Historic note
 Front Cover
 Common names

Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Extension Service ; 162
Title: Ornamental Hedges for Florida
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00020574/00001
 Material Information
Title: Ornamental Hedges for Florida
Series Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Extension Service ; 162
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Mowry, Harold
Dickey, R. D.
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Publication Date: 1955
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00020574
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAB2841

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Historic note
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Common names
        Page 34
        Page 35
Full Text


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.

Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida

Bulletin 162 November 1955

(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida,
Florida State University and United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
H. G. Clayton, Director

Ornamental Hedges for Florida


Fig. 1.-Hedge group on horticultural grounds of the University of
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.

Single copies free to Florida residents upon request to


J. Lee Ballard, Chairman, St. Petersburg Geo. W. English, Jr., Ft. Lauderdale
Hollis Rinehart, Miami Mrs. Jessie B. duPont, Jacksonville
Fred H. Kent, Jacksonville R. L. Miller, Ph.D., Orlando
W. Glenn Miller, Monticello J. Broward Culpepper, Secretary, Tallahassee


J. Wayne Reitz, Ph.D., President of the A. M. Pettis, B.S.A., Farm Electrification
University 1 Specialist
Willard M. Fifield, M.S., Provost for John D. Haynie, B.S.A., Apiculturist
Agriculture 1 V. L. Johnson, Rodent Control Specialist s
H. G. Clayton, M.S.A., Director of Extension Donald M. Coe, Ph.D., Assoc. Pathologist
M. O. Watkins, Ph.D., Asst. Director J. Russell Henderson, M.S.A., Agronomist 1
F. W. Parvin, M.S.A., Asst. to Director 2 A. C. Mixon, M.S.A., Asst. Agronomist
R. L. Bartley, B.S., Administrative Mgr.1 F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Veg. Crops Specialist1
S. E. Rosenberger, M.Agr., Asst. Veg. Crops
WORK, GAINESVILLE F. E. Myers, M.Agr., Asst. Veg. Crops Splst.
J. Montelaro, Ph.D., Asst. Veg. Crops Splat.
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor and Head James E. Brogdon, M.S., Entomologist
F. B. Borries, Jr., A.B., Associate Editor J. D. Norton, M.S., Asst. Veg. Crops Spclst.
H. L. Moreland, Jr., B.S.A., Assistant J. H. Herbert, Jr., M.S.A., Asst. Soils Cons.
Editor 1
M. H. Sharpe, Ph.D., Assistant Editor1
K. S. McMullen, M.Agr., District Agent HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
F. S. Perry, M.Agr., District Agent TALLAHASSEE
W. J. Platt, Jr., M.S.A., District Agent Anna Mae Sikes, M.S., State Agent
C. W. Reaves, B.S.A., Dairy Husbandman Eunice Grady, M.S., Asst. to State HDA
T. W. Sparks, B.S.A., Asst. Dairy Husb. Helen D. Holstein, M.A., District Agent
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husb. Mrs. Edyth Y. Barrus, B.S.H.E., District Agt.
J. S. Moore, M.S.A., Poultryman Joyce Bevis, A.M., District Agent
A. W. O'Steen, B.S.A., Supervisor Egg- Mrs. Bonnie J. Carter, B.S., Home
Laying Test, Chipley Improvement Specialist
L. W. Kalch, B.S.A., Asst. Poultry Husb. Mrs. Gladys Kendall, A.B., Home Industries
T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., Animal Industrialist and Marketing Specialist
Emily King, B.S., State Girls' 4-H Club
J. Pace, M.S.A., Asst. An. Industrialist Agent tt l 4-H lub
R. L. Reddish, Ph.D., Asst. An. Industrialist Bronna Mae Elkins, M.Ed., Assistant Girls'
K. L. Durrance, B.S.A., Asst. An. Indust'list 4-H Club Agent
L. T. Nieland, Farm Forester Martha Burdine, B.S., Interim Asst. Girls'
A. S. Jensen, B.S.A., Asst. Forester Club Agent
H. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Agr. Economist 1 Alice L. Cromartie, M.S., Nutritionist
E. W. Cake, Ph.D.. Marketing Economist Lena Sturges, M.S., Asst. Food Cons.
W. E. Black, Ph.D., Marketing Specialist S istia sst
Susan R. Christian, M.S., Asst. Food Cons.
C. C. Moxley, Ph.D., Assoc. Economist Specialist
Clyde E. Murphree, M.S., Asst. Economist Elizabeth Diekenson, M.A., Clothing Specialist
E. W. McElwee, Ph.D., Ornamental Hort.' Alma Warren, M.S., Assistant Editor and
Fred P. Lawrence, M.Agr., Citriculturist Visual Aids Specialist
T. J. Sheehan, Ph.D., Asst. Ornamental Hort. Frances C. Cannon, M.S., Health Education
J. N. Joiner, M.Agr., Asst. Horticulturist 2 Specialist
Jack T. McCown, B.S.A., Acting Asst. Hort.
W. W. Brown, M.Agr., Boys' 4-H Club Agent NEGRO EXTENSION WORK
G. M. Godwin, M.Agr., Asst. Boys' Club Agent TALLAHASSEE
B. H. Floyd, B.S.A., Asst. Boys' Club Agent Floy Britt, B.S.H.E., Negro District Agent
T. C. Skinner, M.Agr., Agr. Engineer J. A. Gresham, B.S.A., Negro District Agent

1Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F. 2 On leave. 3 In cooperation with U. S.

Ornamental Hedges for Florida


INTRODUCTION ....................-------- -------- --------- 3
SELECTION OF PLANTS .... --..... ... -------------. .----- --- 4
CLIMATIC CONDITIONS ---------. ------------------- 4
PLANTING AND CARE ....... ............ -....---- --------- --- 5
Tim e of Planting 6................. ................. 6
Preparation of the Soil ..... ..............-....... 6
Handling and Setting the Plants --....--..... .- 6
Fertilization and Cultivation ......................... 7
Pruning or Shearing --............. ..........-.-- 9
Kinds of Outline .... ....... ............ ..-----
INDEX OF COMiMON NAMES ............... ---.. ----- -... 34

Ornamental hedges under some conditions are desirable and
should be given due consideration in the planting plan through-
out Florida. Often they can be substituted for unsightly fences,
which are frequently seen where no actual barrier is needed.
The very low hedges are decidedly more ornamental than the
larger ones, but the latter can be used on larger properties and
to enclose playgrounds, gardens, clothes-drying yards, etc., as
well as to screen unsightly objects.
Few states are so favored as Florida with a climate that will
permit the growing of such a wide assortment of plants for
hedge purposes. Recognizing this splendid opportunity for utiliz-
ing hedge plants in Florida, and their possibilities to the land-
scape gardener, Dr. P. H. Rolfs, former director of the Florida
Experiment Station, instituted about 35 years ago a series of
experiments with hedge plants on the Horticultural Grounds
at Gainesville. These have been continued and results secured
from the basis for a large part of this bulletin (Fig. 1).
Numerous hedge plants are suited to Florida conditions. It
is possible to use not only many plants grown farther north
but also many others found only in tropical and subtropical
climates. The range of varieties includes, besides those with
the usual green foliage, shrubs which are a mass of color during
the season of bloom and others with foliage of various hues.
There is also a wide range in size and habit of growth of the
1 Mowry, formerly Director, and Dickey, Horticulturist, Florida Agricul-
tural Experiment Stations. This is a revision of Experiment Station Bulle-
tin 443.

4 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

plants available. Some of the more dwarf varieties can be
trimmed to one foot or less, while the heavier growing ones
can be trimmed to almost any desired height.

Selection of Plants
Careful consideration should be given to the individual loca-
tion, the variety of plants to be used, and the type of hedge
to be grown. If the lot is small a low hedge can be used effec-
tively or, if the lot is larger, one or more hedges in combination
with other plantings can be used to advantage.
On properties where ample room is available the informal or
unsheared hedge should be given preference. Such a hedge
fits in well with the present tendency toward a more natural
grouping of materials instead of the old formal or "geometrical"
method of planting. Hedges planted in the front or on the
sides toward the front of a lot usually should be of the smaller
sizes. Taller and larger kinds should be toward the rear.
In selecting plants for hedge planting consider the following:
Hardiness of the plant in question in the locality where
planting is to be made. Tender or sub-tropical varieties should
not be selected for planting in the northern portions of the state.
Type of soil-whether high or low, well drained or wet, sand
or muck. Plants should be suited to the soils on which they
are to be set. The possibility of increasing soil fertility makes
this of minor importance, except in regard to moisture condi-
tions. Some varieties thrive on light, dry soils while others
require moist soils.
Location-whether in the sun or partial shade, or whether
exposed to winds from salt water. Some varieties will thrive
in partial shade where others will perish, and few will withstand
exposure to salt winds or spray.
Size of hedge desired. Plants which will normally attain the
height desired should be selected. A thrifty, large-growing
type can be kept pruned down to the desired size, but a naturally
dwarf plant may not reach the height wanted.

Climatic Conditions
Satisfactory hedging plants should be well adapted to the
environment in which grown, so that they produce vigorous,
thrifty growth. Some plants growing in colder regions fail to
adapt themselves to warmer climates; also there is considerable
variation in hardiness of the plants used. Because of differences

Ornamental Hedges for Florida 5

in winter temperature minimums between northern and southern
sections, comparatively few plants are entirely adapted to plant-
ing throughout Florida. Differences between low temperatures
in various parts of the state are not wide, but within that range
there is a critical point for many tropical plants that are more
or less severely damaged or are killed when exposed for several
hours to temperatures below freezing. Duration of temperatures
has considerable bearing on amount and severity of injury, and
this necessarily varies considerably for different sections of the
state. Some plants growing in colder climates apparently re-
quire a period of dormancy induced by or coincident with low
temperatures and short day lengths. They are, consequently,
not climatically adapted to the warm winters of the sub-tropics.
It is difficult to make a classification showing the exact range
to which any given species may be adapted, due to the various
factors involved, such as latitude, elevation, water protection,
proximity to the coast, as well as factors affecting temperatures
in a given locality.
On the basis of normal prevailing winter temperatures, the
state may be divided into three regions, designated as northern,
central and southern, to which certain plants are climatically
adapted. The limits of these areas cannot be exactly defined
because local conditions of elevation, water protection, and
proximity to the coast influence temperatures. At the same
time any delimitation of these areas according to a specified
temperature minimum would fluctuate from year to year with
seasonal variation so that their boundaries are necessarily vague
and broad rather than exact. The northern area includes gen-
erally that part of the state lying north of a line through Marion
County and subject to the heaviest frosts; the southern, that
of the extreme south having the warmest winter temperatures
and extending northward along the coast approximately to
Palm Beach and Punta Gorda; and the central, that lying between
the northern and southern sections.
The ornamental value of any plant used for hedging is greatly
impaired if it is subject to damage by frost or is not otherwise
climatically adapted to the locality in which it is to be grown.
Choose only a variety that meets the requirements.

Planting and Care
The use of young, thrifty plants is recommended-such plants
cost less and usually give better results. However, if special

6 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

attention can be given, the use of larger plants may be advisable.
The planting of larger plants does not always hasten the growth
of the hedge to the desired size because it is necessary to cut
back severely, and some large plants when so treated are slow
in recovering. This results in unequal growth along the row.
The use of hardened plants generally should be avoided.

Time of Planting
Many varieties of hedge plants and especially those of tropical
origin may be set at any time during the year except during
periods of drought. The cooler months, however, are preferable
because at this time most plants are in a more dormant condi-
tion and the danger of loss from transplanting is less. Decidu-
ous plants should be moved during the winter months only.

Preparation of the Soil
A good way to prepare the soil for planting is to cultivate
thoroughly a strip 4 or 5 feet wide and incorporate in it a heavy
application of well rotted manure. Another method which can
be used where it is not feasible to cultivate a strip of this width
is to dig a trench from 18 inches to 2 feet deep and fill it with
a mixture of top soil and manure. Fresh manure is undesirable
for this purpose as it is likely to heat and injure the plants.
If available, organic matter in the form of leaves, dead grass,
weeds, peat or straw should be mixed with the soil used in
filling the trench. The fertility of the soil on which the planting
is made should serve as a guide to the size of the trench and
the amount of fertilizing materials used.

Handling and Setting the Plants
Soil preparation should be completed before the plants are
received so that setting can begin immediately upon their arrival.
No set rule can be given as to the exact distance apart to set
the plants, because of their varied nature and the height of
hedge desired. A good rule for a low, compact hedge is space
the plants 6 inches. The average distance of spacing is about
12 inches. The higher the hedge is to be the more space there
should be between plants. An ideal arrangement for planting
dwarf, slow-growing species is to set the plants in two staggered
rows with 12 inches between plants.
Before planting bare-rooted plants trim off long or broken
roots with a sharp knife or pruning shears. In setting the plants

Ornamental Hedges for Florida 7

dig a trench in the center of the previously prepared strip
sufficiently large to hold the roots without bending or breaking
them. Extended exposure of the roots to the wind or direct
rays of the sun is injurious and should be avoided.
Set the plants in a straight line at the same depth they were
in the nursery row, being careful to see that the roots are well
spead out. Soil should be well packed about the roots and the
plants should be thoroughly watered after planting.
After setting, most plants should be cut back to within 5 or
6 inches of the ground. This will tend to cause more side
branching and give a denser hedge from the ground up.
Broad-leaved evergreens and coniferous plants are often dug
with a ball of earth about the roots and sewed up in burlap
to hold the ball in place. In setting a hedge with "balled and
burlapped" plants, dig a hole slightly larger than the ball of
earth, set the plant in the hole, fill the soil in around it and
water thoroughly. The plant should be at the same depth it
grew in the nursery. It is not necessary to remove the burlap,
as the roots grow through it and it soon decays.
Some plants are difficult to transplant as, for example, the
bottlebrushes, and are usually grown in pots or cans. They are
handled in the same way as balled plants. Care should be taken
not to break the ball of earth in removing it from the pot or
Potted or balled plants usually require no pruning other than
to cut back shoots that extend beyond the general outline of
the plants.
A mulch of leaf mold, grass, weeds, peat, straw or rotted
manure completes the planting. To insure against loss of plants
and to stimulate early growth, water regularly. After it is
established the hedge should be watered sufficiently to keep it in
a good thrifty condition.
It is not the best practice to set other shrubbery immediately
adjacent to the hedge, because eventually one of the two will
Fertilization and Cultivation

Fertilize and cultivate periodically. An annual application
of well decomposed manure, in addition to other fertilizer, will
be beneficial. The mineral soils of Florida are usually deficient
in nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Applications of ferti-
lizers containing from 4 to 8 percent nitrogen, 6 to 8 percent
phosphoric acid and 4 to 8 percent potash should be satisfactory.

8 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

The amount to apply will vary with age of plants, native fertility
of the soil and quantity of organic matter supplied, but may
range from 2 to 4 pounds for each application per 100 square
feet. The fertilizer should be broadcast over the cultivated strip
in which the hedge is planted. Usually two applications are
given, the first in early spring and the second in early summer.
In the southern half of the peninsula, where some plants may
continue growth during fall and winter months, a third applica-
tion in late summer or early fall may be advantageous.
A chlorosis of several ornamental plants used as hedges in
Florida is caused by a deficiency of certain of the micro elements,
such as manganese, zinc and iron. Of these, manganese de-
ficiency is the most prevalent and is found on both acid and
alkaline soils. A manganese deficiency has been identified for
the following plants used for hedges: crape-myrtle, cattley
guava, flame vine, wax privet, camphor-tree, cape plumbago,
bougainvillea and pale butterfly-bush. Foliage applications of a
1 or 2 percent manganese sulfate solution will correct the trouble.
Applications to soils acid in reaction of 1 ounce to 1/ pound of
manganese sulfate per plant, depending upon age and size, is
usually effective in correcting the trouble. However, this may
not prove satisfactory on soils with an alkaline reaction.
Zinc deficiency has been observed on surinam-cherry, wax
privet and orange-jessamine growing on the marl soils of the
extreme southern area. This deficiency can be controlled by
using zinc sulfate as a spray.
Iron deficiency of azaleas, gardenia, ixora and hibiscus, is a ser-
ious problem in many locations but is more severe on alkaline
soils. Soil applications of iron chelates have proven effective in
correcting this trouble on these and other woody ornamental
plants in Florida. The EDTA iron chelate is effective in correct-
ing iron deficiency on acid soils and those slightly alkaline in re-
action, while the EEDTA iron chelate has proven satisfactory on
alkaline soils. Maximum efficiency is obtained when they are ap-
plied to moist soil around the plants and washed in with water
from a hose, or dissolved in water and applied about the plants
as a drench. These iron chelates are effective in relatively small
amounts and an overdose may burn the plant. Therefore, the
manufacturer's directions for their use should be carefully fol-
lowed. If soil applications of iron chelates do not give the re-
quired response, it may be desirable to supplement them with
iron sulfate sprays. However, iron deficiency of gardenia can-

Ornamental Hedges for Florida 9

not be satisfactorily controlled by spray applications of iron.
Acidifying the soil with sulfur or iron sulfate, either alone or
in combination in conjunction with soil applications of an iron
chelate and the addition of considerable quantities of leaf mold,
acid peat or muck, will control the trouble on these plants.
A narrow strip on each side of the hedge should be kept culti-
vated to conserve moisture and permit the hedge to have full
benefit of all plant food within this area. However, from the
standpoint of health and vigor of plants, mulching is a desirable
practice and is recommended wherever possible.

Pruning or Shearing
The amount and type of pruning or shearing given will be
influenced by the height of hedge wanted, its rate of growth and
the manner in which it is to be used. The desired condition
for a formal hedge is a soft outline of foliage from the ground
up. By shearing at frequent intervals during the growing
season this, with most species, is easily secured and retained.
When removing large twigs or branches cut them well inside
the sheared lines of the hedge. This puts the stubs well out of
the way and leaves only the finer growth to make up the outlines
of the hedge. Many of the plants grown as informal hedges or
screens require little shaping after the first two or three years,
though occasionally some pruning is required.
Those of the flowering type grown formally should be sheared
after they have bloomed. Frequent pruning or shearing will
reduce the amount of bloom. The bloom, however, is of secondary
importance, since the growing of a heavy mass of foliage is the
primary objective. The plants do not suffer so severely from
frequent shearings as they do when a large portion of the plant
is cut off. This becomes necessary when the hedge has grown
entirely out of bounds.
In the colder sections of the state the final pruning should
not be made so late that the cut ends will remain bare during
the winter months. All pruning should usually cease by the
middle of September in this area.

Kinds of Outline
Types of outline generally used in sheared or formal hedges
are rectangular, triangular and curvilinear, as shown in Figure 2.
Choosing the outline is a matter of personal taste. Advocates
of the triangular and curvilinear forms argue that by use of

10 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

these outlines the foliage will better cover the ground and that
sunlight can more easily penetrate to the interior and base of
the plant, consequently resulting in less dying out. The rec-
tangular and curvilinear forms are giving satisfaction and are
not difficult to maintain (Fig. 2).

Rectangular Triangular Curvilinear
Fig. 2.-Diagram showing outlines for trimmed hedges.

A hedge should not be trimmed in varied, fantastic shapes,
even though a topiary effect may at first be considered pleasing.
A novelty soon wears itself out and a hedge so treated can easily
ruin the effect of an otherwise well kept and well arranged

Species and Varieties of Plants for Hedges
The following list covers most species and varieties of plants
suitable for hedge planting in Florida. No attempt, however, has
been made to include all plants which may be used as subjects
for hedging.
Because of the multiplicity of common names and their vari-
able use, the arrangement is alphabetical according to botanical
name. Throughout, for each, genus and species are given first,
followed in order by the family to which the plant belongs, the
common name or names, the section to which apparently best
adapted and, lastly, its native habitat. In some instances the
botanical synonym is included, in parentheses directly after the
scientific name. The common names are indexed. The first
common name given is the preferred one, others listed are in
common usage.
Abelia grandiflora Rehd. (Hybrid A. chinensis R. Br. x A.
uniflora R. Br.). Caprifoliaceae. Glossy Abelia. Northern area.
The glossy abelia is a hardy evergreen, with small dark-green
glossy leaves and small white flower clusters. It blooms through-
out the summer months, is a vigorous grower, and will succeed
anywhere with ordinary care. It is especially suited to low
formal hedges, but is also very attractive when grown with but

Ornamental Hedges for Florida 11

little pruning. More bloom is obtained when little pruning is
done but less foliage will result, and if a compact hedge is desired
this pruning must be continued (Fig. 3). Strong, succulent
shoots should be cut well within the outline of the plant.
Acacia longi-
folia Willd. Le-
guminosae. Syd- Ilk
ney Acacia. Syd-
ney Golden Wat-
tle. Southern and
Central areas.
The sydney
acacia is a hardy
evergreen w i 1-
lowy plant suit-
able for a large
informal hedge or
screen. It suc-
ceeds well under
adverse c o n d i-
tions such as ex-
p o s e d locations
and poor soils.
Owing to the na-
ture of the plant
it cannot be trim-
med to formal
shape but some Fig 3.-Left, cherry laurel; right, Abelia grandiflora.
pruning can be
given to advantage. The flowers are golden yellow in color,
opening in late winter.
Azalea spp. (Rhododendron spp.). Ericaceae. Azalea. Cen-
tral and Northern areas. China, Japan and Korea.
All species of Azalea are now classified botanically as Rhodo-
dendron. The name azalea has been applied to certain species
and its usage for these groups is of long standing.
Azaleas are very desirable for use as a flowering hedge and
warrant a greater popularity for this purpose than they now
enjoy. The varieties that can be used for this purpose in
Florida are not derived from a single species but are those

12 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

belonging to two principal groups, the Indian azaleas and the
Kurume azaleas. Many varieties, which afford a wide range
in size of plants and size and color of flowers, are available.
The more heavily foliaged varieties are best suited for this
purpose. They should be grown informally with a minimum of
pruning so that flower production will be reduced as little as
possible. Strong succulent growth should be pinched low and
well inside the outline of the bush. Azaleas should be kept well
Bambusa multiplex (Lour.) Raeusehel. Gramineae. Hedge
Bamboo. Southern, Central and Northern areas. China.
The variety Fernieaf of B. multiplex is a dwarf variety having
slender dark canes and a luxuriant mass of foliage. This variety
stands trimming well and makes a very dense growth from
ground to top. It is hardy and a vigorous grower. With care
and shaping it makes a hedge which is decidedly attractive.
However, like other bamboos, it is a voracious feeder and cannot
be planted close to other plants without injuring them (Fig. 4).
Its root system can be kept within bounds by annually digging a
trench between the hedge and the plants to be protected. This
severs all roots, but they are vigorous growers and this operation
must be repeated yearly.
Bougainvillea spp. Nyctaginaceae. Bougainvillea. Southern
and Central areas. South America.
The bougainvillea, although hardly a true hedge plant, is
strikingly effective if trained along a wall, fence or trellis. It
flowers profusely in winter, until late spring, and can be ob-
tained in shades of mauve, magenta, purple, pink, red, orange
and white. The plants are usually vigorous growers but are
only semi-hardy and can be grown only in the central and south-
ern portions of the state.
The common purple-flowered variety of B. glabra Choisy,
Sander bougainvillea, is more of a shrub in habit than the
other varieties and will form a low hedge when planted close
together and pruned frequently.
Breynia nivosa Small. (Phyllanthus nivosus W. G. Smith.).
Euphorbiaceae. Snow-Bush. Josephs Coat. Southern area and
warmer parts of Central area. South Sea Islands.
For the warmer sections, the snow-bush makes an attractive
low hedge. The leaves are from 1 to 2 inches in length, are
broad and mottled or speckled green and white. The variety
atropurpurea has attractive dark purple leaves. Another variety,

Ornamental Hedges for Florida 13

roseo-picta, has a pink and red mottling in the foliage, in addi-
tion to the white and green of the first-mentioned type. The
ornamental value of these plants is often impaired by the in-
jury done to the foliage, branches and trunks by the larvae of a

Fig. 4.-Variety Fernleaf of Bambusa multiplex.

Buddleia officinalis Maxim. Loganiaceae. Pale Butterfly-
Bush. Southern, central and warmer parts of Northern areas.
The pale butterfly-bush is a vigorous-growing, hardy ever-
green shrub. It is very desirable for use as screen or informal
hedge of large size. The lilac-like flowers are borne in pro-
fusion in mid-winter and are very attractive to butterflies. It

14 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

cannot be trimmed to formal shape. In early spring after
flowering the plants should be pruned back to within 12 to 18
inches of the ground. This results in a more dense and firmer
growth of foliage and prevents the plant from assuming a tree
shape. Summer pruning should consist in pinching back tips
to encourage lateral branching.
B. asiatica Lour., Asian butterfly-bush, may be used in the
same manner as the above species, which it resembles in general
habit. This species is only semi-hardy and can be grown only
in the central and southern portions of the state. The white
flowers, borne in drooping spikes, are produced in profusion in
late winter.
Buxus harlandi Hance. Buxaceae. Harlands Box. Box-
wood. Northern area. China.
Box has long been a favorite hedge or border plant in colder
climates; however, it can be grown successfully in the northern
area. Harlands box is a dwarf, slow-growing, dense-foliaged
plant with small, dark-green leaves, which is suitable for a low
formal or informal hedge or as a border plant. This species is
best adapted to northern peninsular Florida.
B. sempervirens L., common box, is better adapted to north-
western Florida and in this area grows best on the clay soils.
In general appearance it is similar to the above species and is
used in the same way. Common box is a native of southern
Europe, North Africa and Western Asia.
Callistemon spp. Myrtaceae. Bottlebrush. Southern, Cen-
tral and Northern areas. Australia.
Several species of bottlebrush are suitable for hedge planting,
and when in bloom, in early spring, make a hedge of unusual
attractiveness. The flower clusters are scarlet or crimson in
color and resemble bottlebrushes in shape, from which the plants
derive their common name. They cannot be cut to formal shape
but should be pruned enough to keep them within bounds. Prun-
ing following flowering will tend to increase the quantity of bloom
the following season. After becoming established they succeed
well with little attention and are adapted to a variety of soils.
Camellia japonica L. Theaceae. Common Camellia. Camellia.
Central and Northern areas. China and Japan.
The camellia is a slow-growing shrub or small tree with
smooth, dark-green, glossy foliage. Its period of bloom occurs
during the winter months. At this time it is very beautiful,

Ornamental Hedges for Florida 15

which makes it a desirable subject for an informal flowering
hedge. A large number of varieties which afford flowers in
many colors, white, shades of red and pink and variegated, in
double and single forms, are available. This plant should be
kept well mulched.
C. sasanqua Thunb. may be used in the same manner as the
above species, which it resembles except that it is more willowy
and open in growth. It produces a profusion of single or semi-
double white, pink or red flowers in early fall.
Carissa grandiflora A. DC. Apocynaceae. Carissa. Natal-
Plum. Southern area and warmer parts of Central area. South
The carissa, an evergreen spiny shrub, is well adapted to a
wide variety of Florida soils and is used extensively in southern
Florida as a hedge plant. The dark green leathery foliage
and the dense shrubby habit of growth make it particularly
desirable for that purpose. The branches are heavily armed
with strong two-pointed spines. The flowers, white, solitary,
2 inches across, are very conspicuous against the background of
dark green foliage. It should be sheared to formal shape.
C. arduina Lam. Amatungula Carissa. In appearance this
plant is similar to the above, but both fruit and flowers are
smaller. It is used in the same manner.
Casuarina spp. Casuarinaceae. Beefwood. Australian Pine.
Southern and Central areas. Australia and Tropical Asia.
The casuarinas are adapted to a wide range of ornamental
uses. Some of these are: For closely clipped hedges, for trim-
med and untrimmed specimens, screen and windbreaks (Fig. 5).
They are strong, vigorous growers and thrive under a wide
range of soil conditions. About the only factor limiting their
growth is low temperature. However, there is considerable
variability in the ability of species to withstand cold.
C. cunninghamiana Miq. is one of the most widely grown
species and is considered to be the most resistant to cold. It
has withstood a temperature of 160 F. at Gainesville. As it is
not injured by severe pruning, it can be shaped to suit the
grower's desires. It will not withstand salt spray. C. lepido-
phloia F. v. M. is as desirable as the above species. It has much
thicker foliage but is somewhat less hardy. C. equisetifolia L.
is particularly desirable for planting on the seacoast, as it thrives
in brackish soils and withstands salt spray without apparent

16 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Cephalotaxus harringtonia K. Koch. Taxaceae. Plum-Yew.
Northern area. Japan.
In general habit of growth and appearance of foliage this
species is similar to podocarpus. It is particularly desirable
for use as a low formal hedge, due to its very slow growth, and
for this purpose warrants a greater popularity. It is quite
hardy and is well adapted to the northern sections.


Fig. 5.-Seashore planting of Australian pine, Casuarina equisetifolia.
The hedge, formally pruned trees and trees in the background are all of
this species.

Cinnamomum camphora L. Lauraceae. Camphor-Tree. South-
ern, Central and Northern areas. China and Japan.
The camphor-tree is a hardy, broad-leaved evergreen which
forms a dense hedge when properly pruned. It grows well on
poor soils. As a hedge this plant is attractive during the active
growing season but is susceptible to attack by red spider and,
as a result, often presents a poor appearance during the winter
months. Chlorosis, due to a manganese deficiency, is of common
occurrence on this plant but can be controlled by spraying with
manganese sulfate.
Cocculus laurifolius DC. Menispermaceae. Cocculus. South-
ern and Central areas. Himalayas.
Cocculus is an evergreen plant with dense foliage and leath-
ery, dark green, oblong leaves to 6 inches in length. Though
as yet not much used for hedges, this plant deserves greater popu-

Ornamental Hedges for Florida 17

larity. It may be used as a formal or informal medium to high
hedge or screen.
Duranta repens L. (D. plumieri Jacq.). Verbenaceae. Golden
Dewdrop. Sky-Flower. Southern and Central areas. Native
through tropics to Brazil.
When planted as a high informal hedge or screen and ample
room is available, the golden dewdrop will be found satisfac-
tory. In such instances rather close planting is required, as
the plants will help to support each other. This plant is a
strong grower and very attractive but cannot be trimmed to
formal shape. The lilac flowers, borne in racemes, and yellow
berries are in evidence several months of the year.

Fig. 6.-Elaeagnus hedge.

Elaeagnus pungens Thunb. Elaeagnaceae. Elaeagnus. North-
ern area. Japan and China.
Elaeagnus is a vigorous growing, hardy, evergreen shrub.
The leaves are oval to oblong 2 to 4 inches long, silvery be-
neath dotted with brown scales, becoming smooth and dark
green above. The silvery-brown effect, produced by the foliage

18 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

and brown branches, particularly when young, gives the plant
an unusual appearance. It makes an attractive hedge if kept
well trimmed. It is a good hedge plant for the northern area,
well adapted to a variety of soils found there and quite hardy
(Fig. 6).
Eugenia uniflora L. Myrtaceae. Pitanga. Surinam-Cherry.
Southern area and warmer parts of Central area. Brazil.
The pitanga is particularly well adapted to the southern half
of the state, since it is subject to injury by heavy frosts. It is
used extensively in that area as a hedge plant. The leaves are
small and are a light glossy green color. It is well suited to
hedge plantings as continued shearing does not injure it
(Fig. 7).

Fig. 7.-Surinam-cherry, Eugenia uniflora.

E. paniculata Jacq. (E. hookeri; hookeriana Hort.), the Aus-
tralian brush-cherry is a small, vigorous tree, with oblong-
lanceolate leaves up to 3 inches or more long. The leaves are a
glossy green and tinged with red when young. The white flowers
with conspicuous stamens are borne in terminal clusters. The
flowers are followed by a showy rose-purple fruit. It is well

Ornamental Hedges for Florida 19

adapted to a variety of soils, particularly the sandy types, and
is a desirable subject for formal or informal hedges or screens.
The variety australis, commonly known as E. myrtifolia Sims,
because of its smaller foliage and bushy habit of growth, is a
more desirable subject for this purpose.
Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. Euphorbiaceae. Poinsettia.
Southern area and warmer parts of Central area. Mexico and
Central America.
This well known and popular plant, which blooms in the fall
and winter months, makes an attractive informal hedge in the
areas where it is adapted. The flowers are relatively incon-
spicuous but the upper leaves surrounding them become a bright
red and are the showy part of the plant. There are forms in
which the floral leaves are white or pink. Poinsettias are best
cut back to within 12 to 18 inches of the ground in the spring
following bloom-
ing. Subsequent
pruning consists
of pinching off
the tips of the h
shoots from timel
to time d u r i n g
the growing sea-
son to make them
branch more
Feijoa sellow-
iana Berg. Myrt-
aceae. Fei jo a.
Southern, C e n-
tral and North-
ern areas. South
Feijoa is a
hardy evergreen
p 1 ant that has Fig. 8.-Left, feijoa, Feijoa sellowiana; right,
shown itself well Poncirus trifoliata.
adapted to all
parts of Florida. It is a shrubby plant, slow of growth, and
for that reason, lends itself well to use as a hedging plant.
It is satisfactory for a formal hedge of medium height, as it

20 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

stands shearing well. The foliage and bark are grayish, the
leaves small, not over 21/2 inches in length, light shiny green
on the surface and gray tomentose beneath. Though as yet not
much used for hedges, this plant undoubtedly deserves a much
greater popularity. The grayish-green effect produced by the
branches and foliage provides a pleasing contrast to the normal
dark green foliage of most plants (Fig. 8). Feijoa does well
in partial shade.
Flacourtia indica Merr. (F. ramontchi L'Her.). Flacourtia-
ceae. Ramontchi. Governor's-Plum. Southern area. Mada-
gascar and Southern Asia.
The ramontchi is well adapted to most locations in southern
Florida and will make an attractive medium to high formal
hedge. Edible fruit are produced, about an inch in diameter
and dull red to purple when ripe. The leaves, 2 to 3 inches long,
are glabrous, dark green above and slightly pale below, glossy
and slightly leathery.
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. Malvaceae. Chinese Hibiscus.
Southern and Central areas. Asia.
For central and southern Florida, the Chinese hibiscus, a
broad-leaved evergreen, will make a beautiful informal hedge of
the larger type. It should not be sheared to formal shape but
should be cut back just enough to keep the plants dense and
well shaped. It grows vigorously and flowers freely, the blos-
soms being from 3 to 9 inches in diameter. Several shades of
color, in both single and double bloom, are available.
Ilex opaca Ait. Aquifoliaceae. American Holly. Central and
Northern areas. Native.
By heading back moderately low and with a small amount of
pruning the American holly will make a hedge of unusual type.
The plant is a hardy native and has few troublesome insect
pests or diseases. The red berries, which persist for several
months, and the dark green glossy leaves make a pleasing com-
bination. The Chinese holly, I. cornuta Lindl., and its variety
Burford, can be used to good advantage.
I. vomitoria Ait., the yaupon, makes a dense formal hedge
which, after becoming established, is one of the most desirable
grown from native stock. Close trimming does not injure it and,
when so treated, it will make a solid bank of green. A well
drained soil is required. As on the American holly, red berries
persist during the fall and winter months. This species is

Ornamental Hedges for Florida 21

adapted only to the northern area. Like all of the hollies, it is
Ixora coccinea L. Rubiaceae. Red Ixora. Jungleflame Ixora.
Southern area and warmer parts of Central area. East Indies.
The red ixora is an evergreen shrub with attractive dark green
foliage. Bright red star-shaped flowers on slender tubes, borne
in dense corymbs, are produced in profusion during the summer
months and some are in evidence most of the year. It stands
shearing well but shearing reduces flowering. Its compact
habit of growth and profuse flowering make it one of the most
desirable subjects for a formal or informal medium-sized flower-
ing hedge in the areas where it is adapted.
Juniperus chinensis L. Pinaceae. Chinese Juniper. Northern
area. Himalayas, China and Japan.
The Chinese juniper is well adapted to the northern area and
can be used similarly to the red cedar. There are a number of
varieties and these differ in size, form and color of foliage.
Juniperus virginiana L. Pinaceae. Eastern Red-Cedar.
Northern area. Native.
For a formal hedge the eastern red-cedar can be used effec-
tively, since it shears well and makes a dense wall of foliage.
Without pruning or shearing it serves well as a windbreak or
large screen. The growth is slow. Like the thujas, its use prob-
ably should be restricted, since there are many other plants
adapted to Florida which do not grow in other areas.

Fig. 9.-Left, crape-myrtle; right, Myrtus communis microphylla.

22 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Southern red-cedar, J. silicicola (Small) Bailey, is as desirable
for this purpose as is the eastern red-cedar.
Lagerstroemia indica L. Lythraceae. Crape-Myrtle. South-
e r n, Central
and northern
areas. China.
Crap e-
F myrtle is a
hardy, decidu-
ous plant,
which, when
not pruned
back too se-
verely, flowers
profusely f o r
several weeks
during e a r 1 y
summer. Flow-
er colors are
available in
white, purple,
scarlet or crim-
son, and pink.
Owing to its
vigorous n a-
ture it cannot
be used for
1 o w plantings
and is not suit-
ed for use in
small areas
(Fig. 9).
Lantana spp.
Fig. 10.--Lantana hedge. Southern, Cen-
tral and North-
ern areas. Tropical America and South America.
The dwarf species of Lantana are very satisfactory for use
where a flowering border is wanted. They are evergreen and

Ornamental Hedges for Florida 23

bloom almost the entire year. Flower colors in red, white, yellow
and combinations are obtainable. The trailing lantana, L.
sellowiana L. & 0., has deep lilac flowers and is a vigorous
grower and profuse bloomer. All of them are half hardy, and
if killed back by frosts will come again from the roots. They
should be cut back annually, in late winter, to prevent the plants
from becoming coarse and straggly in appearance (Fig. 10).
Ligustrum spp. Oleaceae. Privet.
The privets have long been regarded as the dominant hedge
plants because of their rapid growth, large mass of foliage and
ability to withstand heavy shearing, as well as neglect. All of
them are hardy and thrifty growers.
L. sinense Lour., the Chinese privet, is probably the most
widely planted species in the South. This plant has long been
known erroneously as Amur River privet or Amur River privet
"South", L. amurense Carr. The leaves are small and the plants
produce dense foliage from the ground up to the top of the hedge.
It can be shaped as desired, since it is not injured by clipping.
It is particularly adapted to the northern part of the state and
to heavy clay soils. An objection to its use is its susceptibility
to attack by whitefly, which will make the plants unsightly if
not controlled.
L. ovalifolium Hassk., California privet, and L. quihoui Carr.,
quihou privet, are others of the smaller-leaved species that may
be used for hedges. They are not, however, considered as satis-
factory as the Chinese privet, and likewise are subject to attack
by whitefly.
L. japonicum Thunb. Japanese Privet. Wax Privet. Central
and Northern areas. Japan and Korea. Through an error of
some sort, it seems that the two species, L. japonicum and L.
lucidum, were confused at some time in the past, and the correct
names transposed, each now being commonly known by the
name of the other. This species, commonly known in the trade
as L. lucidum, is, therefore, L. japonicum. A vigorous growing,
compact evergreen, with thick, dark glossy green leaves. One
of the most popular plants for use as a formal hedge in the areas
where is is adapted (Fig. 11). This plant is attacked by the
root-knot nematode, which is a limiting factor in its successful
growth in many localities, particularly in sandy locations. This
trouble may be overcome by obtaining this plant grafted on
L. quihoui, which is highly resistant to root-knot attack.

24 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

The nepal privet, L. nepalense Wall., is another species of the
broad-leaved evergreen type which makes an effective hedge.
The nepal privet and wax privet are less susceptible to the
whitefly than are the smaller-leaved species.

Fig. 11.-Hedges of wax privet, Ligustrum japonicum (L. lucidum).
Malpighia coccigera L. Malpighiaceae. Holly Malpighia.
Southern area and warmest parts of Central area. West Indies.
The holly malpighia is a dwarf compact shrub with small,
spiny, leathery, shining leaves which resemble the hollies. Where
a slow-growing, formal or informal, low hedge is desired it is
an excellent subject in the areas where it is adapted. The small
light pink flowers are followed by bright red fruit.
Malvaviscus grandiflorus HBK. Malvaceae. Turk's Cap.
Southern area and warmer parts of Central area. Mexico.
Turk's Cap is a rapid-growing flowering shrub, of good
foliage, which is closely related to the hibiscus. Its red, droop-
ing flowers are borne freely throughout the year, and this makes
it desirable where a flowering hedge is wanted. Pink and white
flowered varieties are to be had. Like hibiscus, this plant is
possibly best used as an informal high hedge or screen. How-
ever, it may be trained to formal shape, but when this is done
the number of flowers will be reduced in proportion to the
severity of the pruning.

Ornamental Hedges for Florida 25

In localities where it is susceptible to frequent injury by cold
there are other plants which are much more acceptable as a
hedge and these should largely replace it.
Murraya paniculata Jack. Rutaceae. (Chalcas exotica Millsp.).
Orange-Jessamine. Southern area and warmer parts of Cen-
tral area. India.
This member of the citrus family is an attractive evergreen
shrub or small tree with glossy green pinnately-compound leaves.
The white, very fragrant flowers are produced at intervals
throughout the year, followed by clusters of red ovoid fruit.
It is a vigorous grower and may be used as an informal high
hedge or screen, or may be trimmed to a formal shape. When
so trimmed it is suggestive of boxwood in an area where that
plant is out of the question.
Myrica cerifera L. Myricaceae. Wax-Myrtle. Southern, Cen-
tral and Northern areas. Native.
Wax-myrtle is a vigorous native evergreen which can be
utilized for hedge planting. It may be used as a formal or
informal high hedge or screen. The foliage is not large and
it shears well. It is of value for planting in proximity to the
coasts, as salt winds do not seem to injure it. Likewise, it will
make a good hedge on land that is not well drained.
Myrtus communis L. Myrtaceae. True Myrtle. Southern,
Central and Northern areas. Mediterranean region.
The foliage of the true myrtle is small, dark green, dense and
fragrant. It is a fairly rapid grower and shears perfectly. The
plant is a hardy evergreen. It is not suited to shade but rather
prefers full sunlight (Fig. 12). The varieties microphylla (Rose-
mary), which has small, overlapping leaves (Fig. 9) and italica,
with small sharp-pointed leaves, are particularly suitable for
growing in very small formal hedges.
Nerium oleander L. Apocynaceae. Common Oleander. South-
ern and Central areas and warmer parts of Northern area.
Mediterranean region.
The common oleander is another flowering plant which can
be used for informal hedge planting where ample room is avail-
able. It is a vigorous grower and thrives in almost any soil.
It will withstand exposure to salt spray with only a slight injury
to the foliage. Numerous varieties, having a wide range in
character and color of bloom, are available. Careful pruning
will overcome its rangy nature to a marked extent. Unfortun-

26 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

ately this plant is often attacked by the larvae of the oleander
caterpillar which produces an unsightly condition.


Fig. 12.-True myrtle, Myrtus communis.

Pittosporum tobira Ait. Pittosporaceae. Japanese Pitto-
sporum. Pittosporum. Tobira. Southern, Central and Northern
areas. China and Japan.
Pittosporum is a hardy evergreen which is one of the best
of plants for hedge planting if given proper trimming and
fertilization. It thrives in either sunny or partially shaded loca-
tions and can be used for planting near the coast, since salt air
does not seem to injure it. The leaves are a dark glossy green
in color and grow in clusters or rosettes. This plant is subject
to attack by a fungus which may severely spot the foliage, thus
greatly reducing its ornamental value.
The variety Whitespot (variegatum) of P. tobira has light
green foliage with white variegation and can be used to ad-
vantage where contrast is desired, or in brightening up a shaded
The pittosporums are rather slow in growth but their attrac-
tiveness amply repays for the time required in growing them.
Pruning should be started early with these plants in order to

Ornamental Hedges for Florida 27

force branching near the ground. Their natural tendency is
toward an upright habit of growth which results in a leggy
appearance if pruning is neglected.
Plumbago capensis Thunb. Plumbaginaceae. Cape Plumbago.
Southern, Central and Northern areas. South Africa.

Fig. 13.-Cape plumbago, Plumbago capensis.

The plumbago is a flowering plant with small, light-green
foliage which makes a desirable informal hedge of medium
height. The small flowers, light blue in color, are in evidence
most of the year. The variety alba has white flowers. No at-
tempt should be made to trim to formal shape and little pruning
is required. If severely damaged by frosts the plants should be
cut to the ground. They will quickly recover and within a few
months attain their normal size (Fig. 13).
Podocarpus macrophylla maki Endl. Taxaceae. Yew Podo-
carpus. Podocarpus. Central and Northern areas. Japan and

28 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

This is an excellent subject for hedging, as it becomes very
compact after clipping. The leaves are lanceolate 11/ to 21/2
inches long, dark green and rigid. The mature foliage is very
attractive, and a pleasing contrast is provided by the lighter
shades of the new
growth (Fig.
Polyscias spp.
Araliaceae. Poly-
scias. Arali a.
Southern area.
Polynesia and
New Caledonia.
T he polyscias
(ara ia s), be-
cause of their
adaptability to a
wide range of
soil types and
striking foliage,
are among the
most popular
shrubs grown in
southern Florida.
They are adapt-
ed to a wide
range of orna-
mental uses and
Fig. 14.-Left, Rosedale arbor-vitae; right,
Podocarpus macrophylla maki. are suitable for
h e d g e planting
where they are used as a formal or informal medium to high
hedge or screen. Because of their strict or upright habit of
growth they are particularly desirable for use as a screen
in a very narrow place.
Two species of polyscias, P. balfouriana Bailey (Aralia bal-
fouriana Hort.) and P. guilfoylei Bailey (Aralia guilfoylei Bull.)
and its three horticultural varieties, are the ones usually grown.
Poncirus trifoliata Raf. (Citrus trifoliata L.). Rutaceae.
Trifoliate-Orange. Trifoliata. Northern area. China.
Trifoliate-orange is a hardy deciduous plant of truly defensive
type. Its branches are heavily armed with strong sharp spines.
The leaves are trifoliate and dark green in color. When kept

Ornamental Hedges for Florida 29

pruned, it makes an almost impenetrable barrier. Although it
cannot be recommended as a plant for ornamental purposes, it is
not unattractive during the summer months when in foliage
(Fig. 8).
Prunus caroliniana Ait. (Laurocerasus caroliniana Reichenb.).
Rosaceae. American Cherry-Laurel. Cherry Laurel. Central
and Northern areas. Native.

Fig. 15.-Left, Rosedale arbor-vitae; right, cherry laurel.

American cherry-laurel is a native, hardy, broad-leaved ever-
green suitable for a medium or high hedge. It thrives in nearly
all well drained soils and situations and seems to be practically
immune to disease and insect injury. Usually it is trimmed into
a formal hedge and will stand heavy shearing. These advantages
make it one of the desired species. It is slow-growing but vigor-
ous when once established (Figs. 3 and 15).
Psidium cattleianum Sabine. (P. littorale Raddi). Myrtaceae.
Cattley Guava. Strawberry Guava. Southern and Central
areas. Brazil.
The cattley guava is a broad-leaved evergreen plant than can
be used to advantage for hedging materials. It may be allowed
to grow naturally with the exception of enough pruning to pre-
vent a rangy appearance, or may be sheared to formal shape.
The leaves are dark glossy green and the plant makes a heavy,
dense growth. It will succeed in dry locations but, being only

30 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

semi-hardy, its general use is restricted to the lower half of the
peninsula (Fig. 16).

Fig. 16.-Cattley guava hedge.

Pyrostegia ignea Presl. (Bignonia venusta Ker.). Bignonia-
ceae. Flame Vine. Southern area and warmer parts of Central
area. Brazil.
The flame vine requires support like the bougainvillea. It is
a semi-hardy, vigorous grower which is strikingly attractive
when in bloom. Tubular orange-red flowers, from which it
derives its name "flame vine," are produced in abundance. The
blooming period is from mid-winter to early spring.
Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi. Anacardiaceae. Brazilian
Pepper-Tree. Southern and Central areas and warmer parts of
Northern area. Brazil.
The Brazilian pepper-tree is a desirable subject for a formal
or informal hedge or screen. It has dark-green foliage and, when
not too closely clipped, clusters of small bright red fruits are
produced for an extended period during the winter months, add-
ing to its attractiveness. This is a vigorous shrub or small tree
well adapted to a variety of soils. As this plant is dioecious,
it is necessary to select female plants to have the red berries
which are a desirable feature of this subject.

Ornamental Hedges for Florida 31

Severinia buxifolia Tenore. Rutaceae. Chinese Box-Orange.
Severinia. Southern and Central areas and warmer parts of
Northern area. Southern China and Formosa.
The severinia is an attractive plant for a low formal or in-
formal type of hedge. It belongs to the citrus group but bears
little resemblance to it. The plant, somewhat dwarf and some-
what reclining in habit of growth, is armed with short spines
and has small dark-green leaves. It is fairly hardy (Fig. 17).

Fig. 17.-Hedge of Severinia buxifolia.

Thuja orientalis L. (Biota orientalis Endl.). Pinaceae. Ori-
ental Arbor-Vitae. Central and Northern areas. North China
and Korea.
Although less desirable for hedges than some of the broad-
leaved evergreens, several varieties of Oriental arbor-vitae are
used for this purpose, particularly in northern Florida. The

32 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

range in size afforded by the different varieties gives forms
which are adaptable to the various uses to which hedges are
put. The varieties most commonly grown are: T. orientalis var.
aurea conspicua Hort., aurea nana Hort., pyramidalis Endl.,
compacta Beiss, Blue Green and Bonita.
Rosedale (Rosedale hybrid). This plant, a hybrid between
T. orientalis aurea Dauvesse and Chamaecyparis pisifera squar-
rosa Beiss and Hochst., is one of the varieties of the oriental
group most commonly grown in Florida. It is one of the smaller
varieties, having delicate blue-green foliage which turns more
or less bronze during the winter months. Where ample room
is available and a hedge of this kind is wanted, Rosedale is per-
haps one of the best to use (Figs. 14 and 15).
All of these arbor-vitaes are hardy and relatively slow in
growth. After becoming well established, however, they will
withstand long periods of drought and require little care. They
can be sheared or trimmed but are more attractive in their
natural shapes, as trimming tends to give them an unnatural
or artificial appearance. Arbor-vitae should be used sparingly
for hedge purposes in this state as there are many other plants,
less common in latitudes farther north, which are as well adapted
and more suggestive of a tropical and sub-tropical Florida. A
serious disease, cercospora blight, attacks many varieties of
arbor-vitae, making the affected plants unsightly.
Trachelospermum jasminoides Lem. (Rhynchospermum jas-
minoides Lindl.). Apocynaceae. Confederate Jasmine. Chinese
Star Jasmine. Central and Northern areas. China.
This vine, like the flame vine and bougainvillea, requires sup-
port. It is an evergreen woody vine that is quite hardy and
which thrives on a wide range of soils, but is somewhat slow-
growing until it becomes well established. A dense mass of
dark-green foliage is produced. The white star-shaped flowers,
which are borne in profusion during April and May, make it
a desirable subject for this purpose.
Triphasia trifolia P. Wils. Rutaceae. Limeberry. Southern
area. Southern China and Malaya.
The limeberry, a citrus relative, is well adapted to the south-
ern area. It stands shearing well and because of its slow growth
and dense, graceful, evergreen foliage is very desirable for a
low formal hedge or as a border plant. The leaves are deep
green, 1 to 2 inches long and tri-foliate. Small, slender, very
sharp spines are borne in pairs in the leaf axils.

Ornamental Hedges for Florida 33

Additional plants that may be planted in hedge formation in-
clude the acalypha or copper-leaf, Acalypha spp.; cape-jasmine,
Gardenia jasminoides Ellis; chaste-tree, Vitex agnus-castus L.;
nandina, Nandina domestica Thunb.; firethorn, Pyracantha spp.;
spirea, Spiraea spp.; and Japanese photinia, Photinia glabra
Maxim. All of these with the exception of firethorn and photinia
should be grown informally; that is, without shearing and with
enough pruning to keep well shaped. All of those grown in-
formally, with the exception of nandina, require considerable
space and should not be grown as hedges on small properties.

34 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Index of Common Names

Page Page
Abelia, glossy ---....... ...... ........... 10 Feijoa .. .................... ....... 19
Acalypha .....-............. ...... ...-------.. 33 Firethorn ......... .............. ...-. 33
Amatungula carissa .................... 15 Flame vine ............. .........-- 30
American cherry-laurel ..-----.......... 29
Aralia ..---.....................-.. ..........---- 28 Gardenia ........ -......... ............. 33
Arbor-vitae, oriental .................... 31 Golden dewdrop ---..---...-...........-- 17
Australian brush-cherry ............... 18 Governor's-plum .----...... --. 20
Australian pine ............................--------. 15
Azalea .........--- ..--.........---........-------- 11 Hibiscus, Chinese --..........----- .....---. 20
Holly, American .......-------.................... 20
Bamboo, hedge --........................------.. 12 ,
Holly, Chinese ........................... 20
Beefwood -.................... ........ ...... 15 .
Holly, malpighia .......... ... 24
Bottlebrush .--..........-......- ............... 14
Bougainvillea ..................--........----. 12 Ixora, red ................ .. .. 21
Box ....----........... .. ------........ .. 14
Box, common ---............ -----.................. 14 Japanese photinia .................... 33
Box, harlands .............-.......-........ 14 Josephs Coat ........ .............. ..... 12
Boxwood -------.........---... ........---... 14 Jungleflame ixora .......-....... 21
Brazilian pepper-tree .----........------. 30
Butterfly-bush, Asian .....---..---........ 14 Lantana ---.....-..-..........---- ...-... --22
Butterfly-bush, pale .--..............--. 13 Limeberry ...-------....--------.........---. 32

Camellia, common ......--- ......... ------14 Myrtle, true ..-.......-..-- ..-- ......----- .. 25
Cam phor-tree ............-----...........--....--.. 16
Cape-jasmine .................... ....--- ----- 33 Nandina .........-...-..-.....-- ...-...... --- 33
Cape plumbago ----.......................-- 27 Natal-plum -. -...--------..-........ 15
Carissa .......-------......... .......- ... .. 15
Cattley guava ----........................... 29 Oleander, common ----... ...-- ..---- 25
Chaste-tree ...................................... 33 Orange-jessamine ...---..... --.. --. 25
Cherry laurel ..---...................... ...... 29
Chinese box-orange .................-----.. 31 Pineapple-guava .---..----------..... 19
Chinese juniper .................-- ..... ..-.. 21 Pitanga ................-- ...--- .......-- ..- 18
Chinese star jasmine .........- .---- 32 Pittosporum ........................ 26
Cocculus ....................-............... -16 Plum-yew --........---- ..... .........-- 16
Confederate jasmine ..................... 32 Podocarpus .--...---............. ..... 27
Copper-leaf .............................. 33 Poinsettia -------------- 19
Crape-myrtle ......----.....-- ............ 22 Polyscias .---.....---- -- .... ..- ..... ---- 28
Creeping sky-flower -.....-...-..--. 17 Privet .......................... ...... 23
Privet, Amur River ..........-- 23
Eastern red-cedar .--..-.--.-- ......... 21 Privet, California .................. 23
Elaeagnus -- ---- --....................... ... 17 Privet, Chinese -.... ........- 23

Ornamental Hedges for Florida 35

Page Page
Privet, Japanese ............................ 23 Surinam-cherry --...................------- .... 18
Privet, nepal ................................. 24 Sydney acacia ....--------.......................... 11
Privet, quihou .............................-. 23 Sydney golden wattle .....---..-......... 11
Privet, wax ..---....-................--....... 23
Tobira .... ------........... .........------. 26
Ramontchi .----..............---..... ............ 20 Trifoliata ..............-------.......---- 28
Red-cedar, eastern ...----.................... 21 Trifoliate-orange --..-...............---- 28
Red-cedar, southern ............---......... 22 Turk's cap ...............-- ......... ....------ 24
Rosedale arbor-vitae ..............---.... 32
Wax privet ...............---.........-----... 23
Severinia .-...---........... ......--- .......... 31 W ax-myrtle .........-......-.............--- 25
Sky-flower ...---..---...--...................... 17 Whitespot pittosporum ---............. 26
Snow-bush .....---...........--.... --.....- ... 12
Spirea ...-......--- .. .. ......----........... 33 Yaupon .---.............. ---............. -20
Strawberry guava --.....---......... 29 Yew podocarpus .-......--.....--...---.... 27

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