Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Map: Panama canal zone colombi...
 Panama canal zone
 The Republic of Colombia
 Back Cover

Title: Handbooks on the missions of the Episcopal Church
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00023882/00001
 Material Information
Title: Handbooks on the missions of the Episcopal Church
Physical Description: v : ill., ports, maps. (fold.) ; 19 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Episcopal Church -- National Council. -- Department of Missions and Church Extension
Publisher: National Council of the Protestant Episcopal Church. Dept. of Missions
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: 1926-
Subject: Episcopal Church -- Missions   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
General Note: No.6. South America includes individual works on Brazil, Colombia, Panama, Canal Zone.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00023882
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001677169
oclc - 17781929
notis - AHY9072

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Map: Panama canal zone colombia
        Page 4
    Panama canal zone
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    The Republic of Colombia
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    Back Cover
        Page 126
Full Text

The Missions of the
Episcopal Church


Canal Zone

Price 40 Cents
of the Protestant Episcopal Church
Department of Missions
281 Fourth Avenue New York

orf YTloriba
T,[ br r r~

The (Sift of

The Missions of the
Episcopal Church

No. V1.


Canal Zone

Price 10 Cents
of the Protestant Episcopal Church
Department of Missions
81 Fourth Avenue New York



Panama Canal Zone ........................ 5

Republic of Colombia ...................... 49

Brazil ....................... ............ 53

Bibliography ............................. 122

Index .......................... ........... 123




South America

"CINCE the days of Greece's glory, no such small
. strip of soil as the Isthmus of Panama has
gained equal distinction. It has been the scene of
stirring adventure and the site of the wealthiest city
in the world. It has been the subject of epoch-
making diplomacy and a sphere of political dis-
turbance. It is the seat of the greatest engineering
enterprise in history ." Such is Panama in the
estimation of a recent writer; Panama discovered by
Columbus on his last voyage while searching for
"the hidden straight"; traversed by the intrepid,
curious, and reckless Balboa in his successful search
for "the mighty sea beyond the mountains"; and
governed by Pedrarias the Cruel who, after a mock-
ery of a trial brought Balboa, Adelantado of the
South Sea and noblest of the conquistadores, to the
scaffold on Acla Plaza. A new governor came, and
Pedrarias fearing his wrath, fled across the Isthmus
and, in 1519, on the site of a small fishing village
named Panama-meaning, a place abounding in fish
-founded a city. Next came Sir Francis Drake
and the buccaneers-English, Dutch, and French-
whose raids upon the Isthmus are familiar to every
boy. The Isthmus also attracted that skillful fighter
and sailor, Henry Morgan. In 1671, he sacked and
destroyed Old Panama; and for two years, the city
lay in ruins. Then, on a site, six miles to the west,
the New Panama began to rise. Other buccaneers
came. Repeatedly did the English attempt to gain
control of the Isthmus but never did they succeed.
"These doors of the seas and keys of the universe"
were not destined to be theirs.
15 ]

The last of the Spanish viceroys, in 1819, drove a
band of filibusters out of Porto Bello. Two years
later, this first colony of Spain in America declared
its independence. Times, however, had so changed
that the Spanish commander did not consider it
worth while to raise a rifle to save the former
"Treasure House of the World" for his royal master.
Panama slumbered. The old roads were disused
until suddenly the discovery of gold in California
stirred the Isthmus to new life. The "Forty-niners"
came in thousands to be paddled up the Chagres in
over-crowded dugouts to Cruces, thence to ride over
the old paved road, no better than a worn out trail,
to Panama City. When California and Oregon were
admitted into the Union, Congress authorized
steamship lines on either coast to the Isthmus, and
appropriated money to pay them for the transport
of the United States mail. These new conditions
made travel along the old roads intolerable, and in
May, 1850, the Panama Railroad Company, an
American enterprise, began building a railroad
across the Isthmus. At Culebra, "on January 27,
1855, at midnight, in darkness and rain, the last rail
was laid, and on the following day a locomotive
passed from ocean to ocean".* This is not the place
to tell the story of the vicissitudes through which
the Panama Railroad passed, fascinating as it is
and important as it was in drawing the eastern and
western sections of the United States closer to-
gether. The Panama Railroad, however, drew many
to the Isthmus both as laborers and as travellers
and for them some provision of their accustomed
home privileges was necessary.
The year which marked the opening of the Pana-
ma Railroad also saw the beginning of Church work
by Americans in Panama. In this enterprise, the
Railroad Company was interested and, in 1858,
largely at its own charges at a cost of seventy-five
*Bishop, Farnham, Panama Past and Present, p. 108.

Pictorial News Photo



thousand dollars, built Christ Church, Colon,-the
first American Episcopal Church in Central Amer-
ica. The church built of greenish moss-tinted stone
was striking and picturesque in appearance, the
most conspicuous object on the approach to the
coast. In 1865, after seven years had elapsed, Bishop
Alonzo Potter of Pennsylvania, en route to Cali-
fornia, stopped off at Panama and, on June 15, con-
secrated Christ Church. At the consecration service
he also confirmed the daughter of the English resi-
dent missionary, the last person to whom he ad-
ministered that rite.
The successful completion, in 1869, of the Suez
Canal renewed interest in a canal across the Isthmus
of Panama. The heyday of the Panama Railroad
had passed and its owners were very willing to sell
out to the French Canal Company which Count de
Lesseps had organized to dig a canal across the
The construction of the Canal attracted to the
Isthmus thousands of laborers. By 1882, in addition
to Americans and Europeans, over 15,000 Jamaicans
and other West Indians, largely members of the
Church of England were employed there. These
people were almost entirely without any spiritual
ministrations whatever and the Bishop of Jamaica,
whose jurisdiction included Bolivia and Panama,
called the attention of the Society of the Propaga-
tion of the Gospel to their plight. The S.P.G. im-
mediately appropriated 200 for a chaplain on the
Isthmus; and, the next year, the Bishop of Jamaica
sent to Colon the Rev. E. B. Key and the Rev. S.
Kerr, together with a catechist. As soon as the
new mission was organized, Mr. Key returned to
Jamaica. Within twelve months after their coming,
Mr. Kerr and his helper had established a chain of
eight stations from Colon to Panama. At each, the
services were largely attended and the contributions
generous. Thus the work prospered for a few years

until a rebellion broke out in Colombia during which
Colon was burned. Christ Church, however, escaped
destruction, and in it Mr. Kerr with several hundred
others sought refuge. The disorder continued, forc-
ing Mr. Kerr to withdraw. The church had escaped
the fire, but, was used for some months as a guard
house, prison, and hospital, and "the Communion
Table was used for eating, drinking, and gambling."
Late in 1885, Christ Church was reopened and the
work continued with good results.
After nine years, the de Lesseps enterprise col-
lapsed, having spent over 260 millions of dollars in
digging but a quarter of the Canal. The discon-
tinuance of the work, however, did not remove the
need for the Church's ministrations.
In 1894, the same year in which the French Gov-
ernment authorized the New Panama Canal Com-
pany to make another attempt to build the Canal,
the Church's work in Panama which had been tech-
nically under the Bishop of New York, was trans-
ferred to the Bishop of British Honduras. The
Diocese of British Honduras had been established
a few years before, largely for the benefit of certain
colonials on the Mosquito Coast. The large migra-
tions from the Caribbean Islands to Central Amer-
ica, and the rapidly declining interest of America in
the Isthmus, led to this transfer and the definite
assumption by the Bishop of Honduras of a general
responsibility for ministering to members of the
Anglican Communion in these parts. The impor-
tance of this work cannot be stressed too strongly;
for, though not among heathen races, it sought to
reach the lapsed, to reclaim whom every effort had
to be exerted. This alone would have presented a
difficult task; but, in addition, other circumstances-
the indifference and neglect of the upper classes, and
the poverty and superstitions of the laboring classes
-had to be faced. The Mission, however, faced
these hindrances and prospered.
The New Panama Canal Company went to work
[ 10 ]

under a concession from Colombia to finish the
Canal in ten years. Though the company made ex-
cellent surveys, it was handicapped in the actual
work of digging by insufficient funds, and it became
plainer every year that the Canal could not be
finished, in 1904, at the expiration of its concession.
Its only hope lay in securing a purchaser, and it was
evident that the only possible purchaser was the
United States Government.
"The enforced dash of the battleship Oregon
around South America in the Spanish American
War woke up the United States to its need of a
quicker naval route between the two coasts. Con-
gress authorized the purchase of the rights and
property of the New Panama Canal Company for
$40,000,000, an offer which that company was only
too glad to accept, since its ten year concession had
nearly expired, and in another twelve months it
might have no rights left to sell. The United States
then offered the government of Colombia $10,-
000,000 for its permission to the Canal Company to
make the sale, and for a new concession allowing
us to build and maintain the Canal.
"The Government of the so-called Republic of
Colombia consisted, at this time, of one man, who
had been elected vice-president but had kidnapped
the president with a troop of cavalry and shut him
up in an unsanitary dungeon where he soon died.
This interesting usurper had ruled ever since as
president, without bothering about a congress, until
he called one for the sole purpose of considering this
offer of the United States. Hoping to get a higher
price, and making no secret of their intention to
wait until the French concession should run out and
then demand some or all of the forty millions for
themselves, the Colombian congress rejected the
American offer. They forgot what it meant to
*Bishop, Farnham, Panama Past and Present, p. 140.
[ 11]

It was well known that if the Americans failed to
secure rights across Panama, they would build a
canal across Nicaragua, where an American Com-
pany had already made surveys of a possible route.
"If that were done not only would Panama lose all
its hoped for prosperity, but even the railroad would
cease to be operated, and the Isthmus would have
as little trade or importance as in the eighteenth
century. Naturally, the Panamanians watched the
Colombian congress anxiously, and, as soon as they
saw that the American treaty was doomed, began
to prepare for a revolution."t
Colombia rejected the American treaty. Panama
revolted. The uprising was immediately successful,
and the Isthmus was entirely in the hands of its
own people. Three lines of action were open to the
United States. Of these, two-intervention, and
allowing the two sides to fight to a finish-had been
tried repeatedly for over fifty years, and neither had
availed to stop the endless bloodshed and destruc-
tion of property. The third course, the one taken
by President Roosevelt, was to recognize the in-
dependence of the Republic of Panama, and forbid
Colombia, now a foreign power, to land troops on
the Isthmus. This is not the place to discuss the
merits of this action or of the subsequent events
which led, some twenty years later, to the payment
by the United States of millions of dollars to Colom-
bia on account of America's supposed part in the
episode. It is sufficient to notice that "the Republic
of Panama was quickly organized, with a constitu-
tion modeled on that of the United States, and a
treaty was made between the two countries, by
which the United States received the perpetual right
to build and maintain a canal across the Isthmus in
return for the payment of $10,000,000. It also ac-
quired possession of the Canal Zone, a strip of land
five miles wide on either side of the Canal. The

tibid p. 143.
[12 ]







two cities of Panama and Colon, however, were
scalloped out of either end of the Zone and left part
of the Republic; but their ports, Balboa and Cristo-
bal, became American, and the United States Gov-
ernment obtained the right to keep Panama and
Colon clean and to interfere whenever it thinks the
native authorities cannot keep good order."* The
United States was determined, to make an end of
filth and fever and petty warfare on the Isthmus.
The principal task of this Handbook, however, is
to trace the story of the Church's work in lands
south of the Rio Grande. It is therefore necessary
to take up again the threads of that story in Panama.
As has been noticed, the Church's work began under
American auspices, and, after several years of suc-
cessful endeavor, passed to the English Church
under whose jurisdiction it developed during the
years prior to the Panamanian Revolt.
With the acquisition of the Canal Zone by the
United States and the renewed and increasing in-
terest of Americans in the Isthmus, it seemed de-
sirable that the work of the Church, begun by
Americans, should again be placed in their hands.
Accordingly, a concordat between the English and
American Churches was entered into on March 8,
1906, whereby jurisdiction over "that great tract of
country on the Isthmus of Panama commonly called
the Panama Canal Zone, forty-seven and a half miles
long from ocean to ocean, and ten miles wide, to-
gether with the cities of Panama and Colon, and all
that part of Colombia between the Canal Zone and
the Magdelena River on the south," was transferred
by the Bishop of Honduras to the American Church.
Pending the election of an American Bishop for
the new Panama Mission, the Presiding Bishop ap-
pointed the Rt. Rev. Henry Y. Satterlee, Bishop of
Washington, as his commissary. As Bishop Satter-
lee was not immediately able to visit his new
ibidd p. 148-9.
[ 15 ]

charge, the Bishop of Honduras was asked to con-
tinue his episcopal oversight, and accordingly, he
visited Panama in 1906. Two years later, upon the
death of Bishop Satterlee, the Rt. Rev. A. W.
Knight, then Bishop of Cuba, was appointed the
Presiding Bishop's commissary, and, in May, 1908,
visited Panama for the first time. In the meantime,
the Rev. H. B. Bryan had been appointed Arch-
deacon of Panama and had entered upon his duties
of carrying on the stations received from the
English Church and of studying the field for its
future development. He found that of the thirty-
two thousand West Indian Negroes resident in the
Zone, some thirty thousand were attached to the
Church and were cared for at missions in Colon,
Panama City, Mt. Hope, San Pablo, Gorgona, Bas
Obispo, Las Cascadas, Tabernilla, Culebra, Paraiso,
and Empire. Many of these missions had been
established during the active construction period
when the Canal was almost one continuous village
from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and were at points
where large numbers of laborers had been concen-
trated. Though many were large and flourishing,
the very temporary nature of the situation which
brought them into being made it exceedingly diffi-
cult, if not impossible, for the Church to make
permanent plans. The great uncertainty of the
Government's policy added to the difficulty and
further militated against the Church undertaking
permanent work. Nevertheless, the situation de-
manded that the West Indians and the increasing
number of Americans on the Isthmus receive her
ministrations. Accordingly, St. James' Mission,
Empire, and St. Stephen's, Gatun, were inaugurated
for the West Indians resident in those places. When,
in 1910, San Pablo and Tabernilla were abandoned,
their residents were moved to Pedro Miguel where
the Church at once sought to minitser to them. The
necessary funds for a small chapel were soon ob-
tained, and St. Michael's was erected. At Empire,
[16 ]



, i J




St. Mary's Chapel, for Americans, was consecrated
by Bishop Knight on the First Sunday after Epiph-
any, 1912. When Empire was abandoned by its
civilian residents and turned into an army post, St.
Mary's became the post chapel. Other work for
Americans was initiated at Holy Trinity Mission,
Culebra; in St. Luke's Hospital, Ancon; and at
Cristobal, Gatun, and Gorgona.
As the Canal neared completion, and water was
let in submerging many of the Church's largest and
most active mission stations, the Government's
policy of concentration and exclusion took shape.
The policy of concentration at the ends of the Canal
brought forth orders to close missions and remove
buildings. Among the buildings ordered removed
were those at Gatun, Gorgona, Bas Obispo, Las
Cascadas, Empire, Culebra, Pedro Miguel and Mt.
Hope. These were all removed, or sold at a great
sacrifice. Las Cascadas, Empire, and Culebra were
given over to the army as garrisons, as these three
villages were not flooded; but all civilians were re-
moved excepting such as were necessary for the
domestic service of the army officers. Eighty per-
cent of these civilians expressed a preference for the
Episcopal Church which, consequently, remained to
minister to them. Two new towns were established
at the Pacific end, Balboa and La Boca, the former
for the white administrative officers of the Canal
and Zone Government, the latter for the negro
laborers. These two towns were model villages,
well laid out, with every modern improvement. It
seemed that the Church's permanent work was to
be confined to the cities of Panama, Colon, and to
the American towns of Ancon, Balboa, and La Boca.
In addition to these places, the Mission slowly
branched out, entering new places as the perma-
nency of the contemplated work seemed assured. In
this way the Church entered Chorillo, a suburb of
Panama City; Corozal; Red Tank, a new town built
by the Government for laborers on the line of the
[ 19 ]

Canal; Culebra, an army post; Las Cascades, fifteen
miles from the Pacific, to which many West Indian
families had moved; and Silver City, near the At-
lantic end.
The Canal was opened to navigation in the late
summer of 1914. Almost simultaneously, our work
began to take on a more permanent character. In
Panama City, the old St. Paul's Church, a wooden
structure on a concrete foundation which we had
received from the English Church proved to be very
dilapidated, and was sold. In a better locality, a
new church to seat upwards of 700 and destined to
become the largest non-Roman church in Latin-
America, was erected of reenforced concrete. Dur-
ing Bishop Knight's annual visit to the Zone, on
June 27, 1915, the new church was consecrated. A
few days later, Bishop Knight held his first ordina-
tion in the new church. Arthur F. Nightengale, a
West Indian Negro and a graduate of the Bishop
Payne Divinity School, was admitted to the diaco-
nate and assigned as assistant to Archdeacon Carson.
In the model town of La Boca where dwelled
some 4,000 colored Canal laborers, the Government
assigned the Church an advantageously situated lot
sufficiently large for church, rectory, and parish
house. It was immediately decided to move the
Church's buildings at Gatun to this site. This the
Government undertook to do free of all cost. The
buildings were rebuilt in better shape than the
originals. St. Peter's-by-the-Sea, as this mission
was named, thus became the proud possessor of the
old rectory owned by the Church in the Canal Zone.
To this mission was sent the Rev. J. T. Mulcare
formerly in charge at Culebra until the closing of
that mission, whose energy developed St. Peter's
into the second largest non-Roman church in Latin-
America. Adjacent to La Boca was Balboa, the
model town for white Canal employees. Here it
[ 20 ]


J "isa~


was not necessary to erect a chapel, as St. Luke's
Ancon, was easily accessible.
One result of the construction of the Panama
Canal by the United States was the establishment,
in 1907, of the Palo Seco Leper Colony. Seven years
more elapsed, however, before the Church began
work among these unfortunate people. In 1904, there
were but seven lepers on the Isthmus. These passed
their dreary days and nights in an isolated build-
ing at Punta Mala-Evil Point-on the outskirts of
Panama. The lives of these seven were empty of all
save the ebb and flow of the tides in the Bay of
Panama. Behind them was the close, dense, jungle;
the city was out of the line of their vision; a visitor
was rare. The Isthmian Canal Commission early in
1905, took note of these lepers, and voted to expend
$25,000 in the construction of suitable buildings for
them at such a point as should be selected by the
Chief Sanitary Officer, Surgeon-General William
C. Gorgas, a devoted churchman, and approved by
the Governor of the Zone.
Palo Seco-Dry Stick-some six miles from the
city was the site selected. There, work was im-
mediately begun, the jungle was cleared, and houses
-long, narrow structures with wide galleries on all
sides and having a beautiful outlook upon the Bay
of Panama with the historic city in the distance-
were erected. The colony was placed on a hillside,
clothed in tropical vegetation, and looked out to the
sea. In the distance, were the Islands of Taboga
and Naos on which were placed the great Govern-
ment fortifications for the protection of the Canal.
These islands were diminutive mountain tops
springing from the seas. Far down the horizon,
could be seen the shipping of the world coming up
to the Canal, or passing out to the Orient, to the
West Coast of South America, or to our own Pacific
It was to such surroundings that the seven leper
[ 23 ]

patients went, on April 10, 1907, upon the opening
of the hospital. There, each one was immediately
assigned to a little plot of ground upon which he
might raise his vegetables and chickens, bananas,
plantains, papayas, yams, and yucca.
For seven years the Church neglected its oppor-
tunity among these people at Palo Seco. Then, in
1914, shortly after the Rev. H. R. Carson became
rector of St. Paul's, Panama, and chaplain of Ancon
Hospital, he began to make weekly visits to the
leper colony. A chapel erected by the Government
was placed at his disposal and, in 1915, upon the
occasion of Bishop Knight's first visitation to these
people, the work received the name, The Mission of
the Holy Comforter.
The work prospered under the watchful care of
the distant Bishop-in-charge. In 1916, he reported
that "the possibility of extension in the work would
find itself mostly among the Chinese on the Isthmus,
and the actual occupation of the whole territory over
which we have jurisdiction. This would include
missions in Santa Marta, Cartagena, and other
points along the Colombian coast. The most fertile
and ready field not yet occupied by any religious
body, however, is apparently the work among the
Chinese, of whom there are about 2,000, in Panama
City." This opportunity continued to attract the
interest of Bishop Knight whose report for the next
year again stressed the fruitfulness of this work and
called attention to the readiness of a Chinese gradu-
ate of the University of the South to undertake the
work. It seemed impossible to complete the neces-
sary arrangements with the Panama Government
to inaugurate the Chinese Mission, and the plan
'came to nought. Several years also were to pass
before men or means were available to undertake
the other project of initiating work in Colombia.
Meanwhile, the United States entered the World
War and the attendant circumstances made it impos-
[ 24 ]



First Bishop of the Panama Canal Zone, 1920-

sible for Bishop Knight to visit his distant charge.
At his request, the Bishdp of Honduras undertook
a short visitation. It was becoming increasingly
apparent, however, that the work must be placed on
a more permanent basis-new and better buildings
must be erected, new points occupied, and, most
important of all, the field required organization and
a Bishop of its own. This last, Bishop Knight
recommended, and at the General Convention of
1919, the Panama Canal Zone was erected into a
Missionary District of the American Church and
the Rev. James Craik Morris, rector of Grace
Church, Madison, Wisconsin, was elected the first
Bishop. On February 5, of the following year-but
a month short of fourteen years after the transfer
of the Isthmus to the American Church-he was
consecrated. Thus the Church's Mission in Panama
passed from its anomalous condition, and became
organized and equipped for aggressive work.
Upon his arrival in the Zone, Bishop Morris
undertook a survey of his new field. Two large
racial groups-West Indian Negroes and Americans
-predominated. Of the former, there were some
60,000 resident on or near the Canal Zone, the vast
majority of whom had come to the Isthmus during
the period of construction on the Canal. More than
a quarter of their number were still employed on
the Canal. The others were slipping into other
occupations in Panama or joining a considerable
exodus to Cuba where, in 1920, economic conditions
were better and, consequently, wages were higher.
These people, an inherently Church-attending folk,
were finding happiness and contentment within the
Episcopal Church which provided them with eight
places of worship. The shifting and settling of the
population in post-construction days made it im-
perative that new missions be opened at growing
centres of population, Las Cascadas, fifteen miles
from the Pacific terminal of the Canal, attracted
many West Indian families. For them, a building
[ 27 ]

suitable for the Church's services was leased and St.
Bartholomew's Mission tas begun under the care
of Mr. Mulcare. Likewise, many of the negro
families on the Atlantic side were attracted to the
new town of Silver City. There was no building
available, and it was imperative that a chapel be
erected promptly in order that the new residents be
not deprived of their Church privileges.
The Americans in the Zone were divided into
three distinct and separate groups, the. personnel of
which, in 1920, was more constant than in the days
of the Canal building. First, was the civilian popu-
lation of about 5,000, Government canal employees
with their families; second, the military establish-
ment-officers and men of the army and navy num-
bering 7,500, in 1920, but later increased to 30,000;
and finally, merchants, shippers, professional men,
and the like, resident in the Republic of Panama.
Their numbers were indeterminate.
These two large racial groups represented Bishop
Morris' largest responsibility. The work among the
Americans, especially the canal employees for whom
the Church had not a single building, was particu-
larly appealing. A comparatively new work, it was
important that thought be taken for the future and
the strongest possible foundations be laid. It also
devolved upon Bishop Morris to seek out and
shepherd both Americans and West Indians who
had followed the lure of fruit-raising and oil-digging
in Colombia. Of his task the Bishop early wrote:
"Remember that the Canal Zone itself is small, yet
that it reproduces, in little as it were, the whole
United States; and that the life lived here is the
life that touches more closely than any other the
life of our Spanish-speaking friends. It is for us
who have inherited and transplanted the institutions
of Britain and America; for us who yield allegiance
to the historic Church of the English-speaking
people and accept Her standards of faith and piety,
Her ministry .and Her sacraments; it is for us, I
[ 'q I



say, as God gives us opportunity, to exemplify in
another clime and in another era the lessons our
fathers have taught us."
The long neglected Indian tribes within his juris-
diction early made their appeal to Bishop Morris,
and he worked constantly toward the day when he
might set on foot plans for their evangelisation.
Bishop Morris had hardly arrived in the Zone
when a serious crisis arose. The Zone Government
through its Building Sites Committee, in whose
hands rested the physical development of the Zone,
notified the Church that St. Luke's Chapel, Ancon,
must be vacated to allow for the expansion of the
Ancon Hospital. If, however, the Church desired
to build on this land and the adjoining lot of 25,000
square feet, the Government would issue its license
for that purpose, provided that the Church would
erect, within a reasonable period, a church of con-
crete construction, the architecture of which was in
keeping with the dignity of the Government build-
St. Luke's Chapel had been erected in the autumn
of 1908, and, from its first service on Christmas Day
of that year, had steadily increased in favor and use-
fulness. Under the leadership of such men as Arch-
deacons Henry B. Bryan and Harry R. Carson,
Major Henry A. Brown, U.S.A., the Rev. Halsey
Werlein and the Rev. F. C. Meredith, the Chapel
made steady progress. Despite fluctuations in the
population, the congregation steadily grew and, in
1919, it voluntarily assumed all its financial obliga-
tions and became self-supporting.
To this congregation, came the Government order
of April, 1920. It presented a challenge not only to
them but to the whole Church. If the Government
offer of more land and a license to build were ac-
cepted, a great opportunity for expansion was im-
mediately available; but if it were refused, it meant
the abandonment of the Church's work in Ancon, a
[ 31]

field in which we were virtually alone. Fortunately,
the National Council saw the unparalleled oppor-
tunity and authorized the Bishop to accept the
Government's offer. It also underwrote the amount
necessary for two of the three buildings planned-
Church, parish house, and Bishop's house-confident
that Churchmen would gladly meet this fine op-
portunity. That the Church knew what she was do-
ing was early manifested by the generous response
of Church people everywhere. Within a few months
$25,000 was received toward the new buildings, and
construction was begun in August, 1921. The first
building, completed early in February, 1922, was the
Bishop's house. A few months later, on Low Sun-
day, April 23, under the auspices of the District
Grand Lodge A. F. and A. M. the cornerstone of the
new church, to be known as St. Luke's Cathedral,
was laid. This event marked a turning point in the
history of the Church not only in Ancon but in the
whole Panama Canal Zone.
In his address at the laying of the cornerstone,
Bishop Morris asked and considered the pertinent
question, "Why build churches here on the Isthmus
of Panama?" "The first obvious reply was in order
that we might perpetuate home institutions, among
the most treasured of which is the Church. Then
there. was the desire to build something after our
ideal of Church and Home for all men, of all nations.
There was the obligation, also, to express in tangible
terms-in terms such as churches and social institu-
tions, like our Children's Home at Bella Vista-the
Churchman's neighborliness, his desire to be helpful.
Essentially, the Churchman is a man of wide out-
look and public spirited. Accordingly, he cherishes
a desire to contribute a share towards unity and
friendship among the nations of the world, particu-
larly between the United States and the nations
north and south of the canal."*
*The Spirit of Missions, June, 1922, p. 371.
[ 32]



i Iv- j

Early in the spring of 1923, the Cathedral was
completed largely by funds from the Blanchard
legacy; and was consecrated on the Third Sunday
in Lent of the next year-hardly two years from
the laying of the cornerstone. It was a centre from
which were to radiate the activities of the American
Church in Panama. Thus was the crisis of 1920
met and successfully overcome.
Under the direction of the Bishop and Dean, the
Cathedral became a dominant force throughout the
District. In 1925, the Cathedral congregation had
nearly 900 members.
Closely allied to the Cathedral, but an institution
of the entire District, was the Children's Home at
Bella Vista. This initial social experiment of the
Church in Panama, an example of Christian neigh-
borliness, provided the only home of its kind in the
Republic, where as in most, if not all, underde-
veloped countries social and economic conditions
made the plight of vast multitudes of the destitute
particularly orphaned boys and girls especially
tragic. The American population in and around
Ancon was deeply stirred by the story of a little
chap who had set for himself a Titan's task. He
was a Panamanian boy, scarcely thirteen years old,
the death of whose mother had left him the head
of a family of five. lie was determined that his
brothers and sisters should not be separated, and he
set himself to provide a home for them. The story
came out quite by accident as he was shining shoes
in a Canal Zone clubhouse, and it soon spread.*
The Canal Zone Chapter of the American Red Cross
assumed care of the family, and generous support
flowed from the public; but a greater problem than
immediate relief of a destitute family at once pre-
sented itself. It was a question of education, the
slow passing from childhood to manhood and wo-
manhood of each member of the little family, and
*The Spirit of Missions, June. 1022. p. 371.
[ 3 1

of a home above all. The women of the Red Cross
tried one experiment and then another. Finally, to
us as a Church they put the categorical question,
"Will you undertake to care for them?"
Early in 1920, the first woman worker, in the
person of Mrs. W. R. Royce, was appointed to the
Panama Canal Zone. In addition to her work
among women, she had been giving some attention
to the needy children in the Zone. St. Luke's,
Ancon, had also done its bit of social work, feeding
this child, clothing that one, finding employment,
and contributing to relieve distress. Then came the
challenge, "Will you go ahead and do the work
through the years as a distinctive Church under-
taking?" It was a difficult and serious responsi-
bility confronting the Church; but, fortified with an
eagerness to undertake a useful task and encouraged
by the Church in America, Archdeacon Carson be-
gan the Children's Home at Bella Vista, a suburb
of Panama, in a house originally intended for the
Bishop's residence. Mrs. Royce was placed in
charge as house mother. In addition to the five
children turned over to the Church by the Red
Cross, three more were received, and the Home was
opened on April 15, 1920. The Bishop at once
recognized the Home as a mission in the District
of the Panama Canal Zone and named it the Mission
of the Holy Child, though it was popularly known
as Faith Home, due to the circumstances of its
founding. With but a hundred dollars, the gift of
the Red Cross, with no assurance of support except
such as could be secured locally from interested
people, many of whom were not members of our
Church, and with an inadequate house the rent of
which was seventy-five dollars a month, the venture,
the first social experiment of the Church ever at-
tempted in Panama, was begun. Surely, a venture
of- Faith!
The Home, which Mrs. Royce sought to make as
much a real home and as little an institution as
[ 36 1

possible, was designed to care for two classes of
children of Caucasian descent-those who were en-
tirely destitute and homeless; and those, not entirely
independent of public interest and care, but who
were able to provide a measure of self-support. At
the end of the first year the number of children was
doubled, seven had been baptized and three con-
firmed. The value of the work had been demon-
strated, but its success depended upon securing
larger and more suitable quarters.
In its second year, the Children's Home moved to
a larger house capable of caring for twenty-three.
Though an improvement over its first building, the
new building was still a rented place and did not
adequately meet the Home's needs. Only a perma-
nent building of its own in a suitable location would
insure the future success and permanence of the
enterprise. This was as urgent a need at the end
of the Home's fifth year as at the beginning of its
In 1921, the retrenchment policy of the American
Government caused a wholesale reduction of the
canal employees. Almost all the Americans re-
turned to the United States, while nearly 10,000
West Indian Negroes became unemployed. This
produced a serious economic situation directly ef-
fecting half of all the Negroes on the Zone. Under
such circumstances, it was not unnatural that the
Church should render such assistance as it could.
Mrs. Royce at once extended the activities of the
Children's Home, and, on October 21, 1921, in four
rented rooms in Guachapali, a tenement district of
Panama, opened a soup kitchen. Here, upwards
of 200 children were fed every day. By the fall of
1922, the situation had improved through the open-
ing up of good land to cultivation, thereby attracting
many families to the country. The emergency over,
the soup kitchen was discontinued. During this
period, also, a day nursery was begun.
[ 37 ]

The Children's Home was always filled to its
capacity, and applicants were constantly declined
for lack of room. During five years, 53 children
were cared for, among whom were many interesting
cases. Three children-perfectly sound and healthy
-were the children of a leper Roman Catholic
mother at Palo Seco. When Roman Catholic in-
stitutions refused to take them, they found shelter
and a real home in Faith Home. Naturally the
Home was anxious about the welfare of its children
after they left. The first graduate entered, in 1923,
the Santo Tomas Hospital Training School for
Nurses, Panama. Except for the Home, she prob-
ably would still be existing in extreme poverty in
Costa Rica.
In 1923, Mrs. Royce gave up her Panama work
in order to undertake work among the women and
girls of Haiti. Fortunately for the Children's Home,
a successor was found at once in the person of Miss
Alice Lightbourn who had given the Home four
months' service the previous year. Under Miss
Lightbourn, the Home went steadily forward, even
under the handicap of an inadequate rented building
located outside of the Zone whereby the children
were prevented from attending the American
Schools. A permanent home which had been an
urgent necessity was assured, in December 1926,
through the gift of $30,000 by a generous layman
in the United States.
Mention has been made of the trying economic
conditions occasioned by the wholesale reduction
of the canal forces. Nevertheless, the Church went
forward. Particularly encouraging, at the begin-
ning of Bishop Morris' second year as Bishop was
the first Convocation of the District at which every
mission station was fully represented. The meeting
closed with a great missionary service and the whole
District was permeated with enthusiasm. During
the year, the Nation-Wide Campaign was launched,
for the first time, with remarkable results. The
f 38 ]





Confirmations numbered 241 as compared with 145
in 1920. The increase in the number of communi-
cants of St. Paul's Church, Panama, from 400 to
650 was due largely to the Nation-Wide Campaign.
The vicar in making his report said: "Two classes
were confirmed, numbering 93, and more than a
hundred members who had long ceased to be active
resumed their proper status in the Church."
Other advances were recorded in this same year.
On April 10, St. Peter's-by-the-Sea, La Boca, was
consecrated; and, in October, the Mission of Our
Saviour, for American and English people, was be-
gun at Cristobal. Since no building was available
in Cristobal, week (lay services for the fifty members
were held in the neighboring city of Colon.
In 1923, the Rev. J. L. Sykes succeeded Arch-
deacon Carson who had been elected Bishop of
Haiti. He took up his residence on the Atlantic
side, thus making possible the holding of services
every Sunday morning for the English speaking
whites. The congregation, under Archdeacon Sykes,
grew steadily. In three years, the number of com-
municants increased from 30 to 124. Large numbers
of the men from nearby garrisons were attracted
and, in 1925, the vestry included three army officers.
One navy officer was a lay-reader, and more than
half the choir was drawn from the army and navy.
The responsibility of the Church toward the per-
sonnel of the army and navy, was constantly in the
mind of Bishop Morris, especially as not one of the
army and navy chaplains stationed on the Zones was
a priest of the Church. The 11,000 or more mem-
bers of the American forces, with their families,
were divided among thirteen posts. On the Pacific
side, were Quarry Heights, Forts Amador and Clay-
ton, and Camps Empire, Gaillard, and Corozal. On
the Atlantic side, the forces were established at
Forts de Lesseps, Randolph, Sherman, and Davis,
and Camps Gatun, Loco Solo, and France Field.
[ -:1 1

When the Government discontinued providing free
Sunday transportation from the posts to the towns.
Bishop Morris became very anxious to have the
Church's service at every post every Sunday. With
the aid of the Archdeacon and other clergy of the
District, early Celebrations of the Holy Communion
were accordingly provided at all garrisons.
The extent and importance of the work among the
West Indian Negroes has already been indicated.
St. Paul's Church, Panama, under the direction of
the Rev. Arthur F. Nightengale, developed steadily
into the largest non-Roman church in Latin-Amer-
ica, with a communicant list of 1012 and a Church
School of 631 pupils. In 1925, a class of 107 was
presented for confirmation, the largest in the history
of the District. Under such conditions, it was not
surprising that this parish had, in 1925, outgrown its
accommodations for both its worship and its work.
Besides these activities, Mr. Nightengale found
time to minister to two missions. Five miles from
where the United States completed the greatest en-
gineering feat of modern times, not far from the
site of old Panama and close to the jungle, in the
native village of Las Sabanas, the services of the
Church were begun in a native house for which the
Church paid two dollars and fifty cents rent a
month. In order to make this primitive dwelling
more suitable for the services of the Church, repairs
were made from a packing case in which the organ
for St. Luke's Cathedral had been shipped to Ancon.
Here the rector of St. Paul's served the eager folk
of the district. At Paraiso, on September 20, 1925,
Bishop Morris consecrated St. Alban's Church. St.
Alban's which served a large territory had, for
years, been practically self-supporting and, in 1925,
in addition to its gifts toward the Program of the
Church improved and beautified its property with-
out outside financial assistance.
The rector of the second largest West Indian
[ 42 ]

church, the Rev. J. T. Mulcare of St. Peter's, La
Boca, was equally energetic. In addition to serving
St. Peter's, he maintained services at St. Barnabas'
Mission, Empire, and St. Bartholomew's Church,
Las Cascadas, besides establishing, in 1924, St.
Jude's Mission, Summit, and St. Simon's Mission,
Gamboa. The next year, he presented for confirma-
tion from these new missions the first classes num-
bering eight and five respectively. St. George's
Church, Gatun, in charge of Archdeacon Sykes,
while smaller, carried on an effective work.
Only second in importance to the evangelistic
work of the District, was the educational. In his
report for 1925, Bishop Morris wrote: "The educa-
tional problem amongst the West Indians is be-
coming more acute every year and it is a challenge
to the Church to try to meet it. Those who work
for the Panama Canal have the right to use the
splendid government schools, but the vast majority
are not so employed and there are probably thirty
thousand West Indians outside the Canal Zone. The
older ones can mostly read and write and some are
good mechanics and merchants, sewing women and
clerks. In the British Islands, whence they came,
they were accustomed to the parochial schools of
the Church of England. In their present homes,
however, many are growing up without any edu-
cation at all and before long the situation will be
really serious."
The Church had long been aware of this situation.
For some years, it had been partially met by a
Grammar School maintained in connection with
Christ Church, Colon. To serve a like purpose at
the other end of the Zone, the Bishop formally
opened, on February 11, 1924, St. Paul's School,
Panama, a parochial Day School. An enrollment
of 50 the first year, grew the second year to 210,
all that the rented building could accommodate. An
adequate building of its own was an urgent ne-
cessity. At the close of 1925, Bishop Morris wrote
[ 43 ]

in his annual report: "What I should like above all
things would be a really good school in Panama,
where the population is greatest, capable of enroll-
ing many hundreds and of giving instruction and
training to fit these children for life in this new
home of theirs. They are undoubtedly here to stay,
and they must be taught religion and morals along
with reading and writing. And they must be taught
industry and how to earn their living. A good
Church industrial school, in connection with the
large St. Paul's Church, would undoubtedly be a
real contribution to the well being of the West
Among the Church's humanitarian works, the
Mission of the Holy Comforter to the lepers of Palo
Seco showed steady growth. In 1925, the leper
colony numbered 94 including whites and blacks,
Indians from Central America, and Mongolians from
Asia. To these people, the Church gave weekly
visitations and, in 1924, Bishop Morris confirmed
two classes of candidates, the first of the Mission.
A year later, 61 were reported as baptized Chris-
tians, of whom 26 had been confirmed. Thus the
work grew among these wretched people; and it
not only grew, but there developed an active in-
terest in the Church's Mission outside the colony.
They not only sent an offering to the lepers of
Japan, but contributed from their meagre resources
to the Church's Program. An altar book-rest, a gift
from the lepers of St. Barnabas' Mission, Kusatsu,
Japan, was representative of the fellowship between
the Palo Seco lepers and their fellow sufferers be-
yond the sea.
The Church also found opportunities for her min-
istrations in the Ancon Hospital and the Corozal
Hospital for the Insane.
The so-called "white Indians" of the San Blas
country, members of an almost extinct tribe, had,
it will be remembered, early made their appeal to
[ 44 ]



Bishop Morris and Mr. Mulcare in the doorway


Bishop Morris, and he eagerly awaited the day when
he might begin work among them. The San Bias
territory, a day's run by motor boat down the coast
from the Caribbean end of the Canal, had long been
considered inaccessible. The Indian inhabitants,
consequently, had had no contacts with the outside
world, and were as unevangelised as before Colum-
bus discovered the New World. In 1924 and 1925.
due to the over-worked condition of certain planta-
tions to the north, fruit companies turned to this
region for banana cultivation. West Indian Negroes
flocked there in large numbers to work on the de-
veloping fruit plantations. Early in 1925, the Pana-
ma Government granted a large concession to the
Italian Fruit Growing Company who immediately
sent nearly a thousand West Indians to work the
concession. This action was resented by the San
Bias Indians.
The inaccessible territory was in this manner
opened to the outside world. To this new oppor-
tunity, Bishop Morris assigned the Rev. John J.
Cowan who had done pioneering work in the Re-
public of Colombia. Mr. Cowan went, in 1924, to
the San Bias country where he was eagerly wel-
comed. Conditions in the concession were very
primitive-there were no roads, much of the land
was partly below water, and the region was gen-
erally very unsanitary. It was not surprising that,
in such a place, no provision was made for the ser-
vices or the dwelling of the priest, even though he
were eagerly welcomed. Mr. Cowan found a home
in the hospital which the Fruit Company always
maintains in its concessions. There was, however,
no place in which he could regularly hold service
until 1925. In that year, Mr. Cowan through his
own efforts and actual physical labor built a very
modest church which was named the Church of the
Nativity. Towards this enterprise the Company con-
tributed the material for the floor and the labor of
one carpenter. They have, in addition, undertaken
[ 47 ]

to build living quarters for the missionary priest.
This migration of the West Indians is an instance
of the continual moving about of these people oc-
casioned by the completion of the Canal, the re-
moval of large numbers from the Zone, and the
development of industry in the Republic of Panama,
itself. In two years the Church occupied four new
places in the effort to fulfil this particular steward-
ship entrusted to it.
Such, in brief, is the story of the work carried on
under the Church's Ambassador at one of the
world's crossroads. This task, however, is not all
of Bishop Morris' responsibility, since his juris-
diction extends into the Republic of Colombia.

4 ft

[ 48 ]



T HE Republic of Colombia between the Canal
Zone and the Magdalena River, was, it will be
remembered, a part of the jurisdiction transferred
to the American Church by the Church of England
in 1906. Nothing was done, however, to occupy this
territory actively until Bishop Morris went to the
Canal Zone. He immediately made plans for a trip
of exploration and survey; and in March, 1921, ac-
companied by the Archdeacon, he visited Colombia.
This visit was followed by others which led to the
establishment of three mission stations, one in
Cartagena and two in Santa Marta. With the ex-
ception of a Presbyterian Mission, our work was the
only non-Roman work in the region. The next year,
Barranquilla was added to the stations visited, as
well as camps of American engineers, such as that
at Barranca Bermeja, 450 miles up the Magdalena
River, where the Church's ministrations were eager-
ly welcomed.
In this country, the situation is much the same
as in the Canal Zone. Colombia, exceptionally rich
in undeveloped natural resources, cannot but attract
more and more English-speaking people. These the
Church must follow and shepherd. With an in-
creased staff, the Church may even extend her min-
istrations to those Latin-Americans who have either
renounced or are indifferent to Rome, and are drift-
ing on the sea of doubt and unbelief. Cartagena
and Santa Marta, growing seaport cities, each had
a large English-speaking colony for whom no pro-
vision for worship except that of the Roman Church
was made until the coming of our Church. In Santa
Marta, these people were largely engaged in the
fruit business; while in Cartagena they were main-
[ 49 ]

ly of the commercial representive class, who came
for short periods, usually without bringing their
families. Barranquilla, an inland city at the head of
navigation of the Magdalena River, had a large
group of this transient commercial class in a popu-
lation of 65,000.
To these places, the Bishop and Archdeacon Car-
son made such visits as were possible; but with the
exception of a West Indian lay-reader in Santa
Marta who did some work among the natives, there
was no resident worker until the coming of the Rev.
John J. Cowan as missionary at Barranquilla in 1923.
In the less than two years that he remained in
Colombia the stations established received regular
ministrations and the territory was studied for
future development. Nowhere, however, did the
Church own any property save a small building in
Santa Marta loaned to the Church by the Santa
Marta Railway Company.
In January, 1924, Bishop Morris on his visitation
confirmed at Santa Marta a class of seven prepared
and presented by the West Indian lay-reader. This
was believed to have been the first time that the
Rite of Confirmation was administered by an Angli-
can Bishop in Colombia.
Late in this same year, Mr. Cowan gave up his
work in Colombia to undertake work among the
San Bias Indians. Since then, this field has been
dependent upon the four visits a year which the
Bishop and the Archdeacon were able to make. All
that could be done in this situation was to keep in
touch, and hold occasional services wherever pos-
sible. These visits were eagerly looked to; children
were brought to Baptism; and, in 1925, Bishop
Morris confirmed a second class, prepared as before,
by the faithful Indian lay-reader. Colombia offers
the Church a magnificent opportunity but the
Church must have workers, at least one well
equipped resident priest, if the opportunity is to be
[ 50 1


A. k-~~--







I00 o sdo


SOME years ago, one of our missionaries on board
a steamer returning to Brazil, on being asked
by an inquiring lady from North Carolina for in-
formation about the fauna and flora of the Amazon
valley, replied that he knew nothing about the
matter. "Why," said the indignant lady, "I thought
you were a missionary in Brazil." "So I am," said
the missionary, "but I happen to be located in a part
of Brazil farther from the Amazon valley than you
are in North Carolina." This incident is illustrative,
not only of the size of Brazil, but of the ignorance
regarding it prevalent among even well-informed
When Pedro Alvarez Cabral, intrepid noble in the
service of King Manuel of Portugal, set sail early
in March, 1500, with a fleet of 13 ships, armed, and
laden with presents to establish commercial rela-
tions with India, he little dreamed that before two
months had passed, he would have discovered "a
land as large as Europe and richer than India."
Cabral sailed the usual course down the African
coast until he had passed Cape Verde. He then
pursued a westerly course which brought him, on
April 22, in sight of a tall mountain peak. Mindful
of his master's desire for new lands, Cabral took
pompous possession of the territory in the name of
the King of Portugal. Thus it came to pass that
Portugal, and not Spain, became overlord of Brazil.
This overlordship was, after the manner of the
times, regularized by Pope Alexander VI, who di-
vided the new world into two parts by the forty-
first parallel of west longitude. To the Spaniards he
gave all to the west of that line, while the Portu-
f 53 1

guese were permitted to call their own whatever
lay to the east.
To this land, which Cabral assumed to be an
island, he gave the name Vera Cruz-Land of the
True Cross. This, however, did not obtain very
long, as the Europeans insisted on calling it by the
name of the chief commodity which it yielded them,
a dyewood closely resembling brazilwood (brasiletto).
Brazilian history from that day may be divided
into three periods-the colonial, the imperial, and
the republican.
A quarter of a century passed after Cabral's dis-
covery before the King of Portugal decided to make
sure of his possession of the new land by coloniza-
tion. In 1530, Affonso de Souza, commissioned by
John III to undertake an expedition of exploration
and discovery, set sail for Brazil, the future
brightened by the promise of being governor. A
few years later, in order to extend the colonization,
it was decided to divide Brazil into Capitaneas, a sort
of feudal fief. These districts were to be bestowed
upon such illustrious Portuguese as would under-
take, at their own expense, to settle and develop the
new country. In return they were made absolute
rulers of their territory. The whole coast of Brazil
was, in this way, divided into twelve sections, 150
miles wide and as deep as the settlers cared to go,
and given over to adventurers,-for better or for
worse. In these fiefs, six permanent settlements
were made, which in time, were concentrated about
four centres, Bahia, Sao Paulo, Pernambuco, and
Rio de Janeiro.
In the expeditions which went out to the Capi-
taneas there were very few women, and nothing is
more remarkable than the rapidity and success of
the inter-marrying which took place between the
newcomers and the native Indians. Not only were
the usual evil results of this largely avoided, but the
product was on the whole most satisfactory.
[ 54 1

During the colonial period and until 1762, the
capital of Brazil was Bahia. In 1549, the King ap-
pointed Thom6 de Souza, Captain-General of all
Brazil. He founded Bahia as his capital, and it soon
became the ecclesiastical as well as the political
centre of the country.
Among the foremost tasks committed to the
colonists was the conversion of the natives. In
order to do this, John III, patron of the Jesuits,
sent six members of that Society under Manuel de
Nobrega to work in and about Bahia. These de-
voted men labored tirelessly in keeping the colonists
faithful, converting the natives, translating the
Litany into the Indian tongues, establishing frontier
settlements, and building churches and schools.
Within two years, their work had grown to such an
extent that episcopal oversight became necessary.
A suffragan to the Bishop of Lisbon was appointed
as Bishop of Bahia, and for many years exercised
direct jurisdiction over the whole of Brazil. Later,
other Dioceses were created, and Pope Innocent XI
designated the Bishop of Bahia as Archbishop of
Brazil. This growth was very largely due to the
remarkable energy of the Society of Jesus which
included men of outstanding merit. One of these,
Antonio Vieira who went to Brazil in 1653, preached
with such fervor and to such good effect that the
Indians were placed by royal decree under the care
of the Society much against the will of the Portu-
guese planters who were desirous of reaping the
profits of Indian slave labor. Not only were the
Jesuits active in centres already established but they
penetrated the interior, planting missions every-
where, until, by the middle of the XVII Century, a
chain of stations extended across the continent. In
connection with every such mission station, a school
was also established. Despite this early champion-
ing of the Indians-protecting them from the ra-
pacious planters and promoting education-the
Jesuits, in the middle of the XVIII Century, were
[ 55 ]

accused of keeping the Indians in ignorance and
serfdom. The subsequent discovery of a plot against
King Joseph led to an edict expelling the Jesuits
from all Portuguese territory, including Brazil.
This, however, did not deprive Brazil of all its
religious leaders. In 1805, Henry Martyn one of
the world's great pioneers and the first missionary
of the Anglican Communion to visit the shores of
Brazil, spent a fortnight in Bahia on his way to
India. His biographer noted that the two weeks he
spent there were busy ones. Martyn was "fas-
cinated by the tropical glories of the coast and the
interior, and keenly interested in the Portuguese
dons, the Franciscan friars, and the Negro slaves."
He took advantage of every opportunity to meet
Portuguese gentlemen and resident priests. With
the latter he had lengthy discussions, conducted in
French and Latin, on the subject of Roman Catholi-
cism. He walked through the streets where for a
long time he "saw no one but Negro slaves male and
female"; he passed churches in which priests of all
colors imaginable were performing mass. Then as
he ascended the battery which commanded a view
of all the whole bay he exclaimed, "What happy
missionary shall be sent to bear the name of Christ
to these western regions? When shall this beauti-
ful country be delivered from idolatry and spurious
Christianity? Crosses there are in abundance, but
when shall the doctrine of the Cross be held up?"
His last prayer, as he left the shores of Brazil, was
that "God would interfere on behalf of his Gospel."*
The colonial period came to an end in 1807. As
usual, it was the Napoleonic escapade which turned
things topsy-turvy. In this year, the Regent of
Portugal, Dom Joao, flying from the French
Emperor, transferred the court from Lisbon to Rio
de Janeiro. Thus the colony was raised to co-
*Smith, Henry Martyn pp. 106 ff.
[ 56 ]



ordinate rank with the mother country, and Brazil
became one of the nations of the world.
The period of the Empire opened auspiciously,
and had the house of Braganza provided competent
rulers, Brazil might still be an empire. Dom Jogo
and his son were kindly, good-natured men,-the
latter, a pronounced liberal, but there was lacking
that quality of firmness without which nothing could
prosper in the revolutionary period. After much
vacillation, the people decided to follow the example
of the other South American states and to set up
a Republic.
Several events contributed toward this result. In
1872, the tranquil relations that had existed between
Church and State were suddenly ruptured when the
Government, upheld by Pius IX, ordered the Bishop
of Olinda to withdraw his edict compelling Catholic
societies to expel such members as belonged to
masonic lodges. The resentment of the Brazilian
clergy against the Imperial Government was further
heightened by the prosecution of two Bishops who
were subsequently sentenced to imprisonment with
hard labor.
The slavery question had been an irritant in
Brazil's political life as early as 1831; but it was not
until 1888, upon the passage of a law declaring that
slavery should at once be extinct in Brazil, that the
rich planters, hitherto the mainstay of the monarchy,
became disaffected and declared for a Republic.
Another disaffected element was the military, also
an important support of the monarchy. Military
officers who were excluded by law from a political
career were anxious to have their influence felt in
politics. In 1883, a Brazilian colonel contributed to
a Rio de Janiero periodical articles criticizing a
pending bill. The Government insisted that mili-
tary officers should obtain the consent of the Min-
ister of War before writing for the public press.
This the military refused to do on the ground that
[ 59 ]

their constitutional rights were thus infringed.
Eventually, the Government retracted, with the
result that its prestige was sadly weakened, while
the militaristic influence in politics was greatly
Thus large and important elements in the popu-
lation were withdrawing their support from the
Imperial Government and many were becoming
determined that only a Republic could save the
situation. It was decided to inaugurate the Re-
public upon the death of Pedro II. When, however,
it became known that the Emporer intended to ab-
dicate in favor of his daughter, Isabel, the idea of
having their plans upset by the sudden accession of
an autocratic Queen was too much for the Brazil-
ians. Accordingly, supported by the republican
societies and the army, Fonseca prepared and put
through a coup d'etat. The Emporer and his family
were put on board a ship bound for Lisbon, and
Brazil was declared a federation of twenty sovereign
On February 24, 1891, a republican constitution,
modelled upon that of the United States of America,
and declaring "that.the nation was composed of the
former provinces united in an indissoluble union"
was promulgated.
During the period of the Empire, the second
Anglican missionary this time an American, reached
Brazil. As early as 1853, the Foreign Committee of
the Board of Missions, in response to the appeal of
"an intelligent Episcopalian resident in Rio de
Janeiro, setting before the Committee the pressing
necessities of the people and the degree of prepared-
ness for the entrance of the pure Gospel," sent out
the Rev. W. H. Cooper, of Pennsylvania; but.he
was unfortunately shipwrecked on the way, and
abandoned the task. No one else volunteered for
South America until 1859, when the Rev. Richard
Holden of Ohio came forward. Mr. Holden, who
[ 60 1


Victoria Regia: A HUGE WATER LILY


before his ordination had been engaged in business
in Brazil, began his new work at Para. His work
which consisted mainly in the distribution of the
Scriptures was opposed by the Bishop of Amazonia.
For some months, however, Mr. Holden maintained
a polemic against the Roman priests. This came to
an end when the editor was made to understand
that the articles must stop or the newspaper suspend
publication. In other ways, Mr. Holden was con-
tinually embarrassed. He was so completely ostra-
cized in Para that few persons would consent to be
seen with him in the street. Finally, in 1862, he
went to Bahia where he made a Portuguese trans-
lation of the Book of Common Prayer. In Bahia
he fared even worse than in Para, being subjected
to mob violence. He persevered for a time, estab-
lished a Sunday School, and distributed the Bible
and Prayer Book; but, at length, realizing that the
task was too much for him, he resigned in 1864.
In the last days of the Empire, a further attempt
was made to establish a permanent Brazilian mis-
sion. This was undertaken in 1888, by the Amer-
ican Church Missionary Society. A member of the
Executive Committee of the Society, writing some-
time later, said:
"The honor of starting the Brazil Mission belongs
to the young men in the Missionary Society of the
Alexandria Seminary. Having become convinced
that they should do something more than talk and
pray, their minds were providentially led to think
of Brazil. Having opened communication with
some Presbyterian missionaries there, they found
that they could have a clear field in Porto Alegre.
They made application to the American Church
Missionary Society. The Society was at a low ebb,
with little money and a rapidly diminishing con-
stituency. After some hesitation, our Committee
agreed at least to hear their story, and wrote for
them to send a delegation from the Society at the
[ 63 1

seminary to New York and present their case. Our
Committee met Messrs. Roderick and Clark at the
rooms in the Bible House. They demonstrated that
they had gone over the whole matter in a very care-
ful and thorough manner. They martialed their
facts in a very telling way in two addresses, and
then underwent a cross-examination by the Com-
mittee. When they were through, everyone was
deeply impressed with the call; but there was no
money in sight, except that which was promised
from Virginia, for the work. There was not a man
in the Committee that did not feel ready to begin
the work, if we could get the means. But some
were opposed to trying to do the apparently im-
possible. The chairman, Dr. Watkins, called on the
Rev. Dr. Edwards, of Philadelphia, to lead us in
prayer. We needed light and courage and I do not
think it is too much to say that God answered that
prayer at the time. When we arose from our knees
I said that I believed that if this work was of God,
as I felt it was, we would get the money for it, if
we were ready to go forward, and moved that we
make the venture of faith. The Rev. Dr. Neilson,
I think it was, seconded the motion, which was
carried without opposition, and we arranged to take
the first steps, and the young men were sent on their
way rejoicing that they were in the way of seeing
their plans of a pure Gospel for Brazil carried out.
.Thus, in 1888, the Rev. R. A. Roderick and the
Rev. F. P. Clark were appointed as missionaries to
Brazil. Their ambitions, however, were not to be
realized, for, one by an accident and the other by
illness, they were prevented from entering the work."
At the time that the Brazilian Mission was in
jeopardy because of the inability of Messrs. Rod-
erick and Clark to carry out their plans, another
Seminary student Mr. James W. Morris was under
appointment of the Board of Missions to go to
Japan. He realized at once that the Brazilian ven-
ture was the more urgent, and appealed to the Board
[ 64]



of Missions to relieve him of his Japan appoint-
ment. This was reluctantly done, and Mr. Morris
was soon accepted by the American Church Mis-
sionary Society for the new work in Brazil. Clouds,
however, continued to hang over the new enterprise
as the Society was unwilling to send out one man
alone to begin the work. A companion for Mr.
Morris was needed to insure the establishment of
the Brazil Mission. For some time no one offered;
but, finally, a classmate of Mr. Morris, a man who
had taken little interest in the missionary life of
the seminary and who had planned out his life on
other lines than the work of a foreign missionary.
came forward. This was Lucien Lee Kinsolving.
Both Morris and Kinsolving were young men of
college education, of unusually strong health, of
powers of work, and of diversified gifts, that gave
every promise that they would be most efficient
pioneers. These powers stood them in good stead
even before leaving the United States; for, in addi-
tion to facing the discouragement of apprehensive
friends, it devolved upon them to raise the necessary
funds for the support of the new mission. Having
been ordained to the priesthood in August, these
young pioneers sailed from Newport News on the
first of September, 1889. On arriving in Brazil, they
settled temporarily in a small village close to Sio
Paulo where they were the only English-speaking
people. Before relating the story of the enterprise
inaugurated by the arrival of Mr. Morris and Mr.
Kinsolving in Brazil, some consideration must be
given to the land to which they went.
The vast Republic of Brazil comprises 3,276,358
square miles, an area as large as all of continental
United States of America plus four-fifths of Alaska,
and extends from five degrees north latitude to
thirty-two degrees south latitude. No brief account
could describe the varieties of topography, climate,
and plant and animal life found there. In the south-
ern States where the Church's work is concentrated,
[ 67 ]

the country consists principally of vast grassy plains
rising to lofty tablelands. Wide regions in the in-
terior are unsettled, and some even unexplored.
The Amazon, 4,000 miles long, with its mighty
tributaries, reaches into many such regions with
navigable waterways for more than 20,000 miles.
Natural resources-gold and diamonds, manganese
ore, monazite, coal and other minerals-abound, but
have been but little developed. Coffee, rubber,
hides, sugar, and meats also constitute a part of
Brazil's great wealth which awaits further develop-
ment. In 1889, these riches were even less known
and developed than they were in 1926.
The people in this vast territory number slightly
over thirty millions-only nine to the square mile.
Twenty-nine millions are native born whites,
blacks, Negroes, and mixed bloods-while the re-
mainder of the population consists largely of Italian,
German, and Japanese immigrants who came in in-
creasing numbers after 1908, although immigration
had begun as early as 1882.
Mention has been made of Bahia, long the centre
of Brazilian life. In 1920, this city had a population
of 283,422, while Rio de Janeiro, the capital, had
nearly a million and a half people. Pernambuco,
another early centre, reported 238,843; Sgo Paulo
and Porto Alegre, important cities in the south,
579,033 and 179,263 respectively.
This was the land to which, in 1889, went Mr.
Morris and Mr. Kinsolving, fresh from the seminary.
For six months they gave themselves to the study
of Portuguese, allowing themselves to converse in
English but two hours a day. Being by that time
able to preach haltingly in the vernacular, they went
to the Province of Rio Grande do Sul, the "Texas"
of Brazil, where no work other than Roman Catholic
had been established except tivo small Protestant
missions, one of which was later turned over to us,
Porto Alegre, the capital at the northern extremity
[ 68 1

of the Lagoa dos Patos (Lake of Ducks) being the
strategic centre, was selected as their residence. Just
one year after their appointment, on Trinity Sunday,
June 1, 1890, the first service was held in the parlor
of their rented house where they had improvised a
rude chapel. Mr. Kinsolving read the service, and
Mr. Morris preached. The room was well filled
with interested, respectful listeners.
Services were held thereafter each Sunday, and
soon on Wednesday also. The two clergymen were
assisted by two young Brazilians who were ordained
later. One of these, Sefior Vicente Brande, had
established a day school which was soon turned into
a mission school, the missionaries helping with the
teaching. The exact date of the first celebration of
the Holy Communion at which four persons besides
the celebrant, received the Sacrament, is not known.
It is evident, from the first, that the Brazilians
liked our dignified, orderly service, and respected
our wise, uncontroversial manner of dealing with
them. Printed cards announcing the services were
circulated about town; and many people, although
suspicious of this "new" religion, came to investi-
gate. Among them, was a talented young student,
Americo Vespucio Cabral. He was captivated by
what he found, and soon began studying for the
In October, 1891, the slender missionary force was
strengthened by the arrival of the Rev. and Mrs.
W. C. Brown, the Rev. John G. Meem and Miss Mary
Packard, daughter of the dean of Virginia Seminary.
Except for the wives of American missionaries, Miss
Packard was the first of the only two women mis-
sionaries ever sent to Brazil by the Church. To
her belonged great credit for the transformation of
homes, for successful work among the women and
children, and the training of the youth of the Brazil-
ian Church. These additions, together with four
native workers, rendered possible the establishing
[ 69 1

of mission stations in the towns of Rio Grande and
Pelotas, and in several villages near Porto Alegre.
The selection of these places, strong strategic
centres, indicated how thoroughly the early mis-
sionaries were determined to insure the success of
their venture for Christ through following the ex-
ample of the great missionary of early times-St.
Paul. Rio Grande do Sul was a comparatively small
town at the southern end of Lagoa dos Patos, opposite
Porto Alegre. Its situation, however, promised a
future of influence and importance. Pelotas, about
forty miles distant, also on the Lagoa dos Patos, with
a population of about 40,000 was also a strategic
centre. Thus the three principal cities of the State
of Rio Grande do Sul were early occupied.
Late in the Spring of 1892, the first Brazilian
convocation met in Porto Alegre; but, no Bishop
having been appointed for Brazil-the missionaries
were under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Virginia
-this convocation had no canonical standing. A
condition had arisen similar to that of the Church
in America during the colonial period. Candidates
had been admitted to the Communion without be-
ing confirmed, and there could be no ordination for
lack of a Bishop. Whereupon, the Presiding Bishop
appointed Bishop Peterkin of West Virginia, to
make an episcopal visitation. Great was the re-
joicing when the good news of his coming was
flashed over the wires to all of the stations.
Owing to unsettled political conditions and
wretched transport facilities, many hardships were
involved in making such a trip at that time. But
the Bishop overcame all difficulties; and by his wise,
sympathetic counsel, did much to hearten the dis-
tinct forces. He confirmed 142 and ordained four
catechists to the diaconate. Thus definite expres-
sion was given to another of St. Paul's missionary
methods-the development of a native ministry.
In another respect, Bishop Peterkin's visitation
[ 70 ]


mm~mmme ? Arn a



was of even greater importance, in that it gave the
Mission a regular organization. Thus, technically,
the Egreja Episcopal Brasileira dates from his visit in
the Spring of 1893. A year later, in March, the
first authorized convocation met in Rio Grande; but
it was not until the second convocation, in 1895,
that lay delegates were present.
Under this fresh impetus, the Mission advanced
steadily. The 200 communicants in 1895 grew to
346 by 1898; and the annual contributions of the
people during these years averaged well over $3,000,
amounting to more than one-third the sum received
by them from the American Church Missionary
Society, an achievement unparalleled in foreign mis-
sion fields and rivaled in but few domestic districts.
Everywhere, the people were eagerly gathering for
services in crowded, inadequate hired halls; every-
where was the need for churches apparent.
In 1895, the cornerstone for the first church build-
ing was laid at Santa Rita do Rio dos Sinos (River
of the Chimes). When Bishop Stirling of the Falk-
land Islands and South America visited Brazil, in
1897, at the request of Bishop Peterkin, he found
the Church's work grouped about the Lagoa dos
Patos, in Porto Alegre, Santa Rita, Viamao, Rio
Grande do Sul, Pelotas, and Boa Vista, while from
the interior came urgent calls. He advanced to the
priesthood three of Bishop Peterkin's deacons,
Messrs. Brande, Cabral, and Fraga; and confirmed
many candidates.
One of the earliest needs for the successful prose-
cution of the work in Brazil, was an adequate Chris-
tian literature in Portuguese, especially a suitable
Prayer Book. To this task, Mr. Brown early ad-
dressed himself. The translation of the Prayer
Book into Portuguese was completed in 1897, and,
through the generosity of the Bishop White Prayer
Book Society and the New York Prayer Book So-
ciety, the publication was made possible. In 1926,
[ 73 1

this edition was entirely exhausted and a new edi-
tion was one of the most pressing needs especially
as the colporteurs of the British Bible Society re-
ported many urgent requests for it.
The infant Church, not yet ten years old, was
growing apace. The popularity of its ministrations
clearly demonstrated that only through a native
ministry could the work be adequately staffed. A
theological school for the proper training of Brazil-
ians became an urgent necessity. It was also im-
perative that if the opportunity was to be grasped,
there must be a resident Bishop. It seemed, how-
ever, that the problem could not be settled in what
had become the ordinary way. Out of respect for
those in this country who objected to the enterprise,
it seemed best to those in authority to advise the
the infant Church to elect its own Bishop and to
send him seeking consecration to the United States,
as had been done in the case of Haiti and Mexico.
Following this advice, and in response to a cable
recommending it from the American Church Mis-
sionary Society, a convocation was duly summoned
in Porto Alegre, at which Mr. Kinsolving was elec-
ted on the first ballot. The House of Bishops, how-
ever, decided to set aside this action, and proceeded
to elect a Bishop in the usual manner. Their elec-
tion resulted in the unanimous choice of Mr. Kin-
solving. He returned to the United States at once
and, on January 6, 1899, in St. Bartholomew's
Church, New York, was consecrated first Bishop of
the Egreja Episcopal Brasileira, an independent foreign
Bishop Kinsolving and several of his co-workers
at home on furlough, remained in the United States
a few months interesting people in the Brazilian
Church. How successful were these efforts may be
indicated by the going out in August, 1899, of two
new recruits. One of these, Maria R. Pitts, dea-
coness at Grace Church, New York, was the second
and last woman to be appointed as missionary to
[ 74 ]

1 :i4

First Bishop of Brazil, 1899-



Brazil. She served for five years, returning to the
United States in 1904.
Soon after Bishop Kinsolving returned to Brazil,
he was confronted by a very serious situation.
Through one of those mysterious processes which
influence international finance, Brazilian currency
had so appreciated that American currency had in
Brazilian money, only about fifty percent of its
former value. This change in financial standards,
without a corresponding adjustment of popular
prices, practically reduced the salaries of the mis-
sionaries by one half. Quite naturally, this caused
no little distress among them. A temporary increase
of twenty percent in missionary salaries sought to
alleviate the situation, but the resources of the
American Church Missionary Society forbade any
adequate relief.
Not only was the economic status of Brazil un-
settled, but there were grave health conditions
which could not but affect Bishop Kinsolving's
work. In certain parts of southern Brazil, there
was serious danger of a development of the bubonic
plague, while in Rio Grande do Sul yellow fever
was epidemic. In combating the latter, Mr. Brown
did yeoman service.
Despite these many hardships, the Church went
forward with unprecedented vigor under the leader-
ship of her new Bishop. In August, 1900, the Rev.
James W. Morris wrote: "The missions out here
could be indefinitely extended had we the men and
the means. The interior of this State (Rio Grande
do Sul) is wonderfully ready for us and the time
for entering is propitious." These calls were in-
creasingly urgent, and though without adequate
facilities, the Bishop instituted work at Santa Maria
da Bocca do Monte, a town of some 9,000 people
in a most strategic location. To this place, Mr.
Morris went, and his early success amply demon-
strated the wisdom of the step. Two years later,
[ 77 1

though the additional needed help of both men and
money from the United States was not forthcoming,
the services of the Church were taken to eight new
places, three new chapels and two churches were
erected, and Trinity Church at Porto Alegre was
consecrated. Among the places to which the Church
went at this time were Florida, the centre of a
country district near Pelotas; Bag6, an important
interior city of 15,000 inhabitants; Santa Helena,
another country district near Pelotas, and Sao
Leopoldo, a city of 14,000 people. In 1904, the
Church of Our Saviour, Rio Grande do Sul, was
consecrated; and the congregation of the Church of
the Mediator, Santa Maria, purchased a site upon
which to erect their church.
This extension of the Church's work, however,
was entirely within the State of Rio Grande do Sul
where the Mission had been first initiated. Calls
now came to the Church to extend its ministrations
to central Brazil-to the large cities of Rio de
Janeiro, Sio Paulo, and Santos. The insistent and
widespread nature of these requests gave some little
insight into the religious problems of Brazil and the
methods and results of the Church's work.
From the beginning, two aspects of the religious
situation were particularly noticeable: first, the sur-
prising absence of any provision for the spiritual
needs of the people-surprising, because a branch
of the Church had been in the land for some three-
hundred years-and, secondly, the increasing dis-
satisfaction on the part of the more educated and
thoughtful people with this lack of attention. For
example, when Bishop Kinsolving first went to Rio
Grande he found but one Roman Catholic priest to
shepherd a population of 25,000; and in Plelotas,
in the same year, Mr. Meem found two priests for
45,000, one of whom was the old and infirm chaplain
of the Portuguese Hospital. In 1899, in Jaguarao,
a growing city of 15,000, Mr. Brande found only
[ 78 1

one priest. In the village of Areal, where our mis-
sionaries went in 1898, there had never been a resi-
dent priest, nor had any church office ever been
said. In the railroad city of Santa Maria, where
a very successful work was established, there were
two priests of the Roman Church. They had but
little influence on the life of the community and
there was no church. Many similar incidents could
be cited as to the needs of the cities, while in the
country districts the absence of the Word of Life
was even more evident.
The result of this condition was that the people
were not only unshepherded, but even ignorant
about the first principles of the faith. Almost
nothing was known about Our Lord. As might be
expected, the religion of the people-where there
was any-had become grossly superstitious, and
out-and-out image worship was rampant.
When our clergy began to preach and teach in
the midst of this spiritual wilderness, they received
a glad welcome. So much so that, from the first,
their congregation bore a remarkably large share of
the expense of the work. In many of the missions,
not content with helping financially, the laity under-
took to assist the minister in his parish visiting and
sick calls; and, as always results when people are
given something to do, interest grew apace. More-
over, the Roman Church began to stir itself.
The Rev. J. WV. Morris, after many years' ex-
perience in Brazil, thus states the directions given
the clergy when sent to open a new station: "Give
yourself entirely to preaching and expounding the
Word of God. Do not come before the people as a
school teacher. Let all the community know you
once for all, as a preacher, a prophet, an official wit-
ness to Christ, an accredited messenger of Christ's
Church. Let the people see that this is your sole
business among them. You are to do this one thing,
to proclaim the good news of salvation in Christ,
[ 79 1

and to invite men to use and enjoy the reasonable
and reverent faith of our truly Catholic Church."
Experience had shown that, for best results, it
was necessary to use at the very start the distinc-
tive forms of the Church's liturgical worship. For
a while, the missionaries were led to believe that
these people should have, at the beginning, the
simplest and even the barest form of service. They
thought at first that it might be best not to wear
the surplice, and indeed not to conduct public ser-
vice in any distinctly "Episcopal" manner.
This proved to be a mistake. The ordered form
of worship in accordance with the Prayer Book was
particularly effective among the Brazilians. Litur-
gical services by vested clergy in a well-arranged
place of worship, appeal to their sense of propriety,
and give solemnity to the act of worship and power
to the Word preached and expounded.
Therefore, when a missionary was deputed to
open up a new and important centre of work, the
rule was for him to wait until he could establish
the regulation services of the Church. He was to
delay his public preaching until he could begin in
this permanent way. He was to rent a convenient
hall, fit it up as a chapel, and make preparations
for a formal opening service. He was to meet and
visit as many of the people as he could, explain in
private what he had come to do, and gather as
many of the people as he could interest to his own
house or elsewhere for the practice of the hymns
and chants, and for instruction in the order of the
service. He thus had a number of people prepared
to take part in public worship.
Then, on a specified day, after wide notice had
been given, he was to open his new place of worship
with an inaugural service. He had with him the
Bishop, and as many as possible of the other clergy.
He was to begin with the regular Order of Evening
Prayer which would be reverently and enthu-
[ 80 ]

siastically participated in by the large crowd as-
sembled. And then the Bishop and others delivered
addresses explanatory of the Church and her ways,
emphasizing her historical position and her apostolic
heritage, and closing with an earnest presentation of
the old but ever new Gospel message of salvation in
Jesus Christ.
It was found that the Church put before a com-
munity in this formal and official manner, attracted
attention and stimulated inquiry at once, and that
from the initial service there was a congregation of
regular worshipers gathered together.
The establishment of the Church in new centres
necessitated a larger number of priests than could
be obtained from the United States; and, if the
Church in Brazil were to be truly national, its lead-
ers must be Brazilians rather than foreigners. This
had ever been the ideal of the founders of the Mis-
sion, and the increasing call for the Church's min-
istrations made it urgent that measures be taken to
train a native ministry. To this end, a theological
school was opened, in 1900, at Rio Grande do Sul
under the care of the Rev. William C. Brown. Three
candidates immediately placed themselves under in-
struction. A few years later, nine were enrolled.
Many more were eager to receive the training
offered but Bishop Kinsolving and his co-workers
believed solid foundations could best be laid by
limiting the number of trained native priests to the
ability or willingness of the Church to assist in
providing their support after graduation and ordina-
tion. In the Bishop's own words, "No mission can
succeed permanently and substantially that fails
to meet with its own self-sacrifice step by step the
sacrificing help afforded by the Mother Church. So
we dared close the doors of our Theological School
until part of the Brazilian clergy could find support
at the hands of those to whom they ministered. It
was a drastic lesson, yet wholesome. Now that self-
support is growing apace and with it, self-respect
[ 811

and self-sacrifice; now that we have "strengthened
our stakes," we will proceed to "lengthen our cords."
The results of this unique policy were soon ob-
servable. In 1905, all except two stations, including
six churches, six rented chapels, and nine other
points where services were held, were manned by
native clergy. This is undoubtedly one of the prin-
cipal reasons for the marked success of our work
in Brazil.
"The services rendered the Brazilian Church by
Dr. Brown in his translation of the Prayer Book
into Portuguese will be remembered. In 1903, the
British and Foreign Bible Society and the American
Bible Society determined to undertake a new trans-
lation of the Bible into Portuguese. To assist in
this venture, they invited the Rev. A. V. Cabral and
Dr. Brown. The former, due to the pressure of his
parochial duties, was unable to accept; but Dr.
Brown undertook to cooperate in this valuable work.
The rapid development of the Church in Brazil
led to a conviction on the part of certain members
of the American Church Missionary Society that
the Board of Missions could more effectively carry
on the Mission. Such a transfer from the Society
to the Board was not without precedent in Latin
America. In 1865, the Board of Missions had ac-
cepted responsibility for Haiti; and, in 1878, for
Mexico-enterprises initiated and carried on by the
Society. Accordingly, the Society, after careful con-
sideration, offered to transfer its work in Brazil to
the Board of Missions. Terms of transfer were
drawn up and agreed upon whereby the Board of
Missions assumed entire charge of the work in
Brazil from January 1, 1905. The society also agreed
to give the Board $12,000 from its capital fund for
use either in Brazil or Cuba, the latter being trans-
ferred to the Board at the same time.
This change of guardianship for the Brazilian
Church was advantageous, but the ecclesiastical
[ 82 ]



i I -I
i -- ,-



standing of the Church remained unsatisfactory. It
was "the Church in Brazil," a foreign Church, and
Bishop Kinsolving was a foreign Bishop. While
there was nothing inherently objectionable to this,
it did not prove any more practicable in this in-
stance than it had in Mexico and Haiti. Accordingly,
following the precedents set in those fields, steps
were taken to bring the Egreja Episcopal Brasileira
within the fold of the American Church. The inevi-
table formalities had to be observed, and the Brazil-
ian Convocation petitioned the American Church
for admission as a Missionary District. This re-
quest was presented to the General Convention in
Richmond in 1907, where it was favorably received.
Bishop Kinsolving resigned as Bishop of the Brazil-
ian Episcopal Church, thereby ending the existence
of that Church as an independent body. General
Convention thereupon created the Missionary Dis-
trict of Southern Brazil, and elected Bishop Kin-
solving as first Missionary Bishop.
The year which marked the transfer of the work
in Brazil to the Board of Missions, also witnessed
the opening of new opportunities in other directions.
Capital from the United States began to flow into
Brazil for large municipal and industrial enterprises.
Rio Grande do Sul embarked upon a programme
of harbor enlargement, while city railway projects
were pushed in Sio Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and
Bahia. This prosperity made more urgent the
Church's occupation of central Brazil, especially the
large centres of Rio de Janeiro, Santos, and Sio
Paulo whence incessant calls for her ministrations
had come.
Rio de Janeiro, capital of Brazil, a city of over
a million inhabitants, at that time the fourth largest
city in the Western Hemisphere, presented the
greatest opportunity. One of the world's great
capitals, it has an incomparable harbor, splendid
public buildings, wide and pretentious avenues, and
I 85 1

all the devices known to the Parisian for civic adorn-
ment. Ringed about with mountains, however, it
is not easily approached from the land side. This
accounts, in large measure, for the fact that it draws
its supplies largely from abroad, and the high im-
port duties help to make it one of the most ex-
pensive places in which to live.
The geographical location of Rio de Janeiro and
its distance from the centre of the Church's Mission
in southern Brazil contributed to the difficulty of
beginning work there. Another complication was
the existence, in Rio de Janeiro and other large
cities of central Brazil, of chaplaincies of the
Church of England under the jurisdiction of the
Bishop of the Falkland Islands and South Amer-
ica. The English chaplains, however, ministered
only to the English-speaking colonies in these
centres, and carried on no work among the native
Brazilians to whom the American Church sought to
minister. Thus, in reality, there was no real con-
flict of jurisdiction, especially as the English Church
claimed no territorial rights. It was further felt
that, after the firm establishment of the American
Mission the several chaplains, with the consent of
their congregations and the proper ecclesiastical
authorities, might decide to abandon their isolation
in favor of the more intimate contact with a vigor-
ous missionary Church which would come to them
through association with the American Mission.
The situation, complicated at first sight, presented
no insurmountable obstacles; and Bishop Kinsolv-
ing made plans for the establishment of the Church
in Rio de Janeiro. The occupation of Santos and
Sio Paulo was not accomplished for several years.
Work was begun in Rio de Janeiro in 1907; and,
within the next few years, chapels were opened at
three different points. One of these was Trinity
Chapel in the Meyer district, a growing suburb of
Rio with a population of more than fifty thousand
[ 86 1





entirely without any Christian Church or service.
Here, as elsewhere in the capital, the Church was
compelled to use inadequate rented buildings for its
services. This, in one of the two strategic centres
in the southern half of South America! Moreover,
Bishop Kinsolving hoped to make Rio his see city,
and estimated that at least $40,000 would be neces-
sary to erect an adequate cathedral. In October.
1912, the congregation of Trinity Chapel purchased
a lot on which to erect a permanent church, and.
under the direction of their rector, the Rev. C. H. C.
Sergel, labored diligently to raise a building fund.
Until this was done, the rapidly growing congrega-
tion continued worshipping in a rented building
which was "neither adequate, hygienic, nor of
churchly architecture."
A few months after Trinity Chapel had purchased
its new lot, a communicant of the Church of the
Redeemer offered the Church a house and lot valued
at about $12,000 to be used temporarily, if needed,
for services in place of the rented Chapel of the
Redeemer, or to be sold and the proceeds given to
the building fund of the future Church of the Re-
deemer. This substantial gift came from a Church-
woman, not rich in this world's goods, but with no
one dependent upon her, somewhat alone in the
world, and imbued with a sense of obligation to the
Church for the message of comfort given her. She
was a member of the little band of Church people
in Rio de Janeiro who, in 1911, contributed $291.66
per communicant to the Church.
During these same years, progress was likewise
witnessed in other regions. In Santa Maria-the
first interior station opened several years earlier by
Dr. Morris-the Church of the Mediator, a fine
gothic structure in the best location in the city, was
erected in 1905. Not far distant, at Sao Gabriel
where work had been begun by the Rev. J. d'A.
Coelho, a small chapel which had formerly served
[ 89 1

as a country store was blessed and opened, in
December, 1906, by Bishop Kinsolving.
At Bag6, on a site secured by the congregation,
the Church of the Crucified was consecrated on
January 6, 1915. This church, the twelfth erected
in Brazil, was built almost entirely at the expense
of the congregation itself. From Bag6, the Mission
extended into the country and, in 1910, work was
begun in Dom Pedrito in a small rented building.
The congregation planned to erect a church at once,
and the first services were held in the new Church
of the Nativity on Christmas Day, 1912. Other
new churches included Christ Church, Jaguarao,
consecrated in November, 1912; and the Church of
the Divine Saviour, Santa Helena, consecrated a
few weeks later.
The cornerstone for the Church of the Redeemer,
Pelotas, was laid on October 21, 1908, and was
consecrated the following year. This church was
planned by the Rev. John G. Meem, rector of the
In the Florida country where the Church had
early begun its ministry but was without any per-
manent buildings, the Church was offered the title
deeds to a building erected many years before under
the leadership of a layman, an old schoolmaster,
who had some acquaintance with Lutheranism but
was without any connection or affiliation with any
body of Christians. Steps were immediately taken
to accept the gift and to provide such services as
was possible with the small mission staff.
While established posts were being strengthened,
the Mission also endeavored to extend its influence
in new territory. Monte Negro, a railway junction
town in the State of Rio Grande do Sul; and Livra-
mento, "the furthest south," on the Uraguay-Brazil-
ian border, were entered. In the former, work was
begun in 1909, while in the latter, a most strategic
[ 90 1


1iii .


centre, the Eucharist was first celebrated on March
13, 1910.
From the inception of the Mission, emphasis was
placed upon the preaching of the Gospel, the estab-
lishment of a native ministry, and the achievement
of as large a measure of self-support as possible.
Mention has been made of the widespread success
of the Church in presenting its message to the
Brazilians and the eagerness with which the people
endeavored to furnish the necessary means for carry-
ing on the work in an adequate churchly fashion.
Many places, however, remained to be occupied. If
the line of missions along the coast from Rio de
Janeiro to Livramento, to say nothing of the in-
terior, were to be completed, several important
centres such as Santos and Sio Paulo must be oc-
cupied. Men and means, however, were not avail-
able for this advance in 1914.
The native ministry, for the advancement of
which the Theological School was established,
showed encouraging growth. In 1908, five native
Brazilians, all graduates of the Theological School,
were ordained deacons. Two years later these men
were advanced to the priesthood. Thus was the
Church meeting the demands placed upon it in pro-
viding native leadership for a growing work.
It became apparent, however, as the work de-
veloped that an educational programme for the
whole mission must be established. More schools
were needed similar to Sefior Brande's (lay school
which the Church had taken over in the early days
of the Mission. The problem was a most pressing
one; and, in 1907, Bishop Kinsolving wrote: "We
manifestly owe a duty to the thousand or more
children in our Sunday Schools; their parents are,
for the most part, poor; indeed the cost of living in
Brazil is greater than in any other civilized country
I know. .. The government schools are hopelessly
ineffective. The lack of discipline, intellectual and
[ 93 1

moral, is so manifest that neither our native clergy
nor laymen can patronize the schools around them.
The problem has become a pressing one, aside from
the opportunity it affords the Church to deepen her
influence in the life of those committed to her care."
Parochial schools were an urgent necessity in
such strategic centres as Rio Grande do Sul, Pelotas,
Santa Maria, Bag6, and Porto Alegre. A beginning
was made in the two last-named places, but it was
soon evident that the situation could be adequately
met only by Church boarding schools. In 1909,
Bishop Kinsolving again wrote of this matter and
"What is needed is a boarding school for boys
and girls where they may be segregated during their
formative period from the untoward influences sur-
rounding young people here, be brought under the
daily and constant influence of consecrated personal-
ities, saturated with the Church's culture and moral
uplift, then sent back to their homes and parishes
imbued with a loyalty and strong grasp which they
could not have attained had they been thrust into
the ranks of life with only the veneer of an edu-
cation. All this has been achieved in the case of
our native clergy. The Church should now devote
herself to the task of training some of the most
promising of her sons and daughters into strong,
loyal, intelligent laymen and Churchwomen."
The next year, the annual convocation of the Dis-
trict passed an unanimous resolution requesting the
Church in the United States to assist it in launch-
ing an adequate educational programme. Two years,
however, passed before a beginning was made. In
January, 1912, the Rev. J. M. de Mello established
the Collegio Kinsolving, a Church day school for both
boys and girls. From the beginning, the school
prospered and soon had 85 pupils whose tuition fees
made the school entirely self-supporting. A less
successful venture was a small parochial school for
[ 94 ]




: -' I,


~A.- .1'


boys and girls in Sio Gabriel opened in February.
The most ambitious and permanent undertaking
and one which filled the urgent need for a boys'
boarding school was the Escola Diocesana, begun in
March, 1912, by the Rev. W. M. M. Thomas assisted
by the Rev. Jose B. Leao. The school began its
career in rented buildings in one of the suburbs of
Porto Alegre with an enrollment of forty, about
half of whom were day pupils. This number could
easily have been doubled had Mr. Thomas been
willing to sacrifice some of the principles on which
the school was founded. Although a larger enroll-
ment would have very greatly increased the school's
income, such an increase would have sacrificed the
school's ideal of distinctively Christian education.
The Church boys would have been swamped by the
worldlings, and the Church tradition which Mr
Thomas assiduously nurtured would have been lost.
With wise discretion, only a few pupils from non-
Church families were admitted. Further, no one,
no matter how deserving, was taken without pay-
ment of the tuition fee. Two years later, property
was purchased. It was an ideal school site com-
manding a picturesque view of both city and lake.
The property, fronting on two streets, was separated
from adjoining lands by a small stream. It was
well fenced, and had on it a building which could
be enlarged into a suitable residence for the Head-
master. An available football field was just across
the street.
Plans were made for a three-storey school build-
ing, the immediate erection of which was assured
by legacies and gifts from the United States.
The growth of the Mission and its extension over
a wider territory and into new fields of activity,
made advisable the division of the District into
three Archdeaconries. This was done in 1913. The
Rev. John G. Meem was appointed Archdeacon of
Rio de Janeiro, the Rev. A. V. Cabral for Porto
[ 97 J

Alegre, and the Rev. George A. Kirschke, for Rio
The Mission progressed steadily with little or no
change in its personnel other than in the increase
of its native clergy until 1914 when, for the first
time in ten years, the Church in Brazil received a
recruit from the United States. Mr. M. T. Meadows,
a graduate of the University of the South went out
to be a teacher in the Diocesan School. This addi-
tion, however, hardly compensated for the loss of
two veteran members of the staff-one Brazilian
and one American. In January, 1914, occurred the
first death among the Brazilian clergy in twenty-
five years, when the Rev. M. B. da Cunha died of
tuberculosis. At the same time, the pioneer mis-
sionary, the Rev. W. C. Brown, whose untiring
energy and ripe scholarship had largely made pos-
sible the Portuguese translations of the Prayer Book
and Bible, accepted his election as Bishop Coadjutor
of Virginia, and returned to the United States tio
accept his new duties.
Thus there came to a close a period of over a
quarter of a century during which the Church in
Brazil had gone steadily forward-a period of
growth and development, be it noted without a
single conflict with the Roman Church.
During this period, Brazil had become a great
power in South America and the Western Hemi-
sphere. Her commercial relations with the United
States had steadily increased. This, and the gen-
eral good feeling existing between the two countries,
largely engendered by the visit of Elihu Root, as
Secretary of State, in 1906, gave to Churchmen an
unprecedented opportunity to provide that, along
with the quickened line of commerce and political
relations, should flow a new and quickening spiri-
tual life, and that Christian education and ideals
should keep pace with the "ever widening process"
of trade. But in the midst of apparently favorable
[ 98 ]

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