Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 The author's epistle to the...
 An alphabetical catalogue of all...
 An explication of some French terms...
 The contents; or, an alphabetical...
 The perfect marshal; or, compleat...
 Title Page
 A treatise of horsemanship
 Table of Contents

Group Title: Compleat horseman : discovering the surest marks of the beauty, goodness, faults, and imperfections of horses ...
Title: The compleat horseman discovering the surest marks of the beauty
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00023428/00001
 Material Information
Title: The compleat horseman discovering the surest marks of the beauty
Physical Description: 2 v. in 1. : front. (port.) fold. plates. ; 34 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Solleysel, Jacques de, 1617-1680
Hope, William ( tr )
Publisher: Printed for R. Bonwick etc.
Place of Publication: London
Publication Date: 1717
Edition: 2d ed.
Subject: Horses   ( lcsh )
Horses -- Diseases   ( lcsh )
Horsemanship   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00023428
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000618020
notis - ADE7309
lccn - 24020128

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
    The author's epistle to the reader
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
    An alphabetical catalogue of all the simples and drugs mentioned in this work
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
        Page xvii
        Page xviii
        Page xix
        Page xx
        Page xxi
        Page xxii
        Page xxiii
        Page xxiv
        Page xxv
        Page xxvi
        Page xxvii
        Page xxviii
        Page xxix
        Page xxx
        Page xxxi
    An explication of some French terms of horsemanship, mentioned in this book
        Page xxxii
        Page xxxiii
        Page xxxiv
    The contents; or, an alphabetical table of the principal matters contained in the first part
        Page xxxv
        Page xxxvi
        Page xxxvii
        Page xxxviii
        Page xxxix
        Page xl
        Page xli
        Page xlii
        Page xliii
        Page xliv
        Page xlv
        Page xlvi
    The perfect marshal; or, compleat farrier
        Page xlvii
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
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        Page 237
        Page 238
    Title Page
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
    A treatise of horsemanship
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
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    Table of Contents
        Page 327
        Page 328
Full Text

RM I B06

Pug1hh S11101 Bout.
C Io~b n 2 7r

(7~JC --


/ rri


All? y





----------- ----- -
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.......... ... ................... .......
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... Yo*

-1,,httho ri. (3c --CZ)CQjookd a,, commol-L do

gOuri itandi Vh:akm y the.goncral Jto
,5rewoe.s t& 14 ... ........
51&&rlc _pr ory johv mind,
Jac-l tk "-w Outward r/az,:



Compleat Horfeman :














r~. 1t'L



Signs and Caufes of their ifeafes, the True Method both of
their Prefervation, and Cure : With Retideions on the Regu-
lar and Prepofterous Uie of JBleeding and Purging.
The ART of SHOEIN G, with the federal Kinds of Shoes
adapted to the various Defets of Bad Feet, and the Prefervation
of Good.

The Beft MET

Ho D of Breeding Colts, Backing them, and Making their

By the Sieur de S 0 L L E Y S E L L, Querry to the French King
for his Great Horfes, and One of the Royal Academy of Paris.
To which is added,
A moa Excellent S u p p F. L E N T of RIDI NG, colleaed from the
With an A L PHABETICAL CATA LOGUE of all the Phicl Simples
in Engli/b, hrench, and Latin.
Made Englif from the Cigfi)t D Dition of the Original.
By Sir WIL LL IA M H 0 P E, Kt. Deputy-Lieutenant of the
Castle of Edinburgh.
The Whole illufrated with Copper Cuts curiously Engrav'd.
The .@econ CqDtlton Correted from many Errors in the former Edition.

L 0 N

D 0N:

Printed for R. Ronroick, 7. Tonfon, T. Goodwin, 7. Walthoe, a. Wotton, S. M7 J;p,
R. Wilkin, B. Tooke, R. Smith, and T Ward, 17 17.
l/ II 1 IlWON*
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k Jr K 4,

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May it pleafe





T i generally
Worth and
Book, when t,
it, adventure
the Name of a
therefore, hath
SSir, to prefix 1

a Token of the
Excellency of a
bofe concerned in
Sto place in its




I me,


9- Uru ,voww,
~~SI) ~ ~ "~ ~.IC'F
~1~3 CC.' 2r


- w


ii The Epiftle Dedicatory.



to this

to c
" 1

among lbool
manthip, w
among Men.


ks of


which, if

Tour Rova



I may be
fo igh, I
nd. Horfe-
Perfon is



very fJrange,
the Choice of
whom could i

Befl of Books
Clement, H


S 1 *


not then (I t,


if I have p
fo mighty a P
I have fo jufily
in its Kind, a




is to ti

1 I



d upon
; for to

e moif
r ,

and (which ts molt agreeable to my Stub-
jed) the moJI Accomplithed and Grace-
ful among Horfemen? Of the Fir/I

Subjeds fe
Latter Tou


it :

You are am
Glorious 1




f the



Jonducu, as well as fingular
force them all to confess, That
ong the Number of the moft
V ONARCHS that ever


Dedicated the

el the good
tr greatest
For, SII

ijefty's 7
Effects ;

?, Your


and c








The Epiftle Decic

atory. lit

brought t)
Pradice o,

befe Iflan
f Arms,

affifed by Your
and Prote&tion,
them, to raife r
and Serviceabkl
almofj quite out
but alfo teach I,
for the Benefit of
lick, and their
ment : That as
who delight as
Nation in the
inferior to none,
of every Thing re










as Your
r bath

once again to the
this Tranflation,

Royal Approbation
will not only iinfrud
Breed of Warlike


Faf ion



own P


( iill



to train them zp,
ir Majefty's Pub-

private Divertife-
are a People,


in th


Horfes as any
fo We may be
true Knowledge




at Your Royal Feet,




too Happy, if
leaf/ favourable






Your Majefty,

among /fl
* 3

to them.

(e Expedations,
Majefty will

this bold


6all Repute
Vouchafe it
nce., Now


_ ~ -L- ~F1------ -






iv The Epife Dedicatory.
iv The Epiftle Dedicatory.

Your Great


dertakings, and gii
Happy Reign, to t
of all Your Loyal
heartily Wiff'd, am




e Joy

a Long and
and Comfort
&s. is both






Your Majefty's moft Humble and

Moft Obedient Subjed and Servant,












ALT HO U G IH I am no great Friend to tedious and unneceffary
Prefaceing, and that I alfo believe the molt Part of Gentlemen,
who have had any Opportunity of converting with Horfemen,
abroad, know the great Efteem they have for this Book ; fo that
I fancy, there are but very few Country Gentlemen, of any Note, in thefe
Iflands, who have not heard somewhat of it: Yet, at present, I find my
felf oblig'd, both because of the Refpe& I bear to the Author's Memory,
as alfo for the Benefit of fuch, who perhaps, because of their retired Dwel-
lings, have had but little or no Notice of it, to give the Reader a fhort
Account of three Things: Firft of the Author, Secondly of his Book, and
Thirdly of this Tranflation.
As for the Author, he was a Perfon delighted mightily in Horfes, and du-
ring his whole Life, made it his Bufinefs to improve all the Parts of Horfe-
manfhip, this Book of his being a sufficient Teftimony of his great Know-
ledge in one Part of it, to wit, the Curing of Difeafes; and his excellent
Illuftrations upon the Duke of Newcaftle's Book of Riding, laft published in
English, and which he took the Pains to translate into French, a clear De-
monftration of his extraordinary Addrefs and Skill in the other: He was
alfo, to my certain Knowledge, very well known by many of the Nobility
and Gentry of thefe Kingdoms, who had the good Fortune to be taught by
him, when they rode in the late Mr. Bernard's Academy at Paris; and at
that time, he had by this Book of his, fo outftrip'd all Authors upon the
fame Subjedt, who had gone before him, that he very defervedly acquired
the Efteem of all the considerable Efquires in France, and thereby an univer-
fal Applaufe, which fo long as Horfemanfhip is in request, will make his
Name and Writings famous.
Yea, his Inclinations were fo much bent this Way, that he made it a Part
of his Bufinefs to inftruE many of the Nobility and Gentry in the Art of
Riding; for notwithstanding of his being One of the Overfeers, he did alCo
officiate as a Riding-mafter in the French King's Royal Academy of Riding in
Paris and he was in fuch Repute for his great Knowledge and Judgment,
in what related to Horfes and Horfemanfhip, that the Prince of Horjemen,
the unparalleled and famous Duke of NewcaJfle (whofe Memory for his ex-
traordinary Skill in this Art, will be for ever an Honour to his Nation) did
not think it below him to communicate his Thoughts upon it to him, and
willingly accept of his Approbation and Affiflance, of giving which lie judg-
ed him no doubt very capable, otherwise he would never have kept that in-
timate Correfpondence with him, which it is very well known he did.

vi Teh P RE FA C E.
He was alfo a Peifon of a pleafant Converfation, and altogether free of Ce-
remiqy ; roo6k delight, when defired, to difcourfe of,his Art, and to com-
mfnicate it to. fuchGentlemen, whom he thought enclin'd to like Horfes;
and alfo, without any Kind of Refervednefs, answered them fuch Queftions,
as they (out of an earneft Defireto be inftruEed by fo knowing and excellent
a Matter) thought fit to propofe to him : And I can fay this with the more
Certainty, being my felf many times an Eye-witnefs to it, becaufeof my
good Fortune in being for near two Years his Scholar; fo that for my own
Part, I do ingenuoufly acknowledge, that the very Little I understand of
Horfemanfhip, I owe either t6 his good Inttrualons when alive, or to his
Writings now he is gone, and I make no doubt but they fall have the like
good Effeds upont any ingenious Reader, who with a fincere Intention and
judicious Refletion, hall deliberately and ferioufly perufe them.
'Tis true, his Writings are not many, but of all of them which to my
knowledge are extant, this intituled, The Perfect Marfbal, which I have ta-
ken the Pains to translate, is accounted the Chief, and alfo looked upon by
the moft Part of understanding Horfemei,. who have throughly perus'd it,
to be indeed a MajZer-piece upon the Subje -whereof it treateth; and that I
may in a few Words give you a general Idea of its Contents, fuch thort
and superficial Accounts proving frequently very acceptable, especially of
a Book wherein there is somewhat more than ordinary expected I Maall
briefly run through the general Heads of the Whole.
The Book then is divided into two Parts, and in the Firff Part you have,
Firf/, Several Difcourfes fhe-wing the true Shapes of a Horfe, with moft ex-
a& Diredions to prevent being imposed on, and cheated when' you come
to buy One; where alfo, all the Imperfedions of'a Horfe, both before and
behind, are defcrib'd fo to the Life, that a Man muff be very dull if he
come not to understand thein 'Secondly, You have a Difcourfe of Shoeing,
and excellent Dire&ions to keep Horfes of all Kinds, whether for Saddle or
Coach, either at Home or upon Travel, with an exa& Defcription of what
Furniture is moft convenient for Travel, 'and how to preferve your Horfes
from being fpoil'd by it; which is no fmall Matter, as, I believe, all who
have made either a Campaign, or any great Journey, can testify. Thirdly,
You have'Methods fet down t, be us'd in Spring, fdr preventing Difeafes
in Horfes; together with the' Art of Bleeding and Purging. Fburthly, You
have an Account of all the Plaifters and Ointments, that are moft ufefui in
the Curing of Horfes: And then, Laflly, This Firft Part is clos'd with two
moft ufefil Difcourfes; the-Firft, concerning the -Raifing a t'rie Breed of
Horfes, and- the Second of Bitts and Branches; whete 'you have exaEt In-
ftrudions, for hitting all Kinds of Horfes with proper and convenient Bridles,
'let their Mouths be. never fo-bad ; of all which, to relate the Particaurs,
would be too tedious in this Place, and therefore I forbear it, but they are
indeed the very Belt that ever I read upon'thefe Siibjedts. -
in the Second Part, You have a moft exa& and learned Defcdiption of all
the DifeQ2es this molt ufeful Creature is fubjeft to; together wiif their Re-
medies, and a moft methodical Way of applying them eitheraccording to
the different Conftitutions of the Horfes you have to deal withal, or the
Mildnefs and Malignity of the Difeafe: And indeed, in this Point, he fo
far exceeds all other Authors, that they may be very well fi'd only ffiper-
iicially to recommend Receipts, but he, both to recommend and apply them-
to the Bottom, and that for the moft Part with fuch Succefs, that they'
rarely fail to eradicate the very Principles;of that Ferment which occafioi'
ed the Diifemper: Thus mtich of our excellent Author, and the general'
Heads of his Book

Te P RE FA C E. vii
It now remains that I give the Reader a fhort Account of that wherein
I think my felf a little more particularly concerned, and that is, of this
Tranflation of it into Engli/h, which I alfo judge fo much the more neci-
fary, becaufeof fome considerable Alterations I have made in it, which are.
not to be found in the French Copy: For,
Firft, Whereas in the French Impreffion the Treatife of Difeafes is il the
Firfl Part, I have in this Tranflation placed it in the Second, which was the
true Form and Order, in which it was firft writ and published at Paris by
the Author himself, he being neceffitated (as you may fee more at large in
his own enfuing Preface) to tranfpofe the Parts of this laft Edition, that by
fo considerable an Alteration, his own true and genuine Copies might be
diftinguifhed from fome falfe Ones, which were about that Time counter-
feited at Lions; and even altho' it had not come at firft from our Author's
Hands in this Order, yet would I have inclined, for several Reafons, to make
this Alteration. For to instance but one: Is it not a great deal more Me-
thodical, yea, even more Natural, that a Man should firft know the true
Shapes of a Horfe, and wherein the Perfetion and Imperfetion of each
particular Member conifits; as alfo how to govern him at, Home and upon
Travel, than that he at the very Pirft engage himself in the Study of Cu-
ring all the Difeafes, and accidental Difafters, to which this moff fprightly
andufeful Creature is but too frequently fibjec ? To do otherwise, is,. me-
thinks, to reverfe the Order of Things ; and a Man had as good attempt to
read before he can fell, or run before he can walk, as endeavour to know
what belongeth to the Cure of Horfes, without firft underfranding thefe
very firft Rudiments of Horfemanfhip I have named: Now this is what
the Second Part of this Book in the French Copy treateth of, and'therefore
I thought fit in this Tranflation to make it the Firt : So here you have the
Reafon, and I think a very good one too, for the firft considerable Altera-
tion in this Book, to wit, the Tranfpofition of its Parts.
The Secondis, the Reducing, in federal Places, the Number of Chapters,
by laying many of them into one, which, upon Occafion, is again branched
out into Seaions or Heads; especially in the Second Part : Beeaufe in that
Part, he maketh almost always a Chapter of each different Receipt, as well
as of every particular Difeafe or Diftemper ; which did fo mightily encreafe
the Number of Chapters, that they amounted in that one Part to i o, and
were, in my Opinion, very inconvenient ; not fo much because cf 'teir
great Number, as because no Man could eafily, at firti View, know, by
the Title of the Remedy, to what Difeafe it was chiefly appropriated : Ac
present I have endeavour'd to re&ify this, by making almost no more Chap-
ters in the Second Part, than there are Difeafes or Infirmities incident to
Horfes (which however, ftill amount to about 1io,) and reducing ail the
Remedies for each particular Difeafe, to diitina Secions only ; to that a
Man may now, at firft opening of the Book, know certainly, by the Dire-
tion of the Chapter at the Head of each Page, that fuch a Difeafe is par-
ticularly treated of in that Chapter; and consequently, that all the Sedions
contained in it, are only fo many different Remedies, but chiefly appropri-
ate.d to that Difeafe or Infirmity, altho' they may be alfo good fori tome
others, according as they fall be particularly prefcribed by the Author.
The Third Alteration, or rather Improvement I have made, and which is
not to be found in any of the.French Imprefltons, is, rl-jV, The Addition of
a moft exact Colletion of Horfemanfhip, which I have taken from the ve-
ry Beft of Writers on that Subjec, and which I thought fit to add to the Fvrf
Part by Way of Supplement, there being little or nothing of the Art of Rid-
ing contained in it. Secondly. AnAlphabetical Catalogue, of all the Simples
b and








-- 1 ~FII"~~~~"

and Drugs difperfed through the whole Book, together with their French and
Latin Apellations: As alfo,. for the Benefit of fuch as do not underfiand
them, a thort Explication of the Weights and Meafurcs, with the moft
useful French Terms of Horfemanfhip, mentioned throughout the whole
Work ; all which are likewife fet down in an Alphabetical Order, immre-
'diately after the Catalogue of Simples.
Now this little Englibh, French and Latin Catalogue, I judg'd would be of
fingular Ufe; for altho' the Book be in the Englilh Language, yet the-Cata-
logue maketh it almost universally Ufeful, all Europe over. For Example:
Suppole a Gentleman buy this Book, and for the Benefit of his Horfes take
it along with him to the Army in Flanders, Germany, &c. or to any other
Kingdom in Europe, I fay, uhderftanding Englih, if he intend to compofe
any Remedy, he needs but apply himself to fome skilful Apothecary (who,
if he be fuch, muft be Mafter of Latin, or at leaft ought to underftind the
Latin Names of all Simples) to whom reading over the Litin Names of the
Drugs, together with their Dofes, which compofe any Remedy,, the Gentle-
man himself explaining, in any Language, wherein he can be beff under-
flood by the Apothecary, the Method of Compofition from this Englijh Im-
preffion; the Apothecary, I fay, if.he benot a meer Ignorant or Blockhead,
cannot fail, being thus directed, to make up exacEly the molt compounded
Remedy in the whole Book, and the Ointment, Charge, Drench, or what-
ever elfe, being once prepared, the Gentleman may give Orders about it
himfelf, according to the Dire&tions of the Book, with the fame Dexterity
and Certainty, as if he had been at. hole in his native Country, or the Re-
ceipt made up by a London or Edinburgh Apothecary; all which is certainly
no fmall Advantage to any of our Country-men, who by their Employments,
in Time of War, are obliged to a frequent Attendance upon the Army ir
Flanders, or elsewhere, as his Majefty's Service hall require.
So you fee, you have in this one Book, all that any Gentleman needs to-
know,either as to BreedingBacking, Bitting, kfeping, Curig, or Shoeing any Kind
of fHorfe, for whatever Service he be defigh'd.; and therefore I am confident,
no judicious Perfon, who is a Lover of Horfes, will dispute the Ufefulnefs
of this Tranflation.
The Book, as I told you before, is in French, Intituled, Le Parfait Ma-
refc.al, or, Compleat Farrier; and how much we ftand in need of good Ones,
whereof there is fuch a Scarcity in thefe Iflands, I leave to thofe, who ha-
ving Horfes of a considerable Value sometimes falling Sick on their Hands,
and know not poffibly what Methods to take for their Recovery, to judge :
And, indeed, to deal ingenuoufly, it was chiefly this Confideration, toge-
ther with the Effteem I had for the Author, and great Delight I take my felf
in Horfes, which firft put me upon the Fancy of Tranflating it ; wherein, if
I have gratify'd a good many curious Gentlemen, who earneftly wifh'd for
it, yet I am persuaded I have disappointed not a few criticizing, I should
have rather faid, invidious and felf conceited Sparks, who with all their
Hearts I know expended, and wifh'd me to fail in my Undertaking, and
who are fo mean-fpirited, that they cannot endure any public Work should
be gone about, which they are not either capable to perform themselves, or
of t he Theory whereof they are not at leaft fo much Mafters, as to be in a
Capacity, without discovering their Ignorance, to pretend and alledge the
Commilfion of fome few Faults or Efcapes, whereby they may have a Kind
of Pretext to backbite and condemn the Performer : But for the Exaanefs
of the Tranflation, I-leave it to answer for it felf, being very certain, that
whatever Faults fome nice People may find in the Language, yet they will
find none in the Senfe, which is what I chiefly aim'd at in the Verfion: And

I e n.
The PRE FA C E. ix
for their -critical Backbiting, and cenforious Humour, I am resolved not to
be in,:the left concern'd at it, feeing, in my Opinion, the very Vice it felf,
carries along'with it its own Punifhment; besides, I am of St. Valerian's Mind,
that, Plena vitoria e/f ad clamantem tacere, & non refpondere provocanti.
In fine, feeing this Book in French, is acknowledged by all who ever perus'd
it, to be the Beft and moft Methodical that ever was writ on the Subjec, I
cannot comprehend how we in Britain have fo far overfeen our felves, as al-
together to neglect its Tranflation till now; especially when fo few curious
Books ale- published in French upon any other Subject, but what are immedi-
ately'made Engli ; but I judge the Rea ons of it to be chiefly thefe four.
fir/, rf was too great, nay, I may rather fay too difficult a Task for any
common: Farrier to undertake, both because of the French Language, which
few of'thatProfeffioh are Mailers of: As alfo, because there is in it a gre t deal
more of what by Phyficians is called Method, than in any Book as yet writ on
the fame Subject; no Wonder then, the Englij}bi:g of it was not attempted by
fuch,_ whofeknowledge in Phyfick is generally but very superficial, and Pra-
tice not performed with near fd much Order and Method as is to be found
here. It may'alfo be fuppos'd, that-Farriers, whofe Trade and Calling is their
Livelyhood, mray have&willingly omitted it, (even altho' otherwise very ca-
pable of performing it) left its Accuracy and Vlainnefs (for both which this
Book is fo highly efteem'd) might have prejudiced their Employment.
Secondly, There are but few Gentlemen, who, altho' very capable to un-
dertake fuch a Work, ill yet be at the Trouble and Pains to engage in it, be-
ing fenfible what a vaft Difference there is, between EngYiifin a few Pages,
and tranflating a considerable Volume: And I know, that many have for this
very Reafon admired, how that I, whole Empliyment and Bufinefs lay not
at all this Way, should have ever concerned my felf with it. But to fatisfy a
little fuch inquisitive Perfons as to this, I fay, That the Subject I have made
choice of, is not only very Gentlemanly, and trhertefore worthy any Man's al-
lowing fome fpare Hours upon the Study of it,'but I muff alfo let them know,
that several Things which many other Gentlemen look upon as Toils and
Troubles, are to me real Recreations and Divertifements-: And as it is my
Humour to abominate Idlenefs, fo I always defign'd that my innocent Oc-
cupations, might not only be diverting and ufeful to my felf, but alfo bene-
ficial, if poffible, to others, whereof I have already given federal Proofs, in
treating of a Subjet no lefs Ufeful and Gentlemanly than this; and as the
Divertifement and SatisfaCtion I have had in completing this Tranflation,
hath abundantly recompenfed my Labour (for I affure you, whatever may
be the Thoughts of fome narrow and mean-fpirited People, I never intended
any Profpect of Gain flould) fo I make no doubt, but the serious perufal of
it will fufftciently arifwer my Expetation, by giving all imaginable Satis-
faction to the Reader.
The Third Reafon proceeds from an Objection, which I have heard fome-
times made against the Book in general, viz. That many of its Receipts are
not only difficult to prepare, but alfo very chargeable : Now altho' I know
this will have no Weight with any who know the Book, yet feeing it hath
been, and flill may be a tumbling Block to many, who know not its Worth
and Excellency, 1 hall endeavour to remove it. Firft then, as to the great
Difficulty there is in preparing fome of the Receipts, I fay, that is cafi~y re-
medied, by either making ufe of fuch as are leait compounded, (and whereof
there are a great many in the Book, of the fame Nature and Vertue, aitho'
not altogether fo great, with thofe that are molt difficult to prepare) or
otherwise, where there is an abfolute Neceffity to make ufe of any which are
more coinp.ounded, by employing fome difcreet and skilful Apothecary, who
b 2 may

-x The P REFACE.
may be commonly found in the next adjacent Town or Village. And as to
the Second, which is their Chargeablenefs and exceffive Rate, besides, as I
have already faid, that there are many Remedies of an eafy Compofition, as
well as more difficult; fo there are alfo others which may be had at a very
eafy Rate, and are therefore moft proper for Horfes of a fmall Value: Not
but that they are alfo good for the fineft of Horfes; however, I judge their
more proper for the coarfeft and moft common, fuch as your ordinary Hack-
neys, Plough and Cart-horfes, &c. and where a Man hath Horfes which are
very fine, and of a great Value, I cannot imagine that he will grudge at the
Giving out twenty Shillings, that fo he may fave himself Ioo, 200, or 300
Founds, many Horfes in Europe being known to be valued at thefe Rates, and
even in Exgland there are fome of 0oo, 15o, and 200 Pounds Price ; fo that
I fay, to fave Horfes of fo great a Value, I cannot fancy that any Nobleman,
or Gentleman who takes Delight in them, will fcruple the laying out of
twenty or thirty Shillings, which is more than the Price of the moft com-
pounded Remedy in the whole Book ; and altho' the common Vehicle re-
commended by our Author, be Claret or White-wine, both because the
coarfeft Kind of it, which is good enough for Horfes, is procured at a very
eafy Rate in France; as alfo because they have not in that Country the Con-
veniency of getting good Ale, yet it doth not hinder, but that in many Ca.
fes where he ordereth Claret or White-wine, we in thefe Iflands, (where
Wines are fold at a pretty dear Rate, and where good Ale may be eafily
had) may make ufe of Ale, if we find no indifpenfable Neceffity lying upon
us, to make only ufe of Wine, which in fome Cafes there is, as the Nature
of the Remedy, with a little Experience, will quickly difcover to any. And
thus, I hope, I have remov'd a common, but in my Opinion, very weak
and frivolous Objetion, made by a Kind of Men, who value a Crown or
Noble, more than the fineft Courfer of Naples.
But the Fourth and laft Reafon, why this Tranflation hath been, omitted,
and which will, I believe, be found to be the Strongeft of all, is, that we are
generally fo much perfwaded of the Excellency of our old Writers, fuch as
Blundevil, Markham, de la Gray, and fome others, that we imagine none can
outftrip or exceed them, and yet the moft Part of thofe who have writ in the
Englijf Language upon this SubjeEt were Frenchmen; for the Duke of New-
cajie, by what I can learn, never writ any Thing of Marfhalry, whatever he
might have done, had he liv'd; for we find in his Englifb Book of Horfeman-
]iip laft published, that he defign'd fuch a Treatife, but that it was ever
either finished, or fo much as begun, is what I could never as yet be cer-
tainly informed of; fo that, generally speaking, I fay, we muff fill acknow-
ledge, that we are in a great Meafure beholden to the French, for our chiefeft
Knowledge and Skill in this Science; and whoever hall take the Pains to
peruife thefe Writers and this, as I have done the moft Part of them, will
find fuch a Difference betwixt them, that I am confident, if he be any
'Thing of a Horfeman, he will make no Comparifon.
Let this long Neglec then of ours, now we have this admirable Piece in
our own Language, make us the more forward, thoroughly to perufe and pra-
tife its Dirc.ions, that fo we may with the greater Succefs, improve in the
Knowledge of a Science, which (as the Art Military) is look'd upon not to
be below the Study even of Princes, whereof feveral Infiances might be gi-
ven; and that this Tranflation may have fo good and with'd-for Effe&, is
the earned Defire of him, who is not only a Well wifher to M.;flalry and
h-or/jmajh'ip, but alfo, according to his fmiall Power and Capacity, an En-
courager and Promoter of all heroick and gentlemanly Studies and Exerci-
fes whatsoever.
T'f V F

S-- -xi





HE RE is a new Edition of the Perfee& Marfhal, wherein I am to give
you new Di/coveries, which, without doubt, will make it preferable to the
Former : I changed many Things in the Laft, to difinguifh it from thofe
which were counterfeited by fome Bookfellers at Lions, accuflom'd to de-
ceive the Publick by defective Editions, wherein they shamefully join Negligence with
Dijboneftj: They altered, in this my Wvork, the Names of the Drugs, and thereby
rendered them unintelligible : They falfifyd, in many Remedies, the Dofe, and con-
fequently made the Cure worfe than the Difeafe. To free the Publick of this Incon-
veniency, I have, in this new Edition, changed the Order of the Preceeding, by tranf-
pofing the two Parts which compofe the Whole, and putting the Second in the Place of
the Firft; to the End fo remarkable a Change, which immediately ftrikes the Eyes,
might, without choking either Reafon or Symmetry, ferve to diftinguifh the true
and genuine Copies from the Falfe.
Since that Time, Experience and Reflet-ions have given me new Difcoveries,
whereof I intend to make the Publick a Sharer ; thereby, the Better to anjier the
Expectation of many Strangers, who having already tranjiated this Book into federal
Languages, and preparing for new Editions, will be, no doubt, very well Jatisfed, to
find it more Exadt and Correct than heretofore. In many Parts I have taken away
whole Remedies, which appeared to me not /o good a~ thofe I have put in their Places;
and I have cleared the moft Part of the Pages of thofe troublesome Charac7ers, Jfchi
as Crotchets, Stars, and little Hands, that marked the Additions made from
Time to 'ime, and which composed an extravagant and fantastical Body of Work,
more proper to difjrac7 and confound the Reader, than render him attentive, and
injiruct him.
1 had left, in my former Editions, out of an indulgent Humour, and in behalf
of many Farriers, and fome opinionative Humours, certain Remedies, or, rather,
certain old Rotes and Praftices, which a long Cuflom had jo au.t.i;z'd, that I
fcarcely believed I could wholly deftroy them: At present I banifb this'iolera!ion;
and altho' I put my flf in hazard of exciting against me this Croud of People, in/-
fatuated with their fa/fe Opinions, yet I declare that I am absolutely agaif, the f
old and defjicable Pradtices, and pretend, after having firft rejeGced them, to fab-

xii To the Reader.
flitute in their Place wholfome Remedies. For Example : Among the different Re-
medies which I had given for Foundering in the Feet, I had flipt in that bad C'u/lot
of Gartering, for Reafons I ball explain in the Chapter treating of that Infirmi-
ty : If 1 had oaitted that Cuftom, People would either have accused me of Sinu-
larity, or that I had been ignorant of a Pracdice, which had been, by T7ime, beyond
the Compafs of lMemrory, rooted and efiablijq'd among the Farriers. Now, 1 quit
that Circujpeciion, and intend toprove, That the DOje of Garters i to be abolilbed,
and that if they are not altogether )unprofitable, yet they generally do more. Prejudice
than Good. i his 1 fall mInke clearly appear to fuch, who are endu'd but wiih4 mode-
rate Portion of Rea/on and good Sen/e.
It i4 lthe fame with what they commonly pra.difue upon a Horfe that is trained in
the Shoulder or launch, for several Farriers, prtpoffejf'd with the old Cujflom,
cafe the HoPfe, if the Strain be in the ShoAlder, Nager a Sec, as the French
call it, which is nothing'elfe but the Tying up of the Paund Leg with a Piece of jfma!
Rope to his Fore-lhigh, that fo he may not jet it to the Ground, and then they con-
Jfrain him to walk upon his three Legs; (you fJall have the Reafbn why they do this
i// its t roper Place) and if it be in the Haunch, then they make him draw in the Har-
rows, which is nothing elle but to redouble the Pain in a Part already very much
afflicted ; and it is the fame as if a Man who hath f rained his Kinee or Thigh, should
go Cripple and walk upon it.
But on this Occafion they don't refl there, for having forced the Horfe either to
walk thbs upon three Legs, or to draw in the Harrows, they at the very fame time,
bleed him in the Plat-Veins, or Flat of the Thighs, which is manifeJly prepojfe-
rous, and a very great Imprudence, because the Horfe's whole Blood being "agitated by
the violent Motion of going upon three Legs, &c. there evacuates none but that which
is pure/ff, and mofJ fled with animal Spirits; fo that Nature remains weakened, and
far lejs capable to re- efJablif the Shoulder or Thigh which they intend to cure: Be-
fides, that to take Blood onj uch an Occafion from the Plat-/Vein, is but to draw down
the Humour upon the Part afflicted, whe eas, by a more judiciotw Pra ice, they
might make a Revulfion and divert it, by bleeding in the Neck.
Don't they fall again into another Miffake again/ good Practice and Cuflom, when
they fufpOc a IHofe of having the Glanders, because he hath Kernels, and cafteth
at the Nofe ? fr then they begin, by removing the lCernels, as if they were the Caufe
of the Glanders, whereas they are only its E'f&c s, and a Horfe is no lefs glander'd
for having the KIernels taken away ; alfo a Horfe which cafteth at the Noje, may be
perhaps but Colded, altho' he appear to have the Glanders: But their Abujes go yet
further, becauJe when they observe that a Horfe i 'Afjs after the Kernels are remove d,
they then give him Some Cordials after their own Fajhion, which neither cure the
Horfe, nor J much as prevent his Cafling; fo that for the laf/ Refuge they purge and
reprrge him, which is a great Abuje, and the true and ready Way to render the Dif-
eaje incurable; it being mofj certain, that purging, in fuch a Cafe, produces a bad
EffeJ, because it disorders and confounds Nature, by forcing her to take another
WIay to difcbarge her felf, than that jhe would have chosen of her own Accord. They
would prevent fuch Accidents as thefe, if they were capable of a little Speculation,
but it is not for them this Axiom is made, Medicus eft infpedor nature ; fr,
in fine, a Man fjould always accommodate himlfef to Nature, and crop and oppose
her as little as poffible.
I could play the Critick longer, and could recite a great many more Examples,
but 1 refer the Reader to the Second Part of this Work, which will inflru&C him
in every Thing relating to the Knowledge of Horj and af if him to make judicious
RefJletions upon the Caujes and Signs of their ifeafjs; he will id them there deVin'd
with Jo great Care and Exacne/s, that he will Jcarcely receive more exact Ideas of
them any where El#, and if he will but join to them a little Praclice, and apply him-
flf to the Comapofition and Application of the Remedies, he will be in no danger of

To the Reader.
_r__ -. 'i' lp _
being enfnared by the michievous and pitiful Pra&ices. of jbme of our common
Farriers, and of another Sett of People who are no lefs to be feared, I mean certain
half-knowing Men, who, having but fuperfcial Notions of what I fall explain, fancy
to amufe the World with a great Clutter of 4Words, but fhamefully hold their Peace
when People require their Efets. I tellYy Opinion with a great deal of freedom
but yet with more Ingenuity and Candour, and all know that my Words and Ajcions
are free from any mean Byjend, and that I have no other Motiv, herein, but after
a generous Way, to oblige the Publici, and particularly thofe who delight in
I conclude, by !fying, That a Man nay ao receive fome happy Imprefions relating
to this Sqbjec, and fome others fit for framing the Spirit of a young Gentleman, by
reading a Booki~tituled, in French, Les Arts de Phorime d' epe, publijeed
by G. Guillet, wherein is found, among other Things, the Facility of Ditionaries;
for the'Terms and Definitions of each .Sbjeit, are there fet down in an alpha-
betical 'Order : Many Pf ple have found fo iuch' Good by it already, that
I fancy the Publick will be, in /fome menfure, beholden to me for recompind"
ing it i






T. E

All the Simples and Drugs mentioned in this Work;
together with their French and Latin Appellations. In the firlt
Column is contained the Englijb, in the Second the.French, and
in the Third the Latib Names..,

Note, The Explication of the Weights and Meafures, together with the Terms of
Horfemanfhip, are to be found at the End of this Catalogue.




A Conite o Wolfs-
Agarick Trochifcated
Agnu Cafus, or Chafi-
Alhandal, or Coloquin-
tida trochifated S
Alkanet, or Or er ..
Alkermes, or Confetion
of the Berry Chermes S
Allum common
Allur of the Rock, or
Roch Allum S
Almonds bitter
Almonds feet
Aloes common
Aloes hepatick, or the
middle Kind
Aloes fuccotrine or fineft
Amber white
,-4ber yellow
Aeit or Dill
Angelica of Bohemia
JAi imony Crude

Glands de Chefne
Agarick en trochifques
Agnus Caftus
Aune ou Verne
Orcanette .
Alun de Glace
Amandes ameres
Amandes douces
Aloes commun
Aloes hepatique
Aloes fuccotrin
Angelique de Boheme
Antimoin crud

C/ nitum vel Lupo.
SGlandes Quercina
Agaricum Trochifcatum
Agnus Cajfls
Trochifii Alhandal
Confe#io Alkermes
Alumen faaFitium
Alumen rupeum
Amygdale amare
Amygdale dulces
Aloe caballina
Aloe hepatica
Aloe fuccotrina
Angelica Behemia
Antimonirum crudu

_ .. ---- --

of all the Simples, ec



Antimony Diiphoretick
Antimony glafS
Apple cal'd a Rennet or 7
Pippen S
Aquafortis )eakned by
ufing '
Armenian Stone
Aromatick Reed of the }
Afhes made of the bran-
ches of a Vine S
Afhes made of the burnt)
Lees or Dregs of'
Affa fCtida
Avens, or Herb Pennet
Azure, or Lazule-flone

BAcon Skin
Bark of any Tree
Barley-flowerr or Meal
Baflard, black Hellebor 7
or Bears-foot S
Bafjard Dittany
Baftard Saffon
Bay or Lawrel-wood
Bdellium a Gum
Bears-breech, or branck- }
urfine '
Bears-foot, or baflard')
black Hellebor S
Beer, a Kind of'Drink

SAntimoin Diaphore
Ver d' Antimoin
Pomme de Reynette
Eau fort
Eau feconde
Pierre d' Armenie
Calamus Aromatique
Culrage ou Perficaire
Cendres de Sarmentc

Cendres gravele

Affe fetid
Pierre don't fe fait I'Azu


C Ouenne, ou Coin
de lard
Citronille ou meliffe
Efpine Vinette
Farine d'Orge
Ellebore baftard ou -
Fraxine le
Bays de Laurier
Bois de Laurier
Branque urfine
Ellebore baftard, 91u
Bette ou Poirfe

-t.,.imonium D aphorv /
Vitrum Anl-imonir.
Malulr Petitiulm
Aaua fortis uji ai1enui
Lapis Armenus
Calamus Aromaticus

{ Per (aria

Cmeires Sarmmeti

GCneres if.am vfwin

.-/z fetid&
ir Lpis lazuli

e C Orium Lardi

Farina horde/
Bacce lauri
Lignum laurinarn
C Acanthus Zvel Braine
- I-elleboraflrrsm
Cervifia luplatl

S I t l

- -- ----


Ivel 11 -'

An Alphabetical Catalogue


Benedict a laxatiiv, or
the Bleffed Laxative
Bez.oar Stone
Bind!reed, or ,ea Bindweed
Birthwort long or Male
Birthwort round, or

Biflort, or Snake-weed
Blites or Blite
Bloffom, or flower of the
Bole Armoniack, fine
Bole or Oriental
Bole common
Borace, or Borax
Borax of Venice
Bran of Wheat

Brier wild or Eglantine
BrimJfone or SulJlr
Brimflone live or natural
Briony black
Briony white
Bulrufh of the Sea

Burdock the Great

Butter burr

C Abbage
Camomil Roman
Campfire a Gum

Bette rave
Benediae Laxative
Ariitoloch longue
Ariffoloch ronde


Bol fin. d'Armenie, ou
de Levant '
Bole common
Borax de Venice

Eau de vie

E Eglantier, ou Rofier
Soulfre vif
Brioine noire
Brioine ou couleuvree
Jonc marin
SBardane ou gloute-
rone autrement>
aureil d'afne

C Choux pommez
Camomille Romaine

Beta rubra
Benedicta laxativa
Ben oinum
Lapis Bezoar
Ariflolochia long
ArifJolochia rotunda
{ Biforta vel radix fer-


Bolus Armenus Yve Ori-
Bolus Vulgaris
Borax vel ChrjfocoIa
Borax Venetix
Rubus Sjlveflris
Spiritus vini vel vi-
num aduftum
Cynosbatus vel Rofa fyj.
Sulphur vivum
Bryonia nigra
Bryonia vel vitis alba
funcus aquaticus

Bardana major


B Raffica capitat.4
Cbamxemelum, '
Chamxmelum Romanr,'m

x rvi



_ __ _.)(_ _______~ ___1__ _I_ C __I_ L______ _~__ I~yl_

_ __ L_ __

1 __

of all the S- -ples, II
-of all the Simples, &c. _XVi
I ;i -f





Caper-tree Root

Cardamoms the Leffer,
the Greater being com--
monly called, Grains of
Carduus Benediaus, or
bleffed Thifile S
Carline ThfIle
Caffia figula cleaned
Cafloreum of the Indies
Catholicon double, or the?
Double universal purg-
ing Eleatuary
Centory great
Centory lefs
Cerecloth of Galen
Cerufe, or white Lead
Charcoal of 1Wood
China Root
Ciquefoil, or five-leav'd
Citron or Lemon
Clay of Potters
Clove Gilly-flower
Cloves of Garlick
Colewort red (da
Colocjnth, or Coloquinti-
Corfrey the great
Comfrey middle, other-
wife Long-wort
Contra yerva, or coun-T
ter poifon Root S

SCapparis Racine,
ou Racine de Ca-


Chardon Benit
Caffe mondee
Caftoreum de Levant

Catholicum double

Centauree grande
t Centauree petite ou
S fiel de Terre
Cerat de Galien
Charbon de Bois
Pentaphilon ou Quin-
Citron ou Limon
Terre glaife
Terre a Potier
Clous de Giroffle
Gouffes d'aile
Choux rouge
Pas d'afne
Confoude grand
Confoude moyen

Contra jerva

c 2


Capparis radixJ



Carduus Benediaus

Carlina vel Chameleon
Daucus (album
Caffia fflularis mundata
Caftoreum Indicum

Catholicum duplex

{ Cheledonium, vel herba
Centaurium majus
Centauriumt minus, vel
Fel Terr.e
Ceratum Galeni
{ Carbo ligneus, five ex
Ligno adufJo (nenfe
China vel lignum Chi-



Limonium vel Malum ci
Vinum rubrum
Lutum (lin,
Argilla, vel Terra fiagu
Cariophylla aromatic
Aglidia, vel allii Nuclei
Caulis ruber
Tuffilago majoro
Symphtum, vel conjolid

SContra yerva vel ra-
dix Drakena




An Alphabetical Catalogue

- a- I

Coppferas Germtan
Copperas green
Copper~,~s nhrte
Cipcr blarnt
C(ordine, or Sa-mrofs
Cornachinui's Powder
Corn Poppy, or Corn Rofe
Coflus bitter
CoJflip or Primrofe
Craxr-fifb, or Crevice
Cream of feet Milk
CreJfes of the Garden
Croir-foot yellow, or of
the Meadow 5
Crums, or Soft of Bread
Cryflal of Tartar
Cryjial Mineral, or Sal
C)pr e's-nmut

Couperofe d' Alemagne
Couperofe vert
Couperofe blanch
Poudre de ('6rnachine
Coftus amere
Yeux de cancres
Crefme de lait
Jaunet ou Bafinet
Mie de pain
Criftal de Tartre
CriftalrMineral ou fel'
prunelle 5
Os de Seche
Noix de Cypre

Vitriolum Germanicum
Vitriolum viride
Vitriolum album
Calcanthum vele s uflum
Pulvis carnachini vulgaris
Papaver Rhbas
CoJfus amarus- (culumr
primula veris vel Verbafl
Oculi Cancrorum
Afacus luviatilis
Aphrogala,vel cremor laIti
Ranunculus pratenfis
vel Pes Corvi
Medulla panis
Crifallum Tartari
Sal Prunella
Cucumer 'vel Cucumis
Os Sepia
Galbulus vel nux Cypria


D Afie wild
Dandelion, fyon's Tooth,
Pifi -a-bed
Devil's Bit
Diagred or Diagridium
Dill or Anet
Dittany, baflard
Dittany of Crete
Divine Plaifer ''
D.)ck, flarp-pointed
D)g, or Qalch-grafs
D/ agons-blood
D .a'on-wor t
D. egs, Grounds, or Lees
of Wine
Dung of any Beaft

M lArguerite fau-
M vage
Dent de Lion ou pif-
Mors du Diable
Ditamne de Crete
Emplaftre Divine
Lapas aigu ou parelle
Chien dent ou Gramen
Sang de Dragon
Baiftier ou Beffiere
de Vin J
Hyeble ou Hieble

B Ellis
Dens Leon
Dens Leonis

minor Sylve-


Morfus Diaboli
DiErlanus Creticus
Emplaf/rum Divinum
Lapathum "aciutum
Grarmen Caninum
San uis Draconis
Floces, vel faces v:ni





-- -

- C l-- -bC--C---~Y--~

of all the Si iplis, e'c. x



EArth fezal'd

Eglantine, or wild Brier
Elaterium, or condenf-2
ed fuice of the wild
Electuary of Carthamus
EleCuary of the Juice
of Roqjes
Electuary of Prunes
purging 3
Euphorbium, a Gum
Extract of Juniper

Fig tree
Filings of Steel
Flax, Hurds, or Tow
Flea-wort, or Flea-bane
Flower, or Bloffom in
Flower of Brimflone, or
FTlowcr, or Bloffom of
Pomegranates f
Flowers of Violets
Fluellin, or Speedwell
Frankincenf, or Olibanum

'"r'Erre Sigilltle 1 Erra fiLa
Lumbrique LumiUs
Oeuf Ovumt
{Eglantier. ou Rofier Cjnosbatus 'el Rolr j/i-
fauvage vePfris

Suc de Concombre
Enule Campane
Eleluaire de Cartham

Elet. du fuc de Rofes

Diaprunis Solutif
Racine de Erynge
Extrait de Genevre

FEnouil Grec
I imaille d' acier
Herbe aux puces

Fleur de Soulfre -

Fleurs de Violettes
Fume Terre


Enula Canmpan

Eleltuar. efucco Rofarum

Diaprunum folutivimn
Eringij radix
Extrad am yunipcri

F Oenum Gr.e;umn

Ficus vel Arbor fciilnea
Scrofularia major v.ul-
gar is
Linmtura Cha!ybis

Flos Sulpbur.i

flores Violarum
Olibanum, vel 1Th1u

(I Aliingal G7 sahngie t* (1AI~ancg
Gij Gle'Cerecil-dt G 1 C crFat de, iGalien G[Ceratum, Galeni
Gait j annyiBepfl lei s,


An Alphabetical Catalogue


Galls, or Gall,.uts
Goofeberry-bbufl, white
Grains of Chermes, or
Grains of Paradie, or-
the greater Carda-
Greafe, or Fat of any
Thing S
Groats, or coarje Oat-
Gromel common
Ground Pine
Guajacum, Lignum Vi- 7
tx, or Pock-wood S
Gum Ammoniack
Gum Bdellium
Gum Cambugia, or
Gum gutte
Gum Campbhir
Gum Dragon, or Dra-
gagant 3
Gum Elemi
Gum Euphorbium
Gum Maflick

Gum Olibanum,
Gum Sagapen
Gum Sarcocol

or }

Rue de Chevre
Grozelier blanc
Graines de Kermes

Grains de Paradis, ou
Gruau d'Aveine ou A-
voine gruee
Chamepitis ou petit pin
Gomme gutte
Gomme a Dragon
Gomme Elemi

Gomme fagapene
Poudre a Canon

Galega, vel Rut capraria
Groffularia alba
t Grana Chermis yve
Ilicis Bacciferr

Grana Paradifi

Adeps vel Pinguedo
Farina avenacea vel Ave.
narum Chondri
5Lythofpermum feu mili-
umr folis
Senecio eel Erigerum
t Guajacum, vel lignum
SCambogia, el gutt
Elemi Grumi
Mafliche vel lentifci re-
S final
Olibanum, vel Thus
Pulvis Bombardicus


H Ermodaas


H Ermodaces
Corn de Cerf
SLangue de cerf ou
f. colopandre
SChichor~ e amere ou

H Ermodatylr
Cornu Cervi
Lingua Cervina, Yel fco.
.~cipitrina vd Hiera-






- -- --


of all the Sitmples,


Helebore, black
Hellebore, white
Honey of the Herb Mer-
Honey of Rofes
Honey of Violets
Houfe-leek the Great,
or Common }
Hundred-headed Thifle 7
or field-Erigus S
Hurds, Iow, or Flax
Hypericon, or St. john's
wort 3

Ellebore noir
Ellebore bland
Chamvre ou Cheievis
Miel Mercuriel
Miel Rozat
Miel Violat
Marhube ou Marrube
Prefle ou Prele


Chardon a cent tefles "
Mille pertuis

1IlL#!!Korpts iptoer
He//chorus albt':s
Cannabis s 'e,,ii
Af'el Iercuriale
Mel Rofatu(,m
MCI Violatum
Caudia euina i-a l eqti-

Cedw Sec/urvel Sewpcr,-Z>jZ
Eryn isim


Acinth, or Confeicion O. 1nfetio de Jacinih,
J of Jacinth ou Hiacinth
fallap Jalappe
Indian-leaf Feuille de Inde

St. John's wort, or Hy-
Iris, common
Iris of Florence
Juice of Liuorice cor- :
Juice of black Liquo-
fJuice of pale Rofes
Ivie, common
Ivie of the Ground

Mille pertuis
Iris common
Iris de Florence
Sue de Regalife

Suc de Regalife noire
Sue de Rofes pales
Bays ou grains de 7.
Genevrc .
Bois de Genevre
Lierre commun ou
Lierre terreftre

C Onfecio de o I'acina
{ alabathrum del fol"i
unm Indicamr
Iris vulgaris
Iris Florentina
t Succus Glyrjrrhize
f Succus Glycyrrhizi.
Succus R ojarum palidarum
Bacce Juniperi
Lignum Juniperi
Hiedera vulgaris
Hedera terrefiris


,pC. xc

L atin.



An Alphabetical C.atalogue


K ^ t t-grafs

L Adies Mantle, or
Ljon's Foot
Lard, or Far-of Baco
Lazule, or Azure-flone
Lees, or Dregs of Wine
Lemmon or Citron
Lemmon-peel, or Skin
Lilly Confancy, or Lilly
Lillies of the Wataer,
white and yellow S
Ladies Bedflram
Lime unflack'd
Linfeed Flower, or Meal
Lion's Foot, or Lion's
Litharge of Gold
Litharge of Silver
Liver of any Thing
Lung-wort, or Liver-
wort, otherwivi mid-
die Comfrey

R Enoue



S Ted de Lion

Bois de Laurier
Pierre don't fe fait 1PAzu
Baiftier ou Beffier de vi
Limon ou Citfon
Ecorce de Citron
Grand Muguet
Oignion de Lis
Lis d' Etang
Petit Muguet
Chaux Vive
Farine de Liia
Pied de Lyon
Litarge d'Or
Litarge d'Argent

Confoude nioyen

P Olygonum, vet Cen.

SEs Lednis, feu Al-
Liquamen ;vel Lardumn
Lignum Laurinum
r Lapis Lazuli
n Floces velfaeces Vini
Limonium, vel malum
Cortex Limonum
Lauca, .
Lilium Convallium
Lilii Radix
Nymph~a alba &r lutea
Gallium ;
Calx viva
Lini Semen
Farina Lini

Lithargyrum Auri
Lithargyrum ArgentZ
Jecur vel Hepar



Magitery of Lead
Male Incenfc, or Frank-7
7/ acC C

rMAcis M4 JAcis
Garance Rbia Tic7orum
Magilter du Saturn MagiJterium Saturni
Herbe de Capillaire, 7 Adianthum vulgare vel
ou Politric Polytrichum




- --




of all the Simples, &c. xx i
_- -- -. 2"





Mahnfey- wine
Mallow common
Marjoram, feet: .
Marrow of. a Hart
Maftick, a Gum,:

Medlar, or Open-arfe
Mercury the Herb, or 7
French Mercury r
AMercury red, or red
Milfoil, or Tarrow
Mint, brown or red
Mzfletoe of the Apple-tree
Miffletoe of the Oak

Mucilage Plaifter
Mules Fat, or Greafe
Mullein White or
Mummy, or embalmed
Man's Fleb
Mufcle fhells
Myrabolans of fve
Kinds, viz. Citrinx,
Chebul Indice ,
Emblicsv, Belle-

Mouelle de Cerf

Reine de Peez
Nefle ou Nefple

Mercure rouge
Mille Feuilles
Menthe oi Mente
Menthe ~i cote rouge
Guis de Pomier
Cuis de Cheihne
Aur e ie de four, ou
Pilofelle }
Emplaftre de Mucilages
Axunge de Mulet
Boullon blanc ou Mo.
Coquilles de Mouiles
Grain de Moutard
Suif de Mouton

forts, &rc.


Mannan ~r'~~
AMlarjo~rana hrty2~
Medull Cervi
tMali .cbevel le gtifci r

Mere urialis
t r-natus rubwr

2VIciha val -aris

1, -

Auricuki miiris
Diach~yim: fi~rple.
Axuxo~ia Md
V''rba;cum, vel T',.s

Mufculorum ConchA
Sevum Ovillum

de cinq; Mjrabolani Citrin~e Chb`
bal, d&ca

Myrti Badic


An Alphabetical Catalogue


' Fr eovch.



N Ettle f Rtie TI Rtica (rnle
N ight/hade Water Eau de Morelle 1 Aqzua Solami elMo-
Nitrv, or Salt-petre Nitre ou Sal-peftre ; lturum
N: Nux Mofcchataade
Nutmeg Mufcade .Mr. ia :'


O tOatmeal coarfe, or
rather Groats S
Opium, or the condenfed
'Juice of black Poppy-
heads )
Opopanax, a Gum
Organy, or wild Mar-
Or ine
Orrice common, or ordi-)
nary Flower- de luce
Orrice-root of Florence
Oxjcrat, or a Compofi-
tion of Water and Vi--
Oil of bitter Almonds
Oil offiveet Almonds
Oil of Amber
Oil of Bays or Laurel
Oil of Caflor, or Cafdo-
Oil of Cloves
Oil of Earth-worms
Oil of Hemp-feed
Oil of ,ypericon, or 7
S:. Johd s wort 3
Oil of i!ies
Oil of' Lirfeed
Oil of Myrtles

Avoine grueeou?
gruau d'Aveine S


Ecorce d'Orange

Iris common

Iris de Florence


Emplaftre Occicrocium
Huile ( es
Huile d' A'mandes ame-
SHuile d' Amandes
Huile d' Ambre
Huile de Laurier
Huile de Caftor
Huile de Giroffles
Huile de Lumbris
Huile de Chenevis
Huile de Hypericon
ou mille pertuis
Huile de Lis
Huile de Lin
Hiuile de Mirtles

A eVena.
Farina Avenacea,
vel Avemarum chondri


Aurantiorum Cortex*

Iris vulgaris

Iris Florentina



SEmnplafrum Oxycroci-
Oleum Amygdal. amar.
Oleum Amygdalarum dul-
Oleum Succini
Oleum Laurinum
Oleum de Cafloreo



Oleum Hyperici


feminis Lini



_ -- I j~__L-ZllliTill~llIljlllllll


- ----

.y ---~cnn~LI-r~-~~-~pr~-~-tB~il~Uy~iiP1~

of all the Sim ples, c. xxv
11 the S'n_ __ ~




Oil of Olives
Oil of Petre, or Petro-
Oil of Quinces
Oil of Rofes
Oil of Thrpentine
Oil ofl Wanats
Oil of Wax
Oil of Vitriol
Ointment of Agrippa
Ointment of the Apo-
Ointment of Marfb-
Ointment Martiatum
*or of Souldiers .
Ointment Oppodeldoch
O;0,ment of Pompho-
lix, or nothing S
Ointrent of Poplar-buds
Ointment Rejumptive,
or Refloring S
Ointment of Rofes

P Armacitt)
SParfr ip
Patience, or Monk's
Pellitory of Spain
Pellitory of the Wall

Penny-royal, common
Penny-royal, wild
Pepper, long
Pepper, white
Petrol, or Oil of Petre
Pine-lIernels of the In-

Huile d' Olives
Huile de Petrole
Huile de Coins
Huile Rofat
Huile de Terebentine
Huile de noix
Huile de Cire
Huile de Vitriol
Onguent Agrippa
Onguent des Apoftres

Onguent d' Althea

Onguent de Soldats
Onguent Oppodeldoc
Onguent, Ponpholix
Onguent de Populeon
Onguent Refumptif
Onguent Rofat
Ecailles des Huiftres

SPerma Ceti

Peretre ou



Pouliot fauvage
Poivre long
Poivre blanc
Eau phagedenique
Pignons d' inde

Oletam Olivarum
Oleum Petrx, vel PeA
Oleum Cydoniorum
Oleum Rofaceum
Oleum Terebinathina
Oleum Carynum
Oleum Cere
Oleum Vitrioli
UVnguentum 4Agrippe
SVnguentum .ipoftolo-
ZIngvueitum Dialthea

Unguentum Martiatu;m
U)nguentum Oppodeldoch
Y'-Lng u rntum Dio
P. hoios, vel nihil
Tnguentum Populeum
5U nguentumr rejimpti-

7'nguentum Rofatum
Cftrearum conch.

SPerma Ceti
{ Patentia vel !H-pola-
Arbor Perfica
Fabulae vel pifa
5 Parietaria vel herbi
i mralis
{ Pulegium hortenfe fio
Pulegium Sjlvejpre
Piper long um
Piper Album
Vinca pervinca
Petr u.''! n
Aqua Phagedenica
iNclei pini Indice



An Alphabetical Catalogue


PI~-tr ee-bark'
Pinc-tree- m gm
Piahb, black or common
P ab of 1),urgundy
!' .. a i r

Porwegra i';e
Pomegranate-blojfoos, 7
Poppy of the Corn, or
Poppy, white
Potters Clay
Powder of Cornachinus
Precipitate, red
Precipitate, white
Pulp, or flefjy Part of
any Fruit S

0 )ick-filver
ouitch- raf or Dog-

,Raifns, or drf'd Grapes
Reed Aromatick of the
Shops S
Re(guls of Antimony
Rep -harrow
Roje damask, or pale

Ecorce de pin
Gomme de pin
Poix noire
Poix de Bourgogne
Eau de planting
Ecorce de Grenade
Pavot blanc
Terra a potier
Poudre de Cornachini
Precipit6 rouge
Precipite blanc

A Rgent vifou Mer-
cure courant
Chien dent ou gramen

R Aifort ou Rave
Eau de pluie
Railins fecs
Calamus Aromatique
Regalle d' Antimoine
Pomme de Reynette
Rofe de Damas

Cortex pini
P ni Gummi,
Pix nigra jeu ficc
Pix Bure undix
Aqua P/lantaginis
Malum granatumn
Cortex Mali gYrrnat
Papaver Rheas
Papaver album
Argilla, el terra fgulina
Pulvis Cornachini vul.
Prccipitatus ruber
Pracipitatus albus'

A Rgentum vivum
Mala Cjdoniau
Gramen Caninum;

X Aua plu7?'zial;
Vvxe pafe
Semen raoi obl/onxi
(alarnus Arorn1asisus
Regulus Axtirnonij
Pet itium MVlal4w;r
Anoni6, vel Arej7a Dov!
J~oJ-mfa vnum
f Rofa ~DaiJ'-, *( ~ -


__ ______________~_~,~,,

__ __ _...


of all the Simple s, c. xxvi




Role red common
Rofe red double,
Rofin, common
Rue of the Wall


Rofe rouge
Role de proving
Eau de Role
Poix refine
Rhue, ou Rue
Rhue domeftique
Eau de Rhue
Seigle ou Segle

Rofa rubri
{ Rofa rabra Batava, z
Aqua Rofarum
Refina native
Ruta murari,
Aqua ruti
S Ip~t


S ck, or Spanif-n-ine
- Saffron
SaJffon Oriental,
Sagapen, a Gum
Sal Prunella, or Crifalt
Mineral S
Sal Armoniac
Sal Gem, or Mineral
Salt great
Salt of Lead
Salt Petre, or Nitre
Salt of Tartar
Salt Treacle of Vipers
Sandiver, or Glafs-Salt
Sarcocol, a Gum'
Saunders, the three Kinds
Scorzonera, or Vipers7
Sea-rufb-grafs, or Sea
Bull-rufb "
Sea-holly, or Hundred.
headed Thiftle
.i \'L~

VIn d'Efpagne
Safran de levant
Sel Brunelle
Sel Armoniac
Sel Gemme
Sel gros
4 Sel du Saturne, ou 7
7. Sel de Plombe
Sel Peftre ou Nitre
Sel de Tartre
Sel Theriacal de Vi-
t peres
Sel de Verre
Trais Sandale
Jonc marin

Chardona Cent tefies

V iztnum Hi/Janice;
Crocus,vel pica Ci-
Crocus OrieZtalis (fIf
Sal Prunella
Sal Armoniacam
Sal Gemmea
Sal Hi-ianicam
Sal Saturni
Nitrum, wel fl Petrp
Sal Tartari
Sal Theriacum iriperr
Axungia Vitri
Sa afras
fincus apuati4cu


Ar A

xxviii An Alphabet


ical Catalogue


Sealed E Iarih
Slj-h :al
Sterpent or Adder's
7Iono uc
Sharp-pointed Dock
Shepherd's Pur/e
Snails red, without Shells
Snake-weed, or Biflort
Soap, black
Soap of Caflile, or Spa- _
nih Soap 5
Solomon's Seal
Soot of WVood
Sorrel of the Garden

Sorrel, long-leav'd


Spech-grrafe, or Peece-
greafe, being the Pal
or Grceae tf t odei;

ctid Leaker 1

I, c '

Spirit of Wiine-
Spirit ,ofi itriol
oS le/en- vort
SpodiYm, alfo Nothing
Sp, irgc, leffer or wild
Stee!-JAfL or Filings

Terre figill6e
Langue de Sepent
Lapas aigu ou parelle
Bourfe de pafture
Prunelle de Buiffon
Limaces rouges
Savon noire
Savon d'Efpagne
marbre S
Signet de Salomon
Suye de Bois

Ozeille long
Ciclamen ou pain de


Spica nard
EFpirit de Nitre
Eip ic de Sel
Efprit de Therebentin
Efprit de Vin
Efprit de Vitriol
v Epurge, une Efpece
i de Tithymale
Stafis agre
Limaille de Acier

Terra figiilata
Brunella vel



Lingua Serpentis
Lapathum acutum
BurfS paftori
Prunumr fjllveflre
Lirmces rubri
SBiforta vel radix fir-
Sapo niger
Sapo Hifanicus
Sig illum Solomonis
#/lioo Li'gai
SAcet4af hortenf, five
{ Acetofa vulgaris folio
1 long
Ciclamen, acl pais por-

5 Pinguedo Corij concocTi
Scoleo delibm i

( Spica Indica, fea Spica

Spritrus nitri
Spirits pdls
Spirits Terebinthinx
Spiritus Vini
Spiritus Vitrioli
Jfplemnium vel Cetarach
Efula, vel Tithymalus fyl-
vaticus lunato flore
Staphis agria
Limatura Chaybis



_ __ ----~---- ----- ------ -- --.-~L"O"*~~


of all the Simples, &c. xx
-- -----

Fr euch.

Sublihite corrosive

Sublimaie feet

Succory bitter or yellow,
or rather Hawkweed
Sugar-candy brown

Sugar-candy white
Sugar coarfe, or Pow-
Sulphur or Brimfjone
Sulphur, golden, of An-

T hAmarinds
Tamarisk, a Shrub
Tartar white, or calcined
Thiftle with a hundred
Heads, or Sea-holly
Thyme wild, or Mother
of Thyme S
Tobacco of Brafil
Tow, Hurds, or Flax
Treacle of Andromach
Treacle of Venice
Turbith, the Herb
Turpentine common

Sublime corrofif

Sublim6 doux
Chichoree amere ou
Eau de Chichore
Sucre Candy roux

Sucre Candy blanc

( Graiffe d6 porch, ou I
fain doux 5
Soulfre aure d' Anti-
Grain de fumach

T Amarins
Tanaife, ou Tanacet
Tarc ou Tare
Tartre blanc
Chardon a cent teftes
Tabac,ouherbe a laRein
Tabac de Brefil
Bourre (que
Theriaque d' Androma-
Theriaque de Venice
Terebentine commune

{ Mercurius fublimatus
{ 2ercurius ftiblimatus
Cichoreum namarum
Aqua Cichorei
t Saccharum candum ru-
{ Saccharum candum al-
Saccharum pulveratum
nobn purificatum
Axuntgia porcina
Sulphur auratum Anti-

Pix liquid
Tartarum Calcinatum
Petum vel Nicotiana
Petum indicum
Theriaca Andromachi
Theriaca Veneta
{ Terebinthiba laricia vel




x An Alphabetical Catalogue



Turpentine of the J1e 7
of Chio S
Turpentine jof Venice

Terebentine de l'ifle .
de Chio S
Terebentine de Venice

Tcre inthana Ch Ci
Terebixthiria J 1'net r

COrn.de Licorne

U Nicrnios vel M1onou
cerotis Corwn



14 ,7t. r in n 'bich hb gt 1 -
ron hatk' b& jn queih
'ai~t~er G ernander
1 J ~
WIP.Nx bard, or Sea ig- ~
Wax S
J18iix red
1'Vx 17v1)ite, or Vlyy4-

14 "a,.%ye~
I'n/~2~2 'InnTrcc or wiL$

I 711'wa-flotw'er the fneJ~
14 I w/-m"al, or coarfe
T4,h1)elp fiick iv
ffLhite of an Eqg
14"','tchcdor Cerufe

V!ine-lees or dr,,s
H'!W Ired or Claret
IT jt~e vv~bite
r~lt; ?,reenp
71 f o c o r
'F7 i u Sl) o

I/TBo'0- jed


Eau ferret


SAua ferro

SScordion, ou Ger-
L mandree acatique
Cire d'Efpagne
Cire rouge
Cire blanched
Cire jaune
Viorne ou Vigne Sau- 2
vage S
Petit lait
Farine fie f de fromcnt
Farine de foment
Chien de lait
Glaire (d'un ouf
Vin (vin
Baiilier ou BeFiere de
Vin rouge ou.Clairet
Vin blanc
Semance centre les vers

Citido caleef

Cera figillaris
Cera miniata
Cer.a Virg inea
Cera flaz' Viburnum
Serumn latis
' rit ictum

. tici
Catulus Ilac;ens
.'loccs velfeces VPni
Vinum rubrum
Vinum album
Aconitum vel luparia
Tilus vel Porcellio
Semen contra Vermes

Latin, ,

U i~C~l'i 11cr/FZ~~i

---- ~-~--~c~~T1~1;~.~ila~I~"Plrp~gllLll

I -I


of all the Simples, &c. xxxi




Al\rias <
V Merd^raf
Vermilion, or Cinnabar
Verrmlion, or Cinnabar
artificial }
Vine-t:ee, or Shrub
Vine wild, or Wayfaring
Tree f
Vinegar of Rofes
Viper's Grafs, or Scor-
zonera }
Vitriol blue, or Ro-
Vitriol white, or com-
mon -
Vomiting Nut

' 7 Aleriane
V Verrt de

gris, ou

Cinabre natural

Cinabre artificial
Vigne: :
Viorne ou vigne fau-
Vinaigre rofat

Vitriol blue
Vitriol commun
Noix vomique

V Aleriana
Vinum Omphacinum
Cinnabaris native

Cinnabaris fatlitia
Acetum rofaceum
t Vitriolum ceruleum,
vel Romanum
t Vitriolum album, vel
Nux vomica

jY Arro.w or Milfoil
Tolk of an Egg
9 g

M Ille feuilles Ilefolium
June d'un ceuf ly Vitellu




Z Edoaria

vel ovi


- ---




Fiench T E R M S of Horfemanihip,

mentioned in this S o o K.

A IDES, Are Affitances or Helps,
which the Rider draws from the
gentle and delicate Effeas of the
Eridle, Cavezon, Spurs, Rod, Acion of
h is Legs, and preffure of hisThighs: As al-
f) from the Sound or Clack of his Tongue,
to make a Horfe ride Juit, as he ought :
They are alfo made ufe of to prevent
Chalif~rmenits, which a Man is sometimes
oblig'd to make ufe of, while he is drefling
Horfcs. See Supplement, Page 268, C&c.
Ayre. An Ayre is a Cadence and Li-
berty of Movement accommodated to,
the natural Difpofition of a Horfe, which
maketh him ride, and raife himfUf ac-
cording to the Rider's Inclination, and
that both in Meafbire and Cadence: They
are generally reckon'd to be fix. See
Surplement 277
Amble. See Suppl. 274 and 300
Apu'v. An Appuy may be confider'd fe-
veral Ways; asfT, it may be taken for a
reciprocal Sentiment, or Feeling, betwixt
the Rider's Hand, and the Horfe's Mouth :
2dly, For a Horfe's Reft upon the Bitt-
month : and 3dly, For the Prefflre of the
Bitt-mou:h on the Barrs.
Ajpy Ileine main, is a firm Prefiure
of a Horfe's Barrs against the Bitt-mouth,
but however, fo as not to be heavy on the
Rider's Hand ; and this is a Quality which
all Horfes, appointed for the Wars, ought
to have ; bccaufe they are thereby the
more fure for the Rider, who, in Time of
Aftion, cannot be fppofcd to consider at-
teitively the Aids of his Bridle-hand.
Appuv an de la de Pleine-main, is a very
bird Prlelirc of a Horfe's Barrs again fl
the Bitt mouth, but however, fo as not to
for e the Rider's Hand, and therefore may
be ruf 'd, and flop'wih a it I title Strength
This Kind of A ppuy is thought convenient

for fuch People, as having weak Thighs,
cannot keep themselves firm on Horfeback.
with them, and therefore hold faft and
cleave to the Bridle-reins.
Armer. See Part 1. p. 231, and Supple-
ment 306


See Supplement


Capriole. See, Supplement ibid.
Caveton.- A Cavezon is a Kind of Mui-
role or Nofe-band, made either of lron,
Leather, or Rope, sometimes flat upon
the Infide, and sometimes hollow, as alfo
twisted, and which is placed by help of a
Head-ftall upon a Horfe's Nofe, the bet-
ter toconftrain him, and alfift the Rider
in the Suppling of his Shoulders : Thofe
of Iron flat upon the Infide, and alfo quilt-
ed with foft Leather, are molt proper for
this, and thofe of Cord or Leather fitteft
to be made ufe of betwixt the Pillars.
Chevalier. 'See Paffager.
Coret. See Supplement. ibid.
Croupade. See Supplement.
Demy-volt. Is a half Circle, or Round,
which a Horfe performeth upon one of
the Corners, of the Square wherein he is
riding, or at the End of a Pafade, and
which he market with either one or two
Pitfes, as the Rider pleafes, that fo he may
change Hands, and fall in again exaaly
to the fame Line of the Square or Parade
from whence he turned ; and when it hap-
pe-n that he falls not in exactly upon
the fine Line, then People fay, He hath
not clos'd exaFtly his Demy-volt.
Note, That it is always better to form a
Square in riding, than a Circle; this is
agreed to by all good Horfemen.
De)fmy, or Dif united, See Svpplement


Explication of, &c. xxxll


Entier. See Supplement

Ferme a Ferme, Is when a Horfe per-
formeth Corveti or Pefates in one Place,
without, in the left, either advancing or

Gallop. See Supplement.
Heavy on. the Hand, See Part I.



Manage, May be confider'd two Ways ;
as, i. It may be taken for the Place where
people ride: 2. For any particular Ayre
that is taught a Horfe.
Mes-Ayre,Isan Ayre or Manage betwixt
the ferra A Terra and Corvet, and is com-
monly called the Volts. ,
Nouer eguillette, See Capriote.
Pas. See Walk.
Pafade. See Supplement. 289
Pajfager. See Supplement. 243, ,c.
Piroyte. See Supplement., 288
Pife. Is the Print or Mark, made by a
Horfe's Feet upon the Ground as he is
riding, fo that he may either Mark One
or Two, if he be a ready Horfe, as the
Rider hath a Mind for it. For Example :
If the Rider make him go but an ordinary
Gallop in a Circle, or rather Square, then
he will mark but one Pife ; -but if he make
him gallop either with his Haunches in,
or go the Terra 'terra, then he wiU
mark two Pifes, and the fame if the Ri-
der make him Paffage, or. gofidewaysi ei-
ther in a straight Line or upon a Circle.
Quart en Quart, Is when a Horfe is
wrought or rid upon a Square, to ride
him three times together along the FirLt

of its four Sides, and at the third Time
to pafs the firft Angle, and ride him as
many Times along the Second, and fo
ficceffively to the Reft, until the Rider
hath made him go over the whole four
Sides of the Square, th t fo he may finish
his Reprife upon that Side of it where he

Reprife, Is the Reiteration, or Repeti-
tion of a Horfe's Leflbn.
Saccade, Is a fudden Twitch that the
Rider giveth a Horfe with the Reins of
the Bridle, when he either with Obfti-
nacy, arms himself, or refts too much
on the Hand: It is a Kind of Corre oion,
but should be very rarely made ufe of,, be-
caufe it is apt to fpoil a Horfe's Mouth.
Serpeger, Is to ride a Horfe in a ferpen-
tine or undulate Line.
Soutenir, Is to ftay or keep up a Horfe's
Head with the Bridle-hand.
Terraa erra. See Supplement 277, 287
Tirer la main, Is to refill and prefs
against the Rider's Bridle-hand. See Part .
Tride, Is the quick and fort Motion of
a Horfe's Legs, upon any natural or arti-
ficial Ation.
Trot. See Supplement. 274
Walk. See Supplement. 233
Volte, May be confider'd two Ways;
as ifl, for the Circle or Round wherein a
Horfe rideth; 2dly, for a Kind of Ayre
betwixt the Terra a Terra and Corvet, cal-
led alfo a, Mes-ayre.
Vote Renverle'e, Is when a Horfe per-
formeth a Manage or Volt of two Piftes,
his Fore parts making the leffer Circle,
and his Hind the larger, or his Head be-
ing next the Center, and his Crupper

e 2


D2ry as Liquid.

Note, That it is only the Englifh
or Mark-weight, that are made
VWork; whereof

as well

Liquid Meafure, and Goldfmith
uje of throughout this whole


Marks or 16 Ounces

One Drachm
One Ounce
One Mark, or Pound
One Pound

Liquid Meafures.

Englij half Pint
Scots half Mutchkin
Paris Mutchkia
Englib Pint
Scotch Mutchkia
Paris Choppin

Engflili Quart
Scotch Choppin
Paris Pint


S,' .


Half a Pound.

Qne Pound

Two Pounds

Dry Meafures.

Englih Meafures.

2 Englil ) Pints
1 Scotch Choppia
2 Englif Quarts
1 Scotch Pint
2 Pottles or 4 Englif.
I Scotch Quart
2 Gallons or 8 Englijh
2 Scotch Quarts



ars Equal

Qlrts. } Equal

Pecks or 32 EIm7bfl Quarts
Scotlh Quarts

} Equal

One Quart.
11 ,
One Pottle.

One Gallon.

One Peck.

One Bufhel.

Iote, The I;:e French lufljel is somewhat lefs than One Englifh Peck and an l I bf, which
is 7Telve Englifh OQuarts; fo that the French Peck or Picotin, which is the fix:b Part of
the large French Bufiel, is fomewhat left than Two Engliih Quarts, or Tlvo Scotch










The Principal Matters

Contained in the


AGE, How to know a Horfe's Age
while he hath Mark Page i.8.
What a Man should remember
for the more ready knowing a Horfe's
Age 20. A great and general Miftake
in many People about the Age in which
Horfes are moft ferviceable 22. How
to know the Age of a Horfe that is: ei-
ther paft Mark, Shell,or: Hollow-tooth'd,
or even Counter-mark'd 23. Several
Signs of old Age ibid. How to judge
of a Horfe's Age, by looking to his Pa-
late 24.
Agility, How'to judge of a Horfe's Agi-
lity and dltlltur 70.
A mble, ThWr to go with the Haunches
low and ply'd, is a Token of a good
Amble 73. The beft Obfervation
whereby to know a true and eafy
Amble ibid.
Anburys, What they are,, and how ,to. re-
move them 64.
Ancients, if to be imitated in all their De-
figns of Horfes or not 1 5. That in
molt of their Defigns, they have placed
the Head in a bad Pofture ibid.
Aperient, The five Aperient or Opening-
roots 175.


Appetite, How to know if a Horfe hath a
good Appetite and if he be fubjef to
the Tick 86. How to recover a Horfe's
Appetite that difgufts upon a Jour-
ney 98.
Arched-legs, How. to know them 36.
How fuch Horfes as !have them are to
be fhoed 130.
Arming, How Horfes arm themselves a-
gainft the Operation of the Bridle 23 1
A good Method to prevent a Horle's
Arming himself against his Neck ibid.
Arms. See Forethighs.
Arreftes. See Rats-tails.
Attitude. What it is. 14
Aubin, A Kind of Pace, and what it is 7.!
Back-finews, How to know when tley are
good and found 36. A Recapitulation
of what was faid concerning them 37
Baiting. See Feeding.
Bars, What they are 3. How they
should be fhap'd 8.
Bay, One of the moft common of all Co-
lours 77. Cheftnut Bay ibid. Dappled
Bay ibid. Dark Bay ibid. Gilded or
yellow Bay ibid. Light Bay ibid.
Beak, A good Invention for kcp,-iny ihe
Shoes fix'd upon fich Horfes as are vcry
I. j1 '


_ I-I- _r I --ati

I -

______-- --s~~~l~dIII


Table of Contents.

fenlible of the Flies in Summer; as al-
fo for fuch as,having a great Itch,
ftrike hard with their Feet against the
Stones 88, &_c.
Beard, Where placed 2. How it flould
be fhap'd 8.
Belly, How to know if a Horfe be well-
belly'd, or full in the Flank ; as alfo if
he be light-helly'd 5 r. Whether or not
it be a proper Expreflion, to fay a
Hor/e hath no Belly ibid. That it is a
great Imperffcion in a Horfe to be
light-belly'd, by being ftrait turned in
the Ribs ibid. A good Method to cure
Horfes whofe Bellies fall too low 53.
Bile, Of Medicines which purge Bile or
Choler i61. Digeftives of Bile 171,173.
Bitting, That all Horfes, especially fich
as are to travel, should have Bitts that
not only fit them exaaly, but which
are alfo very light 89. Inftrudions for
fitting all Kinds of Horfes with pro-
per Bitts 207. A good Advertifement
to fuch as have a Defire togive always
rude Bitts to Horfes 223. How to
chufe a proper Bitt for a Horfe 234.
Bitt-mouths, Of all the different Kinds
of Bitt-mouths which are of moft
Ufe 208. Of fuch Bitt-mouths as
are moft gentle ibid. A Canon fim-
pie ibid. A Canon a Trompe ibid. A
Canon A Gorge de Pigeon 209. A Canon
Montant ibid. A Canon a Pifon ibid.
A Canon a Pied de Chat. ibid. A Canon
SCol d' Oye 210. An Efcache Montante
ibid. An Efcache a Piflon ibid. The
Olives A Couplet ibid. The Efcache Col
d' Oye avec une bavette 21 A Canon a2
Compas montant ibid. A Canon a Arcade
ibid. A Canon a Pignatelle 212. A Ca-
non Mirouer ou a Double pas d' afne ibid.
A Canon fecret a Ar\on 213. A Canon
SCol d' Oye la Liberte Gagnee ibid. A
Canon a Bafculle ibid. An Efcache a Pig-
natelle 2 14. An Efcache a Bafculle ibid.
A Canon Montant d'une piece ibid. A Ca-
non A Pas d'afne ibid. A Canon A Pas d'
afnc a i' antique 21 5. An Efcache A pas
d' a ne ibid. An Efcache A Pli\natelle la
Iliberti Gagne'e ibid. An Efcache a pas
d' afne la Liberti jettle fur les 7'lons 2 6.
A Cmnpanelle a Col d' Oye ibid. The
Olives A Pignatelle 217. A Canon a Pas
d' afne la Liberte gagnee ibid. An E&-
cache A Pas d' ajne la Libertc gagnee 218.

Of Bitt-mouths that are more Rude than
the proceeding ibid.

A Canon a Pas d' afne Roulant 219. A
Canon a Pas d' afne Secret ibid.' An Ef:
cache a Pas d'afne Ouarree ibid. The

Tambours a Co! d' Oye 220. The Tam-
bours a Pignatelle ibid. The Olives Tan-
bours a P'rF'iarucle ibid. The Poires droites
a Pas d' afne ou autrcment 22r. An Ef-
cache a Bouton, a Melon, ou A Balotter,
la Liberty la Pignatelle ibid. The Ca-
non Coupe a Pignatelle ibid. The Berge A
Pignatclle 222.
Of Bitt-mouths that are morl Rude 223.

The Poires Renverfees ibid. A Canon coupe
a pas d'afne ibid. The Annlets or
Chain-bitt ibid. The Berge a pasA'afne
224. The Balottes A Col d' Oye ibid.
The Tambours A pas d' afne ibid. The
Poires Reverjee Roulantes a Pignatelle 225.
A Canon Coupe with a very high Liberty
after the Form of an Afle's Tread ibid.
The Poires Secrettes A pas d'afne ibid.
The Poires a Cul de Baffin a Pignatelle 226.
The Balottes Secrettes A pas d'a ajne ibid.-
The Poires a pas d' afne ibid. 1 he Poires
Vuidees ibid. The Poires Renverfces Ca-
-nelees 227. The Poires a Arron ou Ar-
celet ibid. The Senette or Bitt a la
Turque ibid.

Black, Of two Kinds 77.
Blaze, Of Blazes or Stars in Horfes Fore-
heads, and other white Marks which
they have upon their Legs 81.
Bleeding, Of bleeding Horfes, and the
Benefit thereof 177. Reafons for
Blood-letting 178. At what Time
Horfes should be let Blood; with a
fhort Account of its Circulation, and
at what Hour each Humour predomi-
nates in it 179. Of the Parts of the
Body wherein Horfes are commonly
bled i80. How to flop the exceffive
Bleeding, when a Horfe is bled in the
Palate 181. Precautions to be obferv'd
in Blood-letting 182. How to judge
of the .Quahtity and Quality of Blood
S* 183
Blower, How to know when a Horfe is a
Blower or Wheezer $6.
Branches of a Bridle, what they are, and
of their EffCSs 2.07. Oi Lthe differ-
ent Kinds of BranchesiWIt in Ufe

A Branche droit a Piftolet 229. A
Branch A la Coneflable 230. A Branche
a Gigotte ibid.. A Branche A Genouil 231.
A lBranche Fran.oife 232. Another
Branch A la Coneflable, but which is
more hardy than the proceeding ibid.
Another Branche a la Gkiottc, but
which brings in a Horfe's Head more
than the prececdiug 223. Another

_ i -- ~

_ -1 I --------- --~-

Table of



Branch a la FIranoife, but which is more
hardy than the proceeding ibid.

Breaft. See Counter.
Breaft-plate, Of how great Ufe, and how
its Buckles should be placed 96.
Breeding, A Difcourfe of Breeding, and
how to raife and bring up a good and
beautiful Race of Horfes 191.
Bridle-hand, An excellent Diretion for the
Bridle-hand 228.
Broken-winded, How considerable an Im-
perfedion it is 54. That a Horfe
far gone or fpent with it, is incurable
54" .
Buckles, How the Buckles which support
the Poitral or Breaft-plate should be
placed q6.: For the Girths, after what
Fashion they fhoul I be made ibid.
Buying, What is to be obferv'd to pre-
vent being deceived, when a Man is
buying a Horfe 18. A continuation
of what is to be obferv'd in buying
Horfes 31. After what Manner a
Man shouldd mount and try a Horfe he
intends to buy 72.. A general Dire-
&ion to be obferv'd in buying a Horfe


C Alkins, The beft Fafhion for ordina-
Ty Ufe 133. Several Reafons for
and against the ordinary Ufe of Calk-
ins 134, &c.
Canon-mouth'd Bitts. See Bitt-mouths.
Capelet, What it is 59.
Cat-thigh'd, What Horfes are fo called
Chanfrain, An old FrenchWord much us'd,
Sand what it fignifies 82.
Channel, Betwixt a Horfe's nether Jaws,
how it should be fhap'd 8.
Chefl-founder'd, The Difference betwixt
it and Purfinefs, or being broken-wind-
ed 55.
Cheft, narrow, Its Imperfe&ion and Incon-
veniency 5r.
Choler. See Bile.
Circles, In Horfes Hoofs, a Token that
the Feet are alter'd 47. That Hor-
fes which have Circles joining a Jardon
and Spavin. are incurable 61.
Cleft. See Falfe-quarter.
Cloathing, Reafons why Horfes should be
always cloathed or covered in the Sta-
ble 59.
Coach-horfes, That Coach-horfes, and Hor-
fes for Draught, are the better for ha-
ving their Shoulders pretty large and
fliehy 34. To prevent their galling

with their Harnefs iS0. That their
firft Shoeing is of Confeqrince, when
they are firft brought from Abroad
122. Of the Food and Entertain-
ment of Coach-horfes 156.
Coffin-bone, What it is 4.
Colour, The Names of all the different Co-
lours of Horfes, with the Obfervations
that may be drawn from them 77-
An Obfervation to be remarked in
dark-colour'd Horfes 84. Of the
different Colours and Marks of Horfes,
and which is the moft proper for a
Stallion 193.
Colts, To strengthen the fmall and feeble
Legs of Colts 205.
Combing. See Currying.
Cordial, The Cordial Waters and Flowers
Corner-teeth, What they are 3.
Corns, An approved Receipt for Corns in
Mens Feet 188.
Coronet, What it is 4. That a Horfe's
Coronet should be no higher than the
Reft of his Hoof 12.
Covered, Reafons why Horfes should be
alwayscovered in the Stable i59. How
Mares are to be covered or receive the
Stallions 200.
Counter, Where placed 3. How it should
be fhap'd io.
Counter-marked, How to know when a
Horfe is Counter-marked 25.
Courbatture. See Cheft-foundering.
Cow-dung, That Cow-dung, contrary tothe
common Opinion drys up the Hoof,
altho' it is good for, and moiftens the
Sole 105.
Crapaudine. What it is 5o.
Crown-fcabs, What they are, and how many
Kinds of them 46.
Crupper, Where placed, and how it should
be fhap'd 4. 1t.
Crupper of a Saddle, the Difference betwxit
Cruppers for Travelling and thofe for
Hunting 95. After the Englijh Fa-
fhion, better than thofe commonly
made Ufe of for Hunting ibid. A after
what Fafhion the Dock-piece of a Crup-
per should be made ibid.
Curb. What it is 59.
Curry'd, That a Horfe which hath fweat
much all Day with Exercife, should be
Curry'd in the Evening if dry, but if
not, then he is only to be rub'd well
down with Straw loS. Of the Ne-
ceffity there is for Currying and dreffing
Horfes, where is alfo contained an A-
brigement of the natural Oeconomy
which paffes in a Horte's Body 141. --c.
How Horfes arc to be Curry'd and
Dref 145,


- ---;-----------~

I- -- ---"-""

-- -- --

CuttinT, Four Things which occasion a
Horne's Cutting 136. How Horfes
which Cut or Interfere are to, be thoed
ibid. A Method to preserve upon
a Neceffity, a Horfe's Legs which
Cur or interfere, from being gall'd and
fpoil'd 37.
Cynmbdal le add, \\ hat Horfes are fo cal-
led 7.


App'c~d igay. See Gray.
SDelivery, To affift a Mare at her
Delivery 201.
D~i;jves, Of Bile T7r. Of Phlegm
or Pituit 172. Of Melancholy ibid.
Of all !bhe Three 173.
Dj./ ;ced, What it is 6.
DifL//'d Hiazrs, Which are commonly
made ufe of for Horfes 189.
Dock, How a Horfe's Dock should be
fhap'd and fct i That a firm ard
flif- Doek, is generally a Sign of
Strength 57. How to prevent a
Horfe's galling beneath it 95.
, q:^n. See Currying.
Du.g, That a Man may judge ofa Horfe's
inward Difpofition by obferving his
Dung 109.
Dye, How to Dye the Manes and Tails
of Horfes, of either a Scarlet or Gold
Colour 190.


SA R S, How a Horfe's Ears flould be
f., fipd and placed 5. A good and
true Obfervation of Iliny, concerning
a Hovrfi's Ears 6.
lbowv, How to know if a Horfe eats well,
and if he hath the Tick 86. Where
placed, and a very good Obrervation
taken from the Manner of its Situa-
tion 4.
Entre-Pas, What it is 74.
Equpage, A particular Advice to fuch as
have the Command or Charge of an
Equipage 88.
Eyes, Of a Horfe's Eyes and its Parts 2.
How they should be fhap'd 6. Of
the Knowledge of the Eyes 27. How
to diflinguifh between the Good and
Fad 2 8
Eye-pits, Very hollow, a certain Token of
old. Age 24.

".F .

F Al-quarter. See Quarter.
Fat, That good Water contributes
much to Keeping of Horfes fat and
'plump 140.
Fatten, How to fatten a Horfd with Grafs
or green Barlyi52.
Fatiaued, How Horfes -that are much fa-
tigued and lean, are to' be ordered
Faults. See Imperfe&ions. :
Feathers, A good Obfervation of Feathers
in a Horfe's Flank ii. Of all Kinds
of Feathers in Horfes 8.'- A Roman
Feather in a Horfe's Neck or Fore-head
a good Mark ib;d.
Feeding, How Horfes are to be order'd or
fed at Dinner and Supper, while upon
Travel iQi. How Horfes of Value
are to be ordered and fed,' while at
Home 138. Four Maxi-ms to be ob-
ferv'd in feeding Horfes at Home ibid.
Of the Food and Entertainment of
lean, fatigued, and light-belly'd Hor-
fes 150. Of the Food and Enter-
tainment of Horfes of Manage I55.
Of the Food and Entertainment of
Coach-horfes 156. Of the Quanti.
tity of Food which should be given to
all Sizes of Horfes 157.
Feet, Of what Parts they conilfl 4. How
to know when a Horfe fets down his
Feet right, or treads well 42. How
to know if a Horfe's Feet are good 46.
Fat Feet, how difficult to-be known 47.
Ox Feet, why fo called 5o. Feet of
an extraordinary Form oi Shape ibid.
Of white-footed Horfes, in French, Bal-
Zanes 8 How to pare the Feet
well, fit the Shoes, and drive the
Nails 115. Of flat Feet; and round
and high Soles, and how they are to
be fhoe'd 19p.
Fetlock, What it is 4.
Fierinefi Defcrib'd, and how much differ-
ent from Vigour 52, 72.
Figs, In the Frufh, what they are, as alfo
to know if ever a Horfe hath had
any 64.
Flandrins, hy fo called 50.
Flanks, Where placed 4. How to know
when a Horfe's Flanks are altered, or
out of oider 53. That the redoub-
ling of a Hr-fe's Flank, cannot be ex-
atly discovered, without great Atten-
tion 55.
Foaling, To aflift a Mare at her Foaling



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Table oJ Contents.

Foals, At what Time they are to be wean-
ed, and how ordered 203. A Re.
medy against all Difeafes in Foals be-
neath 6 Months old 204. How to
strengthen their fmall and Feeble
Legs 205.
Foal-teeth. Why fo called 3.
Food. See Feeding.
Fore-head, How it should be fhap'd to ap-
pear Beautiful 6.
Fore-thighs, Where placed 4. How
they should be fhap'd Ii.
Forme, What it is 39. What Horfes
are moff fubje& to it 46.
Foundered, In the Body, See Cheft-foun-
Sdering. In the Feet, how fuch Hor-
fes are to be thoe'd, as alfo a Remedy
somewhat extraordinary for the fame
Frujh Where placed 4. How it should
be fiap'd 12.
Fuzies, What they are 38.


SAlling, Several Methods to preferve
t tender skin'd Horfes from galling
beneath the Saddle 91. That Mares
are more fubje& to galling beneath their
Tails than Horfes, and how to prevent
it 95. To prevent aHorfe's Galling
beneath the Hullfers by Reafon of their
Weight 96. To prevent a Horfe's
Galling in the Sides by the Motion of
the ftirrup Leathers ibid. To help
the Galling of Horfes, occasioned either
by a Saddle or Harnefs 107.
Gaskoins. See Thighs.
Gatherers, What Teeth fo called, with
their Divifion 3.
Geldrngs, When once they contra& a Vice,
they rarely part with it 71. After
what Fathion the faddle Girths should
be made 96.
Glands. See Kernels.
Glyflers, or Clyfters. The Etymologie
of the Word I73. The Models ot
several Kinds of Clyfters 174. Emol-
lient 173. Carminative 175. Purg-
ing ibid. To appeafe a great Beating
in the Flanks ibid. Affringent I75
Anodine ibid. Diuretick. ibid. After
what Method a Clyfter is to be Ad-
miniftred to a Horfe ibid
Grafs, How to fatten Horfes with Grafs
or green Barley 152. Direcions about
turning to Grafs ibid.
Gray, Dappled, a very common and ex-
cellent Colour, and why it is fo 77, 80.
Sad or Powdered 78. Silvered, a
bright and lively Colour ibid,


A4ckney, When their Motions are nn-
equal, how incommodious they are
to the Rider 73.
Halting, That the fureff Way to know if
a Horfe halt, is to make him trot along
a pav'd Street, or Caufey in one's
Hand 67.
Hammes, Where fitnate 5. How they
should be fhap'd I3. In.hamm'd, w it
it is 41. That altho' in-hamm'd Ho(r-
fes be commonly good, yet they are
very unfit for Hilly-countreys, As allf
how the Horfe-courfers fweeten that
Term ibid. That the Hammes are
one of the chief Parts, wherein the
left Infirmities are of confequence 58.
That Horfes defined for the Man age,
should not he bought with the leait In-
firmity in the Himmes 62.
Hand, An excellent Direaion for the Bri-
dle-hand 228.
Haraffed. See Lean.
Haunches, Where placed 4. How to
know when they are too long 45.
Head, How a Horfe's Head should be
framed to be well fhap'd 5. That
Horfes which have their Heads much
charged with Flefh, are generally fib-
jet to the Infirmities of the Eyes ibid.
When a Horfe is faid to have his Head
well placed 7.
Head-flalls, That the belt T-ead-ftals and
Reins for Bridles are made of Hunga-
rian Leather, and the Reafon why that
Leather is beft 89.
Health, A Method whereby to maintain or
preserve Horfes in Health 185.
Heavy, On the hand explained 222.
Heel What Part fo called 4. That to have
the one Side of the Heel higher than the
other is a considerable Imperfetfion 49.
That a Horfe's Heels are never to be
opened after the common Way, when
thoeing I14
Heels-low, See Shoeing.
Heels-narrow, See Hoof bound.
High mettle, The DifTerence betwixt High-
mettle and Fierynefs 52.
Hight, A common Obfervation, whereby
People pretend to know of what Height
there Foals will be, when they come to
Age, but not much tobe relyed up-
on 13.
Hind-Hand, How it fhonld be fhap'd 41.
What the Imperfeaions are to which it
is Subject &-c. 57.
Honey, The Compofition of Mercurial-
honey 174.
f Hoofs,


_ ~ __ II

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Table of Contents,

loof's, That a Horfe's Hoofs should be
fo; what fhiijin,, ,iph and finooth 12.
How they should be fliap'd 47. What
is to be done when they are fo hard and
brittle, that the Nails will not drive
without bending, 117. An Ointment
to make them G( ow ibid.
Hoof-bound ,What it is, and the Caufe of
that Infirmit y, as alfo how fuch Horfes
arc to be fhoed 1I 3, O'c.
Horn hipjed, What it is I T.
HIor(es, A pretty Commendation of a
Horfe I. The Names of all the
Parts which generally frame or com-
pofe a Horfe's Body 2. How the
Parts of a Horfe's Body should be
framed, to appear comely and well-
fhaped 5. Curious Remarks on Hor
fcs, represented either in Relievo o0
flat Painti~g 14. At what Age
Horfes are commonly moft ferviceable
21. Of the Shapes of Horfes in ge-
ineral, and of Horfes of different King-
doms 195,
Humours, The four Humours which are
in the Bodies of Horfes 79. A Dif-
courfe upon them 162. To prepare
the Humours in fuch Horfes as People
intend to Purge 171.


Ades, The Defences they commonly
ufc azainft the Rider 71.
Yardon, Where fituate, and as much, if
not, more to be feared than the Spa-
vin 61. That Horfes having a Circle
joyning a Jardon and Spavin, are in-
curable ibid. That Jardons and
Spavins are hereditary ImperfeAions
Jaw-bones, Where placed 2. How they
should be fhap'd 7.
Journeying, How a Man should order and
take care of Horfes in the Beginning
of a Journey 97. How a Horfe is to
be put in Wind, before he begin a
long Journey ibid. That a Horfe
w hih is to make a long Journey, should
be made to encreafe his Days Journeys
by degrees ibid.
Joints Long. See Long-jointed. Short.
See Short-jointed.
Imperfetlions, The perfect Knowledge of
the Faults and Imperfetions in Horfes
18. A Continuation of the Know-
ledge of the Faults and Imperfeions
in Horfes 31. A further Continuation
of the Knowledge of the Faults and Im-
perfe&ions in Horfes 45. A yet further
Continuation of the Knowledge of the

Faults and Imperfedions in Horfes,
efpccially fich as come in the Hind-
quarters 57.
Infirmities, What the Infirmities are,
which the Horfe-merchants are by
Law oblig'd to warrant and fecure
thofe Horfes from, which they fell
Inflep, What Part of the Hind-leg is fo
called 13.
Interfering. See Cutting.


KErnels, Several Kinds of them to
which Horfes are fubjef 31.
Kib'd-heels, What they are 65.
Knee, Where placed 4. How it should
be shaped 12.


L Amrncef, The true Method to know
if a Horfe be lame, or halteth
Lean, Of the Food and Entertainment
of lean, fatigued, and light-belly'd
Horfes i 5o. A Continuation of the
Method for recovering Horfes, which
are haraffed and lean after a long Jour-
ney 153.
Leaf-ear'd, WVhat it is 6.
Leek-heads. See Poireaux.
Legs, Of what Parts a Horfe's Fore-legs
confit 4. That the broadeft and
flatteft Legs are the beft 12. How
a Horfe's Hind-legs should be fhap'd
13., How to know when a Horfe's
Legs are good 34. The firft Mark
of bad Legs ibid. The second Mark
of bad Legs 35. The third Mark of
bad Legs ibid. Other Imperfe&ions of
the Legs 37, C&c. Some other Marks
and Obfervations, whereby to know
when a Horfe's Legs are .worn and
fpoil'd 40. Of the Imperfecions of
the Hind-legs from the Hamme down-
ward, where are explained all the In-
firmies to which Coach-horfes Legs are
moI fubje&a 63. That the Mauvaifes
Eaux, which is a white, corrupt, and
fharp Humour, are the Caufe of al-
moft all the Infirmities of the Legs,
fuch as Poircaux, Rats-Tails, &c. 65.
That the Infirmities of the Hind-legs
are moft dangerous for Coach-horfes
66. That Horfes, at their firft Ar-
rival, should not have their Legs
rub'd hard down 103. A Charge to
preferve a Horfe's Legs, and prevent


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Table of Contents.

their spoiling either upon Travel or by
Hunting 104. A Remedy for re-
moving the Gourding or Swelling from
a Horfe's Legs 0o5. How to take
away the Gourding or Swelling from
a Horfe's Legs, and to unweary them
with quenched Cinders ibid.
Lifting, When the Lever, Railing or Lift-
ing up of a Horfe's Legs, may be faid
to be good 41.
Light-belly'd, The Reafon why Horfes that
are much fubjea to the Infirmities of
the Hammes, become commonly light-
belly'd 52. Of the Food and En-
tertainment of light-belly'd Horfes
Lips, That thin and little Lips contri-
bute to a Horfe's having a good
Mouth 8.
Little-foot. See Coffin-bond.
Long-coupled, That Horfes which are
pretty Long-coupled, are the moft ea-
fy 44-
Long-jointed, What it is 35. That Barbs,
and fuch Horfes as are lender built,
ate moft fubje& to be long-jointed ibid.
That Horfes which are long-jointed,
are fitteft, because of their Eafinefs, for
Perfons of Quality that are crazy or
aged ibid.
Lyard, That to be Lyard above the Eye-
brows, is a certain Sign of old Age


M Aender& What it is 39.
Mane, What Kind of Mane is
beft 9. How to Dye the Manes and
Tails of Horfes, of either a Scarlet or
Gold-colour 19o.
Manage, That Horfes defign'd for the
Manage, should not be bought with
the leaft Infirmities in the Hammes
62. That an orderly and well-re-
gulated Manage, cannot be prejudicial
to, nor fpoil Horfes, as alfo the Ad-
vantages they reap by it 75. Of the
Food and Entertainment of Horfes of
Manage 155.
Mares, That Mares are never to be fuf-
fered to pifs when they are riding i oo.
When Mares are beft to breed upon,
and how they are to receive the Stal-
lion 199. How to affift Mares at their
Delivery ao1.

Mark, What is meant by saying a Horfe
hath Mark 21. How to exprefs all
a Horfe's good MArks in few Words
Maflj, How to make a Horfe-Mafh
Mauvaifes EausE, What they are, and
that they are not very dangerous in
the Beginning, but of very bad Con-
fequence if not timely taken care of
Melancholy, Of Medicaments, which
purge Melancholy 166. A Digeftive
for it 172.
Mercurial Honey, Its Compofition 174.
Mettled. See high-mettled.
Mouth, Its parts both external and in-
ternal, described 2. The general
Qualifications of a good Mouth 8. That
Horfes for Draught, whofe Mouths are
infenfible, are far more proper for a
Cart than a Coach o0. How to know
if it be good and Loyal 68.
Middle-teeth. See Separaters.
Milk-teeth, See Foal-teeth.
Mules, What Kind of Shoes are molt proof
per for Mules 129.
Mules-traverse. See Kib'd- heels.
Muz.z.le, That the Cutting out the Ner-
ves of this Part in Colts, contributes
very much to the rightShape of the low-
er Parts of the Head 7.


N Ails, Diretions for driving them
114. What Kind of Nails are
beft 115. What is to be done after
the Nails are driven, before they be
Rivetted 1i7. To prevent a Horfe's
being prickt with street Nails or Stubs
Neck, How it should be fhap'd 8. That
the Barbs and Spanifh Horfes, are ra-
ther the better than the worfe, for
having their Necks a little thick
and covered with Flefh ibid. A
good Property in a Mare to have a
Horfe's Neck 9. Several Kinds of
Necks, viz.. Renverfed, Deer-necked,
&c. ibid. John 7acquet's Opinion
of a Horfe's Neck ibid.
Neighing, To prevent it. 7.
Nippers, What Teeth fo called 3.
Noftrils, How they should be fhap'd 7.
why the Spainards cut up their Horfe's
Noftrils 7.



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Table of Contents.


O A' Wheter more proper to be
gi en, before or after Warcring
loi. The Quantity of Oats that is
to be given to all Sizes of Horfes,
during the Space of twenty four Hours
O;cnir, Opening of a iHoife's Heels
after the common way, a bad Pra-
dice i 4. The five Opening or
aperient Roots 173.
Offlet;, What they are 38.
Over-rid, A good Remedy to ftrengthen
and refrefh Horfes that have been over-
rid o02, 103.
Outward-teeth. See Corner-teeth.
Ox-leg'd, What it is 12.
Oyls, Of the Oyls commonly made ufe of
for Horfes 188.
Oyntments, The Names and Vertues of
Oyntments, Plaifters. &c. Commonly
made ufe of for Horfes i87, C&c. The
four hot Oyntments ibid. The four
cold Ovntments ibid.


P painters, That the modern Painters
and Sculptors, chiefly imitate the
Ancients in theirDeligns of Horfes 14.
Their anfwers to the objcaions made
against them 17.
Palate, How to judge of a Horfe's Age
by looking to his Palate 24.
Panton-flwe. What it is 124.
Pareinr. See Feet.
PafSrn, What Part of a Horfe's Leg it
is 4". A Horfe's Paflerns Boulettez,
( as the French call it ) how to know
them, and what Operation is to be
performed on them 128, c&'c.
Pafl,:rn-joint, How ith would be fhap'd, and
to what Infirmites it is fubject 12,
each- fiowrer, That Horfes of the Colour
of a Peach-flower or Bloflom, are
rarely fenfible or obedient to the Spurs
Pci~nes, See Crown-fcab.
P' -eyed, What Horfes are fo called 6.
Phlegm, Of Medicines which purge Phlegm
or Pituite 165. Digestive of Phlegm
Plaf4ers, Of the Names of all the Plaifters
C3c. made ufe of for Horfes 187.
Planch-flocs, See Shoe.
Planted, How to know when a Horfe is

right Plantecd upon his Limbs, and if li
walketh or treadeth wel,, '-&c. 40,
What is lneanrt by fifying a Horfe hath
a planted Coat 16o.
Pincon. Sce Beak.
Poireauv Leek-heads, or mattering
Kind of Warts, where they grow
Pifing, That the moft Part of good Hor-
fes Pits in the Stable at their firnf Ar-
rival oo. That Mares are not at All
to be suffered to Pifs as they are rid-
ing, but upon the contrary Horfes as
often as they pleafe ibid.
Port-mords, That the Port-mords or Lea-
thers which carry the Bitt, should be
of good frelh Leather, and not in the
leaft fpoilt or burnt 89.
Powder, The Lieutenant's powder, a Pre-
venter as well as Curer of Difeafes
in Horfes 185. Its JUfe 186.
Preiing. Preffing, or refifting the Riders
Hand, explained 242.
Pricking, How. many ways a Horfe may
be prickt 114.
Purging, Of Purging in general 16o.
The physical Terms of the four Claffes
of purging Medicaments 163. Of
Medicaments which purge Bile or Cho-
ler 164. Of Medicaments which
purge Phlegm or Picuite i65. Of
Medicins which purge Melancholy T66.
Of Medicaments which purge Serofities
or watery Humours 167. A good
Purge for Men ibid. How and at
what Time to administer a Purge to a
Horfe 168. An excellent direction,
for the right Proportioning of Drugs
defign'd to make up a Purgation 169.
A Table of the chief Purgations con-
tained in the second Part 171. How
to prepare Humors in Horfes which
People intend to purge ibid.
PurJi'neps, How considerable an Imper-
fedion it is 54. when belt difcover-
ed, and wherein the whole Knowledge
of that discovery confifts ibid. When
it is incurable 55. The Difference
there is betwixt it, and the Courbat-
ture or Cheft-foundering ibid.
Py-bald, Of Py-bald Horfes, and front
whence they derive that Name 78.


Q Varter, Quarter behind, cr behind
before, what is meant by it 114.
Ouarters, What Parts of a Horfe's Feet
fo called 4.


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Table of Contents. xliii

Quarters falJe, What they are, and when
moft dangerous 47.


R Aing, When the Lever, Railing or
Lifting up a Horfe's Legs may be
faid to be good 41.
Ramingues, What Horfes fo called 71.
Rampins, What Horfes are fo called, and
how they are known 66. How they
are to be hoed 131.
Rat-tail'd, What Horfes are fo called 63.
Rats-tails, Or Arreftes, in a Horfe's Legs
how to know them ibid.
Redoubling. See Flank.
Reins, Where a Horfe's Reins begin 3.
How a Horfe's Reins should befhap'd
10. What is meant by faying, that
a Horfe hath a great deal of Reins
Refifing, Refifling the Hand explained
Ribs, How they Ihould be fhap'd i. The
Imperfeaion of narrow-turn'd Ribs in
Horfes, as alfo what will probably be-
fall fuch of them as are great Feeders
Riding, How a Horfe should walk, that
fo a Man may ride eafily 43.
Roan-colour, Several Kinds of it 8o0
Roots, The five aperient or opening Roots
f7$ .
Rubbing, That Horfes at their firft Arrival
shouldd not have their Legs rubbed hard
down 103.
Rubican, What Colour fo called 78.


SAddle, What is to be obferv'd in fit-
ting a Horfe with a convenient Sad-
dle 90. How a Saddle should be fa-
fhioned to be well fhap'd, and com-
modious for the Rider ibid. That a
Saddle Ihould be pretty long in the
Seat 92: What is to be obferv'd by
a Saddler, to make a Saddle lie or fit
low on a Horfe's Back 93. Saddle
half after the EngliJh Fafhion, how
commodious 94. A la Royal, What
it is ibid. Atter the Dutch or Holland
SFahion, what it is, and its Conveni-
ences ibid. After the Scotch Falhion,
the moft convenient and eafy of all
Saddles ibid. Of the Appurtenances
or Furniture belonging to a Saddle 95;
The Reafma why a Saddle defign'd for
a Mare, fiould be made higher before
than one defign'd for a gorfe ibid.

Saddle-back'd, What HorP:es are b cal-
led I1.
Scatch-mouth. See Bitt-n',wths.
Scratches, What Kind of ScrJh'wLs are
molt dangerous 53.
Sculptors. See Painters.
Seeling. See Lyard.
Slender, In what Pait of a Horfe's hind
Legs it cometh 6 r.
Separaters, What Teeth t cialkd 3
Shank, Where placed, and how it fliould
be fhap'd 4, 12.
Shapes. Of the Shapes of Horfes in gene-
ral, and of Horfes of differentt King-
doms 195.
Shoeing, The Art of Shocing in general
112. Four general Mxims to be ob-
ferv'd in Shoeing I r3, (*c. That in
Shoeing, a Horfe's Heels are never to
be opened after the common Method
114. How to pare the Feet well,
to fit the Shoes, C&c. r 5. That the
Shoeing at the Change of the Moon,
makes a Horfe's Feet to grow, but for
brittle Hoofs Shoeing in the Decreafe
is better 117. How to Shoe Horfes
which have low Heels 118. That in
Shoeing Horfes which have low Heels,
the Soles are only to'be pared at the
Toes, and that alfo but very gently
ibid. How to Shoe Horfes which
have flat Feet, and high and round
Soles I19. How Horfes which are
Hoof-bound, or Narrow-heel'd, should
be fhoed 113. How Horfes which
have falfe Quarters, in Frencb, des Sn-
mes, are to be ihced I 16. How Hor-
fes, whofe Fore-legs from the Knees
to the Coronet, go in a ftraight Line, in
French, droits far leurs Membres, should
be fhoed; as alfo thofe which are Boutr
or Boulettez. 128. How Horfes which
have arched Legs, (in Frenc:, jambes
Arquies) are to be fhoed 30. How
Horfes which tread only upon the
Toes of their Hind-feet (called, in
French, Chevaux Rampins) are to be
fhoed, as alfo fuch as tumble 131.
How to fhoe Horfes which have been
founder'd in the Feet 132. How
Horfes, appointed for the Manage,
should be fhoed 134. How Herics
which Cut or Interfere, are to be
fhoed 135.
Shoes, That Shoes are by no means to be
vaulted or made hollow in the Infide
121. Panton-fhoe, what it is, and
how to be forged 24. Half Panton-
fhoe, what it is, and how to be forged
i i6. What Kind of Shoes are mc
proper for Mules I29. Planch-fhoc,
what it is, and why People make not

Table of Contents.

tife bf it for Horfes, as well as for
SMules 135. Shoes after the Englifh
Fashion, excellent ibid. A pretty In-
vention of Shoes that may be accom-
modated to all Sizes of Feet by the
Help of a f:rew Nail, and is therefore
very convenient when a Horfe (hall
happen to lofe a Shoe betwixt Towns
Short coup!ed, That Horfes which are fhort
or well coupled, are not fo fubje& to
become purfy, or altered in their
Flanks, as thofe which are long coupled
Ii. Whether fhort or long-coupled
Horfes, are the moft eafy 43.
Shirt-jointed, Of Horfes which are fhort-
jointed 35. That Horfes which have
thick, ftiff, and fhort Joints, are very
unfit for the Manage 34.
Shoulders, How a Horfe's Shoulders should
be fhap'd, and to know when a Horfe
is charged in his Shoulders o. How
to 'know when a Horfe's Shoulders are
well fhap'd 32. That a Horfe very
much charged with Shoulders, is only
fit for Draught 33. That upon the
good Shapes of the Shoulders and
Neck, doth very much depend the
Gentlenefs and Delicatenefs of a Horfe
ibid. That a Horfe with too large
Shoulders, is preferable to one who
hath them too fmall 34.
Silver Gray. See Gray.
Sinews. See Back-finews.
Skilfvl, What a Man fmould know relat-
ing to Horfes, before he can be called
skilful 17. Very good Advice to fuch
as intend to become skilful in Horfes
26, 27.
Soles, The Sole of a Horfe's Foot de-
fcrib'd 4. How it should be fhap'd
12. Of high and round Soles I19.
How to refify them, when they are
extremely high and round i21. For
what Service fuch high and round-
foled Horfes are moft proper, and how
long they should be accustomed to Pan-
ton-fhoes before they are to be wrought
with them 122.
Sorrel- colour, A Colour somewhat refemb-
ling a very red Bay ; as alfo of all the
different Kinds of it 78. Horfes of
this Colour commonly good ibid.
Soutien, When a Horfe hath the Soutien,
Stay, or Keeping-up of his Legs good
SpaLin, What it is, and where it cometh
59. That a dry Spavin is an Impe-
diment to Swiftnefs 60. Spavins and
J irdons hereditary Imperfetions 63.
op lin, Its Definition, and how to know
it 38.

Spanges, Of Horfe's Shoes, how to be fa-
fhioned i \6. How to be placed at
the Heels when the Shoe is put on
Stable, The Dimenftons of a fine Stable,
together with its Moveables iS9. .ea-
fons why Horfes should be always co-
vered in the Stable ibid.
Stallion, What Colours are moft proper
for a Stallion 193. What Kind of
Horfes are fitteft for a Stallion, and
how he is to be ordered 198, c.
Standing. See Planted.
Star, That it is an Imperfeaion for any
Horfe of a dark Colour, not to have
a Star in his Fore-head 6. Of Stars,
Blazes, and white Marks which Hor-
fes have upon their Feet or Legs, in
French, Baltanes 81. What is meant
by the common Saying, That a Horfe's
Star is a drinking, or that he drinketh
out of his white 82. A Star in a
Horfe's Fore-head a good Mark 83.
How to make a white Star in a Horfe's
Forehead 190.
Starling-colour, What it is 78.
Stifle, Where placed 5.
Stirrop-Leathers, What Leather is molt
proper for them 96.
Stirrop-Irons, What Fafhion of Stirropr'
Irons is belt and moft commodious
Straw, A good Obfervation about the
Feeding.of Horfes with Straw 139, &c.
Straw of Languedock, for what Reafon
excellent ibid.
Straight-member'd, Of Horfes which are
straight upon their Members I28, &c.
Stumbling, How to Shoe a Horfe that
flumbleth 131.
Selling, Swellings of all Kinds in a
Horfe's Hind-legs, very troublefome
and hard to cure; as alfo in what
Parts of the Hind-legs they ufually
come 59, &c. Reftrifive to repel a
Swelling upon a Horfe's Back, by rea-
fon of a bad Saddle 107. Another
for the fame oS8.
Swimers, Swimers of a Horfe, in what
Parts of the Legs they are Iituate 45.


TAil, How a Horfe's Tail or Dock
should be fhap'd and fet IT. How
to Dye the Manes and Tails of Horfes,
of either a fcarlet or gold Colour
7eeth, Their Divifion and Number 3,
19, &c. Shell or hollow Teeth, how
to know them 26.


_ _I I I II__

Table of Contents.

Thighs, Where fituate, and how they
should be fhap'd <, 58.
Tick, How to know if a Horfe hath the
Tick 86. Several Ways of Ticking,
as alfo that Horfes learn that bad Ha-
bit from one another 86, 87.
Tie. See Breall-plate.
Tiger-Colour 78-
Toe, What Part of a Horfe's Foot it is 4.
Toe before and Quarter behind, or be-
fore behi nd, biad before, the,, firt
and general Precept for the right Shoe-
ing of Horfes 14.
Tongue, How it should be fhap'd 7. To
prevent its hanging out 212.
Traquenard, or Entrepas, a mix'd Kind of
Pace between the Amble and Walk 74.
Travel, The true Method to preserve
Horfes found and hearty upon Tra-
vel 88. How a Man should order
Horfes at Dinner and Supper while on
Travel io0. A Continuation of the
Diredions for preferring Horfes found
on Travel 107. What is to be ob-
ferved, after People are arrived from
a Journey or Travelling i I. Seve-
ral Methods whereby to help wearied
Horfes,immediately after Travelling ib.
Travers'd, Travers'd and Crofs-travers'd,
what they fignify 81, &-c.
Traverfe Mules, What they are 65.
Tread, Of the Setting-down or Tread of
a Horfe's Foot 71.
TuJfes, What Teeth fo called, and that
Mares generally have none of them, and
when they have, are reputed the worfe
for it 3. How to know a Horfe's
Age by them 23.


V Arife, What it is 59.
Veffigon, What it is ibid.
Vigour, How to judge of a Horfe's Vigour
and Agility 70. The Difference be-
tween Vigour or being High-mettled
and Fierinefs 52. 70.


W 1AI IHow to know when a HIorfe
walketh well 40, &c. An Ex-
plication of fome Terms relating to

Walking 4r. How a Hor c fhumld
walk, to wilk lightly, fuvlel, (!uikliy,
and easily 42, &-c. What are t1he
true Motions of a Horfe's les 1 poa
the Step or Walk 44. That a Po-re
in walking, fiould not at each Step
turn out his UHammes, neither rub the
one against the other, which is an Aarion
quite contrary to the proceeding ibid.
SWarrEs. Se- Poireaux.
I W i4criAg, At:,what Time a Horfe nflould
b watered upon Travel 97. The Ua-
reafonablenefs of watering Courfes 9o.
Thit, in watering, a Horfe's Drtught
is to be interrupted several times bid.
An odd Method of watering Horfes,
praftit'j the utch Wa"goners ibid.
Whitltr ~ -or.Fe, after Travel, fhnuld
be wate i before he get his O! rs, or
not 10o. How to corred the Sharp-
nefs and Crudity of Water which h or-
fes are to drink I02. That good ,A'a-
ter contributes to the Keeping a Horfe
fat and plump 14o.
Waters, Of the diflilled Waters common-
ly made ufe of for Horfes 189.
Wanino-. See Foals.
Wheezer. See Blower.
White, Horfes which have too much White,
commonly feeble 80.
White footed, Why Horfes which have
only their far Hind feet white, in
French, Arzels, are not efteem'd by the
Spaniards 81. White, only in the
near Hind-foot, a good Mark 82.
White in all four, a Sign of good Na-
ture 83.
Will, That a Horfe should have no other
Will, fave that of his Rider 7 .
Wind, Of Horfes which are thick-wind-
ed 57.
Wind-broken. See Purfinefs.
Wind-galls, What they are, and where
placed 37. That thofe Wind-galls
which are called Nervous, make al-
ways a Horfe halt 66.
Withers, Where placed 3. How they
should be Ihap'd iO.
Wolf-colour, What it is ibid.


Z Anir What Colour it is o8. A Spa-
nifh Proverb relating to it Ibid.



- -



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Perfed MAR S HAL

V / O R, -Y2.

SCompleat FAR R I E R.

--I *_- i '...* -- ---------------
The I T R OD V C TI O N.
Mongil all the Creatures, there is none which yieldeth more Pro-
fit and Pleafure to Man than the HOR S E; he is stately in
Triumphs, adroit and bold in the moft dangerous Engagements,
Sand faiong and hardy to endure any kind of Fatigue or Labour:
SA Horfe is ufeful in all the great Enterprizes of War: There is
none: more fit for Traffick and Husbandry, nor fo agreeable for
Divertifement. But all Horfes which People make choice of
jB both for War and, the Mannagedo not always' answer Expefta-
tion; and of thofe alfo which are designed for Draught, many
are overcome by a moderate Labour, and can endure no extraordinary Fatigue; yea,
Travellers do not always meet with that Converiericy and Pleafure which they expea
from their Journey Pads; all the Advantages which may juftly be expeaed from
1orfes are not eafy to be met with, and that which is moft troublesome of all to
thofe who diligently feek after them, is, that after they have met with a good and
well-fhap'd Horfe, and one,that is adroit and vigorous, oft times for want of Skill to
govern him; or through the Remiftnefs of a Groom who negleð to drefs him, or
not having regulated his Diet,, or having watered him unfeafonably, or by any other
Accident, (which the want of Skill in this Art may have made a Man fall into) the
Horfe is brought to fuch a Condition as renders him altogether unferviceable; thefe
Malheurs are oftentimes of great Importance, and prove always hurtful, yet they fo
frequently fall out, that without a little Experience and Skill, a particular Application,
and exat Precaution for preventing them, a Man cannot sometimes fhun losing Horfes
of considerable Value.
I am therefore perfwaded, that thofe who delight in Horfes will be very well fatif-
ifed, that I iae,taken the Pains to make this Book appear in Publick, with all the Per-
feftion imaginable which lay in my Power: In the several Impreflions which have been
hitherto, I made'the Publick a fharer of the Skill, which I acquired not only from new
Remedies, but alfo from several Experiences and Obfervations for the Application of
the faid RemedieWs I therefore hope, that this laft Edition will clear all the Doubts
which have been proposed to me, and that People will find in it wherewithal to fatisfie
themselves: I am in a continual Pracice, and I fee an infinite Number of difels'd
Horfes,"fo that daily I learn and difcover Things, which were either doubtful or un-
known to me: It was always my Aim to find out eafie Remedies, and alfo sufficient
to recover Horfes, and put them in a Condition to ferve, in which I succeeded fome-
times: And in, this Editiod, if you will give your felf the trouble to perufe it, you
Hillfind that I have taken away fome Remedies which were too difficult to.be pradi-
fed, and have put in their Places others far more eafy and as good ; that I have alfo a-
plended the Faults which were in others; and finally, that I have put all Things in
fucli a Condition, that I believe thofe who are Curious will confess, that I muft needs
have been at a great deal of Pains, to bring this Book to that Exatnefs in which it is
A at

2 .The Perfet MarJhal; P A RT .

at prcfent; I prefcribe not in it any new Receipt, but what by Experience hath been
found good ; and for the Convenience of thofe who defired it, I have reduced it into
two Parts. 'T
That I may therefore inftru(a you methodically, to prevent all the above-mentioned
Inconveniencies, I fall firft teach you to know all the Parts of a Horfe, the fame Fi-
gures which are in the Difcourfe, being to be found upon the-foregoing Print in their
refpcetive Places, fec Plate ifft. .


Thec Names :tf all the Parts, which generally frane or compofe the
Body of a Horfe.
H E Head being the Seat of the animal Faculty, the Source of Docility and Ca-
j price, the Principle of Motion and RefI, is, without debate, the moft confide-
rable Part of a Horfe's Body; it confifts of diverfe Parts, which according as they are
juftly proportion'd, give it its exact Shape and Conmlinefr: t hall name them tielyy
and in Order, contenting my felf for the moft part with the Reprefentation of them,
as they are marked with Figures in the following Plate, which is the firit.
The E A RS are a Part well known.
The FORE-HEADis mark'd i.
The T E M P L E S are mark'd 2.
The E Y E- P I T S, or Hollows which are above the Eye-Browsi and which when
very deep, caufe a Horfe to look furly and ugly, by making himr.atppar Old, are
marked 3.
The E Y E- B R O W S are above the Eyes, and below thofe above-mention'd Pits.
The E Y E S (by which, as in a Looking-Glafs, may be percedv'd'theMlettle, Con..
rage, Malice, Health, and Indifpofition of a Horfe) should be considered with Attenti-
on; they confift of two Parts, not to mention the Eye-lids, which are thofe Skins
which cover the Eyes, when a Horfe is either afleep, oi shutting them;
The firft Part is the Glafs or Cryftal, which enclofeth the whole Subhtance of the
Eye, and giveth it the Form of a transparent Globe. I will not difcourfe here of'the
Humours whereof the Eye is composed, that Difcourfe belonging properly to Phyfi
The second Part is the Ground or Bottom of the Eye, which is properly the Pupil
or Apple of the Eye, and which is called by fome the joy or Life of the Eye; the
Confideration of t#is Divifion of the Eye is.of Confequnce, that th4: t.wo Parts may
be the better diflinguifhed, and not confounded together1 for the .Cyftal is that part
of the Eye People perceive at the very firft looking to it, and th e bottom or Apple of
the Eye is not perceived, but by looking attentively, and in through the Cryltal to't,
and then will the Ground or inward Part of the Eye appear.
Behind the Eyes, and towards the Throat, is the G AN A C H. ,(as they called it
in French) or that part of the nether faw-Bone, which when aHoffe, H~tth his Hehad '
afly well placed, toucheth the Neck next to that part of it which is called thea Q.
fet of the Head ; it is moveable, and ferveth to give his Uiider-fjaws taiat'Motion; by
which, with the help of the Teeth, he chews and grinds his Provender, it is mar-
kcd 4.
The N O S T R I L S are thofe Overtures, through which a Hprfe doth breath.'
The N O S E is at the end of the Head, and below the Nofttils 'iark'd ;
'the word MOUTH is only appropriated to Men '.and by a parcularPrivilege
to Horfes; that part is divided into several others, whereof fome are External, and
others Internal,,
The Externalor outward Parts of the Mouth, are firfl the L I P S, which are thofe
thick Skins that cover the Tecth and Gums.
The B E A R D is the second External part, it is the Place where the Curb refteth
and prefleth the Horfe, when the Bridle is drawn a little firm to bring in his Heaiito
its right Place, it is marked 6.
The third Part of the Mouth, is the T IP. of the N OS E, which is as it were a
continuation of the upper Lip, which covereth the Teeth, and preferveth them from
Cold, and the Injuries of the Air.

CHA I. Or, Compleat Farrier. 3

The fourth External part of the Mouth, is the C H I N, which is alfo a part of the
under Lip which covereth the Teeth ; marked 7.
In the Internal Part of the Mouth, People consider firft the B A R RS, which are a
part of the Gums, but without any Teeth, fo that Nature feemeth to have appointed
them as a place, for the Mouth of the Bitt to reft upon.
The B A R R S are properly the very ridges or upper parts of the Gums, be wijt
the under Tulhes and Grinders, for the outward fides of them are always called tlh,
The second part is the T O N G U E.
The third is the C H AN N E L, which is the hollow betwixt the two Bars, or jc-
ther jaw-bones, in which the Tongue is lodged.
The fourth is the P A L A T E, which is the Roof of the Mouth, and the pi ice
where Horfes are commonly bled with a fharp pointed Horn, to refrefh and give then
an Appetite.
The fifth and laft, is the T E ET H, which are of five kinds.
The firft are the J A W T E E T H, or Grinders, which are in Number Twenty
four, viz.. Twelve in the upper Jaw, and as many below, with which the Horfe doth
bruife and grind his Provender by the Motion of the inferiour Jaw, the fuperiour re-
maining always immoveable and fixed.
The second are thofe finally Teeth which come forth before, when a Foal is about
three Months old, and which he beginneth to caft about two Years and a half thereaf-
ter, in the fame order as they did grow; they are therefore upon that account called,
The third are the T U S H E S, which Mr. De La Brow calleth Efchalions, thofe are
Teeth placed alone in the Bars, betwixt the Fore-teeth, and the Grinders, one upon
each fide below, and as many above, almost juft opposite to them : Mares have feldomn
any of thefe Tufhes, and when they have them they are but fmall; it is alfo thought
an Imperfe&ion in thofe which have them.
The fourth kind are thofe which grow before in place of the Foal-teeth, and with
which Horfes draw their Fodder, or cut their Grafs when they are a grazing, they are
called G A T H R E R S, and being fix above, and as many below, are divided into
three kinds, viz. the NIP P ER S, the M I D D L E-T E ET H, or SE P A R A-
TER S, and the OUT W A R D or CO RN ER ones: The Nippers, which are
the two Teeth in the middle, both above and below, are thofe which a Horfe firft
changeth; the middle Teeth or Separaters, which are the two next the Nippers,
one upon each fide of them, both above and below, (and called Separaters, be caufe
they separate the Nippers from the Corner-teeth) are thofe which change next; and
the Outward and Corner ones, which are thofe next the Tufhes both above and below,
and by which the Age of a Horfe is known, are thofe which he cafteth laft; the Age is
alfo known by the Middle-teeth, or Separaters: So the Number of the Fore-teeth are
twelve, fix above and fix below, by which it is eafie to conclude, that a Horfe hath
in all Forty Teeth, and a Mare but Thirty Six.
Having named, and made known to you the parts of a Horfe's Head, which are
moft apparent to our fight, I hall not engage my felf to describe the Internal and
moft hidden parts thereof, which lye not fo open and discovered to us, fuch as thofe
of the Brain and Nerves, because thofe Perfons who have the Curiofity to be more
particularly inftru&ed in them, may receive that Satisfation from the Anatomy of
the Sieur Ruiny, or Mr. Snape's Anatomy of a Horfe, in EnglijJ, who hath treated very
exaaly of them.
The N E C K is limited above by the C R E ST or M A N E, (which is that long
Hair which goeth from betwixt his Ears, all along the very Top or Ridge of the Cre-t,
down almost to the tip of his Shoulders) and below by the Throat or Wind-pipe : It
is marked 8. 8.
The- W I T H E R S begin where the Mane endeth, and are joyned to, and end at
the top of the Shoulder-Blades; they are mark'd 9.
The S H O U L D E R S are below the Withers on each fide, and in a manner in-
clofe the Breaft, which is called by fome the Counter, and defcend to the place of their
Infertion, or joyning to the Shoulder-Bone; they are mark'd 0o. 0o. o0.
The B R E A S T or C O U N T E R is below the Wind-pipe, and betwixt the
two Shoulders before, Mark'd i. i .
The B A C K or R E I N 8, beginneth at the Withers, and taketh up as much length
as a Pad-faddle of a reasonable bignefs will cover ; it is mark'd 12. T 3,
A 2 Tho

4 The Perfec7 Marjhal; PART I.

The L O Y N S begin at that place where the hinder-part of the Saddle refleth, and
although they be called Loyns, yet properly they are nothing elfe but a continuation
of the Back or Reins.
..The R I B S begin at the Back, and environ the Chefl or Belly; they are marked
14.. 14-
'T1 e B E L LY is well enough known, it is opposite to the Back, and that part
which People commonly ftrike when they make ufe of their Spurs.
The F LA N KS are at the extremity of the Belly where the Ribs are wanting;
and below the Loyns; marked 5. i 5.
The H A N C H E S begin at thofe two Bones, which are at the upper part of
the Flanks near to the Crupper, although the whole hinder part upon each fide, from
the Crupper to the Hamme or Hough, goeth commonly under that Name.
The C R OUP E, or upper part of the Buttocks, beginneth betwixt thofe two
abovemention'd Bones, and near the Loyns, and reacheth to the very Rump or Dock,
comprehending all that face, which is of a round or circular Form, and where com-
monly the Crupper of the Saddle doth reft.
The F O R E L E G S are composed of thefe following Parts.
The SHOULDER, or ratherSHOULDER-BLADE, whichwe men-
tioned before, marked o1. o1. 10. doth somewhat refemble a Shoulder of Mutton,
and is placed much after the fame fashion.
The SHOULDEBR B O N E, is a Bone which reacheth betwixt the Shoulder-
blade, and Elbow-joynt, and is placed opposite to that part of the Belly, where the
Girths lye after a Horfe is faddled; it is marked 26. When that Bone lyeth fo clofe
to the Body, that a Man findeth difficulty in putting his Hand betwixt the Horfe's
Body and Elbow, it is a Deformity which always difcovers, that the Horfe, when ri-
ding, will carry his Legs outwards: It is very fit to make this Obfervation in Colts,
and albeit this be not the proper Place to mention it, yet left it might have efcaped my
Memory, for lack of an Opportunity to difcourfe of it, I have here fet it down;
The A RM or F O R E- T H I G H, reacheth from the Elbow-joynt to the Knee;
and beginneth the Fore-leg; it is marked 17. 18. At that part where the Arm or
Fore-thigh beginneth, upon the fore-part of the Leg, near to the Elbow-joynt, and
a little inclining towards the inside, there lieth a Vein, called the Bafilick Vein (in
French L'ars, and by common Farriers the Plat-Vein) in which Horfes are bled upon
federal Occafions; it is marked 17.
The K N E E is below the Arm or Fore-thigh, and juft opposite to the ply or bend-
ing of the Fore-legs; it is mark'd 19 in the Left-leg of the Figure Plate i.
The S H A N K is that part of the Fore-leg, which is betwixt the Knee and second
joynt next to the Foot, which is called the Fet-lock or Paftern-joynt, and is mark'd
19. 19.
The F ET- L O C K, or Paftern-joynt, is that Joynt I juft now mentioned ; it is
rnark'd 20, and is the very next to the Foot.
The P A S T E R N, is the distance betwixt the forefaid Joynt, and the Coronet
of the Hoof; it is mark'd 21.
The C O R O N E T is that part round the very top of the Foot, where the Hair
growth, and falleth down upon the Hoof; it is marked 22. Thefe are the Names of
all the Parts belonging to the Fore-legs.
The f 0 0 T confifts of the Hoof or Coffin, which is all that Horn that appears
when the Horfe has his Foot fet to the Ground; it is mark'd 23, 24, 25.
The QU A R T E R S are the two fides of the Foot, from 24 to 23.
The H E E L is the hinder part of the Foot, and hath two fides where the Quarters
terminate ; it is mark'd 23.
The T O E is the fore part of the Foot, marked 25.
The Foot mult be taken up, that the Parts following may be perceived.
The F R U S H or FR O G, which is placed from the middle of the Sole towards
the Heel, upon both fides, is a part more foft and more elevate than the reft of the
Sole, and terminates juft at the Heel.
The S 0 L E is as it were a plate of Horn, which environing the Fruth covereth
the whole bottom of the Foot; all People know it, because when a Shoe is right pla-
ccd, ii. should not at all reft upon it, and but very feldom touch it.
Tlhe COFFIN-BONE, or LITTLE-FOOT, is that Bone which is
to the root as a Heart or Kernel; it is quite surrounded and covered by the Hoof,
Fruth,and Sole,and is not perceived when even the Horfe's fole is quite taken out, being
covered upon all fides by a Coat of Flfh, which hindereth the Bone to appear.

_~___~___~ ,,~~r-r~-~s~~ -
C H A P. I Or, Compleat Farrier.

It now remains that I name the Parts of the Hind-legs, whereof the moft confi-
derable are, the upper Bone of the Hanch near to the Croup, and upper Part of the
Buttocks, called Os ilium, and marked 26.
The ST I F F L E, otherways called the great Mufcle, is that part of the ]hind
Leg, which advanceth towards the Horfe's Belly as he is riding ; it is ma:icd :7.
and is a moft dangerous Part to receive a Blow or Stroak upon.
The T H IG H, or G A S K 0 I N, beginneth at the Stiffle, and reacheth to tr:-
ply or bending of the Hamme, and is contained between the Figures 27, and 29.
The H A MM E, or H O U G H, is the ply or bending of the Hind-leg, market
29. 29. and comprehendeth likewise the Point behind, and opposite to the Ply, calkci
the Hock; it is marked 30.
The PL Y, or bending of the Hamme, where the Selender cometh, is marked -20,
The Part where the S P A V E N cometh, which is a little beneath the Ply, : til
in the inside, is marked 31 ; and where the Excrefcence cometh, which is called ij
French Le jardon, and which is almost of the fame Nature with the Spaven, only that i:
is upon the outside; is the Number 32.
From the Hamme to the Paltern-joynt, is that part of the Leg, which in the Fot e-
legs, is called the S H A N K, but in the hind the I N ST E P, marked 33; the reiP
of the Parts to the very fole, have the fame Denominations as in the Fore-legs, vi;.
Fet-lock Joynt, Paftern, Coronet, Hoof or Coffin, with the reft of its Parts.

C H A P. II.

How the Parts of a Horfe fbould be framed, to appear comely and
well flapfd.

H Aving in the preceding Chapter, given you only the Names of the Parts which
generally compofe a Horfe's Body, it will be fit to represent to you in this,
how they should be framed, to be perfe&ly proportion'd and well fhap'd.
The Goodnefs and Beauty of this Creature are almost infeparable, fo that being ca-
pable to know a well fhap'd Horfe,.a Man will come by degrees to know a good one;
for, Omne pulchrum eft etiam bonum ; and because the Definition which Cicero giveth of
Beauty is in my Opinion pretty, and very well anfwers my Subjea, I fall here fet it
down; Pulchritudo crorois apta compofitione membrorum, cum colors quadam fuavitate
move oculos, & deleEat hoc ipfo, quod inter fe omnes parties confentiant : If this, or any
other Paffages of Latin in this Book, appear strange to fome, let them comfort
themselves with this, that the not Underftanding of them, will not make them a
whit the lefs Skilfull.
The Head of a Horfe should be fmall, narrow, lean, and dry ; every Horfe which of h e
hath a big and grofs Head, may come easily, because of its Weight, to reft and loll upo~n Head i
the Bridle, and thereby in a Journey incommode the Hand of the Rider; besides, thant ,eNeral.
he can never be very agreeable, and appear Stately with a big Head, unlefs he have a
very long and well turned Neck, and place his Head well, in which cafe, he wiil not
fail to make a pretty good Appearance: The Head is an effential part for Beauty, with-
out the good Shapes of which, a Horfe can never look well; for although all the rer
of his Body be well fhap'd, yet if his Head be fquare and grofs, he will appear a great
deal worfe, and be lefs efteemed, than if that ImperfcEtion lay in any other part of hi
Body; as for the Legs, their Shape is far more important for Goodnefs and Service
than Beauty.
Horfes which have their Heads grofs, and charged with Flefh, are fubjeLc1 to thle in-
firmities of the Eyes; but this is not to be understood of all big Heads, for a Horfe
may have a Head big with Bones, and but a very little Flefh upon it, fo that he will not
be more fubjeA in that cafe to fuch Defluxions, than if his Head were fimaier ; thKfe
Heads which are over-charged with Flefh, are thofe we call fat or grofs Heads- and
not the other, which although big yet are very lean and bony.
Now there being a particular Shape required in every part of the Head, it will be
fit to treat of them in order.
The Ears should be little, narrow, straight, and hardy, and the whole Confiftance oif :
of them thin and delicate; that is to fay, the Cartilage whereof they are comnpo'd Eai,
should be no ways thick, they should be well placed ; and so know how, thcie should

6 The Perfec7i Marlhal;

be but a little Diftance betwixt them ; chat is, they should be placed upon the very
Top of the Head, and their Points when tiled or prick'd, should be nearer to othet
than their Roots: When a Horfe in gallopping, or travelling, carrieth his Ears point-
ed forwards as much as poffible, then he is faid to have a bold, hardy, or brisk Ear ;
alfo when a Horfe travelleth he fliould keep them firm, for if he market every Step
he makcth by a Motion of his Ears, then he will refemble a Hog; when the Ears are
low they arc not right placed, and then they have them alfo ordinarily long and,lol-
ling, which are called Leave-Ears, fuch Horfes are commonly very durable; but how-
ever, upon this Obfervation I would not buy a Horfe that hath his Ears fo placed, be-
caufe although this Imperfeaion doth him but little Prejudice, yet he is nothing the
better for it, and it is alfo very unbecoming.
Pliny hath made a pretty enough Remark upon the Ears of a Horfe, for he faith,
,< That by the Motion of the Ears a Man may judge of the Intention and Defign, or
Courage ofa Horfe, juft as one doth a Dog's Inclination by the Motion of his Tail;"
the Obfervation is good, and holds for the moft part, especially in ill-natur'd and viti-
ous tlorfes; for it may be very well obferv'd by the Motion of the Ears, if they de-
fign any dcfperate Adion, when a Man requireth any Thing of them they are not ca-
pable to perform, or when he conitraineth them to do any thing by Violence, or the
force of Blows.
of tlf The Fore-Head, or Brow, Ihould be fomewhat broad; fome will have it not altoge-
,r- tther flat, but a little raised, because they think it maketh a Horfe look more bold and
Hcka. cfately, this Shape refembleth fomewhat that of a Ram ; my Opinion is, that a flat
Fore-Head is the moft beautiful: Thefe Horfes which are called Difh.fac'd (in French
Camus ) have the fore-part of their Head, from a little below their Eyes, to the
place where the Nofe.band of the Bridle refleth, a little low and hollow ; fuch Hor-
fes are commonly durable, but very often Rtubborn and ill-natur'd.
All the fore-part of the Head in general should be narrow, contrary to that in
Men, for if it were too broad it would be an Imperfeaion.
A Horfe should have in his Fore-head, that which we call a Feather, which is a na;
tural frizling, or rather a turning of the Hair, which formeth as it were a Center,
from whence the reft of the neighboring Hair doth proceed; if he have two of
them, one near to the other, or that even touch other, the Mark is fo much the
Some People are fo far mistaken, as to believe, that when the Feather is below the
Eyes it is a fign of a weak Sight, and the contrary if it be above them; but Experience
will discover to you the Uncertainty of this Obfervation.
If a Horfe be neither White, Dappled, nor approaching thefe Colours, he should
have a Star, or Blaze, in his Fore-head; it is almost always a Defet not only for the
Beauty, but alfo for the Goodnefs of a Horfe when he is of any Dark colour, to be
without one, as I hall fhow you in its proper Place.
Of the The Eye-Pits, or Hollows above the Eye-Brows, should no ways be too much funk;
Eye-Pits. for if they are deep and hollow they are ugly, and the more they are funk, the more
they make the Horfe appear to be Old; neverthelefs, fuch Horfes which come of an
old Sire or Stallion, have that Defe& from their very Youth, fome more and others
Of the The Eyes which are bright, lively, full of Fire, and pretty large and full,, are
Eyes. moft esteemed; thofe which are very big are not the belt, neither should they be too
goggling, or staring out of the Head, but equal with it, and have a large and full
Pupil or Ground.
Moreover the Eye should be refolute, impudent, and brisk; a Horfe to appear well,
should look to his Objed fixedly, and with a kind of difdain, and not look another way,
for a Brazen-face and Impudence do mightily become a Horfe; and in the Eye is alfo
difcovercd his Indination, Paflion, Malice, Health, and Indifpofition ; Profedfo in ocu-
Us animus habitat.
Little hollow Eyes are ugly, and are called Pigs-eyes; its true they prove sometimes
good, but they muff be very narrowly considered.
When the Eyes are funk, or that the Eye-brows are too elevate, and as if they
were fwelled, it is a lgn of Vitiouffiefs and Ill-nature ; fuch kind of Horfes have or-
dinarilv a melancholy AfpeA or Countenance, but are commonly of great Fatigue.
The Eye is the moft tender and delicate Part of the wholg Body, being the laft which
is formed in the Womb, and .the fiff hat dieth.


C HA II. Or, Compleat Farrier. 7

The faw-Bones, from top to bottom Ihould be narrow and lean, the distance betwixt 'f i
them at the Throat should be pretty large and hollow, and fo proportionally tap'rilng il
to the very Chin, that he may with the more eafe place his Head when required; if
the Jaw-bone be too fquare, that is, if there be too great Diftance betwixt the Eye,
and that part of it which toucheth his Neck, it is not only ugly and unbecoming, but
alfo hindereth him to place his Head ; alfo if the Jaw-bones be fquare or broad, andr
but a little distance betwixt them, fo foon as the Bridle is pulled to bring in his He :.
to its moft becoming Pofture, the Bone meeting with his Neck will hinder him to pri-
his Head, especially if he have alfo with that Imperfeaion a fhort and thick Neck ,
but because this is not the proper Place to difcourfe of the Inconveniencies which flow
from a narrow jaw'd Horfe, I fall at prefent forbear saying any more of it.
From that part where the Nofe-band of the Bridle refteth, which is somewhat be- of f;
low the middle of the Jaw-bone, and where it beginneth toftraitcn and become n.,, Aid A
row, I fay from that part to his very Muzzile, he should have nothing but Skin and
Bone, and fo confequently the fmaller the better ; and to make you the more ealili
comprehend how this part of a Horfe's Head should be fhap'd, People commonly fil
that he should drink out of a Beer-glafs, by reafon of the fmallnefs of his Muzle.
That which will mightily contribute to the right shaping of this Part in ColEs, is
to cut out the Nerves in that place; this doth extreamly dry up and macerate the
lower parts of the Head, and alfo as fome People fay, preventeth the fat and thick
growing of the Neck.
Alfo that a Head may be the better fhap'd, it should not be too long; the HeIds
which are too long are'unbecoming, and are called Cymbal-heads, (in French, 7Te;ies
de violle.) That which doth moft contribute to the good Appearance and Air of a
Head, is a fine Onfet, and exaft Situation when it is placed; for without that, a we!!
thap'd one will appear but ugly, and with it, an ill fhap'd will appear pafTable well
and indifferent; a Horfe hath his Head well placed when it is fet high, and that he
can bring it in to it's natural Situation, which is fo, that all the fore-part of the iHead
from the very Brow to the Nofe, be Perpendicular to the Ground; and that if there
were a Line and Plummet applied to it, it would hang equally alongit it, and but j)ft
Have or raze it.
TheANoflrils should be large and extended, that to one may perceive the Vermillion, of tbh
or Red that is a little within themlfpecially when the Horfe Sneereth ; the Widenefs NLofri:
of the Noftrils doth not a little contribute to that Eafinefs which a Horfe should have
in breathing.
It is therefore upon this Account, that the Spaniards, and many others, cut up their
Horfes Noftrils, to facilitate their Breathing in violent Courfes; which when fuch
Horfes are brought to France, is the caufe of their being thought Purfy or Broken-
winded; but they are reputed fuch only by thofe, who have never been farther than
their own Country-Village or Home, even although they have been Born in or about
Paris; but this cutting up of the Noftrils besides the Eafe it giveth in Breathing, bring-
eth alfo another Advantage along with it, for it preventeth a Horfe's Neighing, which
is very convenient for fuch Perfons as go upon Party, for then the Neighing of their
Horfes cannot discover them; and I believe this is the chief Reafon why fome Horfes
Noftrils are cut up, because after it they Neigh very rarely, or not at all. -
In Germany, and the North, almost all the curtail'd Horfes have their Noftrils cut
up, although their Wind be abundantly good; but in France quite the contrary, for
there they never cut up the Noffrits but of fuch poor Horfes as have their Wind broke,
and their Lungs quite fpent and consumed with Purfinefs.
The Mouth should be indifferently well cloven; when it is too much, there is a great of th~
Difficulty fo to Bitt a Horfe, as that he do not fwallow it, as we fay : And if he have a Motb.
little Mouth, and not enough cloven, then with Difficulty can the Mouth of the Bitt be
right lodged in it, without either making him wrinkle his Lips, or the Month of the
Bitt to reft upon his Tufhes ; a reasonable big Mouth is more ufeful for the Goodnefs
than Beauty of a Horfe, as are alfo all the Internal Parts which do not appear bui
when the Mouth is opened; neverthelefs, feeing they are fo effential to Goodnefs, and
are in place of a Rudder whereby to govern him right or wrong, I hall without
ftrialy tying my felf to fet everyThing in its proper Place, continue this Matter,
which will be fo much Skill and Knbwledge already acquired, for the right Bitting of
The Tongue should be fall, otherways it will be difficult to keep the Pitt from of ti,
prefling it, which making the Tongue to extend over his Bars, and cover them, wv.,l '.

SThe PerfeE MarJhal; PART 1.

render his Appuy (as the French call it) or feeling of the Preffure of the Bitt dull, by hin-
dering its Operation and EffeB upon the Bars; for no Liberty of any Bit whatfoever is
capable to contain.thefe big Tongues, although the Channel or Hollow betwixt the
Horfes Jaws, be abundantly deep and large: Such Horfes as have very big Tongues,
have feldom or never a good and fenfible Mouth, because the Bars are commonly flat
and low.
Of the A Horfe should have his Barrs fharp ridged, and lean, for all the Subjecion which
Barrs. a Horfe fuffereth by the Bridle proceeding from the Barrs, if they have not the above-
mention'd Qualities, they will be very little or not at all fenfible, fo that he can never
have a good Mouth; for if they be flat, round, and unfenfible, the Bitt will not' work
its Effet, and to take hold of fuch a Horfe by his Tail, or by the Bridle to govern
him, will prove much about one.
Of tbh The Channel, or Hollow betwixt the Under-jaws, fhonld be large enough to contain
annelj. his Tongue, that it be not preffed with the Mouthof the Bitt, which should always have
a little Liberty in the middle of it.
Of the His Palate should be lean ; for if it be fat, that is, if it be full and high, ib that it be
Palate. equal aimoft with the Extremities of his upper Teeth,the leaft Height in the Liberty of a
Bitt will incommode him, and if that part prove too fenfible and ticklish, the Horfe to
avoid the Trouble and Pain he receives from the Liberty of the Bit, which hurteth hira
in that Place, will either chack in the Bridle, and be always throwing up of his Head,
or otherways carry it too low, which besides the Deformity of it, will alfo very much
incommode the Hand of the Rider.
of the Thin and little Lips contribute to a Horfe's having a good Mouth, but the contrary
.ips. if they be large and thick.
Of the The Beard should be neither flat, nor too high raised or pointed; if it have any of
Beard. thefe Imperfeaions it is ill fhap'd, and the Curb can never be made to reft in its right
Place; it should alfo have but little Flelh upon it, and almost nothing but Skin and
Bone, without any kind of Chops, Hardnefs3 or Swelling; all thefe Conditions make
a good Mouth, whereas if the Horfe had any of them in too great a Degree or Excefs,
his Mouth would prove bad by being too good: For Example, if his Barrs were fo
fenfible and fharp, that they could not fuffer the Preflure of the Bitt, and consequently
that the Horfe could not endure the pulling of the Bridle to keep him in Subjetion,
this would be a great DefeA ; 'tis true, the other arts, particularly the Beard, have
feldom that degree of Senfibility and Tendernefs, although it is affirmed by the Duke
of Nervcaftle, in his Book of Riding, that the Beard is the moft fenfible Part of a
Horfe's Mouth.
The gene- The general Qualifications of a good Mouth, are to have the Feeling equal, firm,
ralt ua. and gentle, the Stop eafy and firm, to have neither fwelling, hurt, nor bruife, to have
lificatons the inward Parts of his Mouth frefh and full of Froth; this Froth denoteth the right
of a good ConRtitution of a Horfe, who having his Mouth always moiR will not fo easily over-
Mouth. heat, and is a Token that he delighteth in the Bitt, because it maketh his Mouth to
froth, and thereby giveth him Pleafure.
This is what is moft considerable and neceffary, for the Knowledge of a beautiful
and well-fhap'd Head : I hall not ftop to tell you of the Number of Bones whereof
it is composed; nor their Names, that being altogether of no Ufe to a Gentleman,
and but of very little even to a Farrier.
of the As for the Neck, it fbould be lean and have but little Flefh upon it; and to be well
Neck. fhap'd, it should at its out-going from the Withers rife with a Slope upwards, dimi-
thining by degrees towards the Head, and framing very near fuch a compafs or turn as
doth the Neck of a Swan; it should be long, raised, lean, and thin towards the
Mane, that is, it should have but a little Flefh upon it near to the growing of the
Mane, and the whole Neck considered in its bulk, should neither be too.flender nor
too much turned, because either of thefe two Extremes will give the Horfe occasion
to arm himself or reft his Chin upon his Counter.
The Barbs, and Spanijh Horfes, which have their Necks thick, and somewhat
charged with Flefh, are the better for it, for they have their Heads more fixed, their
feeling of the Bitt better,and are not fo fubjea to the throwing up of their Heads;
for my own part, I efteem far more a Spanijh Horfe, with somewhat of a thick Neck
than if he had it altogether fmall and lender; besides their Necks do not increase in
thicknefs as they become aged, but upon the contrary, the Neck of a Spanijh Horfe
the older he growth, the mory it diminifheth.

C A II. Or, Compleat Farrier. 9

In Mares, it is a good Quality to have their Necks a little grors and charged with
Flefh, because they have them for the molt part but too thin and delicate, and to com-
mend a Mare that hath fomewhat of a thick Neck, and raised Crei-, People fay th t
the hath a Horfe's Neck, which is a Perfe&ion in her; because, as I faid, they have
almost all that Defe&, of being too fine and lender Necked.
The Necks, which are called Renverfed, or turned, as it were, upfide down, are
thofe in which the Flefh, that should be next the Mane, and give the Neck its jift Ti mi
in that Part, is placed quite below, and next to the Throat, which rendercth the
Neck ugly and ill-fhap'd, and is alfo the Caufe of the Branches of the Bitt's mor,-
readily renting upon the Counter.
They are alfo called Deer-Necks, because of the Refemblance to thofe of Deers; or
Cock-throppled, in refpec of their Refemblance to thofe of Cocks.
There are alfo Necks which, at the Creft, incline to one fide, which by fome are
called Renverfed-Necks, but very improperly; for although the Top of the Neck or
Creft hang and incline to one fide, yet it is not what thefe People mean, when they
difcourfe of a Renverfed-Neck, for thefe incline only to one fide, by reason of having
too much Flefh next to the Mane; but the other, to wit, the Renverfed, for having
it below upon the nether Part of the Neck, and near to the Throat.
To know if the Neck be well fhap'd, you mult, with the Bitt, bring in the Horfe's
Head, and place it in its moft becoming Pofture; and to be right fhap'd, the under Part
of it next to the Throat, should not rife perpendicularly; for thofe which do fo, are
called Falfe-Necks, and the other which have that Part of the Jaw-Bone, next to the
Throat, more backwards than the lower Part of the faid Throat next to the Counter,
are thofe Renverfed, or Cock-throppled-Necks, I juft now difcourfed of; fo that a Neck
which is well-fhap'd, should defcend from the upper Part of the Jaw-bone, or Onfet
of the Head, all along flope-ways to the very Counter, that is, that Part of the
Neck next to the upper Part of the Jaw-bone, Ihould be more advanced than the lower
Part next to the Brealt or Counter : This is what I underRfand by faying, it should
defcend flope-ways, and not altogether Perpendicularly and Straight.
The Hair of the Mane should be long, thin, and fine, if it be frizled, fo much the of the
better; large-and thick Manes are a Burthen to the Neck, and make it often times Mane,
incline and lye to one fide; besides that they are very becoming, and without an ex-
traordinary.Care, a perfe& Neft for Filth and Duft: .Large and thick Manes do alfo oc-
cation the Itch in Horfes, which are not carefully looked after.
A well fhap'd Neck is yet more requifite for the Beauty of a Horfe, than is a fmall
and flender Head ; for if a Horfe have hisNeck very long, well raised, and turned, no
doubt but he will appear comely, even although his Head be a little Square and Grofs,
and that he but place it right; especially, if with fuch a Neck he have a well turned
Buttock, and withall a good Horfe-man upon his Back.
John Taquet, who hath writ a Difcourfe of Breeding Horfes, and how to know their
Shapes, (which is pretty good for the Time in which he lived,) will have a Horfe's Neck
to be thick and round, from the upper Part of the Jaw-Bones to his very Shoulders, to
the end, faith he, that he may not have t'he Fault which the Turkifh Horfes have, who
hut too easily Ply their Necks; and who altho' he have it Stiff, and no ways Flexible,
yet because of that Shape of the Neck will turn with the more Eafe, as he fayeth:
This Reafoning of his might have been good about Two Hundred Years ago, when
this Horfe-man lived; but now a Days we look upon it as a considerable ImperfeAion
in a Horfe, to have a very ftiffNeck, and which will not Ply but with Difficulty : I
therefore recommend the faid John Taquei, to the Duke of New-Caflle, who will dif-
cover to him, that one of the greatest Imperfeaions a Horfe can have, is to be too
straight, round, and fliff Necked.
Horfes which have a well-fhap'd Neck, although their Jaw-bones be somewhat
broad, yet if they bring in their Head well, and that the fore Part of it be narrow,
they will make a very good Figure; but although a Horfe have a very fine Head, if
he have not alfo with it a fine turned and well-fhap'd Neck, he will never appear Hand-
fome and Comely.
A well- fhap'd Neck, besides the Agreeablenefs and Beauty it giveth to a Horfe, con-
tributes alfo very much to the other good Qualities he should have, in fo far as it ma-
keth him either light or heavy on the Hand, according as it is Fine or Coarfe ; but
it is not the Shape of the Neck alone, which maketh a Horfe light or heavy on the
Hand, but good or bad Legs and Feet, and strong or weak Reins ; however the Neck
hath a great Share in it.

to Tke Perfed Mrjha ; PART I
of the At the lower Part of the 1ec1k upon te upper fide, and at the End of the Mane,
Withrc. is the others, which should be somewhat Elevate, and pretty Long, because it is a
Sign of Strength and Goodnefs: Moreover, when the Withers are well railed, they
keep the Saddle in its juft Place, and hinder it from corning forward upon his Shoul-
ders and Neck, which doth immediately fpoil and gall a Horfe ; and if to kee p it back
you make ufe of a Crupper, it will not fail alfo to hurt him, because of the great
Weight of the Saddle inclining, and consequently of the Rider preffing always for-
The Withers, although raised, Ihould not be too flefhy, for then they will be much
more fubjed to Galling, and when hurt very difficult to cure; but if he have them
lean, and but little more than Skin and Bone upon them, then they will be juft to as a
good and fine Horfe should have them.
of the A large and full Breaft, or Counter, is always esteemed in light or fmall fized Horfes,
Breafl or but in Dutch and Frizeland Horfes, they are commonly too large, which maketh them
Counter, heavy this is not to fay but for Horfes designed for Draught,. large and broad Coun-
ters do very well, for they make them Draw with the more eafe, and the Harnefs gal-
leth them the lefs; but to balance that Advantage, fuch Breafts, or Counters, make
them much more heavy, having by that Means the perfe& Quality of a Cart-horfe,
who the more he is tyed to the Ground, and the bigger, the Better he is; and if with
all this he have alfo a good Wind, then he is mpft excellent. All Horfes which have
their Mouths naught may draw in a Cart, but not in a Coach, where they muft be
light, and have a pretty good and fenfible Mouth.
Of the The Shoulders should be of a middle Size, flat, and but little Flefh upon them, the
shoulders Joint next to the Breaft, and the reft of the whole Shoulder very glib and moveable; a
Horfe which is charged with Shoulders can ,never be agreeable to the Rider, for he
will not only weary fooner, but Trip and Stumble every Minute: If a Horfe's Shoul-
ders be not very moveable, but fliff and unwieldy (which People call fixed or pegged
Shoulders,) then he will never have any Nimblenefs or Agreeablenefs; but above all,
if with fuch large Shoulders he have a thick and big Neck, then his Legs will be the
fooner fpoilt and ruined, because the Weight of both the one and the other, will very
Coon undoe the Legs, which muft support that great Burthen, as well in the Stable as
upon Journey.
The Shoulders are one of the Parts of a Horfe chiefly to be corifdered, because in
buying a Horfe they should be exactly look'd to, and you should not take it for a Com-
mendation of a Horfe, that People fay he is broad, and large over all it is a Com-
mendation indeed for the Buttock, but if his Shoulders are too large, it is a great
Befides the Direaions I hall give you, to know when a Horfe hath too large Shoul.
ders, you may observe this; a Horfe which hath too great a Diftanice betwixt his fore
Thighs, juft at the Top next to his Shoulders, if he be a Horfe of an ordinary Size,
and that that Diftance exceed half a Foot, it is too much; and I carn afure you, fuch
a Horfe is charged with Shoulders, or hath them, too big and large; he may have alfo
too little a Diftance between them, and then he will be narrow Breasfed, or fttaitne
in the Shoulders, which is a considerable Fault; therefore a Horfe of a middle Size
should have about half a Foot, or Five Inches Diftance between; his Foke-thighs. a nd
when he is standing straight upon his Limbs, there should be a lefs Diftance betwetei lis
Feet, than betwixt his Fore-thighs near to the Shoulders.
Thofe who feek after Horfes which are moft open befoti, (which isto have a greit
Distance between the Fore-thighs near to the Shoulders) mightily deceive themnfelves,
for fuch Horfts have for the moft part but too large Shoulders : Not that I Wbuld ad-
vife you to chufe them tooNarrow,becaufe fuch Horfes as have them fo are apt to fturi-
ble, and eafily fall, either in Galloping, or upon an ordinary Pace biitdes that, fuch
Shoulders are unpleafant to look at, and make a Horfe appear ugly: 'irrow Shout-
der'd Horfes do alfo commonly crofs their Legs, and cut themselves in Travelling:
I hall fpeak a great deal more of the Knowledge of Shoulders, when I difcourfe of
what is to be observed in Buying a Horfe.
Of the A Horfe should have double Reins, which is when he hath them a little more eleva-
Reins. ted upon each fide of the Back-bone than upon it, and that pafling your Hand along
it you find it large, well furnifhed, and double, by the Hollow that goeth all along
the Back-bone: The Back should be firm, and not at all Hollow or Bending from the
Withers to the Croup, but straight, and fashioned after the Reins of certain Mutes.

CHAP. II. Or, Compleat Farrier. r

Thofe Horfes which are hollow Back'd, are commonly light, and have their Necks
raised and high, but it is an Imperfe&ion ; they are called Saddle-backed ; and besides
that fuch Horfes have not ordinarily much Strength, it is alfo difficult fo to fit a Saddle
for them that it do not gall them ; they have alfo commonly exceffive big Bellies, called
Swallowed or Gulped-Bellies, in French, Ventres avalles, which render them very un-
The Ribs should be circular and full, taking their Tour and Compafs from the very of t
Back-bone, to the end that thofe Parts which they contain, which are the Lungs, and i10b.
others, may be the more eafily lodged, and that the Horfe may have alfo the better
Belly and fuller Flank.
The Bely should be but of an ordinary Bignefs in middle fized oorfes, but in Coach- of tbe
Horfes the larger the better, providing they be not altogether Gulped or Swallowed, BiS.
fuch as thofe of Cows, or of a Mare with Foal; but that it be round and well inclofed
within the Ribs, and rather extending upon the Sides than downwards.
The Flanks should be full, at the top of which upon each fide, there should be a kind of fhe
of frizour of the Hair, or Feather as we call it; the nearer thofe Feathers approach BaSW,,
one another upon the top near to the Loyns, fo much the better; but if they be as it
were within View of other, then the Mark is excellent.
The diftance between the laft Rib and Haunch-bone, which is properly the Flank,
should be but fhort; which we term well-coupled. The Horfes which are fhorteft ia
that Place, are longeft of having their Flanks ruined or fpoilt by exceffive Labour, but
the contrary is observed in thofe who have it long.
The Croup Thould be large and round, and fo turned, that the Tops of the two of the
Haunch-bones be not within view ofother; the greater Diftance there is between thofe croup.
two Bones, the better is the Mark, and the Croup fo much the finer and larger; but it
is an Imperfecion if thofe two Bones appear too high, and then a Horfe is called Horn-
hipped by fuch as have but ordinary Skill: For my own part, I never met with a Horn-
hipped Horfe, because I make all thofe Lufty and Plump which People call fo, and when
they are thus in good Cafe, thofe high Bones do no more appear: 'Tis true, I have had
more Difficulty in making fome Fat and Plump than others, because they had thofe
twq Bones 7extreamly elevate, and even in view of other; but at laft, I made them
abundantly Lufty, and then they were no more that which People call Horn-hipped.
SThe Croup should not be trait nor fwallowed up next to the Tail, but take its
Tour and Compafs from the Haunch-Bones, to the very Dock or Onfet of the Tail,
ind should be divided in two by a Hollow or Channel, going from between the two
Haunch-bones all along to the very Dock.
SThe Tail wouldd be firm, strong, immoveable, and well furnished with Hair; the of t,
Dock should be big, ftiff; and placed pretty high; thofe who have it too low fet, have fai,.
fedotm good Reins, and never a beautiful Croup; fome Horfes have it too high
fet' which maketh their 'Buttocks appear pointed, and of the Shape of a Plum, which
is very unbecoming; tho're Horfes which have but' very little Hair upon their Tails,
are called Rat-taird, and pris commonly for good ones; but this one Mark is not fuf-
Tlcient to make a Horfe be esteemed, because? to be a good one there are a great many
more required: Having gone through all the Parts of a Horfe's Body, we muft now
come to his Fore-legs.
The Fore-lers have federal Parts, and each of them their particular Beauty and of the
Shape; the Arm or Fore-thigh should be large and nervous; and if the Mufcle, Fore-
marked t7 below the Baflick Vein, in French L'ars, be big, nervous, and flefhy, fo 'tig,
much the better; for'although the Shank from the Knde to the Paftern-joynt be fmall,
yet if his Fore-thigh be strong, and that the above-mentioned Mufcle be large, it will
fI fome Meafute supply the Defeo of the Shank.
Another Obfervationi relating to the Fore-thigh, is, that it fnould be pretty long,
which will make the Horfe the longer a wearying upon Travel, because the greatefL
Strength of the Leg lying, in the Fore-thigh, and the leaft in the Shank, and other
Parts, it is to be prefumed, that thePart which is molt weak being Shorteft, it will
be in a better'Condition to endure Fatigue; but then the Leg will not have fo grace-
ful a Motion, that is to fay, fo fine anddelicate a Ply and Movement in Stepping and
Galloping; this great Motion' is that which maketh Horfes defign'd for Hunting and
Courting, or even for Journeying, to become fooner wearied; but then it is very
graceful and much efteemed.for the Manage.
For in managed Horfes it is quite contrary, because the shorter the Fore-thighs or
Arms are; fb much the better; and one of the molt becoming Things in a managed
B z Horfe,

Th~5e Peirfe I



Of the

of the

Of the
Of the

of the
and Hoof.

of the
Of th:
f r uh.

Of thf



~*_ I r -r ---~LU
_ ~-- ---- ------- IlllILIll-rP-~----- I- ~L' rr

Horfe, is to have a ifately and graceful Motion with his Fore-legs ; now the shorter
the Fore-thighs are, the greater Motion the Legs make, which is very much to be tar
ken Notice of in buying of Colts, or Barbs newly come over, which People design for
the Manage ; because no Horfe which wanteth this comely Movement, can be agree-
able and charming to thofe who behold him in his Manage.
For fuch Horfes there is required a great deal of Art, with an extraordinary Pati-
ence, the moft Part of them having no natural Difpofition to it ; for Horfes wanting
a graceful Motion of their Legs, although well managed, yet are very difficult to be
kept Juft and in Order, that is, to be made to go well.
The larger and broader the Shank is, or, that part of the Fore-leg from the Knee to
the Paftern-joynt, fo much the better: You will know when it is fo, by the Back-
finew being at a distance from the Bone, or pretty well separate from it, and having no
kind of Swelling or Humour betwixt it and the Bone, which may cafe the Legto
appear round: Horfes which have a fmall Back-finew, have it almost alwaysdclofe
upon the Bone, and are fub'je to become round Leg'd; People call fuch Legs, O0
Legs, because of their resemblance to thofe of Oxen.
The Knee should be flat and large, without any Swelling or Roundnefs upon the
Top of it, and the Shank, as I faid, broad, flat, and fhort, the Back-finew well de-
tached from it; and near to the ,Paftern-joynt should be perceived the two -little
Bones which lye upon each fide of the Shank-bone; but thefe little Bones do but fel-
dom appear, except in fmall fized Horfes, fuch as Barbs, and Spanih Horfes; the
Back-finews should be alfo firm and large without any Hardiefs. .
The Back-finews are the moft considerable Parts of a Horfe's Legs, thofe which are
Big, and without any Swelling, are the beft; because fuch Legs as have them fmal
will be foon fpoilt, the Horfe will eafily Halt, and upon the leaft Travel or Fatigue,
the Leg will become round and gourded; which as it is an Imperfeaidoin the Shape,
fo far more in the Goodnefs of a. Leg. ,
The Paftern-joynt should be proportionably large to the Size of the Iorfe, broad,
and without any Swelling or Sorranee, having a little Tuft of Hair behind, called the
Fet-lock,. in French Le Fanon.,
The Pafler mfhould be thort, especially in middle fized Horfes; the Pafterns which
are too long,- are weak, and cannot endure Travel ~ Horfes which havy them, are cal-
led Long-joynted: Large and big Horfes which have too fIort PafterA .become fooa
Boure', as the French call it, (which is, wjen. the Paftern at the Joynt'bends forwards,
and is, as it were, diflocate) especially, if with fhort Pafterns they have alfo high
Heels; the Horfes in Normandy are very fubjet to have their Pafternsbelding forward
at the Joynts, because they are commonly alk fhort Patern'd. ..
Upon the contrary, there are Barbs and.Horfes, whoeiSirs and'DMD s are of cdi
ferent Countries, called in French Chevaux Echappez that are;extreamly oing Pa errh'd,
fo that in travelling their Paftern-joynts do:almoft touch tIe ;roun4, which is a Si
of great Weaknefs, at leaft in that Part, if it be not alfo Univerfal,'
This Imperfecion of being long Joynted, is of more Confqeq pe agaigfE tie Gqpd-
nefs than Beauty of a Horfe, and proceeds commonly frojt an old Stall io*, therefore a
Man shouldd never make Choife of a middle fized Horfe, for a Stallio~, w h is long
The Coronet should be no more elevate than:the Hoof,,:n ;n make as',i were a Ridge
or Hight round it; if it do, it is a Sign that either the Foot.is dried up, orthat there
are a great many Humours in the Coronet, which .do occasion the rowl.-cab, "i
French Les Peignes, and several other Sorrances which come in that Part.
The Horn of the Hoof Ihould be of a dark Colour, fomcwhat fliag,, high, and
finooth, the White is commonly brittle; to be Excellent it fliould be, pf the Colour
of a Deer's Hoof, and the whole Foot of a round Figure, .but a litee larger,below
than above; we hall continue to describe all the Parts: ofthe Footone after the
The Heel should be high and large, and one of its Sides should hot be higher thaa
the other, that is, it should not rife higher upon the Paftern than the other.
The Frujh although little, shouldd yet be well nourilh'd,; inKHorfes which are Hoof-
bound it is too little, for it is almost quite dried up and as it is a Fault to have it
little, fo is it one to have it too large and Fatas it were, especially in Horfes which have
low Heels, or are flat Footed.
The Soles should be thick. and Rtrong, and the whole lower Part of the Foot where
the Shoe is placed, hollow.

C H A P. II. Or, Compleat Farrier. 13

A Horfe should alfo ftand firm upon his Legs, which will contribute fomewhat to
his Comelinefs; and when he ftandeth till in one place, there should be a greater Di-
ftance between the upper Parts of his two Fore-thighs, than between his Feet, that
is, the Diftance betwixt the Fore-legs, should enlarge by degrees from the Feet to the
Breaft or Counter, and by this means a Horfe will be more firm upon his Limbs, and
alfo appear more Beautiful.
Having considered the Fore-legs, let us go to thofe behind; I have already fpoken
of the Shape of the Croup, it therefore remains, that we examine the other Parts of
the hind Quiaiter.
The Thyi'hs'ffould be long and flefh, and theMucles which are upon the outfides of ,
of them, called the Gaskoines, should be large, fleihy, and well fpread ; it is an effential Thig:.
Defeat in the Beauty of a Horfe, when the Thighs are not well'furnilhed and tielhy;
and although the Croip be excelleittly well turned, yet if the Thighs be lender and
lean, a Horfe will appear narrow behind, which is called Cat-thighed; People know it
when thefieeive that'theC'roup is broad and large, and the Thighs do not anfwer
it prop6rtionably, 'but are fmall, and not well furnifhled with Flefh, which maketh the
whole hind Hand to appear mifhap'd ; it is almost always a Sign of a weak hind Quar-
ter. and)iorideswh'ic ahtve a Draught in their Hiader-legs as they ride, are very fub-
je& t have thitsIitpetfedioi of a thin and weak hind Quarter, which appears to me
confiderabJle. '
The Houga s or Hanimes should le large, full, and not much bended, dry, difcharged Of the
of Flefh, nervous and tpiple, all which Qualities are as necelfary for the Goodnefs, as H1oughs
right Shape-and Beauty of the Hammes. Hanmes
The Bone of the Hind-leg, from the Hamme to the Paftern.'joynt, called the Inflep, or H e
should be big a'id flat, ahnd f ia perpendicular Line to the Ground, when the Horfe is Injte
ri his naturalP'o ftu e if Starditdg y:.when .the Infteps fand not perpendicularly, it is
a certain Sign of Weakngfs either in the Reins or hinder Quarters; the other Parts
of the hind ,Legs should be confideredd j~rft as thofe of the fore; the shorter the Hair is
in either of them, fo much the better i except in Horfes of a middle Size, to whom
alfo a littleTuft of Irhi tupon the.backPart of the hind Paftern-joynt, called, as I
have already faid, the ktvrfk, in French Le Fanon, -is very becoming.
A Horfe who hath good Feet before, hath feldom bad ones behind, except by Acci-
dent; there dre People'look to 'the hind Feet but lightly, and (as the French fay) En
Commonly the Hind-feet are gobd, when the Fore-feet are weak and tender; the
'Seimes, as' the French callh ; which are Rents or Clifts in the Quarters of the Feet
from the Coi6het to'teShoe, Vare almost the. oily Sorrances which the Hind-feet are
fubje& tt, except fomietimes the Cro*ir-&ab upon the Coronet, the Fig in the Sole, and
(he Horn and,Fruflf brittle .'
' There reri'inds a yet one very'vifiMiite mperfe&ion to be considered, which is when
Horfes aie' ft toothigh pon theit Legs; that is, when, their Legs are longer than
ifie Ptopoirton of' their bodies requirerh, whereby not only their Beauty but Good nefs
is diiniiftiitt.
SThe Antie4ts have deterttilned a Meafure for them, although in my Opinion there
is no other r quired ttiar that which is given by one's Eye, feeing any Perfon who is
a little acfiCmed to I8kt: to Horfes "will eafily know if a Horfe's Body be too high
fet, or have trop de our, as the French tt-m it: But to'fatisfy the. Curious in this Point,
they maytak'e a Threa'lhd meafu"dfrom the Withers to his Elbow and what ever
Jength thta i, he lhold have the fate Diftance betwixt the Elbow and lower part of
his Heel';. fortif hdlave ignore, 'his LeBg will:be tob long. Many People measure their
Colts when a Year old, and take the Diftance from the lower part of the Heel to
their Elb6w, and fay, tiat their Bddy will always grow, until there be the fame Di-
faince between their ~lb w and Withers, as there was betwixt the Elbow and lower
part'of the Heel; beeaud, :fay theyat a Year old a Colt hath his Legs as long as
ever; which I have irnded obferved in fome, but not in all: The Duke of New-Caflle,
in his Book of HorfemaJbi,' condemius- mightily this Obfervation, and in my Opinion,
not without good Ground.' '


S4- The Perfea Marjhal P AT I.
1. i f 'I ^ ^ .

Somc curious Remarks upon Horfes represented either in Relievo, im-
bofs'd Work, or flat Painting.
B Efore I begin another Chapter, wherein I intend to treat of the Knowledge of
Horfes, and of the Methods to be observed by every one who intends, to become
that, which we call Knowing or Skilfull, I hall give fome Advices, which may per-
haps fatisfy fuch of my Readers as delight in Horfes; for by them they will be more,
capable to judge of the Workmanfhip and Shapes of a Horfe painted, carved, or caft
in imbofed Metal, than it could be poffible for them to do, if they had.not the In-
fight which I hall give them.
Thofe who comprehend not my Defign, and have not the true Tafte and. Relih of
fuch kind of Curiofities, may pafs over this third Chapter, and go to the fourth.
Firft, It is certain that all the famous Painters, and excellent Carvers, defign and
aim at nothing fo much as to imitate Antiquity, and all of them are perfwaded there
can be no part of their Work found fault with, if they can but Ihow you in any old
Original, that the famous antient Painters and Stulptors have delineated thofe Parts
(whofe Shapes you condemn) after the fame manner, and with the very fame Features
which they have done; for Example, the Horfe of Marcus Aureius the remperor,
and others which are in Rome, and other Places.
I do with them acknowledge, that thofe who imitate not the Antients have not that
Juftnefs and Skill, especially in what relateth to the Delineation and exa& Shaping of
Humane Bodies; but as to the matter of Horfes, although Antients have observed
the juft Delineation of many Parts, yet they have failed in fome, and to give you
a few Inftances of it, I hall difcourfeof the Attitude or Situation, which isI properly
the Poftures in which they put the Horfes they represent; andi I fay, that, the moflt
part of the Poftures they have given to Horfes,. should not be imitated in this Age
wherein we live. .
The Horfes of the Antients were l0n ways Managed, and but unier little Subje6ti-
on; yea, they were more oddly Bridled, than the Croates and turkijb I-o0rfes are in
thefe Countreys, and all the Aaionfs they represented them .performing under a Man,
appeared Defperate and Furious, because the Riders themfelyes didn't know what to
require of them, and the Horfes being full of Mettle and ,Chpler, perfermied fucu
A&ions as did rather discover their being transported, ad,~-ia .ki4d of Fury, thaii
thow their Obedience and Subjetion to the will of the Rider.:i;
Their Bitts which were badly chofen, and capable.to rendera -lorfe defptrate, ighit
contribute much to it, especially the Riders being; nop.at ;.Iot orfemen and th
Horfes having alfo no Saddles, but only a kind of Cloth or Houfle upon tipn, did Jb
incommode their Riders, that they could fcarce keep their Backs, and .th ~ "gin
to them with their Heels and Spurs, they caufed their Horfes, (fome o f wiic were
extraordinary well fhap'd and vigorous,) to perform fuch Ationsass would appear to us
now a Days fo strange and extravagant, that we could, fcarce einure td ,1ok on them,
being fo diforderly and contrary to all the; Rules of Art. : ..
Now the modern Painters and Sculptors, endeavour to.imiitate thofe ugly fright-
ful, and vitious Ations, because the Antients.have reprefeped, themrn 't~itue,'ia
-them it was pardonable, for they knew none better, in which, to caufe t0hicr -orfes
to appear either more lively or vigorous; but now that the Art of Riding is, Brought to
fuch a Perfetion, and that People have fallen upon Methods to reduce Horfes, and
bring them under a perfe& Subjeaion and Obedience,, and; to have no othey Will fave
that of their Riders, it is known more and more,, that the A&ions of Obedience,
wherewith a Horfe is accustomed, make him peYorm Airs a great deal more fine, and
infinitely more agreeable to the Spedators; and in :thofe A&ions or Airs, there ap-
pears fuch a Harmony and Beauty, that whatever they do contrary to them is dif-
pleafing, and cannot be endured.
Moreover, fince the Art of Bitting Horfes is arrived at its greatest Perfefion, the
Bitts which are made ufe of now a Days, besides that they place a Horfe's Head
right, give alfo his Neck the moft beautiful Turn and Situation it is capable of, with-
out forcing him to open his Mouth as Che- ittS of the Antients did, which cut and

CHAP. II. Or, Compleat Farrier. 15

fpoil'd the Barrs, and were of no other Ufe but to torment a Horfe, and make him
thow a Pair of wide frightful Jaws; for in the very Inftant that a Horfe openeth his
Mouth, the A&ion and Figure it maketh are fo difpleafing, that People fay he openeth
his Jaws out of Derifion and Contempt: Neverthelefs, all the Horfes represented
by the Antients, either in imboffed Metal, or flat Painting, do open their Mouths after
fuch an extraordinary Manner, that it is one of the moft horrible and shocking Sights;
in fine, the moft unpleasant and unbecoming A&ion, that a Horfe can poflibly perform
under a Man.
All this being considered, I ask any Man of Senfe if we should imitate the Antients
in thofe Things, wherein they were wrong and erred; if they have only represented
Horfes in Poftures of Rage and Defpair, they could not do otherways, because they
knew no better; but now a Days to represent under a King, great Prince, or Gene-
ral of an Army, a Horfe in fuch Ations of fury and transport, would be enough to
make the Specators believe, that either the Rider knows not to govern him, or that
the Horfe is altogether difobedient, which would be thought ridiculous for any to
imagine, in this Age wherein we live; because Perfons of that Condition and Quality,
mount no Horfes but fuch as are very well adjusted, and under a perfect Subjetion,
having their Heads and Necks exadly well placed, and performing fome fine Pefade,
or becoming Pafage, which make them appear Brisk and Stately, and without feem-
ing in the leaft to deny that perfect Obedience which they should give to their Riders.
Perhaps People may answer to this, that a Horfe represented in fuch an obedient
Pofture, will appear no ways graceful, and that unlefs he be represented performing
fome extraordinary Ation, which may discover his Mettle, and be a Token of his
Courage, he will appear altogether dull, and without Life; but there is a great diffe-
rence in Reprefentations, that is, to put a Horfe in fuch a Pofture as may make him ap-
pear full of Courage, extraordinary Nervous, and with a kind of fixednefs and ftay-
ednefs in his Motions, and to paint him in Defpair and Rage as the Antients have
done; and I believe I am not much deceived, that if a Horfe be represented with a
ftately Carriage, and well upon his Haunches, performing a beautiful Pefade or Corvet,
with a good Motion of his Arms or Fore-thighs, which will discover that he hath a
graceful Movement; and if withal, his Mufcles, Nerves, and Veins, be marked in
their due Places, I fay fuch a Horfe will certainly appear a thoufand times more lively
and beautiful, and alfo more graceful and agreeable in fuch a Poflure, than thofe of the
Antients in their extravagant A&ions, having their Mouths open, their Necks, ren-
verfed, and endeavouring to force the Hand of the Rider.
The Antients have placed the Head wrong, in molt part of the Defigns they have
left us of Horfes, either in Paint or Sculpture; for the fore-part of the Head flould
hand always Perpendicular or Plum, whatever Polture the Body of the Horfe be in
which is beneath the Rider, therefore to have the Nofe extended in Galloping, or other
ways, as.they have represented them, is a considerable Error; the Neck, in the up-
per part of it next to the Mane, should make a Tour very near like that of a Swan's
Neck, it should be thinnest towards the Mane, and the under part should flope towards
the Breaft, or Counter, that is, that part of the Throat next to his Nether-jaws, should
be four Iiches more advanced than that part of it next his Counter; for if the Throat
stand perpendicular it is falfe, and if it be further back at the Onfet of the Head, than
it is at his Counter, then it is that we call Deer-necked or Cock-throppled, which is an
Imperfetion the Antients have very wrongfully given to all their Horfes, represented
either in Painting, carved Work, or imboffed Metal; as alfo to make the Creft, which
is the Part out of which the Mane growth, too thick and grofs, especially betwixt
the Ears, where it miaketh that Part too broad, is a fault; for the Neck should be
almost flat upon each fide of the Mane, and but a little Flelh upon it.
For the Ears, it is indeed becoming to have their Points placed nearer each other
than their Roots, to make them appear more hardy and brisk; but if they are too
much closed at the Points, as many Painters represent them, then they are wrong,
which I could easily make appear, would it not prove too tedious to conf me Time
upon fo fmall a Matter; the Ears should be placed on the very upper part of the Head,
and pretty near to one another.
For the Shoulders there is a great Debate about them ; the Sculptors fay, that the
biggeft-and largest are the moft Beautiful; 'tis true they are the belt for Draught
QHrfes; but if Saddle Horfes had their Shoulders large, flefhy, and broad, as the
Paiiiters alfe to represent them, they would be fit only for a Cart; for they would
be-heavy and fixed to the Ground, which is properly what they call in French, ne
grande Carogne, or great Carrion ; but for this they fay, that to make a Horfe feem s ive

16 The PerfetS Mar al; PART I.

his Mufcles muff appear, and if he be not very full in the Shoulders, and have alfo the
joylnt, at the lnFertion of the Shoulder-bone with the Blade, much advanced, they
cannot be difcerned, and fo he will never appear with any kind of Life and Vigour;
I again maintain the quite contrary, that in a full and large Shoulder charged with
*Fleh, the Mufcles will appear but little, or not at.all do they appear in a very grofs
or corpulent Man ? they will appear juft as little in fuch large and flefhy Shoulders;
and I afiure you, that in a flat Shoulder with little Flefh, and which hath in a manner
nothi.;g upon it but Skin and Bone, which is as the Shoulder of a fine and well thap'd
Horfe should be, the Mufcles, and Nerves, will appear as if they were Natural;
whereas if the Nerves and Mufcles be represented in a large and round Shoulder, they
will be contrary to Nature, and perhaps wrong placed, because they cannot be well
perceived in any Horfe who hath his Shoulders f6 full and flefhy.
Moreover, representing thofe big Shoulders with the Joynt which toucheth the
poitral of the Saddle, much advanced, there is fuch a Diftance and Breadth in the
Counter of the Horfe, that he is as full and broad in the Shoulders as in the Croup:
And that i alfo another Fault accompanying the Errors of the Painters and Sculptors;
for although a Horfe to be well fhap'd, should be open, and a little full before, yet if
he be too much it is an Imperfetion, and a Quality only fit for a Cart Horfe i for the
fore-parts of a Horfe's Shoulders, that is, the Diftance which is between the one and
the other, should be only a little more than half the Breadth of his hinder Quarter,
or Haunches; fo that when People peak of a well-fhap'd Horfe, they fay he is full
and broad in the Croup, but not in the Shoulders; that is to fay, the Diftance be-
tween them should be but fmall, and therefore the Shoulders of an exa& fhap'd Horfe,
are compared to thofe of a Hare: Judge then if Painters have reafon to make fuch
monstrous Shoulders,, when they defign to represent a Brave and Beautiful Horfe.
That Muicle which is upon the infide of the Fore-thigh, and below the Shoulder,
cannot be represented too full and flefhy, for fuch a Shape becomes it extreamly ; the
reft of the Fore-thigh should be large, the Nerves and Mufcles well placed, and the
Knees big, and pretty flat; fome Painters place Mufcles upon them : I have feen in
Horfes represented in Relievo, or caft Metal, to the Number of three placed upon
the flat of the Knee, which is contrary to Nature, for Horfes have never any in that
Part: As for the Paftern-joynts of the Fore-legs, they make them commonly too big;
People to look on them would take them to be fwelled or gourded, their Patterns too
long, and to compleat all, a very big Foot, which is difproportionable to the Leg,
and consequently a grofs Imperfe&ion; for the Thighs they make them too lean: You
will fee in fome of their Horfes a large Croup, and flefhy Haunches, which is very
right, but then they give them lean and lender Thighs, which is wrong; the Muf-
cles which are upon the outfides of them should be large and flelhy, and the whole
Thighs well furnifh'd: One needs not go far to difcover this Fault in a Horfe repre.
fented in imboffed Metal, which is much efteemed, and with Reafon, for it is done by
an excellent Workman ; thefe Faults of the Thigh and Knee, which I have remarked,
are there all Vifible.
When a Horfe is upon his Haunches, making a Corvet or Pefade, the whole Weight
of his Body refteth upon his Hammes, fo that truly in that Cafe all the Nerves, Muf-
cles and Veins, should appear; but as a Horfe does not continue long in that A&tion
that fo he may be exa&ly designed, the Painters instead of placing thofe Heights and
Hollows where they should be according to Nature, make too many of them, and re-
prefent a Hamme full of Courbs, 7ardons, or Spavens, and alfo make large Plyes or Folds in
that part of the Hamme where the Sellender cometh, to the Number of two or three,
whichis absolutely contrary to the Order of Nature; for fuch large Folds are called
Wreaths or Rouls, in French, des Bourlets, which are vifible Marks of a Horfe which
hath been much ufed; and if a Horfe have fuch Swellings in the bending of his
Hammes, he would not be found enough to be represented in imbofed Work ; yea,
although he fnould be beautiful enough for that Purpofe, yet at leaft his Faults should
not be imitated, which are thefe Wreaths or Bourlets which he hath in his Hammes:
The Hamme or Hough should be large, broad, lean, and very hollow, fo that if People
make Swellings where there should be none, in place of representing a beautiful Horfe,
they will difcover one Crippled and Maimed.
As for the Pattern-joynts of the Hind legs of thefe Horfes, which the Painters re-
prefent upon their Haunches, they make them, and the Initeps, all of one Piece as it
were, and the Paftern the fame, as if the Horfe had no Ply in his Paftern-jynt,
which can no ways be; for every Horfe that performeth any Motion upon his Haun

C A P. III. Or, Conopleat Farrier. 17

ches, for Example a Corvet; as the paftern-joynts of the Hind-legs are thereby much
ftreffed, and that all the Weight of his Body refteth upon them, they muft of Ne-
cetlity ply and bend, and that fo very much, that the'back Parts of the Paftern-joynts
touch almost the Ground, which is what may be daily feen in the Academies of Riding;
yet the Sculptors never fail to represent the Inftep of the Hind-leg, Paftern-joynt and
Paftern, all in. a straight Line as if they. were of one Peice, like to the Leg of a Dog,
which is ridiculous; almost all the Horfes which I have feen either Painted or Carved in
my time, had this Fault.
The Painters may have this to retort upon me, that in the Reprefentation of a na-
tural Humane Body, they affift Nature, as one may fay, because the moft perfealy
fhap'd Bodies that they make Choice of for a Model, have fome Parts fo formed, that if
they were represented according to Nature, they would be found no ways agreeable,
and People would judge them defective.; I grant thiis s true, but then they do it because
Men which are. exaaly weUlfhap'd, have all the Parts of their Body fo framed as they
represent then g upon thq contrary, Horfes are feldom found perfe&ly well fhap'd,
neither are the omoft Beautiful fo in all their particular Members; and therefore Na-
ture should only be imitated in that, wherein the is Right and Beautiful, but not where-
in fhe is Deformed, which is what the Painters and Sculptors do: For to enlarge a
Horfe's Shoulders, and to give him Mufcles where he should have none, is to make him
frightful and ,ionftrous, and of a beautiful and Well fhap'd Horfe, to make one fit
only for a Cart.
If thofe Gepitlemen, (,I mean the Painters and Sculptors,) read what I have been
flying, I believe they will. confefs, that Antiquity should be imitated only in that
wherein it is Right, and not where it is Defective; for its being Antient maketh it no
lefs an Imperfetion and Error. Many People very dextrous in their Art, to whom I
have related thefe Reafons, have agreed with me in what I faid. I know very well,
that what the Greeks have left us of raised and carved Work in Monuments, are moff
exad Models for Sculpture and Painting, but it is not the fame in refpe& to the Po-
ftures wherein they put their Horfes; and that which Monfieur Mignar hath Painted
under the King the Year he took Maftrickt, and which is in one of the Galleries of
Verfailes, is the moft beautiful, the belt designed, and the moft exactly fhap'd that hath
ever yet appeared; for it is placed according to the Rules of Horfemanfhip, and is in
truth juft as it ought to be; for it is conformable to beautiful Nature, and every Part
of it fo exa&ly and delicately Defigned, that it may for ever ferve as a Model for all
the Painters, by which they may ftudy and learn how a beautiful Horfe should be fha-
ped; for let any Man examine it Critically, and to the utmoft Rigour, but without
Prejudice or Humour, and he muft acknowledge, that there hath never as yet appear-
ed one more perfect.
This Digreffion is a little too long for an impatient Reader, who very little corg
cerns himfelf, whether Horfes be well or ill defign'd and painted, for provided he
have good ones himfelf he is satisfied; perhaps he is in the right on't, and it is proba-
ble the Thread of my Difcourfe hath infenfibly drawn me on; but I entreat him to con-
fider my Intention and Defign, and if that will not fatisfy him, I muft be fo plain as to
tell him, that I have had a great deal more trouble in Writing, than he in Reading of
it, especially not being obliged to it, as I advertifed him in the Beginning of this
Chapter, and fo we are quits.
I am now going to difcourfe of the Goodnefs of a Horfe, and of his Faults and Im-
perfetions; and I dare promise, that every one who can understand what I am going
to write, may call himself Skilful in this Matter : Experience will teach him, that a
Man may easily arrive at this Knowledge, if he carefully apply himself to understand,
what is contained in the following Chapters; it is not enough to read them over
once or twice, he muft understand them; yea, after he hath read them go vifit and
consider Horfes, and obferve all the Particulars which have been taken Notice of; it
is true there is required somewhat of Pains and Application to do this, and it is a kind
of Trouble to thofe who do not delight in it, which Perfons may affure themselves,
that without having a Liking for Hotfes, they hall but with Difficulty become
knowing and skilful.


8 The Perfef Mar hal; PART


The perfer Knowledge of the Faults and Imperfelions in Horfe, or
that which fbould be observed to prevent being deceived, whee a
Man is buying one.

Being to treat of the Goodnefs of Hor s, one of the chief Things a Man should
tye himfelf to, confifts in the ri'gh examining if the Horfe, which he defigts
for his Service, hath any Fault, or if he wil be fit for that Employment or Work fb ,
which he defigns him; for there are other Qualities required in a Padd, or Journey
Nagg, than in a Horfe which is defigged for Hunting: The Qualities of a Horfe for
the Manage, differ alfo from thofe of aTravqlng iorfe; there is heeifore a great
deal of Judgment required, besidess the- knowing o his particular Faults) to judge if
he will be fit for that Ufe for which'"f dcfigfi'him.' It isvei dfficult to give in ,
Writing fuch Precepts, as may be sufficient to make a Man know any other Thing,
fave that which is called Soundnefs; for to acquire a perfect Knowledge of the-Nature "
and Conititution, of the Vigour, and a certain Connexion and Agreeablenefs in the
Motions; of the Agility, of the Mouth, of the Force, and of the Gentlenefs and De-
licatenefs of a Horfe; as whether he will be fit for a Mafter, or only proper for a Ser-
vant, is a Delicatenefs which few People are Mafters of, and is that which maketh an
understanding and skilfull Perfon be eafily diftinguifhed, from one but of an ordinary
For both may judge of the Soundnefs of a Horfe; that is, that the leaft Lamenefs
or Imperfe&ion Ihall not escape any of them; but then the one will judge of the
Agreeablenefs and Eafinefs, of the united and equal Strength which is found in his
Aaions, or of a rude Knit, and uneafy Force: In fine, the one will difcern that the
Horfe is fit for a Perfon of Quality, and the other will only know, that he is a good
found Horfe, and without Fault, but will not be able to penetrate farther; and this is
what cannot but with great Difficulty be taught by writing ; there is required for it a
long Prafice, and a nice Fancy: I hall discover all I know of it, which is but little,
yea, it is alfo difficult to arrive at that Delicatenefs of Knowledge, without be-
ing a Horfeman, having a great Experience, and having alfo rid a great many
Neverthelefs, to proceed in it Methodically, when you have caft your Eye upon
fome Horfe you like, and whofe Size and Stature anfwers your Defign and Fancy ;
for fome would have their Horfes large, others would have them of a fmall Size;
fome gain would have them long, and others ihort and well knit; fome would have
them heavy, others would have them light, fo that the Fancy which People have for
different Sizes in Horfes, should be conformable and agreeable to the Service for which
they design them: For Example, a Horfe to go upon the Street Ihould be large arid
broad towards the Ground, which they call in French, E' cache'; now a Horfe of that
Shape would not at all be fit for Hunting, for he would have certainly too much
Shoulders, too fhort a Wind to gallop long, and but very little Swiftnefs; you muft
therefore begin by degrees, and orderly consider every particular Part, which will
give a certain Knowledge of the Horfe's Goodnefs you intend to make Choice of, and
whether he will be proper for that Service for which you design him, which is the
Quintefcence of the Knowledge of Horfes, because it is the moft neceffary and

How to know a Horfe's Age while he hath a Mark.
T O begin then, you muft firft examine his Age, to do which, take hold with your
SLeft-Hand of one of the Branches ofthe Bridle, to prevent his hurting you
with his Fore-feet, which Branch you hall raife up, and with your other Hand, ta.
king him by the Chin, open his Mouth that fo you may perceive his Age, which may
be easily enough known, as followeth. A

C HAP. V. Or, Compleat Farrier. I.9

A Horfe hath four Kinds of Teeth, his Age is known by fome of them, and others
ferve to grind the Provender wherewith he fubfifteth ; the firft which grow are the Foal-
Teeth, which come forth a few Months after he is foaled, thefe are little and very white,
not at all hollow, and are eafily diftinguilhed from the reft ; the second are the Tufhes;
and the third are thofe Teeth, which grow in place of the Foal-Teeth after they are caft,
of which the outward Ones, or thofe next the Corners fhew the Age; thefe Corner-
Teeth are placed next to the Tufhes, and upon the Out-fides of the Fore-Teeth both
above and below: Some People in considering a Horfe's Age look to the Upper-Teeth,
but then it is only when the Horfe is pretty Aged, and that there can be nothing
known by there below.
A little before a Horfe hath attained to the Age of thirty Months, which is two
Years and a half, he hath twelve Foal-Teeth in the Fore-part of his Mouth, fix above
and fix below, (I do not here fpeak of his Chop-Teeth or Grinders). At thirty Months
or a little after, four of thefe Foal-Teeth fall, two above and two below in the very
middle ; in fome Horfes they do not fall till they have three Years, the Obfervation not
being fo exa& and juft as to anfwer always thirty Months: There growth then in the
Place of there four Foal-Teeth which fell, four others which are called Nippers or Ga-
therers, they are thofe in the middle, and with which a Horfe cutteth his Grafs when:
he is a grazing; you muft remark that the Teeth which come in place of the Foal-Teeth
are a great deal bigger, stronger, and larger than them, alfo they are thefe which a
Horfe keepeth all his Life-time, feeing he never changeth them more.
W hen a Horfe hath changed but two Teeth above and two below, which Teeth are,,
as I faid, called Gatherers, then it is certain that he is at moft but three Years old, and
commonly but thirty Months which is only two Years and a half.
At three Years and a half, but rarely at four, there falleth other four Foal-Teeth,
two above and two below, whereof one upon each fide of the Gatherers both above and
below; and in their Places come four others, very near as big, large, and strong, as
the Gatherers, which are called Separaters, because they separate the Gatherers from
the Outward or Corner-Teeth ; when a Horfe hath changed four Teeth above and
as many below, then he may be faid. to have three Years and a half, and very oft
There remaineth after this to a Horfe, only four Foal-Teeth in the Corners, which
he changeth moft commonly at four Years and a half: You now fee after what Order a
Horfe changeth his Teeth, to wit, four Teeth at two Years and a half, which is thir-
ty Months, and are called Gatherers ; four at three Years and a half, which are thofe
between the Gatherers and Corner-Teeth, called Separaters; and at four Years and a
half the Outward or Corner-Teeth. To begin therefore to know the Age of a Horfe
exadly by the Teeth, it will be neceffary to keep in your Memory, two Years and a
half, three Years and a half, and four Years and a half: That is to fay, When a Horfe
hath caft but two Teeth above, and as many below, that then he hath but two Years
and a half; if he have changed four above and as many below, that he hath three Years
and a half; and that if he have caft all fix both above and below, which is to have them
all changed, then he has four Years and a half.
It is to be observed that the Corner-Teeth in the Upper-Gums, are caft before thefe
in the Nether; and that upon the contrary, the Tufhes grow out in the Under-Gums,
before thefe in the Upper; and oftimes Horfes are very fick when the Tufhes of the
Upper-Gums cut, but are never fo when thefe below come forth : There are alfo fome
Horfes which have no Foal-Teeth, they being already all changed, and whofe Tufhes
neverthelefs, have not, as yet, cut the Upper-Gums, although they have changed
theit.Corner-Teeth, which are there of the Fore-Teeth by which the Age of a Horfe
is beft known.
It remains now to difcourfe of the Tufhes, which are not as the other Teeth, for
they are preceded by no Foal-Teeth in the Places where they come, but grow up when
a Htorfe is about three Years and a half Old. The Obfervations which are taken from
the Tufhes, are the absolutely moft certain for the knowing of a Horfe's Age, and hall
be difcourfed of in their proper Place.
So foon as the Gatherers and Separaters have pierced or cut the Gums, they make
all their growth in fifteen Days, but the Corner-Teeth do not grow fo suddenly, yet
that doth not hinder but that at their very firft appearing and coming out, they are as
thick and broad as the other, but they are no higher than the Thicknefs of a Crown-
piece, and very fharp and hollow: It may sometimes fall out, that the Corner-Teeth
will appear almost at the fame very Time with the Tulhes, sometimes before them,
C 2 but

~^ T r Perfef Mria;ART

but mo0 frequently after; for it is moft ordinary for the Tufes to grow up before the
Corner-Teeth are caft.
I observed in Germany (the Fatigue of the War having killed a great many Horfes)
that the Horfe-Courpers did pull out their Horfes Foal-Teeth at three Years old, to
force i4ature to produce fooner Teeth of a bigger fize; and because a Horfe of three
Years is not fit for the Wars, and only begins to be ferviceable at four or five ; they,
that they might the better fell or put them off, made ufe of this Trick and Cunning to
make them appear of the Age,of four or five, which is an Age in which the German
Horfes are as good and capable to ferve, as if they were full eight; but it is not the
fame in France, for the Horfes- there of four Years old are but very unfit for the
It is very rare to find a Mare which hath Tufhes, and when they have them they are
a great deal smaller than thofe in Horfes, and are no ways ufeful for the knowing of
their Age: There are alfo fome People who lefs elteem fuch Mares as have them, and
I am alfo of their Opinion.
Horfes which have been accustomed to eat Oats or Straw when very young, that is,
at two Years or two Year and an half old, appear, by the Teeth, to be elder than real-
ly they are; for besides rfat it maketh them fooner to change their Foal-Teeth, it alfo
very much ufeth and weareth thofe which come in their Places, by which means the
Mark is fooner worn out, as I hall fhew you hereafter.
When a Horfe hath no more Foal-Teeth, and that his Outward or Corner-Teeth
begin only to appear, he is then irr his fifth Year; that is, he is about four Years and
an half, and is feeding; or, as we fay, going in his fifth: For it is a common Way of
Expreffing ones felf, and understood by all, That until the Inner-fide of a Horfe's Cor-
ner-Teeth be as high as the Outward, he is ftill but five Years old, as I hall afterward
So foon as the Corner-Teeth come forth, they appear to be only of equal height with
the Gums; after which they grow by degrees; and at. full 'five they are above the
Gums, as I fall explain: Nowthe Difference between thofe Teeth, and the others
which are next to them, is, That they are fharp upon the Out-fide, and the Inward-
part as yet full of Flefh ; and then proportionably as they grow the Flefh within dif-
appeareth, and there remaineth in. the Place of it a Hollow over all the Inward-part
of the Teeth, which, as yet, are not fiat in the Top; that is, they are not fo high
upon the Infide as upon the Out, which they will come to be, about a Year after they
have cut and appeared.
I fall repeat it again, that I may be the better understood. So foon then as a Horfe
puts forth his Corner-Teeth, they are only of equal height with the Gums upon the
Out-fide, and the In-fide of them is filled with Flefh until he be near five: So when a
Horfe hath put forth his Corner-Teeth, and that they are as yet filled with Flefh, you
may confidently affirm that he is not as yet five, because at five Years old, the Flefh
which filled the infides of thefe Teeth difappears. From five to five and an half, the
Corner-Teeth remain altogether hollow in the In-fide, and that Part which was filled
with Flefh is empty, and will continue fo till five and a half: from five and a half un-
til fix,, that Hollow which is upon the Infide filleth up, the Teeth grow, and become
flat and equal on both Sides on the Top, and there remaineth but a little Cavity in the
Middle, both Edges of the Teeth being, as I faid, of an equal height: People observe
this Cavity or Mark in the very Upper-parts of thefe Teeth, which fomewhat re-
fembleth the Bud or Eye of a dry Bean, and then they fay a Horfe is entering fix; for
fo long asa Horfe's Corner-Teeth .are not fq high upon theIn- fide as upon the Out, he
is fill faid to be but five, although he be five and a half and sometimes fix.
Now,becaufe this Matter is of Confequence, you would do well to remember, that
at two.Years and a half the Gatherers are put forth, at three Years and a half the Mid-
dle-Teeth or Separaters, and at four Years and a half the Corner-Teeth, which are fil-
led upon the In-fide with Fleth, and upon the Out-fide are only about the Thicknefs of
a Crown-piece above the Gums, and fo they continue till five,; from five to five and a
half, the Flefh difappears and the Teeth remain hollow, that is, the Inner-edge is not
fo high as the Outward, which at:that Time will be about the Thicknefs of two Crown-
pieces above the Gums; from five Years and a haaf to fix, that hollow diminilheth, and
the Teeth at fix are level and equal upon the Top, that is, have their In-tides as high
as their Outward, and there re~aineth only little Hollow r black (peck in the Mid-
dle, which, as I faidj.refembeIth the Bud or;-Eye ofadry Bean, andthen the.Teeth
are above the Gums about the Breadth of:one's little Finger: Thus have you the Age

C A P. V. Or, Compleat Farrier. 2

of a Horfe very diftindly explained until he be fix Years old, and perhaps a little too
After a Horfe hath come to this Age, People look only to the Corner-Teeth, the
Separaters, and Tufhes, to know if he have Mark ; because the firft Teeth which grow
up, after a Horfe cafteth his Foal-Teeth, are theGatherers; and as they are firft put
forth, fo the Mark doth firft wear out of them; after them do the Separaters grow up,
and they alfo by degrees lofe their Mark; and lal~ of all are the Corner-Teeth put forth,
and it is only spon them which People look, to know if a Horfe hath, as yet, his Mark,
for in the reft there is but very little to look to, unlefs that the Horfe were naturally
Hollow or ShellTooth'd, which I hall explain hereafter.
A Horfe is faid to have Mark, when his,Corner-Teeth are a little hollow and black in
the Middle yet, to be black is not enough, for they muft alfo have a little Hollow in
the Middle, about the Breadth of the Thicknefs of a Farthing, and the black Speck
muft be in the Bottom of it.
A Horfe of fix Years old market after the Manner I have fhewn you, and the afore-
faid Corner-Teeth are above the Gams about the Thicknefs of one's little Finger; in
fome a little more, but not much.
I fay, at fltl fix a Horfe will have his Corner-Teeth the Breadth of one's little Finger
above his Gums, and the black and hollow Part of his Teeth will be diminiifhed, but
then his Tuhles will be at their full length ; at even Years old his Corner-Teeth will
be yet longer, as about the Thicknefs of the Second, or Ring-finger, and the Hollow
almost quite worn out and gone.
At eight Years old the Horfe will have Razed, that is, none of his Teeth will have
any hollow in them, but be flat quite over, which we call Razed, and then they will
have of height, about the Thicknefs of the middle Finger above the Gums; you muft
then after that a Horfe hath put forth his Corner-Teeth, consider well the Height they
have above his Gums, besides the little black Cavity that should be always in the Middle
of them, that fo you may the better judge of his Age, and you fhalt make your Obfer-
vation after this manner following.
From four Years old and a half until five, the Corner-Teeth will be above the Gums
about the Thicknefs of a Crown-piece; from five to five and a half, about the Thick-
nefs of two Crown-pieces and at fix Years old the Breadth of one's little Finger; at
even Years the Breadth ofone's ring Finger, and at eight the Thicknefs of one's mid-
die Finger : Thofe different Heights are thus diftinguifhed, to be in place of a local
Memory to thofe who intend to be inftrufted. When I fay Height or Thitknefs, I
mean the Length of the Teeth; and when I mention Fingers, I understand thofe of a
Man's Hand who is of an ordinary Stature.
Now perhaps fome Pretender or half-skilful Perfon will fay, That there are here a
great many Repetitions of one and the fame Thing, and that it had been enough to have
mentioned each Particular but once: That to know the Age is no fuch difficult Matter,
as that it should be needful fo frequently to repeat the Particulars of it: But I muft an-
fwer this Dodor or Teacher, that it is not for him I have writ; and, that whoever
readeth this with a Defign to profit by it, will be fo far from finding fault with Repe-
titions, that, upon the contrary, they will be rather a fatisfa&ion to him, and that
whereby he will be the better inftrufted and cleared.
It is a common received Opinion amongft moft People, that Horfes raze, or abfolute-
ly lofe their Mark at eight Years old ; but I have feen a great many which had not razed
even at nine, who, according to that ordinary Obfervation, would have paffed but
for Horfes of even ; but that is of fmall confequence, provided they be thought young;
for the Age or Youth of Horfes confifts much in Fancy, although in France their being
young maketh'a Part of their Value and Price ; and yet when they are above eight, they
are in their full Strength and Beauty, and fit for any Service, but feldom before they
arrive at that Age, especially the Horfes of Brefs, Auvergne, and Limofin, fo that it is
at that Age in which *Horfes begin toibe ferviceable and good (provided they have
not been over-rid and fpoilt in their youth) that the French reject and will have none
of them.
As to Horfks designed for the Manage or Wars, they donot fo much consider their Age
as to make it agent or diminifh their Prices, because it.requireth a good deal of Time
to render avHorfe adroit, fupple, and.eafy ; especially if they do not efolve to fpoil
him in dreU~ig, but to preserve his Gentlenefs; fpr it is rare to find Horfes of fix
Years old brought fuch a length, and fo confirmed in their Leffons, as to be fit to give
fatisfadion in the Manage, or be ferviceable in the Wars: Therefore although Horfes

22 The Perfeti MarJhal; PAR

are eight, nine, yea, ten Years of Age; yet, if they have all the Qualities of good
and ready Horfes, People do not ftand or fcruple at their having no Mark, but pay
very dear for them, without making their Value any ways confift in their being only
fix Years old, as is done in Runners and other Horfes.
Besides, according to the Calculation of the French, Who efteem none but thofe of fix,
a Horfe will be only good for the face of one or two Years; consider then if it be not
ridiculous, to fubmit to an Opinion fupported by fo bad a Foundation as that is, of on-
ly efteeming a Horfe for the Space of one or two Years: At that rate, good- buy to all
the Horfes of Brefs, Auvergne, Limefin, and others, which are not at their very belt
till full eight; for should we only efteem thefe Horfes at fix Years old, we should ne-
ver find a good One ; and can People be guilty of a greater Folly, than never to desire
Horfes but when they are worth nothing, and to put them off When they are beginning
to prove good and ferviceable.
It is therefore a very great Overfight fo to tie up one's felf, as never to buy any but
young Horfes for present Service; for besides that their being young adds to their
Price,and although that they may be fo Ihaped,as one may juftly expe& they will be long
ferviceable without being fpoilt, yet we fee many of them whofe Legs are quite ruined
and gone with one Year's Fatigue, whofe Hammes become fo weak that they can endure
no Travel, and who at laft grow even blind although they have had very good Eyes
when firft bought; fo that a Man when he cometh to part with them, either absolutely
lofeth them, or at leaft a considerable Part of the Price they flood him in : But when
a Man buyeth Horfes of nine or ten Years of Age that are not fpoilt, and which have
good Limbs, with their Flanks and other Parts proportionable, then he is certain,
feeing thofe Parts have been fo long right preferred, that they are found and will laft
a long Time, especially being at their full Goodnefs and Vigour; and that which I like
beft in fuch Horfes, is, That they are bought at a third, nay half the Rate of young
Horfes, and alfo often times laft longer, fo that the Hazard is not fo great as in buy-
ing of young Horfes, from whom you fuffer all the Inconveniencies and bad Service to
which their younger Years are fubjet, besides your being very uncertain how they will
at laft prove and fncceed. However, feeing that it is into this Snare and Miftake that
all fuch Perfons who have but little Skill do easily fall, I am satisfied that they buy
firft young Horfes, and at a great Rate, that they keep them but a Year, and then
lofe half if not their whole Price, because they like this Method beft, their Fancy lead-
ing them to it; for after what I have faid, I leave every Man to follow his own Hu-
mour and Fancy.
I mutt likewise tell you, that it is quite contrary in Horfes as it is with Men : Young
People labour and endure fatigue incomparably better than,pld : Horfes again, toil
better when they are old than young. Men, when young, eat and fleep better than
when they are aged, but Horfes on the contrary, eat a great deal more when a little
aged, and alfo reft better. Finally, People may lay their Account with this, That
the greatest Fatiguesof War are always performed by Horfes of a middle Age, and.
that but few die of old Age in a Campaign, but mostly by Accidents which might alfo
have befallen thofe that are young.
It is to be obferved, that the Teeth wear, and are ufed upon the Upper-Parts where,
the Mark is, which is, as I have faid, that black Cavity in the middle of them ; because
it is that Part of the Teeth, which is moft made ufe of, for with it the Horfe cuts his
Grafs, and draws his Provender, or Hay and Straw from the Rack; yet, nothwith-
ftanding of that, they do not forbear to grow infenfibly; and as the Gums, through
Time, become lean, fo they make the Teeth to appear long; and it is certain that
fo much the longer a Horfe's Teeth are, he is Itill fo much the elder: They alfo about
that Age contra& a great deal of Naftinefs and Ruft upon them, and become yellow :
There are, however, fome old Horfes which have very white and fhort Teeth; Peo-
ple fay of fuch, that they have a good Mouth considering their Age. It is alfo worth
noting, that fome Horfes will have a black Speck in their Teeth, resembling the true
Mark, a long Time after they are paft Eight or Nine, but then it is not hollow ; there'-
fore People Ihould not lay any ftrefs upon it, although the Horfe-Courfers may war-
rant it for a true Mark, affirming that they have not counterfeited it, but that it is al-
together natural: However, albeit it be not artificial, yet I fay People should lay no
hold upon it; for although old Horfes have sometimes that black Speck without any
Cavity, and alfo that it be natural, yet it does no ways relate to their Age, and they
are never a whit the younger for it.


CH A P. VI. Or, Compleat Farrier. 23


How to know the Age of a Horfe, which is either paft Mark, Shell,
or Hollow-Tooth'd, or even Counter-Marked ; that is, whofe Mark
is artificially counterfeit.

I Have fufficiently explained how a Horfe's Age is to be known by the Teeth which
mark; I muft now consider fome other Obfervations, which I hall explain as di-
ftinaly as poffible: And if I have been a little too prolix upon this Matter, perhaps it
will not be the worfe for the Reader.
So foon as a Horfe hath razed, which the Italians call Cavallo Serrado, a Man cannot
judge of his Age but by the Length of his Fore-Teeth, or Tufhes: And firft by the
Tufhes which are in his Upper-Jaw, which are almost opposite to thofe below; you
muft feel them with your Finger, and if they be quite worn and equal with the Palate,
the Horfe is then at leaft ten Years old; however, this Obfervation is not fo certain,
but that it sometimes faileth, especially if the Horfe, when young, hath carried a big.
ger-mouth'd Bitt than was proper for him, which, in a little Time, may have worn and
confum'd his Tufhes ; yet I have found it fail but very feldom.
People alfo draw a very good Obfervation from the Under-Tufhes; for young Hor-
fes have them always fharp and pointed, pretty long, somewhat edged upon both
fides, and without any Kind of Ruft, Scales, or Naftinefs upon them; but as they be-
come aged their Tufhes grow very big and blunt, become round and fcaly, and in ve-
ry old Horfes they grow extremely thick and round, and, at laft, appear altogether
worn out and yellow.
The Upper-Tuffhes do alfo difcover a Horfe's Youth ; for if a Horfe be but fix, the
Upper-Tufhes will be a little channel'd, or somewhat hollow'd and groov'd upon the
Infides; and when he is above fix, they fill up and become as it were a little round in
the In-fides; this Obfervation is fo good, that it never or but very rarely faileth.
A Man should therefore make it his Bufinefs to understand the Tufhes, for they are
absolutely the moft certain Marks whereby to know a Horfe's Age ; and by them, with
the Afliftance of the Corner-Teeth, a Man will hardly fail to judge pretty near of a
Horfe's Age.
The Fore-Teeth and Tufhes are the fureft Marks whereby a Horfe's Age is known;
yet, a Man may know if a Horfe be very old, by lifting up his Upper-Lip; for if the
Upper-Teeth be exceflive long, it is a Token of very great Age: It may be alfo ob-
ferved at the fame time, if they be wafted and worn in the Middle, which if they are,
will be a Sign that the Horfe is fubje& to the 7ick, which is an Imperfection that cannot
be exaaly discovered without feeing him eat, See Chap. 25. of this Part; yet if a Man
perceive a Horfe's Gatherers to be worn, and the other Teeth upon each fide of them
somewhat longer than they, then he may affluredly conclude that he is a kicker and
very old.
All other Marks are, for the moft Part, uncertain ; as to have recourfe to the Joints
of the Tail, to the Folds of the Under-Lip, and other different Obfervations, in which
I never found any great Certainty. As for Example: There cometh forth a Knot or
Joint in the upper Part of a Horfe's Rump when he is between ten and twelve, a second
when he is fourteen: People perceive thefe Knots or Joints by paiting their Hand along
the Horfe's Rump, from the very Onfet of it, or that Part where the Crupper of the
Saddle refteth, to the lower End of it: Thofe who are fatisfied with this Mark may
make ufe of it, for my Part I efteem it very little.
As for that Knowledge which is acquired by the Under-Lip, I faw, once, a Gentle*
man hit luckily enough upon the Age by it. He did it thus: He considered how many
Plyes or Folds the Horfe had in his Under-Lip when he thruft it back, and as many
Folds as he obferved in the Lip, fo many Years old he faid the Horfe was. He who
will ftudy, and give faith to fuch a Kind of Knowledge as this, hall have full liberty
to do it.
For my own Particular, I have always recourfe to a Horfe's Legs after his Mark is
gone, to know if they be neat and good; to his Flank if it be well-truffed and not too
fuil and fwallowed-up,. but frefh and without any alteration : Alfo to his Feet, to fee
if they are not fpoil'd, and if he walk after the Manner which 1 hall hereafter explain,

24 The Perfet Marjhal; PART .

and laft of all to his Appetite: Thefe are the Tokens and Symptoms of Youth which
I tie my felf to: but as in Horfe-crkft more than in any other Affair, every Man hath
his own Humour and Thoughts, I hall here difcourfe of the mofi certain Obfervations
a Man can make ufe of, whereby to know the Age of a Horfe that is paft.Mark,
When the Pits above the Eyes are extreamly hollow, it is almoft always a certain
Token of old Age; although Horfes which are of an old Stallion's getting, havealfo
thofe Pits very deep even at four or five Years old; as alfo their Eye-lids and Eyes
wrinkled and hollow.
When that Part of the Nether Jaw-bone, which is about three or four Fingers
breadth above the Beard, and fo tipwards, is fharp and thin, that is, if in paffing the
Hand along it, it feel edged, it is a certain Sign of Age; but on the contrary, if it be
round it is a Token of Youth: It is certain, that in young Horfes, that Part of the
Nether Jaw-bone is always round, but in old Horfes fharp and edged ; fo that a Man
who is a little accustomed to it, will, before ever he open a Horfe's Mouth, judge pret-
ty near of his Age, by only feeling this Part of the Nether Jaw-bone: This is a very
good Remark.
People alfo with their two Fingers and Thumb, pull the Skin of the Nether Jaw-'
bone or Shoulder, a little to them, and if the Skin continue a long time without return-
ing again to its Place, it is a Sign, fay they, that the Horfe is 'not young, and that the
longer it is of returning the older he is: A Man should not much truft to this Obfer-
vation, because the Skin of a lean Horfe, although young, will be longer of returning
to its Place, than the Skin of an old Horfe that is fat and plump. But this Obferva-
tion following is very good: 'The P6ints of the Gatherers in the Nether-jaw, when a
Horfe growth old, ftand outwards a little; and when he is extreamly old, point al-
moft straight forwards; but when he is young thep'itand almoft straight ui, and form,
as it, were, a Hollow beneath the Tongue, fo that.they are juft equal with the outer
Edges of thefe above. It sometimes falleth out that they are the Upper-Teeth which
thus extend themselves forwards, bdt, for the moft part, it is the Under that do it;
and when a Horfe hath his Under-Teeth thus fituate, he is faid to be Sprung in the
Beak; and it is a very good Obfervation whereby to know Horfes which are extreme-
ly old.
Another certain Mark of old Age, is when a Horfe Seeleth; that is, when upon his
Eyebrows there growth about the'Breadth of a Farthing of white Hairs, mixed with
thofe of his natural Colour. A Horfe never Seeleth until he be fourteen Years old, and
always before he be fifteen or fixteen at fartheft. The light or lyard Sorrel and
Black, do fooner Seel than any other Colours: But this may be rely'd upon, That a
Horfe never Seeleth, or becometh lyard above the Eyes, until he be fourteen or fifteen
Years old.
But because it is eafy for a Man, although he have but very little Skill, to perceive
when a Horfe feeleth or is lyard above the Eyes, the Horfe-Courfers do therefore pull
out all thofe white Hairs with Pincers, being rather satisfied that their Horfes should
appear bald than peeled; and when their Horfes have fuch a Number of white Hairs,
that they cannot conveniently pull them all out without making them look ugly, they
then colour over or bedaub all their Eye-brows, that fo that Imperfefion of old Age
may not appear.
A Man may alfo judge of a Horfe's Age, by looking to his Palate, because propor-
tionably as a Horfe growth old, the Roof of his Mouth becometh leaner and drier to-
wards the Middle ; and thofe Ridges, which in the Palates of young Horfes are pretty
high and plump, do, by degrees, diminish as they increase in Age. As for Example:
At fix Years old the Palate is more flefhy, and thofe Ridges higher than at eight; and at
ten, twelve, or thirteen, they will be fill proportionably more low and lean than they
were at eight or nine, fo that at laft the Roof of the Mouth, in very old Horfes, hath no-
thing elfe upon it but Skin and Bone: This Remark is extreamly good, especially in
Mares, who have very feldom any Tufhes whereby one may know their Age.
In Spain People are more certain of the Age of Horfes; for all thofe who have good
Breeds, and among them young Horfes which they expe& will, one Day, prove good,
go to a public Notary, and there, in presence of Witneffes, receive an Atteftation of
the Age of their young Horfes or Colts, at fuch a time as it can be certainly known
which is fo long as they have their Foal-Teeth ; fo that the Notaries declare that fuch a
Horfe, of fuch a Colour, and fuch a Mark, fuch a Shape, and fuch a Breed or Race
and marked after fuch a Fafhion, was, at fuch a time, fo many Years old, and this he
figneth together with the Witneffes, and delivereth it to the Owner of the Horfe, who

C HA P. VI. Or, CompleatFarrier. 2

when he hath a design to fell him, produceth his Teftificate to prove the Horfe's Age:
If People observed this Method in France and England, there would ;not be fo many
Horfes Counter-marked, and the Tricks and Subtilties which are frequently performed
by Horfe-courfers, in the Place-Moubert and. Smirb-Field, would be of no ufe.
Gray Horfes become white proportionably as they grow old, and when they are very
aged they are white all over ;but this doth not conclude that there are no Horfes foaled
white, although but very rarely. But People know thofe which have been foaled gray,
by remarking their Extremities, as Knees and Hammes, which continue for the moif
Part fill of that Colour.
There are fome Horfes whofe Teeth continue always beautiful and white, and as
fhort as if they were but fix, although they are oftentimes more than twelve Years ;
if fuch Horfes fall into the Hands of any Rogues or Cheats, they never fail to Counter-
mark them, and fell or put them off as if they were but only fix.
To prevent therefore being impofed on after this Manner, and alfo to understand
when a Horfe is Counter-marked, you mult know, firft, That a Horfe is faid to be
Counter-marked, or to have the Mark in his Teeth counterfeit, when his Corner-Teeth
are made hollow with an ingraving Iron, and made black within, to imitate as much as
poflible the true and natural Mark: They make the Cavity or Hollow black immedi-
ately after it is made, by putting a little double Ink intoit, and there letting it dry,
which will remain fo long as the Teeth continue hollow. Thofe who are more cunning
and dextrous, with a red-hot Iron burn a Grain of Rye in the Hollows of the Teeth,
which maketh them perfealy black, for there proceedethfrom the Rye a Kind of Oyl,
which, by the Help of the Burning, cleaveth' extremely clofe and falt to the Hollows of
tle Teeth which are newly cut. There are other Methods of counterfeiting a Horfe's
iMark, but as it is below a Man of Honour to pradife any of them, to is it enough that
I have faid as much of them, as may prevent your being deceived, when you hall meet
with any which are fo.
You will know when a Horfe is Counter-marked, by looking to the Hollows of his
Teeth, which will never fo very exactly resemble the natural Mark, but with a little
Pra&ice the Cheat may be discovered: Befides, the Graver maketh sometimes little
Slips which fcratch the other Parts of the Teeth, because the Horfe doth sometimes ftir
and move, and is not fo very quiet as he ought: The Teeth are,alfo hard, which ma-
keth the Operator's Hand unfleddy, and fo is the Occafion of thofe irregular Scratches:
When a Man perceives fuch Scratches upon the Out-fides.of the Hollows of the Teeth,
then is the Horfe Counter-marked. Moreover the Upper-Tufhes should be considered,
which should be groov'd, that is, that upon the In-fides of them from the very Palate
to their Points, they should be hollow, and that until the Horfe be even Years old.
Besides, when a Horfe is old, the Upper-Teeth will be too long,. over-paffing thefe
below, and yellow; the low Part of the Nether Jaw-bone fharp and edged, the Un-
der-Tufhes worn, big and fcaly ; whereas if he were but fix, the Under-Tufhes would
be fmall, pointed, and pretty fharp upon both the Edges.
If a Horfe, which appears Marked, have alfo many other Signs and Tokens of old
Age, it is very probable that he is Counter-marked: You will alfo know if he be fo,
because the falfe Mark is never fo exadly Counterfeit, but with a little Experience you
will come to know its very Shape: Befides, that the Teeth will be oftentimes longer
than they should, and the artificial Hollow a great deal blacker than the Natural. It
requireth, indeed, a little Praaice to difcover exaaly when a Horfe is Counter-marked;
and alfo a Man muft have observed well, how a Horfe is marked with the true and na-
tural Mark, and how he hath his Teeth placed and framed ; after which, he will very
rarely be miftaken or deceived by the falfe One.
To believe that People file or faw a Horfe's Teeth to make them fhort, is what I
could never, as yet, fee fucceed, although I have ufed all diligence imaginable to in-
form my felf if it was pradicable: It is true, fome do it to Men, but I never knew
any who fuccefsfully tried it upon Horfes ; for it is certain, that People never Counter-
mark any Horfes, but fu'ch whofe Teeth appear beautiful and young, that is, thort
and white; and all thofe who have attempted to faw a Horfe's Teeth, thereby to fhorten
them, meet but with a great deal of Trouble and Vexation; neither do I believe that
ever any Man made twice Trial of it in his Life-time: For if People should only file or
faw the Under-Teeth, which are thofe at which People look to know the Age, then
thofe above will be observed to be longer than thofe which have been fhortned; and if
the Teeth both above and below be fhortned, it willfall out, that the Jaw-Teeth or
Grinders being at their full length, will join, and fo hinder the upper and lower Teeth,
D which

26 The Perfef Ma rha; PART I.

which were fhortned, to clofe upon each other, which will manifeftly difcover the
Cheat; for the Horfe's Mouth being fhut, the Fore-Teeth will be at as great a distance
from each other, as that length is which was taken from them: Befides, thofe Horfes
upon whom this Operation is performed, are a long Time without being i' a condi-
tion to chew their Meat with any tolerable eafe, because of the Strefs they hae receiv-
ed by the filing; neithercan they draw their Hay or Straw from the Rack, (ecaufe of
the Diftance which is between their lower and upper Teeth.
Horfes whofe Teeth have been fhortned, are eafily known, not only by what I have
faid, butalfo by their Tufhes, which will not be fo fafhion'd and fhap'd, as I hrve dif-
cover'd they should be in young Horfes; therefore, I advife no Man to try it not
only because it will prove prejudicial to the Horfe, but alfo because fuch Kim of
Tricks, or whatever you call them, are, in Truth, below a Man of any Ingenuity
or Candour.
There are fome Horfes which have their Teeth very long, and yet have a black Speck
in the Middle of them; fuch Horfes are faid to be Shell-Tooth'd, id French Begutr,
and they have that Mark all their Life, at leaft a great Part of it : Geldings are more
fubje& to this of being Shell-Tooth'd than Ston'd-Horfes, but Mares more than either.
Moft Part of the Hungarian, Polonian, Croate, and 7ranfilvanian Horfes which I have
feen, were thus Shell-Tooth'd.
It is eafily known when a Horfe isfo,becaufe heappeareth to have Mark in all the other
Fore-Teeth as well as in the Corner; that is, both in the Separaters and Gatherers ;
and therefore to know his Age, the fame Methods muft be taken as to know the Age
of a Horfe which is Counter-marked, fuch as the Length of his Teeth, worn Tufhes,
fharp and edged Nether Jaw-bones, and federal other which I have before fet down.
Horfes put forth their Gatherers, when about thirty Months old ; after which, the
Marks which were in them, begin to wear: When the Separaters come forth, the Marks
which were in the Gatherers are half worn out; and then at fix Years old they quite
difppear, fo afterwards a Horfe hath no more Mark in them: Thofe again next to them
called Separaters, have, about that Time, or when the Horfe is fix, the Marks which
are in them, half worn out; 'but in Horfes which are Shell-Tooth'd, the Mark never
almost weareth out or difappeareth, but remaineth in them, as it alfo doth in the Ga-
therers and Corners, which is the Reafon that People, when they perceive a Horfe to
have Mark in the Gatherers as well as in the other Fore-Teeth, do conclude, that he
is Shell-Tooth'd and with fo much the more certainty, if he have alfo with it very
long Teeth, and of a greater growth than they should be at fix ; with other Obferva-
tions which I have already given you.
It is certain that fhell-tooth'd Hotfes have been, once in their Life-time, only five or
fix Years old, and that at the faid Age of five or fix they have had their Mark true and
good, although it appeared equally in all their Fore-Teeth at one and the fame Time;
and therefore in that cafe it would be a great overnight, to conclude them old, because
they are Shell-Tooth'd, especially when other Tokens of Youth are discovered in them
fuch as fhort Teeth, fmall and fharp Tufhes, &c. for it is to thofe that a Man muft chief-
ly take notice, before he pronounce his Opinion.
Neither doth this conclude but that there are fome Ihell-tooth'd Horfes which, al-
though they have Mark all their Life-time, yet have it not in all their Teeth; but in
fuch Horfes the Age is alfo known by the Length of the Teeth, Tufhes, and other Signs
of old Age which I have already mentioned.
I am apt to believe, thatif a Man apply himself to consider all I have faid, concern-
ing the Knowledge of a Horfe's Age, and that he alfo put it in pra&ice, by taking care
to look at a great many Horfes Mouths, and obferve the Differences amongft them ;
I fay, without doubt, he fall never be deceived : But above all, he muft make it his
Bufinefs to know when the Legs are good, the Feet found, the Flank right; for if he
think that this Knowledge can be acquired by the simple reading over of this Book, it is
what will deceive him, because it is only Cuftom and Experience that can confirm him
in it.
Several Petfons have thought it ftrange, that after the reading of this Book over and
over, they did not find themselves skilful, especially as to the Knowledge of a Horfe's
Age; fo that if they had not frequently heard the Book commended, they acknowledg-
ed they would have condemned it, for not being diftin&tenough in its Dire&ions be-
caufe they succeeded to ill with them : I do therefore, with a great deal of Ingenuity
and Sincerity declare to fuch Gentlemen, that the Knowledge of Horfes is not acquired
by simple reading. One, it's tre, muft understand the Theory, but he muft put in

CHA P. VI. Or, Compleat Farrier. 27

Practice what he hath read, go vilit Horfes, examine all the different Circumftances,
and earnestly apply himself to it until he firft understand it, and then be Matter of it i
The moft common Sciences are not acquired by one tingle reading, they mult be studied
and carefully considered; and far more this I am treating of, which is more Pradical
than Speculative: For if you do not pradife, and by Vour own Judgment join the fpe-
culative Part to the Pratical, you will, but in vain make ufe of this Book; and I fay
not only this Book, but the very Belt that can poffibly be compiled on this Subjed. If,
therefore, thofe Gentlemen, do not become knowing and skilfill by meer reading with-
out pradice, let them only blame themselves, feeing if they be interrogated upon any
of the DefeAs or Difeafes which are specified in the Book, they can give no reasonable
Account of any of them: For firft of all, the Senfe and Meaning muft be well under-
ftood, and then fixed in the Memory, and made fo very familiar, that fo foon as any
Difeafeor Imperfetion is named, a Man may be able to give, immediately, the Difini-
tion of it, and tell in what Part of the Body it cometh, and afterwards put what relat-
eth to it in pra&ice: So here are three Things required in a Man to be skilful, to com-
preherd or understand, to learn or to have the chief Things relating to the Difeafe fixt
in his Memory, and to pradife; for without this Pradice, a common Stable-boy will
let you know, that he is more skilful than you.
Having explained every Thing which relateth to the Age, we mufft now consider the
other Faults and Imperfetions to which Horfes are fubjea. I fuppofe a Man hath
made himself as much Mafter of the Knowledge of a Horfe's Age as poffible; let him
therefore fhut his Mouth, and look after his other Imperfeaions, holding this always
for an infallible Maxim, That when once you find a Fault, you muft apply your felf
with all poffible Attention to discover it to the very Bottom ; and having fo discovered
it, think no more on't, but go to another, and proceed thus orderly from one Imper-
fecion to another. I give not thefe Diretions to fuch Perfpns as are skilful, and who,
in the Twinkling of an Eye, can discover every Fault, and who, fo foon as they look oa
a Horfe, if there be any Thing wrong about him, it is the very firft Thing that com-
eth in their View, fo that it would feem their Eyes could look to nothing elfe but that
Fault; but it is not thus with thefe Novices for whom I write, for they muft have
more Time to examine one Horfe, and go over him from Head to Foot, than a know-
ing Perfon will take to consider Four ; for it is enough for him only to look on a
Horfe, and walk gently about him, and in that fhort Time he will perceive all that
can be feen.


Of the Knowledge of the Eyes.

Fter having known a Horfe's Age, you muft consider his Eyes, the perfed Know-
ledge of which is difficult enough, and requireth a very long and affiduous Pra-
ctice, without being discouraged. At firft when one looketh to the Eyes, the Good
and Bid appear alike: But if you perfift to look to, and consider them attentively, you
will difcover the third Time what you did not perceive the firit, and the twentieth
Time, what you have not, as yet, been fenfible of: And finally, by the Cuftom and
Pradice of looking to them, a Man's Eyes, as one would think, are opened; fo that
he perceives and fees diftindly, what at the Beginning appeared to him Darknefs and
obfcurity ; therefore do not difquiet your felf, but perfift continually to look to them,
add I affure you you hall fucceed. That Eyes may be exadly well perceived, the Horfe
mufft be-right fituate: The Eyes are perceived with a great deal of more eafe, when a
Horfe is taken from a dark Place to another which is very light. For Example: In
coming out of the Stable, and juft as his Head is without the Door, you may then
look to his Eyes and consider them, not by looking as it were straight upon them,
bat a little a-fquint; for looking thus flopeways to them, you will perceive them to the
very Ground or Bottom.
But if you be in the open Fields upon a March, or in a public Market-place or Fair,
it is very difficult to perceive Eyes in the Sun-ihine ; therefore you muft always take
the Horfc to a Shade, and alfo that you may the better difcern them, place your Hand
Dza 2 above

28 The PerfeEf Marjhal; PART I

above his Eye to keep away the too great Light, for in the Sun all Eyes appear to be
better than really they are.
Any Man who hath an Inclination to know, and judge truly of a Horfe's Eyes, let
him firft consider them at Night in the Stable, by the Light of a very fmall Wax-candle
or Bugie, and there he will perceive the Ground of the Eye to the very leaft Tath, but
then the Horfe's Eye muft be placed between you arid the Bugie or Candle, and when
once you come to know and understand them well by the Bugie, you will difcern
and diftinguifh them with the more eafe.in the Day-time: Yet, although a Man
may fancy that he perceives and knows the Eyes very well with a Candle or Bugie, I
would not adventure to buy a Horfe upon that Obfervation, because I might be deceiv-
ed by it; therefore I do not thew you this Method, as one by which you may certainly
know the Eyes of a Horfe, but only as a Help for your more eafily coming to under-
Rtand them.
A Man may quickly know to place a Horfe right, that fo he may obferve his Eyes,
if he but reflect, that when he is upon his Back and flooping a little forwards with his
Body, he will perceive them very well, but he will yet perceive them better, being on
Foot and landing before him.
Having placed the Horfe right, that fo you may conveniently perceive his Eyes, we
fhall next confided its Parts, Qui bene diflinguit bene docet; and to fhun Confufion, I fay
there are two Parts to be chiefly considered in the Eyes; to wit, the Cryftal and the
Bottom or Ground of the Eye. The Cryftal is that Roundnefs of the Eye which ap-
peareth at firft view, being the mof tranfparent Part of it, and should, for clearnefs,
refemble a Piece of Rock-Cryftal, to that one may fee clearly thorough it; neither
should it be covered with any Cloud, Obfcurity, Spot, or Whitenefs, because if the
Cryftal appear obfcure and troubled, to that you cannot fee through it, it is a Sign that
the Eye is not good; the Iye should have alfo no white Circle about it, yet there are
Horfes who have this Circle and have alfo very good Eyes, but, however, it were ra-
ther to be wished that they wanted it. Now, upon the exa& confederation of the Cry-
ftal does the Knowledge of the Eyes depend ; you are therefore to ufe your utmoft En-
deavours to know certainly if it be exaaly tranfparent; and although perhaps at firft
view you cannot come to know it, yet you are not to be concerned at it, but ftill to
continue looking until you have acquired the perfe& Knowledge of it, for by degrees
your Eyes will be opened, and you will perceive it diftinaly : That which is the Caufe
why many People arrive not at the true Knowledge of the Eyes, is, because they are
at the very firft discouraged, and fay, I can perceive nothing in fuch and fuch Eyes,
for the Good and Bad appear to me alike: But I muft tell you, that although you should
be ten or fifteen Days without making any diffi.nion, and that they should all appear
alike to you, yet do not give it over, but continue to consider them with Care and At-
tention, and at laft you will gain your'Point.
A Horfe may have upon his Eye, that is, upon the Cryftal of it, a Whiteners which
may have proceeded from, and be the Remainder of fome Stroke, and which yet will
not make him blind, but there is required fome Experience to difcern it ; yet not to
much neither to difcover it, for it is very eafily perceived, as to know exa&ly if that
Whitenefs will prove prejudicial or not to his Sight: To Novices every Thing caufeth
Fear, and oftentimes a fmall Evil appeareth to them a confiderableFault,when a greater
Imperfe&ion is paffed over without taking notice of it ; fuch Novices, in refpe& to
their Knowledge in Horfes, are called but Half-skill'd, who being too nice and criti-
cal in their Obfervations of Horfes, render themselves incapable of buying any at all,
for they would have the whole Shapes of a Horfe at fifty Crowns, to be as exa& and
perfe& as if he were worth fifty Piftoles, without ever refle&ing that there are Mer-
cliandizes at all Rates, and that without an effential Fault, they should not reftriA
themselves to fuch Particularities, especially in Horfes of a fmall value.
A reddilh Cryftal is a bad Symptom, being a Sign that the Eye is either inflamed,
or that it is influenced by the Moon.
A Cryftal that is Feuille-mort, or of the Colour of a dead Leaf upon the lower Part,
and troubled upon the Upper, is an infallible Mark that the Horfe is Lunatick but it
continueth no longer but while the Humour doth a&ually poflefs the Eye, for the De-
fluxion being once over, the Feuille-mor Colour doth alfo immediately disappear: There-
fore, in Horfes which are Lunatick, it is in vain to look for this Mark when the Humour
and ,efluxion is not upon the Eye; now you hall know when the Defluxion is upon it,
by the Eye being swelled, and emitting a great deal of hot Water or Humour: This
Infrmity is of fuch confequence, that the Horfe will become blind of that Eye which


C HA P. VII. Or, Compleat Farrier. 29

was influenced by the Moon, and alfo of both, if the Moon do influence and govern
both. This Mark of the Eyes being of a Feuille-mort Colour, and Reddifh, as if the
Eye were full of bloody Water, is one of the moft certain whereby to know when a
Horfe is Lunatick; but obferve, it is only fo when the Defluxion hath fallen down, and
then the Horfe feeth none with that Eye upon which the Defluxion is. But to know a
Lunatick-Eye, when the Defluxion is not actually upon it, consider, that if only one
of the Eves be fibje& to it, then it will appear lefs than the other, the Cryftal of ic
will be alfo troubled, and the Bottom or Ground of the Eye, black and brownifh ; but
the Moon in. the Eyes is better known by a troubled Cryftal, than any other Mark
The second Part of the Eye which is to be. considered, is the Ground or Bottom,
which is properly the Pupil or Apple of the Eye, and should be large and full; it muft
be clearly perceived without any difficulty, that fo you may with the more Certainty
know if there be any Dragon, which is a white Spot in the Bottom of the Eve, which
maketh the Horfe blind of that Eye, or at leaft will do it in a very fhort Time. In
the Beginning a Dragon is but very finally, and appeareth to be no bigger than a Grain of
Millet-feed, but it growth to fuch a bignefs that it will cover the whole Apple of the
Eye, and alfo be irrecoverable, because there can be no Remedy applied to the Place,
or made to penetrate the Subftance of the Eye, in which the Dragon is fituate; you
muft-not therefore give Credit to fich Farriers as vaunt to have cured them, for they
are incurable, and no Man, after the firft Moment in which they were formed, hath
ever taken any of them away.
If the whole Bottom or Apple of the Eye be white, or of a transparent greenifh
White, it is a Token that it is not natural, and that Bottom or Apple of the Eye being
a little tranfparent, is that which is called in French, Vn cut de Verre, or, Bottom of a
Glafs: The Horfe perhaps, is not altogether blind with it, because he as yet feeth a
little, but I would not take him, having that Imperfeaion, but at a very ordinary
Rate. Accademy-Horfes, which are only appointed for Gentlemen to be taught up-
on, called Chevaux d' E'cole, are as ferviceable, and ride as agreeable when they have
this Imperfeaion, as if they had no fuch cut de Verre; and the Advantage is, that
their Price is fmall, and the Lofs of them but inconsiderable, if any Accident be-
fal them.
You are alfo to take notice, that if you look to a Horfe's Eyes, when opposite to a
white Wall, the Refletion of it will make the Apples of them appear whitifh, and a
little inclining to green, as if they had a cul de Verre, although they be indeed good :
When you perceive this, you muft remove your Horfe to another Place, and look to
them, and then obferve, if the Eyes have till the fame Appearance, in thefe different
Before you come to observe the other Imperfeaions of the Eyes, you muft take notice
if you can perceive diftintly, above the Bottom or Apple of the Eye, as it were, two
Grains of Chimney-foot fixed to it; for if you fee them diftin&ly, it is not only a
Mark that the Cryftal is clear and tranfparent, but that you alfo begin to know and un-
derftand the Eyes; fo that if you continue a little to make it your Bufinefs, you will,
in a fhort Time, come to underfland them perfealy : Yet although you fee exa&ly thefe
Grains, as it were, of Chimney foot, placed above the Apple of the Eye, that is not
a fufficient Evidence that the Eye is good; you muft therefore over and above perceive
exacly the Bottom of the Eye, which muft be altogether without any Spot or White-
ners, and then the Eye will be good.
Thofe who, to know well an Eye, obferve if they fee themselves exaaly represented
in it, as in a Looking-glafs, and who, if their Face appear diftindly in it, conclude,
that the Eye is good ; thefe Gentlemen, I fay, are mightily mistaken, for that Kind of
Knowledge and Obfervation is worth nothing, because a bad and troubled Eye, will
more naturally represent to them the Shadow of their Face, than a good One.
You-are alfo to consider, if an Eye which is troubled and very brown, be smaller
and lefs than the other; for if it be, it is loft without recovery, because it drieth up,
Nature being defective in that Part, which maketh it to become daily smaller, and thefe
Kind of Eyes are at firft commonly fpoilt and loft, by a great Defluxion of Humours, or
the Moon. It is alfo a great Hazard, if, through Time, a Horfe who hath loft one of
his Eyes with this Diftemper, do not alfo lofe the other: But you muft carefully.ob-
ferve, That an Eye may appear to be really lefs than the other, by fome Accident,
and yet that the Horfe will not lofe his Sight in it, neither will it be troubled or of a
brownifh Colour. For Example: The Eye-lid may have been cut or rent by a Bite or

o The Perfed Marflal; PART I.

Stroke, and the Body of the Eye not at all damaged; fo that the Wound of the Eye-
lid coming to be heal'd up, or join again, it may remain a little ftraiter than before,
which will caufe the Body of the Eye to feem smaller and lefs than the other, although
it be really not fo, but only in outward Appearance, which I have known many
times to fall out.
There are a great many more general Obfervations which may be given for know-
ing Eyes. For Example: The Walk or Step of a blind Horfe is always uncertain and
unequal, not daring to fet down his Feet boldly when he is led in one's Hand :. But a-
gain, if the fame Horfe be mounted by a vigorous Horfeman, and that alfo the Horfe
of himself be mettled, then the Fear of the Spurs will make him ride refolutely and
freely, fo that his blindnefs hall hardly be perceived.
Another Mark, whereby a Horfe which is absolutely blind, may be known, is, that
when he hears any enter into the Stable, he will prick up his Ears and move them back-
wards and forwards, which is a certain Sign he hath altogether loft his Sight: The
Reafon of it is, because a vigorous Horfe, who hath this Infirmity, miftrufteth every
Thing, and is continually in Alarm by the leaft Noife that he heareth, which is eafily
discovered by this Motion of his Ears. A Man muft be a hundred times lefs than half-
skilled, to ftand in need of fuch common Obfervations; because Eyes that have loft
the Faculty of Seeing, are fo very eafy to be known, that they are immediately difco-
vered without having great Experience.
The Variety and Diverfity of Colours, are alfo Means whereby to know and judge if
the Eyes be good or bad. Thofe Colours which are moft fubjeA to have bad Eyes, are
the very Dark-gray, the Flea-bitten, the White-fpotted, and Colour of a Peach-blof-
fom, which are all but different Kinds of Gray, and alfo the Roan oftentimes: I had
almost forgot to tell you, that weeping Eyes, and thofe which are fwelled in the un-
der Parts, either the One or Other, is a Mark that the Horfe is troubled with a De-
fluxion of Humours; if it be aauelly upon the Eye, you need but put your Hand up-
on it, and you will find the Part very hot, and as it were inflamed, although the fame
Kind of Heat miy alfo proceed from a Stroke or Bite, which give the very fame Sym-
'ptoms as a Defluxion; but in cafe of fuch an Uncertainty,. from whatever Caufe the
Swelling may proceed, I would not advife you to take the Horfes, unlefs the Owner
of him Warrant, and pafs his Word before Witnefles, that his Eyes are good.
When Horfes have either the true or falfe Strangle, or are putting forth their Teeth,
that is, when they either change their Foal-Teeth, or are putting out their upper
Tuihes, fome of them have their Sight at fuch times weak and troubled, fo that a Man
would judge them blind, and sometimes they do really become fo; but in others again,
fo foon as the Strangle or Gourme is gone, or the Teeth grown up, the Sight recovers
and becometh more clear ; this Weaknefs of Sight which proceedeth from the Chang.
ing of Teeth, falleth out more frequently in Time of cafting the Corner-Teeth, than
Sany of the reft.
I have often feen Horfes, who for having caft their Gourme or"Strangle imperfealy,
have become blind ; but they were either Spanij Horfes, Barbs, or other Southern-Coun-
try Horfes.
There are fome People who, to know if a Horfe's Eyes be good or bad, pafs their
Hand or Finger before them, and if the Horfe move his Eye-lids, or wink and fhut
them, then they efteem them good ; but if he keep them Rill open, then they fay he
hath loft his Sight and is blind. Others again, make a Motion with their Finger, as if
they would thruft it into the Horfe's Eye, and obferve, if this Motion of their Fingers
makes him fhut it. Whenever you perceive a Perfitn make fuch Grimaces as thefe, you
may aflure your felf he knows not what he would be at, and that he understands nothing
of what he pretends to.
This Remark did once occaflon a Reproach to me, from a Perfon who told me, that
not being willing to pafs his Hand before a Horfe's Eyes (leaft the Spedators should
think him unskilful) he had trucked or fwapped for one which was almost blind: I
told him it was not this Remark of mine which was the Caufe of it, but his little Know-
ledge, and great Vanity, to be esteemed and pafs for what he really was not; for al-
though he had paffed his Hand before the -Horfe's Eyes, he would have been never a
whit the lefs deceived; I therefore advifed him to take better notice in Time coming,
and "to blame himself, and not my Book, as the Caufe of his being impofed upon, in
fo far as he was ignorant of the Knowledge of the Eyes, and yet would have made
People believe that he understood them. I alfo read this Paragragh fince, to the Per-
fon himself, who was.the Caufe of my getting it down, he profefled to me that it was

i i i i i l "- -- i in- i i I II r n .
C HA. VII. Or, Compleat Farrier. 31

very pat to the Purpofe, and fince that Time hath become pretty skilful. There are
fome People who are very indifferent whether they be really skilful or not; for, pro-
vided they can by their chat and prattling, make People believe that they are fo, they
are fatisfied : For my Part I am of another Sentiment, for I would rather be really
skilful, and appear ignorant, by which I hall come far better to my Purpofe, than if
I were esteemed skilful, and indeed were not.
Thofe who have lately begun, and even made it their fludy for fome Time, to
know and understand the Eyes of a Horfe,, having considered an Eye molt clofely,
that is, as narrowly and exaAly as they can, yet will they find out but very little, fo
difficult is the true and exa& Knowledge of the Eyes; but above all, they muit take
notice to, and beware of thofe little Eyes which are funk into the Head and very
black, and examine exa&ly if the Cryftal be clear and tranfparent, fo that they canL
fee perfe&ly through it; afterwards let them consider the Bottom of the Eye, but
especially if the Pupil or Apple be big and large : In all Eyes the finally, narrow, and
long Pupils, run a greater risk of losing the Sight than any other : If fuch little Eyes
have all thofe qualities I have named, then they are good. In the second Chapter I
mentioned a few of the Qualities required in a good Eye, which I hall not repeat in
this Place; it is where I fhew how the Parts of a Horfe should be framed, to be
well- haped.


A Continuation of the Knowledge of .the Faults and ImperfefCions in
Harfes, and what is to be observed when buying them.

T O follow that Order and Method which we have begun, a Man should, after his
knowing the Eyes, next apply himself to understand the Jaw-bones, Shoulders,
Legs, and Rake or Walk of Horfes, which is an eflential Qualification for that Service
which is juftly expeEed of them.
After having considered the Age and Eyes, you muft put your Hand between the twa
Jaw-bones near to the Horfe's Throat, to feel if there be a large enough Diftance be-
tween them, that fo the Horfe may with the mare eafe bring in and place his Head;
for that distance between the Jaw-bones being pretty large and hollow, and tapering
by degrees from the Throat to the Chin, will contribute much to the Goodnefs of the
Next you are to obferve, if there be any Swelling, Harduefs, or moving Kernel be-
tween thefe two Bones, which if the Horfe be young, will be a Sign that he hath not
as yet caft his Gourme or Strangle, or at leafl that he hath calt it but imperfeatly : If he
be more aged, provided thofe Kernels be no bigger than large Peafe, and although he
have alfo a pretty Number of them, yet they are of no Confequence,becaufe Exercife and
Sweating will difcufs them in a fhort Time : However, if the Horfe be paft fix Years
old, they are a little more to be feared, although they should not hinder you to buy
the Horfe, if he otherwise pleafe you: Such moving Kernels may proceed from either
a Rheum or Cold, or from a Remainder of the Gourme or Strangle, which may have
left thefe Swellings in that Part, by which Nature discharged her felf of her Impuri-
ties, and through which thefe bad Humours did evacuate themselves, through the Neg-
ligence and Carelefnefs of thofe Perfons, who having the Charge of fuch Horfes, did
not attempt to refolve and difcufs thefe Hardnefles and Swellings.
If there be a fixed Kernel, painful and faftned to the Jaw-bones, it is almost always
a Sign of the Glanders, especially if the Horfe be'paft even Years of Age; but if he
be notai yet fix, then it may be only the Stranglp, especially if he have no Cough with
it, for commonly a Cough is only n.effea of the Strangle: However, if there be the
left appearance of the Glanders, I would not; advice you to meddle with him, because
it is a Diffea which is very rarely cured, whatever great Secrets fo many printed
Books upon this Subjea do promife for it. A Rheum or Cold may be alfo the Caufe of
a Kerne| fixed to the Jaw-bone, after the fame manner as thofQ which proceed from
the Glanders; but then it yields to Remedies, and is difcuffed by a due Application,
yet if it be negleted, it for the molt Part tSraetli o a Glander ; The Method of re-

3ThTe Perfet Marjhal; PART I.

folviig and difcufling fuch a Kernel, will be found in the Second Part, which will al-
moft always fucceed, if there be no Principle of Putrefaaion in the Lungs, or Malig-
nity in the Caufe.
There aie fome Horfes that have big and fixed Hardneffes, which are faft'ned com-
monly upon the Infide of one of the Jaw-bones, and are no Token at all of the Glan-
ders: Thefe are Excrefcences or Figs which are of no Confequence, and are removed
firft with the Incifion- knife, and then the Roots of them are eaten away with Powders;
but the neateft Method of taking them away, is by tying them hard about.the Roots
in the Decreafe of the Moon, with a Thread of Crimfon-filk, and then anointing them
every Day with the juice of Purflane. Thefe Kind of Figs are no ways dangerous,
neither are they any Sign at all of the Horfe's having the Glanders.
Seeing I am fo far engaged in this Difcourfe of fixed Kernels, I hall tell what I faw
once befal a Horfe, who having razed and being paft nine Years old, as he was making
a Journey there grew upon one of his Jaw-bones, a large fixed Kernel; he caft at the
Nofe with it, and was judged by two Farriers in Amiens to have the Glanders, who
were each of them, according to their Teftificate, near fixty Years of Age; and al-
though the Horfe did not caft at the Nofe in any great quantity, yet, I fay, they de.
flared he had the Glanders. The Horfe was left there to reft for a little Time, and in
fifteen Days he recovered almost of his own accord, by the Affiftance only of three
Gliffers that were given him, without any other Kind of Remedy; the Kernel diffolv-
ed, he caft no more at the Nofe, and, from that Time forward, he had not the leaft
Symptom of the Glanders; no doubt the Glifters not having Strength enough of
themselves, as it is evident, to cure this Diftemper, it molt certainly was the Strength
of Nature alone which did effea this Cure; and that which made me afterwards know,
that this Kernel did only proceed from a Rheum or Cold, was, that the Diftemper fell
down upon his Legs, and caused them to well extremely.
When you perceive a Horfe to have any Kind of Kernels between his Jaw-bones,
whither fixed or loofe, you muft, with your Hand, flop the Horfe's Noftrils, to fee,
if being a pretty while without breathing through them, he will force himself to fear
when you let them go, Which if he do, you muft observe if the Noftrils run, and if
he throw out of them a Matter somewhat resembling the Glair or Whites of Eggs,
which if it be but in a fmall quantity, is not to be regarded, but if it be in a great abun-
dance and of an impoftumous-Confiftence, then is it to be feared, especially if the Mat-
ter which he cafteth be vifcous, and cleave to the Infides of the Noftrils, into which
you are alfo to look, if the Sharpnefs of the Humour hath as yet occafioned any Ulcer,
which is a certain Token of its great malignity; because, besides that it is juftly tobe
fufpe&ed that it may be the Glanders, it is alfo dangerous for the infe&ing other Hor-
fes; and especially if the Horfe hath attained to the Age of .eight Years, you are not
to venture upon him, even although that grofs and vifcous Humour should have only
proceeded from a Rheum: As alfo if you perceive a fixed Kernel, which the Horfe
cannot fuffer you to handle, because of the great Pain he endures by it, and alfo that
he cafteth only at one Noftril; or likewife if the Kernel should not be painful, yet ifit
be very hard; and although the Horfe should not be fix Years, yet if he alfo do not
Cough with it, I think in all thefe Cafes you may conclude with a great deal of Reafon
that it is the Glanders.

How to know when a Horfe's Shoulders are well #ap'd.

AFter you have considered and pafed over thofe Parts I have been difcourfing of,
you mult next come to the Shoulders: If they are large, charged with Flefh,
and round, it is a considerable Imperfe&ion in them; you will know if they are fo, rby
considering if that Part between the two Shoulder-blades, and at the very Top of
them, which is called the Withers, be very thick and broad, for then the Horfe muft
have a Saddle, wider and of a larger Turn in the Bows than ordinary. This Difcourfe
may, perhaps, feem ridiculous to many Perfons, that to a Horfe who is very broad be-
tween the Shoulders, there is required a larger Saddle than to others, because all Peo-
ple know it without being told it I but I mention it to the end you may know, that if

C H A IX. Or, Compleat Farrier.
1 -1 33
your Horfe ftand in need of a Saddle, considerably larger and wider turn'd in the Bowes
than ordinary, that then, without doubt, he is larger in the Shoulders than he ought,
and confequently charged with a great deal of more Flefh upon them than is neceffary :
You fhall alfo obferve, if from the Withers to the lower Part of the Shoulder, there
be a great deal bf Flefh; if it be of a round Form; if the Joynt at the End of the
Shoulder-blade, where the Tie or Breaft-plate refteth, be very large and more advanced
than ordinary, which is eafily known by considering the Diftance there is between the
Withers and aforefaid Joynt, now this Joynt being big and advanced, maketh a Man
immediately conclude, that the Shoulder is mifhap'd: All this which I have already
faid denotes, and is a certain Sign of the Shoulders being large and ugly, which is an
Imperfe&ion to which the Horfes bred in France, are moft commonly fubjea : But as
for Barbs and Spanijb Horfes, they are not to be thelefs efteemed although their Shoul-
ders be a little large, provided they have the other good Qualifications required in
them: Alfo I have feldom feen any Barbs or Spanijh Horfes which had large Shoulders,
but they proved always very good; however, as upon this Obfervation I would not
buy fuch of thofe Country Horfes which had large Shoulders, neither would I, uport
that Account, rejea them.
In the second Chapter of this Part, where I difcourfed of the Shapes and Beauty of
all thofe Parts which generally compofe a Horfe, I fpoke foniewhat of the Shoulders
which is very fit to be known, and therefore, to prevent Repetitions, I hall recommend
you to it.
In raking or walking a Horfe, you are to consider if his Shoulders be very glib or
moving ; because if they be large, charged with Flefh, and alfo flow, and, as it were,
ftiffin their Motion, he hall never be agreeable. If he be a Pad, he will be apt to
trip and tumble: If a Courfer or Runner, he will not keep long at it, because of the
great Trouble he findeth in galloping; and, if he be a Horfe defign'd for the Manage,
he can never fucceed in any beautiful Air, for the A&ions of his Legs will be always
conftrain'd, which is a very considerable Imperfeaion in a managed Horfe; but if his
Shoulders be too large, and yet very glib and moving, then the Defet is not fo great,
although it will be offensive and more difagreeable to fuch Spe&ators as are skilful
than any Thing elfe. On the contrary :if the H6rfe have very fmall Shoulders, and
that he cannot move them eafily, because of the great Stiffhefs and Unweildinefs he
hath in them, you are to reje& him, unlefs he be of a very moderate Price.
A Horfe which is very much charged with Shoulders, is fit for nothing but draught;
that is, either for Coach or Cart; -becaufe he will be lefs fubjet to galling and fpoiling
by the Collar and Traces of the Harnefs, than if he had nothing upon his Shoulders
but Skin and Bone, but then he will not trot fo lightly' pon Travel, and therefore
will weary fo much the fooner.
The Reafon why a Horfe, which is not free and eafy, or hath no movement in his
Shoulders, cannot travel fo agreeably but wearieth immediately, how vigorous forever
he be, is, because he maketh all the Motion with his Legs, which occasions him a great
deal of Trouble by the frequent lifting of them, although he lift them but a very little;
and yet should he want that Motion in his Legs, not having it in his Shoulders, he would
be apt to ftrike with his Feet, upon every Clod or Stone that came in his Way.
If a Horfe's Shoulders be large, even although very moving and glib, and his Neck
at the fame Time much charged with Flefh; the extraordinary Weight of thofe two
Parts being always fuppbtted by his Fore-legs, whether in Travel or at Reft, will caufe
them to be fooner ruin'd and fpoil'd, than if they were altogether difcharged of that
'Burden : Such Kind of Horfes are always very heavy upon the Hand in travelling, and
when weary, ride ill.favouredly, and without any Kind of Graee, being fubjeA to trip
and fumble in the Beginning of a Journy, and to fall or come over with the Rider to-
wards the End.
In fine, I think it is a Part not, to be negle&ed, and that a'Man should make it his
Bufinefs to know when a Horfe's Shoulders are well or ill-fhap'd; for, whatever Peo-
ple may think of it, Experience will teach, that, upon the good Shapes of them and
the Neck, doth very much depend the Gentlenefs and Delicatenefs of a Horfe: Not
but a Man may fupple fuch Shoulders as are ftiff and gourded, and to fome Kind of
Horfes m ie them become glib and eafy, by Art and methodical Leffons; yet feeing
it is what a Man doth not find done already to his Hand by Nature, a Horfe should,
upon that Account, be the lefs valued; I would therefore never choofe a Pad with ftiff
and pegged Shoulders, that is, which have no Movement, because fuch Horfes, be-
fides that they never ride agreeably, they are alfo very fubje& to Rumble and fal.
E There

34 The Perfeft Marfhal; PART I.
There are fome Horfes, which, although they have little or no movement in their
Shoulders, yet raife their Fore-legs higher than thofe whofe Shoulders are more eafy
and glib ; fo that thofe who are ignorant, look upon this Acion of the Legs, as a
Token of the Shoulders being eafy and very moveable; although it is moft certain,
that this Motion of the Legs can be without that of the Shoulders: And, on the con-
trary, other Horfes which have glib Shoulders will alfo raife and trufs up their Legs to
their very Bellies ; fo that you fee one Horfe may raife and ply his Fore- legs extreme-
ly well, and have almost no movement in his Shoulders, and another fall have the
fame graceful Motion of the Legs, and, together with it, free and eafy Shoulders,
for the one doth not include the other : Therefore, there is a great deal of Experience
required, to know when a Horfe's Shoulders are free, difengaged, and moving. As for
the Motion of the Fore-legs, it is immediately apparent to all People, and is One of the
Things in the World, that giveth a Horfe, which is appointed for the Manage, the
greatest Grace, although oftentimes Horfes which have the beft and moft graceful
Movement, have not the greatest Fund of Strength.
Some Horfes have too big and large Shoulders; others again, too fmall and little
ones, that is, whofe Counter is fo narrow, that their Fore-thighs touch almost one an-
other: Such Horfes are commonly worth very little, because they have a weak Fore-
hand, fo that upon a Walk or Step, they crofs fo very much their Legs, that they are
apt to cut themselves, and, in galloping, carry their Legs fo confufedly, that they are
very fubje& to fall: I would therefore like a Horfe better who had too much Shoulders,
than one that had this Imperfe&ion,
A fine Horfe should therefore, have his Shoulders flat, little, discharged of Flefh, and
very glib and moving ; but it is convenient that fuch as are appointed for Draught, or
the Coach, have their Shoulders somewhat large, fo that they may both endure the
Draught the better, and alfo not be fo fubje& to galling.
ii--i -Jll-l-i i i I I


rHow to know when a Horfe's Legs are good.

H Aving observed exa&ly the Shoulders, you are next to consider the Legs, which
are the Foundation and Pillars by which this Edifice is supported. It is eafy
enough to understand them, if a Man go orderly to work, and with Care and Exat-
nefs apply himself to it.
The Fore-legs are fubje& to many Infirmities and Weaknefles, which make them to
be, with Reafon, rejeaed, by thofe who know them to be fuch: They are the Parts
of the Body which fuffer molt, and are alfo commonly the fmalleft and weakeft let
us therefore consider all their Parts in order.
The firft Mark I fall give you of bad Legs, that is, which are worn out and fpoil'd,is,
if they appear altogether straight, or as they were all of one Piece : A Horfe is faid to
be straight upon his Members, in French, Droit fur fes membres, when the Parts where-
of his Legs are composed, go all in a straight Line, that is, when from the Knee to the
Fore-part of the Coronet, the Knee, Shank, and Paftern, defcend in a straight or
Plum-line, and that the Paftern-joint appears more, or at leaft as much advanced as
the relt of the Leg ; fuch Legs may be very well compared to thofe of a Goat, and
when a Horfe is thus straight upon his Members, he is fubje& to flumbleand fall, and
through Time, the Paftern is thruft quite forwards out of its Place, fo that the Horfe
remains lame, and then he is called in French Boulete, which is a peculiar and diftin&
Name they give to Horfes, whofe Paftern-joynt is diflodg'd as it were, and thruft for.
wards: But that you may the better understand what this Imperfe&ion of being straight
upon the Members is, it will be fit that I difcoqvr to you what Horfes are moft fubjet
to it, and how you hall know them.-
Horfes then which are fhort-leg'd or fhort-joynted, are .tubje to be, B leted, or
become straight upon their Members, especially if in Shoeing their Heels are left too
high; Care therefore muft be taken to keep the Heels of fuch Horfes very low by fre-
quent paring of them: Thofe Horfes again, which are long joynted, do, on the con-
trary, ply and bend their Pafterns fo far back and near to the Ground, that they are
not fo fubjeC to become ftraight-iembred. That a Leg may be faid'to be right plant-

CHAP. X. Or, Compleat Farrier. 3

ed or fituate, the Paftern should be placed about two Fingers breadth more backwards
than the Coronet, that is, that if you ftretch a Thread or Line between the Top of the
Knee, and the Fore-part of the Coronet of the Hoof, the Fore-part of the Paftern
should be distant from that Thread, about the Breadth of two Fingers, more or lefs,
according to the Size of the Horfe ; whereas in a Horfe which is straight upon his Mem-
bers, the Fore-part of hisPaftern will be equal with, or as far advanced as the Thread
or Line.
Horfes which are straight upon the Members, are quite contrary to thofe that are
long-joynted, that is, whofe Pafterns are fo long and very flexible, that the Horfe, in
walking, toucheth the Ground almost with them, which is a great Imperfetion, and
more to be feared than the former; for to them there may be fome Remedy ufed, but
for thefe laft there can be none; on the contrary, it is a Token of little or no Strength,
and fuch Horfes are no ways fit for any Kind of Toil or Fatigue.
The Barbs, and fuch Horfes as are lender built, are more fubjea to this Imperfe-
tion of being long-joynted than others, especially thofe who have only a Barb for their
Sire, but a Mare of another Country for their Dam : But of whatever Race they may
be, if they have this Imperfe&ion, of touching almost the Ground with their Paftern-
joynt as they are walking, they will be of fo much the lefs Value, and not at all fit
for Fatigue.
There are, however, fome Horfes, which, although they be long-joynted, yet do
not bend their Pafterns in walking, but keep them in fuch a Pofture and Situation as
they ought to be, without plying ; thofe Kind of Horfes may prove ferviceable, because
that Carriage of the Paftern is a Token that they are nervous; for it is nothing but
the Strength and Vigour of the Nerves which support the Paftern, and prevent its too
much bending: So that in this Cafe, the Imperfe&ion of being long-joynted, will be
more unpleasant to the Sight of the Owner, than prejudicial to the Horfe.
Horfes which have thick, ftiff, and fhort Joynts, that is, no ways plying or flexible,
are very unfit for the Manage, because they have no Kind of Gentlenefs in their Mo-
tion ; for glib and flexible Joynts, provided they be not too long, are one the chief
,Qualities required in a fine and delicate Horfe of Manage.
But if the Joynts be too long and flexible, besides that the Horfe will not befit for fa-
tigue, he will be alfo very foon fubjea to Wind-galls, in'French Les molettes. There are
alfo fome Horfes, which although they are not long-joynted, yet have fo fmall and
flexible Paftern-joynts, that they will not have rid two Days Journey when they will
be paft travelling, because of the great Swellings in their Paftern-joynts, and then thofe
Swellings are followed by Wind-galls.
This is then one of the Obfervations that is tb be made; to consider narrowly, that
the Paftern-joynt be neither too fliff nor too fmall; nor, on the contrary, too plying
and flexible: For the Knowledge of all I have faid, concerning a Horfe which is straight
upon his Members, dependeth absolutely upon the exa& Obfervation of the aftern-
Thofe Englijh Horfes which have a great deal of Reins or Strength, if they have
with it their Paftern-Joynts somewhat longer than, perhaps, one, who understands
Horfes exa&ly well, would with ; yet, if they are not too flexible, fuch a Horfe will
gallop and run with a great deal of more eafe for his Rider, than if he were very fhort.
joynted ; and thefe are the only proper Horfes for Perfons of Quality who are become
aged, and have wherewithal to feek after their Eafe and Agreeablenefs in a Horfe. It
is true, fuch Horfes will not hold out fo long at Hunting, as if they had not that Im-
perfetion ; but a Perfon of Quality who hath many to change, should not, if he con-
fider his own Eafe, reje& them for it; fuch Horfes may be very well compared to Coa-
ches with Springs, which render them infinitely more eafy than thofe without them.
This Imperfe&ion of bending too much the Paftern-joynt, should be as carefully ta-
ken notice of in the Hind-legs as in the Fore; and there are alfo fome Horfes which
bend too mnch only in the Hind-patterns, and not in thofe before ; which is a Token
that they have a very weak Hind-quarter, and is a great Imperfetion, whatever Kind
of Service they may be designed for: And if they have Wind-galls, they will prove
more dangerous, being in the Hind-pattern Joynts or Legs, than if they were in
thofe before; because, with a little Travel and Fatigue, they will penetrate beneath
the Nerves, and fo become thofe which are called in French, Molettes nerveules. Alfo
if fuch Horfes are designed for the Coach, they will not endure pulling back, or fay-
ing the Coach upon any Defcent, and therefore will not at all be proper for that
E 2 The

36 The Perfefl Marf/al ; PART I.

The third Imperfe&ion of the Legs is, wheri they are Arched, in French 7anmbes
Arquees, which is when the Horfe being in his Natural situation hath his Knees bent
forwards, and his whole Leg frameth a kind of Arch or Bow, lefs or more according
as it is Arched ; this Imperfe&ion proceedeth commonly from exceffive Labour, which
hath caused the Nerves or back Sinews to contra& or fhririk up, fo that the Legs
remain Arched, and tremble beneath them, ithen they are made to ftop after they
have been rid a little; fuch kind of Horfes are not absolutely ufelefs, because they may
work notwithstanding of it, but for my part I would not meddle with them at any rate,
unlefs they had extraordinary good Reins, and then they may ferve well for a while,
but they can never be fit for a Mafter; and although there have been fome of them
known to have lasted a long time with fuch Arched Legs, yet they are always unplea-
fant to the Sight, and a Man can never expe& to get rid of them,f besides that there
are but very few People that have a fancy to buy them, how good and ferviceable fo-
ever they may prove.
The Spanifh Horfes, are for the molt part either lefs or more arched in their Legs,
as they are brought old from Spain, and that because they always fhackle or fetter them
in the Stable, which obliging them to itand wrong upon their Legs, maketh them
through Time to become arched, although otherwise their Legs be good and found;
and the Spaniards are fo much taken with this method of fhackling their Horfes, that
fothey may ftand peaceably arid no ways hurt themselves by striking or otherwise,
that they fetter fome Horfes, especially fuch as are very vitious and troublesome, as
well behind as before, but after another manner, for behind the Shackles are separate and
not joyned together with a Chain, as thofe made ufe of for the Fore-legs are.
In Barbary at Tunis, Algiers, and other places, their Horfes are always tyed with
Shackles, which they put both upon their fore and hind patterns, and which are faft-
ned to Stakes that are placed in the ground near to their Legs, neither are they al-
moft ever tyed by the Head or Neck as ours are, because for the moft part they make
no ufe of a Halter, neither ih the Stable, nor in the Meadows, when the Horfes are a
There are orme Horfes which are Foaled with arched Legs, and are not much the
worfe for Service; they are called in French, Brafficours; t~he only difference between
thefe and the former; is that thefe have their Legs naturally arched, whereas the other
are made fo by great Labour and Fatigue, and are consequently the worft of the two.
I have feen several of them, which notwithstanding of this natural imperfection were
very good and vigorous, and travelled well in the Countrey, having their Legs as
fure and trufty, as if they had been well fhap'd; but unlefs a Man can have them at
a very eafy rate, I would never advife him to buy Horfes that are thus naturally ar-
ched in the Legs, and if he do, he should be alfo fure that they are fo naturally, and
not occafioned by Labour or Fatigue; I have alfo feen Coach-Horfes, which although
they had their Legs naturally arched, yet did ferve very ivell, and alfo for a long Time
A Perfon who understood very well what belonged to Horfes, and knew how to
diftinguifh the ftrong from the Weak and feeble, affured me, that thofe Foals which
have the Veins of their Legs very big and large, are neither fo good nor fit for Ser-
vice as others, because thofl Veins become filled with a fuperfluous Blood, which by an
agitation occafioned by Labour degenerates into Putrefationc, or breed a kind of Cor-
ruption, very Subje& to prove prejudicial to the Legs upon many Accounts; I have
never as yet made Tryal of this Obfervation, however fince the Time I received it from
that Perfon, I found it in the Works of Xenophon, who writ very well' of Horfes confi-
dering the Time wherein he lived.
Having exa&ly observed the three proceeding Imperfections, to wit, whether a
Horfe be straight upon his Membe, long jointed, or have arched Legs, all which may
be perceived in the twinkling of an Eye, you muft next pafs your Hand all along the
back Sinew of the Fore-Leg, from the very bending of the Knee to the Paftern-joynt,
and you hall obferve if the Sinew be large, firm and detached or well separate from the
Bone; if in paffing your Hand alongft it, you find no hardnefs which ftoppeth your
Hand ; if between the back Sinew and Bone you meet with no moveable kind of Jelly,
which flips from beneath your Fingers as you are paffing them along; for whatever
hindreth, or is an impediaierito the motion of the back-Sinews, is more or lefs preju-
dicial to the Horfe, according- to the quantity there is of it, and the greater distance
there is between the SineW and the Bone, the broader will the Leg be which is what is
look't for, because thofe Legswhich are broadcft and flatteft, are according to th~ dpi.
union of the moft Skilful always the bet ; now to have a broad and flat Leg, is to have
the back-Sinew well separate, and at a pretty good distance from the Ihank Bone.

CH A P. X. Or, Compleat Farrier. 37

There are fome Horfes, which although they have the Back-finews of their Fore-legs
somewhat separate from the Bones, yet their Sinews are fo finally and fo little detached,
that with a very ordinary Labour or Fatigue, the Legs become round, fo that how
little Humour forever falls down upon them, yet if it there fettle and grow hard, the
Legs immediately become round with it, which is not fo when the Sinews are very
well separate from the Bones ; for as there is a considerable distance between them, fo
the humour is with the more eafe diflipated and diffolved, the Reafon of this is too
evident to need a further explication : I hall therefore only fay, that thofe Legs whofl
back Sinews are only a very little separate from the Bones although they be really
detached, are called Veal or Ox Legs, because their back-Sinews are always too fmali
in proportion to the bignefs of the reft of the Leg, or Shank bone; all this I have
immediately difcourfed of deserves a ferious Refle&ion.
You are next to obferve, if the back Sinew doth not quite fail as it were, juft be-
neath the Ply or bending of the Knee, which is known, in fo far as the great back Sinew
which maketh the whole motion of the Leg, dimipifheth considerably of its bignefs
juft beneath the bending of the Knee; for in the moft part of Legs, although the back
Sinew be large and otherwise firm, to wit all along the back fide of the Fore-thigh and
hank Bone, yet it always falleth a little smaller beneath the Ply or bending of the Knee,
but in fome that fmalnefs is too considerable; indeed the back Sinews should not be
fo big near to the bending of the Knee, as it is in the middle of the Shank, but in fome
Horfes it diminifheth fo extraordinarily that in that Place it is no bigger than one's
Thumb, or otherwise it is fo fixed to the Bone that it doth but very little appear;
this is an linperfeAion of which few people take Notice, and which alfo considerably
impaireth the Strength of the Leg, and thofe Horfes which have their back-Sinews
fo very finall'near to the Ply or bending of their Knee, are for the moft part very Sub-
je& to Rfumble, or at leaft to trip and ftrike with their Toes again'ft the Stones.
Upon the fides of the Paftern--oynts both within and without, there cometh a foft
Swelling abbut half the bignefs of a Pigeon's Egg, lefs or more, and when a Man touch-
eth it he will perceive that it is full of Water; this kind of Swelling is called a wind-
gall, in French Vne moldet and is commonly lodged between the Sinew and Bone
of the Paftern-jbynt.
Thofe wind-galls are easily perceived by the Eye without feeling them, they are
a token that the Horfe hath Laboured an'd fatigued much, but are not very prejudi.
cial unlefs they be hard and painful, however it is enough that they fhew us that the
Legs liave been too much labour'd, and that theirftreugth is diminifhed,becanfe that con-
courfe of Waters which form the wind-gall, difcovers that there is a weaknefs in
that patt ; if the Wind-galls be hardened they will in a fhort time lame the Horfe. There
comletf frequently wind-galls to Horfes upon a journey, which go away again with a
little reft, theie are but mall wind-galls; but whatever way they come, they are no
waysagreeable to the Eye, and People fay of fich Horfes that they are Wind-gai'd;
they difcover that the legs are ufed, but all legs which are fatigu'd and ufed, are not
wind-gall'd, they are therefore the fall and long joynted Legs which are more Sub-
jea to thiel than any other; many People who pretend to Skill in Horfes call wind-
galls Wt&~H, betatfe they are a kind of Water, fhut up as it wefe in a bladder between
the Skir and flefh, but very improperly, for the Wters in a Horfes legs, in French Les
Eaux, is aidther kind of Imperfetion, of which I hall difcourfe hereafter.
Some people know only to take away wind-galls for a certain Time, to the end
they may' not hinder the Sale of their Horfes, because a Man muft be almost a perfect
Ignorant rdoe to dfctEer 'them, and' hen ever a Man perceiveth them he concludes
that the Horfes legsa're impaired,aindit is much in the right on't;Therefore thofe whofe
Trade it is to fell. Forces, make it their Bufinefs to dry them up only for a Time ;
you muft endeavour id tfid ir out fO t the Hair, which is more fmooth and flicked in
that PaRrtthart any Otfhte, anid alfo by the Leg which otherwife you will find to be ufed
and fpoilt, although tlte windgall' themselves do not at all appear; there cannot be
a better Obfervation than this, yet I have feen wind-galls fo reftriaed and compreffed,
for a certainTimte 6t~l, that tthe mo nicely Skilful could fcarcely difcover them.
Let us nis make a flibrt Iecapitiilation, of what we have been faying concerning the
Back-ffntWs 6f the fore-Legs; they should then be big and large without dwelling,
firm WifI6ht being ftiff aif'd Very well detached and separate from the Bone; thofe
Horfes' ;iot6 Back-finews are very fall, are foon fpoilt, and with the leaft fatigue
there Leg9 ajipear rufed and round; a Leg can never appear broad and flat with a fmall
ia'ck-fineW; r Sinew which is right, is without hardnefs or Swelling, and when yen
prefs it with your Hand, the Horfe should not feel the leaft Pain.
I have

38 The Perfel Marjhal PART L
I have feen your light kind of Horfes have a fort of Wind-galls, which made them
halt when they travelled in Snow, and in the time of great Frofts another kind of
Wind-galls again which fwelled and covered fo the Back-finews, that there could
never any Remedy be got for them but firing; Therefore Horfes which are troubled
with Wind-galls are not much to be trusted to, because of the many Accidents which
befall them; now it is of the fore-Legs which are Wind-galled that I am difcourfing,
for it is not fo very ordinary for a IHorfe to halt with them in his hind.
Turning your hand, you hall feel all along the fore-part of the thank-Bone, from
the Knee downward, to find if there be any Splints, Offelets or little Bones, Fuzies, or
pegg'd Splints.
It is fit that I explain thefe four Imperfeaions; and firft a simple Splint, in French
Sur-os, which is the moft common, is a callous Excrefcence or kind of Griftle adhering
to the fhank-Bone, and cometh commonly upon the inside of it; but if there be one alfo
on the outside of the fhank-Bone oppofite to that upon the inside, then it is called a
pegg'd or pinn'd Splint, in French Sur-os Chevillez, because the one being over against
the other, they peirce as it were the Shank-Bone like to a pegg or pin, and are abun-
dantly dangerous.
Thofe simple Splints, which are only faftned to the Bone at a pretty distance from
the Knee, and without touching the back Sinew, are not very dangerous, but thofe
that are fo placed that they touch the back-Sinew, make the Horfe in a Short Time to
Halt; neverthelefs any simple Splints, will with long and violent Exercife mount to
the very Knee, and when they come that length, then they are to be Sufpe&ed.
Some people maintain that a Splint doth not mount upwards, but that it only
lengthens and extends it felf to the very Knee, fo that it thereby interrupts the motion
of the Leg; but what way foever it cometh thither, it is certain that a Splint joyning
to the Knee, lameth always the Horfe.
Every Horfe that hath a Splint, should be lefs valued than if he wanted it, and fo
proportionably if he have two ; for it is an Imperfe&ion to have them, let people fay
what they will, or if they pleafe make no account of them at all; indeed in Coach-
Horfes the Imperfeaion is not fo considerable, as in thofe only designed for the Saddle.
Horfes have in the fame place where the Splints come, that which we call Fuzies,
in French Fufees, which are nothing elfe but two Splints joyned by the end the one above
the other; thefe Fuzies are a great deal more dangerous than a simple Splint, and
therefore I would never buy a Horfe which had them.
There are ofme Horfes which have little Bones or hard Excrefcences in the Knees,
called in French Des offelets, which is an Imperfeaion not very common, and is fo
much the more difficult to be discovered, because they appear to be of the very fame
Subftance with the reft of the Knee. That you may the better come to understand them,
you muft know that an Offelet, is as it were a very big or large Splint juft upon the
Knee, and without having a little experience, a Man will be apt to take it for the fub-
fiance it felf of the Knee-bone, which defcends lower upon one fide of it than upon the
other, about the breadth of two fingers or thereby; you are therefore when you per-
ceive this deformity which Shocks the Sight, to conclude that it is that excrefcence upon
the Knee called an Offelet; for without it, it was never yet known that the fubftance
of the Knee, did defcend more upon the one fide of the Shank-bone, than upon the
oth er; thefe Offelets grow always upon the inside of the Knee but never upon the out;
and there are fome Horfes which have two of them one upon each fore-Leg: If the Sel-
ler of fuch a Horfe would abate to me the half of his juft value, I would not buy him
with this fault; I once faw a Horfe which had thofe Oflelets or Excrefcences, and yet
did not halt with them, but was good, Vigorous, and very Serviceable; the hazard is
however too great to be ventured upon.
I have in the Treatife of Difeafes, Part Second, Chap. 37, explained the Origine,
Matter, and Humour, from whence all Splints do proceed to which you may have
recourfe, if you defire to be more fully inftru&ed in this point.
Now here is the Method whereby you may come to know a Splint, and how many
kinds there are of them ; the firft is the simple Splint only adhering to the Bone of the
Leg, which doth not at all touch the Back-finew, and is alfo at a pretty distance from
the Knee; the second is the pegg'd Splint, which is when there are two Splints, the
one upon the out, and the other upon the inside of the Leg, juft opposite to one ano-
ther, as if they were pinn'd together through the Leg, from which they have their deno-
mination of Pegg'd; the third is the Splint which afcendeth to the very Knee, and almost
always maketh a Ho rfe to halt; the fourth is the Fuzie, which is two Splints joyned

CHAP. X. Or, Compleat Farrier. 39

at the Ends, and one above the other; and the laft is the little bony Excrefcence or
Offelet, which is upon the Knee, and may be taken for the very Subftance of the Knee
it felf, if a Man have not very great Experience: Now, excepting the simple Splint
a Horfe which hath any of the Reft, is worth little or nothing, feeing they diminish
the greatest Part, if not the whole Value of the Horfe. But methinks I hear fome
Mifanthrope grumble at the many Repetitions made in this Difcourfe of Splints, and
other Imperfections incident to Horfes; if this trouble and vex him, I, out of true
Friendship, advice him to read no more of this Book, because he will meet with many
fuch Repetitions, neither is this the only Fault in it; and that which is worft of all
for him is, that in all appearance I hall not help it, because iill as a Man grows old,
he delighteth the more ih Recitals.
There cometh, in the bending of the Knee, a Crevice or Chop, which is called the
Mallender; it oftentimes maketh the Leg benumm'd and ftiff, at the firft coming out
of the Stable; yea, it is alfo sometimes fo painful, that it maketh the Horfe halt, and
in old Horfes it keepeth always their Legs ftiff: The Horfe-Courfers think they give
a Horfe a great Commendation, when they fay he hath the Mallenders. They have, in-
deed, Reafon for what they fay, upon one Account, because the fharp and bad Hu-
mour which occasions them, is expelled through that Channel or Conduit, which
would prove very prejudicial to the Horfe, did it take its courfe along the Nerves or
Back-finews; but otherwise they are ridiculous, in fo far as it were much better that
the Horfe had not that Humour which occasioned the Mallenders, and fo he would be
free of them: Every Horfe of Value, which hath a Mallender, should be the lefs
efteemed for it, and as he becometh old hath his Legs much more pained with it, and
always halts at his firft coming out of the Stable.
Although I have already fpoke of the Paftern-joynts in difcourling of arched Legs,
yet I think it will be fit to fay one Word more of them in this Place. The Paftern-joynts
then are very considerable Parts of the Legs, by which a Man may know if they be
fpoilt; for besides the Wind galls which come upon the Sides of them, and are very
conspicuous, a Man should alfo obferve if they be no ways fwelled, because if they ap.
pear bigger than ufual, it is a certain Sign that the Legs are worn and fpoil'd.
The Paftern-joy :t is alfo sometimes Crowned, as we fay, tiat is, That without any
ways being galled or hurt, there is a Swelling goeth found it beneath the Skin, in Form
of a Circle, and about half the Breadth of one's Finger ; the Humours having gather-
ed there through Travel, and having congealed in that Part of the Pattern, joynt in
Form of a Circle or Ring, and beneath the Skin, whichis a Sign that the Horfe's Legs
are worn.
There cometh upon the Side of the Paftern-joynt, either upon the In or Out-fide, and
sometimes alfo before, a Swelling about the Bignefs of half a Waluut, which is foft,
and yieldeth to one's Finger, when preffed, neither doth it make the Horfe halt. It
is not called a Wind-gall, neither is it one: For it is not lodged as they arei com-
monly between the Nerve and Bone, btit only beneath the Skin: Neither is it alfo fil-
led with Water, as a Wihd-gall, but full of vifcous Matter : You are not therefore
to mistake, and confound the one with the other; but you are to know, that this is a
Sign that the Leg is worn, and that a Part of that Humour which occafioned the Ruin
of the Leg, hath gathered together upon the Paftern-joynt and formed that Swelling.
If you find a Horfe which hath this Swelling, do not buy him in hopes to difcufs it -
for you will find, I aflire you, a great Difficulty to do it without firing, which will
alfo mark and fcarify the, Pafrn-joynt. ,I have, in the second .Part of this Book, gi-
ven refolving Remedies fqr difcufling this Kind of Swelling, but I do not positively
promife that they will absolutely diffipate it. Now it is not that this Kind of Swel-
ling doth very much prejudice, for I have known Horfes which have had it, and yet
have served two or three Years, without being much'iicommoded; by it, or its ever
becoming bigger; but it is prejudicial to the Sale and'as every Thing alarms Half.
skill'd Perfons, therefore they fufpet it, although, initfelf, it be really nothing elfe
but a Sign that the Leg is worn.;"' -
I hall likewise add here, that ybu Would alfo taki care not to'buy fuch Horfes as
have very fall Paftern-joynts, for they are not capable of much fatigue, because the
Paftern-joynts being weak, the Horfe doth immediately become wearied, by Reafon of
the little Strength he hath in that Part.
Below the Paftern-joynt, apd in the very Paftern, you mulf feel if there be not that
which is called in French a Forme, which is a Swelling fituate in the Subftance of the
Paftern, and not upon the Sklin; therefore you muft not be deceived by it, because you

40 The Perfed Marhal; PART I.
will sometimes find Swellings-and Hardneffes, which are only fixed upon the Skin,
and are not at all what we call Formes, but are either a Button of the Farcy, or fome
other Kind of Swelling not very material, being not at all fixed to the Subitance of the
Now the Forme isquite another Thing; for it is a considerable Imperfedion, which
lameth the Horfe, unlefs it be taken Care of in Time; and besides that it maketh a
Horfe to halt, I think it is alfo fo very dangerous an Imperfeaion, that it should make
the lorf'e be rejeaed for good and all, how beautiful and apparently good he may
otherwise feem to be. The Formes come as well in the Hind-legs as in the Fore; and
although it be an Imperfecion which is not very common, yet it is of confequence, and
there is no other Remedy for it but firing, and taking out the Horfe's S6le, and the
Fire is alfo with very great Difficulty and Danger applied to that Place.where it com-
eth; to be perfe&ly infruAed how to know a Forme, turn forewards to the 46th Chap-
ter of the Second Part, where the Method of Curing them is diicourfed of.
There are alfo fome other Marks, by which a Man may. know when a Horfe's Legs
are fpoil'd: Firft, you muft obferve, if, when landing till, he cannot reft equally
upon his Legs, but sometimes advanceth the One, and sometimes the Other, to give
himself eafe; alfo being in the Stable, he will sometimes only advance one Leg, and
continue it fo for a pretty Time, which they call in French, montrer Ie chemin de
St. Jacques.
Not but that there are fome Horfes, which although they have very good Legs, yet
Ihift from one to the other; but if it be only occasioned by fretting or reftlefnefs, and
not to give themselves eafe by it, as thofe do which have their Legs damaged, a Man can
conclude nothing from that Pofture; for there are Horfes as there are Men, which can
nevel plant themselves right upon' their Legs, although they be neither weary nor
fpoil'd: Thefe Kind of Horfes point out always the chemin de St. Jacques, or advance
fill one of their Legs when in the Stable. You are therefore, besides this Obfervation,
to take notice of thofe I have before difcover'd to you, and not to rely upon this single
One, whereby to judge if a Horfe's Legs be oppreffed and damag'd. I have feen several
Horfes plant themselves very badly upon their Legs whenever they were kept ftill,
that is, which gave themselves eafe by advancing one of their Fore-legs more than the
other, and had nevertheless their Legs true and good, and never made a falfe Step,
which is worthy of Confideration: Therefore, when you fee a Horfe perform this
Adion, you muft carefully ohverve every Thing elfe about his Legs, to know perfea-
ly if they are' oppreffed, worn, or fpoil'd, which are all much about one.
iOther-Hbrfes again, reft ttemfelves upon three Legs, without having any of them
in theleaft fpoil'd, and it is but to give eafe to one of their Hind-legs, by letting only
the'Toe of that Hind-leg touch .the Ground,. which is nothing but a Sign of Weari-
ners; but if he should advance one of his Fore-legs, and only point it to the Ground
it would-be a very bad Sign, because it will fignify that he is pained in that Leg: But
making the other Pofture upon three Legs, it.is only a Token that the Horfe is, per
haps, wearied, Without being bf any bad Confequence for his Hind-quarter.

: : C H X I '
How to kno when a orwfe is right planted upon his Limbs, and if he
walks or treads well.
Avingconfidered all the above-mentoned Particular, which are moft requisite
to e with all Care aid Diligence taken notice to, you muft next understand the
Walk or Gate of a Horfe, which is to be looked upon as one of thefe Things, which is
of greatest Importance and Ufe in any Horfe; foi People buy Horfes only to Ride or
Travel upon; that is the End for which they 1ill Jaie them, any other Defign b in
only fo many Means, the better to arrive at andobtain that End : But before you wa
any Horfe, you mut observe, if, when he is la nding ill, he be right planted upo
his Limbs because upon the right or' wIong Camping of a Horfe, when he is and-
rig ill, doth depend, not wholly, but.in great part, his good or bad Going and
Carnage. ow the natural Situation of the Legs should be larger or wider above than
elow, that is to fay, the Diitance which is betwixt the one Foot and the other, should

CHA P. XI. Or, Compleat Farrier. 4

be lefs than that between the one of the Fore-thighs and the other, upon the Infide, and
at that Part of them which is next to the Shoulders ; the Knees should not incline too
much to one another, or be too clofe one upon the other, but the whole Leg should
defend in a straight Line, to the very Paftern-joynt; the Feet being placed upon the
Ground, should be turned neither out nor in, but the Toe pointing directly forwards:
Being fituate or camped after this manner, he will be very well planted on his Legs, and
all this may be observed when he is at reft, and standing in the Stable.
As for the Hind-hand, his Jarrets or Hammes should not be too clofe together, and
if they are, then he will be crooked or bow'd, called in French, un Chcval crochu,' but
according to the Term the Horfe-Courfers give it, they fay, that fuch a Horfe is only
a little too much clofed behind; the Hind-leg, or rather that Part called the Inftep,
which is betwixt the Hock and Paftern-joynt, should Rand perpendicular to the
Ground; if it Rand forward, or, as it were, under his Belly, the Situation of it is
bad ; but if it Rand floping a little backwards from the perpendicular Line, (and be
fo fituate as when a Horfe is going to ftale or pifs) it is no bad Pofition; but then
commonly fuch Horfes have too long Haunches, which is a defeat for the Manage, be-
caufe it is with a great deal of Difficulty that they can affemble themselves and go upon
their Haunches; but they have,for the moft part always,a good Walk or Raik,altho' the
Fore-parts be the fooner fpoil'd and ruined by it: On the contrary again, thofe Horfes
whofe Haunches, Hammes, and Infteps are altogether straight, that is, whofe Hind-
legs, towards the Feet, fall not far enough back, when standing fill; I fay, fuch Hor-
fes can but with Difficulty Raik or Walk well: Moreover, if the Hind-paftern Joynt
be fo placed either to one fide or forwards, as if it were diflocate, fuch Situations are
naught: He should likewife plant his Hind-feet flat upon the Ground, and not reft
only upon his Toes, as thofe Hbrfes which are called in French, Chevaux Rampins. You
muft alfo obferve, if he turn the Toes of his Hind-feet much outwards, which is a ve-
ry considerable Imperfe&ion, in refpea that in great Defcents, fich Horfes have al-
moft no Strength in their Haunches; and if they be delign'd for the Coach, it will not
be poffible for them to keep it back, when, upon any considerable Defcent : But that
you may be the more fure of this, caufe the Horfe, which fituates himself after that
manner, to go, or be put back with one's Hand ; and if in going back he keep the Toes
of his Hind-feet turned outwards, then is it with Difficulty that he goeth back, which
is a Sign that he will be for no great Service; and the more that he turneth out his
Hind-toes, the more Reafon will you have to conclude that he is a bad Horfe, whatever
other Qualifications he may have.
Thus much of the Situation in which a Horfe should moft commonly place himself,
when standing fill: Let us now profecute the Reft, and obferve his Step or Walk.
You muft then caufe him to Rep forwards to know if he be not lame, for if he be, it
will be to no purpose to examine him further, few People buying Horfes which are plainly
known to be lame.
You muft caufe'one to ride the Horfe at a Foot-pace, that you may have the more
Time not only to consider if he walk well, but alfo if his Legs perform the AEtions
which they ought. Now for a Horfe to walk well, his Steps should be quick, that is,
he should not make, in his Walk, flow and feeble Motions with his Legs, but should
move them quickly, and make two times with them in the Space that many Horfes
make but one; thus he will walk more commodioufly, fatigue himfclf lefs, and his
Rider will be more eafed and comforted by it. After having made this general View,
you are to obferve, that for a Horfe to go well, he should have the raising or lifting up
of his Leg, the Stay or keeping of it up, and the Tread or getting of it down, all good ;
thefe are called in French, Le Lever ou hauffer, le Soi~tien, & L'appuy. Now because this
is a Kind of Language not understood by every Perfon, I hall explain each Term by
itfelf, as followeth.
The Lever, rAiring, or lifting up of a Horfe's Legs when he is walking, will be good,
if he perform it hardily and with eafe, not croffing his Legs the one over the other, nor
carrying his Feet either too much Out or In, and that he alfo bend his Knees as much
as is needful: This is for the Lever or raising of his Legs.
The Soatien, flay, or keeping of them up, is good, when after that his Legs are raised,
he .keepeth them up fo.long as he ought, the reft of his Body and Head remaining in a
good Pofture; a Man may know when a Horfe hath not the Stay, or keeping-up of his
Leg good, when he perceives him fet it down suddenly to give Eafe to his other Leg,
in which he is, perhaps, either pained or hath a Weaknefs : Some Horfes alfo appear
as if their Nofes were always a going to the Ground, and of theft it imay be very ju1tly

42 ThePerfet Mar/hal ; PART I

faid, That the Stay or keeping up of their Legs in the Air is naught, and that their
Legs are weak and pained. Thus much of the Sotien, or Stay of a Horfe's Legs in
the Ai, which is the second Thing to be confider'd in a Horfe's going.
In the thiid and laft Place you are to consider the Appuy, orfetting down of the Legs,
or rather Feet, upon the Ground, commonly called the Tread, which, to be good,
should be firm, vigorous, and straight, without refting uponone fide of the Foot mord
than on the other, or getting down the Toe or Heel the one before the other, but that
both, be done at one and the fame Time, and when the Foot is placed upon the Ground,
that it be turned neither out nor in, but perfedly straight; that the Pattern alfo be
neither too much plied, nor too ftiftor straight ; for, besides that the Firft is a Sign of
Weaknefs of that Part, the Horfe alfo, because of it, becometh fooner wearied, and
will be very fubjea to have Wind-galls. Again : If his Pattern be too ftiff and straight
fet, he will become foon Boulete (as the French call it) which is to have his-Paftern-
joynts bending forwards as if they were diflocated : Now if a Horfe have his Tread,
as I have been describing, he will have it according to the Rules of Horfemanfhip.
If a Horfe perform thefe three Acions, his Head continuing firm and elevated, then
is it a Sign that his Legs are good, and that he walks well.
This Difcourfe of the Lever, the So!tien, and the Appuy, or raising, keeping up, and
getting down or Tread of the Foot, is a Kind of Cant or argon not very common, for
I my felf am the Inventer and Contriver of this Kind of Language, which expreffeth
well enough the different Times and Aaions which should be observed in a Horfe's
Walk; till now, People only faid, that a Horfe walked right and found; but it is,
in my Opinion, much better explained, by the raising:, keeping up, and getting down of
the Leg ; and I am perfuaded, that fuch Perfons who intend to become skilful, should
make a particular diftinaion of thefe three Ations, because upon the exact Obferva-
tion of them, doth the true Knowledge of, a Horfe's good or bad Walk, and even of
his Vigour and Strength depend: Now in thefe three Ations you are to obferve, if a
Horfe in railing, and getting down again his Fore-legs, crofs the one over the other,
which is very dangerous, not only for knocking the one Leg against the other, and cut-
ting, but likewise for tumbling, and even falling in his Gallop or Courfe ;.alfo if the
Horfe fet his Heels to the Ground a little before his Toes, then is it a Sign that he is
foundered in the Feet, but if he hall fet his Toes firft to the Ground, then will it be a
Token that he hath been a draught Horfe ; therefore, that the getting down of the Leg
or Tread may be good, the whole Foot should beTet down equally, and at one and the
fame very Inftant of Time.
There are fome Horfes, which altho' they have the Railing, Keeping up, and Tread
of the Foot very good, yet they have a bad Walk; therefore, it is not altogether enough
to consider, in a Walk, thefe three Alions of the Leg above fpecify'd, but you muft
alfo obferve if the Horfe walk lightly, furely, quickly, and eafily; here are four Adverbs
which exprefs all that the moft Nice and Curious can with for in a Horfe's Walk and
I am going to explain them, for the Benefit of fuch as defire to be inftruded, because
thofe who are abundantly knowing already, have no need of it.
To walk quickly, is to advance confiderably upon the Step: Now every one is a
competent Judge to know and determine whether a Horfe fleps quickly, or advan-
ces but little and flowly upon his Walk, and therefore I hall, at this Time, fay
no more of it.
For a Horfe to walk very lightly, he should be light on the Hand, that is, he should
not prefs or reft too much upon the Bitt, but be always champing upon it, keep his
Head high, and move quickly his Shoulders; a Horfe which walketh thus, cannot be
faid to be too much upon his Shoulders, because it is impofible but he muft be upon his
Haunches, if he walk as I have told you : And besides all this, ifa Horfe be not nimble
and glib in the Shoulders, but ftiff, and want, as it were, the Ufe of his Limbs, he
hall never walk lightly nor eafily, but be heavy and unweildy; and although fome
vigorous and mettled Horfes, which have fliffand unmoving Shoulders, lift their Legs
commonly high enough, and alfo ply and bend them very well, yet it is not fuch Hor-
fes which walk beft, because they do not continue at it; neither do they walk nimbly
nor easily, because they have all an uneafy and hard Set in their Walk, which pro-
ceeds from the Force and Violence with which they raife and lift up their Legs and
they likewife become very foon wearied, by reafon of what I told you, when I dif-
courfed of ftiff and unmoving Shoulders, and alfo very much fatigue the Rider.
Inthefe four Conditions or Qualities which I wifh for in a IHorfe, that fo he may go
well, which are to walk lightly, purely, quickly, and eajly, there is a neceffity that the

CHA P. XI. Or, Compleat Farrier. 4.

Motion of the Step be nimble and quick, that fo the Horfe may walk lightly and easily,
for he hall never walk lightly and easily, if his Step be flow, long, and too firetched ;
therefore, a Horfe should remove his Legs often, without making a clattcricn, Motion
with his Feet, or beating the Duff, as we fay ; for to ftep fhort and fwift, is very tar
different from trampling, or making a clattering Motion with the Feet.
When I difcourfed of the Railing and Keeping up of the Leg, I forgot to tell you,
that thofe Horfes which raife their Legs highest, and alfo fray them longest in the Air,
are not the molt proper for the Walk, nor thofe which go belt; for, on the contrary,
they ordinarily walk very badly, flowly, and uneafily : Such Horfes are called vain and
proud Horfes, in Spain, Piffadors, which is, indeed, a very becoming Ation in a Horfe
under a King, Prince, or General of an Army, who thew themselves to the People, or
to their SouJdiers, upon a Review, or Day of Parade; for it would feem that the Horfe,
by that keeping up or long Stay of his Leg in the Air, is high-fpirited, and vain of the
Honour he hath to carry his Mafter, and that he on purpofe retards his Walk, that he
may give the longer Time to the Spe&ators to view and consider his Rider: Such Kind
of Horfes make alfo a very good Figure in a Manage, for they are brisk and lively, their
Gallop and other Airs are graceful, and they are admirable for a public Entry or c r-
roufel; but for the Ufe of a private Perfon, who requires nothing elfe of his Horfe but
to go well at a Foot-pace, they are not at all proper: A Horfe alfo which raifeth his
Leg fo very high, fets down his Foot again with fo much the more Violence upon a
hard or paved Way, and fo benumbs and furbaits fooner his Feet, and alfo ruins and
fpoils the Back-finews of his Legs, by which he is rendered very foon unferviceable :
Such Horfes are likewise fubjea to another Inconveniency, which is, that keeping their
Feet fo long in the Air, with Shoes upon them, which are of a pretty good Weight,
the Back-finew is fenfible of it, and the Leg thereby becometh fooner opprefled.
A Horfe will walk eafily if he be united, that is, if his Fore-hand and hind, are, as
they were both one when he walketh, and if they both make, as it were, but one Mo-
tion, if I may fo fpeak: There are fome Horfes whofe Fore-quarters go right, but their
Croup, when walking, fwingeth from Side to Side, which is called a rocking Croup.
Now this Imperfe&ion is very eafily discovered when a Horfe is Trotting, for the Trot
of fuch Horfes is, as it were, at two Motions, because of the Rocking of their Croup,
as I have explained to you, and it is a Token that the Horfe is of no great Strength,
for at each Step, one of the Haunch-bones falleth and the other rifeth, like to the Beam
of a Ballance ; fuch Horfes are commonly not very vigorous.
Likewife to go eafily, a Horfe Ihould not caufe the Rider to make any falfe Motion
upon his Back. People perceive when he doth it not, when they fee him go along
fmoothly, without any ways troubling the Rider, or making him fhift his Seat, altho'
he be no very good Horfeman, and that he make but very little Ufe of his Thighs to
keep him fteddy in the Saddle.
It remains to know how a Horfe Ihould go to walk purely: He muft then lift his Legs
indifferently high; if he did not bend them enough, he would be cold in his Walk,
which would caufe him to strike upon the Stones and Clods: This cold Way of Walk-
ing or Riding, is, for the moft Part, a Token that the Horfe hath his Legs fpoil'd,
altho' there are alfo Colts which have a cold Walk before ever they be wrought: The
Barbs are very fubje& to this, and it is one of the greatest Imperfecions which a Horfe
of Manage can have, for with it he hath no Life or Air: It is likewife one of the moft
difcouraging Undertakings that a Horfeman can ingage in, to endeavour to drefs fuch
Horfes as have neither Movement nor Life: If a Man be not skilful enough to form an
Air to fuch a Horfe, I affure you he will foon run himfelf aground. Let us now re-
turn to our Subje&, and fay, That there is no Security in thofe cold Kind of Walks for
Journey-Horfes; moreover, to walk furely, a Horfe should have his Tread good and
firm, and fo he will not be fubje& to tumble, but ride fecurely.
To have thefe four Qualities of going quickly, furely, easily and lightly, a Horfe muff
be fomnewhat long ; for thofe which are too fhort, altho' they have a better Force, and
be good for other Things, yet they have the Motion of their lower Parts too hard and
fet, because the Movements are almost juff below the Saddle, and being fo very near to
the Horfeman, do therefore incommode him, which is contrary in long Horfes, which
give Conveniency and Room for the Horfeman fo to place himself, as to be too near nei-
Sther of the Quarters, that is neither upon the Fore-quarter nor Hind, and fo being be-
twixt the Two, and at a good distance from either, he will be lefs fenfible of their Moe


..... .. .. ... ....--- p- -T --
44 The Perfedt MarFal; PART .

Moreover, a long Horfe advances more in his Gallop with one Stroke, than a Short
does with two, and alfo cutsthe Doubleof the Way, without augmenting his Labour,
fleeing they make both their Motions at the fame Time; neverthelefs, long Horfes have
for the moft Part, lefs Strength, and become fooner low and out of Cafe, than ihort:
In fine, as they are more commodious and eafy than the Short, fo one may fay, that
they are the moft proper Horfes for great People and Princes.
The Opinion of molt People is to be admired, in that fhey will pretend to know
if a Horfe goes well, by obferving, if, when walking, he overpafles the Tread of .his
Fore-foot very much with his Hind, which is a moft ridiculous Miftake, and should
be joyn'd with that of palling the Hand before a Horfe's Eyes, to know if he have a
good Sight.
Moft Horfes which thus overpafs, with their Hind-foot, the Tread of their Fore,
if they do it confiderably, fwing their Croup from one fide to the other, and rock,
which is contrary to thofe Conditions we required in a good Walk : Befides, fuch Hor-
fes commonly Forge that is, with the Shoes of their Hind-feet they overtake thofe
of thcir Fore, and fo pull them off upon the Road, neither have they any Reins or
Mettle; this is the Signification of Forgeing, and the Qualities of fuch Horfes as are
guilty of it ; fo you fee it is but a bad Mark, whereby to know if a Horfe walk-
eth well.
I don't deny but a Horfe which thus overpaffes with his Hind-foot, the Tread of his
Fore, may walk fviftly ; but fich a Horfe will have rarely good Reins, neither can he
go eafily, because he hath not a quick, but long and stretched Step all upon his Shoul-
ders, which will make him fo much the more fubjeA to Rumbling, because he is not
supported by his Reins.
This Obfervation which is made of a Horfe's overpafling much with his Hind-foot,
the Tread of his Fore, is fo much a better Remark to know if he ambles well, as it is
bad for knowing if he walk well; for it is certain, that a Horfe can never amble upon
his Haunches, nor go well, if he do not, with his Hind-feet, overpafs the Treads of
his Fore, at leaft a Foot, or a Foot and a Half, and the more he overpaffes the better
will he amble, which is quite contrary to the Walk, and fo is alfo the Way of remov-
ing his Legs, in thefe two A&ions, quite different; for in the Amble he lifts both the
Legs of one fide, and has them both in the Air at one and the fame Time, but in the
Step or Walk he lifteth them crofs. For Example: In a Walk, he lifts the near Foreo
leg and far Hind-leg together, and has them in the Air at the fame Time; and when
he fets them down, he lifts the other two, which were crofs, upon the Ground; to
wit, his far Fore-leg and near Hind-leg, and fo alternately each remove: This is the
true Motion of a Horfe's Legs upon a Walk, which is the fame with that of the Trot,
altho' the Paces are different. Our Author is here in a little Miflake about the Motion of a
Horfe's Legs in the Walk, to convince you of which, I refer you to the Supplemenr ef Horfeman-
flip, chap. 21.
A Horfe, in walking, should not carry his Hammes outward, every Step that he ma-
keth, for it is a Sign of Weaknefs, and to which Horfes that amble are more fubje&
than thofe that only walk, but is not a lefs Imperfeaion in the One than in the Other,
Any Horfe which is defign'd for Galloping or the Manage, if he have this Imperfetiort
of turning his Jarrets or Hammes outwards in running, will never fucceed at it, for
he cannot endure to be put upon his Haunches ; and if he be not upon his Haunches,
he cannot chufe but be .very difagreeable.
Likewife a Horfe should not, in walking, rub or strike his Hammes one against the
other, as thofe which are bow-leg'd do, which is an A&ion q.ite contrary to the foa-
mer : Bow-leg'd Horfes are commonly reputed fwift and good, but they are not pro-
per for hilly Countries, and for the Manage they are altogether difagreeable.
Thefe are all the Conditions required in a Horfe to Walk well, wN-ch are not the
fame with thofe of a Gallopper: For in the Walk, a fHorfe should fet down his Foot
firmly, without putting it down with force, which is quite contrary in a Gallop, for
in it he should fcarcely touch the Ground, that is, he should gallop fo lightly, as that
it would feemn he difdained to touch it, and without doubt that is a Token that he will
gallop long, because of his performing it with fuch tafe : Such Horfes as gallop hea-
vily, fct their Feet very rudely to the Ground, fo li:kewife do thofe which go upon their
Shoulders, but thofe which gallop upon their Haunches do fcarcely, with their Fore-
feet, touch the Ground; but it is not the fame with Horfes which walk, for thofe
which have the beft and moft nervous Legs, are they-which fet their Feet moft firmly
to the Ground, and withla Kind of Noife: However, they muft not put their Feet fo

C H A P. X. Or, Compleat Farrier. 4

heavily and rudely to the Ground, as if they were defign'd for a Coach, which is a
Thing as eafie to be underftood, as it is difficult to be exprefFed. This is enough of.the
Gate or Walk, we muft now proceed to the other Imperfe&ions, which we fall do in
the following Chapter, where I Ihall endeavour to make you know if a Horfe have good
Feet ; for if he have not that Part good, he will foon be fpoilt, and his Service of no
long continuance.
There are fome Horfes which, although they have too long Haunches, yet common-
ly walk well; but their Fore-quarters are quickly ruined, because the Hind prefles up-
on them with fo much Violence, that the Fore-part cannot refift it.; fuch Horfes are
admirable for hilly Countries, for they climb like Oxen, but to balance that, they are
no wife fure upon a Defcent, for they cannot ply their Hammes; and a certain Sign of
it is, that when they Gallop, they can never perform it flowly, but almcft always at
full fpeed, because they cannot fo ply their Haunches beneath them, as to put them in
a capacity to gallop flowly: The Manage is the greatest tumbling Block filch Horfes
have; for whatever good Reins they have, People have great difficulty to put them
well upon their Haunches, and if an Efquire be not the more skilful, I would not ad-
vife him to undertake it; if he fucceed, it will be by Chance, and perhaps once in his
Life-time, and he will take two Years to make him perform that, which another Horfe
will do in three Months.
You hall know when the Haunches are too long, in that when the Horfe is standing
in the Stable, he camps with his Hind-feet farther back than he ought, and that the
Top or Onfet of his Tail doth not answer in a perpendicular Line with the Tips of his
Hocks, as it doth always in Horfes which have their Haunches of a juft Length.


A further Continuation of the Knowledge of the Faults and Im-
perfet5ions in Horfes, and what is to be observed when buying

IN this Chapter I hall teach yor to know the Feet, and what belongs to them; af-
terwards the good or bad Flank,and all that belongs to that Knowledge. In the pre-
ceeding Chapters we have regularly considered fome Imperfe&ions : My Defign in this
Place is not to difcourfe of the Gallop, Amble, a good or bad Mouth, and of the
Means to know every Thing elfe, which a Man should consider in the Going of a Horfe,
as Swiftnefs, and other good Qualities: That which obliges me to take this Method is,
that I obferve People always consider the Faults and Imperfe&ions we are going to dif-
courfe of, before ever they either run or gallop a Horfe ; for it would be but loft La-
bour to advance fo far, if a Man perceived other Faults which would hinder his buying
him; and provided that I make the Reader understand them all, it is no great Matter
in what Part of the Book I do it.
There are four Marks which all Horfes have, and which few Authors make mention
of; they are fituate in the Fore-legs above the Knees, and upon the Inlides, and almost
upon the Back-parts of the Hind-legs a little below the Hammes; the Part is without
.Hair, and resembles a little Piece of hard and dry Horn, it is termed the Swimer;
the Greeks call this Part Lichenes, and the French call it the Chefnut, because of the re-
femblance it hath to one:-The finaller this Part is, the Mark is the better, because it
is a Token that the Leg is dry and nervous. In fome Horfes this Part, as they grow
old, becometh hard as their Soles; People have fuch from Time to Time, because if
they pull them away, the Blood will follow, and there would remain a Wound. Thefe
Swimers proceed from 1tumidity; and there are fome Horfes which have them fo very
fall, thbatthey can fcarcely be difcerned, and they are.the better for it.
This Part is of fmall Confequence, but a Man should know every Thing, because Na-
ture hath made nothing in vain. Horfes have, upon the Back-parts of their Fore and
Hind-paltern Joynts, a Kind of round Stub which refembles a Piece of tender Horn,
and bbout the Bignefs of a Nut; they are always covered with the little Tufts of Hair,
that are upon the Back-parts of the Paftern-joynts, called the Fetlocks: Theft Stubs,
or round little Knobs, are of the fame Nature with thofc S.vimers or Chlef~ts I

46 The Perfea Marjhal ; PART I

was difcourfing of, but the Swimers are commonly more dry, and fo confequently
Horfes are fubjecq to the Poignes, or Crown-Scab, which is a Kind of Itching Scurf
that cometh upon the Coronet of the Hoof, and keeps the Hair, upon that Part which
is already fwell'd, always briftly and staring: There are two Kinds of them; one is
humid, and fendeth forth Serofities thro' the Pores, which sometimes encreafe fo abu'n-
dantly, that they mount up to the very Paftern-joynt, caufing a Part of the Hair to fall
away where they come, especially if the Humour be very fharp; but if the Horfe la-
bour in dry Grounds, then they dry up sometimes in the Summer-time, fo that fcarce-
ly any of the moift Humour can be perceived; but if the Hair be fall'n off, then the Part
will remain bald and ugly: This laft Kind of Crown-Scab which caufeth the Hair to fall,
is only feen in old Coach-Horfes, but rarely in Young.
The other Kind is dry, and never expelleth any moisture, but only fendeth forth
this Kind of itchy Scurf, which maketh the Hair to ftare, and keepeth the Coronet
fwell'd : I would not take a Horfe which had either of thefe Imperfetions, (altho' they *
do not much hinder him to labour) unlefs the Perfon who own'd him, diminished con-
fiderably hi0 Price, and if he be a Horfe of Value, he mutt be absolutely rejeced. Peo-
ple know this Infirmity, chiefly by thedCoronets being fwell'd, and full of that Humour
which occasions the Crown-Scab; the Swelling is easily perceived by the Coronet's being
bigger and more elevate than the Reft of the Hoof: A Coach-Horfe with Crown-Scabs
is worth nothing in a City.
This Infirmity is as troublefome as any a tiorfe can have For firit, they rarely re-
cover of it; and, besides, many Perfons absolutely reje& fuch Horfes; fo that you your
felf are the laft Mafter of the Horfe: When the Horfe-Courfers have any fuch, they
will tell you, that their Horfes have been labouring in strong and clay Ground, which
hath occafioned the Hair upon their Coronets to bristle: I am of the Opinion, that a
Man should not give above eight Pieces for fuch Horfes.
You are next to consider, if the Horfe you intend to buy, have no Forme, which is a
Kind of Swelling upon the Paiterns; this Imperfe&ion is not very common, and Peo-
ple rarely fee it in Journy-Horfes, but only in thofe which are appointed for the Coach
and Manage: As it is of great Confequence, a Man should know it exacly ; I have al-
ready difcourfed of it a little, and believe what I am to repeat, will not be altogether
unneceflary, feeing every Horfe which hath Formes, may be looked upon to run a very
great hazard of becoming lame.
A Forme is a Swelling, which cometh as well in the Pattern of the Hind as Fore-legs;
above the Quarters of the Foot both within and without, hard as the reft of the Sub-
ftance of the Paftern, and even like a Griftle, and it is not only upon the Skin, but
fixt to the Subftance of the Pattern; it maketh a Horfe to halt, and at laft to become
altogether lame. In the Beginning it does not exceed half the Bignefs of a Pigeon's
Egg, but Labour and Exercife maketh it to become, thro' Time, about half the Big-
nefs of a Hen's Egg, and the nearer it is fituate to the Coronet upon the Quarters, fo
much the more dangerous is it.


How to know a Horfers Feet.

T He Feet are to be confider'd as one of the effential Parts of a Horfe, without which
he is ufelefs, and for no Kind of Service; and altho' a Man may have Horfes
with very good Feet, yet he is oftentimes neceffitated to let them reft, that fo they
may grow and be in a condition to receive a Shoe, if they have either rid bare-footed
(and thereby wafted and wore their Hoof) or that it be naturally brittle; it is a Part of
the Body which fuffers moft, and a Horfe which hath them not good, for what can he
be proper, especially in hilly Countries or unequal and ftony High-ways ? He is fit for
nothing but the Plough, or for fuch Countries which are free of Stones, where he may
work now and then, and but indifferently neither; or to be confined to a common
Riding-fchool, where the Ground is extremely foft. It is always at an eafy Rate, that
People buy fuch Horfes as have tender and bad Feet, and notwithstanding of it they
make oftentimes a bad Bargain altho' to tell ;he Truth, there are to be feen odd enough

C H A P. XIII. Or, Compleat Farrier. 47

Varieties in the matter of Feet; for fome will appear to be weak, when they are re-
ally good, and the little Horn that they have is tough, folid, and cap;,:ble to ferve ;
others again appear good, which are pained for being too fat and fill of Flikf. The
fureft way then is to take them of a good Shape, and where there is nnthing to ie
complained of, and with the right Method of Shoeing, People recover thofe that ar-e
bad, and the good they maintain in that condition.
A Man muft be a good Knower of Horfes, to judge exacly of certain kinds of i,.,
especially thofe of Dutch Horfes, which come from Holland about the Age of four or
five Years; for with difficulty can it be known if thofe Feet, which to many People
appear good, will not become in a little Time very bad, as it frequently faiieth out,
either through the defeat of the Foot, or fault of the Smith who fhoeth them, or fome-
times both; therefore the fureft way is to chufe them as I am going to fhew you.
Let us begin with the Hoof, which should be of a Form very near round, and not lon;-
ifh, especially toward the Heel, for long Feet are worth nothing; the Horn should bc
Tough and Solid, High, Smooth, 'and of a dark Colour, and ifpoffible without any
Circles; a Man may know thofe that are brittle, when the Horfe by loling often his
Shoes has fpoilt his Feet, by having many Pieces broke from the Horn around his
Foot, and several Wants in it near to the Shoe, fo that it doth not follow t he axaft
Shape of it; brittle Hoofs fplit in the Places where the Nails are riveted, which fome-
times taketh away the very piece: A Man may alfo know a bad Hoof by lifting up the
Foot, and considering if it have a Shoe forged exprefly for it, and that it be pierced
extraordinarily, and the holes of it placed in fuch Parts where it is not very utual,
that fo they might Shoe the Horfe more conveniently, feeing he had not Horn enough
to take hold by, in thofe Parts where commonly the Nails are driven: So People
are conftrained sometimes to peirce the Shoes near to the Heels, although they are fot
the Fore-part, it not being in their Power to do otherwise: They commonly drive no
Nails near to the Heels of the Fore-feet, and when they do, it is because the Toe is fo
much Split and Broke, that they can place none in it.
Circles in Horfes Hoofs, make a Man know that they are altered, and if they quite
furround the Feet and be higher then the reft of the Hoof, they make them halt, for
they look as if one had put exprefly a Circle of Horn in that Place, to keep the Hoof
together ; when a Man fees that the Foot is Circled, altho the Circle doth not make the
Horfe halt or mean his Foot upon the.Street, yet it is a Sign that the Hoof is either
altered, or that the Nature of the Horn is naught therefore it mult be considered very
exa&ly and all the other Circumftances taken Notice of; as firff if the Horn be thick, fe-
ing thofe Horfes which have a thin Horn are fuch which are faid to have fat Feet, and
cannot be known but by seeing the Foot pared, for in that Cafe the Horn will not on-
ly be thin, butthe Sole alfo, by having but avery little Thicknefs; fuch thin hoof'd Horfes
aalt and mean their Feet a long Time after they are Shod, before they recover Strength
in them, to that a Man is neceffitated to let them reft fome Days after they are Shod,
before he can make Ufe of them.
To know exactly when Feet are Fat, is one of the moft difficult Things in the know-
tedge of Horfes, and I am of Opinion few People can judge .certainly of Them, feeing
their Shape is as beautiful as that of any other Foot, and the Horn maketh the beft
Appearance and mhew in the World, only that the Hoof is somewhat bigger than Or-
dinary, and larger than the Size of the Horfe will allow of.
You are moreover to consider, if the Horfe have not a kind of Cleft in his Foot cal-
led a falfe-_ arter, which is occasioned by the Horfe's casting his Quarter and getting a
new one, for then the Horn beginning to grow is uneven and ugly, and bigger and
fofter than the Reft of the Hoof; if the Cleft be considerable and take up a Quarter
of the Foot, it should keep a Man from buying the Horfe.
There are Horfes which have over-reaches or calkin Treads upon the Coronet, which
4 become hollow and groov'd in curing; but then the Hollow of the Tread defcends
proportionably as the Hoof growth, and is vifible upon it; it doth little or no prejudice
to the Horfe, if their remain no dwelling upon the Coronet.
There are fome Clefts very dangerous, for when Farriers have sometimes fired the
Coronet, and that they have burnt down a little upon the Top of the Horn, there is oc-
cafioned a Cleft or Groove along the Hoof, which renders it ugly and hard fo long as
his Foot remaineth, and is considerably .prejudicial to him, because it commonly ftrai-
tens and dryeth up the Foot in-that part however it is not at all dangerous to apply
Rayes of Fire upon the Hoof, provided that you do not burn the Coronet; yea it is fo
far from being dangerous, that it is very profitable upon many Qocalions to perform i r,

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