Using Florida citrus fruits

Material Information

Using Florida citrus fruits
Cromartie, Alice L
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Florida Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Recipes ( jstor )
Fruit preserves ( jstor )
Juices ( jstor )


General Note:
Florida Agricultural Extension Service bulletin 167

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
AAB2665 ( LTQF )


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April 1958

Using Florida Citrus Fruits

Extension Nutritionist

Cover Design by
Dorothy Kannon

Illustrations for Recipes by
George Milton

(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Florida State University
and United States Department of Agriculture
Cooperating, M. O. Watkins, Director


CITRUS FRUITS IN FAMILY MEALS .................................... .................. 5

How TO PREPARE FRESH CITRUS ......................................... 7

CITRUS SALADS ARE ALWAYS IN SEASON .............................. ............. 9

B EVERAGES ..................................... .......................................... .......... 14

CITRUS DESSERTS AND COOKIES ........................................ .................... 17

BREADS M ADE WITH CITRUS ....................................................... .................... 23

PIES AND CAKES MADE WITH CITRUS .................................... ................... 28

CITRUS GARNISHES AND SEASONINGS ................................. ................ 35

MARMALADES, JELLIES AND PRESERVES ........------------..........--.............. 39

CANNING AND FREEZING CITRUS FRUITS ....................... .........-----.... 47

CITRUS GLOSSARY ........- ......... ..... .............. --------- ---------- 50


Appreciation is expressed to those people who assisted in testing recipes,
serving as taste panels, typing, proofing, editing and illustrating. Without
their help this bulletin would not have been possible.

Citrus Fruits in Family Meals

The citrus fruits furnish liberal amounts of the protective
vitamin known as vitamin C, or ascorbic acid. This vitamin
is very important to good looks and good health. In the body
it has several vital uses which influence the appearance and
health of each member of the family.
The chief uses of vitamin C in the body are helping to main-
tain healthy gums and strong capillary (smallest blood vessels)
walls and to promote resistance to common respiratory infec-
tions, such as colds. It has an important part in the formation
of red blood cells.
Vitamin C, unlike most nutrients, cannot be stored in the
body to any great extent. Therefore, a daily supply is required
to meet body needs. For example, great amounts cannot be
drunk or eaten today and skipped tomorrow, for the body can-
not store it.

Fortunately, there is a ready supply of citrus year-'round.
When in season, October through June, it is available fresh.
It is also available year-'round in the canned or frozen state.
Due to improved methods of canning and freezing, the processed
(i.e. canned or frozen) citrus supplies almost as much vitamin C
as do the fresh fruits, so it can be used with confidence.

6 Florida Cooperative Extension

A large glass of citrus juice-fresh, frozen or canned-a whole
orange, a half grapefruit or several tangerines will almost meet
the body's vitamin C needs for the day.
Meals which contain a variety of fruits and vegetables, plus
a serving of citrus daily, will meet the body's daily need for
vitamin C.
The preserved citrus products such as marmalades, jellies,
candied peel, preserved kumquats and calamondins furnish va-
riety, flavor and color to meals, but provide little food value
except calories.

Using Florida Citrus Fruits

How to Prepare Fresh Citrus

There are many ways to prepare fresh citrus fruits. They
may be served as any course in the meal-as an appetizer, main
dish, salad or dessert.
Citrus sections and slices are versatile and are handy to keep
on hand during the citrus season. Halves of grapefruit are
appealing as appetizers or desserts. Orange bites are tasty to
nibble while watching television, playing bridge, or as part of
a meal.
Here is how to prepare fresh citrus in a variety of ways.

To Peel a Grapefruit or
An Orange
1. Wash fruit.
2. Cut off peel at top and
3. Set the fruit down on a
cutting board.
4. Cut off peel in strips from
top to bottom.

To Section a Grapefruit
or Orange
1. Wash and peel fruit.
2. Cut down along the mem-
brane, separating the sec-
3. Gently bring the knife
back out along the mem-
brane of the other side
of the section.
4. Eat plain or serve in
salads, fruit cups or des-
serts. "

Florida Cooperative Extension

To Prepare Grapefruit
1. Wash fruit.
2. Cut fruit in half.
3. Remove core by cutting
around it with knife or
kitchen shears.
4. Cut around each section,
loosening fruit from
5. Serve on a plate to eat
anytime, or as a first
course for a meal.

To Prepare Orange
1. Wash and peel orange.
2. Slice crosswise, making
3. Remove seeds.
4. Use slices to eat plain, in
a salad, or as a garnish
on the meat plate.

To Prepare Orange Bits
1. Wash, but do not peel
2. Slice crosswise in circles.
3. Cut in little bite-size
4. Serve on a plate and eat
with the fingers.
5. This is a good fruit snack
to eat between meals.

_il 6 r

Using Florida Citrus Fruits

Citrus Salads Are Always in Season

Make them from fresh or canned sections.
Florida Fruit Salad.-Arrange grapefruit sections on salad
greens with melon balls and berries or cherries. Garnish with
watercress. Serve with French dressing.
Sarasota Salad.-Mold tomato aspic in individual ring molds.
Unmold and fill center with grapefruit sections. Serve with
Southern Salad.-Arrange grapefruit sections on salad
greens. Add spoonful of cottage cheese to which onion juice
or chopped chives have been added. Serve with French dressing.
Sunshine Special.-Alternate orange and grapefruit sections
on salad greens. Pile small grapes at side. Garnish with mint.
Serve with French dressing made with grapefruit juice.
Tossed Salad.-Break chilled crisp salad greens (lettuce,
watercress, escarole, romaine, endive, chicory) into small pieces
in large salad bowl. Arrange over greens, I1/ cups Florida
grapefruit sections, and 1/2 medium-sized avocado cut in wedges.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Add French dressing and toss ingredients together lightly.
Yield: About 6 servings.
Variations.-Add /2 cup diced celery and 1 cup flaked crab-
meat, shrimp, diced lobster, diced chicken or turkey, slivered
tongue or ham.

Florida Special Salad

2 grapefruit
2 oranges
1 avocado

2 sweet peppers
Romaine or lettuce leaves
French dressing

Peel fruit, separate segments, slice avocado in thin slices.
Slice peppers in narrow strips. Arrange fruits alternately on
romaine leaves. Decorate with strips of pepper. Serve with
French dressing.

French Dressing

% cup grapefruit juice
1 teaspoon paprika

% cup olive oil
1 teaspoon sugar

Blend seasoning with oil and juice. Pour into a bottle. Shake
well before using.

Citrus Fruit Medley

2 cups mixed fruit (equal
amounts of grapefruit,
orange and papaya)
12 pecan halves
%, teaspoon celery salt

6 maraschino cherries (for
1 tablespoon sugar, if needed
1 tablespoon plain gelatin
(1 envelope)
%4 cup orange juice

Mix fruit, nuts, celery salt and sugar. Soften gelatin in
small amount of water; dissolve over boiling water. Mix into
orange juice. Arrange fruit-nut mixture in a flat dish or mold.
Pour orange juice over fruit. Chill until set. Cut into servings;
place on lettuce leaf and garnish with 1/2 teaspoon salad dress-
ing, 1/2 teaspoon chopped pecans, 1 cherry cut in pieces. 6 to 8

Citrus Salad Party Tray

1 pink grapefruit, sectioned
and drained
1 white grapefruit, sectioned
and drained
2 oranges, peeled and cut into
crosswise slices % to 1/
inch thick

Crisp green lettuce leaves
1 cup fresh whole strawber-
ries (if available)
1 cup blueberries (if avail-
Sprigs of green mint

Using Florida Citrus Fruits

Beat egg. Add lime juice and milk alternately, beating well
after each addition. The mixture should be thick. Chill.
Place a small round dish of salad dressing in the center of a
round plate or tray.
Line the tray with lettuce leaves. Place mounds of fruit
on the lettuce around the bowl of dressing in this order: white
grapefruit sections, blueberries, orange slices, strawberries, pink
grapefruit sections, blueberries, orange slices, strawberries.
Substitute green and purple grapes for berries, if you like. Makes
6 servings.

1 egg /3 can sweetened condensed
3 tablespoons lime juice milk

Grapefruit Salad
1 grapefruit, sectioned and 1 pimento, sliced thin
drained 1 3-ounce package cream
1 No. 2 can pineapple chunks, cheese cut in cubes
drained 2 tablespoons salad dressing

Chill all ingredients. Toss together lightly just before serv-
ing. Serve on crisp lettuce.
Makes 4 servings.

Molded Grapefruit Salad
1 tablespoon plain gelatin %3 cup sour orange juice
(1 envelope) (lemon or lime juice)
14 cup cold water 1 pink grapefruit, sectioned
1/ cup boiling water 1 white grapefruit, sectioned
1 or 2 tablespoons sugar

Soften gelatin in cold water. Dissolve it in boiling water.
Add sugar and sour orange juice. Place grapefruit sections,
alternating pink and white, in a mold. Pour gelatin mixture
over them. Set in refrigerator to chill.


1/2 cup cottage cheese 1/ cup finely chopped pecans,
14 cup fresh orange juice peanuts or walnuts

Beat cottage cheese until smooth. Add orange juice, beat
until creamy. Add nuts. Unmold salad on lettuce leaf and
garnish with dressing. 6 servings.

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Florida Salad Platter for a Crowd
4 cups diced cooked chicken, 1 cup mayonnaise or cooked
shrimp or lobster salad dressing
2 cups diced celery 4 cups Florida grapefruit
14 cup pimento sections
1/4 cup diced green pepper *Tomato Aspic Ring
1% teaspoons salt
Section fresh grapefruit, or use canned sections.
Lightly mix together chicken, shrimp or lobster, celery, pi-
mento, green pepper, salt, mayonnaise, and 11/2 cups Florida
grapefruit sections. Turn out tomato aspic ring on a large chop
plate, fill center with chicken salad, and garnish outside of ring
with remaining Florida grapefruit sections and crisp salad greens.
Makes 12 to 14 servings.

Tomato Aspic Ring
2 tablespoons unflavored 1 cups canned condensed to-
gelatin mato soup
2 cups grapefruit juice teaspoon salt
Dash cayenne 1 teaspoon celery salt
Soften gelatin in 1/ cup grapefruit juice for 5 minutes. Place
over hot water to melt, add gelatin to juice and stir until dis-
solved. Add soup, salt and celery salt. Mix and turn into a
2-quart ring mold; chill in refrigerator until set.

Carrot, Orange, Raisin and Peanut Salad
11/2 cups finely chopped carrot cup salad dressing
1% cups diced orange cup chopped peanuts
1/2 cup raisins
All ingredients should be cold. Toss carrots, oranges and
raisins together lightly with 2 forks, adding enough salad dress-
ing to moisten. Serve on lettuce or chopped cabbage and garnish
with peanuts. Yield: 6 servings.

Cabbage and Grapefruit Salad
2 cups chopped cabbage 2 cups diced grapefruit
Ingredients should be cold. Combine cabbage and grapefruit
with enough Sour Cream Dressing to moisten. Yield: 6 servings.

Sour Cream Dressing
1 teaspoon salt 1/ teaspoon mustard
3 tablespoons lime juice or 1 cup evaporated milk, un-
vinegar diluted
Mix salt, lime juice or vinegar and mustard. Stir slowly
into milk.

Using Florida Citrus Fruits

Citrus Pinwheel Salad

2 cups grapefruit sections or 1 3-ounce package cream
1 cup grapefruit sections cheese
and 1 cup orange sections % cup chopped nuts
Salad greens % teaspoon salt
1 tablespoon milk

Arrange salad greens on salad plates. Mix milk, cream cheese,
salt and nuts. Roll into balls. Place in center of salad greens.
Arrange fruit sections pinwheel fashion around cheese ball. If
orange and grapefruit sections are used, alternate them in the
pinwheel. 6 servings.

Luncheon Salad Plate
Place grapefruit, orange and tangerine sections on bed of
salad greens. Moisten 1/2 cup cottage cheese for each serving
with 2 tablespoons citrus juice. Place on top of sections. Gar-
nish with kumquat slices, mint or fresh berries. Serve as main
luncheon dish with hot muffins, butter, and milk as the beverage.

Florida Cooperative Extension


Fresh, frozen or canned citrus juices make wonderful refresh-
ing beverages that are nourishing and full of energy, too. Use
them between meals for a quick pick-up, at meals for variety,
and serve them for party-fare, too.

Orange Nog
3 cups milk 2 teaspoons grated or finely
1 tablespoons sugar chopped orange rind
11/2 cups orange juice
Measure milk and sugar into fruit jar. Shake well, with
chipped ice if available. Add orange juice and rind and shake
vigorously. If orange juice is sour, more sugar may be needed.
Yield: 6 servings.
Orange Eggnog
1 egg, separated % cup milk
2 tablespoons sugar 1 cup orange juice
Orange juice and milk should be cold. Beat egg yolk until
light and fluffy. Beat egg white until stiff, but not dry, adding
the sugar gradually. Combine egg yolk and white, and stir in
the milk and orange juice. Yield: 2 servings.

Using Florida Citrus Fruits

Grapefruit Nog
112 cups evaporated milk 1/ cup sugar
1/2 cup water 2 cups grapefruit juice
.All ingredients should be cold. Mix milk, water and sugar
and stir in the grapefruit juice slowly. Beat with a rotary
beater or put in fruit jar and shake until foamy. Yield: 4 to 6
Fresh Limeade
6 limes % cup sugar
1 lime sliced thin 4 cups water
Wash limes. Cut in halves crosswise. Squeeze juice from
limes. Pour into large container. Add sugar and water. Stir.
Pour over ice. Add 1 slice lime to each glass. Serve. Makes
4 servings. If you have Florida lemons, calamondins or sour
oranges, follow this recipe for making ades from them.

Pink Limeade
To limeade add 1/4 cup maraschino cherry juice and 1 cherry
to each glass.
Frozen Limeade or Lemonade
Follow directions on can. One 6-ounce can will make four
servings. Pour over ice cubes in glass.

Fresh Orangeade
Use 4 oranges and 1 lime. Squeeze for juice. Add sugar
and water. Stir. Pour over ice. Serves 4.

Fruit Ade
1 small can frozen orange 2 cups pineapple or grape
juice juice
1 small can frozen limeade
Open cans and mix frozen juices as directed on can. Add
pineapple or grape juice and stir. Pour over ice and serve.
Makes 8 servings.
Citrus Party Punch
8 cups grapefruit juice 2 cups Florida tangerine juice
1 pint ginger ale (frozen or fresh)
Chill all ingredients thoroughly. Combine citrus juices with
ginger ale in punch bowl. Add cracked ice. Garnish with lime
slices and mint. Yield: 24 1/-cup servings.

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Hot Spiced Punch

2 cups orange juice
1 cup guava juice
cup sugar
1 teaspoon whole cloves

1 3-inch piece stick cinnamon
1 teaspoon grated Florida
orange rind
6 orange slices

Combine all ingredients except orange slices in saucepan.
Place over low heat, bring to boiling point; simmer 5 minutes;
strain. Pour into heated bowl or pitcher. Stud orange slices
with additional cloves; float on top. Yield: 6 servings.

Citrus Sodas

For each soda, combine 2/3 cup chilled Florida orange, tan-
gerine or blended orange and grapefruit juice with 1/3 cup chilled
ginger ale in a tall glass. Add a large scoop of vanilla ice cream.

Circus Float

/4 cup fresh lime, Florida
lemon or sour orange
4 cup sugar

1 cup orange juice
2 cups gingerale
Ice cream

Chill. Just before serving add 1 tablespoon ice cream to
each glass and a thin slice of orange to garnish. Makes 4

Using Florida Citrus Fruits

Citrus Desserts and Cookies


Citrus desserts are a welcome finish to any meal, whether
its for company or for the family. They are full of food value
and flavor and easy to make.


1 grapefruit, sectioned
2 oranges, sectioned
%, cup shredded coconut

2 tablespoons sugar
4 sprigs mint

Alternate layers of mixed grapefruit and orange sections with
coconut. Sprinkle each layer lightly with sugar. Chill in re-
frigerator one hour before serving. Garnish with mint. 4
servings. (May use 2 additional oranges and omit grapefruit.)

Fruit Cups-Dessert or First Course
Combine grapefruit sections with sliced bananas and diced
apple (leave red peel on for color contrast).
Try grapefruit and orange sections with finely cut dates and
shredded coconut.
Grapefruit sections combine well with diced avocado and
chopped pimiento for a different appetizer.

/ W -Z-f7

Florida Cooperative Extension

Combine grapefruit sections with sliced strawberries or top
grapefruit sections with orange or lime sherbet. Garnish with
mint sprigs for a popular, easy dessert.

Fruit Cup Deluxe

3 oranges
1/ cup honey
2 bananas

1 cup pineapple chunks
cup shredded coconut

Section oranges. Add sliced bananas and pineapple. Add
honey, mix gently. Spoon into 6 serving dishes and top each
with shredded coconut.

Orange Snow

1 tablespoon gelatin
1/ cup cold water
1% cup hot water
1/4 cup sugar
/4 teaspoon salt

1 cup orange juice
3 medium oranges, sectioned
1 tablespoon lime juice
2 egg whites, beaten until

Soften gelatin in cold water. Add hot water and stir until
dissolved. Add sugar, salt, fruit juices and fruit sections cut
into small pieces; mix thoroughly. Cool. When mixture begins
to thicken, beat until frothy. Fold in stiffly beaten egg whites.
Turn into mold that has been rinsed in cold water. Chill until
firm. Unmold and garnish with orange slices and strawberries.
6 servings.
Orange Custard

2 cups milk
2 eggs, beaten
1 cup sugar
2 tablespoons cornstarch

1 teaspoon butter
1s teaspoon salt
2 tablespoons lime juice
6 oranges, sectioned

Mix sugar and cornstarch and add cold milk. Add beaten
eggs. Cook over hot water until thick. Remove from heat.
Add butter, salt and lime juice. Cool. Place orange sections
in sherbet glasses. Pour custard over oranges and top with
whipped cream. 6 servings.

Orange Tapioca

1% cups water
/2 cup sugar
1/4 teaspoon salt
% cup quick-cooking tapioca
1 cup orange juice (or other

1 teaspoon grated or finely
chopped orange rind
/ cup evaporated milk, thor-
oughly chilled
2 teaspoons lime juice

Bring water, sugar and salt to a boil in top of double boiler.
Add tapioca and bring to brisk boil, stirring constantly. Place

Using Florida Citrus Fruits

over boiling water and cook 5 minutes longer, stirring occasion-
ally. Cool. Add orange juice and rind. When mixture is cold,
whip the chilled milk, add lime juice and fold into the pudding.
Yield: 8 servings.
Orange Bread Pudding
3 slices stale bread 1% cups milk
2 eggs 1 cup orange juice
cup sugar 1 teaspoon grated or finely
1/4 teaspoon salt chopped orange rind
Cut bread in small cubes or break into small pieces. Place
in buttered baking dish. Beat eggs. Add sugar, salt and milk
to eggs. Stir in orange juice and rind. Pour mixture over bread.
Bake in a moderate oven (3500F.) until set, about 45 minutes.
Yield: 6 to 8 servings.

Orange Dumplings
2 tablespoons butter or mar- 1% teaspoons baking powder
garine 14 teaspoon salt
% cup sugar cup milk
1% cups sifted all purpose flour
Cream butter and sugar. Sift together flour, baking powder
and salt. Add to creamed mixture in three portions alternately
with milk in two portions, stirring after each addition. Drop
by spoonfuls into hot sauce. Bake in a moderate oven, 375 F.,
20 to 25 minutes. Serve topped with whipped cream and a
maraschino cherry for color. 8 to 10 servings.
1 tablespoon butter or mar- 2 cups fresh orange juice
garine teaspoon grated orange rind
1 cup sugar 1% cups boiling water
Combine all ingredients. Boil 10 minutes. Pour into a shal-
low baking pan, 12 x 8 x 2 inches.

Grapefruit Alaska
Cut grapefruit in half, and using scissors cut out more of
the core than usual; remove all seeds. Cut around each section
to loosen, sprinkle with a little sugar and chill thoroughly. When
ready to serve, put a scoop of mint, vanilla or other ice cream
in center cavity of each grapefruit half, cover completely with
* meringue, place on baking sheet and bake in a hot oven (4500F.)
about 5 minutes; then place under broiler for 1 minute to brown
meringue, and serve immediately. Allow 1/2 grapefruit per

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* Meringue

3 egg whites
% teaspoon salt

6 tablespoons sugar
1 teaspoon vanilla

Beat egg whites until foamy, add salt and beat until stiff, but
not dry. Gradually beat in sugar until stiff and glossy. Stir
in vanilla. Makes 6 Alaskas.

Citrus Dessert Tray

2 grapefruit (one pink, if
2 oranges
6 tangerines

14 pound sharp cheese
14 pound Swiss cheese
14 pound crisp crackers

Wash fruit, section grapefruit. Peel and cut oranges into
6 slices each. With a sharp paring knife cut peel of tangerine
from top down to 1/ inch from stem and into six sections. Be
careful not to cut too far down. Pull "petals" of peel up and
fold in under fruit (see page 38). Gently separate sections and
place whole fruit on tray or large plate. Arrange grapefruit
sections and orange slices on same tray. Cube cheeses and
place on tray. Garnish with mint. Pass crisp crackers separ-
ately. Serves 6 to 8.

Orange Ripple Sherbet

1% cup cold water
1 envelope unflavored gelatin
1%/ cups light corn syrup
2 cups milk

1 6-ounce can orange concen-
trate (thawed)
1 6-ounce package semisweet
chocolate bits
2 tablespoons salad oil

Soften gelatin in cold water, heat to melt. Add syrup, milk
and undiluted concentrate. Blend. Pour into tray and freeze
until just frozen. Melt chocolate bits over hot water, add salad
oil and beat.
Beat frozen mixture in a chilled bowl until smooth, but not
melted. Return to tray and quickly drizzle in chocolate. Stir
to ripple and return to coldest part of freezing unit. Freeze
until firm. Serve in chilled sherbet dishes. For plain sherbet,
omit chocolate and salad oil. Serves 8.

Quick Orange Pudding

1 package instant vanilla
pudding mix (requires no
2 cups orange juice (fresh,
frozen or canned)

% cup cream for whipping
% cup orange sections
(if desired)
1 teaspoon grated orange rind

Using Florida Citrus Fruits

Follow directions on package for mixing, using orange juice
in place of milk. Add sections and rind. Spoon into serving
dishes. Chill. Before serving, top with whipped cream. Serves
4 to 6.
Tangerine Ice Suckers

1 6-ounce can tangerine con- 16 to 18 paper sucker sticks

Dilute concentrate and pour into a "quick-cube release" ice
tray. Place in freezing area and set temperature control for
fast freezing. When partially frozen, insert sticks. Finish
freezing. When completely frozen remove from tray and place
in plastic bag. Seal with rubber band and keep in freezing unit
until used.

Raisin-Orange Pudding

12 cup orange juice 1/ cup margarine
/2 cup sugar 1 egg
1 large orange rind and pulp 1 cup sour milk
% cup raisins 2 cups flour
1 cup granulated sugar % teaspoon soda

Mix orange juice and sugar. Set aside for glaze. Grind rind
and pulp of orange with raisins. Mix 1 cup sugar, margarine,
egg and sour milk. Beat well, using electric mixer if desired.
Add ground orange and raisins. Sift flour and soda. Stir into
egg-orange mixture. Turn into a greased and floured 8 x 11 inch
pan. Bake at 350 F. for 40 to 50 minutes or until done. Pour
glaze over pudding when it comes from oven. Serve hot or cold,
garnished with whipped cream.

Orange Crisps

(4 to 5 dozen)
/2 cup butter 3 cups sifted flour
1 cup sugar 3 tablespoons orange juice
1 egg 1/ teaspoon soda
Grated rind of 1 lemon %/ teaspoon baking powder
Grated rind of 1 orange

Cream butter, add sugar. Mix well. Beat in egg and orange
juice. Sift dry ingredients together. Add to egg-sugar mixture.
Add grated rind. Blend well. Shape in rolls and chill. Slice
in 1/8 inch thick slices and bake at 375 F. until crisp. May be
forced through a cookie press if desired.

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Orange-Pecan Cookies
(5 dozen)

1% cups fat
% cup brown sugar
% cup granulated sugar
1 large egg, unbeaten
% cup chopped nuts
14 cup grated orange rind

1/ cup orange juice
4 cups flour, plus 2 table-
1/ teaspoon soda
14 teaspoon salt

Combine shortening and sugar. Add egg, salt, grated rind
and juice. Beat well. Sift soda and flour together. Add to
the mixture and blend well. Add nuts. Shape into rolls 2 inches
across. Wrap in waxed paper and chill several hours. Slice 1/4
inch thick. Bake at 400F. 8 to 10 minutes.

Lemon Thins
(6 to 7 dozen)

1 cup butter
1/ cup sugar
/2 cup brown sugar
2 tablespoons Florida lemon

1 teaspoon grated Florida
lemon rind
3 to 31/ cups silfted flour*
1 egg
1 teaspoon salt
14 teaspoon soda

Cream butter and sugar. Add lemon juice, rind and egg.
Beat. Sift dry ingredients, add to egg mixture. Put through
cookie press on ungreased cookie sheet. Or they may be
dropped by teaspoonfuls and pressed flat with a glass or fork.
Bake 4000F. for 12 minutes.

Three cups of flour should be enough, but if dough spreads too much
in oven, add 14 cup of flour to remainder of the dough.

Using Florida Citrus Fruits

Breads Made with Citrus
Breads made from citrus furnish a new flavor treat to any
meal. Moist and of delicate flavor, they provide mealtime or
tea time variety that can establish any hostess as one who serves
the unusual best.

Orange French Toast

cup orange juice
teaspoon lemon juice
cup granulated sugar
teaspoons grated orange

3 slices bread
butter or margarine
2 oranges, sliced or sectioned
powdered sugar

Beat egg. Add orange and lemon juice and beat again. Add
sugar and grated orange rind; mix thoroughly. Cut slices of
bread in half or in any desired shape. Dip in egg mixture. Fry
in butter or margarine until golden brown. Place orange slices
or sections on each slice of toast. Sprinkle with powdered sugar.
Serve at once. 2 servings.

Orange Muffins
1/2 cup coarsely grated orange 1 egg, well-beaten
rind 2 cups sifted flour
1/ cup sugar 2 teaspoons baking powder
1 cup water 12 teaspoon salt
4 tablespoons salad oil I teaspoon soda
1 cup orange juice 4 tablespoons sugar
Combine sugar, water and rind in a saucepan. Cook slowly
for five minutes, stirring. Remove from heat; add salad oil.

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Add orange juice and beaten egg. Sift flour, baking powder,
salt, soda and sugar together. Add orange mixture; stir just
enough to moisten ingredients. Batter should be lumpy. Fill
greased muffin pans 2/3 full, handling the batter as little as pos-
sible. Bake in hot oven, 425 F., 20 to 25 minutes. Serve while
hot. Makes 16 muffins.

Orange Fritters
2 medium sized oranges, peel- Y tablespoon melted butter
ed, sliced l/-inch thick % cup sifted flour
and sprinkled with sugar Yz teaspoon baking powder
1 egg, beaten well 1 teaspoon sugar
1/ cup milk 14 teaspoon salt
Mix beaten egg, milk and melted butter. Sift flour, baking
powder, sugar and salt together. Stir into liquid. Dip orange
slices in batter. Fry in deep fat at medium temperature. Serve
with orange syrup (see page 27). Makes 4 servings.

Raised Orange Bread
1 package yeast Y3 cup sugar
% cup lukewarm water teaspoon salt
Y2 cup lukewarm orange juice 4 tablespoons grated orange
4 cups sifted flour rind
3 tablespoons salad oil
Dissolve yeast in lukewarm water; add lukewarm orange
juice, grated rind, salt, salad oil and sugar. Add 2 cups flour.
Beat until smooth. Cover. Set in warm place, free from draft,
and let rise until light, about 11/ hours. When light, add remain-
ing flour, or enough to make soft dough. Knead lightly. Place in
well-greased bowl; cover. Set in warm place, free from draft.
Let rise until doubled in bulk, about 11/2 hours. Shape into
loaves; place in well-greased pans to half fill. Cover. Let rise
again until double in bulk (about 1 hour). Bake in moderate
oven at 4000F., about 15 minutes, reduce temperature to 3750F.
for 30 minutes. Makes two small loaves or one large loaf.

Orange Nut Bread
3 cups flour 1 egg slightly beaten
4 teaspoons baking powder 14 cup orange rind, grated
'4 teaspoon salt 1 cup orange juice
1 cup sugar 1/ cup melted shortening or
'z cup chopped pecans salad oil
Sift flour, measure, add baking powder, salt and sugar. Sift
together. Add pecans. Mix orange juice, rind, melted shorten-
ing and egg; beat. Pour into dry ingredients and mix just to

Using Florida Citrus Fruits

moisten. Do not beat. Turn into greased loaf pan 91/2 x 51/2 x 3.
Bake in moderate oven 350 F. about one hour or until done.
Remove from pan. Cool. Slices better on second day. Delicious
served with cream cheese.

Glacid Orange Rolls
1 package yeast 1 cup orange juice (fresh and
1/ cup lukewarm water frozen)
1/ cup sugar 1 egg beaten
14 cup salad oil 4 cups flour
1 teaspoon salt
Sprinkle yeast over warm water. Set aside 10 minutes. Mix
sugar, salad oil, salt and orange juice. Add 2 cups flour and
beat smooth. Add egg to yeast. Beat. Add to batter. Grad-
ually add remainder of flour to make a soft dough. Turn on
lightly floured board and knead smooth. Place in greased bowl,
grease top of dough. Cover, let rise until double in bulk. Punch
down. Let dough rest 10 minutes, shape into rolls of desired
shape. Place on greased pans. Let rise until double in bulk.
Bake at 400F. for 15 minutes. (2 dozen medium rolls.) Brush
with orange glace.

Orange Glace
1 cup confectioners' sugar 1 teaspoon grated orange
2 tablespoons orange juice* rind
Mix together. With a pastry brush spread on rolls as they
come from the oven.

Grapefruit Biscuits
3 cups sifted plain flour % cup shortening
1 teaspoon salt % cup strained grapefruit
3 teaspoons sugar juice
1/2 teaspoon soda % cup evaporated milk, un-
3 teaspoons baking powder diluted
Sift flour, salt, sugar, soda and baking powder together. Cut
or rub in shortening until well blended. Mix grapefruit juice
and milk. Add to dry ingredients, using just enough to make
dough soft but not sticky. Turn dough onto a lightly floured
board and knead a few strokes. Roll or pat to 1/8 inch thickness.
Cut into small biscuits. Place on a baking sheet. Bake in a
very hot oven (475F.) 15 minutes. Serve hot with butter and
orange marmalade. 24 biscuits.

If fresh citrus is not available use 2 tablespoons undiluted orange
concentrate which has been thawed.

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Orange Coffee Cake

2 cups sifted all-purpose flour
14 teaspoon salt
cup sugar
4 teaspoons baking powder

3 teaspoons grated orange
4 tablespoons salad oil
1 egg, beaten
1 cup orange juice

Sift flour with salt, sugar and baking powder. Blend in orange
rind. Mix egg and salad oil with orange juice. Pour into dry
ingredients and mix just to moisten, do not beat. Spread dough
in well greased 9-inch round cake pan and cover top with the
crumb mixture. Bake in a hot oven, 4500F., 20 minutes or until
brown. When done let set for 5 minutes then remove from pan.
Cover top with icing. Arrange 1 cup drained orange sections
over top. Serve hot. 6 to 8 servings.
Crumb Topping
1/ cup sifted all purpose flour 1 tablespoon orange juice
% cup brown sugar 2 teaspoons grated orange
1 tablespoon melted butter or rind
shortening 1/ teaspoon cinnamon
Mix all ingredients together.

2% cups sifted confectioners'
2 tablespoons lime juice
Mix together until smooth.

1 tablespoon water or enough
to make spreading easy

Orange Suzettes
1 cup flour 1 teaspoon grated orange
1/ cup powdered sugar rind
teaspoon salt 2 eggs
1 cup milk Orange syrup (see page 27)
Sift flour; measure, add sugar and salt; sift again. Add milk
and stir until smooth. Add orange rind and well-beaten egg.
Drop batter by spoonfuls on lightly greased griddle, making
each pancake about 5 inches in diameter. Brown lightly, turn
and brown other side. Immediately roll up like a jelly roll.
Just before serving, place rolled pancakes in orange syrup, re-
heat and baste until thoroughly moistened. Serve hot with hot
orange syrup poured over. Garnish with whipped cream if de-
sired. Makes about 14 suzettes.

Tangerine Nut Muffins

2 cups flour
2 teaspoons baking powder
cup sugar
1/ teaspoon salt
4 tablespoons salad oil

1 egg
1 cup tangerine juice (frozen
and diluted)
cup chopped walnuts or

Using Florida Citrus Fruits

Sift flour; measure; add baking powder, sugar, salt and sift
again. Add chopped nuts. Beat egg, add salad oil and tangerine
juice. Add to flour mixture and stir only until all the dry in-
gredients are moistened. Fill greased muffin pans %2 full and
bake in a hot oven (425 F.) for 30 minutes. Serve hot with
tangerine marmalade. Makes 12 muffins.

Orange Juice Gems
1/ cup butter or margarine 114 cups sifted cake flour
12 cup sugar 1/4 teaspoon salt
1 egg 1 teaspoon baking powder
1 tablespoon grated orange 14 teaspoon soda
rind 1/2 cup orange juice
1/ cup chopped pecans
Cream butter, add sugar gradually, blending thoroughly after
each addition. Beat in egg. Stir in orange rind and pecans.
Sift together flour, salt, baking powder and soda. Add dry
ingredients alternately with orange juice, mixing well but
quickly. Fill greased 2-inch muffin pans 2% full. Bake in moder-
ate oven (375F.) 20 to 25 minutes. Remove from pan; cool.
Insert fork into cupcake and dip in orange syrup, strike fork
against edge of pan to allow excess syrup to drop off. Place on
rack to cool. Yield: About 22 gems.

Orange Syrup
/2 cup Florida orange juice 1 tablespoon grated orange
1 cup sugar rind
Combine orange juice, sugar and rind in small saucepan;
stir over low heat until sugar is dissolved. Cook for 5 minutes.

Marmalade Filled Rolls
Use a hot roll mix. When raised and ready to roll out for
shaping follow these directions. Roll out to a narrow sheet 1/4
inch in thickness. Spread generously with butter and cala-
mondin marmalade. Roll up like a jelly roll. Seal edges. Cut
in one inch slices. Place cut sides down in greased muffin pan.
Let rise until double in size. Bake at 350 F., 15 minutes or until
brown. Remove from pans at once. Brush with orange juice
and confectioners' sugar icing (see recipe, page 25) to add flavor
and attractiveness. 21/2 dozen medium rolls.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Pies and Cakes Made with Citrus

Pies and cakes made with citrus have long been favorites
with everyone, the standard ones being lemon meringue pie,
lemon ice box pie and lemon cheese cake. Here are many others
to add to the old favorites. Use them for variety. Included
is the "Key lime pie" everyone enjoys so much when in Florida.
Many people write back later seeking a recipe. The true Key
lime pie is made from a small yellow-green lime grown in the
Keys. Pick any of the recipes to make it. The pie is a Key lime
pie because of the lime used in it, not necessarily the method
of making it.
Key Lime Pie

4 eggs, separated
1 cup sugar
1 tablespoon gelatin

2/3 cup key lime juice
1 Key lime rind, grated fine
% teaspoon salt

Beat egg yolks. Add 1/2 cup sugar, lime juice and salt. Cook
in double boiler until the mixture coats a spoon. Remove from
heat and add gelatin (which has been soaked in 1/2 cup cold

Using Florida Citrus Fruits

water) and rind. Mix well, chill, until the mixture begins to
thicken. Beat egg white with remaining sugar until they stand
in soft peaks. Fold whites into chilled mixture. Pour into a
9-inch baked pie crust or a crumb crust. Chill. Spread with
whipped cream just before serving.

Quick Key Lime Pie
3 egg yolks % cup Key lime juice
1 15-ounce can condensed
Break eggs lightly, then add condensed milk to the yolks and
beat again. Add lime juice and beat until smooth. Pour mix-
ture into a 9-inch baked pastry shell.* Top with meringue, and
bake in a slow oven until meringue is brown.


Beat whites of the 3 eggs until stiff but not dry. Add 1/
cup sugar, beating constantly. Spread onto top of lime custard,
bake as directed above.

Lemon Chess Pie
1 9-inch pie crust, unbaked Y4 cup melted butter or oleo
2 cups sugar 1% cup milk
2 tablespoons flour 4 teaspoons grated Florida
1 tablespoon cornmeal lemon rind
3 eggs 1/ cup Florida lemon juice
Mix sugar, flour and cornmeal in large bowl. Beat in eggs,
add remainder of ingredients and mix well. Pour into crust.
Bake at 375F. 35 to 45 minutes. Top will be golden brown.
Serves 6 to 8.

Orange Cream Pie with Buttermilk
2 medium eggs 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
1 cup sugar %3 cup orange juice (fresh or
2 tablespoons cornstarch frozen)
14 teaspoon salt 3 cup buttermilk
1 9-inch baked pie shell 4 tablespoons butter
Beat eggs well. Cream in mixed sugar and cornstarch, salt
and cream of tartar. Mix in orange juice and buttermilk. Cook
over hot water until thick. Add butter. Pour into baked 9-inch
pie shell. (Be sure pie shell and filling are both cold.) Chill.

A graham cracker pie shell may be used. The recipe will be found
on the cracker box.

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Top with whipped cream flavored with 1 teaspoon grated orange
Orange Coconut Pie

1 baked deep 9-inch pastry
1 15-ounce can sweetened
condensed milk
1% cups orange sections and
juice (3 oranges)

/2 fresh coconut, coarsely
grated (or 1 cup frozen
% cup lime juice (2 limes)
4 eggs, separated
4 tablespoons sugar

Combine condensed milk, lime juice and orange juice and
fruit in a bowl. Stir until mixture thickens. Add 1 egg yolk
at a time, beating well after each addition. Stir coconut into
the mixture. Pour into cooled baked pastry shell.
Beat egg whites until almost stiff enough to hold a peak.
Add sugar gradually and continue beating until glossy but not
dry. Pile meringue lightly on pie filling. Sprinkle coconut on top.
Bake about 15 minutes at 325F.

Orange Velvet Cream Pie
1 tablespoon unflavored gela- 1 teaspoon salt
tin (1 envelope) 1 tablespoon grated orange
1% cups orange juice, frozen rind
or fresh 2 tablespoons lemon juice
% cup sugar 1 cup heavy cream, whipped
1 tablespoon flour 1 9-inch baked pie shell
Soften gelatin in 3/ cup chilled orange juice. Blend sugar,
flour and salt. Add orange juice-gelatin mixture. Place over
medium heat. Stir constantly until mixture is thickened. Re-
move from heat; add orange rind, lemon juice and remaining
1/2 cup orange juice. Chill until mixture is slightly thicker than
an unbeaten egg white. Beat until fluffy. Fold into whipped
cream. Turn into baked pie shell or crumb crust and chill until
firm. Top with orange sections, garnish with more whipped
cream, if desired.
Grapefruit Chiffon Pie
2 eggs 11/ tablespoons plain gelatin
1 cup grapefruit juice cup water
1 cup sugar 1 cup chilled evaporated milk
2 tablespoons lime or lemon 1 9-inch pastry or crumb crust
Beat eggs. Blend in grapefruit juice and sugar gradually.
Add lime juice to egg yolks. Cook over medium heat, stirring
constantly until thick. Remove from heat. Dissolve gelatin in
cold water. Add to hot mixture. Chill until it begins to thicken,
then whip until fluffy. Whip chilled evaporated milk. Fold into

Using Florida Citrus Fruits 31

chilled pie mixtures. Pour into baked pie shell. Chill until firm.
Garnish with pink grapefruit sections if available.

Frozen Citrus Pie
1 9-inch graham cracker 14 cup sugar
crumb crust 1 6-ounce can frozen citrus
2 eggs, separated juice concentrate (lime,
1 15-ounce can sweetened tangerine,* lemon or
condensed milk orange, undiluted)
Turn temperature control up on freezer. Beat egg yolks until
thick. Stir in condensed milk. Add undiluted citrus juice con-
centrate. Mix well. Beat egg whites stiff. Add sugar and beat
until glossy. Fold gently into the milk mixture. Pour into cold
crust. Sprinkle top with few cracker crumbs if using crumb
crust. Freeze until firm. Serves 6 to 8.

Grapefruit Cream Cake
214 cups sifted all purpose flour 1 tablespoon grated grape-
2% teaspoons double action fruit rind
baking powder % teaspoon grated lemon rind
teaspoon salt 3 eggs, unbeaten
% cup shortening Vz cup grapefruit juice
1% cups sugar 12 cup water
Sift together flour, baking powder and salt. Cream together
shortening, sugar and grated grapefruit and lemon rind. Beat
in eggs one at a time. Add flour mixture in three portions,
alternately with grapefruit juice and water in two portions.
Beat batter 1/2 minute. Turn into 2 well-greased, lightly floured,
round 9-inch cake pans. Bake in a moderate oven, 350 F., 30
minutes or until done. Turn out on wire rack to cool. When
cool, spread Grapefruit Cream filling between layers. Frost
with Seven Minute Frosting.

Grapefruit Cream Filling
cup sugar 1 tablespoon margarine
2 tablespoons cornstarch 1 egg yolk
/4 teaspoon salt 1 tablespoon grated grape-
cup fresh grapefruit juice fruit rind
Combine sugar, cornstarch and salt. Blend in grapefruit
juice. Cook over medium heat, stirring constantly, or over hot
water until mixture is very thick. Add remaining ingredients.
Cook over low heat 5 minutes, stirring. Cool. Spread between
cool layers. Frost cake with Seven Minute Frosting.

When using tangerine concentrate, add 2 tablespoons lime or lemon

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Sour Cream Orange Cake
1 cup butter 2 cups sifted cake flour
1 cup sugar %3 teaspoon soda
2 eggs 1 cup sour cream
2 tablespoons grated orange
Cream butter, add sugar. Beat well. Add eggs one at a
time, beat after each addition. Add orange rind to sour cream.
Sift flour and soda together. Add to egg mixture alternately
with sour cream, beginning and ending with flour. Pour into
greased tube pan. Bake at 350 F. for 40 minutes. Serve warm,
plain or with ice cream.

Orange Chiffon Cake
21/4 cups sifted cake flour % cup salad oil
1/2 cups sugar 5 egg yolks
3 teaspoon baking powder % cup orange juice
1 teaspoon salt Grated rind of 2 oranges
1 cup egg whites (6 to 7) % teaspoon cream of tartar
Measure and sift flour, sugar, salt and baking powder to-
gether. Make a well in center and add cooking oil, unbeaten
egg yolks, orange juice and rind. Beat well. Whip egg whites
with cream of tartar until very stiff. Pour cake mixture grad-
ually over whites, folding gently together until just blended.
Do not beat. Bake in ungreased tube pan at 325 F. for 50 min-
utes, then at 350 F. for 10 minutes. Invert over bottle to cool.
When cool remove from pan and ice with Orange Butter Icing,
if desired; however, it is delicious served plain.
Orange Butter Icing
% cup butter (soft) Grated rind of one orange
2 cups confectioners' sugar 2 tablespoons orange juice
Sift sugar. Add butter and blend. Stir in orange rind and
orange juice. If fresh oranges are not available, substitute for
rind and juice 2 tablespoons of undiluted orange juice concentrate.

Orange Coconut Cake
1 cup shortening 3 cups sifted cake flour
2 cups sugar 21% teaspoons baking powder
4 egg whites % teaspoon salt
1 teaspoon grated orange rind 1 cup milk
Cream shortening, add sugar. Beat well. Add egg whites,
one at a time; beating after addition. Add orange rind. Sift dry
ingredients together. Add 1/3 to egg mixture, blend in. Add
half of milk, then another 1/3 of dry ingredients. Blend. Add
rest of milk and then last of dry ingredients. Mix well, but do

Using Florida Citrus Fruits

not over-mix. Divide into two 9-inch layer pans. Bake at
3750F. for 25 minutes. Turn out and cool. Fill with orange
filling, frost with Seven Minute Frosting,* and cover generously
with fresh or frozen grated coconut.
Orange Filling
1/ cup cake flour 2 cup orange juice
% cup sugar Grated rind of one orange
1% teaspoon salt 2 tablespoons lime or lemon
2 tablespoons water juice
2 egg yolks, beaten 1 tablespoon butter
Mix flour, sugar, salt. Add water. Stir to blend. Add orange
juice, rind, lemon juice and beaten egg yolks. Cook until thick.
Add butter. Cool and use as filling.

Orange Refrigerator Cake
1 9-inch angel food cake 2 cups whipping cream
4 medium oranges, sectioned 1 cup chopped nuts or shred-
2 tablespoons sugar ded coconut
Drain sections and cut in small pieces. Add the sugar. Whip
cream until stiff, fold in orange sections, nuts or coconut. Slice
cake in two layers. Spread half of mixture on layer. Top with
other layer and spread remainder of cream mixture on top.
Garnish with thinly sliced oranges. Chill until served.

Florida Lemon Cheese Cake
3 egg yolks 2 tablespoons flour
% cup sugar 1 cup water
1 teaspoon salt 2 tablespoons grated Florida
1/4 cup Florida lemon juice lemon rind
Mix flour, sugar and salt. Add water, mix well. Beat egg
yolks and add lemon juice and rind. Stir into flour mixture.
Place over boiling water and cook until thick and clear looking.
Spread half of this between layers of a favorite 2-layer white
cake. Spread remainder on top of cake. Make a Seven Minute
Icing, flavor with lemon extract, and frost cake. Garnish with
very thin slices of lemon, if desired.

Florida Orange Roll
3 eggs 1% teaspoons baking powder
1 cup sugar 14 teaspoon salt
6 tablespoons orange juice confectioners' sugar
1 cup sifted cake flour
If you prefer, frost cake with a meringue made from 3 egg whites
and % cup sugar. Bake at 350F. until golden brown.

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Beat eggs until thick and lemon-colored; beat in sugar grad-
ually. Blend in orange juice. Sift together flour, baking powder
and salt; fold in. Line shallow pan, 10 x 15 inches, with wax
paper, having the paper extend 1 inch beyond edge of pan. Turn
batter into pan; bake in moderate oven (375F.) 20 minutes.
Sift confectioners' sugar on brown wrapping paper or a clean
dish towel, 3 inches larger than the pan. Turn cake out on this;
remove waxed paper. Spread with Orange Filling and roll up
like a jelly roll. Yield: 10 1-inch slices.

Florida Orange Filling
/2 cup sugar 1 egg, slightly beaten
3 tablespoons cornstarch 1 tablespoon butter or mar-
1/ teaspoon salt garine
11/ cups orange juioe (fresh
or frozen)
Combine sugar, cornstarch and salt in top of double boiler.
Blend in orange juice and beaten egg. Mix thoroughly. Cook
over direct heat and stir constantly until mixture thickens.
Place over boiling water; cook 10 minutes longer, stirring con-
stantly. Add butter. Remove from heat. Cool.

Using Florida Citrus Fruits

Citrus Garnishes and Seasonings

Citrus is a natural garnish for almost every course in the
meal. It adds color and also picks up flavor of foods served
with it. As a seasoning citrus is time-honored. Many pioneer
Florida kitchens used it to season because there were no ex-
tracts available as we have them today. Try lemon or orange
rind, finely grated, in fruit pies, cakes, muffins or even meat
loaves or in some of the ways given below for a real taste treat.

Use a whole grapefruit
free of blemishes as a hours
d'oeuvres holder.
Arrange two sections of
grapefruit butterfly fashion
on top of any summer salad,
with green pepper strips as
Make grapefruit "baskets"
from halves for appetizer

Florida Cooperative Extension

or dessert fruit cups. Cut
thin strip around half leav-
ing 1 inch uncut on each side.
Bring thin slices up over
S"basket" and fasten with a
toothpick. Spear cherry or
olive on ends of toothpick.
Substitute grapefruit
juice for vinegar in your
favorite oil-vinegar salad

Orange sections garnish custards, ice cream, tapioca or
other puddings.
Use orange slices, paper thin, on icings, whipped cream or
,, r Cut orange slices on one
.i side into center then pull out
to make a curl. Place on
S~ top of cottage cheese in cen-
ter of fruit plate.
i Prepare orange baskets
Sor cups for baking individual
.-,- sweet potato souffles.
Garnish a cold meat plat-
ter with slices of orange
cut in halves and arranged around the platter. Tuck a few
parsley sprigs into the slices.
Baste ham steaks, pork roasts, pork chops, baked hams with
orange syrup (page 27).
Use this orange syrup on waffles, pancakes or French toast
for a real treat. Serve warm.
Orange butter is served in some eating places with pride.
Do it at home, too. To one stick of butter or oleo add 2 table-
spoons sugar and 2 tablespoons finely grated orange rind.
Lavish orange butter on apples when making an apple pie,
or add grated rind to apples or pears when cooking in any manner.

Using Florida Citrus Fruits

Limes and Florida Lemons
Cut in fancy or plain
shapes. Float on punch.
Serve with tea, or garnish
a seafood platter. Pull a
small parsley "bouquet"
through the center of lime
or lemon slices. Serve with
tomato juice or on black
bean soup.
Lime or lemon juice in tomato, prune, apricot or grape juice
is an added feature.

Slice raw kumquats into Waldorf salad, fruit cups or fruit
Wash whole kumquats and cluster with parsley on meat
platters for color and flavor.
Stuff preserved kumquats with nuts, cream cheese or soft
yellow cheese. Serve as a hors d'oeuvre.
Preserved kumquats make a delicious meat accompaniment,
served on same platter or passed separately.

Serve halves with seafood plates for a treat. Tart, yet they
look like oranges in miniature.
Thin slices garnish punch bowls, hot or cold tea, frosty ginger
ale or salad dressings.
A preserved calamondin can go anywhere a preserved kum-
quat can go.
Calamondin juice makes a delicious ade. Use as lemon or
lime juice.
Peel small tangerines. With table knife scrape white
"strings" from sections. Use as a garnish in salads or desserts.
For a special treat drop these tangerine "plugs" into orange
syrup (page 27) and simmer 5 minutes. Chill. Serve over ice
cream, custards or puddings.
Wash tangerines.

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With paring knife cut
skin in six sections, being
careful to leave 1/2 inch or
more uncut on bottom. Lift
peel from fruit and tuck un-
der sections to form petals.
Fill center of tangerine with
cottage cheese, sherbet or
drizzle honey ever plugs.
Serve on a fruit plate.

For a special meat accompaniment, prepare tangerines as
above. Fill center with precooked mincemeat. Heat in oven
(5 to 7 minutes) and serve with ham, pork, roast turkey or
baked chicken.
This is also good as a dessert, topping mincemeat with hard

Using Florida Citrus Fruits

Marmalades, Jellies and Preserves

Citrus is especially suited to the making of marmalades,
jellies and preserves because they are high in natural pectin
and acid. These are two necessary ingredients for jelling, and
when sugar is added in the right amounts a successful product

Some citrus especially suited to these uses are orange, grape-
fruit, ponderosa lemon, calamondin, kumquats, sour orange, cit-
ron and shaddock. The success of making marmalades, jellies
and other products from citrus is to cook them in small amounts.
Three cups of stock is all that should be cooked off at one time
if you wish to keep the delicate flavor and color typical of citrus.
The nice thing about citrus is that it can be held over in the
stock stage. Simply refrigerate until used. You need not cook
it all up into marmalade preserves or jelly in one day. A regular
candy thermometer or a jelly thermometer assures you of good
Stock from ground citrus and water may be cooked in pres-
sure saucepans at 10 pounds pressure for five minutes. Be
careful not to have saucepan more than 3/4 full of the stock.

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Cool, let stand a half-day or overnight. For marmalade, cook
as directed in recipe.
To keep products from boiling over during rapid cooking be
sure the saucepan is at least 5 times larger than the amount
of stock used. For example, 3 cups of stock should be put in a
four-quart capacity saucepan.
In Florida, due to climate and possibility of insects, it is best
to use jars that have lids which give an airtight seal to insure
against mold or insect damage. Paraffin is not recommended.

Orange Marmalade
Wash 6 oranges. Quarter and remove seeds. Put through
a food chopper. Measure ground citrus. Add three cups of
water for each cup of pulp. Bring to a boil and cook covered
for 15 minutes. Let stand overnight. The stock will then be
ready to make marmalade.
For marmalade, measure out 3 cups of the stock into a large
heavy saucepan. Add 1/2 cup lemon or lime juice. Measure out
three cups sugar. Bring stock to a boil. Add sugar, stir to
dissolve and cook rapidly, stirring occasionally until jelly or
candy thermometer reaches 220 F. Remove from heat. Let
cool to 1900F. Pour into clean jars. Seal at once. (The cooling
to 1900F. prevents bits of peel from floating to the top.)

Combination Marmalade
Wash 1 orange, 1 Florida lemon and 1 grapefruit. Quarter,
remove seeds and run through a food chopper. Measure. Place
in large saucepan. Add three cups of water for each cup of pulp.
Bring to a boil and cook 15 minutes. Let stand overnight.
Stock is then ready for making marmalade.
Measure out 3 cups of stock into a large saucepan. Bring
to a boil. Add 3 cups of sugar. Stir to dissolve sugar and cook
rapidly to 2200F. Remove from heat. Let cool to 190F. and
pour into clean jars. Seal at once with self-sealing lids.

Seville Sour Orange Marmalade
Wash 6 sour oranges. Peel thinly, leaving as much of the
white rag as possible. This white substance immediately below
the yellow skin contains the pectin. Save peel from two oranges.
Cover this peel with water and boil to remove bitter oils. Drain.
Quarter oranges and put through food chopper. Put cooked

Using Florida Citrus Fruits

peel through food chopper. Cover chopped fruit with 4 cups
water and boil 15 to 20 minutes. With a sieve dip out half of the
pulp and peel and discard. Measure out 3 cups of stock. Bring
to a boil. Add 3 cups of sugar. Cook until thermometer reaches
220'F. Remove from heat and pour at once into clean jars.
Seal with self-sealing lids.

Grapefruit Marmalade
Wash 2 medium grapefruit. Peel thinly. Cut in half, remove
seeds and clip out tender "core". Quarter and run through food
chopper. Measure pulp. Add three cups of water to each cup
of pulp. Cover and let stand overnight. Boil gently next day
until pulp is tender, about 20 to 30 minutes. Measure out 3 cups
of stock. Bring to a boil. Add 3 cups of sugar. Stir to dissolve
sugar. Cook rapidly until candy or jelly thermometer reaches
2200F. Remove from heat, let cool to 190'F. Pour into clean
jars. Seal at once. Be careful not to let stand too long before
pouring up. If it gets too cool it may jell in the saucepan. If
this should happen place on low heat until it reaches 1900F.
then pour up at once. Do not let it boil again.

Tangerine Marmalade
Wash 3 medium tangerines and 1 Florida lemon. Quarter
tangerines and lemon. Remove seeds. Put through a food chop-
per. Measure the ground citrus. Add 4 cups water to each
cup of pulp. Bring to a boil and cook on low heat for about
1 hour, or until volume is about half that in the beginning. Let
stand over night. This extracts pectin from the lemon. Tan-
gerines contain very little pectin, therefore, the lemon is needed
to make a good jell later. Measure out 3 cups of stock. Add 21/4
cups sugar. Cook until candy or jelly thermometer reaches
222F. Let cool to 190F. Pour into clean jars. Close with
self-sealing lids at once.

Calamondin Marmalade
Select 4 cups firm fruit, free of blemishes. Wash. Cut in
halves. Remove seeds. Slice thinly or put through food chopper.
Measure fruit. Place in saucepan. For each cup of fruit add
3 cups of water. Bring to a boil. Cook 15 minutes. May let
stand overnight or cook into marmalade immediately.
For marmalade measure 3 cups of stock into a large sauce-
pan. Bring to a boil. Add 3 cups of sugar. Stir to dissolve

Florida Cooperative Extension

sugar. Cook rapidly to 220F. on a candy or jelly thermometer.
Remove from heat, cool to 1900F. Pour into clean jars and close
with self-sealing lids.

Kumquat Marmalade
Follow directions for making stock for calamondin marma-
lade. Reduce sugar to 21/4 cups for 3 cups of the stock when
cooking the stock into marmalade. Cook to 2220F. Remove
from heat, cool to 1900F. and pour into clean jars. Close at
once with self-sealing lids. A blend of half kumquat and half
calamondin stock makes a delicious marmalade. Cook as directed
Sour Orange Jelly
Wash 4 sour oranges. With a sharp knife peel the yellow
skin from fruit, leaving the white rag on fruit as it contains
the pectin; discard peel. Quarter fruit. Remove seeds. Add
4 cups water and cook until fruit falls apart or in a pressure
saucepan at 10 pounds pressure for 5 minutes. Pour into jelly
bag and let juice drain out. Strain juice a second time. Measure
3 cups of the clear stock. Add 3 cups sugar and cook rapidly
to 220F. This will jell at a lower temperature because of its
high pectin and acid content. Remove from heat and pour at
once into clean jars. It jells rapidly and air bubbles may be
trapped in the jelly unless it is poured up at once. Close with
self-sealing lids.
Preserved Whole Kumquats
2 cups fresh kumquats 1 stick cinnamon (optional)
1 cup water 1 lemon sliced thinly (op-
2 cups sugar tional)
Wash and drain fruit. Cut a small gash crosswise in each
kumquat. Cover with water and bring to a boil. Cook 5 min-
utes. Drain. Make a syrup of sugar and water. Add cinnamon
(or other spices of your choice) and lemon. Drop kumquats
into syrup. Bring to a boil and cook 10 minutes. Cover and
let stand overnight. Cook again uncovered for 10 minutes and
let stand to "plump"-at least overnight. Bring to a boil again
and cook until fruit is clear and syrup thick. Pack in clean jars
while hot. Cover with hot syrup and close jar with a self-
sealing lid. To keep flavor and color it is best to cook in small
amounts as in this recipe. Never try to do more than twice the
recipe in the same cooking.

Using Florida Citrus Fruits

Preserved Whole Calamondins
Follow the directions for making preserved whole kumquats.

Sour Orange Preserves
4 sour oranges 1% cups water
1% cups sour orange juice 1 cups sugar
Wash sour oranges. Peel off thin yellow skin leaving as
much of thick white part as is possible; cut in halves. Squeeze
out juice. Handle carefully to avoid splitting halves. Cover
with water in a large saucepan and cook 10 minutes. Drain.
Make a syrup of orange juice, water and sugar. Drop halves
into syrup. Cook on low heat until rinds are transparent. Pack
rinds in clean jars. Cover with hot syrup. Seal and place jars
in large kettle of hot water. Water should cover jars. Simmer
for 10 minutes to complete the seal and sterilize.

Sweet Spiced Kumquats or Calamondins
1 quart kumquats or cala- Whole pickle spice
mondins 3 cups water
3 cups sugar 1 cup vinegar
Wash fruit. Make a small slit crosswise. Cover with water
and bring to a boil. Cook 10 minutes. Drain. Make a syrup
of sugar, vinegar and water. Bring to a boil. Drop in spices
tied in small clean cloth. Cook 5 minutes. Remove spice bag.
Add fruit. Cook 10 minutes, let stand overnight to plump.
Then bring to a boil and cook until syrup is thick. Pack into
jars. Cover with hot syrup. Seal with self-sealing lids. Place
in large kettle of boiling water deep enough to cover jars and
cook 10 minutes.

Crystallizing Citrus Fruit
The crystallizing of fruit is one of the oldest methods of food
preservation. Crystallization is the process of saturating the
fruit with sugar throughout.
There are several crystallizing methods. The quick methods
give good products which may be held a short time. The longer
methods produce good products which will keep for 2 to 3 months.
The skins of fruit should be thick. The ponderosa lemon,
grapefruit, shaddock, some oranges and sour orange are well
suited to crystallizing by the short or long method.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Quick Crystallized Citrus Peel
1 medium grapefruit or 2 cups sugar
1 ponderosa lemon 1 cup water
2 oranges or % shaddock
Select bright fruit with a thick peel. (May use peel left
over from grapefruit or oranges served at a family meal.) Wash,
cut in half and remove pulp and membrane inside. Leave in
all the white "rag." If desired, lightly grate outside peel to
break oil cells, this will give a milder flavor. Cut peel into
1/-inch wide strips or into wedges. Place in saucepan and cover
with 2 quarts of water. Boil 5 minutes. Drain. Repeat this
process 3 times to remove bitter flavor. Be careful not to over-
cook. Allow 5 minutes only to each boil. Drain and lay peel
on clean dish towel. Cover with cloth and press gently to re-
move excess water.
Mix sugar and water. Bring to a boil and stir until sugar is
dissolved. Add drained peel and boil gently 10 minutes. Let
stand overnight. Next day cook on low heat until most of the
syrup is absorbed. Heat must be low to keep peel from scorching.
Dip peel out and roll in granulated sugar. Place on rack to cool.
Roll again in sugar and store in a container with a loose lid.
Peel will keep 2 to 3 weeks. It can be used in fruit cakes and
other recipes calling for candied fruits.

Crystallized Citrus Peel
(long method)
1 medium grapefruit or 2 cups kumquats
ponderosa lemon or 3 cups sugar
1 shaddock, 2 oranges or 3 cups water
Use bright, clear skinned fruit. Cut in halves and remove
pulp and membrane. Grate outside skin if desired. For kum-
quats, calamondins and other small citrus, wash and cut a small
gash crosswise the fruit (leaving whole, do not grate). Place
peel or small fruit in a saucepan. Cover with water and bring
to a boil. Drain. Repeat several times for large fruits to remove
bitterness. Once is enough for the small fruit. Fruit should
be tender, but not soft.
Mix sugar and water. Heat to boiling. Add the peeling or
whole small fruits. Cook on low heat until fruit begins to look
transparent or clear. Remove from heat. Cover and let stand
24 hours. Cook fruit until a candy or jelly thermometer regis-
ters 2220F. Pack into clean hot jars. Cover with boiling syrup

Using Florida Citrus Fruits

and seal while hot. Keep sealed in syrup for at least 6 weeks
before using; it may be held as long as 3 to 4 months. The jars
must have an airtight seal to prevent fermentation. When
ready to use, remove from jars and dip fruit into hot water to
remove syrup from surface. Dry in the sun for 24 hours or
in a warm (1750F.) oven for 6 to 8 hours. (Keep oven door
open to get good circulation of air.)
Prepare a glac6 of 3 cups sugar and 1/2 cup water. Heat to
dissolve sugar. Dip peel or fruit in glac6. Place on rack to
drain and dry. Dry in sunshine or in warm oven as described
above. Store in boxes lined with waxed paper or in jars with
a few holes punched in lid to allow for air circulation. Will
keep 2 to 3 months. Use as a candy or where candied fruit are
used in recipe.
Kumquat Chips
4 cups whole kumquats 2 cups sugar
(about 1 pound) 1 cup water
Make up a syrup from sugar and water. Wash kumquats.
Cover with water and boil for 5 minutes. Drain. Cut kum-
quats lengthwise in halves. Drop in boiling syrup and cook
10 minutes. Cover and let stand overnight. Cook for 20 min-
utes longer next day and lift from syrup. Place on wax paper
to cool. Fill each chip with a toasted pecan half and roll in
granulated sugar.
Crystallized Citron
The citron, known as the citron of commerce, is of the citrus
family. It is used in fruit cake, plum puddings and in other
dishes featuring candied fruits. Citron is often confused with
the "citron melon" which grows on a vine in Florida.
The citrus citron is large and the rind thick and rough. The
fruit is best for use when still slightly green in color, but fully
mature. The following directions are for crystallizing the citrus
citron. (Recipe for 1 large citron.)
Fruit must be freshly picked. Cut fruit in half. Place fruit in
a brine made from 6 ounces of ice cream salt to 1 gallon of water.
Keep fruit under brine. A plate on top is good for this. The
brining should be complete in 15 to 30 days. The fruit will
become translucent and slightly expanded. Remove from brine
and wash in several waters. Allow citron to soak in each wash
5 to 10 minutes. Cover with cold water and bring to a boil.
Cook until slightly tender. Drain and cover at once with cold
water. Let stand 24 hours.

46 Florida Cooperative Extension

Cut citron into desired sizes (1/4's or strips). Make up a
syrup of 3 cups sugar and 4 cups of water (for 1 large citron).
Heat syrup to dissolve sugar. Drop citron in syrup and remove
from heat. Do not let boil. Cover and let stand 24 hours. At
end of time taste syrup. If syrup is salty discard and make a
second syrup of 4 cups sugar and 4 cups water. Heat and add
citron. Let stand 24 hours. If not salty, remove citron and
add 1 cup sugar. Heat to dissolve sugar and add citron again.
Cover and let stand another 24 hours. After second 24 hours
period remove citron, add 2 cups sugar. Heat to dissolve sugar
and add citron. Let stand 2 to 3 days covered. Drain and dry
6 to 8 hours on racks in a warm 175 F. oven if it is to be used
in 2 to 3 weeks. Store in containers with loose lid. If it is not
to be used soon, drain and pack into clean jars. Cover with the
boiling syrup and seal at once. It will keep a year. To use later,
open jar and drain citron. Use as desired.

Using Florida Citrus Fruits

Canning and Freezing Citrus Fruits

Canned Grapefruit Segments
Grapefruit segments are popular in ready-to-serve form,
whether canned or frozen. They are excellent for breakfast,
fruit cocktails, salads in many combinations and for desserts
of all kinds. It is most important that only fine, sound fruit,
free from defects, be used. Do not use split or overripe fruits.
The seedless varieties of grapefruit are considered the best to
use. Tin is recommended for canning grapefruit because light
damages the canned product.
Wash and dry good fruit. Remove all peel and white mem-
brane. Sharp knives are a "must," preferably of stainless steel.
Peel deep enough to remove all white membrane with the peel.
Peel from stem to blossom end-first taking a slice from each
end just cutting into the segments, then holding the fruit on
a cutting board, slice off the peel starting at the top and cutting
to the bottom following the rounded surface of the fruit. Trim
off any bits of white membrane with the knife.
Insert blade of knife close to membrane on one side of a
section near center of fruit. Loosen this side of section from
inside to outer edge. Loosen other side and ease out the seg-
ments in one perfect piece, one by one. Remove any clinging

Florida Cooperative Extension

seeds, work over a bowl to catch any juice. (See directions on
page 7 for sectioning fruit.)
Pack segments carefully in clean, plain No. 2 cans, placing
rounded side next to tin. Alternate sections in rows to fill well.
When half full add 1 to 2 tablespoons of heavy sugar syrup
(11/2 cups sugar to 1 cup of water or grapefruit juice.) Stir
together until sugar dissolves. When filled solidly, tap can
sharply on table to release any air bubbles. Place on rack in
a large kettle. Have 2 inches of water in the bottom. Place
cover on kettle and cook until center of can, when tested, with
a thermometer registers 1850F to 1900F. (about 15 minutes).
Remove tins one at a time, and seal immediately. Drop in a
water bath which is simmering (190F.) and leave for 10 min-
utes. Remove and drop in cold or running water to cool as
promptly as possible. Do not store until completely cool. Store
in cool, dry, well ventilated pantry.

Orange and Grapefruit Segments
Orange segments are best canned in combination with equal
parts of grapefruit. They are low in acid and the flavor is poor
unless grapefruit is used. Section oranges and grapefruit and
proceed as for canning grapefruit sections, alternating layers
of orange and grapefruit sections.

Canned Grapefruit Juice
Collect all equipment needed for canning before extracting
the juice so as to complete the work in the shortest possible
time. This will help prevent flavor change and loss of vitamin C.
Wash and dry fruit. Extract juice, being careful not to get too
much of the oil from the fruit peel in it. Strain out all seed
and coarse pulp or membrane. Fill clean, plain No. 2 cans and
place on rack in large kettle with 2 inches water in it. Cover
and let steam 15 minutes. Remove tins one at a time. Seal at
once. Following the sealing, invert tin for 2 minutes to sterilize
lid. Place in water bath at 1900F., simmering for 10 minutes.
Cool immediately in cold water. Rapid cooling of the tin helps
to retain the natural flavor of the juice. Store in cool, dry place.

Canned Orange Juice
Wash oranges. Cut and squeeze. Strain to remove seeds.
Measure. To 4 cups of orange juice add 1/2 cup sugar. Stir to

Using Florida Citrus Fruits

dissolve. Fill No. 2 plain tins and place in rack in large kettle
with 2 inches of water in the bottom. Cover and bring water
to a boil. Heat for 15 minutes. Remove tins one at a time and
seal. Drop in a simmering (1900F.) water bath and cook 10
minutes. Remove and drop in cold water to cool rapidly. When
cool, store in dry cool place.

Frozen Citrus Sections
Make a syrup of 1 part water to 2 parts sugar. Stir to dis-
solve sugar. Chill syrup. Section oranges or grapefruit and
pack into freeze cartons or glass jars. Leave 1-inch headspace
in jars to prevent breaking. Cover sections with cold syrup.
Seal, label and date. Freeze and store at 0F. To use: thaw
completely then use as fresh citrus. May be held 6 months.

Frozen Tangerine Sections
Wash and peel tangerines. Scrape off white veins from sec-
tions. Freeze whole sections using same syrup as for citrus
sections. Thaw and use in salads and fruit cups.

Frozen Citrus Juices
Some citrus juices can be frozen, but it is not economical
since they take up so much freezer space. Some orange juices
will separate on freezing. Valencia produces the best juice for
freezing. After squeezing, fill clean cartons or jars. Be sure to
leave 1-inch headspace to prevent breaking of jars. Seal,' label
and date. Freeze at 0F. Use within 3 to 4 months.

Frozen Marmalade Stock
Grind the orange or grapefruit rinds left from squeezing
fresh juice or eating fresh fruit. Package in 2 to 3 cup amounts
in plastic bags. Label. Freeze at 0F. To use, place ground
peel in large saucepan. Add 3 cups water for each cup of pulp.
Cook until thawed and continue boiling 15 minutes. Let stand
overnight. Use as you would use fresh stock in making marma-
Whole tangerines may be ground with lemon (see recipe for
Tangerine Marmalade on page 41) and frozen for making into
stock later. Kumquats and calamondins may also be ground
and frozen for use later in marmalades.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Citrus Glossary

Navel-A large thick skinned orange used for eating out-of-hand,
for sections and slices. Not a good juice orange. In season
from October to December. The peel crystallizes well, and
makes a good marmalade.
Hamlin-A thin skinned orange, good for juice and marmalades.
In season from October to December.
Parson Brown-A rough skinned orange which is good for eat-
ing, for juice and for marmalades. In season from October
to December.
Temple-A bright orange, with a rough and thick red skin.
Peels easily and is best for eating out-of-hand. In season
December through March.
Tangelo-Easy to peel, of good flavor and best used for eating
out-of-hand. In season December through March.
Ponkan-Looks like a large tangerine, peels easily and is best
used fresh out-of-hand. In season December through March.
King-A large orange with a thick rough skin, easily peeled.
Sweet and delicious, it is best for eating out-of-hand. In
season March to July.
Valencia-An excellent juice orange, large in size and of good
flavor. The sections freeze well. Makes a good marmalade.
In season March to July.

Royal-A small grapefruit, sweet in flavor and less bitter than
some grapefruit. Good for eating fresh, sectioning, marma-
lades, preserved and crystallized peel.
Marsh-A seedless grapefruit, juicy and often tart. Good for
sectioning-sections freeze well. Excellent for marmalade
preserves or crystallized peel.
Ruby-A pink grapefruit with few seeds. Good for sections,
eating as is, marmalades, preserves and crystallized peel.

Using Florida Citrus Fruits

Key-Grown chiefly in Florida Keys, but it may be grown in
central Florida with care. Hard to grow, but delicious. The
juice of this small lime makes the famous Key lime pie.
Limequat-A small yellow fruit, with the flavor of kumquat
and tartness of lime. A good marmalade maker.
Persian-A large green lime of good flavor. Grows best in
southern areas of the state.
Rangpur-A lime, orange in color. Tart juice may be used as
lime or lemon juice.

Ponderosa-A lemon as large as a grapefruit, oblong in shape
growing on a small tree. The peel is excellent for marma-
lades, preserves and crystallized peel.
Meyer-A smooth skinned fruit with good flavored, tart juice.
Fine for cooking and use in beverages, marmalades and
crystillized peel.

The small "Yl.-inch to 1-inch orange fruit may be used for
out-of-hand eating, salads and fruit cups. It makes good marma-
lades, preserves and crystallizes well. Bears December through

Small orange fruit, shaped like a small tangerine. Very acid,
it can be used fresh as lime or lemon would be used in seasoning,
beverages and cooking. It preserves well and make a good
For growing instructions, write for Bulletin 166, Citrus
Fruit for the Dooryard.

Bulletin 144R, Preserving Florida Citrus, Florida Agricultural Extension
Service (out-of-print).
Bulletin 166, Citrus Fruit for the Dooryard, Florida Agricultural Exten-
sion Service, Gainesville, Florida.
Bulletin, Florida's Favorite Recipes for Citrus Fruits, written by Florida
Agricultural Extension Service, printed by Florida Citrus Commis-