Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Adjutant general's report
 Appendix A: Aiding the civil...
 Appendix B: Report of U.S. officer...
 Appendix C: Annual reports, departments...
 Appendix D: Annual service...
 Appendix E: Reports of encampment...
 Appendix F: Special reports
 Appendix G: Clothing and quartermaster's...
 Appendix H: Ordnance stores
 Appendix I: Medical stores
 Appendix J: Subsistence stores
 Appendix K: List of comptroller's...
 Appendix L: List of comptroller's...
 Appendix M: General orders and...
 Appendix N: directory of the Florida...

Title: Report of the Adjutant General of the State of Florida
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00024066/00001
 Material Information
Title: Report of the Adjutant General of the State of Florida
Physical Description: v. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Adjutant General's Office
Publisher: Agency
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1906
Copyright Date: 1906
Frequency: annual[19 -]
biennial[ former 18 -19]
Subject: Militia -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
Summary: Report for 188 -1886 contains also reports of the State prison and the Insane Asylum.
General Note: Description based on: 1963/64.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00024066
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAB5954
ltuf - ABY5504
oclc - 01290686
alephbibnum - 000347971
lccn - 05040141

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Adjutant general's report
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    Appendix A: Aiding the civil authorities
        Page 61
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    Appendix B: Report of U.S. officer on duty with orcanized militia of Florida
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    Appendix C: Annual reports, departments of general staff
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    Appendix D: Annual service reports
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    Appendix E: Reports of encampment of 1906
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    Appendix F: Special reports
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    Appendix G: Clothing and quartermaster's stores
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    Appendix H: Ordnance stores
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    Appendix I: Medical stores
        Page 205
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    Appendix J: Subsistence stores
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    Appendix K: List of comptroller's warrants issued on account of the fund for the expenses of an encampment of the Florida state troops for 1906
        Page 211
    Appendix L: List of comptroller's warrants issued on account of the fund for the expenses of an encampment of the Florida state troops during 1906
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    Appendix M: General orders and circulars
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    Appendix N: directory of the Florida state troops and register of commissioned officers
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Full Text






State of Florida


~:N .
*- A- **

Tallahassee, Florida





Appendix A:
Reports on active service performed by the troops.
Appendix B:
Report of the United States officer on duty with the
organized militia of Florida.
Appendix C:
Annual reports, departments of the General Staff:
Surgeon General.
Judge Advocate General.
Commissary General.
Quartermaster General.
Chief of Ordnance.
Inspector General.
Special Reports:
Commissary General.
Inspector of Small Arms Practice.
Appendix D:
Annual Service Reports of:
The Brigade Commander.
The Commanding Officer, First Infantry.
The Commanding Officer, Second Infantry.
Appendix E:
Reports on Encampment of 1906:
The United States Officers on duty as instructors:
Captain M. C. Buckey, A. C., U. S. Army.
Captain Alexander Greig, Jr., A. C., U. S. Army.
Appendix F:
Reports on inspection of troops at their home stations
The United States Officer detailed under Section 14,
of the Act of Congress of January 21, 1903.
Special inspection of Company "E," 2nd Infantry.

Appendix G:
Table showing the Clothing and Quartermaster's sup-
plies which have been received from the United
States and which are in use by the troops.
Appendix H:
Table showing the Ordnance and Ordnance Stores
which have been received from the United States and
which are in use in the troops.
Appendix I:
Table showing the Medical Stores which have been
received from the United States and are in use by
the troops.
Appendix J:
Table showing the Subsistence Stores which have been
received from the United States and are in use by
the troops.
Appendix K:
List of Comptroller's warrants issued on account of
the appropriation for the expenses of an encamp-
ment in 1906.
Appendix L:
List of Comptroller's warrants issued on account of
the appropriation for the expenses of the Florida
State Troops in 1906.
Appendix M:
Copies of all General Orders and Circulars issued from
the Office of the Adjutant General of the State during
the year 1906.
Appendix N:
Directory of the Florida State Troops:
Register of Commissioned Officers.
Distribution of Battalions.
Relative rank of Officers.
The Retired List.
Stations of the Florida State Troops.



Tallahassee, December 31, 1906.
Hon. Napoleon B. Broward,
Governor of Florida.
SIR:-I have the honor to submit the following report
of the operations of this department during the year 1906:

The estimated strength of the Reserve Militia of this
State is two hundred and twenty-eight thousand, three
hundred and forty-three; which estimate is based upon
the yearly increase of population as shown by census re-
ports, there being no funds available for an enrollment
of the militia by County Assessors.

The present organized force consists of one brigade,
composed of two regiments of infantry-one of nine
and the other of twelve companies, bands for each regi-
ment, and the Hospital Corps.
The Annual Return of Militia shows the following to be
the organized strength of the Florida State Troops:
Commissioned officers:
Personal Staff of the Commander-in-Chief.. 10
General Staff, including Medical Department 20
Line .................................... 80- 110
Enlisted men:
Non-commissioned officers ................. 260
Field musicians ........................... 24
Artificers and cooks ..................... 47
Privates (including privates of bands)...... 837-1,168

Total strength commissioned and enlisted 1,278

The total strength authorized under the law is as
General Staff, including staff corps and de-
partments ............................ 38
Artillery Corps, including headquarters, one
battery and three companies of coast artil-
Band, 2nd Infantry, at Orlando.
lery ................................... 467
Two regiments of infantry ................ 1,776
Hospital Corps .......................... 34-2,315


There have been mustered out of the service during
the year, the battalion headquarters and one battery of
field artillery, a band and three companies of infantry:
Battalion headquarters, Artillery Corps, at Jackson-
1st Battery, Field Artillery, at Jacksonville.
Company "D," 2nd Infantry, at Palatka.
Company "G," 1st Infantry, St. Augustine.
Company "M," 2nd Infantry, at Brooksville. (This
organization retained in the service as a platoon of Com-
pany "B," same regiment).


There have been mustered into the service during the
year a band and three companies of infantry:
Band, 2nd Infantry, at Tampa.
Company "D," 2nd Infantry, at Fort Myers.
Company "G," 2nd Infantry, at St. Petersburg.
Company "M," 2nd Infantry, at Tampa.


The First Infantry consists of a band and nine com-
panies, located in the Northern Military District, which
comprises all that section of the State north and west
of Alachua and Bradford counties. One company ot
this regiment has just been disbanded because of having

fallen below the required standard of efficiency, which
leaves three vacancies to be filled. It is a fact worthy of
note that in the organizations located in this district the
largest membership is maintained, and-with the possi-
ble exception of the post of Jacksonville-the greatest
interest in the military is manifested at the places which
are smallest in point of population. At DeFuniak
Springs, Marianna and Apalachicola, companies have been
kept recruited up to the maximum authorized by law, and
much interest has been taken in military work, while at
Pensacola, a city of over twenty thousand inhabitants, it
has been found impracticable to secure active co-operation
by a representative class of citizens in any effort toward
organizing a company, and that city, with its surround-
ings, is practically without State military protection, ex-
cept such as may be afforded by posts from sixty to a
hundred miles distant. There certainly appears to be
great need for an efficient and effective military organiza-
tion at Pensacola. At Lake City, Live Oak, Fernandina
and St. Augustine, interest, of late, has lagged, and
the organizations have not been kept up to a proper stand-
ard of efficiency-either in point of numbers or instruc-
tion. That these conditions exist at Live Oak and Lake
City is, it is believed, largely due to a lack of support and
encouragement from the people of these respective com-
munities, but at St. Augustine the absence of proper dis-
ciplinary and administrative methods has been felt, re-
sulting, finally, in the disbandment of the company at
the latter place. At Jacksonville, conditions have been
much improved during the year. The attitude of the
business men generally has been more favorable toward
the military, and the organizations there have quickly
responded to the increased encouragement given them.
With adequate armory facilities, it would be possible now
to maintain the organizations there upon a very satis-
factory and creditable basis.
The Second Infantry has its full complement of com-
panies. The vacancies occasioned by the disbandment
of companies at Palatka, Bartow and Brooksville, have
been filled by the acceptance of new companies at Fort
Myers, St. Petersburg and Tampa; and the band at Or-
lando, which was disbanded because of inefficiency, has
been replaced by the muster-in of a new one at Tampa.

While discontinued as a company, the organization at
Brooksville has been retained in the service as a platoon
and assigned to Company "B," the other platoon of which
company is located at Leesburg. This arrangement has
been made by way of experiment, with a view to over-
coming, if possible, the difficulties which have been ex-
perienced in trying to maintain effective organizations
in small and sparsely settled communities; should its
operation not result satisfactorily, it may be found neces-
sary to recommend the disbandment of the organizations
at both Brooksville and Leesburg, as well as at one or
two other small posts.


On March 24, 1906, orders were issued by your Ex-
cellency's direction for the disbandment of the 1st Bat-
tery, Field Artillery, popularly known as the "Wilson
Battery." This organization had in the past been a
source of peculiar pride, not only to the people of Jack-
sonville, where it was located, but of the entire State.
During the past few years, however, it had fallen far be-
low its accustomed standard, and even the offer of the
Federal Government to supply the organization with
new armament and equipment of modern pattern failed to
bring about such improvement as would have warranted
its being continued in the service. The 45 calibre Gatling
guns of the battery will be issued, one each, to the newly
organized machine gun platoons of the infantry regiments,
while the obsolete brass Howitzers and other equipment
have been temporarily stored at Jacksonville.
It is regretted that the disbandment of this battery
leaves the State without an artillery organization of any
character; although the requirements of existing laws
leave it open to question whether or not a field battery
can be successfully maintained with the means available
for the purpose from Federal and State sources. A
more practicable plan for the organization of artillery
would be to form two or three companies of coast artil-
lery, the organization of which is provided for under ex-
isting law, such companies to be located at points ad-
jacent to the United States coast fortifications. In this
connection, attention is respectfully invited to the recom-

mendations contained in the report of this department
for the year 1904, pages 7 to 10, inclusive.
With the view to rendering more effective our sys-
tem of national defense, the War Department strongly
recommends the organization of coast artillery for ser-
vice at established fortifications in time of war. This
plan would seem to deserve special and favorable con-
sideration at the hands of the authorities of this State
because of its geographical position with relation to the
Isthmian Canal and neighboring dependencies, as well as
because of its extent of sea coast-exceeding that of any
other State. The proposition to include cost artillery
in the organized militia of Florida would, therefore, seem
to involve considerations of local as well as national ex-
pediency, which should be dealt with under a policy
sufficiently far-seeing to contemplate emergencies which,
while apparently only remotely possible, may unexpected-
ly develop.
Companies of coast artillery could, with great ad-
vantage, be organized at Tampa, St. Petersburg, Pensa-
cola or Key West, and, as the small arms equipment for
this branch of the service is the same as infantry, these
companies would be available for duty in any domestic
The following letter has just been received:

The Adjutant General,
State of Florida, ,
Tallahassee, Florida.
I have forwarded today, under spearate cover, the
Annual Report of the Chief of Artillery, United States
Army, for 1906, and have the honor to invite your atten-
tion to his remarks on pages 28, 29 and 30 on the subject
of "The Militia and Coast Defense" and to urge that
practical steps be taken to carry out the recommendations
contained therein.
It may be noted in this connection that Regular Coast
Companies are stationed as follows in your State:

Number of
Nearest City. Posts. Companies.
Key West ........... Key West Barracks...3
Tampa .............. Dade ................ 1
Tampa .............. DeSoto ............. .1
Pensacola ........... Barrancas ........... 5
Very Respectfully,
Assistant Secretary of War.

The remarks of the Chief of Artillery, to which the
Assistant Secretary of War refers, are as follows:


"It has been pointed out above that it will require 2,278
officers and 55.110 men to provide one relief for all coast
defenses constructed and proposed in the United States,
at the entrances of the Isthmian Canal and in the insular
possessions. Under our form of government it is believed
that it will be impracticable to provide this number of
officers and men for the regular Coast Artillery. Atten-
tion must therefore be directed to some plan that will
supply at the outbreak of war the deficiency from the
organized militia. It is thought that most of the non-
expert class of artillerymen, consisting of privates in the
gun and mine sections, machinists' helpers, helpers
around power plants and searchlights, blacksmiths, line-
men, carpenters, clerks, etc., may be supplied from the
militia, and if the State forces be given special training
in Coast Artillery duties, as has been done in some
States, notably in Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New
York, some of the second-class expert artillerymen, con-
sisting of instrument readers, assistant plotters, compu-
ters, telephone and telautograph operators, range keep-
ers, searchlight operators, switch-board operators, chiefs
of detachment, hoist operators, mine planters, mine load-
ers, launchmen, etc., may also be provided by the organ-
ized militia.
"This question was carefully considered and ably pre-
sented by the Hon. Elihu Root in his report as Secretary
of War for the year 1902. He sets forth therein the in-

fluences affecting and the principles that should govern
the organization of reserves for re-enforcing the regular
Coast Artillery, and for providing infantry defense for
the land sides of our coast fortifications, to protect the
latter against the attack of naval landing parties from
the rear, as follows:
"One of the most valuable services which can be rendered
to the country by its militia, and the one which can be
made the easiest and most natural for it to render, is
to supplement the regular force in manning the coast
defenses in time of war. Manning the coast
fortifications is constitutional militia work, for it is al-
ways to repel invasion. It can be undertaken by citizens
living in the neighborhood of the fortifications with less
disturbance and sacrifice than any other military duty,
because it does not take them far away from their homes
and their business.

an effort should be made to procure the or-
ganization of a National Guard force of heavy artillery-
men in the neighborhood of each coast defense fortifica-
tion, with the understanding that whenever the President
finds occasion to call out militia to repel invasion that
organization will be called into that fortification. In
the meantime, an immediate and special relation should
be established between the militia organization and the
fortification for the purpose of practice and instruction.
They should be made as familiar as possible with the use
of the guns and methods of defense at that particular
point. In many cases it will be practicable to give them
facilities for meeting and keeping their equipment on the
military reservation, which would make unnecessary any
outside armory for their use. Such an organization could
readily perform all its duties to the State, serving as
infantry, but it could at the same time be distinctly
known and constantly prepared for service as the militia
reserve of the fortification with which it sustains the
relations described.
"Another very important function to be performed by
militia, and having the same characteristic of not re-
quiring militia men to render any service except for the
defense of their homes, is the service to be rendered by
infantry in the defense of our coast fortifications against

attack in reverse by land. That is a subject which ought
to receive early and earnest attention on the part of the
Federal Government. It is of great importance that an
adequate force should be ready to perform that service,
should be ready to take their places without confusion,
and that there should be a perfect understanding as to
where the force is to come from, where they are to be
posted, and how they are to be supplied and maintained.
"The National Guard contains two widely different
elements: One is composed of men who wish to perform
their duty to the State as members of the militia, but do
not wish, or do not feel at liberty, to leave their families
or their business interests and become soldiers for all
purposes, liable to be sent away for distant military
operations. The other element wishes to go wherever
there is adventure and a chance to fight. The amount of
strictly local military work of the highest importance
to be done in case of war is so great that the whole Na-
tional Guard force of the seacoast States, at all events,
can be made just as useful as if they all became volunteers
for all purposes. In order to accomplish this, however,
there should be careful prearrangement as to tha distri-
bution of duties.'
"No better line of action could be followed in attempt-
ing to develop an adequate trained coast artillery reserve
and infantry coast defense guard than this one so clearly
marked out by Mr. Root. It is to be hoped that this
most important question will be taken up seriously by
the authorities of the seacoast States, in connection with
the War Department and Congress, and that a certain
proportion of the troops in these States may be set apart
for home defense purposes, each State providing the
coast-artillery reserves and coast-defense infantry that
may be required for the defense of its own coast line.
As Mr. Root has so happily pointed out, there must be
many men in each coast State who, while ardently desir-
ing to assist in time of war in the defense of the country,
can not well leave family and business interests without
ruinous sacrifices.
"Among these are many electricians, machinists, civil
engineers, who constitute the best possible material for
coast artillery troops. The plan should have for its chief
object the organization of these classes of men into inde-

pendent coast artillery companies in each State. It
is not to be kept in mind, particularly, that the regimental
organization is not adapted to coast defense. After years
of trial, the coast artillery regiments of the
United States Artillery were abolished by act or
February 2, 1901, as absolutely unsuited to the
requirements of modern coast defense. It is
recommended, therefore, that in case any of the
States contemplate at any time the organization of coast
artillery reserves they be advised by the War Depart-
ment to adopt the organization now provided for the
United States Coast Artillery-namely, a corps organiza-
tion of separate companies. This need not in any way
interfere with the organization of these separate com-
panies into battalions and regiments for administration
purposes and for employment as infantry whenever de-
sired by the States or the United States, as has been stated
above in the second paragraph of the quotation from Mr.
Root's report.
"It is recommended, further, that each separate coast
artillery reserve company of the militia be linked for in-
struction purposes in peace and for service in war with a
company of regular Coast Artillery that is stationed con-
veniently to the home station of the former, and that
the affiliation of the militia and regular companies be
fostered in every way possible. In carrying out such
a plan the officers and men of the regular Coast Artillery
companies should act as the coaches to or instructors of
the officers and men of the linked militia companies. The
instruction to officers and gunners given at coast artillery
posts should be opened to militia coast artillerymen. The
senior officer of the coat artillery reserve of each State
should be encouraged to consult with the commanding
officers of adjacent coast artillery districts in regard
to all matters pertaining to the training of the militia
coast artillery. Finally, batteries of coast guns that
are out of commission could be assigned in peace to the
companies of militia and the latter encouraged to drill
and have sub-calibre and service practice at these bat-
teries whenever possible. The batteries so assigned and
used should, as far as practicable, be the batteries to
which the militia companies should be assigned for ser-
vice in war."


The troops have been called out only once during the
year to aid the civil authorities. At 6.00 P. M., June 7,
the following telegram was received at the Executive
"Inverness, Florida,
5 P. M., June 7, 1906.
"Governor Broward,
Tallahassee, Florida.
Send troops to Inverness at once to prevent lynching.
G. R. CALLEY, Sheriff,
By W. E. ARNOLD, Deputy Sheriff."

and was immediately transmitted to this department with
directions to send a sufficient military force to Inverness
to protect prisoners and maintain the public peace.
An examination of railroad schedules disclosed the
fact that the request of the Sheriff was received too late
to admit of moving troops by any of the regular trains
going into Inverness either from the north or south. The
nearest military post being Brooksville, telegraphic re-
quest was immediately made upon the District Super-
intendent of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad to furnish
a special train from that point, and orders were imme-
diately issued to the officer commanding the platoon of
Company "B," 2nd Infantry, stationed at Brooksville,
to assemble his command and proceed at once to Inver-
ness; advising that special train would be arranged for.
Not knowing the character or extent of the disturbance
at Inverness, orders were at the same time sent the
commanding officer of the remaining platoon of Com-
pany "B," at Leesburg, to assemble his men and hold
them in readiness to move.
At 6.25 P. M., telegram from the District Superinten-
dent of the Atlantic Coast Line advised that special train
had been arranged for; but the subsequent report of the
officer who commanded the troops shows that this train
was not available until 8.30 P. M.
Notwithstanding that the telegraphic orders to the
commanding officer at Brooksville required him to as-
semble his command and proceed "at once," and that
in a second telegram he was directed to "hasten move-

ment and wire hour of departure," it appears that the
special train bearing troops did not leave Brooksville
until 10.40 P. M. This delay was inexcusable. The com-
manding officer explains, however, that his men were
scattered over many miles of surrounding country, and
that he construed the order to assemble to mean that
he should, if possible, get his entire command together.
This occurrence has been the subject of special cor-
respondence with all post commanders, who have been re-
minded of the necessity for putting the "squad system"
into operation in all companies, so that orders may be
conveyed to all members with the least possible loss of
time; also, company commanders have been cautioned
that response to orders of this character must be imme-
diate, or as nearly so as possible, and that the move-
ment of a command should not be delayed until every
man can be accounted for. The system of promulgating
emergency orders should be made effective and be under-
stood in advance, and the failure of any man so notified
to promptly respond should not occasion delay, but should
be made the subject for disciplinary action immediately
upon the return of the command to its home station; such
action being taken, preferably, under Section 717, of the
Military Code (General Statutes). In the case in ques-
tion, however, it is not shown that any man to whom no-
tice was given failed to respond.
For some reason unaccounted for, telegraphic com-
munication with Brooksville and Inverness could not be
had after 7.00 P. M. on June 7, and no information was
obtainable from either place until the following day.
The official reports of the military officers who went
to Inverness contained statements and related certain
circumstances which, if not showing actual collusion
upon the part of the sheriff with the persons who parti-
cipated in the lynching of the prisoner (Jim Davis), were
sufficient to justify doubt as to whether or not he had
used all proper care and precaution to protect the prison-
ers in his charge and, accordingly, the matter was
brought to the attention of Your Excellency. (After in-
vestigation, the sheriff of Citrus County was removed
from office on August 4, 1906).
The reports of commanding officers upon the occur-
rence at Inverness are submitted herewith as Appendix A.


Fund for Expenses of Florida State Troops in 1906.

Balance on hand January 1, 1906.. $ 961.48
Appropriation for 1906 .......... 12,000.00
To total expenditures, as per list of
Comptroller's warrants, attached
hereto as Appendix L......... $12,402.37
To balance unexpended.......... 559.11

$12,961.48 $12,961.48


By appropriation for expenses of
an encampment and field exer-
cises of the Florida State Troops
during 1906 ................... $15,000.00
To expenditures for-
Pay ...........................$ 5,140.55
Quartermaster Dept., services..... 117.85
Quartermaster supplies .......... 1,371.81
Q. M. Dept., expressage and freight 431.97
Q. M. Dept., wagon transportation. 684.72
Q. M. Dept., railroad transportation 5,160.47
Commissary Dept., subsistence ... 1,726.66
Medical Dept. Hospital supplies... 12.60
Miscellaneous expenses ........... 345.49
Balance ...................... 7.88

$15,000.00 $15,000.00


It may be said that the Florida State Troops have im-
proved in efficiency during the year; in fact, there has
been a general and continuous improvement extending
over the entire period since the reorganization of the
troops at the close of the War with Spain; but particular-
ly has this been noticeable during the past three years;
since the adoption of laws by Congress and the State
Legislature designed to bring the organized militia to a

fuller realization of its constitutional purpose as a "Na-
tional Guard."
It may be permissible to digress here long enough to
state that the purpose and scope of the national legisla-
tion relating to the militia which has been enacted during
the past few years is apparently greatly misunderstood
by the public generally. The remark is frequently heard,
and it is sometimes stated in the public press, that the
adoption of the so called "Dick Law" has placed the
militia entirely under Federal control-given the Presi-
dent increased authority with regard to calling it out, etc.
This is not true. As a matter of fact, Sections 4, 5 and
6, of the Act of Congress of 1903, which prescribe what
the authority of the President over the militia shall be,
are, almost word for word, a re-enactment of the law
of 1779 and the Federal jurisdiction over the militia is
in no way extended.
There is, however, one feature of this new Act which
has effected a very material change in the militia; but it
must be admitted that the change is a very desirable one
if the State troops are necessary and are to be main
trained for a serious and military purpose, rather than as
an excuse for banding together for strictly social enjoy-
ment, wearing dazzingly ornate uniforms and indulging
in annual junkets at the public expense. The Constitu-
tion of the United States gives Congress the power -'To
provide for organizing, arming and disciplining the mili-
tia, * reserving to the States, respectively, the
appointment of all officers, and the authority of training
the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Con-
gress." By the Act of Congress of January 21,
1903, Section 3, it is prescribed that-"The or-
ized militia in the several States and Territories
ganization, armament and discipline of the organ-
and in the District of Columbia shall be the same as Is
now or may hereafter be prescribed for the regular and
volunteer armies of the United States, within five years
from the passage of this Act." The State law contains
an exactly similar provision (See Section 699, General
Statutes). The necessity for uniformity in these respects
throughout all the military forces of the United States
must be manifest to every thinking person. If the Regu-

lar Army and militia are to be brought together, as must
necessarily be the case in the event of war, they can not
be readily and quickly assimilated or formed into a
homogeneous whole if differently organized, dissimilarly
armed, and trained under varying systems, or, perhaps,
not trained at all-except in the rudiments of drill. Here
lies the change which has been, or, rather, is being effect-
ed in the militia; a change which is appreciated by those
in the military service, and which is noticed by the gen-
eral public, though but imperfectly understood.
The call to arms at the outbreak of the War with Spain
brought together the militia of the several States; organ-
ized and officered each upon a plan unto itself; equipped
with obsolete arms of various patterns (firing black
powder, which placed the users at a great disadvantage
and involved unnecessary loss of life), and garbed to
suit their respective tastes. The troops of this State
alone displayed not less than twenty varieties of
"uniform"-if the term may be so applied. Not wanting
in patriotism were these soldiers, nor in intelligence, nor
courage; but woefully lacking in strictly necessary mili-
tary information. The officers had little knowledge of
the methods prescribed for securing clothing, equipment,
medical supplies, and even subsistence stores; they had
not a proper understanding of the importance of camp
sanitation and hygiene, and had had little experience in
the operation of troops in the field.
In the light of these events, the question may prop-
erly be asked whether the National Government could
with justice call upon its citizens to perform military
service under conditions which placed them at such great
disadvantage. ,If the citizen soldiery is to be used as the
bulwark of our national defense, it seems but proper
that it should be provided with modern equipment and
given that training which is absolutely necessary to the
protection of its individual members, as well as to insure
reasonably effective service.
Some idea of the development and improvement which
has taken place in the militia of this State within the
past few years may be gained by comparing the picture
on the opposite page, showing a body of volunteers from
the organized militia of Florida, assembled at Tampa for


Group of F]/or/a State Troops as t/uh' Vo/uitcrc/ for thie iar iLt/i Spuin/ in i189.



the war of 1898-1899, with the illustration on page 56 of
a company in the Florida State Troops today.
The term "discipline" as used in the Federal and State
statutes conveys to most minds only a suggestion of the
punitive methods employed to secure obedience. It is
really a much more comprehensive term, and covers all
features of instruction and training as well as of admin-
istration and management. It is the application of the
law as to a uniform system of discipline which brings
about the greatest change in the miltia, for this com-
prehends a progressive system of training in all features
of military work, including drill, guard duty, camp hy-
giene, methods of subsisting and small arms practice;
it involves the making of reports to show results attained,
a systematic method of accounting for public property,
and a certain necessary amount of study and prepara-
This change in methods and establishment of a high-
er standard for the militia-although admittedly neces-
sary-makes greater demands upon the time of the in-
dividual soldier, and this is especially true of commis-
sioned officers, who, to meet the fullness of their obliga-
tions, must give some study and an extra amount or
effort and attention to the administration of military af-
fairs; to the accounting for public property, making of
reports, etc. A man can not be expected to jeopardize his
means of making a livelihood, or make great sacrifice
of his personal interests to render military service in
time of peace; yet in the acceptance of a commission and
taking of the oath of office certain obligations are as-
sumed which must be discharged, for so complex is mili-
tary organization that failure in the performance of duty
by one individual will result in injury to the entire ser-
vice. Therefore, as long as the individual remains in the
military service a full and faithful performance of duty
must be insisted upon.
The question is, how great a sacrifice of time may rea-
sonably be expected by the Government of those serving
as officers-voluntarily and without remuneration? This
and other problems were doubtless foreseen by the fram-
ers of the Federal statute when they provided a period
of five years within which to effect the changes in mili.
tia methods,

There are many reasons for opposing any proposition
to give to the militia a fixed pay. To such a plan there
would be the same objections as exist, under our form
of government, to the maintenance of a large standing
army. It would destroy that feature in the National
Ouard which is its chief characteristic-voluntary ser-
vice. But the menace to our institutions which a large
paid military establishment would involve furnishes the
strongest argument for maintaining an effective militia,
and those opposed to militarismsm" as typified by "the
big stick," must of reason advocate the development and
improvement of our citizen soldiery. This can best be
done by any means which will secure to the service
capable officers. Where you have a competent command-
:ng officer you will find an efficient organization. It re-
quires experience to make officers (the gift of a uniform
and sword will not do it), and this can not be gained
if the duties are so exacting as to bring about frequent
changes in the personnel. A solution which suggests
itself is the granting of a fixed allowance by the National
Government to all commanding officers. This should
be sufficient to cover the expense of necessary clerical
work involved in the proper performance of official duty,
and could not be regarded as pay.
If a monthly allowance of fifty dollars was made to
each regimental commander, and of twenty dollars to
each separate battalion and company commander, it
would involve an annual expenditure of something less
than five hundred and fifty thousand dollars; this esti-
mate being based upon the number of organizations in
the several States and Territories and in the District of
Columbia, as shown by the last official register of the
militia issued from the War Department. Such an ar-
rangement would be of incalculable benefit to the service,
in comparison with which the outlay would be incon-
To revert to the subject of this article, it may be stated
that the recommendations and plans for increasing the
efficiency of the Florida State Troops, as outlined in the
report of this department for 1905, have all been put into
operation within the past year-with varying success.
The plan of rewarding organizations and individuals
with appropriate trophies an'd prizes for special zeal add

efficiency has already given good results and promises
very much more. The awards for the year 1906 are an-
nounced in General Order No. 36, current series from this
office, copy of which is submitted herewith in Appendix M.
Under General Order No. 2, issued January 15, 1906,
a sub-department was organized and was designated as
"The Service School of the Florida State Troops"; Major
J. A. Dapray, the United States officer on duty with
the organized militia of this State, being announced as
commandant. In this school three quarterly courses of
study were prescribed for all officers, and, it is believed,
were pursued to some extent. It has been found neces-
sary, however, to abandon this undertaking; this for
several reasons: 1st. It is hardly worth while to pre-
scribe a progressive course of study unless it is possible to
determine whether or not it is being consistently pursued,
and this necessitates some form of examination. To
hold these examinations when the troops are assembled
in camp takes away from time which should properly
be devoted to the field work, and no means are available
for conducting them at any other time. 2nd. To adopt
the correspondence plan for this school would, it is feared,
be regarded as increasing the paperr work," and, with
its other business, this office is already burdened beyond
the capacity of the limited force employed.
It is quite necessary, however, that a course of study
should be prescribed, and this seems quite properly to
come within the province of the Brigade Commander,
and might be coupled with the directions which he may
publish and prescribe for practical instruction through-
out the ensuing year. In this connection, the following
excerpts from the reports of officers who have inspected
the Florida State Troops during the past two years are
From the report of Major McCoy, 15th U. S. Infantry,
on the encampment of 1905:,
"I found the men willing, but the trouble is, too many
inefficient officers-officers who care more to pose as such
than to post themselves in their duties by study."
From the report of Captain M. C. Buckey, Artillery
Corps, U. S. Army, on the encampment of 1906:
"The main fault with the personnel was the fact that
the officers, as a rule, did not study enough, or prepare

themselves sufficiently while at their home stations. They
do not seem to appreciate the fact that the time to prepare
themselves is at their home stations, and to put the
knowledge thus gained into practice when in camp."
From the report of Captain Alexander Greig, Jr., Ar-
tillery Corps, U. S. Army, on the encampment of 1906:
"With one or two exceptions the officers were very en
ergetic in camp, and showed great interest in the field ex-
ercises, but it is very evident that they neglect to study at
their home stations."
The article on "Efficiency," embraced in the report of
this department for the year 1905 is commended to the
careful consideration of all officers of the State service.


It is believed that there has been continued improve-
ment in administrative work, at least to the extent that
the purposes of reports and the method of using blank
forms are better understood. For the convenience and
instruction of all concerned complete sets of reports,
embracing all blank forms issued front this office for use
in the troops, are now being prepared and will be issued
in bound form to each organization.
Ii is to be regretted, however, that the importance of
rendering stated reports is not fully appreciated by all
those who are charged with such duty. This office is
grcaTly hampered with the unnc .ssar-v work involved
in making repeated requests and demands for reports.
The routine business of this office cannot be successfully
conducted; nor can the reports, which are required by
the Governor, be prepared unless subordinate officers
neet iheir responsibilities in ltis matter. The amount
of work of this character which is required of officers is
limited to the minimum consistent with successful admin-
islration, and it is a fact that fewer reports and less
paperr work" is exacted of the oilicers of this State than
r. any other where the organized militia is being main-
tained upon an efficient basis.


Every possible effort has been made by this department

to stimulate interest throughout the troops in target
tiring. There has been some improvement, to the extent
that some firing for record has been done; but not so
much as might reasonably have been expected, and it is
quite plain that the same attention has not been given
to small arms practice by commanding officers generally
as to drill and other military duty. Reports show that
the prescribed course of firing has been followed in only
a few companies, records of firing having been received
from only twelve organizations, and in these there have
been qualified thirteen Expert Riflemen, nine Sharp-
shooters and fifty Marksmen. Certificates of classifica-
tion and appropriate insignia have been issued them, and
their names, with the scores which they made, have been
published. (In General Order No. 36, A. G. O., dated De-
cember 31, 1906; see Appendix M.)
By General Order No. 13, dated April 10, 1906, a State
Board for the Promotion of Rifle Practice was appointed,
and, under the auspices of this board, a State Rifle Com-
petition was held on the rifle range at St. Augustine,
Florida, August 16th to 18th, inclusive. (See General
Order No. 20, A. G. O., c. s.) In addition to the annual
match for the "Taliaferro Trophy," a series of individual
matches were held. Gold and bronze medals, with small
purses, were offered as first and second prizes; these were
obtained through donation and subscription, and through
a small charge made as an entrance fee to each event.
Attendance at the competition was voluntary. The rail-
roads having very generously extended the special rate
given for the encampment so as to include the competi-
tion, transportation was furnished by the State to teams
from each company entering for the "Taliaferro Trophy
Match;" all other contestants traveling at their own ex-
pense. A mess was established on the range and meals
were furnished the officers of the match and all contest-
ants; the cost of this service having been about twenty
cents a meal. The competition brought together repre-
sentatives from nearly every organization in the State,
and it is estimated that there were about one hun-
dred and fifty present and participating. Great interest
was manifested in all of the events and the rivalry be-
tween contestants was very keen.
The Executive Officer of the competition was Colonel

Robert P. Carleton, the Inspector of Small Arms Prac-
tice, under whose supervision all of the matches were
The result of the individual matches was informally
announced by the Executive Officer on the range imme-
diately after the close of the competition, when the prizes
were awarded. This officer has, however, so far failed
to make official report upon the competition, although re-
peatedly called upon to do so, and the result of the
"Taliaferro Trophy Match" has not been announced. The
delay in this matter has naturally occasioned much dis-
satisfaction among all of those interested, and may be
the means of defeating,at least to some extent, thepurpose
for which the competition was held. This has been made
the subject of special report to your Excellency with a
view to proper disciplinary action.


During the progress of the State Rifle Competition a
team was selected to represent Florida in the National
Match of 1906. This team remained on the St. Augustine
range for one week's practice and then proceeded to Sea
Girt, N. J., where, commencing on September 4th, the
National Match was held. The names of the members of
the team, the scores made by each individual, and the
relative standing of the team at the close of the match
was announced in General Order No. 36, A. G. O., c. s.
(See Appendix M.).
In the National Match of 1906 this State gained seven
places over its position in the match of 1905, although
there was a greater number of teams participating. The
fact that out of a total of forty-one teams, representing
five branches of the Regular Establishment and thirty-six
states. Florida should have won fifteenth place,is regarded
as most satisfactory, and has been the subject of much
favorable comment. It will be noted that of the fourteen
teams which lead this State, five were from the Regular
Establishment and the remaining nine from states which
have devoted much attention and considerable money to
the advancement of target practice, and several of which
have held first place in years past. Florida had the
distinction of distancing all southern states, all western

states except two, the District of Columbia and several
of the eastern states. That the members of the team from
this State had only a week of practice when brought into
competition with others who had been devoting months
to preparation, also speaks well for their achievement.


Equipment for gallery target ranges has been fur-
nis'hed every post which has applied for it, and some
which have not, where it was known that there were
suitable accommodations for such ranges. In most in-
stances the targets have been installed and considerable
practice has been had, furnishing entertainment for the
men, as well as opportunity for instructing them in an
interesting way in sighting and aiming drill. Gallery
ranges should be installed at every post in the State,
as the necessary equipment can now be supplied upon
requisition. The cost of 30 calibre ammunition for gallery
practice would limit the amount of firing which might
be done; but the Government is soon to issue a rifle for
this purpose, the same in every respect as the regular
rifle except that it will be equipped with a 22 calibre
barrel, which will to some extent overcome the difficulty
about the cost of ammunition, as 22 calibre cartridges
can be purchased for about $2.10 per thousand.
A few additional out-door ranges have been established
during the past year, and it is earnestly hoped that during
the ensuing year there may be provided at every station
of the troops a range of some character. If it is found
impracticable to acquire ground sufficient to accommo-
date a one thousand yard range, then a shorter one
should be laid out. Marksmen may be qualified on a
five hundred yard range, and sharpshooters on a six
hundred yard range. The recent increase in the annual
Federal appropriation for arming and equipping the
militia has already placed to the credit of this State, "for
the promotion of rifle practice," the sum of $4,986.92, and
it is thought that this fund may best be applied, at least
for the first year, to the construction and proper equip-
ment of a State range, where a large body of troops may
be assembled at one time for practice. It is planned to
do this as soon ag the'delectibioh-as.been made of a perma-

-. .'. ....... : .

-. ... ..

newn camp site for the Florida State Troops, and as a
commissionn now has this matter in charge, the selection
will probably be made at the approaching session of the
Legislature, so that commencement of work on the rifle
range neeed not long be delayed.


The annual inspection of the troops at their home sta-
tions was made this year, under Section 14, of the Act of
Congress of January 21, 1903, by Major John A Dapray,
U. S. Army, retired, who is on duty with the organized
militia of this State, and under Section 729 of the Gen-
eral Statutes, by the Adjutant General. Extracts from
the report of the United States officer, which have been
furnished Ibiough the War Department, are submitted
herewith, as a part of Appendix F.
While the attendance at all posts was somewhat better
this year than at the inspections of 1905, it was not alto-
gether satisfactory, and, in a few instances, showed lack
of discipline and proper administration. The poor atten-
dance in companies "A," "E" and "M," 1st Infantry, and
in companies "A," "E," "H, "K" and "L," 2nd Infantry,
was made the subject of comment by the Military Secre-
tary of the Army.
Such actioa as seemed proper has been taken to remedy
the defects and deficiencies noted during the inspections.
Deficiencie In equipment were in most cases due, how-
ever, to the frequent changes in the personnel, and the
fact that the lack of proper facilirics at Genera. Head-
quarters renders it impracticable to supply clothing awl
other military supplies to the several :.onnmands in iq'ln
titles as required from time to time throughout the year.
Reports received late in the year indicated the need of
administrative action in Company "E," 2nd Infantry, and
it was deemed advisable to order a special inspection of
that company. The report of Major Albert H. Bl!iiding,
2nd Infantry, who made the inspection, is submitted hPre-
with as a part of Appendix F. The post of this company
is Starke, and there seems to be no lack of good material
in that city and vicinity for a good infantry company.
The citizens there are particularly anxious that the or-
ganization shall be.ial' 'ihed..* Th~t.this company has
... .......... *..:.._

..* :..: ..: *
; .. ** : *1.

repeatedly been reported upon adversely is due principally
to inefficient methods of administration. It has been
practically impossible to obtain reports of any character
whatsoever from the commanding officer, and to insure
the safekeeping of public property. The resignation of
the captain has been received, and, pending the settlement
of his accounts, he has been relieved from duty and a
battalion staff officer has been temporarily assigned to
command the company. The continuation of this organi-
zation in the service will depend upon whether or not
there can be selected a capable company commander with
time enough to give the command the attention it re


The inspection this year disclosed the fact that the
troops at the following named posts are quartered in
buildings which are not suitable or adequate to their
DeFuniak Springs: Assembly room is entirely too
small and locker room very much crowded; but the build-
ing occupied is apparently the only one available at the
present time.
Fernandina: The quarters are too small, and there is
not sufficient secure storing room to properly protect
public property.
Jacksonville: The building occupied as an armory at
this post is entirely inadequate to the needs of the troops.
There is not sufficient secure storing room for all public
property; nor are there quarters enough to accommodate
all organizations at the post. This being the headquar-
ters of the entire brigade, as well as the headquarters
of a regiment and of a battalion, there are a number of
administrative officers who should be provided with
office space. The only rooms now available for head-
quarters are three small apartments in the tower of
the building, scarcely ten feet square, and a little more
than closets. It would be impossible to assemble in
these rooms at one time all of the officers at Jacksonville
who have business there. The building was not planned
or constructed for armory purposes and is not adaptable.
Key West: The building at this post was acquired by

the State in 1903 by purchase from Monroe County. On
March 6, 1906, a report was received at this office from
the Commanding Officer at Key West to the effect that the
second floor of the building was in an unsafe condition
and required immediate attention. This report was at
once brought to the attention of your Excellency, with
recommendation that the matter be considered by the
Board of State Institutions, or other proper board having
in charge the real property of the State. It was further
recommended that authority be given the Adjutant Gen-
eral to employ some competent person to examine and in-
spect the building for the purpose of determining exactly
what alterations or repairs might be necessary to render
it safe. No action having been taken in the matter up
to the time of the inspection at Key West by the Adju-
tant General, April 26, 1906, telegram was sent you on
that date that, unless advised not to do so, a constructing
engineer would be employed to examine and make re-
port upon the building.
Mr. J. M. Braxton undertook the examination of the
building and submitted a comprehensive report, showing
the defects in construction and making recommendations
as to the character of repairs necessary and best calcu-
lated to render the structure safe. This report, accom-
panied by drawings, was transmitted to the Board of
State Institutions, with letter from this office under date
of May 31, 1906; but, so far as known, no action has been
In its present condition the building is unsafe. It
would be dangerous to use the second floor for any as-
semblies of the company or other usual military pur-
poses, and it would seem to be the part of wisdom to
make the needed repairs at once, not only to make the
building available for the purposes for which it was pur-
chased, but to prevent further deterioration.
Examination of the Act under which this building was
purchased (Chapter 5283, Laws of Florida; Acts of 1903),
discloses the fact that this building was taken over by
the State without examination as to its condition, ant
without recommendation from any military authority
as to its availability for military purposes. It is suf-
ficient comment upon this rather unusual method of
procedure to point out that in little over two years from

the date of its purchase the building has been declared
to be unsafe.
Live Oak: The building occupied at this post is un-
satisfactory and unsuitable in every respect. It is a
frame structure, uninviting in appearance and unsafe for
the storing of arms and public property.
Miami: The troops at this post have never had a
proper armory, and the Commanding Officer states that he
has been unable to rent one. For a time the floor above
the County jail was used, which, needless to say, was
very unsatisfactory. At present a small store is being
used, but this does not afford either sufficient room for the
organization or a safe and suitable place for storing
public property. It would appear to be a good business
opportunity for some citizen of Miami to erect a building
adapted for armory purposes, which could be rented; or
add a floor to some building. Unless this is done, or
some ether suitable arrangement can be made, it may
be necessary to discontinue the company there, as the
safekeeping of public property must be insured.
Ocala: The building at this post is not suitable for an
armory; but the property is secure.
Tampa: There are now at Tampa practically four
military organizations-two companies of infantry, a
band and detachment of the Hospital Corps. It has been
found necessary to quarter these organizations in three
different buildings in widely separated parts of the city.
The law prescribes that, as far as practicable, all organi-
zations at one post shall be quartered together, and for
military reasons it is most desirable to do so. Neither
the quarters of Company "F" or Company "M" are de-
sirable or suitable. The post of Tampa is an important
one, and proper accommodations should be provided their
for the troops.


The eighth annual convention of the Interstate Na-
tional Guard Association was held in Washington, D). C.,
January 22nd and 23rd. It was perhaps the most largely
attended meeting which has been held, there being present
the adjutants general and large delegations from thirty-
seven states. The representatives from this tate were

the Adjutant General, Brigadier General John W.
Sackett, commanding the Brigade, and Major Jacob
Gumbinger of the Artillery Corps.
In addition to the delegates there were present the
Assistant Secretary of War and representatives from the
various staff departments of the Army. The Secretary or
War visited the convention during its first session and
made an encouraging address, setting forth in brief the
attitude of the War Department toward the organized
militia. On the afternoon of the same day the delegates
were received at the White House by the President, who
addressed them upon subjects in line with their work, ad-
vocating, particularly, that in the training of the citizen
soldier more attention be paid to developing his marks-
manship and to preparing him for possible duty in the
At the convention this year many matters of great im-
portance to the organized militia were discussed. The bill
then pending before Congress providing an increase in
the annual appropriation for arming and equipping the
militia was endorsed, and committees were appointed to
urge its passage. (Became a l aw June 22, 1906.) Quite
a number of interesting and instructive papers upon
military topics were read and discussed. During its last
session the Association was addressed by Governor Glenn
of North Carolina, Representative de Morrell of Penn-
sylvania and other distinguished officials and citizens.
The delegates were the recipients of many courtesies at
the hands of the officers of the Regular Establishment in
Washington and at Fort Myer and of the National Guard
of the District of Columbia.
The next meeting of the Association will take place
at Columbia, S. C., March 25 and 26, 1907.


The fourth annual meeting of the Florida National
Guard Association took place at St. Augustine on the
evenings of August 16th and 17th. While the attendance
was not so large a s the year before, that fact cannot be
accepted as indicating a falling off of interest in the Asso-
ciation, or lack of appreciation of its purposes or useful-

ness. The meeting being held directly after the encamp-
ment, many officers who had already been absent from
their homes and business for more than a week did not
find it convenient to be present. There was considerable
interesting and profitable discussion of military affairs,
and plans were made for a large meeting, to be held at
Tampa, March 27 and 28, 1907, when it is proposed to
frame recommendations for future legislation in the in-
terest of the militia.
It is earnestly hoped that y our Excellency will arrange
to attend the next meeting of the Association, and that
all commissioned officers in the State service will identify
themselves with the organization prior to that time.


The changes in the State Military Code, which were
outlined in the last report of this department, and which
were provided for by Act of the Legislature of 1905, be-
came operative the first of this month under the procla-
mation of Your Excellency, putting into effect the newly
adopted "General Statutes."
Sufficient time has not yet elapsed for the accomplish-
ment of the reorganization in the General Staff and
Brigade Staff which is contemplated by the new law, but
this will be brought about as quickly as possible.


It was expected that the new Regulations which have
been prepared in this office would have been printed and
issued to the troops before now; but this has been affected
by the delay in the publication of the "General Statutes,"
and changes which have been made in the Federal militia
law in the meantime have necessitated a revision of certain
portions of the Regulations as originally drafted. It is
hoped, however, that the book may be ready for issue with-
in the next few weeks.
When these Regulations become effective it is expected
that many difficulties now experienced with relation to
matters of administration will be overcome. Under exist-
ing conditions it is not easy for officers to determine just

what the rules are which apply to the conduct of official
business, and they are very much handicapped by not
having a book of ready reference. Because of this con-
sideration it has been necessary to show great leniency
when neglects have occurred, and the pointing out of error
and directing of proper iethlods have entailed much cor-
respondence and materially increased the work of this de-


The War Department is still unprepared to make issues
to the militia of the new regulation olive-drab service
clothing, and it has been found necessary, during the
year, to make additional purchases of the old pattern blue
uniform. Great difficulty was experienced in getting
clothing for issue prior to the encampment, and, as a
result, some organizations went into the field not fully
uniformed. Requisitions forwarded to the War Depart-
ment in May were not completely filled until late in Sep-
tember. It was explained by the Quartermaster General
of the Army that his department was experiencing great
difficulty owing to heavy losses sustained in the San
Francisco fire and failure of contractors to make deliv-
eries of material conforming to specification requirements.
The inconvenience thus occasioned the troops of this State
might have been obviated if there were facilities for keep-
ing on hand clothing and other stores in sufficient quan-
tities to meet the requirements of the troops, as they
occur from time to time.
The question of uniforming the troops involves many
perplexing problems, not the least of which is the fact
that the allotment to this State to the national appro-
priation for arming, uniforming and equipping the militia
has not proven sufficient to provide for the needs of the
present organized force, and, although this appropriation
has recently been increased, the outlook for the future
is not much improved, this owing to the great advance
in the price of the clothing and equipment issued through
the War Department. The troops should be supplied
with one woolen uniform (either the blue dress or olive-
drab service) and two suits of the cotton-khaki service
clothing. Although the old pattern blue clothing has

been used so far, which costs about two-thirds less than
the articles of the new regulation uniform, it has been
found impracticable, with the funds available, to do more
than replace a few blue uniforms in each company each
year, and keep the men fitted out with one suit of the
cotton-khaki. It is simply impossible, however, for the
men to go into camp with one service uniform and present
creditable appearance. With two suits to each man, the
could be required to keep one laundered.
As soon as the supply of old pattern blue clothing oL
the Army has been exhausted it will be necessary to issue
the new, which will more than double the cost. As illus-
trating this: The unlined blue blouse, at present in use,
costs $1.99, while the new blue dress coat will cost $5.77,
or the new olive-drab coat $5.41.
Under date of August 1, 1906, your Excellency was
advised by letter from the Military Secretary of the Army
that "the Secretary of War has decided that equipment
for field service is incomplete without overcoats, and that
a suplplv sufficient for the needs of the militia of the State
should be drawn and stored ready for issue, even if the
State authorities do not consider them essenital for im-
mediate use. Blankets sufficient to supply the entire
militia should also be provided."
Overcoats and blankets have never been issued to the
troops of this State. Climatic conditions are such that
an overcoat has not been deemed a necessary part of the
equipment of a soldier, so far as State purposes are con-
cerned. For service in the field, blankets have always
been supplied by the several organizations, either by pur-
chase from company funds, or at the personal expense
of the individual soldier. It seems impracticable to meet
the requirements of the War Department in this respect,
not only forth reason that there is no State arsenal where
the clothing and stores in question might be stored, ready
for use, but because there are not sufficient funds avail-
able for their purchase. The price of an overcoat as
Listed is $14.49, and of a woolen blanket $5.24. The al-
lowance of blankets for a soldier in field is two; but even
if it was contemplated to purchase an overcoat and only
one blanket for each enlisted man of the present organized
force, it would involve an expenditure of $23,044.64, which

is $8,083.86 in excess of the total amount available yearly
for the purchase of all military supplies. While to pur-
chase the two articles in question for the authorized
strength (which is perhaps the proper basis for estimate)
would mean a cost of $45,547.95-more than three times
the amount of the annual allotment to this State.
With these facts brought to the attention of all officers
they ought to be impressed with the importance of more
carefully husbanding the military property which has
been entrusted to their charge. If the law and regula-
tions in this respect were faithfully complied with, and
if proper effort was made to care for and protect public
property, a saving of several thousand dollars would be
made annually in our allotment of the Federal appropria-
tion. The number of shelter tent halves, poles and
pins, ponchos, and even articles of ordnance and ordnance
stores which are each year reported as lost or destroyed
is far beyond a reasonable proportion; while it is known
that at some posts campaign hats and leggins, and even
blouses and trousers have been commonly worn by men not
on military duty, with apparently no effort upon the part
of responsible officers to put a stop to the practice. The
Inspector General has treated of this in his report. Un-
less the proper remedy for these conditions is applied by
post commanders, it will be impossible to keep the troops
uniformed and equipped.
Either the organized strength of the troops must be re-
duced, or a stated clothing allowance must be fixed for
each soldier-a reasonable allowance, embracing such
number of articles as will provide for his needs during the
term of his enlistment, and within the limits of which he
must be required to keep himself fully uniformed and
equipped and in condition to pass satisfactory inspection.
Under this plan the soldier who is careless or wasteful
will have to draw upon his personal resources to keep
up to the required standard.


The magazine rifle, calibre 30, model of 1898, now in the
hands of the Organized Militia, should be exchanged for
the new Springfield rifle with which the Regular Army
is now equipped. It is not necessary to submit any argu-

ment in support of this proposition, as the same reasons
apply as did when the exchange of the old 45 calibre
Springfield was advocated. The two branches of the ser-
vice should be similarly armed, and it is hoped that the
necessary action will be taken by Congress. To avoid the
necessity for special legislation every time an improve-
ment or change in the small arms of the Army is made,
a law could be enacted directing the Ordnance Depart-
ment to make issues of any new arm that may hereafter
be adopted, as soon as the organizations of the Regular
Army have been supplied, to the end that the armament
of the Organized Militia may at all time correspond with
that of the Regular Army.
Allotment for the purchase of arms, uniforms and equip.
Jan. 1, 1906-Balance on hand.... ........
July 2, 1I06-By apportionment for
the fiscal year 1907............ 14,960.78
July 2, 1906-To overdraft, fiscal
year 1906 ..................... 472.76
Dec. 31, 1906-To purchase of mili-
tary publications up to close of
calendar year ................. 166.79
Dec. 31, 1906-To purchase of ord-
nance and ordnance stores up to
close of the calendar year ..... 3,188.56
Dec. 31, 1906-To purchase of
clothing and quartermaster stores
up to the close of the calendar
year .......................... 6,237.31
To ammunition issued at Sea Girt,
N. J., during "National Match"
of 1905 ....................... 280.29
Dec. 12, 1906-To value of Q. M.
property charged against the
State after action of Board of
Survey ....................... 65.68
Balance to the credit of the State. 4,558.14

$14,960.78 $14,960.78

Allotment for the promotion of rifle practice:

July 2, 1906-By amount set aside
for the promotion of rifle
practice ....................... $4,986.92
Sept. 26, 1906-To ammunition is-
sued to rifle team at Sea Girt. . $ 87.02
Balance to credit of State ........ 4,899.90

$4,986.92 $4,986.92
Act of March 2, 1903:

By balance to credit of State ..... $58.13


There remains due to the State from the United States
the sum of $1,386.27, on account of expenditures in or-
ganizing the First Florida Volunteer Infantry for the
War with Spain. This claim has been placed in the hands
of attorneys for collection.


The Legislature of 1905 created a commission composed
of the Comptroller, Attorney General and Adjutant Gen-
eral. to receive and examine into the claims of counties
for expenditures made by them on account of rent for
armories during the period between June 7, 1887, and Sep-
tember 21, 1902. There have been presented to the com-
mission claims aggregating about twenty-five thousand
dollars, which claims, it is understood, have been ex-
amined by the commission and will be reported to the
next Legislature.
There is doubt in the minds of many as to whether or
not the State can properly be called upon to make this
refundment. Notwithstanding the decision of the Court
which declares that the counties have not authority in
law to levy a tax, or to expend county funds for the sup-
port of the militia, and that the latter is a "State insti-
tution, etc.," the fact remains that this money has long
been spent; it was paid out in good faith, and the counties

in which these organizations were located enjoyed a
benefit not fully shared by others, for, while the troops
may be used in any section of the State for legally au-
thorized purposes, the very presence of a military com-
pany gives to the community in which it is located greater
security and protection against any lawless element than
is felt and enjoyed in places where there is none. It can-
not be charged as unfair that the people of these specially
protected communities were called upon to make direct
contribution toward the maintenance of their home com-
panies; it was not thought so at the time that the expendi-
tures were made.
Some of the counties most largely interested have, for-
tunately, made no claims; but if it is contemplated by the
Legislature to refund to all counties the moneys which
may have been expended for the rent of armories and in
maintaining the militia, it will require about one hundred
thousand dollars. It could hardlV be regarded as the re-
pudiation of a debt if the Legislature were to discharge
this obligation with a vote of thanks.


The annual tour of field service of the Florida State
Troops included this year an encampment of the entire
brigade at Tampa, August 6th to 12th, inclusive, and the
State Rifle Competition referred to under the heading
"Target Practice."
The camp at Tampa was officially designated as "Camp
Sparkman" by the Brigade Commander, in compliment to
Hon. S. M. Sparkman, a resident of that city, and member
of Congress from the 3rd Congressional District. The
people of Tampa, through the Board of Trade of that
city, very generously offered to donate the use of a site
.for the encampment; to erect kitchens, mess sheds and
guard houses; to pipe the grounds and furnish good drink-
ing water; to furnish a reasonable quantity of ice each
day, and sufficient lumber to floor the hospital and certain
other lents. This was a most liberal proposition upon
their part, and really meant a much larger expenditure
of money that may with reason be expected of a city in
which the troops are located for such a short period of
time as is covered by the annual encampment; but, owing

to certain circumstances which necessitated a change of
the camp site after all of the construction work on the
first site 'had been completed, the people of Tampa were
put to even greater expense than was contemplated under
their original agreement, and this, it is understood, has
fallen pretty heavily upon the gentlemen who compose".
the committee of the Board of Trade having encampm .,at
matters in charge.
The matter of selecting a site for the encampment was
taken up early in May. Tampa had been suggested as the
place for holding the encampment of the year before, and
as nearly all sections of the State had at some time been
given the privilege of entertaining the troops, it was
though that the claims of South Florida should be recog-
nized. The matter of determining whether or not there was
an available site in the near vicinity of that city was taken
up through the local military officers. Upon notification
from Captain M. Henry Cohen, 2nd Infantry, commanding
the post of Tampa, that the Board of Trade of that city
had taken up the encampment matter and had appointed
committees to make all necessary arrangements, including
one to select a site, he was given the following directions
(by letter from this office under date of May 22nd):
"Before offering any particular location you should con-
sult Major Oppenheimer (medical officer of the post and
Brigade Surgeon), as to its availability from a sanitary
viewpoint, giving him to understand that he is being asked
to pass upon it officially." On May 26th the following
telegram was received:
"Adjutant General,
"Tallahassee, Florida.
"Camp site adequate and recommended from sanitary
"L. S. OPPENHEIMER, Brigade Surgeon."
Accompanied by the Brigade Commander, I visited
Tampa on June 24th for the purpose of inspecting the
grounds, and on that afternoon we were met by the Com-
manding Officer at Tampa and a representative of the
Board of Trade and with them visited the site in West
Tampa, which had been selected. The fall of rain at that
season had been very slight, but the Brigade Commander
expressed the opinion that during a rainy spell water
would probably stand upon the ground. We were given



to understand that a cavalry regiment had occupied the
same spot in 1898, and that it had proven in every way
satisfactory as a camping place. With the express under-
standing that there was no other and more suitable place
available, plans for disposing the troops were discussed,
and, in a general way, outlined to the staff officer charged
with the duty of laying off the camp.
On July 21st the Brigade Com'mander had occasion to
visit Tampa, and, again inspected the camp site. He im-
mediately reported to this office that there had been some
rain at Tampa and that the condition of the grounds there
justified his first fears; that he had prepared a plan for
surface draining by a system of ditches, the construction
of which he deemed absolutely necessary, and had left
such plan with the local authorities at Tampa. Upon re-
ceipt of this report the Commanding Officer at Tampa
was immediately communicated with and advised that the
system of ditches suggested by the Brigade Commander
must be provided for, and that unless this could be done
the order for the camp would have to be rescinded. The
following telegram was received in reply:
"Foster, Adjutant General,
.. Ir,, lilr,.- s,, Florida.
"Grounds now in good condition. No rain since Thurs-
day. Matter taken up with Board of Trade Committee.
If necessary, ditches will be provided.
"COHEN, Captain 2nd Infantry."
He was immediately notified by wire as follows:
"Captain M. Henry Cohen,
"Commanding Post,
"Tampa, Florida.
"It is General Sackett's opinion that the ditches are
necessary to prevent serious inconvenience should further
rains occur.
"FOSTER, Adjutant General."
All orders necessary for the movements of troops had
been issued when, at noon of Saturday, August 4th,
during a stop of a few hours at Jacksonville en route to
Tampa, the following telegrams were received by the
undersigned from the Inspector General and the Regular
Army Officer on duty with the militia of Florida, both of
whom had gone to Tampa a day in advance on official


"The Adjutant General,
"Jackson cilc, Florida.
"Camp site practically covered with water. Surface
ditching only begun today. In my opinion impossible to
make grounds sufficiently dry for occupancy by troops
next week. Major Dapray and Army Surgeon concur.
"CORBETT, Inspector General."
"General J. Clifford R. Foster,
"Jacksonville, Florida.
"Army surgeon concurs in opinion selected ground here
not in condition for camping troops on Monday. He will
so report.
"DAPRAY, Major."
Some of the troops had already moved from their home
stations and prompt action was necessary. To telegrams
from Tampa, some advising that floors would be provided
for all tents, and others requesting that the encampment
be postponed, the following reply was made by wire:
"Will arrive eleven o'clock tonight. If grounds too wet,
will divert encampment to Orlando. Cannot postpone."
The Brigade Quartermaster at Jacksonville was dis-
patched by next train to Orlando to see if the grounds
which had been used there the year before were available
for use, and at the same time arrangements were made
with the railroad officials to divert all movements of
troops to Orlando on short notice if necessary.
Arriving at Tampa about midnight, I was met by mem-
bers of the Board of Trade Committee and the local
officers and at once proceeded to the grounds which had
originally been selected. They were found to be almost
entirely undel water, and manifestly in no condition for
use; whereupon the Committee was advised that unless
some other more suitable piece of ground was available
the troops would have to be sent elsewhere, but, that, in
view of the generous preparations for the encampment
which had been made by citizens of Tampa, who could not
be charged with any errors of judgment and who were in
no way responsible for the conditions then found to exist,
it was felt that your Excellency would wish the en-
campment to be held in that city if possible.
Some one present suggested the use of a tract of land
on Arlington Heights, and it was decided to ride out and
look at it, although the objection was made that it was

too far from a water supply. At three o'clock on Sunday
morning this site was visited and found to be admirably
adapted for camp purposes with the one exception to
which attention had been called. The members of the
Board of Trade Committee present were told that if a
transfer of all material could be made from the other
grounds and pipe be laid to connect with the nearest city
water main (a half mile distant), the State would bear
a portion of the additional expenses and might be counted
upon for not less than five hundred dollars. The condi-
tions were extraordinary and, of course, entirely unex-
pected, but as this decision was imperatively necessary
they were met in the manner which seemed best for the
interests of the State-the purpose of the encampment
and health and welfare of the troops being in mind.

A rough plan of the new camp was immediately pre-
pared, and the Committee accepted the proposition. Under
most trying circumstances, and with commendable energy,
the Committee succeeded in putting the new site in condi-
tion for occupancy within the twenty-four hours which
were left them before the arrival of the first body of troops.
This involved the taking down of all kitchens, guard
houses, mess sheds, etc.; tearing up of water pipes, and
transfer of all material across the city, a distance of
fully two miles, to the new site; the re-erection there of
the same or similar structures, the extension of the city
water main, laying of pipe throughout the camp and
clearing of the new ground, besides innumerable matters
of minor detail. The members of the Committee of the
Board of Trade were untiring in this work, to which fact
the success of the encampment is largely attributable.
Special credit is dlne Messrs. Gordon Keller and D. J.
Drawdy, who were directly in charge; without their prac-
tical methods the arrangements of the new site could not
have been so quickly effected.
In order to meet the increased expense involved in the
change of site, it was found necessary to shorten the tour
of duty by one day.
Notwithstanding the many difficulties experienced, it
is gratifying to be able to report that from a military
standpoint the encampment was a distinct success, and
it is believed that better results were obtained and that

the tour of duty was in every way more satisfactory than
any which has previously been performed by the brigade
of Florida State Troops. Special report upon the en-
campment was not made by the Brigade Commander, but
the subject is treated of in his annual service report,
which is submitted herewith as a part of Appendix D.
Attention is respectfully invited to that report, with its
accompanying papers and attached reports of subordinate
officers; also, to the reports of the United States officers
who were present at the encampment under special detail
as instructors; (see Appendix E), and, in this connec-
tion, to such portion of the reports of the United States
officer on duty with the Organized Militia of Florida; of
the Surgeon General, Commissary General and Inspector
General, as relate to the encampment.
Improper methods of management in the quartermaster
and commissary departments of the 2nd Infantry have
been commented upon by inspecting officers, and reference
is made in all reports from medical officers to the fact
that the hospital of the 1st Infantry was not promptly
established. Responsibility in the latter particular would
seem to be divided between the Commander and Surgeon
of the regiment. It was the duty of the former to see
that a hospital was promptly and properly established for
his regiment, and any tentage in camp could have been
commanded for that purpose; while it was the duty of
the Surgeon to have been there and exercised personal
supervision over the affairs of his department, and, so
far as the records of this office show, he was not abser:t
with leave.
The pointing out and remedying of irregularities, and
directing of proper methods cf management in the several
departments, constitute an important part of encamp-
ment work, and, if the lessons of each year are thorou.hly
learned, increased efficiency w'll result. On the whole.
administration is considered to h1ave been good, an, it ;q
certain that the field work was very satisfactory. Many of
the difficulties which presented themselves at this cn-
campment, and which, under existing conditions, have to
be contended with each year, will be obviated when a
permanent and well equipped camp site has been pro-

The short durations of the encampments make it neces-
sary that all arrangements preliminary to actual field op-
erations. including the work of establishing the camp,
etc., be reduced to the minimum. The period of the en-
campment, which has usually been eight days, but which
was necessarily reduced this year to seven, is entirely
too short; but even with the low rate of pay to officers,
and by the practice of the utmost economy, the appropria-
tion has not been found sufficient to provide for a longer
tour of duty. In this connection attention is invited to
the following expression contained in a letter addressed
by the Secretary of War to your Excellency under date
of November 17, 1906:
"As a result of the summer camps of instruction there
seems to be a general consensus of opinion on the part of
the commanding officers that regiments of the organized
militia should be obliged to devote at least ten days to
their tours of duty at such camps, as it is impossible to
impart much instruction in a shorter period."
Observation justifies the belief that the designation of
Company "I," 2nd Infantry, as the best appearing, best
equipped and most efficient company in camp was a com-
pliment to which that organization was justly entitled.
While the newly organized companies of the 2nd Infantry,
Companies "D," of Fort Myers; "G," of St. Petersburg,
and "M," of Tampa, are entitled to credit for the degree
of efficiency shown, considering their length of service
and the fact that they had not received their full allot-
ment of clothing and equipment.
The band of the 1st Infantry showed very marked im-
provement in every respect, and rendered excellent ser-
vice; while the new band of the 2nd Infantry, which has
just been mustered in, gives splendid promise, and al-
though entirely unfamiliar with military ceremonies, it is
a fine musical organization, in which the regiment may
well take great pride.
On the sixth day of the encampment your Excellency
was pleased to visit the troops in the field, when a review
was tendered you, followed by a parade of the entire com-
mand through the principal streets of Tampa, complimen-
tary to the citizens of that place, who 'had done so much
toward making the encampment a success, and to make
pleasant for the military their stay there.

Major John A Dapray, the United States officer on duty
with the Organized Militia of Florida, attended the en-
campment in his capacity as general instructor, and was
given supervision over matters of administration. Cap-
tains M. C. Buckey and Alexander Greig, Jr., U. S. Artil-
lery Corps, were present as instructors, under special
detail from the War Department, and were assigned to the
1st and 2nd Infantry, respectively, where they had super-
vision over all field work. The 1st Company of United
States Coast Artillery was present by authority of the
Secretary of War and participated in the encampment.
Through a general order issued at the close of the tour of
duty your Excellency extended thanks to these officers,
whose advice and assistance contributed so much to the
success of the encampment, and also to the officers and
enlisted men of the artillery company, who, both by ex-
ample and precept, taught a valuable lesson in practical
In future a full and complete report should be rendered
by the commanding officer as soon as practicable after
the close of any tour of duty: which report should be ac-
companied by a field return of the troops. In order to do
this a commanding officer has authority to call for such
information and reports from subordinate officers as may
be important or necessary. Reports from officers upon
such duty as encampments should be more comprehensive
than have in most instances been rendered. The im-
portant details of a report of this character by a regimen-
tal commander can hardly be compassed by one para-
graph. It should show the force present in camp, and
absent; should give a complete outline of the duty per-
formed, including the number and kinds of ceremonies,
drills. etc., and such other information as would make up
a complete record of all events. Comment should also
be made upon the work of the several departments, and
comparative statement of the work of organizations might
very properly be included.


In the report of this department for 1905 a list and
description was given of the Confederate battle flags

which have been turned in to the State and which are
now in the custody of the Adjutant General.
I The Legislature of 1905 made appropriation for the
purchase of a suitable case in which to keep such of these
flags as were recently returned by the War Department.
This case, which has now been installed, is a handsome
piece of furniture, and affords the means of so displaying
these treasured relics that they may be seen by all
visitors to the Capitol. The flags which have all along
been in this office were appropriately framed a year or
two ago and hung upon the walls in the lobby of the
Capitol. The expense involved was paid from the fund
for the contingent expenses of this office.
As was stated last year-"It is most fitting and proper
that the Military Department of the State should be made
the depository for all regimental and battle flags which
went out from Florida in the war between the States
and in all other wars, and of all relics and trophies as
well, which are connected with the military history of
Florida or with the military achievements of Florida
soldiers. Every article of such character which may be
received at this office will be faithfully cared for and
preserved, properly catalogued and displayed."


The following recommendations with regard to the war
records of the State, which were submitted in the report
of this department for the year 1904, are respectfully re
"That some provision be made for establishing in this
office the military records of all soldiers who have served
from this State in the several wars. The only complete
records now in possession of the State are those of the
Spanish-American War, which have recently been bound,
indexed and arranged for preservation. There are no
records of Florida soldiers in the War between Ihe
States except one set of pay and muster rolls of the
Eighth Florida Infantry, and a few miscellaneous rolls
relating principally to "home guards." There are abso-
lutely no records in the office of the service performed by
Florida soldiers during the Indian Wars.
The law prescribes that the Adjutant General shall

"Keep all records of Florida volunteers commissioned or
enlisted for the War between the States, Indian Wars,
Spanish-American War, and all other wars or insurrec-
tions;" also, that "he shall assist all persons residing in
the State of Florida having claims against the United
States for pension, bounty, or back pay;" "He shall es-
tablish and maintain in his office a Bureau of Records
of the services of Florida troops during the said wars, and
shall be the custodian of all records, relics, trophies,
colors and histories relating to such wars, now in posses-
sion or which may be acquired by the State of Florida."
Records of the services performed by Florida's Indian
War soldiers, could, it is thought, be obtained by the ap-
propriation of a sum sufficient to have copied the records
which were removed from this State to Washington.
Records of the War between the States would have to be
obtained through the survivors of that war, by such au-
thentic evidence as they may be able to furnish, including
certified copies of retained rolls, etc. There are in this
State now a great many old soldiers who 'have served
the State valiantly and faithfully, as well as worthy de-
pendents, who are in absolute need, and, although en-
titled to pensions, are unable to obtain them because of
inability to establish proof of their service. The State
owes them assistance in this matter. During the past
year there have been received at this office more than a
hurdred letters of inquiry and requests for assistance in
securing certificates of service, which could not be satis-
factorily responded to.
The Legislature of 1903 appropriated a sum of money
for the compilation and publication of a history of the
Florida soldiers in the several wars. This work has, it is
understood, been undertaken, and will doubtless be exe-
cuted in a creditable manner. Such a publication will
be of interest to thousands of our people, and the data
contained therein will be very useful. But it is equally-
if not more important that absolutely official records be
established, certified copies of which will be accepted both
by the United States and this State as proofs for claims.
The people of Florida evidently intend that those who
have served the State as its protectors shall be provided
for, at least to a limited extent, in their old age, and
guarded against want, therefore it is believed that the

pension laws should be administered, not with a view to
evading the granting of claims, but in the liberal spirit in
which they were enacted, and so as to give applicants the
benefit of a prompt and full investigation of their claims,
as well as proper assistance in establishing them."
Since the above was written the book referred to, en-
titled "Soldiers of Florida," has been published, and a
copy has been received at this office. It is an interesting
document, and the historical data contained therein will
prove of much value. The Spanish War rolls and a few
other records and papers on file in this office were avail-
able in the preparation of this book, and all requests for
the use of same were complied with. The compilation
was not, however, made in or under the supervision of
the military department of the State (as it should have
been), and it is not known from what sources the other
information contained therein was obtained. The fact
that a large number of lists are shown, purporting to be
copies of the rolls of companies which served from the
State in the Indian and Civil wars, justifies the conclu-
sion that these rolls must exist, and, if they do, effort
should be made to bring them into the military archives
of the State. If they are in the hands of any official or
representative of the State, executive action should be
taken to have them placed in the depository prescribed by
law, and, if they are in the possession of private in-
dividuals, these persons should be urged to turn them
in to this department in order that the military records
of the State may be perfected. It is the duty of the State
authorities to preserve and make the military records
as complete as possible, and it should be the pride of every
citizen to co-operate to that end. It would seem that
this is a matter which might very properly be taken up
by the "United Confederate Veterans," and other asso-
ciations having for their purpose the perfecting of the
military history of Florida and the perpetuation of the
names and deeds of those who have served the State upon
the field of battle.
A printed insert bearing the following notice was sent
out with the book ("Soldiers of Florida") above re-
ferred to.
"If any one who reads this book has in possession
any old rolls or documents relating to the history of

Florida's soldiers in any of the wars named in the preface,
they will greatly facilitate the work of perfecting the
compilation of the records of the soldiers of Florida by
allowing the State to make copies of such rolls or docu-.
ments. Personal reminiscences giving the history of in-
dividuals, of companies, regiments, brigades and of en-
gagements will also be of much value and will be great-
ly appreciated. All rolls and documents will be prompt-
ly returned as soon as copied if it is desired by the own-
ers; if not, they will be preserved in the archives of the
State. Should the readers discover any errors in the rolls
and remarks as published, or in any statement made in
this work, they are respectfully requested to note such
errors and send the correction, giving page. company and
regiment to
Postoffice Box 96, Tallahassee, Fla."

It may be stated with reference to this notice that with
the accomplishment of the provisions of Chapter 2203,
Laws of Florida (Acts of 1903). by the compilation and
publication of the history therein provided for, there is
no other authority of law for the accumulation of mili-
tary rolls and records in the name of the State, except
by officials of this department; that this authority has
not been delegated; and that no further compilation of
such records has been authorized, nor, so far as known,
is in progress except that which is being conducted in
this office.
As the officer in charge of the military department of
the State, and charged (under Section 737, General Sta-
tutes of Florida), with the custody of the records of the
services of Florida soldiers during the several wars, as
well as all records, relics, trophies, colors and histories
relating to such wars, I desire to emphasize the state-
nment already made that none of the rolls or documents
which were gathered for the purpose of compilation have
as vet found their way into the military archives of the


ie following recommendations are made for legisla-
tive action which is deemed necessary for the proper or-

ganizution, discipline and maintenance of the State's
military force:
1. For expenses of maintaining the Florida State
Troops and providing for their discipline, including al-
lowances to companies and rent for armories:

Six months commencing July 1, 1907..........$ .7,432.50
Year 1908 ................................. 14,865.00
First six months of 1909 ................... 7,432.50
2. For encampments and field exercises of the Florida
State Troops:
In 1907 ............... .................... $15,000.00
In the spring of 1908 ..................... 15,000.00
In the spring of 1909 ...................... 15,000.00

It has been the custom at each session of the Legisla-
ture to make provision for two encampments. As at
least two months are required by this department in
which to make necessary arrangements, contract for
transportation and stores, and otherwise put the troops
in condition for the field, and as these preparations can
not well commence until after appropriation has been
made, it has been impracticable to hold encampments
earlier than September. Weather conditions in Florida
are not propitious for service in the field during August
and September. There is usually a great deal of rain
at that season and encampment work has been greatly in-
terfered with because of it. October and November are
busy months, when the men can not get away from their
civil occupations without great inconveniences, and the
troops of this State are not equipped for service in the
field during cold weather. It is believed that the ideal
time for holding encampments in this State would be in
the Spring; either during May or June, and if the Legis-
lature will take the above facts into consideration this
can be arranged for. The making of appropriation at the
approaching session to cover three encampments would
involve no additional expense; it would amount to the
*same thing, but would be a measure of economy in the
end, as the encampment funds could then be applied to
better advantage.


Permanent Camp Site: It is hoped that the report
of the Commission, appointed by the Governor under
an Act of the Legislature of 1905, will be given favorable
consideration and that its recommendations will be car-
ried out. An argument presenting the necessity for the
establishment of a permanent camp site was submitted in
the report of this department for the year 1904, to which
attention is respectfully invited.
Armories: 1. It is recommended that no further ap-
propriation be made for the purchase of buildings for
use as armories unless such buildings 'have been passed
upon by competent military authority and recommended
as adequate and suitable by the military department of
the State.
2. Such legislative action should be taken as necessary
to bring about a consummation of the purchase of the
Flanklin County armory at Apalachicola, which was pro-
vided for by Act of the Legislature of 1903. It is under-
stood that certain minor defects in the title are
responsible for the delay in effecting a transfer of this
property, and that they are such as might be remedied
by legislation. This is the best armory in the State, and,
in fact, -the only building designed for that purpose which
is complete in all appointments. It is now rented from
Franklin County at a cost of $25.00 per month.
3. It is recommended that appropriation be made this
year for acquiring at least one additional armory, which
shall be designed and built according to most approved
armory plans, and under the supervision of a commission
composed of competent military officers. The essentials
in armory construction are that such buildings shall be
plain and substantial, but so complete in all appointments
as to fully accommodate the military and meet the needs
of successful administration, rather than to be of ornate
design and unsuitable proportions. There is great need
for an armory at Jacksonville. This is the largest post
in the tSate. and the rapid growth of that city justifies the
belief that the organized force there must ultimately be
increased even beyond its present strength. It is the
headquarters of the brigade, of one of the regiments of
infantry, and should properly be the center of military
administration. Being also the metropolis of Florida,

it would seem most fit that an armory should be erected
there which would not only meet all requirements of the
militia, but be commensurate with the importance and
dignity of the State. The building at Jacksonville now
occupied as an armory is rented from the county at a
cost of $100.00 per month.
During the past four years there has been a decided
advance all over the State in rates of rental for buildings.
To secure suitable armories it is necessary to pay more
now than when the State was first called upon to provide
them for the militia. The first estimate for armory rent
prepared by this department was based upon an allow-
ance of $20.00 per month for each organization, but such
a sum is now insufficient. Safe and secure armories must
be provided for the protection of arms and all public
property, and in this connection it may be stated that
military property of the United States to the value of
more than $150,000.00, for which the State is responsible,
is now in the hands of the troops at their several sta-
Additional Salaried Officer: It is recommended
that provision be made for an additional salaried
officer at general military headquarters, who may be as-
signed entire charge of and supervision over the supply
departments. These duties properly pertain to the office
of Quartermaster General; but, under the present organi-
zation of the staff departments, this officer, as well as the
heads of all other supply departments (Commissary Gen-
eral and Chief of Ordnance), perform no duties except
during the short period of the annual encampments, and
then only such as can be conveniently assigned to them.
During the entire year the duties which would ordinarily
devolve upon these officers must, per force, be performed
by the Adjutant General, because he is the only military
officer in the State on active duty at all times.
In most States, and in some where the organized mili-
tia is not so strong as that of Florida, the affairs of the
military department are administered by at least two
salaried officers, and in the larger States, of course, by
many more. In every State in the North, so far as known,
and in most all of the Southern States, the Quartermas-
ter General is a salaried officer who has charge of all

military stores and supervises the supply departments.
Where this is not the case the duties are performed by
a deputy or assistant Quartermaster General, and, in
some instances, by an assistant Adjutant General; but
the latter is not a proper arrangement. The duties of the
Adjutant General and Chief of Staff are entirely dis-
similar from thoae of the Quartermaster General, and,
under the system of discipline which is now prescribed
by Congress, it is a physical impossibility for one man
to properly discharge the duties of both offices in this
]v would be as much as o'je competent, trained officer
could do to conduct the business incident to the supply
departments, and to supervise the care and safe-keeping
of all public military property. No man can undertake
this while charged with the duties which relate to the
Adjutant General's office and hope to realize his obliga-
tions to the fullest, or to properly protect the interests
of the State and the United States.
A very considerable amount of property for which
the State is responsible is being lost account of each year.
This statement is made frankly and without waiting for
the fact to be determined by inspectors.
If the State is to maintain a military establishment,
adequate provision must be made for its discipline and
management. It is believed that this could best be done
by making the Quartermaster General's office an active
one; but certainly sufficient competent clerical assistance
should be furnished the military department. It is a
fact, testified to by every military officer who has visited
this office as an inspector, (and an inspection is made
annually under Section 14, of the Act of Congress of
Congress of January 21, 1903) that as much business
is transacted here, and work done, as at the headquarters
of a department in the Army-where there is a staff offi-
cer to look after each division of affairs, with ample cleri-
cal force as well. Since the discipline of the Organized
Militia has been assimilated to that of the Regular Army,
the same methods and detail are involved in its manage-
ment, and there is perhaps more work to be done, for
the militia is in one sense a school, wherein every man
can not be expected to know his duty in every particular,
but must be taught it.


There is great need for a permanent military head-
quarters and arsenal in this State.
Some views in this connection were presented in the
report of this department for the year 1904, to which at-
tention is again respectfully invited. The following ad-
ditional information upon the subject is submitted:
The uniforms, arms and all equipment used by the
Organized Militia of Florida are furnished by the Federal
Government, and are accepted by the State under an
agreement to provide for their care and safekeeping.
Approximately twenty thousand dollars is now annually
allotted to this State from the Federal appropriation for
arming, uniforming and equipping the militia. This is
being applied each year to the purchase of military stores.
The State is now accountable to the United States for
military property to the value of more than $150,000.00.
There is no place provided by the State for the care
and safekeeping of military stores.
it is absolutely necessary to have such a place.
In nearly every state (certainly in all where the militia
is maintained at an efficient standard) there is a State
Arsenal. In some states, buildings are rented for the
Iurpose; Iliongh for satisfactory results a building *c-
cupied as an arsenal should have been designed for the
Under the regulations of the War Department military
stores can be shipped to only one point in a state-which
must have been previously designated by the Governor
as the permanent receiving place. There the stores neces-
sarily have to be unpacked, sorted, repacked and reshipped
to the various stations of the troops in quantities as re-
The only place in the Capitol which has been available
for storing military property is one small vault in the
basement. This is below the level of the ground, damp,
and therefore an unfit place for keeping arms and equip-
ments. It would require six times as much room as is
therein provided to accommodate the arms and ordnance
stores alone, which must be kept at general headquarters,
not to speak of clothing, camp equippage, including tent-
age, etc.
To give some idea of the bulk of the stores annually re-

ceived and issued, it may be stated without exaggeration
that the shipments of one year, if assembled, would fill
the Hall of Representatives.
This comparison is suggested by the fact that (through
the courtesy of the Custodian of the Capitol) for several
years that hall has been used for storing, sorting, count-
ing and packing clothing for shipment. The difficulties
involved will suggest themselves and need not be enlarged
Because of the lack of arsenal facilities it has only
been possible to make one issue of clothing to the Iroops
each year; this immediately after the receipt of the stores
from the War Department.
Only such stores can be ordered at one time as are act-
unliy required then, for they have to be reshipped imme-
diately to be gotten out of the way.
During the remainder of the year the needs of the
troops can not be supplied.
This has interfered greatly with the maintenance of a
proper standard of efficiency.
The means are not available to provide each company
commander with a surplus stock of clothing and other
supplies to be kept on hand. These extra stores should
be kept at the State arsenal.
A man who enters the State military service is en
titled to receive and should be supplied with such com-
plete outfit of uniforms and other property as constitute
the prescribed equipment of a soldier.
He should not be required to wear the cast-off clothing
of another.
There are hygienic objections to such a plan.
There is the objection which an individual will hold who
is careful of his personal appearance and reasonably
To keep the personnel of the troops up to a proper
standard no other class should be enlisted, for pride in
the uniform is essential to the make-up of a good soldier.
Under the present plan of issuing stores it is next to
impossible for an organization to maintain, all the time,
a creditable military appearance.
A very considerable loss is occasioned each year he-
cause there are no facilities for repairing arms and oc-
contremen ts.
The' Federal Government furnished, without expense


to the State, the means for doing this-including all
necessary tools, implements and spare parts; but there
must be some place to install and operate these ap-
pliances. This would mean a great saving in the cost
of keeping the troops equipped.
Not only is there new property to be kept on hand, but
old stores, turned in by reason of the disbandment of
companies, or for other reasons, must be stored and
cared for. There is always a considerable quantity of
such stores at the military headquarters. At present
the lower halls of the Capitol are obstructed by boxes
and cases of military property. They are not entirely
safe or secure there, but no other place is available. It
has also been found necessary to rent for temporary use
storerooms at Palatka, St. Augustine and in this city,
which now involves a monthly expenditure of about sixty
At present, all military stores furnished through the
War Department must be shipped to Tallahassee. These
stores have then to be reshipped, and most of them pass
back over the same line, through Jacksonville, to their
final destinations. This means an annual expense of
several hundred dollars which could be avoided if there
was a State arsenal at a point more central with regard
to railroad transportation.
The rental now paid for the building occupied as an
armory at Jacksonville is one hundred dollars per month.
If a proposition is considered for the construction of an
armory at that post, as has been recommended, there
would seem to be great advantage in combining in the
same building both an armory and arsenal. Reasons of
economy for this would suggest themselves, but the in-
terests of the military service would be materially pro-
moted by having the active administration of its affairs
centered at one point.
The merits of this proposition are apparent, and it
has the hearty endorsement of the military authorities of
the State.
It is earnestly hoped that legislative action will be
taken to meet this, which is probably the greatest need
of the militia of Florida. A State arsenal should be pro-


The present rank of the Adjutant General, fixed by
constitutional provision as that of major general, is
entirely too high. It is clear to every military mind that
the rank of brigadier general would be quite sufficient
to attach to this office. No higher rank than that of
brigadier general is held by the adjutants general of the
largest States in the Union. The present rank of the Ad-
jutant General is not only unusual, and very much out
of keeping with the strength of the State's organized
military force, but may even be a source of embarrass-
ment under certain conditions.


In closing this report, I think it but proper to say, that,
although it has been made the vehicle for certain com-
ment and official criticism upon the performance of duty
by the officers and enlisted men composing the organized
militia of the State, it should by no means be concluded
therefrom that the present standard of our military estab-
lishment is in any way unsatisfactory. It has been cus-
tomary to incorporate in the report of this department
a summary of the military work of the year, and to in-
clude therein mention of any defects or deficiencies which
have been discovered, with recommendations as to the best
means for remedying the same.
It is very gratifying, however, to be able to say that in
point of efficiency, enthusiasm, and interest, the national
guard of this State is the equal of that of any other
operating with the same means, and where no larger force
is maintained. In their achievements upon the target
range, Florida soldiers 'have recently gone to the foreraik
of all of the Southern States, and their progress in other
branches of military work has been equally as pro-
There is, of course, a great deal yet to be learned, and
the constant charges which must necessarily occur render
it necessary to teach again each year the lessons which
were covered in the last; but so marked has been the
improvement within the past five years, and so complete
have been the changes effected, that the Florida State
Troops now occupy a more dignified and important posi-

U il ^
I. n-, i^ s .< ..

Company "I," Second infantry, Holding the State Pennant for Highest Efcitency, 1906


;LA.. ~.


s. v

tion in the eyes of the people of the commonwealth than
they have ever before held.
In common with the organized militia of other States,
our troops have been benefited by national legislation,
which has brought them to a fuller realization of their
constitutional purpose and made of them, in fact, a na-
tional guard. The officers and enlisted men have a broad-
er conception and more comprehensive knowledge of mil-
itary duty, and more fully realize the importance and re-
sponsibility of their official obligations. This has been
the means of transforming into an efficient and effective
force an organization which was, to say the least, formerly
regarded by people generally as of little purpose.
In the early days, the excusions indulged in by the
troops, and occasions for military assembles, were fre-
quently the cause of concern to the people with whom
the troops came in contact. It was unfortunately true
that the unrestrained pranks of men in uniform, even
though prompted by no harmful intent, sometimes trans-
gressed upon the rights of civilians, and served to put
the military establishment in bad repute. Occurrences
of that kind are now no longer to be feared; no serious
breach of discipline having occurred in the troops in many
years, and, consequently, the soldier is no longer regard-
ed as a menace to the peace and good order of a commu-
nity into which he comes, but is gaining for himself
recognition as an agent of the law and a protection and
safeguard to his fellow citizens.
It is a source of gratification to the writer of this report
that these changes have been brought about under his
administration, and that he has been enabled to play even
a small part in shaping the legislation, both national and
State, which is largely responsible for the present higher
standard of the militia; as well as in administering such
law and bringing into operation the new and more perfect
system of discipline.
In another portion of this report, under the heading
"discipline," something has been said of the relations of
the Federal Government with the State militia. It was
therein stated that no increased authority had been given
the President over the militia by recently enacted law.
It may be added that, so far as can be determined, the
War Department is making no effort to exercise super-
vision over the military administration in the States.

Certain rules and conditions are prescribed to entitle to
participation in the national appropriation, and for the
care and safe-keeping of the United States property which
has been issued to the troops,. This is the extent, how-
ever, of Federal regulation with regard to the militia-
though, naturally, everything possible is done to encour-
age and develop a high and uniform standard of efficiency
in the National Guard throughout the entire country.
To this end it is provided that, upon the application of
the Governor, officers of the Regular Army may be de-
tailed to attend encampments as instructors; and that
upon the further application of the Governor one or
more officers of the Army may be detailed to report to the
Governor for continuous duty with the Organized Mili-
tia. These assignments are revocable at the request of the
Governor, or at the pleasure of the Secretary of War.
There is a natural and proper disposition upon the part
of the people to resent any Federal interference with the
administration of State affairs; and a United States
Army officer, thus detailed for duty in a State, will not
assume the right or privilege to dictate or in any way
seek to control the actions of the proper State military
authorities. Any assumption of such prerogatives would
not be countenanced by the War Department and would
give reason sufficient to justify a request for the revoca-
tion of his assignment. The status of such an officer on
duty in the State is easily defined, and his activities will,
naturally, be restricted to those channels in which they
have been directed by proper authority.
The advantages to be gained by having on duty in the
State an officer who is competent to give advice, when
called for, upon questions of military custom and usage,
but, particularly, who is qualified to give the troops that
instruction in drill, camp administration, and other mat-
ters with relation to their duties in the field, is obvious;
and the service of such an officer will become more valu-
able when the means are found for bringing him into
closer and more constant contact with the troops. If
it were possible to have an instructor visit the troops at
their respective home stations, and spend several weeks
with each organization, it would be the means of ac-
complishing great good.
It has been said, and perhaps with some truth, that
officers of the regular establishment are too exacting when

dealing with the militia, and it is, perhaps, difficult for
them to appreciate the distinctions which must necessarily
exist between the paid and volunteer branches of the
service; their training and habits having been obtained
under conditions which are responsible for this. But offi-
cers of the Army when brought into contact with State
troops will soon appreciate the fact that better results
are to be secured by the easy methods of encouragement
and prompting rather than by harsh criticism. In all
of these matters, allowance will have to be made for the
personal characteristics of the individual, for no two
persons will have exactly the same conception of duty;
and in matters not definitely fixed, good judgment will
have to be depended upon.
While upon this subject, it seems but fitting to say that
the officer at present on duty with the organized militia
of Florida, Major John A. Dapray, has, by reason of his
special attainments and thorough knowledge of adminis-
trative emthods, been able to render very material assis-
tance not only to this department but to all officers to
whom, under directions from the Governor, he has given
counsel and instruction. I avail myself of this oppor-
tunity to express my appreciation of the services per-
formed by this officer.
I desire to extend to your Excellency my sincere thanks
for the hearty support which you have given me in the
conduct of my official duties, and for the warm interest
which you have always manifested in all matters affecting
the interests of the Florida State Troops.
Respectfully submitted,
Adjutant General.




Armory, Company "B," Second Infantry.
Brooksville, Florida, June 9, 1906.
The Adjutant General,
State of Florida,
Tallahassee, Florida.
I have the honor to render the following report relative
to services of the platoon, Company "B," 2nd Infantry,
at Brooksville, in aiding the civil authorities at Inverness
on June 7-8, 1906, supplementary to the report of Lieuten-
ant A. Forest Burns, commanding the platoon.
Pursuant to Special Order Not 49, Paragraph II, A. G.
O., current series, I was en route to Brooksville on June
7th, and learned that the platoon at Brooksville had been
ordered to Inverness to aid civil authorities. The train
was late, and I did not reach Brooksville until 8:15 P. M.
I went immediately to the armory and found the men
It appearing advisable, and upon the request of Lieu-
tenant Burns, I accompanied the platoon. I suggested to
Lieutenant Burns that he had best get together the men
in town and not wait for country members. The platoon
left on the special train at 10:40 p. m. We were delayed
in Croom thirty minutes for train orders and did not reach
Inverness until 12:25 A. M. Lieutenant Burns sent you a
message from Inverness at 12:35, which the operator had
been unable to get off up to the time we left.
From the Sheriff's own statement, he "did not try to
deputize assistants, being of the opinion they would not
serve." It appears that the Sheriff made no effort to pro-
tect the prisoner until the arrival of the troops. He stated

that "the prisoner was taken from the jail by the mob and
lynched about nine o'clock."
The special train was not ready to take the troops till
8:30 P. M., and one hour and forty-five minutes being con-
sumed to reach Inverness, it can be readily seen that it
was impossible to have arrived in time to prevent the
lynching. The troops remained in a car on a side track
until morning, when, upon my direction, Lieutenant
Burns, with the platoon, returned on the special train
which had orders to leave Inverness at 5:20 A. M., June
8th, arriving at Brooksville at about 7:00 A. M.; tLe
platoon being dismissed on arriving at the armory.
Captain Second Infantry,
Commanding Company "B."

Armory, Company "B," Second Infantry,
Brooksville, Florida, June 8, 1906.
The Adjutant General,
State of Florida,
Tallahassee, Florida.
I have the honor to submit the following report:
On June 7, 1906, at 6:50 P. M., I received the following
"Tallahassee, Florida, June 7, 1906.
"First Lieutenant A. Forest Burns,
Brooksville, Florida.
"You will assemble Brooksville Platoon of Company
"B" at once and proceed to Inverness. Report to Sheriff
Citrus County to protect prisoners. Use all necessary
force to that end. Provide men with two days travel
rations and move in light marching order, twenty rounds
multi-ball cartridges for each man. Special train being
arranged for.
(Signed) "FOSTER, Adjutant General."
With this was delivered to me another telegram as
"Tallahassee, Florida, June 7, 1906.
"First Lieutenant A. Forest Burns,
"Brooksville, Florida.
"Special arranged for, ready immediately. Hasten move-

ment and wire hour of departure. On arrival at Inver-
ness report about situation. Act under orders of Sheriff.
(Signed) "FOSTER, Adjutant General."
I immediately sent out four men to notify the company
to assemble at the armory, leaving only twelve members
present in town; and at 9:50 the men sent out reported,
or at least twelve of them did, and I left without the
others. I had with me nineteen men and picked up a
cook on my way. I issued to each man twenty rounds
of steel ball cartridges, not having the kind specified for
issuance. We also took with us tents and field range.
We left the armory at 10:10 P. M. for the depot and left
the depot at 10:40 p. m. on a special train for Inverness.
Before leaving I wired the Adjutant General as follows:

"Brooksville, Florida, June 7, 1906.
"The Adjutant General,
"Tallahassee, Florida.
"Left Brooksville at 10:40 with twenty men. Kramer
is with us.
(Signed) "A. F. BURNS."
At Croom I sent the Sheriff of Citrus County the follow-
ing telegram:
"Croom, Florida, June 7, 1906.
"Sheriff Citrus County,
"Inverness, Florida.
"Have twenty men. Will reach you at 11:50. If ad-
visable, flag train at jail.
(Signed) "A. F. BURNS."
We were delayed thirty minutes at Croom waiting for
railroad order for the conductor on the special. We
left Croom at 11:40 P. M. and reached Inverness at 12:25
A. M. We were met at the train by the Sheriff of Citrus
County, and he informed me that the negro, Jim Davis,
was taken out of jail about 9:00 o'clock and hanged; that
he saw the crowd go by the Court House before 9:00
o'clock-he thought it was about 8:50-the Court House
being very nearly a half mile from the jail.
The special train to carry us was not ready until 8:30.
This train leaves Brooksville regularly at 4:40 in the
afternoon, returning at 6:50. On the night of June the
7th, the train was somewhat over an hour late, not being

ready to start until 8:30; and the hour and forty-five
minutes that we were on the road would have put us in
Inverness at 10:15, which would have been an hour and a
quarter too late.
The Sheriff of Citrus County informed me that there
would be no further use for the troops, that everything
was quiet and there was no probability of any further
trouble. I sent the Adjutant General the following mes-
sage from Inverness, at 12:35 A. M., June 8, 1906:

"Inverness, Florida, June 8, 1906.
"The Adjutant General, State of Florida,
"Tallahassee, Florida.
"Arrived here at 12:25 A. M. Sheriff states prisoner
was lynched at about 9:00 P. M., yesterday. No need of
troops. Everything quiet. Impossible to have reached
here in time. Advise further movements.
(Signed) "A. F. BURNS."

The conductor on the special train received orders to
leave Inverness for Brooksville at 5:20 A. M., June 8th.
Captain Kramer directed me to leave with the platoon.
which I did at 5:20, arriving at Brooksville at 7:00 A. M.,
June 8, 1906. I marched the platoon to the armory, where
I dismissed it. At 8:30 A. M., June 8, 1906, I received the
following message from the Adjutant General:

"Tallahassee, Florida, June 7, 1906.
"First Lieutenant A. Forrest Burns,
"Brooksville, Florida.
"You should leave immediately. Do not delay to as-
semble members from country. Go with members present
in city and available.
"FOSTER, Adjutant General."

Had I received this message the night before I would
have left promptly at 8:30.
First Lieutenant, 2nd Infantry.

Armory, Company "B," Second Infantry,
Brooksville, Florida, June 9, 1906.
The Adjutant General,
State of Florida,
Tallahassec, Florida.
I enclose you my report on tour of service performed
by the Brooksville platoon at Inverness, also pay-roll and
account of expenses incurred. I am very sorry that we
did not reach there in time, and I believe that it was
never intended for us to arrive in time. There are a great
many things in connection with this affair which cause
me to believe that the Sheriff at Inverness did not wish
the assistance of the troops. He was not in Inverness
at the time, nor was he at the jail when the prisoner was
taken out. The keys to the jail were left in a safe up
town, and the safe did not have the combination on. The
mob went to the store and got the keys. (How did they
know where the keys to the jail were?) The cell that the
negro was in has a combination lock, and the combination
was not turned on. This shows the situation of affairs at
I could not detail these circumstances in my report,
for they are not connected with my duties as a member
of the Florida State Troops. I am ready to help at any
time and will do all that is possible; but if the people
or Sheriff of Citrus County desired the assistance of the
troops, they could have had a military guard in Inver-
ness by six o'clock on the afternoon of the 7th of June. The
negro was put in jail about one o'clock on that day. I
do not know when the Governor received the message re-
quesling that troops be sent to Inverness; but it does seem
that if they had wired you at one o'clock. I certainly
would have received a message from you before 6:50, for
I know you too well to think that you would delay so se-
rious a matter. The last message mentioned in my report
was not received here until 8:25, June 8, 1906, and was
sent by you the day before. I would greatly appreciate
it if you would let me know at what time you sent my
orders and the time of the receipt of the message from

Inverness requesting that troops be sent to that point.
First Lieutenant, 2nd Infantry,
Commanding Brooksville platoon of Company "B."

Armory, Company "B," Second Infantry,
Brooksville, Florida, June 16, 1906.
The Adjutant General,
State of Florida,
Tallahassce, Florida.
Your letter of the 13th inst. to hand and I am writing
you this morning that you may use the letter referred to
as a portion of my report; but if you are going to do so,
I would like to add a few further remarks.
All the information that I have received in regard to
this matter was given me by the Sheriff and Jailer and
two other men at Inverness. I neglected to state in my
former letter that the Sheriff arrived on the south bound
train from Ocala that afternoon. He told me that at
Dunellen some men had advised him to go to Inverness
that night, and that they had tried to prevent him from
going. He also stated that he was guarded in the Court
House-"well guarded, too," were his words. He did not
say whether any members of the mob wore maks or not.
He did not see the jailer until after the lynching.
The jailer told me that he had three guards, but that
no shots were fired, and that the mob at the jail behaved
in a very orderly manner. When asked for the keys, he
told the mob that he had none, and one of the mob said
that he wnew where they were and went after them. The
combination on the cell of the prisoner was not on.
I further learned that the negro was arrested at about
11 o'clock a. m., and no message was sent to the Governor
requesting military aid until about six o'clock p. m. It
was known in Inverness that troops had been ordered.
First Lieutenant, 2nd Infantry,
Commanding Brooksville platoon of Company "B."

Armory, Company "B," Second Infantry,
Leesburg, Florida, June 9, 1906.
The Adjutant Gcneral,
State of Florida,
Tallah assee, Florida.
I have the honor to submit the following report relative
to the movements of Company "B," 2nd Infantry, F. S.
T., assembled to aiad the civil authorities at Inverness:
I received the following message from the Adjutant
General at 7:30 o'clock p. m., June 7, 1906:
"Tallahassee, Florida, June 7, 1906.
"Captain F. C. W. Kramer, or Lieutenant Taylor,
"Company "B," Bnd Infantry, F. S. T.,
Leesburg, Florida.
"Assemble your company and hold in readiness to move
to Inverness. Have ordered Brooksville platoon over to
save time, but situation may be serious enough require
Leesburg platoon also.
(Signed) "FOSTER, Adjutant General."
The company was immediately assembled in the armory.
I sent the following message to the Adjutant General at
8:30 p. m.:
"Leesburg, Florida, June 7, 1906.
"The Adjutant General,
Tallahassee, Florida.
"Leesburg platoon in readiness to move.
(Signed) "F. A. TAYLOR,
"Second Lieutenant, Company "B," 2nd Infantry."
At 9:45 o'clock I received the following message from
the Adjutant General:
"Tallahassee, Florida, June 7, 1906.
"Lieutenant Taylor,
"Leesburg, Florida.
"Your message received. Hold men in armory tonight.
Try to keep wire open.
(Signed) "FOSTER, Adjutant General."
The men slept in the armory that night. I received the
following message from the Adjutant General at 12:15
P. M., June 8, 1906:


"Tallahassee, Florida, June 8, 1906.
"Second Lieutenant F. A. Taylor,
Company "B," 2nd Infantry, F. S. T.,
"Leesburg, Florida.
"You may relieve your company from duty.
(Signed) "FOSTER, Adjutant General."

The men were dismissed immediately.
Very respectfully,
Second Lieutenant, 2nd Infantry,
Commanding Leesburg platoon of Company "B.'



Tallahassee, Florida, December 31, 1906.
To His Excellency,
Honorable Napoleon B. Broward,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Florida.
In accordance with the suggestion that a report from
me covering my observations of matters pertaining to the
State military service in the past year would be accep-
table, I have the honor to submit the following remarks
and recommendations:
First of all things, I beg to say that I am especially
glad of the opportunity to testify in a general way to the
splendid promise which the Florida State Troops give of
continued improvement and future increased efficiency,
and if I point out what to my mind seems the best ways
to effect that desired improvement and increased ef-
ficiency, I trust that nothing submitted by me will be
construed either as super-critical or in any way presump-
tious. The regular Army officer on duty with the or-
ganized militia of a State holds a dual office, one feature
of which obligates him as the accredited military adviser
of the Governor, to strive constantly to discover what is
best for the welfare and improvement of the State militia,
and it is in the performance of that pleasing duty that
I have the honor to address to you this communication.
And it may be well to say in the beginning that if my re-
port becomes longer than I would ordinarily make it and
embraces details and discussions which should not find
place in a mere casual review of a year's routine
administration of military affairs, it is because this is the

last year when reforms and corrections can be made in
the military organizations of the states, so as to make the
organized militia conform in all respects to the standard
and requirements of the regular Army establishment. To
be more explicit, I may recall to the Governor's attention
the fact that the "Act to promote the efficiency of the
militia," passed by Congress and approved January 21,
1903, allowed five years from the date of the approval of
the Act for the States to make their organized militia
correspond in organization, armament and discipline with
that perscribed for the Regular and Volunteer Armies of
the United States, and therefore there remains but the
ensuing year to perfect whatever the Florida officials may
have in mind to improve the Florida State Troops.
Fortunately for the military service the present State
military law corresponds generally with the requirements
of the Militia Act of 1903, and if the rules and regula-
tions already prescribed for the government of the or-
ganized militia of this State are strictly enforced and
complied with, and the corrections and reforms herein
recommended are even in part effected, then there need
be no apprehension that Florida will meet fully all the re-
quirements and expectations of the War Department
under the Militia Act above referred to.
But. perhaps, before proceeding directly to my criti-
cisms of defects and recommendations for desired reforms
and necessary corrections, it may be well for me to recount
briefly my methods of observation.


My service with the Florida Militia began actively on
May 30, 1905, when I reported in person to the Governor
in accordance with the orders of the Honorable Secretary
of War, and consequently my period of observation of the
Florida State Troops and the administration of military
affairs in the State embraces about nineteen months.
During that time it has been my agreeable duty to act as
coadjutor and adviser of the Adjutant General of the
State in whose office I have been located, and from time
to time to meet and confer with the various officers of the
organized militia from the Brigade Commander down
to junior subalterns, and I may state with grateful appre-
ciation that in no instance has the advice, counsel or as-

distance asked of me personally or officially by any of
them, and cheerfully given by me to them all to the best
of my ability, been received or treated other than in a
spirit of cordial comradeship.
During my duty in this State I have been able to ob-
serve more or less closely all the organizations of the
Florida State Troops, havnig seen them twice in annual
encampment and once in the early part of this year in-
spected each organization as well as all the brigade, regi-
mental and battalion headquarters at the home stations,
and it a fords me pleasure to say that after ocusiderable
experience with militia troops and much general observa-
tion of the organized militia of other states, the Florida
State Troops are second to none in aptness to learn and
alertness to do intelligently and faithfully to the extent
of their knowledge the practical duties of soldiers. And
this opinion is not based alone upon cursory observation
of the troops at fixed times and special occasions,
but at other times when they were unconscious of being
observed. Indeed, inasmuch as my action and line of duty
with the Florida militia are under the direction and with
the immediate approval and authority of the Governor,
he may be pleased to know that the general method pur-
sued by me has been in accordance with the conception
on my part that the regular Army officer on duty with
the State militia should, except when making the annual
inspection of troops required by the War Department,
regard himself as one of the Florida State Troops, setting
aside all formality and rendering aid and assistance to
all alike without regard to rank, who may, either in confi-
dence or otherwise, come to him as comrade. In this way
I have acted as Aid-de-camp, Adjutant General of Brigade,
Regimental Staff officer and Camp Adjutant, as well as
personal friend and private adviser, endeavoring when-
ever occasion permitted to show by the actual perform-
ance of duty or the preparation of orders, reports, etc.,
just how military things should be done according to the
prescribed regulations. And it has been my happy experi-
ence to find that officers and men appreciated the spirit
of my willingness to advise and assist them, and their
cheerful recognition of the fact that complacent co-opera-
tion on our respective parts would redound to their advan-
tage, has made my task as general instructor a very agree-
able one. Indeed, I feel that I may go even farther and

say, and not without some feeling of personal pride, that
although I have heretofore done duty with and been a
close observer of militia in other states, the progress made
by the Florida State Troops in the past year and a half has
never been exceeded by any other body of militia under
like conditions in equal space of time. In making this as-
sertion I am not unmindful of the fact that some persons,
some few who judge from different points of view, may
ho'd different opinion on this point, but during the period
of my own observation I have had the opportunity to see
all the organizations of the entire brigade twice make
and break camp with nearly a year's intervening time for
improvement, and to their credit be it said that the les-
sons learned in that one year were so well practiced at
Tampa in the last encampment as to command from me
the statement that the last was the best and most sol-
dierly appearing military camp it had ever been my
pleasure to witness among the militia of the States. Of
course there were defects, defective administration and
unsatisfactory sanitation, and a sad lack of compliance
with regulations and orders, especially on the part of
officers, but the camp. taken as a whole, viewed in the
concrete as a camp of well behaved and orderly soldiers,
was bound to win applause.


Verily the soldier, and by soldier I mean the enlisted
man of the Florida State Troops, has demonstrated in the
past year or two his willingness and ability to learn his
share of the military lessons taught in the annual camps
of instruction, or at least so much of them as may be
taught in part, and it is a pity officers do not show the
same degree of improvement. Of course the soldier, that
is the private or noncommissioned officer, has much lezs
to learn than the commissioned officer, but if he learns
his part, however little it be, he comes nearer doing his
duty than the commissioned officer who allows himself to
continue in service month after month and year after
year with military knowledge so imperfect as to make the
officer an imperfect teacher of those under him, whom it
is his duty to teach, as well as to command and lead.
I do not wish to be understood as conceding that the
enlisted men had so far improved when last observed

in camp as to be thoroughly instructed in all their duties,
for such was not the fact. On the contrary there was
little improvement noticed in the knowledge of guard
duty or the things taught in the school of the soldier
and the squad, but the enlisted men's improvement in
those things depends upon their commissioned officers,
and however willing and intelligent the enlisted men may
be, the commissioned officers must be capable and willing
to teach before their men can or will learn. What I saw
in the Tampa camp last August, however, and the general
bearing and deportment of the troops in and out of camp,
convinced me that the Florida soldier is far above the
average of state militiaman and only needs to be given the
chance to equal any other militiaman on earth. When
I first saw him he was living up to the reputation given
him in prior years, by going into camp in a boisterous and
unsoldierly manner, without evincing any of the outward
signs of the trained or disciplined soldier; but when I
last saw him in the camp of instruction he was neatly
dressed, or as neatly dressed as his limited uniform al-
lowance permitted; he was orderly and never boisterous
or even unduly hilarious, always respectful when ap-
proached or spoken to or passed by superior officers,
and, as a rule, ready and alert to give military salute
whenever occasion required that act of official courtesy.
He showed plainly, in fact, that he had profited by the
lessons taught in the preceding encampment when rigid
rules were enforced to make men quietly attentive to duty
and respectful to superiors, and it was a pity other les-
sons could not also have.been taught and learned in the
few days allowed for camp instruction; but five working
days in camp will never do much lasting good for the
State troops whose annual encampment should not be for
less period than fifteen days.


Indeed, it is a very serious question worthy of very
serious consideration whether money expended for an-
nual encampments that last only eight days, is the most
advantageous investment that can be made of that part
of the public funds intended for the training and im-
provement of the State's militia. A period of eight days

encampment means practically but five or six days of
actual military work-such work as should enter into
the annual field exercises and instruction in all military
camps of instruction, and unless those few days are to
be faithfully devoted to the carrying out of a previously
planned system of camp instruction in accordance with
law and duly issued orders, the camp becomes simply an
annual outing for the troops, which it goes without saying
is not contemplated by the laws providing for them.
Of course there are advantages even in bringing troops
together-advantages even in the mobilization of a bri-
gade if for no other purpose than to bring the officers
and men in touch with each other and let them all see
their respective places in battalion, regimental and bri-
gade line. But I repeat that it is a serious proposition,
and not altogether a wise one, to use up all or nearly
all of the annual appropriation for the proper training of
the militia simply for the purpose of bringing them to-
gether to show what they already know, as was largely
the case when in the last annual camp at Tampa the
troops without learning much if anything that was new
made such a satisfactory showing of what they had
learned in the previous encampments. There is much to
learn by the troops outside of the annual camps-much
that should be learned on the target ranges and on
battalion and company practice marches, and unless
the annual encampments are to embrace a longer period
of progressive field exercises and extended order drills
for the larger units, that is for the battalions and the
regiments, a better use of the appropriations for camps
in occasional years would be the employment of means
to help directly the companies and battalions. But to
make this possible the appropriation annually for the
military training of the militia, instead of being made
specifically for annual encampments should be made
for the general purpose of "military training of the
Florida State Troops in such manner as may be de-
cided upon by the Governor upon the recommendation
of military or advisory Board duly authorized to be ap-
pointed by the Governor for the consideration of military
training and other matters to be referred to it."


In making this recommendation, I hope I need not
again disavow any intention to reflect upon anybody's
management of military affairs in this State., Public
discussions of public measures for the public good should
transcend mere personal preferences or individual preju-
dices, and neither persons nor personal considerations
should estop a public official in the honest official ex-
pression of his sincere convictions of what is needed for
the public good. Indeed, I repeat that, with the limited
facilities available, those charged with the direct manage-
ment of military affairs in this State do amazingly well,
but no man is so infallible, nor is his judgment in mili-
tary affairs so perfect and unerring as to make hi. de-
cision absolutely the best that can be rendered upon any
one question. The old saying that two heads are better
than one, has been applied in the management of mili-
tary affairs in nearly all the progressive countries of the
world, and even in our own country where the prejudice
against adopting foreign methods was so strong as to
make us cling to an old and unsatisfactory system of
military administration long after it had proved too de-
fective for continuaTnie, the one man or one mind ilea
finally gave way to the General Staff system which now
enables the Commander-in-Chief, through the Secretary
of War, to direct the affairs of the regular Army under
the advice, guidance or recommendations of the General
Staff of the Army composed of selected officers of varying
rank and divided into divisions under a Chief of Staff
of the Army. What is good for the regular Army-indeed
what is necessary for that Army-might at least be well
considered when weighing the best things to do for a
Slate's militia. And, therefore, I recommend the ap-
pointment of "A Military Advisory Board," of which
the Adjutant General of the State shall be the Chairman,
and two members of the General Staff resident in the
capital of the State, or at such place as militia headquar-
ters may be hereafter established, shall be members,
whose duties shall embrace consideration of all matters
referred to it by the Governor acting as Commander-in-
Chief. and decision of all discretionary matters pertain-
ing to the organization and training of the organized
militia of the State.

Of course this idea is only crudely outlined and sug-
gested, and in establishing such a Board duly considered
rules and regulations should be prescribed for its gov-
ernment. Among other additional duties of such a Board
should be included those in regard to considering eligible
officers for transfer to the General Staff in accordance
with the rules governing those selections for the regular
Army. It is not well to make any one man the sole judge
of the merits or peculiar fitness of the eligible officers
for appointment as brigade commander or selection for
the General Staff. It is indeed a responsibility which
any conscientious man might well wish to avoid or to
be rid of inasmuch as it entails embarrassments, especial-
ly embarraccing to the man in political life-the embar-
rassment of passing judgment upon on'e own best per-
sonal or political friends, either turning them down when
they should be turned down, or else perhaps selecting
them for appointment by the Governor or Brigadier Gen-
eral, on the General Staff-for whose important duties
they may not be at all fitted. It is much better to make
General Staff selections depend solely and entirely upon
military considerations, for in that way alone will the best
interests of the State militia be subserved, and the Gov-
ernor be enabled to discover just who is best fitted for
military reasons for the offices which he is required to
fill, when he himself has no preference whatever and
only wishes to do what is best for the military service.
Besides there are various other military matters not of
general routine, which must be left by the Governor
and to others under him for consideration and recom-
mendation, and the wiser and safer way for all concerned
would seem to be to make the source of such recom-
mendation non-personal-that is, based upon the decision
of a Board instead of one person.


I hope it is hardly necessary for me to disclaim or deny
any intention in my remarks above to make a sweeping
reflection upon the commissioned officers, many of whom
are exceptionally well equipped for the positions they
hold; but it must be admitted that it takes longer time
and requires much more application and harder study to
make a competent officer than it does an efficient private,

or even a well-instructed corporal or sergeant, and the im-
provement of the officers in the past year was not up to ex-
pectation. In the regular Army it is seldom that an offi-
cer reaches a captaincy until after years of study and expe-
rience in the lower grades, while the field officers' grades
are seldom reached before an officer has had from twenty
to thirty years training and study in the military service.
Of course, it is not to be expected that officers of the
militia can or should be required to keep up such a degree
of study as the regular Army officers whose entire timp is
devoted to military duty and study, but nevertheless, no
man should accept a commission as officer in the militia
unless he feels and knows that he can and will give to his
military duties sufficient time and attention to make him
capable at least to meet the expectation that he will be able
to master the mere elementaries of the military profession.
It is absurd to say that the new conditions require too
much of the militia officers, and that military exactions
encroach too much upon their time. The regulations pre-
scribed under the new Federal Militia Laws in reality re-
quire very little of the militia, amounting so far as the
War Department is concerned to only twentyfour drills a
year, a fair knowledge of the military drills, especially in
extended order, as well as the use of small arms, and a
readiness in point of uniforms, arms and equipment for
active duty in the field whenever emergency calling for
the same should arise, and that degree of discipline which
insures obedience to orders and rendering of all required
reports. That it is neither impracticable nor impossible
for officers as well as enlisted men to maintain the stand-
ard of proficiency expected of them all is evidenced by
the fact that there are in the organized militia of Florida
and othed States officers of high military attainments and
marked ability as instructors and commanders of soldiers,
but if any man insists that his commission as an officer
places too heavy a burden upon him or demands the sacri-
fice of private business interests rather than neglect his
military duties he should resign his commission and give
way to some man who has time and opportunity to meet
the demands of the office.
It might be well to say this year, as I stated last year,
that the officer is entitled to some consideration in the
matter of uniform and equipment. The enlisted men have
everything they need as soldiers furnished to them without

expense, whereas the officer who receives no salary, and
like the enlisted man gets no compensation except when
ordered out to assist the civil authorities or to go into an
annual encampment, is required to buy with his own
money, and money which few of them can well spare, his
entire outfit as an officer at a cost that may reach up in the
hundreds of dollars if the officer buys even second grade
uniforms of all prescribed kinds. Fortunately, however,
only the dress and field service uniforms are necessary for
duty in this State, and those should be furnished to the
officer, together with his prescribed arms, by the State, or
from funds allotted to the State. Like the enlisted sol-
diers, the officers give their services to the State volun-
tarily without pay, and the least they could expect are
military clothes to wear on duty.


As the Governor will remember, there was established a
service school, of which I was appointed the superintend-
ent, and courses of military study were mapped out and
published in advance in official orders quarterly, the plan
and purpose being to require officers to study progressively
and prepare themselves for' examinations at some time to
be prescribed. The examinations were unwisely, but, per-
haps, unavoidably fixed to occur in the last annual camp,
but delays and obstacles occurred and the examinations
were found not to be practicable in the few days remain-
ing of the encampment. As a result of that expedience and
discouragement orders were subsequently issued discon-
tinuing the service school so far as officers were concerned,
and I believe the Adjutant General contemplates some new
experiment in the line of compulsory study. For my part,
however, I do not see any practical good to come of the
so-called service school for officers except that the orders
prescribing study courses may serve as guides for those
who are in need of direction. Scattered as they are, how-
ever, over the State, with no one in immediate authority
to superintend directly their compulsory study or enforce
strict compliance with the school orders, officers may as
well be left to their own volition in the matter of study,
and placed upon honor to perfect themselves in knowledge
of their military duty, be required to present themselves
for examination whenever it shall appear that any of them

are culpably negligent or ignorant. All that is needed to
make officers study is a proper sense of personal pride,
and professional military esprit, as well as conscientious
realization of their official obligations under the oath of
office. Without those manly feelings and incentives, offi-
cers will not study, no matter how many orders issue, and
the sooner the State discovers such as they, if unhappily
any such exists in Florida, the service will be better off
without them.


In this connection might well be considered the advis-
ability of establishing some system of elimination of un-
desirable officers, who, refusing or failing to study and
equip themselves for their respective duties, stand rooted
in their grade unable to pass the required examination for
promotion and yet entitled to hold on indefinitely unless
some method be devised for relieving the active list of
them. Undoubtedly the present law contemplating that
promotions shall, as far as practicable, be made by senior-
ity is a good one, and perhaps the best way to compel
study is to require officers eligible for promotion by rea-
son of seniority, to pass a satisfactory examination, and
in the event of failure to pass, be suspended for a cer-
tain specified time and then be accorded a second exam-
ination. In the event of second failure to pass the re-
quired examination the officer should be dropped from
the service. It is not wholesome, nor is it good military
policy to allow officers themselves to decide whether or not
they will take examination for the promotion to which
their seniority would entitle them if duly qualified, or to
waive their right to pdomotion either because they pre-
fer lower rank or deem themselves incompetent to pass the
test for promotion. Nor is it good military policy to make
promotion depend upon competitive examinations or to
adopt any system which would enable a junior
to jump or supersede a senior while the latter
still remains in active service. And further it
is not believed to be good military policy to
make the retired list an avenue of escape for incompetent
officers. Retirement from active service with retention of
rank and the right to wear the uniform is a distinction

merited only by the faithful and meritorious officer who
has earned retirement either by long service or physical
disability contracted in the line of duty. Any other in-
centive or reason for retirement would reflect upon the re-
tired list-that honor roll of deserving veterans which
should be ever jealously guarded by the State. The laws, it
is true, prescribe a period of service upon which may be
based application for retirement, but the granting of re-
tirement is a discretionary act, and the officer who seeks
retirement as a panacea of pique or sudden discontent
under discipline, or as an evasion of proper test of his
fidelity to duty, might well be denied that distinguished
favor and honor.
Another point to be considered in connection with the
commissioned personnel of the State troops is the meth-
od of selecting company officers. Assuming that there is
no way to avoid or supplant the present elective system,
whereby the members of a company may choose their of-
ficers, there nevertheless ought to be a way by which, in
the event of a vacancy in the captaincy of a company
the first and second lieutenants of the company shall
accede to the next higher grade to which they are each
respectively entitled to be promoted. It is not good mili-
tary policy after lieutenants shall have been duly elected
by the company and commissioned by the appointing pow-
er, and shall have had more or less service as such even
to the extent of acting as company commander, to be su-
perceded and jumped by some private soldier or inexperi-
enced civilian outsider who may on the spur of the mo-
ment. or after as the result of a bit of minor politics, be
elected captain. It would seem easy to remedy this de-
plorable defect which works serious disadvantage to the
military service at times, by simply having a rule made
announcing that in electing company officers the selection
must be made with due regard to the fact that the lieu-
tenants shall be promoted in the order of their rank to
the vacancy occurring above them. This would not in any
way impair the right of a company to select its own of-
ficers, and if understood in advance the selection of lieu-
tenants would or should be made with an eye to securing
the best material for officers eventually to command the
company, and the result would be to raise the standard
of merit and give the lieutenants an incentive to equip-
themselves for the prospective ultimate succession to the

captaincy of the company. In several instances I have
seen the bad effect of the present system which enables a
newcomer without any military experience whatever to
leap either the company ranks or civil life into the posi-
tion of Captain over the heads of the lieutenants and de-
serving noncommissioned officers of the company, of more
or less long service and experience, whose chagrin and dis-
couragement made them of little use in the company there-
Besides, the fact must be remembered that conditions
are somewhat different now from what they were when
companies were independent and to a grat extent social
organizations owning all their own company arms and
equipment. Now the arms and equipment and uniforms
are the property of the Federal government for which
the Governor of the State is responsible, and each cap-
tain of a company becomes the agent of the Governor
for the safe custody and care of that public property. It
would seem but natural that the Sate should feel some
interest in the kind of agent the Governor is to have, a pol-
icy if adopted in all the States long ago would have saved
the loss of hundreds of thousands of dollars of arms and
equipment injured or rendered practically worthless
through the culpable neglect of their immediate negligent


While I see no way now to change the elective system
it may be possible to so modify some of its
methods as to leave the company free to name its
own officers, but once named, the company should have
nothing to say or do concerning their tenure of office, nor
would the company officers than feel that they must
truckle or cater, or in any way yield unduly to the wishes
of any clique of men whose good favor might be necessary
to insure re-election. Recently I was amazed when my
attention was called to the fact that all three company
officers in deference to a company by-law had at a com-
pany meeting which preceded an annual dinner resigned
their respective positions as captain and lieutenants, and
were all three re-elected to the positions. It goes without
saying that if the Military Code of Florida means any-

thing at all, it means that resignations of officers can be
tendered in one way only, and once tendered, can only
be recalled by permisison of the Governor, and a company
that pretends to receive and accept resignations of com-
pany officers and re-elect them, etc., etc., simply indulges
in child's play, which is not military, and besides com-
pany by-laws should be carefully scrutiniezd to see that
they do not conflict with the provisions of State laws.
The company is one of the most important military
units and upon it must depend the efficiency of the larger
units, as for example the battalion and the regiment, and
there can be no good company with a poor captain, nor
can the best colonel the world ever saw make a good
regiment out of a dozen incompetent captains with un-
instructed and undisciplined companies, unless, of course,
he rid the regiment of the poor captains and himself di-
rected the desired improvement. And particularly in
Florida is the good captain a military essential, for, sit-
uated as he is generally away off by himself in command
of his isolated station, which the battalion or regimental
commander seldom or perhaps never visits, he must of
necessity be a man of exceptional ability, character and
good judgment. After all, whether we like to admit it
or not, the Brigade of Florida Troops, despite the the-
oretical organization, really consists of so many compan-
ies which, with exception of those three listed in a battal-
ion at Jacksonville, are thrown upon their own resources
and act about as independently as separate companies are
supposed to act, with no regimental officer to observe or
direct them except for a few days in the annual encamp-
ment. It is eminently desirable, therefore, that the State
shall be able always to secure as captains of companies
the very best available material in the service, who, in-
stead of being under the control of their men subject to
be changed annually if the men chaff under their rules of
proper discipline, should at all times be allowed to feel
that they can and must command at all times be allowed
to feel that can and must command their companies ac-
cording to the rules prescribed, without fear of offending
any company veterans.


Anent the subject of failure to care for and account

for public property entrusted to certain officers, it may
be proper to invite attention to the method of allowing
responsible officers indefinite time after their relief from
office to account for the public property issued to them
in some capacity or other, meanwhile placing those offi-
cers on the supernumerary list, which, in my opinion,
the law never contemplated should be used for such a pur-
pose, and which if adhered to, is likely to swell the num-
ber of officers far above the number prescribed in the
limited organizations. While the State military code au-
thorizes a supernumerary list, it would seem to refer to
a list of officers relieved from duty, whose places were
not to be filled until they had passed from the supernu-
memary list out of active service.
At any rate, to provide a special list for dilinquent of-
ficers who may indefinitely postpone and delay their set.
tlement of accounts for the very purpose of indefinitely
enjoying rank and the right to wear their uniforms, would
seem to place a premium upon wrong doing by creating a
military roll of delinquents whose only disadvantage, if in
their way of feeling disadvantage it really be, would rest
in absolute relief from all military duty, save that of
making occasional excuse for inability or disclination to
close accounts with the State. There ought to be a pro-
vision of law in Florida as elsewhere, holding a man to
responsibility for public property duly issued to him, and
even if an officer responsible for public property resigns
from the military service of the State the responsibility
remains attached to him and he should -of necessity be
sued in the proper courts. Not only is the present sys-
*- : ,,, nini; n a had one but no man can estimate

erad government pursuant to law under well defined legal
restrictions or conditions, or purchased by the State with
public money, and is in the possession of the military de-
partment of the State government for a specific purpose.
Unlike other public stores, it should not be deposited or
hidden away in neglected places, for the very nature of its
mechanism and make and intended use demands that it
should be at all times kept in good usable condition. For
example, rifles, revolvers, bayonets and canteens, all lia-
ble to rust and deterioration, should be carefully looked
after and not be allowed to become as rusty and abso-
lutely unfit for use as I found so many of the arms and
canteens at the last annual inspection I made of the
companies in their armories and at the previous inspec-
tion in the annual camp when the arms and equipment
were supposed to have been in better condition than
Of course, the general custodian would not and could
not be expected to see personally to the cleaning and care
of this property, but if he were made a salaried official,
as he should be, he could devote all his time to the mat-
ter and ascertain whether the required attention is being
given to the preservation of the weapons and equipment
issued for actual use in an emergency. The condition of
many of the soldiers' rifles at the last three general in-
spections was bad enough to warrant the severest disci-
plinary action, for in many cases the neglect manifest
was culpable to the extreme. In emergency, the soldier
needs a clean or at least, shootable gun, and usable am-
munition, as well as a serviceable canteen, because there
comes a time when water is as necessary to the effective
fighting man as weapon, but I venture the opinion that
unless greater care is hereafter taken, especially of the
canteen, whir- ""' -- al, the Florida sol-
S'- V +4 n,

year. Whenever I have called attention to this fact, I
have been met with the reminder that those officials are
not salaried and can not justly be commanded or ex-
pected to give their time to official matters without re-
muneration, but from such an opinion I must respectfully
dissent. Every public office carries with it certain obli-
gations, and the General Staff officers of the Florida Mili-
tia know full well in advance when they seek or accept
their office the disadvantages involved and should like-
wise know the burden of responsibility they assume. To
accept such an office with its well defined duties and in-
tend only the wear the uniform and enjoy its distinction
without rendering anything to the State in return, would
be unbecoming to say the least, and the State should not
permit it. There should be no military figure-heads in
Florida or any other State in these days of progressive
military instruction and preparation.
And further, so far as the argument is concerned, that

..i would be
...tI General's office
of course, the Governor should al-
cslignate ine officer so to act and, unless under
some standing rule one particular officer acts habitually
"for the and in the absence o fthe Adjutant General"
during the absence of the latter.

But if the conclusion is reached that there is no way
to divide up the duties of military administration among
the various heads of the General Staff departments then
effort should be made as soon as possible to secure au-
thority for at least one other salaried military official,
who might best of all be a Quartermaster General, with
a salary of not less than $1,500.
As a matter of fact, two salaried general staff officers,
with others to act for them in their absence, are all that
are really required for the practical conduct of this
State's military affairs, and yet two would at least be a
decided advantage over one as at present. The Adju-
tant General would then be able to devote his time to the
administrative affairs and be relieved of the endless duty
of the supply departments, leaving to the Quartermaster

General the receipt and issue of public property and its
proper care and preservation, including all arms, ord-
nance accouterments, equipment and other military arti-
cles issued by the War Department in compliance with
the Federal militia laws. Both of these salaried officials
should be provided with necessary clerks, at least three
for the Arjutant General and two for the Quartermaster
General. It would seem only reasonable to expect for
the military department of the State Government the
importance and usefulness of which can no longer be dis-
puted, the same generous and sensible provisions as are
made for other departments of even lesser importance
wherein ample clerical help is already allowed. I have
seen the Adjutant General at work holidays and Sundays
up to late hours at night himself working on a type-
writing machine, and the thought always occurred to
me that the State might well profit by his superior men-
tality, manifestly needed in other ways, by allowing him
sufficient clerks to do the drudgery of his office.
Then, again, there is no doubt that the present condi-
tions tend to make the Adjutant General self-dependent
and self-reliant to an extent that renders him,
unconsciously, perhaps, to an unusual and im-
politic degree the very mainstay and sole basic founda-
tion of the whole structure of the State's military affairs,
which but for him might fall. This is not a desirable con-
dition of public affairs. State military administration,
like every other feature of State Government, should
in my opinion, rest on a well organized system which
would not depend upon any one man or number of men,
and which could be continued without interruption or
embarrassment no matter if its present director should die
or resign, or become otherwise disqualified for office. Such,
however, would not be the case if any emergency should
occur to leave the office of Adjutant General vacant
either temporarily or permanently, for if the present in-
cumbent were to become incapacitated for duty tomor-
row, unpleasant as the comment is, I do not hesitate to
assert most positively that no official in the State could
intelligently take ul the burdens of his office and let
military administration proceed without a hiatus, and
this would be possible of course in an emergency or at
some vital moment when it should not be possible to oc-
cur at all at any time.

For this reason, as much as out of necessity to have a
custodian of public property, the creation of a salaried
office of Quartermaster General should be urged, on the
ground of immediate wisdom and ultimate economy, for
it will save many a dollar to the State. Having his
office adjacent to that of the Adjutant General he could
keep in touch with its affairs and in the absence of the
latter should be designated as Acting Adjutant Gen-
eral. The wisdom of this must be apparent to everybody
who has had dealings with a public office, and it goes with-
out saying that an official whose duties are likely to re-
quire absence from his office ought to have some one to
represent him and attend to office affairs'without delay.
Besides, no matter how willing and capable any one man
might be, like the present Adjutant General of the State,
to do more than his share of public duty, the best inter-
ests of the State demand that no branch of public admin-
istration shall, under any circumstances, become a one-
man institution, especially when the system of govern-
mental organization, in theory at least, distinctly pro-
vides for proper succession in office and such a divided
responsibility as would never leave an office without a
legitimate and proper head.


Closely connected with these considerations is the
problem of what is best to do to secure the proper brigade
administration contemplated by the military code. The-
oretically, the Brigade Commander being senior line of-
ficer, is the direct military commander of the brigade of
Florida State Troops, responsible directly to the Gov-
ernor for the efficiency of the command, but in practice
there is no organized system of brigade administration or
at least none that is calculated to cover properly as con-
templated the entirefield oftheBrigadeCommander'sduty.
First of all there is no provision for a public office in
Jacksonville where the Brigade Headquarters are sup-
posed to be, and no public records or files for the ac-
commodation of the brigade staff officers, and absolutely
no direct administration of brigade affairs. To remedy
this condition an allotment of the military funds is ur-
gently recommended sufficient to secure suitable office
rooms and office furniture, etc., and provision should be

made for a competent clerk, after which the Brigade
Commander should be expected to do all his duty. It is
unreasonable to expect the Brigade Commander to main-
tain a brigade headquarters without any allowances for
the expense thereof. True, his position being one of im-
portance and distinction, carries with it certain obli-
gations, which his acceptance of office makes him
bound to respect, but, on the other hand, in
conferring upon the brigade commander his office
with its obligations, it is the duty of the State
to supply him with the means, in part at least, to meet
those official obligations. Indeed, in my opinion the Brig-
ade Headquarters at Jacksonville are as much entitled
to consideration and allotments as the Militia Headquar-
ters at Tallahassee, and once duly established all brigade
officers should be required under the supervision of the
Brigade Commander to do his full military duty. In
this way much of the work now improperly and in my
opinion not altogether legally centered in the Adjutant
General's office at Tallahassee could be placed where, ac-
cording to law, it properly belongs, in the Brigade Head-
quarters, and in that event one of the three clerks above
mentioned for the Adjutant General's office might be
passed or transferred to the Brigade Headquarters. As a
rule, the laymen and uniformed persons generally have lit-
tle conception of the extent of duty or amount of work
involved in maintaining and conducting the military es-
tablishment of a State. As a rule, too, some people are
inclined to belittle the importance of the militia and rid-
icule the idea that any work is really necessary to keep
it up. But I hope that my long military experience will
entitle my remarks on this subject to the serious consid-
eration I invoke for them when I say that although I
have been Adjutant General both of a brigade and divi-
sion in the regular ramy in peace and war times, and
only recently was on duty at the headquarters of one
of the largest military department headquarters in the
United' States, I am free to say that there is more cleri-
cal labor required in connection with military affairs
in Florida than in any of the headquarters above re-
ferred to, and at the present writing, the Adjutant Gen-
eral of this State, with rather two poorly paid clerks, is
undertaking to do all that duty which at any one of the
United States Department Headquarters today would be

distributed amongst a coterie of proper staff officers each
aided by one or more clerks. The point I would make is
simply this: That there is a right and a wrong way-a
fair way and an unfair way; indeed, a wise and an un-
wise way to treat the military of Florida, and compari-
sons like the above, to say nothing about comparisons
with military management in other States, can leave
but one conclusion in any unprejudiced mind.


The troops are to be congratulated over the prospect of
securing a permanent military camp site, and while I have
no knowledge whatever of the grounds under considera-
tion. I am free to say that almost any centrally located
section of land of sufficient area for drilling and maneu-
vering a medium size brigade, with healthful water and
other sanitary features, will be a great improvement over
the temporary sites selected each year more or less hur-
ridly and not always with due regard for the health
and comfort of the troops or the economy in cost of trans-
portation. The ground first selected for the encamp-
ment last August was not accepted by the Adjutant Gen-
eral until he had secured the favorable reports of the
Brigade Commander and the best available medical and
civil engineer authorities, and yet it was found at the
eleventh hour when the troops were almost starting for
Tampa that the selected ground was utterly unfit for
camp purposes by reason of excessive wetness and mud,
and later it was discovered that that particular piece of
rejected ground had been tried for camp purposes andi
condemned by the United States Volunteers in the be-
ginning of the Spanish war. The result was new ground
had to be hunted up betwixt midnight and morning, on
the verge of mobilization, necessitating the abandonment
of much of the work that had been done for camp com-
fort and conveniences and resulting in the loss of at least
one day of military work. Of course, no one wfs held
to blame in the matter because no one would admit re-
sponsibility for the blunder, but it fortunately happened
that the new ground selected was about the very best
that could have been found in the entire State, and the
camp proved to be one of the prettiest and most military
looking camps the Florida troops ever established.

However, whether a permanent camp site be selected
and purchased or not, I would respectfully rceommend
that the date for the next annual encampment as well
as those to follow be announced at least three months in
advance so as to enable the enlisted men as well as the
officers to arrange not only for their attendance at camp,
but for the summer outings or going away of their fam-


While on the subject of camps and camp sites, I deem
it proper to say that entirely too little attention has been
given to camp sanitation, which it is hardly necessary to
say forms the basic element of good and effective sol-
diery. In brief camps, like those annually in this State,
for from six to eight days, the danger arising from im-
perfect sanitation and neglected health conditions is, of
course, meagre; but it is a good military maxim that
however small be the command and however casual be
the march or brief the camp, the same military precau-
tions shall always be taken to insure due security on the
march or in the camp and proper care of health. And this
careful regard for the health of soldiers is even more de-
serving of especial attention by the militia authorities, be-
cause, in accepting the civic soldiers' volunteered services,
the State ought to guarantee to them the fullest possible
protection of their health which, after all, may be the
chief or only reliance of those patriotic men to earn their
bread and give support to their families. In this view
of the matter the commander or medical officer wvho
neglects to do his duty in respect to proper camp sani-
tation should be dealLt with summarily, for such neglect
is simply criminal.


-efore leaving the subject of camps, it may be well to
c:eli attention to the fact that the advice and expectations
of The War Department are not met in those camp of
instruction where the larger units are not drilled chiefly
;f not entirely in extended order and field exercises and
duties. Indeed, it was especially regretted that although
the last annual mobilization of the troops at Tampa was

in a brigade camp, there was no regimental or brigade
drill or maneuver whatever in either close or extended
order, and the evening parades of the troops by regiment
oi brigade gave too little opportunity to the brigade, regi-
mental and battalion commanders to handle and maneu-
ver their respective organiaztions. Hereafter it is hoped
orders will issue in such definite terms and mandatory
tone as will exact compliance with the instructions re-
quiring field exercises and extended order drills, and
leave no discretion to anybody to omit the drills and
maneuvers of the larger units. The annual encampments
are not the place for company drills, and it is about time
that the orders on that subject be obeyed. The last
brigade camp was especially intended to afford opportu-
nity to the two new colonels and the newly appointed
brigadier general to handle their proper commands for
the first and only times possible during the year, and it
was a matter of regret that anything should have pre-
vented them from making use of the only opportunity
some of them may ever have to test their capacity to man-
euver their proper commands.


In this connection I deem it right to invite attention
to my previous recommendations in favor of brigade en-
campments. Comparison between the two unsatisfactory
regimental camps of last year at Orlando and Lake City,
and the splendid looking brigade camp at Tampa this year,
leaves no doubt in my mind that the brigade camp, if prop-
erly conducted, is best calculated to produce desired re-
sults, and I therefore recommend that it be repeated here-
after. I also recommend that action be taken to make
each annual camp a self-running and self-sustaining insti-
totion free from the daily interference and mnre or los
constant coaching heretofore noticed. The Camp Com-
mander and his proper staff officers should be left to their
own resources, dependent only upon the regularly detailed
military instructors for aid and advice. It is not proper
for general staff officers to take u their abode in camp
and ni'cirtake to do duties, or nike a semblarc of doing
duties that belong to the brigade or camp staff officers.
In fact, not even the Adjutant General should do more
than visit and inspect the Camp in like manner to the

official visit made by the Commander-in-Chief, and under
no circumstances should the Inspector General of the
State be allowed to act again as camp staff officer or set-
tle himself permanently in camp except for the purpose
of prescribed inspections by him. In the last camp as
well as in those of last year there was entirely too much
interference with camp administration and more or less
confusion resulted. There was also too much division of
responsibility; in fact, too little responsibility was placed
where the responsibility rightly belonged. This method
1 know originated in the properly conceived desires and
purposes in time past to assist and guide inexperienced
officers in the performance of camp duties, but even ii
that were ever the proper course to pursue it would seem
that the time has come when commanders and their staff
officers should be left to their own resources and be at
]hast afforded the opportunity to which they are entitled
to learn by experience in a practical way-the only op-
liortunity they ever have being at the annual encamp-
ments. No commanding officer or staff official will ever
prove equal to responsibility of office if he is to be coached
and nursed at the time when he ought to be required or at
least permitted to do his duty the same as every other
officer is required or permitted to do his. It did not seem
military for the Commissiary General and the Quarter-
master General of the State to be personally in atten-
dance at camp, seeing to the purchase of subsistence artl-
cles or forage, sometimes at retail instead of leaving that
duty to the proper brigade and regimental staff officers
who were supposed to be as well informed as they, under
the direction or supervision of the Commanding Officer
whose proper prerogatives of office should never be inter-
fered with and whose responsibility for proper admin-
istration never lessened by anybody. The only proper
way to make the higher brigade or regimental officials
efficient in the practical discharge of duties is to let them
do their duty when the annual occasion arises to require
it. Naturally the Adjutant General of the State feels a
keen interest in seeing things done right, and, of course,
it is his duty to insist that public funds expended under
his supervision or by his authority shall be disbursed in
a proper and economical manner; but it would seem that
inasmuch as his position with respect to the State troops
in camp is not unlike that of the Secretary of War with

respect to regular army troops in camp, the War Depart-
ment rule might well be followed of simply issuing neces-
sary orders for a camp and then requiring all others con-
cerned to do their full duty concerning it. Therefore, I
recommend that when the next annual encampment is to
occur, after the location of the camp is decided upon and
contracts made for transportation and rationing of
troops and forage for animals, and other preliminary de-
tails duly provided for in advance, orders shall issue from
Militia Headquarters in the camp, then leaving the rest
to the others concerned. If the brigade and regimental
commanders are not capable to do their part in the form-
ation of a camp and running it for six or eight days they
ought to (at once learn, and if any responsibility is not
properly met by them they ought to be disciplined and, if
necessary, punished or removed from office. This plan
will render unnecessary the usual establishment of tem-
porary militia headquarters at some hotel in the vicinity
of the camp and remove the doubt which sometimes exists
as which headquarters are the proper fountain of im-
mediate camp authority or the direct source of camp
orders-a doubt which sometimes lead to confusion, as
well as to friction Or bad feeling.


Writing on the subject of orders reminds me that one
of the lessons yet to be learned by the Florida troops is
that strict and faithful obedience to orders forms the
very first duty of the real soldier. And it is just as well
for those members of the State troops who now treat offi-
cial orders with contumely and indifference, obeying them
only when it is convenient or agreeable to do so, to re-
member that next year when, in accordance with the Mili-
tia Act of 1903, the discipline of the organized militia
shall, as required by that law made by all the people's
representatives in Congress, correspond with the stand-
ard of discipline in the regular Army. Of course, regular
army discipline to those who know what it really is,
means only compliance with orders and regulations, and
that ought really to be no new lesson either to a con-
scientious militiaman or a careful business man-and
especially a business man who has to work under the
direction of, or in conformity with others who have the

right to direct or guide him. But if there are any persons
in the organiezd militia of this State who intend to pay
as little attention next year to official orders as some
officers have done in the past, the sooner they get out of
the military service the better it will be for all concerned.
Surely, when regulations require reports or returns to be
rendered at stated times, it is unsoldierly for an officer
to fail to make the required reports, and all the more
unsoldierly when he is called upon repeatedly for the
omitted report to pay little or no attention to the official
letter on that subject. Such as they therefore may just
as well remember next year that one of the provisions of
regular Army discipline requires that officers who fail or
refuse to render proper returns for property in their pos-
session or who fail or refuse to answer promptly without
good reason any official communication addressed to
them must stand trial by court-martial. And yet when
a man bears in mind that military discipline is really
nothing more or less than a rule of proper and genteel
human conduct which every self-respecting and careful
citizen might easily practice in civic avocations, the mili-
tary discipline either of the regular Army or militia need
not form a bughear nor be regarded as a bugaboo except
by the shiftless sort who, lacking confidence in them-
selves dread to place themselves under any positive rule
of life.
But one thing is sure: whenever military discipline is
to be enforced it ought to be applied to all alike without
partiality, favor or affection, and no matter if the offender
happens to be an officer who is a man of social prominence
or political power and influence, or the lowliest man in
the humbler walks of life, the same general rule of mili-
tary justice should be followed with respect to each and
bolh. I have known of at least two instances in the past
e:ar when officers have grievously embarrassed militia
headquarters by manifestations of the accntest forms of
insuliordinaion and official disrespect, and other in-
slance.s when officers have ilterly ignored official orders
and instructions, and yet although some enlisted men
have been court-maritaled for minor infractions or ab-
sences from camp, no court-martial since my tour of duty
began in Florida has yet been convened for the trial of an
officer. I am not a believer in captious or capricious
punishment, nor do I believe that a resort to the court-

martial should ever occur except when other methods of
discipline seem inadequate, but I do think it would be con-
ducive to good discipline and increased contentment
among the enlisted men if they could be shown that not
even the officer of high rank nor the man of highest social
or political prestige can escape deserved punishment, for
any personal or political reason whatsoever. Besides, all
of us must concede that it is manlier to punish the strong
instead of the weak, and military discipline Is better and
more exemplary when it begins at the top and deals first
with the most conspicuous offenders, especially when, by
reason of their prominent standing, they are defiant.
Another matter to which attention should be invited is
the manner in which some officers are inclined to show
their displeasure or resentment whenever they are taken
to task, by offering their resignation from the military
service. It does not require a military mind to see the
vicious tendency of such a course, and unless some good
reason exists for the immediate acceptance of a resignation
tendered under such circumstances; if the delinquency or
offenseoftheofficerbesufficiently grave he ought to be first
disciplined before final action is taken on the resignation.
But at any rate, no matter whether disciplinary action is
taken or not, the resigning officer ought never to be ten-
derly persuaded or cajoled with to withdraw his resigna-
tion, but on the contrary, he should be discharged from
the service. Of course, in all these comments, it will be
understood that allusions are only being made to rare in-
stances and a very limited few persons in the military
service of Florida, for, happily for the State, the instances
and persons above referred to are so few that they form
decided contrast with the large number of conscientious
and hard plodding manly officers who go steadily on doing
the best they can to meet requirement of official duty. The
good and efficient soldierly officers all know just how hard
it is for officers to study and improve themselves in mili-
tary matters, while at the same time attending to the mili-
tary duties and not neglecting their private business af-
fairs, and yet they all likewise know that the task is a pos-
sible one as I have maintained in another part of this re-

Good officers indeed should be helped and encouraged

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