Title Page

Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The life and strange surprizing adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, mariner
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00024127/00001
 Material Information
Title: The life and strange surprizing adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, mariner who lived eight and twenty years all alone in an un-inhabited island on the coast of America, near the mouth of the great river of Oronoque, having been cast on shore by shipwreck, wherein all the men perished but himself : with an account how he was at last as strangely deliver'd by pyrates
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: 4, 364, 4 p., 1 leaf of plates : front. ; 19 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Taylor, William, d. 1723 ( Publisher )
Pine, John, 1690-1756 ( Engraver )
Publisher: Printed for W. Taylor
Place of Publication: London (At the ship in Pater-Noster-Row)
Publication Date: MDCCXIX [1719]
Edition: The third edition.
Subject: Castaways -- Fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1719   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1719   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1719
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
Citation/Reference: Hutchins, H.C. Robinson Crusoe and its printing, 1719-1731,
Citation/Reference: Moore
Statement of Responsibility: written by himself.
General Note: Front. is that of 1st ed. engraved by Clark & Pine, sc.
General Note: Third ed., second state, representing a different setting of type and with a different tailpiece on p. 364. Cf. Hutchins citation below.
General Note: Title vignette; head and tail ornaments; ornamental initial.
General Note: Publisher's advertisement (4 p.) follows text.
Funding: Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00024127
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001602409
oclc - 05585456
notis - AHM6639

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Full Text

Who lived eight and twenty Years all alone in
an un-inhabited Ifland on the Coaft of AMERICA,
near the Mouth of the Great Riyer of Oroonoque;
Having been caft on Shore by Shipwreck, where-
in all the Men perifhed but himself.
With an ACCOUNT hRw he was at laft as
ftrangely delivered by PYRATES.
I. itten by Himfelf
CDCt Wiitt Cition.

L 0 ND OD'0 : Printed for W. TAYLOR at the
Ship in Pater-Nofler-Row. MDCCXIx.


IF ever the Story ofany private
Man's Adventures in the
World zvere worth making
Public, and were acceptable
when Publih'd, the Editor ofthis
Account thinks this will befo.
The Wonders of this Man's
Life exceed all that (he thinks)
is to befound extant.; the Life of
one Man being fcarce capable of
a greater Variety.
The Story is told with Modefly,
with Serioufnefs, and with a reli-
gious Application of Events to the
Ufes to which wife Men always

apply them (viz.) to the JIflruc7ion
of others by this Example, and to
jufJfif and honour the Wifdom of
Providence in all the Variety of
our Circumflances, let them hap.
pen how they will.
The Editor believes the thing
to be a juJt Hiftory ofFad ; nei-
ther is their any Appearance of
Ficfion in it ; And however
thinks, because all fuch Things are
disputed, that the Improvement of
it, as well to the Divcrfion, as
to the Inftrucion of the Reader,
will be the fame; and asfuch, he
thinks, without farther Compli-
ment to the World, he does them
a great Service in the Publica-






H Was born in the Year 1632, in the
City of Tork, of a good Family, tho"
not of that Country, my Father be-
S inga Foreigner of B;remnen, who fettled
firft at Hull: He got a good Eflate
by Merchandize, and leaving off his
Trade, lived afterwardat Tork, from *hehce he had
married my Mother, whofe Relations were named
Rbinfon, a very good Family in that Country, and
from whom I was called Robinfon Kreutinaer; but by
the ufual Corruption of Words in England, we are
now called, nay we call our felves, and write our
NameCrufoc,and fo myCompanions always called me.
B I had

I had two elder Brothers, one of which was
Lieutenant-Collonel to an Englihb Regiment of Foot
in Flanders, formerly commanded by the famous
Col. Lockhart, and was killed at the Battle near Dun-
kirk against the Spaniards : What became of my fe-
cond Brother I never knew, any more than my Fa-
ther or Mother did know what was become of me.
Being the third Son of the Family, and not bred
to any Trade, my Head began to be filled very
early with rambling Thoughts : My Father, who
was very ancient, had given me a competent Share
of Learning, as far as Houfe-Education, and a
Country Free-School generally goes, and defign'd
me for the Law; but I would be satisfied with no-
thing but going to Sea, and my Inclination to this
led me fo firongly against the Will, nay, the Com-
mands of my Father, and against all the Entreaties
and Perfuafions of my Mother, and other Friends,
that there feem'd to be something fatal in that
propenfion of Nature tending direly towards
the Life of Mifery which was to befal me.
My Father, a wife and grave Man, gave me
serious and excellent Counfel against what he fore-
faw was my Defign. He called me one Morning in-
to his Chamber, where he was confined by the
Gout, and expoftulated very warmly with me upon
this Subjec: He ask'd me what Reafons more than
a. meer wandering Inclination I had for leaving my
Father's Houfe and my native Country, where I
might be well introduced, and had a Profpec
of raising my Fortune by Application and In-
duftry, with a Life of Eafe and Pleafure. He
told me it was for Men of desperate Fortunes on
one Hand, or ofafpiring, fiuperior Fortunes on the
other, who went abroad Upon Adventures, to rife
by Enterprize, and make themselves famous in Un-
dertakings of a Nature our of the common Road;

that there Things were all either too far above mej
or to far below me ; that mine was the middle
State, or what might be called the upper Station
of Low Life, which he had found by long Experi-
ence was the beft State in the Worldi the moft
fuited to human Happinefs, not expofed to the Mi-
feries and Hardfhips, the Labour and Sufferings of
the mechanic Part of Mankind, and not emba-
rafs'd with the Pride, Luxury, Ambition and En-
vy of the upper Part of Mankind. He told me, I
might judge of the Happinefs of this State, by this
one thing, viz7. That this was the State of Life
which all other People envied; that Kings have
frequently lamented the miserable Confequences of
being born to great Things, and wifh they had
been placed in the Middle of the two Extremes,
between the Mean and the Great; that the wife
Man gave his Teflimony to this as the juft Standard
of true Felicity, when he prayed to have neither
Poverty or Riches.
He bid me obferve it, and I should always find,
that the Calamities of Life were fhared among the
upper and lower Part of Mankind; but that the
middle Station had the feweft Difafters, ..and was
not exposed to fo many Viciflitudes as the higher or
lower Part of Mankind; nay, they were not fubje-
ted to fo many Diftempers and Uneafineffes either
of Body or Mind, as thofe were, who by vicious
Living, Luxury and Extravagancies on one Hand,
or by hard Labour, want of Neceffaries, and mean
or i sufficient Diet on the other Hand, bring Di-
ftempers upon themselves by the natural Confequen-
ces of their Way of Living; That the middle Sta-
tion of Life was calculated for all kind of Virtues
and all kind of Enjoyinents ; that Peace and Plen-
ty were the Hand-maids of a middle Fortune;
that Temperance, Moderation, Quietnefs, Health,
B 2z So0"

Society, all agreeable Diverfions, and all deflrable
Pleafures, were the Bleffings attending the middle
Station of Life ; that this Way Men went silently
and smoothly thro' the World, and comfortably out
of it, not embarafs'd with the Labours of the
Hands orof the Head, not fold.to the Life of Sla-
very for daily Bread, or harrafs'd with perplex'd
Circumftances which rob the Soul of Peace, and
the Body of Beft; not enraged with the Paffion of
Envy,. or fecret burning Luff of Ambition for great
Things; but in eafy Circumflances fliding gently
thro' the World, and fenfibly tasting the Sweets of
living, without the bitter, feeling that they are
happy, and learning by every Day's Experience to
know it more fenfibly.
After this he prefs'd me earnefily, and in the
mof affeaionate manner, not to play the young
Man, not to precipitate my felfinto Miferies which
Nature and the Station of Life I was born in,
feem'd to have provided against ; that I was under
no Neceffity of seeking my Bread ; that he would
do well for me, and endeavour to enter me fairly
into the Station of Life which he had been juft re-
commending to me; and that if I was not very ea-
fy and happy in the World, it muff be my meer
Fate or Fault that muff hinder it, and that he
should have nothing to answer for, having thus dif-
charg'd his Duty in warning me against Meafures
which he knew would be to my Hurt: In a word,
that as he would do very kind Things for me
if I would flay and fettle at Home as he direaed,
fo he would not have fo much Hand in my Misfor-
tunes, as to give me any Encouragement to go
away : And to clofe all, he told me, I had 'my
elder Brother for an Example, to whom he had ufed
the fame earned Perfuafions to keep him from go-
ing into the Low-County Wars, but cou'd not pre-

vail, his young Defires prompting him to run into
the Army where he was killed ; and tho' he faid
he would pot ceafe to pray for me, yet he would
venture to fay to me, that if I did take this foolish
Step, God would not blefs me, and I would have
Leifure hereafter to reflea upon having negle&ed
his Counfel, when there might be none to affift in
my Recovery.
I observed in this laft Part of his Difcourfe,
which was truly Prophetick, tho' I fuppofe my
Father did not know it to be fo himself; I fay, I
observed the Tears run down his Face very plen-
tifully, and especially when he fpoke of my Brother
who was killed ; and that when he fpoke of my ha-
ving Leifure to repent, and none to affift me, he
was fo mov'd, that he broke off the Difcourfe, and
told me, his Heart was fo full, he could fay no
more to me.
I was finaerely affe&ed with this Difcourfe, as
indeed who could be otherwise ? and I refolv'd not
to think of going Abroad any more, but to fettle
at Home according to my Father's Defire. But a-
lafs.! a few Days wore it all off; and in fhort, to
prevent any of my Father's farther Importunities,
in a few Weeks after, I refolv'd to run quite away
from him. However, I did not a& fo haftily neither
as my firft Heat of Refolution prompted, but I
took my Mother, at a Time when I thought her a
little pleafanter than ordinary, and told hei, that
my Thoughts were. fo entirely bent upon feeing the
World, that I should never fettle to any thing with
Resolution enough to go through with it, and my
Father had better give me his Confent than force
me to go without it; that-I was now eighteen
Years old, which was too late to go Apprentice to
a Trade, or Clerk to an Attorney; thatIwasfure
if I did, I flould never ferve out my Time, and I
B should

illould certainly run away from my Mafter before
my Time was out, and go to Sea; and if the would
{peak to my Father to let me go one Voyage a-
broad, if I came home again and did not like it, I
would go no more, and I would promise by a dou-
ble Diligence to recover that Time I had loft.
This put my Mother into a great Paffion: She
told me, fhe knew it would be to nlo Purpofe to
peak to my Father upon any fuch Subjet ; that he
knew too well what was my Intereft to give his
Confent to any fuch Thing fo much for my Hurt,
and that fhe wondered how I could think of any fuch
Thing after fuch a Difcourfe as I had had with my
Father, and fuch kind and tender Expreiions as fhe
knew my Father had us'd to me; and that in fhort,
if I would ruin my felf, there was no Help for me;
but I might depend I should never have their Con-
fent to it: That for her Part fle would not have to
much Hand in my.Defirution; and I should never
have it to fay, that my Mother was willing when
my Father was not.
Tho' my Mother refused to move it to my Father,
yet as I have heard afterwards, fhe reported all the
Difcourfe to him, and that my Father, after fbewing
a great Concern at it, faid to her with a Sigh, That
Boy might be happy if he would ftay at home, but if
he goes abroad, he will be the moll miferableft
Wretch that ever was born I can give no Confent
to it.
It was not till almost a Year after this that I broke
loofe, tho' in the mean time I continued obftinately
deaf to all Propofals of fettling to Bufinefs, and fre-
quently expoftulating with my Father and Mother,
about their being fo positively determined against
what they knew my Inclinations prompted me to.
But being one Day at Hull, where I went casually,
' a-d without any Purpofe of making an Elopement

that time; but I fay, being there, and one of my
Companions being going by Sea to London, in his
Father's Ship, and prompting me to go with them,
with the common Allurement of Seafaring Men, viz.
That it should coft me nothing for my Paffage, I
consulted neither Father nor Mother any more, nor
fo much as fent them Word of it; but leaving them
to hear of it as they might, without asking God's
Bleffing, or my Father's, without any Confideration
of Circumstances or Confequences,and in anill Hour,
God knows, on the firft of September 1i65, I went
on Board a Ship bound for London : Never any young
Adventurer's Misfortunes, I believe, began fooner,
or continued longer, than mine. The Ship was no
fooner gotten out of the Humber, but the Wind be-
gan to blow, and the Sea to rife in a moft frightful
manner; and as I had never been at Sea before, Iwas
mofl inexpreflibly tick inBody, andterrify'd in Mind:
I began now ferioufly to refle& upon what I had
done, and how jufily I was overtaken by the Judg-
ment of Heaven for my wicked leaving my Father's
Houfe, and abandoning my Duty; all the good
Counfelof my Parents, my Father's Tears, and my
Mother's Entreaties came now frefh into my Mind;
and my Confcience, which was not yet come to the
Pitch of Hardnefs to which it has been fince, re-
proach'd me with the Contempt of Advice, and the
Breach of my Duty to God and my Father.
All this while the Storm encreas'd, and the Sea,
which I had never been upon before,went very high,
tho' nothing like what I have feen many times
fince; no, nor like what I faw a few Days after:
But it was enough to affect& me then, who was but
a young Sailor, and had never known any thing of
the Matter. I expe&ed every Wave would have
swallowed us up, and that every time the Ship fell
down, as I thought, in the Trough or Hollow
B 4 oA

of the Sea, we should never rife more; and in this
Agony of Mind, I made many Vows and Refolu-
tions, that if it would pleafe God here to fpare
my Life this one Voyage, if ever I got once my
Foot upon dry Land again, I would go direly
home to my Father, and never fet it into a Ship a-
gain while I liv'd; that I would take his Advice,
and never run my felf into fuch Miferies as thefc a-
ny more. Now I faw plainly the Goodnefs of his
Obfervations about the middle Station of Life,
how eafv, how comfortably he had liv'd all his
Days, and never had been expos'd to TempeQts at
Sea, or Troubles on Shore; and I refolv'd that I
would, like a true repenting Prodigal, go home to
my Father.
Thefe wife and fober Thoughts continued all the
while the Storm continued, and indeed rome time
after; but the next Day the Wind was abated and
the Sea calmer, and I began to be a little ingur'd
to it: However, I was very grave for all that Day,
being alfo a little Sea fick fill; but towards Night
the Weather clear'd up, the Wind was quite over,
a charming fine Evening followed; the Sun went
down perfealy clear, and rofe fo the next Morn-
ing ; and having little or no Wind, and a fnooth
Sea, the Sun shining upon it, the Sight was, as I
thought, the mofi delightful that ever I faw.
I had flept well in the Night, and was now no
more Sea-fick, but very cheerful, looking with
Wonder upon the Sea that was fo rough and terri-
ble the Day before, and could be fo calm and fo
pleasant in fo little time after. And now leaft my
good Refolutionsflould continue, my Companionu,
who had indeed entic'd me away, comes to me,
W/ell, Bob, fays he, clapping me on the Shoulder,
How do you do after it? I warrant you were frighted,
wan't 'you lafl Night, when it blew but a Cap fidl of
Wiind ?

Wind ? A Capfull d'you call it ? faid I, 'twas a terri-
ble Storm : A Storm, you Fool you, replies he, do you
call that a Storm, why it was nothing at all; give us but
a good Ship and Sea-room, and we think nothing of fuch
a Squall of Wind as that ; but you're but a freh Water
Sailor, Bob ; come let us make a Bowl of Punch and
we'll forget all that, d'ye fee what charming Weather 'tis
now. To make fhort this fad Part of my Story,
we went the old way of all Sailors, the Punch was
made, and I was made drunk with it, and in that
one Night's Wickednefs I drowned all my Repen-
tance, all my Reflecions upon my paft Condu&,
and all my Refolutions for my future. In a word,
as the Seawas returned to its Smoothnefs of Sur-
face and fettled Calmnefs by the Abatement of that
Storm, fo the Hurry of my Thoughts being over,
my Fears and Apprehenfions of being fwallow'd up
by the Sea being forgotten, and the Current of my
former Defires returned, I entirely forgot the Vows
and Promifes that I made in my Diftrefs. I found
indeed fome Intervals of Refletion, and theferious
Thoughts did, as it were, endeavour to return a-
gain sometimes, but I fhook them off, and rouz'd
my felf from them as it were from a Diftemper,
and applying my felf to Drinking and Company,
foon mafter'd the Return of thofe Fits, for fo I
called them, and I had in five or fix Days got as
compleat a Vi&tory over Confcience as any young
Fellow that refolv'd not to be troubled with it,
could defire: But I was to have another Trial for it
fill; and Providence, as in fuch Cafes generally
it does, refolv'd to leave me entirely without Ex-
cufe. For if I would not take this for a Delive-
rance, the next was to be fuch a one as the worft
and moft harden'd Wretch among us would con-
fefs both the Danger and the Mercy.

[10 ]
The fixth Day of our being at Sea we came in-
toTarmouth Roads ; the Wind having been contra-
ry, and the Weather calm, we had made but little
Way fince the Storm. Here we were obliged to
come to an Anchor, and here we lay, the Wind con-
tinuing contrary, viz. at South-weft, for even or
eight Days, during which time a great many Ships
from Newcafile came into the fame Roads, as the
common Harbour where the Ships might wait for
a Wind for the River.
We had not however rid here fo long, but should
have Tided it up the River, but that the Wind
blew too frefh; and after we had lain four or five
Days, blew very hard. However, the Roads be-
ing reckoned as good as a Harbour, the Anchorage
good, and our Ground-Tackle very firong, our
Men were unconcerned, and not in the leaft appre-
henfive of Danger, but fpent the Time in Reit and
Mirth, after the manner of the Sea; but the eighth
Day in the Morning, the Wind increased, and we
had all Hands at Work to firike our Top-Mafls,
and make every thing fnug and clofe, that the Ship.
might ride as eafy as potible. By Noon the Sea
went very high indeed, and our Ship rid Forecaflle
in, fhipp'd several Seas, and we thought once or
twice our Anchor had come home; upon which
our Mafter ordered out the Sheet Anchor; fo that
we rode with two Anchors a-head, and the Cables
vered out to the better End.
By this Time it blew a terrible Storm indeed,
and now I began tofee Terror and Amazemenit in
the Faces even of the Seamen themselves. The Ma-
.fer, tho' vigilant in the Bufinefs of preserving the
Ship, yet as he went in and out of his Cabbin by
me, I could hear him foftly to himself fay several
times, Lord be mercifulto us, weJhall be all loft, we
C.: be all undone 3 and the like. During thefe firlt

[ II ]
Hurries, I was ftupid, lying flill in my Cabbin,
which was in the Steerage, and cannot describe my
Temper: I could ill re-aflhme the firft Penitence,
which I had fo apparently trampled upon, and har-
den'd my felf against: I thought the Bitternefs of
Death had been paft, and that this would be no-
thing too like thefirfl. But when the Mafter him-
felf came by me, as I faid jufn now, and laid we
should be all loif, I was dreadfully frighted:' I got
up out of my Cabbin, and looked out; but fuch a
difmal Sight I never faw: The Sea went Mountains
high, and broke upon us every three or four Mi-
nutes: When I could look about, I could fee no-
thing but Diftrefs round us: Two Ships that rid
near us, we found, had cut their Malfs by the
Board, being deep loaden; and our Men cry'd out,
that a Ship which rid about a Mile a-Head of us
was foundered. Two more Ships being driven from
their Anchors, were run out of the Roads to Sea,
at all Adventures, and that with not a Maft fland-
ing. The light Ships fared the beft, as not fo much
labouring in the Sea ; but two or three of them
drove, and came clofe by us, running away with
pnly their Sprit-fail out before the Wind.
Towards Evening the Mate and 'Boatfwain
begg'd the Mailer of our Ship to let them cut a-
way the Fore-mafl, which he was very unwilling
o: But the Boatfwain protefiing to him, that if he
did not, the Ship would founder, he consented;
and when they had cut away the Fore-maft, the
Main-mat flood fo loofe, and hook the Ship fo
much, they were obliged to cut her away alfo, and
make a clear Deck.
Any one may judge what a Condition I muit be
in at all this, who was but a young Sailor, and
who had been in fuch a Fright before at but a lit-
tle. But if I can exprefs at this Diftance the
;, Thoughts

[ 12, ]
Thoughts I had about me at that time, I was ik
tenfold more Horror of Mind upon Account of my
former Convi&ions, and the having returned from
them to the RefolutionsIhad wickedly taken at firft,
than I was at Death it felf; and thefe added to the
Terror of the Storm, put me into fuch a Condition,
that I can by no words describe it. But the worft
was not come yet, the Storm continued with fuch
Fury, that the Seamen themselves acknowledged
they had never known a worfe. We had a good Ship,
but fhe was deep loaden, and wallowed in the Sea,
that the Seamen every now and then cried out, fhe
would founder. It was my advantage in one refped,
that I did not know what they meant by Founder,
till I enquir'd. However, the Storm was fo vio-
lent, that I faw what is not often feen, the Maiter,
the Boatfwain, and fome others more fenible than
the reft, at their Prayers, and expe&ing every Mo-
ment when the Ship would go to the Bottom. In
the Middle of the Night, and under all the reft of
of our Diftreffes, one of the Men that had been
down on Purpofe to fee, cried out we had fprulg a
Leak ; another faid there was four Foot Water in
the Hold. Then all Hands were called to the Pump.
At that very Word, my Heart, as I thought, died
within me, and I fell backwards upon the Side of
my Bed where I fat, into the Cabin. However,
the Men roufed me, and told me, that I that was
able to do nothing before, was as well able to
pump as another; at which I flirr'd up, and went
to the Pump and worked very heartily. While this
was doing, the Mafter feeing fome light Colliers,
who not able to ride out the Storm, were oblig'd
to flip and run away to Sea, and would come near
.s, ordered to fire a Gun as a Signal of Diftrcfs. I
who knew nothing what that meant, wasfo furpri-
zed, that I thought the Ship had broke, or fome,

Sti3 3
dreadful thing had happened. In aword, I was fo
furprized, that I fell down in a S'.. *,: As this
was a time when c.'irv Body had his own Life to
think of, no Body m ilndd me, or what was become
of me ; but another N ir r.:tc i. the .P.mp, and
thrufting me aide with his Foot, let me lye, think-
ing I had been Dead; and it was a grjr while
bcor,, I came to irn feif.
We worked on, but the Water cr, reatiig in the
Hold, itwas apparel.. : ::-Ut :I;, .r~;--ould f(udl.-.j
and tho' the Stormn :egn to abnre a, little, yet as
it was not poffible the could fwi. '%ii wve m inht run,
into a Port, fo the Mat-:er continued iiriing Guns for
Help; and a light Ship who had rid it out jufita
Head of us, ventured a Boat out to help us. It was
with the utnmor hazard the Boat came near us, bur
it was impoflible for us to get on Doard, or for the
Boat to lie near the S.ip Side, Etii ..,t '; the M.Ln
rowing very heartily, and venturing their Lives to
faveours, our Men clt :.ri a Rep: over lhe Srern
with a Euoc,- to it, and then vered it out a yrear
Length, which they after gre2t Labonr and Hazard
took hold of, and we .,.l 'a .t.- .r J!. I.:dr our'
Stern and got all into their Boat. It was to no
Purpofe for them or us after we were in the Boat to
think of reaching to their own Sit;, fo aul .rced
to let her drive, and only to pull her in towards
Shore as much as we could, and our )., :.xr pro-
mifed them, That if the c..ec was itav'd upon
Shore he would make it .'cc, to their MiLiaer. fo
patr:l, rowing -:.-."'. ..i. r our B ,ar, 'ent i-
wayto the No.:ch!' r:.r,, iio..:,'z trovvards the Shore
almost as far as siner- .- .
V,'L were not much more than a quarter of aur
Hour o out of our Shi' but we fav her ink, and
thenI -'. I .... ifor the ,:. time what was n:icant
by a S.1h' k... --, in the Sea; I .,: acknow-

[ 14*
ledge had hardly Eyes to look up when the Sea-
men told me the was linking; for from that Mo-
ment they rather put me, into the Boat than that I
might be faid to go in, my Heart was as it were
dead within me, partly with Fright, partly with
Horror of Mind and the Thoughts of what was
yet before me.
While we Were in this Condition, the Men yet
labouring at the Oar to bring the Boat near the
Shore, we could fee, when our Boat mounting the
Waves, we were able to fee any thing, a great many
People running along the Strand to affift us when
we should come near, but we made but flow way
towards the Land, nor were we able to reach the
Shore, till being pafl the Light-Iloufe at Winterton,
the Coaft falls off to the Weftward towards Cromer,
and fo the Land broke off a little the Violence of
the Wind: Here we got in, and tho' not without
much Difficulty got all fafe on Shore, and walk'd
afterwards on Foot to Tarmouth, where, as unfor-
tunate Men, we were ufed with great Humanity,
as well by the Magifirates of the Town, who
affign'd us good Quarters, as by particular Mer-
chants and Owners of Ships, and had Money gi-
ven us sufficient to carry us either to London, or back
to Hull, as we thought fit.
Had I now had the Senfe to have gone back to
Hull, and have gone home, I had been happy, and
my Father, an Embleme of our blef'ed Saviour's Pa-
rable, had even killed the fatted Calf for me ; for
hearing the Ship I went away in, was call away in
Tarmouth Road, it was a great while before he had
any Aflfrance that I was not drown'd.
But my ill Fare pufh'd me on now with an Ob-
ftinacy that nothing could refift ; and tho' I had fe-
veral times loud Calls from my Reafon and my
more composed Judgment to go home, yet I had

o Power todo it. I know not what to call th
ao Power to do it. I know not what to call this, .nor
will I urge, that it is a fecret over-ruling Decree
that hurries us on to be the Inftruments of our own
Deftru&ion, even tho' it be before us, and that we
pufh upon it with our Eyes open. Certainly no-
thing but fome fuch decreed unavoidable Mifery
attending, and which it was impoffiblle for me to6
efcape, could have pufl'd me forward against the
calm Reafonings and Perfuafions of my moft re-
tired Thoughts, and against two fuch visible In-
Aru&ions as I had met with it my firft Attempt.
My Comrade, who had help'd to harden me be-
fore, and who was the Maiter's Son, was now lefs
forward than I; the firfL time he fpoke tome after
we were at Yarmouth, which was not till two or
three Days, for we were separated in the Town
to several Quarters; I fay, the firft time he law me,
it appeared his Tone was alter'd, and looking very
melancholy, and faking his Head, ask'd me how
I did, and telling his Father whoI was, and how
I had come this Voyage only for a Trial, in order
to go farther abroad; his Father turning to me
with a very grave and concerned Tone, Toung Man,
fays he,you ought never to go to Sea any more, you ought
to take this for a plain and vifible Token that you are
not to be a Seafaring Man. Why, Sir, faidI, will you
go to Sea no more.? hat is another Cafe, faid he,
it is my Calling, and therefore my Duty ;, but as you made
this Voyagefor 'fryalyou fee what a 7afle Heaven has
given you of what you are to expect if you perfif; perhaps
this is all befallen us on your Account, like Jonah in the
Ship of'Tarfhifh. Pray, continues he, what are you?
And on what Account did you go to Sea ? Upon that I
told him fome of my Story; at the End of which he
burft out with a firange kind ofPaffion, What had
I done, fays he, that fuch an unhappy Wretch should
come into my Ship; I would not fet my Foot in

[It6 ]
the fame Ship with thee again for a thousand
Pounds. This indeed was, as I faid, an Excurfion
of his Spirits which were yet agitated by the Senfe
of his Lofs, and was farther than he could have
Authority to go. However he afterwards talk'd very
gravly to me exhorted me to go back to my Fa-
ther, and not tempt Providence to my Ruin ; told
me I might fee a visible Hand of Heaven against
me, And young Man, faid he, depend upon it, if you
do notgo back, where- ver you go, you will meet withno-
thing but Difaflers and Difappointments, til your Father's
Words are fulfilled upon you.
We parted foon after; for I made him little
Anfwer, and I faw him no more; which way he
went, I know not. As for me, having fomne Mo-
ney in my Pocket, I travelled to London by Land;
and there, as well ason the Road, had many Strug-
gles with my felf, what Courfe of Life I fould take,
and whether I should go Home, or go to Sea.
As to going Home, Shame opposed the beft
1Motions that offered to my Thoughts; and it imi-
mediately occurred to me how I should be laughed
at among the Neighbours, and should be afham'd
tofee, not my Father and Mother only, but even
every Body elfe; from whence I have fince often
observed, how incongruous and irrational the com-
mon Temper of Mankind is, especially of Youth,
to that Reafon which ought to guide them in fuch
Cafes, viz,. That they are afham'd to fin, and
yet are afham'd to repent; not afham'd of the Aai-
on for which they ought jufily to be esteemed Fools,
but are afham'd of the returning, which only can
make them be efteem'd wife Men.
In this State of Life, however, I remained forme
time, uncertain what Meafures to take, and what
Courfe of Life to lead. An irreffitible Relu&ance
continued to going Home ; and as I flay'd a while,

[ 17 1
the Remembrance of the Diftrefs I had been in
wore off; and as that abated, the little Motion I
had in my Deiires to a Return wore off with it, till
at laft I quite laid afide the Thoughts of it, and
look'd out for a Voyage.
That evil Influence which carried me firft away
from my Father's Houfe, that hurried me into the
wild and indigefted Notion of railing my-Fortune;
and that impreft thofe Conceits fo forciby upon
me, as to make me deaf to all good Advice, and
to the Entreaties, and even Command of my Fa-
ther : I fay, the fame Influence, whatever it was,
prefe'nted the molt unfortunate of all Enterprizes
to my View ; and I went on Board a Veffel bound
to the Coaft of Africa; or as our Sailors vulgarly
call it, a Voyage to Guiney,
It was my great Misfortune that in all thefe
Adventures I did not fhip my felf as a Sailor;
whereby, tho' indeed I might have worked a little
harder than ordinary, yet at the fame time I had
learned the Duty and Office of a Fore-mafl Man
and in time might have qualify'd my felf for a
Mate or Lieutenant, if not for a Mafter. But as
it was always my Fate to choose for the worfe,
fo I did here; for having Money in my Pockej,
and good Cloaths upon my Back, I would always
go on Board in the Habit of a Gentleman ; and fo
I neither had any Bufinefs in the Ship, or learned
to do any.
It was my Lot firft of all to fall into pretty good
Company in London, which does not always hap-
pen to fuch loofe and unguided young Fellows as I
then was; the Devil generally not omitting to lay
fome Snare for them very early : But it was not fo
with me, I firft fell acquainted with the Malter of
a Ship who had been on the Coaft of Guiney; and
who having had very good Sccccfs t-.ere, was re-
C folved

folved to go again; and who taking a Fancy to my
Converfation, which was not at all difagreeable at
that time, hearing me fay I had a mind to fee the
World, told me, if I wou'd go the Voyage with
him I should be at no Expence; I should be his
Mefs-mate and his Companion, and if I could car-
ry any Thing with me, I should have all the Ad-
vantage of it that the Trade would admit; and
perhaps I might meet with fome Encouragement.
I embrac'd the Offer, and entering into a ftria
Friendship with this Captain, who was an honest
and plain-dealing Man, I went the Voyage with
him, and carried a fmall Adventure with me, which
by the difinterefted Honefty of my Friend the Cap-
tain, I increased very considerably ; for I carried a-
bout 40 in fuch Toys and Trifles as the Captain
direaed me to buy. This 40 1. I had muftered to-
gether by the Afiftance of fome of my Relations
whom I corresponded with, and who, I believe,
got my Father, or at leaff my Mother, to contri-
bute fo much as that to my firft Adventure.
This was the only Voyage which I may fay was
fuccefsful in all my Adventures, and which I owe to
the Integrity and Honefty of my Friend the Cap-
tain, under whom alfo I got a competent Know-
ledge of the Mathematicks and the Rules of Na-
vigation, learned how to keep an Account of the
Ship's Courfe, take an Obfervation ; and in fliort,
to underfiand fome Things that were needful to be
understood by a Sailor: For, as he took Delight to
introduce me, I took Delight to learn ; and, in a
Word, this Voyage made me both a Sailor and a
Merchant: For I brought Home L. 5. 9 Ounces of
Gold Dufl for my Adventure, which yielded me in
London, at my Return, almost 300 1. and this fill'd
me with thofe aspiring Thoughts which have fince
fo completed my Ruin.

C 19 1
Yet even in this Voyage I had my Misfortunes
too ; particularly, that I was continually fick, be-
ing thrown into a violent Calenture by the exceffive
Heat of the Climate; our principal Trading being
upon the Coaft, from-' the Latitude of 15 Degrees,
North even to the Line it felf.
I was now fet up for a Guiney graderr ; and my
Friend, to my great Misfortune, dying foon after his
Arrival, I refolv'd to go the fame Voyage again,
and I embark'd in the fame Veffel with one who was
his Mate in the former Voyage, and had now got
the Command of the Ship. This was the unhap-
pieft Voyage that ever Man made; for tho' I did
not carry quite oo00 of my new gained Wealth,
fo that I had zool. left, and which I lodg'd with
my Friend's Widow, who was very juft to me, yet
I fell into terrible Misfortunes in this Voyage; and
the firft was this, viz. Our Ship making her Courfe
towards the Canarylflands, or rather between thofe
Islands and the African Shore, was furprized in the
Grey of the Morning, by a T'urkih Rover ofSallee,
who gave Chafe to us with all the Sail ihe could
make. We crowded alfo as much Canvafs as our
Yards would spread, or our Marls carry, to have
got clear; but finding the Pirate gain'd upon us,
and would certainly come up with us in a few
Hours, we prepared to fight ; our Ship having rz
Guns, and the Rogue 18. About three in the Af-
ternoon he came up with us, and bringing too by
Mistake, juft athwart our Quarter, inflead of a-
thwart our Stern, as he intended, we brought 8 of
our Guns to bear on that Side, and poured in a
Broadside upon him, which made him fheer offa-
gain, after returning our Fire, and pouring in alfo
his finally Shot from near 200 Men which he had on
Board. However, we had not a Man touch'd, all
our Men keeping clofe. He prepared to attack us
C 2 again

again, and'vwe to defend our felves; but laying us
on Board the next time upon our other Quarter)
he enter'd fixty Men upon our Decks, who imme-
diately fell to cutting and hacking the Decks and
Rigging. We ply'd them with Small-flot, Hall-
Pikes, Powder-Chefts, and fuch like, and cleared
our Deck of them twice. However, to cut fhlor
this melancholy Part of our Story, our Ship being
disabled, and three of our Men killed, and eight
wounded, we were obliged to yield, and were car-
ry'd all Prifoners into Sallee, a Port belonging to
the Moors.
The Ufage I had there was not fo dreadful as at
firfl I apprehended, nor was I carried up the Coun-
try to the Emperor's Court, as the reft of our Men
were, but was kept by the Captain of the Rover,
as his proper Prize, and made his Slave, being
young and nimble, and.fit for his B3uinefs. At this
fhrprizing Change of my Circuinfances from a
Merchant to a miserable Slave, I was perfectly o-
verwhelmed ; and now I look'd back upon my Fa-
ther's prophetic Difcourfe to me, that I should be
miserable, and have none to relieve me, which I
thought was now foeffeeHually brought to pals, that
it could not be wore; that now the Hand of Hea-
ven had overtaken me, and I was undone without
Redemption. But alafs! this was but a Tafle of
the Mifery I was to go thro', as will appear in the
Sequel of this Story.
As my new Patron or Mafter had taken me Home
to his Houfe, io I was in Hopes that he would take
me with him when he went to Sea again, believ-
iag thar it would fome time or other be his Fate
to be taken by a .:.:,. or Portugal Man of War ;
.and that then I should be fet at Liberty. But this
Hope of mi;ne was boon taken away ; for when he
ivent to S.ea, he left me on Shore to look after his

[ zI ]
little Garden, and do the common Drudgery of
Slaves about his Houfe; and when he came Home
again from his Cruife, he ordered me to lie in the
Cabin to look after the Ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my Efcape ; and
what Method I might take to effed it, but found
no Way that had the leaft Probability in it : No-
thing presented to make the Suppofition of it ra-
tional; for I had no Body to communicate it to,
that would embark with me; no Fellow-Slave, no
Engli~/ Man, IriJ Man, or Scotch Man there but my
felf; fo that for two Years, tho' I often pleaded my
felf with the Imagination, yet I never had the leaf
encouraging Profped of putting it in Pra&tice.
After about two' Years, an odd Circumfiance
presented it felf, which put the old Thlought of
making fome Atttempt for my Liberty, again in
my Head: My Patron lying at Home longer than
ufual, without fitting out his Ship, which,-as I
heard, was for want of Money ; he ufed conftant-
ly, once or twice a Week, sometimes oftner, if the
Weather was fair, to take the Ship's Pinnace, and
go out into the Road a fishing ; and as he always
tool me and a young Marefco with him to row the
Boar, we made him very merry, and I prov'd very
dexterous in catching Fifh; infomuch that fome-
times he would fend me with a Moor, one of his
Kinfmen, and the Youth the Marefco, as they called
him, to catch a Difh of Fifh for him.
It happened one time, that going a filing in a
fltrk calm Morning, a Fog rofe to thick, that tho'
we were not half a League from the Shore we loft
Sight of it; and rowing we knew not whither or
which Way, we labour'd all Day and all the next
Night, and when the Morning came we found we
had pull'd off to Sea instead of pulling in for the
Shore; and that we were at Ieaf two Leagues from
C 3 the

the Shore: However, we got well in again, tho"
with a great deal of Labour, and fome Danger
for theWind began to blow pretty frefh in the
Morning; but particularly we were all very hungry.
But our Patron, warned by this Difafter, refolved
to take more Care of himself for the future ; and
having lying by him the Long-Boat of our Englijf
Ship they had taken, he resolved he would nor go
a fifhing any more without a Compafs and fome
Provifion; fo he ordered the Carpenter of his
Ship, who alfo was an Englijh Slave, to build alit,
tle State-Room or Cabin in the middle of the
Long-Boat, like that of a Barge, with a Place to
{fand behind it to fleer and hale home the Main-
fheet; and Room before for a Hand or two to
stand and work the Sails ? She failed with that we
call a Shoulder of Mutton Sail; and the Bootn
gib'd over the Top of the Cabin, which lay very
fnug and low, and had in it Room for him to lie,
with a Slave or two, and a Table to eat on, with
fome fall Lockers to put in fome Bottles of fuch
Liquor as he thought fit to drink ; particularly
his Bread, Rice and Coffee.
We went frequently out with this Boat a fishing,
and as I was moft dextrous to catch Fiih for him,
he never went without me : It'happen'd that he
had appointed to go out in this Boat, either for
Pleafure or for Fifh, with two or three Moors of
fome DiitinCtion in that Place, and for whom he
had provided extraordinarily ; and had therefore
fent on Board the Boat over Night, a larger Store
of Provisions than ordinary; and had brder'd me
to get ready three Fuzees with Powder and Shot,
which were on Board his Ship for that they de-
fign'd fome Sport of Fowling as well as Fifling.
I got all Things ready as he had directed, and
waited the next Morning with the Boat, washed

clean, her Antient and Pendants out, and every
thing to accommodate his Guefts; when by and
by my Patron came on Board alone, and told me
his Guefts had put off going, upon fome Bufinefs
that fell out, and ordered me with the Man and
Boy, as ufual, to go out with the Boat and catch
them fome Fifli, for that his Friends were to fup
at his Houfe; and commanded that as foon as I
had got fome Fifl I should bring it home to his
Houfe; all which I prepared to do.
This Moment my former Notions of Deliver-
ance darted into my Thoughts, for now I found I
was like to have a little Ship at my Command; and
my Mafter being gone, I prepared to furnifi my
felf, not for a fishing Bufinefs, but for a Voyage ;
tho' I knew not, neither did I fo much as consider
whither I should fleer; for any where to get out
of that Place was my Way.
My firft CGntrivance was to make a Pretence to
peak to this Moor, to get something for our Sub- P'
fiftence on Board; for I told him we muft not pre-
fume to eat of our Patron's Bread; he faid, that
was true ; fo he brought a large Basket of Rusk
or Bisket of their kind, and three Jarrs with frefl
Water into the Boat; I knew where my Patron's
Cafe of Bottles flood, which it was evident by
the Make were taken out of fome Englijh Prize; and
I convey'd them into the Boat while the Moor was
on Shore, as if they had been there before, for our
After: I convey'd alfo a great Lump of Bees-
Wax into the Boat,. which weighed above half a
hundred Weight, with a Parcel of Twine or
Thread, a Hatchet, a Saw, and a Hammer, all
which were of great Ufe to us afterwards: efpe-
cially the Wax to make Candles. Another Trick
I try'd upon him, which he innocently came into.
alfo; his Name was Ifmael, who they call Muly,
C 4 or

[C 4 ]
or Moely, fo I called to him, Moely faid I, our Pa-
tron's Guns are on Board the Boat, can you not
get a little Powder and Shot, it may be we may
kill fome Alcamies (a Fowl like our Culieus) for our
felves, for I know he keeps the Gunner's Stores in
the Ship ? Yes, fays he, I'll bring -fome, and ac-
cordingly he brought a great Leather Pouch which
held about a Pound and half of Powder, or rather
more; and another with Shot, that had five or fix
Pound, with fome Bullets; and put all into the
Boat: At the fame time I had found fome Powder
of my Malter's in the great Cabin, with which I
fill'd one of the large Bottles in the Cafe, which
was almost empty; pouring what was in it into a-
nother: And thus furnifhcd with every thing need-
ful, we faii'd out of the Port to fifl : The Caftle,
which is at the Entrance of the Port, knew who we
were, and took no Notice of us; and we were not
above a Mile out of the Port before we hal'd in our
Sail, and fit us down to fifh: The Wind blew
from the N. NE. which was contrary to my Defire;
for had it blown Southerly, I had been fure to have
made the Coaft of Spain, and at left reached to the
Bay of Cadiz ; but my Refolutions were, blow
which way it would, 1 would be gone from that
horrid Place where I was, and leave the reft to Fate.
After we had fiih'd fome time and catch'd no-
thing, for when I had Fifh on my H. ok, I would
not pull them up, that he might not fee them ; I faid
to the Moor, this will not do, our Mafier will not
be thus ferv'd, we muft Rand farther off: He think-
ing no Harm agreed, and being in the Head of the
Boat let the Sails; and as I had the Helm I run
the Boat out near a Lea.:e farther, and then
brought her too as if I i-mi,:d. fiflh, when giving
the Boy the Helm, I flept forward to where the
Aecr was, and maiing as if I ftoop'd for fome-

thing behind him, I took him by furprize with
my Arm under his Twift, and toft him clear o-
ver board into the Sea; he rife immediately, for
he fwam like a Cork, and called to me, begg'd to be
taken in, told me he would go all over the World
with me; he fwam fo firong after the Boat that he
would have reached me very quickly, there being but
little Wind; upon which 1 fiept into the Cabin,
and fetching one of the Fowling-pieces, I presented
it at him, and told him, I had done him no hurt,
and if he would be quiet I would do him none: But
faid I, you fwim well enough to reach the
Shore, and the Sea is calm, make the belt of your
Way to Shore and I will do you no harm, but if
you come near the Boat I'll fhoot you thro' the
Head ; for I am resolved to have my Liberty ; fo
he turned himself about and fwam for the Shore,
and I make no doubt but he reached it with Eafe,
for he was an excellent Swimmer.
I could have been content to ha' taken this Moor
with me, and ha' drowned the Boy, but there was no
venturing to truft him: When he was gone Iturn'd
to the Boy, who they called Xury, and faid to
him, Xury, if you will be faithful to me I'l make
you a great Man, but if you will not firoak your
Face to be true to me, that is, fware by Mahomet and
his Father's Beard, I muft throw you into the Sea
too; the Boy fmil'd in my Face and fpoke bt inno-
cently that I could not miftruft him ; and fwore to
be faithful to me, and go all over the World with
While I was in View of the Moor that was
fwimming,Iftood out directly to Sea with the Boat,
rather firetching to Windward, that they might
,think me gone towards the Straits-month (as indeed
any one that had been in thcirWits muft ha' been fap-
pos'dto do)forwho would ha' fuppos'd we were fail d

[ z6]
on to the Southward to the truly Barbarian Coai,
where whole Nations of Negroes were fure to fur-
round us with their Canoes, and defiroy us;
where we could ne'er once gone on Shore but we
should be devour'd by favage Beads or more mer-
cilefs Savages of human kind.
But as foon as it grew dusk in the Evening, I
changed my Courfe, and fleer'd direly South and
by Eaft, bending my Courfe a little toward the
Eaft, that I might keep in with the Shore ; and
having a fair frefli Gale of Wind, and finooth quiet
Sea, I made fuch Sail that I believe by the next
Day at Three a Clock in the Afternoon, when I
firft made the Land, I could not be lefs than 15o
Mi'es South of Sallee; quite beyond the Emperor
of Morocco's Dominions, or indeed of any other
King thereabouts, for we law no People.
Yet fuch was the Fright I had taken at the Moors,
and the dreadful Apprehenfions I had of falling in-
to their Hands, that I would not flop, or go on
Shore, or come to an Anchor; the Wind continu-
ing fair, 'till I had fail'd in that manner five Days:
And then the Wind shifting to the Southward; I
concluded alfo that if any of our Vcffels were in
Chafe of me, they alfo would now give over; fo.
I ventured to make to the Coatl, and came to an
Anchor in the Mouth of a little River, I knew not
what, or where; neither what Latitude, what
Country, what Nation, or what River: I neither
faw, or defir'd to fee any People, the principal thing
I wanted was frefh Water: We came into this
Creek in the Evening, revolving to fwim on Shore
as foon as it was dark, and discover the Country;.
but as foon as it was quite dark, we heard fuch
dreadful Noifes of the Barking, Roaring, and
Howling of wild Creatures of we knew not what
Kinds, that the poor Boy was ready to die with

[ 7 ]
Fear and begg'd of me not to go on Shore till
Day ; well Xury, faid I, then I won't, but it may
be we may fee Men by Day, who will be as bad to
us as thofe Lyons ; then we give them the foot Gun,
fays Xiiry, laughing, make them run wey; fuch Englilb
Xury fpoke by coriverfing among us Slaves, howe-
ver I was glad to fee the Boy fo cheerful, and I
gave him a Dram (out of our patron's Cafe of Bot-
tles) to chear him up: After all, Xury's Advice
was good, and I took it, we dropped ourlittle An-
chor and lay fill a1l Night; I fay fill, for we flept
none; for in two or three Hours we law vaft great
Creatures (we knew not what to call them) of
many forts, come down to the Sea-fhore and run in-
to the Water, wallowing and wafhing themselves
for the Pleafure of cooling themselves: and they
made fuch hideous Howlings and Yellings, that I
never indeed heard the like.
Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed fo was
I too; but'we were- both more frighted when we
heard one of thefe mighty Creatures come fwim-
ming towards our Boat, we could not fee him, but
we might hear him by his blowing to be a mon-
firous, huge and furious Beaft; Xury faid it was a
Lyon, and it might be fo for ought I know; but
poor Xury cried to me to weight the Anchor and
row away; no, faid I, XZry, we can flip our Cable
with the Buoy to it and go offto Sea, they cannot
follow us far; I had no sooner faid fo, but I per-
ceiv'd the Creature (whatever it was) within two
Oars length, which something furprized me; how-
ever I immediately ftept to the Cabin-door, and
taking up my Gun fir'd at him, upon which he im-
mediately turn'd about and fwam towards the
Shore again.
But it is impoffible to defcribe the horrible Noi-
fes, and hidious Cries and Howlings, that were

[ z8 ]
raised as well upon the Edge of the Shore, as high-
er within the Country; upon the Noife or Re-
port of the Gun, a Thing I have fome Reafon to
believe thofe Creatures had never heard before:
This convinced me that there was no going on
Shore for us in the' Night upon that Coaft, and
how to venture on Shore in the Day was another
Question too ; for to have fallen into the Hands
of any of the Savages, had been as bad as to
hlurt le-n into the Hands of Lyons and Ty-
girs; ,Slal we were equally apprehenfive of the
bJangt! of it.
,Be that as it would, we were oblig'd to go on
Shore somewhere or other for Water, for we had
not a Pint left in the Boat; when or where to get to
it was the Point : Xury faid, ifI would let him go
on Shore with one of the Jars, he would find if there
was any Water and bring fome to me. I ask'd
him why he would go ? Why I flould not go and
he flay in the Boat ? The Boy anfwer'd with fo
much Affetion, that made me love him ever
after. Says he, AIf wild Mans come, they eat me, you
go wey. Well, Xury, faid I, we will both go, and
if the wild Mans come, we will kill them, they
hall eat neither of us; fo I gave Xury a piece of
Rusk-bread to cat, and a Di-am out of our Pa-
tron's Cafe of Bottles which I mentioned before;
and we hal'd the Boat in as near the Shore as we
thought was proper, and waded on Shore; car-
rying nothing hut our Arms, and two Jarrs for
I did not care to go out of Sight of the Boat,
fearing the coming of Canoes with Savages
down the River; But the Boy feeing a low Place
about a Mile up the Country rarmbled to it; and
by and by I faw him come running towards me,
I thought he was purfued by fome Savage, mp

[ 29 1
frighted with fome wild Beaft, and I run forward
towar&him to help him, but when I came nearer
to him, I faw something hanging over his Shoul-
ders which was a Creature that he had flho, like a
Hare but different in Colour, and longer Legs,
however we were very glad of it, and it was very
good Meat; but the great Joy that 'poor Xury
came with, was to tell me he had found good Wa-
ter and feen no wild Mani.
But we found afterwards that we need not take
fuch Pains for Water, for a little higher up the
Creek where we where, we found the Water frefh
when the Tide was out, which flowed but a little
way up; fo we filled our Jarrs and feafted oh the
Hare we had killed, and prepared to go on our
Way, having feen no Foot-fteps of any human
Creature in that part of the Country.
As I had been one Voyage to this Coaft before,
I knew very well that the Iflands of the Canaries,
and the Cape de Verd Ifiands alfo, lay not far off
from the Coaft. But as I had no Infiruments to
take an Obfervation to know what Latitude we
were in, and not exactly know, or at leaf to re-
member what Latitude they were in; I knew not
where to look for them, or when to flandofftto Sea
towards them; otherwife I might now easily have
found fome of thefe Iflands. But my hopes was,
that if I flood along this Coaft till I came to that
Part where the Englilj traded, I fliould find fome of
their Veflels upon their ufual Delign of Trade,
that would relieve and take us in.
By the beft of my Calculation, that Place where
I now was, muft be that Country, which lying be-
tween the Emperor of Morocco's Dominions and the
Negroes, lies waft and uninhabited, except by wild
Beafts; the Negroer having abandoned it and gore
farther South for fear of the Moors and the. Moors
I Ot

not thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason of its
Barrennefs; and indeed both forfaking it because
of the prodigious Numbers of Tygers, Lyons,
Leopards, and other furious Creatures which har-
bour there; fo that the Moors ufe it for their Hun-
ting only, where they go like an Army, two or three
thousand Men at a Time; and indeed for near an
hundred Miles together upon this Coaft, we faw
nothing but a waft uninhabited Country, by Day;
and heard nothing but Howlings and Roaring of
wild Beafts, by Night.
Once or twice in the Day time, I thought I faw
the Pico of Tenerife, being the high top of the
Mountain Tenerife in the Canaries; and had a great
mind to venture out in hopes of reaching thither;
but having tried twice I was forced in again by
contrary Winds, the Sea alfo going too high for my
little Veffel, fo I resolved to purfue my firft Defign
and keep along the Shore.
Several times I was obliged to land for frefh Wa-
ter, after we had left this Place; and once in par-
ticular, being early in the Morning, we came to
an Anchor under a little Point of Land which was
pretty high, and the Tide beginning to flow, we
lay fill to go farther in ; Xury, whofe Eyes were
more about him then it feems mine were, calls foft-
ly to me, and tells me that we had belt go farther
off the Shore; for, fays he, look yonder lies a
dreadful Monfler on the Side of that Hiliock fall
afleep : I look'd where he pointed, and faw a
dreadful Monfler indeed, for it was a terrible great
Lyon that lay on the Side of the Shore, under the
Shade of a Piece of the Hill that htng as it were a
little over him. Xury, faid I, you hall go onShore
and kill him; Xary look'd frighted, and faid,
Me kill! he eat me at one Mouth; one Mouthful he
meant; however, I faid no more to the Boy, but

[ 31 1
bad him lye fiill, and I took our biggest Gun,
which was almost Musket-bore, and loaded it with
a good Charge of Powder, and with two Slugs,
and laid it down; then I loaded another Gun with
two Bullets, and the third, for we had three Pie-
ces, I loaded with five smaller Bullets. I took the
belt Aim I could with the firft Piece to have ihot
him into the Head, but he lay fo with his Leg
rais'd a little above his Nofe, that the Slugs hit
his Leg about the Knee, and broke the Bone. He
started up growling at firft, but finding his Leg broke
fell down again, and then got up upon three Legs,
and gave the moft hideous Roar that ever I heard;
I was a little furpriz'd that I had not hit him on
the Head; however I took up the second Piece im-
mediately, and tho' he began to move off fir'd a-
gain, and fhot him into the Head, and had the
Pleafure to fee him drop, and make but little No.fe,
but lay ftrugglingfor Life. Then Xury took Heart,
and would have me let him go on Shore: Well, go
faid I; fo the Boy jump'd into the Water, and ta-
king a little Gun in one Hand, fwam to Shore with
the other Hand, and coming clofe to the Creature,
put the Muzzle of the Piece to his Ear, and fhot
him into the Head again, which difpatch'd :lim1'n
This was Game indeed to us, but this was no
Food, and I was very forry to lofe three Charges of
Powder -and Shot upon a Creature that was good
for nothing to us. However, Xury faid, he would
have fome of him; fo he comes on board, ask'd
me to give him the Hatchet; for what, AXry, faid
I? Me cut of his Head, faid he. However, Xury
could not cut off his Head, but he cut off a Foot
and brought it with him, and it was a monfirous
great one.
I be-

[C 3z
I bethought my felf however, that perhaps the
Skin of him might one way or other be of fome
Value to us ; and I resolved to take off his Skin if
I could. So Xury and I went to work with him ;
but Xury was much the better Workman at it, for I
knew very ill how to do it. Indeed it took us up
both the whole Day, but at laft we got off the
Hide of him, and spreading it on the top of our
Cabin; the Sun effecually dried it in two Days
time, and it afterwards ferv'd me to lye upon.
After this Stop we made on to the Southward
continually for ten or twelve Days, living very
fparing on our Provifions, which began to abate
very much, and going no oftner into the Shore than
we were oblig'd to for frech Water; my Defign in
this was to make the River Gambia or Senegall, that
is to fay, any where about the Cape de Verd, where
I was in hopes to meet with fome European Ship,
and if I did not, I knew not what Courfe I had
to take, but to feek for the Ij. i', or perifh there
among the Negroes. I knew that all the Ships from
Europe, which fail'd either to the Coaft ofGuiney,
or to Brafil, or to the Eafl-Indies, made this Cape,
or thofe Iflands ; and in a word, I put the whole
of my Fortune upon this single Point, either that I
muft meet with fome Ship, or muft perifh.
When I had purfued this Refolution about ten
Days longer, as I have faid, I began to fee that
the Land was inhabited, and in two or three
Places as we failed by, we faw People ftand upon
the Shore to look at us, we could alfo perceive
they were quite Black and Stark-naked. I was once
inclin'd to have gone on Shore to them; but Xury
was my better Counfellor, and faid to me, no go,
70o go; however I hawl'd in nearer the Shore that I
might talk to them, and I found they run a!og-
the Shore byme a good way ; I obferv'd they had

1 33 ]
rio Weapons in their Hands, except one who had a
long lender Stick, which Xury faid was a Lance,
and that they would throw them a great way with
good Aim; fo I kept at a didance, but talk'd with
them by Signs as well as I could; and particularly
made Signs for something to eat, they beckon'd to
me to flop my Boat, and they would fetch me
fome Meat; upon this I lower'd the top of my
Sail, and lay by, and two of them run up into the
Country, and in lefs than half an Hour came back,
and brought with them two Pieces of dry Flefh
and fome Corn, fuch as is the Produce of their
Country; but we neither knew what the one or the
other was; however we were willing to accept it,
but how to come at it was our next Difpute, for I
was not for venturing on Shore to them, and they
were as much afraid of us; but they took a fafe
way for us all, for they brought it to the Shore and
laid it down, and went flood a great way off
till we fetch'd it on Board, and then came clofe to
us again,
We made Signs of Thanks to them, for we had
nothing to make them amends; but an Opportuni-
ty offered that every Initant to oblige them won-
derfully, for while we were lying by the Shore,
came two mighty Creatures, one purfuing the other,
(as we took it) with great Fury, from the Mountains
towards the Sea; whether it was the Male pursuing
the Female,or whether theywere in Sport or in Rage,
we could not tell, any more than we could tel! whe-
ther it was ufual or firange, but I believe it was the
latter; because in the firft Place, thofe ravenous
Creatures feldom appear but in the Night; and in
the second Place, we found the People terribly
frighted, especially the Women. The Man that
had the Lance or Dart did not fly from them,
but the relt did ; however as the two Creatures
D ran

[ 34
iran direly into the Water, they did not feem to of-
ifr to fall upon any of the Negroes, but plung'd
themselves into the Sea and fwam about as if
they had come for their Diverfion ; at laft one of
them beganto come nearer our Boat than at firft I
expected, but I layready for him, for I had loaded
my Gun with all poflible Expedition, and bad Xury
load both the other; as foon as he came fairly with-
in my reach, I fir'd, and fhot him directly into the
Head ; immediately he funk down into the Water,
but role instantly and plunged up and down as if
he was firuggling for Life ; andfo indeed he was,
he immediately made to the Shore, but between
the Wound which was his mortal Hurt, and the
firangling of the Water, he dyed juft before he
reach'dthe Shore.
It is impoffible to exprefs the Aftoniflment of
thefe poor Creatures at the Noife and the Fire of
my Gun ; fome of them were even ready to dye
for Fear, and fell down as Dead with the very
Terror. But when they faw the Creature dead and
funk-in the Water, and that I made Signs to them
to come to the Shore; they took Heart and came
Sto the Shore and began to search for the Creature,
I.ound him by his Blood Itaining the Water, and
by the help of a Rope which I flung round him
and gave the Negroes to hawl, they drag'd him on
Shore, and found that it was a moft curious Leo-
pard, fpottcd and fine to an admirable Degree, and
the Negroes held up their Hands with Admiration
to think what it was I had kill'd him with.
The other Creature frighted with the flafh of
Fire and the Noife of the Gup fwam on Shore,
and ran up directly to the Mountains from whence
they came, nor could 1 at that Diflance know
what it was. I found quickly the Negroes were
for cating the Flcih of this Creature, fo 1 was wil-

ling to have them take it as a Favour from me
which when I made Signs to them that they might
take him, they were very thankful for, immediate-
ly they fell to work with him, and tho' they had no
Knife, yet with a fharpen'd piece of Wood they took
off his Skin as readily, and much more readily than
we cou'd have done with a Knife ; they offered me
iome of the Flefh, which I declined, making as if
I would give it them, but made Signs for the Skin,
which they gave me very freely, and brought me a
great deal more of their Provifion, which tho' I did
not understand, yet I accepted; then I made Signs
to them for fome Water, and held out one of my
Jarrs to them, turning it Bottom upward, to flew
that it was empty, and that I wanted to have it
filled. They called immediately to fome of their
Friends, and there came two Women and brought
a great Veffel made of Earth, and burnt, as I fup-
pofe in the Sun ; this they fet down for me, as be-
fore, and I fent Xury on Shore with my Jarrs, and
filled them all three. The Women were as ftark
naked as the Men.
I was now furnifhed with Roots and Corn, fuch
as it was, and Water, and leaving my friendly Ne-
groes, I made forward for about eleven Days more,
without offering to go near the Shore, till I faw
the Land run out a great Length into the Sea, at
about the Diftance of four or five Leagues before
me, and the Sea being very calm, I kept a large
offing to make this Point; at length, doubling the
Point at about two Leagues from the Land, I
faw plainly Land on the other Side to Seaward;
then I concluded,A as it was moft certain indeed,
that this was r W-',ape de Verd, and thofe the I-
flands, caPll'd from thence Cape de Verd Ifland,.
However they were at a great Diflance, and I
could not well tell what I had beft to do, for ii f
D z2 should

should be taken with a Frefh of Wind I might
neither reach one or other.
In this Dilemna, as I was very pensive, I flept
into the Cabin, and fat me down, Xary having
the Helm, wlen on a sudden the Boy cry'd out
Mafter, Mafter, a Ship with a Sail, and the foolish
Boy was frighted out of his Wits, thinking it
muft needs be fomc of his Mailer's Ships fent to
purfue us, when, I knew we were gotten far enough
out of their reach. I jumped out of the Cabin,
and immediately law not only the Ship, but what
fhe was, (viz.) that it was a Portugu fe Ship, and
as I thought was bound to the Coaft of Guinea for
Negroes. But when 1 obferv'd the Courfe fhe
fle'r'd, I was foon convinced they were bound
fome other way, and did not defign to come any
nearer to the Shore; upon which I firetch'd out to
Sea as much as I could, revolving to peak with
them if poffible.
With all the Sail I could make I found I should
not be able to come in their Way, but that they
should be gone by, before I could make any Signal
to them; but after I had crowded to the utmoft,
and began to despair, they it feems law me by the
help of their Perfpecive-Glaffes, and that it was
fome E~-ole.n Boat, which as they fuppofed muft
belong to fome Ship that was loft, fo they fhort-
ned Sail to let me come up. I was encouraged
with this, and as I had my Patron's Antient on
Board, 1 made a Waft of it to them for a Signal
of Diftrcfs, and fir'da Gun, both which they faw,
for they told me they law the Smoke, tho' they did
not hear the Gun; upon thefe Signals they very
Lindly brought too, and lay by for me, and in a-
bout three Hours time I came up with them.
Theyask'd me what I was, in Portuguefe, and in
and in French, but I underflood none of
them ;

[ 371
them; but a laft a Scots Sailor who was on board,
called to me, and I anfwer'd him, and told himI
was an Englijh Man, that I had made my efcape out
of Slavery from the Moors at Salee; then they bad
me come on board, and very kindly took me in,
and all my Goods.
It was an inexpreffible Joy to me, that any onm
will believe, that I was thus delivered, as I eftcem'd
it, fiomn fuch a miserable and almost hopelefs Con-
dition as I was in, and I immed ately offered all I
had to the Captain of the Ship, as a Return for
my Deliverance; but he generously told me, he
would take nothing from me, but that all I had
should be delivered fafe to me when I came to the
Brafils; for, lays he, I have fav'd your Life on no o-
the)'ferms than I would be glad to befived myfelf, and
it may one time or other be my Lot to be taken up in the
fame Condition; besides, faid he, when I tarry you to
the Brafils, fo great a way from your own Country, if I
should take from you what you have, you will beflarved
there, and then I only take away that Life I have given.
No, no, Seignior, Inglefe, fays he, Mr. Englifhman,
I will carry you thither in Charity, and thofe things wil
help you to buy your SubfiJlance there, and your Paffage
home again.
As he wasCharitable in his Propofal, fo he was
jufi in the Performance to a tittle, for he ordered
the Seamen, that none should offer to touch any
thing I had; then he took every thing intohis own
Poffeffion, and gave me back an exact Inventory of
them, that I might have them, even fo much as
my three Earthen Jarrs.
As to my Boat it was a very good one, and
that he law, and told me he would buy it of me
for the Ship's Ufe, and ask'd me what I would have
for it ? I told him he had been fo generous to me
in every thing, that I could not offer to make a-
1) 3 fy

[ 38 ]
ny Price of the Boat, but left it entirely to himy
upon which he told me he would give me a Note
of his Hand to pay me 80 Pieces of Eight for it
at Brafil, and when it came there, if any one of-
fer'd to give more he would make it up ; he offered
me alfo 60 Pieces of Eight more for my Boy Xury,
which I was loath to take, not that I was not wil-
ling to let the Captain have him, but I was very
loath to fell the poor Boy's Liberty, who had affi-
fled me fo faithfully in procuring my own. How-
ever when I let him know my Reafon, he own'd it
to be juft, and offered me this Medium, that he
would give the Boy an Obligation to fet him free
in ten Years, if he turned Chriftian; upon this,
and Xury saying he was willing to go to him, I
let the Captain have him.
We had a very good Voyage to the Brafils, and
arriv'd in the Bay de Todos los Santos, or All-Saints-
Bay, in about 22 Days after. And now I was
once more delivered from the moft miserable of
all Conditions of Life, and what to do next with
my felf, I was now to consider.
The generous Treatment the Captain gave me,
I can never enough remember; he would take no-
thing of me for my Paflage, gave me 20 Ducats
for the Leopard's Skin, and 40 for the Lyon's Skin
which I had in my Boat, and caused every Thing
I had in the Ship to be punnually delivered me,
and what I was willing to fell he bought, fuch as
the Cafe of Bottles, two cf my Guns, and a Piece
of the Lump of Bees-wax, for I had made Can-
dles of the reft ; in a word, I made about 220
Pieces of Eight of all my Cargo, and with this
Stock I went on Shore in the Brafilo.
I had not been long here, but being recommen-
ded to the Houe of a good honest Man like him-
felf, who had an Ingeino as they call it that is,-a

Plantation, and a Sugar-Houfe. I liv'd with hini
fome Time, and acquainted myfelfby that Means
with the Manner of their planting and making of
Sugar; and feeing how well the Planters liv'd, and
how they grew rich suddenly, I refolv'd, if I could
get Licence, to fettle there, I would turn Planter a-
mong them, refolving in the mean time to find out
fome way to get my Money, which I left in London,
remitted to me. To this Purpofe, getting a kind
of a Letter of Naturalization, I purchased as much
Land that was uncur'd, as my Money would reach,
and form'd a Plan for my Plantation and Settlement,
and fuch a one as might be fuitable to the Stock,
which I proposed to myfelfto receive from England.
I had a Neighbour, a Portuguefe of Lisbon, but
born of Englij Parents, whofe Name was Wells,
and in much fuch Circumftances as I was. I call
him my Neighbour, because his Plantation lay next
to mine, and we went on very fociably together. My
Stock was but low as well as his; and we rather
planted for Food than any Thing elfe, for about two
Years. However, we began to encreafe, and our
Land began to come into Order; fo that the third
Year we planted fome Tobacco, and made each of
us a large Piece of Ground ready for planting Canes
in the Year to come; but we both wanted Help;
and now I found more than before, I had done
wrong in parting with my Boy Xury.
But alas for me to do wrong that never did right,
was no great Wonder: I had no Remedy but to
go on; I was gotten into an Imployment quite re-
mote to my Genius, and direly contrary to the Life
I delighted in, and for which I forfook my Father's
Houfe, and broke thro' all his good Advice nay,
I was coming into the very middle Station, or up-
per Degree of low Life, which my Father Advifed
me to before; and which, if I refolv'd to go on
D 4 with

[ 40 ]
with, I might as well ha' flaid at Home, and never
have fatigu'd my felf in the World as I had done;
and I ufed often to fay to my felf, I could hao
done this as well in England among my Friends, as
ha' gone 5ooo Miles off to do it among Strangers
and Savages in a Wildernefs, and at fuch a Diftance,
as never to hear from any Part of the World that
had the leaft Knowledge of me.
In this manner I ufed to look upon my Condition
with the utmoft Regret. 1 had no Body to con-
verfe with, but now and then this Neighbour; no
Work to be done, but by the Labour of my Hands;
and I ufed to fay, I liv'd juft like a Man call away
upon fome defolate Ifland, that had no Body there
but himself. But how juft has it been, and how should
all Men refle&, that, when they compare their pre-
fent Conditions with others that are worfe, Heaven
may oblige them to make the Exchange, and be
convinced of their former Felicity, by their Experi-
ence: I fay, how juft has it been, that the truly foli-
tary Life I refleaed on in an Ifland of meer Defol-
tion should be my Lot, who had to often unjufily
compared it with the Life which I then led, in which
had I continued, I had in all Probability been ex-
ceeding profperous and rich.
I was in fome Degree fettled in my Meafures for
carrying on thePlantation, before my kindFriend
the Captain of the Ship, that took me up at Sea,
went back; for the Ship remained there in provi-
ding his Loading, and preparing for his Voyage,
near three Months, when telling him what little
Stock I had left behind me in London, he gave me
this friendlyand fincre Advice,Seignor Inglefe,fays he,
for fo he always called me,ifyou will give meLetters,
and a Procuration here in Form to me, with Orders
tothc Perfon who has your Money in Londcn, to fend
your EffeIs to Lidbon, to fuch Perfons as I fall di-

re&, and in fuch Goods as are proper for this
Country, I will bring you the Produce of them,
God willing,, at my Return ; but fince human Af-
fairs are all fubjc6t to Changes and Difafters, I
would have you give Orders but for joo Steri.
which you fay is half your Stock, and let the Ha-
zard be run for the. firi ; fo that if it come fafe,
you may order the reft the fame Way; and if it
mifcarry, you may have the other Half to have
Recourfe to for your Supply.
This was fo wholefome Advice, and look'd fo
friendly, that I could not but be convinced it was
the beft Courfe I could take; fo I accordingly pre-
pared Letters to the Gentlewoman, with whom I
had left my Money, and a Procuration to he Por-
tugucfe Captain, as he defir'd.
I wrote the Englif Captain'sWidowa full Acconnt
of all my Adventures, my Slavery, Efcape, and how
I had met with the Portugal Captain at Sea, the Hu-
manity ofhisBehaviour, and in what Condition I was
now in, with all other neceflary Dire&ions for my
Supply ; and when this honeft Captain came toLis-
bon, he found means by Lome of the EnglijMerchants'
there, to fend over not the Order only, but a full.
Account of my Story to a Merchant at London,
who represented it effecually to her ; whereupon,
fhe not only delivered the Money, but out of her
own Pocket fent the Pcrtugal Captain a very hand-
fome Prefent for his Humanity and Charity to me.
The Merch.nt in London veiling this loo 1. in.
Engliji Goods, fuch as the Captain had writ for,
fent them directly to him at Liabon, and he brought
them all fafe to me to the Brafils, among which,
without my DireAion (for I was too young in
my Bufinefs to think of then) he had taken Care
to have all fcrtsof Tools, Iron-Work, and Uten-

42 41
fils necefary for my Plantation, and- which were of
great Ufe to me.
When this Cargo arrived, I thought my Fortune
made, for I was furprized with Joy of it; and my
good Steward the Captain had laid out the five
Pounds which my Friend had fent him for a Pre-
fent for himself, to purchase, and bring me over a
Servant under Bond for fix Years Service, and would
not accept of any Confideration, except a little
Tobacco, which I would have him accept, being
of my own Produce.
Neither was this all; but my Goods being all
English ManufaCtures, fuch as Cloath, Stuffs, Bays,
and Things particularly valuable and desirable in
the Country, I found Means to fell them to a very
great Advantage; fo that I may fay, I had more
than four times the Value of my firft Cargo, and
was now infinitly beyond my poor Neighbour, I
mean in the Advancement of my Plantation ; for the
firft thing I did, I bought me a Negroe Slave, and an
European Servant alfo; I mean another besides that
which the Captain brought me from Lisbon.
But as abus'd Profperity is oftentimes made the
very Means of our greatest Adverfity, fo was it with
me. I went on the next Year with great Succefs in
my Plantation : I railed fifty great Rolls of Tobac-
co on my own Ground, more than I had difpofed
of for Neceflaries among my Neighbours; and
thefe fifty Rolls being each of above a ioo Wt. were
well cur'd and laid. by against the Return of the
Fleet from Lisbon : And now increasing in Bufinefs
and in Wealth, my Head began to be full of Pro-
je&s and Undertakings beyond my Reach ; fuch as
are indeed often the Ruin of the beft Heads in


[43 ]
Had I continued in the Station I was now in, I
had room for all the happy Things to have yet be-
fallen me, for which my Father fo earnestly recom-
mended a quiet retired Life,- and of which he had
fo fenfibly described the middle Station of Life to
be full off; but other Things attended me, and I
was fill to be the wilful Agent of all my own
Miferies; and particularly to encreafe my Fault,
and double the Refledions upon my felf, wAch in
my future Sorrows I should have Leifure to makes
all thefe Mifcarriages were procured by my appa-
rent obftinate adhering to my foolish Inclination, of
wandering Abroad, and pursuing that Inclination, in
Contradi&ion to the cleareft Views of doing my
felf good, in a fair and plain Purfuit of thofe Prof-
peas, and thofe Meafures of Life, which Nature
and Providence concurred to prefent me with, and
to make my Duty.
As I had once done thus in my breaking away
from my Parents, fo I could not be content now,
but I muft go and leave the happy View I had of
being a rich and thriving Man in my new Plantati-
on, only to purfue a rafh and immoderate Defire of
rising falter than the Nature of the Thing admit-
ted; and thus I caft my felf down again into the
deepeft Gulph of human Mifery that ever Man fell
into, or perhaps could be confiftent with Life and
a State of Health in the World.
To come then by juft Degrees, to the Parti-
culars of this Part of my Story; you may fuppofe,
that having now lived almost four Years in the
Bra/ilo, and beginning to thrive and proper very
well upon' my Plantation; I had not only learned
the Language, but had contra&ed Acquaintance
and Friendfhip among my Fellow-Planters, as well
as among the Merchants at St. Salvadord, which
was our Port; and that in my Difcourfes among

[ 44 ]
them, I had frequently given them an Account of
my two Voyages to the Coaft of Guinea, the
manner of Trading with the Negroes there, and
how eafy it was to purchase upon the Coaft, for
Trifles, fuch as Beads, Toys, Knives, Sciffars,
Hatchets, Bits of Glafs, and the like ; not only
Gold Duft, Guinea Grains, Elephants Teeth, &7c.
but Negroes for the Service of the Brafils, in great
They liftened always very attentively to my
Difcourfes on there Heads, but especially to that
Part which related to the buying Negroes, which
was a Trade at that Time not only not far encred
into, but as far as it was, had been carry'd on by
the Affiento's, or Permiffion of the Kings of Spain
and Portugal, and engrofs'd in the Publick, fo that
few Negroes were brought, and thofe exceffive
It happen'dj being in Company with fome Mer-
chants and Planters of my Acquaintaince, and
talking of thofe Things very earneftly, three of
them came to me the next Morning, and told me
they had been mufing very much upon what 1 had
difcourfed with them of, the laft Night, and they
came to make a fecret Propofal to me; and after
enjoining me Secrecy, they told me, that they had
a mind to fit out a Ship to go to Guinea, that
they had all Plantations as well as I, and were
firaiten'd for nothing fo much as Servants ; that as
it was a Trade that could not be carry'd on, be-
caufe they could not publicly fell the Negroes
when they came Home, fo they defir'd to
make but one Voyage, to bring the Negroes on
Shore privately, and divide them among their
own Plantations; and in a word, the Queflion
was, whether I would go their Super-Cargo in the
Ship to manage the Trading Part upon the Coaft

[ 45 .
of Guin'y ? And they offered me that I should have
my equal Share of the Negroes, without providing
any Part of the Stock.
This was a fair Propofal, it mufl be confefs'd,
had it been made to any one that had not had a
Settlement and Plantation of his own to look after,
which was in a fair Way of coming to be very
confiderable, and with a good Scock upon it. But
for me that was thus entered and eflabliflhed, and
had nothing to do but go on as I had begun for
three or four Years more, and to have fent for the
other hundred Pound from E;gland, and who in
that time, and with that little Addition, could
fcarce ha' faii'd of being worth three or four thou-
fand Pounds Sterling, and that encreafing too ; for
me to think of fch a Voyage, was the moft pre-
pofterous Thing that ever Man in. fich Circum-
flances could be guilty of.
But I that was born to be my own Deftroyer,
could no more refill the Offer than I could refrain
my firft rambling Defigns, when my Father's good
Counfel was loft upon me. In a word, I told them
I would go with all my Heart, ifthey would un-
dertake to look after my Plantation in my Ab-
fence, and would difpofe of it to fuch as I should
direa, if I mifcarry'd. This they all engag'd to
do, and entered into Writings or Covenants to do
o ; and I made a formal Will, difpofing of my
Plantation and Effeas, in Cafe of my Death, ma-
king the Captain of the Ship that had fav'd my Life,
as before, my universal Heir, but obliging him to
difpofe of my Effe&s, as I had direaed in my Will,
one half of the Produce being to himself, and the
other to be fhipp'd to England.
In fhort, I took all poffible Caution to preferve
my EffeAts and keep up my Plantaton ; had I u-
fed half as much Prudence to have looked into my

[46 3
own Intereft, and have made a Judgment of what
I ought to have done, and not to have done, I had
certainly never gone away from fo prosperous an
Undertaking, leaving all the probable Views of a
thriving Circumftance, and gone upon a Voyage
to Sea, attended with all its common Hazards; to
fay nothing of the Reafons I had to exped particu-
lar Misfortunes to my felf.
But I was hprry'd on, and obey'd blindly the
Diaates ofmy Fancy rather than my Reafon ; and
accordingly the Ship being fitted out, and the Car-
go furnished, and all Things done as by Agree-
ment, by my Partners in the Voyage, I went on
Board in an evil Hour again, the firft ofSeptember,
1659, being the fame Day eight Year that I went
from my Father and Mother at Hau, in order to
a2& the Rebel to their Authority, and the Fool to
my own Inrereft.
Our Ship was about 120 Tun Burthen, carried-
fix Guns, and fourteen Men, including the Mafter,
his Boy, and my felf; we had on Board no large
Cargo of Goods, except of fuch Toys as were fit
for our Trade with the Negroes, fuch as Beads,
bits of Glafr, Shells, and odd Trifles, especially
little Looking-Glaffes, Knives, Scifars, Hatchets,
and the like.
The fame Day I went on Board we fet fail,
standing away to the Northward upon our own
Coaf, with Defign to firetch over for the African
Coaft, when they came about 1o or 12 Degrees of
Northern Latitude, which it feems was the man-
ner of their Courfe in thofe Days. We had very
good Weather, only exceflive hot, all the way up-.
on our own Coaft, till we came the Height of
Cape St. A. ..*', from whence keeping farther off
ar Sea we loft Sight of Land, and fteer'd as if we
was bound for the- IJle Fe;iad de e-.: ......, holding

[47 ]
our Courfe N. E. by N. and leaving thofe Ifles on
the Eaft; in this Courfe we paft the Line in about
12 Days time, and were by our laft Obfervation in
7 Degrees 22 Min. Northern Latitude, when a vi-
olent Tournado or Hurricane took us quite out of
our Knowledge; it began from the South-Eaft,
came about to the North-Weft, and then fettled
into the North-Eaft, from whence it blew in fuch
a terrible manner, that for 1 z Days together we
could do nothing but drive, and fcudding away
before it, let it carry us whither ever Fate and the
Fury of the Winds dire&ed ; and during thefe iz
Days, I need not fay, that I expected every Day
to be fwallowed up, nor indeed did any in the Ship
expect to fave their Lives.
In this Diflrefs, we had, besides the Terror of
the Storm, one of our Men die of the Calenture,
and one Man and the Boy wah'd over-board; a-
bout the twelfth Day the Weather abating a little,
the Mafter made an Obfervation as well as he
could, and found that he was in about eleven De-
grees North Latitude, but that he was twenty two
Degrees of Longitude difference Weit from Cape St.
Auguflino; fo that he found he was gotten upon the
Coaft of Guiana, or the North Part of Brafil, be-
yond the River Amozones, toward that of the Ri-
ver O0,..:t,'', commonly called the Great River, and
began to confult with me what Courfe he should
take, for the Ship was leaky and very much difa-
bled, and he was going direcly back to the Coaft
of Brafil.
I was positively against that, and looking over
the Charts of the Sea-Coaft of America with him,
we concluded there was no inhabited Country for
us to have recourfe to, till we came within the Cir-
cle of the Carribbe-Iflands, and therefore refolved
to ftand away for Barbadoes, which by keeping off

S48 ]
at Sea, to avoid the Indraft of the Bay or Gulph
of Mexico, we might eafily perform, as we hoped,
in about 15 Days Sail; whereas we could not
poffibly make our Voyage to the Coaft of Africa,
without fome Affiltance, both to our Ship and
;to our felves.
With this Defign we changed our Courfe, and
fleer'd away N. W. by I. in order to reach fome
of our Englih Iflands, where I hoped for Relief;
but our Voyage was otherwise determined, for
being in the Latitude of iz Deg. 18 Min. a fe-
cond Storm came upon us, which carry'd us away
with the fame Impetuofity Wedward, and drove
us fo out of the very Way of all humane Com-
merce, that had our Lives been fared, as to
the Sea, we were rather in Danger of being de-
vour'd by Savages than ever returning to our own
In this Diflrefs, theWind blowing flil very hard,
one of our Men early in the Morning, cry'd out,
Land; and we had no fooner run out of the Ca-
bin to look out, in hopes of feeing whereabouts
in the World we were 3 but the Ship truck upon
a Sand, and in a Moment her Motion being fo
ftopp'd, the Sea broke over her in fuch a manner,
that we expected we should all have perifh'd im-
mediately, and we were immediately driven into
clofe Quarters to flelter us from the very Foam
and Sprye of the Sea.
It is not eafy for any one, who has not been
in the like Condition, to defcribe.or. conceive the
Coniternation of Men in fuch Circumftances; we
knew nothing where we were, or upon what Land
it was we were driven, whether an Ifland, or the.
Main ; whether inhabited, or not inhabited ; and
as the Rage of the Wind was fill great, tho' ra-
ther lcfs than at firft, we could not fo much as

hope to have the Ship hold many Minutes without
breaking in Pieces, unlefs the Winds by a kind of
Miracle should turn immediately about. In a
word, we fat looking one upon another, and ex-
pecing Death every Moment, and every Man adt-
ing accordingly, as preparing for another World ;
for there was little or nothing more for is to do iri
this: That which was ourprefent Comfort, and all
the Comfort we had, was, That contrary tb buC
Expectation the Ship did not break yet, and that
the Mafter faid, the Wind began to abate.
Now tho' we thought that the Wind did a little
abate, yet the Ship having thus truck upon the
Sand, and flicking too faft for us to expea her get-
ting off, we were in a dreadful Condition ihdeedi
and had nothing to do.but to think of having bur
Lives as well as we could; we had a Boat at our
Stern, juft before the Storm, but flhewasfirft ftav'd
by dashing against the Ship's Rudder, and in the
next Place fhe broke away, and either funk or
was driven offto Sea; fo there was no Hope from
her: We had another Boat on Board, but how to
get her off into the Sea, was a doubtful Thing ;
however, there was no room to debate, for we
fancy'd the Ship would break in Pieces every Mi-
nute; and fome told us the was actually broken al'
In this Difirefs, the Mate 6f our Veffel iays hold
of the Boat, and with the Help of the reft of the
Men, they got her fluug over the Ship's-iide, and
getting all into her, let go, and comminrted cur
felves, being Eleven in Number, to God's M c"'cy,
and the wild Sea; for tho' tie Scorm was abated
cosfiderably, yet the Sea went dreadful high uponr
the Shore, and might well be ca.l'J, Den wild Zee;
s the Dutch call the Sea in a Storm;

[ 5 ]
And now our Cafe was very difmal indeed; for
we all faw plainly, that the Sea went fo high, that
the Boat could not live, and that wefhould be ine-
vitably drown'd, As to making Sail, we had none,
nor, if we had, could we have done any thing with
it; fo we work'd at the Oar towards the Land,
tho'with heavy Hearts, like Men going to Executi-
on; for we all knew, that when the Boat came nea-
rer the Shore, fhe would be dafh'd in a thousand
Pieces by the Breach of the Sea. However we
committed our Souls to God in the moft earneft
manner, and the Wind driving us towards the Shore,
we haften'd our Deftruaion with our own Hands,
pulling as well as we could towards Land.
What the Shore was, whether Rock or Sand,
whether Steep or Shoal, we knew not; the only
Hope that could rationally give us the left Shadow
of ExpeAation, was, if we might happen into fome
Bay or Gulph, or the Mouth of fome River, where
by great Chance we might have run our Boat in, or
got under the Lee of the Land, and perhaps made
fmooth Water. But there was nothing of this ap-
peared; but as we made nearer and nearer the Shore,
the Land looked more frightful than the Sea.
After we had row'd, or rather driven about a
League and a Half, as we reckon'd it, a raging
Wave, Mountain-like, came rowling a-ftern of us,
and plainly bad us expect the Coup-de-Grace. In a
word, it took us witN fuch a Fury, that it overfet
the Boat at once; and separating us as well from
the Boat, as from one another, gave us not Time
hardly to fay, 0 God! for we are all fwallowed
up in a Moment.
Nothing can defcribe the Confufion of Thought
which I fe t when I funk into the Water; for tho' I
fwam very well, yet I could not deliveriiyfelf from
the Waves, fo as to draw Breath, 'till the Wave

[ ]
having driven me, or rather carried me a vaft Way
on towards the Shore, and having fpent it felf, went
back, and left me upon the Land almost dry, but
half dead with the Water I took in, I had fo much
Prefence of Mind as well as Breath left, that feeing
myfelf nearer the main Land than I expeaed, I got
upon my Feet, and endeavoured to make on to-
wards the Land as faft as I could, before another
Wave should return, and take me up again. But I
foon found it wasimpoffible to avoid it; for I faw
the Sea come after me as high as a great Hill, and:
as furious as an Enemy which I had no Means or,
Strength to contend with; my Bufinefs was to hold
my Breath, and rife myfelf upon the Water, if I.
could and fo by swimming to preserve myBreath-
ing, and Pilot myfelf towards the Shore, if pofli-
ble ; my greatest Concern now being, that the Sea,
as it would carry me a great Way towards the Shore
when it came on, might not carry me back again
with it when it gave back towards the Sea.
The Wave that came upon me again, buried me
at once zo or 3 o Foot deep in i:s own Body; and I
could feel my felf carried with a mighty Force and
Swiftnefs towards the Shore a very great Way; but
I held my Breath, and affifted my felfto fwim fill
forwards with all my Might. I was ready to burft
with holding my Breath, when, as I felt my felf
rising up, fo to my immediate Relief, I found my
Head and Hands fhoot out above the Surface of the
Water; and tho' it was not two Seconds of Time
that I could keep my felf fo, yet it relieved me
greatly, gave me Breath and new Courage. I was
covered again with Water a good while, but not
fo long but I held. it out; and finding the Water
had fpent it felf, and began to return, I ftrook for-
ward against the Return of the Waves, and felt
Ground again with my Feet. Iflood fill a few
E 2 Mo-

[ 52 ]
Moments to recover Breath, and 'till the Water
went from me, and then took to my Heels,and run,
with what Strength I had, farther towards the
Shore: But neither would this deliver me from
the Fury of the Sea, which came pouring in af-
ter me again, aid twice more I was lifted up by
the Waves, and carry'd forwards as before, the
-Shore being very flat.
The laft Time ofthefe two had well near been
fatal to me; for the Sea having hurry'd me along as
before, landed me, or rather dath'd me against a
Piece of a Rock; and that with fuch Force, as it
left me fenfelefs, and indeed helplefs, as to my own
Deliverance; for the Blow taking my Side and
Breaft, beat the Breath, as it were, quite out of my
Body; and had it returned again immediately, I
muft have been firangled in the Water; but I re-
cover'd a little before the Return of the Waves
and feeing I should be cover'd again with the Wa-
ter, I refolv'd to hold faft by a Piece of the Rock,
:and to to hold my Breath, ifpoffible,'till the Wave
went back; now as the Waves were not fo high as
at firfi, being near Land, I held my Hold 'till the
Wave abated, and then fetch'd another Run,
which brought me fo near the Shore, that the
next Wave, tho' it went over me, yet did not fo
fwallow me up as to carry me away, and the next
Run I took, I got to the main Land, where, to
-my great Comfort, I clamber'd up the Clifts of
.the Shore, and fat me down upon the Grafs, free
:from Danger, and quite out of the Reach of the
SI was, now landed, and fafeon Shore, and began
*to look up and thank GQd that my Life was fav'd in
-a Cae wherein there was fomeMinutes before fcarce
,anvyIoo'm to hope. I believe it isimpoffible to ex-
pri'-! oie Life what the Extalies and Tr.anfpor-ts f

[ 53 1
the Soul-are, when it is fo fav'd, as I"my fay, out
of the very Grave; and I do not wonder now at
that Cuftom, viz,, That when a Malefa&or, who
has the Halter about his Neck, is ty'd up, and juft
going to be turn'd off, and has a Reprieve brought
to him: I fay, I do not wonder that they bring, a
Surgeon with it, to let him Blood that very Mo-
ment they tell him of it, that the Surprize may not
drive the Animal Spirits from the Heart, and over-
whelm him:

For sudden yoys, like Griefs, confound at firfl.

I walk'd about on the Shore, lifting up my Hands
and my whole Being, as I may fay, wrapt up in the
Contemplation of my Deliverance, making a thou-
fand Geitures and Motions which I cannot describe,
reflecting upon all my Comrades that were drown'd,
and that there should not be one Soul fav'd but my
felf; for, as for them, Ineverfaw them afterwards,
or any Sign of them, except three of their Hats,
one Cap, and two Shoes that were not Fellows.
I call my Eyes to the firanded Veflel, when the
Breach and Froth of the Sea being fo big, I could
hardly fee it, it lay fo far off, and consider d, Lord I
how was it poffible I could get on Shore!
After I had folac'd my Mind with the comfortable
Part ofmy Condition, I began to look round me to
fee what kind of Place I was in, and what was next
to be done, and I foon found my Comforts abate;
and that, in a word, I had a dreadful Deliverance :
For I was wet, had no Cloaths to fhift me, nor any
thing either to eat or drink to comfort me, neither
did I fee any Profpe& before me, but that of pe-
rihirig with Hunger, or being devour'd by wild
Beats; and that which was particularly afflicing
to me, was, that I had no Weapon either to hunt
E3 and

and kill any Creature for my Suflenance, or to de-
knd my felfagainft any other Creature that might
desire to kill me for their's: In a word, I had no-
thing about me but a Knife, a Tobacco-pipe, and
a little Tobacco in a Box; this was all my Provifi-
on, and this threw me into terrible Agonies of
Mind, that for a while I run about like a Mad-man;
Night coming upon me, I began with a heavy
Heart to consider what would be my Lot if there
were any ravenous Beafts in that Country, feeing
at Night they always come abroad for their Prey.
All the Remedy that offered to my Thoughts at
that Time, was, to get up into a thick bufhy Tree
like a Firr, but thorny, which grew near me, and
where I refolv'd to fit all Night, and consider the
next Day what Death I should die, for as yet I
faw no Profpe& of Life ; I walked about a Furlong
from the Shore, to fee if Icould find any freth Wa-
ter to drink, which I did, to my great Joy; and ha-
ving drank, and put a little Tobacco in my Mouth
to prevent Hunger, I went to the Tree, and get-
ting up into it, endeavour'd to place myfelf fo, as
thac if I should fleep, I might not fall; and haviiig
cut me a fhort Stick, like a Truncheon, for my
Defence, I took up my Lodging, and having been
exceffively fatigued, 1 fell faft afieep, and flept as
comfortably as, I believe, few could have done
in my Condition, and found myfelf the moft re-
frehf'd with it, that I think I ever was on fuch an
When I wak'd, it was broad Day, the Weather
clear, and the Storm abated, fo that the Sea did
not rage and well as before: But that which fur-
priz'd me moil, was, that the Ship was lifted off
in the Night from the Sand where fhe lay, by
the Swelling of the Tide, and was driven up al-
moft as far as the Rock, which I firft mentioned,

where I had been fo bruis'd by the dafhing me a-
gainft it; this being within about a Mile from the
Shore where I was, and the Ship feeming to, fland
upright ftill, 'I wifh'd my felf on Board, that, at
leaft, I might fave fome neceffary Things for my
When I came down from my Appartment in the
Tree, I look'd about me again, and the firft Thing
I found was the Boat, which lay as the Wind and
the Sea had tofs'd her up upon the Land, about
two Miles on my Right-Hand. I walk'd as far as I
could upon the Shore to have got to her, but found
a Neck or Inlet of Water between me and the
Boat, which was about half a Mile Broad, fo I
came back for the present, being more intent upon
getting at the Ship, where I hop'd to find fome-
thing for my present Subfiftence.
A little after Noon I found the Sea very calm,
and the Tide ebb'd fo far out, that I could come
within a quarter of a Mile of the Ship; and here
I found a frefh renewing of my Grief, for I faw
evidently that if we had kept on Board, we had
been all fafe, that is to fay, we had all got fafe
on Shore, and I had not been fo miserable as to
be left entirely destitute of all Comfort and Com-
pany, as now I was; this forced Tears from my
Eyes again, but as there was little Relief in that,
I refolv'd, if poffible, to get to the Ship, fo I
pull'd off my Cloaths, for the Weather was hot to
Extremity, and took the Water; but when I came
to the Ship, my Difficulty was till greater to
know how to get on Board, for as the lay a-ground,
and high out of the Water, there was nothing
within my Reach to lay hold of, I fwam round
her twice, and the second Time I fpy'd a fill
Piece of a Rope, which I wonder I did not fee
at irft, hang down by the Fore-Chains fo low,
E 4 as

as that with great Difficulty I got hold of it, and
by the help of that Rope,i got tp into the Fore-
caftle of the Ship, here I found that.the Ship was
bulg'd, and had a great deal of Water in her Hold,
but that fhe lay fo on the Side of a Bank of hard
Sand, or rather Earth, and her Stern lay lifted up
upon the Bank, and her Head low almost to
the Water ; by this Means all her Quarter was
free; and all that was in that Part was dry;
for you may be fure my firft Work was to fearch
and to fee what was fpoii'd, aild what was
free; ar.d first, I found that all the Ship's Pro-
vificns were dry and untouch'd by the Water,
and being very well difpos'd to eat, I went to
the Bread-Room and fil'd my Pockets with Bif-
ket, and eat it as I went about other Things,
f9r I had no time to lofe ? I alfo found ofme Rum
in the great Cabin, of which I stock a large
Dram, and which I had indeed reed enough of
to fpirit me for what was before me: Now I
wanted nothing but a Boat to furnifh my felf with
many Things which I forefaw would be very ne-
ceffary to me.
It was in vain to fit fill and wifh for what was
not to be had, and this Extremity rouz'd my
Application; we had several fpare Yards, and
two or three large Sparrs of Wood, and a fpare
Top-mafl or two in the Ship; I refolv'd to fall to
work with thefe, and flung as many of them
over Board, as I could manage for their Weight,
tying every one with a Rope, that they might
not drive away ; when this was done I went down
the Ship's Side, and pulling them to me, I ty d
fotir of them faft together ot both Ends as well
as I could, in the Form of a Raft, and laying
two or three fhort Pieces of Plank upon them
crofs-ways, I found I could walk upon it very
v ell,

well, but that it was not able to bear any great
Weight, the Pieces being too light; fo I went to
work, and with the Carpenter's Saw I cut a fpare
Top maft into three Lengths, and added them to
my Raft, with a great deal of Labour and Pains,
but hope of furnifh ing my felfwith Neceffaries, en-
courag'd me to go beyond what I should have been
able to have done upon another Occafion.
My Raft was now firong enough to bear any
reafonable Weight; my next Care was what to
load it with, and how to preserve what I lid upon
it from the Surf of the Sea ; but I was not long con-
fidering this, I firft laid all the Planks or Boards up-
on it that I could get, and having confider'd well
what I moft wanted, I firft got three of the Sea-
mens Cheffs, which: i I had broken open and empty'd,
and lower'd them down upon my Raft; the firft
of thefe I fili'd w th Provifions, iz,. Bread, Rice,
three Dutch Cheefes, five Pieces ofdry'd Goat's
Flefh, wnich we liv'd much upon, and a little Re-
mainder of European Corn, which had been laid by
for fome Fowls which we brought to Sea with us,
but the Fowls were killed; there had been fome
Barly and Wheat together, but, to my great Dif--
appointment, I found afterwards that the Rats had
eaten or fpoil'd ii all; as for Liquors, I found fe-
veral Cafes of Bottles belonging to our Skipper, in
which were fome Cordial Waters, and in all about
five or fix Gallons of Rack, thefe I flow'd by
themselves, there being no need to put them into
the Cheft, nor no room for them. While I was
doing this, I found the Tide begin to flow, tho'
very calm, and I had the Mortification to fee my
Coat, Shirt, and Waft-coat, which I had left on
Shore upon the Sand, fwim away; as for my
Breeches, which were only Linnen and open-knee'd,
I fwam on Board in them and my Stockings: How-

[58 ]
ever this put me upon rummaging for Cloaths, of
which 1 found enough, but cook no more than I
"wanted for present Ufe, for I had other Things
which my Ele was more upon, as firft Tools to
work with on Shore, and it was after long fearch-
ing that I found out the Carpenter's Cheft, which
was indeed a very ufeful Prize to me, and much
more valuable than a Ship Loading of Gold would
have been at that time; 1 got it down to my Raft,
even whole as it was, without losing Time to look
into it, for I knew in general what it contained.
My next Care was for fome Ammunition and
Arms; there were two very good Fowling-Pieces
in the great Cabin, and two Piftols, thefe I fe-
cur'd firfi, with fome Powder-Horns, and a fmall
Bag of Shot, and two old ruify Swords: I knew
there were three Barrels of Powder in the Ship,
but knew not where our Gunner had flow'd them,
but with much Search I found them, two of them
dry and good, the third had taken Water, thofe
two I got to my Raft, with the Arms, and now
I Thought my feif pretty well freighted, and be-
Sgan to think how I fhouid get to Shore with them,
havingneither Sail, Oar, or Rudder, andtheleaft
Cap full of Wind would have overfet all my Na-
I had three Encouragements. I. A smooth
calm Sea. 2. The Tide riling, and getting in to
the Shore. 3. What little Wind there was blew
me towards the Land ; and thus, having found two
or three broken Oars belonging to the Boat, and
besides the Tools which were in the Cheft, I found
two Saws, an Axe, and a Hammer, and with this
Cargo I put to Sea : For a Mile, or thereabouts my
Raft went very well, only that I found it drive a
little distant frcm the Place where I had landed be-
fore, by which I perceived that there was fome In-

[ 59 ]
draft of the Water, and confequently I hop'd to
find fome Creek or River there, which I might
make ufe of as a Port to get to Land with my
As I imagin'd, fo it was, there appeared before
me a little opening of the Land, and I found a
firong Current of the Tide to fet into it, fo I gui-
ded my Raft as well as I could to keep in the Mid-
dle of the Stream: But here I had like to have
fuffer'd a second Shipwreck, which, if I had, I
think verily would have broke my Heart, for know-
ing nothing of the Coaft, my Raft run a-ground
at one End of it upon a Shoal, and not being, a-
ground at the other End, it wanted but a little
that all my Cargo had flipp'd off towards that
End that was a-float, and fo fall'n into the Wa-
ter : I did my utmoft by getting my Back against
the Cheifs, to keep them in their Places, but could
not thruft off the Raft with all my Strength, nei-
ther durft I ftir from the Poflure I was in, but hold-
ing up the Chefis with all my Might, floodin that
Manner near half an Hour, in which time the ri-
fing of the Water brought me a little more upon a
Level, and a little after, the Water flill rising, my
Raft floated again, and I thruft her off with the
Oar I had, into the Channel, and then driving up
higher, I at length found my felf in the Mouth of
a little River, with Land on both Sides, and a
firong Current or Tide running up, I look'd on
both Sides for a proper Place to get to Shore, for
I was not willing to be driven too high up the
River, hoping in time to fee fome Ship at Sea,
\and therefore refolv'd to place my felf as near the
Coaft as I could.
At length I fpy'd a little Cove on the right
Shore of the Creek, to which with great Pain and
Difficulty I guided my Raft, and at laft gdt fo near,

[ 6o ]
as that, reaching Ground with my Oar, I could
thruft her directly in, but here I had like to have
dipt all my Cargo in the Sea again ;for that Shore
lying pretty fleep, that is to fay loping, there
was.no Place to land, but where one End of my
Float, if it run on Shore, would lie bt high, and
the other fink lower as before, that it wculd en-
danger my Cargo again: All that I could do, was
to wait 'till the Tide was at the highest, keeping the
Raft with my Oar like an Anchor to hold the Side
of it faff to the Shore, near a flat Peice of
Ground which I expected the Water would flow
over; and fo it did : As foon as I found Water
enough, for my Raft drew about a Foot of Water, I
thruft her on upon that flat Piece of Ground, and
there faften'd or mor'd her by flicking my two
broken Oats into the Ground; one on one Side
near one End, and one on the other Side near the
other End ; and thusI lay till the Water ebb'd a-
way, and left my Raft and all my Cargo fafe on
My next Work was to view the Country, and
feek a proper Place for my Habitation,and where
to flow my Goods to secure them from whatever
might happen ; where I was, I yet knew not, whe-
ther on the Continent or on an Ifland, whether in-
habited, or not inhabited; whether in Danger of
wild Beafts or not: There was a Hill not above
aMile from me, which rofeup very fteep and high,
and which feem'd to over top fome other Hills
which lay as in a Ridge from it Northward ; 1 took
out one of the Fowling Pieces, and one of the Pi-
ftols, and an Horn of Powder, and thus arm'd I
raveli'd for Difcovery up to the Top of that Hill,
where after I had with great Labour and Difficul-
ty got to the Top, I faw my Fate to my great
Af:9ition, (viz,.) that I was in an island environ'd

[ 61 ]
every Way with the Sea, no Land to be feen, ex-
cept fome Rocks which lay a great Way off, and
two fmall Iflands lefs than this, which lay about
three Leagues to the Weft.
I found alfo that the Ifland I was in was barren,
and, as I faw good Reafon to believe, un-inhabited,
except by wild Beafts, of whom however I faw
none, yet I faw abundance of Fowls, but knew
not their Kinds, neither when I killed them could
I tell what was fit for Food, and what not; at my
coming back, I fhot at a great Bird which I faw
fitting upon a Tree on the Side of a great Wood, I
believe it was the firft Gun that had been fir'd
there fince the Creation of the World; I had no
fooner fir'd, but from all the Parts of the Wood
there arofe an innumerable Number of Fowls of
many Sorts, making a confused Screaming, and
Crying, every one according to his ufual Note ;
but not one of them of any Kind that I knew: As
for the Creature I kill'd, I took it to be a Kind of
a Hawk, its Colour and Beak resembling it, but
had no Talons or Claws more than common, its
Flefl was Carrion, and fit for nothing.
Contented with this Difcovery, I came back to
my Raft, and fell to Work to bring my Cargo on
Shore, which took me up the reft of that Day, and
what to do with my felf at Night I knew not, nor
indeed where to reft; for I was afraid to lie down
on the Ground, not knowing but fome wild Beaft
might devour me, tho', as I afterwards found,
there was really no Need for thofe Fears.
However, as well as I could, I barricado'd my
felf round with the Chefts and Boards that I had
brought on Shore, and made a kind of a Hut for
that Night's Lodging; as for Food, I yet faw not
,which Way to fiupply my felf, except that I- had

[ 63
feen two or three Creatures like Hares run out of
the Wood where I ihot the Fowl.
I now began to consider, that I might yet get a
great many Things out of the Ship, which would
be ufeful to me, and particularly fome of the Rig-
ging, and Sails, and fuch other Things as might
come to Land, and Irefolv'd to.make anotherVoy-
age on Board the Veflel, if poffible ; and as I
knew that the firft Storm that blew mufi neceffarily
breaker all in Pieces, I refblv'd to fet all cther
Things apart, 'till I got every Thing out of the
Ship that I could get ; then I called a Council, that
is to fay, in my Thoughts, whether I should take
back'the Raft, but this appeared impracticable ; fo
I refolv'd to go as before, when the Tide was
down, and I did fo, only that I ftripp'd before I
went from my Hurt, having nothing but a che-
quer'd Shirt, a Pair of Linnen Drawers, and a-Pair
of Pumps on my Feet.
I got on Board the Ship, as before, and prepared
a fecond Raft, and having had Experience of-the
firfi, I neither made this fo unweildy, nor loaded
it fo hard, but yet I brought away several Things
very ufeful to me ; as firfl, in the Carpenter's Stores
I found two or three Bags full of Nails and Spikes,
a great Skrew-Jack, a Dozen or two ofHatchets,
and above all, that moft ufeful Thing call'd a
Grind-ftone; all thefe I fecur'd together, with fe-
veral Things belonging to the Gunner, particular-
ly two or three Iron Crows, and two Barrels of
Musket-Bullets, even Muskets, and another Fow-
ling-Piece, with fome finally Quantity of Powder
more; a large Bag full of fall Shot, and a great
Roll of Sheet-Lead: But this was fo heavy, I could
not hole it up to get it over the Ship's Side.
Befides thefe things, I took all the Mens Cloaths
that I could find, and a fpare Fore-top-fail, a Ham-

mock and fome Bedding; and with this I loaded
my second Raft, and brought them all fafe on Shore
to my very great Comfort.
I was under fome Apprehenfions during my Ab-
fence from the Land, that at leaft my Provifions
might be devour'd on Shore; but when Icame back,
I found no Sign of any Vifitor, only there fat a
Creature like a wild Cat upon one of the Chefts,
which when I came towards it, ran away a little
Diftance, and then flood fiill; fhe fat very com-
pos'd, and unconcern'd, and look'd full in my Face,
as if the had a Mind to be acquainted with me, I
presented my Gun at her, but as fhe did not under-
fland it, fhe was perfectly unconcern'd at it, nor
did he offer to flir away ; upon which I tofs'd her
a bit of Bisket, tho' by the Way I was not very
free of it, for my Store was not great: However,
I fpar'd her a bit, I fay, and fhe went to it, fmell'd
of it, and eat it, and look'd (as pleas'd) for more,
but I thank'd her, and could fpare no more; fo fhe
march'd off.
Having got my second Cargo on Shore, tho' I
was fain to open the Barrels of Powder, and bring
them by Parcels, fo they were too heavy, being
large Casks, I went to work to make me a little
Tent with the Sail and fomc Poles which I cut for
that purpose, and into this Tent I brought every
Thing that I knew would fpoil, either with Rain
or Sun, and I piled all the empty Chefts and Casks
up in a Circle round the Tent, to fortify it from a-
ny fudden Attempt, either from Man or Beaft.
When I had done this I block'd up the Door of
the Tent with fome Boards within, and an empty
Cheft fet up an End without, and spreading one
of the Beds upon the Ground, laying my two Pi-
-,4ols juft, at my Head and my Gun at Length by
me, I went to Bed for the firfi Time,' and flept
/ very

S[ 64 ]
very quietly all Night, for I was very weary, and
heavy, for the Night before I had flept little, and
had labour'd very hard all Day, as well to fetch all
thofe Things from the Ship, as to get them on
I had the biggest Magazine of all Kinds now
that ever were laid up, I believe, for one Man ;
but I was not fatisfy'd fill ; for while the Ship fat
upright in that Pofture, I thought I ought to get
every Thing out of her that I could ; fo every Day
at low Water I went on Board, and brought away
fome Thing or other : But particularly the third
Time I went, I brought away as much of the Rig-
ging as I could, as alfo all the fmall Ropes and
Rope-twine I could get, with a P:ece of fpare Can-
vafs, which was to mend the Sails upon Occafion,
the Barrel of wet Gun-Powder : In a Word,I brought
away all the Sails firft and laff, only that I was
fain to cut them in Pieces, and bring as much at a
Time as I could ; for they were no more ufeful to
be Sails, but as meer Canvafs only.
But that which comforted me more fill, was,
that at laft of all, after I had made five or fix fuch
Voyages asthefe, and thought I had nothing more
to expea from the Ship that was worth my med-
ling with, I fay, after all this, I found a great Hog-
fhead of Bread, and three large Runlets of Rum or
Spirits, and a Box of Sugar, and a Barrel df fine-
Flower; this was furprizing to me, because I had
given over expeaing any more Provilions, except
what was fpoil'd by the Water: Ifoon empty'd the
Hogfhead of that Bread, and wrapt it up, Parcel
by Parcel, in Pieces of the Sails, which I cut out;
and in a Word, I got all this fafe on Shore alfo.
The next Day I made another Voyage; and
,ow havingplunder'd the Ship.of what was porta-

[ 65 ]
ble and fit to hand out, I began with the Cables i
and cutting the great Cable into Pieces, fuch as
I could move, I got two Cables and a Hawfer on
Shore, with all the Iron-work I could get; and
having cut down the Spritcail-yard, and the Mif-
fen-yard, and every Thing I could to make a large
Paft, I loaded with it all thofe heavy Goods, and
came away: but my good Luck began now to
leave me ; for this Raft was fo unweildy, and fo
overloaden, that after I was enter'd the little Cove,
where I had landed the reft of my Goods, not be-
ing ab!e to guide it fo handily as I did the other,
it overfet, and threw me and all my Cargo into
the Water; as for my feif it was no great Harm,
for I was near the Shore ; but as to my Cargo,
it was great Part of it loft, especially the Iron,
which I expended would have been of great Ufe
to me: However, when the Tide was out, I got
moft of the Pieces of Cable afhore, and fome of
the Iron, tho' with infinite Labour ; for I was fain
to dip for it intothe Water, a Work which fa-
tigu'd me very much: After this I went every Day
on board, and brought away what Icould get.
I had been now thirteen Days on Shore, and had
been eleven Times on Board the Ship in which
Time I had brought away all that one Pair of
Hands could well befuppos'd capable to bring, tho'
I believe verily, had the calm Weather held I
should have brought away the whole Ship Piece by
Piece: But preparing the i2th Time to go on
Board, I found the Wind begin to rife ; however
at low Water I went on Board, and tho' I thought
I had rumag'd the Cabin fo effecually,as that no-
thing more could be found, yet I difcover'd a Lock-
er with Drawers in it, in one of which I found two
or three Razors, and one Pair of large Sciffars,
it.h fome ten or a dozen of good Knives and
F Forks;

[ 66 ]
Forks; in another I found about Thirty fix Poundcs
value in Money, fome European Coin, fome ..,,"',
fome Pieces of Eight, fome Gold, fome Silver.
1 fmii'd to my felf at the Sight of this Money,
O Drug! faid I aloud, what art thou good for ?
Thou art not worth to me, no not the taking off
of the Ground, one of thole Knives is worth all
this Heap, I have no Manner of ufe for thee, e'en
remain where thou art, and go to the Eortom as
a'Creature whofe Lite is not worth having. How-
ever upon second Thoughts, I took it away, and
wrapping all this in a Piece of C.n,,va., I began
to think of making another Raft, but while Iwas
preparing this, I found the Sky over caff, and the
Wind began to rife, and in a Quarter of an Hour
it blew a frefh Gale from the Shore; it prefently
occur'd to me, that it was in vain to pretend to
make a Raft with the Wind off Shore, and that
it was my Bufinefs to be gone before the Tide of
Flood began, otherwise I might not be able to
reach the Shore at all: Accordingly I let my
felf down into the Water, and fwam crofs the
Channel, which lay between the Ship and the
Sands,and even thatwith Difficulty enough, part-
ly with the Weight of the Thirgs I had about me,
an1d partly the roughnefs of the Water, for the
Wind roie very haftily, and before it was quite
high Water, it blew a Storm.
But I was got Home to my little Tent, where
1 lay with all my Wealki about me very fecure.
It bletvvery hard all that Night, and in the Morn-
ing when I look'd out, behold no more Ship was to
be een ; I was a little furpriz'd, but recovered my
fif'wkith this facisfatory Rcflcaion, vi,. That I
had loft no Time, nor ab.ted no Diligence to get
every Thing out (f her that could be ufeful to me,
and that indeed there was little left in her that I

r 67
was able to bring away, if I had had more
I now gave over any more Thoughts of the
Ship, or of any Thing out of her, except what
might drive on Shore from her Wreck, as indeed
divers Pieces of her afterwards did; but thofe
Things were of fmal! ufe to me.
My Thoughts were now wholly employed a-
bout securing my felf either against Savages, if a-
ny should appear, or wild Beatfs, if any were in the
Island and I had many Thio Iio: of the \.crh..d
how to dothis,and wh at kind ofDwelling to make,
whether I should make me a Cave in the Earth, or
a Tent upon the Earth : And, in fnort, I refolv'd
upon both, the Manner and Defcriprion of which
it may not be improper to give an Account of.
I foon found the Place I was in was not for my
Settlement, particularly becm:ufe it was upon a low
moorifh Ground near the Sea, and I believed
would not be wholefome, and more particularly
because there was no frefh Water near it, fo I re-
folv'd to find a more healthy and more convenient
Spot of Gronnd.
I confilred federal Things in my Situation
which I found would be proper for me, I ft. Health,
and freth Water I juft now mentioned. 2diy, Shel-
ter from the Heat of the Sun. 3dly, '.ciL ri.,t Foro
ravenous Creatures, whether Men or Beatrs. ithly,
a View to the Sea, that if God fent any Ship in
Sight, I might not lofe any Advantage for my
Deliverance, of which I was not wiilg :o ban.i:h
all my Expec&ation yet.
In search of a Place proper for this, I found a
little Plain on the fide ofa rising Hill, whofe
Front towards this little Plain was fi~q as a
Houfe-fide, fo that nothing could come don,.:i
upon me from the Top; on the tkic ofthis R.: ck
F z thre

there was a hollow Place worn a little Way in
like the Entrance or Door of a Cave, but there was
not really any Cave or Way into the Rock at all.
On the flat of the Green, juft before this hollow
Place, I refolv'd to pitch my Tent : This Plain was
not above an hundred Yards broad, and about
twice as long, and lay like a Green before my
Door, and at the End of it defcended irregularly
every Way down into the low Grounds by the
Sea-fide. It was on the N.NW. Side of the Hill,
fo that I was ihelter'd from the Heat every Day,
till it came to a W. and by S. Sun, or thereabouts,
which in thofe Countries is near the Setting.
Before I fet up my Tent, I drew a half Circle
before the hollow Place, which took in about ten
Yards in its Semi-diameter from the Rocky and
twenty yards in its Diameter, from its Beginning
and Ending.
In this half Circle I pitched two Rows of frong
Stakes, driving them into the Ground till they
flood very firm like Piles, the biggest End being
out of the Ground about five Foot and and an half,
and fharpen'd on the Top; the two Rows did not
ftand above fix Inches from one another.
Then I took the Pieces ofCable which I had cut
in the Ship, and laid them in Rows one upon
another, within the Circle between thefe two
Rows of Stakes, up to the Top, placing other
Stakes in the Inlide, leaning against them, about
two Foot and a half high, like a Spur to a Pot,
and this Fence was fo firong, that neither Man or
Beaft could get into it or over ic: This colt me
a great deal of Time and Labour, especially to cut
the Piles in the Woods, bring them to the Place,
and drive them into the Earth.
The Entrance into this Place I made to be not
by a Door, but by a fort Ladder, to go over

[ 69
the Top, which Ladder, when I was in, I lifted
over after me, and fo I was compleatly fenced in,
and fortify'd, as I thought, from all the World,
and confequently flept secure in the Night, which
otherwife I could not have done, tho' as it appeared
afterward, there was no need of all this Caution
from the Enemies that I apprehended Danger from.
Into this Fence or Fortrefs, with infinite La-
bour, I carry'd all my Riches, all my Proviiions,
Ammunition and Stores, of which you have the
Account above, and I made me a largeTent,which
to preserve me from the Rains, that in one Part of
the Year are very violent there, I made double, viz.
one smaller Tent within, and one largerTent above
it, and cover'd the uppermoft with a large Tar-
paulin which I had fav'd among the Sails.
And now I lay no more for a while in the Bed
which I had brought on Shore, but in a Ham-
mock, which was indeed a very good one, and be-
long'd to the Mate of the Ship.
Into this Tent I brought all my Provilfons, and
every Thing that would fpoil by the Wet, and ha-
ving thus enclosed all my Goods, I made up the
Entrance, which till now Ihad left open, and fo
pafs'd and repafs'd, as I faid, by a fort Ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work my Way
into the Rock, and bringing all the Earth and
Stones that I dug down out thro' my Tent, I laid
'cm up within my Fence in the Nature of a Ter-
ras, that fo it raised the Ground within about a
Foot a half; and thus I made me a Cave juft be-
hind my Tent, which ferv'd me like a Cellar to
my Houfe.
It cofl me much Labourt and many Days, be-
fore all thefe Things were brought to Perfecion, and
therefore I muft go back to fome other things which
took up fome of my Thoughts. At the fame time it
F 3 happened

[70 ]
happened after I had laid my Scheme for, the fet-
ting up my Tent, and making th -Cave, that a
Storm of .Rain fallingfrom a thick, dark Cloud, a
sudden' Flafh of.Lightning happened, and after
that a great Clap of Thunder, -as'is.naturally tlh
Effi-t ,of it; I was_ not. fo much fur.priz'd with
the Lightning, as. I was with a Thought which
darted into my Mind as fwift as the&Lightning it
felf: 0 my Powder!, my very H.ut tinkl; within
me, when I thought,. that at one: Blafi all my
Powder my be deftroy'd ; on which, not my De-
fence only, but the providing me Food, as I
thought, entirely depended; I was nothing near
fo anxious about my own Danger, tho' had the
Powder took fire, I .had never known who had
hurt me. *-
Such Impreffion did .this make upon me, that
after the Storm was over, I laid afide all my
Works, my Buildings,. and Fortifying, and ap-
ply'd my felf to make Bags and Boxes to separate
the Powder, and keep it a little and a little in a
Parcel,. in hope, that whatever, might come, it
might :not all take Fire at once, and to keep it fo
apart, that it should not be poffible to make one
Part fire another. I finifh'd this Work in about a
Fortnight,. and I rhii:k! my'Powder, which in all
was about 240 lb. weight, was divided, in not lefs
than a hundred Parcels ; as to the Barrel that had
bc:n wet, I did not apprehend any Danger from
that, fo I placed it in my new Cave, which in my
Fancy I called my Kitchin, and the reft I hid up
and dowh in Holes among the Rocks, fo that no
wet might come to it, marking very carefully
where I laid .it.
In the Interval of time while this was doing, I
went out once at leaft every Day with my Gun,
as well co divert my felf, as to fee if I could kill any

[ 71 1
thing fit for Food, and as near as I could to ac-
quaint my felfwith what the Ifland produced. The
firfi time I went out I presently difcover'd that
there were Goats in the Ifland, which was a great
Satisfa&ion to me ; but then it .was attended with
this Misfortune to me, viz. That they were fo
lly, fo fubtile, and fo fwift of Foot, that it was
the difficulteft thing in the World to come at them :
But I was not difcourag'd at this, not doubting
but I might now and then foot one, as it foon hap-
pen'd, for after I had found their Haunts a little,
I laid wait in this Manner for them : I obferv'd if
they faw me in the Valleys, tho' they were upon
the Rocks, they would run away as in a terrible
Fright; but if they were feeding in the Valleys,
and I was upon the Rocks, they took no Notice
of me, from whence I concluded, that by the
Position of their Opticks, their Sight was fo di-
-reted downward, that they did not readily fee
Obje&s that were above them; fo afterwards I
took this Method, I always climbed the Rocks firft
ro get above them, and then had frequently a fair
Mark. The firft thot I made among thefe Crea-
tures, I killed a She-Goat which had a little Kid
by her which fhe gave fuck to, which griev'd me
heartily ; but when the Old one fell, the Kid
flood flock fill by her till I came and took her up,
and not only fo, but when I carried the Old one
with me upon my Shoulders, the Kid followed
me quite to my Enclofure, upon which I laid down
the Dam, and took the Kid in my Arms, and
carried it over my Pale, in hopes to have bred it
up tame, but it would not eat, fo was I forc'd to
kill it and eat it my felf; thefe two fuppiy'd me
with Flcfl 'a great while, for I eat fparingly ; and
fav'd my Provifions (my Bread especially) as much
as poffible I could.
F 4 Having

[ 72 ]
Having now fix'd my Habitation, I found it ab-
folutely neceflary to provide a Place to make a
Fire in, and Fewel to burn; and what I did for
that, as alfo how I enlarg'd my Cave, and what
Conveniencies I made, I hall give a full Account
of in its Place: But I mufi firft give fome little
Account of my felf, and of my Thoughts about
Living, which it may well be fuppofed were not
a few.
I had a difmal Profpe6 of my Condition, for as
I was not caft away upon that Itland without be-
ing driven, as is faid, by a violent Storm quite out
ot the Courfe of our intended Voyage, and a great
Way, v.z. fome hundreds of Leagues out of the
ordinary Co;;rfe of the Trade of Mankind, I had
great Reafon to consider it as a Determination of
Heaven, that in this difolate Place, and in this
difolate Manner I should end my Life; the Tears
would run plentifully down my Face when I made
thefe Reflections, and sometimes I would expoftu-
late with my felf, Why Providence should thus
compleatly ruin its Creatures, and render them
fo absolutely miserable, fo without Help aban-
don'd, fo entirely deprefs'd, that it could hardly
be rational to be thankful for fuch a Life.
But fomethingalways returned fwift upon me to
check thefe Thoughts, and to reprove me; and
particularly one Day walking with my Gun in my
Hand by the Sea-fide, I was very penfive upon the
Subje&of my prefent Condition, when Reafon as
it were expoftulated with me t'other Way, thus:
Well, you are in a defolate Condition 'tis true, but
pray remember, Where are the reft of you ? Did
not you come Eleven of you into the Boat, where
are the Ten? Why were not they fav'd and you
loft? Why were you fingledout ? Is it better to be
here or there ? And then I pointed to the Sea. All

Evils are to be confider'd with the Good that is in
them, and with what worfe attends them.
Then it occur'd to me again, how well I was
furnifh'd for my Subfiftence, and what would have
been my Cafe if it had not happened, Which was
an Hundred 'houfand to One, that the Ship floated
from' the Place where ihe firfi firuck and was dri-
ven fo near to the Shore, that I had Time to get
all thefe Things out of her: What would have
been my Cafe, if I had been to have liv'd in the
Condition in which I at firfi came on Shore, with-
out Neceflaries of Life, or Neceffaries to fupply
and procure them? Particularly, faid I aloud, (tho'
to my felf) what should I have done without a
Gun, without Ammunition, without any Tools
to make any thing, or to work with, without
Cloaths, Bedding, a Tent, or any manner of
Covering, and that now I had all thefe to a fuffi-
cient Quantity, and was in a fair way to provide
my felf in fuch a manner, as to live without
my Gun when my Ammunition was fpent;. fo
that I had a tolerable View of fubfifting without
any Want as long as I liv'd; for I confider'd from
the beginning how I would provide for the Acci-
dents that might happen, and for the Time that
was to come, even not only after my Ammunition
flould be fpent, but even after my Health or
Strength should decay.
I confefs I had not entertained any Notion of my
Ammunition being deftroy'd at one Blaft, I mean,
my Powder be ng blown up by Lightning, and this
made the Thoughts of it fo furprizing to me when
it lighten'd and thundered, as I obferv'd jufi now.
And now being to enter into a melancholy
Relation of a Scene of filent Life, fuch perhaps as
was never heard of in the World before, I hall
take it from its Beginning, and continue it in its

[ 74]
Order. It was, by my Account, the 3oth of SePt.
when,. in the Manner as abovefaid, Ifirft fet Foot
upon this horrid Ifland, when the Sun being, to
us, in its Autumnal Equinox, was almoftjuft over
mny Head, for I reckon d my felf, by Obfervation,
to be in the Latitude of 9 Degrees 22 Minutes,
-North of the Line.
After I had been there about ten or twelve
Days, it came into my Thoughts, that I should
lofe my Reckoning of Time for want of Books
and Pen and Ink, and should even forget the Sab-
bath Days from the working Days ; but to prevent
this, I cut it with my Knife upon a large Poff, in
Capital Letters, and making it into.a great Crofs,
I fet it up on the Shore where I firfi landed, viz,. I
came on Shore here on the 3oth of Sept. 1659. Upon
the Sides of this fquare Poft, I cut every Day a
Notch with my Knife, and every seventh Notch
was as long again as, the reft, and every firft Day of
the Month as long again as that long one, and thus
I kept my Kalender, or weekly, monthly, and
yearly reckoning of Time.
In the next Place we are to obferve, that among
the many Things which I brought out of the Ship
in the several Voyages, which as abovemention'd,
I made to it, I. got several Things of lefs Value,
but not at all lefs ufetul to me, which I omitted
letting down before; as in particular, Pens, Ink,
and Paper, federal Parcels in the Captain's, Mate's,
Gunner's, and Carpenter's keeping, three or four
Compaffes, fome Mathematical Infiruments, Di-
als, Perfpeitives, Charts, and Books of Navigati-
on, all which I huddled together, whether I might
wan-c them or no; alfo I found three very good
Bib;es, which came to me in my Cargo .from Eng-
anid, and which 1 had pack'd up among my Things;
iome Portugueze Books alfo, and among them two

br three Popifh Prayer-Books, and several other
Books; all which I carefully fecur'd. And I muft
not forget, that we had in the Ship a Dog and
two Cats; of whofe eminent H--ory, I may have
Occafion ro fay fomerhing in its. Place; for I car-
ry'd both- the Cats with me; anid as:for the Dog,
he jump'd out of the Ship of himself, and fwam
on Shore to me the Day. after I went on Shore
with my firfi Cargo, and was a trufly Servant to
me many Years: I wanted nothing he could fetch
me, nor any Company that he could make up to
me ; I only wanted to have him talk to me, but
that would not do. As I obferv'd before, I found
Pen, Ink, and Paper, and I husbanded them to the
utmoft; and I fhall (hew, that while-my Ink la-
fied, I kept Things very exaat; but after that was
gone, I could not; for I could not make any Ink,
by any Means that I- could device.
And this put me in mind that I wanted many
things, notwithstanding all that I had amafs'd to-
gether; and of thefe, this of Ink was one, as alfo
Spade, Pick-Ax, and Shovel, to dig or remove
the Earth, Needles, Pins, and Thread; as for
Linnen, I foon learned to want that without much
This Want of Tools made every Work I did, go
on heavily; and it was near a whole Year before I
had entirely finifh'd my little Pale or surrounded
Habitation.: The Piles or Stakes, which were -as
heavy as I could well lift, were a long Time iri.cut-
ting and preparing in the Woods, and more.by far
in bringing home; fo that I fpent sometimes two
Days in cutting and bringing home one of thofe
Polts, and a third Day in drivingit into the Ground;
for which Purpofe I got a heavy Piece of Wood
at firft, but at laft bethought myfelf of one of the
Iron Crows, which however, tho' I found it, yet

[76 ]
it made driving thofe Pofis or Piles very laborious
and tedious Work.
But what need I ha' been concerned at the Te-
dioufnefs of any Thing I had to do, feeing I had
Time enough to do it in ; nor had I any other Em-
ployment, if that had been over, at leaft, that I
could forefee, except the ranging the Ifland to feek
for Food, which I did more or lefs every Day.
I now began to consider ferioufly my Conditi-
on, and the Circumftance I was reduc'd to, and I
drew up the State of my Affairs in Writing, not fo
much to leave them to any that were to come af-
ter me; for I was like to have but few Heirs, as
to deliver my Thoughts from daily poring upon
them, and affli6ing my Mind; and asmy Reafon
began now to mailer my Defpondency, I began
to comfort myfelf as well as I could, and tofet
the Good againfl the Evil, that I might have
something to diftinguifh my Cafe from worfe; and
I fiated it very impartially, like Debtor and Cre-
ditor, the Comforts I enjoy'd, against the Mife-
ries I fuffer'd, thus:
Evil. Good.
I am cafl upon a horri- But I am alive, and
ble defolatelfland, void of not drown'd, as all my
all Hope of Recovery. Ship's Company was.

Iam fingled out and e- But I am singled out too
parated, as it were, from from all the Ship's Crew to
al the World to be mi- befparedfromDeath; and
ferable. he that miraculoufly faved
me from Death, can deliver
me from this Condition.

lam divided from Man- But lam not flarv'd and
:kind, a Solitaire, one ba- perifJing on a barren Place,
nii'dfrom humane Society. affording no Suflenance
I have

I have no Cloaths to But I am in a hot Cli-
cover me. mrate,where if I hadCloaths
Could hardly wear them.

I am without any De-
fence or Means torefifi any
Violence oj Man or Bea(t.

I have no Soul tofpeak
to, or relieve me.

But lam cafl on an 1-
fland, where Ifee no wild
Beafls to hurt me, as Ifaw
on the Coaft of Africa:
And what if I had been
Shipwreck'd there ?

But God wonderfully
fent the Ship in near enough
to the Shore, that I have
gotten out fo many neceffa-
ry things as will either
fupply my j/ants, or ena-
ble me tofupply my elf e-
ven as long as I live.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted Tefti-
mony, that there was fcarce any Condition in the
World fo miferable, but there was something nega-
tive, or something positive, to be thankful for in it;
and let this fland as a Dire&ion from the Experi-
ence of the moft miserable of all Conditions in this
World, that we may always find in it something
to comfort our felves from, and to fet in the De-
fcription of Good and Evil, on the Credit Side of
the Account.
Having now brought my Mfnd a little to relish
my Condition, and given over looking out to Sea,
to fee if I could fpy a Ship; I fay, giving over
thefe Things, I began to apply myfelf to accom-
modate my way of Living, and to make Things
as cafy to me as I could.

I have already defcribcd my Habitation, which
was a Tent under the Side of a Rock, surrounded
with a firong Pales of Polls and Cables, but I might
now rather call it a Wall, for I tais'd a kind of
Wall up againfi it of Turfs, about two Foot thick
on the Outide, and afrer fome time, I think it
was a Year and half, I rais'd Rafters from it lean-
ing to the Rock, and thatch'd or covered it with
Boughs of Trees, and fuch things as I could gat to
keep out of the Rain, which I found at fome times
of the Year very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my
Goods into this Pale, and into the Cave which I
had made behind me: But I muft obferve too
that at firft this was a confused Heap of Goods,
which as they lay in no Order, fo they took up
all my Place; I had no room to turn myfelf; So
I fet myself to enlarge my Cave and Works far-
ther into the Earth ; for it was a loofe fandy Rock,
which yielded really to the Labour I bellowed on
it: And fo when I found I was pretty lafe as to
Beafts of Prey, I work'd fideways to the Right
Hand into the Rock; and then turning to the Right
again, work'd quite out, and made me a Door to
come out, on the Outfide of my Pale or Fortiti-
This gave me not only Egrefs and Regrefs, as
it were a Back-way to my Tent and to my Store-
houfe, but gave me room to fiow my Goods.
And now I began to apply my felf to make fuch
neceffary things as I found I molf wanted, as par-
ticularly a Chair and a Table, for without thefe I
was not able to enjoy the few Comforts I had in the
World I could not write or eat, or do several
things with fo much Pleafure without a Table,
So I went to work; and here I muft needs r.b-
fCrve, that as Reafoi is the Subtiance and Origi'

[. 79]
'al of the Mathematicks, fo by flating and fqua-
'ring every Thing by Reafon, and by making the
ni6ft rational Judgment of Things, every Maln
may be in time Matier of every mechanic Art. I
had never handled Tool in my Life, and yet in
time by Labour, Application and Contrivance, I
found at laft. that I wanted nothing but I could
have made it, efpeciallyif I had had Tools; how-
ever, I made abundance of Things, even without
Tools, and fome with no moreTools than an Adze
and a Hatchet, which perhaps were never made
that way before, and that with infinite Labour :
For Example, if I wanted a Board, I had no other
Way but to cut down a Tree, fet it on an Edge be-
fore me, and hew it flat on either Side with myi
Ax, till I had brought it to be thin as a Plank,
and then dubb it fmooth with myAdze. Itis true,
by this Method I could make but one Board out
of a whole Tree, but this I had no Remedy for
but Patience, any more than I had for the prodi-
dious deal of Time and Labour which it took me
up to make a Plank or Board: But my Time or
Labour was little worth, and foit was as well em-
ploy'd one way as another.
However, I made me a Table and a Chair, as
I obferv'd above, in the firft Place, and this I did
out of the fhort Pieces of Boards that I brought
on my Raft from the Ship: But when I had
wrought out fome Boards, as above, I made large
Shelves of the Breadth of a Foot and a Half one
over another, all along one Side of my Cave, to
lay all my Tools, Nails, and Iron-work, and in a
Word, to separate every Thing at large in their
Places, that 1 might come eafily at them; I knocked
Pieces into the Wall of the Rock to h.li i mi Guns
and all Things that would hang up.

So that had my Cave been to be feen, it looked
like a general Magazine of all neceffary Things,
and I had every Thing fo ready at my Hand, that
it was a great Pleafure to me to fee all my Goods
in fuch Order, and especially to find my Stock of
all Neceflaries fo great.
And now it was when I began to keep a Jour-
nal of every Day's Employment, for indeed at firft
I was in too much Hurry, and not only Hurry
as to Labour, but in too much Difcompofure of
Mind, and myJournal would ha' been full of many
dull things. For Example, I muft have faid thus:
Sept. the 3 oth, After I got to Shore and had efcap'd
drowning, infiead of being thankful to God for
my Deliverance, having firft vomited with the
great Quantity of fait Water which was gotten
intomy Stomach, and recovering my felf a little, I
ran about the Shore, wringing my Hands and beat-
ing my Head and Face, exclaiming at my Mifery,
and crying out, I was undone, undone, till tir'd
and faint I was forc'd to lye down on the Ground
to repofe, but durft not fleep for fear of being
Some Days after this, and after I had been on
board the Ship, and got all that I could out of
her, yet I could not forbear getting up to the Top
of a little Mountain and looking out to Sea in
hopes of feeing a Ship, then fancy at a vaft Di-
ftance 1 fpy'd a Sail, please myfelf with the Hopes
of it, and then after looking readily till I was al-
moft blind, lofe it quite, and fit down and weep
like a Child, and thus encreafe my Mifery by my
But having gotten over thefe things in fome Mea-
fure, and havingfettled my Houfhould-Stuff and
Habitation, made mea Table and a Chair, and all
as handsome aboutme as I could, I began to keep

[ s8i j
my Journal of which I hall here give you the
Copy (tho' in it will be told all thele Particulars
over again) as long as it lasted, for having no more
Ink I was forced to leave it off.

September 30, i659. I poor miserable Robinfom
Crufae, being Shipwreck'd, during a dreadful
Storm, in the Offing, came on Shore on this dif-
mal unfortunate Ifland, which I called the Iland
ofDefpa;r, all the relt of the Ship's Company be-
ing drowned, and my felf almiof dead.
All the reft of the Day I fpent in afftiaing ny
felfat the difmal Circimftanccs I was brought to,
viz. I had neither Food, Houfe, Cloathsj Weapon,
or Place to fly to, and in Defp.iir of any Relief,
faw nothing but Death before me, either that I
should be devour'd by wild Beafts, murrher'd by
Savages, or ftarv'd to Death for want of Food. At
the Approach of Night, I fleptin a Tree for fear
of wild Creatures, but flept foundly tho' it rain'd
Oaober i. In the Morning I faw to rmy great
Surprife the ship had floated with the high Tide,
and was driven on Shore again much nearer the
Island, which as it was fome Comfort on one hand,
for feeing her fit upright, and not broken to pieces
I hop'd, if the Wind abated, I might get on board,
and get fome Food and NecefTaries out of her for
my Kelief, fo on the other hand it renew'd my
Grief at the Lofs of my Comrades, who I ima-
gin'd if we had all ftaid on board might have
fav'd the Ship, or at leaft that they would not have
been all drowned as they were and that had the
Men been fav'd, we might perhaps have built u
a Boat out of the Ruins of the Ship, to have car-
G tied

tried us to fone other Part of th& World. I fipent
great part of this Day in perplexing my felf on
thefe things but at length feeing the Ship almoft
dry, 1 went upon the Sand as near as I could, and
then Swam on Board ; this Day alfo continued rain-
ing, tho' with no Wind at all.
From the ift of Ofober to the 24th. All thefe
Days entirely fpent in many several Voyages to
get all I could out of the Ship, which I brought
on Shore, every Tide of Flood, upon Rafts. Much
Rain alfo in thefe Days, thro' with fime Intervals
of fair Weather : But, it feems, this was the rainy
OE. 20. I overfet my Raft, and all the Good,.
I had got upon it, but being in fhoal Water, and
the things being chiefly heavy, I recover'd many of
them when the Tide was out.
OEf. 25. It rain'd all Night and all Day, with
fome Gufts of Wind, during which time the Ship
broke in pieces, the Wind blowing a little harder
than before, and Was no more to be feen, except
the Wreck of her, and that only at low Water,
I fpent this Day in covering and fecuring the Goods
which I had Iav'd, that Rain might not fpoil
O-. 26. 1 walk'd about the Shore almost all
Day to- fid out a Place to fix my Habitation,
greatly concerned to fecure my felf from any Attack
in the Night, either from wild Beafts or Men.
Towards Night I fix'd upon a proper place under
a Rock, and mark'd out a Semi-Circle for my En-
campment, which I reiblv'd to strengthen with a
Work, Wali, or Fortification made ofdouble Piles,
lin'd within with Cable, and without vWith Turf
From the z6th to the 3oth I worked very hard
in carrying all nmy Goods to my new Habitation

tho' fome part of the time it rain'd exceeding
The 31 fl in the Morning I went out into the
Island with my Gun to fee for fome Food, and dif-
cover the Country; when I killed a She-Goat, and
her Kid followed me home, which I 'afterwards
kil'd alfo, because it would not feed.
.November i. I fet up my Tent under a Rock, and
lay there for the firft Night, making it as large as
I could with Stakes driving in to giving my Ham-
mock upon.
Nov. i. I fet up all my Chefts and Boards, and
the Pieces of Timber which made my Rafts, and
with them form'd a Fence round me, a little with-
in the Place. I had mark'd out for my Fortifi-
Nov. 3. I went out with my Gun, and kil'd two
Fowls like Ducks, which were very good Food.
In the Afternoon went to work to make me a
Nov. 4. This Morning I began to order my times
of Wbrk, of going out with my Gun, time of
Sleep, arid time ofDiverfidn, viZ. Every Morning
I wialk'd out with my Gun for two or three Hours
if it did not Rain, then empldy'd myfelf to work
till about Eleven a-clock, then eat what I had to
live on, and from Twelve to Two I lay down to
fleep, the Weather being exceffive hot, and then
in the Eyening to work again: The working Part
of this Day and the next were wholly employed
in making my Table, for I was yet but a very forry
Workman, tho'Time and Neeeffity made me a
compleat natural Mechanick foon after, as I believe
it would do any one elfe.
Nov. 5. This Day went abroad with my Gun
and my Dog, and killd a wild Cat, her Skin
pretty ioft, but heir lelh good for nothing : Every
G 2 Creature

[84 3
Creature I kili'd, I took off the Skins and preferv'd
them. Coming back by the Sea-flore, Ifaw ma-
ny Sorts of Sea-Fowls, which I did not under-
fland; but was furpriz'd, and almost frighted with
two or three Seals, which, while I was gazing at,
not well knowing what they were, got into the
Sea, and efcap'd me for that Time.
Nov. 6. After my Morning Walk, I went to
work with my Table again, and finifh'd it, tho'
not to my Liking; nor was it long before I learned
to Ire1ed it.
Nov. 7. Now it began to be fettled fair Wea-
ther. The 7th, 8th, gth, ioth, and Part of the
12th, (for the 11 th was Sunday, according to my
Reckoning) I took wholly up to make ne a Chair,
andwith much ado brought it to a tolerable Shape,
but nei'er to pleafe me; and even in the making I
pulled it to Pieces several Times. Note, I foon ne-
gleted my keeping Sunday; for omitting my Mark
for them on myPoff, I forgot which was which.
Nov. 13. This Day it rain'd, which refrefh'd me
exceedingly, and cool'd the Earth, but it was ac-
company'd with terrible Thunder and Lightning,
which frighted me dreadfully, for fear of my Pow-
der: As foon at it was over, I refolv'd to separate
my Stock of Powder into as many little Parcels as
poffible, that it might not be in Danger.
Nov. 14, i1, I6. Thefe three Days I fpent in
making little square Chefts or Boxes, which might
hold about a Pound, or two Pound, at moft, of
Powder; and fo putting the Powder in, I flowed
it in P;aces:as fecure and remote from one another,
as poffible. On one of thefe three Days I killed
,a large Bird that was good to eat, but I know not
what to call it.
Nov. 17. This Day I began to dig behind. my
Tent into the Rodl, to make room for my fa other

S85 ]
Convenien'cy. Note, Three Things I wanted ex-
ceedingly for this Work, viz. a Pick-ax, a Shovel'
and a Wheel-barrow or Basket, fo I defied from
my Work, and began to consider how to fupply
that Want, and make me fome Tools : As for a
Pick-ax, I made ufe of the Iron Crows, which
were proper enough, tho' heavy; but the next
Thing was a Shovel or Spade; this was fo abfo-
lutely neceffary, that indeed I could do nothing ef-
fe&ually without it; but what kind of one to
make I knew not,
Nov. 18. The next Day in searching the Woods
I found a Tree of that Wood, or like it, which
in the Brayils they call the Iron 'ree, for its ex-
ceeding Hardnefs; of this, with great Labour
and almoft fpoiling my Ax, I cut a piece, and
brought it Home too with Difficulty enough, for
it was exceeding heavy.
The exceffive hardnefs of the Wood, and having
no other way, made me a long while upon this
Machine; for I work'd it efft&ually by little
and little into the Form of a Shovel or Spade,
the Handle exa&ly thap'd like ours in England,
only that the broad Part having no Iron thod up-
on it at Bottom, it would not laft me fo long;
however it ferv'd well enough for the Ufes which
I had Occafion to put it to; but never was a Sho-
vel, I believe, made after that Fafhion, or fo
long a making.
I was fill deficient, for I wanted a Basket or a
Wheel-barrow; ;a Basket I could not make by any
means, having no fuch Things as Twigs that would
bend to make Wicker Ware, at leaft none yet found
out; and as to a Wheel-barrow, I fancy'd I could
make all but the Wheel, but that I had no Notion
ot, neither did I know how to go about it; besides
I had no poffible way to make the Iron Gudgcons
G for

[ 86]
for the Spindle or Axis of the Wheel to run in, f..
I gave it over; and io for carrying away the Earth
which I dug out of the Cave, I made me a Thing
like a Hodd which the Labourers carry Mortar in,
when they ferve the Bricklayers.
This was not fo diicult to me as the making
the Shovel; and yet this, and the Shovel, and the
At-empt, which-I made in vain, to make a Wheel-
barrow, took me up no lefs than four Days, I mean
alvways,eccepting my Morning Walk with my Gun,
which I feldom fair'd; and very feldom failed alfo
of bringing home something fit to eat.
Novv. 23. My other Work having now flood fill,
because of my making there Tools; when they
were finifh'd, I went on, and working every Day,
as nmy Strength and Time allowed, I fpent eigh-
teen Days entirely in -idenirg and deepning my
Cave, that it might hold my Goods commodi-
Note, During all this Time, I vork'd to make
this Room or Cave fIacious enough to accommo-
date me as a Warehoufe or Magazine, a Kitchen,
a Dining-room, and a Cellar; as for my Lodging,
I kept to the Tent, except that sometimes in the
wet Seafon of the Year, it rained fo hard that I
could not keep my felf dry, which caus'd me after'-
wards to cover all my Place within my Pale with
long Poles in the Form of Rafters, Icanirg against
the Rock, and load them with Flags, and-large
Leaves of Trees like a Thatch.
December jo. I began now to think my Cave
or Vault fiiffhed, when cn a fiaden (it feems I
had made it too large) a great Qlantity of Earth
fell down from the Top and c, Side, fo much,
that in florr it frighted me, and rot v.ithout Rca-
fen too; for if I had been undet it, I had never
wanted a Grave digger : Upcn tisb Difatlcr I had
a great

a great deal of Work to do over again; for I had
the loofe Earth to carry out, and which was of
more Importance, I had the Cieling to prop up, fo
that Imight be fure no more would come down.
Dec. rI. This Day I went to work with itiaccord-
ingly, and got two Shoars or Pofts pitch'd upright
to the Top, with two Pieces of Boards a-crofs over
each Poft; this I finifh'd the next Day; and getting
more Pofts up with Boards, in about a Week more
i had the Roof fecur'd; and the Pofts landing in
Rows, ferv'd me for Partitions to part of my Houfe.
Dec. 17. From this Day to the Twentieth I
plac'd Shelves, and knocked up Nails on the Pofts
to hang every Thing up that could be hung up,
and now I began to be in fome Order within
Dec. 20. Now I carry'd every Thing into the
Cave, and began to furnifh my Houfe and fet up
fome Pieces of Boards, like a Dreffer, to order my
ViEtuals upon, but Boards began to be very fcarce
with me; alfo I made me another Table.
Dec. 24. Much Rain all Night and all Day; no
stirring out.
Dec. 2-5. Rain all Day.
Dec. 26. No Rain, and the Earth much cooler
than before, and plcafanter.
Dec. 27. Kill'd a young Goat, and lam'd ano-
ther fo that I catch'd it, and led it Home in a
-Sring; when I had it Home, I bound and fplin-
ter'd up its Leg which was broke, N.. B. I
took fuch care of it, that it liv'd, and the Leg
grew well and as firong as ever; but by nurfing
it fo long it grew tame, and fed upon the little
Green at my Door, and. would not go away:
This was the firrf Time that I enteriail'd a
'i',...'-: of breeding up fome tame Cieatures,
G 4 th1t

[ 88 ]
that I might have Food when my Powder and
Shot was all fpent.
Dec. 28, 29, 30. Great Heats and no Breeze; fo
that there was no ftirring abroad, except in the E-
vening for Food ; this Time I fpent in putting all
my Things in Order within Doors.
January i. Very hot fil, but I went abroad ear-
ly and late with my Gun, and lay fill in the middle
of the Day ; this Evening going farther into the
Valleys, which lay towards the Center of the Ifland,
I found there was plenty of Goats, tho' exceeding
fhy and hard to come at, however I refolv'd to try
if I could not bring my Dog to hunt them down.
Jan. 2. Accordingly, the next Day, I went out
with my Dog, and fat him upon the Goats; but I
was miftaken, for they all fac'd about upon the
Dog, and he knew his Danger too well, for he
would not come near them,
Jan. 3.iI began my Fence or Wall; which, being
fRill jealous of my being attacked by fome Body, I
refolv'd to make very thick and strong.

N. B. This tVall being defcrib'd before, I
purpofely omit what wasjaid in the Jour-
nal ; it is sufficient to obferve, that I was
no left T7ime than from the 3 d of January
to the i 4h of April, working, finishing and
pe,,feling this Wiall, tho' it was no more
than abozt 24 Tards in Length, being a half
Circle jfom one Place in the Rock to another
Place about eight Yards from it, the Door
of the Cave being in the Center behind it.

All this Time I work'd very hard, the Rains
hindering me many Days, nay fomctimes Weeks
together; but I thought I should never be perfe&t-
Jy fecure 'till this Wall was fnifh'd; and it is

fcarce credible what inexpreffible Labour every
Thing was done with, especially the bringing
Piles out of the Woods, and driving them into the
Ground; for I made them much bigger than I
need to have done.
When this Wall was finifh'd, and the Out-fide
double fenc'd with a Turf-Wall rais'd up clofe to
it, I persuaded myfelf, that if any People were to
come on Shore there, they would not perceive any
Thing like a Habitation ; and it was very well
I did fo, as may be obferv'd hereafter upon a ve-
ry remarkable Occafion.
During this Time-I made my Rounds in the
Woods for Game every Day when the Rain ad-
mitted me, and made frequent Difcoveries in thefe
Walks of something or other to my Advantage;
particularly I found a kind of wild Pidgeons, who
built not as Wood Pidgeons in a Tree, but rather
as Houfe Pidgeons, in the Holes of the Rocks;
and taking fome young ones, I endeavour'd to
breed them up tame, and dil fo; but when they
grew older, they flew all away, which perhaps
was at firft for want of feeding them, for I had
nothing to give them ; however I frequently found
their Nefts, and got their young ones, which was
very good Meat.
And now in the managing my Houfhold Affairs,
I found my felf wanting in many Things, which
I thought at firft it was impdffible for me to make,
as indeed as to fome of them it was ; for Inflance, I
could never make a Cask to be hoop'd, I had a
fmali Runlet or two, as I obferv'd before, but I
cou'd neyer arrive to the Capacity of making one
by them, tho' I fpent many Weeks about it; I
could neither put in the Heads, or joint the Staves
fo true to oneanother, as to make them hold Wa-
ter, fo I gave that alfo over.

[ 90 ]
In the next Place, I was at a great Lofs for Can;
die; fo that as foon as ever it was dark, which was
generally by Seven a Clock, I was obliged to go to
Bed: 1 remember the Lump of Bees-wax with
which I made Candles in my African Adventure,
but I had none of that now; the only Remedy I
had, was, that when I had kill'd a Goat, I fav'd
the Tallow, and with a little pifh made of Clay,
which I bak'd in the Sun, to which I added a Wick
of fome Oakum, I made me a Lamp; and this
gave me Light, tho' not a clear iteady Light like
a Candle; in the middle of ail my Labours it hap-
pen'd, that rummaging my Things, I found a little
Bag, which, as I hinted before, had been filled with
Corn for the feeding of Poultry, not for this Vo-
yage, but before, as I fuppofe, when the Ship
came from Lisbon; what little Remainder of Corn
had been in the Bag, was all devoured with the
Rats, and. I faw nothing in the Bag but Husks and
Duft; and being willing to have the Bag for fome
other Ufe, I think it was to put Powder in, when
I divided it for fear of the Lightning, or fome fuch
Ufe, I hook the Husks of Corn out of it cn oeli
Side of my Fortification under the Rock.
It was a little before the great Rains, jufi now
inention'd, that I threw this Stuff away, taking no
Notice of any Thing, and not fo much as remem-
bring that I had thrown-any Thing there; when
about a Month after, or thereabout, I faw fome
few Stalks of femethmng Green shooting out of the
Ground, which I hncy'd might be fome Plant I
had not fcen, but I was furpriz'd and perfectly
aftonifh'd, when after a little longer time I faw
about ten or twelve Ears come out, which were
perfect green Barley of the fame Kind as our Eu-
0opza;a, nay, as our Ej7glip Barley.

E 91 ]
It is impoffible to express the Aftonifhment and
Confusion of my Thoughts on this Occafion;. I
had hitherto a&ed upon no religious Foundation at
all; indeed I had very few Notions of Religion in
my Head, or had entertained any Senfe of any
Thing that had befallen me, otherwise than as a
Chance, pr, as we lightly fay, what pleafes God;
without fo much as enquiring into thp End of Pro-
vidence in thefe Things, or his Order in gover-
ning Events in the World But after I faw Barley
grow there, in a Climate which I know. was not
proper for Corn, and especially that I knew not
how it came there, it flartled me firangely, and I
began to fuggeft, that God had miraculoufly caused
this Grain to grow without any help of Seed
fown, and that it was fo. directed purely for my
Suftenance on that wild miserable Place.
This touch'd my Heart a little, and brought
Tears out of my Eyes, and I began to bi's my
felf, that fuch a Prodigy of Nature should happen
upon my Account; and this was the more firange
to me, because I faw near it fill all along by the
Side of the Rock, fome other ftraggling Stalks,
which prov'd to be Stalks of Rice. and which I
knew, because I had feen it grow in Africa, -whei
I was ashore there.
I not only thought thefo the pure Produtions
of Providence for my Support, but not doubting,
but that there was more in the Place ; I went all
over that part of the Ifand, where I had been
before peering, in every Corner, and under every
Rock, to fee for more of it, but I could not find
any; at laft it occurred to my Thoughts, that I had
fhook a Bag of Chickens Meat out in that Place,
and then the Wonder began to ceafe; and I muft
confcfs, my religious Thankfulnefs to God's Prc-
yidence began to abate too upon the difcove-

ring that all this was nothing but what was com-
mton ; tho'I ought to have been as thankful for fo
firange and unforefeen Providence, as if it had
been miraculous; for it wAs really the Work of
Providence as to me, that should order or appoint,
that io or 12 Grains of Corn should remain un-
fpoil'd (when the Rats had deftroy'd all the reft)
as if it had been dropt from Heaven: As alfo that I
should throw it out in that particular Place where
it beingin the Shade of a high Rock, it fprang up
immediately; whereas if I bad thrown it any
where elfe at that Time, it had been burnt up and
I carefully fav'd theEars of this Corn, you may be
fure in their Seafon, which was about the End of
Yune, and laying up every Corn, I refolv'd to fow
them all again, hoping in Time to have fome
Quantity efficient to supply me with Bread; but
it was not till the 4th Year that I could allow my
felf the left Grain of this Corn to eat, and even
then but sparingly, as I fall fay afterwards in its
Order; for I loft all that I fow'd the firft Seafon,
by not obferving the proper Time for I fow'd it
juft before the dry Seafon, fo that it never came
gp at all, at leaft, not as it would have done: Of
which :n-it. Place.
Besides this Barley, there was, as above 20 or
3o Stalks of Rice, which I preferv'd with the fame
Care, and whofe Ufe was of the fame Kind, or to
the fame P. r;..:.c, (viw.) to make me Bread, or
rather Food ; for I found WVavs to cook it up with-
o::t baking, tho' I did that aifo after fome Time.
Bur to return to my Journal.
I worked exceffive hard thcfe three or four
Months to get my Wall done ; and the 14th of
.April I clfed it up, contriving to go into it, not
by a Door, but over the Wall by a-Ladder, that

E 93
there mightbeno Sign in the Out-fide of my Ha-
April 6. I finifh'd the Ladder, fo I went ip with
the Ladder to the Top, and then pulled it up aftee
me, and let it down on the Infide : This was a
compleat Enclofure to me; for within I had Room
enough, and nothing could come at me from with-
out, unlefs it could firft mount my Wall
The very next Day after this Wall was finished,
I had almost had all my Labour overthrown at
once, and myfelf killed ; the Cafe was thus: As I
Was bufy in the Infide of it, behind my Tent, juft ia
the Entrance into my Cave, I was terribly frighted
with a moit dreadful furprizing Thing indeed;
for all on a fudden I found the Earth come crum-
bling down from the Roof ofmy Cave, and from
the Edge of the Hill over my Head, and two of
the Pofts 1 had fet up in the Cave, cracked in a
frightful manner: I was heartily feared, bur thought
nothing of what was really the Caufe, only think-
ing that the top of my Cave was falling in, as fome
of it had done before; and for fear I ihou'd be bu-
ty'd in it, I ran forward to my Ladder, and nor
thinking my felf fafe their neicier, I got over my
Wall for fear of the Pieces of the Hil which I ex-
pe&ed might roll down upon me: I.was no foorne
flept down upon the firm Ground, but I plainly
faw it was a terrible Earthquake, for the Ground I
flood on fhook three times at about eight Mi-
nutes diflance, with three fich Shocks, as would
have overturned the firongefl Building that could
be fiippos'd to have flood on the Earth; and a
great Piece of the Top of a Rock, which flood a-
.bout half Mile from me next the Sea, fell down
wich fiuch a terrible Noife, as I never heard in all
my Life: I perceiv'd alfo, the very Sea was put
into violent Motion by it; and I believe the

E 94
Shocks were stronger under the Water than on theh
Swas fo amaz'd with the Thing it feIf, having
never felt the like, or difcdurfed with any one that
had, that I was like one dead or upify'd ; and the
Motion of the Earth riade my Stomach fick, like
One that was tofs'd at Sea; but the Noife of the
falling ofthe Rock awak'd me, as it were, and rou-
zing me from the flupified Condition I was in, fil'd
me with Horror, and I thought of nothing then
but the Hill falling upon my Tent, and all my Houl-
hold Goods, and burying all at once ; and this
funk my very Soul within me a second time.
After the third Shock was over, and I felt no
more for fome time, I began to take Courage, and
yet I had not Heart enough to get over my Wall a-
gain, for fear of being buried alive, but fit ftill
-upon the Ground, greatly caft down and diiconfo-
late, not knowing what to do : All this while I had
not the leaft serious religious Thought, nothing
but the common, Lord ha' Mercy upon me ; and
when it was over, that went away too.
While I fat thus, I found the Air over-caft, and
grew cloudy, as if it would rain ; foon after that -
the Wind role by little and little, fo that in lefs
than half an Hour it blew a moft dreadful Hurri-
cane: The Sea was all on a fudden cover'd over
with Foam and Froth, the Shore was cover'd with
the Breach of the Water, the Trees were torn up
by the Roots, and a terrible Storm it was; and
this held about three Hours, and then began to
abate, .and in two Hours more itwas calm, and
began to rain very hard.
All this while I fat upon the Ground very much
terriry'd and deje.ed, when on a sudden it came
into my Thoughts, that thefe Winds and Rain being
the Confequence of the Earthquake, the Earthquake
iCti f

itfelf was fpent and over, and I might venture into
my Cave again: With this Thought my Spirits
began to revive, and the Rain alfo helping to per-
fvade me, I went in and fat down in my Tent,
but the Rain was fo violent, that my Tent was
ready to be beaten down with it; and I was forced
to go into my Cave, tho' very much afraid and un-
eafy for fear it should fall on my Head.
This violent Rain forc'd me to a new Work, viz.
to cut a Hole thro' my new Fortificacton like a
Sink to let Water go out, which would elfe have
drown'd my Cave. After I had been in my Cave
fome Time, and found ftill no more Shocks of the
Earthquake follow, I began to be more composed ;
and now to support my Spirits, which indeed want-
ed it very much, I went to my little Store, and
took a fall Sup of Rum, which however I did
then and always very fparingly, knowing I could
have no more when that was gone.
It continued raining all that. Night, and great
Part of the next Day, fo that I could not fiir
abroad, but my Mind being more composed, I be-
gan to think of what I had beft do, concluding,
'that if the Ifland was fubjeft to thele Earthquakes,
there would be no living for me in a Cave, but I
muft consider of building me fome little Hut in an
open Place, which I might furround with a Wall as
I had done here, and fo make my felf fecure from
wild Beafts or Men: But concluded, if I ftaid
where I was, I Thould certainly, one Time or other,
be bury'd alive.
With thefe Thoughts I refolv'd to remove my
Tent from the Place where it food, which was
juft under the hanging Precipice of the Hill, and
which, if it flould be fhaken again, would certain-
ly fall upon my Tent: And I fpent the two next

Days, benhg the i9th and 2oth of April, in con-
triving were and how to remove my Habitation.
The Fe.,.r of being fwallow'd up alive, made
me that I never Oept in Quiet; and yet the Appre-
henfion, of lying abroad without any Fence, was
almoil equal to it: But ftill when 1 look'd about,
and ,aw how every Thing was put in Order, how
pleasantly conceai'd I was, and how fafe from
Danger, it made me very loth to remove.
In the mean time it occurred to me,that it would
require a vaftdeal of Time for me to do this, and
that I muff be contented to run the Venture where
I was, 'till I had form'd a Camp for myfelf, and
had fecur'd it fo as to remove to it: So with this
Resolution I composed myfelf for a Time, and re-
folv'd that I would go to work with all Speed to
build me a Wall with Files and Cables, 7c. in a
Circle as before and fet my Tent up in it when it
was finifh'd, but that I would venture to fray where
I was 'till it was finifh'd and fit to remove to. This
was the 21fft.
April 22. The next Morning I began to consider
of Means to put this Refo!ve in Execution, but I
was at a great Lofs about my Tools; I had three
large Axes and abundance of Hatchets, (for we
carry'dthe Hatchets for Traffick with the Indians)
but with much chopping and cutting knotty hard
Wood, they were all full of Notches and dull,
and tho'I had a Grindfione, I could not turn it and
grind my Tools too; this coffme as much Thought
as a Statefman would have beffow'd upon a grand
Point of Politicks, or a Judge upon the Life and
D-ath of a Man. At length I contriv'd a Wheel
with a String, to turn it with my Foot, that I
might have both my Hands at Liberty: Note,I had
never feen any fuch thing in England, or at left
not. to take Notice how it was done, tho' fince I

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