
ginger and fresh vegetables for the Ameri-
can market, and the manufacture of various
native oils, etc. He strongly advised the
young, intelligent, unemployed youth of the
Island to follow the example of the Ameri-
cans and Canadians and get their living out
of' the soil by settling on small cheap
abandoned properties, and thereon t, work
with their own hands and to Scorn delights
and live laborious days." To assist them
with the necessary capital, he proposed the
establishment of an Agricultural Loan Bank
which might advance money for cultivation
of a crop, on the security of the crop when
it came to maturity. He prepared a bill for
such a purpose, which twice passed the
House of Assembly, but was rejected by the
Council. He insisted that the food now im-
ported from America should properly be
raised on our own soil. He never ceased
pointing out that "social degradation is in-
compatible with material prosperity," and
one of the points he urged most continu-

ously and pertinaciously on the Legislature
and on the public, was the absolute necessity
of stringent measures to compel fathers to
provide for the maintenance of their ille-
gitimate children. The miserable family
conditions under which children were
brought up, and their utter want of moral
training and education, led him to advise
measures being taken to prevent over-crowd-
ing, and to improve the too often wretched
dwellings of the lower classes. He pointed
out that the then condition of the lower
classes was just what neglect and want of
training had made them" and he strongly
urged the multiplication of a competent,
carefully selected, religious and educa-
tional agency on a scale which will suffice
to permeate the whole of that part of the
commonalty that needs it, and this must in
the first instance be at the cost of the
Government." Industrial schools were
strongly advocated by him. He also made
several attempts to bring Jamaica be-
fore the notice of the Americans as a health
resort, and in a pamphlet he published,
entitled "Jamaica and the Americans," he
inserted letters from leading medical prac-
titioners testifying to the salubrity of the
The following titles indicate the nature of
some of Anderson's communications to
the press of Jamaica :-" Dawnings of the
coining future," "Bars to progress." The
policy of the past." "Jamaica, its present
position and future prospects." Social
and political economy for Jamaica." Plant-
ers, merchants and absentee proprietors."
Some distinguishing peculiarities of agri-
culture in Jamaica and its relation to
labour." Self-supporting European immi-
gration to the island of Jamaica." Obser-
vations on the present condition and pros-
pects of Jamaica." Agricultural credit
and the means of extending it." A bill to
give a lien on sugar, rum and other agricul-
tural products and on cattle, etc." He was
also a voluminous writer on matters inti-
mately connected with his own profession,
and he suggested several legal reforms. He
also frequently delivered lectures on social
and literary subjects, particularly the Scotch
poets of whom he was a most enthusiastic
In these and many other matters, .Ander-
son was, as- the voice of one crying in
the wilderness. Save by a few earnest and
thoughtful men, his utterances and writings





Died 1874, aged 49.



were but little heeded, for he was a man
who lived too far ahead of his times. We
now see that there was an element of sound
practical wisdom in his suggestions, nearly
all of which have been, or are on the point
of being carried out.
Anderson was always strongly opposed to
the principle of Immigration in aid of the
labour supply of the Island. In thus acting
he was probably in the wrong But there
is this to be said, that all who remember the
early days of immigration as it was then
carried out in Jamaica without proper regu-
lation efficiently enforced, know that it was
a shock to all with humane feelings, for the
hospitals and poor-houses were crowded
with diseased and starving Chinese and
Coolies, and these wretched creatures were
often found dying on the road side, and
numbers committed suicide.
Anderson died on the 5th of July, 1877,
after a short illness at Richmond Pen, near
Kingston, and on the 21 st of the same month
an eloquent sermon on his life and death
was preached in the Scotch Kirk by the
Rev. John Radcliffe. All the leading news-
papers of the island published long eulo-
gistic and touching notices of his life and
death. Although, in this notice, Anderson
.has been dealt with as a public man and a
social, moral and economic reformer, and as

the.originator and enthusiastic promoter of
schemes, methods and appliances for the im-
provement and elevation of the people of
Jamaica, it may not be out of place in con-
cluding to quote what was written of some of
his private virtues in one of the leading
newspapers of the Island. He was the most
benevolent and charitable man we ever
intimately knew, charitable in every sense
of the word. He was charitable in
thought and in his judgment of others-
slow to believe evil of a fellow being till
the truth was irresistible. In regard to
giving to the poor, he seems to have
literally followed the command Give
to him that asketh of thee, and from him
that would borrow, turn not thou away.'
The recipients of his beneficence can be
reckoned by thousands in all parts of this
island, while many whom he helped in the
hour of distress will bless his memory in
countries far distant from Jamaica. He
was religious in a high degree, devout and
eminently practical. He was God-fearing
and the companion of the noble and the
good from his early boyhood. As the
generous dispenser of good offices and
good things to the children of sorrow,
poverty and distress of whatever class or
colour, our beloved friend shone the
brightest, and had no peer in the island
during his sojourn of 44 years there."


AMONG those who deserve honourable
mention for the services they rendered to
Kingston and its people, is the Rev. W. J.
Gardner, who died twenty-two years ago,
but whose memory is warmly cherished by
those who are familiar with the work done
by him during the period of his residence
in this city, especially during the later
years of his life. Gardner was born at
Cheltenham on Nov. zIst, 1825. His father
died when he was a child of six years At
the early age of fifteen he left school and
entered into business in Liverpool. In
1845 he left Liverpool and continued his
business career at Dudley. In 1847 he
commenced a course of higher studies under
the direction of the Rev. J. Raven In the
same year he offered his services to the
London Missionary Society, and, having
been accepted, he became a student at Bed-
ford College, where he remained for two

years. On the 29th October, 1849, he was
set apart to his sacred work, and left Eng-
land on Nov. 25th, to take charge of the
Society's Mission Station at Chapelton in
this island. There he labored for six years,
and in .January, 1856, he removed to King-
ston, the scene of the remainder of his
labours By his efforts, he made his church
the first self-supporting congregational
church in the island.
Gardner was a man of great public
spirit and was much broader in his views of
personal duty and of public usefulness than
very many with whom he was accustomed
to co-operate. This led him into public
service of a kind and of a difficulty and res-
ponsibility that very few have had the cou-
rage to undertake. Besides the active part
he took in the improvement of the people
morally and religiously, it was to him that
the institution and the early prosperity of


the Benefit Building Society and the Provi-
dent Benefit Society were due. He saw
more clearly than most of his contemporaries
how deeply the work of such societies
tended to form the character, add to the
comfort, and advance all the interests of
the people. There can be no doubt that by
his labours and personal influence in these
and similar directions he exercised a lasting
influence along very practical lines of use-
fulness. He saw very clearly that if the
people of Jamaica were to advance surely,
the accumulated treasures contained in the
,best books, the intellectual savings of the
race. must be made accessible to them. He
therefore started what was called the So-
ciety for the Circulation of Pure Literature,"
taking the word "pure" in no narrow
sense. Whatever tended to instruct, fit for
life's work, from whatever source it came,
and form a manly and true character,
that Gardner sought to provide on the
easiest terms possible and to bring to the
homes of the people. Hence he employed
colporteurs for the purpose. The value of
,the publications sold through the agents he
employed rose in some years to 600 or
700. And these publications were widely
scattered over parishes at a distance from

Kingston. To the great majority of men
books are the great teachers, the chief min-
isters to self-culture." This Gardner
had a firm faith in, and hence his persistent
and eminently useful labours in the wide
dissemination of a wholesome literature.
In 1872, Gardner visited England.
During his stay there he saw through the
press his well-known and highly valued
" History of Jamaica," Some of his views
of the facts recorded have been questioned,
but, after all necessary qualifications, or
modifications of some of his representations
have been made, no one can read the book
without a hearty acknowledgement of the
industry and ability of the author. While
other parts of his life-work set him before
us in the character of an enlightened, clear-
sighted philanthropist, exerting himself
without stint in the service of humanity, his
work on the history of this island shows
him to have been a man of strong intel-
lectual grasp, capable with leisure of much
more than he was able to accomplish in the
midst of the manifold forms of his activity.
When he died, in 1874, the feeling that the
community at large had sustained a great
loss was universal.


By E. P.

THE Rev. James Watson, Presbyterian
Missionary, was born at Johnstone, near
Paisley, Scotland, on the 11th of February
179a. He began life as a mechanic. This
he abandoned and prepared for mission ser-
vice. After passing through the usual
course of study required by the Scottish
churches, he was sent to this island by the
Scottish Missionary Society of that time.
He landed at Port Maria. He laboured suc-
cessfully at Lucea, at Brownsville in Hano-
ver, and at Green Island, at which places he
built churches. On the death of the Rev.
Thomas Callendar in 1849, the newly.
formed church and congregation in King-
ston gave him an unanimous call to be their
pastor, and on the first sabbath of Septem-
ber, 1849 he took charge of the church.
Soon after the commencement of his minis-
try the present church in Kingston known
as the Little Kirk" was built under his
supervision. In 1850, he becamee-anftctive
member of the Jamaica Society of Arts, to

which he contributed many valuable papers.
He was a member of the publishing com-
mittee of the society from 1855 until his
,resignation in,1868. He was also its hono-
rary secretary:after the resignation and re-
moval from Kingston of the Kev. Garcia del

The existing juvenile depravity of the
city of Kingston came up for discussion at
several of the meetings of the society, and
Watson was instrumental in bringing into
existence what is now known as the Girls'
Reformatory, which was at first kept at his
private residence at East Queen Street, but
afterwards, having become too large for pri-
vate benevolence, was handed over to the
government, and removed to Studley Park
Pen, from whence it was transferred to Stony
Hill, and afterwards to Admirals' Pen, where
it- is now located. The Boys' Reformatory
followed, started by the Rev. D.H. Campbell,
Rector of Kingston. Watson was an active


worker both in and out of the church, in
every thing that tended to the elevation of
the people of the island, and in this work
he was intimately associated with Richard
Hill, Bowerbank and Wemyss Ander-
son. He resigned his charge of the Little
Kirk" in 1868, and returned to Scotland in
order to recruit his failing health. He in-
tended to return toJamaica to take charge
of the Girl's Reformatory as he felt his

strength was not sufficient for the demands
of the church at East Queen Street. He
died, however, at Edinburgh- in the 75th
year of his age, on the 17th of May, 1873.
In the Little Kirk" is a memorial tablet
"erected by the congregation and a few
friends in token of their affectionate and
lasting remembrance of his worth as a man,
his eloquence as a preacher, and his energy
as a worker in the mission-field."



RICHARD HILL, one of Jamai.a's most
famous sons, was born at Montego Bay, on
the Ist of May, 1795. His father, also
named Richard, came from Lincolnshire
(where the family had lived for several cen-
turies) to Jamaica in 1779, and along with a
brother -..tle.d.,t Montego Bay. There he
became a substantial merchant. He died
at Islington on the 30th of May, 1818, leav-
ing property in Jamaica which came into
the possession of his son and his two daugh-
ters Ann and Jane. Hill's mother, who had'
East Indian blood in her veins, survived
her husband many years, her son being
constant in his loving and dutiful attention
to her up to the last.
At five years of age, Hill was sent to Eng-
land to reside with some of his father's
relations, then living at Cheshunt where,
when old enough, he attended Lady Hunt-
ingdon's college.
S"My earliest essays -i Natural History," he
.writes, "if mere habits of observation and reflec-
tion are to be reckoned among the early studies of
Nature, were made, in the fields and marshes of
that part of England, The first cuckoo's
voice I heard was there; the first lark I heard and
saw at 'heaven's gate' was there; and my first
acquaintance (as a boy makes his acquaintance
with the things of river life) was with the fishes of
the Lea and its affluents."
Continuing at Cheshunt until his four-
teenth year, he was then sent to the Eliza-
bethan Grammar School at Horncastle to
finish his education.
Upon the death of his father, Hill re-
turned to Jamaica. His father's death in
some way or other involved him in several
irksome money obligations. For many
years he was much harassed by them; but
in course of time he discharged them all,
These early troubles, as well as one or two

serious disappointments later on cast a
gloom over his whole after life. He be-
came habitually sad, and, except in the com-
pany of his most intimate friends, he seldom
laughed or seemed happy.
His father was a man in advance of his
times, hating and deploring the intolerance
and the tyranny that grew out of slavery as
it then existed in Jamaica. On his death-
bed, he made his son solemnly pledge himself
to devote his energies to the cause of freedom,
and to never rest until those civil disabilities-
under which the class to which he belonged,
the coloured people, were labouring-had
been entirely removed, and, further, until
slavery itself had received its death-blow.
The time and opportunity for fulfilling
his pledge st on came, for in the year 1823
the coloured people in Jamaica commenced
their agitation for obtaining equal privileges
with their white brethren. It does not ap-
pear that Hill attached himself openly to
any of the societies that were formed for
the purpose of carrying on this agitation.
But he freely gave them the benefit of
his abilities ; helping the whole move-
ment with his advice and his pen. John
Campbell, the President of the Montego
Bay Society, Simpson, the President of the
Kingston Society, Lyon, Edward Jordon
(then styled junior, as his father was alive)
and a few others, all active and influential
members of these societies, were his per-
sonal friends, and to them he doubtless com-
municated his views and gave his advice. It
was always suspected, probably not without
reason, that many of the leading articles of
the Watchman" were written by Hill;
but he never would own any of them.
Hill went to England in 1826, landing at
Holyhead on the 3rd of September. In


1827, he was deputed by the organisa-
tions in Jamaica to use his efforts in Eng-
land to secure the assistance of the leading
members of the Anti-slavery party. During
his stay there, he was on terms of close
intimacy with Wilberforce, Buxton, Clarkson,
Babington, Dr. Lushington and Zachary
Macaulay-all members of the Anti.Slavely
Society-as well as Pringle, and other men
eminent for their philanthropy and talents and
noted for the deep interest they took in all
that related to the elevation and welfare of
the coloured and black people of the British
West Indian colonies. The petition from
the coloured people of this island to the
House of Commons, for the removal of their
civil disabilities, was entrusted to Hill, who,
upon the occasion of presenting it, was per-
mitted within the bar" of the House. On
that occasion Canning delivered his last
speech-a splendid effort, in favour of the
petitioners. Hill remained several years in
England and contributed largely by his
pen and his speeches to enlighten the
public mind of England as to the real
character of Vest Indian slavery. But
the remittances' from the "people of
colour" in Jamaica, never very large, soon
became few and far between. So Hill-
always nobly independent in every way, even
in his friendships and political alliances-
maintained himself and his sister Jane, who
was with him, almost entirely by his con-
tributions, literary and scientific, to several
popular newspapers and periodicals. Some
of his poetical effusions appeared in the
" Keepsake" and other illustrated publica-
tions of the day. The following is a speci-
men of them:-
*,* In the mythology of Egypt, the rose was sacred
to llarpocrates, the God of Silence : it was therefore
hung up above the tables at feasts to remind the
guests of the confidence of sociality. Hence origi-
nated the phrase under the rose," to imply secrecy.
Under the rose in days of old,
Fond vows were sealed, fond secrets told,
And still when love at eve's calm hour
Would wonder to its favourite bow'r,
And whisper in its amorous mood
The thoughts it nurs'd in solitude,
The dreams that loving hearts disclose,
Are sacred underneath the rose.
And while the constant soul shall be
Enamoured of love's secrecy,
Through varying time's unceasing range,
The language of the lip may change,
Empires be won or thrones decay'd,
Yet never shall their emblem fade,
For faithful still shall love repose,
Under that faithful flow'r the rose.

And thou-when I in eve's calm hour,
Besought thee in the twilight bow'r -
To pledge my love from lips whose smile
Cheated my heart with hope the while-
Must pe'er forget that love tales told
Were sacred neathh that flow'r of old;
And tho' thy heart refused, that those
Were vows we breath'd beneath the rose.

The "West Indian Serenade may also
be given as an example of his poetry in-
spired by his native island:-
Sleep, lady, sleep, the land winds are sweeping*
Chilly and bleak over mountain and vale,
Fast fall the dews, and the night flowers are weeping,
Weeping their tears to the sighs of the gale.
Turn not again from the dream of thy slumbers,
Think not of moon, nor of stars that are bright;
Rest thee and, sooth'd by our music's wild numbers,
Sleep, while we bid thee, sweet lady, good night.
Good night, good night.

After a residence of several years in Eng-
land, Hill was sent by the Anti-Slavery
Society on a visit to San Domingo, chiefly
for'the purpose of ascertainng by personal
observation and enquiry what wits the ac.
tual social and political condition of the
people of that island. But his commission had
a more extensive object than that attached
to it, which, however, directed him to obtain
besides all the information he possibly could
concerning the natural resources of every
part of the country through which he was
to travel. San Domingo was then under the
wise and able rule of President Boyer, the
whole island forming one undivided repub-
lic, enjoying internal tranquility, and being
in a comparatively flourishing condition. On
his way from England to Port-au-Prince,
where he arrived on the 16th June, 1830,
Hill visited France, staying there a few
weeks, and, on this side of the Atlantic,
touched at the Danish island of St.
Thomas, of which he wrote a short
account, telling of the bucaneers who once
made that island one of their resorts. He
spent nearly two years in San Domingo,
travelling incessantly and making notes
about everything that attracted his atten-
tion. His report to the Anti.Slavery
Society, which was published both in Eng-
lish and French, is well written and highly
interesting. But his diaries-in the posses.
sion of Mr. Hutchings-which have never
been published, are much fuller and more

*In Jamaica the sea breeze, which blows all day,
drops at sun-down, and the land breeze blows at


interesting, still containing, as they do, a
greater variety of information. He sailed
from San Domingo to England on the 3rd
May, 1832, and then for Jamaica a tew
months after; never again to quit his native
Hill, never greedy for money, seems to
have been ill-paid for his labours in San
Domingo. Upon his return to Jamaica,
either on that account or from motives
of policy, he ceased all communication with
the Anti-Slavery Society, and only now and
then did he write to one or two of its mem-
members, and even then more as personal
friends than as old political allies. "The
fact was," says Mr. Hutchings, "he
could "never be an out and out radi-
cal; it was not in his nature to be one.
And all the time people in Jamaica and else-
where were clamouring against him as an
arch conspirator, he was nothing more than
a moderate whig-now known as a liberal-
conservative-and such he was to the day
of his death."
On the 3rd of February 1834, Hill was
appointed one of a batch of forty stipendiary
magistrates whose duty it was to adjudicate
between the former slave-holders and their
" apprentices." This appointment he held
until the 1st January, 1872.
All the monthly, special and other re-
ports of these magistrates were, at the
start, made direct to the governor who also
generously took personal cognizance of any
complaint communicated to him by either
master or apprentice. These last mentioned
complaints rained thick and heavy on the
then governor, Lord Sligo, who soon found
his hands so full, that in 1835 he was obliged
to write to the secretary of state for the
colonies, Lord lenielg. He received an
answer permitting him to relieve himself
as much as possible of these burthens, and
Hill was appointed under-secretary to the
Governor. lHe continued to discharge the
duties of this office with great ability, until
the time of Abolition, when they virtually
ceased. He was styled Secretary to the
Stipendiary Magistrates. It was a very
laborious post, but at the same time it con-
ferred on him much local distinction. "Com-
ing as he did," says Mr. Hutchings, into
such close and frequent contact with
the governors, he was often accused, but
very wrongfully, of being their adviser in
many acts of theirs that did not chime in
with the views of the planters. Even his

old friends, 'the free coloured people,' found
fault with him and reproached him with
having turned tail.' These accusations and
reproaches he never in the least merited."
Hill represented St. James and afterwards
Trelawny in the House of Assembly which
sat from October 24th, 1837, to November
3rd, 1838, and during that time he served
on several important committees, notably
one appointed to inquire into the state of
the several courts of justice in the Island.
The Morning Journal" states in an
obituary notice that
Had Mr. Hill been a man of political ambition,
there was hardly a post in the island to which he
might not have legitimately attained, and which
he would not have filled with honour: but his was
a nature to shrink from making himself conspicu-
ous among his fellow-men. Even in those pur-
suits of a purely literary character in which he
delighted, he rather shrank from the public gaze
than courted popularity."
But the fact that he unsuccessfully con-
tested the representation of Port Royal in
November, 1838, may have had something
to do with his withdrawal from political
strife. The Watchman," however says:-
"'His presence in that House, and his en-
lightened and liberal sentiments, being extremely
distasteful to the dominant party, who hated and
feared him, they introduced and carried a Bill
for preventing Stipendiary Justices from sitting
in the Assembly;-a measure purposely aimed, it
is believed, at Richard Hill, and which had the
effect of depriving his country of his valuable
services as a legislator."
About 1840, he was offered the gover-
norship of St. Lucia, but his love for his
native island caused him to decline the offer
He was in 1855 or 1856 nominated a
member of the Privy Council, which post he
only held about ten years.
His political career was ended early
in life, and the remainder of his days
were passed in retirement at Spanish Town,
where he had taken up his abode upon
being appointed stipendiary magistrate. He
occupied his time with his daily official du-
ties and literary work, and seldom left
home, except for change of air at the sea-
side, to visit some intimate friend in King-
ston. or perhaps to take the chair at some
missionary gathering, or to join in the de-
liberations of a committee meeting.
Of his powers as a lecturer the Watch-
man says:-
Mr. Hill is well-known as an able lecturer, al-
though he is not-as we have said-a very popu-
lar one. People do not run after him; but to those
who can appreciate the peculiar excellencies of his


matter and style, he is always listened to with
pleasure and.profit. He reads his lectures from
Sthe beginning to the end, not being blessed with
the gift of speaking extempore in any large measure.
His valuable services are in frequent requisition
too at Missionary Meetings, and other benevolent
gatherings, sometimes as Chairman, and at other
times, speaking to Resolutions. He does not,
however, shine on the platform. He speaks gene-
rally from brief notes: but does not deliver him-
self with the ease, and fluency, and self-possession,
of the practised speaker. He is timid and hesi-
tating, and at times appears to be quite em-
barrassed. But he never 'breaks down.' When
the moment of difficulty arrives, there is a tremu-
lous motion of the head, as if thought were strug-
gling to find utterance; but it is soon over, and
the right words in the right place are sure to
come, convincing you that though oratorical
ability may be wanting, mind is there in active
operation, and that there stands before you a man
gifted with no common powers of intellect."
When the cholera swept over the island
in 1851, Hill turned his botanical studies to
good account. The saline treatment was
then in high esteem; but by means of the
bitter-bush, (Eupatorinum ervosum), a shrub
not unlike the wild sage in appearance,
which grows freely on waste lands, he is
said to have alleviated much suffering and
saved many lives.
He was Vice-President, from 1844 to 1849,
of the Jamaica Society for the encouragement
of Agriculture and other Arts and Sciences,
instituted in 1825. In 1849 this Society
ceased to exist and in its stead sprang up
the Colonial Literary and Reading Society
of which Hill was one of the managing
committee. He was one of the nominated
members of the then Board of Education.
He was a member of the original Coun-
cil of the Royal Agricultural Society of
Jamaica (founded in 1843), Vice-President
as late as 1857 of the Royal Society of Arts
of Jamaica (established in 1854 as the Ja-
maica Society of Arts) and Vice-President
of the Royal Society of Arts and Agricul-
ture, which was the result of the amalga-
mation of these two Societies in 1864. In
1861, he had undertaken to edit jointly with
the Rev. James Watson, the secretary, the
Transactions of the Royal Society of Arts,
to which he contributed various notes. But
in the first number of the Transactions of
the Incorporated Royal Society of Arts and
Agriculture (1867) is the record of a vote
of sympathy and regret at his inability to
attend through ill-health; and although he
contributed articles to the journal he
was not able to be present at the meetings.
His leisure was devoted to scientific study

-especially the ornithology, ichthyology
and anthropology of the West Indies. A
series of three manuscript lectures, now the
property of Mr. Hutchings, upon the life
and customs of the Indians, show that
Hill was well acquainted with all the litera-
ture upon the subject, and that he had also
himself made observations of their remains
in Jamaica. He never let a single oppor-
tunity pass by, if he could possibly help it,
without trying to benefit his country with
his ready pen, and he always gave all the
encouragement he could to those who seemed
at all anxious to study any subject with
which he was in the least acquainted. He
read some twenty-five lectures in all, at va.
rious times on various subjects.
On the title page of his "Naturalist's
Sojourn in the West Indies" as well
as in his preface, Gosse bears testimony to
the assistance which Hill rendered to him.
The appearance of Hill's name on the title.
page (" Assisted by Richard Hill, Esq., Cor-
M.Z.S. Lond. Mem. Counc. Roy. Soc. Agri-
culture of Jamnaica") was, Mr. Edmund Gosse
tells us in his memoir of his father, greatly
against that modest gentleman's wish The
publication of this book was delayed by the
fact that every sheet was sent to Spanish
Town to be read by Hill. Gosse says in his
"The following pages are enriched with many
papers from another pen. The Author considers it
one of the happiest reminiscences of a visit un-
usually pleasant, that it gave him the acquaint-
ance of a gentleman whose talents and acquire-
ments would have done honour to any country,
but whose excellencies as a man of science, as a
gentleman, and as a Christian, shine with peculiar
lustre in the comparative seclusion of his native
island. The Author has long had the privilege of
his correspondence ;-he enjoys the still higher
privilege of calling him friend. It is with no
small gratification that on the title-page of this
volume, he can again associate with his own, the
honoured name of Richard Hill, o'f Spanish
Mr. Edmund Gosse in his Life of his
father, calls his friendship for Hill, "one of
the warmest and most intimate friendships
of my father's life, assiduously cultivated
long after his departure from Jamaica, and
not wholly interrupted until the death of
Mr. Hill;" and again he says, describing how
Hill came to Kingston to meet Gosse on his
arrival at that town :-
"This was the first meeting of the brother
ornithologists.* The next day Mr. Hill did the
Gosse had been in the island nearly a year before
he became acquainted with Hill.


honours of Kingston, and in particular took Gosse
to the rooms of the Jamaica Society, where they
examined together Dr. Anthony Robinson's draw-
ings of birds and plants. The specimens in the
town museum were few and in wretched preser-
vation, yet the objects in themselves mostly good.
By the afternoon train the friends left Kingston
for Spanish Town, and spent the evening in ex-
amining a large collection of drawings of birds.
made by Richard Hill himself. Philip Gosse's
brief stay at Spanish Town was made extremely
pleasant to him by assiduous hospitalities of
Richard Hill."
The Robinson MSS. were, through the
instrumentality of Hill, entrusted by the Ja-
maica Society to Gosse to take to Europe.
Hill contributed to several scientific pub-
cations both in England and America, and
by this means became connected with some
of the leading learned societies of the world.
lie was a corresponding member of the Zoolo-
gical Society of London, of the Leeds Institute
and of the Smithsonian Institution, and he
numbered amongst his correspondentsDarwin
and Poey. Darwin had written in September
1856 to Gosse for further information with
respect to the habits of pigeons and rabbits
referred to in his Sojourn," and it was at
Gosse's suggestion that Darwin wrote direct
to Hill; and in a later letter (April 1857)
he says, -' I owe to using your name a most
kind and valuable correspondent in Mr. Hill,
of Spanish Town." All who knew him bore
testimony to Hill's generosity, philan-
thropy, modesty, even temper, and unfail-
ing self-forgetfulness ; his kindness of heart,
his piety, and his catholicism in matters of
religion. He was a Low Churchman and
always fought against anything like inno-
vation. In stature he was tall and com-
manding, though perhaps the comparison of
him to Antinous made by the writer of an
obituary notice was a little exaggerated.
The following account of him occurs in
The Watchman" for February 26, 1859,
in a description of the opening of the House
of Assembly at Spanish Town.
"Among the group are several men of striking
mien. But there is one there who immediately
attracts your notice, and awakens your interest in
no ordinary degree; that tall, stout gentleman of
swarthy hue, his large andlofty head covered with
a rich profusion of glossy white hair clustering in
flat curls around it. He raises his head, and plac-
ing a pair of gold eye-glasses on his Roman nose
directs his gaze to the gallery, hastily scanning
the array of beauty there. He has a countenance
beaming with intelligence and benignity; and
small but piercing black eyes, twinkling beneath a
pair of shaggy, overhanging eyebrows-coal black,
presenting a striking contrast to the snowy cover-
ing of the head. Thought sits upon that noble

brow; but his full cleap face-for he wears no
whiskers-is without a wrinkle-the picture of
placidity, the speaking index of a mind evenly
balanced and well regulated ...of a soul in which
the storms of passion have never raged. That's
the Honourable Richard Hill-a man who, seen
once, can never be forgotten."

The portrait which accompanies this
memoir, is from a sketch of an oil painting
of him, of little artistic merit, in the Art
Gallery of the Institute. It was done-the
writer has been informed by Mr. C. L.
Campbell-by a Mr. James Wyeth, an
American artist who spent a short season in
the island. Edward Jordon also sat to
Wyeth for his portrait. From comparison
with daguerreotype portraits from life in
the possession of Mr. Hutchings, it. is evi-
dent that the painting does not do justice
to Hill's physical or intellectual qualities.

For two or three years before his death,
Hill suffered from failing eyesight. He died,
unmarried, at Spanish Town, on September
28th, 1872, at the advanced age of seventy-
eight. His remains were followed to the
grave by'an immense concourse of all classes.
By his will, which was proved on the 18th
of October in that year, he bequeathed all
he possessed to his only surviving sister
Jane Hamilton Hill Harrison.
The brief memoir given above has been
compiled mainly from information kindly
supplied by Mr. Lionel Hutchings, Hill's
friend and executor; from obituary notices
in contemporary newspapers, "The Watch-
man," "The Morning Journal," "The
Colonial- Standard" and "The Gleaner;"
and from facts related in Mr. Edmund
Gosse's Life of his father.
Hill's lectures entitled Lights and Sha-
dows" deal with the history of the taking of
Jamaica by Penn and Venables, aud the
causes which led to it; the Bucaneers, the
social and political history of the inhabi-
tants; and their moral and religious state
from their transfer to English government
till the time of the emancipation. They
form a commentary on incidents in the his-
tory of Jamaica rather than a brief his-
As the title-page tells us, the "Eight
Chapters in the History of Jamaica," illus-
trate the settlement of the Jews in the is-
land-from 1508 to 1680-an interesting
period of Jamaica's history. It gives evi-
dence of considerable historic research.


The following list includes but a small
portion of Hill's contributions to literature;
but it shows the diversity of his investiga-
tions into science.

I. The Birds of Jamaica. By Philip Henry Gosse ;
Assisted by Richard Hill., Esq., of Spanish
Town. 8vo. London 1847.
1. (a.) Contributions to the Natural History of the
Shark. By Richard Hill, C.M., Roy. Zool. Soc.,
Lond., and M. C. Roy. Agric. Soc., Jam. 4to.,
Spanish Town, Ja., 1850. (16 pp.).
2. A Naturalists Sojourn in Jamaica. By Philip
Henry Gosse, A.L.S., and Richard Hill, Esq.,
Cor., M.Z.S., Lond., Mem. Counc. Roy. Soc.
Agriculture of Jamaica. 8vo. London, 1851.
3. A week at Port Royal. By Richard Hill. 12mo.
Montego Bay, Ja. 1855.
4. Lights and Shadows of Jamaica History. Being
three lectures delivered in aid of the Mission
Schools of the Colony. By Richard Hill. To
which is added an appendix with Ford and
Gall's map of the island, sm. 4to. Kingston,
Ja., 1859.
5. Eight Chapters in the History of Jamaica from
A. D. 1508 to A.D. 1680, illustrating the set-
tlement of the Jews in the island. By Rich-
ard Hill. Published in aid of the funds of
the Hebrew Benevolent Society, 8vo. King-
ston, Ja. 1868.
6. The Picaroons, or one hundred and fifty years
ago. Being a history of commerce and navi-
gation in the West Indian Seas. (Communi-
cated to the Port Royal Reading Society.) By
Richard Hill, 8vo. Dublin 1869.

7. The Indians of the Antilles, and their predilec-
tion for snails, By Richard Hill, Esq. 1840.
8. Notes from an interleaved pocket-book being
memoranda for each month of the year 1839.
By Richard Hill, Esq. [Includes a disserta-
tion on Mosquitoes]. 1840.
9. The Shell Collector. Hy Richard Hill, Esq.
10. On the Fecundation Food of the mosquito,
illustrated by analogies in the history of the
bee. Richard Hill. 1841.
11. On the Weather of the Past Year, but' parti-
cularly with reference to the late Drought.
Richard Hill. 1841.
12. Meteorological Notes of the past year. By
Richard Hill. 1842.
13. On Acclimatizing. R. H. 1842.
14. The Natural History of the John Crow Vulture.
By Richard Hill. Read at the Evening
Meeting of the Jamaica Society, 4th August,
1840. 1842.
15. The Jamaica Trap Door Spider. 1843.

16. The Black Seal of the Pedro Shoals. Richard
Hill. 1843.
Meteorological Retrospect and Notes for the
year 1842. Richard Hill. 1843.
17. Citrate of Lime.
18. Preserving Fish.
19. Fishes of the Jamaica Shores and Rivers.
[Referred to by Poey. Mem. Hist. Nat. Vol.
II. p. 115-116. Reprinted in the Handbook
of Jamaica for 1881.]
ARTS OF JAMAICA 1856-1857.
20 On the beds of Lignite Coal in the Moore-
Town Mountains, Portland.
20 (a) On Hydraulic Lime, Artificial Stones, and
some new applications of the Soluble Alkaline
21. On Cocoanut Oil.
22. On Roasted Coffee.
23. On the culivation of Cotton.
24. On Settlers and Small Settlements.
25. On the Industrial Status of the Colony.

26. Double-shelled egg of a Cochin China fowl.
27. Fishes. The Percoide.
28. The Loricati.
29. The Scisnidae
30. On the Importance of the Study of Natural
History, R. H.: January and February, 1836.
31. On the alterationto be expected in the colony
in the system of cultivating lands. R. H.
(1838) p. 270.
32. The Alligators of the Antilles. Richard Hill.
33 The Hurricane at Aux Caycs. Richard Hill.
34. Official jottings in 1845 and 1846. [unsigned,
but evidently by Hill.]
35. Meteorological Notes on the Weather of 1850,
by Richard Hill of Spanish Town.
LONDON, 1841 and 1844.
86. Observations of the nests of the Birds of Ja-
maica. 1841.
87. Donation of Skins from Jamaica. 1844.
38. On Mimus orpheus, 1863.
39. Note on Geotrygon sylvat;ca, 1863.


40. On Jamaica Scorpions.
TORY, 1849.
41. On Trochilus Maria.
(m) THE FIELD NATURALIST," edited by James
Rennie, Vol. I, 1833.
42. On the Burrowing Owl. R. H-1 (p. 459).
43. The Alligator of the Antilles. R. H--1 (p.
44. Notes from the West Indies. R. H-1 Esq.
(p. 539).
45. The Green Tody (Todus viridus) with a col-
oured figure. By R. H--I, with additions by
the Editor. (p. 1.).

The following list of species described by
Iill and those named after him has been
furnished by Professor T. D. A. Cockerell,
F. Z. S.
(1) Capromys brachyurus, Hill. In Gosse's
"Naturalist's Sojourn in Jamaica." A
valid species.
(2) Turdus leucophthalmus, Hill. MS. in
Bonoparte's "Conspectus" I. p. 271.
(Merula lencophthalma. Hill in
Gosse's Birds of Jamaica" p. 142). A
synonym of Merula jamaicensis.
(3) Merula sultator, Hill. MS. in Gosse's
Birds of Jamaica," p. 136 and 140,
1847. [Said to have been first named
by Hill in "Companion to the Jamaica
Almanac 1843"]. ,A synonym of
Merula aurantia.
(4), Erismatura ortygoides, Hill. MS. in
Gosse's Birds of Jamaica." p. 406
plate cxiii. Probably a synonym of E.
(5) Trochilus maria. Hill. Annals and
Magazine of Natural History, 1859, p.
258. A synonym of Aithurus polyti.
(6) Labrax pluvilis, Hill. In list of Ja-
maica fishes. A doubtful species. See
Provisional List Fishes Ja. p. 7 (1892).
(7) Dajaus choirorynchus, Prov. List Fishes
Hill. Agonostoma choirorynchus,
Prov. List Fish. Ja. p. 12. Pro-
bably the same as the later described
A. percoides of Giinther.

(1) Mimus hillii, March. Proceedings and
Accounts of Natural Science. Phil.
adelphia 1863, p. 291. Habitat, Ja-
(2) Exoccetus hilliainus, Gosse "Nat. So-
journ in Jamaica" (Habitat, Jamaica,
(3) Spince hilianus, Poey. Mem. Hist.
Nat. Cuba. Vol. II, p. 340. (a syno-
nym of Etmopterus spinax, Linnceus).
(4) lelix hillii, Gundlach. (See Zoolo-
gical Record, Vol. VII, p. 159) [A
Cuban species, probably named after R.
Ilill, but I have not seen the original
description ]
(5) Geomelania hilliana, Adams.
(6) Choanopoma hilliana, Adams.
(7) Blandia hilliana, Chitty.
These three are all Jamaican.

The following notes have been contri-
buted by Dr. Cargill :-
CONNECTED with the life of Richard Hill
is a most remarkable ghost story, which was
well known to all who lived in Spanish
Town during Hill's life time. The ghost,
a Spanish woman, dressed in white with
high-heeled shoes and a mantilla with a
veil over her face, used to appear to him
in broad day-light and walk up and down
his piazza. She was not only visible but
her footsteps were audible. Hill confessed
to a feeling of fear when he first saw
her, but her frequent and harmless visits
made him get accustomed to this strange
visitor. He made several sketches of the
ghost. She never spoke and would vanish
if approached too near; no one ever saw
her except himself, but his sister- Mrs.
Harrison often heard her footsteps. This
strange story, if told by any ordinary
superstitious person, would have little or
no weight, but when we take into con-
sideration the character of the person who
saw and sketched this strange apparition,
we can only say that there are indeed
more things in Heaven and earth than are
dreamt of in our philosophy.
Hill was socially a most attractive
friend, his great intelligence and at
the same sime modest nature made him a


welcome and valuable companion. It was
impossible to associate with him without
learning something. He was much attached
to children. He used to call himself
Poet Laureate to the Babies. The follow-
ing letter to the wife of one of his much
esteemed friends, and verses to the babies
are illustrative of his kindly nature.
Spanish Town,
Thursday, 18th April, 1865.
My dear Madam,
On my meeting your husband in Kingstoi
the other day, he reminded me that the Baby
Rhymes I had promised for your little girl had
not yet been received. I send you two Nursery
Rhymes, the first composed specially for the little
Miss. She may possibly under its influence grow
up as wise as the Vizierin the story related in the
"Spectator," who professing to understand what
birds are saying rebuked Sultan Mahmaad for his
wasteful government, by telling him that the pair
of owls he had listened to had settled a marriage
contract for ruins to house in, by the assurance
there never could be a want of them while Sultan
Mahmaad should reign.
Her first lesson here will be the marketing of the
white wing-
Two bits* for two,
Sings the white-wing Dove :
Says the little ground Dove
But all the world's wealth
Whether sick or in health,
Couldn't buy my little girl
Who's as precious as a pearl,
Who's a diamond of a girl, a diamond of a
Suns come burn me Oh I
Rains come wet me Oh !
Says the white-belly Dove
But the little girl I love
Neither sun nor rain shall harm
A slumbering on my arm
While she goes to her rest
A sleeping on my breast,
As precious as a pearl
A diamond of a girl; a diamond of a girl.
Merry you be, merry you be,-
Look up in the Tree,
And see how the birds there are frisking
and free.
They're chatting and playing,
And singing and saying,
Oh I pray pretty girl be as merry as we.

*A "bit" is 42d.

One, two and three,
See how many they be,
Up in the air and up in the tree
They're frisking and prancing,
And singing and dancing
And bidding good morning to you and
to me.
I send the young lady my best wishes for Easter.
Believe me, &c.

Notwithstanding Hill's great ability and
learning, there was a simple quaintness
about him, which sometimes amounted to
eccentricity. A medical friend of his hav-
ing hurt his eyes for a time with strong
liquid ammonia, Hill advised him to ap-
ply the juice of the wild cleary, and to
anoint the eyelids with cod-liver oil. Of
course this novel treatment was not carried
out by the doctor. A few days after the
occurrence, the doctor's wife received the
following remarkable letter -
Friday. 12th September, 1862.
My dear Madam,-
That Dr- may not mistake the herb
wild Cleary, for removing opacity from the eyes, I
repeat again the Botanical name Heliotropum
My sister reminds me that I may give Dr.
Chapter and verse for the cod-liver oil as ointment
for the eyelids when there is thickening of the
cornea. She reminds me of Tobit and his blindness,
Chap vi. verses 4 and 8. To whom the angel
"said, Open the fish and take the heart, and the
"liver and the gall, as for the gall it is good
"to anoint a man that hath whiteness in his eyes,
"and he shall be healed." Chap. xi. verse 10.
"Tobit also went forth toward the door and stum-
"bled; but his son ran unto him, and took hold
"of his father; and he strake off the gall on his
"father's eyes, saying, Be of good hope, my father.
"And when his eyes began to smart, he rubbed
"them; and the whiteness passed away from the
"corners of his eyes and when he saw his son ** "
That I may give all the value to be claimed
for this prescription, I refer you further to Chap.
xii. and verses 14 and 15. God hath sent me to
heal thee I am Raphael one of the seven holy
angels, which present the prayers of the saints. "
I think Dr- will not disregard a prescrip-
tion that comes so recommended, though the Book
from which I take it be apocryphal.
I hope when I go to L---- on Tuesday I
shall see him and he will see me.
I am, &c.


N the final volume of the
Mittheilungen des In-
stituts ffir 5sterreichis-
c h e n Geschichtsfors-
chung," Herr Fr. R. von
Wieser gives an interest-
ing account, with facsi-
mile reproductions, of three maps, made by
Bartolommeo Colombo, Columbus's younger
brother, in illustration of the Admiral's
fourth voyage, which maps are now in the
National Library, Florence. This article

On his fourth and last voyage, we learn
from his letter dated from Jamaica on the
7th of July 1503,0 Columbus took the bear-
ings of the eastern central American coast-
line from the gulf of Honduras to the
Isthmus of Panama.
A map of the newly explored land was
sketched by Columbus in conjunction with
his brother Bartolommeo, who was in com-
mand of one of the four small caravels com-
prising the fourth expedition.
Bartolommeo Colombo was a capable

Facsimile of map now in the National Library, Florence

was reprinted in pamphlet form under the
title Die Karte des Bartolomeo Colombo
fiber die vierte Reise des Admirals," at Inns-
bruck in 1893 : and from it the chief part of
the following article is taken.
The map which has the greatest interest
for Jamaicans is that of which a facsimile
is here given, for on it appears, for the first
time in the history of cartography, the
island of Jamaica, or as it is there spelled

navigator, and surpassed the Admiral in
things cartographical.
This Inap of the Veraguan coast was seen
in 1513 by Peter Martyr at Burgos, in the
hands of Bishop Fonseca, the President of
the Indian Council. A map and description
of the Veraguan coast, without doubt a copy
of the map prepared by the two Columbuses,
was in the possession of Diego de Nicuesa
when he sailed in 1509 to found a colony in

*See Journal Vol. II. No. 1: Page 42.



the lands discovered on the fourth voyage
of Columbus.
From a Codex in the National Library in
Florence (which codex had formerly been in
the Magliabechian and the Strozzi Libraries),
we learn that Bartolommeo Colombo, soon
after the death of his brother, brought a map
and description of Veragua to Rome, and
asked the Pope to use his influence with the
Spanish court in order that a new expedi-
tion might be sent to colonize and chris-
tianize the newly-discovered land. Barto-
lommeo Colombo then gave to a Fra Hiero-
nimo, canon of San Giovanni in Laterano,
"a drawing by his own hand of the coasts
of the said lands, in which were described
the localities, the condition, character and
costumes of those peoples." This Fra Hier-
onimo afterwards gave the map and the des-
cription to Alessandro Btrozzi, an enthu-
siastic collector of things relating to travel,
to whom the Biblioteca Nazionale in Flo-
rence is indebted for the codex above
mentioned. Strozzi then prepared for his
collection a compendious abstract from
the text of Bartolommeo Colombo, partly a
literal quotation from it, in the same trick of
language. That description of the Vera-
guan coast in the Florentine Codex has often
been referred to, especially by G. B. Bal-
delli Boni in 'II Millione di Marco Polo.'
The whole of the text is published by H.
Harrisse-in his Bibliographia Americana
vetustissima" (1866), but the map belong-
ing to this description is lost. The abstract
from the text of Bartolommeo Colombo has
no map whatever. But the Florentine
Codex does contain (on pp. 54-64) another
chief source of information about the fourth
voyage of Christopher Columbus, i.e, the
letter from Jamaica of 7th July, 1503;
and on the margins of these, there
are three remarkable sketch-maps, which
nobody ever noticed, till Ierr von Wieser
drew attention to them in the above-
mentioned article. They are hasty pen-
and-ink drawings, which give a full outline
map of the equatorial zone.
All three of the little maps embody true
Columbian ideas, and have direct reference
to the discoveries of the admiral, especially
to the results of his fourth voyage.
The map of which a reproduction is here
given, is noticeably on a smaller scale ; but
it is rather more carefully drawn than the
two others.

It represents, besides the Antilles, the
whole of the coast of the Central American
continent in uninterrupted connection with
the northern shores of South America The
reason of the omission of Cuba, is to be found,
Herr von Wieser thinks, in the fact that
though Bartolommeo did not share his
brother's opinion that Cuba was part of the
main land. he fought shy of the question,
owing to the morbid obstinacy with which
the Admiral stuck to his delusion.
On his fourth voyage, Columbus looked
hard for an inlet,, but, finding none, came
to the conclusion that these new found lands
were connected with those which he him-
self had discovered, on his third voyage,
west of the mouth of the Orinoco and the
"dragon's mouth," and which had been
followed up further, independently, by. his
companions P. Alonzo Niio, Vincente Yanes
Pinzon, Alonzo de Ojeda and others, as far
as the Gulf of Darien and Uraba.
Now, although Columbus did not discover
the passage he was hoping-i.e., the pas-
sage of the ancient geographers to the
Sinus Magnus," he yet obtained from the
natives the certainty that across the moun-
tains, a few days' march westerly, there was
another ocean, and he was firmly convinced
that he had come to the east coast of Asia.
and that he was actually in the kingdom of
the Grand Khan, of whom Marco Polo
wrote such fascinating descriptions, and that
the river Ganges was only ten days' journey
distant-opposite to the Veragua coast.
The map here reproduced shows this
opinion of Columbus, and in the second
map of the three it is still more plainly in-
These sketch-maps give more details than
any other maps of the same period, especially
concerning the fourth voyage. The con-
nection of Bartolodmmeo Colombo's descrip-
tion of the coast with this map is beyond
-doubt, and obvious, and on the other hand
it is impossible that the drawings could
have been constructed by the compiler of
the Florentine codex merely from the data
in the text, because they contain certain
names which are not in the text and give
others in different forms.
We know now that the compiler had a
map of Bartolommeo Colombo of the fourth
voyage, and there is therefore no doubt that
in these hasty sketches we have before us a
copy (defective, it may be perhaps) of those
important and hitherto lost maps.


These modest, hasty, marginal sketches,
have to us the value of costly historical
relics. They are not only the relics of the
missing map of Bartolommeo Colombo and
the only special maps of the fourth voyage:
they are above all, the only maps which
can be referred back to Columbus himself.
They are a truer reflex of his geographical
ideas than all other cartographical monu-
ments of the period of great oceanic dis-
coveries, which have been handed down to
us : especially, it is only in them that one
finds the idea underlying all the enterprises
of Christopher Columbus (that the islands
and continent which he discovered belonged
to Asia) graphically expressed. On all other

maps of the first quarter of the sixteenth
century they all appear more or less sharply
separated from Asia, and between the
eastern and western rims of the old world;
inserted as independent lands, which were
not referred to either by the ancient geo-
graphers or by Marco Polo.
All objective observers guessed or knew,
very early, the true state of the facts whilst
Christopher Columbus with the blind
obstinacy of enthusiasm clung, to his last
breath, to the glittering dream of the trea-
sures of India and the wonderland of the
Grand Khan.

F. C.



FIVE articles have already appeared in
this Journal giving contemporary accounts
of the earthquake which destroyed part of
Port Royal in 1692. The following is a
reprint of a copy of yet another account
which has recently been added to the Li-
Nothing is known of the author beyond
the facts stated, by himself, that he resided
at Witheywood, in the parish of Vere, and,
by his friend H L., that he had long been
seated in the island.0 Nor is there any-
thing to throw light upon the identity of
H. L., who gave publicity to this letter ad-
dressed "to a dear relative." The follow-
ing is a transcript of the title page :-
*There was a church in Witheywood, although no
parson, as early as 1675. Sir Thomas Lynch, writing
in May, 1675, says: "None but these four parishes [Port
Royal, St Catherine, St. John and St. Andrew]
are supplied, though there are 14 in the Island. In
Vere or Wyttiywood there is a church, and that and
Clarendon parish adjoining are able and willing to
give a minister 1001. per annum." (cf. "Calendar of
State Papers, Colonial Series, America and the West
Indies, 1675-1676, and Addenda 1574-1674." London,
The lower district of Clarendon. Long tells us in
his History, called Withywood, took its name from
its having been formerly overspread with wood and
withes when the English first settled upon it, and
which grew so thick, that it was impossible to walk
among them without a cutlass to clear the way. This
is the part which, on account of its rich soil, was
afterwards filled with indigo and sugar works, the
opulence of whose owners is spoken of by several

The Truest and Largest
Late Earthquake
June the 7th, 1692.

Written by a Reverend Divine there to his
Friend in London,
Some Improvement thereof by another Hand.

Watch ye, therefore (for you know not when the Mas-
ter of the House cometh, at Even or at Midnight,
or at the cock-crowing, or in the Morning), Least
coming suddenly, he find you sleeping-And what
Isay unto you I say unto all, Watch.-13 Mark,
35, 36, 37.

Printed, and are to be Sold by J. Buttler, Book-
seller at Worcester, 1693.

Sir,-Waving all other Private and Particular
Concerns at this time, give me leave to present
you with an Account of a late dismal Calamity
and Judgment, which hath befallen us here in this
Country by a Terrible Earthquake, which a just
God hath sent upon us on Tuesday the 7th of June,
about a quarter of an Hour after Eleven of the
Clock, and continued with great Violence and
Terror, (as most say, about one Quarter of an
Hour) but in my opinion not above six or seven


Minutes; in which time it overthrew all the Brick
and Stone buildings in the Countrey, whereof
several in my own Parish, which now are either
leveled with the ground or standing Monuments
of the Wrath of God, are so shattered and torn that
they are irrepairable; While these were trembling,
the Earth opened in my Parish in multitudes of
Places, and through.their dire Chasms spew'd out
water to a considerable heighth above ground, in
such quantities, in some places, that it made our
Gullies run on a suddain, tho' before exceeding
dry; insomuch that some were afraid of being
overwhelmed at once by the River and Sea joining
together to swallow up the Cuuntrey, these gaping
Mouths being no less than 12, 20, or more Foot deep
under the Earth, and above two Miles up in the
Country, especially nigh the River, in the purest
Mould, which had not Clay or other Consolidating
Matter beneath to oppose the force of the Foun-
tains of the Deep breaking up; for where that
was, we do not find any Cracks of the Earth at all ;
and yet it pleases God that we in this Parish-
have escaped the Danger much better than our
Neighbour Parishes; for happening to Content
our selves with mean and low-built Houses,for the
most part built with Timber, and boarded, or with
Cratches set deep in the Ground and Plaistered,
such Houses are generally standing: So that we
have Means to assist one another in this calamitous
distress : While from the other parts of the Island
we have no less true than fearful Relations, of hun-
dreds of Souls cast out of their Dwellings, and not a
Place to hide their heads in, except what they
have since built, Booths or Tents to shade, them-
selves from the Sun. Our noted Town of St. Jago
de la Vega. or, the Spanish Town, is utterly down
to the ground, with its Church devoured in the
same Ruines. Our Magazeen and only Store house
of Port Royal is three parts swallowed up in the
Sea, Ships and Shallops now riding at Anchor
where great numbers of fine Fabricks have been
not long since; the Relation of which single Places
Sufferings to give you in particular, would not only
weary your Eyes, but make your Heart ake to read
it; many very eminent Merchants before worth
Thousands, are now scarce worth more than the
blue Linnen on their backs; several are dead,
either overwhelmed with their Houses, or drowned
in the Sea, which flowed in suddenly upon them;
while they fled from the Sea. the Earth de-
voured them in her gaping Jaws. or they were
knockt on the head with theHouses falling on
them, and while tLhe tled tr..im zh. l;ping Chasms
of the Earth, or the toilterion Buil.ine-. the Sea
met them and swlpti th.mn avay. .\ r I,,-le street,
which we call the Wharf, where most of the noted
Merchants lived, and where much of the Planters
Goods was Landed, for convenience of Sale and
Shipping; (more especially Sugar and Cotton)
sunk at once from. one end to the other, with a

writers; and though it has been called in question
by some, yet it is rery certain, that more carriages of
pleasure were at one time kept here, than in all the
rest of the island, Spanish Town only excepted. It
is, indeed, almost incredible to think what vast for-
tunes were made here by cultivation of this single
commodity." Witheywood appears as Wither Wood
in Blome's map of 1671, which is copied in Long's
History as "according to a survey made in the year
MDCLXX." It does not appear on modern maps. The
village that has arisen around the old church is now
known as Alley.

general crack, at the very beginning of the Earth-
quake, together with two Forts, Guns &c.,
built thereupon; and which is more dreadful, all
those poor wretches perished that were either upon,
or nigh it, without any Warning; and presently
after this, while the People were in the greatest
Horror and Consternation imaginable, neither hav-
ing time to fly, or thoughts where to fly for safety,
two or three more streets in their whole length
tottered and fell, and were immediately sunk,
Land and all together deep into the Sea, as far as
the Jews Street : All the upper part of the Town,
together with the Church, and all above the Palli-
sadoes, is under Water, even their Pallisadoes it
self where their Burying-place was, is now no
longer Earth, but Sea; and (ghastly to behold) the
very dead Corps that were there submerged (I
may say) instead of Inhumed, even-at their Funerals
floated from thence to all parts of the Harbour.
Such Houses as do yet remain are from the Jews
Street, and backward, to that we call the great
Seaside, but many of them so rent and torn, and
others so deeply sunk into the Water, whereof some
as high even as the Balconies, that they are unser-
viceable. The Wall of the Pallisadoes is utterly
ruined, with the Port thereto belonging; and
tho' Morgan's Line (which stands the best of
all) the principal Fort, (and as they say) Walker's
Fort, do yet stand, yet they are sorely shaken and
rent, and so sunk, they are not tenable; the whole
place that is yet above water, sinking daily by those
Earthquakes we have eversince had; sometimes four,
five, or six times more or less, in four and twenty
hours. I myself expecting now while I am writing,
when the Earth will tremble under me, tho in
other Parts of the Countrey I have not heard or
seen any farther damage done by any Earthquake
that hath followed the first; for which Mercy we
have great cause to Bless God even in our Misery,
who only so frequently puts us in mind of what be
hath so lately done, and can yet do what he will
with us at his pleasure. The reputed number of
the Dead, according to the general estimation (for
perhaps there will never be any true Account) is com-
monly reckoned, at fifteen hundred Persons, besides
Blacks,who'tis probable may be six or seven hundred
more, a multitude of whose Corps floated a great
many days after from one side of the Harbor to the
other, which caused such an intolerable stench that
the Dead were like to destroy the Living, till at
last some were sunk, others dispers'd by the Sea-
breeze, some to one place, some to another, upon
the Keys to the Leeward of the place, some even
fatl'n down as far as the Outbounds of my Parish,
which is many Leagues from Port Royal where
they lye unburied upon the Rocks and Sands as
they were cast up.
Immediately upon the Cessation of the extremity
of the Earthquake, your-Heart would abhor to
hear of the Depredations, Robberies, and Violences
that were in an instant committed upon the Place,
by the vilest and basest of the People: no Man
could call any thing his own, for they that were
strongest, and host wicked seized what they
pleased and ,hose they pleased, and where
they, pleased without any Regard to Propriety.
Gold and Silver, Jewels, Plate or Goods, was
all their own that they could or would lay
hands on: Nothing but breaking open of
of Houses, rushing into Shops, and taking .what
they pleased before the Owners faces; forcing


oods or Money from them in the open street, as
hey were carrying it elsewhere for better Security,
succeeded the Horrors of this dreadful time;
while others in Cano's, Wherries, Ship-boats, &c.,
were plundering Chests, Boxes, Screwtores, &c., of
what they could find in them upon the Water.
Even the very Slaves thought it their time of
Liberty, wherein they committed many barbarous
Insolencies and Robberies, till they were sup-
pressed by the Death of some, and punishment of
others. Many days did these Depredations last,
especially upon the Water, where the Dead were
robbed of what they had about them, some stript,
others searched, their Pockets picked, their Fin-
gers cut off for their Rings, their Gold Buttons
taken out of their Shirts, and then they were


From. a Photograph by J. F. Brennan.

turned adrift again: from thence was taken all
Manner of Stores that would swim, every one
taking that for his own which he could lay his
hands on, as Pork, Beef, Mackril. Salt-fish,
Coaca, Candles, Soap, Wine, Beer, Brandy and
a vast deal of other things, not here to be
thought of, or reckoned up and tho' our Council
(for our Governour is dead) have published a Pro-
clamation, That all manner of Goods. Money, &c.,
so seized, as by way of Prize upon the Water, shall
be accounted for by the present Possessors unto
such Persons throughout the Island, as are by Pro-
clamation appointed, and for Encouragement
thereto, they are allowed the third of the whole
Prize; or if they do not return in an account of
what is in their possession by such a time, they are

partly by a public and allowed Traffique (the
Achiento being settled here) a very large share for
so small a place of the Riches of Peru and Mexico,
which not only enriched our Merchants and Fac-
tors here, but whereof yearly were Transported for
England in Coin and Bullion vast Summs; so that
'tis not computed what is lost, but many People
think at least to the Value of 400,000, at Port
Royal only, of which the Merchants at home will
bear the greater share, which when you hear what
'tis there, you may perhaps give as good a guess as
our selves. You would admire at the Goodness of
God in the Preservation of the residue; some were
very miraculously delivered from Death, swallowed
down into the Bowels of the Earth alive and
spewed up again, and saved by the violent Erup-


to be proceeded against as Thieves and Robbers
according to Law; yet by the present Proceedings
of some who are reputed to have most of such
Prize-goods in their hands, it seems that much of
it will never be discovered; much of it is certainly
damaged and spoiled, and other of it will be in
others possession, and that by the Consent of the
Owners themselves: So that the richest are now
the poorest, and the meanest of the People are
now enriched by the Losses of others, which
Loss duely to Estimate and Value, is perhaps more
difficult than to reckon the number of the People
Port Royal in its flourishing Condition, was a
Famous Empory and Mart Town for these Indies,
whither were brought partly by a private, and


tion of Water through those Gaps; some (as they
say themselves, if they were alive at that time to
know what was done to them) were swallowed up
in one place, and by the rushing of Waters too and
fro by reason of the agitation of the Earth at that
time, were cast up again by another Chasm at
places far distant*. But the general Means of Pre-
servation was by Peoples flying as fast as they
could toward the back Sea-side, or getting aboard
the Ships in the Harbour by one means or other
with all speed possible, which were presently
crowded with Men, Women and Children, and
among which our Man of War, The Swallow then
in the Harbour, and Careening close by the Wharf,
was so damnified by the Fall of the Houses, that
upon View since she is condemned as unfit for
future Service; and Capt. Cunning's Ship, being
a Merchant-man of some Force, is made our Guard-
ship, himself being ashore and buried in the ruins.
Besides this 12 Shalops are sunk that lay within
the reach of danger, and further Damage at Sea I
do not hear of any.
Port Royal being thus ruined and utterly des-
paired of being a place of Safety for Habitation, it
is intended utterly to be deserted, most people be-
lieving that in a few Months it will either be all
under Water by reason of its daily sinking, or at
least but a very small remnant or Riffe of that
narrow Neck of Land will shew itself after a while :
Wherefore the Council have very lately agreed
upon another place, called The Rackt, whereon to
build a Town for the Reception and Accommoda-
tion of Merchants, which is within the same Har-
bour as the other, but some Leagues farther up in
the Countrey, at the farther end of the Haven,
whereunto an approved of Channel leads, and
which is not only more safe for Shipping both
against Enemies and Storms, but is described also
to be very nigh, and with very little Labour may
be made altogether as convenient as the famous
Harbour of Port Royal; it being capable (now as

Of these, the most celebrated was Lewis Galdy,
whose tomb still stands at Green Bay (opposite Port
Royal), where, at one time, many naval officers were
interred. On a brick tomb is a white marble slab
superincumbent with Galdy's crest and Arms: Arms
a cock: two mullets in chief and a crescent in base.
Crest, on an Esquire's helmet, a Plume. Motto
"Dieu sur tout;" and the following inscription,
Here Lyes the Body of LEWIS GALDY, Esqr. who
departed this life at Port Royal the 22nd December
1739. Aged 80. He was Born at lMontpelier in
France, but left that Country for his Religion and
came to settle in this Isladul, where he was swallowed
up in the Great Earthquake in the year 1692 and by
the Providence of God was by another Shock thrown
into the Sea and miraculously saved by swimming
until a Boat took him up: He lived many years after
in great Reputation, Beloved by all who knew him
and much Lamented at his death."
Roby, in his Monuments of the Cathedral-Church
and Parish of St. Catherine' points out that both Bryan
Edwards and Bridges give the wrong date for Galdy's
death. Galdy," says Roby, was an affluent Merchant
of Port Royal, Member in Assembly for St. Mary, 29th
December 1707; for Port Royal, 4th January, 1708-9;
for St. George, 17th April, 1711; for Port Royal, 17th
September, 1716, and for St. Anne, August 1, 1718,
besides sitting in other Assemblies, for which there
are no returns." He was, Feurtado tells us, Church-
warden of Port Royal, in 1726.
t Rock Fort.

Nature framed it) to receive Ships of the greatest
Burden very nigh to the shore, which may be much
advantaged in a small time by the building of
Wharfs, &c., for the Benfit of lading and unlading
of Ships, as at Port Royal before. From thence it
is but a short way to Ligania, the first and princi-
pal place for Planting, whereuntoo my own Parish
is immediately the next*) which for the most part
imitating, if not exceeding the stateliness of Port
Royal, is now the more terribly brought to Desola-
tion, together with its fine New Built and not yet
finished Church t buried in the same Ruines with
the Houses; above which Place the lofty blew
Mountains lift up their Heads, but are now so rent
and torn that they are fearful to behold, and are
like to stand for lasting Marks of the Wrath of God,
which hath also happened in other parts of the
Country, it being very Mountainous in the middle
part, insomuch thatby the Fall of a Mountain into
the Channel of the River which supplies both the
Town and Port Royal with Water, the River be-
came dry for sixteen Hours together, to the Amaze-
ment of the Inhabitants, fearing the Desertion as
well as Desolation of the place, till it after-
wards run again as formerly; and they were in-
formed of the Cause of the stoppage of the Water
for so long a time. This among other Reasons was
the Cause why the People that were saved at Port
Royal were almost perish'd for Thirst in their deep
Extremity, their own Water-Casks being either
ruined or swam away into the Sea, or no Boats to
fetch any in that deep Consternation, or otherwise
imploy'd to save People's Lives, or to get Plunder;
or if any did go, there was no Water to be had, so
that as it was hard to be gotten, so it was dear,
and many paid great rates only to quench their
Thirst. And yet for all these great Disasters, great
Numbers of People are not at all reformed of their
Wickedness, which brought this upon us, but there
is the same Whoring and Drinking, the same Curs-
ing and Swearing, if not worse than formerly; so
that we may fear the Judgment of Sodom will be
the next punishment that you will hear of.
For my part I desire to fear and Adore that
terrible Majesty that hath wrought such Terrors
among us, all the days of my Life; and however
many People at Port Royal may be given up to a
Reprobate Sense, whom neither the Mercies of
God, nor yet his Judgments can bring to Repent-
ance, yet I hope this hath been an effectual Warn-
ing to many of us in the Countrey, who knowing
the Terrors of the Lord, will for the future be the
more easily persuaded to an amendment of Life.
I question not but there are many Petty-factors at
Port Royal, who have stated their Accounts, and
balanced their Books with the sole Answer of an
Earthquake, whose Interest therefore it is to repre-
sent it in the most dreadful manner possible, that
they themselves may seem the more excusable to
their Employers, as if the whole Island were des-
troyed thereby, which will discourage Merchants
from Trafficking hither, and will be a means of
further suffering thereby. Yet as I have done my
best to give you a true Information hitherto, so I
can assure you of the Truth of what I farther assert
That by the Blessing of God having hitherto rea-

The Divine was in error in saying that his parish
was next to "Ligania." Both Clarendon and St.
Catherine lay between them.
t Halfway Tree.


sonable good Weather, the Planters continue
employed in making of Goods, Cottons, and In-
digo's, &c., providing them for a Market; and
such who have Sugar-works, which is the staple of
the Island, many of them had Timber buildings,
which are either little or not at all prejudiced; and
others who built with Brick, or Stone. have so
much time between this and Crop-time, that
they can, and doubtless will fit themselves in
some measure in order to it: So that I am
sufficiently convinced, and therefore would per-
swade any other, that whatsoever Trades hither
for any manner of Goods for Cloathing. Household-
stuff. Arms and Ammunition. (which are generally
spoiled.) all manner of Provisions, Plantation
Utensils. &c will come by so much to the better
Market, by how much they hasten to our Assistance,
and need never fear the freighting of their Ships
homeward, there being a present damp upon
Trade which I don't know how long it may con-
tinue, so that we shall have great quantities of
Goods ready for them, to dispatch them the sooner
away. God in his Displeasure remembered Mercy,
and therefore this Calamity happened in the Day-
time, to the safety of many hundred Souls; for
though such Numbers perish't at Port Royal where
they were thronged together in an Istmus of
Land. yet I cannot hear of fifty Persons, both
Whites and Blacks, that perish'd throughout all the
Island beside. And thought in the midst of our
distress it pleas'd God to give us a signal Victory
over our Enemies, the French, who happened at
that time to make the sharpest Attack upon us
since the W~r, having landed some say 200, some
say 80 Men at the North-side, which is but weakly
famished with Men, where they intrench'd them-
selves, but were shamefully beaten out by a vigorous
On-set in the Night, by a Party of about thirty
Men, who slew 7 or 8 outright, and the rest flying
to their Boats were 30 of them drowned, while in
the meantime our Fleet which was set out on pur-
pose pursuing theirs, we took one Shalop, and
made them desperately blow up their great Ship ;
such as were saved remaining our Prisoners, and
others fled home to give an Account of their Over-
throw. What may be the effect of these sad times,
God only knows: Our first Fears were concerning
our slaves, those Irreconcilable and yet Intestine
Enemies of ours, who are no otherwise our Subjects
than as the Whip makes them; who seeing our
strongest Houses demolisht, our Arms broken, and
hearing of the destruction of our greatest Depen-
dency, the Town of Port Royal, might in hopes of
Liberty be stirred up to rise in Rebellion against
us, which is a War always the more terrible, by
how much there is no quarter given in it, but they
kill and slay all the Whites, Men, Women and
Children, that they can Conquer; but God be
praised these fears begin to be blown over. The
next consequence is either Famine or great and

extream scarcity, which it is true we do not feel
yet, nor may not this six Weeks, yet if it should
please God to withhold his Rain from us, (as it
hath often happened of late Years about this time;
and I never heard of an Earthquake as a Sign of
good Weather,) we must certainly very shortly
languish under that dire Affliction ; or if it please
God in Mercy to remember us in Misery, and to
give us the former and the latter Rain in its Season,
yet the least that we can suffer will be an extream
Scarcity of all manner of Provisions, Port Royal our
Storehouse being destroyed, in which much of the
Provisions are either sunk or spoiled in the Ruines,
or floated away to Sea no one knows whither, or
damaged &c. Another Consequence we fear is the
forcible Invasion of our Enemies, now our Hearts
are low, our Arms broken, our Forts Lacerated and
useless, our main stay and support sunk under
Water; (though God be Praised our Magazeen of
Powder in Port Royal be saved) the Men that
should have been the strength of the Island, many
hundreds of them drowned, yet do we not dread
so much what Mischief our Neighbours here can do
us, tho' at this time they may do us mischief
enough, with reference to particular Persons that
are adjacent to the Sea-shores, but are not able of
themselves to ruine the Island; only that which we
most dread, least the King of France upon this
News should send hither an Army to Invade us, to
prevent which our whole Trust and Confidence
under God is in his Majesty, who is himself Lord
and Proprietor hereof in his own Person, and there-
fore we hope for some speedy Relief from him; in
Order whereunto the Council have dispatcht a
Shalop to him the 22d or 23d Instant, to give
him an Account of our Present Condition, and to
request his speedy help, and which we all hope he
will not be backward in, towards an Island that in
its flourishing State brought in very considerable
Revenues into his Exchequer; an Island that hath
made a Notable Figure in these parts of the World,
and which himself and his Predecessors have dig-
nified with the Government of very Noble Peers,
and yet which may be now ruined in our low
Estate by a few Slights or Neglects. I am weary
now of recounting our Miseries to you, which I
have done in a Style as tho' you knew all the
Places I have mentioned to you; but tho' you don't,
others into whose Hands it may fall, may. I have
done with the Account, yet not with my Letter,
until I add this sincere Assertion, that I am on all
Withywood in the Parish of Vere.
June 30th, 1692.



.As the Mico'Institution in ,Kingston,,by
removing, on the5th, of February, 1896, into,
new and larger premises, rendered it possible
to extend its field of usefulness, and took a
distinct step in advance, the present seems
to be a fitting time for recording all that is
known of Lady Mico, the founder indirectly
of the institution, and directly of other chari-
ties which owe their origin to her benevolence
or to that of her husband, Sir Samuel
But little is known of Sir S.tmuel Viico. o
Pepys tells us that he was an alderman ; but
no trace of him can be found in the London
Corporation Records. From his will, we
learn'that he was a citizen of London, .an
inhabitant of the parish of St. Andrew
'Un.l.r-r4iat, and a meniber of the Mercers
C'uip.'ny. One can imagine that he in-
habited such a house as that of Sir Robert
Clayton, Sheriff of London in 1672, a "pro-
digious rich scrivener," in the old'Jewry,
described by Evelyn as built indeed for
a great magistrate, at. excessive cost. The
cedar dining-roome is painted with the his.
torie of the Gyants War, incomparably done
by Mr. Streeter, but the figures are too neere
the eye." .
He is m'enti6ned by Pepys, under date
February 19th' 1663-64, when he was at
By and by joyned with us Sir John Bankest;
who told us several passages of the East India
Company; and how, in every case, when there was
due to him and Alderman Mico 64,000 from the
Dutch for injury done to them in the East Indys,
Oliver, presently after the peace, they delaying to
pay them the money, sent them word, that if they
did not pay them by such a day, he would grant
letters of mark to those merchants against them ;
by which they were so fearful of him, they did
presently pay the money every farthing."
He was knighted in 1663, and died in
1666. Neither he nor Lady Mico appear
to have been buried in St. Andrew Under-

*The Handbook of Jamaica has long per-
petuated the erroneous statement that he was Lord
Mayor of London.
tSir John Bankes who lived in Lincoln's Inn
Fields, was (Evelyn tells us), a merchant of small
beginning, but had (1676) amassed 1010,000.

haft, as the name of Mico does not occur
in the burial register of that church for 1666
or 1670. His will is dated the 25th
of September, 1665, and was proved on
the 24th of May,' 1666. Two brothers-
in-law,. named Robinson, (brothers of his
wife) living at Cheshunt, are mentioned ; and
two sisters, one Dashwood by name,'living at
Dorchester, and the other named Russell
at Weymouth; a "brother-in-law named
Nathaniel Wythers (whom Lady Mico in
her will called cozen"); a kinsman "
named John Micb, of Crowscombe in Somer-
set and his two sons, Richard and Samuel;
and a :"kinsman "- named Edward Mico; but
Sir Samuel does not appear to have had a
brother and he certainly had no children.
The facts of his bequest, mentioned below,
to the town of Weymouth, and .of both his.
sisters being settled in Dorsetshire, one in
Weymouth itself, would suggest that Sir:
Samuel Mico was of Dorsetshire stock.
Hutchins's "Dorset," however, merely re-
cords the two- charities. Sir Samuel
made many bequests to his relatives and
his servants. To his wife he gave, over and
above her due according to the custom of
London, all his household stuff, plate and
jewels." The will then proceeds :
To the Towne of Melcombe Regis in the
county of Dorset I give my house standing on
the east side of the Key of that Towne called the
George Taverne or Inne with the yards or any'
other grounds thereunto belonging with the profitt
thereof to put out three poore children appren-
tices yearly. To the corporation of Weymouth
and Melcombe Regis in the county of Dorset I
give five handed pounds of lawfull money of Eng-
lande to be laid out in land the profits whereof to'
be bestowed twenty shillings yearly on some good
divine that they shall yearly choose when he hath
preached a sermon in the Church of Melcombe
Regis aforesaide on the Fryday immediately before
Palme Sunday every year. The rest to bee payd
that day to Tenn poore decayed seamen of that
corporation of the age of three score years or up-
wards in equally proportions or soe many of them
within that number that are soe qualified who are
to be at the hearing of that sermon, or soe many
of them as are able."
This bequeathing of funds for the purpose
of apprenticing poor lads was characteristic of
the times. So far as the Melcombe Regis


Charities are concerned, the Commisioners
appointed to continue the enquiries concern-
ing Charities in England and Wales reported
in 1834 :-
Twenty shillings is paid for a sermon preached
at Melcombe Regis Church on the F.iday before
Palm Sunday, by a clergyman appointed annually
by the corporation for that purpose; to each oft
ten decayed seamen of the borough of Weymouth
and Melcombe Regis, above 60 years of age, ap-,
pointed by the corporation, is paid 10s. every
month, and 20s. on the;day of the sermon, making
7 a year each. If the funds will allow, a further
payment is occasionally made to them at Christ-
mas *"
Of the house they report :
"These rents are applied in apprenticing poor
boys, selected by the corporation from the inhabit-
ants of the borough of Weymouth and Melcombe
Regis, with premiums of 7 each ; 4 of which
is paid at lh. ticr, .of binding, and the remain-
der. on the Friday before Palm Sunday (or Mico
day") next but one ensuing."
The following communication received
from the Rev. J. L. G. Hadow, Rector of
Melcombe Regis, in January, "1896, brings
the information ip to date.
Sir Samuel Mico, citizen and merchant, by his
Will dated 28th September, 1665, gave 500 to be
laid out in land. This it appears was done in 1701
by purchasing a tenement, outhouses, lands, etc.,
at Osmington, near Weymouth (being a small farm)
now held by trustees appointed by the Charity
Commissioners. The sermon is preached every
year,* The good divine receives his 20s.,
and the old men 1 each. The old men receive
at present a small monthly allowance.
Sir Samuel Mico also gave the George Tavern
or Inn .with the yards ten thereto belonging,
which are now vested in the same Trustees, the
Inn and other premises having been some years
ago rebuilt.
Boys are now serving their apprenticeships, and,
when apprenticed, receive an allowance each
towards an outfit. They have to attend with the
trustees the preaching of the said sermon, and
afterwards attend at the town hall. and, on pro-
ducing their master's certificate of good character
during the past year, now each receive 1, a bun
and a glass of wine. The Mico-day is thus still kept
by the attendance of the trustees, the old men,
and the apprentices at the Melcombe Regis
Church, and afterwards at the Guildhall.
Weymouth and Melcombe are now one borough:
one side of the harbour having formerly been the
the borough of Weymouth, the other or northern
side having been the borough of Melcombe Regis.
Sir Samuel bequeathed 500 to Christ's
Hospital, 500 to the Mercers' Company,
and 59 to parish of St. Andrew Under-
shaft ; 200 to his nephew Richard Mico,
of Crowscombe in Somerset: and the re-
mainder of his estate to his nephew Samuel
Mico of Crowscombe.

Turning now to Lady Mico, we find that her
will, dated lt July, 1670 (with codicil of 24th
October) was proved on the 9th of December
in the same year. Nobody that had the
slightest claim on hei-, seems to have been
forgotten-brothers, sisters, uncles, aunts,
nephews, nieces and servants, are all remem-
bered by this charitable lady. From her
will, we learn that her maiden name was
Robinson, and that she had two brothers and
two sisters. One brother, Peter;,and one sis-
ter Mary, were apparently unmarried when
she made her will. Besides these she men-
tions her,," cozen Walter Mico of London "
and his daughter Jane, in addition to numer-
ous other "cozens."

Her be6ther William lived at Cheshunt in
Hertfordshire. His wife's name was Wini-
fred. They had five.children; two sons,
Samuel and John, and three daughters,
Elizabeth, Jane and Mary, of whom Jane
was god-daughter of her aunt and recipient
under her will of 500, and her "bedd
wrought in greene*, and the other part of
my household store not disposed of by this'
my will."f
Lady Mico's sister Elizabeth had inarried
Andrew Barker of Fairford in Gloucestershire,
and had a son Samuel, god-son.of Sir:Samuel,
and three daughters Jane, Mary and Eliza-
beth.'of -whom the first named Was god-
daughter to her aunt and the recipient
under her will and codicil of 3,800, her
"crostich bed" and "all my household
store that is not disposed of by this my
From this it will be seen that the three
children of Lady Mico's sister and sis-
ter-in-law were named respectively after
their mothers and their two aunts, the Jarie
in each case being the god-daughter of Lady
Mico. Each mother, too, christened her.son
Samuel. Besides these near relations, Lady
Mico mentions in her will cozens" innu-
The paragraph in her will which has
special interest for Jamaica is as follows :-
And whereas I having a great kindnes for
Samuel Mico, my deere husband kinsman son of
John Micooqf Croscombe in the county of Somer-.

Considerable sums were at that time spent on
brdsteads. One, given to the Queen by the States
of Holland at the Restoration, cost 8,000. Cf. Eve-
lyn's Diary. Wheatley's ed. London, 1879. Vol. ii,
p. 146,
t It is difficult to imagine how the two bequests to
the two god-daughters could have been carried out,


sett and well knowing that my deere husband with
myself had thought of marring him to one of my
neeces and when and as sune as he shall marrey
such nece of mine vizt one of the daughters of my
brother in law, Andrew Barker or my brother
William Robinson aforementioned then and not
before or otherwise I give and bequeath to him
two thousand pounds lawfull money of England,
and on the formentioned condition 1 give and
bequeath to him a farm called the Littell Parke
which I bought or purchased in the names of my
brother Andrew Barker and my, brother William
Robinson of the Right Honourable the Marquis of
Worcester in the manner (sic) of Crookham scituate
lying and being in the several parishes of Chat-
cham in the county of Barke and Kingscleare in
the county of Southampton now in the tenor or
occupation of Thomas Browne and when the
aforesaid Samuell Mico shall have given a full
discharge according to law when he comes to one
and twenty years of age to the executors of my
deere husband for his estate in thare hand then I
give him one thousand pounds of lawfull money of
England and if hee doe not to thare satisfaction I
then give it to redeeme poor slaves in what manner
my Executors shall think mort convenient and I
give to Samuell Mico aforesaid my deere husband's
picter set with diamonds and I give him my crim-
son damaske bedd with all that belongs to that
sute and my great Lucking Glace and my marbell
tabell when hee comes to the age of one and
twenty years hee dying before that age I give
them to my two Executors. But if the above
Samuell Mico do not marry one of my neces afore-
said my will is if hee bee a civel man and doe marrey
into a good family and has a porchone with her
answareable to his estate and has a sonne that lives
to the age of a man I then give him the Littell
Park in the manner of Crookham in the parish of
Thacham in the county of Barkes and Kingsclere
in the county of Southampton. But if he have no
sonne I give it to his brother Richard Mico sonne
if hee have any if he have no sonne then to my
two executors I give it."
After further bequests to relations we
read : -
Item I give fifteen hundred pounds lawfull
money of England to build an Allmanes House
with some of it for tenn poore Widdowes of tha
age of fifftey or upward the rest of the money I
would have land bought with for a yearly revenew
to be equally divided among them yearly as my
Executors shall think best and my Executors shall
have the disposal of it for thare lives then I desire
the Company of Mercers to take it into their care to
dispose of it according to my will and I would
have it built for the poore of London in what place
my Executors think most convenient."
Then follows :-
I give fore hundred pounds to the Town of
Fureford in Glostershere to be lade out on land
the yearly revenue to put out fore poore boyes of
that Town Prentices and this to continue for ever
and I would have those Boyes that are chosen to
be such as can say the Lord's Praier the ten com-
mandments the Beleefe and the Church Catechisme
and I give one hundred pounds to the Allmens House
at Chalhunt (sic) in Hartfordshire to by land the
revenue thereof to be yearely equally divided to

the poore of that house for ever and I give fifty
pounds to the poore of that parish. in which I
lived at my deathe"
After that she returns to her nephew :-
And furthermore I doe hereby declare that
whereas I gave Samuel Mico aforesaid two thou-
sand pounds when he had married one ef my
neeces he not performing it I give one of the
said thousand pounds to redeem poor Slaves
which I would have put out as my Executors
think the best for a yeerely revenue to redeem
some yearely, and if the abovesaid Samuel
Mico marry one of my neeces I then give him my
best Pearl Necklace and all my plate that I due
nor, give away by this my will."
Lady Mico's Almshouses built at a cost of
780 5s 9d., stand" in Stepney Church-
yard, London They provide homes for ten
poor widows of freemen of the city of Lon-
don, over fifty-five years of age, and not
possessing an income of more than 30 a
year. Each inmate receives an allowance
of 30 a year, with medical attendance. The
charity is under the control of the Mercers
Company. In 1821, it received a sum from
the Honourable Elizabeth Fermor's Charity
at Fairford, (a free school and a lecturer)
in accordance with her will, dated 8th
August, 1704, (i.e. all over 50 a year.).

With respect to the Fairford charity, the
Charity Commissioners reported in 1828 :-
The income has been bestowed in occasionally
apprenticingboys when opportunities have arisen.
but the trustees complain of frequent breaches of
their engagements on the part of the masters, and
they have therefore of late come to the resolution
of giving only a part of the apprentice fee on bind-
ing the boy apprentice. and the residue at the
expiration of the term.'
The following note from the Rev. F. R.
Carbonell, Rector of Fairford, brings its his-
tory up to date :--
The Charity Commissioners have long agolaid
unholy hands on our local charities and have
made certain changes in the objects to which the
various benefactions are to be applied. In the
case of the Lady Mico Apprenticing Charity,
however, it would seem that some change was
absolutely necessary for the income of the Charity
went on increasing at an alarming rate, and there
seemed to be no possibility of its ever being spent
upon the object which the founder intended. I have
found the minute of the Trustees, of the year 1869,*
in which they resolved to ask the Endowed School
Commissioners to revise the scheme of Fermor's
Endowed School here, so that Lady Mico's Charity
should be applied for purposes of education instead
of apprenticing poor boys.

*From this minute it appears that the Trustees
experienced great difficulty in finding good and re-
sponsible masters, and that the apprentices ran away
from those who did take them.

The Mico Training College, Kingston, Jamaica (opened on the 5th of February, 1896, by His Excellency
Sir H. A. Blake, K.C.M.G., Governor of Jamaica).


Since that time the school scheme has been
altered more than once, I think, but the income
arising from Lady Mico's bequest is still used
through the school trustees for educational pur-
The account of the Mico College in the
" Jamaica Handbook says that Lady Mico
" had a kinsman who was engaged to be mar-
ried to his cousin a favourite niece of the
Lady Mico."
Now it is clear that this kinsman,"
Samuel Mico, was not engaged to her niece,
favourite or otherwise. By the terms of
the will he seems to have been given the
option of marrying any one of the six nieces
of Lady Mico-Jane, Mary and Elizabeth
Robinson, and Jane, Mary and Elizabeth
Barker; the Jane in each family being ap-
parently the most dersirable bride from a
monetary point of view as being god-
daughter of his rich aunt : and of these,
Jane Barker was the favourite, unless Lady
Mico in her bequest, took into account the
respective wealth of the two families (There
is evidence in Lady Mico's will that Jane
Barker's father was not opulent). Appar-
ently not one of the six pleased him; and
thus the 1,000 went to the redemption of
" poor slaves"-i.e. Christians held in cap-
tivity by the Moors of Algiers, in aid of
whose release benevolent persons were at
that time (the seventeenth century) wont
to make bequests: nor could he be induced
to change his mind by the promise of his
aunt's best pearl necklace and the unbe-
queathed portion of her plate.
With reference to the Algerian pirates
and their prisoners, the following extract
from Pepy's Diary (8th February 1660-61)
is of interest :--
"Captain John Cuttle, and Curtis, and Moot-
ham, and I, went to the Fleece Taverne to drink ;
and there we spent till four o'clock telling stories
of Algiers, and the manner of life of slaves there.
And truly, Captain Mootham and Mr. Dawes (who
have been both slaves there), did make me fully
acquainted with their condition there; as, how
they eat nothing but bread and water. At their
redemption they pay so much for the water they
drink at the public fountaynes, during their being
slaves. How they are beat upon the soles of their
feet and bellies, at the liberty of their padron.
How they are all, at night, called into their mas-
ter's Bagnard; and there they lie. How the poor-
est men do love their slaves best. How some
rogues do live well, if they do invent to bring their
masters in so much a week by their industry or
theft; and then they are put to no other work at
all. And theft there is counted no great crime at
And again under date 28th November of
the same year, we read :-

Letters from my Lord Sandwich, from Tan-
gier; where he continues still, and hath done some
execution upon the Turks, and retaken an Eng-
lishman from them, one Mr. Parker, a merchant
in Mark Lane.*
When Algerian piracy was suppressed,
Lady Mico's 1,000 had-owing to the fact
that it had been fortunately invested in
wharves on the Thames--increased at com-
pound interest to 118,000 ; and nobody
knew what to do with it. Sir Thomas
Fowell Buxton, however, in 1834, conceived
the idea that it might fairly be devoted
to the instruction of the children of the
freedmen in the West Indies, and through
his instrumentality and that of Dr. Lush-
ington, a charter authorizing its devotion
to the promotion of education in the
British colonies," was obtained in 1835,
and the Government added a grant of
30,000 per annum. This sum was later
reduced to 17,000 and then dropped
The Charity was established on the 29th
July, 1835, by an order of the Master of the
Rolls, and the first trustees were James
Gibson, Stephen Lushington, LL.D, Thomas
Fowell Buxton, Charles Raymond Barker,
Thomas Pickard Warren, and John Gurney
Hoare. The trustees established the charity
upon four great principles. The first was,
that all schools to be supported in whole
or in part from the funds of the charity
should be open to children of parents
of all denominations ; the second, that
the grand object of the charity should
be the promotion of education in general, but
especially of religious education, the basis of
the system to be the Holy Scriptures with
such extracts as were then used by the
British and Foreign School Society : and
the third, that no catechisms or books of
peculiar religious tenets should be taught in
the schools, but every child should be at
liberty to attend regularly the place of wor-
ship to which its parents belonged.
Institutions were founded in Jamaica,
Mauritius, Barbados, Trinidad, Antigua
and St. Lucia. When Mr. C. J. Latrobe
visited the island in I S38, for the purpose
of reporting to the House of Commons
on Negro Education 'in Jamaica, he found

*The Ironmongers' Company possess in trust an
enormous sum left by Thomas ietton, for the re-
demption of Christian slaves in Barbary. Since Lord
Exmonth's expedition, no claims have arisen upon
the fund. which is now administered for other pur-
poses, under the direction of the Court of Chancery.


sixteen schools established in 1836 and
1837 by means of the Mico Funds, under
the superintendence of a Mr. E. Wallbridge;
eleven of which were in hired buildings.
They were situated at Kingston, at Bath,
at Scott's Hall in St. Mary, Fern Hill
in St. Andrew, Constant Spring in St,
Thomas-in-the-Vale, Brown's Town and St.
Ann's Bay in St. Ann, at Montego Bay and
Somerton in St. James, Lucea in Hanover, at
Providence, Savanna-la-Mar and Chantilly
in Westmoreland, Lacovia in St Elizabeth,

but would rather suppose that, being free to act
with greater circumspection than the missionary
societies, they were willing in the present unde-
cided state of things in the colony, to confine them-
selves to promptly furnishing instruction at every
suitable point where there might be an urgent call
for it or a favourable opening, without, for the
present, pledging themselves further to maintain
schools and to occupy permanently the posts in
question. The order and system with which their
operations are conduced in the island leaves
nothing to be desired on that head. Their stations
are to be found distributed over the whole island."
When the Government grant was with-

S(N r a f ee ,n ical s.hool).

and at Comfort and Hill-Side in Manchester.
There was a total of 4,725 pupils on the
books and of 3,227 in average attendance C"
Mr. Latrobe reports on these schools as
follows -
A considerable degree of caution has caricter-
ized the proceedings of the trustees of the Mico
Charity hitherto, in forming what may be called
permanent establishments or school stations in
Jamaica. I am not aware that this has origin-
ated in any doubt of the ultimate popularity, or
the success of the schools, conducted upon the
liberal principle by which they are guided, or of
the peculiar system of instruction pursued in them,
Mr. Latrobe in his report throws grave doubts
on the accuracy of the returns of attendance in
the schools of the island generally..

drawn, the trustees were obliged to retire
from most of the West Indian Islands,
and they felt it was better to throw
all their strength into their training col-
leges in Jamaica and Antigua, so as to
supply the schools with good teachers:
and these two are the only institutions now
existing under their direction in the colonies.
For sixty years, 1835_to 1896, the institu-
tion had its home in Hanover Street, King-
ston; in February of this year it removed into
its new home at the top of the race course.
Erected from the design of Mr. W. Eloin
Sant, the new building consists of two storeys,
of red brick with concrete facings, forming t w
connecting sides of a square of about 150 fee


facing south and east. At the angle, rises a
tower about 65 feet high; square at the first
two storeys, octagonal in the third. The
lecture hall has accommodation for eighty
students. The cost of the site was 4,000,
and of the buildings, 12,700. Those who
in the nineteenth century gave a new impe-
tus to Lady Mico's charity of the seven-
teenth, have not been forgotten. There are
a bust and engraved portrait of Buxton and
a medallion portrait of Lushington in the
new buildings, while the tower has been
named the Buxton Tower. Why should not
Kingston, Jamaica, as well as Melcombe
Regis, have its Mico Day," when the
memories of the institution's benefactors
could be revived ? The foundation stone
of the college was laid on the 4th of
December, 1894 by Sir Henry A. Blake,
K C.M.G., Governor of Jamaica, and the
buildings were formally opened by His Excel-
lency on Wednesday the 5th of February,
The first secretary of the trustees of the
Mico Charity was the Rev J. M. Trew, at
one time rector of Manchester in Jamaica,
then of St. Thomas-in-the-East, and after-
wards, Archdeacon of the Bahamas. The
first teachers sailed from England on the
1st November, 1835, with Mr. Trew,
and arrived at Kingston on the 15th Decem-
ber. On the 28th December the first stu-
dents were enrolled. These were on the
men's side (for there were both men and
women students up to 1841) George Hen-
derson and Robert Reid, both from England,
and "recommended by the Rev. J M Trew."
On the women's side, one student was
enrolled, Christiana Nicholson, recommended

by the Rev. J. Tinson. In the course of
1836, 21 men and 7 women students were
admitted at irregular intervals throughout
the year, and in the same fashion the admis-
sions continued to be made till things fell
into the normal order that has existed for
many years. One of Mr. Buxton's far-see-
ing directions to Mr. Trew at the very out-
set was Pray, bear in mind that we ought
to do a great deal as to normal schools."
From the first there have always been in con-
nection with "The Mico" those who have
.strongly held the same opinion. Experience
has justified the importance of this view,
and the result has been that both in Jamaica
and in Antigua the training of teachers
has become the main thing to which the
funds of the Charity have been devoted.

In Jamaica, "The Mico has been a house-
hold word in every district of the island for the
long period of sixty years, and during all that
time it has been playing an important part
in the elevation of the people, intellectually,
morally and religiously. From the nature
of the case, it is not possible to here trace out
what has been done by its schools, especially
at the outset, and from the commencement
by its training institution; but it is no
exaggeration to say that it has entered so
deeply into the work of upbuilding of the
community as a whole, that any attempt to
trace the history of social progress in Ja-
maica which ignored the Mico would be
very incomplete. In its new home, and
with its largely extended operations, it
may be confidently expected to make still
larger contributions to the educational wel-
fare of the island.


SAMUEL SuIAnPl is noted as the organizer
and moving spirit of the slave rebellion
that devastated the northwest parishes of
Jamaica in the Christmas season of I 31.
He was a slave; and at one time his master
lived at Montego Bay. Being an intelli-
gent man and able to read, he funnd many
opportunities of reading English and Ja-

maica newspapers in such an important sea-
port; and in this way he got to know
the state of public opinion in England and
of planter opinion in Jamaica on the slavery
question. The Rev. H. Bleby, Wesleyan
Missionary thus describes Mr. Sharpe, in his
Death Struggles of Slavery, I had much
conversation with him when he was in con-


finement, and found him certainly the most
intelligent and remarkable slave, I ever met
with. He was of middle size, his fine sinewy
frame was handsomely moulded, his skin
was as perfect a jet as can well be imagined,
and his forehead was high and broad," while
his eye shone with the light of a strong,
patriotic mind. I had an opportunity of ob-
serving that he possessed intellectual and
oratorical powers above the common order,
and this was the secret of the extensive in-
fluence which he exercised. I heard him
two or three times, deliver a brief extempo-
raneous address to his fellow prisoners on
religious topics, and 1 was amazed both at
the power and freedom with which he
spoke, and at the effect which was produced
upon his auditory. He appeared to have
the feelings and passions of his hearers
completely at his command. When I had
listened to him once I ceased to be sur-
prised at what Gardner had told me that
when Sharpe spoke to him and others on the
subject of slavery they were wrought up
almost to a state of madness."
While he lived in Montego Bay he became
a zealous member of the Church of the Rev. T.
Burchell a Baptist Missionary; and he con-
tinued to take an active interest in Christian
work as long as he lived. About 1828 his
master bought a small pen near Cambridge,
St. James, where he kept jobbing gangs of
slaves. Both his master and all the mem-
bers of his family treated him kindly, so
that in his own case he could not complain
of ill usage He was his owner's right hand
man, and he was usually entrusted with the
care of conducting the slave gangs to their
work on different estates. This brought
him into contact with slaves over a large
section of the country and gave him an op-
portunity of spreading his opinions very
widely. He also visited Montego Bay
frequently, and he often conducted religious
services among the slaves in different
districts. Their down-trodden condition op-
pressed him and he sought to improve
their lot. He had the spirit of a true
reformer; but the evils of slavery barred
his progress on every side. He soon saw
that before his people could be uplifted
they must have their freedom. The spirit
of patriotism urged him on, for he had no
personal wrongs to avenge. He hated the
whole system of slavery; it doomed his
people to perpetual ignorance, degradation
and suffering, and therefore he resolved to
win their freedom if he could.

Through reading the English newspapers
he found that there was a growing feeling
of opposition to the continuance of slavery.
He accordingly persuaded himself that if the
slaves united in positively refusing to work
as bond-men the British Government would
not use force to help the planters, so that the
latter would be compelled to come to terms
and treat their slaves as free-men. He
simply planned a gigantic strike such as
we are familiar with at the present time;
and he counted for success on the neutrality
of thb Home Government, and on the in-
ability of the planters to compel such a vast
number of people to work against their will.
Violence formed no part of his scheme
except such as might be necessary for self-
Such being his purpose how was he to
carry it out ? It was October when he defi-
nitely formed his bold plan, and he resolved
that it should be carried out at the close of
the following Christmas holidays. He had an
extensive knowledge of all the surrounding
districts, and he knew the most influential
slaves whom he could trust, and who would
serve his purpose. It was necessary to keep
his movements secret, and in this he seems
to have been completely successful. He was
in the habit of visiting different places to
attend prayer meetings at night. As soon
as the people had dispersed he met secretly
with the few whom he had chosen To
these he unfolded the evil nature of slavery,
and so worked upon their feelings that they
were ready for any attempt. Then he un-
folded his plan, and after receiving their pro-
mise of co-operation he first made them
swear to keep the secret and be faithful,
and then he made them kiss the Book."
The men whom he thus won over worked
hard to enlist the slaves under them and to
each the same oath was administered. Seve-
ral leading slaves however, of great influence
among their companions, regarded the scheme
as too daring and hopeless and so held back.
The success of his undertaking depended on
the zealous union of as many of these men
as possible, therefore he had recourse to a
statement with which the planters fur-
nished him, but which he must have known
to be incorrect.
Several planters and a number of over-
seers had been saying to their slaves. The
people of England want to make you free;
but we will take it out of you first." Some
even went the length of saying that the


king was sending out free papers for all the
slaves after Christmas but that their mas-
ters meant to keep them back. (" Death
struggles of Slavery." pp. 144. 145.) Sharpe
used the latter statement and made those
men who hesitated believe that the king
had actually granted freedom to the slaves
and that if the slaves did not insist on
getting the king's gift their masters would
continue to keep them in hopeless bondage.
He was struggling for a great cause and he
used this powerful weapon put into his
hinds by his enemies In this way he se-
cured the adherence of all who came under
the spell of his influence.
So well had the movement been kept
secret that the missionaries knew nothing
about it until the 27th of December, though
the planters knew a little earlier that the
slaves were hatching some plot.
Sharpe's plan miscarried altogether, and
he only brought suffering on the people
he meant to help. He could rouse the slaves
to revolt; but he was powerless to control
them when they rose.: They were incapable
of obeying orders ind acting in concert. As
soon as he saw the first estate aflame with
an incendiary fire he knew that it was all
over, for the English soldiers must step in
to put down the rising by violence.
He took no part in the evil deeds of the

slaves; but his connection with the rising
was too important to permit of his escape.
A price was set on his head, and, being cap-
tured, he was condemned to be hung. True
to his principles he hated slavery to the
last. Pointing to the gallows from the
prison he exclaimed, I would rather die
on yonder gallows than live in slavery." If
he had been allowed to leave prison he would
have commenced another struggle for free-
dom. He was the first to begin the insur-
rection and he was the last to suffer death for
it. He marched to the place of execution
with a firm and even dignified step; and he
was dressed in a suit of new white clothes
made for him by the family of his owner;
all the members of which regarded him
with affection, and regretted his untimely
end. He addressed the people in a clear,
unfaltering voice, acknowledging that he
had acted wrongly. At the same time he
vindicated the missionaries and declared
that they had nothing whatever to do with
the insurrection. While his plan failed, the
rising undoubtedly hastened that freedom
for which he seemed to struggle in vain.
A few faithful friends marked the spot in
the sands where his body was ignominiously
buried and sometime afterwards they quietly
took it up at night and buried it beneath the
pulpit of the Baptist Church in Montego



IN the year 1860, Captain BRIOOKI KNIGHT
contributed anonymously to the "Leisure
Hour" a tale entitled The Captain's Story;
or Adventures in Jamaica thirty years ago, "
which was republisihed in book form, also
anonymously, some years later. The illus-
trations, which originally accompanied the
story in the Leisure Hour," are the early
work of Sir John Gilbert. The tale, which
is founded on facts, tells of the usual life of
the country at that time, and includes ac-
counts of ascents of the John Crow range
and the Blue Mountain Peak, whence, the
author states, they could see people walking
in the streets of Kingston quite plain."

The scene is laid partly at Stony Hill where
the white troops were then stationed and
partly in the Plantain Garden River district;
and the, period is that of the early nine-
teenth century. One of the principal char-
acters is a portrait of the late Judge Jasper
Farmer Cargill (Mr. Jasper), and the author
figures as Lieutenant Brook. They were
Winchester boys together, and met about
the year 1830 as described in the book.
The original of Matthew Rington was Mr.
Codrington of Happy Grove, a tobacco pro-
perty near Manchioneal Bay; and Constant
Spring Estate, then the property of Mrs.
Cargill (Miss Jane Marston), is called
" Running Water."


Captain Knight after marrying Mliss Mar-
ston left the army and lived at Oraxford.
lie used to ride with the hounds up to the
age of eighty, and he outlived his wife by
some years. He had no children. The
whole story is founded on facts, the most
glaring writer's license being the' rapid
growth of guinea grass, a yarn which he
saddles Mr. Jasper with. The servant
"Archy". lived to a good old age, and was
attended by me, in his last illness about
ten years ago. John Goodman, the than
who was stung by a scorpion while killing
snakes, only died twelve years ago. He recol-
lected the incident related in the story.

Captain's Story" by request of the parties
concerned. As they are all dead and gone.
there is no reason why it should not now
be related. My uncle Dr. John Marston
and a Capt. Peel, R.N., went to a party and
were requested'to sing. Capt. Peel sang
first, and then Dr. Marston was asked to
sing the same s'ng that Peel sang, :but
got more applause. Peel conceived himself
insulted and called out Marston. They
fought at Plum Tree." I still have the
pistols, Wagdon and Barton's" hair-trig-
gers. They fired and missed, but Marstoir's
shot hit a tree and glanced off on to the
forehead of a Mr. Berry (a book keeper)

Fromn a copy t f a pencil sketch by the late Mr. Justice Cargill.

One of the survivors of The Captain's
Story" (the only one I know of) is now
employed by the Car Company in Kingston:
his name is Gordon. He used to be a jockey
and rode many a race for Mr. Jasper."
The accompanying illustration of old Con-
stant Spring Great House is a copy of a
pencil drawing by Mr. Jasper." The
house used to stand a little below the
A very amusing duel (almost the last
fought in Jamaica) took place near "Run-
ning Water" and was omitted from The

who had hidden in the bush to see the
fight. Dr. Marston had to leave the
battle-field to attend to Berry,' who was
supposed to be killed. In 'the meanwhile
" Mrs. Jasper" (my mother) heard of the
duel and.came down to Plum Tree and pre-
vented further hostility. Mr. Berry. only
died a few years ago, he had the mark of
Dr. Marston's bullet in the space between
the eyes. I have often' seen the wound
which had broken the outer table of the
bone there.


ITHE ISLAND.-Under date September, 27th
1660, Evelyn writes. The King received
the merchants' addresses in his closet,
giving their assurance of his'persisting to
keepe Jamaica, choosing Sir Edw. Massy,
Mr. Wheatley, in his edition of Evelyn's
" Diary" gives no particulars of Sir Edward
Massy. Nor is he mentioned in the "Dic-
tionary of National Biography."
Captain William Dalyson, in waiting to
his cousin Robert Blackborne, froi Port
Cagway, Jamaica, under date February
22nd, 1660, tells him'he sends him "a pot
of their island sugar for his morning
draughts." In the same letter he refers to
12,41.10 lbs., of cocoa which he has sent
home. (Cf. Calendar of State Papers: Co-
'lonial Series. America and the West Indies.
1675.1676 also Addenda 1574-1674." Lon-
don 189;.)
SEMBLY -In 1824, James M'Queen of Glas-
gow, published his West India Colonies;
the calumnies and, misrepresentations
circulated against them by the Edinburgh
'Review, Mr. Clarkson, Mr. Cropper &c.,
examined and refuted." In the following
year, the House of Assembly of Jamaica
voted to him nem. con. the sum of 3,C00
sterling as a testimony of the high sense
this house entertains of the valuable and
unsolicited services he has rendered by his
writings to the cause of justice and the
West-India colonies, in replying to and re-
futing the innumerable calumnies of a malig-
nant faction in the mother-country."
not be generally known that Jamaica has
had a novelist for a governor. Constantine
Henry Phipps, Earl of Mulgrave and first
Marquis of Normanby, wrote several very
successful novels, of which Matilda" (pub-
lished in 1825) gained for him the most
fame. Blackwood" said of it, at the time,
" There is an air of elegance diffused over
the whole work: and he has far more than
compensated for the want of novelty in his
materials by the fineness of his tact and the
felicity of his execution." It was not the

work of a prentice hand for he had already
published Clarinda" and The Prophet
of St. Paul's." It tells the oft told tale of
a girl tricked (by her grandfather, the Earl
of Wakefield, for pecuniary reasons) into
doubting her absent lover, and into wedding
a man for whom she could have no real
affection. The old lover turns up and with
it the old love. He nearly loses his life in
saving that of her husband. She nurses him
through a dangerous illness caused by a
dagger wound. Jealousy brings out all the
boorishness in the husband: and the hero
and heroine elope. The usual remorse fol-
lows, and Lady Matilda dies, just as her
lover would have been enabled to marry her
by reason of the husband having obtained a
divorce. Other characters in the drama are
Lady Ormsby and her daughter, mother and
sister of the hero, the former a charming
character; Mr. and Mrs. Hobson and their
vulgar family, of Cottonopoli4, the wife
being the sister of the nouveau riche Sir
James Dornton.
This work was succeeded by Yes and
No" (1827). and "Contrast." Then came
the governorship of Jamaica (1881-33;) and
Lord Normanby afterwards published a
more serious work., "A year of Revolu-
tion ; from a journal kept in Paris in the
year 1848" (while he was ambassador),
published in 1857 : this produced a reply
from the pen of Louis Blanc, in the follow-
ing year, entitled Historical Revelations,
inscribed to Lord Normanby," which, the
"Times" admitted, proved that Lord Nor-
manby had erred in his insinuation against
the movers of the Revolution. Lord Nor-
manby had early contributed political arti-
cles to magazines.
LORD VAUGHAN.--The following notice of
Lord Vaughan. who was Governor of Ja-
maica from 167;' to 1 678, taken from The
History of St. James's Square and the Foun-
dation of the West End of London," by
Arthur Irwin Dasent, (London, 1895) may
prove of interest.
"Two Presidents of the Royal Society who
lived in the Square have already been no-
ticed in Sir Joseph Williamson and Sir
Cyril Wyche. A third in the person of
John Vaughan, Earl of Carbery, lived at
No. 14, but history does not record that he


did much to advance the cause of science."
He seems indeed to have been chiefly re-
markable for his miserly disposition, and so
mean was he to all about him that he
starved his dependents and himself lived in
excessive and habitual penury. As gover-
nor of Jamaica he amassed a large fortune,
a very singular anecdote being related of
him in that capacity. Not only is he ac-
cused of having carried several shauntle-
men of Wales' with him to the West Indies
and sold them there for slaves, but it is re-
ported that he actually sold his own private
chaplain to a blacksmith, rather than incur
the expense of bringing him back to Eng-
land at the expiration of his term of office.
Lord Carbery's only daughter and heiress
married the Duke of Bolton, whose second
wife was the charming actress Lavinia
Fenton, the original Polly Peachman of The
Beggar's Opera; an inlpersonatiin which is
said to have made Gay Rich and Rich
Gay.' "
*He was there from 1691-1697 (see p. 237.)
On the 11th of December 1770, the Rev.
John Lindsay presented a petition to the
House of Assembly as follows:-
"That the petitioner has been engaged, for
eleven years last past, in the expensive, and labor-
ious exercise of collecting drawings of the most
curious and beautiful plants, trees, fruits, birds,
insect, fishes &c. of this island; into which pursuit
he was chiefly drawn, from the deficiencies and
incorrectness which to him appeared to be, in the
descriptive drawings of former collectors of this
That the petitioner humbly apprehends nothing
can more tend to the satisfaction of the learned,
or give the world more just and agreeable ideas of
this island, and the West Indies in general, than
to see before them a complete proportioned repre-

sentation of those beautiful articles in the animal
and vegetable part of the creation, which most
peculiarly adorn and characterise oun southern
That the mutilated sections of botanic writers,
in their plates and figures, the petitioner, with
great deference, apprehends cap give no general
satisfaction: and flatters himself he has struck
out such a clear description in the forms, propor-
tions, and colouring of his designs, which are
represented entire, and actually drawn..from
nature that if published, will yield a satisfaction
to foreigners in general, and prove an honour to
this island in particular;
The petitioner also further most humbly sheweth,
that his collection will consist of upwards of two
hundred copper-plates, of very peculiar workman-
ship, in two volumes royal folio, and will be at-
tended with great expense:
And praying that this house will cause such in-
quiry and inspection to be made of the premises,
as may be necessary, that such report may be made
thereof, as to them may seem meet."
It was ordered that the consideration of
the said petition be referred to a Com-
mittee, who gave Lindsay but cold comfort,
reporting on the 13th of December that
they have examined his drawings of the
plants, animals, birds, fishes, and insects, of
this island, and are of opinion, that it is a
work of great labour and ingenuity, that the
drawings in general are well adapted to
convey a proper idea of what they are
tended to represent, and will merit the
attention of the curious in natural history ;"
with which report the House agreed.
In 1770, Browne's "Civil and Natural
History of Jamaica" had been published
fourteen years : and Sloane's "Voyage" more
than half century.
From Feurtado's Official and other per-
sonages of Jamaica" we learn that the Rev.
John Lindsay was rector of St. Catherine in
1777, and chaplain of the 60th Regiment.



Bowdler, Thomas, F.R.S. and S.A. A Short View
of the Life and Character of Lieut.-General Vil-
lettes, late Lieutenant Governor and Commander
of the Forces in Jamaica. To which are added
Letters written during a journey from Calais
to Geneva, and St. Bernard in the year 1814.
With an appendix containing a few Original
Letters and Anecdotes of the late Madame
Elizabeth de France. 8vo.; London, 1815. [1 c.]
Brooke-Knight, Captain. The Captain's Story; or
Adventures in Jamaica thirty years ago. [as
originally published in the "Leisure Hour" 1859-
1860. Illustrated by Sir John Gilbert]. folio;
London, 1859-1860. [1 c.1
--- The same; or Jamaica sixty years since.
With illustrations by John Gilbert. 8vo; Lon-
don. n. d. [lc.]
Browne, Patrick, M.D. The Civil and Natural
History of Jamaica. In three parts: contain-
ing:-I. An accurate description of that Island,
its situation and soil; with a brief account of its
former and present state, Government, Revenues,
Produce, and Trade.
II. A History of the Natural Productions, in-
eluding the various sorts of native fossils; per.
feet and imperfect Vegetables; Quadrupeds,
Birds, Fishes, Reptiles and Insects; with their
Properties and uses in Mechanics, Diet and Phy-
IlI. An account of the Nature of Climates in
general, and their different effects upon the
human body; with a detail of the diseases arising
from this source, particularly within the tropics.
In three Dissertations. The whole illustrated
with fifty Copper-Plates: in which the most
curious productions are represented of the natu-
ral size, and delineated immediately from the
objects. folio; London, 1756. I1 d.]

Feurtado, W[alter] A[ugustus]. Official and
other Personages of Jamaica, from 1655 to 1790 ;
to which is added a chapter on the Peerage, &c.
in Jamaica compiled from various sources. 8vo.;
Kingston, Ja., 1896. [l a.]

Freeman, J. J. A Gentile's Entreaty: Addresses
to the Jews in Jamaica. 8vo.; London, [1843,]
L34 a.]
Hamilton, Lord Archibald. An Answer to an
Anonymous Libel entitled Articles exhibited
against Lord Archibald Hamilton, late Gover-
nor of Jamaica; with sundry depositions and
Proofs relating to the same. 8vo. ; London, 1718.
[34 a.J
Hinton, John Howard, M.A. Memoir of William
Knibb, Missionary in Jamaica. 8vo. ; London,
1817. [31 a.]

Hunter, John, M.D. [d. 1809]. Bemerkungen fiber
die Krankheiten der Truppen in Jamaica, und
die besten Mittel, die Gesundheit der Europaer
in dem dasigen Klima zu erhalten. aus
dem Englischen iibersetzt, 8vo.; Leipzig, 1792.
[i .c

Jackson, Robert, M.D. A Treatise on the Fevers of
Jamaica, with some observations on the Inter-
mitting Fever of America and an appendix con-
taining some hints on the means of preserving
the health of soldiers in hot climates. 8vo.
Philadelphia, 1795. [34 a.]
Jamaica Bridges. Photographs of the Principal
Bridges erected in the Island from 1890 to
1895. Sir Henry Arthur Blake, K.C.M.G., Gov-
ernor. [Hon. V. C. Bell, M.I.C.E., Director of
Public Works]. oblong folio; Kingston, Ja., 1895.
[34 a.]
[Presented by Sir Henry A. Blake, K.C.M.G.]
Church of England in: Journals of
the twenty-sixth and twenty-seventh Synods of
the Church of England in Jamaica. 2 vols. 8vo.;
Kingston, Ja., 1895-1896. [32 j.]
SEducation Department: Code of Regu-
lations of the: In force from 21st March, 1895.
8vo.; Jamaica, 1895. [30 g.]
Estimates for the year ending 31st
March, 1896, as passed by the Legislative Coun-
cil. folio; Jamaica, 1895. [32j.]
The Governor's Report on the Blue
Book and Departmental Reports for 1894-95.
folio; Jamaica, 1896. [3 e.]
-- [House of Assembly]. An Alphabeti-
cal Catalogue of the Books in the Library of the
Honble. House of Assembly of Jamaica. No.
II. folio; St. Jago de la Vega, Ja., 1852. [34 a.]
----- in 1895. A handbook of information
for intending settlers and others. (Instiute of
Jamaica). [Edited by Frank Cundall.J 8vo;
Kingsfoa, Ja., 1895. [34 a.]
Institute of: Catalogue of General
Works in the Library of the Institute of Jamaica.
vo. ; Kingston. Ja 1887.
[Bound nith the above.] Catalogue of Works
added to the Library of the Institute of Jamaica
during the financial year 1887-88. 8vo. ; King-
ston, Ja., 1889. [34 a.]
-- Laws. Acts for opening and establish-
ing certain ports in the Islands of Jamaica and
Dominica, for the more free Importation and
Exportation of certain goods and merchandizes ;
for granting certain duties to defray the expenses
of opening, maintaining, securing and improv-
ing such ports; for ascertaining the duties to
be paid upon the importation of goods from
the said Island of Dominica into this kingdom,
and for securing the Duties upon goods import-
ed from the said Island into any other British
Colony. folio; London, 1766. [1 e.]
An Abridgement of the Laws of
Jamaica. Being an Alphabetical Digest of all
the Public Acts of Assembly now in Force, from
the 32nd year of King Charles II. to the 32nd
year of his present Majesty King George III. in-
clusive, as published in two volumes under the
direction of Commissioners appointed by 30 Gee.
Ill. cap. 20 and 32 Geo, III. cap. 29. 2nd edi-
tion. 4to.; St. Jago de la Vega, Ja., 1802. [4 a.]
-- Comprehending all the Acts in
force passed between the thirty-second year of
the reign of King Charles the Second, and the
thirty-third year of the reign of King George


the Third : To which is prefixed a table of the
Titles of the Public and Private Acts passed
during that time. Carefully revised and cor-
rected from the original records; under the di-
rection of Commissioners appointed by 30 Geo.
III. cap. xx. and 32 George III. cap. xxix. 2nd
ed. 7 vols. 4to.; St Jago de lai Veiqa, Ja., 1802-
1804. [4 a.]
--- Legislative Council, Proceedings
of the: Vol. V. Session 1896. New Series. (Pub-
lished by Authority.) 4to.; Kingston Ja., 1896,
[4 h.J
[Presented by Messrs. DeCordova & Co.]
-- A Letter from a friend at J-- to a
friend in London giving an impartial account of
the violent proceedings of the Faction in that
Island. 8vo.; London, [1746.] [23 e.]
-- LettredeMR * A MR
S. B., Docteur en M6dicine A Kingston, dans la
Jamaique. au sujet, des Troubles qui agit nt
actuellement toute l'Amerique Septentrionale.
8vo. La Haye, 1776. [1 c.]
---- My Holiday in. (Chambers' Journal,
Nov. 1880.) 8vo.; [London, 1880.] [1 c.]
-- Pamphlets. 1. Reasons for temporarily
suspending the Constitution of Jamaica 8vo.;
London, 1839.
2. A True Account of the late Pyracies of Ja-
maica; the Authors, Abettors and Encouragers
thereof. With other transactions relating there-
to. By one just arrived from that Island. To
which is added a genuine letter to a very Emi-
nent Personage concerned [Dr. Samuel Page].
2nd ed. with large notes explaining the whole
to the satisfaction of the Reader. Svo., London,
3. A Vindication of the late Governor [Admi-
ral,-Lord Archibald Hamilton] and Council of Ja-
maica. Occasioned by a letter in the St. Janmess
Post of the 23rd of July last, as from Bath in a
letter to-- 8vo.; London, 1716.
4. Speech of His Excellency the Right Hon. Sir
C. T. Metcalfe, Bart.. G.C.B.. Governor of .Ja-
maica, on proroguing the Jamaica Legislature
on the llth April, 1840. 8vo.; London. [1 e.]
A Poem in three Parts. Written in
that Island, in the years MDCCLXXVI, to which is
annexed, a Poetical Epistle from the Author in
the Island to a friend in England. 4to.; London,
1777. [1. e.]
-- Public Library. Catalogue of Works
arranged according to Subjects. [With Manu-
script additions]. 8vo.; Janmaica, [abl878] [34 a.]
----. Registrar-General. Annual Report for
the year ended 31st March, 1894. folio; Ja-
maica, 1894. [32 j.]
-. Sermons for the use of Catechists and
Lay Readers. Diocese of Jamaica. [Edited by
Enos Nuttall, D.D., Bishop of Jamaica.] 8vo.;
Kingston, Ja., 1890. [34 a.1
.--.. The Truest and largest account of the
late Earthquake in Jamaica, June 7th, 1692.
Written by a Reverend Divine there of Withy-
wood in Vere] to his friend in London. With
some improvements thereof by another hand
[H. L.]. 4to. ; London, 1693. [1 e.J
Under the Apprenticeship system. By
a Proprietor. 8vo.; London, 1838. [34 a.]
Kirkby, Col. Richard. A True account of the
Arraignments and Tryals of Col. Richard Kilkby,
Capt. John Constable, Capt. Cooper Wade, Capt.
Samuel Vincent and Capt. uhristopher Fogg.

On a complaint exhibited by the Judgo-Advo-
cate on behalf of Her Majesty, at a Court-Martial
held on board the ship Breda" in Port royal
Harbour in Jamaica in America, the 8th, 9th,
10th and 12th days of October, 1702. For Cow-
ardice, Neglect of Duty, Breach of Orders, and
other crimes. Committed by them in a Fight at
Sea, commenced the 19th of August, 1702, off of
St. Martha, in the Latitude of Ten Degrees,
North, near the Main-Land of America. Between
the Honourable John Benbow, Esq.; and Admi-
ral Du Casse with four French Ships of War.
For which Col. Kirkby and Capt. Wade were
sentenced to be shot to Death. Transmitted
from two Eminent Merchants at Port Royal in
Jamaica, to a Person of Quality in the City of
London. folio; London, 1703. [1 d.]
Oughton, Thomas. In Memoriam. 185-1894. [With
portrait.] 8vo.; London, 1895. [34 a.]
[Presented by Mrs. Oughton.]
Pyle, Howard. Jamaica New and Old. [As it

appeared in Harper's New Monthly Magazine,
1890"]. 8vo. ; [Necw York,] 1890 [34 a.]
Reid, Captain Mayne. The Maroon. 3 vols. ; 8vo.;
SLondon, 1862. [34 a.]
Scott, Michael. The Cruise of the Midge. With
Illustrations by Frank Brangwyn. 2 vols. ; vo.;
London, 1894. [31 a.]
-- -- Tom Cringle's Log. Illustrated by J.
Ayton Symington. With an introduction by
Mowbray Morris. 8vo.; London and New York,
1895. [34 a.]
Te- im e. With Illustrations by
Frank Brangwyn. 2 vols. 8vo.; London, 1894.
[34 a ]
Shower, John. Practical Reflections on the late
Earthquakes in Jamaica, England, Sicily. Malta,
&c.. Anno, 1692. With a particular, Historical
Account of those, and divers other Earthquakes.
8vo. ; London, 1693. [1 c.]
Smith, [M.E.], Mrs. John James. William Knibb ;
Missionary in Jamaica. A Memoir. With an
introduction by Rev J. G. Greenhough, M.A.
8vo. ; London, 1896. [34 a.]
"Spinner, Alice." A Study in Colour. 2nd ed. 8vo.;
London, 1894. fI e.]
-- Lucilla: An Experiment. 2 vols. 8vo.;
London, 1895. [34 a ]
Stewart, J. Gemrilde von Jamaica. Aas dem Eng.
lischen ["A View of the Past and present
State of the Island of Jamaica"]. (Aus dem
EthnographischenArchiv besonders abgedruckt.)
8vo ; Jena, 1824. [1 c.]
Symmonette, Ethel Maud. Jamaica: Queen of
the Carib Sea. 8vo.; Janaica, 1895. [1 c.]
Underhill, Edward Bean, L.L D. The Tragedy of
Morant Hay. A Narrative of the Disturbances
in the Island of Jamaica in 1865. 8vo.; London,
1895. [1 e.]
Vernon, Rev. B. J. Early Recollections of Jamaica,
with the particulars of an eventful passage Home
via New. York and Halifax, at the commencement
of the American War in 1812; to which are added
trifles from St. Helena relating to Napoleon and
his suite. 8vo.; London, 1848. [34 a.]
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Antigua, The Church Calendar for the Diocese
of: in the Province of the West Indies, 1893:
containing 4 Calendar with the Daily Lessons,
a Clergy List and general information and Sta-
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Bayley, F[rederick] W. N. Four Year's Residence
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Gurney, Joseph John. Un Hiver aux Antilles en
1839-40, on Lettres sur les Rd,ultats de l'Aboli-
tion de 1'Esclavage, dans les Colonies Anglaises
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Slave [Juan] in the Island of Cuba, recently
liberated: translated from the Spanish. by R.
R. Madden, M.D., with the History of the Early
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( uban Slavery and the Slave-Traffic. By R. R.
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Leeward Islands, Agricultural Journal of the:
Edited by the Superintendent of Agriculture,
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Poems. 2nd ed. 8vo.; London, 1810. [31 c
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Pyle, Howard. The Buccaneers and Marooners of
America. Being an account of the famous ad-
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Freebooters of the Spanish Main. New Illustra-
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Riland, Rev. John, M.A. Memoirs of a West-India
Planter. Published from an original MS., with
a preface and additional details. 8vo.; London,
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The same. With an address
to the Right Honourable Lord Glenelg on the
Present State of Colonial Slavery. 8vo. ; Lon-
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from Serpnons, &c. of the West India Clergy on
the Observance of the Lord's Day. London, 1829.
(ii.) Substance of the Speech delivered at the
Meeting of the Edinburgh Society for the Aboli-
tion of slavery on October, 19th, 1830. By An-
drew Thomson, D.D. Edinburgh, 1830.
(iii.) Address to the People of Great Britain
and Ireland unanimously adopted at a General
Meeting of the London Anti-Slavery Society
held, April 23, 1831.
(iv,) Speech of Dr. Lushington delivered at a
General Meeting of the Society for the Abolition
of Slavery throughout the British Dominions.
Held at Exeter Hall, London, April 23, 1831.
(v.) Report of the Agency Committee of the
Anti-Slavery Society. Established in June 1831,
for the purpose of disseminating information by
Lectures on Colonial Slavery. London, 1832.
(vi.) Defence of the Baptist Missionaries from
the charge of inciting the late Rebellion in Ja-
maica; in a discussion between the Rev. William
Knibb and Mr. P. Borthwick, at the Assembly
Rooms, Bath. on Saturday, December 15th, 1832.
Taken in short-hand by Mr. T. Oxford, of Clif-
ford's Inu. London, 1832.
(vii.) Facts and Documents connected with the
late Insurrection in Jamaica, and the-Violations
of Civil and Religious Liberty arising out of it.
(viii.) Analysis of the Report of a Committee
of the House of Commons on the Extinction of
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(ix.) Memorial of the Anti-Slavery and Aboli-
tion Societies of the United Kingdom to the
Right Hon. Charles, Baron Glenelg, His Majes-
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ary, February and Mlarch 1830 and December
18;T2. Thefollowin,, containing Articles relating
to Jamaica: (a) February 1829. The conduct of
the Assembly of Jamaica. (b) November 1829.
Pro-Slavery Writings-Jamaica. (c) November
1829. Recent News from Jamaica. (d) January
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1.30 DisloyalSpirit of the Jamaica Assembly.
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Spanish America, A Concise History of the:
Containing a succinct relation of the discovery
and settlement of its several Colonies: A cir-
ncmstantial detail of their respective situation,
extent, Commodities, Trade, &c., and a full and
clear account of the Commerce with Old Spain


by the Galleons Flota, &c., as also of the Contra-
band Trade with the English, Dutch, French,
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Law and Practice, and compared with the Sla-
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quito Shore, including the Territory of Poyais,
descriptive of the Country: with some informa-
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ture, &c.: chiefly intended for the use of settlers.
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West India Colonies, Report from the Committee
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-- Pamphlets on Slavery in the: II.
Containing:-(i.) C. C. A. Bissette, homme de
Coleur de la Martinique, A un Colon; sur l'Eman-
cipation civil et politique applique aux Colo-
nies Franqaises. Parts, 1830. (ii.) Perdre ou
Sauver les Colonies, voila la Question; par M le
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Hommes de Coleur. [By Monddsir-Richard.J
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par Bissette. Paris, 1831. (vi.) Rdponse A la
Brochure de M. Fleuriau. D616gu6 des colons de
la Martinique. Par Bissette. Paris, 1831. (vii.)
Examen des deux Projets de Loi sur l'Organisa-
tion des Colonies et sur les droits civil et poli-
tiques des Hommes de couleur. Par Mond6sir
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sonnes aux Colonies, et Observations soumises a
la Commission depuis cette Presentation. Par un
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an Ministre de la Marine et des Colonies. sur la
Necessit6 d'arriter la reaction aux Antilles Fran-
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la Martinique A MM. de la Charrihre et Foignet,
de la Guadeloupe. Paris, 1831. (xiv.) Demande
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Couleur; pr6sent6 aux Chambres, le 27 Octobre
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la Martinique, renvoye en France pour rendre
compete de sa conduit au Ministre de la Marine
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en France par le Gouverneur, pour avoir
dinU avec des Citoyens de couleur. (xxii.)
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Begun at Georgetown, British Guiana, on 28th
February and concluded on 6th March, 1895.
8vo.; Kingston, Ja., 1895. [32 j.]
Sailing Directions for the: In four
Part I. The Caribbee Islands, from Trinidad
to Porto Rico.
Part II. Porto Rico to the Gulf of Florida, in-
cluding the Islands of Porto Rico, San Domingo,
Cuba and Jamaica.
Part III. The Coast of Guyana, from the River
Maranon to the River Orinoco. with the Coast of
Colombia from the Gulf of Paria to Porto Bello.
Part IV. Porto Bello to Cape Catoche, inclu-
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from Cape Catoche to the Gulf of Florida. 8vo.;
Loatdn, 1868. [2 j.1
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Bible, Helps to the Study of the: Including in-
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Owen Rev. Richard, M.A. The Life of Richard
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Colquhoun, Archibald Ross. The Key of the
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Santa Maria, La Nao. Capitana de Cristbbal
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United States Education. Report of the Commis-
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of recently executed Works. 3rd ed. With addi-
tional Plates. 4to ; London, 1895. [28 e.]
Hatton, R. G. Guide to the Establishment and
Equipment of Art Classes and Schools of Art.
With Estimates of probable Cost, &c. 8vo.;
London, 1895. [23 a.]
Marks, Henry Stacy, R.A. Pen and Pencil Sketches
2 vols. 8vo.; London, 1894. [23 a.]
Abney, Captain, C B., R.E., D.C.L., F.R S. In-
stantaneous Photography. 8vo.; London, 1895.
L9 f.]
Acland, Rt. Hon. Sir Thomas Dyke, Bart. An
Introduction to the Chemistry of Farming,
specially prepared for practical Farmers, with'
records of field experiments. 2nd ed. 8vo.;
London, 1892. [Ilk.]
[Presented by H. M. Cundall, Esq.]
Armatage, George, M R.C.V.S. Every Man his own
Cattle Doctor. With copious notes, recipes, &c.,
and upwards of three hundred and fifty practical
Illustrations, showing forms of Disease and
Treatment. 6th ed. revised and enlarged. 8vo.;
London and New York, 1890. [11 j.]
--- Every Man His own Horse Doctor. In
which is embodied Blaine's Veterinary Art.
With numerous recipes, Steel plates, and up-
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enlarged. 8vo.; London and New York, 1892.
[11 j.]
- The Sheep Doctor. A Guide to the
British and Colonial Flockmaster in the Treat-
ment and Prevention of Disease. With nume-
rous recipes and upwards of 150 Practical and
Anatomical Illustrations. 8vo.; London, 1895.
[11 k.]
Delano, W. H. Twenty Years' practical experience
of Natural Asphalt and Mineral Bitumen. 8vo.;
London and New York, 1893. 19 b.]


Dunn, Finlay. Veterinary Medicines, their Actions
and Uses. 8th ed. Revised and enlarged. 8vo.;
Edinburgh, 1892. [11 j.]
Fream, William, L.L.D. The Complete Grazier
and Farmer's and Cattle-Breeder's Assistant. A,
Compendium of Husbandry, embracing the breed-
ing, management, and diseases of stock; Dairy
farming and Dairy Produce; Poultry and Poultry
farming; Farm Offices Implements, and Ma-
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and Grass Land, Drainage, Irrigation, and Warp-
ing; Manures, their Application and Value, &c.
Originally written by William Youatt. 13th ed.
Re-written, considerably enlarged, and brought
up to the present requirements of Agricultural
Practice. By Wm, Fream, LL.D. With upwards
of four hundred and fifty Illustrations. 8vo.;
London, 1893. 11 ij.]
Hamlin, Augustus Choate. The History of Mount
mica of Maine, U.S.A., and its wonderful de-
posits of Matchlees Tourmalines. 8vo.; Bangor,
Maine, 1895. [9 g.] [Presented by the Author.]
Humboldt, Alexander Von. Cosmos: A Sketch
of a Physical Description of the Universe.
Translated from the German by E. 0. Ott6.
4 vols. 8vo.; London, 1849, 1851-1852. [9 h.]
Maclaren, Archibald. Physical Education. New
ed. re-edited and enlarged by Wallace Maclaren,
M.A., with 4U0 Illustrations drawn from Life.
8vo.; Oaford, 1895. [9j. I
Steel, John Henry, M R C.V S., A.V.D. A Trea-
tise on the Diseases of the Ox. Being a Manual
of Bovine Pathology Especially adopted for the
use of Veterinary Practitioners and Students.
4th ed. 8vo ; London, 1893. .[1 j.J
Williams, William, F.R.C.V.S.. F,R.S.E. The
Principles and Practice of Veterinary Medicine.
7th ed. Revised by the Author, assisted by his
Son, W. Owen Williams, F. R. U. V. 8., F.R.P.S.
8vo. ; .Edinburgh and London, 1893. [11 i.]
Wolff, Professor Emil V. Farm Foods: or the
Rational Feeding of Farm Animals From the
6th ed. of"Landwirtchaftliclhe Fi tterungleh re."
Translated by Herbert iH. Cousins, M.A., Oxon.
8vo.; London, 1895. [11 c.]

Challenger, H.M.S., Report on the Scientific re-
sults of the Voyage of: A Summary of the
Scientific Results. 1st and 2nd parts. With
Appendices. 2 vols. 4to.; London, 1895.
I'art 1.-1. Editorial Notes, with List of the
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2. Summary of the Scientific Results obtained
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of H.\ S. Challenger. By John Murray, LL.D.
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By Rt. Hon. T. H. Huxley, F.I.S., and Professor
Paul Pelseneer.
4. RHport on Oceanic Circulation based on the
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M.A., L.L.D.,
Part II.-Historical Introduction. General
Summary. Indexes. [111.]
Gosse, Philip Henry, F.R.S. A History of the
British Sea Anemonies and Corals. With coloured
figures of the species and principal varieties.
8vo. ; London, 1860. (10 j.J
Leunis, Dr Johannes. ,ynopsis dor drei Naturreiche.
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St. John, Charles. Short Sketches of the Wild
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[10 m.]
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-- -. In Veronica's Garden. With 14 Illus-
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Morris, William. The Story of the Glittering
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trated by Walter Crane I 8vo.; [London, 1891.]
[23 a.]
Rossetti, Dante Gabriel. The Collected Works of:
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Prose-Notices of Fine Art. 8vo.; London, 1890.
[19 c.
Henley, W. E. and R. L. Stevenson. Three Plays.
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Swinburne, Algernon Charles. Studies in Prose
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[Tennyson, Alfred, and Frederick Tennyson.]
Poems. By Two Brdthers. 8vo.; London and
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Du Maurier, George. Trilby, a Novel. With 121
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1895. [25 p ]
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[25 p.J

-. The Wrong Box. New ed.
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[Tinling, Rev. E. D] Eglantine." Gladys Wood-
ley; or the Bride ofAmiel. 8vo.; London, 1895.
[25 p.1
Tolstoi, Leo. Master and an. A Story. Ren-
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Birrell, Augustine. Essays about Men, Women
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Clark, Richard. An Account of the National
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[Presented by Thomas Hendrick, Esq.]
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their regular currents traced; and their devia-
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[Dekker, Eduard Douwes]. Max avelaar. or the
Coffee Auctions of the Dutch Trading Company.
By Multatuli." Translated from the original
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burgh, 1868. [27 p.]
Erasmus. In Praise of Folly. Illustrated with many
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[Translation.] 8vo.; London, n.d. [27 p.]
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Autocrat of the Breakfast Table: II. The Pro.
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[19 a.]
Hutton, Richard Holt., M.A., (Lond.). Criticisms
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and New York, 1894. [27 n.]
Kipling, Rudyard. The Jungle Book. With Illus-
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Frenzeny. 8vo.; London and New, York, 1895.
[27 p.1
The Second Jungle Book. With I1.
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Manzoni, Alessandro. The Betrothed. (" I Pro-
messi Sposi"). [Translation]. 8vo; London, 1876.
(27 p.]
Morier, James. The Adventures of Hajji Baba of
Ispahan. [With an Introduction by E. G. Browne,
SM.A.]. (English translation); 2 vols. 8vo.; Lon-
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St. Andrews, Rectorial Addresses delivered at
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Maxwell, Bart, to The Marquis of Kate, 1863-
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[27 c.]
-- -- Vailima Letters: Being Correspondence
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Atlas, "The Times." Containing 117 pages of
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don, 1895. [14 a.J
Collins, Thomas. Directory and List of the Lodges
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Dictionary of National Biography. Edited by
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Royal Colonial Institute. Catalogue of the Library
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American Entomological Society. Transactions
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[10 g I
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1896. [32j]
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Grant of Land in St. Mary, Jamaica (with plan),
from Charles II. to William Harris. 5th June,
1678. [With an autograph of Sir Henry Morgan,




SHE Insect Collections of the
Dublin Museum are rich
in specimens from Jamaica.
Having recently had the
opportunity of comparing
our dragonflies with the
British Museum series,
and having succeeded in determining
most of them, I find that we. possess
as many as forty-four Jamaican species.
As only ten of these appear ever to have
been recorded from the island, it seems
worth while to give the list as a slight con-
tribution towards our knowledge of the in-
sect fauna of Jamaica. I do this the more
willingly at the suggestion of my friend Mr.
J. E. Duerden. The memory of his zealous
comradeship in the investigation of the
Irish fauna, during his residence in this
country, makes it a pleasure for a Dublin
naturalist to be able to add anything to our
knowledge of the animals of the tropical
isle to which his interests are now trans-
In the determination of the species re-
corded in this list, 1 received much kind and
valuable help from Mr. W. F. Kirby of the
British Museum. He has laid all students of
the dragonflies under deep obligation by his
valuable Synonymic Catalogue of the order
(6). In the following list I have used the
nomenclature of that catalogue One can-
not rejoice at such revolutions in time-
honoured terminology as Mr. Kirby's res-
toration of Agrion to designate the genus
generally called (calopteryx. But it seems
on the whole, better to accept the results of
the law of priority than to help to perpetu-
ate disputes about words and names, dis-
putes which only serve to hinder the study
of the beautiful and wonderful objects for
which the names stand.
A list of the dragonflies of Cuba has been
published by Hagen (4) and a general West
Indian list,(9) by Kolbe. The latter author

enumerates 73 species of which 65 occur in
Cuba. Some of these however seem to be
mere catalogue names of which descriptions
were never published; such is "Aeschna
cyanifrons," recorded from Jamaica (35). It
is remarkable that none of the great
Aeschnas occur in the following list. Several
well marked species occur in Cuba, and it is
almost certain that some will be found in
Jamaica. Kolbe, in the paper referred to
above, comments on the absence from the
West Indies of the sub-faiilies Cordulimce
and Agrionine, Kirby (Caloplceygice of
authors) and the groups Pseudostigmatina
and Podagrionina of the Ccenagrioninm. It
is therefore of special interest to be able to
.include a HIetcrina among Jamaican dragon-
flies, and so extend the known range of the
Agrionince into the Greater Antilles. Kolbe's
paper is illustrated by some very interesting
maps showing the range of genera and
species. In not a few cases he has drawn
his lines so as to exclude Jamaica from the
range of species given in the present list.
I have thought it well to give the regions
in which each genus occurs, as well as the
range of each species, so far as I have been
able to ascertain it.
Genus PANTALA, Hagen.
All regions except Holarette.
',,, t.,l., r ........ (Fb.)-This dragonfly is found
in all parts of the topics of both hemis-
pheres In North America it occurs as far
north as Maryland and St. Louis. It has
been recorded by Hagen (5) for the follow-
ing West Indian Islands-Cuba, Hayti,
Martinique, St. Thomas, Barbados, and by
Kirby (8) from St. Vincent and Grenada.
Genus TRAMEA, Hagen.
All regions except Holarette.
Tranme abdominalis (Ramb.)-This species has
been recorded from Jamaica by Kirby (8)
who states that it occurs also in Brazil.
Hagen (5) records it from Cuba, Hayti,


Guadeloupe, Mexico, and Florida, also from
Massachusetts ; but its occurrence so far
north is probably exceptional.
T. bt anlis (Burm.)-This species, recorded from
Brazil and Guiana (5) has not I believe
been hitherto noticed in the West Indies.
The Dublin Museum also possesses speci-
mens from Barbados (Capt. Preston Bat-
T. brasili an, Brauer-Also apparently new
to the West Indies. Our single male from
Jamaica agrees with Brazilian specimens in
the British Museum. It is, however, some-
what smaller than the insect described by
Brauer (1) and has but eight postcubital
nervules in the forewings, instead of ten.
Genus MIATIIYRTA, Kirby.
MlAithyria marccllha (Selys)-This species has
been recorded by Hagen (5) from Cuba,
Brazil, New Grenada, and Mexico.

Genus PERITHEMIS, Hagen.
Sonoran and Neotropical.
Perithemis domitia (Drury)-According to Ha-
gen (5) this species ranges from Massachu-
setts and New York to the Argentine;
Kirby however (6) considers the continen-
tal forms of North and South America wor-
thy of specific distinction, and reckons P.
domeitia to be confined to the West Indies ;
it is known from Cuba, Porto Rico, and
P. pocahontos, Kirby. 1 These species were
P. moorn, Kirby. described (7) from
types in the Dublin Museum, and have not
yet been noticed elsewhere than in Ja-
Genus TRITHEMIS, Brauer.
All regions except Holarette.
Trithemis justiniani (Selys)--Described from
Cuba (10) and not hitherto recorded from
T. fraterna (Hagen)-Recorded from Cuba and
the Isle of Pines (5).
T. abjecta (Ramb )-Hagen records (5) this
species from Venezuela, Brazil, New Gre-
nada, and Cuba; Kirby from St. Vincent.
T. pdila (Burm.)-Hagen gives (5) Mexico,
Cuba, New Grenada, Venezuela, Guiana,
and Brazil as localities for this species.
Kirby (5) records it from Grenada.
T. Erichsoni, Kirby (T. immaculate, Erichs)-
Described from Guiana. I do not think it
has been recorded from any other country
T. ~nbrata (Linn.)-According to Hagen (5)
this species ranges from Mexico to Buenos
Ayres. In the West Indies it has been
noted from Cuba, Hayti, St. Thomas, Bar-
bados, Grenada, and St. Vincent.

Genus ORTHEMTS, Hagen.
Orthlemisferringinea (Fab )-A common Ameri -
can species ranging from Texas and Florida
to Chili and already recorded by Hagen (5)
from Jamaica and most of the other West
Indian islands.
Genus URACIs, Rambur.
Uracis imbnuta (Burm.)-I do not think that
this species has been noted from the West
Indies. Hagen (5) records it from Brazil,
Guiana, Colombia, and Panama
M3fcrothemis celeno (Selys)- -' .cri confined
to the West Indies. Recorded by Hagen (5)
from Cuba, Isle of Pines, Hayti, and St.
Genus DYTHIEMIS, Hagen.
Dythemis rofinervis (Burm.)-Also confined to
the West Indies. Recorded by llagen (5)
from Cuba and Hayti.
Genus SCAPANEA, Kirby
Neotropical (West Indies only).
Scnpanea fiontalis (Burm.)-The only species of
its genus, and confined to the West Indies
-Recorded from Cuba, Isle of Pines, and
Hayti (5).
Genus CANNACRIA, Kirby.
Cannacria Smithii, Kirby-Described (8) from
specimens taken in St. Vincent and Gre-
nada. The Dublin Museum has examples
from Barbados as well as from Jamaica.
Genus NEOCYSTA, Kirby.
Neocgsta attenuata (Erichs )-Not hitherto no-
ticed in the West Indies. Recorded from
Brazil, Guiana, and Colombia (5).
Genus LEPTHEMIS, Hagen,
Lepthemis vesiculosa (Fab.)-Ranges from Mex.
ico to Brazil and is recorded (5) from Cuba,
Hayti, St. Thomas, Barbados, St. Vincent,
and Grenada.
L. hwmatogastra (Burm.)--Apparently not yet
known in the West Indies. Recorded (5)
from Brazil, Guiana, and Colombia.
Genus MESOTHEMIS, Hagen.
Neotropical and Sonoran.
Mesothemis simplicicollis (Say)-According to
Hagen (5) this species ranges over the East-
ern and Central States from Massachusetts
to Mexico. He records it also from Cuba
and the Isle of Pines.


M. attala (Selys)-Ranges from Mexico to Bra-
zil. Hagen records it from Cuba (4. 5).
Genus ERYTHEMIS, Hagen.
Neotropical and Oriental.
Erythemis peruviana (Rambur)-Recorded from
Brazil, Guiana, and Columbia (5) but not
hitherto noticed in the West Indies, though
E. ftrcata, Hagen, occurs in Mexico and
Genus CANNAPHILA, Kirby.
Neotropical (West Indies only).
Cannaphila insularis (Kirby)-An interesting
species, the only member of its genus and
confined to the West Indian Islands of
Hayti and Jamaica (7).
Neotropical (Central America, and West
Indies only).
Micraothyria Hayenii, Kirby-This species has
hitherto been known from Cuba and Mex-
ico (5.6).
M. did:~ya (Selys)-Recorded only from Cuba
and the Isle of Pines (4.5.6).
M. (eqiulis (Hagen) -This species has been
found in Grenada (8) as well as in Cuba
and Mexico (5).
Genus DIPLACODES, Kirby.
Neotropical, Sonoran, Ethiopian, and Oriental.
Diplacodes portoricara, Kolbe-This species was
described (9) from a single female from
Porto Hico. As a long series is before me,
it may be worth while to give a description
of the male. The head has face and mouth
black, clypeus and vertex metallic violet,
with a yellow hand behind vertex and a yel-
low spot in front of each eye ; sides of head
behind eyes yellow spotted with black. The
thorax is yellow above with an irregular
black line on each side and other blackish
variegated markings; the sides of thorax
are back with faint yellow spots; the un-
derpart and legs entirely black The ab-
donme is entirely black except that the
first and second segments are yellow above
and the third and fourth have paired yellow
spots; the anal appendages are yellow. The
hindwings show a small deep brown basal
triangular spot below the lower basal cell,
reaching the inner margin but not the anal
angle, the costal nervures are clouded with
deep brown for a very short extent ; the
brown triangular spot is bordered exter-
nally by a bluish white cloud. The number
of cross-nervules varies considerably. In
the male there arein the forewing 9-10
antecubitals. 7-8 postcubitals, and in the
hindwing, 7-8 antecubitals, 6-8 postcubitals.
The female may have only 5 postcubitals in
the hindwing.
This dragonfly is very nearly related to
D. minuscMuh (Ramb.) which occurs in both
North and South America, but has never
been noticed in the West Indies.

Genus GYNACANTHA, Rambur.
Neotropical and Australian.
Gynacantha trifida, Rambur-Already recorded
from Jamaica (5) as well as from Cuba and
Neotropical, Ethiopian, Oriental, and Australian.
Acanthagyna septima (Selys)--Recorded from
Jamaica, Cuba, and Brazil (5).
A. nerrosa (Rambur)-Hagen records this spe-
cies from Cuba as well as from South
America, (5) and Kolbe (9) from Porto
Genus HET.:RINA, Selys.
Neotropical aud Sonoran.
Hleterina bipartite, Selys-The Dublin Mu-
seum possesses a single male from Jamaica,
nearly agreeing with the description (11) of
this form from Chantales. Nicaragua. It is
the first record of the sub-family (Calop-
terygin I. flaceola, Rambur, is known from Mar-
tinique, but no other genus of the sub-
family occurs in the West Indies.

Genus PROTONENIA, Selys.
Protonenia capillaris (Rambur)-Apparently
confined to the West Indies, being recorded
from Cuba (10) and Porto Rica (9).
Genus CERATURA, Selys,
Ceratura capreola (iHagen)-Described (3) from
Porto Rico, and Brazil, and afterwards
recorded from Cuba (4).
Mic.-onympha Ramburii (Selys)- A variable spe-
cies ranging from the northern States to
Peru and Venezuela, recorded from Cuba,
Porto Rico, and St. Thomas (12). The male
specimens from Jamaica have half or two-
thirds of the ninth abdominal segment blue
above, like that of M. fluiatilis (Selys).
But the form of the abdomen and its ap-
pendages is that of M. Ramburii.
Genus ENALLAGMA, Charp.
Enailllgma Doubledayi (Selys)-A species only
recorded hitherto from Florida (13) and
Cuba (10).
E. cultellatum (Selys)-Described from Cuba,
(13) and not yet recognized elsewhere.


Genus TELEBASIS, Selys
Telebictis dominicana (Selys)--Recorded from
Cuba, Hayti, Porto Rico, and Guiana (14).
T. macrogaster (Selys)--This species was founded
(10) on a single male specimen, from Ja-
maica, which had lost its head, feet, and
the hinder segments of the abdomen. Selys
doubitfully referred it (15) to his genus Lep-
tnbasis in species of which the claws of the
feet should be without secondary teeth. A
male and two females in the Dublin Museum
agree with a series from Jamaica in the
British Museum which are I believe,
rightly referred to the species. As the claws
show a small but distinct secondary tooth,
the insect cannot belong to Leptobasis; it
must be removed to Telebasis, Selys (Kirby)
=Erithagrion, (Selys), with which it agrees
in structural characters, though the male
differs from other species of the genus in
having the abdomen bronzed above (as in
the female) instead of red. A new des-
cription of this fine dragonfly-as far as
known, confined to Jamaica-seems de-
Male-Length 46 mm.
Head, violet-black above and in front,
orange streak across occiput, pale yellow be-
neath. Pronotum orange with a central
dark metallic streak widened on hinder
lobe. Thorax with dark violet or green
metallic dorsal central band, humeral spots,
and lateral stripes; sides and ventral sur-
face pale yellow. Legs yellow with black
femoral streaks. Wings with twelve post-
cubital nervules. Abdomen dark metallic
violet or green alhve, yellow beneath ; im-
perfect basal yellow rings on segments 3-6.
Appendages of second segment very promi-
nent, the hinder portion projecting as a
large fork-like process from the basal bor-
der of third segment. Upper anal appen-
dages yellow, short, conical as viewed from
above, expanded at the tip as viewed .from
side; lower appendages twice as long as
upper, longer than the tenth segment, black,
Female-Length 40 mm. Expanse 45
In colour and markings agreeing closely
with the male. The three hindmost abdo-
minal segments greatly swollen, vulva la-
mella very prominent, and projecting,
provided with a pair of small black pro-
cesses. Anal processes small, and incon-
Genus ORTHOLESTES, Calvert.
Neotropical (West Indies only).
Ortholestes cl'tra, Calvert-This beautiful dra-
gonfly recently described by Calvert (1.2)
from Jamaica, is unknown elsewhere. The
genus is restricted to the West Indies, the
only other species, 0. Abbottii, Calvert, oc-
curring in Hayti. :

Genus LESTES, Leach.
Lestes spumarius, Selys-A species confined to
the West Indies, recorded from Cuba and
Porto Rico.
It will be seen that the above list of Ja-
maican dragonflies shows almost exclusive
Neotropical affinities, with a great preponder-
ance of South American species. Itis propor-
tionally richer in endemic West Indian, and
in Sooth American or South and Central
American species than Kolbe's general
West Indian list, or than Hagen's list of
Cuban dragonflies. It we reckon forms, as
we fairly may, that range north only to
Florida and Texas, as belonging to the Neo-
tropical fauna, the single Nearctic or So-
noran dragonfly in the Jamaican list is
Mesothemis simplicicollis. And only three
species-Pantala flavescens, Tramea abdo-
minalis, and Micronympha Ramburii, are
'oth Sonoran and Neotropical. Twenty-
three of the Jamaican dragonflies occur on
the mainland of tropical America as well as
in the West Indies. Of these only four-
Micrathyria Hagenii, M. equals, Hetcerina
bipartita, and Enallagma Doubledayi-are
found in Central America and are absent
from South America, Six-Miathyria mar-
cella, Trithemis pulla, T. umbrata, Orthemis
ferruginea, Lepthemis vrsiculoas, and Meso-
themis attala-are common to South and
Central America. While thirteen-*Tramea
basalis, *T. brasiliana, Trithemis abjecta,
*T. Erichsom., *[Tracis imbuta, *Neveysta
attenuata, *Lesthemis hwmatogaster *Ery-
themis peruviana, *Gynacanfha trifida,
Acarthagyna septima, A. nervosa, Ceratura
capreola, and Telebasis dominicana are
found in South Amlerica but are not known
from Central America The seven species dis-
Stinguished by an asterisk, of these four-
teen, together with Hetmerina bipa tita, are
those now recorded from the West Indies
for the first time. Their presence in Jamaica
and their apparent absence trom Cuba
suggests a more strongly-marked South
American element in the dragonfly fauna of
the more southern island. T'he remaining
seventeen species -Perithemis domitia, *P.
pocahnotas, *P. mooma, Trithemis justin-
iana, T. fraterna, Microthemis celeno,
Dythemis rufinervis, Scapanea frontalis,
Cannacria Smithit, Cannaphila insulares,
Micrathyria didyma, Diplax portoricana,
Protoneura capillaris. Elaallo.ma cultell
atum, *Telebasis macrogaster, *Otholestes
clara, and Lestes spumarius-are so far as
we know, confined to the West Indies, and
of these the four species marked with an
asterisk are peculiar to Jamaica.
Of the twenty-seven genera represented in
the list, it will be seen that only three are
truly cosmopolitan, though seven others are
found both in the Old and New World. The


remaining seventeen are confined to America
-and fourteen of these are characteristi-
cally Neotropical, three of them being pecu-
liar to the West Indies.
Wallace, in his work on the Geographical
Distribution of Animals (vol. ii., p. 78) states
that the vertebrate fauna of the West Indies
shows more similarity to that of the Mexican
sub-region than to that of South America.
Kolbe (9) however draws attention to the
fact that the West Indian Neuroptera show
markedly South American affinities. We
have seen that the Jamaica dragonflies lend
abundant support to this view. With' in-
sects of so great power of flight and strong
migratory habits as dragonflies, it is likely
enough that a large and comparatively re-
cent immigration from the teeming continent
to the south has, to a great extent, swamped
the older elements of the fauna.
1. F. Brauer. Neue exotische Odonaien. Vert.
Zool. Bot. Ges. W'ien., Vol. xvii, 1867, pp.
2. P. P. Calvert. A new genus and species of
Odonata from Jamaica. Ent. News, vol. ii.,
1891, p. 199.
-- The Odonete genus Orthole.te,. Proc.
Acad. Philadelphia, 1893, pp. 377-352,
3 H. A. Hagen. Synopsis of the Neuroptera of
North America (Sinithso,,ian Mi Ascellaneous
Collections vol. iv.) Washington, 1861.

4.- The Odonate Fauna of the island of Cuba,
Proc. Boston. Nat. Hist. Soc., vol. xi., 1867.
pp. 289-294.
5.- --Synopsis of the Odonata of America Proc.
Boston. Nat. 1ist. Soc., vol. xviii., 1875, pp.
6. W. F. Kirby. A synonymic catalogue of
Neuroptera Odonata. London, 1890.
7. -- On some new or little-known species of
Libelluline from Jamaica in the Dublin
Museum of Science and Art. Ann. Mag.
Nat. Hist., (6) vol. iv., 1889, pp. 231-233.
8.--- On some small collections of Odonata
recently received from the West Indies.
Ann. May. Nat. Hist. (6) vol. xiv., 1894,
pp. 261-269.
9. H. J. Kolbe. Die geographische Verbreitung
der Neuroptera und Pseudoneuroptera der
Antillen. Archiv. fiir Naturg., Jahrg, liv.
1 Band, 1888, pp. 153-176. pl. xiii.
10. de Selys Longchamps, Le Baron. Odonata
de Cuba. In R. de la Sagra's Histoire de
l'Ile de Cuba." Paris, 1857 (pp. 436-473).
11.-- --Troisiemes additions au Synopsis des
Calopterygines. Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) vol.
xxxv., 1873, pp. 469-519.
12.- -Synopsis des Agrionines: Bull. Acad.
Belg., (2) vol. xli., 1876, pp. 247-322.
13.- do. (Suite) 1. c. pp. 496-539.
14----do. (Suite) Bull. Acad. Belg., (2)
vol. xlii, 1876, pp. 952-991.
I5.--- do. (Suite) Bull. Acad. Belg. (2)
vol. xliii., 1877, pp. 97-159.



The following list of Jamaican Lizards has
been compiled from the Catalogue of Lizards
in the British Museum (B.M.C.) London,
1885-87, for the purpose of studying the
specimens in our own collections.
It is thought well to also publish it in
order that the requirements of the Museum
may be brought before correspondents and
others interested in the natural history of
the island; and also that names in common
usage and in Gosse's Naturalist's Sojourn
in Jamaica" (Nat. Soj. Jam.) may be com-
pared with the terminology adopted at the
British Museum.
Gonatodes albogularis (B.M.C., Vol. 1., p.
The Museum possesses no specimens of
this species and Gosse does not mention it.

There are two specimens in the British
Museum from Jamaica. It is found in other
West Indian Islands.
Phyllodactylus ventralis (B.M.C., Vol. 1.,
p. 80).
In the British Museum Catalogue a speci-
men of this is doubtfully recorded from
Aristelliger prcesiguis (B.M.C., Vol. 1., p.
This is apparently the "Gecko" or
" Croaking Lizard," Thecadactylus Icevis, of
Gosse's Nat. Soj. Jam., p. 75.
No examples of Thecadactylus are recorded
from this island, while there are several of
the Aristelliger in the British Museum pre-
sented by Mr. Gosse, and one by Mr. Beck-
ford. An important generic difference is


that in the former the transverse lamellhe
on the dilated portion of the digits are
divided inferiorly by a median groove, while
in the latter they are undivided.
The species is not uncommon around
Kingston, the Museum having several speci-
mens. One, presented by Mr. Tillman, is
a fine example of a double-tailed" lizard.
Sphterodactylus oxyrrhinns, Gosse. Ann
Mag. Nat. His., (2) vi., 1850, p. 347. (B. M.
C. vol. I., p. 222-3, Pl. xviii., fig. 4).
This seems to be a rather rare lizard;
The British Museum possesses only the type
specimen presented by Gosse, and obtained
by him from St. Elizabeth. It is not
known from the other West Indian Islands.
Since this was in manuscript the sons of
the Rev. G. Davidson, to whom the Museum
is also indebted for four specimens of S.
richardsonii, have sent two live ones of this
Sphcerodactylus argus, Gosse. Ann. Mag.
Nat. His., (2) vi., 1850, p. 347. (B. M. C.,
vol. 1., p. 223, P1. xviii., fig. 5).
lizard first described by Gosse, who gave it
the name of the common Pallette-tip." He
speaks of it as not uncommonly seen in the
dwelling-houses andout-buildings of Jamaica.
It is figured in the Brit. Mus. Cat. Mr.
Scotland has lately sent one from Vale Royal,
St. Andrew.
Sphcrodacty.lus gilvitorques (B. M. C.,
Vol. 1., p. 227).
A rare Jamaican species described by
Cope (Proc. Acad. Phil., 1861, p. 600).
There is no specimen in the collections of
the British Museum.
Sphuerodactylus richardsonii, Gosse, Nat.
Soj. Jam., p. 254-6. (B.M.C., Vol. 1., p. 227.
P1. xviii., fig. 6).
specimens of this pretty little lizard were
received at the Museum a few days ago from
Master L. Davidson, son of the Rev. George
Davidson, Hampden Manse, Hampden.
Gosse mentions two having been taken at
Montego Bay. The type specimen, presented
by Sir J. Richardson, is in the British
Museum, along with one from Montego Bay.
Xiphocercus valenciennesii (B.M.C., Vol.
ii., p. 9).
Placopsis ocellate, Gosse. xnn. Mag. Nat.
His., Nov. 1850; Nat. Soj. Jam., p. 226.

"PLATE-IIEADED ANoLTs."-This species
is well distinguished amongst our others by
its delicate greenish white or cream colour,
with irregular bands and spots of brown or
black Specimens are only recorded from
Jamaica. We have lately received a fine one
from Mr. W. A. J. Dill, St. Mary, another
was presented by Mr. E. Dicks, "Rest," St.
Andrew, and one from Bermuda Mount, St.
Andrew, was purchased.
Anolis equestris (B.M.C., Vol. ii., p. 21).
This lizard is figured in Sloane's Natural
History of Jamaica, p1. 273. It is known
from Cuba. The British Museum possesses
no specimen from Jamaica.
Anolis EI..,-rd.,; (B.M.C., Vol. ii., p. 24).
Dactyloa Edwardsii, Gosse, Nat. Soj.
Jam., p. 152.
The well known green lizard, not rarely met
with amongst the trees in the higher parts
of the country districts. It is apparently
only known from Jamaica.
Anolis Grahami (B.M.C., Vol. ii., p. 37).
Anolis opalinus, and Anolis iodurus,
Gosse, Ann. Mag. Nat. His., (2) vi., 1850, p.
344, Nat. Soj. Jam., p. 216.227.
ANoLIS."-This species includes the small
brown, purplish, or green lizards so very
abundant around Kingston. and which have
such considerable powers of changing their
colours. Gosse regarded them, though with
some hesitation, as forming two species. It
is only recorded from Jamaica.
Anolis Ilichardii (B.M.C., Vol. ii., p. 37),
Evidently a rare Jamaican form, known
also frm other West Indian Islands-
Dominica, St. Vincent. There is no speci-
men in our collections.
Anolis lineatopus (B.M.C., Vol. ii., p. 39,
P1. 1., figs. 1, 2).
Anolis maculatus, Gosse. Nat. Soj. Jam.,
p. 225.
ZEBRA ANOLTS."-The dark brown lizard
with light, irregular transverse b'mds on
the back and limbs. Perhaps the commonest
form around Kingston.
Anolis sagrae (B.M.C.. Vol. ii., p. 40).
,Draconura catenata, Gosse. Ann. Mag.
Nat. His., Nov. 1850 ; Nat. Soj. Jam., p.
"CHAIN-MARKED ANOLIS."--Gosse obtained.
a specimen of this species, while staying at
Bluefields. In colour it is brown above


with golden gloss, uniform, or with darker ;
sometimes three paler longitudinal bands
run along the vertebral line and from axilla
to groin; frequently a series of large oval
or darker spots on each side of the back;
lower surfaces whitish with metallic gloss."
It is known from the Bahamas, Cuba, eastern
coast of Central America, and Venezuela.
There is no representative in the Museum.
Cyclura carinata (B.M.C., Vol. II., p.
Cyclura lophoma, Gosse. Nat. Soj. Jam.,
p. 76.
"IGUANA."-The great or edible Iguana
appears to be not nearly so abundant as
formerly. (losse describes it from the eas-
tern part of the island, and it is said to be
still found on the Healthshire and Port
Henderson Hills. Large specimens are met
with on Goat Island, Old Harbour Bay.
The Museum has a live young one presented
by Mr. Leo E. Verley from this spot.
Further observations of its occurrence would
be useful. It is found in the Bahamas and
in Cuba.
Diploglossus monotropis (B.M.C., Vol. II.,
p. 285). Under the name Tiliqua jamai-
censis this has been described as from
Jamaica, but there is evidently some error
in the locality. It is given as occurring in
Costa Rica and Ecuador.
Diploglossus striatus (B.11.C., Vol. II., p.
28:), P1. xvi., fig. 1). Only one undoubted
spepimen is in the British Museum from
Jamaica, being presented by R. Heward,
Esq. Three specimens are in our collections.
Diploglossus occiduus (B.M C., Vol. II.,
p. 29l-1).
Celestus occiduus, Gosse. Nat. Soj. Jam.,
p. 214.

"MORASS GALLIWASP."-This and the
next were our two most common galliwasps,
and, along with the third, are restricted to
Jamaica. It appears to be rather rare now,
none having been received at the Museum
for a considerable time.
Diploglossus Hewzardii (B.M.C., Vol. II.,
p. 291, Pl. xvii).
The Museum possesses several specimens
of this galliwasp, as also does the London
Diploglossus impressus (B.M.C., Vol. II.,
p. 291).
The British Museum is without an example
of this rarer form. In colour it is olive
above, yellowish below; "The back and
sides crossed by about eighteen narrow
brown bars, which are three times broken,
and alternate on each side the median line."
Ameiva dorsalis, Gosse. Nat. Soj. Jam.,
74. (B.M.C., Vol. II., p. 251).
GROUND LIZARD."-As far as concerns
the neighbourhood of Kingston the ground
lizard is the one which best illustrates the
changes resulting from the introduction of
the mongoose.
Formerly very abundant everywhere,
some time after the arrival of the foreigner
it had apparently become almost exterminat-
ed; now, within the last few years, it is
again to be seen in numbers in and around
the outskirts of the town.
Mabouia Sloanii (B.M.C., Vol. II.. p. 193).
Maboya ayilis, Gosse. Nat. Soj. Jam.. p. 75.
BoY."--Is now occasionally found around


The following four species of scorpions
are the only ones from Jamaica recorded by
Mr. I. J. Pocock in his paper: "Contribu-
tions to our knowledge of the Arthropod
Fauna of the West Indies" (Jour. Linn. Soc.,
Vol. xxiv., No. 155, 1893).
1. Isometrus miaculatus (DeGeer). Several
specimens of this species, identified by Mr.

G. H. Carpenter, have been sent to the
Museum by Mr. D. S. McGann, Port Maria;
Mr. Hart sends one from St. Ann's Bay;
Mr. Harris from Cinchona; Captain Baxter
and Mr. Goodlet from St. Andrew. Its oc-
currence around Kingston has not yet been
noted. It is known from many other West
Indian Islands.


2. Centrurus margaritatus (Gervais). This
is the large scorpion so very abundant
in and nearly Kingston. Dr. G. Henderson
recently contributed a collection of twenty-
three, all from this district; while that it
is also common in other parts is shown by
Dr. W. D. Neish's presentation of eight
from Old Harbour. It is found most com-
monly in baths and outhouses. The British
Museum has no specimens from any other
West Indian island, but the species is com-
mon in Central America and Columbia.
Dr. Cargill has for some time experimented
upon the supposed parthenogenic reproduc-
tion of scorpions in captivity, and, in refer-
ence to four of this species, writes to the
Museum as follows : 'They were all little
things just weaned from the mother's back,
and about as long as one's nail. I put them
into a cage made by inverting a shade with
paper gummed over the base. Three died
within a few days. The fourth I kept alive
and watched its gradual growth from day to
day, keeping it entirely by itself. I was not
aware of the sex then. I fed the little scor-
pion first on flies, and, as it grew bigger, on
cockroaches. After fourteen months she gave
birth to over thirty young ones. None lived
beyond four or five weeks."
3. Centrurus insulanus (Thorell). Mr.
Pocock mentions having received many ex-
amples of this species from Mr. Peckham
and Mr. Cockerell. He recordsit only from
Jamaica, and from Chocoand Brazil Amongst
the many scorpions in our collections I find
only one of this species.
4., Diplocentrus scaber, Pocock. This
small species was onlj described as new by
Mr Pocock in 1893, specimens being in the
British Museum from Jamaica and Barbados,

the former being collected by Gosse. Owing
partly to the efforts of Dr. Cargill several
have now been obtained at the Museum from
various spots, including a few from St.. Ann;
and two examples from Cinchona, sent by
the Hon. W. Fawcett. One was presented
by Mrs. Swainson from Guy's Hill.
In connection with his experiments on
one of these, Dr. Cargill again writes: My
little crab-clawed Scorpion,' Diplocentrus
scaber, which I have had in a glass case for
over eight months all by herself, gave birth
yesterday to ten young ones. I send one for
the Museum. It is quite unlike other young
scorpions, being perfectly white. When I
got my little scorpion it measured a little
over half an inch from end of sting to head,
it is now one inch in length."
Mr. Pocock, in the Journal of the Liinean
Society, No. 155, considered all the West
Indian examples of the Tarantulidae as being
the well known Tarantula reniformis, Linn.
Subsequently, in No. 157 of the same Journal,
he shows that they are capable of specific
distinctions and proposes several new species.
None, however, are recorded from Jamaica,
with the exception of "one example, allied
to T. Keyserlingii, but too young to identify."
Two specimens sent from Jamaica to Mr.
G. H. Carpenter have been identified by him
as Tarantula margine-maculata, C. Kock
(=T. latifrons, Pock.). Several exampleA of
the same species have been received at the
Museum since. Bermuda Mount, near
Gordon Town, purchased; Cinchona, Hon.
W. Fawcett; St. Ann, Mr. Sturridge;
Brown's Town, St. Ann, Master Henderson.
The same species occurs in Hayti.


The Myriapods include the well known
Centipedes and Millepedes, generally met
with in crevices and under stones and vari-
ous other objects. The following list of
those already known from Jamaica is found-
ed upon the papers by Mr. R.. J. Pocock,
in the Journal of the Linnean Society, Vol.
xxiv., Nos. 156,157 : Contributions to our
knowledge of the Arthropod Fauna of the
West Indies ;" several records in the Journal

of the Institute of Jamaica; and upon a
series of identifications made by Mr. G. H.
Carpenter from material lately sent him from
the Museum. Out island must be very rich in
these forms of life, and, no doubt, a great
number of species yet remain to be dis'
covered. A reference to Mr. Pocock's list
shows that of specimens of Millepedes sent
him from Mandeville by Mr.. Cockerell, seven
or eight were new species. Unfortunately


not a single named specimen was retained or
obtained for our local collections. Mr.
Carpenter has lately returned a number of
named examples, -and it is very desirable
that the other deficiencies in our Museum
should be made up by contributions.
I. CHILOPODA.-" Centipedes"
Scolopendra gigantea, Linn. (Jour. Linn.
Soc., Vol. xxiv., No. 156, p. 458).
Mr. Pocock records this from Jamaica,
St. Thomas, and Trinidad.
Scolopendra subspinipes, Leach. (J.L.S.,
No. 156, p. 458).
This species is represented in the Museum
by numerous specimens. It is recorded from
most of the West Indian Islands and as
common in tropical parts of both hemis-
Scolopendra morsitans, Linn. (J.L.S., No.
156. p. 459).
The British Museum has specimens from
Jamaica and Hayti, and, like the previous
species, it is abundant in all tropical coun-
Scolopendra sp. ?
A specimen purchased from Mr. Hall,
Bermuda Mount, Jamaica, is returned by
Mr. Carpenter as above.
Cupipes guildingii (Newport.), (.I.L.S., No.
156, p. 460).
Mr. Pocock identifies a specimen sent by
Mr. Cockerell as this species (Jour. Instit.
Jam., Vol. 1., p. 137). Mr. Carpenter also
identifies one sent in the recent contribution.
It is widely distributed in the West Indies.
lihysida celeris (Hulmb. and Sauss.). (J.
L. S., No. 156. p: 464).
This species had not come under Mr
Pocock's observation at the time of writing
his paper, Meinert only having recorded it
from Kingston. In the specimens recently
sent to Mr. Carpenter three are identified by
him as this rare species. One he retains,
the British Museum wishes the second, and
the third is returned to the Jamaica Museum.
They were obtained from Bermuda Mount,
rear Gordon Town.:
Otocryptops ferrugineus (Tinn.), (J.L.S.,
No. 156, p. 461).
A widely distributed : species occurring
throughout Central America, the West Indies,
and the. northern parts of South America.
Numerous specimens obtained from Bermu-
da Mount were identified by Mr. Carpenter.
Mr. Pocock identified some found at Cin-
chona hy Mr. Harris.

Mecistocephalus guildingii (Newport). (J.
L.S., No. 156, p. 370).
Mr. Cockerell sent specimens of this spe-
cies from Jamaica. It is known also from
St. Vincent, Cuba, and St. Croix.
Orphanceus brevilabiatus (Newport). (J.
L.S., No. 156, p. 472).
This species is found in all tropical coun-
tries and is perhaps the commonest in col.
elections of all exotic Geophilidae." Mr.
Cockerell forwarded specimens collected in
Kingston, to the British Museum (Jour. In-
stit. Jam., Vol. 1., p. 260).
II. DIPLOPODA.-"Millepedes."
Rhinocricus mandevillei, Pocock. (J.L.S.,
No. 157, p: 489).
SThis is a Jamaican species founded upon
specimens sent to the British Museum by
Mr. Cockerell, it having been collected at
Rhinocricus gossel, Pocock. (J.L.S., No.
157, p. 490).
This is another new Jamaican Millepede.
The specimens were collected by Mr. Gosse.
Rhinocricus excisus, Karsch. (J.L.S., No.
157, p 491).
Evidently a rare species, known only from
Jamaica. I'he British Museum is without
any example.
Rhinocricus holomelanus, Pocock. (J.L.S.,
No. 157, p. 499).
The British Museum has specimens from
Jamaica, received from Mr. Gosse and Mr.
Cockerell. Mr. Carpenter identified one in
the collection sent him. It appears to be
only known from Jamaica.
Rhinocricus solitarius, Pocock. (J.L.S.,
No. 157, p. 496).
A species founded upon material sent from
the island by Mr. Cockerell.
Rhinocricus sabulosus, Pocock. (J.L.S.,
No. 157, p. 504).
Found at Mandeville and forwarded to
the British Museum by Mr. Cockerell.
Rhinocricus cockerellii, Pocock. (J L.S.,
No. 157, p. 535).
This is another of the new species founded
upon material from Mandeville sent to the
British Museum by the naturalist in honour
of whom it is named.
Rhinocricus townsendi, Pocock. (J.L.S.,
No. 157, p. 505).
The sixth new species of this genus de-
scribed by Mr. Pocock in his present work.
The specimens were contributed by Mr.
Rhinocricus sp. nov.?


Amongst the collections sent to Mr. Car-
penter is one which he reports as probably
another new species of this genus.
Thyroproctus townsendi, Pocock. (J.L.S.,
No. 157, p. 506).
A species established upon material sent by
MAr. T. Townsend.
Cyclodesmus porcellanus, Pocock. (J.L.S.,
No. 157, p. 509).
A new species known only from this
Strongylosoma coarctatum (Sauss.). (J.L.
S., No. 157, p. 512).
Jamaican specimens were contributed to
the British Museum by Mr. Townsend. It
is known also from Barbados and Dominica.
Odontopeltes sallei (Sauss). (J.L.S., No.
157. p. 512).
Under the synonymn Polydesmnls (">xyu-
rus) sallei, Mr. Cockerell states (Jour. Instit.
Jam., Vol. 1., p. 200) that he "saw a Jamaican
specimen of this in the British Museum."
Mr. Pocock does not record it from Ja-
maica in his list published later.

Odontopeltis morantus (Karsk). (J.L.S.,
No. 157, p. 515).
SBoth the British Museum and the Berlin
Museum have specimens of this species, only
recorded from Jamaica.
Odontopeltis verrucosus, Pocock. (J.L.S.,
No. 157, p. 516).
Specimens were sent by Mr. Cookerell
and Mr. Townsend from Jamaica to the
British Museum.
Odontopeltis formosus, Pocock. (J.L.S.,
No. 157, p. 517).
Mandeville. T. I). A. Cockerell.
Odontopeltis mammatus, Pocock. (J.L.S.,
No. 157, p. 518).
Mandeville, T. D. A. Cockerell.
Peripatus Jamaicensis, 'Grabham and
As an addition to the records already
given in the Journal of the Institute, of the
finding in the island of this interesting
species, Mr. Stewart Panton sent to the
Museum a fine specimen from Mandeville.


There are 18 genera of Melastomaceao, con-
sisting of over 50 species, in Jamaica. The
members of this family of plants are natives
chiefly of the tropics. In North America
they do not pass further north than the south
of Mexico, and in South America, in Africa
and Australia, they rarely pass beyond the
30th. degree of south latitude. They do not
exist in Europe, or the northern parts of
The plants of this order are of scarcely
any economic value. The name of the order
is taken from the old world genus Mela-
stoma, which was so named from the edible
berries making the mouth (stoma) black
(melas). Some of the Jamaica berries, e.g.,
Heterotrichum, are edible. The fruit of
Blakea is said to be edible and to dye red.
The flowers of Meriania have been employed
as pectorals. The bark of species of Hen-
riettea has been used in Cayenne in the

treatment of abscesses and wounds. Many
of the species of Miconia are of use. The
berries of M. macrophylla are edible; the
juice of M. Guianensis is applied to puns-
tures to relieve pain; M. prasina, in Ca-
yenne, yields a black dye.
Many of the Melastomacete are cultivated
in hot houses in Europe for their orna-
mental appearance The leaves are very
striking, and the flowers are sometimes
large and handsome.
The corolla consists of several petals. dis-
tinct (or rarely, in Adelobotrys, slightly
united at the base), inserted on the calyx-
throat, and contorted in the bud. The
stamens are generally double as many as
the petals, sometimes the same number, in.
sorted with the petals. The ovary is free
or adherent to calyx, of 2 or more cells. The
fruit is a capsule or a berry, bursting. by
regular valves, or irregularly. The seeds


are generally numerous and minute, or
sometimes few and large. The leaves are
opposite, occasionally whorled, simple, equal
or unequal; lateral nerves 2 to 8, almost as
prominent as the central one, running from
the base to the tip, with the cross veins
The above are the general characters
which distinguish this order from others.
To go into further particulars, the species
are usually erect shrubs, sometimes trees
or herbs (in Adelobotrys climbing). The
flowers have both stamens and pistil; they
are regular; variously arranged, solitary

or in clusters or panicles or cymes;
with or without bracts, in Blakea with very
large bracts. The stamens are sometimes all
equal, but very unequal in Acisanthera and
Nepsera; the filaments are free, inflexed ia
bud; the anthers are 2-celled, pendulous
before flowering, and sunk in the spaces
separating the ovary from the calyx ; cells
parallel, generally opening at the top (occa-
sionally lengthened into a beak) by a com-
mon pore, or by two or four distinct pores,
rarely by longitudinal slits; connective
sometimes elongated below the cells, with
or without appendages. The style is sim-
ple, and the stigma undivided.

Series 1. Ovary adherent to the calyx, more or less. Fruit a berry, soft or somewhat hard
and breaking up irregularly. Seeds several, minute.
Tribe I. Inflorescence terminal.
1. Calyx-limb persistent.
(a) Calyx-lobes broad and short or wanting.
Petals with obtuse or notched tip. 1. Miconia.
Petals twisted so as to appear to form a bell-shaped corolla.
2. Cliarianthus.
Petals with acute tip. 3. Leandra.

(b) Calyx-limb with long thread-like lobes.
Calyx with scarcely any hairs.
Calyx covered with glandular hairs.

4. Calycogonium.
5. Heterotrichum.

(c) Calyx-limb spreading, tube narrowed above the ovary as soon as
the petals have fallen. 6. Tetrazygia.
2. Calyx-limb falling off like a conical lid when the bud opens.
7. Conostegia.
Tribe II. Inflorescence axillary or lateral.
1. Bracts below flowers small or none.
(a) Petals obtuse or notched.
Calyx-limb produced beyond the ovary, lobes with long teeth out-
side. Flowers in axillary panicles or clusters, parts in 4's., 5's.,
or 6's. 8. Clidemia.
Calyx-limb obftusely lobed. Flowers in short panicles, axillary or
from below the leaves, parts in 4's., or 5's.
9. Mecranium.
Calyx-limb lobed, spreading, with a small tooth outside below each
tip of the lobes. Flowers one or more, clustered on parts of
branches which have dropped their leaves, parts in 5's., or 6's.
10. Henriettea.
(b) Petals with acute or tapering tip.
Calyx-limb spreading. Flowers clustered on parts of branches which
have dropped their leaves, parts in 5's. or 6's.
11. Henriettella.
Calyx-limb with or without teeth. Flowers in axillary clusters,
cymes, or panicles; parts in 4's. 12. Ossmea.
2. Flowers with 4 large bracts, opposite in pairs; leaves with very numer-
ous, fine cross-veins between the nerves. 13. Blakea.


Series II. Ovary quite free from calyx. Fruit.a capsule splitting up with regular valves.
Seeds several, minute.
Trees or large shrubs, leaves large. Flowers large, solitary or in short pani-
cles, terminal and axillary. 14. Meriania.
Climbing shrubs. Leaves large. Flowers small, numerous in a terminal panicle.
15. Adelobotrys.
Herbs or very small shrubs. Leaves small. Flowers small, generally solitary,
terminal and axillary. 16. Acisanthera.
Herbs or very small shrubs. Leaves small. Flowers small, numerous in a ter-
minal panicle, branching into three divisions. 17. Nepsera.
Series III. Ovary adherent to the calyx, more or less. Fruit a berry. Seeds one to four,
Calyx-lobes deciduous. Petals with acute tip. Flowers small, generally solitary.
Shrubs. Leaves small. 18. Mouriria.
1. MIoNrIA, Ruiz and Pay. Indian Currant Bush."
Shrubs and trees. Leaves generally stalked. Flowers small, generally arranged in
terminal panicles or corymbs, parts in 4's. to 8's., generally in 5's. Calyx lobes
short. Petals olovate or oblong, rounded or notched at tip. Stamens equal or
slightly unequal, twice as many as petals (but only 4 in one species); anthers with
1, 2, or 4 pores (in one species with I chink); connective not, or scarcely,
elongated below the cells, at base not, or scarcely enlarged. Ovary generally
only partly free, sometimes altogether,or not at all, free 2-5-celled; style with
a pointed or enlarged stigma. Berry 1-5-celled. Seeds not curved.
A. LEAVES WITH 7 NERVES (ALSO SOME- M. impetiolaris, D. Don. Leaves with-
TIMES 5-NCRVED). out stalks, oblong, at base amplexicaul,
M. macrophylla, Triana. Leaves stalked, 8-18 inches long. Branches of panicle
crenate, large (4-12 inches long), simple, spike-like.
M. impetiolaris, D. Don. ("Scratch Bush") M. fulva, DC. Leaves (generally 3-
Leaves without stalks, somewhat am- nerved) lanceolate, at base long at-
plexicaul, entire, or wavy with small tenuate, 6-10 inches long. Branches of
teeth, large (8-18 inches long), panicle with flowers on one side.
M. albicans, Triana. Leaves stalked, en- M. leata, DC. Leaves obovate-oblong, at
tire, medium (3-5 inches long). base obtuse. 6-10 inches long. Branches

(1) Petals minute (not longer than one-tenth of
an inch).
M. albicans, Triana. Leaves ovate-oblong,
at base emarginate or cordate, 3-5 inches
long. Branches of panicle with flow-
ers on one side.
M. tetrandra, Naud. Leaves oblong, at
base rounded, 4-8 inches long dotted
with scales beneath, one pair of nerves
close to margin and indistinct, or want-
ing. Branches of panicle with flowers
scattered. Flowers with 4 anthers.

*The definitions of the genera and species, and the
remarks have reference only to Jamaica species. Ben-
tham and Hooker's Genera Plantarum, and Cogniaux's
Monograph have formed the basis of these notes.

oi panicle wiin nowers scattered.
(2) Petals small (1 to I of an inch).
M. Guianensis, Cogn. Calyx without hairs.
Leaves entire.
M. dodecandra, Coyn. Calyx densely
hairy. Leaves entire:
M. macrophylla, Triana. Calyx densely
hairy. Leaves crenate (often 7-nerved).
(1) Calyx and stalks of inflorescence hairy.
(a) Leaves at base cordate. Flowers long-
stalked in panicles.
M. rigida, Triana, Leaves ovate, 3-4j
inches long.
(b) Leaves at base obtuse or rounded.
Flowers without stalks.


M. multispicata, Naud. Panicles con-
tracted, spiciform. Leaves ovate-ob-
long, shortly acuminate, 4-6 inches long.
M. lsavigata, DC. Panicles spreading.
Leaves ovate or ovate-oblong, long acu-
minate, entire or minutely serrate, 4-7
inches long; stalks 1-1 inch long.
M. splendens, Triana. Panicles spreading.
Leaves oblong, long acuminate, entire.
8-10 inches long; stalks 1-2 inches
(c) Leaves at base attenuate. Flowers with-
out stalks on branches of a panicle.
M. obovalis, Naud. Leaves obovate-oblong,
shortly acuminate, 8-12 inches long.
M. prasina, DC. Leaves lanceolate-ob-
long, acute or somewhat acuminate,
4-8 inches long.
(d) Leaves at base acute.
M. quadrangularis, Naud. Leaves oblong-
lanceolate, or lanceolate-acuminate, at
base somewhat acute. Flowers in branch-
ing panicles, calyx-lobes rounded.
(Leaves generally 3-nerved.)
(2) Calyx and stalks of inflorescence without
M. theanzans, Cogn. Leaves shortly acu-
minate, serrulate, 2 to 3 inches long;
the 3-central nerves coloured pink.
Anthers with 4 pores
M. vulcanica, Naud. Leaves long acumi-
nate, serrulate, 4 to 6 inches long.
Anthers with 2 pores.
M. triplinervis, Ruiz & Pay. Leaves long
acuminate, entire, 6 to 10 inches long
(generally 3-nerved.) Branches above
shortly 4 to 6 winged. Anthers with 1
(1) Leaves underneath hairy.
M. fulva, DC. Leaves reddish yellow be-
neath with scaly hairs (sometimes 5-
M. punctata, D. Don. Leaves with reddish
velvety hairs beneath and marked with
numerous points.
(2) Leaves underneath without hairs, or
only afew on young leaves
M. triplinervis, Ruiz & Pay. Flowers in
contracted spiciform panicles. Calyx

without hairs. Leaves sometimes with
an indistinct pair of nerves near the
M. prasina, DC. Flowers in trichotomous
panicles. Calyx with scaly hairs.
Leaves generally 5-nerved.
(1) Leaves at tip long acuminate.
M. trinervia, D. Don. Leaves with long
M. minutiflora, DC. Leaves with very
short stalks, and a very long acuminate
(2) Leaves at tip not long acuminate.
(a) Leaves serrulate or denticulate.
M. ciliata, DC. Petals rose, small (about
1 line long). Flowers on one side of
M. rubens, Naud. Petals white, minute
(about line long). Flowers scattered.
Veins arching near the margin, simu-
lating another nerve.
(b) Leaves entire.
M. quadrangularis, Naud. Calyx and in-
florescence without hairs. Stamens
double the number of petals.
M. eriodonta, DC, Calyx and inflores-
cence felted with star-shaped hairs.
Stamens double the number of petals.
M. tetrandra, Naud. (" Macrey Wood.")
Calyx and inflorescence with scaly
hairs. Stamens equal in number to
petals. (Leaves sometimes with a pair
of indistinct nerves close to the margin.)
2. Charianthus, D. Don.
Shrubs. Leaves stalked, entire, 3-5-nerved.
Flowers in terminal panicles or cymes,
parts in 4's. Calyx-limb persistent, ob-
scurely lobed. Petals obovate, free but
forming abell-shaped corolla. Stamens
8, equal, much longer than the petals;
anthers opening lengthwise or by a pore,
connective not elongated and without
any appendage. Ovary not free, 2-4-
celled; style very long, with blunt
stigma. Berry crowned by the limb of
the calyx. Seeds not curved.
C. tinifolius, D. Don. Leaves acuminate.
Anthers opening lengthwise. Ovary
C. Fadyeni, Griseb. Leaves obtuse at p. 2
Anthers opening by a pore. Ovary ti-


3. Leandra, Raddi.
Shrubs or small trees. Leaves stalked, 3-9-
nerved. Flowers small, solitary or more
than one together, on the opposite
branches of a terminal panicle, parts
generally in 5's. Calyx limb toothed or
lobed. Petals with pointed tip. Sta-
mens double as many as petals, equal;
anthers with one pore, connective not
(or only shortly) elongated below the
cells, without an appendage or only
slightly thickened at the base out-
wards. Ovary more or less free, only
rarely quite free, generally 3-5-celled;
style with pointed stigma. Berry
crowned with the calyx-limb. Seeds
generally straight.
L. Eggersiana, Cogn. A small tree. Inflo-
rescence, calyx, and leaf rough with
minute knobs. Leaves ovate lanceolate,
long-acuminate. Flowers white.

4. Calycogonium, DC.
Shrubs. Leaves amongst the smaller, entire,
3-5 nerved, nerves prominent beneath,
(in Jamaica species there are 3 nerves
united above the base.) Flowers small,
solitary or a few clustered, terminal,
parts in 4's. Calyx lobes long, thread-
like. Petlds obovate, acute (in Jamaica
species). Stamens twice as many as
petals, equal; anthers with one pore,
connective not elongated, and without
any appendage. Ovary not free, 4-celled,
style with a pointed stigma. Berry
round. Seed not curved.

C. glabratum, DC. Flowers with long
stalks. Leaves generally ovate-lan-
ceolate, 1j to 3 inches long Petals
ending in a short pointed tip.
C. rhamnoideum, Naud. Flowers with-
out, or with very short, stalks. Leaves
obovate oblong, 1 to 1U inches long.
Petals acute.

5. Heterotrichum, DC.
Branching shrubs, covered with hairs.
Leaves large, stalked, many-nerved.
Flowers rather large, in terminal pani-
cles, parts in 5's. to 9's. Calyx hairy,
lobes long, thread-like. Petals obovate,
obtuse, large, spreading. Stamens twice
as many as petals, equal; anthers with
one pore, connective not elongated
and without appendages. Ovary 6-12-

celled; more or less free, generally
free; style with a pointed stigma.
Berry crowned with the limb of the
calyx. Seeds not curved.
H. patens, DC. (" American Gooseberry.")
Twigs, stalks of leaves and flowers, and
calyx covered with star-shaped and
glandular hairs. Leaves, 5-7-nerved,
ovate, cordate. Petals 6, white, on the
outside red-rose. Berry black, hairy,
6. Tetrazygia, L.O. Rich.
Shrubs or small trees. Leaves, 3-5-nerved.
Flowers in terminal panicles or
corymbs, small, parts in 4's or 5's
Calyx-tube narrowed above the ovary;
limb spreading. Petals obovate, with
obtuse tip. Stamens twice as many as
petals; anthers with one pore, con-
nective not elongated, sometimes with
two small swellings at base outwards.
Ovary not free except near the top,
4-5-celled; style with a pointed stigma.
Berry crowned by the limb of the
calyx. Seeds not curved.
T. angustifolia, DC. Leaves narrowly
lanceolate, with 3 nerves. Parts of
flowers in 4's.
T. albicans, Triana. Leaves ovate, with
5 nerves united above the base, scarcely
more than 3 inches long. Flowers not
stalked, parts in 4's.
T. hipsida, Macfad. Leaves oblong or
ovate-oblong, with 5 nerves, 3-5 inches
long. Flowers stalked, parts in 4's.
T. pallens, Cogn. ("White Wattle"). Leaves
ovate lanceolate, with 4 nerves united
above the base, with another pair near
the margin, 4-6 inches long. Flowers
stalked, parts in 5's.
7. Conostegia, D. Don.
Shrubs or small trees. Leaves rather large,
stalked, 3-5-nerved. Flowers in ter-
minal panicles, rather large or small,
parts in 5's-10's. Calyx-limb simple,
closed, dropping off like a lid when
bud opens into a flower. Petals obo-
vate or obcordate. generally with ob-
tuse or notched tip. Stamens 10-25,
equal, with one pore, connective not


elongated, and without any appendage.
Ovary not free, sunk in at the top;
5-15-celled, style with an enlarged
or simple stigma. Berry with very
numerous seeds. Seeds not curved,
C. rufescens, Naud. Leaves 3-nerved,
shortly acuminate, with minute teeth.
Flower parts in 6's. Petals unequal
C. subhirsuta, DC. Leaves 5-nerved
long and narrowly acuminate, generally
with wavy margin and small teeth.
Flower parts in 8's. to 10's. Petals ob-
cordate white.
(1) Leaves with 3-nerves.
C. procera, D. Don. (" White Wattle").
Buds with acuminate tip. Flower-parts
in 6's. Petals obovate-cordate, light
rosy purple. Leaves shortly and ob-
tusely acuminate.
C. Grisebachii, Cogn. Buds with obtuse
tip. Flower-parts in 5's Leaf abruptly,
very shortly and obtusely acuminate.
(2) Leaves with 5 nerves (3 or 5 united above
the base). Buds acute. Flowers white,
parts in 5's.
C. superba, D. Don. Loaf ovate, shortly
and acutely acuminate, 6-12 inches
C. montana, D. Don. Leaf oblong, or ob-
long.lanceolate, obtusely acuminate,
3-6 inches long.

8. Clidemia, D. Don.
Branching, hairy shrubs. Leaves large
stalked, ovate or oblong, 3-7-nerved,
Flowers in axillary panicles or clusters,
small or minute, parts in 4's, or 5's, or
6's. Calyx-limb produced beyond the
ovary, lobes with long teeth outside,
Petals obtuse or notched. Stamens
twice the number of petals, equal;
anthers with one minute pore, connec-
tive not generally elongated below the
cells, without appendages or sometimes
swollen at the base outside or with a

small appendage. Ovary more or less
free, 3-4-5-celled; style with a stigma
pointed or not. Berry crowned with
the calyx-limb. Seeds not curved.
C. erythropogon, DO. Corresponding
leaves often very unequal, 5-nerved.
Hairs not glandular. Petals 3 or 4
lines long.
(a) Petals 4-5 lines long. Interior calyx
teeth wanting.
C. hirta, D. Don. Hairs not glandular.
Leaves 5-7-nerved. Berry edible.
(b) Petals about 2 lines long. Interior
calyx teeth half as long as tube.
C. strigillosa, DO. Leaves 7-nerved.
Twigs, stalks of flowers and leaves and
calyx covered with glandular hairs.
C. spicata, DC. Leaves 5-nerved. Hairs
of twigs, stalks and calyx simple.
Berry edible.
C. septuplinervia, Cogn. Leaves 7-9-nerved,
at base long and abruptly attenuate
into stalks.
C. Grisebachii, Cogn. Leaves with 3 nerves
united above the base, at base long
acuminate. Twigs and leaf-stalks with
short hairs.
C. crossopetala, Cogn. Leaves with 3
nerves not united above the base, at base
shortly acuminate. Twigs and leaf-
stalks with scaly hairs.
(a). Twigs, stalks of leaves and flowers,
and calyx not hairy. Leaves 3-nerved.
C. capillaris, Griseb. Leaves long acumi-
nate, shortly stalked, margin entire.
(b). Twigs, stalks of leaves and flowers,
and calyx hairy. Leaves 5-7 nerved.
0. pilosa, Cogn. Leaves acute, shortly
stalked, margin entire, 5-nerved, with
no hairs above, and only few under-
C. plumosa, DC. Leaves long acuminate,
long stalked, margin with small teeth,


larger 7-nerved, on both sides densely
covered with coarse hairs.
C. umbrosa, Cogn. Leaves long acuminate,
long stalked, margin with small teeth,
larger 7-nerved, on both sides a few
scattered hairs.
9. Mecranium, Hook. f.
Shrubs or small trees, not hairy. Leaves
stalked, 3-5-nerved, 3 nerves united
above the base. Flowers small or mi-
nute, in short panicles, either axillary
or from below the leaves, parts in 4's or
5's. Calyx-limb obtusely lobed. Petals
obovate, obtuse or notched. Stamens
twice as many as petals, equal; anthers
with 2 or 4 large gaping pores; con-
nective produced below the cells, with-
out appendages. Ovary scarcely free at
all, 3-5-celled; style short with a stigma
not pointed, and even sometimes en.
large. Berry small, round. Seeds
sometimes somewhat curved.
M. amygdalinum, Triana. Leaves ob-
long or oblong-lancoolate, acuminate
entire or with a few distant small teeth.
Panicles few-flowered, shorter, or
scarcely longer, than the leaf-stalk.
Calyx ovoid, at base obtuse. Petals
scarcely 1 line long.
M. purpurescens, Triana. Leaves oblong-
lanceolate, somewhat acuminate, entire,
with the cross veins very numerous,
coloured. Panicles much longer than
the leaf-stalk. Calyx almost hemis-
pherical, at base obtuse.
M. virgatum, Triana. Leaves lanceolate,
acuminate, entire or scarcely wavy.
Panicles numerous, a little longer than
the leaf-stalk. Calyx narrowly hell-
shaped, at base acute. Petals a line
10. Henriettea, DO.
Trees or shrubs. Leaves stalked, large, en-
tire, generally 5-nerved. Flowers small
or somewhat large, generally one or
more clustered on parts of branches
which have dropped their leaves, parts
in 5's or 6's. Calyx-limb lobed, spread-
ing, with a small tooth outside below
each tip of the lobes. Petals obtuse,
with a small tooth outside below each
tip of the petals. Stamens twice as
many as petals, equal; anthers with
one pore,, connective not elongated be-
low the cells, without an appendage at

the base. Ovary not free at all, 5-G-
celled; style with a stigma pointed or
not. Berry. Seeds not curved.
H. ramiflora, DC. A tree with oblong
leaves, 4 to 8 inches long. Petals
rosy. Anthers blue. Style without
11. Henriettella, Vaud.
Trees or shrubs. Leaves, 3-5-nerved. Flow-
ers small, clustered on parts of branches
which have dropped their leaves, parts
in 5's. Calyx-limb spreading Petals
generally acute, sometimes somewhat
obtuse. Stamens twice as many as the
petals, equal; anthers with one pore,
connective not elongated below the
base, without an appendage. Ovary
not free, 4-5-celled, style with a stigma
pointed or not. Berry 5-4-celled.
Seed not curved.
H. fascicularis, Triana. Twigs and leaves
very hairy, Leaves with stalks, acute
at the tip, 3-5 inches long.
H. Macfadyenii, Triana. Twigs and
leaves without hairs. Leaves with
stalks, tapering to the tip, 3-5-inches
H. sessilifolia, Triana. Twigs and leaves
without hairs. Leaves without, or with
very short, stalks, obtuse at tip, 8-14
inches long.
12. OssSea, DC.
"Indian Currant Bush."
Shrubs, generally hairy. Leaves stalked,
3-7-nerved. Flowers small or minute,
in axillary clusters, cymes or panicles,
parts in 4's. Calyx-limb with or with-
out teeth. Petals with tapering or
acute tip. Stamens twice as many as
petals, equal; anthers with one minute
pore ; connective not or scarcely elon-
gated be low the cells, without append-
ages at the base. Ovary usually
scarcely free at all, 3-4-5-celled; style
with a pointed stigma. Berry 3-4-5
celled. Seeds not curved.
0. micrantha, Macf. Leaves oblong or
oblong-lanceolate, .shortly and obtusely
acuminate, margin somewhat wavy.
Flowers in panicles. Calyx with mi-
nute teeth.


0. hirtella, Triana. Leaves oblong-lan-
ceolate, shortly acuminate, underneath
with scarcely any hairs, margin with a
few hairs. Flowers minute in few-
flowered cymes.
0. Lima, Triana. Leaves oblong, at basa
obtuse and tapering a little, underneath
pitted, and very rough with scales,
margin with small teeth. Flowers in
few-flowered cymes. Twigs and leaf-
stalks covered with very short bristly
0. asperifolia, Triana. Leaves lanceolate
or oblong lanceolate, at bise acute and
long tapering, underneath minutely
pitted and rough with scales, margin
minutely crenulate-toothed. Flowers
in few.flowered cymes. Twigs and
leaf-stalks rough with scales.
0. hirsuta, Triana. Leaves oblong-lan-
ceolate, acuminate, underneath with a
few scattered hairs, but very hairy along
the nerves, margin with small teeth.
Flowers in few-flowered cymes.
0. microphylla, Triana. Leaves small
(1.1- inch log), ovate, underneath
densely covered with hairs, margin
entire and wavy, or with a few small
teeth. Flowers solitary or in 3-flow-
ered cymes. Calyx-teeth I line long.
0. glomerata, Triana. Leaves not small
(11-3 inches long), ovate-oblong, un-
derneath with short hairs and marked
with pits, obscurely crenulate. Flowers
clustered, several together. Calyx-
teeth 1 line long.
0. scabrosa, DC. Leaves rather large
(2-5 inches long), narrowly ovate,
underneath with short hairs and
marked with pits, margin with small
teeth. Flowers clustered, few together.
Calyx-teeth I line long.
13. Blakea, P. Br.
Shrubs. Leaves stalked, large, 3-5-nerved,
marked with very numerous parallel

cross veins. Flowers large, solitary
surrounded by 4 large bracts, axil-
lary, parts in 6's. Calyx-limb 6-
lobed, persistent. Petals oblong or
obovate. Stamens twice as many as
petals, equal; anthers with 2 minute
pores; connective not elongated below
the cells, with a conical appendage out-
wards. Ovary more or less free, 4-6-
celled. Berry fleshy. Seeds not
B. trinervia, Linn. ("Jamaica Rose").
Twigs, and stalks of flowers and leaves
hairy. Leaves ovate-oblong, shortly acu-
minate, without hairs. Bracts almost
round, without hairs, marked with
numerous longitudinal nerves.
14. Meriania, Sw.
Trees and erect shrubs. Leaves with long
stalks, oblong, 3-5-nerved. Flowers
large, terminal and axillary, solitary or
in short panicles, parts in 5's. Calyx-
tube bell-shaped, persistent. Petals
obovate. Stamens twice as many as
petals, equal or a little unequal; anthers
straight, with I pore, connective not
elongated below the cells, produced out-
wards at the insertion of the filament
into a minute or long appendage, but
without an appendage inwards. Ovary
free, 3-5-celled ; style with a pointed
stigma. Capsule surrounded by the
persistent calyx, 3-5-valved. Seeds not
curved, somewhat oblong.
(In Jamaica the flowers are solitary or
sometimes 3 together; with 2 or 4
bracts below the flower-stalk; the calyx-
limb is double, the outer lobes are long
and narrow; the leaves have 3 nerves
with another indistinct pair near the
margin, and numerous parallel cross
M. purpurea, Sw. ('"Maroon Wood").
Flowers reddish purple. Bracts, 2 or
4, linear-spathulate. Inner calyx-limb
with triangular lobes. Leaves with 2
small swellings just above the stalk.
M. leucantha, Sw. Flowers white or rose.
Bracts 2, oblong-spathulate. Inner
calyx-limb not lobed. Leaves without

15. Adelobotrys, DC.
Climbing shrubs. Leaves stalked, large,
ovate-oblong. Flowers small, in many


flowered terminal panicles, parts in 5's.
Calyx-tube narrowly oblong: limb
double, the 5 exterior pointed lobes
united with the interior lobes. Petals
obovate, joined together at the base
with the stamens. Stamens twice as
many as petals, equal; anthers pointed,
with one pore, connective not elongated
below the cells, produced outwards at
the insertion of the filament into an
erect appendage, but without an appen-
dage inwards Ovary free. 5-celled;
style coming to a head at the stigma.
Capsule as long as the calyx, 5-valved.
Seeds not curved, with an envelope pro-
longed into a sort cf wing at the two
A. adscendens, Triana. Climbing 10 to 30
feet high in trees; flowers showy, white
tinged with pink: leaves 5-nerved with
one pair of nerves close to the margin,
4-5 inches long. ovate.
16. Acisanthera, P. Browne.
Herbs or very small shrubs. Leaves small.
Flowers terminal and axillary, gene-
rally solitary, rose or purplish, parts in
4's or 5's. Calyx-tube hemispherical or
bell-shaped; lobes tapering, as long as
tube. Petals obovate or roundish with
obtuse tip. Stamens 8 or 10, very
unequal, the smaller often imperfect;
anthers with one pore at apex; connec-
tive elongated below the cells, and pro-
duced inwards at the insertion of the
filament into a two lobed appendage,
but without an appendage outwards.
Ovary free without hairs, 3-celled;
style with pointed stigma. Capsule 3-
valved. Seeds slightly curved, covered
with minute pits.
(The Jamaica species are annual herbs,
about a foot high, growing in wet places
with leaves about one-third inch long.)
A. quadrata, Juss. Leaves lanceolate.
Petals rose or violet. Anthers straight,
A. recurva, Griseb. Leaves ovate. Petals
purplish. Anthers curved, tapering
towards the top.
17. Nepsera, Naud.
Herb or very small shrub, erect. Leaves
small, stalked. Flowers small, in a tri-
chotomous panicle, parts in 4's. Calyx
tube ovoid; lobes acuminate, as long as

tube, persistent. Petals lanceolate,
acute. Stamens S, very unequal; anthers
unlike, pointed. with one pore; connec-
tive elongated below the cells and pro-
duced inwards at the insertion of the
filament into a two-lobed appendage,
but without an appendage outwards.
Ovary free, without hairs, 3-celled, style
with pointed stigma. Capsule 3-valved.
Seeds curved spirally, marked with mi-
nute pits.
N. aquatica, Naud. From 1 to 41 feet
high, with ovate leaves, 1 to 2 inches
long. Flowers white.
18. Mouriria, Aubl.
Shrubs without hairs. Leaves small, with
short stalks or none, entire, with one
nerve, lateral indistinct. Flowers small,
generally solitary, parts in 5's. Calyx-
lobes deciduous. Petals with acute tip.
Stamens twice as many as petals, equal;
anthers with 2 chinks; connective
more or less elongated below the cells.
Ovary not free, sunk at bottom of calyx,
2-5-celled, style with pointed stigma.
Berry with 1 to 4 seeds, crowned by
calyx-limb. Seeds rounded.
M. myrtilloides, Poir. Leaves without
stalks, narrowly ovate, acute, some-
what cordate. Petals narrowly trian-
gular, with tapering tip, 2 lines long.
Berry with one seed.

Derivation of Generic Names.
Named by Patrick Browne from
acis, a point, and anthera, an anther.
Named by De Candolle from adelos,
unknown, and b6trys, a cluster, in allu-
sion to doubts about the systematic po-
sition of the first specimens.
Named by Patrick Browne in honour
of Mr. Martin Blake of Antigua.
Named by De Candolle from calyx,
the calyx, and gonia an angle, from the
calyx-tube of the first species described
being 4-or 5-angled.
Named by Don from oharis, grace,
beauty, and anthos, a flower.


Named by Don in honour of Cli-
demus, an ancient Greek botanist.
Named by Don from c6nos, a cone,
and stege, a covering, in allusion to the
conical covering formed by the calyx-
Named by De Candolle from a spe-
cies which is called in Cayenne Caca-
Named by Nandin. A diminutive of
Henriettea, probably from the smaller
Named by De Candolle from hbt6ros,
different, and triches, hairs, from the
two different kinds of hairs on the plant.
Named by Sir J. D. Hooker, an al-
teration of the word Cremanium, ano-

their genus of Melastomaceas.
Named by Swartz in honour of a
Dutch lady, Sibylle de Merian, 1(i47-
1717, author of '-De Metamorphosibus
Insectorum Surinam."
Named by Ruiz and Pavon in honour
of Dr. Micon, a Spanish botanist.
Named by Aublet from a species
which is called in Guiana Mouriri-
Named by Do Candolle in honour of
Don Antonio de la Ossa, once Director
of the Botanic Garden at Havana,
Named by Richard from tetra, four,
and zygon, yoke, from the parts of the
flowers being in 4's.



In 1850, Oerstedti described a Synapta-
like holothurian from the West Indies un-
der the name of Synaptula vivipara, but his
account gives no other information regard-
ing the animal than that it is viviparous.
Nothing further regarding the species, was
published until 1881, when Liia.lb i- de-
scribed a single specimen which came into
his hands; he placed it in the genus ... .',
on the ground that its being viviparous was
not sufficient reason by itself for making a
new genus. In his account of the holothu-
rians of the "Challenger" expedition Th6elP
places Synapta vivipara in the list of those
forms about which nothing is known, and
.up to the present time no further facts have
.appeared regarding the species. In 1891,
and again in 1893, when the Marine Biolo-
gical Laboratory of the Johns Hopkins Uni-
versity was located at Port Henderson, Ja-
maica, a great abundance bf viviparous Syn-
apta was found in the so-called "lakes" at
Port Royal, living in the sea-weed on the
roots of the mangroves. 'A great deal of ma-
terial was preserved, but no work was done
on it until the winter of 1896, when at the
IzI.--l iin of Dr. Brooks, I began the study
of it, in order, if possible, to make out the
life history. It soon became clear that
living material would be very desirable for
all stages, and essential for the earliest, and
i ... ;...111i_ work on such material has been
carried on at Port Henderson during May
and June, 1896.
ISynapta vivipara is' one of the smaller
members of the genus, seldom I linin.' a
length of fifteen centimetres. T'i' gi at
majority of specimens are from five to ten
centimetres long, and about three or four
millimetres in diameters. The colour is differ-
ent in different individuals, ii i'. ii,. from
pale reddish-brown to dark brownish-green,

1. Oerstedt, A. S. Central Amerikanische Echino-
dermen (Synaptula vivipara). Vindensk Meddelels.
fra d. naturhist. forening i Kjobenhavn for 1849-50
p. VII.
2. Ludwig, TT. Uebpr eine lhendiggebhrende Syn-
aptide und zwei andere neue Hiolothnrienarten der
BraDilianischen Kfiste. Arch. de Biol. Vol. I1.,
1881, pp., 41-58.
3. Th6el, Hj. Report on th. TT .1 .1 ..-:. Part
II. Report on the Scientific 1: ...,r. .. I i .-. \.,age of
LT.f 8S. r., ,. .-. .'. .: I...- Vol. XIV. Part
XXXIX. L ...... ,., I-.:.

often with more or less numerous white
spots, due to aggregations of calcareous par-
ticles in the skin. The body is usually semi-
transparent, but the amount of transpa-
rency depends largely on the deepness of the
colour. The tentacles are almost invariably
12 in number, but sometimes 13 occur.
They are long and slender, pinnate with
from 25 to 37 digits, but the number of
digits varies greatly with age, the younger
the animal the fewer the digits. The tenta-
cles are usually of about the same size, but
sometimes one or two will be longer or shorter
than the rest. The calcareous ring is made
up of 12 or 13 pieces, quite narrow and
without processes of any kind. Beneath
this ring, there is another of about the same
width, made up of connective tissue, and
just above this is the water-vascular ring.
Connected with this latter is the single small
madreporic canal, lying close beside the dor-
sal mesenterium, and from two to seven Po-
lian vessels of various sizes, the largest being
about six millimetres in length. The ali-
mentary canal, about half a- 1..nir again as
the body, is folded once on it-I t, and con-
nected with it is a very well developed,
though simple, haemal system. The repro-
ductive gland lies anteriorly on the dorsal
side of the body, "..l,.in., near the mid-line
just below the mouth, and well within the
circle of tentacles. The calcareous deposits
in the skin are very numerous and of three
kinds : quantities of very small irregular ro-
settes, the so-called military granules ; small,
straight or curved, smooth or rough, rods; and
the much larger anchors and anchor-plates.
The military granules occur in all parts of
the integument, even on the inner surface of
the tentacles, but are not uniformly dis-
tributed by any means, being often gathered
into groups of such size as to appear like
white spots on the skin. These granules mea-
sure about 10 mikrons in diameter, and their
general shape is shown in Figure I. The
small rods are foundonly inthe tentacles, near
the tip, and are more abundant in young than
in old individuals. They measure about 200
mikrons, in length and lie parallel to the long
axis of the tentacle. The anchor-plates are
about 130 mikrons 1,,i and 110 mikrons
broad, oval with perfectly smooth borders.




ll. .


Synapta vivipara.

Fig. I. Military granules from the skin. 1,056
x nat. size.
Fig. II. Anchor-plate. Fig. III. Anchor. Fig.
IV. Anchor and Anchor-plate in natural position,
190 x nat. size.
Fig. V. Eight-cell stage of the egg. 106 x nat.

size ; i. seen from above, b. seen from the side.
Fig. VI. Sixteen-cell stage of the egg. 106 x nat.
size ; a. seen frunm above, b. seen from the side.
Fig. VII. Thirty-two cell stage of the egg. 106
x nat. size ; a. seen from above, b. seen from
the side.


9I. Ir.



In each plate, there are nine large and three
small holes; the latter, and the two or three
most posterior of the former having smooth
edges, while the others have the edges coarse-
ly toothed. In rare cases, the most anterior
hole is divided into two, and sometimes there
are other very small smooth holes here and
there around the edge of the plate The
anchor-plates are not flat, but are arched in-
ward away from the surface of the body; on
the external surface of each one is an irregu-
lar bent bow bearing a few coarse teeth on
its anterior edge and curving away from the
plate (Figure II.). The anchors, which lie
externally to. the plates, are much longer
than the latter, measuring from 200 mikrons to
250mikrons. They are not straight, but curve
inward and upward toward the plate. The
posterior end projects backward beyond the
end of the plate for a very short distance,
most of the extra length lying anteriorly to
the plate. The arms of the anchor which
are not in the same plane as the shaft
but bend upwards, are smooth, and at the
point where they join the shaft there
are some fine though very blunt teeth. The
other end of the shaft broadens out
into a short, very finely-toothed, notched
or branching bow (Figure III.). These de-
scriptions of anchors and anchor-plates apply
only to those which are fully developed;
younger ones show fewer teeth, many an-
chors being entirely smooth, and some plates
having all the holes entire. The develop-
ment of the anchors and plates occurs prac-
tically as described for S. inheerans, starting
with a simple short rod, which soon broad-
ens out at one end and gradually develops
into the perfect anchor. When this rod is
T-shaped, another shorter rod appears lying
below and at right angles to it. From this
by a process of dichotomous branching, and
fusion of the ends of the branches, the an-
chor-plate is formed. The anchors lie paral-
lel to the long axis of 'the plate, resting
against the bow (Figure IV.); the two to-
gether lie at right angles to the long axis of
the body, but they do not all point in the same
direction. The anchors admit of a good deal
of movement from side to side as well as up
and down, so that they may stick out at
right angles to the plate or lie close to it.
Every muscular contraction of the body
changes their position, so that there are al-
ways a great many standing out from the
body and catching on surrounding objects.
The characteristic by which this Synapta
gains its name of vivipara, while not pecu-

liar to it, among holothurians, is so notice-
able, that it is one of the most interesting
features of the animal. It is almost impos-
sible to open a specimen during the spring
and summer without finding the perivisceral
cavity well filled with young Synaptas. Whe-
ther breeding goes on all the year round is
still an open question, but from April until
the middle of July at least, development and
birth of the young is continually going on.
Each individual usually contains embryos of
two different ages, one much more advanced
than the other. Sometimes, though rarely,
it is not easy to distinguish between the
two, and still more rarely are young of three
distinct ages found. The difference in age
is often very marked, as in cases where seg-
menting eggs were found, the rest of the
larvse being beyond the pentacula stage. The
number of young in each adult is very small
when compared with other holothurians, but
they are sometimes so numerous as to fill the
body-cavity very noticeably. The usual num-
ber is from fifty to seventy-five, but in one
case of a very large individual 176 young
were counted. Whether the eggs are self-
fertilized or not is still uncertain, and seems
a difficult point to decide. Ripe spermato-
zoa and apparently ripe ova occur in differ-
ent branches of the same gland at the same
time, and while the spermatozoa would swarm
to the egg readily enough, artificial fertiliza-
tion always failed. But this was equally
true when ova and spermatozoa were taken
from different individuals. Strange to say,
segmenting eggs were very seldom found, not
more than a dozen cases being noted out of
many hundreds of Synapta examined. Some
of these were collected in early morning and
some late in the afternoon, so that the hour
of the day seems to make little, if any, dif-
ference. Segmentation is total and equal
for several divisions at least, but no polar
bodies could be found though they were
carefully sought after. The eggs are compara-
tively large, measuring about 210 mikrons in
diameter, rich in yolk and light yellow in
colour. They are surrounded when segmenta-
tion begins by a very delicate vitelline mem-
brane; this is apparently formed as the re-
sult of fertilization, as it is not present in
unfertilized eggs. The first plane of division
divides the egg into two equal halves, which
remain entirely distinct during the following
resting stage. The next plane divides each
of these two cells into two, the four cells
appearing exactly alike and remaining separ-
ate. If we call the first plane of division


vertical, the second is vertical also, but at
right angles to the first. The next is at
right angles to both these two, and divides
the egg into eight cells of equal size, arranged
in two layers of four each, with a large seg-
mentation cavity in the middle (Figure V.).
The next division is at right angles to the
last and divides the egg into sixteen cells of
equal size, arranged in the form of a ring
2-cells wide and 8-cells in circumference
(Figure VI.). The appearance is very pecu-
liar at this time, the width of the embryo in
proportion to its circumference being so
small, and the segmentation cavity being
cylindrical instead of spherical, so that there
is, strictly speaking, neither an animal nor
vegetative pole. The next division is again
at right angles to the preceding, and there-
fore in the same plane as the third, and ac-
cordingly the width of the embryo is doubled
without altering the circumference. The
circles of cells formed by this division have
however a less diameter than the original
band, and accordingly the embryo begins to
assume the form of a sphere, but with large
openings at what are to become its poles
(Figure VII.). The next division decreases
the size of these holes, and after one or two
more divisions they entirely disappear, and
we have the perfect blastula formed. The
whole process from the beginning of seg-
mentation to the completed blastula is gone
through very rapidly, only four hours being
required, while in the European species, S.
digitate, the same series of divisions takes
about 12 hours, according to Selenka4. None
of the blastulas raised from segmenting eggs
ever developed further, but were not
rare, and gastrulas were common in the
body-cavities of the adults. Gastrulation
takes place in the same way apparently, as
shown by Selenka for S. digitata, by invagin-
ation at one pole. The gastrula in the egg-
membrane is covered with cilia, and is capa-
ble of very rapid rotation, and after escape
from the membrane can swim rapidly in the
water. Soon after this, however, it appears
to lose its cilia, and to be no longer capable
of motion until the form of the pentacula is
assumed. Development from the gastrula
stage on is accompanied by a steady increase
in size, but there is no sign of any metamor-
phosis whatever, the gastrula developing di-

4. Selenka, Emil. Die Keimblitter der Echino-
dermen. Wiesbaden, 18,3.
5. Semon, R. Die Entwicklung der Synapta digi-
tata, &c. Jen Zeitsh f Naturw. Band XXII.,

rectly into the pentacula larva. The details
of this change, involving as they do, several
disputed points, cannot be entered into here,
but it is hoped that at no distant day it
may be possible to give a complete account
of the changes undergone. The pentacula of
S. vivipara resembles in all essential points
that figured by Semon5 for S. digitata. It
is a millimetre or so in length, with five
short tentacles, and a nearly straight intes-
tine and is almost transparent. It is now
quite active, creeping about by means of the
tentacles, its activity increasing with their
increase in size and number. Soon the for-
mation of anchors and anchor-plates begins
in the skin, the body gradually lengthens,
the intestine also but more rapidly and fold-
ing back on itself, forms the simple convolu-
tion of the adult, additional simple tentacles
appear and we have a well-grown young
Synapta. In this condition many of the
young are born but there is the greatest
variation in this respect and it is no rare
occurance to find young Synapta twenty mm.
long, with pigment spots in the skin well
advanced, and pinnate tentacles, still in the
body cavity of the adult. Very curious mons-
trosities are sometimes found but they are
comparatively rare. Of those I have seen,
the simplest was a perfect double monster,
with two circles of tentacles and two com-
plete digestive tracts; the union was along the
side of the body for nearly its entire length.
Others were found having two or three cir-
cles of tentacles on one body and the most
unique specimen of all had five circles of
tentacles and apparently only four digestive
tracts, Birth takes place through the anus,
the young passing out from the cloaca, some-
times in a perfect stream.
This species of Synapta is very local in-
deed in its distribution. Although I have
searched in suitable localities elsewhere about
Kingston Harbour, and among the Bogue
Islands at Montego Bay, I have found it
only in the "lakes" at Port Royal, and there
it is only abundant so far as my observations
go, in what is known as the "middle" lake.
Furthermore, I have found it only in the
bunches of sea-weed on the roots of the man-
groves, and it is very far from occupying
every bunch. Sometimes hundreds will be
found on one root that is well covered with
oysters, sponges, ascidians and sea-weed,
while none will inhabit the neighboring
roots, though so far as the human eye can
see, they may be just as attractive. The
two chief requirements seem to be clean ser-


weed and water that is very still, but at the
same time free from any stagnation. Usual-
ly if any are found, there will be a large
number together, and they will be found so
twisted up with the sea-weed and each other
that it is no easy matter to get them out
without injury. They can hold on tenacious-
ly with their long slender tentacles and the
numerous calcareous anchors in the skin as-
sist materially in enabling them to stick to
the sea-weed. If taken in the hand, they
cling so closely because of the anchors, that
it is no easy matter to get them off, and it
often results in the death of the animal, for
the body wall is so thin and the whole crea-
ture so delicate, that any unusual strain or
pull is apt to break it in two. When such
accidents occur both pieces may live for
some time, but I am not sure that they will
develop the lost parts. Indeed, the animal
is so sensitive to changed conditions, that
attempts to keep them in aquaria have
wholly faikd, and they usually died within
twenty-four hours after being taken from
the "lakes." The food consists not only of
minute algt and such vegetable matter, but
also of small crustaceans and worms. Many
small amphipods and other crustaceans con-
ceal themselves among the tentacles, but
whether they go there voluntarily, and if so,
for what reason, I am unable to say. The
only true parasite found was a small calca-
reous sponge like Grantia, of exactly the
same reddish-brown colour as its host. Three

times this has been found growing firmly on
the external surface of the Synapta.
The above observations settle beyond ques-
tion, it would seem, the standing of Synapta
vivipara as a good species, and further show
that Oerstedt's genus Synaptula has no satis-
factory diagnostic character, and must be
set down as a synonym of Synapta. Except
for its being viviparous, Synaptula vivipara,
Oerstedt, is an ordinary Synapta, and belongs
to the same section of the genus as the
European S. inhcerans. One other fact of
considerable interest remains to be noted.
In his report of the holothurians of the
"Challenger" expedition, Theel describes a
new Synapta from Bermuda under the name
of S. picta. He says there was only one
specimen, and that a small one (30-35 mm.),
and there are no notes regarding its habits;
but if anyone will compare his description of
S. picta with the one given above for S. vivi-
para, it will be seen that they agree practi-
cally in every detail, and the resemblance
becomes still more striking if the figures of
the anchors and anchor-plates be compared.
It is obvious, I think, that the Bermudan
species must be very closely allied to, if not
identical with, the Jamaican S. vivipara, and
it becomes a question of considerable inter-
est whether the Bermudan form is viviparous
Marine Biological Laboratory,
Johns Hopkins University,
Port Henderson, Jamaica.
June 25, 1896.

By J. E. DUERDEN, A.R.C.Sc. (London).

1T is now more and more regarded as part
of the training of any biologist that he
should have experience of the luxuriant and
varied life of the tropics. It is considered
that one's conception of nature can not be
complete in the absence of it. Most Euro-
pean and American professors now en-
deavour to make some tropical trip of longer
or shorter duration for the purpose of thus
extending and completing their realization of
life as a whole, and for comparing it in its
Report of a Lecture given at a Members' meeting
held at the Institute, June 19, 1895.

temperate and tropical aspects. Judge then of
the enthusiasm and delight one still finds in
the work of studying such a marine fauna,
with an experience of only two or three
months, while everything is new, and one's
energy, owing to tropical influence, perhaps a
little above normal. The great disadvantage
felt is that one can not make the most* of
everything. In its living condition almost
every form is novel, and it is very tempting
to study everything new and interesting
that comes in one's way. Owing, however,
to the limitations of human capacity, this is


impossible, if desirous of doing any work of
permanent value to science.
It is not intended in the following notes to
give the results of any specialization, but
rather to draw attention to the more obvious
features of some of the life of the Harbour,
with the object of demonstrating the richness
of the locality; to show the wide field open
for research; and to endeavour to stimulate an
interest in Jamaican Marine Zoology so little
developed up to the present. What we need
in Jamaica is some one to do for the sea,
but along more modern lines, what Gosse
and others have done for the land. We
are indebted to members of the Johns
Hopkins University, while they were sta-
tioned at Port Henderson, for some work of
this character already accomplished. They,
while engaged principally in morphological
and students' work, at the same time col-
lected many facts of faunistic interest, and
have already published a list of thirty-eight
species of Decapod crustaceans, some of them
new, and a list of the Echinodermata, in-
cluding about twenty-eight species, in addi-
tion to various notes upon other represent.
tives of our fauna.
Our fishes, being of obvious economic im-
portance, have received a fair share of atten-
tion from different collectors and writers, at
various times.
Unfortunately the Challenger" Expedi-
tion in 1873, came to the West Indies, only
as far as the Virgin Islands.
In a local museum, such as we have in
Kingston, we ought to aim at possessing re-
presentatives of each of our species of ani-
mals and plants. To such an extent, how-
ever, has the development of each group
progressed, that even in mere identification,
only the work of a specialist can be relied
upon, and therefore the only commendable
course left for us in our somewhat isolated
position is to pursue the system of each work-
ing up some particular group, as a speciality;
while, at the same time, collecting in others,
so that plenty of material will be accomu.
lated, ready for future and foreign workers
to take advantage of.
My investigations within the limits of the
Harbour have so far been confined to shore-
collecting at most of the spots, examination
of the mangrove swamps of the Palisadoes,
and, a very fruitful source of information
and material, the contents of the seine-nets
of the fishermen.
The assemblage of life one meets with
in such a restricted area as Kingston Har-

bour, which is about ten miles long and two
or three broad, is, to a great extent, depen-
dent upon the nature of the ground. Thus,
one obtains certain kinds, though not many,
from the dirty shore around Kingston, other
forms amongst the muddy mangrove swamps
of the lee-side of the Palisadoes; and others
again from a rocky shore such as, within the
Harbour, we find only at Port Henderson.
According to one's method of investigation,
whether as shore collecting, dredging, or
examination of the contents of the seine-nets,
do we likewise obtain different representa-
tions of our fauna.
The flat shore around Kingston, as may be
expected from the number of positions at
which the surface sewerage is poured into
the sea, is very dirty and unsuitable for the
support of much life. When the sea-breeze
blows during the day, the waters for a con-
siderable distance from the shore are ren-
dered so muddy, that it is impossible to ob-
tain a supply of pure seawater without going
some distance out. Brought into the Labor-
atory in this condition it has a strong odour
of sewerage.
East and west of Kingston the shore is
also very flat, and the variety of life not
great. Towards Rockfortand Harbour Head,
the sea can never be much agitated, consider-
ing its protection from the prevailing winds.
There is a quiescent aspect about the whole
locality. Crowds of Pipe fish, Syngnathus
pelagicus, Linn., are to be seen darting
through the water. Large star-fishes, Ore-
aster reticulata, Liith., and sea-anemones are
abundant, including amongst the latter speci-
mens of Aiptasia annulata (Les.), found
especially around the landing at Mr. Storey's
house. A little west of this was found a
stone with a colony of about fifteen indivi-
duals of a very small Zoanthus upon it; also
a Nudibranch, Aclesia intrapicta, Ckll., with
its grey, olive, and green colours and long
divided processes presenting somewhat of a
protective resemblance to one of our com-
monest sea-eggs, Toxopneustes variegatus,
A. Ag.
For some distance at the east end of the
Harbour, the shore is of much the same char-
acter, until getting round to the leeward side
of the Palisadoes one comes across the man-
grove (Khizophora mangle, Linn.) swamps
with the trees sending down their roots into
the water and giving rise to a tangled mass
of vegetation and mud, in which only special
animals appear to luxuriate. Forelqost
amongst these must be mentioned the man-


grove oysters, Ostrea parasitica, Gml. These constant flow of water through the canal.
are always abundant, coating the stems On the posts supporting the bridge over the
and roots of the mangrove trees for some dis- canal, are to be found various species of
tance both above and below the surface of Zoophytes. Along the sides a species of
the water. Many of the roots in the water small crab, Macrocceloma trispinosa, Latr.
are also covered with little forests of Zoo- commensal with a sponge, is abundant. Large
phites, such as Sertularia, and, in less abun- sea-cucumbers, and many variously coloured
dance, Plumularia. Small medusoids are Ophiuroids are to be obtained, along with
often seen floating about. In general, how- a dark red sea-urchin, Diadema setosum, the
ever, there is a comparative dearth of marine pigment on whose spines, as we learnt to
life around the margins of the mangrove our cost, is very irritating for a short time.
swamps of the Palisadoes, there being a Within the lagoon are many ascidians, anem-
muddy placidity which is evidently unfa- ones, and here as elsewhere, the very large
vourable to vigorous animal existence, tubicolous worm, Sabella melania.
The water near Port Royal Cemetery, Port Henderson is rendered somewhat
forms in my experience,! one of the richest classic ground from the fact that it formed
spots in marine life in the whole of Kingston the head-quarters of the Biological professor
Harbour. A narrow shallow stream, nearly and students from the Johns Hopkins Uni-
choked with vegetation, connects the waters versity, Baltimore, on two occasions. It is
of the Carribbean Sea with those of the Hiar- certainly, from its central position, its rocky
bour. shore, and the abundance of life in its vicinity,
It is indeed a happy hunting ground for the best position for a marine laboratory
the Zoologist. Examples of all the chief under such conditions as our American
marine groups of the animal kingdom occur friends possessed. The principal characters
in great variety and abundance. Sea-horses, of its fauna, as also notes of other places, are
Hlippocampus guttulatus, Cuvr. holding on given in their report in the "Univiesity Cir-
by means of their tail to the various weeds, cular," April, 1892.
are to be found, along with numerous other Coming along the western end of the Har-
and brightly coloured fish. Among the bour, and again approaching Kingston; the
Zostera is to be found a large variety of conditions for collecting are not at all favour-
beautifully coloured Nudibranchs, peculiarly able.
interesting from the wonderful protective The numerous sharks in the waters around,
resemblances to their surroundings which the John Crow Vultures, Cathartes aura,
they assume. Jamaica offers in those a rich and Crabs, Gelasimus pugnax, Smith. on the
field of original work for any specialist on land, all feeding upon the remains of the
the spot. Marine worms, brittle.stars, sand- carcasses of city horses and cattle both in the
stars, Synapta and larger Holothurians, water and washed ashore, are the only crea-
are represented by many species; while, tures which can well be imagined to appre-
among the sea-anemones, Bunodeopsis, with ciate such a dismal malarial spot.
small club-shaped vesicles on the lower part Crossing the water at night, brilliant
of its body, occurs in numbers on the eel- flashes of light, produced by the phosphoies-
grass near the surface of the water. A deli- cent Protozoa, Medusoids, etc., follow in the
cate Tubularia forms large brown patches wake of the boat, sparkle at each splash of
several feet across. the oars, and are to be seen on one's hand
Around Dampier's Landing, as well as in after being dipped into the water.
other parts of the Harbour, several species of Many representatives of the Bydroid Zoo-
coral-forming polyps, such as Porites and phytes have been collected. A species of
M1eandrina, are to be obtained. Sertularia is very common, coating some of
For the proper study of coral-reefs, with the roots of the mangroves with a miniature
the abundant Milleporas, Madrepores, Por- forest-like growth; in other cases growing
ites and the associated Alcyonarians and upon the stones and shells. In its combi-
other forms of life, we must however go to nation of characters it differs from any British
the Cays beyond the Harbour. species, but seems to take the place here, oc-
Behind Port Royal is a short, narrow, cupied by such a form as Sertularia pumila,
artificial canal, which connects the waters of Linn., elsewhere. Along with this are often
the lagoon there with those of the Harbour, found two or three different species of the
and so prevents the former from becoming more delicate Plumularia. In company with
stagnant. Following the tides, there is a these was the familiar Aetea anguina, Linn., a


Polyzoon, already known to have a very
wide geographical range, and now extended
to Jamaica.
In different parts of the Harbour various
kinds of small medusoids, the distributors of
the reproductive cells of the stationary
Hydroids, are to be met with. Not many
of the larger medusae or true jelly-fish have
yet been seen. A very abundant representa-
tive of the Siphonophora is the well known
Portuguese man-of-war, Physalia. This li, es
more in the open sea, its large air-chamber
and sail permitting the wind to blow it easily
in all directions. Numerous specimens, often
still alive, are to be found washed ashore on
the windward side of the Palisadoes, and
are occasionally met with in the Harbour
In the collecting expeditions the Actiniaria
have been made a special feature. Since 1866,
when Duchassaing and Michelotti completed
their important Memnoire sur les Coralliaires
des Antilles," and the "Supplement" little
has been done upon the anemones. Prof.
McMurrioh, in 1889, published a valuable
paper on the Actiniaria of the Bahama
Islands, and a later one on those of the Ber-
mudas Much therefore remains yet to be
done in Jamaica, to extend by modern methods,
the work initiated by the former authors.
Perhaps the most common species of ane-
mone met with is one I identify as Adamsia
tricolor, Les. It lives upon shells inhabited
by hermit-crabs, Petrochirus granulatus,
Oliv., or directly upon the dorsal surface
of other crabs, as Pericera cornuta, Latr.,
or even upon shells still inhabited by the
living mollusc. On one shell inhabited by a
hermit-crab was obtained as many as four-
teen specimens of the anemone.
Aiptasia tagetes (Duch. and Mich.) An-
dres, and A. annulta (Les.) Andr, are both
common species; especially the former in
which a method of asexual reproduction, by
the constriction of portions from the base,
occurs in specimens from the Palisadoes.
Iunodeopyis appears to be limited to the

north western portion of the Palisadoes.
Two representatives of the Zoanthidme
occur abundantly at Port Henderson, one a
Zoanthus or Mammillifera, and another, per-
haps Gemmaria clavata, Duch. and Mich.
Each species forms patches of considerable
area over the rocks and stones, the polyps
when fully extended presenting the appear-
ance of a green.and brown mosaic work res-
pectively. A somewhat ubiquitous shallow-
water anemone, which lives partially buried
in the sand and mud, is allied to the genus
Oulactis, but differs in the arrangement of
the fronds.
Of the star-fishes the largest and most con-
spicuous species is Oreaster reticulate, found
in considerable numbers upon the smooth
sandy or muddy sea-floor. Many sand-stars
and brittle-stars were collected from near
Port Royal, and from Port Henderson. At-
tention should be drawn to the great abun-
dance of the echinoid, Toxopneustes variega-
tus, A. Ag, which is found over a great part
of the floor of the Harbour, endeavouring to
conceal itself with foreign matter, mostly
sand and fine gravel.
A species of small Octopus is met with
amongst the rocks at Port Henderson, while
squids and Sepias are often collected by the
fishermen. At the former place chitons are
very abundant; Chiton squamosus, Linn.,
affecting a social habit, being especially so.
Jamaica is very rich in crabs, both
marine and land representatives, and many
interesting adaptations for respiratory pur-
poses, require to be studied. Lupa forceps,
Fabr., Calnppa marmorata, Desm., Calli-
nectes larvalus, Ordw., C. ornatus, Ordw.,
Pericera cornuta, Latr., I'etrochirus granu
lotus, Oliv., and other smaller forms are
abundant in the Harbour; while Goniopsis
cruentatus, Latr., is always to be found
running about the rocks, and the spiny
lobster, Palinurus Americanus, M. Edw., is
caught in fish-pots. Several species of Sto-
matopoda are to be met with.

By J. E. DUERDEN, A.R.C.Sc. (Lond.).
THE paper commenced with a general sea-anemones stating that these were not
description of the external characters of the now sufficient for a thorough knowledge of
A Paper read at a Members' meeting, 15th. May, the relationships of the group, that only by
1896. a study of the mesenteries and their ar-


rangements, the position and form of the
sphincter muscle, and the more minute his-
tological structure can true affinities be de-
termined and the discrimination of the
various species be carried out on a secure
basis. Slides illustrative of these anatomi-
cal and histological features were exhib-
The family Zoanthide as defined by Prof.
A. C. Haddon ("Revision of the British
Actinim. Part II." Trans. Roy. Dub. Soc.,
Vol. IV., 1891), Prof. McMurrich, and prac-
tically accepted by all writers, has the fol-
lowing as its more important characters: Ac
tiniaria provided with paired mesenteries,
each pair consisting of a perfect and an im-
perfect mesentery, except in the cases of the
two pairs of directives ; one of which, the sul-
cnlar, consists of two imperfect mesenteries ;
and the other, the sulcar, of two perfect
mesenteries. A pair of mesenteries occurs
on each side of the sulcular directives, of
which the sulcular moiety is perfect and its
sulcar complement is imperfect; a similar
second pair occurs in one section of the
group (Brachycneminai), or the second
pair may be composed of two perfect mesen-
teries (Macrocneminu). In the remaining
pairs of mesenteries of both divisions this
order of perfect and imperfect is reversed.
Only the perfect mesenteries are fertile or
bear mesenterial filaments. The mesogleoa
of the body-wall is traversed by irregularly
branching ectodermal canals or by scattered
groups of cells. The body-wall is usually
encrusted with foreign particles. The
polyps are generally grouped in colonies
connected by a coenenchyme, and the coelen-
tera of the different individuals are in com-
munication by basal canals.
The genera Zoanthus, Isaurus, Gemmaria
Palythoa, Sphenopus, Epizoanthus. and Par-
azoanthus are included in the family.
At Port Henderson, Kingston Harbour, a
species of Zoanthus and one of Gemmaria
occur, each in considerable abundance, often
forming large patches, and offering special
facilities for study in their living condition.
Many of the Zoanthidm being tropical in
their distribution, investigations upon them
have been carried out elsewhere, mainly
upon preserved forms, and not much is re-
corded of them in their living state. The
present paper is limited to a discussion
of such living external characters and activi-
ties of these two species as may be more or
less representative of the peculiarities of the

family. A systematic description of each
will be given in a later contribution.
The two species are found associated
with one 'another near the shore, growing
upon stones and rocks, and exposed, with the
water, to the full glare of the tropical sun
and the movement of the waves.
Hundreds of encrusting patches of each
are to be met with extending for a consid-
erable distance near the water's edire. The
colonies are very variable in size and irregu-
lar in form; those of the Gemmaria may
become very large; most are from 40 to
60 centimetres across, while one is met with
covering an area of over 180 cm. in length
and a breadth varying from 30 to 60 cm.
Those of the Zoanthus are not so large, but
may be over 30 cm. in diameter.
Each species also varies considerably in
the dimensions and shape of its individual
polyps, to such an extent that if extreme
representatives of either were seen apart,
especially in the preserved condition, there
is little doubt but that they would be re-
garded, at least, as varieties of a species.
The reason of this variability is realized
when the closeness with which the polyps
are arranged is noted. In preserved speci-
mens there seems a considerable space
separating the individuals, but in their ex-
tended living condition the capitulum and
disc enlarge to such an extent that the mar-
gins of those in the same colony are practi.
cally all in contact, even exerting a pressure
against one another; so much so, that the
normal circular shape is no longer possible
and above they become polygonal in outline
without any interstices In this condition
they present the appearance of a fairly
regular mosaic floor, the brightly col-
oured discs having dark margins formed
of the contiguous rows of darkly coloured
minute tentacles. It is quite evident that
with such a compact area any individual
shorter than the others and remaining be-
neath would have little chance of successful
existence. We find that new individuals in
the colonies arise mostly around the mar-
gins, either directly from the coenenchyme,
or from the base of other polyps, and that
any irregularity in the surface of the closely
encrusted stone or rock is met by greater
.columnar elongation of those arising from a
depressed spot, and by less extension of
those arising from the coenenchyme cover-
ing the more elevated points. Where the

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