Citation
Every boy's book of games, sports, and diversions, or, The school boy's manual of amusement, instruction, and health  with several hundred engravings

Material Information

Title:
Every boy's book of games, sports, and diversions, or, The school boy's manual of amusement, instruction, and health with several hundred engravings
Portion of title:
School boy's manual of amusement, instruction, and health
Creator:
Grieves ( Printer )
Pearson, E ( Publisher )
Place of Publication:
London
Publisher:
E. Pearson
Manufacturer:
Grieves
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
vi, 546 p. : ill. ; 13 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Schools -- Exercises and recreations -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Sports -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Bldn -- 1852
Genre:
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

General Note:
Bladwin Library copy lacks added colored t.p.
Funding:
Brittle Books Program

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
026682996 ( ALEPH )
45714368 ( OCLC )
ALG6186 ( NOTIS )

Full Text


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EVERY BOY'S BOOK

or

GAMES, SPORTS, AND DIVERSIONS:

OR, THE

School-Hoy's Manual

or

AMUSEMENT, INSTRUCTION, AND HEALTH.

WITH SEVERAL HUNORED ENGRAVINGS.





London:
E. PEARSON, 242%, BLACKFRIARS ROA D.



1852.



Lonnow:
GRIEVES, Printer, 6. Red Lion Court Fleet treet.



SPORTS FOR AN EARLY AGE.

CONTENTS.

Pace.
GAMES WITH MARBLEB.. cc... sec ccesee oe Seoveeee bec seetsecee !
GAMRS WITH TOPS... .ccccce cacee oe evecens easeecee Oe ncccceesseeees 12
Games WITH HOOPS 00.0.0 cscs cesceeeneeeees coneeseneccevetessvecs W
SPORTS WITH TOYS. . 0.00 ccsecscessceseves Con cenceccnccees Oeececece 20
SOCIAL IN-DOOR GAMES.
PARLOUR SPORTS 00.0 ese ce cc cce sence enceeeesneeeenes seeseseeenes 33
FORFEITA .o..ceccceseens seeesecceeers steetseeerseacee ereesceenees 45
OUT-DOOR GAMES.
Sports ov Aaturry awn SPEED .....e.000 Oca eeereesee rece sesecs 33
GAMES WITH BALLB .......0-0058 - Bae e eer e esos carcececeteeseenes 63
GAMES OF SKILL.
Dmavours....... Veen ence nec enter en eee secre ee eee nee esas pete eetaee 81
Dominogs....... Peer eens acces neeeneenen Oe eve cree cece neeeeereenee 95
BacnGauaon ....seeeee Cena ease eee e emcee eee emer as ees ceseecesaes 97
FOX AND GEESE ...5. ec ccc ec ccc cee eee tseeetenetterseeecs 103
MORMRICE.... ccc cec eects cece cece cence ecee earner etenteueeescesaees 104
CTBGS 0... cece ete ccc tenet eens sen seen eeee stun tseveseuseuecaes 106
BAGATRLUR oc cccc cece sec c cc eete este ccensbeeeeersenettnreeterseees liz
THE CONJUROR.
FEATS OF LEGRRDEMAIN 0... sc cece se cseces ces cssteeeeseeceseesees 195
TRICKS WITH CARDS .. 11. 20 cenccssccesnesaucctceveceses saves: 207



CONTENTS.

. Pac

BEATS OF CHEMICAL AGENCY ....cecccvccvevevvcvcccccceressccesees 228

CRICKET. cseccccccccnccncetscrenccnceeeccesccenreccsenscccncsesses 239
AQUATIC SPORTS.

ANGLING....... Cceneatscentenneneee seeeeseerrenccnseeressrsccenes 257

SWIMMING ....c.cccvesccccersccecctacees censcncerssesensessstscses 219
THE FANCIER,

CAGE BinDS 2... cceccccccececscroccneseerrevescsevessesssesensens 335

KaBBITS .....0.0006 APO meee eee eee ee ee ee tone tensa wees neaneeee 365

PIGEONS.... se0es veer eenenneg eee eer eevesevens Cente renee eeeres 381

BANTAMS...ccvccsccccncsscsccees POO e ee ee reece eter ee een e ee eetsines 46

Wire MICE... ..eecc scenes eeccnnne Peace eer cce ee een tens pernee wees ary

GUINBA PIGS, ....000 cotsevecsenner Sewer cece ee oneness eeeteee nies 4)
ATHLETIC SPORTS.

ARCHERY........005 dee e dee e eee eee enemas tenn ener ete aeieene cence 415

FENCING... 0. ccs cccece cc ce cece sae ceetresereesees Pee eees cece narene 429

GYMNASTICS ...... a ecceeuccees Odeo eweteneee Obed msec cree eee nee 461
’ RECREATIVE EXPERIMENTS.

OPTICS. 0.06005 bebe cens ceerecestee Pe eeeseneeeeeee Pee e cent ence ee enee 47°

ELectricity



MISCELLANEOUS AMUSEMENTS.

PARADOXES AND PUZZLES.....eccccceueseceeeees sence eee eee eetes 529
VARIBTIES occu iecce ns cesctecceseteeee seeeuaeseuveee pareceteas 40





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Every Bor’s Boox—Yes! a book for every boy ; a book containing
an epitome of every thing likely to be of interest to the juvenile
mind. But what does it contain ? perhaps, the reader may ask, We
were half inclined to be silent, and let the Every Boy’s Book speak
for itself : nevertheless, a few words of introduction may not be un-
acceptable.

Works of amusement, intended for the recreation hours of boys,
are numerous. Some of these are highly objectionable in their con-
tents, whilst others, from their high price, are, in a pecuniary point
of view, beyond the reach of the great body of the rising generation.
To remedy those inconveniences was the projected object of this work
—its success during its progress through the press in a serial form
has conftrmed the anticipations of the projectors.



Vi PREFACE.

Arranged uader its proper head, there will ba found in this volume
sound instruction derived from practical experience in all the pass
times and diversions—whether out door or in door, which lend such a
charm to the joyous seasons of childhood and yout. Games time«
honoured in the recollections of most up. grown persons, have not
been forgotten, whilst many ganes have ben included, descriptions
of which have never before appeared in print. With regard to
Athletic Exercises, tending to promote a vigorous constitution, thig
work will not be found deficient in sound instruction, while ample
space has been accorded to that department likely to awiken and
foster kindly feelings in the youthful breast—the keeping, as house-
hold pets, of tame animals, and cage birds. ‘he instructions in this
book, of the various games of skill, are inferior to nothing of the
kind ever published ; the merest tyro may, by an attentive perusal of
our pages, become an adept ia the games of Draughts and Chess.
By the insight afforded by us, in the mysteries of Legerdemain, will
the stigma of ‘no conjuror” be applied to any youth, though of the
most ordinary capacity. Iu the department of Science will be found
8 collection of amusing and instructive experiments, not dry details
Only of what has been done by others, but plain information of what
the reader may perform himself. And now, feeling that we have
already lingered too long on the threshold, we shall leave the
volume to plead its own cause.



MARBLES

TOPS
HOOPS

TOYS










What clamorous throngs, what happy groups were seen,
In various postures scattering o’er the green ;

Some shot the marble, others join the chase

Of self-made stag; or run the emulous race.

MARBLES.

MARBLES are not of ancient origin—and previous to their invention,
nuts, round stones, plumb-stones, and wooden balls, were used by boys
for the purpose of playing games. Augustus, the Roman Emperor,
when a youth, is said to have passed many bours in the day playing
with his companions with nuts,in games much similar to those now
played at with marbles.

There are four sorts of marbles used by boys. The first are called
bonces or bosses ; very large stone marbles, which measure about four
inches round. The second are the taws, smaller stone marbles, which
are chiefly used to shoot with, and which are remarkable for their
hardness, their beautiful spots, circles, veins, and other marks. The
third are the common clay marbles, sometimes white and pink, and
scarcely harder than chalk, and sometimes smooth and glossy, and
coloured in the manner of crockery ware, The fourth are the alleys,



4 MARBLES,

which are the most valuable; these are sometimes pure white and
sometimes veined and clouded with pink, or wholly of that colour.
The atone marbles and the alleys are mostly manufactured by the iron
mills of Germany, and imported from Holland ; the stone is first cut
into strips and the strips into cubes, like dice. They are then put
into a peculiar kind of mill where they are made to rub against each
other, when the corners are gradually worn away, and they become
somewhat round; when they are then taken toa second, and after-
wards to a third mill, until they become of that beautiful and globe-
like form in which we see them. The following are the principal
games played at with marbles.

RING TAW.

Make a ring upon the ground, and upon or within it let each person
place a certain number of marbles; then draw a circle around the
former at about ten feet distance ; this is called the offing, and from this
each player in turn shoots. The first boy who is to play, shoots at
the marbles in the ring, if he hit one and drives it out of the large
ring he gains it, and is allowed to go on again, and so on until he
misses. But the second and all after times, he does not return to the
ring to shoot, but to the place his marble goes to, and which must be
somewhere outside the ring, for if his taw remain in the ring he loses
not only his chance of going again but also he must put back into the
ring all the marbles he has obtained that came. ‘The next party who
plays, must firat get a marble out of the ring, and then he has the
privilege of shooting at his adversaries taw, whether it remains in the
ring or not, and if he is so fortunate as to hit it the owner is thrown out
of the game altogether and must hand over the marbles he has to the
winner, supposing he has any, but if ke has none, or has already given
them up in consequence of his taw remaining in it, these are not to be
disturbed if there are other players. If there are no other players
the game is settled. There are certain conditions to be observed in
the game of ring taw, at the call of other players as to ‘knuckle down’’
by making the middle joint of the fore finger touch the ground whileshoot-
ing, and also as to making the hand remain stationery after the marble
has been shot to prevent the player giving no undue velocity to the



MARBLES, &

taw in its progress to the ring. In playing near a wall, should your
taw be placed where you have not room to kneel behind it, you may
shoot it from your knee or from your hip. The principal art uf the
game consists not only in shooting the marhles out of the ring, but in
keeping out of harms way, or taking up a good portion for future
operations. Doss in the ring is a game similar to ring law, the large
bosses being bowled instead of the small taws shot.

INCREASE POUND.

This is an excellent game, and is very much like the last. The
difference is as follows ; supposing the rings to be as in ring taw, and
marbles be placed within the inner ring. One boy shoots a marble
out if he can, if unsuccessful, and his own marble remain in the pound,
he pays one marble to the pound and lets his own remain for the next
time. The next player goes on, if he hit the former player’s marble,
the owner of it puts a marble in the ring and the next player begins
at the offing, as at first; but ifeither party have already got a marble
out, the case is different, for the party struck has not only to put one
in the pound, but to hand over whatever marbles he has gained to the
party that struck him, and if he has not any, he is said to he Killed,
and is put out of the game entirely. Whenever a shot has been gained
by any party, and the taw of one of them remains within the ring, (on
the line is nothing,) he puts all the shots which he hxs, and one more
into the pound, and shoots from the offing as at first, but if he have
obtained any shots, he remains Ailled, or as boys cail it, “ he gets
fat,’’ and stands out for the remainder of the game. When there is
only one marble left in the ring, the taw may remain inside without
being fat. This game may be played by any number, with or with-
out partners.

THE MARBLE BOARD.

Procure a piece of wood, half an inch or more in thickness, 15
inches long and 4 inches wide. Cut it of the form shown in the print,
and cut in the lower part of it any odd number of holes. One hole
in the middle, the otbers at an equal distance from each other on
either side. Number the centre hole ], and the side holes 2, 3, &c.



b MARBLES.

as represented, letting the smaller numbers be towards the centre, as
thus.

At some part at the back of the marble board is to be a piece of
wood fastened, to hold it
upright when placed upon
the ground. ‘The owner
of the marble board is fur-
nished witha bay of marbles
ready to pay the winner.
The boy who desires to
play stands atany appointed
distance, and bowls his marble towards the board, if it go through
either of the holes he receives the number marked over that hole, if it
does strike the board without going through, the marble is forfeited,
and if it goes over the board or on one side of it, or does not reach it
at all, two marbles are forfeited by the player. The space between
the holes should be about twice the width of the holes themselves, and
the hole so wide as to allow the largest marble to pass through with-
out touching.



DIE AND CHEESE,

Is formed by grinding down two opposite sides of a marble, so as to
make it resemble a cheese, Fig. 1, then make a small cube or die
© min out of another

| marble and mark

upon its face dots
numbering from
2 one to six, Fig. 2.

_--~etys set the die upon
Fig. 3. the cheese as rep-
resented in Fig, 3. For shooting at it from a short distance, a boy
pays the owner a marble each time, and should he knock the die
off the base, he is entitled to receive from the owner as many marbles
as there are dots on the uppermost face of the die.





PYRAMID, OR CASTLE.

Pile four marbles up, three at bottom and one above. These belong
to one player, called for the time the castle-keeper. Let a second player



MARBLES. 7

bowl! or shoot a marble at this castle at the distance of two yards. If
he knock down the castle, its four marbles become his, and the castle-
keeper puts up another heap which is shot at a second time; the castle
keeper takes all the marbles which miss the castle aimed at.

THE GAME OF DOUBLE CASTLE.

Let there be five castles made of marbles like those in the cut below
and suppose them to be marked ABCD E. The centre one is to
be made of ten marbles, the others of four each, and they must be
piaced at about half a marble distance from each other. If the boy
who shoots the marble at them, knock down the castle A, without
disturbing the others, he gains all that are in that castle. If A in
falling knocks down B or D, the winner gains only six instead of ten,
if it knocks down both
B and D, he gains only
two. If he miss the cen-
tre one and throw down
C BD or'E, he loses
four marbles for each one
so disturbed ; he loses his
own marble only when he misses the whole, if he can shoot any marble
off either pile, without disturbing the under ones, and which is very
difficult, he gains the whole which are on the ground.



GAME OF LAG OUT.

There may be any number of players at this game, who may per-
haps require a great number of marbles, and marbles are more quickly
lost and won at this game than at any other, so that a boy may have
a bag full at beginning the game and lose them all ina few minutes.
It must be played on perfectly level and smooth ground, or on the
flooring of aroom. First you must have a post or other object to
strike the marbles against. Each party who is to play is to put down
a marble at the distance of about a yard from the post, then the first
player begins by striking another marble against the post, and watch-
ing where it rolls to ; his object is to make it roll in such a direction
that it may hit one of the marbles already down, if it hit one of them,



8 MARBLES,

no matter which, he wins the whole that are down. If his marble do
not hit one of the others, it must remain untouched on the ground, to
take its chance of being hit by the next player, who throws his marble
against the post in the same manner. If he fails, the third player
goes on, and afterwards the other players, if there are any, or if not
the first goes on again, and if there are but two they play alternately,
always leaving the marble down on the floor or ground, until one of
them is struck, when they are all cleared off by the fortunate winner.
The game then begins anew, all putting down a marble except the
winner, who has the privilege of playing first. Sometimes there are
as many as fifty or sixty marbles oul at once.

When boys have but few marbles they agree to play for a certain
number, say six, when these are used up, the player instead of taking
one from his bag, takes which he pleases off the ground, and plays
with it like his own, so that there are never more than twelve marbles
on the ground at once.

LONG LAG AND FRENCH LAG.

This only differs from the other in making a circle on the floor, of
a yard from the centre of the post where the marbles are struck against,
and making it a rule that those marbles which when thrown, do not
go beyond the circle, ure to be forfeited to the other party. Another
long lag is making a line as before, at a given distance, and not forfeit-
ing any marbles but those which lie beyond the circle, are the only
ones to be steuck to win the game.

CROSS LAG.

This is by far the most scientific game of all. A line is to be made
down the post or wall, and also along the ground straight outwards
from the wall. The players are to take their turns in playing as be-
fore, and each one is to stand exactly on the line at two yards distance
from the post. He is then to throw his marble at the post, so that it
may fly out again, the next player must see on which side of the line
on the post the marble strikes, and then see where it settles; if it
settles on the same side of the line on the ground as that it struck on
the post, the marble is forfeited to that mext player, unless it hit



MARBLES, 9

another marble on that side, if so, the marble is not forfeited, but it
does not take the game; but if the marble thrown flies to the oppo.
site side of the centre line from that which it struck, and does not
hit another, it remains for the next player to throw at, but if it hit a
marble already there, the owner of it claims ull the marbles on that
side, or if so agreed upon before hand, he claims the whole, and the
game begins anew, otherwise the game is perpetual. If the marble
thrown strikes the line of the post, or settles on that chalked on the
ground, it is laid aside till the next winning takes place, when all such
marbles as are thus laid aside are scattered on the ground at random
for the benefit of the next game, not any of them being nearer the post
than the length of a boy’s two fect, nor nearer the centre line than a
span made by his thumb and fure finger.

THREE HOLES AND SPAN, KNUCKLE AND TAW, OR NINE HOLES.

Make three holes in the ground at about a yard and a half distance
from each other. Then make a mark at a yard and half distance from
the first hole. The first player Anuckles down at the mark and shoots
his marble into the first if he can. If he succeed, he then takes a
span towards the second hole, and shoots his marble again towards
that hole, and so on. If he does not succeed, the next player tries his
luck with his own marble, and if he enters the hole and his adversaries
marble is near it, he may either try to knock the former players
marble away with his own, or try to enter the second hole. If he
succeed he goes on again to the next, takinga epan towards it as the
former did, and throughout the whule game, having the privilege of
knoeking his adversaries marble away if he can, whenever he has first
entered a hole ; and when he has knocked it away, he continues from
the place his marble goes to. If he miss either the marble or the
hole, the first player goes on again, or if there be a third player he
takes his turn in like manner, and whoever plays may ifhe can, knock
away all other marbles that surround either of the holes, thus render-
ing it more difficult for the next player to get inhis marble. Whoever
first gets his marble into the ninth hole wins the game. The ninth
hole is reckoned thus :-—First 1, 2, 3, 2, 1, 2,3, 2,1. So that he
goes up and down the three boles twice. The loser must pay to bim
whatever they agree to play for. Sometimes the loser puts bis



10 MARBLES,

knuckles on the ground at a certain distance, and allows the winner
to shoot his marble at them from that distance, then from wherever

the marble goes to.

BOUNCE EYE.

This is a game played by each player putting down a warble within
asmall ring, and dropping from the eye another marble upon them,
80 as to force them out, and whatever marbles are thus driven out of
the ring become the property of the bouncer. Each player tries his
skill in turn.

THE CONQUEROR.

Is played by two boys endeavouring to split each others taws, when
the victor is entitled to receive a marble for the taw so split, and also
whatever number of marbles the spiit taw may have before destroyed.
This game should be played either upon hard earth or gravel; turf,
through being too soft, and the pavement, being much too hard, are
both unsuitable.

ODD OR EVEN.

Is played by one boy concealing in his hand one or more marbles,
and another guesses whether the number he has be odd or even, if he
guesses right he receives one marble, if he guesses wrong he must pay
a marble, 1t is the second boys turn next, to hold the number, and
for the first to guess, with the like gain or loss.

EGGS IN THE BUSH,

A boy grasps in his closed hands a certain number of marbles, and
another hoy guesses how many there are. If he guess the precise
number he receives the whole as a gain, but if he guess incorrectly he
pays as many marbles as there are under or over the number shown
to be in the hand. For example, let Harry hold up some marbles
concealed in his hand, Tom guesses there are six, if there are six, he
has them all, if there are four, he has to pay two, to make up the
number he has guessed ; if there are ten he has to pay four, because



MARBLES. 11

six and four make up the ten. It is fair to pack the hand so as to
make it seem largest when it has the least number of ‘‘ eggs’’ in it, and
small when there are most eggs; but it is not allowed to touch the
hand held up, though the party that is to guess may look at it in every
vosition, and may oblige the other to turn it palm upwards if he pleases.

A FEW REMARKS ON MARBLES.

In concluding our account of the games at marbles it may not be
amiss to make a few observations on the general conduct to be observed
by boys in these games. ‘ome boys, we are sorry to say are prone
cheats, but whenever detected by a companion in any thing unfair
ought to be exposed, and the cheater sent fo Coventry; a term which
means, that no one of his former playmates shall speak to him or play
with him for a certain time. Covetousness is also a vice which we
would warn our readers to avoid, for a boy may beas wicked by being
covetous with marbles asan old miser is by being covetous with money :
if he gives way to covetousness he will speedily be led into envying
his companions success, and fostering this bad passion he will always
be restless and unhappy. A boy who sets his heart upon the accumu-
lation of a large store of marbles, and who parts with each one like a
drop of blcod taken from his veins, will be shunned by his playmates
and soon discover that his fancied source of happiness is but

Empty Nothingness.





12



TOPS.

T'uERE are few things more difficult than to spin a top well, we mean
of course a peg-top. There are three kinds of tops, the humming-top,
the whipping-top, and the peg-top. The humming-top is more the
amusement of children than of boys. In shape it is much like the
whipping-top but it is hollow, with a hole on one side, and an upright
pin or peg at the top, over which a handle is placed ; a piece of thin
string is then wound round the peg or pin, the inner end of it being
confined in a small hole, and then when the string is wound round it, if
it be suddeniy pulled off it will of course pull the top so as to occasion it
to turn round rapidly, and if held near the ground the top will con-
tinue spinning for a considerable time after it is set loose, and at the
same time make a humming noise, owing to the air rushing in and
out of the hole on the side.

THE WHIPPING-TOP.

This is by far better exercise than the last. The top is mostly
solid, and of the shape shown at A; to spin it, all that is neces-
sary is to hold the top in both hands, and putting the point of it near



TOPS. 18

to the ground, give it a brisk spin round with the hands, then having
a short-handled whip ready, you are to flog the top on the thickest
part of it, with the thong of the whip, which
will keep it up for any length of time that may
be required.

The whipping-top marked B is one used in Col-
chester, and therefore called the Colchester top ;
it is said to spin very easily and to keep up
much better than the commen top. In setting
_ the top spinning at first, you must be careful not
- to strike it too hard. The only two games we
remember to have played with whipping tops, are races, in which two
tops played by two boys, are set up at the same time, and near to
each other, the boys are then to try to flog them, so that one shall
reach a particular line, marked at a distance.
When the top is struck gently, it remains spinning
at the same place, but to make it move forward,
it must be struck more with the middle of the
thong of the whip, and with greater force than
if it is required merely to be spun round.
The other amusement is to have an encounter,
Two boys each with tops set them well spinning
and then drive them against each other, if one
top is struck down the owner of the second top wins; if both are
knocked down, neither wins; which is the case also, when the tops
fly off in different directions, without either of them falling. Two
boys will often spin the same top, to do which they must stand at
different sides of it. We have also seen one boy keep up two tops,
but this is very difficult to accomplish. The best whip for the top is
one the handle of which is about the same length as the thong, and
made of eel-skin. The next best is a strap of thin leather wetted.

The whipping-top was used in ancient times by the Grecian boys ;
and it was well known in Rome in Virgil’s time. It was played in
England five centuries ago. One of the games allowed at Harrow
pea by the original regulations, in the year 1590, was “ driving
atop.”







eee

14 TOPS.

THE PEG-TOP.

The figure marked C in the next cut is a correct representation
of the common peg-top. To choose a top, take care that the peg be
put in perfectly straight, that the point of the
peg be smooth and even, and that the wood of
the top have no knots in it, if it have knots it
will be very liable to split, and one side of it
will be heavier than the other, so that it will
lean on one side; if the peg be not smooth at
the point, and the top should reel, it would
not recover itself; and if the peg be not put in
straight, the top will waddle. Next choose the
string, this should be of whipcord, or laycord,
nothing is gained by having the cord too thin ;
one end of it should hea little opened out, and
the part thus unravelled be prevented becoming more undone by
what a sailor would call half-hitch, that is by a small portion of the
string being half-knotted round the rest of the unravelled part; the
ength may be a little more than a yard, at the very most a yard and
a half for the largest top, and a button should be put upon the end
ef it. The lower part of the top has a series of channels cut on its
surfase, and the string may be so thick, that when two pieces are
laid one in each channel, they shall touch each other. To spin the
top, first lay the unravelled end of the string a little way along the
lower part of the top, turn the string twice tightly round the peg,
and then continue to wind it upwards all along the channels, until all
the string is wound up. Then put the button between the little finger
and the next, hold the head of the top downwards, and throw it with
a jerk towards the earth, the string being held between the fingers by
the button, will untwist itself as the top falls, which will consequently
turn the top round, and when it reaches the ground the string will be
completely unwound and the top set spinning. A good top, well spun,
will soon become quite steady, when it is said to go to sleep. It may
now be taken up by a wooden spoon called a top spoon, and which is
sold st the toy shops for this purpose. A peg-top has been known to





TOPS, 15

spin or sleep upon a perfectly smooth surface, a plate of polished steel
for instance, for the space of two hours.

There is another way of spinning a top, called under-hand, the
string is wound on in the usual manner, but instead of the top being
thrown down by the player in the manner before described, he stoops
down and holding the top with the peg downwards he jerks it away
from him, still holding the string; the top will then loogen itself from
the string and spin, even better than by the over-hand method, but
this way is not so bold and not so well liked by boys as the one first
described, and for playing at peg in the ringis of no use. The best
top for this way of spinning is the Spanish top
shewn at D. Itis more taper than the English
top, and has a thick round short peg. This top
sleeps beautifully. Boys in taking out the pegs of
their tops fasten the end of a string tightly round
the peg, and then holding the string at the op-
posite end, they strike the body of it against the
post, when the sudden concussion of several blows
given in this way generally loosens the peg. To
fasten it in again tightly, it is best to rust it in, |
in the following way, make the pey a little wet,
then sprinkle salt upon it, put it in the hole and
ram itin. The salt and water will rust the peg inside and make it
80 firm that it is almost impossible to move it afterwards.



CHIP STONE,

Two lines are drawn upon the pavement, two or three feet apart.
The two boys about to play, each select a small round pebble or
‘‘ chip stone,”’ and place it upon one of the lines. The peg-tops are
then spun, and while they continue spinning the players must take
them up in wooden spoons and “chip ”’ or cast them at the stones,
so as to drive the latter from one of the bounds to theother. Should
the tops keep on spinning after they have been cast at the stones, the
players are allowed to take them up in their spoons and chip again;
a skilful player can chip three or four times before the top ceases
spinning. The player who can send his chip stone from one boun-
dary line to the other in the fewest casts, is the winner. Jn selecting



16 TOPS.

chip stones it should be the aim to procure those which are evenly
shaped and smoothly pulished.

PEG IN THE RING.

Let there be a ring made on the ground about two yards across,
(not on pavement,) and the several players surround it. Some one
boy, as may be agreed upon, lays his top in the middle ofthe ring,
while all the other players peg at it, trying if they can to split it; if
any one succeed he keeps the peg for his victory, and sometimes he
also claims half the bacon, (the pieces of a broken top are often called
bacon.) If a player bits the top in the centre so that it rolls out of
the ring, the owner may take it up and play with it like the others,
and if the top belonging to any player fall down in the ring after its
spinning is done, that top, or rather all those tops are placed in the
centre to be pegged at in like manner as the first. If also any top
does not spin at all when cast, or if it does not go within the ring at
first, or if the player attempt to touch it till it is done spinning, in either
case it is called a dead top, and is placed in the centre of the ring.

Tops made of box-wood are the best for this game, being the hard-
est, and least liable to split; but they are the most expensive. In
playing at peg in the ring particular care should be taken that your
top be

CHell Spiked.








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HOOPS.

Ahuves are of three kinds, bark hoops, white hoops, and iron hoops.
Bark hoops are the best for every purpose of exercise and enjoyment.
White hoovs are: those smooth flat hoops which are used for washing -
tubs, they are only fit for young ladies. Iron hoops have been much —
used of late years—these may be considered hoops with all the dirt
and disadvantages of hoops without any of their benefits. They do
not even require the arm to be exercised at all, but are moved along
by pushing them with a piece of iron hooked at the end.

The games ef hoops are trundling them, turnpike, the wheelhoop,
and the hoopbattle. The first of these requires no explanation; all
that is to be done is, to give the hoop a blow or two now and then,
and guiding it by holding the hoop stick on one side or the other, ac-
cording as it is apt to fall.

Horace mentions trundling the hoop as one of the manly exercises
Of his time, a a ’



18 HOOPS,

TURNPIKE.

Tarnpike is a very good game to play at when there is but one hoop
among two or more boys. In this case one boy is to trundle the hoop
in the usual manner, the others are to keep turnpikes, that is, they
must get two bricks or stones, and put them first twelve inches from
each other, on the ground, meastiing the inner sides. The turnpikes
being ready, the boy with the hoop rolls it aloug, and takes care that
it shall go through the turnpike, if he completely clear it he continues
onwards in a large circle, passing through every turnpike in his way,
each one of which is attended by one boy. When he has passed once
round, if he should not be out, each turnpike is made more narrow
by an inch, he tries again, and if successful all round, the turnpikes
are narrowed again one iach, and he continues; but whenever he
touches with his hoop either of the stones he is out, and the boy
takes it whose turnpike is struck, while he who loses has to stop in
the other one’s place, and become a turnpike keeper himself, The
above way of making turnpikes is much better altered thus, let the
width of the turnpike always be that of the shoe of the keeper—thus
there can be no dispute as to its proper width.

WHEELHOOP.

Get as large a hoop as possible, also a large sized curtain ring,
fasten this latter by four strings to four different parts of a hoop, so
that the curtain ring shall be in the middle of the hoop, and the
strings drawn tight, To move this hoop along, put a small stick
through the ring and run along with it, when of course the hoop will
turn round.

THE HOOP BATTLE OR TOURNAMENT.

This game is played by several boys, forming themselves into two
parties or sides, and going into opposite parts of the play-ground
they get their hoops ready, and at a signal given, both parties drive
their hoops forward to meet their antagonists, every one striving to
strike his hoop against one of chose of the opposite party, and to pre-
vent confusion it is usual for one of each side to attack the hoop of
the boy opposite to him. The boys belonging to the hoops that are



TOYS. . 19

knocked down, are then out of play till next game, the rest going on
in like manner from the sides they have now arrived at, until all are
thrown out but one, who gains the battle for his own party. No
hoop that is knocked down by touching any thing but a hoop, nor
which falls of its own accord, is to be reckoned as out.

Another way of playing the game is to agree to a certain number as
the game, and then count the number of hoops that are thrown each
time, and whichever side can get the number first by throwing his
adversary’s hoops, gains the day.

The iron hoop is. for all games, much worse than the wooden one
itis small and dirty, and does not even require knocking, which
takes away from the hoop, one of its chief and most healthful advan-
tages. The iron hoop is mostly moved along by a rod of iron, hooked
at the end, which is only to be pressed against the upper part of the
hoop, which then moves forward.

It used to be the fashion once, to have hoops with gingles on them,
if any of our young friends prefer these to the common hoop, they have
only to go to a tinman and procure twelve pieces of tin, about an inch
and a half square, and tell him to punch a hole in the middle-of each ;
having procured these, nail them two together, at six different parts
of the inner side of the hoop. They are to be left loose enough to
rattle, when the hoop is shook or struck.

In playing this game, great compatibility of temper should be
observed by the contending parties, and the battle may be carried on
very good-humouredly although the belligerents will sometimes assume,

A Threatening Appearance.
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TOYS.
THE KITE.

KirEs are of various shapes, but that most usual is round at the top
and gradually tapers downwards to a point at the end. To make a
kite, proceed as follows. Geta straight light lath, of the proper
length for the kite, this is called the straighter. Then get a cane
of the same length and call this the bender, make a notch all
round it, and also a notch at the bottom of the straighter,
side ways of it, and also a notch at the top end of the straighter
also sideways. Then, by means of a small string, tie tightly
the middle of the bender, to the top of the straighter, and with
another fine string, tie the twoends of the bender together, bringing
them so near to each other as to make the top of the kite resemble
half a circle, and at the time of carrying the string across to tie one
en4 30 the other, give it a turn round the straighter, having thus con-



TOYS. 21

fined the two ends of the beider, bring the string from one of them
down to the bottom of the straighter, give it a hitch round this part,
and finally fasten it to the opposite end of the bender. If the kiteis
very large, two or three other strings across it may be necessary, at
all times, if these be placed they should come from the points of the
bender, and be turned round the straighter, with a hitch whenever
they cross it: the frame of the kite is now complete. The next
thing is to cover it with paper, or what is still better, fine muslin or
silk, but supposing we use paper, we must first get the proper kind
of paper, so that it shall be light and strong. If the kite be above’
four feet in length, cartridge paper will not be too heavy. If from
four feet to three feet, we may use elephant paper, iffrom three feet
to two feet in size or smaller, what printers call double crown is as
good as any, though almost any thin paper willdo. We must first paste
as many sheets of it together as are necessary for the frame we have
formed, the edges of the sheets where they are pasted being about
half an inch folded over each other. Stretch these sheets, when the
foldings are dry, upon a smooth floor. Lay the frame upon them,
and cut the paper about an inch all round the frame in every direc.
tion, and all around the head of the kite cut some slips down to the
bender, then paste the part of the paper which projects over the frame,
and turn it over neatly, so as to enclose the bender and the string at
the end of it. Then paste some strips of paper, at two or three
places, across the straighter, and across the strings. Then let the
whole dry, and afterwards put on the loop. To do this, dividethe
straighter into three parts ; a distance equal to two of these parts is
to be the distaace of the holes from each other into which the loop
is to be placed, and this should be exactly equal to the whole
width of the kite, when finished. To find the piace to insert the
top of the loop, draw a line from corner to corner of the kite or
from wing to wing, and see where this line crosses the straighter, and
then measure the half distance between this line or mark and the
top of the kite, and at the place where that half distance comes is to
be made a hole through the straighter, for the top of the loop to pass
through. Ata distance of the breadth of the kite below this, the
lower hole is to be placed. The length of the loop is to be such
that when laid down upon the kite it shall reach nearly to one of the



22 ToYSs,

wings or ends of the bender, and when the string is afterwards fastened
on, it ehould be at such a height as the wings. If the string is fastened
an too low, the kite will pitch, if too high, it will not catch the wind
properly. If the kite is too wide it will waddle, and if too narrow, it
will not fly high because it will not hold a sufficiency of wind. The
tail is to be fastened securely to the lower end, and the quantity of
tail depends upon the shape of the kite and the strength of the wind
It onght to be about eight or nine times the length of the body of
the kite. If this is too heavy it may be shortened, or, if prepared,
alittle piece cut off of each end of the pieces of paper which form
the tail.

The Chinese, who are very fond of the amusement of kite flying,
make them of various shapes, particularly square or many sided, these
fly with very short tails. Thay also often make a long hole in the
middle of the kite and stretch wires or cat gut across it, so that the
wind sets upon the strings and produces musical notes. We have
seen some excellent kites made of the form of butterflies. The frame
work of most of these fancy kites is made of very thin whalebone or
of the split cane used for bonnets.

THE POP-GUN

The Pop-gun is made from a piece of alder about six inches in
length, from which the pith has been extracted. The rammer should
have a handle of proper length with a shoulder or knob to the top, to
prevent its slipping the entire length of the gun. The pellets should
be made of moistened brown paper or tow. Put one of them into the
mouth of the gun, and drive it to the other end with the rammer, a
second pellet should then be put into the mouth of the gun and driven
very quickly to the other end, when the sudden compression of the air
in the tube will cause the first pellet to fly out with great force, and
with a loud report. Smaller pop-guns are sometimes made with quills
and wooden rammers, the pellets of which are cut by the quills out 0.
slices of raw potatoe.

. PEA-SHOOTER.

This is a tin or copper tube, six or seven inches in length, through
which a pea may be propelled from the mouth by the force of the
breath, with some velocity, aud to a considerable distance.



TOYS. 23

WATCH-SPRING-GUN,.

Procure a piece of wood about four inches long, and shape it into
the form of a gun or pistol, and along the upper part of the etock make
a groove for the tube or barrel, which is sometimes formed of brass but
more frequently of a large quill; the barrel must be open at both ends;
fasten it on either with brass wire or waxed threads, letting it project
beyond the point of the stock, and reach down as far as the middle of
it. A piece about two inches long must be cut out of this barrel as low
as the stock, for the watch spring (o work in; by this contrivance the
spring will move with greater facility than it could possibly do if it
worked in a groove of wood. The watch spring should be about as
long as the quill. A pin rust be driven into the groove about half an
inch from the mouth of the quill, and the head of it allowed to project
up, 80 as to act as a catch to the watch-spring. When setting the gun,
the spring should be bent so as to catch against the pin head, and the
other end, after passing through the lower or short part of the barrel,
must be inserted in the trigger, which must have a nick made in it for
the purpose. The shot must now be put in the groove, and when the
finger pulls back the lower part of the trigger, the upper part will, of
course, press forward, and throw the spring forward also, and cause
the latter to disengage itself from the pin’s head, and to propel the shot
through the barrel with considerable force. Small arrows may also be
projected with this toy, when a little butt or target may be shot at.

THE SLING.

Cut a thong of leather about two inches wide at the broadest part,
and tapering at both ends, and fasten a piece of cord at each end, allow-
ing one of these cords to be somewhat longer than the other. Lay a
stone in the middle of the leather, twist the longest cord two or three
times round your hand, hold the other loosely between your thumb
and forefinger, and after whirling it round several times, let go the
short cord, and the stone will be ejected to a great distance.

THE SUCKER.

The sucker is made by cutting circular piece of stout leather, boring
aJhole in its centre and passing a string through it, to which a knot is



24 TOYS.

tied, to prevent its slipping back through the hole. Before using your
sucker, soak the leather well in water and when thoroughly soaked,
place the leather on a smooth stone, pressing it well down with your
feet; then take hold of the string, and you may easily lift the stone
from the ground.

THE DEVIL AND TWO STICKS.

This is a game too much neglected, for it is one which is equally
adapted for girls and boys, affords an infinite deal of amusement, may
be played by one person only and
in a parlour, requires some inge-
nuity, is not attended with noise,
and is excellent for giving exercise
to the arms and strength to the
wrists of the player, hence it has
been recommended as the best of
all substitutes for the dumb bells,
both to young ladies, who have
comparatively a less number of
active exercises, and to boys. On
the continent, particularly in Ger-
many, this game is as common as
B skipping orbattledore and shuttle-
cock, and is much better adapted
toa room. In this country it
has not been used for many years, so that the toy cannot be
bought at many of the toy shops. Yet the cut above shows it tobe
exceedingly simple. The two sticks are thin and light, quite straight,
and about two feet long each. The Devil is a thick piece of solid
wood, shaped like, and about the size of an hour glass, altogether about
six inches long, three inches wide at each end, and cut away to about
half an inch wide in the middle, so that altogether it appears as in the
cat. We have seen them made of two whipping tops joined together,
by a peg through them both, but the peg must not be too small, or
else the string will not take sufficent hold upon it. . The string which
is tied to the sticks, and which joins them together, is a piece of thick
whipcord or what is called Jaycord, and between three and four feet





TOYS. 23

long. ‘The object of the player is to keep the devil suspended upon
the string without falling, and this requires a little skill. A young
player should not have the string too long, and after taking the sticks
one in each hand and talying the devil crosswise before him, that is
with one end of it towards his right hand and the other towards his
left hand, he puts the string underneath the devil, while the latter rests
on the ground. Then he raises up his left hand stick as high as the
string will allow, and then he will find that his right hand stick rests
across the top or narrow part of the devil. Let him now lift the devil
off the ground by the string, aud at the same time draw up the right
hand and lower the left hand, this must be done quickly, yet not with
a jerk, for a jerk would throw the devil off, but the object is to cause
it to spin round. When once it is set spinning it is easy to keep it
up by drawing the right hand back again, ready for a second turn. It
may be thought that drawing the right hand back again would turn
the devil in a contrary direction to that first given to it, and so it
would if both hands were moved in the same manner, but it will soon
be observed that as the right hand is the strongest, it will give the devil
a stronger twirl than the left hand will, so that although the left hand
tends certainly to spot it, yet it will not quite overcome the motion
given to it at first. The second timethe right hand is raised, it
increases the motion until the devil spins rapidly round, and it is then
very easy to keep up. _If in spinning the right hand side of it should
lean down, or if you have it in the position shown in the cut, if the
end nearest to you leans down, you must turn yourself, sticks and all,
partly round to the right band, if the other end leans down you must
turn yourself in the contrary direction, and thus the balance is to be
preserved. When you have made the toy spin well and it seems
evenly balanced, you may run it up the stick to the hand,and then
down again to the string; afterwards, when it spins well once more,
you may run it up the right hand stick, this is most difficult of all; but
you may throw it spinning into the air and catch it again on the string
without its falling at either of the trials. We have known this toy so
well played that it has been kept up for half an hour, until the player
has been quite exhausted with his exertions.





26 TOYS.

THE THAUMATHROPE,

We cannot do better than include in this portion of our work an
account of a very curious aud amusing toy from a delightful book for
youth called, Philosophy in Sport made Science in Ernest, in which a
father, (Mr. Seymour) takes upon himself to explain to his children
the scientific nature of all their toys. In which he is assisted by a
worthy vicar, who gives the history of each as it is treated of.

‘‘Mr. Seymour then proceeded. ‘This toy is termed the
Thaumathrope.’

‘*«“Of Grecian origin |’ ‘‘ observed the vicar. ‘‘‘ Timeo Danaos
et dona ferentes,’ as Virgil has it.’

‘‘ « What is the meaning of the term?’ asked Louisa. The vicar
explained to her that it was compounded of the Greek words, thauma
and trepo the form of which signified wonder, the latter, to turn.

“« * Exactly,’ replied Mr. Seymour, ‘.4 Wonder-turner, or a toy
which performs wonders by turning-round ; but let me proceed in the
explanation.’ He then continued to read as follows: ‘This philo-
sophical toy is founded upon the well-known optical principle, that
an impression made on the retina of the eye, lasts for a short interval
after the object which produced it has been withdrawn. During the
rapid whirling of the card, the figures on each ofitssides are presented
with such quick transition that they both appear at the same instant,
aud thus occasion a very striking and magical effect. On each of these
cards a device is introduced, with an appropiate motto, or epigram ;
the point of which is answered, or explained by the change which the

figure assumes during the rapid whirling of the card.’
‘*Mr. Seymour then dis-
played a pasteboard circle.
on the one side of which
was figured a rat, and on the
other, a cage; two strings
were fastened in its axis, y
which the card could easily
be made to revolve by means
of the thumb and finger.
Fearing that some of our readers may be as dull of comprehension as the





TOYS. 27

vicar, we have introduced a sketch of the apparatus, in which both
sides of the card are exhibited, with the strings by which it is whirled
round.

‘“No sooner had Mr. Seymour put the card in motion than the vicar,
in atone of the greatest surprise, exclaimed, ‘Magic! magic! I
declare the rat is in the cage! !’

‘+ And what is the motto ?’ asked Louisa.

‘© “Why is this rat like an opposition Member in the House of
Commons, who joins the Ministry ?’ replied Mr. Seymour.

“«*Ha, ha, ha,—excellent,’ cried the major, as he read the follow.
ing answer : ‘ because by turning round he gains a snug birth, but
ceases to be free.’

‘* «The very reverse to what occured in ancient Rome, where the
slave became free, by turning round,’ observed the vicar.

‘‘ The vicar, no doubt alluded to the custom of making a freeman,
as described by Persius ; from which it appears that the clapping s cap
on the head, and giving him a turn on the beel, were necessary cir-
cumstances. A slave thus qualified became a citizen of Rome, and
was honored with a name more than belonged to any. of his forefathers
which Persius has repeated with a great deal of humour in his fifth
satire ;—

«« ¢__-Heu steriles veri, quibus una Quiritem
Vertigo facit!’
«That false enfranchisement with ease is found ;
Slaves are made citizens by turning round.’
DRYDEN.

‘¢ «¢ Show us another card,’ said Tom, eagerly.

« ¢ Here then is a watch-box; when I turn it round, you will see
the watchman comfortably sleeping at his post.’

“« «Very good! It is very surprising,’ observed the vicar.

“ 4 Yes,’ observed the major; ‘and to carry on your political joke,
it may be said that, like most worthies who gain a post, by turning
round, he sleeps over his duty.’

“ said Mr. Seymour.

“© The caprice of this watchman surpasses all bounds:
He ne’er sits in his box but when going his RounDs;

While he no sooner rests ‘tis a strange paradox !
Than he flies from his post, and ruRNs out of his box,



28 TOYS.

«« ©What have you there 2’ exclaimed the vicar; arms and legs
without any body >
‘Yes,’ replied Mr. Seymour; ‘and which, on turning round, will
present the figure of a king, invested with all the insignia of royalty.’
«6 Jt ig indeed a king. Look at his crown and sceptre!’ cried
Louisa. .
“« © Now for the epigram,’ said the major, who then read the follow
ing lines :-—
Head, legs. and arms, alone appear,
Observe that NoRnopy is here;

Napoleon-like 1 undertake
Of nobody a king to make.’

‘©The other cards were now exhibited in succession, of which the
box contained eighteen, and the whole party, not even excepting the
vicar, were highly gratified with the amusement,

‘s © What have we here ?’ interrupted the major, who had, for the
first time, noticed the superscription on the cover of the box: ‘had I
seen this before, I should have augured favorably of the toy: it is like
the sign of an inn, which is held out to announce good entertainment
within. He then read the following :—

‘The Thaumathrope; being Rounds of Amusement, or how to
please and surprise by Turns.

‘*Mr. Seymour proceeded to explain more fully the optical theory
of the instrament, which neither Louisa nor Tom could, as yet,
thoroughly understand.

“+ He told them that an object was seen by the eye, in consequence
of its image being delineated on the retina, or optic nerve, which is
situated on tbe back part of the eye; and that it had been ascertained,
by experiment, that the impression which the mind thus receives, lasts
for about the eighth part of a second after the image is removed. ‘ It
is therefore, sufficiently evident,’ said Mr. Seymour, ‘that ifany point,
as a lighted stick, be made to revolve, so as to complete the circle in
that period, we shall not see a fiery point, but a fiery circle; because
the impression made by it in every point of its circuit will remain until
it comes round again to the spot from which it set out ;—but we will,
at once, exemplify this fact by an experiment. ‘‘Tom was accordingly
directed tu procure a piece of stick and a candie; and as soon as they



TOYS 29

were brought into the room, Mr. Seymour ignited the end of the stick
and whirled it round, when a bright circle, without any intervals of
darkness, was seen by the whole party.

‘«* The pin wheel is certainly nothing more than a fiery circle, pro-
duced by the rapid revolution of ajet of flame,’ said the vicar.

‘© And the rocket,’ added Mr, Seymour. ‘is a co'umn of light
occasioned by the same rapid movement of a burning body in a recti-
linear or curved direction.’

‘ *T perfectly understand all that you have said,’ observed Tom.

‘¢¢ Then you will not have any difficulty in explaining the action of
the Thaumathrope, for it depends upon the same optical principle;
the retina of the image, which is delineated on one side of the card ; is
not erased before that which is painted on the opposite side is presented
to the eye; and the consequence ia, that you see both sides at once.”

APPLE MILL.

A hole sufficiently large to admit athin skewer being passed through
it, is bored in a nut; the kernel is then extracted, and another hole
bored in the side. A piece of string is tied to the skewer, and then
passed through the hole in the side of the nut. The skewer is put
into the nut, and it should have a knob ; or be thicker at one end, to
prevent its slipping entirely through. An apple is now stuck on the
thin end of the skewer, which is then wound up, and twirled round in
the same manner as the humming top; keeping the nut stationery
between the forefinger and thumb of the left band.

TIP CAT.

A piece of hard wood, generally of box or yew, is fashioned into the
shape of a double cone, this is called ‘‘ the cat ;’’ it is usually about
hree inches and a half long, and an inch and a quarter in diameter in
the thickest part. The game is played as follows :—A large flat stone
is placed in the centre of a ring of any measurement as may have been
previously agreed upon. The first player puts his cat upon the stone
and gently taps one end of it with his tip-stick ; this causes the cat to
rise with a rotary motion, when he endeavours to strike it over the
ring. If he succeed in doing so, he scores what number of lengths of
his tip-stick there may be between the edge of the ring and the place
warre his stick has fallen.



30 roys

CUP AND BALL.

A ball with a hole at one extremity is attached by a string to a stem
cup-like at one end and spiked at the other. To catch the ball upon
the cup end is a difficult task, but to catch it upon the spike you must
make the ball spin upon an axis, at the lower extremity of which is
the hole.

THE BALANCING FIGURE,

Mould the figure of a man out of the pith of the alder-tree and affix
it to the plain surface of an hemispherical base made of some heavy
material, the half of a Jeaden bullet will be found most suitable. In
whatever position the figure is placed, when left to itself, it will imme-
diately rise upright, and form

A Balancing Figure








IN-DOOR GAMES
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BLIND-MAN 9 BUFF,

WE suppose every boay knows this game, however we must describe
it for all that, we can’t possibly leave out such fun as blind-man’s buff,
wtih a bit of missletoe hung up in the middle of the room, and when
young gentlemen and young ladies are met together at a Christmas
party. First, the room is to be cleared, as much as is convenient of
chairs and tables, next we must get a large handkerchief and tie it over
the eyes of some one who is to be blind-man, we must take care that he
can’t see by holding his head up, and also that the handkerchief
can’t slip. Then we must turn him loose, but not all at once ; all the
players must have time to get out of the way, so we must take the
blind-man into the middle of the room, then one of the players says, how
“many horses has your father in thestable.” The answer is two white
and one gray, upon which some one of the players takes hold of the
hlind-man, turns him round, and then says turn round three times and
catch whom you may. The blind-man then turns round three orfour times
and moves about the room in hopes of catching some body, as soon as he
has succeeded he is obliged to examine them, and is allowed to move



34 IN-DOOR GAMES.

his hand over them. If he guesses right, he takes the lady if it is
one, under the missletoe and claims a kiss, and gives up the handker-
chief to her to be blinded in like manner ; if it is a gentleman that is
caught by a gentleman or a lady caught by a lady the kissing is dispensed
with ; if the blind-man does not guess who it is rightly, he must let him
or her go again and try another. If the blind-man gets near the fire or
anything else that is hurtful, the other players must warn him by calling
out roast-beef, No one who plays at blind-man’s buff, may go out of
the room during the game.
SHADOW BUFF.

Unlike the preceding, at this game Buffy is far from blind; and
indeed, at no game does he more require the full use of his eyes.

Let a large white sheet or tablecloth be fixed against the walls of the
apartment, as for the exhibition of the magic lanthorn, and a little
before it buffy, with his face towards the white cloth, is placed upon a
stool sufficiently low to prevent his shadow falling upon the white sheet.

At the proper distance behind him, a lamp or single candle is placed
upon a stand, and all the other lights are extinguished.

The parties who join in the game, pass one by one in succession
between buffy (who is not allowed to turn his head in the slighest
degree) and the table on which the light or candle stands. The light
of the candle being intercepted as each person passes before it, naturally
throws a succession of well marked shadows on the sheet; and buffy
has to guess from the shade thrown on the curtain, who is passing, and
to name the person aloud, making but one guess to each.

This would seem very easy ; but the game admits of many stratagems.
One walks along tottering, as though struck with palsy, another distorts
himself so as to appear hump-backed ; a third limps in a most dreadful
manner ; and a fourth increases his height, and alters his appearance
by the assumption of a dignified and imposing gait. Endless, indeed,
are the various postures which the players vie with each other in
adopting, to embarrass buffy ; and the amusing mistakes which he
makes produces mirth and shouts of laughter.

When buffy guesses correctly the person named takes his place.

BUFF WITH THE WAND.

Buffy, who is blindfolded, stands in the middle, holding a long wand

or stick, the several players then join hands and form a circle round



TIN-DOOR GAMES. 35

him. Dancing and skipping tound him, they sing a short chorus of
some song; and after going once round they stop. Buffy then
stretches forth his wand, directing it by chance, when the person it
touches must take it by the end. Feeling the wand grasped, buffy
cries out three times, and the player who holds the wand must answer,
but he is allowed to counterfeit another than his natural voice, If
buffy guess his name correctly they change places; should buffy
guess wrong, the wand is released, and he continues to guess until he
names some one correctly. Every person named correctly paysa for-
feit, as does buffy each time he guesses wrong. When one of the
players voluntarily takes buffy’s place, buffy must also pay a forfeit.

JINGLING.

The Jingling match is a common diversion at country wakes and
fairs in the west country, and may be played ina large apartment.
The several players are blindfolded, with the exception of one, who ~
has a bell in each hand which he keeps ringing, and hence he is called
the “ jingler.”” His blinded companions endeavour to capture him, and
it is his business to elude their pursuits. As might be expected, they
invariably tumble against each other, and thus afford great amusement
to the spectators. The game usually lasts about twenty minutes, and
if the jingler can prevent himsclf being captured during that time, he is
accounted the winner.

HUNT THE SLIPPER.

Allthe company who play at this game sit in the middle of the
room in acircle, except one of them called the hunter, who stands in
the middle of the ring. A shoe or slipper is then taken off, and
passed round from one to the other, under their knees or behind their
backs, or in any other way in which it can be done more comfort-
able, and without being seen by the hunter who endeavours to get
hold of it, and when he does so, the person from whom he takes itis to be
the next hunter. The company endeavours to keep it passing from
one to the other, so that the hunter shall not be able to get at it,
though sometimes he is tantalized by the party who has it rapping on
the floor with it when the hunter is looking another way. If well
played the hunter is sometimes a long time before he is able to gt it.



36 IN-DOOR GAMES.

PUSS IN THE CORNER,

One boy called ‘* Puss’’ takes his place ia the middle of the room,
and four players then station themselves in the four corners of it;
each of these four change their position in regular succession, and it is
puss’s object to gain one of the vacant corners before the corner players
pext in rotation can reach it; ifhe succeed in doing so, the player
neft out becomes puss.

THE HUNTSMAN,

In this game one player is called the ‘‘ huntsman” and the others
are named from the different parts of the dress or accoutrements of a
sportsman ; the coat, the hat, the gun, the dog, and every other appur-
tenance belonging to a huntsman, having its representative. As many
chairs as there are players, excluding the ‘‘ Huntsman ”’ are then
ranged in*two rows, back to back ; the players then seat themselves.
The “ Huntsman ’’ now walks round the players, and calls out the
assumed name of one of them; the player named, rises, and takes hold
of the coat-skirts of the “ huntsman’”’ who continues his walk, and
calls out all the other players, one by one; each takes hold of the
player before him and when they are all sammoned, the huntsman sets
off running round the chairs as fast as he can, the other players holding
on and running after him. When he has ran the round of the chairs
two or three times he suddenly calls out “ Rang !’’ seats himself on one
of the chairs and leaves his followers to regain their eeats in the best
manner they can, as there is one chair less then the number of his
followers, of course there is one player left standing, who must pay a
forfeit. The game is continued until they have each paid three
forfeits, when they are cried, and the punishments or penances declared.

TWELFTH NIGHT.

The following directions for the modern Twelfth Night are given in
Rachel Revel’s Winter Pastimes :—

‘ First buy your cake, and, before your visitors arrive, buy your
characters, each of which should have pleasant verses beneath, next look
at your invitation list, and count the number of ladies you expect, and

the gentlemen. Then take as many female characters as you



IN-DOOR GAMES. 37

have invited ladies, folding them up exactly of the same size, and
numbering each on the back, and taking care to make the king number
one. and the queen number two. Next prepare and number tne
gentlemen's characters. When all are assembled, and tea over, put as
many ladies’ characters into a reticule as there are Jadies present; and
put the gentlemen’s charactersinto a hat. Then callon a gentleman |
to carry the reticule to the ladies as they sit, from which each lady is
to draw one ticket, and to preserve it unopened. Select also the lady
to bear the hat to the gentleman for the same purpose. There will be
one ticket left in the reticule, and one in the hat, which the lady and
gentleman who carried each is to interchange, as having fallen to each
other. Lastly, arrange your visitors according to their numbers; the
king number one, the queen number two, and so on. The king is next
to recite the verse on his ticket ; then the queen, the verse on hers,
and so the characters are to proceed in numerical order. This done,
let the cake and refreshments go round ; let wit and song abound; and
according to Twelfth Day law, let each party support his character till
midnight.”

THE TEN FINE BIRDS.

The company sit in a circle, and the play begins by one of the com-
pany saying, ‘‘a good fat hen,’’ this is repeated by the whole circle in
turn, one speaking at atime. The leader of the play then says ‘two
dacks and a good fat hen,”’ which is also repeated separately by all the
company. The next is three squawking wild geese, two ducks and a
good fat hen. After this has gone round, the leader seys four plump
partridges, three squawking wild geese, two ducks, and a good fet hen;
thus the game goes on from the four partridges to five pouting pigeons,
and afterwards to six long-legged cranes, repeating all that has been
said before, each time, until at last there will be the ten following pen-
tences joined together and to be repeated by each player. Ten bald
eagles, nine ugly turkey buzzards, eight screeching owls, seven green
parrots, six long-legged cranes, five plump partridges, three equawking
wild geese, two ducks, and a good fathen, If any player hesitates,
makes a mistake or leaves out any thing, he must pay a forfeit. The
words of the House that Jack built may be used instead of the above,



38 IN-DOOR GAMES.

THE GAME OF THE GIG.

Oneof the company is to tell some anecdote relative to a journey by
a lady and gentleman in a chaise, which the company are to attend to
as follows. Each person in company except the narrator has assigned
to him or her, a name, two of them are called the lady and gentleman,
the rest go by the names of some part of the chaise or gig as itis called,
one is wheel, another the axletree, a third the horse, a fourth the bri-
dle, a fifth the bit, a sixth the seat, a seventh the shafts, the eighth a
lynch pin, and go on till all the company have taken some name which
they are to remember afterwards, and whenever that name is introduced
into the story which is to follow, the person who bears it is to rise from
his or her seat, and to tarn round and then sit down again, and when
the word gig is mentioned they are all to get up and turn round, if
they should forget this at the moment, that person pays a forfeit ; and
altbough such a game appears very simple, yet if a good story is told it
is surprising what fun is occasioned. The nature of the story may be
as follows, and it may be continued until twenty or thirty forfeits are
collected. A gentleman and lady (here both these get up and run
round) were resolved one fine morning in June to take a days pleasure
and for that purpose hired a gig, but as the lady was timid and the
gentleman careful, he examined the horse, harness, and gig, thoroughly
before they set out, he saw that the wheels were good, the springs safe,
the seat dry, the shafts whole. The reins, bridle, saddle, bit, dashing
board, axletree, lynch pins were all carefully inspected, but alas for
his calculations, and the lady’s safety, one of the wheels got into an
hole and occasioned the horse to stumble, and in falling he snapped
one of the traces and shattered one of the lamps. The lady was
frightened as you may suppose, when to allay her fears, the gentleman
got out, to pacify the horse and patch the broken trace. But misfor-
tunes never come single, for scarcely did the gentleman again occupy
his seat, when the horse took fright at a light by the road side, and
dashed off with speed; at the moment of alarm the lady screamed,
the gentleman dropped the whip, the reins got entangled around the
horse’s legs, the horse rushed on with fury, the off wheel came in con-
tact with a dray, the gig was over turned, the lady thrown out, the
horse flew off with the shafts which had parted from the body, the



IN-DOOR GAMES, 39

whole was a wreck, here a wheel and there a wheel, here a splinter
par and there a cushion, at one place a step, at another the shattered
lamp, &c. &c. Of course sucha game as this can be continued to any
length which is agreeable to the party, and may be varied in any man-
ner which the imagination of the story-teller can suggest ; in the fore-
going short account alone, there ought to have heen forty six risings
from the chair and turning round, as well as the whole company rising
four times at the repetition of the word gig.

It is evident algo that a number of games may be made out of the
above, asa farmer may give an account of his crops or his animals,
the guests being named barley, oats, wheat, dog, sheep, goat, &c. or
a boy may give an account ofhis schoul games, and name the company
marble, top, kite, or anything else he pleases. We will give another
game very similar to the above, and which also in Christmas parties
occasion a good deal of tan. This is called

HE TRAVELLER'S WANT’S.

This game is played lige the last except that as it is often incon-
venient in small rooms to get up and turn round, and besides that it
often makes a considerable noise; in this game all persons whose
names are called, immediately answer to their names, calling out

“here sir’? when the traveller mentions them, and rise from their
seats, although they do not turn round. He who tells the story takes
the name of the traveller the others personate one belonging te an inn
or else something which the traveller is likely to want; thus, one may
be called landlord, others, horse, bridle, saddle, oats, boots, slippers
supper, bed—and when all are seated, the traveller comes into th,
room and asks a question or gives an order, such as the followinge
Landlord, can I have a bed here to night? Have youa good stable
for my horse? Waiter, bring me some ale, and tell the Chamber-mid
to carry my dag up stairs and prepare a room for me,’’ or a hundred
other thiags which may occur to him at the time; the persons who
represent the landlord, waiter, chamber-maid or other person, must
get up and say, yes sir, or no sir, as the case may require, or here sir
or coming sir, if they are merely called, and if in any other manner,



40 IN-DOOR GAMES,

they are spoken to they are to answer properly, and if there are any
funny fellows to take these characters, they may often make a very
laughable answer. Those who personate objects, such as saddle,
Yridle, ale, bag, &c., are not to answer at all but to get up from their
seats. If any one forgets what he is to do, and suffers his name to be
called without getting up, and if necessary answering, he pays a forteit ;
and if the traveller should forget to collect the forfeit from any one, he
forfeits one himself, so also any one who has to answer, may if he
pleases introduce the name of any one in the room, and the person
whose name is called must then hold up his band, but not answer ; for
example, if the traveller calls landlord bring me my bill, as it is the
traveller who calls, the 5id/ must get up from his chair, and the land-
lord also, and if the landlord says 1’ll send the waiter with the bill sir,
—the waiter and the bill are neither of them to get up, but to hold
up his hand, and thus the game goes on until the company are tired,

THE GAME OF KING AND QUEEN,

This is a famous noisy game and ought to be played in a large room
without chairs. The company stand ina circle, the gentleman on the
one side and the ladies on the other. One of the gentiewen 18 called
the king, and one of the ladies is called the queen, the king numbers
all the gentlemen on his side of the room 1, 2, 3, 4, and so on regu-
larly, and the queen numbers all the ladies with the following numbers.
All the persons who play must remember their uumvers. ‘Then the
king calis outa number, he to whom it belongs, starts to run round on
the outside of the circle, the queen instantly calls another number and
the lady to whom it belongs, must the instant of hearing it run after
the gentleman and try to catch him betore he gets to we king, first
making one complete circle, and all of them running one way round
whichever may be agreed upn, if she succeeds, he that is caught must
pay a forfeit, if not, he escapes. When they have both retarned to
their places it is the queen’s turn to cail firsi, as soon as she has called
the owner of the number begins to run, and the king calls out the
number of the gentleman who i to follow her, but as gentlemen can
run quicker than ladies, the king before he calls the number ougnt to
give the lady an advantage of about half a second so that if he calls A,



IN-DOOR GAMES. 41

B, C, 4, she will get a little forward while he is saying A, B, C, and
the gentleman No. 4 most run the faster to overtake her before she
gets to the queen, if be does so, she pays a forfeit. The king and
queen should be at differént parte of the room. also at first starting the
pursuer must leave his or her place and pass through the cavity in the
ranks left by the one who starts first.

THE GAME OF HOW, WHERE AND WHEN.

This may-be considered a game of puzzles, for the object is to guess
a word which another person has thought of, all the guide you have
to the word is the answer to three questions. Firat telling one of the
prrty to think of what he likes, or to think of any thing, which usually
gives him pleasure; when he has thought, the leader of the play asks
three questions. How do youlike it? Wheredo youlikeit? And
the person who has thought, must give true answers, but he may give
them in such a way that the company cannot guess hat is thought of,
It is expected that the word thought of is an object of some kind, so
that such words as virtue, love, clearness, colour, form, and #0 on, are
not to be used, if the company guese right, the thinker loses his or her
turn to think, pays a forfeit, and becomes the asker of the questions to
the next party who is the one that has guessed right. When it is not
guessed at all within three minutes, another word is chosen and so the
game goeson. The art of playing is to choose such a word as has 4
double meaning, and by giving one answer for the other meaning, and
which is quite allowable, it is almost impossible to guess at the word.
- We will try two or three words. Ist. player says to the next one to
him, think of a word, I have, is the answer. How do you like it?
Clear. When do you like it? In the evening. Where do you like it ?
In.doors ; now, from these answers, it must be something clear, which
we like in-doors of an evening. What can it be, perhaps a giass of wine,
perhaps a glass of ale, or gin and water, or other spirit, or a candle, or
a lamp, or a fire, of the above one of them only can be correct. Now
suppose the first answer bad been “ blazing,” or suppose the third
answer was, “in a grate,” we should immediately have guessed a fire
Suppose the second answer bad been out of doors instead of in-doors
we should directly have thought of a star or the moon, so that it is in
the cleverness of the angwers that the play consists, otherwise it would



42 IN-DOOR GAMES.

be impossible to guess the word. Take a second word and one which
is more difficult. The word hair and which has a second meaning,
hare. Now if some of the answers belong to hair and the other to hare
it is almost impossible to guess. For example How de you like it?
‘Answer black ; (hair.) When do you like it ? when roasted ; (hare.)
Where do you like it? on my head ; (hair.) Ina case like this it is
almost impossible to guess right. The following are very good words
to choose, and also all other words which have a double meaning.

Night, Knight Quire, Choir
Ewe, You, Hugh Key, Quay
Cork Mould

Corn Bough Bow
Beach, Beech Bell, Belle

I LOVE MY LOVE.

This is a very old game, and may be played by any number of per-
sons, each taking a letter, and finding proper words to fill up the
various parts of the sentences to be uttered. All these words begin-
ning with the proper letter. Any one who does not find a word or
hesitates in uttering it pays a forfeit. One of the players begins as
follows :—

I love my love with an A because he is artless, I hate him because
he is avaricious. He took me to the sign of the anchor and treated
me to apples and anchovies. His name is Arthur and he comes from
Andover.

The next player goes on with the letter B. The following one with
C and so on to the end of the alphabet. We will not cuntinue the
repetition of the whole of the above but give one set of words for each
letter leaving our young friends to vary them as they please. They
will know where to apply the words from the above example.
A.—Ardent, artful, antelope, almonds and artichokes, Andrew, Ald-

borough.

B.—Brave, bad, bull, buns and bullaces, Benjamen, Banbury.
C.—Candid, careless, cat, capers and custards, Charles, Chelsea.
D.—Dutiful, disagreeable, dog, damsons and dates, David, Dedham.
E.—Elegant, envious, eagle, eggs and eels, Edward, Edinburgh.
F.—Frank, faithless, frying-pan, figs and filberts, Francis, Fulham.



IN-DOOR GAMES. 43

G.—Good, gracelesa, gridiron, grapes and gin, George, Gosport.
H.—Handsome, haughty, harrow, hare and hardbake, Henry, Harlow.
J.—Ingenuous, Inquisitive, inkstand, ices and isinglass, Isaac, Ireland.
J.—Just, jealous, jew, jelly and jam, James, Jamaica.

K.—Kind, knavish, king, kale and ketchup, Kenneth, Kilkenny,
{..—Liberal, lame, lanthorn, lobster and lemons, Lewis, London,
M.—Mild, mischievous, monk, marmalade and mincepies, Matthew,

Manchester.

N.—Noble, nonsensical, nun, nuts and nonpareils, Nathaniel, Nortk-
wich.

O.—Obliging, officious, owl, olives and oysters, Oliver, Oxford.

P,—Prudent, petulant, peacock, pears and plum-pudding, Peter,

Plymouth.

Q.—Quick, quarrelsome, quaker, quinces and queencakes, Quintin,

Queensborough.

R.—Rich, revengeful, river, raising and ratafia, Richard, Rugby.

S.—Sensible, scornful, swan, strawberries and sugar, Samuel Somer-
set.

T.—Tall, troublesome, turk, turnips and turtle, Thomas, Todcaster.

W.—Witty, wicked, watchman, wine and walnuts, William, Worces-
ter.

U XY Z, are always omitted.

Another way of playing this game is to repeat a different set of words
as follows, I love my love with an A because he is amiable, I will send
him to Andover and feed him on Apricots, I will give him an Axe to
cut down his trees with, and a bunch of Acorns for a nosegay. All
these sentences, except one, are to remain the same throughout, vary-
ing them only according to the letter appointed for the principal word ;
but the last but one is to contain the use of the thing given; thus in-
stead of Axe to cut down his trees with, we must say, Anchor to fasten
his boat with, or Arbour to sit in, and so on throughout. ‘The greatest
difficulty will be to make out the nosegays each time. This difficulty
will be removed by the following list arranged according to the letters.

Almond-flower, Blue bells, Columbine, Daffodils, Elder-flowers,
Foxglove, Geranium, Hollyoak, Iceplant, Jonquil, Kingcups, Labur-
nun, Marjoram, Nasturtium, Orange-flower, Princes feather, Quince-



44 IN-DOOR GAMES.

Siower, Roses, Sunflowers, Turkscap lily, Venus looking glass, Wall-
flower. .

The names given in the above game will of course be altered accord-
ing to the person who speaks ; if a gentleman he will use a lady’s name,
a lady will use the name of a gentleman.

THE DUMB ORATOR.

This game if well done, occasions a great deal of laughter. It is
usually played with two persons only, one of whom speaks, or utter
some recitation, the other makes, as it goes on, the proper gestures to it,
and in the same manner there may be several actors to the same
speech, and as they will not all agree in the various actions required,
some thinking one action proper, others another action, the great
variety will occasion much laughter. The actors must not only stand
up and give appropriate gestures with their hands and feet, and move-
ment of the body, but with their faces also. The one who reads must
only give proper emphasis to the words bat not act, he may read from
a book if he please or sing a comic song or repeat one of his school
recitations, such as that beginning ‘‘ My nameis Norval,” or “‘ Queen
Mab,” or any other that pleases him.

PRIEST OF THE PARISH,

A boy puts a wig on, or something for one, places all the others in
& row, calls one his man Jack, and says to each what will you be? One
answers, I'll be black cap; another red cap and so on. He then say
the priest of the parish has lost his considering cap—some says this,
some says that, but I say my man Jack! man Jack then, to putit off
himself says, is it me, sir? Yes, you sir! You're wrong, sir! Who
then, sir? Black cap! If black cap then doesn’t say is it me, sir, be-
fore the priest has time to cull him, he must pay a forfeit. If he is in
time the priest must say, yes, you sir? ‘You're wrong, sir! who then
sir? Red cap, sir; red cap then takes it up and so it goes round. Each

one may mention what colour he pleases, so that there is a good deal
of fan.



IN-DOOR GAMES. 45

FORFEITS.

Havine in the foregoing games described several in which forfeits
are incurred we proceed to describe the proper method of crying them,
and subjoin some of the penances to be performed. There are also
many games played to which forfeits are attached which are too well
known to require description, and many simple games may be played
merely for the imposition of the penances. -

A forfeit keeper, generally a lady, is selected, who receives the for-
feits in her lap, in the order as incurred, and at the conclusion of the
game the drawing commences.

The forfeits should be covered with an handkerchief, and the person
selected to draw introduces his hand without raising the covering more
than is necessary for so doing. A player who has not forfeited is
summoned to inflict the penunces.

The forfeit keeper then says to the person who is to impose the
penalty, ‘‘ What punishment do you award to this forfeit?” The
other answers, ‘‘ If it belongs to a iady, I award such a punishment, if
to a gentleman, so and so; or, whether lady or gentleman, they must
do so and so.” To avoid the person who imposes the penalty affixing
any particular punishment to the owner of the forfeit, and to provide
forfeits for those games which require a great number, it is better to
use slips of writing paper making them of nominal value; write the
name on them, and roll them up before they are given to the person
who holds the forfeits. Sometimes one forfeit is pledged for two or
more penalties, but this is a method likely to create confusion.

The person who belongs to a forfeit on which a penance has been
Pronounced must immediately perform it; he bas then the privilege
of ordering the penance on the next forfeit drawn.

After all, it would perhaps be better to draw the forfeits openly, and
find out to whom they belong, before the penalties are imposed. The
players would then have the benefit of the talents, without imposing
punishment beyond the power of any one present, A song, a drawing,
verses, or a atory might be required. To those penances difficult to



46 FORFEITS.

execute at the moment, a spsce of twenty-four hours might be given;
the delay would render the next meeting still more aereeable.

Penance 1.—Repeat as follows, three times successively, without
stopping or making a mistake.
Peter Piper picked a peck of pickle pepper
A peck of pickle peppers, Peter Piper picked :
If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickle Pepper
Where's the peck of pickle peppers Peter Piper picked f

Penance 2.—Repeat in the same manner.

A peacock picked a peck of pepper,
Tid he pick a peck of pepper

Yes, he picked a peck of pepper,
Pick, pecker, peacock.

Penance 3.—Repeat in the same manner,

As I went in the garden, I saw five brave maids

Sitting on five broad beds, braiding broad braids,

I said to these five braid maids, sitting on five broad beds
Braiding broad braids, braid broad braids, brave maids.

Penance 4.—Repeat the following without a mistake. Brandy legged
Boratio Mustacio Whiskerfusticus the bald and brave Bombardino of
Bagdad helped Abomilipue Blue Beard Bashaw of Babelmandeb to
beat down an abominable Bumble Bee at Bassora.

Penance 5.—Repeat quickly five times without stopping to take
breath.—Villy Vite, and his Vife, vent von Vitsun Vendsday, to
Vindsor and Vest Vickham, to have some Vine and Valnuts.

Penance 6.—Repeat six times without a mistake. A lump of rough
light red leather, a red light rough leather lump.

Penance 7.—Repeat the following without a mistake.

There was a man whose name was Cob,
He had a wife and her name was Mob,
He had a dog and his name was Bob,
She had a cat and her name was Chitterbob
Bob says Cob,
Chitterbob, says Mob ;
Bob was Cob’s dog,
Mob’s cat was Chitterbob,
Cob, Mob, Bob and Chitterbob.



FORFEITS. 47

Penance 8.—Repeat tne following lines,

When the twister a twisting,
Will twine him a twist,
For the twining his twist
He three times doth entwist
But if one of the twines of
The twist doth entwine,
The twine that untwisteth
Untwisted the twine.
Untwisting the twine that
Tntwisteth between,
He twirls with his twister
The two in a twine,
Then twisteth the twine,
He hath twined in twain
The twain, that in twining
Betore in the twine,
As twines were entwisted
He now doth untwine.
'Twixt the twain intertwisting,
A twine more between,
He, twisting his twister
Makes a twist of the twine.

Penance 9.—Compare a lady or gentleman with a flower, and say why
he or she is like that flower. A comparison should at the same time
present a likeness and a difference, for instance, alady may be com-
pared to the Hortensia: the resemblance says the gentleman, lies in
her beauty, and the privilege she possesses of appearing to advantage
in every view: the difference lies in the absence of perfume. A gen-
tleman may be compared to a branch of myrtle, which preserves its
verdure in all seasons as he preserves his sentiments—this is the
resemblance ; but if thrown into the fire it crackles, whilst he consumes
in silence—this is the difference.

Penance 10.—The deaf person. The person who has to perform this
penalty stands in the middle ofthe room, and must answer three times
“Tam deaf and can’t hear” and the fourth time, “I hear.’? The
players of course endeavour to render the penance severe. A lady
approaches, and offers something very agreeable to him; but the un-
fortunate wight is compelled to reply in the stated form. Two other
malicious ladies make him similar offers ; or a gentleman taking alady
by the hand, says ‘I bring this lady to you—salute her.” The deaf



48 FORFEITS.

person hears not. At the fourtn question, however, when his ears are
open, he is told to conduct some lady to kiss the wall, to sing a song,
&c, The deaf man is allowed to refuse and of course does not neglect
hisp rivilege.

Penance 11 —The water punishment. The person who owns the
penance is to be blindfolded, a glass of water is got, and a tea-spoon,
and the person blindfolded is then to be fed with water, a spoonfal at
a time, till he guesses who it is which is feeding him ; he is allowed a
guess to each spoonful.

Penance 12.—Laugh in one corner of the room, cry in another,
dance in a third, and sneeze, cough, and yawn in the other.

Penance 13.—Bite an inch off a poker. This is to make a snap or
bite at the distance of an inch from the end of a poker, so that there
is a great deal of difference between biting off an inch of the poker,
and biting an inch off the poker.

Penance 13.—Go out of the room with one of the other sex and spell
opportunity, this merely means that there is then an opportanity for
the two who have gone out to have a kiss, and if they neglect to take
the opportunity it is their own fault,

Penance 14.—Kneel to the wittiest inthe room, bow or curtsey to
the prettiest, and kiss the one you love best.

Penance 15.—Show four bare legs, this is done by taking up
achair and bolding the legs uppermost.

Penance 16.—Push a persons head through a curtain ring. You are
to put the curtain ring on your finger and then to give the person a
push on the head with that finger.

Penance 17.—Spell new door in one word. The letters which form
new door are precisely the same as those whick form ‘ one word,”
therefore if you write on a slip of paper “ one word,” it will be what
js required.

Penance 18.—When a line is given to you, you must find another that
will rhyme to it. The holder of the forfeits must give a difficult rhyme
“as Thad some quicksilver, or there was a brave young soldier: we



FORYEITS: 49

believe there is no rhyme for silver or soldier at all, so that it would be
impossible to complete the couplet, and vet some very difficult ones
may be made up sometimes—as the following, which we remember
to have once heard.

Ipecactanha

- Is not so good as manna,
Yet I must give it to Anna,
In this forfeit a proper pronunciation must be given so that the

error in the word trees would not do in the following lines.

The cooling Western breezes
That whisper through the treeses.

Penance 19.~-Sit down on the carpet next to the door and repeat

the lines, ,
Frere will 1 take my seat under the latch,
Till somebody comes a kiss to snatch,

Penance 20 —Thejourneyto Rome. The person on whose forfeit

this penalty has been pronounced, must go the round of the room, and

. inform every individual that he is about to undertake a journey to
Rome, and assure every individual that if they have any message or
article to send to his Holiness the Pope, he will feel happy to convey
it. Every one must give something to the traveller, no matter how
cumbrous it may be, or awkward to carry, for the more inconvenient
the article, the more will the merriment be increased, until he is
overlosded with presents. When he has received each one’s com.
mission, he walks to a corner of the room, puts the articles down
and so his penance ends,

Penance 21.—Frankness, This penance requires a deal of cir-
cumspection, delicacy, and good feeling, for which reasons it should
not be generally enforced. If you arerequired to befrank, you address
each person in company, saying something agreeable in rather a severe
wnanner, or something a little malicious in a good natured tone.

Penance 22.—-Make your will, leaving to the company all the
qualities you are supposed to have. This penance affords great scope
for a display of complimentary and satirical talent and wit.

Penanee 23,—Execute some task which each person in company
successively imposes without uttering a word.












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OUT-DOOR GAMES.

HIDE ANO SEEK.
Some article is first chosen, as an object to hide, and one of the
boys hides it somewhere while the others cover their eyes with their
hands, and look another way, that they may not see where the article
is hidden. When the first boy has concealed it, he ealls out, “ hot
boiled beans and bacon,”’ the others then begin tbeir search. If
they come near to the spot where the object is, the one who has
hidden it calls out you are hot, or you burn, according to the near-
ness you happen to be to the article ; or if you go away from where
it is, he says you are cold, or you freeze. When the article is found
the one who finds it, hides it next time. It is a rule not to hide it
anywhere about another boy, nor yet about yourself, or anything
moving. Sometimes this is made a parlour amusement by the name
of Magical Music. A lady sitting at the piano, plays loud when any
one approaches the place where the article is hidden, and plays very
softly when they are at a distance.
THE GAME OF WHOOP.
To plav this game properly, a place should be selected well furnished
With trees, or other object well calculated to conceal the players. A



54 OUT-DOOR GAMES.

large tree apart from the rest should be selected as ‘home ” against
the person who is to seek leans his head and shuts his eyes while
the rest immediately run off and conceal themselves. When they are
all hid in separate places, for it should be a general rule that no
two players hide together, one of them, at a given signal from the rest,
cries “Whoop !”? The seeker then begins to look carefully about
him, to find the hiding-places of the players. Whilst be is thus
engaged some of these stealthily quit their places, and dart homeward,
The other immediately pursues, and if he catches one, that one takes
his place; if several, the last one caught becomes the seeker. If
nobody is caught, they all hide again, and he is again obliged to be the
seeker. It generally happens that when the seeker is in pursuit of one
player, the others sally from their hiding-places and make towards
home. If all the players start at the same time homewards, oftentimes
the seeker suddenly returns to bis castle and catches them as they
arrive.

PRISONER'S BASE OR PRISON BARS.

This is a capital game in cold weather, and may be played by any
number of players. They are divided into two parties, and each party
has a den belonging to him. The dens should be made by drawing a
line across the piay-ground, from side to side, and about 3 yards from
it, two cross lines extending from the first line to the end of the play-
groand form the two dens in the corners, they should be several
yards apart if possible. Each party takes possession of one of these
dens or bounds. There are also at the opposite ends of the play-
yround two other bounds called prisons, one belonging to either party ;
‘he party who has the bounds on the one side, must have the prison
on the other, so that if any one runs to the prison belonging to his
party he must go quite across the ground. ;

The game begins by one boy from one of the sides running out into
the middle of the ground, one of those of the other side immediately
follows, another boy from the first party runs after him, and then a
second boy from the second party, a third boy follows him and in turn
he is pursued by one of the others on the other side, until they follow
each other in quick succession, each party sending out as many as taey
think fit. Every boy who goes out endeavours to catch or touch the



OUT DOOR GAMES, . 5s

one who goes out before him, but he is not allowed to touch any who
go out after him, who indeed try to stop and touch him before he can
get back to his bounds again. A player is only allowed to touch one
party, and when he has touched one, he is exempt from being touched
himself as he returns. All those who are touched must go to ths
prison belonging to hia own party and there he must remain, until
some one leaving the bounds, is able to run without being touched by
one of the opposites, up to the prison and touch one of those who are
there, and the boy who liberates him, must not start till the prisoner Is
safely within the prison bars. When a prisoner is thus released, nei-
ther he nor his releaser are to be touched on their return to the
bounds. The game is ended when one of the parties has all the op-
posite party in prison at the same time.

WABNING OR WIDDY-WAY.

Any number of boys may play at this game. A line is first drawn
across the play-ground near one end. Ail the players except one are
scattered about the ground. This one voes within the bounds made
by the line. He then closes his hands together before him, and calls
out Widdy, Widdy, way, cock warning, and as he says this he rans out
of the bounds and pursues the rest, and as soun as ever he can touch
one of the others with his closed hands, ‘or he is not at liberty toun-
lock them, that one must return with him to the bounds. Thesetwo
then join hands, and repeating the same words, run out and try to catch
some one else, while all who are on the ground endeavour to escape,
but as soon as either of them touches « third party they separate and
return to bounds to take him in. There are now three joining hands,
end it follows as a matter of course that the centre one cannot touch
any one, having both bis hands engaged, it remains then for the outer
boys to touch the othe:s,and he who comes in last is allowed the out.
side place until others are caught afterwards in like manner. When a
fourth party is caught, the one who began the game leaves the rank
and goes out smong the rest to take his chance with them in being
caught. When ali the players except one have thus been touched, the
game is ended, and the one who is left begins the next game. Ali the
time ‘hat the line of catchers are out after tbe reat, the free players en



56 OUT-DOOR GAMES

deavour to break the line, for whenever the line is broken, whether
it is by them or by those in the line letting go, no one else can be
touched until they all return to the bounds, and begin again; besides
which, whenever the line is broken, those who have formed it are
either beaten home by knotted handkerchiefs, or else become nags
for the rest, until they arrive within the bounds.

WAR SHEEP, OR KING CELIA.

Two dens are made at opposite ends of a play ground, and all the
boys of the school may play at this game at thesametime. They are
all at first assembled in one den or bounds, except one boy who begins
the game by standing in the middle, between the two bounds. The
whole of the other boys run forward to get to the opposite bound. The
player in the middle catches one if he can; when he has caught
any one he must hold him until he is able to repeat the words, “ One,
two, three, a man for ms, dead, dead, dead.” If the other gets away
he is free for the time, but if the former one is able to repeat those
words before he gets loose, he becomes a war sheep and stands in the
middle like the former one and endeavouts to catch some one passing,
for the players who are not yet caught, run backwards and forwards
from one den to the other repeatedly, all starting at the same time,
When the whole of them are caught in this manner the game ends :
he who is last begins the next game by standing in the middle, but he
retires to the den and takes his chance with the rest, when he has
caught one to take his place. No one can be caught unless the words
given above, are repeated while his pursuer has hold of him.

DROP HANDKERCHIEF,

A number of players join hands so as to make a circle, one only stands
out, he walks round the outside of the circle, and drops the handker-
chief behind which player in the cirble he thinks fit. ‘he party behind
whom the handkerchief is thus dropped immediately follows the one
who dropped it, those who stood on each side complete the circle by
joining hands, and the chase commences, ‘The pursuer is bound to
follow the course of the pursued, who winds in and out under the
arms of the other players, and endeavours by ali the means in his



OUT-DOOR GAMES. 37

power to pugzie and eludehim. If he succeeds in so doing, that is, is
the pursuer make a blunder in his course, he returns to his place in
the circle, and the first player prepares to drap the handkerchief be.
hind one of the players again. When he is fairly overtaken by the
player behind who he has last dropped the handkerchief, the latter takes
his place and he joins handsin the circle.

LEAP FROG.

This ancient game is still very much played at. One boy partly
stoops down so asto form a back for the rest to jump over, and in
order to preserve his head he keeps it bent down as much as possible.
He stands either sideways to the other players, vr sometimes with his
back towards them, if he makes a very high back. The others being
prepared, run forwards one at a time; the first one when he has coms
up to the one who makes a back, stretches out his hands, puts them,
without pausing, on theother’s back and springs over ; when he gets to
a little distance beyond he also makes a back, so that the second leaper
has two backs to jump over, and the next one three backs, so that the
last leaper has to go over the backs of all his companions, When
he has gone over, the first one begina to jump over the vest and makes
a back beyond the laet, each one then goes on in the same manner over
all his companions making a back in his turn, and the game continues
until all are tired.

FLY THE GARTER.

This is a game very similar to the last, one boy makes a back stand~
ing sideways with one of his feet on a given mark. The whole of the
other players then go over him; should any one knock him down at
any time throughout the game, he takes place of the first one, but the
players do not make backs beyond the first es in the game of leap frog,
but all the leapers return to their first jlace ready to start afresh. The
one who makes the back moves forwards from the mark which is called
the garter, a space equal to that measured by the length joined to the
" ‘breadth of bis foot, and making a second back, they all go on again,
observing that every one begins his leap on the contrary side of the
garter to where the back is. If all are successful in going safe over,
the back removes an equal space forward, which in addition to the



58 OUT-DOOR GAMES

former, makes the leap more difficult ; until at last some one is not
able to pass over ; when that is the case, if he sould either refuse to
try, should step within the garter, or throw his companion down he
becomes the back; when they have all gone on to six or eight steps as
may be agreed upon before hand, each leaper is allowed to take a hop
withinside the garter before he passes over the back ; six steps are
then taken by degrees, on account of the hop, and if even then none are
thrown off at the seventh beyond tre first of the hop, that is ¢ the
thirteenth from the beginning, the players may take a step or skip as
well asa hop, und after six more steps, then they may each take a hop
skip and a jump betore going over, for six steps more ; when the whole
begins again. It is very rare however that all the players are so
fortunate as not to be out before then, and whenever any one is out
on account of the reasons given above, then the game begins at the
garter again. 1f the jumpers have made a false calculation of dis-
tance, or should slip while going alung, they are allowed to run past
the back, and are not out unless trey touch the party in passing.
In such a case they must go on again before any one else, and if
any one should offer a second time aud not go over, they are out,
unless previously agreed upon tu the contrary.

JUMP LITTLE NAGSaIL

This is also a game something like leap frog. The players take
two sides, an equal number of boys on each; one party has to
make backs for the other to leap upon. First one of them stands
against a post or wall to support himself, he stands with his face to
the rest, the next boy of his party rests his head against the chest
of the one who is standiug, the third boy makes his back a continue
ation of the first, then comes the fuurth and fifth bovs if there are so
many, who ali join with the former | nes to make one line of backs,
all their faces being towards the one standing against the wall, and
he looking at the players who are to jum, to see fair play. AU
being thus arranged, the other psrty run forward one at a time, the
first of them leaps as far as possibie aud -eats himself upon one of the
backs, and when once there he must not move hand or foot nor yet
touch the ground upon any preteuce, the next goes on and gets upon



OUT-DOOR GAMES 39

the next back, or on the same if possible, where he also remains im-
moveable, the third and others succeed as rapidly as possible, and
when all are on the others backs, the frst one called the leader then
repeats as fast as possible, ‘Jump little nagtail, one, two, three;
jump little nagtail, one, two, three ; jump hte nagtail, one, two,
three ; off, off, off.”’ If they can remain on all this time without any
one of them falling to the ground, the same party go on again, but if
they fall off the nags are then in, and becume jumpers while the others
become nags, so algo if there is not room enough for all of their party
vo get on, they are out. ‘This game is sometimes called saddle my
nag, and the leaping party instead of repeating the words given above
have to count twenty or some other number agteed upon.

BUCK, BUCK.

This is played by three boys. One forms a back, the same as at
jump little nagtail; the second is the rider, and the third stands by
and sees fair play. When the first boy has made a back, he stands
with his head against a post. The second boy or rider umps up so
as to sit astride upon the first one’s back, as suon as he has done so
he holds up one of his fingers, and calls out, ‘‘ Buck, buck, how
many horns do I hold up?” The player who gives the back guesses,
and if he guesses the exact number of fingers, the rider is obliged to
make a back instead of the other, who becomes the umpire, while the
umpire becomes the rider; but if the buck does not guess right the
rider gets off, and going a little space away, in order to enable the
buck to settle himself a little, he vaults on his back a second time,
and holding up certain of his fingers, asks the same question as
before. This is repeated until the buck guesses the right number.

BASTING THE BBAR,

One boy has a string about two yards long, fastened to his arm, and
he stands in the middle of large circle made on the ground. The
bears master, and who is chosen by bear himself, holds the other end
of the string ; all the other players stand round with handkerchiefs
rolled up aud knotted. The bear's master must also have one similar.
All the boys strive to hit the bear with their handkerchiefs, while bis



60 OUT-DOOR GAMES,

master defends him, and if the master strikes one of them, whoever
may be, without leaving go of the string, that one becomes the bear
and of course takes place of the furmer.

KING OF THE CASTLE.

One boy takes possession of a rising ground, which he calls his
castle, he being king of it. The other players standing round try to
push him off the mound of earth, wile ue endeavours by pushing
them back to keep possession of it, No one must come behind him
nor yet attack him when he is engaged with another. Whoever can
dislodge his from the castle becomes in his turn the king of it,

FRENCH AND ENGLISH.

This game is played by two parties of nearly equal strength, one
of whom is called the French, and the other the English; they have
along ropa, making a line across the play ground. Both parties take
hold of the rope, and standing one on each side of the line, one
party endeavours to pull the other over it, and as soon as either party
is pulled completely over the line, the other wins. 3, 4, 6, or any other
namber of turns, as may be agreed upon win the game,

TOUCH WOOD, OR TOUCH IRON,

This is a very simple game but one which is amusing. One boy
stands in the middle among several companions all of whom are touch-
ing wood, or iron as agreed upon. When they think the attention of
the boy in the middle, who is called touch, is engaged, they leave their
piaces and run across the ground, or to some distance. The boy called
touch runs after some one of the number and endeavours to touch him,
if he can do go, when the other is not touching the wood or iron, he
that is touched becomes the touch and the first boy becomes a runner.
No one is allowed to carry a piece of wood or iron about with him,
nor yet to touch any moveable piece on the ground, or laying loose any~
where, but if the piece which is touched should be very small so that
it cannot be seen very easily, and such for example as a nail in &
paling, and the ove who is touch, desires the other to show him what
it is he is touching, he cannot be touched while he is doing so, nor yet



OUT-DOOR GAMES. 61

until the touch is removed more than two yards off. A boy may be
toached if he should fall down, just as well as if be were running,
This is the case in most of the eames we have spoken of, for if it were
not 80, boys would sometimes fall down on purpose to escape,

Cross TOUCH.

This is a better game than tie last. While touch is pursuing one
of the players, another runs across his path, between him and the
party pursued,and touch must then follow the one who crosses, till another
crosses between them, and so it continues changing, till touch succeeds
in catching one, who takes, of course, the office of touch, and the
game continues as before.

HUNT THE HARE.

Certain bounds are fixed, and the boy selected as “ Hare” rans
out, when his comrades, having given him time to run a certain dis-
tanee, give chase, and endeavour to catch him, before he arrives at
“home.” Sometimes the “‘ hare ’’ is not allowed to return ‘ home”
but must remain out until caught, in which case he is allowed to hide
himself, and a game frequently lasts several hours,

FOLLOW MY LEADER.

The fun of this game depends entirely upon the character of the per-
son who is chosen as a leader. If he isa bold and active lad, it is
amusing enough. The leader stands first and all the other players
stand in a row behind him. He commences the game by doing some
feat as running, stopping, leaping, hopping, calling out, climbing, or any
thing else which strikes his fancy, that he thinks most of others can do,
They must all ofthem in regular order as they stand behind him, per-
form the same, and they all do it, the game continues without change
of place with any of them, ifsome of them cannot do the feat, and those
behind them can, those who succeed must change places with those who
eannot. And it is to be observed that although the best performers
get ficat vet if there are several who fail and several who succeed, the
latter go before the others, but are not altered in position relative to
each otuer, ‘hus quppose the players were numbered 1, 2, 3,4 and



62 OUT-DOOR GAMES.

so on, and 2 was the only one thrown out, he would have to go he-
hind all the others but if 2 and 3 are thrown out and the others uot,
2 and 3 would go to the end and yet 2 would still stand before 3,

GAME OF THE HORNS.

A droll fellow is first chosen, and after putting all the rest in a ring
around him, he begins thus :—He Jays his forefingers on his knees,
and says, horns! horns! cow horns! and then raises his fingers by
& jerk up above his head, the boys and girls in the ring then de the
same, for the meaning of the play is, that the one in the middle
always raises his fingers every time he names an animal, but if he
names any that has no horns, and the others jerk up their fingers, then
they must pay a forfeit. Horns, horns, goat horns! and then he
quickly raises his fingers: they must ail do the same, because a goat
has horns. Horns, borns, horse horns! and again he raises his
fingers, but those around him onght not to do so, because a horse
has no horns, and any one who then raises bis fingers pays a forfeit.
It is a pretty game for Christmas time, requiring a keen eye and a
quick hand, and may te played either as an in-door or out-door amuse-

ment,
DRAWING THE OVEN.

All the players with the exception of two, seat themselves upon the
ground, behind each other, each player clasping the one before him
tightly by the waist. When all the sitters are thus united, the two
players who remain standing take hold of the foremost sitter, and en-
deavour, by vigourously pulling, to detach him from the rest. When
they have succeeded in doing this, take hold of the second in the same
manner, and so continue “drawing the oven’’ until they have drawn

all the players from the ground.

DUCK-8TONY.

This game cannot be played by fewer than three boys, nor must
the players exceed six or eight. Particular caution must be observed,
for should it be played carelessly, the players are liable to
injure each other, from the weight of the stones, and the force with



UT-DOOR GAMES. 63

which they must be cast. A large stone, with a smooth flat top, is
placed upon the ground, and about six or eight yards distance is marked
the offing. Each player then provides himself with a large pebble-
atone, somewhat larger than a cricket-ball, and the game commences
by pinking for duck. The players stand at the offing, and hitch their
pebbles at the large stone; the player whose pebble rolls farthest from
the flat stone then becomes duck, and must place his pebble upon it.
The other players then cast their pebbles at duck’s pebble, singly, from
the offing, and then watch the opportunity to pick up their pebbles
and hasten home ; that is, to the offing in order to throw again. But
should duck succeed in touching one of the players who has touched
or picked up his pebble, before he reaches home, and providing h's
own pebble is on the stone, the player so touched becomes duck ; but
if he be quick he may cry out ‘‘ double duck” before duck is able to
kick his own pebble off the stone, or cry out ‘ Feign double duck,”
in which case both the “ ducks” are placed upon the stone together.
Should all the players have thrown without being able to knock the
* duck,” or “ ducks” off, and the pebbles be so close together that they
are unable to pick them up, without being touched by duck, the
players frequently propose to duck to take either a ‘ heel r” a
‘jump,’ or a “ toe-sling’”’ towardshome. The “ heeler,” consists in
Kicking the stone backwards towards home ; the “ toe-sling,” in put-
ting the stone on the middle of the right foot, and slinging it in the
direction of home; and the “ jump” in placing the stone between the
feet, and holding it there while a jump is taken, and the stone let fall,
so that it may roll towards home. The number of slings, jamps, or
heelers, to be taken in order to reach home, are agreed on by duck,
andif the player does not reach home in the given number, be becomes
uck.
° ROUNDERS.
» make four or eight holes in the ground, according to the number of
players, in a circular direction, and at an equal distance from each
other. At every hole is placed a player with his bludgeon; one of
the opposite party, who stands in the field, tosses the cat to the one
nearest him, and every time the cat is struck the players are obliged
to change their situation, and run once from one hole to another, in
‘ 5



64 OUT BOOR GAMES,

rotation; if the cat be driven to any great distance, they continue to
ron in the same order, and they claim a score towards their game every
time they quit one hole and run to another, but if the cat be stopped
by their opponents, and thrown across between any two of the holes
before the player who has quitted one of them can reach the next, he
is out. Sometimes, boys make it a rule that the cat shall be thrown
at one the players, Should it hit him, the batsman is out; if not, he
scores one. Whoever is nearest the bat, or rather the place of the bat,
when the cat has been thrown, goes on next time. A smooth round
stick is preferred by many boys to a bat for striking the ball.

TRAP, BAT, AND BALL.

Trap ball is so called because of the trap that is used to elevate the
ball before it is struck by the bat. It is not restricted to any particu-
lar number of players, though there are seldom more than six or eight
ofaside. The trap of ancient days was about a foot high from the
ground, that which is now used is made in the shape of a shoe, the
heel part being hollowed cut for the reception of the ball : it should be
placed upon the ground with the heel a little sunk. The two sides of
players having tossed up for innings, those forming the out-side place
themselves. The player on the inning side then puts the ball into the
spoon of the trap, and the tongue (the elevated end) being struck
smartly by the bat, causes the ball to rise, and as it rises he strikes it
smartly. In this game two boundaries are fixed at a given distance,
(aay twenty yards,) between which it is necessary for the ball to pass,
when struck by the batsman, and if it falls on the without side of
either, he gives up his bat and is out. In striking at the ball, if he
miss it, or if he touch the tongue more than twice without hitting the
ball, he is out. When the ball is struck, and one of his adversaries
catches it before it grounds, he is also out; and again, if the bull,
when retumed by the opponent party, touches the trap, or rest within
a bat’s length of it. Should none of these things happen, the out
player must bowl it from the place where be picked it up towards the
trap; if it touch the trap, the batsman is out ; but if not, heis scored
one to the game. Sometimes, the batsman guesses the probable num.
ber of bat’s lengths within which the ball may be bowled up to the



OUT-DOOR GAMES. 65
orks

trap; when, shonld he guess under the number of lengths, he counts
them towards the game, but if above the number, he looses his innings.
Very strict players sometimes drive s akes for the bounds, ant place
a line of tape two feet high, over which the ball must be sent, else the
striker is out, Boys who cannot procure a trap, content themselves
by making a round hole in the ground, and, by way of a lever, use the
brisket bone of an ox, or a flat piece of wood of like size and shape,
which is placed in a slanting position, one half in the hole, with t e
ball upon it, and the other half out of it.

ESSEX TRAP BALL

A trap like the one last described, is used in this game, but, instead
of a broad bat, a round stick, about three feet long, and as thick as a
mopstick, is used. In striking, both hands are used, and those who
have acquired the habit of striking the ball with the cudgel, will often
strike it to an astonishing distance. The ball being stopped by one
of the opposite party, the striker forms his judgment of the ability of
the person who is to throw it back, and calls in consequence for any
number of scores towards his game that he thinks proper. It is then
returned, and if it appears to his antagonist to rest at a sufficient dis-
tance to justify the stiker’s call, he obtiins: his number, but when a
contrary opinion is held, a measurement takes place, and if the scores
demanded exceed in number the lengths of the cudgel from the trap to
the ball, he looses the whole, and is out; while on the other hand, if
the lengths of the bat are more than the scores called for, the matter
terminates in the striker’s favor, and they are set up to his account.

NORTHERN SPELL.

In this game, instead of a ball, a large stone marble is usually substitu-
ted. A trap, and a short round stick to strike with are used. The
gime consists in striking the marble to the greatest distance in a given
nuaber of strokes. Sometimes the ball is fashioned from stig’s horn.

NINE HOLES; OR, HAT BALL.

Near a wall where the ground is level, dig nine, or a less number of
holes, according to the number of players, targe enough for a ball to



67 OUT-DOOR GAMES.

be bowled in without difficulsy. About London, this game is called
hat ball, on account o° the players using their hats instead of digging
holes, and the ball is tosseJ into the hats, instead of being bowled into
the holes. Number theh les or hats, and let each player be allotted
a number a: may be agreed ; a line is drawn about five yards from
the holes, ut which one of the players places himself, and bow!s the ball
into one of the holes. The player to whom the hole into which the
ball is bowl d belongs, picks it up a8 quickly as he can, and endeavours
to strike one of the others with i , the latter all run off as soon as they
perceive that the bal. is not for themselves. If the thrower loses his
aim, he loses a point, and is called ‘ fifer”’ and it is his turn to bowl;
five or six may be struck in succession, and the ball may be kept up,
no matter how long, until a miss is made, when the party so missing
loses a point, and is to bowl. It is also allowed for one player to ac-
cept the ball from another, and run the risk of striking a third ; thus
if A stand close behind B, and C have the ball in front of B, A may
signify by motions that he will take the ball, which is thrown towards
him by C, he catches it, and endeavours to strike B before he can run
away, if he miss he loses a point and bowls. The second bowling is
conducted precisely as the first, but he who bowls three times without
bowling the ball into a hole, loses a point, and if he has lost one before,
becomes a “‘tenner,’”’ he must still go on until he suceeed in putting
the ball into a hole; itis his own fault if he bow! into that which belongs
to himself. He who loses a third point becomes a ‘‘ fifteener,’’ and
he who loses a fourth point, stands out for the rest of the game. The
game goes on till all the players are out but one, and he of course wins
the game. One of the others then takes the ball in his left hand, places
his face towards the wall, and throws the ball over the right shoulder,
as far ashe can. The player who has won, stands at the spot where
the ball first touches the ground, or if it be not immediately behind the
thrower, the winner throws the bail at the losers back three times,
as hard as hecan. The other losers throw in the same manner, one
after another, and the winner has his three balls at each of their backs,
from the spot where their ball respectively first touch the ground, or
in a line with it, as above stated.



OUT-DOOR GAMES. 66

THE GAME OF FIVES.

This game may be played by any number of boys, either all against
each other, or else in parties. It must be played against a good high
wall, with a level piece of ground in front of it; along the wall, at
about three feet from the ground, a line must be painted, of a white
colour, and along the ground another line must be scratched, at the
distance of about two yards from the wall. The players toss up for
innings: the person who is to goin begins by throwing his ball on the
ground, so that it shall bound up, and when it is at a proper height, he
strikes it with his hand, against the wall, being careful to make it hit the
wall above the line, and so hard thatit may rebound from the wall be-
yond the line on the ground ; the other player then strikes it in the same
manner, either before it has touched the ground or before it has re-
bounded from itonce. The first player then prepares to receive and
strike it at its rebound; and thus the game goes on, until one of the
players fail to strike the ball in his turn, before it has hopped or
bounded more than once. If he fail :o hit the ball, he is out, and also
if he do not strike it above the line en the wall, and when bounds are
agreed upon by the parties, he will be out if he strike it out of the
bounds. Ifthe party who is in, does either of these, he loses his innings
(if the other party, supposing two parties are playing against each other,
and there must be either two antagonists, or two sets of antagonists),
then the in-player reckons one on each occasion toward the game,
which is fifteen. When partners play, the rules are precisely the same,
each side keeping up the ball alternately, and the partners taking turns
for innings, as one of the other side gets out. After the ball is first played
out on each occasion, it is not necessary to make it rebound beyond
the ground line, which is used only to make the player who is in give
out the ball fairly in the first instance, that is, when he first takes his
innings, or when he plays out the ball again, after winning a point.

THE GAME OF TENNIS.
‘=A tennis court is usually 96 to 97 feet long, by 33 or 34 in breadth.
A net hangs across the middle, over which the ball must be struck, to

make any stroke good. At the entrance of a tennis the court, there
a long covered passage before a part of the court which is called



68 OUT-DOOR GAMES,

the dedans, the place where spectators usually are, into which, when-
ever a ball is played, it counts for a certain stroke. This long pas-
sage is divided into different apartments, which are called galleries;
namely, from the line to the dedans is the first gallery. The door is
called the second gallery, and the last gallery is called the service side.
From the dedans to the last gallery are the figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,
each at a yard distance, marking what are called the chases, which are
one of the most essential parts of the game. On the other side of the
line is the first gallery, door second gallery, and last gallery, which
is called the hazard side. Every ball played into the last gallery on
this side tells for a certain stroke, the same asinto thededans. Between
the second and this last gallery, are the figures 1, 2, marking the
chases on the hazard side. Over this long gallery is the penthouse,
on which the ball is played on the service side, to begin a game of ten-
nis, and if the player should fail striking the ball, so as to rebound
from the penthouse, over a certain line on the service side, it is reckon-
ed a fault, and two such faults following are considered a stroke. If
the ball pass round the peuthouse, on the opposite side of the court,
and fall beyond a particular line, it is called passe, goes for nothing,
and the player is to serve again.

A set of tennis consists of six games, but if an advantage game, two
successive games above five game must be won to decide, or in case it
should be a regular set of six games, two games must still be won on
one side to conclude the set. ‘

When the player begins the game. he strikes the ball against the
penthouse, which is called, giving a service ; his adversary is supposed
to return the ball wherever it falls after the first rebound, just the
same as at fives, but each player instead of playing with his hand, is
furnished with a kind of battledore, covered with cross strings of cat-
gut, and the way in which this is done is as follows, the second player
is not to touch the ball with his hand at all, but strike it back. If it
falls at figure 1. The chase is at a yard, that is to say, at a yard from
the dedans, this chase remains till a second service is given, and if the
player on the s-rvice side should let the ball go after his adversary re
turns it, and the ball falls on or between any of these figures they must
change sides, for he will then be on the hazard side to play for the

. first chase, which’ if he win by striking. the ball, a0 as to fall after its



OUT-DOOR GAMES. 69

first rebound nearer to the dedans than the figure 1, without his ad-
versary being able to return it after its first rebound he wins a stroke
and then proceeds in like manner to win a second stroke. If the bail
fall on a line with the first gallery door, second gallery, or last gallery,
the chase is likewise called at such and such a place, naming the gal-
lery, &c. When it is just put over the line or net, it is called a chase
at the line. If the players on the service side return a ball with such
force as to strike the wall on the hazard side, so as to rebound, after
the first hop, over the line, it is also called a chase at the line.

The chances on the hazard side procced from the ball being return-
ed either too hard or not hard enough; so that the ball after its first
rebound, falls on this side of the line, which describes the hazard side
chases, in which case it is a chace of 1, 2, &c., provided there be no
ehase depending, and according to the spot where it exactly falls.
When they change sides, the player in order to win this chace, must
put the ball over the line anywhere, so that his adversary does not
return it. When there is no chase on the hazard side, all balls put
over the line from the service side, without being returned, reckon.

The game, instead of being marked, one, two, three, four, is called
for the first stroke 15; for the second, 30; for the third, 40; and
for the fourth, game; unless the players get four strokes each; then,
instead of calling it 40 all, it is called deuce, after which, as soon as
any stroke is got, it is called advantage, andin case the srokes beco::.e
equal again, deuce again ; till one or the other gets two strokes follow-
ing to win the game.

The tennis ball weighs about 2} ounces. It is made of Indian rab-
ber, or of strips of cloth closely wound together, and is covered with
a close white kerseymere. The racket is about 2 feet 2 inches in
length, its weight is from 18 to 22 ounces.

«ONG, OR, OPEN TENNIS,

This game is played in the open air. upon ground rolled andar ran-
ged for the purpose. The ground should be 160 paces in length, for
if smaller the play would be hampered, and if larger, the game would
h too fatiguing. Two parellel lines are drawn at the distance of 20
paces, to form the lateral bounds, these lines are marked by a string



70 OUT-DOOR GAMES.

fastened to the top of stakes about 2 feet high which are planted round
the ground. Another line is drawn across the middle, and whether a
stroke counts or not, depends upon whether the ball goes over or under
this line. In this game there are generally several players on each side,
but it may be played by one against-one. The players take off their
coats, and wear a loose flannel jacket, that allows the free exercise 0
the limbs. The neck should be free. A belt is worn round the mid-
dle. Soft pliant slippers, that yield to the movements of the feet, are
absolutely necessary, for it is impossible to play the game weil in boots
or strong shoes. A correct eye as well as skill and agility are requi-
site to play this game properly.

Sometimes the player returns the ball just passing over the head,
without waiting till it reaches the ground, sometimes he raises it when
it almost touches the ground, and returns it over the line. At other
times he retires from the line of the ball, if it appears likely to touch
him, and leaves it for his partners behind him to return it. One player
strikes the ball with all his strength ; another waits for it and allows
it to drop as it were upon his racket; but skill in this game consists
less in striking the ball with force than in placing it so as to deceive
the adversary. It is proper play to return the ball over the cord which
divides the space into 2 parts; and bad play to play it under; but
better play consists in so managing the stroke as to drop the ball just
over the cord, so that it falls almost dead, the ball then bounds but
slightly, and great agility and skill is necessary on the part of the
adversary to catch it up and return it. This game like others has a
language peculiar to itself as follows.

TERMS OF THE GAME

The Service. When all the players are mustered before the game
is begun, a racket is thrown up, so that after turning in the air, it falls
to the ground, either on the rough or the smooth side, the rough side
being that on which the knots of the racket are visible. When the
racket is thrown up, the player calls one, smooth or rough, and if he
win, has the right of serving the ball ; the best player however gene-
rally commences, and the others succeed according to their ‘strength.

The servia; place is marked by a piece of cloth fastened to the



OUT-DOOR GAMES. 71

groand by a nail, the server advances or retreats as he chooses, accor-
ding to the force of the wind, against which he always places himself.

Sets, are played with from two to twelve players, two against two,
three against three, and so on, but never more than six against six.
Each set consists of four games at the least, but when there are more
than three on each side, it consists of as many games as there are
players, with the addition of one other game, that is if there are four
players on each side, five games are necessary to win, if five players, six
games ; but if six, six are sufficient. In all cases itis possible, indeed
it often happens, that the games may be extended to any number, as
will be afterwards explained.

Each game consists of four strokes, counting 60; every stroke or
score made counting 15 points. The game therefore may be won in
four strokes gained successively by the same party, but it rarely happens
that a game is won in four strokes, unless the other be so bad a player
that he cannot gain a single stroke during the game. This hovever
seldom occurs, for the game though speedily over, would be wor with
too little trouble. The object therefore is to match the parties as
equally as possible, and many strokes are then made before a score is
gained or lost. Suppose one side make 15 the first stroke, the other
side makes 15 the second stroke, it is called fifteen all. If the first
again make 15, it is called thirty, and the other side the same, it is
thirty all. If the first again score fifteen, making 45, and the other
the same, it is called deuce, when another stroke is made it is called
advantage; if the strokes become equal again, it is called deuce, and
this continues till one or the other gains two strokes in succession,
which wins the game. We will sow explain this last circumstance as
plainly as we can.

One of the first laws of the game is to return the ball that has been
served, either by volleying, that is by striking it whilst in the air, be-
fore it touches the ground, or at the first hop. The second hop is too
late, and whenever the ball falls after the first rebound untouched, even
if it be stopped at the very spot, the chase is called accordingly. We
say if it be stopped at the very spot, because as long as the ball rolls
within bounds, the chase lengthens with it, and it is only at the spot
where it ia stopped, before passing the servers place, that the marker
places a red or blue markto indicate the place.



72 OUT-DOOR GAMES.

A chase is then made, in the general game, from tae place of ser-
vice ; when service has once been made, to the other extremity of the
ground, in the limited game it is made in one of the two spaces com-
prised between the cord and the line placed at each end, parallel to the
cord, above which the ball ought to pass, and not rolling on the ground,
as is practised at the other game. This chase counts nothing, it is
only by playing for it, that anything can be lost or won. Playing for
it is to endeavour to gain it. It is won by so managing that the ball
in striking out shall fall at the first bound beyond the chase already
made ; if it fall exactly on the line of the chase, it is played again, this
of course is supposing that the adversary has been unable to return the
ball at the first rebound.

Defending a chase, is to return the adversary’s ball at the rebound,
but if it seem likely to fall, at the second bound, short of the chase, a
skilful player will let it pass ; if it happen as he expected, the adversary
loses the chase, and the other gains a point, 15, without playing.

As soon as two chases are made in a game the players change sides,
if neither side be 45 but if either side scere 45, they change when one
chase is made.

GAME OF GOFF OR GOLF.

The game of Golf is supposed to be peculiar to Scotland, though more
likely derived from Germany; the term Golf being derived from the
German word kolbe, or the Dutch kolf, aclub. The most popular
pronounciation of the Scotch word is gof’, or gowf. Sirutt, in his
work entitled, “‘ Sports and Pastimes of the People of England,”
observes “ that there are many games played with the ball, that re-
quire the assistance of a club or bat, and »robably the most ancient
among them is the pastime now distinguished by the name cf goff. In
the Northern part of the kingdom goff is much practised. It answers
to a rustic pastime of the Romans, which they played with a ball of
leather stuffed with feathers, and the goff ball is composed of the same
materials to this day. -In the reign of Edward III., the Latin name
cembuca was applied to‘this pastime, and it derived the denomination,
vo doubt, from the crooked club or bat with which it was played.”

The club is from two feet six, to four feet long, according to tke



OUT-DOOR GAMES. 73

height of the player, it is in shape like a walking stick, with a knob
at one end of it, which knob is bent rather on one side. The heavier
this knob is the better, the smaller end is to beheldin the hand. ~~

To make a club of the best quality, it ought to be of some tough wood,
planed smooth, the knob of it loaded with four or six ounces of lead,
and the handle of it bound with string or list, that it may be held firm
in thehand. The golf ball is about the size of an egg, and is very
hard, It is composed of stout leather, which having been previously
soaked in boiling water, allows of its being first very firmly sewed, and
then turned inside out, leaving a small opening only, by which it is
very tightly stuffed with feathers. The leather being yet wet, it con-
tracts into a ball of the proper size and nearly as round as that used in
cricket. It is then painted over with several coats of white paint, in
doing which it is requisite that the white lead should be pure, and
exceedingly well ground, as well as that each coat laid on should be-
come perfectly dry and hard before another is applied. The game
is as follows :—Three or four holes are made in the ground, about nine
inches over, and a foot deep, at the distance of about a quarter of a
mile from each other, and it is the object of the players tu strike the
ball into these holes, one after the other, and he who drives the ball
in, in the fewest number of blows wins the game. It may be played
by two or more persons, so that there be an equal number on each
side, but only two balls are used, one for each party, each party also
striking in turn ; but if the last striker does not drive his ball on so
far as his opponent, one of his party must then strike one or perhaps
two more ; and the game is thus marked, by calling out, one, two or
three more, as the case may be. If more than two are playing, the
game person does not strike twice in succession, a miss is counted one.
With some players it is not allowable to touch the ball at all with the
hand, but with others it is allowed to take the ball out of a hole or rut,
but thie is a matter of agreement before commencing play. In regular
golf clubs, there is an attendant called a cad or caddie who carries for
the convenience of any player who likes, a number of different shaped
clubs which are called putters, so that if the balls should get in an
awkward position and the player should find his own club not adapted
to strike it with full force, he may have a different one from the caddie.



74 OUT-DOOR GAMES,

There is generally, during the Spring and Summer months, some ex.
cellent golf playing on Blackheath. The following are

THE LAWS OF GOLF.

1.—You must tee (place) your ball not nearer the hole than two
clubs length, nor farther from it than six, and your tee must be on the

und.
The ball farthest from the hole to be played first.

3.—You are not to change the ball, struck from the tee, before the
hole is played out; and if at aloss to distinguish one ball from the
other, neither of them to be uplifted till both parties agree.

4.—You are not to remove stones, bones, or any Sreak club, in order
to play your ball, except on the fair green. If a ball stick fast in the
ground, it may be loosened but not lifted from the ground, except pre-
viously agreed upon.

5.—The player in every case shall be entitled to lift his ball and
drop it at such a distance as he thinks proper behind, and lose one
stroke, but when from any circumstance of the ground he cannot get
behind the place from whence he took the ball, he shall be allowed to
put the ball even with the place he took it from.

6.—If the ball be half covered or more with water on the green, the
player is at liberty to take it out, and drop it behind without losing a
stroke, and when the ball is completely covered with grass, &c, so
much thereof may be put aside or cut off, as that the player may have
a view of his ball before he plays.

7.—If the ball lie within the hollow formed in cutting any of the
water tracks on the green, it may be taken out, dropped behind the
track, and played with an iron club, without losing a stroke,

8.—In all cases where a ball is to be dropped, the player dropping,
shall stand with his face to the hole to which he is playing, and drop
the ball behind him over his head.

9.—When the balls lie within six inches of each other, the ball
nearest the hole is to be lifted till the other is played.

10,--In the case of more than two balls being played in the same
party, or of the match being decided by the number of strokes, if une



OUT-DOOR GAMES, 75

ball lie between the other and the hole, the ball nearest the hole must
be first played.

i1.—If a ball be stopped by accident, it must be played where it
fies; but if stopped by the adversary or his caddie, the party who
stopped the ball to lose the hole.

12.—If a ball should get lost on the green, the player shall drop
another at the place where his ball was supposed to have been lost,
and lose one stroke; but if it can be aseertained that the ball was lost
in any of the tracks of the green, another may be dropped behind the
track, and played with an iron without losing the stroke.

13.—If in striking, the club break, it is nevertheless to be accounted
a stroke, if you either strike the ground or pass the ball.

14,.—At holing, you are not to mark the direction to the hole, you
are to play your ball honestly for the hole, and not play on your adver-
sary’s ball, not lying in your way to the hole, but all loose impediments
may be removed.

15.—Mistakes relative to the reckoning of any particular hole can
not be rectified after the parties have struck off for the next hole.

RING BALL.

This is a very aucient game, and requires a great deal of skill to
p.ay it properly. A short post is inserted in the ground, a large
ring is fastened to the top of the post, the ring is placed upright, and
turns upon a swivel, so that if any thing strikes against the sides of
the ring, it turns round. This ring and post is a fixture. The players
have then a large bail made of a light wood, and about six inches in
diameter or eighteen inches round. The players either play in two
parties, or else all againet each other, A large circle is marked on the
ground, having the ring for the centre, and the player that is first goes
in, holding the ball in his right hand, bowls or pitches it at the move-
able ring, if he is lucky enough to pitch it through the ring, he counts
one, if not, one of the other party goes on and tries his luck, but if
the first is successful, he goes on again and again, as long as the ball
completely passes the ring, counting one each time. So also when the
other party gets the ball they go on as long as they can, and when
there are several players, he who loses a ball is out of the game, till
all the others have had their turn. The parties play for a certain



76 OQUT-DOOR GAMES.

number as thirty or fifty, and whoever gains that number first has the
game. At opposite sides of the circle upon the ground, and which
Ought to be about five yards from the post, there are two marks made,
one for each party, and it is from these marks that the bali must be
pitched. The lower part of the ring should not be above three or four
inches from the ground, and the size of the ring should be such that
the ball can easily pass through it, but not with much space to spare,
so that if the ball is six inches in diameter, six and a half will be quite
enough for the ring. The difficulty in playing is this, that if the ball
strikes the side of the ring instead of passing through it, the ring will
turn round, and then instead of presenting a flat face to the next player,
he wiil perhaps haveit sideways to him, when it will be almost impos-
sible for him to pass it through, Sometimes the players agree to stand
at any part of the circle they please, which makes the game much
easier. week wee oe

At this game there is a ring fastened to the post in the ground, the
same as the last game, but instead of there being but one ball, each
player has a ball to himself, so that there are seldom more than four
players either opposed to each other, or in parties of two. Each
player is also furnished with a stick four feet long, with a large fixed
ring et tke end of it, with which he can take up the ball that belongs
to sim ; thirty-one being the game, they make a mark at six or eight
yards from the ring, and each player in turn pitches his ball at the
ring, trying to pass the ball through it; if he succeed he counts one, if
not, he lets his ball remain; the next player tries the same, and if the
ring happens to lie sideways with him, he can very often pass _ his ball
through it, not by pitching directly at the ring, but by hittung his adver-
sary’s ball, and thereby giving his own ball a new direction. The third
player goes on in the same manner, and he may hit his adversary’s ball
but not bis own partners. The fourth player goes on afterwards, and
the object of all of them is to pass this ball through the ring, and also
to drive the adversary’s balls away, so that when his ball has passed
through, he goes on again from the point wherever his ball rolls to,
but he is not allowed to pass through the ring again, unless he hits
one of his adverssry’s halls first, therefore, if one of these lie near him,
he tries to drive that away, and also to lay his ball close up, so that
next time he may pass it through the ring, ov if he refuses to hit his



OUT-DOOR GAMES. 77

adversary's ball, he has his option to go back to the starting place, so
has any playor who pleases ; but if any one aims at the opposite ball,
and does not hit it, he loses one which he had gained before. After
the first time, the players have the option either of going on from the
place their balls are driven to, or from the starting place, as at first,
and if a player hits his partner’s ball by accident, he pays the penalty
of injuring his own interest, by depriving his partner of his next
ehance, but there is no forfeit for doing so. This is an excellent game,
and is played all the Summer time at Lord’s Cricket Ground, Mary-
lebone.

CATCH BALL.

This is a very similar game to nine holes, but instead of bowling the
ball into holes, it is thrown in the air, and the name of the player for
whom it is intended, called out by the thrower. It it be caught before
it has twice touched the ground by the player so called on, he loses"
point, but throws it up again, and calls upon whom he pleases to catch
it. If it be not caught in due time he whose name is called must en-
deavour to strike one of the others with it, if he miss he loses a point,
and has his throw up. The remainder of the game the number of op-
ponents, and the penalty of the loser, are all precisely as in nine holes,
of the two, it is the better game.

STOOL BALL.

A stool is placed upon the ground, and one of the players takes his
place before it, while his antagonist stands at a distance, and tosses
a ball with the intention of striking the stool, The player who stands
at the stool must try to prevent this, by beating the ball away with
his hand, reckoning one to the game for every stoke of the ball.
Should he miss his stroke, and the ball strike the stool, the players

hange places; the conquerer is he who strikes the ball most times
before it touches the stool.

FOOT BALL.

For this game a large light ball is required (such as those sold at
the toy-shops,) made of India-rubber, with a netting round it, ors



78 OUT DOOR GAMES.

bladder inflated, and strengthened with acasingof leather. The players
(the more the better) are to be equally divided and two lines, from
fifty to a hundred yards apart, are to be drawn across the play-ground.
In the middle of the space thus marked out, the ball is placed. Each
party advances from the gaols formed by the lines, and the sport con-
sists in endeavouring to kick the ball into the quarters of the oppo.
nent. This is a game which we would not recommend our young
friends to play at too often, as much injury may be done to the shins
and legs of the contending parties and may not unfrequently end in

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DRAUGHTS.

Considering the game as an amusement, it cannot be denied that it tends
to improve those faculties of the mind which are eminently useful iti every can-
dition of life ; and may, therefore, be made the school of wisdom, but cannot,
like the gambling table of chance, become the nursery ot vice.

Josavua Sturcoss.
Tis interesting amusement, although inferior to chess, is deserved
popular, and forms a fair prelude to the study of that noble pastime.
Nor can there be any objection urged on the score of morality, for the
moves are exch the result 01 considerable deliberation and study,
and not of mere chance; like chess, therefore, the game is not em-
ployed as a vehicle for making bets.

The game of draughts is said to be of very remote origin; though
no account of it, at least none specifying its character, occurs before
the middle of the sixteenth century, The earliest positive account of
draughts isin the year 1551. Taylor, the water poet, mentioned it
in the seventeenth ceatury ; and in 1668 an elaborate treatise on the
game was published by a Parisian professor of mathematics, named
Mallet. Mr. Payne, a celebrated writer on this subject, is said to



$2 DRAUGHTS

have copied many of Mallet’s games; but both Payne and Mallet
have been materially improved upon by a later writer, Mr Sturges.
There are two sorts of games at draughts usually played, the com-
mon or English game, and the Polish game; the first being much
less extended than the latter.
THE COMMON, OR ENGLISH GAME.
This came is played upon a board divided into sixty-four squares,

oa: 5 a 41 painted black and white,
ae 3 4




alternately, a8 in the cut,

' Twenty-four round pieces
wa of wood or ivory, half of
them colored red or black,
the other half yellow or
white. Forearly practice,
it will be found advanta-
geous to number the board
as seen in the cut,

The boaré is placed be-
tween the players in such
a manner that there is an
upper white corner on the
right hand, so as to leave
ae , —— the double corner which is

30 ie 31 Bee 32 Bie painted white ontheripbt
ae medal ag «hand of each player: but



the manner in which the mien are set will be better understood by

—_

reference to the annexed cut. The men
are always to be kept upon the white
squares, therefore, they are moved cor-
nerwise all thetime. Each player alter.
nately moves one of his men forwards to
}| the next white square. When two or
three more moves of this kind have been
made by each party the opposite men
will then perhaps come into white squares
adjoining each other, in the middle of
the board. When this his is the case,
whichever player finds one of hia oppo-





DRAUGHTS, 83

nent’s men next to bis own, and if it is not supported by another
man standing in the next square bebind it, that is, if there is a
vacant white square beyond, in the same line, then the player is
bound to take that man which is thue left unguarded. This he does,
by immediately making his own man leap over his opponent's
man, into the vacant square, where he is to stop, and the opponent's
man is then taken away, and is of no use during the rest of the game.
The man perhaps by taking the other, becomes exposed himself, in
like manner, if so, he will be taken by the next move. If he should
not be exposed himself, yet it often happens that moving one man
away, you expose some other man to your opponent, or cven two men,
if 6o the opponent takes which he pleases if they are at different parts
of the board, or he may take two men at once, if they are so placed that
there is a vacant square behind the first man, and also behind the
second man in asiraight line, for be it remarked that the men never move
backwards, though they may move cornei ways both to the right and
left, when a man is at any of the squares next to the side of the board
he cannot be taken at all until he moves out of that position. When
any player neglects to capture his opponent’s man when he has an op-
portunity of doing so, he is Anffed, that is, lores his own man. When
any party gets a man to the last row of the board on his opponent's
side that man becomes a king, he is crowned by placing one of the cap.
tive men upon him, and he is then entitled to move backwards as well
as forwards, in the white squares. The object of the whole game is to
take your opponent’s men ; and it is the greatest endeavour of a player
to oblige his opponent to give two or three men instead of one of
yours in the carly part of the game, to get kings in the middle of the
game and to drive your opponent’s men into corners and places whence
they cannot be moved, without being taken in the latter part of the
game, Also remember that your men increase in value as they get
nearer to your opponent’s side, so that one of your men which is
ready to become a king at the next move is of more value than your
adversary’s men which are opposed to him, yet, as your king cannot
possibly be made till seme of your opponent’s last row of men be
moved, itis often advisable to force him out by the sacrifice of one
oreven sometimes of two of your men, that you may get others up.



84 DRAUGHTS.

A player should be cautious how he moves the last row of men, lest he
should let his opponent get kings, and thus get behind him.

To have the move, isan important point at draughts. It signifies
the occupying such a position on the board as will eventually enable
a player to drive his adversary into a confined situation, and as, at the
end of the game, will secure the last move.

When your men are in a confined situation, the move is not only
of no use to you, but may occasion the loss of the game. In other
situations, to have the move is a decided advantage even over a skill-
fal adversary.

The game is won by the player who first succeeds in taking, or
blocking up, all his adversary’s men, so that he has nothing to move.
When, however, both players have few men of equal furce remaining,
with no reasonable hope of decided and speedy advantage, the game is
given up as a drawn one.

THE LAWS OF ENGLISH DRAUGHTS.

1.—The first move of every game must be taken alternately by each
player, whether the last be won, lost or drawn.

2.—Pointing over the board, or using any action to interrupt the
adversary in baving a full view of the men is not to be atlowed.

3.—The men may be properly arranged in any part of the game;
and after they are so placed, whichever player touches a man, must
piay him somewhere.

4.—In case of standing the Huff, it is optional with the opponent
either to take the man, or insist that the opponent take his, so omitted
by the huff,

5.—If either party when it is his turn to move, hesitate above three
minutes, the other may call upon him to play ; and if after that, he
delay above five minutes longer, then be loses the game.

6.—During a game, neither party must quit the room or table with.
out the other’s consent, and a third person should decide the time to
be allowed for his absence, and if thought necessary accompany him,

7.—Persons not playing are not to advise, nor in any manner inter.
fere with the game of either party.

8.—If there remain only two kings of one colour, and one king of



DRAUGHTS. 05

off the other colour, the game must be finished in twerlty moves of each
party, or else it is a drawn game, that is, it is won by neither party.

9.—If there remain three kings of one colour, and two ef the other
colour, the game must be decided in less than forty moves, or else it
is drawn, if it should so happen that one king of each party is taken
after the twentieth move made by these three kings and two kings, the
stronger party cannot claim twenty moves complete after that time as
according to law 8; but must content himself with so many as will
make up forty from the time when each had the three and two kings
respectively. . -

10.—When a party is huffed he loses the man which he ought to
have played, and his move also.

GAMES FOR PRACTICE.

Having now given the general rules and laws of draughts, we must
lead our readers from theory to practice, and lay before them a few
games which it would be well to practice on a board numbered like the
one we give in the early part of this article. Jt will be necessary to
impress upon the mind of the learner that by playing the following
games over ina random style, or in a plodding mill-horse mode of
progression, without endeavouring to comprehend why certain moves
are made, that they can never attain any mastery over the game; on
the contrary, unless they strive to understand thoroughly that which
they attempt to perform, they will be as far from the mark as though
they had never attempted to reach it atall. Draughts is a game re-
quiring much circumspection and calculation; and whether it is
practised from plans laid down in abook, or learned under the bitter-
ness of frequent defeats, each series of moves must be very oarefally
studied and worked out. It is scarcely within the range of proba.
bility that any two players ever make the exact moves set down in the
following plans: still, as in the course of games, some points miay
happen which bear a resemblance to them, and as the same may be
observed with respect to the terminations of games, the young draught
player will find, that if he once become a perfect master of them,
he will be enabled to play them whenever an opportunity presente
iteclf. It is the advice of many experienced draught-players, that



a6 DRAUGHTS.

learners should provide themselves with a common-place book for
noting down any particular situations that may happen in their prao-
tice, or such masterly moves, by older hands, as they may have the
good fortune to witness.

Geme 1, where Black moves first and wins.



To Colour | From



Moves



Colour} From



Moves













1 B ll 15 10 WwW 22 17
2 Ww 23 18 ll B 15 18
3 B 8 ll 12 WwW 26 22 |
4 WwW 27 23 13 B 11 15
3 B 4 8 14 WwW 17 13
6 WwW 23 19 15 B 7 11
7 |' B 9 14 16 WwW 31 26
8 WwW 18 Q 17 B 18 23
9 B 5 14 Black wins.



am, wt Ra. yee

Game 2, where White moves Jirst and wins.

Moves | Colour | From Moves | Colour | From

1 Ww
2 B
3 Ww
4 B
5 Ww
6 B
7 Ww
8 B
9 Ww

White wins.





DRAUGHTS. oT

Game 3, a drawn game.

Moves } Colour

28
29
30
31
32

B
Ww
B
WwW
B
Ww
B
Ww
B
WwW
B
WwW
RB
Ww
B
w
B
W
B
Ww
B
WwW
B
WwW
B
WwW
B

Sudtustnteste suns sw ters desde ews



POLISH DRAUGHTS.
This game is played upon a board of one hundred squares, with
ory enetwenty black and twenty white.
this game the men move forwards, as in the English game, one



88 DRAUGHBTS.

square at atime; but they take backwards end forwards; and the
queens* move over several squares at a move. Consequently, the com-
dinations are much more numerous than in the common game, The
Polish is almost the only game now played on the Continent. .

The men may be placed either on tLe white or black squares, but
they are always placed on the white in England and France.

The draught-board should be placed so that each player may have
a double corner on the right hand. This double corneris, in reference
to the blacks, the squares forty-one and forty-six; and, in reference
to the whites, the squares forty-five and fifty. Thus, the board is
naturally divided into two parts : the black men occupy twenty squares
which extend from number one to twenty inclusive ; and the white are
placed upon an equal number of squares from number thirty-one to
fifty: Hence it follows that there remains, between the men of the two
players, two rows of vacant squares, upon which the front men are
played. The reader may easily form for himself a diagram to illus-
trate this.

The rules of the game of Polish draughts are partly the same as the
rules of the common game. The chief difference is that which must
naturally arise from the moves of the queens and common men, which,
as we have before stated, are not the same in the two games.

Asall players are not of equal ability, it is usual for the more skil-
ful to give an advantage to his opponent, in order to render the game
more even, a8 in chess, or English draughts.

LAWS OF POLISH DRAUGHTS,

1.—When the players are of equal force, the first move is decided by
lot, but when a player receives odds, it is usual for him to play first.

2,—The move of the men is always in advance to the right or the
left, from white to white, one step at a time; but, in capturing, they
move two, three, four steps, and even more, when there are men to
take, and can then also move backward as well as forward.

3.—When a man is touched, it must be played if no legal obstacle

© At the game of Polish Draughts, the princi eces are termed queens
toatead of kings. ughts, principal ps 4



DRAUGHTS, 89

prevents it: for this reason, the maxim has been laid down, a man
touched is a man played, or touch and play.

4.—A man is held to be touched the moment the finger is placed
upon it: a player may mov? a man where he pleases, so long as he bas
not quitted it.

5.—If the player wishes to touch one or more men for the purpose
of placing them, he must first say ‘‘j’adoube,’’ as in chess: otherwise
his adversary may compel him to play any of the men he chooses that
have been touched, provided no legal obstacle prevents their being

layed.
6.—When any man finds in front of him another man of a different
colour, and a vacant square behind the latter, the former passes over
the second, takes it up. and occupies the vacant square; thus capturing
his ad-ersary as he does in English draughts. But in addition to this
at Polish draughts, he applies the same principle to adverse men placed
behind him ; and he captures them accordingly.

7.—And if there are several of the adveraary’s men with a vacant
white square behind each, the capturing man continues to pass over,
occupies the last vacant square, and takes off all the men over which
he has passed.

8.—When there are many men to take, none must be removed be-
fore the man that captures is placed upon the square where it is to
stop.

9.—The man or queen that takes, not only cannot repags, but on the
contrary must stop on the squares whither it has already passed, and
upon which there is a man or queen that forms part of those he ought
to take, if this man or queen have another behind, even though there
were besides one or more men or queens to take; but the man or
queen placed behind the man that ought to take, has the right of taking
that man or queen, if there be a vacant space.

10.—When there are many men to take, and, in removing them, the
player leaves one or more on the board, from an oversight, the adver-
sary has the right to huff the capturing piece: but he may huff or not
as he chooses. When he does not huff, he obliges the adversary to
take, which the latter can never refuse,

11.—If the player who has the right of huffing, takes up or touches



90 DRAUGRTS.

the man to be huffed, he can no longer oblige it to take, he must huff
it. This rule is founded on the maxim “ touch and play.”

12.—A player who refuses to take, loses the game. ‘This rule is
founded upon the maxim that a refusal to take is a refusal to play :
whoever refuses to play, abandons the game, and ought consequently
to lose it, Hence the saying, ‘‘ whoever leaves the game loses it.”

13.—If a player, having to take on one side only, raises or touches
another man by mistake, then the one which he ought to take, or, if
having to take on several sides, he raises or touches another man than
the one which he ought to take, the adversary may immediately huff
the man that ought to take properly, and oblige him to play the one
he touched.

14.—After playing, the huff does not stand good, if the player who
did not first take, takes at the next move, or if the man which ought
to take has changed its position; but if things remain in the same
state, the player who neglected to huff can return to it, or make him
take, even after several moves, whether he at first perceived or not the
error of his adversary.

15.—The move is held to be finished directly the man is placed or
quitted.

16.—A player is liable to be huffed for taking the smaller number
and weaker pieces, instead of the longer number and stronger pieces.

17,—The greatest number must be taken, when one or more men
may be taken on one sirle, and still more on the other,

18.—The strongest pieces must be taken, when there are an equal
number of men on one side and queens on the other, or a queen anda
man. In such a case, the player must take on the side of the queen
or queens, because a queen is worth more than a man.

19.—Observe, tbat when there are three men to take on one side,
and on the other side a man and a queen, and even two queens, it ig
necessary, to avoid being buffed, to take the three men, because they
exceed the rest in number.

20.—When a man bas reached one of the squares, where it ought to
be crowned, it is covered with another man of the same colour and
called a queen.

21.—The white men become qucens on the squares, one, two, three,



DRAUGHTS 91

four, five ; and the black men on squares forty-six, forty-seven, forty-
eight, forty-nine, and fifty.

22,—It is cot sufficient for a man to pass upon one of the hefore-
mentioned squares, in order to become a queen; it must nemain there
by the termination of the move: thus, ifa men, having reached one
of the squares, has still to take, it must continucits course and remain
a common man.

23.—A queen differs from a common man both in the move and man-
ner of taking. Jt differs in the move, because the common man only
wsoves one step in advance, except in capturing, and takes only from
square to square; whilst the queen can go from ene extremity of the
board to the other, if the passage is free ; that is to say, if in this space
there is no man of the same colour as the queen, or men of different
colour not to be taken, The queen differs from a man in the manner
of taking, because it can, in taking, traverse several squares at a time,
provided they are vacant, or that there are men there of different colour
which may be taken, eo that it can turn to the right and left, and some-

_times make the round of the draught board.

24,—When two equal players remain at the end of the game, one
with three queens, the other with only one, but on the middle line, it
is a drawn game, and must be recommenced.

25.—-When the single queen hag not the middle line, there are many
strokes to win; but as they cannot be forced, and the game must have
an end, it is usually established, that the player of the three queens
shall not oblige his adversary to play more than fifteen moves, and the
latter cannot refuse them, though they should be to the advantage of
the former.

26.—Even when the player with the three queens gives odds, be can
only demand fifteen moves,

27.—But if the odds given consist in the draw, twenty moves are
allowed, after which the game is finished and lost to him, if his adver-
sary haa preserved his queen so long.

28,—In a game where the moves are limited, they cannot be exceed-
ed, under pretence that the stroke which exceeds and wins is a neces-
sary consequence of the preceding move: in such a case, the game ia
iezevocably won, when the last move fixed is played



92 DRAUGHTS,

29.—A moveis not complete till each player has played once: thus,
when the party who has played first, plays the twentieth or twenty-fifth
moves, the twentieth or twenty-fifth move is not complete till the last
player has played the twentieth or twenty-fifth.

30.—When, at the conclusion of a game, a player, who has only one
queen, offers to his adversary, who has a queen and two men, or two
queens and a man, to crown his two men or the man, for the purpose
of counting the limited moves, the latter is obliged to accept the offer,
otherwise the former can leave the game as a draw.

31.—When the player mukes a false move, it remains with his adver-
sary to make him play it in rule, or leave the queen or man on the
squares where they are.

32.—There is no punishment for moving a man that cannot legally
be played.

33.—In the same way, it is no fault to play one of your adversary’s
men, because you have not the right of dving so; and in such @ case
you would not be liable to be buffed if you had to take; the reason
heing that, to give the right of huffing, the man must be touched that
can he played.

34.—When a player gives another the half, the third, or the fourt
of the draw, or of a man, the two players must play two, three, or four
games to perform this agreement: these two, three, or four games are
in this case properly only one: thus, if the revenge is given, the aame
bumber of games must be again played.

35.—A game must be played out, or he who leaves it without the
consent of his adversary, loses it.

36.—In the event of any dispute about a move, it must be decided
by the spectators who are in no way interested in the game, and the
players are obliged to conform to their decision.

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON POLISH DRAUGRTS.

When one of the players is reduced to a queen, and the other has
only three common men, there is no forced stroke by which the latter
can win: therefore, among players of equal force, there are generally
drawn games, because the attack has no advantage over the defence ;
but, between the two players, oue of whom is superior to the other,



DRAUGRTS, 93

{t is different; for, though there is no certain stroke to win the game
for the player with the three queens, there are many into which his
adversary may fall, if he does not know them. For the latter, Ma-
noury, in his celebrated treatise on Polish draughts has laid down the
positions and moves that must be avoided not to lose the game.

When one party at the end of a game has a queen and a man against
hree queens, the best way is to sacrifice the man es soon as possible,
because the game is more easily defended with the queen alone.

Man for man, is forcing your adversary to take one or more men,
or one or more queens, in order to place yourself in a position after-
wards to take from him the same number of men or queens that he
took from you.

Tt is by these changes that good players parry strokes and prepare
them: if the game is embarrassed, they open it by giving man for
man, or two for two. Ifa dangerous stroke is in preparation, they
avoid is by giving man for man. If it requisite to strengthen the
weak side of your game, it may be managed by exchanging. If you
wish to acquire an advantageous position, a well managed exchange
will produce it. Finally, it is by exchanges, that one man frequently
keeps many confined, and that the game is eventually won. The
“ coup de repos’’ is a position in which one of the players has to take
several times suonessively, and the other as many moves to make
freely and unimpeded. Whilst the firat player makes his captures,
the other arranges his men so as to make a stroke that his adversary
cannot prevent; or he places himself behind one more men to be taken.
This is called the “coup de repos,” because the man of the second
player, which is behind those of his adversary, or is about to make
the stroke, is, in a manner in repose, waiting for the time of action.

The ‘‘coup de repos” is generally the consequence of too much
hurry on the part of the adversary, who, seeing a man to be taken,
places himself behind, and finds himself compelled to take, and thus
gives his adversary time to form an advantageous plan, the execution
of which cannot be prevented. It sometimes, however, happens, that
the ‘‘ coup de repos” is produced by the skill of the player.

When two men of one player are so placed that there is an empty
square behind each, and a vacant square between them, where his ad-



Full Text




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EVERY BOY'S BOOK

or

GAMES, SPORTS, AND DIVERSIONS:

OR, THE

School-Hoy's Manual

or

AMUSEMENT, INSTRUCTION, AND HEALTH.

WITH SEVERAL HUNORED ENGRAVINGS.





London:
E. PEARSON, 242%, BLACKFRIARS ROA D.



1852.
Lonnow:
GRIEVES, Printer, 6. Red Lion Court Fleet treet.
SPORTS FOR AN EARLY AGE.

CONTENTS.

Pace.
GAMES WITH MARBLEB.. cc... sec ccesee oe Seoveeee bec seetsecee !
GAMRS WITH TOPS... .ccccce cacee oe evecens easeecee Oe ncccceesseeees 12
Games WITH HOOPS 00.0.0 cscs cesceeeneeeees coneeseneccevetessvecs W
SPORTS WITH TOYS. . 0.00 ccsecscessceseves Con cenceccnccees Oeececece 20
SOCIAL IN-DOOR GAMES.
PARLOUR SPORTS 00.0 ese ce cc cce sence enceeeesneeeenes seeseseeenes 33
FORFEITA .o..ceccceseens seeesecceeers steetseeerseacee ereesceenees 45
OUT-DOOR GAMES.
Sports ov Aaturry awn SPEED .....e.000 Oca eeereesee rece sesecs 33
GAMES WITH BALLB .......0-0058 - Bae e eer e esos carcececeteeseenes 63
GAMES OF SKILL.
Dmavours....... Veen ence nec enter en eee secre ee eee nee esas pete eetaee 81
Dominogs....... Peer eens acces neeeneenen Oe eve cree cece neeeeereenee 95
BacnGauaon ....seeeee Cena ease eee e emcee eee emer as ees ceseecesaes 97
FOX AND GEESE ...5. ec ccc ec ccc cee eee tseeetenetterseeecs 103
MORMRICE.... ccc cec eects cece cece cence ecee earner etenteueeescesaees 104
CTBGS 0... cece ete ccc tenet eens sen seen eeee stun tseveseuseuecaes 106
BAGATRLUR oc cccc cece sec c cc eete este ccensbeeeeersenettnreeterseees liz
THE CONJUROR.
FEATS OF LEGRRDEMAIN 0... sc cece se cseces ces cssteeeeseeceseesees 195
TRICKS WITH CARDS .. 11. 20 cenccssccesnesaucctceveceses saves: 207
CONTENTS.

. Pac

BEATS OF CHEMICAL AGENCY ....cecccvccvevevvcvcccccceressccesees 228

CRICKET. cseccccccccnccncetscrenccnceeeccesccenreccsenscccncsesses 239
AQUATIC SPORTS.

ANGLING....... Cceneatscentenneneee seeeeseerrenccnseeressrsccenes 257

SWIMMING ....c.cccvesccccersccecctacees censcncerssesensessstscses 219
THE FANCIER,

CAGE BinDS 2... cceccccccececscroccneseerrevescsevessesssesensens 335

KaBBITS .....0.0006 APO meee eee eee ee ee ee tone tensa wees neaneeee 365

PIGEONS.... se0es veer eenenneg eee eer eevesevens Cente renee eeeres 381

BANTAMS...ccvccsccccncsscsccees POO e ee ee reece eter ee een e ee eetsines 46

Wire MICE... ..eecc scenes eeccnnne Peace eer cce ee een tens pernee wees ary

GUINBA PIGS, ....000 cotsevecsenner Sewer cece ee oneness eeeteee nies 4)
ATHLETIC SPORTS.

ARCHERY........005 dee e dee e eee eee enemas tenn ener ete aeieene cence 415

FENCING... 0. ccs cccece cc ce cece sae ceetresereesees Pee eees cece narene 429

GYMNASTICS ...... a ecceeuccees Odeo eweteneee Obed msec cree eee nee 461
’ RECREATIVE EXPERIMENTS.

OPTICS. 0.06005 bebe cens ceerecestee Pe eeeseneeeeeee Pee e cent ence ee enee 47°

ELectricity



MISCELLANEOUS AMUSEMENTS.

PARADOXES AND PUZZLES.....eccccceueseceeeees sence eee eee eetes 529
VARIBTIES occu iecce ns cesctecceseteeee seeeuaeseuveee pareceteas 40


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Every Bor’s Boox—Yes! a book for every boy ; a book containing
an epitome of every thing likely to be of interest to the juvenile
mind. But what does it contain ? perhaps, the reader may ask, We
were half inclined to be silent, and let the Every Boy’s Book speak
for itself : nevertheless, a few words of introduction may not be un-
acceptable.

Works of amusement, intended for the recreation hours of boys,
are numerous. Some of these are highly objectionable in their con-
tents, whilst others, from their high price, are, in a pecuniary point
of view, beyond the reach of the great body of the rising generation.
To remedy those inconveniences was the projected object of this work
—its success during its progress through the press in a serial form
has conftrmed the anticipations of the projectors.
Vi PREFACE.

Arranged uader its proper head, there will ba found in this volume
sound instruction derived from practical experience in all the pass
times and diversions—whether out door or in door, which lend such a
charm to the joyous seasons of childhood and yout. Games time«
honoured in the recollections of most up. grown persons, have not
been forgotten, whilst many ganes have ben included, descriptions
of which have never before appeared in print. With regard to
Athletic Exercises, tending to promote a vigorous constitution, thig
work will not be found deficient in sound instruction, while ample
space has been accorded to that department likely to awiken and
foster kindly feelings in the youthful breast—the keeping, as house-
hold pets, of tame animals, and cage birds. ‘he instructions in this
book, of the various games of skill, are inferior to nothing of the
kind ever published ; the merest tyro may, by an attentive perusal of
our pages, become an adept ia the games of Draughts and Chess.
By the insight afforded by us, in the mysteries of Legerdemain, will
the stigma of ‘no conjuror” be applied to any youth, though of the
most ordinary capacity. Iu the department of Science will be found
8 collection of amusing and instructive experiments, not dry details
Only of what has been done by others, but plain information of what
the reader may perform himself. And now, feeling that we have
already lingered too long on the threshold, we shall leave the
volume to plead its own cause.
MARBLES

TOPS
HOOPS

TOYS




What clamorous throngs, what happy groups were seen,
In various postures scattering o’er the green ;

Some shot the marble, others join the chase

Of self-made stag; or run the emulous race.

MARBLES.

MARBLES are not of ancient origin—and previous to their invention,
nuts, round stones, plumb-stones, and wooden balls, were used by boys
for the purpose of playing games. Augustus, the Roman Emperor,
when a youth, is said to have passed many bours in the day playing
with his companions with nuts,in games much similar to those now
played at with marbles.

There are four sorts of marbles used by boys. The first are called
bonces or bosses ; very large stone marbles, which measure about four
inches round. The second are the taws, smaller stone marbles, which
are chiefly used to shoot with, and which are remarkable for their
hardness, their beautiful spots, circles, veins, and other marks. The
third are the common clay marbles, sometimes white and pink, and
scarcely harder than chalk, and sometimes smooth and glossy, and
coloured in the manner of crockery ware, The fourth are the alleys,
4 MARBLES,

which are the most valuable; these are sometimes pure white and
sometimes veined and clouded with pink, or wholly of that colour.
The atone marbles and the alleys are mostly manufactured by the iron
mills of Germany, and imported from Holland ; the stone is first cut
into strips and the strips into cubes, like dice. They are then put
into a peculiar kind of mill where they are made to rub against each
other, when the corners are gradually worn away, and they become
somewhat round; when they are then taken toa second, and after-
wards to a third mill, until they become of that beautiful and globe-
like form in which we see them. The following are the principal
games played at with marbles.

RING TAW.

Make a ring upon the ground, and upon or within it let each person
place a certain number of marbles; then draw a circle around the
former at about ten feet distance ; this is called the offing, and from this
each player in turn shoots. The first boy who is to play, shoots at
the marbles in the ring, if he hit one and drives it out of the large
ring he gains it, and is allowed to go on again, and so on until he
misses. But the second and all after times, he does not return to the
ring to shoot, but to the place his marble goes to, and which must be
somewhere outside the ring, for if his taw remain in the ring he loses
not only his chance of going again but also he must put back into the
ring all the marbles he has obtained that came. ‘The next party who
plays, must firat get a marble out of the ring, and then he has the
privilege of shooting at his adversaries taw, whether it remains in the
ring or not, and if he is so fortunate as to hit it the owner is thrown out
of the game altogether and must hand over the marbles he has to the
winner, supposing he has any, but if ke has none, or has already given
them up in consequence of his taw remaining in it, these are not to be
disturbed if there are other players. If there are no other players
the game is settled. There are certain conditions to be observed in
the game of ring taw, at the call of other players as to ‘knuckle down’’
by making the middle joint of the fore finger touch the ground whileshoot-
ing, and also as to making the hand remain stationery after the marble
has been shot to prevent the player giving no undue velocity to the
MARBLES, &

taw in its progress to the ring. In playing near a wall, should your
taw be placed where you have not room to kneel behind it, you may
shoot it from your knee or from your hip. The principal art uf the
game consists not only in shooting the marhles out of the ring, but in
keeping out of harms way, or taking up a good portion for future
operations. Doss in the ring is a game similar to ring law, the large
bosses being bowled instead of the small taws shot.

INCREASE POUND.

This is an excellent game, and is very much like the last. The
difference is as follows ; supposing the rings to be as in ring taw, and
marbles be placed within the inner ring. One boy shoots a marble
out if he can, if unsuccessful, and his own marble remain in the pound,
he pays one marble to the pound and lets his own remain for the next
time. The next player goes on, if he hit the former player’s marble,
the owner of it puts a marble in the ring and the next player begins
at the offing, as at first; but ifeither party have already got a marble
out, the case is different, for the party struck has not only to put one
in the pound, but to hand over whatever marbles he has gained to the
party that struck him, and if he has not any, he is said to he Killed,
and is put out of the game entirely. Whenever a shot has been gained
by any party, and the taw of one of them remains within the ring, (on
the line is nothing,) he puts all the shots which he hxs, and one more
into the pound, and shoots from the offing as at first, but if he have
obtained any shots, he remains Ailled, or as boys cail it, “ he gets
fat,’’ and stands out for the remainder of the game. When there is
only one marble left in the ring, the taw may remain inside without
being fat. This game may be played by any number, with or with-
out partners.

THE MARBLE BOARD.

Procure a piece of wood, half an inch or more in thickness, 15
inches long and 4 inches wide. Cut it of the form shown in the print,
and cut in the lower part of it any odd number of holes. One hole
in the middle, the otbers at an equal distance from each other on
either side. Number the centre hole ], and the side holes 2, 3, &c.
b MARBLES.

as represented, letting the smaller numbers be towards the centre, as
thus.

At some part at the back of the marble board is to be a piece of
wood fastened, to hold it
upright when placed upon
the ground. ‘The owner
of the marble board is fur-
nished witha bay of marbles
ready to pay the winner.
The boy who desires to
play stands atany appointed
distance, and bowls his marble towards the board, if it go through
either of the holes he receives the number marked over that hole, if it
does strike the board without going through, the marble is forfeited,
and if it goes over the board or on one side of it, or does not reach it
at all, two marbles are forfeited by the player. The space between
the holes should be about twice the width of the holes themselves, and
the hole so wide as to allow the largest marble to pass through with-
out touching.



DIE AND CHEESE,

Is formed by grinding down two opposite sides of a marble, so as to
make it resemble a cheese, Fig. 1, then make a small cube or die
© min out of another

| marble and mark

upon its face dots
numbering from
2 one to six, Fig. 2.

_--~etys set the die upon
Fig. 3. the cheese as rep-
resented in Fig, 3. For shooting at it from a short distance, a boy
pays the owner a marble each time, and should he knock the die
off the base, he is entitled to receive from the owner as many marbles
as there are dots on the uppermost face of the die.





PYRAMID, OR CASTLE.

Pile four marbles up, three at bottom and one above. These belong
to one player, called for the time the castle-keeper. Let a second player
MARBLES. 7

bowl! or shoot a marble at this castle at the distance of two yards. If
he knock down the castle, its four marbles become his, and the castle-
keeper puts up another heap which is shot at a second time; the castle
keeper takes all the marbles which miss the castle aimed at.

THE GAME OF DOUBLE CASTLE.

Let there be five castles made of marbles like those in the cut below
and suppose them to be marked ABCD E. The centre one is to
be made of ten marbles, the others of four each, and they must be
piaced at about half a marble distance from each other. If the boy
who shoots the marble at them, knock down the castle A, without
disturbing the others, he gains all that are in that castle. If A in
falling knocks down B or D, the winner gains only six instead of ten,
if it knocks down both
B and D, he gains only
two. If he miss the cen-
tre one and throw down
C BD or'E, he loses
four marbles for each one
so disturbed ; he loses his
own marble only when he misses the whole, if he can shoot any marble
off either pile, without disturbing the under ones, and which is very
difficult, he gains the whole which are on the ground.



GAME OF LAG OUT.

There may be any number of players at this game, who may per-
haps require a great number of marbles, and marbles are more quickly
lost and won at this game than at any other, so that a boy may have
a bag full at beginning the game and lose them all ina few minutes.
It must be played on perfectly level and smooth ground, or on the
flooring of aroom. First you must have a post or other object to
strike the marbles against. Each party who is to play is to put down
a marble at the distance of about a yard from the post, then the first
player begins by striking another marble against the post, and watch-
ing where it rolls to ; his object is to make it roll in such a direction
that it may hit one of the marbles already down, if it hit one of them,
8 MARBLES,

no matter which, he wins the whole that are down. If his marble do
not hit one of the others, it must remain untouched on the ground, to
take its chance of being hit by the next player, who throws his marble
against the post in the same manner. If he fails, the third player
goes on, and afterwards the other players, if there are any, or if not
the first goes on again, and if there are but two they play alternately,
always leaving the marble down on the floor or ground, until one of
them is struck, when they are all cleared off by the fortunate winner.
The game then begins anew, all putting down a marble except the
winner, who has the privilege of playing first. Sometimes there are
as many as fifty or sixty marbles oul at once.

When boys have but few marbles they agree to play for a certain
number, say six, when these are used up, the player instead of taking
one from his bag, takes which he pleases off the ground, and plays
with it like his own, so that there are never more than twelve marbles
on the ground at once.

LONG LAG AND FRENCH LAG.

This only differs from the other in making a circle on the floor, of
a yard from the centre of the post where the marbles are struck against,
and making it a rule that those marbles which when thrown, do not
go beyond the circle, ure to be forfeited to the other party. Another
long lag is making a line as before, at a given distance, and not forfeit-
ing any marbles but those which lie beyond the circle, are the only
ones to be steuck to win the game.

CROSS LAG.

This is by far the most scientific game of all. A line is to be made
down the post or wall, and also along the ground straight outwards
from the wall. The players are to take their turns in playing as be-
fore, and each one is to stand exactly on the line at two yards distance
from the post. He is then to throw his marble at the post, so that it
may fly out again, the next player must see on which side of the line
on the post the marble strikes, and then see where it settles; if it
settles on the same side of the line on the ground as that it struck on
the post, the marble is forfeited to that mext player, unless it hit
MARBLES, 9

another marble on that side, if so, the marble is not forfeited, but it
does not take the game; but if the marble thrown flies to the oppo.
site side of the centre line from that which it struck, and does not
hit another, it remains for the next player to throw at, but if it hit a
marble already there, the owner of it claims ull the marbles on that
side, or if so agreed upon before hand, he claims the whole, and the
game begins anew, otherwise the game is perpetual. If the marble
thrown strikes the line of the post, or settles on that chalked on the
ground, it is laid aside till the next winning takes place, when all such
marbles as are thus laid aside are scattered on the ground at random
for the benefit of the next game, not any of them being nearer the post
than the length of a boy’s two fect, nor nearer the centre line than a
span made by his thumb and fure finger.

THREE HOLES AND SPAN, KNUCKLE AND TAW, OR NINE HOLES.

Make three holes in the ground at about a yard and a half distance
from each other. Then make a mark at a yard and half distance from
the first hole. The first player Anuckles down at the mark and shoots
his marble into the first if he can. If he succeed, he then takes a
span towards the second hole, and shoots his marble again towards
that hole, and so on. If he does not succeed, the next player tries his
luck with his own marble, and if he enters the hole and his adversaries
marble is near it, he may either try to knock the former players
marble away with his own, or try to enter the second hole. If he
succeed he goes on again to the next, takinga epan towards it as the
former did, and throughout the whule game, having the privilege of
knoeking his adversaries marble away if he can, whenever he has first
entered a hole ; and when he has knocked it away, he continues from
the place his marble goes to. If he miss either the marble or the
hole, the first player goes on again, or if there be a third player he
takes his turn in like manner, and whoever plays may ifhe can, knock
away all other marbles that surround either of the holes, thus render-
ing it more difficult for the next player to get inhis marble. Whoever
first gets his marble into the ninth hole wins the game. The ninth
hole is reckoned thus :-—First 1, 2, 3, 2, 1, 2,3, 2,1. So that he
goes up and down the three boles twice. The loser must pay to bim
whatever they agree to play for. Sometimes the loser puts bis
10 MARBLES,

knuckles on the ground at a certain distance, and allows the winner
to shoot his marble at them from that distance, then from wherever

the marble goes to.

BOUNCE EYE.

This is a game played by each player putting down a warble within
asmall ring, and dropping from the eye another marble upon them,
80 as to force them out, and whatever marbles are thus driven out of
the ring become the property of the bouncer. Each player tries his
skill in turn.

THE CONQUEROR.

Is played by two boys endeavouring to split each others taws, when
the victor is entitled to receive a marble for the taw so split, and also
whatever number of marbles the spiit taw may have before destroyed.
This game should be played either upon hard earth or gravel; turf,
through being too soft, and the pavement, being much too hard, are
both unsuitable.

ODD OR EVEN.

Is played by one boy concealing in his hand one or more marbles,
and another guesses whether the number he has be odd or even, if he
guesses right he receives one marble, if he guesses wrong he must pay
a marble, 1t is the second boys turn next, to hold the number, and
for the first to guess, with the like gain or loss.

EGGS IN THE BUSH,

A boy grasps in his closed hands a certain number of marbles, and
another hoy guesses how many there are. If he guess the precise
number he receives the whole as a gain, but if he guess incorrectly he
pays as many marbles as there are under or over the number shown
to be in the hand. For example, let Harry hold up some marbles
concealed in his hand, Tom guesses there are six, if there are six, he
has them all, if there are four, he has to pay two, to make up the
number he has guessed ; if there are ten he has to pay four, because
MARBLES. 11

six and four make up the ten. It is fair to pack the hand so as to
make it seem largest when it has the least number of ‘‘ eggs’’ in it, and
small when there are most eggs; but it is not allowed to touch the
hand held up, though the party that is to guess may look at it in every
vosition, and may oblige the other to turn it palm upwards if he pleases.

A FEW REMARKS ON MARBLES.

In concluding our account of the games at marbles it may not be
amiss to make a few observations on the general conduct to be observed
by boys in these games. ‘ome boys, we are sorry to say are prone
cheats, but whenever detected by a companion in any thing unfair
ought to be exposed, and the cheater sent fo Coventry; a term which
means, that no one of his former playmates shall speak to him or play
with him for a certain time. Covetousness is also a vice which we
would warn our readers to avoid, for a boy may beas wicked by being
covetous with marbles asan old miser is by being covetous with money :
if he gives way to covetousness he will speedily be led into envying
his companions success, and fostering this bad passion he will always
be restless and unhappy. A boy who sets his heart upon the accumu-
lation of a large store of marbles, and who parts with each one like a
drop of blcod taken from his veins, will be shunned by his playmates
and soon discover that his fancied source of happiness is but

Empty Nothingness.


12



TOPS.

T'uERE are few things more difficult than to spin a top well, we mean
of course a peg-top. There are three kinds of tops, the humming-top,
the whipping-top, and the peg-top. The humming-top is more the
amusement of children than of boys. In shape it is much like the
whipping-top but it is hollow, with a hole on one side, and an upright
pin or peg at the top, over which a handle is placed ; a piece of thin
string is then wound round the peg or pin, the inner end of it being
confined in a small hole, and then when the string is wound round it, if
it be suddeniy pulled off it will of course pull the top so as to occasion it
to turn round rapidly, and if held near the ground the top will con-
tinue spinning for a considerable time after it is set loose, and at the
same time make a humming noise, owing to the air rushing in and
out of the hole on the side.

THE WHIPPING-TOP.

This is by far better exercise than the last. The top is mostly
solid, and of the shape shown at A; to spin it, all that is neces-
sary is to hold the top in both hands, and putting the point of it near
TOPS. 18

to the ground, give it a brisk spin round with the hands, then having
a short-handled whip ready, you are to flog the top on the thickest
part of it, with the thong of the whip, which
will keep it up for any length of time that may
be required.

The whipping-top marked B is one used in Col-
chester, and therefore called the Colchester top ;
it is said to spin very easily and to keep up
much better than the commen top. In setting
_ the top spinning at first, you must be careful not
- to strike it too hard. The only two games we
remember to have played with whipping tops, are races, in which two
tops played by two boys, are set up at the same time, and near to
each other, the boys are then to try to flog them, so that one shall
reach a particular line, marked at a distance.
When the top is struck gently, it remains spinning
at the same place, but to make it move forward,
it must be struck more with the middle of the
thong of the whip, and with greater force than
if it is required merely to be spun round.
The other amusement is to have an encounter,
Two boys each with tops set them well spinning
and then drive them against each other, if one
top is struck down the owner of the second top wins; if both are
knocked down, neither wins; which is the case also, when the tops
fly off in different directions, without either of them falling. Two
boys will often spin the same top, to do which they must stand at
different sides of it. We have also seen one boy keep up two tops,
but this is very difficult to accomplish. The best whip for the top is
one the handle of which is about the same length as the thong, and
made of eel-skin. The next best is a strap of thin leather wetted.

The whipping-top was used in ancient times by the Grecian boys ;
and it was well known in Rome in Virgil’s time. It was played in
England five centuries ago. One of the games allowed at Harrow
pea by the original regulations, in the year 1590, was “ driving
atop.”




eee

14 TOPS.

THE PEG-TOP.

The figure marked C in the next cut is a correct representation
of the common peg-top. To choose a top, take care that the peg be
put in perfectly straight, that the point of the
peg be smooth and even, and that the wood of
the top have no knots in it, if it have knots it
will be very liable to split, and one side of it
will be heavier than the other, so that it will
lean on one side; if the peg be not smooth at
the point, and the top should reel, it would
not recover itself; and if the peg be not put in
straight, the top will waddle. Next choose the
string, this should be of whipcord, or laycord,
nothing is gained by having the cord too thin ;
one end of it should hea little opened out, and
the part thus unravelled be prevented becoming more undone by
what a sailor would call half-hitch, that is by a small portion of the
string being half-knotted round the rest of the unravelled part; the
ength may be a little more than a yard, at the very most a yard and
a half for the largest top, and a button should be put upon the end
ef it. The lower part of the top has a series of channels cut on its
surfase, and the string may be so thick, that when two pieces are
laid one in each channel, they shall touch each other. To spin the
top, first lay the unravelled end of the string a little way along the
lower part of the top, turn the string twice tightly round the peg,
and then continue to wind it upwards all along the channels, until all
the string is wound up. Then put the button between the little finger
and the next, hold the head of the top downwards, and throw it with
a jerk towards the earth, the string being held between the fingers by
the button, will untwist itself as the top falls, which will consequently
turn the top round, and when it reaches the ground the string will be
completely unwound and the top set spinning. A good top, well spun,
will soon become quite steady, when it is said to go to sleep. It may
now be taken up by a wooden spoon called a top spoon, and which is
sold st the toy shops for this purpose. A peg-top has been known to


TOPS, 15

spin or sleep upon a perfectly smooth surface, a plate of polished steel
for instance, for the space of two hours.

There is another way of spinning a top, called under-hand, the
string is wound on in the usual manner, but instead of the top being
thrown down by the player in the manner before described, he stoops
down and holding the top with the peg downwards he jerks it away
from him, still holding the string; the top will then loogen itself from
the string and spin, even better than by the over-hand method, but
this way is not so bold and not so well liked by boys as the one first
described, and for playing at peg in the ringis of no use. The best
top for this way of spinning is the Spanish top
shewn at D. Itis more taper than the English
top, and has a thick round short peg. This top
sleeps beautifully. Boys in taking out the pegs of
their tops fasten the end of a string tightly round
the peg, and then holding the string at the op-
posite end, they strike the body of it against the
post, when the sudden concussion of several blows
given in this way generally loosens the peg. To
fasten it in again tightly, it is best to rust it in, |
in the following way, make the pey a little wet,
then sprinkle salt upon it, put it in the hole and
ram itin. The salt and water will rust the peg inside and make it
80 firm that it is almost impossible to move it afterwards.



CHIP STONE,

Two lines are drawn upon the pavement, two or three feet apart.
The two boys about to play, each select a small round pebble or
‘‘ chip stone,”’ and place it upon one of the lines. The peg-tops are
then spun, and while they continue spinning the players must take
them up in wooden spoons and “chip ”’ or cast them at the stones,
so as to drive the latter from one of the bounds to theother. Should
the tops keep on spinning after they have been cast at the stones, the
players are allowed to take them up in their spoons and chip again;
a skilful player can chip three or four times before the top ceases
spinning. The player who can send his chip stone from one boun-
dary line to the other in the fewest casts, is the winner. Jn selecting
16 TOPS.

chip stones it should be the aim to procure those which are evenly
shaped and smoothly pulished.

PEG IN THE RING.

Let there be a ring made on the ground about two yards across,
(not on pavement,) and the several players surround it. Some one
boy, as may be agreed upon, lays his top in the middle ofthe ring,
while all the other players peg at it, trying if they can to split it; if
any one succeed he keeps the peg for his victory, and sometimes he
also claims half the bacon, (the pieces of a broken top are often called
bacon.) If a player bits the top in the centre so that it rolls out of
the ring, the owner may take it up and play with it like the others,
and if the top belonging to any player fall down in the ring after its
spinning is done, that top, or rather all those tops are placed in the
centre to be pegged at in like manner as the first. If also any top
does not spin at all when cast, or if it does not go within the ring at
first, or if the player attempt to touch it till it is done spinning, in either
case it is called a dead top, and is placed in the centre of the ring.

Tops made of box-wood are the best for this game, being the hard-
est, and least liable to split; but they are the most expensive. In
playing at peg in the ring particular care should be taken that your
top be

CHell Spiked.





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HOOPS.

Ahuves are of three kinds, bark hoops, white hoops, and iron hoops.
Bark hoops are the best for every purpose of exercise and enjoyment.
White hoovs are: those smooth flat hoops which are used for washing -
tubs, they are only fit for young ladies. Iron hoops have been much —
used of late years—these may be considered hoops with all the dirt
and disadvantages of hoops without any of their benefits. They do
not even require the arm to be exercised at all, but are moved along
by pushing them with a piece of iron hooked at the end.

The games ef hoops are trundling them, turnpike, the wheelhoop,
and the hoopbattle. The first of these requires no explanation; all
that is to be done is, to give the hoop a blow or two now and then,
and guiding it by holding the hoop stick on one side or the other, ac-
cording as it is apt to fall.

Horace mentions trundling the hoop as one of the manly exercises
Of his time, a a ’
18 HOOPS,

TURNPIKE.

Tarnpike is a very good game to play at when there is but one hoop
among two or more boys. In this case one boy is to trundle the hoop
in the usual manner, the others are to keep turnpikes, that is, they
must get two bricks or stones, and put them first twelve inches from
each other, on the ground, meastiing the inner sides. The turnpikes
being ready, the boy with the hoop rolls it aloug, and takes care that
it shall go through the turnpike, if he completely clear it he continues
onwards in a large circle, passing through every turnpike in his way,
each one of which is attended by one boy. When he has passed once
round, if he should not be out, each turnpike is made more narrow
by an inch, he tries again, and if successful all round, the turnpikes
are narrowed again one iach, and he continues; but whenever he
touches with his hoop either of the stones he is out, and the boy
takes it whose turnpike is struck, while he who loses has to stop in
the other one’s place, and become a turnpike keeper himself, The
above way of making turnpikes is much better altered thus, let the
width of the turnpike always be that of the shoe of the keeper—thus
there can be no dispute as to its proper width.

WHEELHOOP.

Get as large a hoop as possible, also a large sized curtain ring,
fasten this latter by four strings to four different parts of a hoop, so
that the curtain ring shall be in the middle of the hoop, and the
strings drawn tight, To move this hoop along, put a small stick
through the ring and run along with it, when of course the hoop will
turn round.

THE HOOP BATTLE OR TOURNAMENT.

This game is played by several boys, forming themselves into two
parties or sides, and going into opposite parts of the play-ground
they get their hoops ready, and at a signal given, both parties drive
their hoops forward to meet their antagonists, every one striving to
strike his hoop against one of chose of the opposite party, and to pre-
vent confusion it is usual for one of each side to attack the hoop of
the boy opposite to him. The boys belonging to the hoops that are
TOYS. . 19

knocked down, are then out of play till next game, the rest going on
in like manner from the sides they have now arrived at, until all are
thrown out but one, who gains the battle for his own party. No
hoop that is knocked down by touching any thing but a hoop, nor
which falls of its own accord, is to be reckoned as out.

Another way of playing the game is to agree to a certain number as
the game, and then count the number of hoops that are thrown each
time, and whichever side can get the number first by throwing his
adversary’s hoops, gains the day.

The iron hoop is. for all games, much worse than the wooden one
itis small and dirty, and does not even require knocking, which
takes away from the hoop, one of its chief and most healthful advan-
tages. The iron hoop is mostly moved along by a rod of iron, hooked
at the end, which is only to be pressed against the upper part of the
hoop, which then moves forward.

It used to be the fashion once, to have hoops with gingles on them,
if any of our young friends prefer these to the common hoop, they have
only to go to a tinman and procure twelve pieces of tin, about an inch
and a half square, and tell him to punch a hole in the middle-of each ;
having procured these, nail them two together, at six different parts
of the inner side of the hoop. They are to be left loose enough to
rattle, when the hoop is shook or struck.

In playing this game, great compatibility of temper should be
observed by the contending parties, and the battle may be carried on
very good-humouredly although the belligerents will sometimes assume,

A Threatening Appearance.
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TOYS.
THE KITE.

KirEs are of various shapes, but that most usual is round at the top
and gradually tapers downwards to a point at the end. To make a
kite, proceed as follows. Geta straight light lath, of the proper
length for the kite, this is called the straighter. Then get a cane
of the same length and call this the bender, make a notch all
round it, and also a notch at the bottom of the straighter,
side ways of it, and also a notch at the top end of the straighter
also sideways. Then, by means of a small string, tie tightly
the middle of the bender, to the top of the straighter, and with
another fine string, tie the twoends of the bender together, bringing
them so near to each other as to make the top of the kite resemble
half a circle, and at the time of carrying the string across to tie one
en4 30 the other, give it a turn round the straighter, having thus con-
TOYS. 21

fined the two ends of the beider, bring the string from one of them
down to the bottom of the straighter, give it a hitch round this part,
and finally fasten it to the opposite end of the bender. If the kiteis
very large, two or three other strings across it may be necessary, at
all times, if these be placed they should come from the points of the
bender, and be turned round the straighter, with a hitch whenever
they cross it: the frame of the kite is now complete. The next
thing is to cover it with paper, or what is still better, fine muslin or
silk, but supposing we use paper, we must first get the proper kind
of paper, so that it shall be light and strong. If the kite be above’
four feet in length, cartridge paper will not be too heavy. If from
four feet to three feet, we may use elephant paper, iffrom three feet
to two feet in size or smaller, what printers call double crown is as
good as any, though almost any thin paper willdo. We must first paste
as many sheets of it together as are necessary for the frame we have
formed, the edges of the sheets where they are pasted being about
half an inch folded over each other. Stretch these sheets, when the
foldings are dry, upon a smooth floor. Lay the frame upon them,
and cut the paper about an inch all round the frame in every direc.
tion, and all around the head of the kite cut some slips down to the
bender, then paste the part of the paper which projects over the frame,
and turn it over neatly, so as to enclose the bender and the string at
the end of it. Then paste some strips of paper, at two or three
places, across the straighter, and across the strings. Then let the
whole dry, and afterwards put on the loop. To do this, dividethe
straighter into three parts ; a distance equal to two of these parts is
to be the distaace of the holes from each other into which the loop
is to be placed, and this should be exactly equal to the whole
width of the kite, when finished. To find the piace to insert the
top of the loop, draw a line from corner to corner of the kite or
from wing to wing, and see where this line crosses the straighter, and
then measure the half distance between this line or mark and the
top of the kite, and at the place where that half distance comes is to
be made a hole through the straighter, for the top of the loop to pass
through. Ata distance of the breadth of the kite below this, the
lower hole is to be placed. The length of the loop is to be such
that when laid down upon the kite it shall reach nearly to one of the
22 ToYSs,

wings or ends of the bender, and when the string is afterwards fastened
on, it ehould be at such a height as the wings. If the string is fastened
an too low, the kite will pitch, if too high, it will not catch the wind
properly. If the kite is too wide it will waddle, and if too narrow, it
will not fly high because it will not hold a sufficiency of wind. The
tail is to be fastened securely to the lower end, and the quantity of
tail depends upon the shape of the kite and the strength of the wind
It onght to be about eight or nine times the length of the body of
the kite. If this is too heavy it may be shortened, or, if prepared,
alittle piece cut off of each end of the pieces of paper which form
the tail.

The Chinese, who are very fond of the amusement of kite flying,
make them of various shapes, particularly square or many sided, these
fly with very short tails. Thay also often make a long hole in the
middle of the kite and stretch wires or cat gut across it, so that the
wind sets upon the strings and produces musical notes. We have
seen some excellent kites made of the form of butterflies. The frame
work of most of these fancy kites is made of very thin whalebone or
of the split cane used for bonnets.

THE POP-GUN

The Pop-gun is made from a piece of alder about six inches in
length, from which the pith has been extracted. The rammer should
have a handle of proper length with a shoulder or knob to the top, to
prevent its slipping the entire length of the gun. The pellets should
be made of moistened brown paper or tow. Put one of them into the
mouth of the gun, and drive it to the other end with the rammer, a
second pellet should then be put into the mouth of the gun and driven
very quickly to the other end, when the sudden compression of the air
in the tube will cause the first pellet to fly out with great force, and
with a loud report. Smaller pop-guns are sometimes made with quills
and wooden rammers, the pellets of which are cut by the quills out 0.
slices of raw potatoe.

. PEA-SHOOTER.

This is a tin or copper tube, six or seven inches in length, through
which a pea may be propelled from the mouth by the force of the
breath, with some velocity, aud to a considerable distance.
TOYS. 23

WATCH-SPRING-GUN,.

Procure a piece of wood about four inches long, and shape it into
the form of a gun or pistol, and along the upper part of the etock make
a groove for the tube or barrel, which is sometimes formed of brass but
more frequently of a large quill; the barrel must be open at both ends;
fasten it on either with brass wire or waxed threads, letting it project
beyond the point of the stock, and reach down as far as the middle of
it. A piece about two inches long must be cut out of this barrel as low
as the stock, for the watch spring (o work in; by this contrivance the
spring will move with greater facility than it could possibly do if it
worked in a groove of wood. The watch spring should be about as
long as the quill. A pin rust be driven into the groove about half an
inch from the mouth of the quill, and the head of it allowed to project
up, 80 as to act as a catch to the watch-spring. When setting the gun,
the spring should be bent so as to catch against the pin head, and the
other end, after passing through the lower or short part of the barrel,
must be inserted in the trigger, which must have a nick made in it for
the purpose. The shot must now be put in the groove, and when the
finger pulls back the lower part of the trigger, the upper part will, of
course, press forward, and throw the spring forward also, and cause
the latter to disengage itself from the pin’s head, and to propel the shot
through the barrel with considerable force. Small arrows may also be
projected with this toy, when a little butt or target may be shot at.

THE SLING.

Cut a thong of leather about two inches wide at the broadest part,
and tapering at both ends, and fasten a piece of cord at each end, allow-
ing one of these cords to be somewhat longer than the other. Lay a
stone in the middle of the leather, twist the longest cord two or three
times round your hand, hold the other loosely between your thumb
and forefinger, and after whirling it round several times, let go the
short cord, and the stone will be ejected to a great distance.

THE SUCKER.

The sucker is made by cutting circular piece of stout leather, boring
aJhole in its centre and passing a string through it, to which a knot is
24 TOYS.

tied, to prevent its slipping back through the hole. Before using your
sucker, soak the leather well in water and when thoroughly soaked,
place the leather on a smooth stone, pressing it well down with your
feet; then take hold of the string, and you may easily lift the stone
from the ground.

THE DEVIL AND TWO STICKS.

This is a game too much neglected, for it is one which is equally
adapted for girls and boys, affords an infinite deal of amusement, may
be played by one person only and
in a parlour, requires some inge-
nuity, is not attended with noise,
and is excellent for giving exercise
to the arms and strength to the
wrists of the player, hence it has
been recommended as the best of
all substitutes for the dumb bells,
both to young ladies, who have
comparatively a less number of
active exercises, and to boys. On
the continent, particularly in Ger-
many, this game is as common as
B skipping orbattledore and shuttle-
cock, and is much better adapted
toa room. In this country it
has not been used for many years, so that the toy cannot be
bought at many of the toy shops. Yet the cut above shows it tobe
exceedingly simple. The two sticks are thin and light, quite straight,
and about two feet long each. The Devil is a thick piece of solid
wood, shaped like, and about the size of an hour glass, altogether about
six inches long, three inches wide at each end, and cut away to about
half an inch wide in the middle, so that altogether it appears as in the
cat. We have seen them made of two whipping tops joined together,
by a peg through them both, but the peg must not be too small, or
else the string will not take sufficent hold upon it. . The string which
is tied to the sticks, and which joins them together, is a piece of thick
whipcord or what is called Jaycord, and between three and four feet


TOYS. 23

long. ‘The object of the player is to keep the devil suspended upon
the string without falling, and this requires a little skill. A young
player should not have the string too long, and after taking the sticks
one in each hand and talying the devil crosswise before him, that is
with one end of it towards his right hand and the other towards his
left hand, he puts the string underneath the devil, while the latter rests
on the ground. Then he raises up his left hand stick as high as the
string will allow, and then he will find that his right hand stick rests
across the top or narrow part of the devil. Let him now lift the devil
off the ground by the string, aud at the same time draw up the right
hand and lower the left hand, this must be done quickly, yet not with
a jerk, for a jerk would throw the devil off, but the object is to cause
it to spin round. When once it is set spinning it is easy to keep it
up by drawing the right hand back again, ready for a second turn. It
may be thought that drawing the right hand back again would turn
the devil in a contrary direction to that first given to it, and so it
would if both hands were moved in the same manner, but it will soon
be observed that as the right hand is the strongest, it will give the devil
a stronger twirl than the left hand will, so that although the left hand
tends certainly to spot it, yet it will not quite overcome the motion
given to it at first. The second timethe right hand is raised, it
increases the motion until the devil spins rapidly round, and it is then
very easy to keep up. _If in spinning the right hand side of it should
lean down, or if you have it in the position shown in the cut, if the
end nearest to you leans down, you must turn yourself, sticks and all,
partly round to the right band, if the other end leans down you must
turn yourself in the contrary direction, and thus the balance is to be
preserved. When you have made the toy spin well and it seems
evenly balanced, you may run it up the stick to the hand,and then
down again to the string; afterwards, when it spins well once more,
you may run it up the right hand stick, this is most difficult of all; but
you may throw it spinning into the air and catch it again on the string
without its falling at either of the trials. We have known this toy so
well played that it has been kept up for half an hour, until the player
has been quite exhausted with his exertions.


26 TOYS.

THE THAUMATHROPE,

We cannot do better than include in this portion of our work an
account of a very curious aud amusing toy from a delightful book for
youth called, Philosophy in Sport made Science in Ernest, in which a
father, (Mr. Seymour) takes upon himself to explain to his children
the scientific nature of all their toys. In which he is assisted by a
worthy vicar, who gives the history of each as it is treated of.

‘‘Mr. Seymour then proceeded. ‘This toy is termed the
Thaumathrope.’

‘*«“Of Grecian origin |’ ‘‘ observed the vicar. ‘‘‘ Timeo Danaos
et dona ferentes,’ as Virgil has it.’

‘‘ « What is the meaning of the term?’ asked Louisa. The vicar
explained to her that it was compounded of the Greek words, thauma
and trepo the form of which signified wonder, the latter, to turn.

“« * Exactly,’ replied Mr. Seymour, ‘.4 Wonder-turner, or a toy
which performs wonders by turning-round ; but let me proceed in the
explanation.’ He then continued to read as follows: ‘This philo-
sophical toy is founded upon the well-known optical principle, that
an impression made on the retina of the eye, lasts for a short interval
after the object which produced it has been withdrawn. During the
rapid whirling of the card, the figures on each ofitssides are presented
with such quick transition that they both appear at the same instant,
aud thus occasion a very striking and magical effect. On each of these
cards a device is introduced, with an appropiate motto, or epigram ;
the point of which is answered, or explained by the change which the

figure assumes during the rapid whirling of the card.’
‘*Mr. Seymour then dis-
played a pasteboard circle.
on the one side of which
was figured a rat, and on the
other, a cage; two strings
were fastened in its axis, y
which the card could easily
be made to revolve by means
of the thumb and finger.
Fearing that some of our readers may be as dull of comprehension as the


TOYS. 27

vicar, we have introduced a sketch of the apparatus, in which both
sides of the card are exhibited, with the strings by which it is whirled
round.

‘“No sooner had Mr. Seymour put the card in motion than the vicar,
in atone of the greatest surprise, exclaimed, ‘Magic! magic! I
declare the rat is in the cage! !’

‘+ And what is the motto ?’ asked Louisa.

‘© “Why is this rat like an opposition Member in the House of
Commons, who joins the Ministry ?’ replied Mr. Seymour.

“«*Ha, ha, ha,—excellent,’ cried the major, as he read the follow.
ing answer : ‘ because by turning round he gains a snug birth, but
ceases to be free.’

‘* «The very reverse to what occured in ancient Rome, where the
slave became free, by turning round,’ observed the vicar.

‘‘ The vicar, no doubt alluded to the custom of making a freeman,
as described by Persius ; from which it appears that the clapping s cap
on the head, and giving him a turn on the beel, were necessary cir-
cumstances. A slave thus qualified became a citizen of Rome, and
was honored with a name more than belonged to any. of his forefathers
which Persius has repeated with a great deal of humour in his fifth
satire ;—

«« ¢__-Heu steriles veri, quibus una Quiritem
Vertigo facit!’
«That false enfranchisement with ease is found ;
Slaves are made citizens by turning round.’
DRYDEN.

‘¢ «¢ Show us another card,’ said Tom, eagerly.

« ¢ Here then is a watch-box; when I turn it round, you will see
the watchman comfortably sleeping at his post.’

“« «Very good! It is very surprising,’ observed the vicar.

“ 4 Yes,’ observed the major; ‘and to carry on your political joke,
it may be said that, like most worthies who gain a post, by turning
round, he sleeps over his duty.’

“ said Mr. Seymour.

“© The caprice of this watchman surpasses all bounds:
He ne’er sits in his box but when going his RounDs;

While he no sooner rests ‘tis a strange paradox !
Than he flies from his post, and ruRNs out of his box,
28 TOYS.

«« ©What have you there 2’ exclaimed the vicar; arms and legs
without any body >
‘Yes,’ replied Mr. Seymour; ‘and which, on turning round, will
present the figure of a king, invested with all the insignia of royalty.’
«6 Jt ig indeed a king. Look at his crown and sceptre!’ cried
Louisa. .
“« © Now for the epigram,’ said the major, who then read the follow
ing lines :-—
Head, legs. and arms, alone appear,
Observe that NoRnopy is here;

Napoleon-like 1 undertake
Of nobody a king to make.’

‘©The other cards were now exhibited in succession, of which the
box contained eighteen, and the whole party, not even excepting the
vicar, were highly gratified with the amusement,

‘s © What have we here ?’ interrupted the major, who had, for the
first time, noticed the superscription on the cover of the box: ‘had I
seen this before, I should have augured favorably of the toy: it is like
the sign of an inn, which is held out to announce good entertainment
within. He then read the following :—

‘The Thaumathrope; being Rounds of Amusement, or how to
please and surprise by Turns.

‘*Mr. Seymour proceeded to explain more fully the optical theory
of the instrament, which neither Louisa nor Tom could, as yet,
thoroughly understand.

“+ He told them that an object was seen by the eye, in consequence
of its image being delineated on the retina, or optic nerve, which is
situated on tbe back part of the eye; and that it had been ascertained,
by experiment, that the impression which the mind thus receives, lasts
for about the eighth part of a second after the image is removed. ‘ It
is therefore, sufficiently evident,’ said Mr. Seymour, ‘that ifany point,
as a lighted stick, be made to revolve, so as to complete the circle in
that period, we shall not see a fiery point, but a fiery circle; because
the impression made by it in every point of its circuit will remain until
it comes round again to the spot from which it set out ;—but we will,
at once, exemplify this fact by an experiment. ‘‘Tom was accordingly
directed tu procure a piece of stick and a candie; and as soon as they
TOYS 29

were brought into the room, Mr. Seymour ignited the end of the stick
and whirled it round, when a bright circle, without any intervals of
darkness, was seen by the whole party.

‘«* The pin wheel is certainly nothing more than a fiery circle, pro-
duced by the rapid revolution of ajet of flame,’ said the vicar.

‘© And the rocket,’ added Mr, Seymour. ‘is a co'umn of light
occasioned by the same rapid movement of a burning body in a recti-
linear or curved direction.’

‘ *T perfectly understand all that you have said,’ observed Tom.

‘¢¢ Then you will not have any difficulty in explaining the action of
the Thaumathrope, for it depends upon the same optical principle;
the retina of the image, which is delineated on one side of the card ; is
not erased before that which is painted on the opposite side is presented
to the eye; and the consequence ia, that you see both sides at once.”

APPLE MILL.

A hole sufficiently large to admit athin skewer being passed through
it, is bored in a nut; the kernel is then extracted, and another hole
bored in the side. A piece of string is tied to the skewer, and then
passed through the hole in the side of the nut. The skewer is put
into the nut, and it should have a knob ; or be thicker at one end, to
prevent its slipping entirely through. An apple is now stuck on the
thin end of the skewer, which is then wound up, and twirled round in
the same manner as the humming top; keeping the nut stationery
between the forefinger and thumb of the left band.

TIP CAT.

A piece of hard wood, generally of box or yew, is fashioned into the
shape of a double cone, this is called ‘‘ the cat ;’’ it is usually about
hree inches and a half long, and an inch and a quarter in diameter in
the thickest part. The game is played as follows :—A large flat stone
is placed in the centre of a ring of any measurement as may have been
previously agreed upon. The first player puts his cat upon the stone
and gently taps one end of it with his tip-stick ; this causes the cat to
rise with a rotary motion, when he endeavours to strike it over the
ring. If he succeed in doing so, he scores what number of lengths of
his tip-stick there may be between the edge of the ring and the place
warre his stick has fallen.
30 roys

CUP AND BALL.

A ball with a hole at one extremity is attached by a string to a stem
cup-like at one end and spiked at the other. To catch the ball upon
the cup end is a difficult task, but to catch it upon the spike you must
make the ball spin upon an axis, at the lower extremity of which is
the hole.

THE BALANCING FIGURE,

Mould the figure of a man out of the pith of the alder-tree and affix
it to the plain surface of an hemispherical base made of some heavy
material, the half of a Jeaden bullet will be found most suitable. In
whatever position the figure is placed, when left to itself, it will imme-
diately rise upright, and form

A Balancing Figure





IN-DOOR GAMES
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BLIND-MAN 9 BUFF,

WE suppose every boay knows this game, however we must describe
it for all that, we can’t possibly leave out such fun as blind-man’s buff,
wtih a bit of missletoe hung up in the middle of the room, and when
young gentlemen and young ladies are met together at a Christmas
party. First, the room is to be cleared, as much as is convenient of
chairs and tables, next we must get a large handkerchief and tie it over
the eyes of some one who is to be blind-man, we must take care that he
can’t see by holding his head up, and also that the handkerchief
can’t slip. Then we must turn him loose, but not all at once ; all the
players must have time to get out of the way, so we must take the
blind-man into the middle of the room, then one of the players says, how
“many horses has your father in thestable.” The answer is two white
and one gray, upon which some one of the players takes hold of the
hlind-man, turns him round, and then says turn round three times and
catch whom you may. The blind-man then turns round three orfour times
and moves about the room in hopes of catching some body, as soon as he
has succeeded he is obliged to examine them, and is allowed to move
34 IN-DOOR GAMES.

his hand over them. If he guesses right, he takes the lady if it is
one, under the missletoe and claims a kiss, and gives up the handker-
chief to her to be blinded in like manner ; if it is a gentleman that is
caught by a gentleman or a lady caught by a lady the kissing is dispensed
with ; if the blind-man does not guess who it is rightly, he must let him
or her go again and try another. If the blind-man gets near the fire or
anything else that is hurtful, the other players must warn him by calling
out roast-beef, No one who plays at blind-man’s buff, may go out of
the room during the game.
SHADOW BUFF.

Unlike the preceding, at this game Buffy is far from blind; and
indeed, at no game does he more require the full use of his eyes.

Let a large white sheet or tablecloth be fixed against the walls of the
apartment, as for the exhibition of the magic lanthorn, and a little
before it buffy, with his face towards the white cloth, is placed upon a
stool sufficiently low to prevent his shadow falling upon the white sheet.

At the proper distance behind him, a lamp or single candle is placed
upon a stand, and all the other lights are extinguished.

The parties who join in the game, pass one by one in succession
between buffy (who is not allowed to turn his head in the slighest
degree) and the table on which the light or candle stands. The light
of the candle being intercepted as each person passes before it, naturally
throws a succession of well marked shadows on the sheet; and buffy
has to guess from the shade thrown on the curtain, who is passing, and
to name the person aloud, making but one guess to each.

This would seem very easy ; but the game admits of many stratagems.
One walks along tottering, as though struck with palsy, another distorts
himself so as to appear hump-backed ; a third limps in a most dreadful
manner ; and a fourth increases his height, and alters his appearance
by the assumption of a dignified and imposing gait. Endless, indeed,
are the various postures which the players vie with each other in
adopting, to embarrass buffy ; and the amusing mistakes which he
makes produces mirth and shouts of laughter.

When buffy guesses correctly the person named takes his place.

BUFF WITH THE WAND.

Buffy, who is blindfolded, stands in the middle, holding a long wand

or stick, the several players then join hands and form a circle round
TIN-DOOR GAMES. 35

him. Dancing and skipping tound him, they sing a short chorus of
some song; and after going once round they stop. Buffy then
stretches forth his wand, directing it by chance, when the person it
touches must take it by the end. Feeling the wand grasped, buffy
cries out three times, and the player who holds the wand must answer,
but he is allowed to counterfeit another than his natural voice, If
buffy guess his name correctly they change places; should buffy
guess wrong, the wand is released, and he continues to guess until he
names some one correctly. Every person named correctly paysa for-
feit, as does buffy each time he guesses wrong. When one of the
players voluntarily takes buffy’s place, buffy must also pay a forfeit.

JINGLING.

The Jingling match is a common diversion at country wakes and
fairs in the west country, and may be played ina large apartment.
The several players are blindfolded, with the exception of one, who ~
has a bell in each hand which he keeps ringing, and hence he is called
the “ jingler.”” His blinded companions endeavour to capture him, and
it is his business to elude their pursuits. As might be expected, they
invariably tumble against each other, and thus afford great amusement
to the spectators. The game usually lasts about twenty minutes, and
if the jingler can prevent himsclf being captured during that time, he is
accounted the winner.

HUNT THE SLIPPER.

Allthe company who play at this game sit in the middle of the
room in acircle, except one of them called the hunter, who stands in
the middle of the ring. A shoe or slipper is then taken off, and
passed round from one to the other, under their knees or behind their
backs, or in any other way in which it can be done more comfort-
able, and without being seen by the hunter who endeavours to get
hold of it, and when he does so, the person from whom he takes itis to be
the next hunter. The company endeavours to keep it passing from
one to the other, so that the hunter shall not be able to get at it,
though sometimes he is tantalized by the party who has it rapping on
the floor with it when the hunter is looking another way. If well
played the hunter is sometimes a long time before he is able to gt it.
36 IN-DOOR GAMES.

PUSS IN THE CORNER,

One boy called ‘* Puss’’ takes his place ia the middle of the room,
and four players then station themselves in the four corners of it;
each of these four change their position in regular succession, and it is
puss’s object to gain one of the vacant corners before the corner players
pext in rotation can reach it; ifhe succeed in doing so, the player
neft out becomes puss.

THE HUNTSMAN,

In this game one player is called the ‘‘ huntsman” and the others
are named from the different parts of the dress or accoutrements of a
sportsman ; the coat, the hat, the gun, the dog, and every other appur-
tenance belonging to a huntsman, having its representative. As many
chairs as there are players, excluding the ‘‘ Huntsman ”’ are then
ranged in*two rows, back to back ; the players then seat themselves.
The “ Huntsman ’’ now walks round the players, and calls out the
assumed name of one of them; the player named, rises, and takes hold
of the coat-skirts of the “ huntsman’”’ who continues his walk, and
calls out all the other players, one by one; each takes hold of the
player before him and when they are all sammoned, the huntsman sets
off running round the chairs as fast as he can, the other players holding
on and running after him. When he has ran the round of the chairs
two or three times he suddenly calls out “ Rang !’’ seats himself on one
of the chairs and leaves his followers to regain their eeats in the best
manner they can, as there is one chair less then the number of his
followers, of course there is one player left standing, who must pay a
forfeit. The game is continued until they have each paid three
forfeits, when they are cried, and the punishments or penances declared.

TWELFTH NIGHT.

The following directions for the modern Twelfth Night are given in
Rachel Revel’s Winter Pastimes :—

‘ First buy your cake, and, before your visitors arrive, buy your
characters, each of which should have pleasant verses beneath, next look
at your invitation list, and count the number of ladies you expect, and

the gentlemen. Then take as many female characters as you
IN-DOOR GAMES. 37

have invited ladies, folding them up exactly of the same size, and
numbering each on the back, and taking care to make the king number
one. and the queen number two. Next prepare and number tne
gentlemen's characters. When all are assembled, and tea over, put as
many ladies’ characters into a reticule as there are Jadies present; and
put the gentlemen’s charactersinto a hat. Then callon a gentleman |
to carry the reticule to the ladies as they sit, from which each lady is
to draw one ticket, and to preserve it unopened. Select also the lady
to bear the hat to the gentleman for the same purpose. There will be
one ticket left in the reticule, and one in the hat, which the lady and
gentleman who carried each is to interchange, as having fallen to each
other. Lastly, arrange your visitors according to their numbers; the
king number one, the queen number two, and so on. The king is next
to recite the verse on his ticket ; then the queen, the verse on hers,
and so the characters are to proceed in numerical order. This done,
let the cake and refreshments go round ; let wit and song abound; and
according to Twelfth Day law, let each party support his character till
midnight.”

THE TEN FINE BIRDS.

The company sit in a circle, and the play begins by one of the com-
pany saying, ‘‘a good fat hen,’’ this is repeated by the whole circle in
turn, one speaking at atime. The leader of the play then says ‘two
dacks and a good fat hen,”’ which is also repeated separately by all the
company. The next is three squawking wild geese, two ducks and a
good fat hen. After this has gone round, the leader seys four plump
partridges, three squawking wild geese, two ducks, and a good fet hen;
thus the game goes on from the four partridges to five pouting pigeons,
and afterwards to six long-legged cranes, repeating all that has been
said before, each time, until at last there will be the ten following pen-
tences joined together and to be repeated by each player. Ten bald
eagles, nine ugly turkey buzzards, eight screeching owls, seven green
parrots, six long-legged cranes, five plump partridges, three equawking
wild geese, two ducks, and a good fathen, If any player hesitates,
makes a mistake or leaves out any thing, he must pay a forfeit. The
words of the House that Jack built may be used instead of the above,
38 IN-DOOR GAMES.

THE GAME OF THE GIG.

Oneof the company is to tell some anecdote relative to a journey by
a lady and gentleman in a chaise, which the company are to attend to
as follows. Each person in company except the narrator has assigned
to him or her, a name, two of them are called the lady and gentleman,
the rest go by the names of some part of the chaise or gig as itis called,
one is wheel, another the axletree, a third the horse, a fourth the bri-
dle, a fifth the bit, a sixth the seat, a seventh the shafts, the eighth a
lynch pin, and go on till all the company have taken some name which
they are to remember afterwards, and whenever that name is introduced
into the story which is to follow, the person who bears it is to rise from
his or her seat, and to tarn round and then sit down again, and when
the word gig is mentioned they are all to get up and turn round, if
they should forget this at the moment, that person pays a forfeit ; and
altbough such a game appears very simple, yet if a good story is told it
is surprising what fun is occasioned. The nature of the story may be
as follows, and it may be continued until twenty or thirty forfeits are
collected. A gentleman and lady (here both these get up and run
round) were resolved one fine morning in June to take a days pleasure
and for that purpose hired a gig, but as the lady was timid and the
gentleman careful, he examined the horse, harness, and gig, thoroughly
before they set out, he saw that the wheels were good, the springs safe,
the seat dry, the shafts whole. The reins, bridle, saddle, bit, dashing
board, axletree, lynch pins were all carefully inspected, but alas for
his calculations, and the lady’s safety, one of the wheels got into an
hole and occasioned the horse to stumble, and in falling he snapped
one of the traces and shattered one of the lamps. The lady was
frightened as you may suppose, when to allay her fears, the gentleman
got out, to pacify the horse and patch the broken trace. But misfor-
tunes never come single, for scarcely did the gentleman again occupy
his seat, when the horse took fright at a light by the road side, and
dashed off with speed; at the moment of alarm the lady screamed,
the gentleman dropped the whip, the reins got entangled around the
horse’s legs, the horse rushed on with fury, the off wheel came in con-
tact with a dray, the gig was over turned, the lady thrown out, the
horse flew off with the shafts which had parted from the body, the
IN-DOOR GAMES, 39

whole was a wreck, here a wheel and there a wheel, here a splinter
par and there a cushion, at one place a step, at another the shattered
lamp, &c. &c. Of course sucha game as this can be continued to any
length which is agreeable to the party, and may be varied in any man-
ner which the imagination of the story-teller can suggest ; in the fore-
going short account alone, there ought to have heen forty six risings
from the chair and turning round, as well as the whole company rising
four times at the repetition of the word gig.

It is evident algo that a number of games may be made out of the
above, asa farmer may give an account of his crops or his animals,
the guests being named barley, oats, wheat, dog, sheep, goat, &c. or
a boy may give an account ofhis schoul games, and name the company
marble, top, kite, or anything else he pleases. We will give another
game very similar to the above, and which also in Christmas parties
occasion a good deal of tan. This is called

HE TRAVELLER'S WANT’S.

This game is played lige the last except that as it is often incon-
venient in small rooms to get up and turn round, and besides that it
often makes a considerable noise; in this game all persons whose
names are called, immediately answer to their names, calling out

“here sir’? when the traveller mentions them, and rise from their
seats, although they do not turn round. He who tells the story takes
the name of the traveller the others personate one belonging te an inn
or else something which the traveller is likely to want; thus, one may
be called landlord, others, horse, bridle, saddle, oats, boots, slippers
supper, bed—and when all are seated, the traveller comes into th,
room and asks a question or gives an order, such as the followinge
Landlord, can I have a bed here to night? Have youa good stable
for my horse? Waiter, bring me some ale, and tell the Chamber-mid
to carry my dag up stairs and prepare a room for me,’’ or a hundred
other thiags which may occur to him at the time; the persons who
represent the landlord, waiter, chamber-maid or other person, must
get up and say, yes sir, or no sir, as the case may require, or here sir
or coming sir, if they are merely called, and if in any other manner,
40 IN-DOOR GAMES,

they are spoken to they are to answer properly, and if there are any
funny fellows to take these characters, they may often make a very
laughable answer. Those who personate objects, such as saddle,
Yridle, ale, bag, &c., are not to answer at all but to get up from their
seats. If any one forgets what he is to do, and suffers his name to be
called without getting up, and if necessary answering, he pays a forteit ;
and if the traveller should forget to collect the forfeit from any one, he
forfeits one himself, so also any one who has to answer, may if he
pleases introduce the name of any one in the room, and the person
whose name is called must then hold up his band, but not answer ; for
example, if the traveller calls landlord bring me my bill, as it is the
traveller who calls, the 5id/ must get up from his chair, and the land-
lord also, and if the landlord says 1’ll send the waiter with the bill sir,
—the waiter and the bill are neither of them to get up, but to hold
up his hand, and thus the game goes on until the company are tired,

THE GAME OF KING AND QUEEN,

This is a famous noisy game and ought to be played in a large room
without chairs. The company stand ina circle, the gentleman on the
one side and the ladies on the other. One of the gentiewen 18 called
the king, and one of the ladies is called the queen, the king numbers
all the gentlemen on his side of the room 1, 2, 3, 4, and so on regu-
larly, and the queen numbers all the ladies with the following numbers.
All the persons who play must remember their uumvers. ‘Then the
king calis outa number, he to whom it belongs, starts to run round on
the outside of the circle, the queen instantly calls another number and
the lady to whom it belongs, must the instant of hearing it run after
the gentleman and try to catch him betore he gets to we king, first
making one complete circle, and all of them running one way round
whichever may be agreed upn, if she succeeds, he that is caught must
pay a forfeit, if not, he escapes. When they have both retarned to
their places it is the queen’s turn to cail firsi, as soon as she has called
the owner of the number begins to run, and the king calls out the
number of the gentleman who i to follow her, but as gentlemen can
run quicker than ladies, the king before he calls the number ougnt to
give the lady an advantage of about half a second so that if he calls A,
IN-DOOR GAMES. 41

B, C, 4, she will get a little forward while he is saying A, B, C, and
the gentleman No. 4 most run the faster to overtake her before she
gets to the queen, if be does so, she pays a forfeit. The king and
queen should be at differént parte of the room. also at first starting the
pursuer must leave his or her place and pass through the cavity in the
ranks left by the one who starts first.

THE GAME OF HOW, WHERE AND WHEN.

This may-be considered a game of puzzles, for the object is to guess
a word which another person has thought of, all the guide you have
to the word is the answer to three questions. Firat telling one of the
prrty to think of what he likes, or to think of any thing, which usually
gives him pleasure; when he has thought, the leader of the play asks
three questions. How do youlike it? Wheredo youlikeit? And
the person who has thought, must give true answers, but he may give
them in such a way that the company cannot guess hat is thought of,
It is expected that the word thought of is an object of some kind, so
that such words as virtue, love, clearness, colour, form, and #0 on, are
not to be used, if the company guese right, the thinker loses his or her
turn to think, pays a forfeit, and becomes the asker of the questions to
the next party who is the one that has guessed right. When it is not
guessed at all within three minutes, another word is chosen and so the
game goeson. The art of playing is to choose such a word as has 4
double meaning, and by giving one answer for the other meaning, and
which is quite allowable, it is almost impossible to guess at the word.
- We will try two or three words. Ist. player says to the next one to
him, think of a word, I have, is the answer. How do you like it?
Clear. When do you like it? In the evening. Where do you like it ?
In.doors ; now, from these answers, it must be something clear, which
we like in-doors of an evening. What can it be, perhaps a giass of wine,
perhaps a glass of ale, or gin and water, or other spirit, or a candle, or
a lamp, or a fire, of the above one of them only can be correct. Now
suppose the first answer bad been “ blazing,” or suppose the third
answer was, “in a grate,” we should immediately have guessed a fire
Suppose the second answer bad been out of doors instead of in-doors
we should directly have thought of a star or the moon, so that it is in
the cleverness of the angwers that the play consists, otherwise it would
42 IN-DOOR GAMES.

be impossible to guess the word. Take a second word and one which
is more difficult. The word hair and which has a second meaning,
hare. Now if some of the answers belong to hair and the other to hare
it is almost impossible to guess. For example How de you like it?
‘Answer black ; (hair.) When do you like it ? when roasted ; (hare.)
Where do you like it? on my head ; (hair.) Ina case like this it is
almost impossible to guess right. The following are very good words
to choose, and also all other words which have a double meaning.

Night, Knight Quire, Choir
Ewe, You, Hugh Key, Quay
Cork Mould

Corn Bough Bow
Beach, Beech Bell, Belle

I LOVE MY LOVE.

This is a very old game, and may be played by any number of per-
sons, each taking a letter, and finding proper words to fill up the
various parts of the sentences to be uttered. All these words begin-
ning with the proper letter. Any one who does not find a word or
hesitates in uttering it pays a forfeit. One of the players begins as
follows :—

I love my love with an A because he is artless, I hate him because
he is avaricious. He took me to the sign of the anchor and treated
me to apples and anchovies. His name is Arthur and he comes from
Andover.

The next player goes on with the letter B. The following one with
C and so on to the end of the alphabet. We will not cuntinue the
repetition of the whole of the above but give one set of words for each
letter leaving our young friends to vary them as they please. They
will know where to apply the words from the above example.
A.—Ardent, artful, antelope, almonds and artichokes, Andrew, Ald-

borough.

B.—Brave, bad, bull, buns and bullaces, Benjamen, Banbury.
C.—Candid, careless, cat, capers and custards, Charles, Chelsea.
D.—Dutiful, disagreeable, dog, damsons and dates, David, Dedham.
E.—Elegant, envious, eagle, eggs and eels, Edward, Edinburgh.
F.—Frank, faithless, frying-pan, figs and filberts, Francis, Fulham.
IN-DOOR GAMES. 43

G.—Good, gracelesa, gridiron, grapes and gin, George, Gosport.
H.—Handsome, haughty, harrow, hare and hardbake, Henry, Harlow.
J.—Ingenuous, Inquisitive, inkstand, ices and isinglass, Isaac, Ireland.
J.—Just, jealous, jew, jelly and jam, James, Jamaica.

K.—Kind, knavish, king, kale and ketchup, Kenneth, Kilkenny,
{..—Liberal, lame, lanthorn, lobster and lemons, Lewis, London,
M.—Mild, mischievous, monk, marmalade and mincepies, Matthew,

Manchester.

N.—Noble, nonsensical, nun, nuts and nonpareils, Nathaniel, Nortk-
wich.

O.—Obliging, officious, owl, olives and oysters, Oliver, Oxford.

P,—Prudent, petulant, peacock, pears and plum-pudding, Peter,

Plymouth.

Q.—Quick, quarrelsome, quaker, quinces and queencakes, Quintin,

Queensborough.

R.—Rich, revengeful, river, raising and ratafia, Richard, Rugby.

S.—Sensible, scornful, swan, strawberries and sugar, Samuel Somer-
set.

T.—Tall, troublesome, turk, turnips and turtle, Thomas, Todcaster.

W.—Witty, wicked, watchman, wine and walnuts, William, Worces-
ter.

U XY Z, are always omitted.

Another way of playing this game is to repeat a different set of words
as follows, I love my love with an A because he is amiable, I will send
him to Andover and feed him on Apricots, I will give him an Axe to
cut down his trees with, and a bunch of Acorns for a nosegay. All
these sentences, except one, are to remain the same throughout, vary-
ing them only according to the letter appointed for the principal word ;
but the last but one is to contain the use of the thing given; thus in-
stead of Axe to cut down his trees with, we must say, Anchor to fasten
his boat with, or Arbour to sit in, and so on throughout. ‘The greatest
difficulty will be to make out the nosegays each time. This difficulty
will be removed by the following list arranged according to the letters.

Almond-flower, Blue bells, Columbine, Daffodils, Elder-flowers,
Foxglove, Geranium, Hollyoak, Iceplant, Jonquil, Kingcups, Labur-
nun, Marjoram, Nasturtium, Orange-flower, Princes feather, Quince-
44 IN-DOOR GAMES.

Siower, Roses, Sunflowers, Turkscap lily, Venus looking glass, Wall-
flower. .

The names given in the above game will of course be altered accord-
ing to the person who speaks ; if a gentleman he will use a lady’s name,
a lady will use the name of a gentleman.

THE DUMB ORATOR.

This game if well done, occasions a great deal of laughter. It is
usually played with two persons only, one of whom speaks, or utter
some recitation, the other makes, as it goes on, the proper gestures to it,
and in the same manner there may be several actors to the same
speech, and as they will not all agree in the various actions required,
some thinking one action proper, others another action, the great
variety will occasion much laughter. The actors must not only stand
up and give appropriate gestures with their hands and feet, and move-
ment of the body, but with their faces also. The one who reads must
only give proper emphasis to the words bat not act, he may read from
a book if he please or sing a comic song or repeat one of his school
recitations, such as that beginning ‘‘ My nameis Norval,” or “‘ Queen
Mab,” or any other that pleases him.

PRIEST OF THE PARISH,

A boy puts a wig on, or something for one, places all the others in
& row, calls one his man Jack, and says to each what will you be? One
answers, I'll be black cap; another red cap and so on. He then say
the priest of the parish has lost his considering cap—some says this,
some says that, but I say my man Jack! man Jack then, to putit off
himself says, is it me, sir? Yes, you sir! You're wrong, sir! Who
then, sir? Black cap! If black cap then doesn’t say is it me, sir, be-
fore the priest has time to cull him, he must pay a forfeit. If he is in
time the priest must say, yes, you sir? ‘You're wrong, sir! who then
sir? Red cap, sir; red cap then takes it up and so it goes round. Each

one may mention what colour he pleases, so that there is a good deal
of fan.
IN-DOOR GAMES. 45

FORFEITS.

Havine in the foregoing games described several in which forfeits
are incurred we proceed to describe the proper method of crying them,
and subjoin some of the penances to be performed. There are also
many games played to which forfeits are attached which are too well
known to require description, and many simple games may be played
merely for the imposition of the penances. -

A forfeit keeper, generally a lady, is selected, who receives the for-
feits in her lap, in the order as incurred, and at the conclusion of the
game the drawing commences.

The forfeits should be covered with an handkerchief, and the person
selected to draw introduces his hand without raising the covering more
than is necessary for so doing. A player who has not forfeited is
summoned to inflict the penunces.

The forfeit keeper then says to the person who is to impose the
penalty, ‘‘ What punishment do you award to this forfeit?” The
other answers, ‘‘ If it belongs to a iady, I award such a punishment, if
to a gentleman, so and so; or, whether lady or gentleman, they must
do so and so.” To avoid the person who imposes the penalty affixing
any particular punishment to the owner of the forfeit, and to provide
forfeits for those games which require a great number, it is better to
use slips of writing paper making them of nominal value; write the
name on them, and roll them up before they are given to the person
who holds the forfeits. Sometimes one forfeit is pledged for two or
more penalties, but this is a method likely to create confusion.

The person who belongs to a forfeit on which a penance has been
Pronounced must immediately perform it; he bas then the privilege
of ordering the penance on the next forfeit drawn.

After all, it would perhaps be better to draw the forfeits openly, and
find out to whom they belong, before the penalties are imposed. The
players would then have the benefit of the talents, without imposing
punishment beyond the power of any one present, A song, a drawing,
verses, or a atory might be required. To those penances difficult to
46 FORFEITS.

execute at the moment, a spsce of twenty-four hours might be given;
the delay would render the next meeting still more aereeable.

Penance 1.—Repeat as follows, three times successively, without
stopping or making a mistake.
Peter Piper picked a peck of pickle pepper
A peck of pickle peppers, Peter Piper picked :
If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickle Pepper
Where's the peck of pickle peppers Peter Piper picked f

Penance 2.—Repeat in the same manner.

A peacock picked a peck of pepper,
Tid he pick a peck of pepper

Yes, he picked a peck of pepper,
Pick, pecker, peacock.

Penance 3.—Repeat in the same manner,

As I went in the garden, I saw five brave maids

Sitting on five broad beds, braiding broad braids,

I said to these five braid maids, sitting on five broad beds
Braiding broad braids, braid broad braids, brave maids.

Penance 4.—Repeat the following without a mistake. Brandy legged
Boratio Mustacio Whiskerfusticus the bald and brave Bombardino of
Bagdad helped Abomilipue Blue Beard Bashaw of Babelmandeb to
beat down an abominable Bumble Bee at Bassora.

Penance 5.—Repeat quickly five times without stopping to take
breath.—Villy Vite, and his Vife, vent von Vitsun Vendsday, to
Vindsor and Vest Vickham, to have some Vine and Valnuts.

Penance 6.—Repeat six times without a mistake. A lump of rough
light red leather, a red light rough leather lump.

Penance 7.—Repeat the following without a mistake.

There was a man whose name was Cob,
He had a wife and her name was Mob,
He had a dog and his name was Bob,
She had a cat and her name was Chitterbob
Bob says Cob,
Chitterbob, says Mob ;
Bob was Cob’s dog,
Mob’s cat was Chitterbob,
Cob, Mob, Bob and Chitterbob.
FORFEITS. 47

Penance 8.—Repeat tne following lines,

When the twister a twisting,
Will twine him a twist,
For the twining his twist
He three times doth entwist
But if one of the twines of
The twist doth entwine,
The twine that untwisteth
Untwisted the twine.
Untwisting the twine that
Tntwisteth between,
He twirls with his twister
The two in a twine,
Then twisteth the twine,
He hath twined in twain
The twain, that in twining
Betore in the twine,
As twines were entwisted
He now doth untwine.
'Twixt the twain intertwisting,
A twine more between,
He, twisting his twister
Makes a twist of the twine.

Penance 9.—Compare a lady or gentleman with a flower, and say why
he or she is like that flower. A comparison should at the same time
present a likeness and a difference, for instance, alady may be com-
pared to the Hortensia: the resemblance says the gentleman, lies in
her beauty, and the privilege she possesses of appearing to advantage
in every view: the difference lies in the absence of perfume. A gen-
tleman may be compared to a branch of myrtle, which preserves its
verdure in all seasons as he preserves his sentiments—this is the
resemblance ; but if thrown into the fire it crackles, whilst he consumes
in silence—this is the difference.

Penance 10.—The deaf person. The person who has to perform this
penalty stands in the middle ofthe room, and must answer three times
“Tam deaf and can’t hear” and the fourth time, “I hear.’? The
players of course endeavour to render the penance severe. A lady
approaches, and offers something very agreeable to him; but the un-
fortunate wight is compelled to reply in the stated form. Two other
malicious ladies make him similar offers ; or a gentleman taking alady
by the hand, says ‘I bring this lady to you—salute her.” The deaf
48 FORFEITS.

person hears not. At the fourtn question, however, when his ears are
open, he is told to conduct some lady to kiss the wall, to sing a song,
&c, The deaf man is allowed to refuse and of course does not neglect
hisp rivilege.

Penance 11 —The water punishment. The person who owns the
penance is to be blindfolded, a glass of water is got, and a tea-spoon,
and the person blindfolded is then to be fed with water, a spoonfal at
a time, till he guesses who it is which is feeding him ; he is allowed a
guess to each spoonful.

Penance 12.—Laugh in one corner of the room, cry in another,
dance in a third, and sneeze, cough, and yawn in the other.

Penance 13.—Bite an inch off a poker. This is to make a snap or
bite at the distance of an inch from the end of a poker, so that there
is a great deal of difference between biting off an inch of the poker,
and biting an inch off the poker.

Penance 13.—Go out of the room with one of the other sex and spell
opportunity, this merely means that there is then an opportanity for
the two who have gone out to have a kiss, and if they neglect to take
the opportunity it is their own fault,

Penance 14.—Kneel to the wittiest inthe room, bow or curtsey to
the prettiest, and kiss the one you love best.

Penance 15.—Show four bare legs, this is done by taking up
achair and bolding the legs uppermost.

Penance 16.—Push a persons head through a curtain ring. You are
to put the curtain ring on your finger and then to give the person a
push on the head with that finger.

Penance 17.—Spell new door in one word. The letters which form
new door are precisely the same as those whick form ‘ one word,”
therefore if you write on a slip of paper “ one word,” it will be what
js required.

Penance 18.—When a line is given to you, you must find another that
will rhyme to it. The holder of the forfeits must give a difficult rhyme
“as Thad some quicksilver, or there was a brave young soldier: we
FORYEITS: 49

believe there is no rhyme for silver or soldier at all, so that it would be
impossible to complete the couplet, and vet some very difficult ones
may be made up sometimes—as the following, which we remember
to have once heard.

Ipecactanha

- Is not so good as manna,
Yet I must give it to Anna,
In this forfeit a proper pronunciation must be given so that the

error in the word trees would not do in the following lines.

The cooling Western breezes
That whisper through the treeses.

Penance 19.~-Sit down on the carpet next to the door and repeat

the lines, ,
Frere will 1 take my seat under the latch,
Till somebody comes a kiss to snatch,

Penance 20 —Thejourneyto Rome. The person on whose forfeit

this penalty has been pronounced, must go the round of the room, and

. inform every individual that he is about to undertake a journey to
Rome, and assure every individual that if they have any message or
article to send to his Holiness the Pope, he will feel happy to convey
it. Every one must give something to the traveller, no matter how
cumbrous it may be, or awkward to carry, for the more inconvenient
the article, the more will the merriment be increased, until he is
overlosded with presents. When he has received each one’s com.
mission, he walks to a corner of the room, puts the articles down
and so his penance ends,

Penance 21.—Frankness, This penance requires a deal of cir-
cumspection, delicacy, and good feeling, for which reasons it should
not be generally enforced. If you arerequired to befrank, you address
each person in company, saying something agreeable in rather a severe
wnanner, or something a little malicious in a good natured tone.

Penance 22.—-Make your will, leaving to the company all the
qualities you are supposed to have. This penance affords great scope
for a display of complimentary and satirical talent and wit.

Penanee 23,—Execute some task which each person in company
successively imposes without uttering a word.
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OUT-DOOR GAMES.

HIDE ANO SEEK.
Some article is first chosen, as an object to hide, and one of the
boys hides it somewhere while the others cover their eyes with their
hands, and look another way, that they may not see where the article
is hidden. When the first boy has concealed it, he ealls out, “ hot
boiled beans and bacon,”’ the others then begin tbeir search. If
they come near to the spot where the object is, the one who has
hidden it calls out you are hot, or you burn, according to the near-
ness you happen to be to the article ; or if you go away from where
it is, he says you are cold, or you freeze. When the article is found
the one who finds it, hides it next time. It is a rule not to hide it
anywhere about another boy, nor yet about yourself, or anything
moving. Sometimes this is made a parlour amusement by the name
of Magical Music. A lady sitting at the piano, plays loud when any
one approaches the place where the article is hidden, and plays very
softly when they are at a distance.
THE GAME OF WHOOP.
To plav this game properly, a place should be selected well furnished
With trees, or other object well calculated to conceal the players. A
54 OUT-DOOR GAMES.

large tree apart from the rest should be selected as ‘home ” against
the person who is to seek leans his head and shuts his eyes while
the rest immediately run off and conceal themselves. When they are
all hid in separate places, for it should be a general rule that no
two players hide together, one of them, at a given signal from the rest,
cries “Whoop !”? The seeker then begins to look carefully about
him, to find the hiding-places of the players. Whilst be is thus
engaged some of these stealthily quit their places, and dart homeward,
The other immediately pursues, and if he catches one, that one takes
his place; if several, the last one caught becomes the seeker. If
nobody is caught, they all hide again, and he is again obliged to be the
seeker. It generally happens that when the seeker is in pursuit of one
player, the others sally from their hiding-places and make towards
home. If all the players start at the same time homewards, oftentimes
the seeker suddenly returns to bis castle and catches them as they
arrive.

PRISONER'S BASE OR PRISON BARS.

This is a capital game in cold weather, and may be played by any
number of players. They are divided into two parties, and each party
has a den belonging to him. The dens should be made by drawing a
line across the piay-ground, from side to side, and about 3 yards from
it, two cross lines extending from the first line to the end of the play-
groand form the two dens in the corners, they should be several
yards apart if possible. Each party takes possession of one of these
dens or bounds. There are also at the opposite ends of the play-
yround two other bounds called prisons, one belonging to either party ;
‘he party who has the bounds on the one side, must have the prison
on the other, so that if any one runs to the prison belonging to his
party he must go quite across the ground. ;

The game begins by one boy from one of the sides running out into
the middle of the ground, one of those of the other side immediately
follows, another boy from the first party runs after him, and then a
second boy from the second party, a third boy follows him and in turn
he is pursued by one of the others on the other side, until they follow
each other in quick succession, each party sending out as many as taey
think fit. Every boy who goes out endeavours to catch or touch the
OUT DOOR GAMES, . 5s

one who goes out before him, but he is not allowed to touch any who
go out after him, who indeed try to stop and touch him before he can
get back to his bounds again. A player is only allowed to touch one
party, and when he has touched one, he is exempt from being touched
himself as he returns. All those who are touched must go to ths
prison belonging to hia own party and there he must remain, until
some one leaving the bounds, is able to run without being touched by
one of the opposites, up to the prison and touch one of those who are
there, and the boy who liberates him, must not start till the prisoner Is
safely within the prison bars. When a prisoner is thus released, nei-
ther he nor his releaser are to be touched on their return to the
bounds. The game is ended when one of the parties has all the op-
posite party in prison at the same time.

WABNING OR WIDDY-WAY.

Any number of boys may play at this game. A line is first drawn
across the play-ground near one end. Ail the players except one are
scattered about the ground. This one voes within the bounds made
by the line. He then closes his hands together before him, and calls
out Widdy, Widdy, way, cock warning, and as he says this he rans out
of the bounds and pursues the rest, and as soun as ever he can touch
one of the others with his closed hands, ‘or he is not at liberty toun-
lock them, that one must return with him to the bounds. Thesetwo
then join hands, and repeating the same words, run out and try to catch
some one else, while all who are on the ground endeavour to escape,
but as soon as either of them touches « third party they separate and
return to bounds to take him in. There are now three joining hands,
end it follows as a matter of course that the centre one cannot touch
any one, having both bis hands engaged, it remains then for the outer
boys to touch the othe:s,and he who comes in last is allowed the out.
side place until others are caught afterwards in like manner. When a
fourth party is caught, the one who began the game leaves the rank
and goes out smong the rest to take his chance with them in being
caught. When ali the players except one have thus been touched, the
game is ended, and the one who is left begins the next game. Ali the
time ‘hat the line of catchers are out after tbe reat, the free players en
56 OUT-DOOR GAMES

deavour to break the line, for whenever the line is broken, whether
it is by them or by those in the line letting go, no one else can be
touched until they all return to the bounds, and begin again; besides
which, whenever the line is broken, those who have formed it are
either beaten home by knotted handkerchiefs, or else become nags
for the rest, until they arrive within the bounds.

WAR SHEEP, OR KING CELIA.

Two dens are made at opposite ends of a play ground, and all the
boys of the school may play at this game at thesametime. They are
all at first assembled in one den or bounds, except one boy who begins
the game by standing in the middle, between the two bounds. The
whole of the other boys run forward to get to the opposite bound. The
player in the middle catches one if he can; when he has caught
any one he must hold him until he is able to repeat the words, “ One,
two, three, a man for ms, dead, dead, dead.” If the other gets away
he is free for the time, but if the former one is able to repeat those
words before he gets loose, he becomes a war sheep and stands in the
middle like the former one and endeavouts to catch some one passing,
for the players who are not yet caught, run backwards and forwards
from one den to the other repeatedly, all starting at the same time,
When the whole of them are caught in this manner the game ends :
he who is last begins the next game by standing in the middle, but he
retires to the den and takes his chance with the rest, when he has
caught one to take his place. No one can be caught unless the words
given above, are repeated while his pursuer has hold of him.

DROP HANDKERCHIEF,

A number of players join hands so as to make a circle, one only stands
out, he walks round the outside of the circle, and drops the handker-
chief behind which player in the cirble he thinks fit. ‘he party behind
whom the handkerchief is thus dropped immediately follows the one
who dropped it, those who stood on each side complete the circle by
joining hands, and the chase commences, ‘The pursuer is bound to
follow the course of the pursued, who winds in and out under the
arms of the other players, and endeavours by ali the means in his
OUT-DOOR GAMES. 37

power to pugzie and eludehim. If he succeeds in so doing, that is, is
the pursuer make a blunder in his course, he returns to his place in
the circle, and the first player prepares to drap the handkerchief be.
hind one of the players again. When he is fairly overtaken by the
player behind who he has last dropped the handkerchief, the latter takes
his place and he joins handsin the circle.

LEAP FROG.

This ancient game is still very much played at. One boy partly
stoops down so asto form a back for the rest to jump over, and in
order to preserve his head he keeps it bent down as much as possible.
He stands either sideways to the other players, vr sometimes with his
back towards them, if he makes a very high back. The others being
prepared, run forwards one at a time; the first one when he has coms
up to the one who makes a back, stretches out his hands, puts them,
without pausing, on theother’s back and springs over ; when he gets to
a little distance beyond he also makes a back, so that the second leaper
has two backs to jump over, and the next one three backs, so that the
last leaper has to go over the backs of all his companions, When
he has gone over, the first one begina to jump over the vest and makes
a back beyond the laet, each one then goes on in the same manner over
all his companions making a back in his turn, and the game continues
until all are tired.

FLY THE GARTER.

This is a game very similar to the last, one boy makes a back stand~
ing sideways with one of his feet on a given mark. The whole of the
other players then go over him; should any one knock him down at
any time throughout the game, he takes place of the first one, but the
players do not make backs beyond the first es in the game of leap frog,
but all the leapers return to their first jlace ready to start afresh. The
one who makes the back moves forwards from the mark which is called
the garter, a space equal to that measured by the length joined to the
" ‘breadth of bis foot, and making a second back, they all go on again,
observing that every one begins his leap on the contrary side of the
garter to where the back is. If all are successful in going safe over,
the back removes an equal space forward, which in addition to the
58 OUT-DOOR GAMES

former, makes the leap more difficult ; until at last some one is not
able to pass over ; when that is the case, if he sould either refuse to
try, should step within the garter, or throw his companion down he
becomes the back; when they have all gone on to six or eight steps as
may be agreed upon before hand, each leaper is allowed to take a hop
withinside the garter before he passes over the back ; six steps are
then taken by degrees, on account of the hop, and if even then none are
thrown off at the seventh beyond tre first of the hop, that is ¢ the
thirteenth from the beginning, the players may take a step or skip as
well asa hop, und after six more steps, then they may each take a hop
skip and a jump betore going over, for six steps more ; when the whole
begins again. It is very rare however that all the players are so
fortunate as not to be out before then, and whenever any one is out
on account of the reasons given above, then the game begins at the
garter again. 1f the jumpers have made a false calculation of dis-
tance, or should slip while going alung, they are allowed to run past
the back, and are not out unless trey touch the party in passing.
In such a case they must go on again before any one else, and if
any one should offer a second time aud not go over, they are out,
unless previously agreed upon tu the contrary.

JUMP LITTLE NAGSaIL

This is also a game something like leap frog. The players take
two sides, an equal number of boys on each; one party has to
make backs for the other to leap upon. First one of them stands
against a post or wall to support himself, he stands with his face to
the rest, the next boy of his party rests his head against the chest
of the one who is standiug, the third boy makes his back a continue
ation of the first, then comes the fuurth and fifth bovs if there are so
many, who ali join with the former | nes to make one line of backs,
all their faces being towards the one standing against the wall, and
he looking at the players who are to jum, to see fair play. AU
being thus arranged, the other psrty run forward one at a time, the
first of them leaps as far as possibie aud -eats himself upon one of the
backs, and when once there he must not move hand or foot nor yet
touch the ground upon any preteuce, the next goes on and gets upon
OUT-DOOR GAMES 39

the next back, or on the same if possible, where he also remains im-
moveable, the third and others succeed as rapidly as possible, and
when all are on the others backs, the frst one called the leader then
repeats as fast as possible, ‘Jump little nagtail, one, two, three;
jump little nagtail, one, two, three ; jump hte nagtail, one, two,
three ; off, off, off.”’ If they can remain on all this time without any
one of them falling to the ground, the same party go on again, but if
they fall off the nags are then in, and becume jumpers while the others
become nags, so algo if there is not room enough for all of their party
vo get on, they are out. ‘This game is sometimes called saddle my
nag, and the leaping party instead of repeating the words given above
have to count twenty or some other number agteed upon.

BUCK, BUCK.

This is played by three boys. One forms a back, the same as at
jump little nagtail; the second is the rider, and the third stands by
and sees fair play. When the first boy has made a back, he stands
with his head against a post. The second boy or rider umps up so
as to sit astride upon the first one’s back, as suon as he has done so
he holds up one of his fingers, and calls out, ‘‘ Buck, buck, how
many horns do I hold up?” The player who gives the back guesses,
and if he guesses the exact number of fingers, the rider is obliged to
make a back instead of the other, who becomes the umpire, while the
umpire becomes the rider; but if the buck does not guess right the
rider gets off, and going a little space away, in order to enable the
buck to settle himself a little, he vaults on his back a second time,
and holding up certain of his fingers, asks the same question as
before. This is repeated until the buck guesses the right number.

BASTING THE BBAR,

One boy has a string about two yards long, fastened to his arm, and
he stands in the middle of large circle made on the ground. The
bears master, and who is chosen by bear himself, holds the other end
of the string ; all the other players stand round with handkerchiefs
rolled up aud knotted. The bear's master must also have one similar.
All the boys strive to hit the bear with their handkerchiefs, while bis
60 OUT-DOOR GAMES,

master defends him, and if the master strikes one of them, whoever
may be, without leaving go of the string, that one becomes the bear
and of course takes place of the furmer.

KING OF THE CASTLE.

One boy takes possession of a rising ground, which he calls his
castle, he being king of it. The other players standing round try to
push him off the mound of earth, wile ue endeavours by pushing
them back to keep possession of it, No one must come behind him
nor yet attack him when he is engaged with another. Whoever can
dislodge his from the castle becomes in his turn the king of it,

FRENCH AND ENGLISH.

This game is played by two parties of nearly equal strength, one
of whom is called the French, and the other the English; they have
along ropa, making a line across the play ground. Both parties take
hold of the rope, and standing one on each side of the line, one
party endeavours to pull the other over it, and as soon as either party
is pulled completely over the line, the other wins. 3, 4, 6, or any other
namber of turns, as may be agreed upon win the game,

TOUCH WOOD, OR TOUCH IRON,

This is a very simple game but one which is amusing. One boy
stands in the middle among several companions all of whom are touch-
ing wood, or iron as agreed upon. When they think the attention of
the boy in the middle, who is called touch, is engaged, they leave their
piaces and run across the ground, or to some distance. The boy called
touch runs after some one of the number and endeavours to touch him,
if he can do go, when the other is not touching the wood or iron, he
that is touched becomes the touch and the first boy becomes a runner.
No one is allowed to carry a piece of wood or iron about with him,
nor yet to touch any moveable piece on the ground, or laying loose any~
where, but if the piece which is touched should be very small so that
it cannot be seen very easily, and such for example as a nail in &
paling, and the ove who is touch, desires the other to show him what
it is he is touching, he cannot be touched while he is doing so, nor yet
OUT-DOOR GAMES. 61

until the touch is removed more than two yards off. A boy may be
toached if he should fall down, just as well as if be were running,
This is the case in most of the eames we have spoken of, for if it were
not 80, boys would sometimes fall down on purpose to escape,

Cross TOUCH.

This is a better game than tie last. While touch is pursuing one
of the players, another runs across his path, between him and the
party pursued,and touch must then follow the one who crosses, till another
crosses between them, and so it continues changing, till touch succeeds
in catching one, who takes, of course, the office of touch, and the
game continues as before.

HUNT THE HARE.

Certain bounds are fixed, and the boy selected as “ Hare” rans
out, when his comrades, having given him time to run a certain dis-
tanee, give chase, and endeavour to catch him, before he arrives at
“home.” Sometimes the “‘ hare ’’ is not allowed to return ‘ home”
but must remain out until caught, in which case he is allowed to hide
himself, and a game frequently lasts several hours,

FOLLOW MY LEADER.

The fun of this game depends entirely upon the character of the per-
son who is chosen as a leader. If he isa bold and active lad, it is
amusing enough. The leader stands first and all the other players
stand in a row behind him. He commences the game by doing some
feat as running, stopping, leaping, hopping, calling out, climbing, or any
thing else which strikes his fancy, that he thinks most of others can do,
They must all ofthem in regular order as they stand behind him, per-
form the same, and they all do it, the game continues without change
of place with any of them, ifsome of them cannot do the feat, and those
behind them can, those who succeed must change places with those who
eannot. And it is to be observed that although the best performers
get ficat vet if there are several who fail and several who succeed, the
latter go before the others, but are not altered in position relative to
each otuer, ‘hus quppose the players were numbered 1, 2, 3,4 and
62 OUT-DOOR GAMES.

so on, and 2 was the only one thrown out, he would have to go he-
hind all the others but if 2 and 3 are thrown out and the others uot,
2 and 3 would go to the end and yet 2 would still stand before 3,

GAME OF THE HORNS.

A droll fellow is first chosen, and after putting all the rest in a ring
around him, he begins thus :—He Jays his forefingers on his knees,
and says, horns! horns! cow horns! and then raises his fingers by
& jerk up above his head, the boys and girls in the ring then de the
same, for the meaning of the play is, that the one in the middle
always raises his fingers every time he names an animal, but if he
names any that has no horns, and the others jerk up their fingers, then
they must pay a forfeit. Horns, horns, goat horns! and then he
quickly raises his fingers: they must ail do the same, because a goat
has horns. Horns, borns, horse horns! and again he raises his
fingers, but those around him onght not to do so, because a horse
has no horns, and any one who then raises bis fingers pays a forfeit.
It is a pretty game for Christmas time, requiring a keen eye and a
quick hand, and may te played either as an in-door or out-door amuse-

ment,
DRAWING THE OVEN.

All the players with the exception of two, seat themselves upon the
ground, behind each other, each player clasping the one before him
tightly by the waist. When all the sitters are thus united, the two
players who remain standing take hold of the foremost sitter, and en-
deavour, by vigourously pulling, to detach him from the rest. When
they have succeeded in doing this, take hold of the second in the same
manner, and so continue “drawing the oven’’ until they have drawn

all the players from the ground.

DUCK-8TONY.

This game cannot be played by fewer than three boys, nor must
the players exceed six or eight. Particular caution must be observed,
for should it be played carelessly, the players are liable to
injure each other, from the weight of the stones, and the force with
UT-DOOR GAMES. 63

which they must be cast. A large stone, with a smooth flat top, is
placed upon the ground, and about six or eight yards distance is marked
the offing. Each player then provides himself with a large pebble-
atone, somewhat larger than a cricket-ball, and the game commences
by pinking for duck. The players stand at the offing, and hitch their
pebbles at the large stone; the player whose pebble rolls farthest from
the flat stone then becomes duck, and must place his pebble upon it.
The other players then cast their pebbles at duck’s pebble, singly, from
the offing, and then watch the opportunity to pick up their pebbles
and hasten home ; that is, to the offing in order to throw again. But
should duck succeed in touching one of the players who has touched
or picked up his pebble, before he reaches home, and providing h's
own pebble is on the stone, the player so touched becomes duck ; but
if he be quick he may cry out ‘‘ double duck” before duck is able to
kick his own pebble off the stone, or cry out ‘ Feign double duck,”
in which case both the “ ducks” are placed upon the stone together.
Should all the players have thrown without being able to knock the
* duck,” or “ ducks” off, and the pebbles be so close together that they
are unable to pick them up, without being touched by duck, the
players frequently propose to duck to take either a ‘ heel r” a
‘jump,’ or a “ toe-sling’”’ towardshome. The “ heeler,” consists in
Kicking the stone backwards towards home ; the “ toe-sling,” in put-
ting the stone on the middle of the right foot, and slinging it in the
direction of home; and the “ jump” in placing the stone between the
feet, and holding it there while a jump is taken, and the stone let fall,
so that it may roll towards home. The number of slings, jamps, or
heelers, to be taken in order to reach home, are agreed on by duck,
andif the player does not reach home in the given number, be becomes
uck.
° ROUNDERS.
» make four or eight holes in the ground, according to the number of
players, in a circular direction, and at an equal distance from each
other. At every hole is placed a player with his bludgeon; one of
the opposite party, who stands in the field, tosses the cat to the one
nearest him, and every time the cat is struck the players are obliged
to change their situation, and run once from one hole to another, in
‘ 5
64 OUT BOOR GAMES,

rotation; if the cat be driven to any great distance, they continue to
ron in the same order, and they claim a score towards their game every
time they quit one hole and run to another, but if the cat be stopped
by their opponents, and thrown across between any two of the holes
before the player who has quitted one of them can reach the next, he
is out. Sometimes, boys make it a rule that the cat shall be thrown
at one the players, Should it hit him, the batsman is out; if not, he
scores one. Whoever is nearest the bat, or rather the place of the bat,
when the cat has been thrown, goes on next time. A smooth round
stick is preferred by many boys to a bat for striking the ball.

TRAP, BAT, AND BALL.

Trap ball is so called because of the trap that is used to elevate the
ball before it is struck by the bat. It is not restricted to any particu-
lar number of players, though there are seldom more than six or eight
ofaside. The trap of ancient days was about a foot high from the
ground, that which is now used is made in the shape of a shoe, the
heel part being hollowed cut for the reception of the ball : it should be
placed upon the ground with the heel a little sunk. The two sides of
players having tossed up for innings, those forming the out-side place
themselves. The player on the inning side then puts the ball into the
spoon of the trap, and the tongue (the elevated end) being struck
smartly by the bat, causes the ball to rise, and as it rises he strikes it
smartly. In this game two boundaries are fixed at a given distance,
(aay twenty yards,) between which it is necessary for the ball to pass,
when struck by the batsman, and if it falls on the without side of
either, he gives up his bat and is out. In striking at the ball, if he
miss it, or if he touch the tongue more than twice without hitting the
ball, he is out. When the ball is struck, and one of his adversaries
catches it before it grounds, he is also out; and again, if the bull,
when retumed by the opponent party, touches the trap, or rest within
a bat’s length of it. Should none of these things happen, the out
player must bowl it from the place where be picked it up towards the
trap; if it touch the trap, the batsman is out ; but if not, heis scored
one to the game. Sometimes, the batsman guesses the probable num.
ber of bat’s lengths within which the ball may be bowled up to the
OUT-DOOR GAMES. 65
orks

trap; when, shonld he guess under the number of lengths, he counts
them towards the game, but if above the number, he looses his innings.
Very strict players sometimes drive s akes for the bounds, ant place
a line of tape two feet high, over which the ball must be sent, else the
striker is out, Boys who cannot procure a trap, content themselves
by making a round hole in the ground, and, by way of a lever, use the
brisket bone of an ox, or a flat piece of wood of like size and shape,
which is placed in a slanting position, one half in the hole, with t e
ball upon it, and the other half out of it.

ESSEX TRAP BALL

A trap like the one last described, is used in this game, but, instead
of a broad bat, a round stick, about three feet long, and as thick as a
mopstick, is used. In striking, both hands are used, and those who
have acquired the habit of striking the ball with the cudgel, will often
strike it to an astonishing distance. The ball being stopped by one
of the opposite party, the striker forms his judgment of the ability of
the person who is to throw it back, and calls in consequence for any
number of scores towards his game that he thinks proper. It is then
returned, and if it appears to his antagonist to rest at a sufficient dis-
tance to justify the stiker’s call, he obtiins: his number, but when a
contrary opinion is held, a measurement takes place, and if the scores
demanded exceed in number the lengths of the cudgel from the trap to
the ball, he looses the whole, and is out; while on the other hand, if
the lengths of the bat are more than the scores called for, the matter
terminates in the striker’s favor, and they are set up to his account.

NORTHERN SPELL.

In this game, instead of a ball, a large stone marble is usually substitu-
ted. A trap, and a short round stick to strike with are used. The
gime consists in striking the marble to the greatest distance in a given
nuaber of strokes. Sometimes the ball is fashioned from stig’s horn.

NINE HOLES; OR, HAT BALL.

Near a wall where the ground is level, dig nine, or a less number of
holes, according to the number of players, targe enough for a ball to
67 OUT-DOOR GAMES.

be bowled in without difficulsy. About London, this game is called
hat ball, on account o° the players using their hats instead of digging
holes, and the ball is tosseJ into the hats, instead of being bowled into
the holes. Number theh les or hats, and let each player be allotted
a number a: may be agreed ; a line is drawn about five yards from
the holes, ut which one of the players places himself, and bow!s the ball
into one of the holes. The player to whom the hole into which the
ball is bowl d belongs, picks it up a8 quickly as he can, and endeavours
to strike one of the others with i , the latter all run off as soon as they
perceive that the bal. is not for themselves. If the thrower loses his
aim, he loses a point, and is called ‘ fifer”’ and it is his turn to bowl;
five or six may be struck in succession, and the ball may be kept up,
no matter how long, until a miss is made, when the party so missing
loses a point, and is to bowl. It is also allowed for one player to ac-
cept the ball from another, and run the risk of striking a third ; thus
if A stand close behind B, and C have the ball in front of B, A may
signify by motions that he will take the ball, which is thrown towards
him by C, he catches it, and endeavours to strike B before he can run
away, if he miss he loses a point and bowls. The second bowling is
conducted precisely as the first, but he who bowls three times without
bowling the ball into a hole, loses a point, and if he has lost one before,
becomes a “‘tenner,’”’ he must still go on until he suceeed in putting
the ball into a hole; itis his own fault if he bow! into that which belongs
to himself. He who loses a third point becomes a ‘‘ fifteener,’’ and
he who loses a fourth point, stands out for the rest of the game. The
game goes on till all the players are out but one, and he of course wins
the game. One of the others then takes the ball in his left hand, places
his face towards the wall, and throws the ball over the right shoulder,
as far ashe can. The player who has won, stands at the spot where
the ball first touches the ground, or if it be not immediately behind the
thrower, the winner throws the bail at the losers back three times,
as hard as hecan. The other losers throw in the same manner, one
after another, and the winner has his three balls at each of their backs,
from the spot where their ball respectively first touch the ground, or
in a line with it, as above stated.
OUT-DOOR GAMES. 66

THE GAME OF FIVES.

This game may be played by any number of boys, either all against
each other, or else in parties. It must be played against a good high
wall, with a level piece of ground in front of it; along the wall, at
about three feet from the ground, a line must be painted, of a white
colour, and along the ground another line must be scratched, at the
distance of about two yards from the wall. The players toss up for
innings: the person who is to goin begins by throwing his ball on the
ground, so that it shall bound up, and when it is at a proper height, he
strikes it with his hand, against the wall, being careful to make it hit the
wall above the line, and so hard thatit may rebound from the wall be-
yond the line on the ground ; the other player then strikes it in the same
manner, either before it has touched the ground or before it has re-
bounded from itonce. The first player then prepares to receive and
strike it at its rebound; and thus the game goes on, until one of the
players fail to strike the ball in his turn, before it has hopped or
bounded more than once. If he fail :o hit the ball, he is out, and also
if he do not strike it above the line en the wall, and when bounds are
agreed upon by the parties, he will be out if he strike it out of the
bounds. Ifthe party who is in, does either of these, he loses his innings
(if the other party, supposing two parties are playing against each other,
and there must be either two antagonists, or two sets of antagonists),
then the in-player reckons one on each occasion toward the game,
which is fifteen. When partners play, the rules are precisely the same,
each side keeping up the ball alternately, and the partners taking turns
for innings, as one of the other side gets out. After the ball is first played
out on each occasion, it is not necessary to make it rebound beyond
the ground line, which is used only to make the player who is in give
out the ball fairly in the first instance, that is, when he first takes his
innings, or when he plays out the ball again, after winning a point.

THE GAME OF TENNIS.
‘=A tennis court is usually 96 to 97 feet long, by 33 or 34 in breadth.
A net hangs across the middle, over which the ball must be struck, to

make any stroke good. At the entrance of a tennis the court, there
a long covered passage before a part of the court which is called
68 OUT-DOOR GAMES,

the dedans, the place where spectators usually are, into which, when-
ever a ball is played, it counts for a certain stroke. This long pas-
sage is divided into different apartments, which are called galleries;
namely, from the line to the dedans is the first gallery. The door is
called the second gallery, and the last gallery is called the service side.
From the dedans to the last gallery are the figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,
each at a yard distance, marking what are called the chases, which are
one of the most essential parts of the game. On the other side of the
line is the first gallery, door second gallery, and last gallery, which
is called the hazard side. Every ball played into the last gallery on
this side tells for a certain stroke, the same asinto thededans. Between
the second and this last gallery, are the figures 1, 2, marking the
chases on the hazard side. Over this long gallery is the penthouse,
on which the ball is played on the service side, to begin a game of ten-
nis, and if the player should fail striking the ball, so as to rebound
from the penthouse, over a certain line on the service side, it is reckon-
ed a fault, and two such faults following are considered a stroke. If
the ball pass round the peuthouse, on the opposite side of the court,
and fall beyond a particular line, it is called passe, goes for nothing,
and the player is to serve again.

A set of tennis consists of six games, but if an advantage game, two
successive games above five game must be won to decide, or in case it
should be a regular set of six games, two games must still be won on
one side to conclude the set. ‘

When the player begins the game. he strikes the ball against the
penthouse, which is called, giving a service ; his adversary is supposed
to return the ball wherever it falls after the first rebound, just the
same as at fives, but each player instead of playing with his hand, is
furnished with a kind of battledore, covered with cross strings of cat-
gut, and the way in which this is done is as follows, the second player
is not to touch the ball with his hand at all, but strike it back. If it
falls at figure 1. The chase is at a yard, that is to say, at a yard from
the dedans, this chase remains till a second service is given, and if the
player on the s-rvice side should let the ball go after his adversary re
turns it, and the ball falls on or between any of these figures they must
change sides, for he will then be on the hazard side to play for the

. first chase, which’ if he win by striking. the ball, a0 as to fall after its
OUT-DOOR GAMES. 69

first rebound nearer to the dedans than the figure 1, without his ad-
versary being able to return it after its first rebound he wins a stroke
and then proceeds in like manner to win a second stroke. If the bail
fall on a line with the first gallery door, second gallery, or last gallery,
the chase is likewise called at such and such a place, naming the gal-
lery, &c. When it is just put over the line or net, it is called a chase
at the line. If the players on the service side return a ball with such
force as to strike the wall on the hazard side, so as to rebound, after
the first hop, over the line, it is also called a chase at the line.

The chances on the hazard side procced from the ball being return-
ed either too hard or not hard enough; so that the ball after its first
rebound, falls on this side of the line, which describes the hazard side
chases, in which case it is a chace of 1, 2, &c., provided there be no
ehase depending, and according to the spot where it exactly falls.
When they change sides, the player in order to win this chace, must
put the ball over the line anywhere, so that his adversary does not
return it. When there is no chase on the hazard side, all balls put
over the line from the service side, without being returned, reckon.

The game, instead of being marked, one, two, three, four, is called
for the first stroke 15; for the second, 30; for the third, 40; and
for the fourth, game; unless the players get four strokes each; then,
instead of calling it 40 all, it is called deuce, after which, as soon as
any stroke is got, it is called advantage, andin case the srokes beco::.e
equal again, deuce again ; till one or the other gets two strokes follow-
ing to win the game.

The tennis ball weighs about 2} ounces. It is made of Indian rab-
ber, or of strips of cloth closely wound together, and is covered with
a close white kerseymere. The racket is about 2 feet 2 inches in
length, its weight is from 18 to 22 ounces.

«ONG, OR, OPEN TENNIS,

This game is played in the open air. upon ground rolled andar ran-
ged for the purpose. The ground should be 160 paces in length, for
if smaller the play would be hampered, and if larger, the game would
h too fatiguing. Two parellel lines are drawn at the distance of 20
paces, to form the lateral bounds, these lines are marked by a string
70 OUT-DOOR GAMES.

fastened to the top of stakes about 2 feet high which are planted round
the ground. Another line is drawn across the middle, and whether a
stroke counts or not, depends upon whether the ball goes over or under
this line. In this game there are generally several players on each side,
but it may be played by one against-one. The players take off their
coats, and wear a loose flannel jacket, that allows the free exercise 0
the limbs. The neck should be free. A belt is worn round the mid-
dle. Soft pliant slippers, that yield to the movements of the feet, are
absolutely necessary, for it is impossible to play the game weil in boots
or strong shoes. A correct eye as well as skill and agility are requi-
site to play this game properly.

Sometimes the player returns the ball just passing over the head,
without waiting till it reaches the ground, sometimes he raises it when
it almost touches the ground, and returns it over the line. At other
times he retires from the line of the ball, if it appears likely to touch
him, and leaves it for his partners behind him to return it. One player
strikes the ball with all his strength ; another waits for it and allows
it to drop as it were upon his racket; but skill in this game consists
less in striking the ball with force than in placing it so as to deceive
the adversary. It is proper play to return the ball over the cord which
divides the space into 2 parts; and bad play to play it under; but
better play consists in so managing the stroke as to drop the ball just
over the cord, so that it falls almost dead, the ball then bounds but
slightly, and great agility and skill is necessary on the part of the
adversary to catch it up and return it. This game like others has a
language peculiar to itself as follows.

TERMS OF THE GAME

The Service. When all the players are mustered before the game
is begun, a racket is thrown up, so that after turning in the air, it falls
to the ground, either on the rough or the smooth side, the rough side
being that on which the knots of the racket are visible. When the
racket is thrown up, the player calls one, smooth or rough, and if he
win, has the right of serving the ball ; the best player however gene-
rally commences, and the others succeed according to their ‘strength.

The servia; place is marked by a piece of cloth fastened to the
OUT-DOOR GAMES. 71

groand by a nail, the server advances or retreats as he chooses, accor-
ding to the force of the wind, against which he always places himself.

Sets, are played with from two to twelve players, two against two,
three against three, and so on, but never more than six against six.
Each set consists of four games at the least, but when there are more
than three on each side, it consists of as many games as there are
players, with the addition of one other game, that is if there are four
players on each side, five games are necessary to win, if five players, six
games ; but if six, six are sufficient. In all cases itis possible, indeed
it often happens, that the games may be extended to any number, as
will be afterwards explained.

Each game consists of four strokes, counting 60; every stroke or
score made counting 15 points. The game therefore may be won in
four strokes gained successively by the same party, but it rarely happens
that a game is won in four strokes, unless the other be so bad a player
that he cannot gain a single stroke during the game. This hovever
seldom occurs, for the game though speedily over, would be wor with
too little trouble. The object therefore is to match the parties as
equally as possible, and many strokes are then made before a score is
gained or lost. Suppose one side make 15 the first stroke, the other
side makes 15 the second stroke, it is called fifteen all. If the first
again make 15, it is called thirty, and the other side the same, it is
thirty all. If the first again score fifteen, making 45, and the other
the same, it is called deuce, when another stroke is made it is called
advantage; if the strokes become equal again, it is called deuce, and
this continues till one or the other gains two strokes in succession,
which wins the game. We will sow explain this last circumstance as
plainly as we can.

One of the first laws of the game is to return the ball that has been
served, either by volleying, that is by striking it whilst in the air, be-
fore it touches the ground, or at the first hop. The second hop is too
late, and whenever the ball falls after the first rebound untouched, even
if it be stopped at the very spot, the chase is called accordingly. We
say if it be stopped at the very spot, because as long as the ball rolls
within bounds, the chase lengthens with it, and it is only at the spot
where it ia stopped, before passing the servers place, that the marker
places a red or blue markto indicate the place.
72 OUT-DOOR GAMES.

A chase is then made, in the general game, from tae place of ser-
vice ; when service has once been made, to the other extremity of the
ground, in the limited game it is made in one of the two spaces com-
prised between the cord and the line placed at each end, parallel to the
cord, above which the ball ought to pass, and not rolling on the ground,
as is practised at the other game. This chase counts nothing, it is
only by playing for it, that anything can be lost or won. Playing for
it is to endeavour to gain it. It is won by so managing that the ball
in striking out shall fall at the first bound beyond the chase already
made ; if it fall exactly on the line of the chase, it is played again, this
of course is supposing that the adversary has been unable to return the
ball at the first rebound.

Defending a chase, is to return the adversary’s ball at the rebound,
but if it seem likely to fall, at the second bound, short of the chase, a
skilful player will let it pass ; if it happen as he expected, the adversary
loses the chase, and the other gains a point, 15, without playing.

As soon as two chases are made in a game the players change sides,
if neither side be 45 but if either side scere 45, they change when one
chase is made.

GAME OF GOFF OR GOLF.

The game of Golf is supposed to be peculiar to Scotland, though more
likely derived from Germany; the term Golf being derived from the
German word kolbe, or the Dutch kolf, aclub. The most popular
pronounciation of the Scotch word is gof’, or gowf. Sirutt, in his
work entitled, “‘ Sports and Pastimes of the People of England,”
observes “ that there are many games played with the ball, that re-
quire the assistance of a club or bat, and »robably the most ancient
among them is the pastime now distinguished by the name cf goff. In
the Northern part of the kingdom goff is much practised. It answers
to a rustic pastime of the Romans, which they played with a ball of
leather stuffed with feathers, and the goff ball is composed of the same
materials to this day. -In the reign of Edward III., the Latin name
cembuca was applied to‘this pastime, and it derived the denomination,
vo doubt, from the crooked club or bat with which it was played.”

The club is from two feet six, to four feet long, according to tke
OUT-DOOR GAMES. 73

height of the player, it is in shape like a walking stick, with a knob
at one end of it, which knob is bent rather on one side. The heavier
this knob is the better, the smaller end is to beheldin the hand. ~~

To make a club of the best quality, it ought to be of some tough wood,
planed smooth, the knob of it loaded with four or six ounces of lead,
and the handle of it bound with string or list, that it may be held firm
in thehand. The golf ball is about the size of an egg, and is very
hard, It is composed of stout leather, which having been previously
soaked in boiling water, allows of its being first very firmly sewed, and
then turned inside out, leaving a small opening only, by which it is
very tightly stuffed with feathers. The leather being yet wet, it con-
tracts into a ball of the proper size and nearly as round as that used in
cricket. It is then painted over with several coats of white paint, in
doing which it is requisite that the white lead should be pure, and
exceedingly well ground, as well as that each coat laid on should be-
come perfectly dry and hard before another is applied. The game
is as follows :—Three or four holes are made in the ground, about nine
inches over, and a foot deep, at the distance of about a quarter of a
mile from each other, and it is the object of the players tu strike the
ball into these holes, one after the other, and he who drives the ball
in, in the fewest number of blows wins the game. It may be played
by two or more persons, so that there be an equal number on each
side, but only two balls are used, one for each party, each party also
striking in turn ; but if the last striker does not drive his ball on so
far as his opponent, one of his party must then strike one or perhaps
two more ; and the game is thus marked, by calling out, one, two or
three more, as the case may be. If more than two are playing, the
game person does not strike twice in succession, a miss is counted one.
With some players it is not allowable to touch the ball at all with the
hand, but with others it is allowed to take the ball out of a hole or rut,
but thie is a matter of agreement before commencing play. In regular
golf clubs, there is an attendant called a cad or caddie who carries for
the convenience of any player who likes, a number of different shaped
clubs which are called putters, so that if the balls should get in an
awkward position and the player should find his own club not adapted
to strike it with full force, he may have a different one from the caddie.
74 OUT-DOOR GAMES,

There is generally, during the Spring and Summer months, some ex.
cellent golf playing on Blackheath. The following are

THE LAWS OF GOLF.

1.—You must tee (place) your ball not nearer the hole than two
clubs length, nor farther from it than six, and your tee must be on the

und.
The ball farthest from the hole to be played first.

3.—You are not to change the ball, struck from the tee, before the
hole is played out; and if at aloss to distinguish one ball from the
other, neither of them to be uplifted till both parties agree.

4.—You are not to remove stones, bones, or any Sreak club, in order
to play your ball, except on the fair green. If a ball stick fast in the
ground, it may be loosened but not lifted from the ground, except pre-
viously agreed upon.

5.—The player in every case shall be entitled to lift his ball and
drop it at such a distance as he thinks proper behind, and lose one
stroke, but when from any circumstance of the ground he cannot get
behind the place from whence he took the ball, he shall be allowed to
put the ball even with the place he took it from.

6.—If the ball be half covered or more with water on the green, the
player is at liberty to take it out, and drop it behind without losing a
stroke, and when the ball is completely covered with grass, &c, so
much thereof may be put aside or cut off, as that the player may have
a view of his ball before he plays.

7.—If the ball lie within the hollow formed in cutting any of the
water tracks on the green, it may be taken out, dropped behind the
track, and played with an iron club, without losing a stroke,

8.—In all cases where a ball is to be dropped, the player dropping,
shall stand with his face to the hole to which he is playing, and drop
the ball behind him over his head.

9.—When the balls lie within six inches of each other, the ball
nearest the hole is to be lifted till the other is played.

10,--In the case of more than two balls being played in the same
party, or of the match being decided by the number of strokes, if une
OUT-DOOR GAMES, 75

ball lie between the other and the hole, the ball nearest the hole must
be first played.

i1.—If a ball be stopped by accident, it must be played where it
fies; but if stopped by the adversary or his caddie, the party who
stopped the ball to lose the hole.

12.—If a ball should get lost on the green, the player shall drop
another at the place where his ball was supposed to have been lost,
and lose one stroke; but if it can be aseertained that the ball was lost
in any of the tracks of the green, another may be dropped behind the
track, and played with an iron without losing the stroke.

13.—If in striking, the club break, it is nevertheless to be accounted
a stroke, if you either strike the ground or pass the ball.

14,.—At holing, you are not to mark the direction to the hole, you
are to play your ball honestly for the hole, and not play on your adver-
sary’s ball, not lying in your way to the hole, but all loose impediments
may be removed.

15.—Mistakes relative to the reckoning of any particular hole can
not be rectified after the parties have struck off for the next hole.

RING BALL.

This is a very aucient game, and requires a great deal of skill to
p.ay it properly. A short post is inserted in the ground, a large
ring is fastened to the top of the post, the ring is placed upright, and
turns upon a swivel, so that if any thing strikes against the sides of
the ring, it turns round. This ring and post is a fixture. The players
have then a large bail made of a light wood, and about six inches in
diameter or eighteen inches round. The players either play in two
parties, or else all againet each other, A large circle is marked on the
ground, having the ring for the centre, and the player that is first goes
in, holding the ball in his right hand, bowls or pitches it at the move-
able ring, if he is lucky enough to pitch it through the ring, he counts
one, if not, one of the other party goes on and tries his luck, but if
the first is successful, he goes on again and again, as long as the ball
completely passes the ring, counting one each time. So also when the
other party gets the ball they go on as long as they can, and when
there are several players, he who loses a ball is out of the game, till
all the others have had their turn. The parties play for a certain
76 OQUT-DOOR GAMES.

number as thirty or fifty, and whoever gains that number first has the
game. At opposite sides of the circle upon the ground, and which
Ought to be about five yards from the post, there are two marks made,
one for each party, and it is from these marks that the bali must be
pitched. The lower part of the ring should not be above three or four
inches from the ground, and the size of the ring should be such that
the ball can easily pass through it, but not with much space to spare,
so that if the ball is six inches in diameter, six and a half will be quite
enough for the ring. The difficulty in playing is this, that if the ball
strikes the side of the ring instead of passing through it, the ring will
turn round, and then instead of presenting a flat face to the next player,
he wiil perhaps haveit sideways to him, when it will be almost impos-
sible for him to pass it through, Sometimes the players agree to stand
at any part of the circle they please, which makes the game much
easier. week wee oe

At this game there is a ring fastened to the post in the ground, the
same as the last game, but instead of there being but one ball, each
player has a ball to himself, so that there are seldom more than four
players either opposed to each other, or in parties of two. Each
player is also furnished with a stick four feet long, with a large fixed
ring et tke end of it, with which he can take up the ball that belongs
to sim ; thirty-one being the game, they make a mark at six or eight
yards from the ring, and each player in turn pitches his ball at the
ring, trying to pass the ball through it; if he succeed he counts one, if
not, he lets his ball remain; the next player tries the same, and if the
ring happens to lie sideways with him, he can very often pass _ his ball
through it, not by pitching directly at the ring, but by hittung his adver-
sary’s ball, and thereby giving his own ball a new direction. The third
player goes on in the same manner, and he may hit his adversary’s ball
but not bis own partners. The fourth player goes on afterwards, and
the object of all of them is to pass this ball through the ring, and also
to drive the adversary’s balls away, so that when his ball has passed
through, he goes on again from the point wherever his ball rolls to,
but he is not allowed to pass through the ring again, unless he hits
one of his adverssry’s halls first, therefore, if one of these lie near him,
he tries to drive that away, and also to lay his ball close up, so that
next time he may pass it through the ring, ov if he refuses to hit his
OUT-DOOR GAMES. 77

adversary's ball, he has his option to go back to the starting place, so
has any playor who pleases ; but if any one aims at the opposite ball,
and does not hit it, he loses one which he had gained before. After
the first time, the players have the option either of going on from the
place their balls are driven to, or from the starting place, as at first,
and if a player hits his partner’s ball by accident, he pays the penalty
of injuring his own interest, by depriving his partner of his next
ehance, but there is no forfeit for doing so. This is an excellent game,
and is played all the Summer time at Lord’s Cricket Ground, Mary-
lebone.

CATCH BALL.

This is a very similar game to nine holes, but instead of bowling the
ball into holes, it is thrown in the air, and the name of the player for
whom it is intended, called out by the thrower. It it be caught before
it has twice touched the ground by the player so called on, he loses"
point, but throws it up again, and calls upon whom he pleases to catch
it. If it be not caught in due time he whose name is called must en-
deavour to strike one of the others with it, if he miss he loses a point,
and has his throw up. The remainder of the game the number of op-
ponents, and the penalty of the loser, are all precisely as in nine holes,
of the two, it is the better game.

STOOL BALL.

A stool is placed upon the ground, and one of the players takes his
place before it, while his antagonist stands at a distance, and tosses
a ball with the intention of striking the stool, The player who stands
at the stool must try to prevent this, by beating the ball away with
his hand, reckoning one to the game for every stoke of the ball.
Should he miss his stroke, and the ball strike the stool, the players

hange places; the conquerer is he who strikes the ball most times
before it touches the stool.

FOOT BALL.

For this game a large light ball is required (such as those sold at
the toy-shops,) made of India-rubber, with a netting round it, ors
78 OUT DOOR GAMES.

bladder inflated, and strengthened with acasingof leather. The players
(the more the better) are to be equally divided and two lines, from
fifty to a hundred yards apart, are to be drawn across the play-ground.
In the middle of the space thus marked out, the ball is placed. Each
party advances from the gaols formed by the lines, and the sport con-
sists in endeavouring to kick the ball into the quarters of the oppo.
nent. This is a game which we would not recommend our young
friends to play at too often, as much injury may be done to the shins
and legs of the contending parties and may not unfrequently end in

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DRAUGHTS.

Considering the game as an amusement, it cannot be denied that it tends
to improve those faculties of the mind which are eminently useful iti every can-
dition of life ; and may, therefore, be made the school of wisdom, but cannot,
like the gambling table of chance, become the nursery ot vice.

Josavua Sturcoss.
Tis interesting amusement, although inferior to chess, is deserved
popular, and forms a fair prelude to the study of that noble pastime.
Nor can there be any objection urged on the score of morality, for the
moves are exch the result 01 considerable deliberation and study,
and not of mere chance; like chess, therefore, the game is not em-
ployed as a vehicle for making bets.

The game of draughts is said to be of very remote origin; though
no account of it, at least none specifying its character, occurs before
the middle of the sixteenth century, The earliest positive account of
draughts isin the year 1551. Taylor, the water poet, mentioned it
in the seventeenth ceatury ; and in 1668 an elaborate treatise on the
game was published by a Parisian professor of mathematics, named
Mallet. Mr. Payne, a celebrated writer on this subject, is said to
$2 DRAUGHTS

have copied many of Mallet’s games; but both Payne and Mallet
have been materially improved upon by a later writer, Mr Sturges.
There are two sorts of games at draughts usually played, the com-
mon or English game, and the Polish game; the first being much
less extended than the latter.
THE COMMON, OR ENGLISH GAME.
This came is played upon a board divided into sixty-four squares,

oa: 5 a 41 painted black and white,
ae 3 4




alternately, a8 in the cut,

' Twenty-four round pieces
wa of wood or ivory, half of
them colored red or black,
the other half yellow or
white. Forearly practice,
it will be found advanta-
geous to number the board
as seen in the cut,

The boaré is placed be-
tween the players in such
a manner that there is an
upper white corner on the
right hand, so as to leave
ae , —— the double corner which is

30 ie 31 Bee 32 Bie painted white ontheripbt
ae medal ag «hand of each player: but



the manner in which the mien are set will be better understood by

—_

reference to the annexed cut. The men
are always to be kept upon the white
squares, therefore, they are moved cor-
nerwise all thetime. Each player alter.
nately moves one of his men forwards to
}| the next white square. When two or
three more moves of this kind have been
made by each party the opposite men
will then perhaps come into white squares
adjoining each other, in the middle of
the board. When this his is the case,
whichever player finds one of hia oppo-


DRAUGHTS, 83

nent’s men next to bis own, and if it is not supported by another
man standing in the next square bebind it, that is, if there is a
vacant white square beyond, in the same line, then the player is
bound to take that man which is thue left unguarded. This he does,
by immediately making his own man leap over his opponent's
man, into the vacant square, where he is to stop, and the opponent's
man is then taken away, and is of no use during the rest of the game.
The man perhaps by taking the other, becomes exposed himself, in
like manner, if so, he will be taken by the next move. If he should
not be exposed himself, yet it often happens that moving one man
away, you expose some other man to your opponent, or cven two men,
if 6o the opponent takes which he pleases if they are at different parts
of the board, or he may take two men at once, if they are so placed that
there is a vacant square behind the first man, and also behind the
second man in asiraight line, for be it remarked that the men never move
backwards, though they may move cornei ways both to the right and
left, when a man is at any of the squares next to the side of the board
he cannot be taken at all until he moves out of that position. When
any player neglects to capture his opponent’s man when he has an op-
portunity of doing so, he is Anffed, that is, lores his own man. When
any party gets a man to the last row of the board on his opponent's
side that man becomes a king, he is crowned by placing one of the cap.
tive men upon him, and he is then entitled to move backwards as well
as forwards, in the white squares. The object of the whole game is to
take your opponent’s men ; and it is the greatest endeavour of a player
to oblige his opponent to give two or three men instead of one of
yours in the carly part of the game, to get kings in the middle of the
game and to drive your opponent’s men into corners and places whence
they cannot be moved, without being taken in the latter part of the
game, Also remember that your men increase in value as they get
nearer to your opponent’s side, so that one of your men which is
ready to become a king at the next move is of more value than your
adversary’s men which are opposed to him, yet, as your king cannot
possibly be made till seme of your opponent’s last row of men be
moved, itis often advisable to force him out by the sacrifice of one
oreven sometimes of two of your men, that you may get others up.
84 DRAUGHTS.

A player should be cautious how he moves the last row of men, lest he
should let his opponent get kings, and thus get behind him.

To have the move, isan important point at draughts. It signifies
the occupying such a position on the board as will eventually enable
a player to drive his adversary into a confined situation, and as, at the
end of the game, will secure the last move.

When your men are in a confined situation, the move is not only
of no use to you, but may occasion the loss of the game. In other
situations, to have the move is a decided advantage even over a skill-
fal adversary.

The game is won by the player who first succeeds in taking, or
blocking up, all his adversary’s men, so that he has nothing to move.
When, however, both players have few men of equal furce remaining,
with no reasonable hope of decided and speedy advantage, the game is
given up as a drawn one.

THE LAWS OF ENGLISH DRAUGHTS.

1.—The first move of every game must be taken alternately by each
player, whether the last be won, lost or drawn.

2.—Pointing over the board, or using any action to interrupt the
adversary in baving a full view of the men is not to be atlowed.

3.—The men may be properly arranged in any part of the game;
and after they are so placed, whichever player touches a man, must
piay him somewhere.

4.—In case of standing the Huff, it is optional with the opponent
either to take the man, or insist that the opponent take his, so omitted
by the huff,

5.—If either party when it is his turn to move, hesitate above three
minutes, the other may call upon him to play ; and if after that, he
delay above five minutes longer, then be loses the game.

6.—During a game, neither party must quit the room or table with.
out the other’s consent, and a third person should decide the time to
be allowed for his absence, and if thought necessary accompany him,

7.—Persons not playing are not to advise, nor in any manner inter.
fere with the game of either party.

8.—If there remain only two kings of one colour, and one king of
DRAUGHTS. 05

off the other colour, the game must be finished in twerlty moves of each
party, or else it is a drawn game, that is, it is won by neither party.

9.—If there remain three kings of one colour, and two ef the other
colour, the game must be decided in less than forty moves, or else it
is drawn, if it should so happen that one king of each party is taken
after the twentieth move made by these three kings and two kings, the
stronger party cannot claim twenty moves complete after that time as
according to law 8; but must content himself with so many as will
make up forty from the time when each had the three and two kings
respectively. . -

10.—When a party is huffed he loses the man which he ought to
have played, and his move also.

GAMES FOR PRACTICE.

Having now given the general rules and laws of draughts, we must
lead our readers from theory to practice, and lay before them a few
games which it would be well to practice on a board numbered like the
one we give in the early part of this article. Jt will be necessary to
impress upon the mind of the learner that by playing the following
games over ina random style, or in a plodding mill-horse mode of
progression, without endeavouring to comprehend why certain moves
are made, that they can never attain any mastery over the game; on
the contrary, unless they strive to understand thoroughly that which
they attempt to perform, they will be as far from the mark as though
they had never attempted to reach it atall. Draughts is a game re-
quiring much circumspection and calculation; and whether it is
practised from plans laid down in abook, or learned under the bitter-
ness of frequent defeats, each series of moves must be very oarefally
studied and worked out. It is scarcely within the range of proba.
bility that any two players ever make the exact moves set down in the
following plans: still, as in the course of games, some points miay
happen which bear a resemblance to them, and as the same may be
observed with respect to the terminations of games, the young draught
player will find, that if he once become a perfect master of them,
he will be enabled to play them whenever an opportunity presente
iteclf. It is the advice of many experienced draught-players, that
a6 DRAUGHTS.

learners should provide themselves with a common-place book for
noting down any particular situations that may happen in their prao-
tice, or such masterly moves, by older hands, as they may have the
good fortune to witness.

Geme 1, where Black moves first and wins.



To Colour | From



Moves



Colour} From



Moves













1 B ll 15 10 WwW 22 17
2 Ww 23 18 ll B 15 18
3 B 8 ll 12 WwW 26 22 |
4 WwW 27 23 13 B 11 15
3 B 4 8 14 WwW 17 13
6 WwW 23 19 15 B 7 11
7 |' B 9 14 16 WwW 31 26
8 WwW 18 Q 17 B 18 23
9 B 5 14 Black wins.



am, wt Ra. yee

Game 2, where White moves Jirst and wins.

Moves | Colour | From Moves | Colour | From

1 Ww
2 B
3 Ww
4 B
5 Ww
6 B
7 Ww
8 B
9 Ww

White wins.


DRAUGHTS. oT

Game 3, a drawn game.

Moves } Colour

28
29
30
31
32

B
Ww
B
WwW
B
Ww
B
Ww
B
WwW
B
WwW
RB
Ww
B
w
B
W
B
Ww
B
WwW
B
WwW
B
WwW
B

Sudtustnteste suns sw ters desde ews



POLISH DRAUGHTS.
This game is played upon a board of one hundred squares, with
ory enetwenty black and twenty white.
this game the men move forwards, as in the English game, one
88 DRAUGHBTS.

square at atime; but they take backwards end forwards; and the
queens* move over several squares at a move. Consequently, the com-
dinations are much more numerous than in the common game, The
Polish is almost the only game now played on the Continent. .

The men may be placed either on tLe white or black squares, but
they are always placed on the white in England and France.

The draught-board should be placed so that each player may have
a double corner on the right hand. This double corneris, in reference
to the blacks, the squares forty-one and forty-six; and, in reference
to the whites, the squares forty-five and fifty. Thus, the board is
naturally divided into two parts : the black men occupy twenty squares
which extend from number one to twenty inclusive ; and the white are
placed upon an equal number of squares from number thirty-one to
fifty: Hence it follows that there remains, between the men of the two
players, two rows of vacant squares, upon which the front men are
played. The reader may easily form for himself a diagram to illus-
trate this.

The rules of the game of Polish draughts are partly the same as the
rules of the common game. The chief difference is that which must
naturally arise from the moves of the queens and common men, which,
as we have before stated, are not the same in the two games.

Asall players are not of equal ability, it is usual for the more skil-
ful to give an advantage to his opponent, in order to render the game
more even, a8 in chess, or English draughts.

LAWS OF POLISH DRAUGHTS,

1.—When the players are of equal force, the first move is decided by
lot, but when a player receives odds, it is usual for him to play first.

2,—The move of the men is always in advance to the right or the
left, from white to white, one step at a time; but, in capturing, they
move two, three, four steps, and even more, when there are men to
take, and can then also move backward as well as forward.

3.—When a man is touched, it must be played if no legal obstacle

© At the game of Polish Draughts, the princi eces are termed queens
toatead of kings. ughts, principal ps 4
DRAUGHTS, 89

prevents it: for this reason, the maxim has been laid down, a man
touched is a man played, or touch and play.

4.—A man is held to be touched the moment the finger is placed
upon it: a player may mov? a man where he pleases, so long as he bas
not quitted it.

5.—If the player wishes to touch one or more men for the purpose
of placing them, he must first say ‘‘j’adoube,’’ as in chess: otherwise
his adversary may compel him to play any of the men he chooses that
have been touched, provided no legal obstacle prevents their being

layed.
6.—When any man finds in front of him another man of a different
colour, and a vacant square behind the latter, the former passes over
the second, takes it up. and occupies the vacant square; thus capturing
his ad-ersary as he does in English draughts. But in addition to this
at Polish draughts, he applies the same principle to adverse men placed
behind him ; and he captures them accordingly.

7.—And if there are several of the adveraary’s men with a vacant
white square behind each, the capturing man continues to pass over,
occupies the last vacant square, and takes off all the men over which
he has passed.

8.—When there are many men to take, none must be removed be-
fore the man that captures is placed upon the square where it is to
stop.

9.—The man or queen that takes, not only cannot repags, but on the
contrary must stop on the squares whither it has already passed, and
upon which there is a man or queen that forms part of those he ought
to take, if this man or queen have another behind, even though there
were besides one or more men or queens to take; but the man or
queen placed behind the man that ought to take, has the right of taking
that man or queen, if there be a vacant space.

10.—When there are many men to take, and, in removing them, the
player leaves one or more on the board, from an oversight, the adver-
sary has the right to huff the capturing piece: but he may huff or not
as he chooses. When he does not huff, he obliges the adversary to
take, which the latter can never refuse,

11.—If the player who has the right of huffing, takes up or touches
90 DRAUGRTS.

the man to be huffed, he can no longer oblige it to take, he must huff
it. This rule is founded on the maxim “ touch and play.”

12.—A player who refuses to take, loses the game. ‘This rule is
founded upon the maxim that a refusal to take is a refusal to play :
whoever refuses to play, abandons the game, and ought consequently
to lose it, Hence the saying, ‘‘ whoever leaves the game loses it.”

13.—If a player, having to take on one side only, raises or touches
another man by mistake, then the one which he ought to take, or, if
having to take on several sides, he raises or touches another man than
the one which he ought to take, the adversary may immediately huff
the man that ought to take properly, and oblige him to play the one
he touched.

14.—After playing, the huff does not stand good, if the player who
did not first take, takes at the next move, or if the man which ought
to take has changed its position; but if things remain in the same
state, the player who neglected to huff can return to it, or make him
take, even after several moves, whether he at first perceived or not the
error of his adversary.

15.—The move is held to be finished directly the man is placed or
quitted.

16.—A player is liable to be huffed for taking the smaller number
and weaker pieces, instead of the longer number and stronger pieces.

17,—The greatest number must be taken, when one or more men
may be taken on one sirle, and still more on the other,

18.—The strongest pieces must be taken, when there are an equal
number of men on one side and queens on the other, or a queen anda
man. In such a case, the player must take on the side of the queen
or queens, because a queen is worth more than a man.

19.—Observe, tbat when there are three men to take on one side,
and on the other side a man and a queen, and even two queens, it ig
necessary, to avoid being buffed, to take the three men, because they
exceed the rest in number.

20.—When a man bas reached one of the squares, where it ought to
be crowned, it is covered with another man of the same colour and
called a queen.

21.—The white men become qucens on the squares, one, two, three,
DRAUGHTS 91

four, five ; and the black men on squares forty-six, forty-seven, forty-
eight, forty-nine, and fifty.

22,—It is cot sufficient for a man to pass upon one of the hefore-
mentioned squares, in order to become a queen; it must nemain there
by the termination of the move: thus, ifa men, having reached one
of the squares, has still to take, it must continucits course and remain
a common man.

23.—A queen differs from a common man both in the move and man-
ner of taking. Jt differs in the move, because the common man only
wsoves one step in advance, except in capturing, and takes only from
square to square; whilst the queen can go from ene extremity of the
board to the other, if the passage is free ; that is to say, if in this space
there is no man of the same colour as the queen, or men of different
colour not to be taken, The queen differs from a man in the manner
of taking, because it can, in taking, traverse several squares at a time,
provided they are vacant, or that there are men there of different colour
which may be taken, eo that it can turn to the right and left, and some-

_times make the round of the draught board.

24,—When two equal players remain at the end of the game, one
with three queens, the other with only one, but on the middle line, it
is a drawn game, and must be recommenced.

25.—-When the single queen hag not the middle line, there are many
strokes to win; but as they cannot be forced, and the game must have
an end, it is usually established, that the player of the three queens
shall not oblige his adversary to play more than fifteen moves, and the
latter cannot refuse them, though they should be to the advantage of
the former.

26.—Even when the player with the three queens gives odds, be can
only demand fifteen moves,

27.—But if the odds given consist in the draw, twenty moves are
allowed, after which the game is finished and lost to him, if his adver-
sary haa preserved his queen so long.

28,—In a game where the moves are limited, they cannot be exceed-
ed, under pretence that the stroke which exceeds and wins is a neces-
sary consequence of the preceding move: in such a case, the game ia
iezevocably won, when the last move fixed is played
92 DRAUGHTS,

29.—A moveis not complete till each player has played once: thus,
when the party who has played first, plays the twentieth or twenty-fifth
moves, the twentieth or twenty-fifth move is not complete till the last
player has played the twentieth or twenty-fifth.

30.—When, at the conclusion of a game, a player, who has only one
queen, offers to his adversary, who has a queen and two men, or two
queens and a man, to crown his two men or the man, for the purpose
of counting the limited moves, the latter is obliged to accept the offer,
otherwise the former can leave the game as a draw.

31.—When the player mukes a false move, it remains with his adver-
sary to make him play it in rule, or leave the queen or man on the
squares where they are.

32.—There is no punishment for moving a man that cannot legally
be played.

33.—In the same way, it is no fault to play one of your adversary’s
men, because you have not the right of dving so; and in such @ case
you would not be liable to be buffed if you had to take; the reason
heing that, to give the right of huffing, the man must be touched that
can he played.

34.—When a player gives another the half, the third, or the fourt
of the draw, or of a man, the two players must play two, three, or four
games to perform this agreement: these two, three, or four games are
in this case properly only one: thus, if the revenge is given, the aame
bumber of games must be again played.

35.—A game must be played out, or he who leaves it without the
consent of his adversary, loses it.

36.—In the event of any dispute about a move, it must be decided
by the spectators who are in no way interested in the game, and the
players are obliged to conform to their decision.

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON POLISH DRAUGRTS.

When one of the players is reduced to a queen, and the other has
only three common men, there is no forced stroke by which the latter
can win: therefore, among players of equal force, there are generally
drawn games, because the attack has no advantage over the defence ;
but, between the two players, oue of whom is superior to the other,
DRAUGRTS, 93

{t is different; for, though there is no certain stroke to win the game
for the player with the three queens, there are many into which his
adversary may fall, if he does not know them. For the latter, Ma-
noury, in his celebrated treatise on Polish draughts has laid down the
positions and moves that must be avoided not to lose the game.

When one party at the end of a game has a queen and a man against
hree queens, the best way is to sacrifice the man es soon as possible,
because the game is more easily defended with the queen alone.

Man for man, is forcing your adversary to take one or more men,
or one or more queens, in order to place yourself in a position after-
wards to take from him the same number of men or queens that he
took from you.

Tt is by these changes that good players parry strokes and prepare
them: if the game is embarrassed, they open it by giving man for
man, or two for two. Ifa dangerous stroke is in preparation, they
avoid is by giving man for man. If it requisite to strengthen the
weak side of your game, it may be managed by exchanging. If you
wish to acquire an advantageous position, a well managed exchange
will produce it. Finally, it is by exchanges, that one man frequently
keeps many confined, and that the game is eventually won. The
“ coup de repos’’ is a position in which one of the players has to take
several times suonessively, and the other as many moves to make
freely and unimpeded. Whilst the firat player makes his captures,
the other arranges his men so as to make a stroke that his adversary
cannot prevent; or he places himself behind one more men to be taken.
This is called the “coup de repos,” because the man of the second
player, which is behind those of his adversary, or is about to make
the stroke, is, in a manner in repose, waiting for the time of action.

The ‘‘coup de repos” is generally the consequence of too much
hurry on the part of the adversary, who, seeing a man to be taken,
places himself behind, and finds himself compelled to take, and thus
gives his adversary time to form an advantageous plan, the execution
of which cannot be prevented. It sometimes, however, happens, that
the ‘‘ coup de repos” is produced by the skill of the player.

When two men of one player are so placed that there is an empty
square behind each, and a vacant square between them, where his ad-
94 DRAUGHTS.

versary can piace himself, it is called ‘‘ tue sunette.” In this situation,
one of the men must necessarily be taken, because they cannot both
be Played, nor escape at the same time.

‘he lunette frequently offers several men to be taken on both sides.
As it is most frequently a snare laid by a skilful player, it must be
regarded with suspicion ; for it is not to be supposed that the ad-
versary exposes himself to lose one or more for nothing, Therefore,
before entering the lunette, look at your adversary’s position, and
then calculate what you yourself would do in a similar game.

It is sufficient to have given the rules of the game, without enter-
ing into any Jong developments, which would be useless, for the man-
ner of playing the game well depends upon the intelligence of the
players, the combinations of the moves, and the various positions of
the queens and men: upon these points it is impossible to give certain
rules : time and experience will be more useful in teaching how to
play well at this game than a long vocabulary of moves and situations.

We now take leave of draughts with a word of advice to players in
general. When you have the good fortune to obtain a victory, never
wse any triumphing or insulting expression to your adversary. If you
are a spectator of the play of others, remember that all taiking to
players lessens or diverts their attention. And, lastly, if you are de-
feated, do not be discouraged, let it stimulate you to fresh exertion,
aud by attention you will eventually become

The Congueror.


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DOMINOES.

Domrnoers is played by two or four persons, with twenty-eight pieces
of oblong ivory, plain at the back, but on the face divided by a black
line in the middle, and indented with spots from one to double six ;
which pieces are a double b'ank, ace and blank, double-ace, deuce-
blank, deuce-ace, double-deuce, trois-biank, trois-ace, trois-deuce,
double-trois, and so on to double-sixes ; and if small pieces of card are
cut with these numbers upon them, they would answer the purpose
quite as well as the ivory men, or cards as they are improperly called.
At the commencement of the game, the men or cards are shuffled
with thei faces on the table, each person draws one, and if four play,
those who choose the two highest are partners, against those who
choose the two lowest ; drawing the latter, also, serves to determine
who is to lay duwn the ‘first piece, which is reckoned a great advantage.
Afterwards each player takes seven pieces at random. The eldest
96 DOMINOES.

hand having laid down one, the next must pair him at either end of
the piece he may choose, according to the number of spots, and if he
has a double he should get rid of this double as early as possible, es-
pecially if it is a high one. If the player has matched one, he may
go on again and match that at the other end, or match the outward
number of the man he has himself put down if he can, and so on, till
he can match no more; the next player then tries his chance in like
manner, and gets rid of as many of his pieces as he can, but if a play.
er cannot at any time play a man which will match one end or tlie
other of the row, he calls go, and the next player bears his men if he
can. When neither player is enabled to match the outer ones on the
table, the game is said to be blocked ; then he wins who has the least
number of spots left on the men still in his hand.

Sometimes when two persons play, they take each only seven pieces
and agree to play or draw, that is, when one cannot come in or pair
with the pieces on the board at the end unmatched, he is to draw from
the fourteen pieces still in stock, till he finds one to suit.


BACKGAMMON. 3

Tue game of backgammon is played by two persons, with a bor
and dice, upon a table divided into two parts, or rather four, two
, inner and two outer tables,

upon which there are
twelve black and twelve
white points, marked al-
ternately. Each of the
players has fifteen men
like those for draughts,
black and white, ofcourse,
each player has one co-
flour only. These men
are arranged on the table
thus: If you play into
the right hand table, two
of your men are placed
upon the ace point in your
adversary’s inner table.
Thus, if we suppose that
the player of the black
men sits towards that side
of the board which is iu the above cut nearest to the bottom of the
page, two of his men would be placed upon the first point across the
board, and to the right hand, for this would be his adversary’s ace
point, the next would be his deuce point, &c., and all this part of
the board would be called his inner table, while the nearest to your-
self wouldl be your inner table, and the two parts of the board which
are to the player of the black on his left hand, that is one on each
side of the board, are called the outer tables. But to proceed to the
placing of the men,—after two are placed upon your adversary’s ace
point, five others are to be placed upon the sixth point in his outer

=
=

LANA pons 7

1
i


98 BACKGAMMON.

table, three more upon the cinque point in your own outer table, and
the remaining five in the sixth point in your own inner table ; and the
adversaries men are to be so placed as to correspond with yours, in a
direct opposite position, as seen in the representation. The manner
of playing the game is, for each player to throw alternately the two
dice from a dice box and according to the numbers the dice show, he
is to play his men towards his own table, bringing the distant ones all
the way round from whence they are first placed or happen afterwards
to stand. And you must remember in doing so, always to cover a
man which is on any point with another man, if possible, or else that
man will be liable to be taken by the adversaries and puf up ; that is,
put in the middle between the tables, and before you can play any
other man you must get that man so put up again into your adversary’s
table, and if your adversary’s table should be filled up at those points
which you throw next, that is, shall have two men on each of the
points you throw, you cannot get him in at all, and therefore lose
your turn till your adversary has had another move, when you may
try again, go also you can never move a man to a point which is al-
ready occupied by two of your adversary’s men, though you may fill
up the points where your own men are as much as you please; and if
your adversary has a blot, that is, a point with one man only, you
may, if you can, take him up and pass on, or occupy the point your-
self. Thus you are to get all your men in your own table, and when
they are there you are to take them off, one or two at a time, accor-
ding to the throws you have, observing, that you have the liberty to
play forwards instead of take off if you like, and if you cannot take
off a man and can play one, you must do so. If you get all your
men off before your adversary gets any off, you are said to sammon
him, or gain a gammon, but if you merely get your men off first, you
gain a hit. When pairsare thrown, you play one of them four times,
thus, if you throw deuces, you play deuce four times, either the same
man through eight spaces, or several men a less number each, 80 a8 to
make the whole number eight. The grand object is to bring the men
round into your own inner table; consequently, all throws that tend
to this, and impede your adversary in executing the same design on
his part, are in your favour; consequently, all throws that tead to
BACKGAMMON, 99

this, and impede your adversarsary in executing the same design on
his part, are in your favour; while the contrary success of your oppo-
nent must of course be against you. The first most advantageou
throw is aces ; and if you should throw aces, you must play two of
your men to the sixth point of your outer table, and two others from
the sixth point of your inner table, to the cinque point of the same,
so that your adversary’s two men upon your ace point cannot escape,
with his throwing either quatre, cinque, or six. Accordingly, this
throw is often given and asked, between players of unequal skill, by
way of odds,

If you play three up, your principal object in the first place, is
either to secure your own or your adversary’s cinque point; when this
is effected, you may play a pushing game, and endeavour to gammon
your adversary.

The next best point, after you have gained your cinque point, is
to make your Jar point, that is, the one next out of your inner table,
and which is called the sieze point of your outer table, although it
stands next to the sieze point of your inner table; this prevents your
adversary running away with two sixes.

After you have proceeded thus far, prefer making the quatre or
fourth point in your own inner table, rather than the quatre point out
of it. Having gained these points, you have a fair chance of gam-
moning your adversary, if he be very forward; for suppose his table
to be broken at home, it will then be your interest to open your bar
point, to oblige him to come out of your table with a six; and hav-
ing your wen spread, you not only may catch that man which your
adversary brings out of your table, but will also have a probability of
taking up the man leftin your table, upon supposition that he had two
men there. And if he should have a blot at home, it will then be
your interest not to make up your table; because, if he should enter
upona blot, which you are to make for the purpose, you will havea .
probability of getting a third man, which, if accomplished, will give
you a chance of at least four to one of the gammon ; whereas, if you
have only two of his men up, the odds are that you do not gammon
him. If you play for a hit only, one or two men of your adversary’s
taken up, render it more certain than if you have a greater number.
100 BACKGAMMON,

If your adversary be greatly before you, never playa man from your
quatre, trois, or deuce-points, in order to bear that man from the point
where you put it, because nothing but high doublets can give you any
chance for the hit; therefore instead of playing an ace or a deuce from
any of the aforesaid points, always play them from your highest point ;
by which means, throwing two fives, or two fours, will, upon having
eased your six and cinque points, be of great advantage; whereas had
your sixth point remained loaded, you must perhaps be obliged to play
at Jength those fives and tours.

Whenever you have taken up two of your adversary’s men and
happen to have two, three, or more points made in. your own table,
never fail spreading your men, either to take a new point in your
table, or to hit the man your adversary may happen to enter. As
soon as he enters one, compare his game with yours, and if you find
your game equal, or Letter, take the man if you can, because the
chances are twenty-five to eleven against his hitting you ; which being
so much in your favor, you ought always to run that risk, when you
have already two of his men up; except you play for a single hit only,
and playing that throw otherwise, gives you a better chance for the
hit, then do not take up that man.

Never be deterred from taking up any one man of your adversary
by the apprehension of being hit with double dice, because the fairest
probability is five to one against them. If you should happen to have
five points in your table, and to have taken up one of your adversary’s
men, and are obliged to leave a blot out of your table, rather leave it
upon doublets than any other, because doublets are thirty-five to one
against his hitting you, and any other chance is seventeen to one
against him.

Two of your adversary’s men in your table are better for a hil than
any greater number, provided your game be the forwardest, because
three or more men in your table gives him greater chance of hitting
you than if he had only two men.

If you are to have a blot upon entering a man in your adversary’s
table, and bave a choice where, always choose that point which is most
disadvantageous to him. To illustrate this, it is his interest to hit or
take you up, as soon as you enter; in that case leave the blot upon
BACKGAMMON. 101

his lowest point, that is to say, upon his deuce rather than his trois,
and so on, because all the men your adversary plays upon his trois or
his deuce points, are in a great ineasure out of play, these men not
having it in their power to make his cinque point, and consequently
his game will be crowded there and open elsewhere, whereby you will
be able also much to annoy him.

Prevent your adversary from bearing his men to the greatest advan-
tage, when you are running to save a gammon; suppose you should
have two men upon his ace point, and several others abroad, though
you should lose one point or two in putting your men into your table,
yet it is your interest to leave a man upon your adversary’s ace point
which will prevent him bearing his men to the greatest advantage, and
will also give you the change of his making a blot which you may hit.
But if upon calculation you find that you have a throw, or a probability
of saving your gammon, never wait for a blot, because the odds are
greatly against his hitting it.

LAWS OF BACKGAMMON,.

1.—If you take a man or men from any point, that man or men
must be played.

2.—You are not understood to have played any man till it is placed
on a point and quitted.

3.—If you play with fourteen men only, there is no penalty atten.
ding it, because with a less number you play to a disadvantage, by
not baving the additional man to make up your tables.

4,—If you bear any number of men before you have entered a man
taken up, and which consequently you are obliged to enter, such mer
so borne must be entered again in your adversary’s table, as well as
the man taken up.

5.—If you have mistaken your throw, and played it, and your adver-
sary have thrown, it is not in the power of either of you to alter it,
without the consent of both of you.

6.—If you have taken off all your men, and your adversary has not
taken any off, you have gained the gammon, although he may have all
bis men in his table ready to take off.
102 FOX AND GEESE

FOX AND GEESE.

Tuts game is played on a board, marked as in the cut below. Fifteen

— men, the same as those
in draughts, either all of
one colour or twelye being
of one colour and three of
another, compose the flock
of Geese. The Fox may
either be two draught men
placed one upon another,
or else any convenient
and small object which
may beat hand. The fox
is to be placed in the mid-
dle of the board, and the
geese on the points on
one side of it, as seen in
the cut. The game is to
confine the fox to some
spot on the board, so that there shall be either the edge of the
board or else two rows of men round him, in every direction. When
he cannot move out, the game is done, but if one of the geese is left
uncovered, that is, left next to the fox, and is not supported by
another goose behind, or by the edge of the board, the fox can take
the goose, and jumping over his head, to the next space, he can,
perhaps, escape from confinement, and if so, he may also escape the
persecutions of some of the geese, all of whom are obliged to move
forwards to the at first unocupied end of the board. If the fox can
escape from behind his enemies, or can take s0 many of them that
there is not enough left to drive him to a corner, he-wins the game.
The fox is allowed to move any way along the lines, either backwards,
forwards, or cornerwise ; the geese move forwards, either straight or


FOX AND GEESE. — 103

cornerwise, and both parties move only one space atatime. It mus
be agreed before hand, whether the fox is to be obliged to take, whe.
ther he would or would not; if he ought to take and does not, he is
buffed, and one of the geese which has been taken is restored to the
back of the board, but the fox does not lose his move by so neglecting
to take. Some persons only allow the fox to take cornerwise, but
this scarcely allows him the least chance.

If itis for the fox to play first, he should move sideways, and always
avoid, if possible, getting into the lower square of the beard. If it
is for the goose to play first, let him play either of the lower ones
sideways, and when attacked, let him bring the lower corner ones
down to support these, and at all time to remember, that unless you
have a particular object in view, it is better to move a man sideways
than downwards. Also, the four corners, where the five squares meet
each other, are strong positions, and unless the surrounding squares
are well filled, the fox must not be allowed to enter either of them,
A sheet of paper, properly ruled, is a very good substitute for a board.


04 MORRICE OR BUMBLE PUPPY

MORRICE OR BUMBLE PUPPY.

Tus game is very amusing, and is to be played by two boys or girls.
It is in truth an improvement upon the game played on the slate of
noughts and crosses, or tit, tat,
toe. Amorrice board is repre-
sented in the cut, and may be
drawn out on a sheet of paper
or the cover of a book, and the
men used are the same as
draught men, and nine of each
colour are wanted to begin with.
When you begin the game, each
party takes his own men to him-
self, and there are none onthe
board at that time, but the
players place them on one at a
time, playing alternately, and
then move them about and take
off the opponent’s men, one at
a time, whenever you can make up a row of three complete, in a straight
line. The men are only to be moved one space at a time, and always
according to the lines on the board. We will suppose that there are
two players whom we will call Arthur and Ben. Arthur has the white
men and Ben the black men, first Arthur puts a man on the corner
space, because a corner always belongs to three rows, the row, corner-
wise being reckoned as one. Then Ben plays a black man, also at a
corner. Then Arthur a white one on a space next to the first man so
that he will have a row of two, now the object of Ben is to prevent
him completing that row next move, so that he would place a black
man on that third point, so that Arthur is baffled. Perhaps Ben may
now have two black men in the same row and thus Arthur would have
to play a white, to prevent Ben making up, and thus it goes on till all


MORRICE OR BUMBLE PUPPY. 105

the eighteer! men are placed upon the board. Then each one must
play a man one space, as it comes to his turn, and if ix doing so he
can make ia row of three complete, or if he can make a row complete
while putting his men on the board, he is entitled to take one of his
opponent’s men, which one he pleases, but he must not if he can help
it take a ‘man which forms part of a complete row, but of course he
would choose to take such an one as would prevent his opponent
making a row next move, or if he cannot take such a man, he will take
one which will enable him to complete another row when if is his turn
to move next. Thus the game goes on, until one of the players has but
two men left, when he loses the game, for it is impossible thus to gain
a row, while the adversary having three men may easily do £0.




A little fight,

Where kings, and knights, and soldiers, all engage,
From morn till night,

The puny mimic war would like fierce lions rage.

As asedendary amusement, the noble game of chess stands pre-emi-
nently distinguished above all others, for its fascinating and ate
tractive qualities. Itis the most ancient and most universal game
known among men ; its origin is beyond the memory of history, and
it has for numberless ages been the amusement of all the civilized
nations of Asia, the Persians, the Indians, and the Chinese., It has
been asserted that it was first played at the siege of Troy, and that it
was invented by Palamades, to amuse the Grecian chiefs, disgusted
with the tediousness of the siege.
CHESS 307

The game of chess has been practiced in Hindostan for many ages,
and therefore, on the authorities of Sir William Jones and Dr. Hyde,
the invention of the game is most generally ascribed to the natives of
India; and it is stated to have been brought into Europe by the
Persians and Arabs. Mr. Irving has given the following account of
its origin, from an ancient Chinese manuscript:—“ Three hundred
and seventy years after the time of Confucious, Hung Cochee, King
of the Ciangnan, sent an expedition into the Shensi country, under
the command of a mandarin, named Hensing, in order to conquer it.
After one unsuccessful campaign, the soldiers were put into winter
quarters, where, finding the weather much colder than they had been
accustomed to, arid being besides deprived of their wives and families,
the army became impatient of their situation, and clamorous to return
home. Hensing, upon this, resolved in his own mind the bad con-
sequences of complying with their wishes ; the necessity of soothing
his troops, and reconciling them to their position, appeared urgent,
with a view to his operations the ensuing year. He was a man of
genius, as well as a good soldier; and having contemplated for some
time on the subject, he invented the game of chess, as well for an
amusement for his men in their vacant hours, as to inflame their mili.
tary ardour; the game being founded wholly on the principles of
war. The stratagem succeeded to his wish; the soldiery were de-
lighted with the divertion, and forgot in their daily contests for vie-
tory, the inconvenience of their posts.”

From the numerous paintings on the walls of their temples, repre-
senting persons engaged in the game, it is evident that chess was
known to the ancient Egyptians ; chess-men of very primitive form
have been found at Thebes, several of which may be seen in the Egyp-
tian room of the British Museum ; but whether the game was invented
by the Egyptians, or introduced into their country by traders from the
East, is doubtful.

After all, we have no satisfactory proofs by whom it was invented,
but the inventor must have been a man of profound thought. Like
the problems of Euclid, it bas been without a rival for centuries, and,
like them, it isas much admired to-day as it was a thousand years
108 CHESS,

ago. Europe has had it more than a thousand years, and the Span-
iards have spread it over their part of America.

Chess was most probably introduced into England in the latter end
of the tenth century, as we find Etheric went to King Canute, upon
some extremely pressing business, he found him tnd hie courtiers
deeply enzaged at play, some busy at dice, and others at Chess. It
is traditionally reported, that William the Conqueror’ was fond of the
game. The Crusades made chess more popular thar. it bad ever before
been ; and in the eleventh century it was well know. In_the reign
of Henry II. according to Gervase of Tilbury, the co urt of Exchequer
received its name from the cloth spread in the court being chequered
after the manner of la chess.board. In the reign of Edward IV.,
chess was undoubtedly a favourite game, if we maj’ judge from the
circumstance that a treatise upon it was published by Caxton, in 1474;
and which is worthy of especial remembrance, from its being the first
book ever printed in England. Queen Elizabeth was a chess- player ;
and her successor, James I., styled the game a philosophic folly,
Charles I., -vas engaged at chess when he was informed that the Scots
had finally determined upon selling him to the English : but he coolly
finished the game without betraying any discomposure.

The game of Chess is not merely an idle amusement, several valuable
qualities of the mind, useful in the course of human life, are to be ac-
quired and strengthened, so as to become habits ready on all occa-
sions ; for life isa kind of chess, in which we liave often points to gain,
and eompetitors and adversaries to contend with, andin which there is
a vast variety of good and evil intents that are in some degree the effects
of prudence or the want of it. In chess, nothing is governed by chance ;
judgment is everything: a player, thefore, cannot lay the blame of
looking on his fortune, but must ascribe his losses to deficiency of
judgment, or inattention. By playing at chess we may learn, firstly,
foresight, which Jooks a little into futurity, and considers the conse-
quences that may attend an action, for it is continually recurring to a
player, if I move this piece, what may be the advantages of my new
situation ? Secondly, we may learn circumspeciion, which signifies
to look all round; and thus the cautious player surveys the whole
chess-board, the relative positions of the several pieces, the dangers
CHESs, 109

they are respectively exposed to, the several possibilities of their aiding
«ach other, the probabilities that their adversaries will take this or that
move, and attack this or the other piece, and what different means can
be taken to avoid his stroke, or turn its consequence against him.
Thirdly, we learn deliberation, in the exercise of which the player must
not make his moves too hastily. This habit is best acquired by strictly
observing the laws of the game, such as,—If you touch a piece, you
must move it somewhere; if you set it down you must let it stand;
and it is therefore best that these rules should be observed, as the game
thereby becomes more the image of human life, and particularly of war,
in which, if you heve incautiously put yourself into a bad and dangerous
position, you cannot obtain your enemy's leave to withdraw your troops
and place them more securely, but you must abide all the consequences
of your rashness. Lastly, we learn by chess the habit of not being
discouraged by present bad appearances in the state of our affairs, the
habit of hoping for a favourable change, and that of persevering in the
search for resources. The game is so full of events, there is such a
variety of turns in it, the fortune of it is so subject to sudden vicissi.
tudes, and we so frequently, after long contemplation, discover the
means of extricating ourselves from a supposed insurmountable diffi-
culty, that we are encouraged to continue the contest to the last, in
hopes of victory by our own skill, or at least of getting a stale mate by
the negligence of our adversary. And whoever considers that success
is apt to produce presumption, and its consequent inattention, by which
our own loss may be recovered, will learn not to be too much discour-
aged by the present success of his opponent, nor to despair of final
good fortune upon every little check he receives in pursuit of it.

That we may therefore be induced more frequently to choose this
beautiful amusement in preference to others which are not attended
with the same advantages, every circumstance which may increase the
pleasure of it should be regarded, and every action or word that is un-
fair, disrespectful, or that in any way may give uneasiness, should be
avoided, as contrary to the immediate attention of both the players,
which is to pags the time agreeable. Therefore, first, if it is agreed to
play according to strict rules, then these rules are to be exactly ob-
served by both parties, and should not be insisted on for one side,
110 CHESS,

while deviated from by the other, for this is not equitable. If it fa mot
agreed to observe the rules exactly, but one party demands indulgences,
he should then be as willing to allow them to the other. No false
moves should be made to extricate yourself out of difficulty, or to gain
an advantage; there can be no pleasure in playing with a person once
detected in such unfair practices. If your adversary is long in play-
ing, you ought not to hurry him, or in any way express uneasiness at
his delay. You ought not to endeavour to deceive your adversary by
pretending to have made bad moves, and saying that you have now
lost the game, in order to make him secure and careless, and inatten-
tive to your schemes, for this is fraud and deceit, and not skill in the
game. Ifyou are an observer of the play of others, keep the most per-
fect silence, for if you give advice, you may displease both parties ; bim
against whom you gave it, because it may cause him the loss of the
game ; him in whose favour you gave it, becauseifit be good and he
follows it, he looses the pleasure he might have had if you had per-
mitted him to think until it had occurred to him. Even after a move
or moves, you must not by replacing the pieces, show how it might
have been played better, for that displeases, and may occasion disputes
and doubts about their true situation. If you have a mind to exercise
or show your judgement, do it in playing your own game, where you
have an opportunity, not in criticizing, or meddling with, or councell-
ing the play of others. If the game is not to be played rigourously,
according to the rules, then moderate your desire of victory over your
adversary, Snatch not eagerly at every advantage offered by his un-
skillfulness or inattention, but point out to him kindly, that by such a
move he places or leaves a piece in danger and unsupported; that by
another he will put his king in a perilous situation ; and by this gene-
rous civility though you may bappen to lose your game to your oppo-
nent, you will win his esteem, his respect, hia affection, together
with the silent approbation and good-will of impartial spectators.

THE BOARD AND MEN.

The chess-board is a square board divided into sixty-four compart-
ments, chequered alternately black and white. The rows of squares
CHESS, {il

running from one player to the other are termed files; those crossing
from left to right, ranks, and the lines from corner to corner, diagonals



PAWN KNIGHT QUEEN KING CASTL BISHOP

Each player has sixteen pieces or men; of these, eight are pawns»
two castles, two knights, two*bishops, one a queen, and one a king-
The pieces are usually made of bone or ivory, of opposite colours, on® .
set being perfectly white, and the other stained red, or black. The
chess-men are generally represented by the figures seen in the cut

above.
pieces, we here give a re-
7 ae
The white king must be
ep ao > 7 or red king upon the white
; am 23 By x square at the other end of
the fifth, (60) a white
os Es
upon the -fourth (4), a
na 50 60 | I]
+f € iS.




waU



The chess-board should be so placed that each player has a white
square at the right hand corner. For the convenience of placing the
presentation of a c ess-
board properly numbered.
y Bl i hs

10 | 16 | placed upon the back
iE E2 MT Ey a 23 | [Yaa spuare marked 61 at one
% es. men end of the board, the black
me ora the board marked (3)
33 ah 35 | 3D ee 39 | Gum opposite to the other. The
white queen must be open

Os
square, one the left of her
king. The black queen
ae black square, on the right
of her king. The bishops
112 . CHESS, %

must be placed on each side of their king and queen; 59 and 62 for
the white, 3 and 6 for the black. The knights on each side of the
bishops ; the white on 58 and 63, the black on 2 and 7. The rooks,
in the two corners of the board, next to the knights; 57 and 64 of the
white, 1 and 8 of the black; and the eight pawns, or common men,
upon the eight squares of the second line: the white on 49 to 56, and
the black as 9 to 16 inclusive. When the learner has arranged the
pieces in the foregoing order, it will be well to compare the chess-board
with the accompanyng diagram, which shows the men in the order they
ought to be set. Beginners are frequently at a loss to remember the
Haw Squares occu-
i \ -\ pied bythe two

NY s

TUN NEN Ss royal = pieces ;
SEG :
N \ who bears in

| ‘\ N & but the learner

\ . = ind the sim-
\ WS NK mind t
po ple law that the



i
Na

queen stands
on her own
colour cannot
err. The bish-
op, knight,
and castle are
styled after the
party near
which they
stand: thus-
the bishop’s
knight, and
castle, next to
the king, are
called the
king’s bishop, king’s knight, and king’s castle, whilst those on the
queen’s side are called after her. The pawns are supposed to belong
to the pieces before which they stand : for instance, the pawn in front
of the king is termed the king’s pawn, the next to it the king’s bishops,

od

\
® CHESS. -- 4-3

pawn ; adjoining that, the king’s knights pawn, and the king’s castle’s
pawn ; and so likewise of the pawns before the queen and her followers.

The rank which the pieces occupy, is sometimes called the royal
line, and theeight squares which compose it are called by the names
of the pieces occupying them at the commencement of the game: such
as King’s squares ; i.e., the square whereon the king is first placed,
and the square retains this name througout the whole of the game,
whether the king occupies it or not. The same remark applies to all
the other squares of the royal line.

The files are algo named according to the pieces occupying the first
square in each file. Thus king’s rook’s square, is the first of the king’s
rook’s file: king’s rock’s pawn” occupies the king’s rook’s second
square. King’s rook’s third, fourth, fifth, and sixth square are un-
occupied ; king’s rook’s seventh is your adversary’s king’s rook’s
second square, and is occupied by his king’s rook’s pawn. Your king’s
rook’s eight square where that piece is now af home, as it is sometimes
called, when the pieces have not been moved, or having been moved,
is played back to its square. .

Thus, all the files are named, and this easy method gives a name to
every one of the sixty-four squares, and is equally available for your
antagonist as well as for yourself.

In order to perfect himself in the particulars, the learner will not
do amiss in playing over the following exercises. Remove all your
white pawn’s from the board, and all your adversary’s pieces, and
then :—

1. Place your king’s bishop on your king’s rook’s third square.

But it will be desirable to write our instructions in the shortest pos-
sible manner; we shail, therefore, use that kind of chess notation which
is now very common and very convenient, The exercise just given
would be intelligible to any chess player if simply written thus :—

K. B. to K. R. 3rd

2. Play your queen to her eighth square :

Q. th Q. 8th, or

Q. to adv. Q.,
#, @., queen to adversary’s queen’s square.
114 CHESS,

3. Play your queen’s knight to your queen’s bishop’s third square
Q. Kt. to Q. B. 3rd.

4. Play your king to his bishop’s second square :
K. to K. B. 2nd.

5. Place your king’s biehop on your queen’s rook’s sixth square :
K. B. to Q. R. 6th.

6. Place your queen on the king’s knight’s fourth square :

Q. to K. Kt. 4th
Although the learner may not yet know the moves of the pieces, he
will be quite competent to perform these exercises.

THE KING.

As the chief personage in the game, and free from all chance of cap-
ture, the kingis beyond all price. The king is allowed the shortest
move of the rook and the shortest
move of the bishop, but not both at
once. Place your king on his square;
he can then move to any of the follow-
ing squares: K. B. square, Q. sq uare,
K. B. 2nd square. But if we place
the king on one of the central squares,
his power to move is increased. Place
your K, on his fourth square; he then
commands K. 3rd and Sth squares,
2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th squares, and K.
B. 3rd, 4th, and 5th squares, Although
the king’s power is limited at the com-
mencement, it increases considerably
towards thelatterendof the game. The
opposing kings can never get nearer to
each other than the distance of a knight’s
move. The figureof theking, and the
figures of the pieces which follo w,
are from the designs of Flaxman.


CHESS, vy il5
THE QUEEN.

The queen unites in herself the moves of the bishop and the rook.
She is the most powerful and valuable of all the
pieces, being worth twelve pawns, or three
minor pieces, at the beginning of the game; but
as, towards the end, the power of the other pieces
rise, her importance is then somewhat lessened.
The queen may move backward, forward, diago-
nally and sideways. Place your queen on his
square, she can move four squares to the right,
three squares to the left; she commands seven
squares of the queen’s file, a diagonal to the
left of three white squares, and a diagonal to
the right of four white squares.

THE ROOK OR CASTLE,

This piece is next in value to the queen. It is
equal to five pawns or a bishop and two pawns,
and is the only piece which keeps its full value
as it approaches the side of the board. The rook
and queen are the only pieces which can singly give check-mate. ‘The
moves of the rook are straight forwards, backwards, or across, but never
in the diagonals ; and it may move over any number of squares to take
a piece, provided nothing interrupt it. At the commencement of the
game, this piece can be played to your adversary’s king’s rook’s square,
which square is the same as your K. R. 8th, or it may be played
to your Q. R. square, from thence to Q. R. 8th square, thence to K.
R. 8th, and so home again, thus taking four moves to go along all four
sides of the board. ‘The rook may also take a short as well as a long
move. Hts shortest move is one square forwards or backwards, or one
square to the right, or one square to the left. In its present position
it can neither move backwacds nor to the right, because it is at home;
and so also the queen’s rook, when at home, can neither move back-
wards nor to the left: but place either rook on any but a rook’s file,
and you will find that it can move in three different directions place


116 CiTESS.

K. R. on K. square, and you will find that it commands four squares
on the left, three squares to the right, and all the seven squares in the
king’s file. Still in this position the rook cannot move backwards.
But place K. R. on Q, 4th square, and you will find that it can now
move backwards, but although it can move in four different directions,
it does not command a larger number of squares than before. Re-
member that a piece is said to command a certain number of squares
only when they are unoccupied. If, for example, your K. R. pawn be
at K. R. 2nd square, the rook has no power whatever in a forward
direction, but only to the left, where it commands seven squares; but
if we place the K. Kt. at its square, the K. R. has no power whatever
to move, and commands nothing. Remember also that a piece does
not command or defend the square on which it actually stands, but
only those squares to which it can be moved.

THE BISHOP.

This piece is worth about three pawns and a half, but the king’s
bishop is of more value than the
queen’s, inasmuch as he can check
the opposing king on his own square,
or after he has castled. Towards the
end of the game, two bishops are of
more power than two knights, as they
can check-mate, which the knights
cannot, though one bishop is not so
strong as one knight; during the
progress of a game, however, the
knights are more useful. The move
of the bishop is always diagonel or
oblique. Your king’s bistop being
on a white square, must always re-
main on that colour, because it cannot
by any oblique move pass to a black
square. The queen’s bishop is on a
black square, and remains on that
colour during the whole of the game.


CHESS. 117

Play your K. B. to K. R. 3rd, thence to your Q. B, 8th, thence to
your Q. R. 6th, and thence home again. Soalso play your Q. B. to
Q. R. 3rd, thence to your adversary’s K. B., thence to your K. R.
6th, and thence home again, Play your K. B. to K. Kt. 2nd, thence
to K. R. square, thence to your adversary’s Q. R. This last move
is the longest stride the bishop can take. Perform a similar exercise
with your Q, B.

When the two bishops are at tiome, they each command seven
squares. But play K. B. to Q. B. 4th square, or Q. B. to K. B. 4th
square, and you will find their power to be greatly increased, each
bishop commanding eleven squares. The bishop has the same privi-
lege as the rook of moving through many squares or few, or of moving
- Only one square.

THE KNIGHT.

This piece is of equal value with the bishop. The knight is tne
most remarkable of all the pieces ; it is
the only one that has the privilege of
moving over the other pieces, and this
it often does, under the guidance of a
good player, in a remarkable manner,
threading its way safely through its own
and the enemy’s ranks until it can form
an attack on some distinguished piece,
or mar an ingenious plot of the adver-
sary. This piece is not only difficult to
play well, but difficult also to resist, so
that it is a deserved favourite among
skilful players. The move of the knight
consists of the shortest rook’s move and
the shortest bishop’s move, both at once.
For example, place your king’s knight at
home; he can move to K. R. 3rd square
¢. e., from K. Kt. square to K. Kt. 2nd, the shortest rook’s move,
and from K. Kt. 2nd to K. R. 3rd, the shortest bishop’s move, and


118 CHESS.

from thence to K. R. 3rd, the shortest rook’s move. Wherever we
can combine the shortest move, of the rook with the shortest move of
th «bishop, the knight can be played, provided the square to which you
wish to play him be not unoccupied by one of your own pieces or pawns.
But if such square be occupied by a piece or pawn of your adversary,
the knight can capture it, When your K. Kt. is at home, he can be
played to your K, 2nd square, or to K. B. 3rd square, or to K, R. 3rd
square ; but when the knight gets to the middle of the board bis power
is wonderfully increased. Place him on your K. 4th, for example, and
you will find that he ean be played to any one of eight squares,

See
if you can find out these squares, and writ

e down their names correctly.
Should you find any diffi-
culty in remembering the
knight’s move, the following
exercise will fix it in your
memory. Itis one of those ~
numerbus solutions of the pro-
blem which requires the knight
to be played to the sixty-four
squares of the chess board in
sixty-four leaps without twice
touching any one square.

The problem to which the
annexed diagram is the solution
is as follows :—Begin the tour
of the knight on king’s bishop’s
square, and end on Q. R.
square. The player will by this exercise become acquainted with the
singular pecularities of the move of this piece.



THE PAWN.

The lowest piece in value, the pawn can only attack two points at
a time, and but one if on the files at the edge of the board.

Its move
is straight forward, one square at a time, and thence it never

deviates. from the file on which it: is first planted, unless it captures a
piece, in which case it moves diagonally, similar to the bishops
CHESS. 119

but limited to the adjoining front row of
squares. Each Pawn is allowed to move
either one or two steps forward at its firat
move, after which it can only move one step.
Your rooks’ pawns command only one square
each, viz., K.or Q. Kt. third; the other six
pawns command each two squares. Remem-
ber that all the pieces can be played as
well backwards as forwards, to the right or
to the left; but the pawn hasa forward move
only; it can never retreat from danger like
the other pieces, but continues to advance
until it reaches your adversary’s royal line,
when it is entitled to a reward which none
of the pieces can claim: it is immediately
promoted to the rank of a queen, ora rook, or a bishop, or a knight,
as you may desire.



THE LAWS OF CHESS.

1.—The Chess-board must be so placed that each player has a white
corner square nearest his right hand. If the board have been impro-
perly placed, it must be adjusted,*provided four moves on each side
have not been played, but not afterwards.

2.—If a piece or pawn be misplaced at the beginning of the game,
either player may insist upon the: mistake being rectified, if he dis-
cover it before playing his fourth move, but not afterwards.

3.—Should a player at the commencement of the game, omit to
place all his men on the board, he may correct the omission before
playing his fourth move, but not afterwards.

4.—If a player, undertaking to give the odds of a piece or pawn,
neglect to remove it from the board, his adversary, after four moves
have been played on each side, has the choice of proceeding with or
recommencing the game. |

5.—When no odds are given, the players must take the first move
of each game alternately, drawing lots to determine who shall begin
120 CHESS,

the first game. If a game be drawn, the player who began it has the
first move of the following one.

The player who gives odds, has the right of moving first in each
game, unless otherwise agreed. Whenever a pawn is given, it is un-
derstood to be always the king’s bishop’s pawn.

7. A piece or pawn touched must be played, unless, at the moment
of touching it, the player say ‘ J’adoube,” or words to that effect ;
but if a piece or pawn be displaced or overturned by accident ; it may
be restored to its place.

8. While a player holds the piece or pawn he has touched, he may
play it to any other than the square he took it from, but having quitted
it, he cannot recall the move.

9, Should a player touch one of his adversary’s pieces or pawns,
without saying “J’adoube,’’ or words to that effect, his adversary may
compel him to take it ; butif it cannot be legally taken, he may oblige
him to move the king : should his king, however, be so posted that
he cannot be legally moved, no penalty could be inflicted.

10.—Should a player move one of his adversary’s men, his antago-
nist has the option of compelling him—1st, to replace the piece or
pawn and move his king ; 2nd, to replace the piece or pawn and take
it; 3rd, to let the piece or pawn remain on the square to which it
had been played, as if the move were correct.

11.—If a player take one of his adversary’s men with one of his
own that cannot take it without making a false move, his antagonist
has the option of compelling him to take it with a piece or pawn that
can legally take it, or to move his own piece or pawn which he touched.

12.—Should a player take one of his own men, with another, his
adversary has the option of obliging him to move either.

13.—If a player make a false move, i.e., play a piece or pawn to
any square to which it cannot legally be moved, his adversary has the
choice of three penalties; viz., 1st, or compelling him to let the
piece or pawn remain on the square to which he played it; 2nd, to
move it correctly to another square; 3rd, to replace the piece or
pawn and remove his king.

14.—Should a player move out of his turn, his adversary may choose
whether both moves shall remain, or the second be retracted.
CHESS. 121

15.—When a pawn is first moved in a game, it may be played one
or two squares; but in the latter case the opponent has the privilege
of taking it en passant with any pawn which could have takeu it had it
been played one square only, A pawn cannot be taken en passant by
a piece.

6A player cannot castle in the following cases :—

If the king or rook have been moved.

If the king be in check.

If there be any piece between the king and rook.

If the king pass over any space attacked by one of the adversrry’s
pieces or pawns.

Should a player castle in any of the above cases, his adyersary has
the choice of three penalties. viz.;—Ist, of insisting that the move
remain ; 2nd, of compelling him to move theking ; 3rd, of compelling
him to move the rook.

17.—If a player touch a piece or pawn that cannot be moved without
leaving the king in check, he must replace the piece or pawn and move
his king ; but if the king cannot be moved, no penalty can be in-
flicted. :

18,--If a player attack the adverse king without saying ‘check,’
his adversary is not obliged to attend to it; but, if the former, in play.
ing his next move, were to say ‘‘ check,” each player must retract his
last move, and he that is under check must obviate it.

19.—If the king has been in check for several moves, and it cannot
be ascertained how it occured, the player whose king is in check must
retract his last move, and free bis king from the check; but if the
moves made subsepuent to the check be known, they must be re-
tracted.

20.—Should a player say ‘‘ check ”’ without giving it, and his adver-
sary in consequence move his king, or touch a piece or pawn to inter-
pose, he may retract such move, provided his adversary have not
completed his next move.

21,.—Every pawn which has reached the eight or last square of the
chess-board, must oe immediateiy exchanged for a queen or any other
piece the player may think fit, even though all the pieces remain on the
122: CHESS,

board. It follows therefore that he may have two or more queens,
three or more rooks, bishops, or knights.

22.—If a player remain at the end of the game, with a rook and
Dishop against a rook ; with both bishops only ; with knight and bishop
only, &c., he must check-mate his adversary in fifty moves on each side
at most, or the game will be considered as drawn; the fifty moves
commence from the time the adversary gives notice that he will count
them. This law holds good for all other check-mates of pieces only.
such as queen or rook only, queen against a rook, &c, &c.

23.— If a player agree to check-mate with a particular piece or pawn,
or oa partscular square, or engage to force his adversary to stale-
mate or check-mate him, he is not restricted to any number of moves.

24.—A stale-mate is a drawn game,

25.—Ifa player make a false move, castle improperly, &c., &c., the
adversary must take notice of such irregularity before he touches a piece
or pawn, or he will not be allowed to inflict any penalty.

26.—Should any question arise, respecting which there is no law,
or in case of adispute respecting any law, the players must refer the
point to the most skilful and disinterested bystanders, and their deci-
sion must be considered as conclusive.

TECHNICAL TERMS USED IN CHESS,

Castling is generally performed for the double purpose of moving
the king into a more secure position, and of bringing a rook more into
action.

Thus, when neither king nor rook have been previously moved, if
the epace between them is vacant, the king may be moved two squares,
and, at the same move, the rook must be brought over him and placed
on the adjoining square. This is a movement which can be made only
once in a game by each party.

In castling on the king’s side, the king is placed on the king's
knight’s square, and in the same move, the rook passes over and occu-
pies the queen’s square.

A player giving the odds of the rook, may castle on that side of the
board, as if the rook so given were in its proper place.
CHESS, 123

The rook may be played to the side of the king without castling ;
that is, without moving the king ; but the king cannot be moved two
squares, unless a rook be, at the same move, brought over him in
castling. oo,

In three cases, the king cannot castle, even if neither he nor the
rook have been previously moved: first, when in check ; secondly,
when, in placing himself on the proper square, he will be in check,
Thirdly, when either square over which the king, in order to castle,
must pass, isin check. In either of these cases, if a player attempts
to castle his king, he incurs.the penalty consequent on making a false
move. e

The following diagram will illustrate the important operation of
castling. In this position you are at liberty to castle either with your
K. R: or, with
your Q. R. To
castle with
your K.R., or,
on your king’s
side, you first
play your K.
R. to K. B.
square, and
then placeyour
K.on K. Knt.
square; _ this
completes the
operation of
castling. To
castle on your
queen’s side,
or with Q. R.,
you first play
that piece to
Queen sq. and

thenplace your
K. on Q. B. sq. Observe that, although your Q. R. is under the at-

COW
\' A


124 CHESS.

tack of your adversary’s K.B., and although your Q, Knt. sq. is
commanded by his Q. B., yet you can still castle on your Queen’s
side, because the law which forbids the King, in castling, to pass over
any square attacked by one of your adversary’s pieces or pawns, is limi-
ted to the King only, and does not apply to the Rook.

You will observe that your adversary cannot castle on his King’s
side, because the K. B. sq., over which his King must pass, is com-
manded by your Q. B. and the K. Knt. sq., to which he must pass, is
commanded by your K. B. Nor can he castle on the Queen’s side,
because his Q. R. has been moved.

Check. In chess, the game is not wo as in draughts, by taking
all the adversary’s pieces, but by placing his king in a certain posi-
tion of restraint, when he is said ito be in check, even when all his
pieces are on the board.

The King is the principal character in the chess-field: his person
is sacred, and he can never be captured ; he is nevertheless liable to
the attacks of your adversary’s pieces, which must be instantly warded
off, for if being under attack he is unable by any means to escape
therefrom, he is said to be check-mated, and the game is at an end.
The grand object of chess is therefore two-fold, namely, to guard your
own king from danger, while at the same time you form a systematic
attack on your adversary’s king. .

Whenever you make a direct attack upon the king you must inform
your adversary of the circumstance by calling out ‘ check,’”’ and he
must immediately attend to the warning and escape from check, or
get out of check, by one of the three following methods:—l. By
moving the king out of check; 2, By cgpturing the piece or awn
which checks ; 3, By interposiny a piece or Pawn between the king
and the checking-piece ; except in the case of a Knight, a check from
nigh can only be parried by moving the king or capturing the

ight.

The term ‘check ”’ is used only when the king is placed in danger.
The Queen, Rook, Bishop, Knight, and Pawn may all be attacked
end captured, but we never say they are checked, except sometimes in
the case of the Queen, when being attacked, the player calls out
“check to the Queen :’’ but the practice, however courteous, is not
to be recommended, since chess is a silent, calculating game, and we
CHESS, 125

are not willing to impose a word more on the player than the laws of
the game require. There are four kinds of ‘‘ checks’’—l. A simple
check, that is, when the king is attacked only by a piece which is
moved. 2. Check by discovery. that is, when the piece which moves
does not check, but unfolds another piece which does: for example,
—let the Black king be at home; then place a White Rook on your
K, R. 8th, and a White Knight on your K. Kt. 8th. In this posi-
tion by playing your Kt. to your K. R. 6th, your R. checks the black
K. by discovery. By playing your Kt. to K. B. 6th, instead of to
K. R. 6th, we have the third species of check, namely, the double
check, which combines the simple and the discovered check. The
fourth description of check is the perpetual check ; that is, when one
player can check the other every move, and the check cannot be par-
Tied so as to prevent its repitition: then if the first player persist in
giving check every move, the game must be considered as drawn.
For example,—place the Black K, on his R.sq., black B. at K. R.
second sq. and black Pawn at K. Kt. second sq.; then if your Q. be
at K. R. fifth, and you play her backwards and forwards from this
square to adv. K., checking, the only means the king has of escaping
check is by playing the Bishop backwards and forwards from K. R.
second square to K. Kt. square.

A drawn game is that which is won by neither party, and as a gen-
eral rule a game is drawn when one player has not the means of check-
mating the other,

Fool's Mate. This check-mate happens to beginners, and is the
shortest way which can possibly occur, being given in two moves

US

WHITE. BLACK,

1.
2.

K. B. P. two squares. 1. K. P. one square.
K. Kt. P. two squares, 2. Q. to K. R. fifth square, check-
mating.

Schalar’s Mate is sometimes given to beginners in the game, and is
thus played ;
126 CHESS.

WHITE. BLACK,
. P. two squares.

K 1. K. P. two squares.

K. B. to Q. B. fourth square. 2. K. B. to Q. B. fourth square.
Q. to K. R fifth square. 3. Q. P. one square,
Q

takes K. B. P. check-mating.

Stalemate. A king is stale-mated when all the men of the set to
which he belongs are either off the board or so opposed that they can-
not move; and he himself in such a situation, that, though not actually
in check, he cannot move without going into check. Stale-mate is a
drawn game. .

Doubled pawn. A pawn is said to be doubled when, by making a
capture, it has passed from its own file to another file already having
4 pawn upon another square.

Passed pawn. A pawn is said to be passed when there is no

adverse pawn to oppose its progress to the first line of the antagonist,
nor any such pawn on the two adjacent files.
Suppose you have a pawn on your K. B’s. file, and your adversary
has no pawn, either on his King’s file or K. Knt.’s file, your pawn is
then said to be passed. Such a pawn is very valuable because, in order
to prevent it from being advanced to Queen, your adversary must
oppose or capture it with a piece; in which case, if your pawn be
properly defended, you win a piece for a pawn.

Queened pawn. When a pawn arrives at the base of the board,
cecupied originally by the adversary’s large pieces, it is said ‘to queen.”
It then becomes a queen, or any other piece except a king, according
to the will of the mover ; and from that time it is in no respect distin-
guishable from the piece into which it changed : it moves in the same
direction, and is of the same value, A move cannot be made until this
promotion is made.

Minor piece. This term is applied to the bishops and the knights.

J “adoube. A French phrase, denoting, ‘‘I re-arrange”’ or ‘I re-

En passant. The first time a pawn is moved, it may be played two
squares, or one, at pleasure ; but, after the first move, it can be played
only one square at a time. If, however, a pawn of one colour, a white
CHESS, 127

pawn, for instance, oe pushed two squares at ils first move, and if a
black pawn be sufficiently advanced to take the white pawn, if it had
been advanced only one square,—then the white pawn is said to
pass exposed ; the black pawn, if agreeable, can take it as if it had
been pushed only one step and this is called to take ‘en passant."”

- The black pawn is then placed on the square, not where the white
pawn has been really pushed to, but upon that which it would have oc.
cupied if it had been pushed only one square. This taking in passing
must take place immediately after the white pawn has been pushed;
and the adversary cannot return it in the succeeding moves.
piece cannot take in this case. ;

To gain the exchange. A player who succeeds in gaining a rook
for a minor piece is said to gain an exchange.

En prise, A piece or pawn which is in a situation where it can be
taken by another is‘termed ‘“‘en prise’’ of that piece, unless it be
moved,

Gambit. This is the opening of the game. full elucidation of
this term will be found under the next section.

OPENING THE GAME, WITH GAMES FOR PRACTICE.

The most important feature in the game of chess is the art of open-
ing the game, an art which it is necessary to acquire for the man-
agement either of a successful attack or a skilful defence. The mcst
usual methods of beginning the game are as follows :

THE KING'S BISHOP’S GAME.
WHITE. BLACK,

1. K. P. two squares. 1. K. P. two squares,
2. K. B. to Q. B. fourth sq. 2. K. to Q. B. foarth square,

The game is thus properly opened on both sides. You play the
bishop to this square in preference to any other, because here it at-
tacks your adversary’s K. B, P. which isthe weakest part of his game,
that pawn being defended by the king only. The same remarks appl
to your adversary’s second move.

3. Q. B._P. one square. 3. Q. to K. second square.
9
128 CHESS,

Your object in moxing Q. B. P. is to be enabled to play Q. P. two
squares at your fourth move; this intention is foreseen by your ad-
versary, and frustrated by his third move. You cannot now play
Q. P. two squares without loss ; as for example :—~

4. Q. P. two squares. 4, P. takes P.

5. P. takes P. : 5. Q. takes P. checking.
6. Q. to K. second square. 6. Q. takes Q.

7. Kt. takes Q, 7.K. B. to Q. Kt. third sq.

You have thus lost one pawn and isolated another; disadvantages
which ought to lose you the game.

Let us now retrace the four last moves, and instead of moving Q. P.
two squares at your fourth move, you play
4. K. Kt. to B. third square. 4. Q. P. one square.

Your fourth move is now a very good one: it places your K. Kt.
in the best position he can occupy at the commencement of the game,
and gives you liberty to castle. Black’s fourth move is also good:
it liberates his Q. B. and gives additional support to K. P. and K. B.
5. Castles. 5. K. Kt. to B. third sq.

By the important operation of castling you place your king in a
safe position and bring a rook into play. Remember that the more
pieces you have at liberty the greater will be your powers of attack or
defence. Black plays out his K. Kt. in good time to the best position,
and intends to castle presently.

6. Q. P. two squares. 6. K. B. to Q. Kt. third square.

Having castled you can play Q. P. two, not only with perfect safety,
but with advantage. By this move you liberate your pieces in proper
order, and are ready to take advantage of the first bad or lost move of
your adversary. He did quite right to retire with his B. to Q. Kt.
third. If he had taken P. with P., you would also have taken P. with
P., compelling his B. to retreat, and thus leaving yoa with two pawns
in the centre in a capital position.

7. Q. B. to K. Kt. fifth square. 7. The same.

The object of this move is not only to bring a valuable piece into
play, but also to defend your K. P. from the attack of the Kt.; for
you will observe that Black cannot move his Kt. without exposing
his Q, to the attack of your Q. B. Besides, when the K. Kt. is thus
CHESS, 129

advantageously placed, it is often good play to exchange him for your
Q. B. In the present instance he cannot prevent your doing so on
account of the position of hisQ. Black makes a similar move to your
own in order to get his Q. B. into play and change off your Kt,

8. Q. Kt. to Q. second square,

In order to maintain a Kt. at your K. B. third square, you bring
out Q. Kt. If he now take your K. Kt. with the B., you must not
retake with the K. Kt. P. because you would thereby expose your K.
You would retake with Q. Kt., and thus have the advantage of a much
better position. Black foresees this, and with the two-fold object of
winning a pawn and breaking up your centre pawns he plays

8. K. P. takes Q. P.
9. P. takes P. 9. K. B. takes P.

You retake P. with P, because you cannot move K. Kt. without
losing your Q. For the same reason he takes P. at yoor Q. 4th,
and does win a pawn. But the move is a bad one, as you will pre-
sently see. He ought to have castled or moved his Q. Kt. to Q. 2nd.
10. Q. to Q. Kt, third square. 10. K. B. to Q. Kt. third square.

You attack his Q. Kt. P. which it allows you to capture, you win
also his Q. R.; he therefore covers the Kt. P. by moving back his K.
B. You also bring another piece to bear upon his K. B. P.

11. K. P. one square. 11, P takes P.
12. K, Kt. takes P.

By advancing your K. P., you attack his K. Kt. which cannot be
moved on account of the position of your Q. B. and his Q.; he gets
rid of the attack for the moment by taking your P. with his Q. P.
You then retake P. with K. Kt.—he dare not take Kt. with his Q.,
because you would immediately play one of your rooks to K. square.,
attacking both Q. and and it would be useless for him to interpose
Q. B. at K. 7th sq., because you will capture the B. with the R., and
still win his @. He therefore plays,

12. Q. B. to K. third square.
13. Q. R. to K. square. 13. Castles.

You thus bring a powerful piece to assist in the attack which he

hopes to escape from by castling :—a privilege of which he ought to
have availed himself earlier.

14, Q. Kt. to K, fourth square. 14. K. R. to K. square.
130 CHESS.

_ By this move you still further strengthen your attack. Black moves
his rook in order to strengthen the king’s file, where he thinks the
attack is likely to begin, Observe the difference between your game
and his—all your pieces are usefully employed—his Q. R. and Q. Kt.
contribute nothing to the defence of his game, and even his K. Kt.
cannot be moved on account of your bishop.

15. K. Kt. takes K. B. P. 15. K. to B. square.

This is very fine play. When Black moved away his R. from the
defence of this pawn, he did not foresee this move. Black had three
other modes of playing which we will consider preseatly. You have
now a won.game before you.

16. Q. Kt, takes K. 16. B. takes Kt.

17. R. takes B. 17. R. takes Kt.

18. Q. B. toK. R. 6th. Checking. 18. K. to Kt. square.
19. R, takes R. and Checkmates.

KING'S KNIGHT’S GAME~

The King’s Knight’s opening is a method whichis highly and de-
zervedly esteemed among chess-players, It is a perfectly sound open-
mg, and leads to a greater variety than any other method of play.
The following game, with this opening, is by Greco:

WHITE. BLACK.

1. K. P. two squares. 1. K. P. two squares.
2. K, Kt. to K. B. third square.

Your second move gives the name to this opening. Your K. Kt.
attacks the adversary’s king’s pawn, which he must defend ; and he
has several methods of doing so, viz.,—1. Q. P. one square, but this
is objectionable because it confines the range of that most useful piece,
the K. B. 2. Q. to K. second square defends the K. P,, but the move
is liable to the same objection of confining the K. B. 3. K. B. to Q.
third square is very objectionable, because it confines the Q. P., and
consequently the Q. B. and otherwise obstructs his game. 4. K. B.
P. one square appears to defend the K. P. but does not really do so,
as, for example,
CHESS. 131

K. B. P. one square.

K. Kt. takes K. P. K. B. P. takes Kt.
Q. to K. R. 5th., checking, K. Kt. P. one square.
Q: takes K. P., checking. Q. to K. second square.

Q. takes K. R.
White ought to win easily.

One method of defending the K P. from the attack of your K. Kt.
yet remains to be noticed, and that is,

2. Kt to Q. B. third square.

This is Black’s best move. The Q. Kt. not only defends the K.
P, but is in many other respects most usefully placed.

3..K B. foQ. B. fourth square. 3. K. B. to Q. B. fourth square.

If Black had played any other move than Q. Kt. to Q.B. third
square at his second move you would have proceeded differently accor-
ding to circumstances: but now your best third move is to get out the
K. B, to his best and most attacking square. Your adversary plays
a similar move for a similar reason.

4. Q B. P. one square. 4, Q. to K. second square.

Your fourth move is very generally played in order to the moving
out of Q. P. two squares at the fifth move. Black moves out his Q,
in order to prevent the advance of yourQ. P. Ithas been discovered,
however, that this move does not prevent the advance of your Q. P.
two squares, Black’s fourth move may, therefore, be either Q. P.
one square, or K. Kt. to K. B. third square; but we retain, in the
present instance, the move of Q. to K. 2nd.

5. Castles. 5. Q. P. one square.
6. Q. P. two squares. 6. K. B. to Q. Kt. third.

Black’s sixth move is much to be censured. He ought to have
taken the pawn with his K. P., and then have retreated with his bishop.
7. Q. B. to K. Kt, fifth square. 7. K. B. P. one square.

It is seldom govud play to move K. B. P. one square, and in the
present instance Black ought to have covered the attack on his Q. by
playing K. Kt. to K. B. third square.

8. Q. B. to K. R. fourth square. 8. K. Kt. P, two squares,

You now get your Q. B. to strengthen your king’s side, while it

acts as a useful attacking piece. | Black’s advance of the Kt. pawn is
132 CHESS,

injudicious, because by the skilful sacrifice of your K. Kt. you get a
powerful attack.
9. K. Kt. takes K, Kt. Pawn. 9, Pawn takes K. Kt,
10. Q. to K. R. fifth square, chckg. 10. K. to Q. second square.
11. Q. B, takes Pawn.

Black has a choice of moves, but whatever he may do, the game can-
not be further successfully defended. Let us now see the very skilful
way in which the check-mate is effected.

11. Q. to K. Kt. second square.
12. K. B. to K. sixth square, chkg. 12. K. takes B.
13. Q. to K, eighth square, chckg. 13. K. Kt, interposes
14. Q, P. one square, checkmating.

It was of no consequence which piece Black interposed at his
thirteenth move ; the mate was forced.

QUEEN’S BISHOP’S PAWN’S GAME.

This opening is seldom played, probably on account of its having
been censured by Philidor, who considered that advancing the Queen’s
Pawn two squares, gives your adversary the advantage of the move.
There are, however, many striking and peculiar features about this
opening, which will be well illustrated by the following game, selected
from a series of games played by the members of the Bristol Chess
Club,

WHITE. BLACK.
1. K, P. two squares. 1. The same.
2. Q. B. P. one square. 2. Q. P. two squares.

This is undoubtedly Black’s best move, its tendency is to liberate
his pieces and prevent you from establishing your pawns in the centre.
You must not take the proffered pawn ; you lose time by doing so, and
realize the abjection made by Philidor of transferring the attack into
the hands of your adversary. Your best move is—

3. K. Kt. to K. B, third square. 3. P. takes P.

You may now play Q. to Q. R. fourth sq. checking, and then take
the pawn which attacks your K. Kt.; or you may reserve this move,
and play a bolder and more scientific one; viz.—
CHESS. 133

4. K. Kt. takes K. P. 4. K. B. to K. third square.

Black’s fourth move was not good. In seeking to drive away your
Kt., he probably overlooked the check at your fifth move, whereby you
not only win a pawn, but also defend your Kt. from the attack of his
kK. B. You may not, it is true, be able to maintain the Kt. in this
position ; but, in expelling or winning this piece, Black gets an in-
ferior game.

6. Q. takes K. P. 6. Q. to K. second square.
7, Q. P. two squares. 7. K. B. P. one square.

By this last move Black wins your Kt., because if you remove it you
lose your Q.: but in exchange for the Kt. you get two pawns and a
fine position.

8. K. B. P. two squares.

This move is better than playing Q. B. to K. B. fourth square, be-
cause you thus unite two pawns in the centre. A second defence is
neccessary to the Kt., because if you move away your Q. you lose a

awn.
P 8. K. B. P. takes Kt.

9. K. B. P. takes P. 9. K. B. to Q. B. second square
10. K. B. to Q. third square.

This move is a very good one, but difficult for you to understand
without explanation. It prevents him from plaving K. Kt. to B. third
square,—a very desirable move for him a. the present juncture.
Examine this move attentively, and notice its effect in preventing him
from playing out the Kt. to K. B. third square. If you had played
Q. Kt. to Q. second square, the effect on him would have been the
same; but the objection to this move is, that your Q. B., now so
usefully employed in commanding five squares, would have been ren-
dered powerless.

10. Q. B. to K. third square.

The object of Black is to support his K. Bishop’s file, which would
be commanded entirely by your K. R. on playing him to K. B.
square.

N. Q. B. P. one square. 11. Q. to K. B. second square.

By this move you still further Jimit the range of your adversary’s
pieces, and tend to preserve your own centre pawns, which would be
134 CHESS,

I ble to be broken by the advance of the pawns on his queen’s side.
Black’s position is v.ry much constrained ; he therefore moves his Q.
in order to give her some scope.

12. K. R. to K. B. square. 12. Q. to K. R. fourth square.

Observe, that in the present position it is not legal for you to castle
on your king’s side, but the move of the K. R. to K. B. square is a
good one. Indeed it is generally good play to command an open file
with a rook. The reason will be obvious to you.

. 13. Q. to K. B. third square.

Threatening to play Q. to K. B. eighth square, checking ; or should
he exchange queens, to revake with K. Kt. P., thus redacing the
game to one of pawns, which on your side would be irresistible.

13. Q. to K. R. fifth square, chee ing
14. K. Kt. P. one square.

Black dare not take either your Q. P. or K. R. P. with his Q., on
account of the position of your Q. and K. R. He therefore retreats
with her.

14. Q. to K. second sq.
15. Q. Kt. to Q. B. third square.

Whenever you have on opportunity, like this, of placing a piece in
t. favourable position, always take advantage of it, unless there is
something to be gained by moving a piece already in the field.

15. Q. Kt. to Q. second square.
16. K. R. P. two squares. 16. Castles with Q. R.
17. Q. B. to K. Kt. fifth square.

Tn his anxiety to castle in the hopes of escaping from the attack
threatened on his king’s side, Black appears to have acted precipi-
tately. The remaining portion of the game is very skilful, and deserves
your most attentive consideration.

17. Q. to Q. Kt. fifth square.
lack does quite right to abandon his Q. R. to your Q. B. He now
threatens your Q. Kt. P., the capture of which will give him a momen-
tary advantage, worthless, however, on account of not being able to
follow it up. A queen in the adversary’s field can seldom do much
unless supported by pieces ; and, in cases like the present, when he
CHESS. 135

ventures among the adverse pieces she runs great risk of being lost. It
is a fault very common to young players to employ their Queens more
than any other piece. They naturally imagine that because she is the
most powerful of all the pieces she can do most execution; whereas,
real strength at chess consists, not in the rapid predatory movements
of one piece, but in the combination of several pieces. The most ac-
complished chess player, before he begins to attack, gradually establishes
a combination of pieces and pawns, which, when brought to bear,
often proves irresistible ; and most especially so, when his incautious
or inexperienced antagonist wastes his strength in skirmishes, and while
gaining temporary advantages neglects to form his defence or counter
attack,

18. Q. B. takes Q, R. o 18. Q. takes Q, Kt. P.

19. Q, B. takes K. B. ." 19, Q. takes Q, R., checking.
20. K. to Q. second square. 20. Q. to Q. Kt. 7th sq., chekg.
21. K. B. to Q. B. second squar 21. K. takes Q. B.

22. R. to Q. Kt. square. 22. Q. to Q. R. sixth square.

23. Kt. to Q. Kt. fifth sq., checking 23. Q. B. P. takes Kt,
24. Q. takes Q.

The manner in which your adversary’s Queen is won is skilful: it
is a necessary consequence of a succession of moves foreseen by White,
and played with boldness and precision. White has a won game, and
we need not pursue the game further. Observe that Black’s K, R.
and K. Kt. are atill at home, and throughout the game they have con-
trivuted nothing whatever to its defence. You must avoid leaving
your pieces at home unemployed. You would probably smile if a
better player than yourself proposed that you should give him the odds
of a Rook and a Knight; that is, that these pieces should be removed
from the board before you began your game. You would despair of
being able to stana against him during a dozen moves, and yet, by
keeping these pieces shu. »p and unemployed, while your adversary
brings all his pieces and y' wns into play, the effect on your game is
similar 1o giving him the odds of the pieces which you do not use.

THE KING’S GAMBIT.
The King’s Gambit offers greater variety than is to be found in the
136 CHESS.

other openings, and therefore requires greater knowledge and practice
to conduct it with success: hence, an experienced player when he
gives the odds of quecn’s rook or queen’s knight, to an inferior anta-
gonist, often prefers this mode of play.

The word gambit is derived from an Italian phrase used in wrestling,
and signifies a peculiar movement by which the adversary is tripped up.
In Chess the “ peculiar movement”’ is, for the first player, early in
the game, to sacrifice a pawn for the sake of gaining an attack. There
are many ways in which this pawn may be sacrificed, and consequently
there are many varieties of gambit; but the king’s gambit includes
the greatest part of them. In this gambit the first player moves K.
P, two squares, and on the second move K. B, P. two squares, which
is sacrificed. There is also the queen’s gambit, which derives its name
from the Q. P. being first moved two squares, and the Q. B. P. being
sacrificed on the second move.

The varieties of the king’s gambit are often known by the names of
the players who invented, or first introduced them :—~thus we have
the Muzio gambit, the Salvio gambit, the Allgaier gambit, the Cach-
rane gambit, the Evans’ gambit, &c. Other varieties obtain their names
from one of the early moves of the first player: thus we have the
Righon’s gambit so called because the firat player moves out his king’s
bishop before his king’s knight.

The following remarks on the king’s Gambit by Ponziani will be
read with interest by the young student when he has fairly entered
upon the brilliant and ingenious strokes of gambit play :—

The quality of this opening demonstrates that the inventor, whoever
he might be, considered principally that the removal of the adverse
king’s pawn from the fourth square, caused a good order of the game,
because there he is of the greatest importance ; and especially prevents
the king’s and queen’s pawns being posted equally at the fourth square.
To attack the said adverse king’s pawns, he found the king’s bishop’s
pawn most convenient ; since this often serves only to prevent or retard
the attacks which might be made with the king’s rook placed in the
bishop’s,square ; and therefore he judged it good play, at the second
move, to push the said bishop’s pawn to its extent, putting it en prise
of the adverse king’s pawn, with the confidence either of recovering it,
CHESS, 137

or of becoming compensated in another shape with a superior situation’
As, then, the adversary, after having taken the said bishop’s pawn,
threatens a pernicious check with the queen at the first player’s king’s
rook’s fourth; thus, he who plays the gambit ought, for his best, at
the third move, to play out the king’s knight to the tishop’s third;
whence succeeds a most animated conflict, full of dangers and vicissi-
tudes, which at every move changes the aspect of the battle, and pro-
mises a thousand little artful stratagems on the one part, to preserve
the pawn in advantage; and, on the other, to recover it with a better
position,

Although Philidor declares the king’s gambit to be an indifferent
game, wnich by its nature produces neither profit nor injury, yet
Stamma and Salvio, with the best academicians of Italy, and recently
the most accurate Anonymous Modenese think differently: holding it
a pernicions game for him who attempts it ; since he necessarily
remains a pawn inferior, without compensation. It notwithstanding
produces many moves of supreme skill and subtlety, which demand
still greater study and circumepection than in the Piano Games.

We shall now give a game as a specimen of this opening :—

WHITE, BLACK.
. K. P. two squares. 1. K. P. two squares.
. K. B. P, two squares. 2. P. takes P.

.K. Kt. to K. B. third square. 3. K. Kt. P. two squares.
. K. R. P. two squares.

Black must not take the pawn with his pawn, becuuse it is of great
importance to him to keep the pawns on his king’s side united : mndeed,
the successful defence of the Gambit generally depends upon his being
able to do so. Nor can he play K. R. P. one square, because, were
he to do so, you answer with P. takes P., and he cannot retake with-
out losing hisrook. K, B. P. one square is a very natural move, but
in the present case, the result is fatal.

4. K. B. P. one square.

m OD ew

5. K. Kt. takes K. Kt. P.
By this move you open a path for your Q. to the R, fifth square,
where she checks, and as black can only escape the check by moving
138 CHESS.

his king into a position which obstructs his game, your Q. may do him
much mischief. If he do not take the Kt. he must lose the game
speedily.

d. P. takes Kt.
6. Q.to K. R. fifth square, chkg. 6. K. to K. second square.
7. Q. takes K. Kt. P. chkg.

If he interpose K. Kt. at K. B. third square, you advance the K.
B. and win the piece ; therefore,

7. K. bome.
8. Q. to K. R. fifth square, chkg.

The object of repeating the check at this square instead of at K.
fifth, is to prevent him from bringing out his Q.

8. K. to K. second square.
9. Q. to K. fifth square, chkg. 9. K, to K, B. second square.
10. Q. takes K. R.

You will now, of course, have no difficulty in winning the game.

In the following specimen of this furm of Gambit, the early moves
of black are sounder than in the foregoing game.

1 .K. P. two squares. 1. K. P. two squares.

2. K. B. P. two squares. 2. P. takes P.

3, K. Kt. to K. B. third square. 3. K. Kt. P. two squares.
4. K.R. P. two squares. 4. K. Kt. P. one square.

Black now plays his best move, forcing your Kt. forward to one of
two positions. If you move the Kt. to K. Kt. fifth square the game
will then be resolved into the Allgaier Gambit, (an example of which
will be given in another lesson) but the more usual move is
5. K. Kt. to K. fifth square.

You now threaten to capture his K. Kt. P. with your Kt., and it
1s of no use for him to move Q. P. one. His best move is

5. K, R. P. two squares,
6. K B. to Q. B. fourth square.

Yon threaten to take his K. B. P. with either Kt. or B. He may
defend this P. in two ways; by playing K.R. to his second square,
(the consequences of which will be shown in the next lesson) or he
may play

6. K. Kt, to R. third square.
7. Q. P. two squares. 7. K. B. to K. second square.
CHESS. 139

Black had several modes of play, but he does not appear to have
chosen the best. Q. P. one, would probably have been better, for it
is scarcely possible for him to save the gambit pawn.

8. Q. B. takes Gambit P. 8. K. B. takes K. R. P. chkg.

Q. P. one square, would here have been preferable, for now by ad-
vancing the Kt, P. you force away B. leaving his K. R. P. undefended.
9. K. Kt. P. one square. 9. K. B. to K. Kt, fourth square.
10, K. R. takes K. R. P.

By this move you force him to exchange bishops, whereby you
unite a solitary pawn with his fellows. If he move away his B. you
win the Kt.; and afterwards take K. B. P., &c.

10. K. B. takes Q. B.
1]. P. takes B. - ~ 11. Q. P. one square.

This move forces away the Kt. Ordinary players, however, would

not be so long-sighted as to make such moves as the following.

12, Kt. takes K. Kt, B. 12. Q. B. takes Kt.

13. Q. takes Q. B. 13. K. Kt, takes Q.

14. R. takes R. checking. 14. K. to K. second square,
15. K. R. takes Q. . 15. K. takes K. R.

16. K. B. takes K. B. P.

By these brilliant moves you secure the great advantage in
pawns which you had already gained over your adversary many moves
back.

16. Q. Kt. to Q. B. third square.
17. Q. P. B. one square. 17. K. to K. second square.
18, K. B. to Q. Kt. third square. 18. K. Kt. to K. sixth square.

This last move of B. is a needless one. He would have done much
betier to have got his R. into play.

19. K. to K. B, second square. 19. K. to K. Kt. second sq , ehkg.

By these useless moves black improves your game: you get your
king up to the pawns, where he acts as auseful guard. Indeed, when
the queens are off the board, the king may often be employed to ad-
vantage. We need not pursue the present game further; you will
bring out your Q, Kt. and R. as quickly as possible, and will, without
much difficulty win the game.
140 CHESS,

ALLGAIER GAMBIT.

This is a variety of the King’s Gambit, invented, or brought into
general notice, by a German writer of the name of Allgaier. It isa
striking opening, and, as in most gambits, a slight mistake on the part
of the second player is likely to ruin his game. If, however, it be pro-
perly opposed, the formidable attack prepared by the first player falls
into the hands of the second. In our illusrations of this opening we
select two games, the first of which is won by White and the second
by] wk.

WHITE, BLACK.
1. K, P. two squares. a. K. P. two squares.
2. K. B. P. two squares. 2. P. takes P.
3.K. t.toK. B. third square. 3. K. Kt. P. two squares.
4, K. R, P. two squares. 4. K. Kt. P. one squares.

+. Thus far the moves are the same a3 in the last two lessons: the
variation commences at your fifth move: instead of playing the K. Kt.
to K. fifth square as before, you now play him to K. Kt. fifth square,
in which position he can be won by Black, on giving up two pawns.
These two pawns are thought to be an equivalent for the knight, in
consequence of the attacking position which you acquire by this pre-
liminary skirmish.

5. K. Kt. to K. Kt. fifth square. 5. K. R. P. one square.

For Black’s fifth move some players prefer Q. P. two squares, by
which his K. Kt. P. is defended, threatening to win the K. kt. at the
next move without losing K. Kt. P. We do not pretend to decide
upon the merits of these moves, either of which leads to a good game.
By moving K. R. P. one, your Kt. is at once forced, and provided
Black can maintain his ground and bring out his pieces, his force will
be superior to yours. Were he to move K. B. P. instead of the R. P.
you would take his K. Kt. P. with your Q. and soon acquire a winning
position, as has been already illustrated in previous lessons where
Black at a similar point moves kK. B. P. one square.

6. Kt. takes K. B. P. 6. K. takes Kt.

By taking this pawn you force his king to move into an exposed po-

sition.
CHESS, 141

7.Q. takes K. Kt. P. 7. K. Kt. to K. B, third square,
8. Q. takes Gambit P.

You thus get three pawns in exchange for your Kt. It is not un-
common for Black to play at his seventh move the Q. instead of the
Kt, to K. B. third square, in order to protect the Gambit Pawn; but
this position of his Q. is rather hazardous, on account of your K. R.
which comes into play presently.

8. Q. P. one square.

The object being to prevent the advance of your K. P. upon his Kt.
as also to liberate Q. B,

9. Q. P. two squares. 9. K. to K. Kt. second square,

By advancing your Q. P. you are able to attack his Kt. with K. P.
he therefore moves his K. in order to liberate the Kt,

10. K. B. to Q. B. fourth square. 10. Q. to K. square,
11. Castles.

You leave K. P. en prise: because if he take it with his Q. you
capture his K. Kt. checking, and if he take it with his K. Kt. you
play K. R. to K. square and win the piece.

11. K. B. to K. second square.

In order to defend his K. K. from the attack of your Q. and R.
12. K. P. one square. 12. P. takes P.

13. P. takes P, 13. K. B. checks,

The chief use of this check is to enable him to make room for his
pieces. It is thus that a good player gains what is technically called
time over his adversary ; that is, he improves his own game while he
forces his opponent to make useless moves.

14. K. to K. R, square. 14. K. Kt. to . Kt. fifth squar-.
15. Q. Kt. to Q. B. third square. 15, Q. B. to K. third square.
16. Q. Kt. to K. fourth square.

This is a good move and decides the game in your favour. A vari-
ety of moves spring from it, and the student will do well to examine
them all.

> 16. Q. B. takes B.
17. Q. takes yt. checking. 17. Q. to K. Kt. third square.
18, Q. takes Q. checking. 18. K. takes Q.
19. K. R, to K. B, sixth sq. chg. 19. K. to K, Kt. second square
20. Kt. takes K. B.
142 CHESS,

The precision with which white wins a piece, is worth your especial
notice. You cannot acquire a more useful Chess habit than the long-
sightedness of which this is an example.

20. Q. Kt. to Q. B. third square.
21. Kt. toK. sixth square chkg. .

Your passed pawn at K. fifth square is very valuable, and must, if
possible, be preserved: but you have an opportunity of playing your
Kt. to advantage ; for if he do not take it you capture his Q. B. P.
and threaten Q. R; and if he do not take it you retake with R. and
hereby defend the P.

21. B. takes Kt.
22.R. takes B. 22, Q. R. to K. square.

If you take his Q. R. with your R. he retakes with K. R. and wins
the passed pawn, therefore White cleverly plays,

23. Q. B. takes K. R. P. chkg. .
If he take the B. with his K. R. you win the exchange; therefore
23. K. to K. B. second square
24. K. to K. B. sixth sq.chkg. 24. K. to K. second square.
25. B. to K. Kt. fifth square. 25. Kt. takes P.

Although he has won the pawn yet he has gained no advantage, you
have a dangerous check by discovery in store, and can decide the
game in a very few moves. .

26. R. to K. R. sixth sq. chg. 26, K. to K. B, second square.
27, Q. R. to K. B. sq. chg. 27. K. to K. Kt, second square.
28. R. takes R. 28. K. takes R.d

29. Q. B. to K. B. sixth sq. chg. 29. K. to K. Kt. square.
30. R. to K. square.

By thia move you win either the Kt. or the R., and then with the
advantage of a piece and two pawns you must easily win.

The object of the following game (in which Black has the move) is
to furnish a form of defence to the Allgaier Qambit originally suggested
qy Horny, a German writer, and given by Mr. Walker in the third
edition of his Treatise on Chess. It is very ingenious, and when pro-
perly played seems to be effectual in destroying the attack of the first

layer.

2. K. P. two squares. 1. K. P. two squares.
1K. B. P. two squares. 2. P. takes P.
CHESS, 148

3. K. Kt. to K. B. third square. 8. K. Kt. P. two squares.
4. K. R. P. two squares. 4. K. Kt. P. one square,

5. K. Kt. to K. Kt. fifth square. 5. K. R. P. one square.

6. K. Kt. takes K. B. P. 6. K. takes Ke.

7. Q, takes K. Kt. P. 4 7. K. Kt. to K. B. third sq.,
8. Q. takes Gambit P.

Thus far the moves are the same as before: the peculiar defence -

above referred to commences with
8. K. B. to Q. third square.

Having won a piece this move seems to be advantageous, although
it does, for a time, block up Q. B. and Q. P.; but it liberates K. R.,
and allows a safe retreat for your king. Black loses time, during which
lime you get out your pieces on the Queen’s side. Should he be so
imprudent as to play the obvious move K. P. one square, you take it
with B. and on his retaking with Q. play K. R. to K. square winning
the Q.
9. K. B. tv Q. B, fourth sq.chg. 9. K. to K. Kt. second square.

Iu this position of your K. Black has no further check, and the Q.
no move on the K. Kt’s. file.
10. Q. to K. B, third square. 10. Q. Kt. to Q. B third square,

By this move you prevent him from playing his K. P. one square,
or his Q. P. two squares. You have now much the better game; the
attack is transferred from him to you, and you have gained a piece in
exchange for two pawns.

THE MUZIO GAMBIT.

The Muzio Gambit is a branch of the King’s Gambit, in which the
first player sacrifices a knight on the fifth move, in exchange for a
strong attacking position. It was long supposed that the attack thus
acquired was without defence, and the opin‘on still prevails that could
White castle, as in Italy, by moving bis king at once to K. R. square,
instead of to K. Kt. square, (as he must do, according to the Ohess
laws of this country,) the game could not be defended.

This sacrifice of the knight is probably unsound, but in actual play
the defence is so exceedingly difficult, that it may be mrde withou’

0
144 CHESS,

great hazard, “The following remarks by Mr. Walker on this opening»
are much to the purpose: ‘ The student wishing te exeel will, indeed»
play the Muzio whenever opportunity arises, since hardly any other
opening so foreibly exemplifies the power of a few pieces, well com-
bined, over a mass of inert force. You here see the necessity of
meeting a strong attack by immediate offers of exchange, and you
will find, that one lost time—one weak move—fatally commits the
game. Delay is here not only dangerous, but fatal; one slow step
is ruin. So strong and enduring is the attack—so fertile and com-
plicated its resources—that the Muzio gambit may be fairly classed as
the most brilliant and critical opening of the game extant.”

... The earliest mention of this form of gambit occurs in Salvio’s cele-
brated treatise on chess, which was published in 1604, He says that
it was first shown to him by Signor Muzio, but that it had previously
originated with Don Geronimo Cascio, who discovered it accidentally
while engaged in play.

In common with some other forms of gambit, it depends more upon
the second player, than the first, whether the game shall be a Muzio
or not. If at the fourth move Black do not advance his K. Kt. P.
upon your K. Kt., the game connot then be resolved into a regular

Musio.

WHITE. BLACK.
1, K. P. two squares. 1, K. P, two squares.
2. K. B. P. two squares. 2. P. takes P.

3. K. Kt. to K. B. third square. 3. K. Kt. P. two squares.
4, K. B. to Q. B. fourth square. 4. K. Kt. P. one square.
5. Castles,
By this move you resolve the game into a Muzio. Black cannot
do better than take the knight.

6. Q:; takes P. ,

You may vary the attack by not taking the pawn, as will be shown
in another game. .

You have already acquired a powerful position; your Q. and R.
are on the same file ; by moving out Q. P., your Q. B. will farnish an
additional attack on the gambit pawn; while your K. B. already com-

5. P. takes Kt.
CHESS, . 145

mands the weakest point of your adversary’s game. His object must
be to defend the gambit pawn as long as he can do so with safety,
providing in the mean time an efficient support for his K.B. P. He
ought also to seek to make equal exchanges, because you having al-
ready lost a knight, every equal exchange must weaken you, while,
it proportionably strengthens him, that is, provided he can get his
pieces into play.
6. Q. to K. B. third square.

He thus defends the gambit pawn. You may, it is true, capture it,
bnit black would then exchange queens, and immediately acquire a
winning position. By this move he also prevents you from playing
Q. P. two squares, and threatens to check at Q. fifth square, winning
K. B. You may now play K. P. one square, as will be shown in the
next game, or
7.Q. B P. one square.

This prevents him from playing Q. to her fifth, and prepares you
for Q. P. two squares, at the next move,

7. K. B. to K. R, third square.
in order to strongthen the defence of the gambit pawn.
8. Q. P. two squares g. Q. Ket. to Q, B. third square.

His object is to get his queen’s pieces to the king’s side, where
support is wanted.

9. K. P. one square. 9. Q. to K. Kt. second square.

Not being able to defend the gambit pawn, and the K. B. P., he
abandons the former.

10. Q. B. takes Gambit P. 10. B. takes B.
11. Q. takes B.
Black now requires an additional support to his K. B, P., therefore
11. K. Kt. to K. R. third sqare.
12. Q. Kt. to Q. second square.

Before black has time to get out out his pieces, or disturb your ad-
vanced pawns, you bring up another piece to the attack, aud have
both rooks ready to assist. .

12. Q. Kt. to K. Kt. third square,
13. Q. Kt. to K. fourth square, 13, Q. Kt. to K. Kt. third equare..
' 14. Q. to K, Kt. fifth square,
146 CHESS,

By this apparently unimportant move, you maintain your position»
prevent the Q. Kt. from being moved, while his Q. can move only to
one square, for if she go to K. Kt. square, you play Kt. to K> B,
sixth square checking. If he move king to K. B, you mate with Q.
at her eighth square. If hecastle, you play Kt. toK. B. sixth square
checking ; his K. must move to the corner, and you then win Q. by
playing. Kt. to K. R. fifth square. Therefore he plays

14. Q. P. one square,
15. Kt. to K. B. sixth sq.chg. 15. K. to Q. square.

He cannot play K. to K. B. without losing his Q.

16. Kt. to K. R. fifth square. 16. K. B. P. one square.
discovering check.

17. P. takes P. 17. Q, to K. B. square.

18. P. advances discovering chk. 18. Q. Kt. to K. seeond square.

19. Q. to K. B. siath square.

By this move you must win tke rook, for his pieces are so confined
that he can neither defewft nor attack to any advantage.

19, K. Kt. to K, Kt. fifth square.
20, Q, takes R. 20, Q. takes Q.
21. P. moves to K. B. eight sq., 21. Q. takes Q,
22. R. takes Q. checking.

Having gained this decided advantage, you will now be able to win
the game easily. .

THE LOPEZ GAMBIT.

The Lopez Gambit, so called in honour of Ruy Lopez, the celebrated
chess player and writer, was first described in his treatise published in
1561. Some writers regard it merely as a variation of the ordinary
king's game ; it is, however, a true gambit, a pawn being sacrificed
early in the game by the first player for the sake of position. It isa
safe opening for the first player, because, unlike most of the gambits
hitherto considered, the second player cannot capture the gambit
pawn without getting aninferior game, nor can he conduct the defence
after the manner of an ordinary gambit, as will be proved by the fiiret
example given of this opening.
chess. 147

WHITE. BLACK,

K P. two squares. " 1, K. P. two squares,

K. B. to Q. B. fourth equare. 2, K, B. to Q. B. fourth square,

Q. to K. second square.

If Black play Q. B. P. one square, you take his K. B. P. with your
B. checking, and then play Q. to Q. B. fourth square, recoverin#
the B, Black hasa choice of several moves, but suppose he play

3. Q. P. one square.

1.
2.
3.
K.

4. K. B. P. two squares.

You thus resolve the game intoa Lopez gambit. Black has several
moves, but in the present game he proceeds as in the defence of an
ordinary gambit, which gives him a very inferior position, because by
playing out the K. B. at the second move he is amove bebind hand,
compared with his position in the ordidary king’s gambit.

4, P. takes P.
5. K. Kt. to K. B third square. 5. K. Kt. P. two squares.
6. Q. P. two squares. 6. B. to Q. Kt. third square.

7. K. R. P. two squares.

He cannot of course advance K. R. P. one square; if he move K.
B. P. one square, you take K. Kt .P. with your Kt. and then play
Q.to K. R. fifth square, winning easily therefore he plays

7. K. Kt. P. two squares,
8. K. Kt. to Kt. fifth square. 8. K. Kt. to K. R. third square.

You have a very fine position, and with ordinary care ought to be
able to win easily.

The following game from Greco is well calculated to illustrate the
powerful and peculiar attack required by the first player, when the
defence is weak or injudicious. The moves of the second player are
very likely to be made by one unacquainted with this form of Gambit.

1, K. P. two squares. 1. K. P. two squares.

2. K. B. to Q. B. fourth square. 2. K. B. to Q. B. fourth square,
3. Q. to K. second square. 3. Q. to K. second square.

4. K. B. P. two squares, 4. K. B. takes K. Kt.

5. K. R. takes K. B. 5. K. P. takes P.

It is very natural in the second player to tak2 this Pawn, but the
148 CHESS,

present game will furnish another instance of its impropriety. Q. P.
one square would have been a much better move,
6. Q. P. two squares.

You thus occupy the centre of the board with your pawns, and open
a path for your Q. B.

6. Q. to K. R. fifth square chg.

This check is not judicious. He cannot win your K. R. P., because
by advancing your K. Kt. P. you defend it with your Q. Indeed, it
is in anticipation of this check that it is usual in this gambit to play
Q. to K. second square at the third move. Instead of this check
Black ought to have played Q. P. one square, or K. Kt. or Q. K. to
B, third. He ought, in fact, to get out his pieces, and not thus con-
tend with a solitary queen against a large array of his adversary’s
forces.

7. K. Kt. P. one square. 7. P. takes P.
8. K. R, takes P.

It is much better for you to take the P. with the R. instead of R.
P., because the R., has now a wide range of attack. You now also
threaten to attack his Q. with your Q. B.

8. K. Kt. to K. B. third square.
9. Q. Kt. to Q. B. third square. 9. K. Kt. to K. K, fourth square.

Greco now commences one of those brilliant and decisive attacke
which are so characteristic of this player. Taking advantage of his
adversary’s confined position he sacrifices a piece, in order to lay bare
the feeble defence of the black king.

10. K. B, takes K. B. P. checking.

If the K. go to Q. square you win his Q, by playing your Q. B. to
K. Kt. fifth square. If he move to K. B. square you win K. Kt.;
therefore,

10. K. takes K. B.
11. Q. B. to K. Kt. fifth square 11. Ke. takes Re
You save your Q. and win his, by checking.
12, Q. to K. B, third square chg. 12. K. to K. Kt. third square.
His object in movin§ his K. to this position seems to be to protect

his Kt. after you have captured the Q.; but whatever he does he can»
not save his game.
CHESS. 149

13. Q, B.: takes Q. 13. K. Kt. to K. R. fourth square.
14. Q, to K. B. fifth square, ckg. 14. K. to K. R. third square.
15. Q, Checkmates.

THE BISHOP'S GAMBIT.

The Bishop’s Gambitis so called from the third move of the first
player at which he brings out the King’s Knight. This opening is'per-
haps the most elaborate and difficult of all the Gambit openings ; we
cannot therefore pretend to do more than give a specimen of it in two
games, illustrating first a succesful attack; and secondly a sucessfal
defence.

The Bishop’s Gambit has long been a favorite with first rate players.

Philidor conducted it with great skill; Coxio improved its theory ;
and M‘Donneli added to it several new modes of attack and defence.

In the celebrated match between him and De la Bourdonnais, many
fine examples of this opening occur. The principal among the last
writers is Major Janisch who has entered into an elaborate analysis of
this celebrated opening. The reader will find it given nearly in fall in
the fourth and fifth volumes of the Chess Player's Chronicles. Ite
seading features are also incorporated in Mr. Lewis's analasys of
this opening, as given in his recent Treatise.

WHITE. BLACK.
1. K. P. two squares. 1. K. P. two squares.
2. K. B. P. two squares. 2. P. takes P.

3. K. B. to Q. B. fourth square.
This move constitutes the bishop’s gambit. Black’s best move is
now to check with his Q. at K. R. fifth square, thus forcing your K.
to move, and depriving you of the privilege of castling. ‘‘It is dificult
gays Major Janisch not merely for a novice but even for any person not
perfectly familiar with the grand principle of pawns to comprehend
what advantage the assailant can have in this opening by giving up
them the first the power of castling, and by exposing his king to the
very blows of the enemy on a line constantly battered by the queen the
pieces, and the pawns of the adversary ; on a square, too, where it re-
‘stricts the operations of its own rook. Not only are the pawns on this
150 CHESS.

side, the necessary guards of the king, pushed boldly forward in thias
as in the knight’s gambit, but the king itself, from the commencement,
enters into play, and takes an active part in the attack.”

The principle of this gambit is thus stated in the article in the Chess
Players Chronicle, already referred to :—

The centre pawns being firmly established by the acceptance of the
gambit, and the powers of the adverse pieces being proportionally re-
strained, it is above all things necessary to capture the gambit pawn.
But as the diagonal line of attack of the queen from her own square to
the king’s rook’s fifth, remains open while the king’s knight has not
been moved, the defence of the gambit pawn will become much more
laborious, the second player will be obliged to give check with his
queen on his king’s rook’s fifth, which will endanger his Queen, will
keep her away from the centre, and leave the opposite side unprotected.
Besides, as in this gambit the king’s rook is necessary on his own file,
you can well dispense with castling, and the king itself is able to render
efficient aid,

_ Black cannot, at his third move, defend the gambit pawn, by play-
ing K. Kt. P. two squares, as is usual in the defence of the king’s
gambit ; because by advancing K. R. P. two squares, you get a winning
position. Some writers recommend K. B. P. two squares for Black’s
third move, but this also involves many objections. Most authorities
now admit the best move to be,

3. Q. to K. R. fifth sq. checking.

He thus forces your K. to move, and prevents your castling, and
also defends the gambit pawn.
4, K. to K. B. square.

It is a very natural move for a young player now to advance K, B.
to Q. B. fourth square, because he thereby threatens to give check-mate
at the next move ; but by advancing Q, P. two squares you force the
B. to retreat, and at the same time improve your game; you gain, in
fact, two moves. @. P. one square is sometimes played for Black’s
fourth move, in answer to which you may play Q. P. two squares, or
Q. to K. B. third square, or K. Kt. to K. B. third square, but most
authorities agree that Black’s best fourth move is,
CHESs, 181

4. K. Kt. P. two squares,
5. K. t.to K. B. third square.

You thus attack his Q., and he has the choice of three moves. If
he play her to K. R. third square, you move K. Kt. to K. fifth
threatening to take K. B. P., thus forking his Q. and K.R. If he
play Q. to K. Kt. fifth square, you may win her; therefore, his best
move is,

5. Q. to K. R. fourth square.

This is really a good move, for it conâ„¢nes your Kt., protects th
weak part of Black’s game, and by having his Q. on the same diagonal
as that which your Q. commands, he may have a chance of exchanging
queens, which is generally of advantage to the second player in an
early stage of the gambit.

6. K. R, P. two squares.

He cannot, of course, capture, this P. If he advance K. Kt. P.
you play Kt. toK. Kt. fifth square, and get a good attack ; therefore,
he plays, as his best move,

G6. K. B. to K. Kt. second square.
7. Q. Kt. to Q. B. third square.

It would be bad play in Black to capture this Kt. with his B., for
he would thereby change off one of his most useful pieces, and open a
path for your Q. and @. B. Hig best move is,

7. K. R. P. one square.
8. Q. P. two squares, 8. Q. P. one square,
9. K. P. one square.

If he now advance K. Kt. P. upon your Kt., you play Kt. to K.

square, and will easily recover the pawn. Probably his best move is,
9. Q. P. takes K. P.
10. Q. Kt. to Q. fifth square.

This is much better than taking the P., for on retaking, Black
would protect with his K. B. the point now attacked by your Q. Kt.,
and to defend which Black must move his K.

10. K. to Q. square.

In the defence of this gambit, Black generally fails, if he lose a move

for the purpose of preventing the advance of his adversary’s Q. Kt.
152 , CHESS

that is, it is better for him now to move his king to defend Q. B. P,
and Q. R., than at an earlier stage to have played Q. B. P. one square,
to prevent the white Kt, from being played to Q. 4fth.

11. Q. P. takes P.

If he retake this P. he will lose his Q. in consequence of the check
by discovery, to prevent which he plays,

11. Q. B. to Q. second square.
12, K. to K. Kt. square.

This is to enable you to capture his K. Kt. P., and attack his Q.,
&c. ; he therefore, in order to be uble to retake the P., moves,

12. Q. to K. Kt. third square.
13. K. R. P. takes P. 13. P. takes P.

You now perceive one of the advantages of his playing K. B. to K.
Kt. second square. It enables him to retake the P. and not fear the
exchange of rooks.

14, R. takes R. 14. K. B. takes R.
15. Q@. to K. square.

Your object is to play Q. to Q. Kt, fourth square. Black’s best

move is K. B. to K. Kt. second square, but he may very naturally

play,
15. Q. Kt. to Q. B. third square.
16. Q. B. takes gambit P. 16. P. takes Q. B.
17. Q. to K. R. fourth sq. chekg. 17. K.toQ B.
18. Q. takes K. B.

Your position is superior to that of the Black, but there is still a
good deal to be done on both sides,

The following brilliant little game occurred in the match between
M. De la Bourdonnais and Mr. M’Donnell. The Black pieces were
played by the latter of the two combatants. In a letter written by Mr.
M’Donnell to Mr. Walker, at the time the match was going on, he says
of his antagonist : ‘‘ He is the most finished player of the age, and all
I can expect is to play up to him after some practice. The openings
may not be happy, but how can you mend them? I broke down in
my bishop’s gambit, the game of all others I most relied upon, and
possibly it wpld be toesame with any other attacking game. The fact
is practice of a superior kind is indispensable to form a first-rate

player,””
CHEss. 153

BLACK. WHITE.
1. K. P. two squares. 1. K. P. two squares.
2. K. B, P. two squares. 2. P. takes P.
3. K. B.to Q. B. fourth equare, 3. Q.to K. R. fifth square, chg.
4. K. to K. B. 4. Q. P. one square.
5. Q. P. two aquares, 5. Q. B. to K. Kt, fifth square.
6. Q. to Q. third square. 6. Q. Kt. to Q. B. third square.

7. K, B. takes K. B. P. checking. ©

This is an ingenious move, but not a sound one, because in order
to recover an equivalent for the B., Black puts his Q. out of the game.
It would, perhaps, have been better to have taken the gambit P. with
Q. B.

7. K. takes K. B.
8. Q. to Q. Kt. third square, chg. 8. K, to K. Kt. third square.
9. Q. takes Q. Kt. P. 9. Q. Kt. takes Q. P.

This last move of white is masterly. Many players would have
saved Q. R. at the expense of the Kt., but by advancing the Kt. not
only is a valuable P, gained, but an addition is made to the attacking
forces already in the adversary’s camp.

10. Q, takes Q. R. 10. K. Kt, to K. B. third sq.

This move is necessary to prevent Black from checking with
at white’s K. square.

11. Q. Kt. to Q. R, third square. 11. K. B. P. one square.

12. K. Kt. P. one square. 12. Q.B. to K. R. sixth square chg.
13, K. to K. square. 13. Q. to K. Kt. fifth square.

14. Q. B. to K. third square. 14. Q. P. one square.

This move is also admirable; white threatens to win the Black Q.
by checking with K. B.

15. Q., takes Q. R. P. 15. Q. Kt. to Q. B. third square.

This move prevents the Black Q. from rejoining her forces in the
centre of the board.

16. Q. takes Q. B. P. 16. Q. P. one square.

17. Q. B. to Q. second square. 17. Q. takes K. P. checking.

18. K. to Q. square. 18. K. B. P. one square.

19. K. Kt. takes B. 19, Q. to K. B. sixth square chg,

White terminates the game much more quickly by this move than if
he had at once taken the Black Re
134 CHESS.

20. K. to Q. B. square. 20. Q. takes R. checking,
21. B. covers. 21, Q. takes B. Mares.

THE QUEEN’S-PAWN-TWO-OPENING.

This game, which is a branch of the king’s knight's opening, receives
its name from the third move of the first player, who sacrifices his
queen’s pawn by playing it two squares. On this account the game
is sometimes called ‘‘ The queen’s pawn’s gambit,’ or ‘‘ The central
gambit.” It has yet another name, ‘ The Scotch opening,” from
the circumstance of its having been adopted in three out of the five
games which were played in the year 1824, by correspondence, between
the clubs of London and Edinburgh.

This method of opeving generally leads to an interesting game,
and it is perfectly safe; for the second player cannot preserve the
pawn which he wins at the third move, without loss. After the first
few moves the game may branch out intoso many ramifications, that
we cannot in this short notice pretend to give more than a few spe-
cimens.

WHITE. BLACK.
1. K. P two squares. 1. K. P. two sq.
2. K. Kt, to K. B. third sq. 2. Q. Kt. to Q. B. third sq.
3. Q. P. two sq.

This move constitutes the opening in question. Its effect is to give
a range to your pieces, especially the bishops, so as to enable you to
form an attack before your adversary is provided with the means of
defence.

3. P. takes P.

Black may also take the P. with his Q. Kt., upon which you play
K. Kt. takes Q. Kt., and then take his K. P. with your Q. This
course of play was recommended by Anonymous Modenese ; but Mr.
Cochrane, (who has greatly improved this opening, and recorded some
beautiful games illustrative of it,) remarks :—‘‘I object to this move,
[i. e. 3. Black Q. Kt. takes P.,} not because it can actually be proved
to entai! defeat, but becaase the White, by taking the adverse knight
with his king’s knight, and afterwards placing his queen at her fourth
square, will (if the situation of the game be considered,) remain with
CHESS, 135

* much better position than his adversary. In the first place the
White has the queen and his king’s pawn in the middie of the board,
the former of which cannot he displaced unless the second player
make a feeble move, viz., queen’s bishop’s pawn two squares. Secondly,
the power of action, #. e, the number of squares which the piecesof -
the white command, is in favour of the first; and, lastly, the White
can castle his King, and secure his game sooner than his adversary.
There is nothing in chess so extremely difficult as the proving from
any weak move of your opponent, the absolute loss of a game, more
especially when one or two minor pieces have been exchanged, the
great force of the queen frequently rendering any determined calcue
lation next to impossible; the only method we can have of approaching
demonstration, is to show that the one player has apparently a more
confined game than his adversary.”

4. K. B. to Q. B. fourth sq. 4. B. to Q. Kt. fifth aq. chkg.

5. Q. B. P. one square, 5. P, takes P,

6. Castles. 6. P, takes P,

Black’s check at the fourth move does not seem to be bad, indeed
it is now sanctioned by some of our best players; nor did he
play badly at the fifth move, but his sixth move is fatal. He oughe
to have played Q. P. one square, and on your capturing the P. witht
Q. Kt, have taken it with K. B., or have retired with the B. to Q. R,
fourth square.

7. Q. B. takes P.

Black’s position is exceedingly cramped, while you have a great com.
toand of the board. He must now prevent you from taking K. Kt,
P., and winning R., for which purpose he may play K. to K. B. or
K. B. home, or K. B. P. one square, all of which moves have been
carefully analyzed by the best chess writers, and it is shown that white
may win in all; but perhaps the most natural move is.

7. K. Kt. to K. B. third ag,

8. K. Kt. to K. Kt, fifth sq. 8. Castles.

9. K. P. one eq. 9. K. Kt. to K. aq.
10. Q. to K. R. fifth aq. 10. K. R. P. one sq,
11. Kt. takes K, B. P,
156 . CHESS,

You will have now no difficulty in winning the game almost imme-
diately.

The following very beautiful game was played some years ago be-
tween Mr. Cochrane, and M. Des Chapelles, the white men being
ander the command of the former.

1, K. P. two sq. 1, K. P. two sq.

2. K. Kt. to K. 8B, third sq. 2. Q. Kt. to Q. B. third aq.
8. Q. P. two sq. 3. P. takes P.

4. K. B. to Q. B, fourth sq. 4. K. B. to Q. B. fourth sq.
5. K. Kt. to K. Kt. fifth sq. 5. Q. Kt. to K. fourth sq.

The object of black is to defend the K. B. P., and to attack K. B.,
but the move is a bad one, as the result will prove.

6. K, B. takes K. B. P. chg. 6. Q. Kt, takes B.
7. K. Kt. takes Kt.

If the black K. capture your Kt., you will play Q. to K. R. fifth
square checking; thus securing his K. B. in return; if he play B.
home or to Q. Kt. third square, you capture his Q.; therefore,

7. K. B. to Q. Kt, fifth sq. chg.
&. Q. B. P. one aq. 8. P. takes P.

Tf you capture his Q. he takes your Q. Kt. P. with the P. discover-

ing check, capturing Q. R. and making a Q. next move ; therefore,
9. P. takes P.: 9. K. B. takes P, chg.

10. Q. Kt. takes B. 10. K, takes K. Kt.

11. Q. to Q. fifth sq. chg.

White plays with great skill, so as to prevent his adversary, as much

as possible, from getting out of his cramped position,
11. K, to K. B. sq,
12. Q. B. to Q. R. third sq. chg. 12. Q. P. one sq.
18. K. P. one sq. 13. Q. to K. Kt. fourth sq.
14. K. P. takes P. 14, Q. takes Q.
15. K. P. takes Q. B. P. disco-
vering check.

Instead of taking the Q. immediately, white gains an important
advantage by first capturing the P. This is a useful lesson for the
young student,
CHESS. 157

15. K. to K. B, second eq,

16. Q. Kt. takes Q. 16. Q. B, to Q. second sq.

17. Castles with K. R. .
Whit seizes with precision the exact time for castling.. While there

was an immediate advantage to be gained, he refrained from castling,
but now that he requires a safe retreat from his adversary’s Q. R.,
and the assistance of his own K. R., he castles with advantage.

17. Q. R. to Q. B.

The ramainder of the game is a masterly contest for the advanced
pawn, and is, indeed, quite a model of chess skill.

18. Q. B. to Q. sixth sq. 18, K. to K. third sq. +
19. Q. B. to K. Kt. third sq.

He dare not capture the Kt. with his K.; for with the.assistance of

your rooks and Q. B. you would speedily win.

1y. Q. B. to Q. B. third aq.
20. Q. R. to Q. sq. 20. B. takes Kt.
21. K. R. to K. sq. chg. 21. K. to K. B. third sq.

White thus recovers his piece, and cuts off the Black K, from
assisting at the attack on the P.

22. K. Kt. to K. R. third sq.

23. Q. R. to Q. R. fifth sq. 23. Kt. to K. B. fourth aq.
24. Q. R. to Q. B. fifth sq. 24. Kt. takes B,
25. K. R. P. takes Kt. 25. K. to K. B. second sq.
26. K. R. to Q. sq. 26. K. R. to K. aq.
27, K. R. to Q. sixth sq. 27. K. R. to K. second sq.
28. Q. R. toK. B. fifth sq.chg 28. K. home.
29. K. R. to Q. eighth eq. chg 29. R. takes R.
30. Q. R. to K. B. eighth sq. chg 30. K. takes R.
$1. P takes R. becoming a Q.,

_ checking, and winning.

In the following well contested game, the first five moves are the
same on both sides, as in the first example; after which a different
attack and defence are adopted. Black moves first.

BLACK, WHITE.
1. K. P. two sq. 1, K. P. two sq.
2. K. Kt. to K. B. third sq. 2, Q. Kt. to Q. B. th sq.
188 CHESS.

3. Q. P. two sq. -. 8, PB. takes P.

4, K. B. to Q. B. fourth sq. ‘4. K. B. to Q. Kt. fifth sq. chg.
5. Q. B. P. one sq. -., 5. P. takes P,

6. P. takes P. 6. K. B. to Q. R. fourth aq,

This is the best square to which you can play the B,, the object
being to post him at Q. Kt. third. If you had moved it to any otber
square, it would have been either in the way, or unsafe.

7. K.P. one sq.

The introduction of this move at this particular point is due to Mr,
Cochrane. Its immediate object is to prevent your K. Kt. from occu-
pying K. B, third square, but its influence may generally be traced
throughout the remainder of the game. Q. P. one square is not an
unusual answer to it, but such a move is full of danger, because your
adversary can play Q. to Q. Kt. third, or Q. B. to Q. R. third, or he
can castle and get a rook into play almost immediately. The safer
course is to play the pawn to its full extent ; you have nothing to fear
from his taking it en passant, and should he take it with the B. you
play Q. B, to K. third square:

7. Q. P. two sq.
8. P. takes P. en passant: 8. Q. takes P.
9. Q. to Q. Kt. third sq. 9. Q. B. to K. third square:

He dare not take your Q. Kt. P., for by playing your Q. R. to Q.
Kt. you would gain an immediate advantage.

10. Castles. 10. B. takes B.

It is nearly always desirable to change your Q B. for the advers

K. B., especially when leagued with another piece in an attack.

il. Q. takes B. 11. K. Kt. to K. second square.
You have thus escaped the attack which Black acquired in conse-

quence of his having the move. You are prepared to castle on either

side. The faults of your position, which belong in a great measure to

the nature of the opening, are, the exposed situation of your Q.,—

the loss of your centre pawns,—and pieces standing out in front of the

pawns, instead of sheltering bebind them.

12. K. R. to K. sq. 12.Castles with K. R.

13. Q. B. to Q. R. third square. 13, Q. to K. B. third square.

14. Q. Kt. to Q. second sq, 14. K. R. to K. sq.
CHESS. 159

15. Q. Kt. to K. fourth sq. , 15. Q. to K. Kt, third sq.

Much care and skill are required on your part to preserve tne Q.
she is peculiarly liable to these attacks when standing out in front of
unmoved pawns, If you had not mov.d R. to K. square, at the
fourteenth move, you would have lost a piece.

16. Q. R. to Q. square. 16. Q. R. to Q. square.

It is generally reckoned ag good play to oppose rooks to rooks, and
when violently attacked, it is advantageous to exchange on equal
terms, as much as possible.

17. Q. Kt. to K. Kt. fifth aq. 17. R. takes R.
18. R. takes R. 38. K. Kt. to K. B. fourth.
19. R. to Q. seventh sq. 19. K. Kt. to K. R. third sq.

You thus supply an additional defence to K. B. P, and threaten to
check, if necessary, at Q. Kt. 8th; therefore he moves,

20. K. R. P. one square. 20. B. to Q. Kt. third eq.
21. Q. to Q. fifth sq. 21. Q. to K. B. third sq.

The object of White is to get Q. to act with B. upon his adversary’s
K. B. P.

22. Q. B. P. one aq.

It is evident Black thinks to masque the attack of your K. B. with
his Q. B. P., but the following admirable move determines the game
in your favour.

22. Q. Kt to K. fourth sq.

You will do well to study all the consequences of this bold and de-
cisive move. We should be disposed to play in answer to it Q. B. to
K. seventh square, but Black played
23. Kt takes Kt.

And White wins the game by force, in six moves,

THE EVANS’ GAMBIT,

This highly ingenious variation of the King’s Knight’s game was
introduced to the chess world about the year 1833, by Captain W. D.
Evans of Milford, and soon became celebrated for the novelty of its
situations, and the opportunities afforded for bold and brilliant play.
This game was conducted with remarkable skill by Mr, M‘Donnell, in
whose contests with M. de la Bourdonnais many beautiful examples

ll
160 CHESS.

occur. When the French champion arrived in England, this game
having been but recently introduced, was unknown to him. It was
introduced at the commencement of the second match by Mr. M’Don.
nel who, of course, won the game ; whereupon the Frenchman, as he
aftewards admitted to Mr. Walker, ‘‘ purposely declined playing again
for two or three days, during which time he sedulously analyzed the
novel dediit, and made up his mind upon its merits, both as to its
strength and weakness,”

1. K, P two. 1. K, P two.
2. K. Kt to K. B. third. 2. Q. Kt. to Q. B. third.
3 K. P. to Q. P. fourth. 3. K. B. to Q. B. fourth.

4. Q. Kt. P. two

This move constitutes ‘‘ Captain Evans’s Game,’’ as it is fami-
liarly called.

By the sacrifice of this pawn, which is a less valuable one than the

K. B. P. sacrificed in the king’s gambits, you acquire much scope
or altack. You are enabled to plant your Q. B. on Q. Kt. second,
or Q. R. third square, both very attractive moves, and you are also
enabled to udvance K. B. P. two squares much sooner, in consequence
of the Black K. B. being drawn out of the diagonel which he so ad-
vantageously occupies at the third move.
_ Black’s best move is to capture the P. with the B. If he take
At with the Kt. it would be be bad play to capture his K. P. with your
Kt because by moving his Q. to K. B. third, he gains au immediate
advantage,

Whether he take the P. with the Kt. or the B. you must advance
Q. B. P. one square.

4. K B. takes Q. Kt. P.

5. Q. B. P. one. 5. B. to Q. R. fourth.
6. Castles. 6. B. to Q. R. fourth,
7.Q. P. two. Y. P. takes P,
8. P. takes P, 8. Q. P. one.

The advance of this P. is necessary at this point to enable him to
play out K. Kt. ’
9. QB. to Q. R. third, .
CHESS. 161

Your object is to prevent him from castling, and’ also to form a

powerful attack upon his king’s side.
9. K. Kt. to K. B. third.

10. K. P. one 10. P. takes P.
11. Q. to Q Kt. third, - 1]. Q. to Q second.
12. P. takes P. 2. Q. Kt. to Q. R. fourth,

Black thus threatens to charge off one of your attacking pieces,
and to prevent the threatened capture of his K. B. P., but by a cal-
culation remarkable for its boldness and precision, White allows his
Q. to be taken, foreseeing that he can recover her or effect mate.
13. P. takes Kt. 13. Q. Kt. takes Q.

14. K. R. to K. eq. checking 14. K. to Q.
15. K. B. to K. seventh, chkg 15. K. to K. sq.
16. P. :akes K. Kt. P.

Threatening to capture the 2. making a Q. or to post the B. on the
very important square just vacated by the P., at the same time dis-
covering check.

16. K. R, to K.Kt:
17. B. to K. B. sixth, “dincovering 17. Q. to K. third.
check.

Black has no other move.

18. K, B. takes Q. 18. K, B. takes B.
19. Q. R. P. takes Kt.

White wins the game easily.

In the following example, Black has the move, and conducts the
attack in a different manner to that given above.

BLACK. WHITE.
1, K. P. two: 1. K. P. two.
2. K. Kt. to K. B. third. 2. Q. Kt. to Q. B. third,
3. K. B. to Q. B. fourth 3. K. B. to Q, B. tourth,
4. Q. Kt. P. two. 4. B. takes P
5. Q. B. P. one. 5. B, to Q. R. fourth,
6. Castles. 6. K. Kt to K. B. third,
7. K. Kt. to K. Kt, fifth. 7. Castles.
8. Q. P. two. 8. P. takes P,
162 CHESS,

9.P. takes P. 9. Q. P. one,

10. K. B. P. two. 10. Q. B. to K. Kt. fifth.
ll. Kt. takes K. B. P. 11, R. takes K,

12. B. takes R. checking. 12. K. takes B.

13. Q. to Q. Kt. third, chkg. 13. Q. P. one.

The capture of K. B. P. by Black at the eleventh move was pre.
mature. Your advance of the Q. P. one at the last move. is in the
best style of chess play; you gain time by it to form a counter attack
and to break up the formidable breast of pawns in the centre,

14. K. P. one square. 14. Q. Kt. takes Q. P.

This is also a good move, and is, indeed, a consequence of the
thirteenth. In chess, as in life, we nearly always find that one good
move leads to another.

15 Q. to Q. R. fourth. 15. K. Ke. to K. fifth.

If Black capture Q. Kt. he loses his Q ; therefore
16. Q. takes K. B. 16. Q. Kt. to K. seventh, chkg,
17. K. to R. 17. Q. to K. R. fifth.

Threatening to mate with K, Kt. at K. Kt. sixth.
18. Q, takes Q. B. P. checking. 18. K. to K. B.

19. K. Kt, P. one. 19, Q. Kt. takea K. Kt, chkg.
To make an opening for his K.

20. K. to K. Kt. 20. Kt. takes R.

21. K. takes Kt, 21. Q. MarEs.

The following games, which occurred in the match between De Ja
Bourdonnais and M’Donnell, are selected for the illustration of the
great variety and beauty of this opening. The first game was opened
by the F rench champion.

1. K. P. two. 1. K. P. two.

2. K. Kt. to K. B, third. 2.Q. Kt.to Q. B. third,
3. K. B. to Q. B, fourth, 3. K. B. to Q. B. fourth:
4. Q. Kt. P. two 4. B, takes Kt, P,

5. Q: B. P. one. 5. B. to Q. B. fourth.
6. Castles. 6, Q. P- one.

7. Q. P. two. 7, P. takes P.

8. P. takes P. 8, K. B. to Q Kt. third
9 Q. K one aq. . 9. Kt. to@ R fourth.
CHESS, 163

1t is not unusual at this point to play the Kt. to K. second, with
the intention of transferring him afterwards to K. Kt. third. It
would be bad play to move him to K. fourth, because you would ex-
change knights, and by drawing the Q. P. on to the king’s file, pre-
vent Black from castling, and get a powerful attack on your queen’s
side. In the present position the Black knight is as it were put out
of the game; it is true that he forces your K. B. to move, but as
your Q. P. masks the attack on Black’s K. B. P,, you vary the attack
so as not to lose the services of the K. B., so important in most
gambit attacks.

10. K. B. to Q. third. 10 K. Kt. to K. B. third.
11, Q. Kt. to Q. B. third. 11. Castles.
12. K. 2. P. one. 12. K. R. P. one.

The object on both sides is to prevent the Q. B. from being posted
at K. Kt. fifth.

13. K. to R. second.

Your object is to be prepared to advance K. B. P, two, and to place
your K. ina safe retreat, which is frequently turnished by the ob-
structed pawns of your adversary ; such for example as his Q. P. in
the present instance.

13. Q. B. P. two.

His object is to get room for his pieces, and to prevent you from
taking up a strong attacking position; but by your next move you
will not only prevent the advance of his Q. B. P. but liberate your
own K. B. P,

14. K. Kt, to Q. second. _ 14.Q B. to Q. second,
15, Q. to K.
Your intention is to play Q. to K. Kt. third, orto R, fourth, after
having moved Kk. B. P. two.
15. K. Kt. P. two,

This move does not by any means improve Black’s game, tor it
presently exposes his K. to an attack, which is conceived and con-
ducted with the ingenuity and spirit which so eminently marked the
play of De la Bourdonnais. It is difficult, however, in the present
loose as well as confined position of Black to point out a move which
would retrieve his game.
164 CHESS,

16. K. B, P. two. 16. P. takes P,
17. K. R. takes P, 17. Q. B. P. one.

The advance of this P. is favourable to the White, by sheltering
his forces on the queen’s side.

18. K. B. to Q. B. second. 18. K. B. to Q. fifth.
1y. K. Kt. to K. B. third, 19. K. B. takes Q. Kt.
20. Q. takes B. 20. Kt. to K. R. fourth.
21. K. R. to R. fourth. 21. K. Kt. to K. second.
22. Q. B. takes K. R. P. 22. K. B. P. one.

23. Q. B. takes Kt. 23. K. takes B.

24. K. P. one. 24. K. B. P. takes P.

25. K. R. to R. seventh, chkg. 25. K. to Kt.
26. K. Kt. takes P.
If he take the Kt., Q mates; therefore
26. Q. 8. to K. B. fourth.
27. Kt. to K. B. seventh. 27. B. takes B.

28. Kt, CHECKMATES.

If at the twenty-seventh move, Black had played Q. to K, B. third,
the mate would bave been equally forced ; for example,

27. Q. to K. B. third.

28. Q. takes Q. 28. K. takes R.
29. B. takes B. checking. 29. K. to Kt. sq.
30. Kt CHECKMATE.

The next game was opened by M’ Donnell.

1. K. P. two. 1. K, P> two.

2. K. Kt, to K. B. third. 2. Q. Kt to Q,B. third.
3. K. B. to Q. B. fourth. 3. K..B. to Q. B. fourth.
4. Q. Kt. P. two. 4. B. takes P.

5. Q B. P. one. 5. K. B. to Q. R. fourth,
G. Castles. 6. K. B. to Q. Kt. third.
7. Q. P. two. 7. P. takes P.

8. P. takes P. 8. Q. P. one.

9, K. R. P. one, 9. K. R. P. one.

10. Q. B. to Q. Kt second. 10. Q. to K. second.

Black seems to have lost the game by this move, K. Kt. to K. B,
third would have oeen better
CHESS. 165

11. K. P. one. 11. P. takes P.
12, Q, P. one. 12. Q. Kt. to Q. R. fourth
13. K. Kt. takes K. P.

By this move you defend K. B.; and he cannot capture the
without losing his Q.

13, K. Kt. to B. third.
14 Q. P. one 14. P. takes P.
15. K. B. takes K. B. P., checking,

Having got an attack, it is quite necessary to maintain it wigh
firmness. Had Black been allowed to castie he would have reverted
his game.

15. K. to Q. square.
16. K. R. to K. 16. K. to Q. B. second,
17. Q. Kt. to Q. R. third. 17. Q. R. P. one
18, Q. R. to Q. B. checking. 18. K. B. interposes.
19, Q. R. takes B., chkg. 19. P. takes R.
20. K. Kt, to Q. B. fourth.

By this method White gains time, exposes the Black Q. to the
attack of K, R, at the same time compelling him to guard Q. third,
where a mate is threatened.

20. Q. home.
21. Q. B. to K. fifth. chkng. 21. K. to Q. B. third.
22. Q. to K. B. third, chkz, 22. K. Kt. to Q. fourth.
23. K. B. takes Kt. checking.

If Black Q. capture B. you win her by taking Q. K+. checking
therefore,

23. K. to Q. second.
24. Q. to K. B. fifth, chkg. 24, K, home.
25 Q. CHECKMATES.

THE QUEEN’S GAMBIT

The Queen’s Gambit is so called from its connection with the
two squares on third move, and the queen’s bishop’s pawn sacri-
ficed on the second. This game is sometimes called the Aleppo gam-
bit, in honour of Stama, a native of Aleppo, who made the game a
favourite in Europe. Philidor, in his masterly analysis of this opening
166 CHESS,

also calls it the Aleppo gambit. Hence it has been supposed to have
originated with Stamma, but such is not the case; for the game occurs
in the works of some of the earliest chess writers,

The queen’s gambit is a safer opening for the firat player than the
king’s, because, if the second player attempt to defend the gambit
pawn, he is likely to lose the game; whereas, in the kings gambit, it
is necessary to defend the gambit pawn to the utmost. This peculi-
arity in the queen’s gambit, has led to a general opinion that the second
player ought to refuse the proffered pawn ; if he do so, he has a choice
of several moves, among which, Q. B_ P. one or two squares, is a
favourite move.

This gambit is by no means equal in variety and interest to the
numerous branches of the king’sgambit. It has, however, been much
played of late years, together with what is called the King’s Pawn one
opening, to which it is closely allied. De la Bourdonnais played botr
games with surpassing skill, and seemed to rely upon them in gaining
the majority of games in his contest with M’Donnell. In fact, he
wielded this game like a two-edged sword,—for when he had the move,
he could open with the queen’s gambit ; and when his antagonist had
the move, he could reply with K. P. one,

In our first example the gambit is refused.

WHITE. BLACK.
1. Q. P, two. 1. Q. P. two.
2. Q. B. P. two. 2. K. P. one,

3. Q. Kt. to Q. B. third.

You do not of course defend Q. B. P., because, 1f he take it, you
push K. P, two squares, thus occupying the centre, while you are sure
to recover the pawn.

5. K. B. P. two.

His object is to prevent you from occupying the centre, while you

Proceed to break up his central pawns.
4. K. R. P. one. . K. Kt. to K. B. third,
5. Q. . to K. Kt. fifth. . K. B. to Q. Ke, fifth.
6. K. ms. P. two. . Castles.
K. Ke. P. takes P K. P, takea P.
P, one,

~

SIO
CHESS, 167

This move is well timed; you threaten to bring your Q. and K, B

to bear upon his K.
8. Q. B. to K. third.

9. Q. to Q. Kt. third. 9. Q. Kt. to Q. B. third.
. 10. K. Kt. to K. B. third. 10. Q. to Q. third.
11. Q. B. P. one. 11. Q. to Q, second.
12. K. B. to Q. Kt. fifth, 12. K. Kt. to K. fifth.
13. K. Kt. to K. fifth, 13. B. takes Kt. checking.
14. P. takes B. 14. Q. to Q@. B.

15. K. B. takes Q. Kt.

You leave Q. B. en prise, because, unless Black take the K. B.,
he will be immediately exposed to considerable loss.

15. Q. Kt. P. takes K. B.
16. Kt. takes P.

This move is unwise ; it is true that you threaten to fork K. and
Q., but Black at his next move puts another piece en prise, and you
have not the mean» of defending both.

16. Q. to K.
17. Kt. to K. seventh, checking. 17. K. to R.

18. B. to K. R. fourth, 18. K. Kt. P. two.
19. K. B. P. one. 19. P. takes B.

20. P. takes Kt. 20. Q. takes Kt.
21. P. takes Q. P. 21. Q. R. to Q. Kt.

Black thus cleverly gains time, and brings a rook to command the
open file: he sacrifices the B. in order to get the white Q. out of the
way, and then forces the game in a few moves.

22. Q, to Q. B. fourth. 22. B. takes P. at Q. fifth.

23. Q. takes B. 23. Q. takes K. P. checking.

24. K.toK. B. - 24. Q. to Q. sixth, checking.

25. K. to K. B. second. 25. Q. R. to Q. Kt. seventh, chkg.

And wins immediately.

We will now give a few examples of the queen’s gambit accepted,
he first of which will show the danger of adopting the line of defence
which is generally successful in the king’s gambits.

1, Q, P, two. 1. Q. P. two.
2. Q. B. P. two. 2. P. takes P.
168 CHESS.

You may now play K. P. one or two squares, bu: which is the
better, is still a matter of dispute among chess authorities. If your
antagonist is in the habit of defending the gambit pawn, it is better to
move K. P, one square only ; but no sensible player would continuea
line of defence after he had proved its defects, and found it condemned
by chess authorities; besides, it is always dangerous to calculate on
the bad play of your opponent ; it not only leads to a slovenly, reck-
less style of play on your part, but may often cause you much annoy-
ance and disappointment. The best rule is always to play your best,
and to calculate your game as if your adversary were quite as skilful
as yourself.

3. K. P. one. 3. Q. Kt. P. two.
4. Q. R. P. two.

When he defends the gambit pawn, you are thus enabled to advance
the Q. R. P. with advantage, recovering the P., and perhaps making
an important capture,

4, P. takes P.
5. K. B, takes P. 5. Q. B. to Q. second.
6. Q. to K. B. third.

You now threaten to check-mate, or to win his Q, R. These are
am ong the advantages of moving K. P. one at the third move, sup-
posing the gambit P. to be afterwards defended. If you had moved
K. P. two, Black could have got out of his immediate difficulty by
moving K. P. one. If he now attempt to save Q. R., you mate him
immediately . for example,

6. Q. B. to its third,
7. Q. takes K. B. P. chekg. 7. K. to Q. second.
8. Q. to K. B. fifth, checking. 8. Q. P. one.
9. Q. takes Q. P. checkmating.

The defence of the gambit pawn does not necessarily entail such a
rapid defeat as the above ; but it leads to defeat even in the hands of a
skilfal player, as the following example from Philidor will illustrate.

1, Q. P. two. 1, Q. P. two.
2. Q. B. P. two. 2. P. takes P.
3. K. P. two. 3. Q. Kt. P. two.

4. Q. R. P. two. 4. Q. B. P. one.
CHESS, 169
He cannot obviously defend it with Q. R. P.

5. Q. Kt. P. one. 5. gambit P. takes P.

6. Q. R. P. takes P. 6. Q. B. P. takes P.

7. K. B. takes P. checking. 7. Q. B. interposes.

8. Q. takes P. 8. B. takes B.

9. Q. takes B. checking. 9. Q. interposes,
10. Q. takes Q. 10. Kt. retakes.

By exchanging queens you are enabled to occupy the centre with
your pawns.

11. K. B. P. two. 11. K. P. one square.
12. K. to K. second.

Your K. will act asa useful support to the pawns. When the
queens are off the board, the K. can generally be as usefully employed
as an ordinary piece.

12. K. B. P. two.

His object is to make you advance K. P., whereby your Q. P., in-
wad of taking the lead, will be left bekind, and be comparatively use~
less, If you do not play K. P., your centre will be broken up; you
therefore play it, and must afterwards endeavour, with the assistance
of your pieces, to exchange your Q. P. for his K. P. so as to open
free passage for your K. P.

13. K. P. one, 13. K. Kt. to K. second.
14, Q. Kt. to Q. B. third. 14. K, Kt. to Q. fourth.

Black is forced to propose the exchange of Kts., although he se-
parates bis pawns in so doing; because you threaten to advance Kt,
to Kt. fifth, and then to fork his K. and R, or if he move rook, to
capture Q R. P.

15. Kt. takes Kt. 1d. P. takes P.
16. Q. B. to Q. R. third.

By these moves you force the exchange of this B., because he runs
on the black diagonals, andbence might damage your important group
of central pawns.

16. B. takes B.
17. R. takes B. 17. K. to K. second.
18, K. to K. B. third.

You are thus under the shelter of your Q. R., and can play out

K, Kt. before he has time to bring his K. R. into play.
170 CHESS

18. K. R. to Q. Kt.
19. Kt. to K. second. 19, K. to K. third.
20. K. R. to Q. R. 20. K. R. to Q. Kt. second
21. Q, R. to R. sixth, chkg, 21. Kt. to Q. Kt. third.
22. K. R. to R. fifth.
This move enables you to win a pawn by playing Kt
22, K, Kt. P. one.
23. Kt. to Q. B. third. 23. Q. R. toQ.
24, R, takes Q. R. P. 24. R. takes R.
25. R. takes R.

The game is here dismissed with the remark that White must win,
having a pawn superiority, and morcover a passed pawn, which amounts
to a piece.

The following beautiful specimen of the queen’s gambit was played
by M. de la Bourdonnais against Mr. M’Donnell.

1. Q. P. two. 1. Q. P. two.
2. Q. B. P. two. 2. P. takes P.
3. K. P. one. 3. K. P. two.

Black’s third move is considered to be the best. If you uaow cap-
ture his K. P., he will exchange queens.

4, K. B. takes Gambit P. 4. P. takes P.

5. P. takes P. 5. K. Kt. to K. B. third,
6. Q. Kt. to K. B. third 6. K. B. to K. second.
7. K. Kt. to K. B. third. 7. Castles.

8. K. R. P. one. 8. Q. Kt. to Q. second.
9. Q. B. to K. third. 9. Q. Kt. to Q. Kt. third.
10. K. B. to Q Kt. third. 10. Q. B. P. one.

11. Castles. 11. K. Kt. to Q. fourth.
12. Q. to K. second. 12. K. B. P. two.

If would have been very unwise of Black to have captured either
the Kt. or the B., because White, by retaking with a pawn, would
unite a P, to his Q, P.

13. K. Kt. to K. fifth. 13. K. B. P. one,

14. Q. B. to Q. second. 14. K. Kt. P. two.

15. Q. R. to K. 15. K. to K. Kt. second.
Black wishes to Hberate the Kt. at Q. fourth.

16. Q. Kt. takes Kt. 16. Kt. takes Kt.

17. Kt. takes Q. B. P.
CHESS, WI

This move is ingeniously played.
17. Q. Kt. P. takes Kt,

18, B. takes Kt. 18. Q. takes B.

19. Q. takes B. checking. ° 19. R. interposes,

20. Q. to Q. Kt. fourth. 20. Q. B. to K. B. fourth
21. R. to K. fifth. 21, Q. to Q. second.

22. Q. P. one.
This is a skilful sacrifice, exposing the adverse K. more completely
to the action of White’s pieces.
22. P. takes P.
23. Q. to Q. fourth.
Threatening a fatal check by discovery.
23. K. to R. third,
24. K. R, P. one.
To enable Q. or Q. B., to attack K.
24. Q. B. to K. third.

25.Q.R.toK. ” 25. Q. R. to K.
26. R. takes K. Kt. P. 26. Q. R.to K. B.
27. Q. to K. fifth 27. Q. B. to K. Kt. fifth

28. R. to K. R. fifth, chkg. 28. B, takes R.
29. @, mates.

CONCLUSION.

The practical directions appended to nearly every move in the
foregoing games renders it unnecessary that we should trespass further
upon the patience of the learner. We have endeavoured to render
this little treatise as complete and concise as possible ; and we flatter
ourselves that while a novice may by a careful perusal of its pages
gain a fundamental knowledge if this noble pastime, the sound in-
formation it contains will be tound both useful and interesting to many
who are skilled in the art. Persuns who wish to learn this art fre-
quently experience a difficulty in procaring the necessary men: should
this be the case with any of our readers, we would recommend to
their notice a set of chessmen, with board, published at a very mo.
derate price, by Mr, Cleave of Shoe-lane, which may be ordered of
any bookeeller,
172 BAGATELLE.

BAGATELLE.

This lively amusement, which is suitable for the parlour circle, is
practised upon a table or board, with certnin kinds of cues or maces,
and balls. The bagatelle board is from six to ten feet in length, aad
from one foot nine inches to three feet wide, and lined with green
cloth ; a slip of wood being placed round thc inside of its upper end,
to form a semicircle, in this board there are nine cups let in level with
the green cloth, numbered one to nine, into which the balis are to be
driven in one of the games called bagatelle, An arch, with holes
similarly numbered, and of the size of the ball, through which the
balls are to be driven, is used in the other game, when the cups are
not requisite, In playing this game, two small cushions are likewise
placed against the sides of the board.

LA BAGATELLF,

This game may be played by any number of persons ; the lead being
taken by that player who strikes a ball up the board, and gets the
highest number. The nine balls having been taken by the first player,
he places the black or red one on the mark nearest the circle of holes,
and one of the white balis on the mark nearest the other end of the
board. The player then endeavours with the cue or mace to strike
this white ball at the black or red ball, into one of the holes, The
other balls are to be similarly struck, either at the outstanding balls,
or for the holes ; and at the commencement of each round, the colour-
ed ball is to be replaced as a mark. Each player counts the number
of the hole or holes intu which he strikes the ball or balls: and he
who soonest scores the holes on the edge wins the game. If a ball
bound beyond the centre, or be struck off the board, it must not be
used again during that game.

MISSISSIPPI,

Place ine bridge close up to the circle. Place the small cushions
against the sides, Each player is to strike one ball through the
bridge ; the highest number, to take the lead, and play the nine balls
successively, All balls must strike the cushions, previous to entering
the bridge ; otherwise, the number will be scored to the adversary.
The game is to be any aumber agreed upon before the commencement,
THE CONJUROR.



Doubtless the pleasure is as great

Of being cheated as to cheat;

And lookers on feel most delight,

That least perceive a juggler’s sleight;

And still the less they understand,

The more they admire his sleight of hand.
HUDIBRAS,

It would be utterly impossible to trace the history of Legerdemain
to its origin, since its history is lostin its great antiquity. The
casting up of knives and balls alternately, and tricks of a similar kind
were practised by the ancient Egyptians. The historians of the early
ages of the world record feats sufficiently surprising to show that the
ancient jugglers were no mean proficients in the art they professed. In
Eng!and, ptior to the Conquest, Gleemen or Harpers practised leger-
demain and other deceptions. After that period, the Gleemen lost
their Saxon apellation and were called Minstrauls, or Minstrels, and

12
(76 THE CONJUROR.

their art was divided into several branches, one of which included all
such men as practised sleights of hand, tumbling, balancing, grotesque
dancing, and teaching horses, bears, dogs and monkeys to dance ;
they were called Joculators, Jengleurs, or Jugglers. In the fourteenth
century, the Jugglers seem to have been separated from the poets or
minstrels, and were in their greatest popularity, but they gradually
fell in the estimat‘on of the wealthy classes and the people. In the time
of Queen Elizabeth, they were inso great disrepute, as to be classed
by the moral writers of the time amongst ‘‘ ruffians, blasphemers,
hieves and vagabonds ; > nay, they, and the strolling players, were
even included in a vagrant act, passed in the thirty-ninth year of this
Queen’s reign, and subject to the same punishment as rogues and
sturdy beggars. In the seventeenth century, juggling was, though
shorn of its splendour, still exhibited with effect at country and town
fairs, and merry-makings; and that compound of cheat and juggler,
the mountebank, or quack-doctor, blended sleights of hand with his
professional avocations. At the present time, the jugglers, instead of
feasting and revelling in the houses of the nobility, travel from town
to town, to pick up a precarious subsistence, by displaying their feats
in public houses, or before miscellaneous crowds in open streets.

We have attempted i in this section of the Boy’s Book to furnish the
ingenious youth with instructions in the art amply sufficient to divert
a party of young friends. ‘The greater part of these tricks may be per-
formed without the aid of expensive chemical or mechanical avpvaratug.

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THE CONJUROR, 177








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SIMPLE DECEPTIONS

4ND ‘
SLEIGHT OF HAND poyeAQ\ yy
TRICKS. ee)
J,

Although many of the tricks in this division are so simple that they
can be practised with success after a slight perusal of the description,
there are others which can only be acquired by considerable practise,
and the exhibitor is recommended never to venture on a feat before
company until he has acquired the necessary expertness. He should
also endeavour to acquire various ways of performing the same feat,
and should one method fail, he will be enabled to substitute another.

WATER IN A SLING.

Half fiill a mug with water, place it in a sling, and you may whirl
it round you withont spilling a drop; for the water tends more away
from the centre of motion towards the bottom of the mug, than
towards the earth by gravity.

THE BALANCED EGG.

Lay a looking-glass, face upwards on a perfectly even table; then
shake a fresh egg, so as to mix up and incorporate the yolk and the
white thoroughly ; with care and steadiness you may then balance the
egg on its point and make it stand upright on the glass, which it will
be impossible to achieve when the egg is in its natural state.
178 THE CONJUROR.

THE BALANCED S8TICK.

Procure a piece of deal about the length of your hand, half an inch
thick, and twice as bread ; within a short distance of one end of this
piece, thrust in the points of the blades of two penknives of equal
weight, in such a manner, that one of them may incline to one side,
the second to the other. If its other extremity be placed on the tip of
the finger, the stick will keep itself upright without falling ; and if it
be made to incline, it will raise itself again, and recover its former situ-
ation, This is a very pretty performance, and, if properly managed,
cannot fail to excite some surprise in the minds of those wko behold it
for the first time, as the knives, instead ot appearing to balance the
stick, which they in fact do, will rather appear to increase the diffi-
culty of the feat.

THE LITTLE BALANCER,

A little figure may be made on the principles of the foregoing trick,
go as to balance itself very amusingly. Get a piece of wood about two
inches in length, cut one end of it into the form of a man’s head and
shoulders, and let the other end taper off gradually to a fine point.
Next furnish the little man with wafters shaped like oars, instead of
arms, which wafters may be somewhat double the length of his body ;
insert them in his shoulders, and he will be complete. When you
place him on the tip of your finger, if you have taken care to make the
point exactly in a line with the centre of his body, and have put the
wafters accurately in their places, he will preserve his ba.ance, even if
blown about ; provided he be not blown with so much force as to drive
him off his perch, This little man will cause more surprise than the
previous trick, in consequence of the fine pomt on which he oscillates.

TO LIFT A BOTTLE WITH A STRAW.

Take a stout, uribroken straw, bend the thickest end of it into an
acute angle, and put it into a bottle, so that its bent part may rest
against the side of the bottle, then take hold of the other end of it, and
it you have managed the trick properly, you will be able to lift up the
bottle without breaking the straw ; and the nearer the angular part of
THE CONJUROR. \7

the latter comes to that which passes out of the neck of the former. so
much the more easy will be the experiment.

THE BOTTLE CONJUROR,

You must preface this trick by declaring to the company, that it
was formerly supposed to be impossible to set the Thames on fire;
and that it was demonstrated, some years ago, at the Haymarkey
theatre, that for a person to crawl into a quart bottle was an utter im-
possibility, but the progress since made in all kinds of knowledge, has
proved it is possible to set the Thames on fire, and that any one may
crawl in fo a pint bottle. This statement will of course he doubted ;
but to prove your assertion, get a pint bottle, and place it in the
middle of the room, then slip outside the door, and in a minute or
two return, creeping upon all-fours, saying, ‘‘ Ladies and gentlemen,
this is crawling in fo a pint bottle.

AN ADVANTAGEOUS WAGER.

Request a lady to lend you a watch. Examine it, and give a guess
as to its value; then offer to lay the owner a wager considerably be-
low the real value of the watch, that she will not answer to three
questions which you will put to her consecutively, ‘‘ My watch.”
Show her the watch, and say, ‘‘ What is this I hold in my hand?”
she, of course will not fail to reply, ‘‘ My watch.’’ Next present to
her notice some other object, repeating the same question. If she
name the object you present, she loses the wager; but if she be on
her guard, and remembering her stake, she says, ‘‘ My watch,’’ she
must of course, win; and you, therefore, to divert her attention,
should observe to her, ‘‘ You are certain to win the stake, but sup-
posing I lose, what will you give me ?”’ and if, confident of suecess,
she replies, for the third time, ‘ my watch,” then affect to take ic, and
leave her the wager agreed on.

THE HATCHED BIRD.

Separate an egg in the middle, as neatly as poss.ble ; empty it, and
then, with a fine piece of paper and a little glue, join the two halves
130 THE CONJUROR,

together, having first put a live canary bird inside it, which will on-
tinue unhurt in it for some time, provided you make a small pin hole
oa the shell to supply the bird with air: have, also, a whole egg in
readiness. Present the two eggs for one to be chosen; put the egg,
which contains the bird, next to the person who is to choose, and, for
this purpose, be sure to select a lady; she naturally chooses the near
est to her, because, havi .g no idea of the trick to be performed, there
is no apparent reason to take the further one: at any rate, if the wrong
one be taken, you do not fail in the trick, for you break the egg, and
say--~“‘ You see that this egg is fair and fresh, madam: so you would
have found the other, if you had chosen it. Now, do you choose to
find in it a mouse, or a canary-bird ?’’ She naturally declares for the
bird ; nevertheless, if she ask for the mouse, there are means to escape,
you ask the same question of several sides, and gather the majority of
votes, which, in all probability, will be in favour of the bird, which
you then produce,

TO BREAK A STIGOK PLACED ON TWO GLASSES.

The stick used for this trick must not be very stout, both of its ex-
t ‘ties should be tapered off to a pomt, and they should be as uni-
e 3 possible in length, in order that its centre may be easily
: . The ends of the stick must be rested on tle edges of the
giass*- which of course should be perfectly even in height, that the
stick 1 .y lie in a horizontal position without any undue inclination,
either to one side or the other: and if a smart blow be then struck
upon its centre, proportioned (as near as can be guessed) to its size,
and the distance the glasses are from each other, it will be broken in
two Without its supporters being injured.

THE THREE SPOONS.

This is a capital trick, but it requires a confederate’s aid. Place
ree silver spoons crosswise on a table, request any person to touch
one, and assure him you will find out the one he touches by a single
inspection, although you will leave the room while he does so, and
evea if he touches it so gently as not to disarrange the order in which
they are once put in the slightest degree. You retire, and when he
THE CONJUROR. 181

gives you notice to enter, walk up to the table and inspect the spoons.
as if trying to ascertain whether there are any finger-marks upon them,
and then decide. Your confederate, of course, makes some sign, pre-
viously agreed upon, to give you notice which is the identical spoon.
The actions may be, tcuching a button of his jacket for the top spoon,
touching his chin for the secon’, and putting his finger to his lips for
the lowest: but the precise actions are immaterial, so that the spoon
they indicate may be understood.

THE ENCHANTED COCK.
Bring a cock into a room with both vour hands close to his wings,
and hold them tight ; put him on a table, and point his beak down as
straight as possible; then let any one draw a line, with a piece of
chalk, directly from its beak, and all the noise you can possibly make
will not disturb him, for some time, from the seeming lethargy, which
that position you have laid him in has effected

EATABLE CANDLE ENDS.

Procure a large apple of a yellowish tint, and cut a piece out as
neatly as possible into the shape of a candle end: next cut a slip out
of the inside of a sweet almond, and make it nicely round and even, to
imitate the wick of a wax candle; insert the wick into the apple candle
light it for a moment to blacken the tip, and to render the illusion
more perfect, blow it out again, and the candle will be complete. When
showing the trick, light the candle, (the wick of which will readily
take fire,) put it into your mouth, masticate and swallow it with all
the seeming relish you can assume.

THE WINE UNDER THE HAT.

Place a glass of wine upon a table, put a hat over it, and offer to lay
a wager with any of the company that you will empty the glass with.
out lifting the hat. When your proposition is accepted, desire the
company not to touch the hat, and then get under the table, and
commence making a sucking noise, smacking your lips at intervala, as
though you were swallowing the wine with infinite satisfaction to your-
182 THE CONJUROR.

self After a minute or two, come from under the tabie, and address
the person who took your wager with, ‘‘ Now, sir.’”’ His curiosity
being of course excited, he will lift up the hat, in order to see whether
you have really performed what you promised; the instant he does so
take up the glass, and after having swallowed its contents, say, ‘‘ You
have lost, sir, for you see I have drunk the wine without lifting up the
hat.””

THE TURNING SHILLING.

Take a wine or porter bottle, and insert in
the mouth a cork, with a needle in a perpen-
dicular position. Then cut a nick in the face
of another cork, in which fix a shilling; and

- in the same cork stick two common table- forks
opposite to each other, with the handles in-
clining downwards, as will be perfectly under-
stood by consulting the annexed engraving. If
the rim of the shilling be then placed upon
the point of the needle, it may be turned round,

COTTA} without any risk of falling off, as the centre of

gravity is beaeath the centre of suspension,



THE ANIMATED SIXPENCE,

By piercing a very small hole in the rim of a sixpence, and passing
along black horse hair through it, you may make it jump about
mysteriously, and even out of ajug. Itis necessary, however, to per-
form this trick only at night time; and to favour the deception as
nuch as possible, a candle should be between the spectators and your-
elf.

AN OMELET COOKED IN A HAT, OVER THE FLAME OF A CANDLE,

State that you are about to coox an omelet; then you break four
eggs in a hat, place the hat for a shoit time over the flame of a can-
dle, and shortly after produce an omelet, completely cooked, and quite
hot. Some persons will be credulous enough to believe that by cer~
THE CONJUROR, 183

tain ingredients you have been enabled to cook the omelet without
fire ; but the secret of the trick is, that the omelet had been previously
cooked and placed in the hat, but could not be seen, because the ope-
rator when breaking the eggs, placed it too high for the spectators to
observe the contents. The eggs were empty ones, the contents
having been previously extracted, by being sucked through a small
aperture ; but to prevent the company from suspecting this, the ope-
rator should, as if by accident, let a full egg fall on the table, which
breaking, induces a belief that the others are also full.

THE CONJUROR’S BRIDGE.

This is an amusing operation, and may be effected with three table”
knives, three tobacco-pipes, three pieces of stick, or any other light
articles of corresponding length. In a domestic circle, it may bé
prettily shown with three wine-glasses and three knives. Place the
three glasses at the corners of a supposed triangle, equi-distant from
each other, and nearly as far apart as the length of the knives, Place
the handles of two of the knives each on one of the glasses, so that
the end of the blades, when brought to the centre of the triangle,
will cross each other. Then place the handle of the third knife on
the edge of the glass, as you have done the other, but bring the blade
of it, not above or below, but between the blades of the two other
knives. The result will be, that they will sustain one another so per-

fectly as to admit of a considerable weight being
placed on the centre without deranging them. The
accompanying diagram shows the mode of crossing
the articles. This feat may be performed with three
tobacco-pipes, without the aid of glasses or cups to
elevate them, the hollow of the bowl being turned
on the table, and thus made the basis to support
the bridge formed of the arms of the pipes. This latter combination
is sometimes termed the Toper’s Tripod.

THE MAGIC CIRCLE.

Assure the company that it isin your power, if any person will
place himself in the middle of the room, to make a circle round him,
184 THE CONJUROR.

out of which, although his limbs shall be quite at liberty, it will be
impossible for him to jump without partially undressing himself, let
him use as much exertion as he ray. This statement, will, without
doubt, cause some little surprise; and one of the party will, in all
probability, put your asservations to the test. Request him to take
his stand in the middle of the room, then blindfold him, button his
coat, and next, with a piece of chalk, draw a circle round his waist.
On withdrawing the binJage from his eves, and showing him the cir-
cle you have described. h» must at once perceive that he cannot jump
out of it without taking off his coat.

THE FASCINATED BIRD.

Take any bird, andJay it on a table; then wave a small feather over
ite eyes, and it will appear as dead, but taking the feather away, it
will revive again. Let it lay hold of the stem part of the feather, and
it will twist and turn like a parrot ; you may likewise roll it about, on
the table, just as you please.

THE JUGGLER’S JOKE

Hold your arms out at fuil length, one hand having fn it a piece
of coin—offer to convey it to the other hand, without throwing it
from one to the other, or bringing the hands together. If you have
made a wager on the subject, gravely turn your body round, so as to
be enabled to lay the money upon the table, then, with equ:l serious-
ness, the arms being still extended, turn round again, until you are
able to take up the coin with the other hand, and the money is fairly
pursed

TO SWALLOW A LONG PUDDING.

This is a famous trick among travelling mountebanks, The pudding
must be made of tin, round, and little ringlets, so as they may
almost seem to fall one through another, having little holes made at
the largest end thereof, that it may not hurt your mouth: hold this
pudding, ag it is called, privately in your left hand, with the whole
end uppermest, and with your right hand take a ball out of your
THE CONJUROR 185

pocket, and say, ‘‘ If there oe any old woman that is out of conceit
of herself, becau-e he neighbours deem her not so young as she
would be thought, let her come to me, for this ball isa present remedy.””
Then seem to put the ball into your left hand, but let it slip into your
lap, and clap your pudding into your mouth, which will be thought
to be the ball which you showed them; then decline your head, and
open your mouth, and the pudding will slip down at its full length,
which. with your right hard you may strike into your mouth again;
doing this three or four times, you may discharge it into your hand
and clap it into your pocket without any suspicion, by making a wry
face or two after it, as though it had stuck in your throat,

TO FIX A COIN TO A WALL.

Privately notch the rim of the edge of a half.crow.., or other coin,
in an abrupt way, so that a sharp point of the silver may stick up;
take the coin in your hand, and utter some cabalistic words, intima-
ting your will that itshall adhere to the wall on your bidding, and
clapping it pretty sharply on the wall, and pressing with your thumb
the ragged part you know to be sticking out, it will enter the wood,
and thus sustain the coin. .

THE VANISHING SIXPENCE.

Have a little adhesive wax on your thumb in readiness. Showa
sixpence to one ofthe company, and ask him if heis sure he can hold
that sixpence so closely in his hand that you cannot abstract it without
his knowledge. He will, of course, reply in the affirmative. The
press it hard upon the palm of his hand with your waxed thumb, look at
him full in the face, and using some cabalistic terms to occupy his
attention. Remove your thumb, and the coin, through the agency
of the wax, will adhere to it; close the hand of the party at the same
time, and ask him whether he is sure he hag got the sixpence safely.
Such will be tbs offect of the pressure of the coin on his hand, that he
will have no idea but that it is still there, and will so declare himself
Then tell him to open his hand, and his astonishment at finding that
it is gone, will be most amusing to the spectators.
186 THE CONJUROR.

THE DOLL TRICK,

The sleight of hand necessary for the performance of this deception
is very trifling ; the chief art lies in distracting the attention of the
spectator while the trick is in progress: this is effected by what is
vulgarly called spinning a yarn, a faculty possessed in high perfection
by many persons never suspected of being conjurors. Being easy of
performance, it wae formerly a favourite trick with mountebanks,
w o amused their listeners by means of this or some other deception
while they were putting off their invaluable medicines, To illustrate
the subject, let us suppose some German quack is recommending his
infallible balm of elephantis, which can cure all disorders to which
mankind is subject; those which are incurable most readily giving way
to the powers of the medicine. After praising the article in which
he deals, he suddenly takes out of his pocket a little wooden doll,
and says—

“ Ladies and Gentelmans-—Dis is my invisible coureur, which Ido |
send on all my important errands. He is so discreet a gommissionare
he never divulge one wort of the secret which I confide to him. He
is most oninterested servant, and never ask his master for waes
No one would suspect him to be a spy—he is welcome in all gomba-
nies, and everybody gonsiders he is deaf and gan’t see.”

Our worthy quack then apostrophizes the doll as follows :—

‘ah! ah! Measter Jean, I most send you to Durham, to boy
some mostard, and you most gail, as you go by, at Vindsor, and you
must kiss de Princess Royal, and tell me whether she sleep well last
night.”

Our conjuror now places the doll to his ear, to see if it has any
observations to make, and placing it again on the table, says—

“ Ah! you are quite right to ask for your silk gown; you will meet
with many boliteness from those people who jodge by abbearances, and
who respect a man for his goat.”’

Again the doll is placed to the performer’s ear, and again his master
observes—

“* Dat is well said; I onderstand you ; I know that a travellar with-
THE CONJUROR. 187

out the argent is loike a vire without coals, or a boot w thout a grain
of folly.’’

He then conveys his hand twice from his pocket tothe doll, ob-
serving—

‘If you see noting, ladies, you must not besarprised,; my coureur
is invisible when he travels, and I give Master Jean invisible money.”

At the same time he turns up the dress of the doll, and shows it is
gone; and, to prove it really is not there, rolls up the dress in his
hands into the compass of a ball.

Expatiating then upon the value of his medicine with great volubility,
he suddenly breaks off in the midst of his harangue, and pointing to
the roof of the opposite house, exclaims—

‘‘ Oh! Donder and Blitzen, you are von great rascal !"’

Everybody turns and looks in the direction towards which the
juggler’s eyes are directed, but are unable to see anything ; the doctor
still continues to talk by signs; at last, he lets his listeners know that
* Measter Jean is scrambling along the roof of the house.

‘Oh, you villian!’ what, you are tearing your new shirt instead
of going to Durham for me; gome down, you rascal, or I will mag-
netise you; ’’ and sure enough, when the dress, which has lain upon
the table, is examined, Master Jean is found to have returned.

The secret of this simple trick is as follows :— The doll is made of
three pieces, the head forming one, the body to the waist a second,
and the legs and hips a third piece, To the under part of the two
upper pieces a pin is fixed, which fitsa hole in the next piece suffi-
ciently tight to prevent its falling off by itsown weight. These
pieces are conveyed away separately, when money is supposed to be
given to the doll, and replaced, without fear of detection, while the
attention of the company is attracted towards the roof of the house.

THE MIRACULOUS APPLE.

To divide an apple into several parts without breaking the rind :—
Pass a needle and thread under the rind of the apple, which is easily
done by putting the needle in again at the same hole it came out of ;
undso passing it on till you have gone round the apple. Then take both
ends of the thread in your hands and draw it out; by which means
188 THE CONJUROR

tae apple will be divided into two parts. In the same manner, you
may divide it into as many parts as you please, and yet the rind will
remain entire. Present the apple to any one to peel, and it will im-
mediately fall to pieces,

THE MULTIPLYING COIN

Let a tumbler be half-filled with water; put a sixpencein it; and
holding a plate over the top, turn the glass upside down. The six-
pence will fall down on the plate, and appear to be a shilling; while
at the same time a sixpence will seem to be swimming in the water.
If a shilling is put in the glass, it will have the appearance of a half
crown and a shilling; and if a half crown were put in, it would seem
to be a crown piece and a half crown.

THE CHANGEABLE RING.

Desire some person in the company to lend you a gold ring, recom. °
mending him at the same time to make a mark on it that he may
know it again.

Have a gold ring of your own, which you are to fasten! by a small
catgut string to a watch barrel, which must be sewn to the left sleeve
of your coat,

ake in your right hand the ring that will he given to you; then
taking with dexterity near the entrance of your sleeve the other ring
fastened to the watch barrel, draw it to the fingers ends of your left
hand, taking care nobody perceives it : during this operation, hide be-
tween the fingers of your right hand the ring that has been lent to you,
and hang it dexterously on a little hook sewed on purpose on your
waiscoat near your hip, and hid by yourcoat ; you will after that shew
your ring which you hold in your left hand ; then ask thecompany on
which finger of the other hand they wish it to pass. During this inter-
aal ,and as soon as the answer has been given, put the before-mentioned
finger on the little hook, in order to slip on it the ring; at the same
moment let go the other ring, by opening your fingers: the spring
which is in the watch barrel, not being confined any longer, will con-
tract, and make the ring slip under the sleeve, without any body per-
THE CONJUROR, lsy

ceiving it, not even those who hold your arms, as their only intention
being to prevent your hands from communicating, they will let you
make the necessary motions. These motivas must be very quick, and
always accompanied by stamping with your foot.

Alter this operation, shew the assembly that the ring is conie on the
other hand: make them remark well that it is the same that had been
lent you, or that the mark is right.

TO MELT LEAD IN A PIECE OF PAPER.

Wrap a piece of paper very neatly round a bullet, so that it be
everywhere in contact with the lead; hold it over the flame ot a
candle, and the jJead will be meited without the paper being burnt ;
but when once fused, the lead will in a short time pierce a hole in the
paper, and drop through it.

THE CONJUROR’S WAGER,

The following is a good catch: lay a wager with a person that to
three observations you will put to him, he will not reply ‘a bottle of
wine.” Then begin with some common-place remark, such as, ‘ We
have had a fine, or wet day, too-day,’” ag it may be; he will answer,
of course, “a bottle of wine.’”” You then make another remark of the
same kind, as, ‘I hope we shall have as fine or finer too-morrow,”’
to which he will reply, as before, “a bottle of wine.” You must
then catch him very sharply, and say, “ Ah! there, sir! you've lost
your wager ; and the probability is, if he be not aware of the trick,
he will say ‘‘ Why how can you make that out?” forgetting that
though a strange one, it is the third observation you have made.

THE MYSTERIOUS WAFERS,

In the presence of the company place on each side of a table-knife
three wafers; take the knife by the handle, and turn it over several
times to show that the wafers are allon. Request one of the party to
take a wafer fiom one side of the blade, turn the knife over two or
three times, and there will seem to be only two wafers on each side ;
take off another wafer, turn the knife as before, and it willappear as
if only one wafer were on each side; take the third wafer off, and
190 THE CONJUROR.

again turn the knife dexterously twice or thrice, and it will appear as
if all the wafers had disappeared from eachside. Next turn the knife
once or twice more, and three wafers will appear one each side, as at
the first. In performing this trick, use wafers all of on size and
colour, and always have one side of the knife uppermost, so that the
wafers may be taken one by one from that side; three wafers will thus
be left untouched on the other side; and after you have made it ap-
pear that there are no wafers on either side, you may, to all appearance,
show three on each, When turning the knife, you must, as you lift
it up, turn it completely round with your finger and thumb, so as
always to bring the same side uppermost.

TO TURN A GOBLET OF WATER. UPSIDE DOWN, AND YET KEEP
WATER IN IT.

Lay a wager with any one, that you will fill a glass with water, and
place it on a table in snch a manner that it cannot be removed without
spilling the whole water it contains. ‘Then fill a glass with water, and
placing a bit of paper so as to cover the water and the edge of the
glass, clap the palm of one hand on the paper, and laying hold of the
glass with the other, suddenly invert it on a very smooth table. If
you then gently draw out the paper, the water will remain suspended
in theglass, and it will not be possible to remove it without spilling
the water entirely.

THE BOTTLE IMPS.

Procure from a glass-blower’s three or four little hollow figures of
glass, about an inch and a half in height, and let there be a small hole
gn the legs of each of them. Immerse them ina glass jar, about a
foot in beight, nearly full of water, and then tie a bladder fast over
the mouth. When you wish the figures to go down, press your hand
cicsely on the bladder, and they will instantly sink, and the moment
you take your hand off, they will rise to the surface of the water.

THE MIRACULOUS SHILLING.

Provide a round box, the size of a large snuff-box, and likewise
eight other boxes, which will go easily into each other letting the
THE CONJUROR, 191

least of them be the size to hold a shilling. Observe that all these
boxes must shut so freely that they may all be closed at once, by the
covers accurately fitting within each other.

Previously to your commencing your performance, fit the boxes
within each other, and place them in a table drawer at another part
of the room. You also fit the covers in the same manner, and lay
them by the side of the boxes; you likewise provide a silk handker-
chief, into one corner of which a shilling is sewn.

You now commence your operations, by borrowing a shilling de-
siring the lender to mark it, that it may not be changed. Take the
shilling in your right hand, and the handkerchief in your left, pre-
tending to place the shilling in the centre of the handkerchief ; instead
of which, you put the corner of a handkerchief in which a shilling
was sewn, as previously described, concealing the borrowed shilling
our right hand. ‘You then desire the person to feel that his shilling
is there, and tell him to hold it tight.

You now goto the drawer, and placing the borrowed shilling in
the smallest of the boxes. you put on all the covers, by taking them
in the centre between the fore-finger and thumb, to prevent their sepa~
ration, and fit them on, by carefully sliding them along, and then
pressing them down.

Having thus closed your boxes, you produce what appears to be a
single box, and lay it on the table. You now ask the person, who
still retains his hold of the shilling in the handkerchief, if he is sure
that it is there. He will reply in the affirmative; you then request
him to allow you to take the handkerchief, and having done so, you
strike that part of the handkerchief containing the shilling on the
box, andimmediately shake out the handkerchief, holding it by two
corners, and shifting it round so as 1o get the shilling within your
grasp: it will thus appear that the shilling is no longer there. You
desire the person to opon the box, and hand it round till the shilling
be found; and when the last box is opened. and the shilling taken
out, you ask the lender to state whether it is the one which he marked;
to which he must, of course, reply in the affirmative. This isa de-
servedly popular trick ; the apparatus for its performance may be pur-
chased at mest of the toy-shopz.
192 THE CONJUROR.

THE KNOTTED HANDKERCHIEF.

This feat comsists in tying a numher of hard knots in a pocket-
handkerchief borrowed from one of the company,*then letting any
person hold the knots, and by the operator merely shaking the hand-
kerchief, all the knots become unloosed, and the handkerchief is
restored to its original state.

To perform this excellent trick, get as soft a handkerchief as pos-
sible, and taking the opposite ends, one in cach hand, throw the
right hand over the left, and draw it through, as if you were going
to tie a knot in the usual way. Again throw the right-hand end over
the left, and give the left hand to some person to pull, you at the
same time pulling the right-hand end with your right hand, while
your left hand holds the handkerchief just behind the knot. Press
the thumb of your left hand against the knot to prevent its slipping,
always taking care to let the person to whom you gave one end pull
first, so that, in fact, he is only pulling against your left hand.

You must now tiefanother knot exactly in the same way as the
first, taking care always to throw the right hand over the left. As
you go on tying the knots, you will find the righ-hand end of the
handkerchief decreasing considerably in length, while the left-hand
one remains nearly as long as at first; because, in fact, you are
merely tying the right-hand end round the left. To prevent this from
neing noticed, you should stoop down a little after each knot, and
pretend to pull the knots tighter; while, at the same time, you press
the thumb of the right hand against the knot, and with the fingers
and palm of the same hand, draw the handkerchief, so as to make
the left-hand end shorter, keeping it at each knot as nearly the length
of the right-hand end as possible.

When you have tied as many knots as the handkerchief will admit
of, hand them round for the company to feel that they are firm knots;
then hold the handkerchief in your right hand, just below the knots,
and with the left hand turn the loose part of the centre of the handker-
chief over them, desiring some person to hold them. Before they
take the handkerchief-in hand, you draw out the right-hand end of the
handkerchief, which you have in the right hand, and which you may
THE CONJUROR, 193

easily do, and the knots being still held together by the loose parts of
the handkerchief, the person who holds the handkerchief will declare
he feels them: you then take hold of one of the ends of the handker-
chief which hangs down, and desire him to repeat after you,-~one-—
two—three,—tben tell him to letgo, when, by giving the handkerchief
a smart shake, the whole of the knots will become unloosed.

Should you, by accident, whilst tying the knots, give the wrong
end to be pulled, a hard knot will be the consequence, and you will
know when this has happened the instant you try to draw the left-hand
end of the handkerchief shorter. You must, therefore, turn this
mistake to the best advantage, by asking any one of the company to
see how long it will take him to untie one knot, you counting the
seconds. When he has untied the knot, your other knots will remain
right as they were before. Having finished tying the knots, let the
same person hold them, and tell him that, as he took two minutes to
untie one knot, he ought to allow you fourteen minutes to untie the
seven; but as you do not wish to take any advantage, you will be
satisfied with fourteen seconds.

You may excite some laughter during the performance of this trick,
by desiring those who pull the knots along with you, to pull as hard
as they please, and not to be afraid, as the handkerchief is not yours;
you may likewise go to the owner of the handkerchief, and desire him
to assist you in pulling a knot, saying, that if the handkerchief is to
betorn, it is only right that he should have part of it ; you may likewise
say that he does not pull very hard, which wil! cause a laagh against
him,

THE GUN TRICK.

Having provided yourself with a fowling-piece, permit any person
to load it, retaining for yourself the privilege of putting in the ball,
to the evident satisfaction of the company, but instead of which, you
must provide yourself with an artificial one made of black Jead, which
may be easily concealed between your fingers, and retain the real ball
in your possession, producing it after the gun has been discharged ;
and a mark having been previously put upon it, it will instantly be
acknowledged. This trick is quite simple, as the artificial ball is
194 THE CONJUROR,

i icati -rod ; besides,
easily reduced to a powder on the application of the ram-rod ;
the smallness of the balls preclude all discovery of the deception.

THE WONDERFUL SWAN.

The figure of aswan must be cut out in cork, and covered with a
coat of oahite wax, and the eyes made of glass beads; concealing
within its body a well impregnated magnetic bar, and set it afloat upon
a basin of water. Round the edge of the basin may be placed various
devices ; and among others, a swan-house, such as is seen upon the
river, may hang over and touch the water; here the swan may take
shelter , and in it he may be made to turn round in order to increase
the astonishment of the spectators. In the management of the mag:
netic bar placed within the swan, and of a magnetic wand, consists
the whole of the experiments to be elicited from the approaching
receding of the figure, by presenting the edge of the basin ‘ the
north and south poles alternately. ‘Ihe wand is thus made :—' orea
hole, three-tenths of an inch in diameter, through a round piece o
wood, or get a hollow cane, about eight inches long, and hal an
inch thick. Provide a small steel bar, and let it be strongly impreg-
nated with a good magnet; this rod is to be put into the hole you
have bored through the wand, and closed at both ends by two sma
pieces of ivory which screw on, differing in their shapes, that you
may easily distinguish the poles of the magnetic bar. This contrive
is opplicable to several other kinds of floating figures, as ships, “c.

THE RING AND THE HANDKERCHIEF.
This may be justly considered as one of the most surprising decepe

tions ; and yet it is so easy of performance, that any one may accoms
plish it after a few minutes practice.

You previously provide yourself with a piece of brass wire, pointed
at both ends, and bent round so as to form a ring, about the size of
a wedding ring. This you conceal in your hand. You then commence
your performance by borrowing a silk pocket handkerchief from a
gentleman, and a wedding ring from a lady ; and you request one
person to hold two of the corners of the handkerchief, and another
THE CONJUROR 195

to hold the other two, and to keep them at full stretch. You next
exbibit the wedding-ring to the company, and announce that you will
make it pass through the handkerchief. You then place your hand
under the handkerchief and substituting the false ring, which you
had previously concealed, press it against the centre of the handker-
chief, and desire a third person to take hold of the ring through the
handkerchief and to close his finger and thumb through the hollow of
the ring, The handkerchief is held in this manner for the purpose of
shewing that the ring has not been placed within a fold. You now
desire the persons holding the corners of the handkerchief to let them
drop ; the persons holding the ring (through the handkerchief as al-
ready described) still retaining his hold.

Letanother person now grasp the handkerchief as tight as he pleases,
three or four inches below the ring, and tell the person holding the
ring to let it go, when it will be quite evident to the company that the
ring is secure within the centre of the handkerchief, You then tell
the person who grasps the handkerchief to hold a hat over it, and
passing your hand underneath, you open the false ring, by bending
one of its points a little aside, and bringing one point gently through
the handkerchief you easily draw out the remainder; being careful to
rub the hole you have made in the handkerchief with your finger and
thumb, to conceal the fracture.

You then put the wedding-ring you borrowed over the outside of
the middle of the handkerchief, and desiring the person who holds the
hat to take it away, you exhibit the ring, (placed as described) to the
company; taking an opportunity, whilat their attention is engaged
to conceal or get rid of the brass ring.

THE PHANTOM AT COMMAND.

This feat is performed by means of confederacy,—Having privately
apprized your confederate that when he hears you strike one blow, it
signifies the letter A; when you strike two, it means B; and so on
for the rest of the alphabet ; you state tothe company, that if any
one will walk into the adjoining room, and have the door locked upon

him, yon will cause any animal to appear to him which another person
may name.
196 THE CONJUROR.

Tn order to deter every one except your confederate from accepting
the offer, you announce at the same time, that the persons who volun-
teers to be shut up in the room must be possessed of considerable
courage, or he had better not undertake it. Having thus gained your
end, you give your confederate a lamp, which burns with a very
dismal light; telling him, in the hearing of the company, to place it
on the middle of the floor, and not to feel alarmed at what he may
happen to see, With these ominous words, you usher him into the
room, and lock the door.

You next take a piece of black naper and a bit of chalk, and giving
then. to one of the party, you tell him to write the name of any animal
he wishes to appear to the person shut up inthe room. This being
done, you receive back the paper, and after shewing it round to the
company, you fold it up, burn it in the candle or lamp, and throw
the ashes into a mortar; casting in at the same time a powder, which
you state to be possessed of very miraculous properties,

Having taken eare to read what was written, you proceed to pound
the ashes in the mortar thus: supposing the word written to be CAT,
you begin by stirring the pestle round the mortar several times, and
then strike three distinct blows, loud enough for the confederate to
hear, and by which he knows that the first letter of the word is C.
You next make some irregular evolutions of the pestle round the
mortar, that it may not appear to the company that you give nothing
but blows, and you then strike one blow to denote A. Work the
pestle abont again, and then strike twenty blows, which he will know
to mean T; finishing your manoeuvre by working the pzstle about the
mortar; the object being to make the blows as little remarkable as
possisle. You then call aloud to your confederate, and ask him what
he sees. At first he is to make no reply, but presently afterwards
he cries out that he is so frightened he cannot tell you. At length,
after being interrogated several times, he says that something has ap-
peared to him which very much resembles a CAT.

That no mistake may be made, each party should repest to himself
the letters of the alphabet in the order of the blows, when the trick
may be performed with facility. If you have reason to suspect that
the company are aware of your method, the blows should be reversed.
THE CONJUROR. 197

THE IMPOSSIBLE OMELET.

You produce some butter, eggs, and other ingredients for making an
omelet, together with a frying-pan, in a room where there is a fire,
and offer to bet a wager that the cleverest cook will not be able to
make an omelet with them. The wager is won by having previously
caused the eggs to be boiled very hard.

GO IF YOU CAN.

You tell a person that you will clasp his hands together in such a
manner that he shall not be able to leave the room without unclasping
them, although you will not confine his feet, or bind his body, or in
any way oppose his exit. This trick is performed by clasping the
party’s hands round the leg of a table.

THE APPARENT IMPOSSIBILITY.

You profess yourself able to shew any one what he never saw, what
you never saw, and what nobody else ever saw, and which, after you
*wo have seen, nobody else ever shall see.

After requesting the company to guess this riddle, and they have
professed themselves unable to do so, produce a nat, and having
cracked it, take out the kernel, and ask them if they have ever seen
that before ; they will of course answer, No; you reply, neither have
I, and I think you will confeas that nobody else has ever seen it, and
now no one shall ever see it again; saying which, you vut the kernel
into your mouth and eat it.

8UGAR UNDER THE HAT.

Get three lumps of sugar, or any other eatables, and having placed
them upon thetable, a short distance apart, put a hat over each. Tell
the company that yqu will eat the three lumps of sugar, and having
done so, will bring them under whichever hat they please. When
you have swallowed each lump separately, request one of the specta-
tors to point out the hat under whioh they shall all be. When choice
been made of one of the hats, put it upon your head, and ask the
company if you have not fulfilled your promise, to which they must
reply in the affirmative,
198 THE CONJUROR.

THE MYSTERIOUS BOTTLE.

Pierce a few holes, with a glazier’s diamond, in a common black
bottle; place it in a vase or jug of water, so that the neck only is
above the surface. Then, with a funnel, fill the bottle, and cork it
well, while it is in the jug or vase. Take it out, and, notwithstan-
ding the holes in the bottom, it will not leak; wipe it dry, and give
it to some person to uncork. The moment the cork is drawn, to the
party’s astonishment, the water will begin to run out of the bottom
of the bottle.

THE MULTIPLYI G MIRROR.

This feat must be performed with a looking-glass made on purpose ;
the manner of making it is this :—First, make a hoop, or fillet of
wood or horn, about & quarter of an inch in thickness. In the mid-
die, fasten a bottom of wood or brass, and bore in it several small
holes, about the size of peas; then open one side of this bottom,
in a piece of erystal-glass, and fasten it in the hoop close to the
bottom. Take a quantity of quicksilver, and put as much into the
koop as will cover the bottom; then let it into another piece of
chrystal-glass, fitted to it; cement the sides, that the quicksilver may
not run out, and the apparatus is complete. One side will reflect
the beholder’s face as a common looking-glass; in the other it will be
multiplied according to the number of holes in the wood or brass.

THE KNOTTED THREAD.

Considerable amusément, not unmixed with wonder, may be occa-
sioned among a party of ladies, by a clever performance of this trick.
It is most frequently performed by a female, but the effect is consid-
erably increased when itis displayed bya boy. A piece of calico,
muslin, or linen, is taken in the left-hand, a needle is threaded in the.
presence of the spectators, and the usual, or even a double or treble
knot made at the extremity of one of the ends of it. The operator
commences his work by drawing the needle and the thread in it quite
through the linen, notwithstanding the knot, and continues to make
several stitches in like manner successively.
THE CONJUROR. 199

The mode of performing this seeming wonder, is as follows: a bit
of thread, about a quarter of a yard long, is turned once round the
top of the middle finger of the right hand, upon which a thimble is
then placed to keep it secure. This must be done privately and the
thread kept concealed, while a needle is threaded with a bit of thread
of a similar length. The thread in the ucedle must have one of its
ends drawn up nearly close, and be concealed between the fore-finger
and thumb; the other should hang down nearly as long as, and by
the side of the thread, which is fastened ander the thimble, so that
these two raay appear to be the two ends of the thread. The end of
the piece that is fastened under the thimble is then knotted, and the
performer begins to sew, by moving his hand quickly after be has
taken up the stitch, it will appear aa though he actually passed the
knotted thread through the linen.

THE BOGLE BODKIN.

Take a hollow bodkin, (or, if you prefer it, a dagger,) so that the
blade may slip into the handle as soon as the point is held upward.
Seem to thrust it into your forehead, (or, if a dagger, into your
bosom,) then, after shewing some appearance of pain, pull away your
hand suddenly, holding the point downward, and it will fall out, and
appear not to have been thrust into the haft ; but, immediately after-
ward, throw the bodkin, or dagger, into your lap or pocket, and pull
out another plain one like it, which will completely deceive the spec-
tators,

THE HEN AND EGG BAG.

You must provide two or three yards of calico, or printed linen, and
make a double bag. On the mouth of the bag, on that side next to
you, make four or five little purses, putting two or three eggs in each
purse, and do so till you have filled that side next to you, and have a
hole at one end of it, that no more than two or three eggs may come
out at once, having another bag exactly like the former, that the one
may not be known from the other ; and then put a living hen into that
bag, and hang it on a hook near where you stand. The manner of per-
forming it is this: Take the egg-bag, and put both your hands in it,
200 THE CONJUROR,

and turn it inside out, and say, ‘“‘ Gentlemen, you see there 1s nothing
in my bag;”’ and in turning it again you must slip some of the eggs
out of the purses, as many as you taink fit; and then turn your bag
again, and show the company that it is empty, and tarning it again
you command more eggs to come out ; and when all are come out but
one, you must take that egg, and show it to the company, and then drop
away your egg-bag and take up your hen-bag, shaking out your hen,
pigeon, or any other fowl. This is a noble fancy if well handled.

HOW TO CUT OFF YOUR NOSE.

This feat, though it has a very horrifying appearance, need cause no
alarm, as it is one of the simplest tricks which can be attempted. The
performer ought to be a short distance from the company when it is to
be performed, and must be provided with two clasp-knives, one of which

must have a small semi-circle cut
— out of it as seen in the annexed
engraving, the other being a com.
mon knife—of course you shew
the latter to the company as the only instrument in your possession ;
you must also provide yourself with a small piece of sponge soaked in
wine, and having caused an individual to sit down, you immediately pro-
ceed to work, by slipping the true knife into your pocket, and produ-
cing the other in its place, then put your left hand with the sponge in
it upon the person’s brow, and pass the knife gently over his nose, so
that the semi-circle which is in the knife will cause it to descend, and
to all appearance cut into his nose, while you squeeze the sponge gently,
so that it may appear to bleed, The engraving at the head of THE
CONJUROR represents a Juggler-in the act of severing a boy’s head by
an appparatus of this kind.

THE OBEDIENT WATCH.

Borrow a watch from a person in company, and request the whole to
stand around you. Hold the watch up to the ear of the first in the
cirele, and command it to go; then demand his testimony to the fact.
Remove it to the ear of the next, and enjoin it tostop ; make the same
request of that person, and so on throughout the entire party. You
THE CONJUROR. 201

must take care that the watch is a good one. Conceal in your hand a
piece of loadstone, which as soon as you apply it to the watch, will
occasion a suspension of the movements, which a subsequent shaking
and withdrawing of the magnet will restore. For the sake of shifting
the watch from one hand to the other, apply it when in the right hand
to the left ear of the person, and when in the left hand to the right ear.

TO TELL THE HOUR OF THE DAY OR NIGHT BY A SUSPENDED SHILLING,

Sling a shilling or a sixpence at the end ofa piece of thread by means
of a loop ; then, resting your elbow upon a table, hold the other end of
the thread betwixt your fore-finger and thumb, observing to let it pass
across the ball of the thumb, and thus suspend the shilling into an
empty goblet. Observe, your hand must be perfectly steady, and if
you find it difficult to keep it in an immoveable posture, itis useless to
attempt the experiment. Premising that the shiliing is properly
suspended, you will find that when it has recovered his eqiulibrium, it
will for a moment be stationary ; it will then of its own accord, and
without the least agency from the person holding it, assume the action
of a pendulum, vibrating from side to side of the glass, and after a few
seconds will strike the hour nearest to the time of day; for instance, if
the time be twenty-five minutes past six, it will strike six ; if thirty-five
minutes past six, it will strike seven, and so on of any otherhour. It
is necessary to observe that. the thread should lie over the pulse of the
thumb, and this may in some measure account for the vibration of the
shilling, but to what cause its striking the precise hour is to be traced,
remains unexplained ; for it is no less astonishing than true, that when
it has struck the proper number its vibration ceases, it acquires a kind
of rotary motion, and at last becomes stationary as before.

THE SUSPENDED NEEDLE.

Place a magnet on a stand to raise a little above the table; then bring
a small sewing needle, containing a thread, within a little of the magnet,
keeping hold of the thread to prevent the needle from attaching itself
to the magnet. The needle, in endeavouring to fly to the magnet, and
being prevented by the thread, will remain curiously suspended in the
air.
202 THE CONJUROR,

HOW TO MAKE A KNIFE LEAP OUT OF A POT.

Have a pot full of water standing on a table, then take a piece of
whalebone about three inches long ; let it be pretty stiff, it will spring
the better ; take also a new stiff card, and fold it down the middle long-
ways, cut a hole through both folds at each end, half an inch or mor-
from the ends, put one end of the whalebone in at one end of the card,
bend it like a bow, then put the other end of the whalebone into the
other end of the card, set this into the pot, with two inches or more
depth of water, then place the handle of your knife upcn the upper-
most part of the whalebone, with the point upwards.

THE INVISIBLE SPRINGS.

Take two pieces of white cotton cord, precisely alike in length;
double each of them separately, so that their ends meet; then tie them
together very neatly, with a bit of fine cotton ¢hread, at the part where
they double (i. e. the middle). This must all be done beforehand.

When you are about to exhibit the trick, hand round two other pieces
of cord, exactly similar in length and appearance to those which you
have prepared, but not tied, and desire your company to examine them.
You then return to your table, placing these cords at the edge, so that
they fall (apparently accidentally) to the ground, behind the table;
stoop to pick them up, but take up the prepared ones instead, which
you have previously placed there, and lay éhem on the table.

Having proceeded thus far, you take round for examination three
ivory rings ; those given to children when teething, and which may be
bought at any of the toyshops, are the best for your purpose. When
the rings have undergone a sufficient scrutiny, pass the prepared double
cords through them, and give the two ends of one cord to one person to

old, and the two ends of the other to another. Do not let them pull
d, or the thread will break, and your trick be discovered. Request
the two persons to approach each other, and desire each to give you
one end of the cord which he holds, leaving to him the choice. You
then say, that, to make all fast, you will tie these two ends together,
which you do, bringing the knot down so as to touch the rings; and
returning to each person the end of the cord next to him, you state
THE CONJUROR, 203

that this trick is performed by the rule of contrary, and that when you
desire them to pull hard, they are to slacken, and vice versd, which is
likely to create much laughter, as they are certain of making many
mistakes at first.

During this time, you are holding the rings on the fore-finger of each
hand, and with the other fingers preventing your assistants from sepa-
rating the cords prematurely, during their mistakes; you at length
desire them, in a loud voice, to slacken, when they will pull hard, which
will break the thread, the rings remaining in your hands, whilst the
strings will remain unbroken ; let them be again examined, and desire
them to look for the springs in the rings.

VENTRILOQUISM,.

The influence over the human mind which the ventriloquist derives
from the ekilful practice of his art, is greater than that which is exer-
cised by any other species of conjuror. The ordinary magician requires
his theatre, his accomplices, and the instruments of his art, and he en-
joys but a local sovereignty within the precincts of his own magic
circle. The ventriloquist, on the contrary, has the supernatural always
at his command, In the open fields as well as in the crowded city; in
the private apartment as well as in the public hall, he can summon up
innumerable spirits ; and though the persons of his fictitious dialogue
are not visible to the eye, yet they are unequivocally present to the im-
agination of his auditors, as if they had been shadowed forth in the
silence of a spectral form. In order 10 convey some idea of the influ-
ence of this illusion, the following well authenticated case of ventrilo-
quism is submitted — .

Louis Brabant, who had been valet-de-chambre to Frances I., having
fallen in love with a rich and beautiful heiress, he was rejected by her
parents as an unsuitable match for their daughter. On the death of
her father, Louis paid a visit to the widow, and he had no sooner
entered the house than she heard the voice of her deceased husband,
addressing her from above, ‘Give my daughter in marriage to Louis
Brabant, who is a man of large fortune and excellent character. I en-
dure the inexpressible torments of purgatory for having refused her to
204 THE CONJUROR.

him. Obey this admonition, and give everlasting repose to the soul of
your poor husband.’”’ This awful command could not be resisted, and
the widow announced her compliance with it. :

As our conjuror, however required money for the completion of his
marriage, he resolved to work upon the fears of one Cornu, an old
banker at Lyons, who had amassed immense wealth by usury and ex-
tortion. Having obtained an interview with the miser, he introduced
the subjects of demons and sceptres, and the torments of purgatory ;
and during an interval of silence, the voice of the miser’s deceased
father was heard complaining of his dreadful situation in purgatory.
and calling upon his son to rescue him from his sufferings, by enabling
Louis Brabant to redeem the Christians that were enslaved by the
Turks. The awe-struck miser was also threatened with eternal damna-
tion if he did not thus expiate his own sins; but such was the grasp
that the banker took of his gold, that the ventriloquest was obliged to
pay him another visit, On this occasion not only his father but all
his deceased relatives appealed to him in behalf of his own soul and
theirs ; and such was the loudness of their complaints, that the spirit
of the banker was subdued, and he gave the ventriloquist ten thousand
crowns to liberate the Christian captives. When the miser was after
wards undeceived, he is said to have been so mortified that he died of
vexation.

The main secret of this surpnsing art simply consists in first making
a strong and deep inspiration, by which a considerable quantity of air
is introduced into the lungs, to be afterwards acted unon by the flexi-
ble powers of the larynx, or cavity situated behind the tongue, and the
trachea, or windpipe: thus prepared, the expiration should be slow
and gradual. Any person, by practice, can, therefore, obtain more or
leas expertness in this exercise; in which, though not apparently, the
voice is still modified by the mouth and tongue ; and it is the conccal-
ment of this aid, that much of the perfection of ventriloquism lies.

But the distinctive character of ventriloquism consists in its imita-
tions being performed by the voice seeming to come from the stomach :
hence its name, from venfer, the stomach, and loguor, to speak.
Although the voice does not actually come from that region, in order
THE CONJUROR. 205

to enable the ventriloquist to utter sounds from the larynx without
moving the muscles of his face, he strengthens them by a powerful
action of the abdominal muscles. Hence, he speaks by means of his
stomach ; although the throat is the real source from whence the sound
proceeds. It should, however, be added, that this speaking distinctly,
without any movement of the lips at all, is the highest perfection of
ventriloquism, and has but rarely been attained. Thus, MM. St. Gillo
and Louis Brabant, two celebrated French ventriloquists, appeared to
be absolutely mute while exercising their art, and no change in their
countenances could be discovered.

It has lately beeen shewn, that some ventriloquists have acquired by
practice the power of exercising the veil of the palate in such a manner,
that, by raising or depressing it, they dilate or contract the inner
nostrils. If they are closely contracted, the sound produced is weak,
dull, and seems to be more or less distant; if, on the contrary, these
cavities age widely dilated, the sound will be strengthened, the voice
become loud, and apparently close to us.

Another of the secrets of ventriloquism, is the uncertainty with
respect to the direction of sounds. Thus, if we place a man and achild
in the same angle of uncertainty, and the man speaks with the accent
of a child, without any corresponding motion in his mouth or face, we
shall necessarily believe that the voice comes from the child. In this
case, the belief is so strengthened by the imagination; for if we were
directed to a statue, as the source from which we were to expect sounds
to issue, we should still be deceived, and refer the sounds to the lifeless
stone or marble. This illusion will be greatly assisted by the voice
being totally different in tone and character from that of the man from
whom it really comes. Thus, we see how easy is the deception when
the sounds are required to proceed from any given object, and are such
as they actually yield.

The ventriloquists of our time, as M. Alexander and M. Fitz-James,
have carried their art still further. They have not only spoken by the
muscles of the throat and the abdomen, without moving those of the
face, but have so far overcome the uncertainty of sound, as to become
acqueinted with modifications of distance, obstruction, and other causes,
so as to imitate them with the greatest accuracy. Thus, each of these
206 THE CONJUROR,

artists has succeeded in carrying on a dialogue; and each, in his own
single person and with his own single voice, has represented a scene
apparently with several actors. These ventriloquists have likewise
possessed such power over their faces and figures, that, aided by rapid
changes of dress, their personal identity has scarcely been recognized
among the range of personations.

Vocal imitations are much less striking and ingenious than the feats
of ventriloquism. Extraordinary varieties of voice may be produced,
by speaking with a more acute or grave pitch than usual, and by differ-
ent contractions of the mouth. Thus may be imitated the grinding of
cutlery on a wheel, the sawing of wood, the frying of a pancake, the
uncorking of a bottle, and the gurgling noise in emptying its contents.









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Perfectly aware of the serious objections urged against playing=
cards as an amusement for youth, we cannot regard the introduction
of a pack of cards for the purpose of sleight-of-hand tricks in any
other light than as the source of considerable harmless amusement,
We have not, therefore, the slightest hesitation in inserting the ne-
cessary instructions for the performance of a series of interesting
deceptions and sleights-of-hand.

It has been stated that playing-cards were invented in the year 1390,
for the amusement of Charles the Sixth, king of France, of whose
wisdom historians do not speak very highly. Upon this circumstance
Mr. Malkin has observed, that the universal adoption of an amuse-
ment which was invented for a fool is no very favourable specimen of
the wisdom of mankind. It has, however, been satisfactorily proved,
that the invention of playing-cards was anterior to this date, and some
writers’ have asserted that they came originally from Spain, while

4
208 THE JUROR.

others have attributed their invention to a more classic and ancient era,
giving the honour of their first production to the Romans. In the
year 1378, John the First, king of Castile, forbid card-playing in his
dominions, from which the idea of their Spanish origin is derived.
The figures upon the cards themselves add to the sirength of the sup-
position ; for the suits answering to those of the spades and clubs
have not the same inverted heart and trefoil which ours of the present
day display, but espadas, or swords, and dastos, or cudgels, or clubs;
so that, in fact, we retain their names though we have altered the
figures.

In the reign of Henry the Seventh, card-playing was a very fash-
ionable court amusement in England. The cards then used, differed
materially in their figures from those now in vogue, as instead of clubs,
spades, diamonds, and hearts, they had rabbits, pinks, roses, and
the flowers called columbines upon them ; as also bells, leaves, acorns,
deer, &c.

The successful performance of some of the following tricks depends
on dexterity of hand. This is only to be acquired by considerable
practice ; but as it must be gratifying to know the method by which
they are performed by those skilled in such manceuvres, who publicly
exhibit them to the astonishmentment of the spectator, they are pre-
sented to our readers, that when they recognise them at any of these
exhibitions, their eyes may not be in danger of deceiving their
judgment.

Before other tricks can be exhibited with any chance of success,
the learner should acquire considerable dexterity in the performance
of the first three following feats,

THE FORCED FEAT.

Forcing is making a person take such a card as you think fit, while
he supposes he is taking one at hazard, or according to his own in-
clination. It is almost impossible to describe how this is done; we
must, however, attempt it.

First, ascertain what the card you intend to force is; this must be
done privately, or while you are playing with the cards; then place
it, to all appearance, carelessly in the pack, but still keep your eye
THE CONJUROR. 209

ar the little finger of yourleft hand, in which you hold the pack, upon
it, Now, request a person to take a card from the pack ; open them
nimbly from your left to your right hand, spreading them backward
and forward, so as to puzzle the person in making his choice; the
moment you see him putting out his hand to take a card, spread on
the cards till you cone to the one you wish to force; let its corner be
most invitingly put forward in front of the other cards, and lewit make
its appearance only at the moment his fingers reach the pack. The
mode of operation seems so fair, that unless he knows the secret of
forcing, you may put what card you please into his hand, while he
thinks he is making a choice himself.

Having thus forced your card, you may tell him to look at it ; give
him the pack to shufite a3 much as he pleases, for, in fact, do what
he will, you, of course, can always tell what it was. A method of
doing this cleverly is the first thing to be acquired ; for, without it,
few of the master-feats can be performed.

Should you, however, happen to meet with any one in company
who knows this feat, you must have recourse to the following expe-
dient.

We will suppose the card you wish to force to be the ace of hearts,
but the person you present the pack to, will not take it, but persists
in taking one near the top or bottom; Jet him do so, still keeping
your fing-r against the ace of hearts. As soon as he has drawn the
card he wiskes, and while he is looking at it, slip the fore-finger of
your left hand between the ace of hearts and the card immediately
under it, press the cards tightly together in front, in order to conceal
the finger, and desire him to return the card to any part of the pack
he pleases, at the same time opening the pack at the place where your
finger is, taking care to withdraw your finger immediately, lest it
should be seen, when the card will be placed under the ace of hearts.
You then shuffle the cards slightly, for should they be shuffled too
much, the two cards which are now together, might chance to get
separated.

Ask the person who drew the card, whether he thinks his card is
now in the pack; he will, of course, answer in the affirmative; you
gay that you doubt it, throw the top card of the pack on the table,
210 THE CONJUROR,

face uppermost, and so on with the rest, until you have gone through
the pack ; then ask if he has seen his card, he will answer, Yes: you
can now either tell him the name of it, or finish the feat in any
other way you may think proper, as, by your watching for the ace
of hearts, you will perceive what his card is, by its being the one
which immediately follows it.

THE NERVE FEAT

Force a card, and when the person who has taken it puts it in the
pack, let him shuffle the cards: then lcok at them again yourself,
find the card, and place it at the bottom; cut them in half; give the
party that half which contains his card at the bottom, and desire him
to bold it between his finger and thumb just at the corner; bid him
pinch them as tight as he can; then strike them sharply, and they
will all fall to the ground, except the bottom one, which is the card
chosen. This is a very curious feat, and, if well done, is really as-
tonishing. It is a great improvement of this feat to put the chosen
card at the top of the pack, and turn the cards face upward, so that
when you strike, the choosing party’s card will remain in his hand,
actually staring him in the face.

THE TURN-OVER FEAT.

When you have found a card chosen, which you had previously
forced, or any card that hag been drawn, and which you have disco-
vered by the means before described, in order to finish your feat
cleverly, convey the card, privately, to the top of the pack ; get all
the other cards even with each other, but let the edge of your top
card project a little over the rest; hold them between your finger
and thumb, about two feet from the table, let them drop, and the
top card (which must be, as we have said, the one drawn) will fall
with its face uppermost, and all the rest with their faces towards the
table.

TO TELL THE NUMBER OF CARDS BY THE WEIGHT.

Take a pack of cards, say forty, and privately insert amongst them
. two cards rather larger than the others; let the first be the fifteenth,
THE CONJUROR, 21t

and the other the twenty-sixth, from the top. Seem to shuffle the
cards, and cut them at the first long card ; poise those you have taken
off in your hand, and say, ‘‘ There must be fifteen cards here; ’’ then
cut them at the second long card, saying, ‘‘ There are but eleven
here; '? and poising the remainder, exclaim, ‘‘ And here are fourteen
cards.’’ On counting them, the spectators will find your calculations
correct.

THE METAMORPHOSED CARDS

In the middle of a pack place a card that is something wider than

he rest, which we will suppose to be the knave of spades, under

which, place the seven of diamonds, and under that the ten of clubs.

On the top of the pack put cards similar to these, and others on
which are painted different objects, viz.—
First card... A bird

Second .... A seven of diamonds
Third ..... 4 A flower

Fourth ... . Another seven of diamonds
Fifth ..... A bird

Sixth. ..... Aten of clubs

Seventh .... A flower

Eighth .... Another ten of clubs;
chen seven or eight indifferent cards, the knave of spades, which is
the wide card, the seven of diamonds, the ten of clubs, and the reat
any indifferent cards,

Two persons are to draw the two cards that are under the wide card,
which are the seven of diamonds and the ten of clubs. You take the
pack in your left hand, and open it at the wide end, as you open a
book, and tell the person who drew the seven of diamonds to place
itin that opening, You then blow on the cards, and, without closing
them, instantly bring the card which is at the top, and on which a
bird is painted, over that seven of diamonds. ‘l’o do this dexterously,
you niast wet the middle finger of your left hand, with which you are
to bring the card to the middle of the pack. Youthen bid the person
look at his card, and when he has remarked the change, to place it
where it was before. Then blow on the cards a second time, and,
212 THE CONJUROR,

bringing the seven of diamonds, which is at the top of the pack, to
the opening, you bid him look at his card again, when he will see
it is that which he drew. You may do the same with all the other
paintcd cards, either with the same person or with him who drew the
ten of clubs.

The whole artifice consists in bringing the card at the top of the
pack to the opening in the middle, by the wet finger, which requires
no great practice. Observe, not to let the pack go out of your hands,

THE CONVERTABLE ACEs.

On the ace of spades fix, with soap, a heart, and on the ace of
hearts a spade, in such manner that they will easily slip off.

Show these two aces to the company; then, taking the ace of
spades, you desire a person to put his foot upon it, and as you place
it on the gronnd, draw away the spade. In like manner you place
the seeming ace of hearts under the foot of another person. You
then command tke two cards to change their places; and that they
obey your command, the two persons, on taking up their cards, will
have occular demonstration.

A deception similar to this is sometimes practised with one card,
suppose the ace of spades, over which a heart is pasted lightly, After
showing a persun the card, vou let bim hold one end of it, and you
hold the viher, and whiie ycu amuse him with discourse, you slide
off the heart. Then laying the card on the table, you bid him cover
it with his hand ; you then knock under the table, and command th.
heart to turn into the ace of spades.

THE CARD IN THE EGG.

To perform this feat, you rust have a round hellow stick, about
ten inches long, and three quarters of aninch in diameter, the hollow
being three-eighths in diameter. You must also have another round
stick to fit this hollow, and slide it in easily, with a knob to prevent
its coming through. Our young readers will clearly understand ou
meaning, when we say, that in ell respects it must resemble a pop-
gun, with he single exception that the stick which fits the tube must
be uf th. full length of the tube, exclusively of the knob,
THE CONJUROR. 213

You next steep a card in water for a quarter of an hour, peel off
the face of it, and double it twice across, till it becomes one-fourth
of the length of a card, then roll it up tightly, and thrust it up the
ube till it becomes even with the bottom. You then thrust in the
stick at the other end of the tube till it just touches the card.

Having thus provided your magic wand, let it lie on the table until
you have occasion to make use of it, but be careful not to allow any
person to handle it.

You now take a pack of cards, and let any person draw one; but
be sure to let it be a similar card to the one which you have in the
hollow of the stick. This must be done by forcing. The person
who has chosen it will put it into the pack again, and, while you are
shuffling, you let it fall into your lap. Then, calling for some eggs,
desire the person who drew the card, or any other person in the com-
pany, to choose any one of the eggs. When he has done so, ask if
there be anything in it. He will answer, There is not. Place the
egg in a saucer;— Wreak it with the wand, and, pressing the knob
with the palm of your right hand, the card will be driven into the
egg. You may then shew it to the spectators.

A great improvement may be made in this feat, by presenting the
person who draws the card with a saucer and a pair of forceps, and
instead of his returning the card tothe pack, desire him to take it by
the corner with the forceps and burn it, but to take care and preserve
the ashes; for this purpose you present him with apiece of paper
(prepared as hereatter described), which he lights at the candle, but
a few seconds after ; and before he can set the card on fire, it will
suddenly divide in the middle, and spring back, burning his fingers
if hedo not drop it quickly. Have another paper ready, and desire
him to try that, when he will most likely beg to be excused, and will
prefer lighting it with the candle.

When the card is consumed, you say that you do not wish to fix
upon any particular person in company to choose an egg, lest it might
be suspected that he was a confederate; you therefore request any
two ladies in company to volunteer each to choose an egg, and having
done go, to decide between themselves which shall contafn the card ;
when this is Cone, take a second saucer, and in it receive the rejected
214 THE CONJUROR

egg, breakit with your wand, and shew the egg round to the compaby ;
at the same time drawing their attention to the fact of those two eggs
having been chosen from among a number of others, and of its not
being possible for you to have told which of them would be the chosen
one.

You now receive the chosen egg in the saucer containing the ashes,
and having rolled it about until you have blacked ita little, blow the
ashes from around it into the grate; you then break the egg with the
same wand, when, on touching the spring, the card will be found in
the egg. .

The method of preparing the paper mentioned in above feat, is as
follows :—Take a piece of letter paper, about six inches in length
and three quarters of an inch in breadth, folding it longitudinally,
and with a knife cut it in the crease about five inches down ; then
take one of the sides which are still connected at the bottom, and
and with the back of the knife uader it, and the thumb of the right
hand over it, curl it outwards as a boy would the tassels of his kite ;
reveat the same process with the other side, and lay them by for use.
When about useing them, (but not till then, as the papers will soon
lose their curl if stretched), draw them up so as to make them their
original length, and turn the ends over a little, in order that they may
remain so: when set on fire, they will burn for a minute or two,
until the turn-over is burnt out, when the lighted ends will turn over
quickly, burning the fingers of the holder; this part of the trick
never fails to excite the greatest merriment.

THE ODD TEN,

Take a pack of cards, let any person draw one, and put it back
again into the pack, but contrive so that you can find it at pleasure,
which, by a little practice, you will be able to do, with the greatest
facility. Shuffle the pack, and request another of the party to draw
a card, and be sure that you force upon him the card drawn
before; go on in this way, until ten persons have drawn the same
card; then shuffle the cards, and show the one you forced, which,
from its having becn so mauaged, must, of course, be the one which
every person drew.
THE CONJUROR, 215

THE CARD IN THE POCKET-BOOK.

A confederate is previously to know the card you have taken from
the pack, and put into your pocket-book: You then present the
pack to him, and desire him to fix on a card, (which we will suppose
to be the queen of diamonds,) and place the pack on the table, You
then ask him the name of the card, and when he says the queen of
diamonds, you ask him if he be not mistaken, and if he be sure that
the card is in the pack: when be replies in the affirmative, you say,
“It might be there when you looked over the cards, but I believe it
is now in my pocket; ’’ then desire a third person to put his hands in
your pocket, and take out your book, and when it is opened the card
will appear.

THE QUEENS GOING TO DIG FOR DIAMONDS.

Separate from a pack the four kings, queens, knaves, and aces ;
likewise four common cards of each suite; then lay in a row on the
table, the queens , face upwards, and commence telling your story
thus :—

‘‘ These are four queens, who set out to seek for diamonds [place
fuur common cards of the diamond suite half over the queens.} As
they intend to dig for the diamonds, they each take a spade [place
four common spades half over the diamonds]. The kings, their
husbands, knowing their intention, sent a guard of honour to protect
them from danger [here lay down the four aces half over the spades}
But lest they should neglect their duty, they resolved to set out them-
selvee [lay the four kings half over the four aces, Now there were
four robbers, who, being apprized of the queens’ intentions, deter-
mined to waylay and rob them on their return [lay the four knaves
half over the four kings]. They were each armed with a club [lay
four clubs over the four knaves], and not knowing how the queens
would be protected, it was necessary they should each possess a stout
heart [lay four hearte over the four clubs].

You have now placed the whole of the cards on the table, in four
columne ; you then pack the cards in the first column together, begin-
ning at your left hand, keeping them in the order in which you laid
216 THE CONJUROR,

them out, and place them on the table, face downward. Pack up
the second column in the same way, lay them on the first, and 80 on
with the other two.

You now give the cards to be cut by as many persons ag please,
and as often as they choose ; it would have a good effect, if you were to
give the card what is termed a shuffle cut ; that is, to give them the
appearance of being shuffled, but, in fact, only to cut them quickly
several times. You then commence laying them out again in four
columns, as you did at first, when it will be found that they all come
in their proper order again. You next desire any one to try if he
can do it, when the chances are exactly seven to one that he does not
succeed; but if he should, you request him to try it again, when ie
is almost certain to fail, unless he knows the secret, which merely
consists in having the cards cut until a common card of the heart
suite remains at the bottom of the pack.

TO HOLD FOUR KINGS OR KNAVES IN YOUR HAND, AND TO
CHANGE THEM SUDDENLY INTO BLANK CARDS, AND THEN
INTO FOUR ACES,

It is necessary to have cards made on purpose for this trick,—half-
cards, as they may be properly termed, that is, one half kings or
knaves, and the other half aces. When you lay the aces one over the
other, of course, nothing but the kings or knaves can be seen; and
on turning the kings or knaves downward, the four aces will make
their appearance. You must have two perfect cards, one a king or
knave, to put over on of the aces, elee it will be secn; and the other
an ace, to lay over the kings or knaves. When you wish to make
them all appear blank, lay the cards a little lower, and by hiding the
aces, they will appear white on both sides; you may thea ask which
they wish to have, and may show kings, aces, or knaves, as they are
called for.

THE DRAWN CARD NAILED TO THE WALL.

Drive a flat-headed and sharp-pointed nail through a card,—force a
imilar one on any person present,—receive it into the pack,—dexter.
ously drop it, and pick up, vuscen, the nailed card; place the latter
THE CONJUROR. 217

at the bottom of the pack, which take in your right hand, and throw
it, with the bottom forward, against a wainscot or door; the nailed
card will be fixed, and the rest, of course, fall to the ground. Take
care to place your nail so that the front of the card, when fixed to the
door, may be exposed: to effect this, you must also remember to put
the back of the card outward, placing it face to face with the « others,

when you putit at the bottom of the pack.

FHE CONFLDERATE WATER+DROP,

Pat on your hat, and privately drop a little water, about the size of
a crown-piece, upon the table at which you sit; rest your elbows
upon the table, so that the cuffs of your sleeves may meet, and your
hands stick up to the brim of your hat; in thts posture your arms
will hide the drop of water from the company; then let any one
shuffle the cards, put them into your hands, and set a candle before
you, for this trick is only done by candlelight :—then, holding the
eards in your left hand, above the brim of your bat, close up to your
head, so that the light of the candle may shine upon them, and hold-
ing your head down, you will see in the drop of water, as in a looking-
glass, all the cards in your hands. Draw the finger of your right hand
along each card, as if you were feeling it before you name and lay it
down, Thus you may Iny down all the cards in the pack, and name
them, one by une, without once turning your eyes toward them.

TO TURN A CARD INTO A BIRD.

Take a card in your hand, and shew it fairly to the company, bid-
ding them seriousty observe it; then—having a live bird in your
sleeve—turning your hand suddenly, draw the card into your sleeve
with your thumb and little finger, and, giving a shake, the bird will

come out of your sleeve into your hend; you may then produce it and
let it fly. .

TO TELL CARD THOUGHT OF BLINDFOLD.

Take twenty-one cards, and lay them down in three rows, with
their faces upward ; (4. e.) when you have laid out three, begin again
at the left hand, and lay one card upon the first, and so on to the
218 THE CONJUROR,

right hand; then begin on the left hand again, and so go on until you
have laid out the twenty-one cards in three heaps, at the same time
requesting any one to think of a card. When you have laid them out,
ask him which heap his card isin; then lay that heap in the middle
between the other two. This done, lay them out again in three heaps
as before, and again request bim to notice where his noted card gocs,
and put that heap in the middle, as before. Then taking up the cards
with their back toward you, take off the uppermost card, and reckon
it one; take off another, which reckon two; and thus proceed till
you come to the eleventh, which will invariably prove to be the card
thought of. You must never lay out your cards less than three times,
but as often above that number as you please, ‘This trick may be
done without your seeing the cards at all, if you handle and count
them carefully. To diversify the trick, you may use a different
number of cards, but the number chosen must be divisible by three,
and the middle card, after they have been thrice dealt as directed,
will always be the one thought of; for instance, if done with fifteen
cards, it must be the eighth, and so on; when the number is even, it
must be the exact half; as, if it be twenty-four, the card thought of
will be the twelfth, &c.

THE CARD IN THE MIRROR.

Provide a mirror, either round or oval, the frame of which must be
at least as wide as a card, and the glass must be wider than the dis-
tance between the frame, by at least the width ofa card. The glass
in the middle must be made to move in two grooves, and so much of
the quicksilver rubbbed off as is equal to the size of a common
card. With some adhesive substance, you stick over the part where,
the quicksilver is rabbed off, a piece of pasteboard, on which is acord
that must exactly fit the space, which must at first be placed behind
the frame.

Fix this mirror against a partition, through which two strings are
to go, by which an assistant in an adjoining room can easily move the
glass in the grooves, and make the card appear or disappear at pleaeure.
Or it may be done without an assistant, ifa table Le placed against
the partition, and a string from the glass be made to pass through a
THE CONJUROR, 219

leg of it, and communicate with a small trigger, which you may easily
push down wtth your foot, and at the same time wiping the glass with
your handkerchief, under the pretence that the card may appear more
eonspicuous; which will also serve most effectually to disguise the
operation.

Having every thing thus arranged, you contrive to make a person
draw the same sort of card ag that fixed to the mirror; if you do not
succeed in this with a stranger, make some pretence for shuffling the
cards again, and present the pack toa confederate, who, of course,
will draw the card you wish, and who is to show it to two or three
persons next to him, under the pretence that it might slip his memory.
This card you appear to place in the middle of the pack, but in reality
bring it to the bottom. Direct the person to look for his card in the
mirror, which the confederate behind the partition is to draw slowly
forward ; or if you perform the operation yourself, press the trigger
with your foot, and the card will appear as if placed between the glass
and the quicksilver, While the glass is drawing forward, you slide
eff the card from the bottom of the pack, and convey itaway. This
is an interesting trick, and never fails, when well managed, to excite
the greatest ustonishment amongst the spectators. Care should be
tiken, by a previous private trial, that the apparatus be quite per-
f-ct, or the effect of the deception will, we scarcely need to say, be
completely marred.

THE CHANGEABLE CARDS.

Having shuffled a pack, select the eight of each suite, and the deuce
of diamonds ; hold the four eights in the left hand, and the deuce in
the right, and having shewn them, take in the deuce among the
four in the left hand, and throw out one of the eights; give them to
be blown upon, when they will be turned into four deuces; you now
exchange one of the deuces for the eight, and giving them egain to be
blown upon, they will appear all black cards; you again take in the
deuce, and discard the eight, when, by blowing on them, they will all
tarn red; you now, for the last time, take it in the eight, and throw
away a deuce, when they will be found to be four eights and a deuce,
as they were at first.

To perform this ingenious deception you procure five plain cards,
220 THE CONJUROR.

the size of playing cards, which you paint to resemble five the cards
s under,



and mixing them with a common pack, you next under the pretence
of selecting the eight of each suite, and the deuce of diamonds, take
out your false cards (Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4) which you hold as under; and
taking No 5 in your right hand, you
shew your company that there are the
four eights and the deuce of diamonds ;
you should likewise hold them up to the
light, to let them see that they are not
double, Which you may do without fear
of detection, as the lower parts of the
cards will be so opaque, that the defi-
ciency of spots will not be perceived; you
now place the duce of diamonds between
Nos. 3 and 4, the latter of which you
withdraw and throw on the table, but
take care not to do so until you have
first taken in No. 5, (the deuce of
diamonds) else the deficiency of No. 3
will cause the trick to be discovered;
you then close those four cards together, aud taking them by the top,
with the fingers and thumb of the right hand, having the thumb on
the face of the cards, and the fingers onthe back, hold them out with
their faces turned towards the floor, and-desire some person to blow
upon them, when this has been done, give your wrist a turn, so that
the top part of the cards will now be the bottom; in fact, you turn
the cards upside down ; hold them up to your mouth, pretending to
breathe on them, which not only tends to deceive your company, but
gives you time to arrange your cards, which you do by opening them


THE CONJUROR, 221

out to the right hand, when they will appear to be four deuces, in the
order represented in the following figure: you may agaln hold them
up to the light, to shew that they are single cards.

The next change, although rather more difficult to accomplish, is
decidedly the best of the whole, inasmach as the cards are never shut
up, nor removed for one moment from under the eye. Having shewn
them to be four deuces, you take in the
eight of clubs, and place it between Nos.
3 and 5; withdraw No. 5, and, holding
it up to the light, you desire the com-
pany to observe that the cards are not
double, and while all eyes are turned to
this card, turn your left hand, containing
the other four, with its back towards the
eciling, and the faces of the cards towards
the floor, keeping them in a horizontal
position ; then throw down the deucc of
~ diamonds, and continue your remarks on
the cards not being double, by saying,
‘“You perceive any of them will bear
examination ;’’ at the same time take hold of the card next but one
to your right hand, with the fingers and thumb of that hand, taking
care to have the thumb above and the fingers underneath the card ;
take it out, still keeping it in a horizontal position, and while making
the above observation, turn it round with the fore-finger of the right
hand, until you have got hold of the other end, when, before anybody
has time to take hold of it, return it to the situation from which you
took it, taking care that you put it exactly in the same angle.

You now hold those cards out, with the backs upward, to be blown
upon; but you have no occasion to shut them up at this change, as,
if you turn them over, it will be perceived that they are all black ;
you now take in the deuce of diamonds, as you did at the first change,
and discard the eight of clubs, close them up, and taking them by the
top, hold them out to be blown upon, give your wrist a turn as before,
open them out to yourself while pretending to breathe on them, when,
on shewing them to your company, they will be all red; you now


222 THE CONJUROR.

again take in the eight of clubs, throwing out the deuce of diamonds
on the table, with its face downwards, and taking hold of the card
next but one to your right hand throw it down in the same manner,
whilst performing this latter part, you should say, ‘‘ I take in
the eight, and I throw out the deuces. Oh! I beg pardon; only
one of the deuces ;” at the same moment take up the last card you
threw out, by the opposite end to that which you formerly held it
by, and return it to its own place again, taking particular care of
the angle, let them be blown upon, when they will be found to be
four eights and a deuce, as they were at first.

Should any person now desire tc examine the cards, tell him
you can only give them one at a time, breathe upon the deuce of
diamonds and present it to them: when they have returned it to
you, and before tey have time to ask for another, hand them eight
of clubs, saying that perhaps they would like to examine a black
card, they seeing you so confident, will scarcely ask for any more.
We would recommend our young friends to practise this trick well
before they attempt toshew it, as it is too good a one to hazard its
discovery by impatience, which is too frequently the case.

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THE CONJUROR. 223








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THE SPECTRAL LAMP.

Mix some common salt with spirit of wine in a platinum or me-
tallic cup; set the cup upon a wire flame over a spirit-lamp. which
should be inclosed on each side, or ina dark-lantern: when the cup
becomes heated, and the spirit ignited, it will burn with a strong
yellow flame; if, however, it should not be perfectly yellow, throw
more salt into the cup. The lamp being thus prepared, all other
lights should be extinguished, and the yellow lamp introduced, when
an appalling change will be exhibited ; all the objects in the room will
be but of one colour, and the complexions of the several persons,
whether old or young, fair or brunette, will be metamorphosed toa
ghastly, death like, yellow; whilst the gayest dresses, as the brightest
crimson, the choicest lilacs, the most vivid blue or green—all will be
changed into one monotiny of yellow: each person will be inclined to
laugh at his neighbour, himself insensible of being of the spectral
company.

Their astonisment may be heightened by removing the yellow light
to one end of the room, and restoring the usual or white light at the
other; when one side of each person’s dress will resume its original
colour, while the other will remain yellow; one cheek may bear th-
224 THE CONJUROR.

bloom of health, and the other the yellow of jaundice, Or if, when
the yellow light only is burning, the white light be introduced within
a wire sieve, the company and the objects in the apartment will ap-
pear yellow, mottled with white.

Red light may be produced by mixing with the spirit in the cup
over the lamp, salt of strontain instead of common salt; and the
effect of the white or yellow lights, if introduced through a sieve upon
the red light, will be even more striking than the white upon the
yellow light,

MAGIC INKS.

Dissolve oxide of cobalt in acetic acid, to which add a little nitre ;
write with this solution ; hold the writing to the fire, and it will be
of a pale rose colour, which will disappear on cooling.

Dissolve equal parts of sulphate of copper and muriate of ammmonia
in water; write with this solution, and it will give a yellow colour
when heated, which will disappear when cold.

Dissolve nitrate of bismuth in water; write with the solution, and
the characters will be invisible when dry, but will become legible on
immers:on in water.

Dissoive, in water, muriate of cobalt, which is of a bluish-green
colour, and the solution will be pink; write with it, and the charac-
ters will be scarcely visible; but, if gently heated, they will appear
in brilliant green, which will disappear as the paper cools,

CHAMELEON LIQUIDS.

Put asmall portion of the compound called mineral chameleon into
several glasses, pour upon each, water at different tempcratures, and
the contents of each glass will exhibit a d fferent shade of cvlour.
A very hot solution will be a beautiful green colour; a gold one, a
deep purple.

Make a colourless solution of sulphate of copper; add to it a little
ammonia, equally colourless, and the mixture will be an intense blue
colour; add to it a little sulphuric acid, and the blue colour will dis-
appear; pour ina little solution of caustic ammonia, and the blue
colour will be restored. Thus may the liquor be thrice chunged at
pleasure.
THE CONJUROR, 225

THE MAGIC DYFS.

Dissolve indigo in diluted sulphuric acid, and add to it an equal
quantity of solution of carbonate of potass. If a piece of winte
cloth be dipped in the mixture, it will be changed to blue; yellow
cloth, in the same mixture, may be changed to green; red to purple,
and blue litmus paper to red.

Nearly fill a wine-glass with the juice of bect-root, which is of a
deep red colour; add a little lime-water, and the mixture will be
colourless; dip into it a piece of white cloth, dry it rapidiy, and in
a few hours the cloth will become red.

THE CHEMICAL SAMPSON,

To melt a rod of iron with a common fire.—Heat a rod of iron, as
thick as your finger, in a fire, urged by a pair of bellows, until it is
white hot; draw it from the fire, and apply to the hot part a roll of
brimstone, held by a pair of tongs; a profusion of most brilliant
sparks will be thrown out, and the iron drop like melted sealing- wax,
It is necessary to hold it over the hearth, to avoid mischief. If the
heated part be a few inches from the end of the bar, a piece of it
will be cut off.

TO CHANGE THE COLOURS OF FLOWERS.

Hold over a lighted match, a purpleco'umbine, or a blue larkspur.
and it will change first to plnk, and then to black. ‘The yellow of
other flowers, held as above, will continue unchanged. Thus, tle
purple tint will Instantly disappear from a heart’s-ease, but the yellow
will remain ; and the yellow of a wall-flower will continue the same,
enough the brown streak will be discharged. If a scarlet, crimson,

ormaroon dahlia be tried, the colour will change to yellow; a fact
well known to gardeners, who, by this mode, variegate their growing
dahlias.

COLOURED FLAMES,

A variety of rays of light is exhibited by coloured flames, which
arc to be seen in white light. Thus, pure hydrogen gas will bura
425 THE CONJUROR,

with ¢ blue flame, in which many of the rays of light are wanting
The flame of an oil lamp contains most of the rays which are wanting
in sun-light. Alcohol, mixed with water, when heated or burned,
affords a flame with no other rays but yellow. The following salts,
if finely powdered, and introduced into the interior flame of a candle,
or into the wick of a spirit-lamp, will commucicate to flame their pe-
culiar colours ;

Muriate of Soda (common salt) . Yellow.

Muriate of Potash ........ Pale Violet.

Muriate of Lime... ...... Brick red,

Muriate of Strontia ....... Bright crimson.

Muriate of Lithia ........ Red.

Muriate of Baryta ........ Pale apple-green.

Muriate of Copper. ....... Biuish green.

Borax... +. ...0.06.0. Green,

Or, either of the above salts may be mixed with spirit of wine,

as disected for Red Fire.

YELLOW FLAME.
Burn spirit of wine on common table salt or saltpet e.

ORANGE-COLOURED FLAME,

Burn spirit of wine on chloride of calcium, a substance obtained by
tvaporating muriate of lime to dryness.

EMERALD GREEN FLAME.
Burn spirit of wine on a little powdered nitrate of copper.

THE CUP OF FLAME,

Put a little newly calcined magnesia into a tea-cup upon the hearth
or hob, and suddenly put in as much concentrated sulphuric acid as
will cover the magnesia; in an instant, sparks will be thrown out,
and the mixture will become completely ignited. To prevent acci-

dents, the phial containing the sulphuric acid should be tied to the
end of a long stick.
THE CONJUROR 927

INSTANTANEOUS FLAME,

Heat together potassium and sulphur, and they will instanUy bara
very vividly.

Heat a little nitre in a fire-shovel, sprinkle on it flour of sulphur,
and it will instantly burn. If iron filings be thrown upon red-hot
nitre, they will detonate and burn.

Pound, separately, equal parts of chlorate of potasn and lump
sugar; mix them, and put upon a plate a small quantity, dip
a thread into sulphuric acid, touch the powder with it, and it will
burst into a brilliant flame.

Or, put a few grains of chlorate of potash into a tabie-spoonful of
spirit of wine; add one or two drops of sulphuric acid, and the
whole will burst into a beautiful flame.

TO COOL FLAME BY METAL.

Encircle the’ very small flame of a lamp with a cold iron wire,
which will instantly cause its extinction.

PROOF THAT FLAME IS HOLLOW.

Pour some spirit of wine into a watch-glass, and inflame it; place a
straw across this flame, and it will only be ignited and charred at the
outer edge ; the middle ofthe straw will be uninjured, for there is no
ignited matter in the centre of the flame.

Or, introduce into the middle of the flame one end of a glass tube,
when the vapour will rise through it, and may be lighted at the other
end of the tube.

BRILLIANT RED FIRE.

Weigh five ounces of dry nitrate of strontia, one ounce and a half
of finely. powdered sulphur, five drams chlorate of potash, and four
drams sulphuret of antimony. Powder the chlorate of potash and the
sulphurate of antimony separately in a mortar, and mix them on paper
ufter which, add them to the other ingredients, previously powdered
and mixed. No other kind of mixture than rubbing together on
228 THE CONJUROR,

paper is required, For use, mix with a portion of the powder a
small quantity of spirit ef wine in a tin pan resembling a cheese-toaster,
light the mixture and it will shed a rich crimson hue : when the fire
burns dim and badly a very small quantity of finely-powdered charcoal
will revive it.

PURPLE FIRE.
Dissolve chloride of lithium in spirit of wine; and when lighted,
it will burn with a purplish flame.

SILVER FIRE.

Place upon a piece of burning charcoal a morsel of the dried
crystals of nitrate of silver (not the lunar caustic), and it will im-
mediately throw out the most beautiful sparks that can be imagined,
wliilst the surface of the charccal will be coated with silver.

GREEN FIkE,

A beautiful green fire may be thus made. Take of flour of sulphur,
thirteen parts ; nitrate of baryta, seventy-seven ; oxymuriate of potassa
five ; metallic arsenic, two; and charcoal, three, Let the nitrate of
baryta be well dricd and powdered ; then add to it the other ingredi-
ents, all finely pulverized, and exceedingly well mixed and rubbed to.
gether. Place a portion of the composition in a small tin pan, having
apolished reflector fitted to one side of it, and set lightto it when asplen-
did green illumination will be the result. By adding a little calamine
it will burn more slowly.

CAMPHOR SUBLIMED BY FLAME,

Set a metallic plate over the flame of a spirit lamp ; place upon it a
smal! portion of camphor under a glass funnel and the camphor will
be beautifully sublimed by the heat of the lamp, in an efforescent crust
on the sides of the funnel.

THE FIERY FOUNTAIN.
THE CONJUROR. 229

Mix in another glass gradually, a dram of sulphuric acid with two
drams of water. Remove both glasses into a dark room, and thera
pour the diluted acid over the zinc and phosphorus in the glass: in a
short time, beautiful jets of bluish flame wiil dart from all parts of
the surface of the mixture ; it will become quite luroinous and beau.
tiful; luminous smoke will rise in a column from the glass; thus
representing a fountain of fire.

TO REVIVE APPARENTLY DEAD PLANTS,

Make a strong solution of camphor in spirit of wine, which add to
soft water, in the proportion of a dram toa pint. If withered, or
apparently dead plants he put into this liquid, and allowed to remain
therein frow two to three hours, they will revive.

MAGIC BREATH,

Half fill a glass tumbler with lime water ; breathe into it frequently,
at the same time stirring it with a piece of glass. The fluid, which
before was perfectly transparent. will presently become quite white,
and, if allowed to remain at rest, real chalk will be deposited.

INCOMBUSTISLE PAPER.

Dip a piece of paper into strong alum-water, and when dry, repeat
the process; or, it will be better still, if you dip and dry it a third
time. After this, you may dip it in the flame of a candle, and it
will not burn.

THE CHAMELEON FLOWERS.

Trim a spirit-lamp, add a little salt to the wick, and] ghtit. Set
near it a scarlet geranium, and the flower will appear yellow. Purple
colours, in the same light, appear blue.

TOSETA MIXTURE ON FIRE WITH WATER

Pour into a saucer a little sulphuric acid, and place upon it a chip
of sodium, which will float and remain uninflamed; but the addition
of o drop of water will set it on fire.
230 THE CONJUROR.

EXPLOSION IN WATER.

Throw very small pieces of phosphulet of potassium into a basin
of water, and they will produce separate explosions. The same subd-
stance will also burn with great brilliancy when exposed to the air.

FLAME UPON WATER,

Fill a wine-glass with cold water, pour lightly upon its surface a
little ether; light it by a slip of paper, and it will burn for some
time.

AQUATIC BOMB.

Drop about two grains of potassium into a saucer of cold water.
It will instantly burst into a flame, with aslight explosion, burn vividly
on the surface, and dart about with great violence in the form of a
red-hot fire ball.

ARTIF.CIAL CONFLAGRATION.

Put into a small narrow-necked earthen bottle, half an ounce of
muriate of ammonia, an ounce of camphor, and two ounces of highly
rectified spirit of wine; et fire to it, and the room will seem to be
in flames. This experiment should be performed in the dark.

INFLAMMABLE POWDER.

Heat a small portion of the grey powder of aluminum, and it will
ignite, inflame, and burn with great rapidity. Or, blow a little of
this powder into the flame of a candle, and it will produce a small
shower of sparks, brilliant as those from iron filings.

THE CANDLE OF ICE.

Cover asmall po tion of the upper-end of a tallow candle with paper,
and give the remainder of it a coat of fine coal and powdered sulphur.
mixd together; dip it in water, and expose it in the air during a
hard frost, and a slight coat of ice will form round it, which may be
sudsequently rendered thicker in proportion to the aumber of im-
THE CONJUROR, 23!

mersions and exposures to the air which it receives. Whien it arrives
at a sufficient consisteucy, take off the paper, light the upper end of
the candle, and it will burn freely.

THE PNEUMATIC DANCER,

A. This amusing toy consists of a figure made of
glass, or enamel, and so constructed as to remain
oH suspended in aglassofwater. An air-bubble, com-
1 municating with the water, is placed in some part
of the figure, shown at m, near the top of the jar A,
| in the engraving. At the bottom, B, of the vessel
h is a bladder, which can be pressed upwards by apply-
ing the finger to the extremity of a lever, e, when
if the pressure will be communicated through the
water to the bubble of air, which is thus compressed.
| The figure will then sink to the bottom; but, by

removing the pressure, the figure will again rise, so
| i that it may be made to dance in the vessel, as if by
i magic. Fishes, made cf glass, are sometimes sub-
stituted for the human figure. A common glass
jar may be used for this experiment, in which case





the pressure should be applied to the upper surface

NPs setamem * = which should be a piece of bladder, instead of being

2 {RSM | @ placed at the bottom, as shewn in the figure en-
fi ‘itis, graved.

ui
‘ht ea TE
te aad A
<) CR aT ¥
ie aa

SRE The above trick is an improvement upon the feat
of the bottle imps.



CURRENTS IN BOILING WATER.

Fill a large glass tube with water, and throw into it a few particles

f bruised amber ; then hold the tube, by a handle for the purpose,

apright in the flame of a lamp, and, as the water becomes warm, it

will be seen that currents, carrying with them the pieces of amber,

will begin to ascend in the centre, and to descend towards the circum-

ference of the tube. These currents will soon become rapid in their
motions, and continue till the water boils.
232 THE CONJUROR

PERPETUAL MOTION.

Put very small filings of iron into aquafortis, and let them remain
until the aquafortis is completely saturated with the iron, which will
happen in about two hours; pour off the solution and put it into a
phial an inch wide, with a large mouth, with a lump of lapis calami-
naris ; then stop it close, and the calamine stone will keep in perpetual
motion.

THE PAPER ORACLE.

Some amusement may be obtained among young people, by writing,
with common ink, a variety of questions, on different bits of paper,
and adding a pertinent reply to each, written with nitro muriate of
gold. The collection is suffered to dry, and put aside until an oppor-
tunity offers for using them. When produced, the answers will be
invisible ; you desire different persons to select such questions as they
may fancy, and take them home with them; you then promise, that
if they are placed near the fire, during the night, answers will appear
written beneath the questions in the morning; and such will be the
fact, if the papers be put in any dry, warm situation.

TO DIP THE HAND IN WATER WITHOUT WETTING IT.

Powder the surface of a bow! of water with lycopodium ; you may
then put your hand into it, and take out a piece of money, that had
been previously placed at the bottom of the bowl, without wetting your
skin; the locopodium so attaching itself to the latter, as to keep it en-
tirely from coming in direct contact with the water. After performing
the experiment, a slight shake of the hand will rid it of the powder.

IMITATIVE DIVING BELL.

Nearly fill a basin with water, and put upon its surface a floating
lighted wick or taper; over this place a glass goblet, mouth down-
wards, and push it into the water, which will be kept out, whilst the
wick will continue to float and burn under the goblet; thus imitating
the living inmate of a diving bell, which is merely a larger goblet, with
a man instead of a candle within it.
THE CONJUROR 233

THE SECRET OF FIRE-EATING, ETC,

The secret of fire-eating, savs the Gentlemen’s Magazine, consists
onty in rubbing the hands, and thoreughly washing the mouth, lips,
tongue, teeth, and other parts of the body that are to touch the fire,
with pure spirits of sulphur, This burns and cauterises the epidermis,
or upper skin, till it becomes as hard as thick leather, and every time
the experiment is tried it becomes still easier than before. But if
after it has been very often repeated, the upper skin should become so
callous and horny as fo become troublesome, washing the parts affected
with very warm water, or hot wine, will bring away all the shrivelled
or harched epidermis. The flesh however will continue tender and
unfit for such business, till it has been frequently rubbed over again
with the same spirit.

This preparation may be rendered much stronger, and more effie
cacious, by mixing equal quantities of spirit of sulphur, sal-ammoniac,
essence of rosemary. and juice of onions. The spirit of sulphur is
made by adding very graduaily an ounce and a half, by measure, of
sulphuric acid to fourteen and a half ounces of distilled water,

The bad effects which the frequent swallowing of red hot coals,
melted sealing-wax, rosin, brimstone, and other calcined and inflam-
mable matters, might have upon the stomach, are prevented by the
fire-eater’s drinking plentifuliy of warm water and oil, as soon as he
leaves the company, till he has vomited all up again.

Whoever is acquainted with this secret, may safely wa'k over burn-
ing coals, or red hot plough shares, as Queen Emma is said to have
done,

An experiment to ascertain the degree of heat it is possible for a
man to bear, was made in the month of July, 1828, at the New
Tivoli, at Paris, in the presence of a company of about two hundred
persons, amongst whom were many protessors, savans, and physi-
ologists, who had been especially invited to attend, by the physician
Robertson, director of that establishment. The man on whom this
experiment was made was a Spaniard of Andalusia, named Martenez,
aged forty-three. A cylindrical oven, constructed in the shape of a
dc me, had been heated, for four hours, by a very powerful fire. At
234 THE CONJUROR.

ten minutes past eignt, the Spaniard, having on large pantaloons of
red flannel, a thick cloak, also of flannel, and a large felt, after the
fashion of a straw hat, went into the oven, where he remained seated
on a foot-stool, during fourteen minutes, exposed to a heat of from
forty-five to fifty degrees of a metallic thermometer, the gradation of
which did not go higher than fifty. He sang a Spanish song while
fowl] was roasted by his side. At his coming out of the oven, tie
physicians found that his pulse beat one hundred and thirty-four
pulsations a minute, though it was but seventy-two at his going in.
The oven being heated anew for a second experiment, the Spaniard
re-entered and seated himself in the same attitude, at three-quarters
past eight, ate the fowl and drank a bottle of wine to the health of
the spectators. At coming out his pulse was a hundred and seventy-
six, and indicated a heat of one hundred and ten degrees of Reaumur.
Finally, for the third and last experiment, which almost immediately
followed the second, he was stretched on a plank, surrounded with
lighted candles, and thus put into the oven, the mouth of which was
this time closed; he was there nearly five minutes, when all the spec-
tators cried out ‘‘ Enough, enough !”’ and anxiously hastened to take
him out. A noxious and suffocating vapour of tallow filied the in-
side of the oven, und all the candles were extinguished and melted.
The Spaniard, whose pulse was two hundred at coming out of this
guif of heat, immedietely threw himself iuto a cold bath, and, in two
or three minutes after, was on his feet, safe and sound.

About the year 1809, one Lionetto, also a Spaniard, astonished not
only the ignorant, but chemists and other men of science, in France,
Germany, Italy, and England, by his insensibility to the power of fire.
He handled, with impunity, red hot iron and molten lead, drank boil-
ing oii, and performed other feats equally miraculous, While he was
at Naples, he attracted the notice of Professor Sementeni, who nar-
rowly watched all his operations, and endeavourcd to discover his
secret. He observed, in the first place, that when Lionetto applied
a piece of red bot iron to his hair, dense fumes immediately rose fiom
it; that when he touched his foot with the iron, -imilar vapours
ascended, which affected both the organs of sight and smell. He
also saw him place a rod of iron, nearly red | ot, b tween his teeth.
THE CONJUROR, 235

without burning himself; drink the third of a table-spoonful of boil-
ing oil ; and taking up molten lead with his fingers, place it on his
tongue without apparent inconvenience.

Anxious to discover the means used by Lionet(o to render himself
capable of thus enduring the application of heat, Sementeni performed
several experiments upon himself, and made many important dis-
coveries, He found, that by friction with sulphuric acid diluted with
water, the skin might be made insensible to the action of the heat of
red hot iron: a solution of alum, evaporated until it became spongy,
appeared to be more effectual in these frictions. After having rubbed
the parts, which were thus rendered, in some degree, incombustible,
with hard soap, he discovered, on the application of hot iron, that
their insensibility was increased. He then determined on again
rubbing the parts with soap, and after this, found that the hot iron not
only occasioned no pain, but that it actually did not burn the hair.
Being thus far satisfied, the Professor applied hard soap to his tongue,
until it became insensible to the heat of the iron; and after having
placed an ointment, composed of soap mixed with a solution of alam,
upon it, boiling oil did not burn it: while the oil remained on the
tongue a slight hissing was heard, similar to that of hot iron when
thrust into water; the oil soon cooled, and might then be swallowed
without danger.

These are stated to be the results of the experiments performed by
Professor Sementeni, and they tend to explain the astonishing per-
formances of Lionetto. It is evident that he prepared his tongue and
his skin in a similar manner, previously to his exhibitions. With re-
gard to his passing the hot plate of iron over his hair, it seems pretty
evident that the latter was first saturated with a solution similar to that
of the alum or sulphuric acid. His swallowing the boiling oil ceases
to become a phenomenon, when it is observed that, in order to shew
its high temperature, he threw pieces of lead into it, which, in the
process of melting, absorbed a quantity of the caloric or heat, ofthe
oil; and that the small quantity of the latter which he poured upon
his tongue, already prepared to receive it in the manner we have stated,
cooled before he swallowed it. It is clear that he might put the
molten lead upon his tongue with impunity, and suffer even less incon-
236 THE CONJUROR.

venience from it, if possible, than from the oil, by the greater heat of
which it had been melted,

Several scientific men have successfully repeated the experiments of
Professor Sementeni; and it is now no longer considered miraculous,
to behold a man applying hot iron to his skin without suffering fieely
its powers. But we beg to caution our young readers very seriously
against making any similar experiments upon themselves: they are
only fit for men of science and profound chemical knowledge, and the
least inaccuracy or omission would be productive of scrious conse-
quences. ‘he foregoing account of the performances of the Fire-
eaters and their secrets, we insert for the information of our young
friends only, without holding them up as experiments calculated for
their capacities or fit fortheir performance. The French author to
whom we are indebted for the foregoing particulars,— Monsieur Julia
Fontenelle, states that, when the Spaniard, Lionetto, undertook the
experiments which we have above described, he was under apprehen-

sions of having something to do with the Inquisition, in consequence
of his exploits.
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Cad BS . \
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Flushed with his rays beneath the noon-tide sun, |
In rival bands between the,svickets run ;

Drive o’er the sward the ball with active furce

Or chase with nimble feet its rapid course.

BYRON,

Cricket is derived from the Saxon word crick, signifying a stick,
and is one of those games that we can claim as being essentially our
own. As to its origin, we will quote what Strutt says in his Sports
and Pastimes, ‘‘ From the game of Club Ball originated, I doubt
not, that pleasant and manly exercise distinguished in modern times
by the name of Cricket; I say in modern times, because I cannot
trace the appellation beyond the commencement of the last century,
where it occurs in one of the songs by D’Urfey. The first four lines

Of a noble race was Shenkin,’ run thus:
“*He was the prettiest fellow
At foot-ball or at cricket;
At hunting, chace, or nimble race
How featly her could prick it.’

‘* Cricket of late years has become exceedingly fashionaole, being
much countenanced by the nobility and gentlemen of fortune, who
frequently join in the diversion. This game, which is played with the
bat and the ball, consists of single and double wicket. The wicket

16
240 CRICKET,

was formerly two straight thin battens, called stumps, twenty-two
inches high, which were fixed in the ground perpendicularly, six
inches apart, and over the top of both was laid a small round piece of
wood called the bail, but so situated as to fall off readily if the stumps
were touched by the ball.”

Clnb-ball, referred to above, seems to have been a game played by
two persons, one holding the bat, and the other throwing the ball to
be struck by his opponent, and then endeavouring to catch it. We
have still amongst us in the north a game, played by village boys, bear-
ing some resemblance to Cricket; the name they give it is tip-cat.
This gaine is obviously Cricket in its rudest form, and with its rudest
instruments. When, and in what order, the successive improvements
have been made, that have raised it to its present high character, as
the noblest and most manly of ali our English games, it would be
difficult to say. Inan old engraving, published about sixty years ago.
representing a game at Cricket the bats more resemble Turkish scymi-
ters than the bats now in use.

The game never enjoyed greater popularity than at present. It is
the delight of all classes; the noble frequenter of Lord’s Cricket
Ground, who plays for ‘‘ money, hard money,” and the villiagers who
challenge the neighbouring parish to play ‘‘for honour and a supper,
glory and half-a-crown,”’ the philosopher and the prince do nct disdain
to handle the bat, and, as the poet says,

Even senators at Cricket urge the bail,
CRICKET, 241

THE GAME,

BATS, BALLS, AND WICKETS.

Cricket is played by two parties or sides ; one tries to bowl down
what are called the wickets; andthe other party strikes away the
ball in its course, with a bat, with a force sufficient for the purposes of
the game.

The bats are usually made of willow-wood, wrapped in the handie
with silk or thread, so as to give good hold, and are not more than
thirty-eight inches in length, (of which measure twenty-one inches
are taken up by the pod; and the remainder being turned round
forms the handle,) nor at the widest part, (near the tip,) more than
four and a quarter; at the tip, it should be two inches thick, and
from thence taper gradually towards the handle. The pod must be
perfectly smooth on the surface, swelling towards the middle, and
continued for about four inches down the ped.

The ball js formed of two hemispherical pieces of stout leather,
sewed over a round ball of stout leather or worsted so as to be per-
fectly spherieal ; it must not exceed nine inches inches in circumference;
its weight must not be less than five ounces and a half, nor more than
five and three quarters.

The stumps form the wickets, and three are required to each wicket.
They are usually made of lance-wood, twenty-eight inches in length,
and pointed at one end to the length of aninch. When pitching tne
wickets, the stumps must not be driven more than an inch into the
earth, as by the rules they should be twenty-seven inches sbove ground ;
and unless they fall down easily, when touched by the ball, they will
probably break; the tops of the stumps must be groved or hollowed
out crosswise, to about the eighth of an inch in depth, so as to receive
the bails.

The bails, of which there should be two to each wicket, must each
be four inches long, and one end must be made to fit the groves in
the stumps; in pitching the wickets, these ends should be put in the
groves, and the other ends allowed to rest on the centre stump, Some
persons use only one bail, eight inches in length; but it will not al-
242 CRICKET,

ways drop off so readily as two bails. The wickets should be pitched
opposite each other, and at twenty-two yards distance.

The above directions, as to the size of bats, balls, &c. are intended
for grown players; boys should, of course, have their bats and balls
of a size proportionate to their strength.

POWLING CREASE.

This is a mark made on the ground at each wicket. It must be in
a line with the stumps, six feet eight inches long, with the stumps in
the centre ; there must also be a return crease turning towards the
bowler, at right angles.

POPPING CREASE.

This is a mark made on the ground, four feet from the wicket,
and parallel toit; thelength is not limited, but it must not be shorter
than the bowling crease.

SCORERS.

The scorers keep an account of the runs to each striker separately
for each innings: the side that has obtained the greatest number of
runs wing the game. When the players on each side have all been in
and out once, the firstinnings is completed: when a match is made, it
is usually understood that each party are to have two innings.

DISPOSITION OF THE PLAYERS,

The players should be stationed according the plan seen on the next
page: their particular duties are described hereafter. Should the
striker be left-handed, it will be necessary to change their position,
placing them on the left side in exactly the same order.

THE STRIKERS.

The strikers belong to the in-party. Their first look-out should be
to keep themselves in; their next, to obtain as many runs as they
can for their party; to prevent the ball from hitting the wicket, and
to strike it where it is least likely to be caught by the other side. The
position of the striker should be with one foot bebind tbe popping
CRICKET. 243



OFF SIDE.
Of §
;
| 9
t
7 10
tt t
3
t
4 3 1 1 2
$$ ¢ ¢ + 7}
12t llt
ON-SIDE. :
ORDER OF THE PLAYERS.
1 Striker. 7 Point.
2 Bowler. 8 Cover.
3 Wicket keeper. 9 Middle wicket.
4 Long Stop. 10 Long field off-side.
5 Short stop. 11 Long field onsside.

6 Short slip. 12 Leg.
244 CRICKET.

crease, leaving the wicket clear of all obstractions from foot or keees.
The feet should be as wide apart as you can place them without losing
your full ‘purchase,’ one immediately in ffont of the other, and the
toes rather pointing towards the bowler; the weight of the body should
be on the right leg, the top of your bat inclined towards the bowler,
and the left elbow, as Nyren used to say, should be kept “ well up.”’
The value of Nyren’s maxim will be discovered by all who attempt to
. play; it may be found rather awkward at first, but ‘use is second
nuture,’” and it is the only position which will give the requisite com-
mand over the balls. With regard to the manner of striking at dif-
ferent balls, practice and a quick hand and eye are the surest guides,

The in-player who is not striking should always be prepared for
running. He should stand before the popping crease, and as soon as
the bail is delivered he may run, but should not follow too far, for
should no runs be obtained he may be put out. Should the players
have crossed each other, anda wicket be put down, he who is running
to that wicket isout. In running from one wicket to the other, the
strikers should take care not to run against each other, and should
carry the bat outside. Should the striker leave his place before the
ball is delivered, the bowler may knock down his wicket,

THE BOWLER.

The bowler belongs to the out-party. His position is immediately
behind the wicket; and his duty to bow] the ball so that it may knock
down the wicket, or so that the striker may play at it in the least ad-
vautageous manner,

The ball should be held so that the tops of the fingers shal! cross
the seam ; this gives certainty to the hold. It should not be grasped
too tightly, nor yet too loosely, but just so that you may let it leave
the hand freely, and still have perfect controul over it; the body
should be kept in an erect position. 1t must be delivered with one
toot behind the bowling crease, and with the back of the hand towards
the ground. The hand must not be raised above the shoulder. The
sim of the bowler should be to drop his ball at distances ot from three
bo five yards from the wicket, according as he wants a slow or fast
ball. The speed of the bal] must be regulated by the play of the
CRICKET. 245

striker, and the manner of bowling varied with the same player, or
e'se, where the striker has “ got into” your favourite ball, it will be
a difficult matter to bow] him out.

In case the bowler should not succeed in bowling out the’striker,
and does not drop the ball in the right place, it is advisable to have
some signal, known only to the two bowlers, by which either may
be directed where to throw his balls, or how to vary them so as to be
least advantageous to the striker.

As there are very few players who have not a favourite ball, the
bowler will do well to find this out as soon as may be, and avoid
giving him it. After hitting a few balls a striker will very often get
so thoroughly into the bowler’s way that it is a difficult matter to get
him out. In these casesit is advisable to change the bowler, even if
it be only for atime. Bad bowling that a striker does not understand
will often be more effective than good bowling which he is thoroughly
up to.

P should the ball be hit by the striker, the bowler must return to his
wicket, and hold himself in readiness in the best position to catch the
ball, if it be thrown up to him.

THE WICKET KEEPER.

His duty is to stump out the striker, if he should leave bis place to
meet the ball, and to hold himself in readiness to put him out, if the
ball is thrown up to him.

POINT.

He should stand to the right of the striker, and within the popping
crease, so a8 not to interfere with short slip. He should vary the
distance betweeu him and the striker from four to seven yards, accor-
ding as he may judge the ball will be s fall one or - short one.

SHORT SLIP.

His station is a few feet from the wicket keeper, and rather behind
him ; he is required to “ keep his eyes open,”’ and to lend whatever
assistance he can to the wicket keeper in stopping the balls, or in
taking his place atthe wicket, should he leave it to follow a ball.
246 CRICKET

LONG STOP.

He must take his station at some distance behind the wicket keeper;
his duty is to stop or bring in all the balls that have passed the striker
or the wicket keeper.

LONG 8LIP.

He must stand about twelve or fifteen yards from the striker, co-

vering the ground between point and short slip.

LEG.

He should stand somewhat behind the line of the popping crease,
varying his distance as the capabilities or play of the striker may
direct him.

COVERPOINT.
He should take his station on the off side, a short distance behind

point, so as to stop any balls that may be missed by him, also to
assist midple wicket if need be.

MIDDLE WICKET.

He should stand on the off side, and at a moderate distance from
the wicket of the bowler ; should the bowler require to leave his wicket
to follow a ball, middle wicket should take his place.

LONGFIELD OFF.

His station is at some distance from the bowler, so as to cover
bowler and middle wicket, and to stop long balls.

LONGFIELD ON.
One should stand about the same distance on the right of the bowler
as longfield off is on the left.

UMPIRES.

He should stand somewhat behind the striker’s wicket, the other
immediately behind the bowler's wicket. Their duties are numerous
and important, and will be found at length in the rules,
CRICKET. 247

SINGLE WICKET.

Single wicket is played by any number from one to six on each side.
If there are less than five players, bounds are placed twenty-two
yards distant on each side, in a line from the off and leg stump ; and
no run can be counted unless the bali be hit before the bounds; nor
can the striker hit the ball unless one of his feet be on the ground,
and behind the popping crease.

The ovt-players must return the ball so as to cross the ground
between the striker’s and the bowler’s wicket; the striker may run
until it is so returned.

When the ball is hit, the striker must ran to the bowler’s wicket,
and strke off the bail, and back to his own wicket before he can
count one; if he attempt a second ruu, he must touch the bowler’s
wicket, and turn before the ball has crossed the play, or he is not
entitled to another notch. If there are more than four players, no
bounds are required. The laws relating to the bowler, and the duties
of the out-party, are the same as at double wicket.

THE LAWS.
LAWS OF DOUBLE WICKET.

The following laws are those of the celebrated Marylebone Cricket
Club, who play during the season at Lord’s Ground, Marylebone.
The first six laws are relative to the weight of the ball, size of the
bat, and placing the stumps as we have already given, the other laws
are as follows.

vil.

It shall not be lawful for either party during a match, without
the consent of the other, to alter the ground by rolling, watering,
covering, mowing, or beating. The rule is not meant to prevent the
striker trom beating the ground with his bat, near to the spot where
the stands during the innings, nor to prevent the bowler from filling
up holes with sawdust, &c. when the ground shall be wet.
248 CRICKET.

vill.

After rain, the ground may be changed, with the consent of

both parties.
1x.

The bowler shall deliver the ball with one foot on the ground
behind the bowling crease, and within the return crease, and shall
bowl four balls before he changes wickets, which he shall be permitted
to do only once during the same innings.

x.

The ball must be bowled; if it be thrown or jerked, or if the
hand be above the shoulder at the delivery, the umpire shall call
‘no ball.”

xI.

He may require the striker at that wicket where he is bowling to

stand on which side of it he pleases, during the bowling of the balls.

XII.

If the bowler toss the ball over the striker’s head, or bowl it so
wide that it shall be out of distance to be played at, the umpire, even
though he attempt to hit it, shall adjudge one run to the parties re-
ceiving the innings, either with or without an appeal from them,
which shall be put down to the score of wide balls, and such ball
shall not be rekoned as any of the four balls. When the umpire
ghall have called wide ball, one run only shall be reckoned, and the
ball shall be considered as dead.

xm

If the bowler deliver a ‘‘no ball,” the striker may play at it, and
be allowed as many runs as he can get, and he shall not be put out
except by running out. In the event of no rap being obtained by
any other means, then one run shall be scored.

xiv.

In the event of a change of bowling, no more than two balls
balls shall be allowed for the sake of practice.
CRICKET. 249

- xv.
If a bowler try one ball, be shall be obliged to bowl four.

xvi,
The striker is out if either of the bails be bowled off, or if a stamp
be bowled out of the ground.
xVI1
The striker is out if a ball from the stroke of the bat or hand, but

not of the wrist, beheld before it touch the ground, although it be
hugged to the body of the catcher.

XVIII.

Or if in striking, or at any other time while the ball shall be in
play, both his feet be over the popping crease, and his wicket put
down, except his bat be grounded with it.

XIX.
Or if in striking at the ball, he hit down the wicket.
Sx.
Or if under pretence of running, or otherwise, either of the strikers
prevent a ball from being caught.
XXxI.
Or if a ball be struck, and he wilfully strike it again,
XXII.

Or if in running, the wicket be struck down by a throw, or by the
hand or arm (with ball in hand), before the bat in his hand, or some
part of his person, be grounded over the popping crease.

XXIII.
Or if anv part of the striker’s dress knock down the wicket.
XXIV.

Or if the striker touch or take uo the ball while in play, unless at

the request of the opposite party |
250 CRICKET.

XXY.
Or if with any part of his person he stop the ball, which, in the
opinion of the umpire at the bowler’s wicket, shall have been delivered
in a straight line to the striker’s wicket.

XXVI.
If the players have crossed each other, he that runs for the wicket
which is put down is out.
XXVIL.
A ball being caught, no ran shall be reckoned.
XXVIII.
A striker being ran out, that run which he and his partner were
attempting shall not be reckoned.

XXIX.

If a lost ball be called, the striker shall be allowed six runs, but
if more than six shall have been run before lost ball shall be called,
then the striker shall have all that have been run.

xxx.
After the ball shall have been finally settled in the wicket keeper's
or bowler’s hand, it shall be considered dead. If, when the bowler
is about to deliver the ball, the striker at his wicket shall go outside
the popping crease hefore such actual delivery, the said bowler may
put bim out.
XXXI
If a striker be hurt, he may retire from his wicket, and return
to it any time during the innings.
XXXII
If a striker be hurt, eome other person may stand ou‘ for him, but
not go in.
XXXII.
No subatitatute in the field shall be allowed to bowl, keep wicket,
stand at the point, cover the point, or stop behind, in any case.
CRICKET. 251

XXXIV.

If a fieldsman stop the ball with his hat, the ball shall be considered
dead, and the opposite party shall add five runs to their score; if
any be run, they shall have five in all,

XXXV.

The ball being hit, the striker may guard his wicket with his bat,
or with any part of his person except bis hand, that the twenty-fourth
law may not be disobeyed.

XXXVI.

The wicket keeper shall not take the ball for the purpose of stump-
ing, until it has passed the wicket ; he shall not by any noise incom-
mode the striker, and if any part of his person be over or before the
wicket, though the ball hit it, the striker shall not be out.

XXXVII.

The umpire’s are sole judges of fair and unfair play, and all dis-
putes shall be be determined by them, each at his own wicket but
in case of acatch, which the umpire at the wicket bowled from cannot
see sufficiently to decide upon, he may apply to the other umpire,
whose opinion shall be conclusive.

XXXVIIL.

The umpires in all match es shall pitch fair wickets, and the parties

shall toss up for the choice of innings.
XXXIX,

They shall allow two minutes for each striker to come in, and fifteen
minates between each innings. When the umpires shall call ‘‘play, ’
the party refusing to play shall lose the match.

' XL.

They are not to order a striker out, unless appealed to by their ad-
versaries,

XLIL

Bat, if one of the bowler’s feet be not behind the bowling crease,
and within the return crease, when he shall deliver the ball, the um-
pire at his wicket, unasked, must cail ‘‘no ball.’’
252 CRICKET.

XLil.

If either of.the strikers runa short run, tae umpire must call * one
short.”
XLUI.

No umpire shall be allowed to bet upon the game.

XLIV

No umpire shall be changed duringa match, unlees with the consent
of both parties, except in case ofa violition of the forty-third law,
then either party may dismiss the transgressor.

XLV

After the delivery of four balls, the umpire must call. “ over,’’ but
not until the ball shall be finally settled in the wicket kecper’s or
bowler’s hand; the ball shall then be considered dead ; nevertheless,
if an idea be entertained that either of the strikers are out, a question
may be put previous to, but not after the delivery of the next ball.

XLVI,
The umpire shall take care to call ‘‘no ball,” instantly upon deli-
very, and ‘‘ wide ball, ’’ instantly it shail bave passed the striker.
XLVII.
The players who goin second ghall follow their innings, if they
shall have obtained one hundred runs less than their antagonists.
XLVI
At the beginning of each innings, the umpires shall call ‘‘ play,’’
from that time to the end of such innings, no trial ball shall be allowed
to any bowler.
XLIX.
When one of the strikers shall have beea put out, the use of the
bat shall be forbidden to any player. Practice in fielding solely shall
be allowed, until the next striker shall come in.

L.
No bet upon any match is payable until it be nlayed out or given up.
CRICKET. 253

LAWS OF SINGLE WICKET. I.

When there shall be less than five players of a side, bounds shall be
placed at twenty-two yards each in a line from the off and leg stump.

IL

The ball must be hit before the bounds, to entitle the striker to a
ran, which run cannot be obtained unless he touch the bowling stump,
or crease in a line with it with his bat, or some part of his person, or
go beyond them, returning to the popping crease afterwards.

rt.

When the striker shall hit the ball, one of his feet must be on the
ground, and behind the popping crease, otherwise the umpire shal) call
**no hit.”

Iv.

When there shall be less than five players of a side neither byes nor
overthrows shall be allowed, nor shall the striker be caught out be-
hind, nor stamped out.

v.

The field man must return the ball so that it shall cross the play
betweeao the wicket and the bowling stump, or between the bowling
stump and the bounds, the striker may run till the ball be so returned.

vi. .
After the striker shall have made one run, if he start agam he
must touch the bowling stump, and turn before the ball shall cross the
play to entitle him to another.
vi.

The striker shall be entitled to three runs for lost ball, and the
same number for ball stopped with bat or other article not the hand,
foot, or person of the fieldsman.

VII.

‘When there be more than four players on a side, there shall be no
bounds, All hits, byes, and overthrows shall then be allowed,

ao
254 CRICKET.

Iz.

The bowler and batsman are subject to the same laws as at double
wicket.

x
Not more than one minute shall be allowed between each ball,

REMARKS.

Any one who intends to cut any figure as a Cricket player, should
be active and capable of enduring fatigue. He should not be afraid
of his person, nor timid about catching a ball when atits spud ; or, to
use a northern phrase, be ‘ butter-fingered,’’ He should have a
clear head, and a quick eye and hand, and, above all, be cool and
collected, all nerve or none at all.

If it be the lot of the reader to join in any match at home or from
home, let us advise him to stick to the old motto, ‘‘early to bed and
early to rise.”’ Let him shun all darks except those he can hear in
the fields in summer’s morning; racketing at night gives him the
palsy next day.

A Cricket club, to make sure of your number for private matches,
should consist of twenty-eight or thirty members atleast; for, taking
away two for umpires, and two for scorers, you may generally cal-
culate upon one or two absent from other causes.


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THE ANGLER.

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By



With hazle rod, a bit of thread,
And crooked pin for hook

Shunning each noisy wranglement,
He fished the murmuring brook.

Tax praises of angling have so often been sung, and so well, that
we hardly feel ourselves c:lled to add one more verse to those which
already exist. As arecreation for those who are condemned to toil,
and who seek in some such pursuit a renewal of existence, or as a re-
258 THE ANGLER.

course for those who, lacking an occupation, make pleasure their
business, nothing can be compared to it. It is enjoyed equilly by
the chubby child, with his worm aud pin and rod of hazel, and by
the prince in a punt, with ail the costly and elegaut appointments that
art can supply-

Tin these flowery meads would be;

These erystal streams should solace me,

By whose harmonious bubbling noise

I with my angle would rejcice.

So wrote honest old Isaack Walton; and so thinks every urchin
who, on some long-wished for half holiday, sports bis rude fishing
teckle, albeit of his own contriving, aud wends lis way to where

The murmuring brooklet tells its tale,

Like a sweet under: suiiz,
pondering in his mind the hsvoc he is prepared to make amongst the
fiony tribe. The most sparkling visions of success, however, often
end in bitter disappointment, end the young, unskilled angler has fre-
quently to experience a tolerable share of vexation: now watching
the gaily painted float as it rides gently upon the rippling surface of
the water obedient to all its influences, without having thesatisfaction
of seeing it disappear for an instant; now observing risings in all
parts of the stream but where the bait holds out its delusive tempta-
tion ; now being warmed through by the sun, and anon as comfortably
cooled by a smart shower of rain, he waits—a complete personifi-
cationof patience, until his hours of relaxation have almost waned
away; yet even this accumtlated load of petty miseries disappears
when a throw proves successful, and the pleasure attending it won-
derfuliy enhances the beautiful shape and silvery colours of the priz,.

In Angling the ‘ contemplative mau’’ finds his ‘‘ recreation” ; and
the philosopher disdains not

To lure with gaudy bait the glittering brood.

‘ Our aim is to initiate, into the mysteries of this delightful art, the
youth whose heart beats high with emulous anticipation at the recital
of some angling exploit, to lay bare the secrets, and to give him
some necessary advice and instruction before he commences operation.

Before describing the different kinds of fish, we shall offer a few ob-
servations upon the tackle neeessary for Angling.
THE ANGLER, 259
THE hop,

To the angler the rod is a most important implement, and is made
of various lengths and different degrees ot strength and elasticity. In
the purchase of arod, the nature of the angling for which it is particu-
larly intended, must, of course, be taken iuto consideration, but as
we write principally for the younz., and as they are obliged to be
satisfied with one rud for all purposes, we shall only descr.be one of
them, such asa person may make for himself, First, we may ob.
serve as to the general qualitics of a rod, it ought to taper gradually
from the butt end of it to the point or top. The thick end should
have a spike driven into it so that, when it is necessary, the rod
may be struck into the ground, or, if it be made of solid wood, it
may be pointed at the end, for nuthing spoils a rod sooner than
laying it on the ground, If the rod be very long, about eight inches
of the upper part should be of whelvhone, About sixteen feet long
is quite enough for any rod that ous young friends are likely to want,
and even twelve feet will do very weil. If they like to make it in
joints, the joints may Le four icet long each, and the whole of them
made of hazle wood, niceiy planed avd smosthed; or the lower joint
only may be of hazle, and the upper on-s of some lighter wood, as
yellow deal, or fir; tue upper joint of all being of a somewhat stronger
material, such as bamvoo cane, lance wood. or yew tree; these joints
are to be united by brass or tin fervu'vs, each about two inches long,
one driven on to the top end of eaca jut, while the bottom end is
made to fit in the other end of the terrule. At the cane shops of
London, particularly one in Sua Street, Finsbury, they sell a kind
of reed called reed cane, which of itself makea very good fishing rods,
and at a very low price.

THE LINE.

Lines for angling are made of the gut of the silkworm, from silk
horse hair, bristles, and trom Indian grass. Some lines are made of
one of these articles only, others of two or more together, Lines,
like rods, may be bought or made by ourselves; if we prefer the
latter, we may proceed as follows, supposing we have horsehair to
230 THR ANGLER,

work with, which is the most usual material, First, prepare the bair
by cutting off about one inch of the lower end of it, which is always
defective. Then get three smuil quills, each about two inches long,
and hold it steady by a little plug of wood or cork inserted into one
end, Then, drawing the thick ends of the hairs further through, so
that the ends shali be three or four inches away, you must tie the ends
of the three bundies together, and hang the knot on a hook in the
wall, or tie it by a string to the knee or foot, as may be most con-
veniint. Then hold two of the quills in the left hand, take hold of
the third bobbin by the right hand, and with the thamb and fingers
ef that hand, turn the bobbin until the hairs that belong to it be
twisted loosely together, then change the bobbin for another, and after-
wards for the third bobbin, holding the former so that the hair shall
not become straight again. Now plait or twist the three together, and
you will have made a picce of line about three inches long, Pull the
quills down the same space, go on as before, and in the same manner
proceed until the whole line is complete, adding fresh hairs to each
bobdin or quill, when they are required. The hairs will work more
eisily if they are soaked in hot water for an hour before they are used,
‘Yowards the bottom of the line there should be less hairs than in the
other parts, and it is better if the line ends with a bit of silkworm
gut, at the lower part ; for common occasions, a line of four or five
yards in length is sufficient, but for fly fishing. lines twenty or thirty
yards will not be too much; these are best made of silk, and may be
bought cheap.

TUE FLOAT.

Floats are made of various materials, as cork, reed, wood, and quills»
which latter are obtained from the porcupine, swan, goose, and duck» .
pariicularly the Muscovy duck. Floats ditfer much according to the
nature of the water fished in, the kind of fish angled for, and the state
of the weather in which they are emploved; thus, in deep rapid
st-eams a large float must be employed. Roach and Dace can hardly
he fished for with too fine a line, or too light a float. Bream, from
their manner of biting, will take a somewhat larger float; and for
Perch it requires one still larger, according to the depth of water and
THE ANGLER. ' 261

the kind of bait used; even difference of weather will make a differ-
ence in the float, for in windy or rainy weather, fish bite quick and
sharp ; and if a large float be not used, the angler will not be able to
see when his game is hooked, or snapping at the bait. The cork float,
of which a picture is given in this article, (Fig. A) is made of cork
and swan quill, or cork, quill, and wood. A piece of the best cork is
first bored through with a hot iron, into which is introduced either a
double quilled float, or a wood plugged float, as the case may require.
This is to be done in such a way that about an inch of the quill may
appear beyond the upper end of the float. Before the quill part is
introduced, it should be smeared with tar or varnish, and if this be
done while the cork is hot from the boring, it will the sooner set the
work. The figure and dimensions of the cork must depend upon the
nature of the fishing. Plugged fioats, or single quill floats, (Fig. B)
are the most common and the cheapest that are used, they are however
when well made, very durable and convenient, and are manufactured
from a goose quill. The quill is cut off from the feather, a small
piece of pitch is then introduced and pressed down, which completely
closes the end, on this place a morsel of white wool, and upon that the
bit of pitch, to make it doubly secure. Shape a piece of deal about
two or three inches, so that nearly one inch of it shall fit closely into

A the quill, to keep it there
first dip it into a cement
formed of bees wax, resin,

and chalk, in equal quan-

tities, or into melted
cobbler’s wax, bore the
other end of the Wood with
a fine awl, an inch or 80
deep, then make a ring of
brass wire, letting the two
ends of the wire be twisted
| “D together in the manner of
meletuxsars Lb Wilma a screw, which is then to
be screwed into the hole

at the end of the wood made to receive it, then taper the wood off to




262 THE ANGLER.

the ring, to anout the thickness of acrow quill. The porcuptne float
is the most delicate of all, and should be used when the water is clear
and bright, for as it is smaller than the others, so the fish will not so
readily be frightened by it. This is seen in Fig. C.

The double quill float is represented in Fig. D. It is a favourite
with many anglers, and is made of several pieces of quill jointed one
upon the other, the various joints being made water tight with wax or
varnish. All floats have either two rings upon them made of narrow
cross cuttings of quills, as is seen in Fig. D, or else they have a brass
ring fixed at one end, and a slip ring formed of quill at or near the
other end; to fix the line to the float, it must be passed through both
of these rings, it hangs loose in one end, but it is kept on !\y the slip
ring being put on tightly, which pinches the line between the ring and

the body of the float ; of course the lighter or quill part of the flost is
to be uppermost.

HOOKS,

Hooks are next of importance. There are severa: kinds of hooks
for Barbel, Eels, and other
fish, but these we have not
at present to consider. The

2 { ordinary hooks of the shops

are distinguished by various

numbers, there are 14 sizes
used so they are numbered
from 1 to 14, and we have
given exact figures of their
relative sizes in the margin,
that our young friends may
know the proper sized hooks
for the various fish which
we shall hereafter describe.

In tying on hooks you must be prepared with strong but fine silk, and

it is well to choose silk as near the colour of the bait as possible.




THE ANGLER. 263

THE LANDING NET.

implement to the fisher, we
have seen a saucepan and a
boy’s hat successfully used for
this purpose by boys, and
simple as such an one may be,
it is very much preferable to
the danger of breaking or
straining the rod and line by
lifting up a fish with it out of
: the water, a cabbage net with
small meshes makes a very good landing net. It should be fastened
to the end of a stick, by means of a hoop tohold the mouth of it open,
as is shown in the cut the hoop may be ten or twelve inches over.



BAITS.

Angling baits are of two kinds; first, such matters as are the or-
dinary food for fishes, and secondly, such as are made to represen-
these. Of worms the angler makes use of four or five kinds. The
first is the dew worm or earth worm. This is the largest kind of
worm, and is well known in gardens and fields; it is six or eight
inches long, and sometimes more; these are used as baits for Barbel.
Dew worms are procured in various ways, first by digging the ground
for them, or with a spade or fork shaking the ground, when they will
come to the surface, but in the hot weather, in the summer, they go
considerable deeper in the ground than the spade will reach. The
way to obtain them is to cover a portion of the ground over with wet
straw for a day or two before they are wanted, this moisture wiil draw
the worms up to the surface. But the most ready way to obtain
numbers of them is to walk cautiously over close cut lawns, or clean
fed meadows, during the night, with a lanthorn. If the weather be
moist, and the search be conducted with a very light tread, almost
any quantity may be procured, for they are blind, and it is not the
light but the motion which disturbs them.

Lob worms are excellent baits for various fish, a moderate sized
lob worm on a stout hook, trailing over the ground in a stream by
264 THE ANGLER,

means of a bullet, willentice large trout, and the same method, with
both hook and worm of a larger size, in deeper waters furms a killing
bait for salmon, Very large eels are taken by night lines baited with
lob worms, Barbel are still! more frequently caught by them, par-
ticularly in the Thames, Lob worms may be procured in Covent
Garden, ard at most of the fishing tackle shops.

The Brandling, is another very common worm, and is generally
an inhabitant of artificial mixtures made by man, such as old heaps
of rotten tan, sweepings of gardens, collections from old outhouses,
stables. &c., particularly where the pigs have been. Old thatch, and
old dung pits, will afford abundauce of this worm, which is a great
‘favourite. They are decidedly superior for Bream, and are used as
baits for Trout, Grayling, for all the Carp species, and, in fact, for
all the worm-taking fish.

The Red w rm, is found in the same place as the brandling, but is
not so common. In tan heapsthey are very numerous, and we prefer
those which are taken from this source. The London anglers, with
whom this isa most favourite bait, get them from the banks of ditches
and common sewers Persons are employed by the keepers of fishing
tackle shops, to procure them in vast quantities, for the use of those
who have not leisure to search for them themsel:es.

Gilt tails, is not a variety of the last, though very much like it, but
adistant species, Gilt tails are rather larger than red worms, and
appear of a lighter colour, particularly towards the tail, Our own
experience leads us to prefer the red worm, though we must admit
that the gilt tail keeps better than the other kind.

Marsh worms, known also as blue heads, are very common in
moist marshy situations of every kind, from which they derive their
name. They are sought for on summer nights, and sold to the herb
people in Covent Garden, from whom they may be procured cheaply,
They are of a dirty purple colour, and are much better for being kept
some time previous to their being used. Asa bait, they are scarcely
so good as the red worm, but they have this advantage, that if the
angler’s stock of other worms runs short, he can generally find some
blue heads by digging into the mud or wet side of a ditch, pond, or
river. If to be used immediately, they may be cleaned by drawing
THE ANGLER, 265

them through the fingers. Two or three may sometimes be put upon
one hook, and then they are a good bait for Gudgeons, Perch, and
other fish, .

The Tagfeil, found in the spring of the year, when most other
Worms are scarce, is another excellent bait. It resembles the brandling,
and may be us-d as soonas taken. It is found iu turnip und cabbage
fields wherein the soil is of clay, and is sometimes called the turnip
worm.

Water Worms, are found in moist places, insedges, at the bottom
of dock roots, and are good winter baits, It is ready for use as soon
as taken, is beautivully clear, lively, and of an excellent size for most
kinds of fish, By turning up the long slimy grass that grows upon
docks; watertalls, wiers, locks, &c., over which the water does not
always run, and which is seldom covered with more than two inches
of wat+r, this kind of worm may be found in great numbers. The
fish readily catch at it at all times.

Scouriug worms. All earth worms are found to be better liked by
fish after they have been cleansed, or, as it is called, scoured. This
is best done with damp moss, such as is found on the wet parts of
heaths, as Hampstead heath, Wimhleton common, or of which a
penny vorth may always be bought at Covent Garden market. Pick
this moss free from grass, thorns, or other matters which are mixed
with it, moisten it, and put ina sufficient quantity with the worms,
which creep and twist themselves in and out between the fibres of the
moss, and thus press out of their bodies any vegetable matters which
may be contained in them, for the method that worms always take to
remove such matters from their bodies is, to squeeze th mselves
through some small hole, When worms bore a lole in the ground,
theearth that they eat away with their mouths passes into their bodies,
and comes out at the tail end.

Shrimps, ave an excellent bait for all fiech frequenting docks, and
waters which meet the tide. In such places shrimps are also to be
found in abundance, and there Perch are more readily taken with
them than with any other bait whatever. ‘To prove successful, however,
it is necessary that they should be alive, or very newly killed.

Grasshoppers, are most tempting bait for Chub. They are met with
266 THE ANGLER,

from June to September in every pasture field or meadow, especially
in a hot dry summer, but most plentiful in a kind of old, dry, mossy
grass. ‘The middle sized, and the greenest, are the best, and may be
carried 1 a box witha notch cut on the edge, wide at the top and nar
row at the bottom.

Bob or grub. The grubs of several insects are used by the angler ;
we the grub of the cock chfer, also the meal worm, and the grub of
the stag beetle. These are very guod for the Bream, Dace, and Carp,
but we prefer gentles to any of the grubs.

Gentles. These are the maggots of the blow fly, which deposits its
eggs on meat, &e. The eggs are hatched in a few hours, and when
-full grown, which happens in eight or ten days, they are of a whitish
or yellowish white colour, with a tlight tinge of psle red. To procure
or blow gentles, nothing more is necessary than to expose any animal
matter, such as a carcass or portion of one, of a cat, dog, rat, &c., or
what is considered best of all, a piece of horse’s or bullock’s liver,
within the reach of Mow flies, during the Spring, Sammer or Autumn.
For this purpose, we gash the liver which we hang up, that the gashes
may remain moist. and afford a nestling place for the young gentles.
From tallow chandlers, and horse boilers, gentles may be procured;
also from most of the bird shops and fishing tackle shops of London,

To cleanse Gentles, after they have been prepared, is the next step,
and here two or three things are to be noted. ‘The first is to prepare
them for use, the next is to preserve the supply. To prepare them
for use, they must be cleaned somewhat in the same manrer as worms
are, but instead of using moss, they may be placed in a mixture of
bran, or oatmeal and sand, either dry or moist, as it mzy be desirable
to hasten or retard the process of bluwing, at the same tie putting
them in » box where they wiil have a ccufined situation, The gentle
box should be of tm, and with a few holes punched thr ugh the lid.
The different state of gen'les, are fonud to be acceptable to different
fish. It is said that Babel, Chub, Carp, and Tench prefer them
green, or unripe; that is, half grown, as being then more fuil of
flavour and more highly scented. With regard to Barbel, and Chub,
we are certain that this is correct, of other fish we are not so certain.
To prevent gentles from turning into flies, the only way is to keep
THE ANGLER, 267

them cool, so that if you desire to keep them for several days, you
should put them into a larger box along with wet sand, and place
them in a well, or cold cellar, or if you cannot do this, the lower end
of the tin box may be kept under water in a basin, and if a piece of
cloth be twisted round the tin box, before the bottom of it is rested
in the water, the consequence is that the moisture will evaporate from
the cloth, and the box be kept so cold that the gentles will remain
uninjured for some considerable time. Out of this. store box the
angler will take as many as he wants for the day’s use, and put them
in his smaller box with bran.

Dead baits. There is an immense number of dead baits used for
fishing, but we shall only mention one or two of these; and first,
Greaves, this is a most tempting bait for Barble, and Chub, and also
for Eels, To prepare them, break a sufficient quantity, over which
pour first some cold water, and let it stand by all night; on the next
morning pour off the cold water, and pour warm water upon it instead,
after this has stood for an hour or two, the greaves will separate ;
from which choose as baits the largest, whitest, and most connected
pieces, which cover up with leaves, or with a cloth. When fishing,
hang one, two, or three of the whitest of these on the hook, concealing
the point.

Brains, and spiral marrow, are excellent and favourite baits with the
London anglers, principally for Chub, though Roach and Bream will
take them, especially m the winter time. Butcher’s offal, and the
entrails of chickens, are used as baits for Eels, particularly the latter ;
Barbel may be tempted by them, and a hungry pike in ill-fed water,
may be ensvared by a bunch of them neatly strung round a gorge
hook.

PASTES.

Fish will not only take animal substances, but also vegetable ones
with avidity, therefore anglers make a variety of compounds which
are called pastes, The first is dread paste, This is made by.
taking bread, either new or stale, though that from new bread is the
best, or you may take three fourths of new, and one fourth of stale
bread. ‘Knead this up with the hands for a few minutes without dip-
2ua THR ANGLER,

ping mn water, This working will make it very adhesive, it is there»
fore particularly adapted for angling in strong eddies, and pow rful
streams. In Chub fishing, it is particularly excellent, and also for the
dace. Cheese paste, is also made by some anglers, and is either made
from new or old cheese, by mixing il with stale bread if new cheese,
and with uew bread if old. From either mixture by a long continued
kneeding an excellent paste may be made, which for winter tishing will
be very superior; the new cheese and stale bread for Roach; andold
cheese and new bread for Chub. Bream will sometimes take both
kinds. Sweet paste is thus made.—‘Take any quantity of the crumbs
of new bread, and after dipping it in honey, work it in the hands until
thehon: y be well mixed with it, When honey cannot be obtained, a
ayrup of white eugar may be used instead. Asa bait for Carp, it is
one of the best that can be had during the months of July and August,
and until the rest of the season, and this is important, for Carp is
very shy of what it takes, but with this paste, it may be taken even in
the middle of the day, while the sun shines. Tench are also fond of
it, but not so mach so as Carp. Chub may be taken by it, sometimes
very well, and Roach will seldom refuse it. Barbet paste may be
made by dipping bread into the |:quor in which greaves have been
taken after soaking, using it instead of water for the mixing. Bream
will sometimes take this paste. Coloured pastes are of various kinds,
A principal one is that coloured with vermillion, and is intended to
give it the bue of fresh fish spawn. In the putting pastes upon the
hook, both experience and dexterity are necessary. Let the hook be
perfectly dry by wiping it, before it is attempted to put on the paste ;
a sufficient portion of which should be separated by the finger and
thumb from the mass, and when rolled into an oval form, should be
forced on the hook by thrusting it on the hollow of the bend, so as
completely to cover the whole of it, allowing only the upper part of
the shank to appear, and which should seem to spring from the centre
of the mass, just like a ball hanging from a string.

GROUND BAITS.

This is another important article with the fisherman, for as one of
ear most experienced writers justly says, if ground bait be neglected
.

THE ANGLEn, 26)

by the ignorant, or the idle fisher, little success will attend his opera-
tions, in fact it is by the proper use of ground baits, and fishing at a
proper depth, that one angler succeeds so much better than another,
though fishing with the same baits, and at a few yards from each
other. And this is easily accounted for, for fish are always on the
look out for any thing down the stream, or any insect falling or settling
upon the water, so that when ground bait is thrown down it attracts
their attention and draws them together, and finding that there is
something to eat they remain there. But it inust be remembered that
this is the only use of ground bait, and if so much be thrown down
as gluts them with food, they will not bite at the hooks, and also
ground bait should be less savoury than the proper bait, that they
may be tempted to leave the ground bait for the more delicate morsel
on the hook. Ground baits, should be laid previous to fi-hing, as
well ag at the time, a good angler will ground bait the place he intends
fishing in the evening before, or if the fish be very scarce, it may be
right to ground bait it some days before fishing in it. In the use of
ground baits, the nature of the water. and also the kind of fish in-
tended to be angled for, should be considered, It is proper also, that
the ground and hook baits, should be of the same colour, taste, and
amell, though of the two, more pleasant. To draw together Perch,
Trout, Barbel, &c., animal sub-tances as worms, particularly the large
worms, should be stuck in Jumps of clay. Offal of almost any kind
will allure Sack, and when repeated for a few days they will hang
about the spot for some time, Roach and Dace, Chub and Bream,
frequent spots where malt, and malt sweepings, chaff, bran, &c., have
been scattered, and it is thus that game-keepers keep not only tueir
own fish, but get those of their neighbours. The following ure the
principal ground baits :-—

Bran and clay ground baits, (No. 1.) Is the most simple, and
the most common in use among anglers, particularly for Roach, Dace,
and Bleak. Take sume light mud or clay, and mix with it a quantity
of bran, or pollard, of this mixture drop in here or there around you,
lamps abvut the size of a walnat; if there be a current so that you
fear its b:ing carried away, put a stone within each sufficient to sink
it. Tiis is fit for the River Thames Lea, &c., where there is a strong
atream
270 THK ANGLER,

A meal ground bait, (No. 2.) is one which is particularly adapted
for the deep pools of rivers, and gentle eddies, where the current is
not so powerful, and places, such as these, form the chief habitation
of Chub, Carp, Roach, and Dace. Among tie London anglers, it is
commonly used in the River Lea. ‘he way to make this ground
bait, is as fol'ows :—For a day’s angling, a four pound loaf is required,
the crust of this you will cut off, the crumb is then to be cut in slices
about two inches thick, and pnt into a pan or deep vessel, and covered
with water, when the bread is quite soaked, squeeze it nearly dry, then
add the bran, or pollard, by handfuls, equal quantities of each, and
knead them together, similar to kneading bread, until the whole is
nearly as stiff as clay.

Another useful ground bait, (No. 3.) for rivers with still holes or
deeps, as th: angler calls them, where fish of almostevery kind abound,
may be made as follows :—Mix with some stiff clay as much pullard
as it will bear without destroying its adhesiveness, this will be about
equal weights of pollard and clay. At the water side, separate pieces
of it off, about the size of an egg, into which stick afew pieces of
worms or gentles, as the clay dissolves, these will escape, when they
are greedily seized on by the fish, who wait in expectation for more,
and are thus ready to take the angler’s bait also, if it show a more
tem»ting appearance than the other. It will likewise add to its guod
quatities if some well soaked greaves be mixed with it, all fish maybe
attracted by this bait Barbel, Chub, Dace, Carp, Bream, Trout, Tench,
Jack, and Eels.

Barbel ground bait, (No. 4.) is made of clay with greaves stuck in
it, the hook being also baited with greaves, it may be thrown in a
largelump, of a pound weight or more, close to where your hook is to lie

No. 5. Mixtures of boiled or scalded barley malt, &c., are good
ground baits for Carp, Tench, Chub, Bream. They should be mixed
with coarse sand, to make them sink the better. This and the follow-
ing are to be used in still waters. Worms cut in picces mixed with
gentles, and greaves cut small, are good ground bai.s for Carp, Tench,
Troutand Gudgeons. Gentles may be used alone, but in all these
cases,sand should be mixed with them, and in mixing the other
ground baits, a small quantity of water may be used, though the less

Ne better, ,
THE ANGLER, ' 27

== ==

> Oy Was
. \ =
‘X v

AY



=

THE VARIOUS FISH.
| THE TROUT.

The Trout is a species of salmon, called the yellow grey salmon

with red spots Its general length is from twelve to sixteen inehes,
and its colcur, as its name specifies, yellowish grey, darker or browner
on the back, and marked on the side by several; rather, distant round
bright red spots, each surrounded by a tinge of pale blue colour.
Sometimes, the ground colour of the body is a purplish grey, the red
spots much larger, more or less mixed with black, and the belly of
a white or silvery cast. The fins are of a pale purplish brown, that
on the back marked with several darker spots. The head is rather
large, and the scales small. The female is of a brighter and more
beautiful appearance than the male. To this description may be
added, that the head of the Trout ends in a blunt — wide
277 THE ANGLER.

mouth, which always gapes after death, and the whole of the inside
of the mouth is closely beset with teeth which point inwards. The
eye is of a moderate size, the pupil encircled with red, and the
iris of a silvery colour. The sides of the body present, in varied
shades, yellow, green, and rose colour; towards the back is seen a
bluish groand studded with brilliant red spots. The fins partake of
the richness and variegation of the general colouring, the breast fins
being of a brown, those of the belly red, that under the tail partly
purple and partly grey.~ The tail is brown also, and presents a kind
of furrow, with its rays rounded, but it is to be observed that the
colours of the Trout vary considerably, as does also their form. The
favourite resort of this
sh is generally to clear,
cold and quick running
streams with a stony or
gravelly bottom. They
are also fuund in lakes,
and even in still more
——=-— confined waters, but in
no places that have not
their waters continually changed, by means of brooks running through,
or springs arising inthem. The Trout lives on worms, small fishes,
shell fish, and water insects, particularly such as are winged. It
generally spawns in September, or in the colder parts of Europe in
October, and at those times gets among the roots of trees, stones, —
&c., its spawn is observed to be less numerous than those of other
river fish. In the spawing season Trout are not worth taking ; when
they are in good condition, the head should be small and the body
oval, the flesh of a deep red, the general colour of a deep olive above,
and of a bright silver below, with the spots brilliant and distinct.
Few fish afford the angler such diversionas the Trout, or@require
more skill to take them; and such is the passion to angle for this
fish, that the privilege of so doing, in some of the streams in the
adjacent counties, is purchased by the London anglers at the rate of
ten pounds per year. Trout begin to take a bait on or near the ground
early in the year, and before March will readily take most bottom


THE ANGLER. 273

baits all day long, if the weather be favourable ; but as the Summer
advances, it is only very early or very late in the day that they will
take a bait near the ground, they being at the middle of the day
more disposed to rise to the surface for winged insects, In March
and April, use a worm in the ‘morning, and a fly or minnow, accor-
ding to the state of the water, for the afternoon. In fishing for
trout with a worm, which should be a brandling, use a strong line,
but let its strength consist in the excellence of its material rather than
its bulk, to which end the hook should be small, and the gut and
shotting fine ; for in bright waters trout are very suspicious. Bait
with either one lob worm, two small red worms, or two brandlings,
allof which are required to be well scoured and very lively, fora
trout will not touch a worm that is half dead, or in any way mangled
or dirty, The lob worm should be put on the hook in the following
manner :—enter the point of the hook at about a quarter of an inch
below its head, and carry it down to within the same distance of its
tail, keeping the point of the hook completely hid in the worm; if
two small red worms or brandlings be used, run the point of the hook
into the head of the first, and bring it out about three parts down
its body, then draw it carefully up over the arming or whipping
of the hook, while you put on the other; put the point of the hook
into the second, somewhat below the middle, and carry it near the
head, then draw the first worm down to join it. Marsh worms or
gilt tails, are frequently used in the same manner. When angling
with any ¢ripping bait—that is, with any bait carried ulong by the
stream, and with which no flvat is used—it is necessary to have aa
many shot on the line, about nine inches from the hook, as will
readily sink the bait, because, if the stream be rapid, the bait is car-
ried away without touching the ground, and consequently there is
little chance of a Trout taking it, When thus fishing with a running
line, keep as far from the water as you can, and let the bait be car-
ried down by the stream into the trout haunts, and when a fish begins
to bite, do not strike the first time you feel a tug, but rather slacken
the line, and when you feel one or more sharp tugs together then
strike smartly, andif it be a heavy fish be not too eager to land it.

Asa general rule, it ts to be remembered that lob worms are most
274 THE ANGLER.

adapted to deeps, and to coloured or thick waters, and brandlings for
brighter and shallower waters. Grubs, caterpillars, and all insects
form an excellent bait for Trout during the Spring and early Summer
months. Later in the season, gentles are used, with a fine line and
a quill float. Gentles are particularly calculated for Trout fishing in
still waters communicating with rivers. Salmon’s roe is also an ex-
cellent bait for Trout, in the Summer months, ‘lhe line, float and
hook used with it must be as fine as that used with gentles, anc the
roe should be sunk within an inch of the bottom. It is further to be
recommended, that when we fish with salmon’s roe, we should be
provided with a little boiled pearl barley as a ground bait, this
must only be in small quantity, otherwise the fish will be glutted
and not take the bait, for Trout are ofa solitary nature, and do not
congregate together like perch and other fish, so that you must con-
sider that the ground bait thrown in is not to supply (or rather,
stimulate) a host, but only to enliven a single fish, and if the hunger
of this one be appeased by the quantity of bait, of course, he will
not take the other bait offered to him. In regard to the true season
for Trout angling, we have shown that it may be carried on with suc-
cess during the whole Summer. As one most important caution, aud
one which cannot be too often repeated to the young angler, be
careful to lie concealed from the quick eye of the fish, kneel, stoop,
hide yourself in the weeds, get behind the bushes, or anything, for
out of sight you must be, or it is needless to attempt Trout fishing.

THE CARP.

The Carp stands at the head of a numerous family of fishes, of
which more than a dozen are objects of the angier’s pursuit. The
common Carp, which is found in many parts of the continent,
where it often becomesa large size, seldom grows with us above twelve
or fifteen inches long. Its general colour is yellowish olive, much
deeper and browner on the back, and of a slight gilded tinge on the
sides. The scales are large, rounded, and very distinct ; the head is
large, and the mouth furnished on each side with a beard, thuugh
much smaller than that of the barbel. ‘The fins are of a violet brown.
The fin on the back is broad, and continued for some distance from
THE ANGLER, 275 |

the middle of the back towards the tail, which is somewhat forked. —
The usual food for Carp consists of worms and water insects. It isa
fish so tenacious of life, that it may be kept for a considerable length
of time in any damp place, although not in water, and it is said to be
sometimes fattened by being wrapped up in wet moss, placed in a
basket or net, and fed with bread steeped in milk, taking care to re-
fresh the animal now and
Zam \S then, by throwing fresh wa-
EP ter over the net or basket in
, TT Ne which it is suspended. C
cua aaa es spawn two or the eae
. ait SN A iN at = year during the Summer
hE 2 eee eae vitae ees at this on
Li a gaa Neues .--——=-- they seek shallow gravelly
ital Covi gee = ==" spots. The young fry are
hatched in about a week, and grow very rapidly.

To catch Carp by the hook and line is a most difficult task for the
angler, as there is no fish more cautious. The angler, therefore, must
be careful to use very tempting baits, very fine tackle, and to conceal
himself well from the sight of the fish. The deepest parts of stagnant
waters are the haunts of the Carp during the Spring and Autumn
months. Inthe Summer time they frequent the weed beds, and are
particularly found among water plants which root at the bottom and
rise to the surface of the water. In rivers, they are principally met
with in the still deeps which have an oozy bottom, where there are
rushes, reeds, &c., for their spawn. The Thames, the Lea, and
the smaller rivers around London afford few Carp, but when one is
taken it is generally large in size and excellent in quality. Theangling
season for Carp is from February to the end of September ; in favour-
able seasons it is not, however, usual for them to bite before the end
of March, and then only in rivers. In stagnant waters and ponds,
they seldom take a bait well till April. The rod used should be long
and light, but it must also be strong to take so heavy and resolute a
fish; the float must be of quill only ; the line of the very best gut,
and as fine as possible. The hooks may be fine barbel hooks, from
No, 7 to 10. The baits for Carp angling are worms, grain, and

re)

=
—







276 THE ANGLER.

pastes. Worms are proper oait for the early part of the season, ard
and of these, the red worm seems to be the best, except about the
spawning season, when we prefer the blood worm to any other, though
Carp will sometimes take the one kind and sometimes the other, so
that the angler never knows, except by trial, which is the best for his
purpose,

In the early Summer months, the worm may be varied with grubs,
caterpillars, gentles or beetles. Green peas are sometimes used as
bait in the Summer time, and also other fruit and vegetables, When
peas are used aga bait, you must hang one on the hook, about
one foot from the ground, and throw in a few as ground bait. This
bait, although it may take a Carp now and then, is not so good as a
piece of well soaked greaves or a red worm. The best time for angling
for this fish is early in the morning, or in the evening. Ground bait
should be used for Carp in all cases in which you perpose to confine
yourself to one place. 1f you rove about, it is better only occasi-
onaily to throw in a few grains, or sand mixed with pieces of worms
and a few gentles. Ina stationary spot, bait it the night previous
with a ground bait which agrees with that on your hook; put the
ground bait in quietly, and at the same time try the depth, to avoid
all disturbance in the morning. When the angling begins, keep out
the sight of the fish as much as possible, make no noise, let the bait
fall silently into the water, and try their fancy for taking it a‘ various
depths, beginning at the lowest. If rain falls lightly, they wil! bite
all day, and sometimes alsoin gloomy weather, although rain may not
be falling; but generally speaking, in the hot Summer months you
cannot be too early in the morning, nor too late in the evening, for
Carp. When the angler perceives a bite, he must strike according
to the nature of his bait. If, for instance, in fishing with a lob worm
he were to strike the moinent he felt the bait move, he would but pull
it out of the mouth of the Carp, who sucks it in after the manner of
the barble. On the contrary, if paste be employed, it is prudent to
strike on the shortest warning, otherwise the fish will suck away all
the paste. Again, when fishing for Carp in rivers, it will be found
that tae Carp’s habit of meeting the insects which pass down the
stream renders the fish more alert to prevent their escape, they take
THE ANGLER. 272

the bait quicker in rivers, and they should therefore be struck much
Guicker, When the Carp is hooked, give him the line, and be very
wary and patient, or he will he get away.

THE TENCH,

The Tench is supposed to have been brought to this country from
abroad. It is an inhabitant of stagnant waters, on a loamey or clayey
soil, forming a soft muddy bottom. It is also found in rivers, parti-
cularly in such as have but a slight current, and flow over a soft soil.
The Tench varies in figure by age, but as a general form, it is thick
in proportion to its length of about three to one; when very full and

| well fed, it has been seen

nearly as broad as it is long.
The head is of a large size,
yet, in proportion to the
bulky figure, the snout is
short and blunt, and the
mouth rounded and of a mo-
derate size. It has two
beards, one at each co,ner
f _ Of the mouth, but they are

very small, and therefore scarcely visible. The mouth is with out
teeth, but in the Tench, as in the Carp family, these are situated in
the throat. The eyes are small, round, and red; the nostrils wide;
the covers to the gills of a brilliant yellow ; the fins and tail, which
are large, are of a dull purplish colour, and the tail is not at all
forked. The general colour is a deep olive, with a golden tint shining
through the scales, which are small, thin, and closely pressed to the
skin. The number of scales upon a single Tench has been calculated
a 30,000. The Tench, like the eel, is thickly covered with a slimy
matter, which makes him slip easily through the fingers. The sizes
of the best Tench caught in this country are from a foot to eighteen
inches long, and their-weight from two to four or six pounds. Tench
spawn during the latter Spring and earlier Summer months, according
to the season, and deposit their spawn about the roots and stems of
water plants; the young fry soon make their appearance, are quick in


773 THE ANGLER,

their growth, and breed the following season. Like carp, this fish is
very tenacious of life, and may be carried alive to a considerable dis-
tance, if wrapped up in wet moss or weeds, patticularly when in
spawn.

+ Angling for Tench, though not materially different from that em-
ployed for Carp, yet is sufficiently so to merit distinct notice. The
fish itself does not often fallin the way of the London angler, except
it be in preserved sheets of water, In the Thames and the Lea,
Tench are very rare. The baits for Tench, with the London Anglers,
are worms, gentles, and pastes ; in some counties, grubs of all kinds,
caterpillars, and water and garden snails are used.

Tench do not swallow a bait very quickly, sometimes holding it in
their mouths for atime. This fish bites very freely after rain, par-
ticularly such rain as falls in close gloomy westher, when they will
bite even in the day-time, which is not otherwise commom with them,
their usual feeding time being very early in the morning and late in
the evening. Worms, particularly the red, are the best spring baits,
these are succeeded by gentles. The fishing tackle for Tench should
consist of a strong bottomed rod, a float, which, for river fishing,
should be of fine cork, but if the water be but slightly disturbed by
currents, one of swan or porcupine quill is preferable, a line of fine
but firm gut, and a hook No, 6, 7, or 8. In ponds, and other still
waters, use a fine quill float, very fine line, and hook No. 7, 8, or 9.
ln rapid currents, as well as where the fish are large, a stronger
tackle must be used. The baits used in running waters should trail
along the ground, and if the fish seem unwilling to bite, let it be
raised a little higber. In ponds, on the contrary, unless the bottun
be very clear, the bait should never touch the ground, as it is apt te
become buried in the mud. In such places, let the bait hang abou
two inchas above the mud, and if the Tench do not readily bite, then
draw it up a little higher, and if it still refuses, begin a slow sinking
and drawing, which will show the bait to great advantage, and this
method aften proves very successful when the Tench are not well on
the feed, by arousing them and engaging their attention. In hot
weather, Tench delight in weedy situations at the sides of pools, and
and particularly among large reed and water-plants, here a long firm
THE ANGLER, 279

rod is useful, which should have a line with a fioat attached to it, fur-
nished with a small but strong barbel hook, No. 8, or 9, which
should be baited with one red worm put on first, with a blood worm
at the point of the hook, and a few fine shot to sink the line. Drop
this carefully and without distubance, among the weeds, letting it sink
gradually, after a few minutes draw it up gently, and whenever an
opening occurs do the same, thus roving to every part of the river.

THE BARBEL.

The Barbel may always be known by four beards or fleshy wattles,
two of which hang from the corners of the mouth, and two rather
shorter attached to the upper jaw, near the snout. The Barbel is a
handsome fish, in figure not unlike a jack, and is to be found not only
in many of our rivers, but also in most others throughout Europe.

Y LEW y. It is remarkable among
" ; river fish for the promi-
nence of the upper lip,
GEE g@f—-. and indeed the bony sub.
etme Hi OS eee stance of its upper jaw
Per) = —___. ilbogethasextenie hepend
TH oa ye Ni the lower considerably ;
eS}. QS the colour is a silvery
grey, with a darker cast
on the upper parts, and the scales middle sized, rounded and well de-
fined ; the upper fin is on the middle of the back, of a bluish brown
colour, the other fins pale brown and tipped with yellow, the tail dull
purple, and forked, and the snout or upper lip reddish. The situation
in which Barbel are found are in the deep parts of rapid rivers; it is
but occasionally that they seek the more shallow waters; they are
always in company, and upon one being taken, the chance of taking
more is increased; they lurk under the shelter of overhanging banks
and by their vast power in stemming the stream, they are ever read,
to catch an insect or small fish. In the weed beds of deep rivers they
lurk also, and appear to be fond of hollows surrounded by risiny
ground; under bridges, in the strongest currents they may be seeg
and counted one by one, apparently fixed to the spot. They are unn


280 THE ANGLER,

suspicious in the extreme, and when lying in this way will sometimes
suffer themselves to be caught by a hook with a piece of lead attached
to it, and let down among them. Piles and locks are likewise their
favourite resorts. Barbel are much in motion during the night, at
which time they principally seek their food.

Two places near London are famous for Barbel, the Lea, and the
Thames, and in fishing in the two, there is a slight differenee. In the
Thames, the water is rapid and deep, and the fish themselves generally
larger and stronger, so that the tackle must be likewise stronger. In
the Lea, although some large fish are sometimes taken, those caught
here are more frequently four, five, or six pounds weight, than larger,
while in the Thames, they are often of ten or twelve pounds. In the
Lea, Barbel stations are foundin various spots from Hackney Marshes
to Waltham Abbey. The rod may be light and firm, made of bamboo,
with a whalebone top, the line of gut, China twist, or platteu silk, this
last is the best, a reed or swan quill float may also be employed. The
hooks are not of the common kind, but are made of stronger wire than
those manufactured for other fish, so that a small Barbel hook {s as
strong as a larger hook of the ordinary description. The Barbe), eats
very little in dry warm weather, and therefore, is very shy at biting
but in rainy weather, when muddy streams flow down from the various
ditches, so that the water of their haunts becomes thick and muddy,
they will bite readily. Barbe! suck in their baits, for the mouth o,
this fish being small, a large bait can only be taken by a kind of suction,
and thus, when a Barbel is well on the feed, it will lie and gradually
draw in the largest lob worm, or a huge lump of greaves, until it has
gorged it, with a full sized hook into the bargain. But when these
fish are not well on the feed, they will not take a large bait, but a
small bait and a small hook, that can be snapped up easily ; they may
be tempted by hooks No. 7, 8, or even 9 or 10 are the proper size to
ase in the Lea, with the larger of these sizes for the Thames, or when
a lob worm or large bait is used, No. 4 or 5 will do. Red worms,
gentles, and greaves, may be considered the stock baits for Barbel, in
bright weather and clear waters, and they will generally succeed better
than lob worms at these times. If red worms are chosen, put two on
the hook at the same time; if gentles, use three or four at once ; and
THE ANGLER. 281

if greaves, put on the hook a uniform lump. Ground baiting is very
necessary in Barbel fishing. Ground bait should be thrown into the
place where you are about to fish, the evening before, and also in
the morning as soon as you get to the place, that they may have
time to collect together, while you are preparing your tackle, also,
during the time you are fishing you must throw in fresh ground
bait occasionally, and mind that the ground bait must be thrown
in the exact spot where your hook is, or very near to it, or it will
do more harm than good. The times and seasons for Barbel fishing
should also be known to the angler; the fish is to be taken only
from March to November, they bite best about sunrise and sunset
in warm weather. The Barbel will net touch a bait of any kind
when a cold wind blows, nor yet in the Spring, if there is the least
frost on the ground. ‘The most favourable circumstances in which
to catch the Barbel, is when a day’s rain succeeds two or three weeks
of fine weather, and the longer the rain has been delayed greater
sport will he have. The flesh of the Barbel is coarse, and consi-
dered of but little value for the table; its flavour is somewhat im-
proved towards the latter end of the Summer.

THE PERCH

The Perch is a very common fish both abroad and in England,
The body is deep; the scales very rough; the back much arched;
the eyes golden; the teeth small; disposed in the jaws and on the
roof of the mouth, which is large; the edges of the covers of the gills
are cut in notches like the edge of a saw, and on the lower end of the
largest is a sharp point. The colours of the Perch are beautiful, the
back and part of the sides being of a deep green, marked with broad
black bars pointing downwards ;_ the belly is white, tinged with red,
The fing on the belly are of a bright red, and also the tail, though
rather paler; this is also forked. There are two fina upon the back,
the first of them, or that nearest the head, is spiny, which renders it
disagreeable for the angler to handle this fish, unless he does it with
great care, for the spines are sharp enough to wound the hand, and
the wound of all fish is very painful, Perch are very common in
282 THE ANGLER.

many places about London: in the Thames, the Lea, the Surrey canal,
and in many docks and ponds. ‘They are found in the docks at
Blackwall, in the streams and Thames at Dagenham breach, in the
Serpentine river also in Hide Park. Perch spawn in the Spring,
earlier or later according to the temperature of the water they are
found in; March being considered as the proper time. The Perch
collects together in shoals, and are so dependant upon each other,
that all of the same size keep in the same hole, eat similar food,
search for their prey, and
take their exercise together,
and if one be taken, it is the
_ angler’s own fault if he do
oe not take also all the rest
. ey yt Se , which may be present. The

; BREN Yvan

! oe beauty of the fish, his usual
ee ears readiness to take a bait, and
his value when taken, either
as a present for others or as a table fish for ourselves, renders angling
for Perch afavourite amusement. The haunts of Perch are various,
since they are both a still water and a river fish, They love water
moderately deep, and frequent holes at the sides of or near to gentle
streams where there is an eddy, the hollows under banks, among
weeds and roots of trees, piles of bridges, or in ditches, and the back
streams, that flow into the larger river. In ponds which are fed by a
brook or rivulet, Perch thrive very fast. Their haunts are chiefly the
deep holes, between weeds or stumps of trees, or on gravelly shallows,
Pools or holes, with a bottom of deep mud, are, however, not usually
to their taste. Perch delight to lie about bridges and mill pools, in
and near locks, about shipping, barges, and floats of timber. In
navigable canals, rivers and wet docks, also in the still parts of rivers,
and in the back water of mill streams, as well as in deep gentle
eddies, in ponds about sluices, and the mouth of outlets and floodgates
commonly preferring the sandy or gravelly parts of the bottom.
The season for Perch angling is from February till the middle of
October, during which time they will bite in most weathers, except
it be very sunny and bright. But such blustering weather as would


THE ANGLER, 283

prove unfavorable to other kinds of fishing will not prevent the Perch
from taking a bait well, oa the contrary, when it blows a gale from
the west or south west, with a gloomy sky, they will take a bait all
day. Atsuch times, when a dozen or more of Perch have been
observed in a deep hole sbeltered by trees or bushes, by using fine
tackle and a well scoured worm, the angler may see them strive which
shall first seize it, until the whole shoal have been caught. Some
say, that as regards time, the Perch bites best in the latter parts of
the Spring, from seven to eleven in the morning, and from two to six
in the afternoon, except in hot and bright weather, and then from
sunrise to six in the morning, and in the evening from six to sunzet,
but in rivers where there is a tide, these times are not the most
successful, as the fish bite better when the tide is on the flow or ebb,
as then the food is most disturbed, and the fish are upon the look out
for it.

The baits for Perch are principally worms, insects, and small fish,
but more particularly minnows. Of worms, the best kind are small
lob-worms, brandlings, and red worms, all well scoured; the hook
may be varied from No. 2. to No, 6. Use a slender cork float, to
keep the worm about six or eight inches from the bottom, and some-
times in mid-water. In angling near the bottom, raise the bait very
frequently to near the top of the water, and let it sink again gradually.
Wasps, grubs, and caterpillars also prove good baits for Perch, in
some waters. It isa good method to use two hooks in a water of
tolerable depth, one to hang near the bottom and the other to be
about eighteen inches from the bottom, in this case two different kinds
of worms may be tried, or the upper hook may be baited with gentles,
and the lower with a worm or worms.

In the fresh water docks, and tideways of a river, Perch fishing often
yields excellent sport, and never better than when shrimps are used
for baits. In these situations they are the natural food of Pecch, con-
sequently, they prove the most tempting bait, and Perch will take
them dead as well as living, when fresh. If living, it is well to pre-
serve them in wet sand in a basket, but by no means huddle them
together ina bag, which soon destroys them. Sometimes, fresh water
snails and greaves are used as baits. In a bad day, it is the practice
284 THE ANGLER.

with some, when the Perch will not be brought otherwise to feed, to
take off the float, and extend the line as long as the rod will throw
the bait out (which should be worms), casting it in all directions,
sometimes across, at others up ard down the water, drawing the bait
towards you. If you adopt this method, do not try one spot long,
when a fish bites slacken the line, and give time before striking, this
often succeeds in bad weather, when all other methods fail, particu-
larly in a southernly or south westernly wind; living fish are, how-
ever, the most killing of all the ures used to entrap large Perch, and
of these none equal the minnow. The stickleback, with its spines
cut away, proves also a fair bait. Loach, and small fry of all sorts,
may be used also, small frogs are likewise so employed, and by some
anglers are very highly spoken of. In using the living minnow, the
hook should be stuck in under the back fin, let the minnow swim in
middle water or rather lower, useing a cork float of a size that he can-
not sink it under water, with a few shot about nine inches from the
hook to keep him down, or when tired he will rise to the surface.
When using the frog, put the hook through the skin of his back, and
it will swim easier than when the book is thrust through the skin of
the hinder legs, recollect to keep the bait as far from the shore as
possible, for he will constantly be making to it, always give line enough
at a bile, and let the perch gorge.

THE ROACH.

This handsome fish inhabits many of our deep still rivers, and quiet
waters. It associatesin
large shoals. It hasa
small head and mouth,
with the teeth in the
throat. The eyes are of
a gold colour, the iris
red. The Roach is wide
but thin, with the back

raised ; scales of this fish
are very large, and easily fall off. The fins are red; the tail alittle
forked. It is so silly a fish that it has obtained the name of the water


THE ANGLER. 285

sheep, in distinction to the carp, who for his subtlety is called the
water fox. Roach are distributed every where, and they breed pro-
fusely in rivers, lakes, ponds, and marshes. The best season for
Roach fishing is from Autumn to the following Spring. In May,
they usually spawn, after which they continue out of season for some
weeks, hardly recovering till the end of July, and it is said that a
single fish will produce 54,000 eggs. The London proffessed Roach
angler uses a light but long rod, with a tolerable stiff top. The line
should be made of a single hair, or of two hairs twisted together for
the upper part, down to below the float, and of a single hair trom
this to the hook; by this arrangment, should the fish break away, as
is often the case, nothing but the hook will be lost. Some anglers
use a fine gut line. The hook, in Roach angling, should be as fine
as the line. It may be Nos. 9 or 10 if a single hair be used, or a
ize larger if the line be of gut. The shotting of the line should be
8 carefully attended to as the rest of the tackle, the shot should be
mall, and three or four inches apart, the lowest shot being at the
distance of eight or nine inches from the hook. Not more than a
quarter of an inch of the float should appear above the water, unless
there be a strong wind or current, when a greater quantity may be
seen. Let the line, both above and below the ftoat, be kept upright,
and moderately tight. ‘The baits used are principally gentles and
pastes. In rivers, lakes and ponds, though gentles are used, yet
worms are mostly depended upon. As worm baits, the marsh, brand.
ling, blood, and red worms aye all taken by Roach with eagerness,
when on the feed, but the worms should be well scoured to ensure
success. ‘These may be considered as the principal Spring bait. In
the Summer, grubs may be used. In the latter part of the Summer,
and in the Autumn, gentles are employed, and from this time through.
out the winter pastes, of all kind, particularly the stale bread paste
for mild waters, and the new bread paste for running waters. When
angling in a river in which thereis a tide, as in the Thames, it is ne-
cessars to try at various depths, as in the Thames, it is necessary to
try et various depths; the fish will bite well while the tide is flowing
up, but seldom when the tide is flowing back again unless the water
has been increased by water having been let on from the marshes or
286 THE ANGLER.

streams, when floods are in the river, the fish will usually hide thein-
selves nearthe banks. Inthe Thames above the metropolis, the season
for Roach fishing commences about the latter end of August. In the
Summer, the Roach lives among weeds until the plant becomes putrid,
which depends upon the dryness or wetness of the weather, much rain
hastening their decay.

THE BREAM.

This is a large fish, with a high arched back, and sides very much
flattened. The head is small,
the snout rather pointed, and
ending in a remarkable small
mouth, which is without teeth.
The eyes are large and full;
the scales are large; the fin
upon the back rather small ;
the tail is deeply forked. In
colour, the Bream is of a
bluish black above, with the sides and belly white, but when it has
attained its full growth and perfection, it isof a golden colour. There
are, however, two kinds of this fish, one is called the carp Bream,
and the other the white Bream, the latter variety does not become
golden. The Bream is not found in the Thames or the Lea, but in the
Mole, which is a small river running into the Thames, they are abun-
dant. They are also plentiful in tae Wet Docks at Blackwall, in
Dagenam breach, and in many slow deep rivers and lakes in Eng-
land and Scotland. Bream are often of a considerable weight, some-
times of as much as six, eight, or even ten pounds, Their usual
weight, howeve:, is from two to four pounds. In hot weather these
fish assemble in shoals near the surface of the water; at other times
they resort too the deepest and broadest parts of a river, but are sel-
dom met with in the confined narrow places of any water. Bream
spawn in June, retiring for that purpose to the weeds, continuing
out of season some weeks, during which they will seldom take
bait well. -


THE ANGLER. 287

Angling for Bream is a lively amusement, for if the fisher keep
well out of sight, and be dexterous, he may take a large quantity of
them within avery short time. Except during their spawning season,
they will take the bait readily on the mornings and evenings of bright
warm days. When it is windy, warm and gloomy, they will take the
bait freely throughout the day, and a drizzling rain in still waters,
as in Dagenham breach, is favourable to their biting. Bream, in the
Spring months take a worm in preference to any other hait ; they are
also at this time in full season: red worms are the best to use. In
angling for this fish, the tackle should be strong but fine, a gut line
is the most proper, with a quill float for still waters, and a cork one
for currents, in which situation, however, they are less likely to be
met with. ‘The hook may be No. 7, 8, or 9, accordiug to the size
of the fish in the water. Ground bait attracts them greatly, and it
adds much to the sport to throw some in the evening previous; its
nature should of course, agree with the hook bait,

THE GUDGEON,.

The Gudgeon is a small but highly prized fish, It is pretty
common throughout Europe, and in all our rivers and still waters,
particularly those which
have a gentle current and
r gravelly bottom. Gud-

inte m~\ | geon fishing in the Lea is

eee 2MAN I) usually commenced in the

: yo ee Nea oor at month of March or April,
ani SY REID may, aud is practised fromthe

Eee — here banks of the river, with
: ine Vix” § very fine tackle. The rod
may be of cane, and the line either of fine gut or of single hair. with
a light quill float, usually a tip capped one. The hook is also as
fine as the tackle, very seldom larger than No. 8, more frequently
No. 9, oreven No. 10. The line must likewise be very finely shotted,
Some use two, three, or four lines at atime, and Visit them alternately,

The most tempting bait for the Gudgeon is a worm, next to that a
gentle, and after that, pastes. Itis prudent to be — more

«

oe a


238 THE ANGLER,

than one sort of worm, and the brighter and more lively they are the
better, observing. that in placing them on on the hook there be little
left to hang from it, for these fish are great nibblers. Our reason for
recommending more than one sort of worm is, that Gudgeons prefer
one kind at one time, anda different kind at another time. Bood
worms are commonly acceptable ; two of them should be put on the
hook very carefully. Allow as little as possible of the float to appear
above the surface of the water, and strike quickly on the bait. In
rapid waters, the float must be larger and higher.

That the bait must trail on the ground is a very a general rule; to
effect this, find the depth very carefully, so that the worm may trail
along the bottom, suspended, but touching every little rising that
presents itself: in fact, the bait inits motion should represent a worm
accidentally dropped into the water, which, having sunk to the
bottom, is afterwards carried gently along by the force of the current,
and thus meets the fish, who always keep their mouths close to the
ground. The situations where Gudgeons are most likely to be met
with are, in moderate streams with a gravelly bottom, and of a depth
from two to five feet. Raking, or otherwise disturbing the ground,
is an essential part of Gudgeon fishing. A moderate ground baiting
is also useful, as it collects the fish from a distance, to the place
where to the angler lies in wait for them, If you have no ground
bait, it is right to throw in some sand or fine gravel to disturb the
water,

In the Thames, as many as fifty dozen of Gudgeons have been
taken in one day, but in the Lea, it is seldom that half that number
are caught, yet the angler in the Lea has the best scope for his sport,
for he can commence in March, whereas in all that part of the Thames
near London, he must not begin till the first of June, at which time
the Gudgeons have spawned, and continue, for some time afterwards,
inferior in flavour. By those who are fond of fish, the Gudgeon is
considered as very good eating. Itis in the finest condition from
March to the end of May, for at this season it lives principally on
small worms, and the spawn of other fish, which it finds among the
gravel; but as the weeds grow up, the Gudgeon leaves the shallows,
and feeds « great deal upon the weeds, which makes their flesh less
THE ANGLER, 892

firm, and in Summer it is either of a bitter taste or else tasteless ; in
hot weather it keeps very badly. They are cooked and eaten like
sprats, without cutting them open; their bones are so small that they
may easily be eaten with the rest of the fish. The whole and exact
process of Gudgeon fishing is told in a book printed two hundred and
thirty years ago. It is described as follows :—
Lo! in a little boat where one doth stand,
That to a willow branch the while is tied,
And with a pole doth gently raise the sand,
Whereas the gentle stream doth gently glide,
And then with slender line and rod in hand,
The eager bait not long he doth abide.
Well loaded in his line, his hook but small,
A good big cork to bear the stream with all.

His bait, the least red worm that may be found,
And at the bottom it duth always lie,
Whereat the greedy Gudgeon bites so sound,
That hook and ail he swalloweth bye and bye.
See how he strikes, and pulls them up as round
As if new store the place did still supply ;
And when the bait did die, or badly prove,
Then to another place he did remove.

In shallow water, the Thames fishermen take Gudgeons with a
casting net, keeping them in their well boats till they are wanted.
The London fishmongers are also able to keep Gudgeon alive several
weeks in stone or leaden troughs, which are constantly supplied with
fresh cold water.

The length of the Gudgeon, when full grown, is from five to eight
inches, and the length of the head is about a fifth part of the body:
the lower jaw is broad, and shorter than the upper jaw: the mouth
wide, with a little horn or beard (sometimes termed a barbule) at
each corner of the mouth: the eye is placed high up on the sides of
the head ; the tail deeply forked, with about ten rows of scales from
the back to the belly. The colour of the upper part of the head,
back, and sides, is olive brown spotted with black ; the colour of the
eye is orange red, with a large black pupil; the gills are greenish
white ; all the under part of the body white; the under fins white,
tipped with brown; the fins on the back and tail are of a pale brown,
spotted with a darker shade of that colour,
290 THE ANGLER

THE BLTAK,

The Bleak is about six inches long, and is sometimes called the
silvery carp, the whiting, or the fresh water sprat. It is continually
in motion. The head is small, and the skull transparent; the eyes
are large, of a pale yellow, with a blood coloured spot on the lower
side; the under jaw is the longest ; the gills are silvery; the body
slender, and greatly flattened sidewrys, like that of the sprat; the
back is green; the sides and belly silvery; the fins transparent; the
lateral line rather crooked ; the scales large, falling off very readily;
the tail is much forked. Bleak are found in almost every river in the
kingdom. Inthe Thames, the Lea, the New River, the Severn, &c.,
they exist in immense numbers, but seldom keep to one place. This
restlessness has given them the name of the water swallow, which
they further deserve by their nimbleness in pursuing their prey,—and
particularly in the catching of flies. The tackle for Bleak fishing
should be very fine. The
baits are blood worms, cad-
dis worms, gentles, pastes,
&c. In general cases, the
bait should be sunk to about
the middle of the depth of
the water: in very warm
weather, they will bite higher
than this, but in cold weather
the bait should be lower than
this. To draw them together, occasionally throw in some ground
bait, such as chewed bread or dried crumbs, followed by a handful of

ravel or sand, the noise of which, falling on the water, will attract

the fish to the spot. Inthe New River, near London, we have fre-
quently seen four or five dozen of this fish taken by one boy, ona
summer’s afternoon.



THE SMELT.

Smelts are met with abundantly in the Thames, in November,
December, and January, in other rivers not till February ; in March
THE ANGLER. 291

aud April they spawn, after which they return to the salt water, and
are not seen again till the following season, except in the river Thames,
to which they pay a second visit in July, though at this last visit they
do not go above London bridge.

In the pr per 8.ason, that is, in the Wintzr months, the principal
fishing place for them is
between London Bridge
and Lambeth. Theriver
formerly swarmed with
this delicious fish, but
they are now much more
rare. Another favourite
spot for Smelts, in the
Summer as well as the
Winter, is at Limehouse,

among the floating timber that often lies about the entrance of the
various creeks and docks round the Isle of Dogs, and Limehouse
Hole. Then again, Perry’s Dock, Blackwall, now belonging to the
Et st India Company, and alsothe City Canal, where, however, they
are small in size and few in number.

The Smelt is of very beautiful form and colour; the head is trans-
parent; the skin very thin; eye is silvery, with a black pupil; the
under jaw rather prominent. In the front of the upper jaw are four
large teeth, in the roof of the mouth are two rows, and on the
tongue two others, of large teeth; those on the sides of both jaws
are small. The colour of the back is whitish, with a cast of green,
beneath which it is varied with blue; the scales are small, and readily
drop off; the tailis forked. The size of this fish varies from three
to six inches.

The baits for the Smelt are various, the best appears to be a smal
shrimp, or a part of a large one; small parts of an eel will lure them
and the belly parts are thoughi to be the best. Gentles, they arl
likewise fond of, and when other baits fail, small pieces of their
fellow smelts will answer the purpose. Boiled shrimps are also used
with success, and sometimes nothing is found better than red worms
Bread crumbs may be used aground bait, and oatmeal may be thrown


22 THE ANGLER.

in to keep them together. In float angling, it is to be observed that
Smelts force the float up, instead of pulling it down, when they bite;
at this time, the angler is advised to strike instantly and sharply. As
Smelts are fond of very deep waters, they may be angled for without
float, a bullet, which drags on the ground, beiug used instead, lifting
it up and letting it down occasicnally. In this way, great numbers
of this fish are caught by the London anglers off the ship sides in the
wet docks, and from the floating timber in the Thames. Smelt angling
is best practised early and late, particularly in the Summer months.

THE DACE,

Dace live together in large quanties. This fish is also known by
the different names of the dart,
shallow, and showler. It is a
great breeder, very lively, and
during the summer is fond of
‘eeerteee ! y frolicking near the surface of the
Se i AWM iN Ca, 1g Water, Its head is small; the
i SESE ee Lenft Ds eyes yellow; the scales smaller

po ti, Kin Pe "1, than those of the roach; the
back is varied by dusky marks

and a cast of yellowish green ;

the sides and belly are silvery; the fins of a pale red; the tail is
much forked. In this country, the Dace is seldom above ten inches
in length, but in foreign parts it is said to sometimes measure a foot
and a half. Dace are found in most English rivers, and in many
standing waters which have a slight current passing through them,
but seldom in ponds orcanals. They delight in rapid streams and
eddies, the place where two streams meet is also their favourite resort,
, and in mill streams they are generally to be found. In some
weathers, particularly when it is cold and windy, they are only to be
met with in deep holes, more especially where there is a cayey bottom
with fine gravel over 1t. Dace spawn from the beginning of March to
the middle of April, according to the nature of the water, at which
time they may be seen very active among the gravel, preparing their
spawn beds, At this season, they are very capricious in their appetites.



THE ANGLER, 293

at one time they will take a worm immediately, but the next day,
perhaps, this bait will be refused, as well as every other. In the
middle of May, they arrive in perfection, and continue so till the end
of the season. Dace fishing is but little different to that of the roach,
and the one fish is frequently taken when trying for the other, parti-
cularly in the autumn, when both retire for awhile into the deep
currents of the rivers, thus it is, that at one time roach and Dace
fishing areonecommon sport, but they do not continue so long, for
during the Winter months the Dace retreats to still deeps, and is not
afterwards tempted to take the bait. The tackle for Dace fishing, and
also the hooks, should be the same as for the roach, though, when
Dace only are wanted, a larger hook and line may be used. During
the Spring season, worms of most kinds, but the red worm in parti-
cular, with grubs and caterpillars of all kinds, are the proper baits,
for they are the natural food of the Dace. At this time they will aleo
take the water snail, In the hot summer months, gentles are the
best ; in the Autumn, greaves and paste. They are more frequently
taken at the bottom than mid water, but the best position for the bait
is nine or ten inches from the ground, in deep water, and about four
inches, in shallow water. By attention to this rule, and by useing
a light line and a fine cork float, you may take fish after fish, almost
as fast as you can drop the line. Dace bite sharp, and must therefore
be struck quick; they also plunge violently at first, so that, if the
tackle is very fine it may be broken. Dace generally require but
little ground bait, for they are very voracious, and if they bave much
they will gorge themselves, and not be inclined to leave it for the
bait on the hook, although it may be more delicate. In the Thames,
the principal Dace stations are about Kew, Richmond, Petersham,
Twickenham, and go on upwards, for some miles.

THE LOACH.

The Loach is found in swift brooks among the gravel, or where
there is asoil of mud and gravel together with weeds, and, in some of
our rivers. By theasides of sharp streams, it seldom rises to
the top of the water, keeping at or near to the bottom of the
gravel, upon which it feeds, and on this account it is sometimes called
294 THE ANGLER,

the grounling. The Loach is used as a bait for other fish, and for
eels itisthe best. The body
is long and slimy, without
scales; the mouth is small,
without teeth, but bearded
like the barbel, having six
~ small beards, one at each

corner of the mouth, and
four at the end of the nose. The body is slippery, and almost of
the same thickness ; the colour of the head, back, and sides is, in
some white, in others, of a dirty yellow, elegantly marked with large
spots, consisting of numberless minute specks. The fins are also
spotted, except the lower ones, which are white; the tail is remarkably
broad. They are about three inches long. The flesh is very nutrid-
cious, and for that reason is recommended to the sick. During the
Summer, the females are generally full of spawn. These fish are
to : taken with avery sma!lred worm, the bait touching the g ound
the best,



THE MINNOW.

The Minnow or Pink abounds in most of our rivers, as well as in
most clear gravelly streams and rivulets throughout Europe. In
shape and size they have
one common character blue
they vary much in colour,
being sometimes rather blue
than green, and the belly is
- of ten of a brilliant red, but
is most valued by the angler
when it is of a pearly white
and least so when yellow.
Its scales are very minute. It lives in swarms, and is very delicate.
The Minnow appears first in March, continues until Michaelmas, and
often betakes itself to the mud, wet weeds and wood in rivers to
secure itself from floods, and fishes of prey. Minnows are usuaily
full of spawn ali the summer, for they breed often, and quickly arrive


THE ANGLER, 295

at their full growth and perfection. Although so small in size, the
minnow may be compared for the excellence of its taste to many of
the most famous fish.

To the tyro, who is not possessed of the patience requisite to form
the angler, the minnow affords plenty of amusement. In hot weather
they will bite all day, and are frequently drawn out of the water from
their catching at the end of the worm, without being touched by the
hook. The best way to catch them is to have three or four very small
hooks, baited with the least red worm, or a piece of one, and a crows
quill float ; fish deeper than mid water, and near the ground in shallow
places, and at the sides of small streams. When caught, Minnows
may be preserved till wanted for live bait, in a tub of water.

THE CHUB.

The Chub or Cheven is common in the English rivers, and in other
waters that have a stream passing through them. In the Thames
and Lea they are numerous,
and furnish the London
angler with much amuse.
ment. Itis a powerful fish,
and will swim with great
force against a rapid stream.
It is, however, extremely
timid, retreating to the
bottom of the water even
at a shadow, but reappearing soon after. Chub feed on insects, water
beetles, and all manner of grubs. Winged insects they pursue with
greediness, and sometimes also they attack the smaller kind of fish.
The tish takes its name Chub, from the clubbed form of the head, and
is called in different parts of England, cheven, nob, or bolting. He
much resembles the carp, but is of a longer form, the body is oblong,
rather round, of pretty equal thickness, The scales are large; the
eyes silvery ; the head and back of a deep dusty green; the sides
silvery, but in the summer yellow; the belly white; the fins on the
shoulders of a pale yellow; the fins on the belly and vent red; the
tail forked, of a brownish hue, but tinged with blue at the end; alto-


296 THE ANGLER,

gether, the Chub is a handsome fish, and is sometimes found of con-
Biderable size.. The Chub spawns in April, and regains its condition
in a few weeks, during this time, however, it will take a bait tolerably
well, The situations where Chub are most likely to be met with are
deep rivera having a clayey or sandy bottom, and one that is also
bounded by clay or marl banks, Sometimes, they are to be met with
in rocky rivers, but only such as have deep and muddy holes or places
in them. Pools or holes like these are seldom without some of these
fish, as they choose them for their spawning, and also for their winter
habitation. In hot weather, Chub hide themselves also in similac
places, particularly such deeps and pools as are overhung with trees.
In stagnant and open waters, they hide themselves under the weeds.

Angling for Chub differs but little from dace fishing, with the excep-
tion of the strength of the tackle. A little more caution is required ;
the same care should be taken that the line, float, and hook, are as
small as is consistent with safety, and the same baits, with little differ-
ence, answer for both kinds of fish. Chub may be angled for all the
year round, They will take a variety of baits, and ina variety of
ways. At the bottom, they are tempted with insects and worms of
all sorts, these are proper to use in the Spring. In Summer, they
will rise to almost every kind of fly and beetle which is thrown to
them on the surface. In Autumn, they take gentles and pastes, and
in Winter, they may be ensnared by means of bullock’s brains, greaves
&e, Chub should be struck the moment the angler perceives a bite,
but he will generally swim off immediately to some weed bed, or across
the stream, and if the angler is not careful, the tackle will be broken,
he is, however, soon tired, and if the tackle sustains tha first struggle,
the fish may be landed safely.

Chub are sometimes angled for by sinking and drawing, which must
be done with a strong line, and a stout rod also, and the more parti-
cularly, as the practice of sinking and drawing is applicable to the
dangerous holes we have described. No float is used, but as much
lead is put on the line as will just sink it with a No- 6, or 7 hook,
according to the expected size of the fish thereabouts, Bait the hook
with whatever animal matter is thought proper, as worms, gentles, or
reaves, let it now sink to the bottom, and then gently draw it up
THE ANGLER 297

again, rather sideways, at one time rather quick, at,another slow, vary-
ing the action with judgement, and avoiding to come foul of stumps;
&c. At the same time, the angler must not omit to guide the descents
of the bait into all their holes and fastnesses, although all these impedi-
ments should be in the way, for here the fish often herd together, to
clear steer of the dangers, sink the bait straight down, and draw it up
in the direction it was let down in, by which precaution it may en-
snare the fish, but will not catch the obstacles.

Chub and dace are often confounded together, and this arises from
the circumstance that the young Chub and the old dace are very much
alike in colour, but upon examination, it will be seen that the tail of
the dace is more forked, and is without the purple tips which the chub
has. The head of the dace is also more pointed and more elegant than
that of the Chub.

THE FLOUNDER.

The Flounder is the most common of all flat fish, and abounds at
the mouth of all our rivers ; in the Thames it is found in great abun-
dance for twenty miles up the stream, beyond London, so that the

London angler has a good
opportunity of procuring
this fish by means of his
lines and hooks. They
will likewise live in ponds,
and are a profitable fish
to stock them with, as
they soon get fat, will
live many hours out of
, their element, and con-
sequently, may be easily and safely removed, but they will not breed,
and not live above seven or eight years when confined in standing
waters. This fish delights in a soft, flat, or gently sloping bottom,
where they will take various baits, but principally well scoured worms
and greaves. You will have but little sport unless the place be pre-
viously ground baited, for they are remarkably indolent, though when
once assembled, no fish can keep the angler more fully employed.
Use strong gut, with a hook No. 7 or 8, rather stiff in the make. Put


298 THE ANGLER.

four or five shots on your line, and let your bait go close to the bottom,
or lie upon it, give a little time when you have a bite, for the Flounder
is a great glutton, and will, if possible, gorge your bait, provided he
be not disturbed. The Thames Flounders are considered as singularly
sweet and firm, and are met with by the angler in the creeks from
Blackwall to Bromley, Stratford and Westham, as well as in and
about the docks at Limehouse. At the entrance, and even beyond
the tideways, they are also to be found in all our rivers communicating
with the sea. Flounders spawn in May and June, but they may be
angled for at all seasons, as they are at no time so much out of con-
dition as to be unfit for the table, nor so sluggish as not to afford
sport to such persone as indulge in this kind of fishing. In many
streams, they may be taken by line and float, in the same manner and
with the same bait as eels, in fact both these fishes are often caught
together and, if more than a single hook is used, an eel will often be
attached to one hook, and a Flounder to another. They bite freely at
all times of the day, but particularly on the rise of the water by flood
or tide in warm weather; with a little wind, they are to be fished
for at the bottom, with a strong line, and good gut as some of them
are large and struggle much. The best places to angle for them are
by the sides, or at the tails of deep streams, where the bottom consists
of fine gravel, sand or loam, or in still places of the same kind, near
the banks; two or three rods may be used, with a bullet on the lines,
to lie on the ground in the streams, and wh2n in still water, a shot or
two on the line, Well scoured brandlings that are taken from rovien
tan are the best baits, they will also take the lob worm, and even tie
minnow.

THE PIKE AND JACK.

Pike and Jack are the same fish, the only difference being in the
size and age of the fish, and both are of importance, for the difficulty
of taking them is great, and the skill of the angler called is into exer-
cise in drawing them from the water. The Pike has a flat head, the
upper jaw broad and shorter than the lower, which turns up a little
at the end, the teeth are very sharp, disposed in the upper jaw only in
ront, but on both sides of the lower jaw, as well as in the roof of the
THE ANGLER. 299

mouth, and often on the tongue , the number of teeth is not less than

seven hundred. The mouth is very wide; the eyes are small; the

back fin is placed very near the tail; the tail is slightly forhed. The
usual colour of this fish is a pale olive grey, deepest on the back, and
marked on the sides by several yellowish spots or patches; the belly
js white, slightly spotted with black; when in its highest perfection,
however, the colours are
frequently more brilliant,
the sides being of a bright
olive with yellow spots,
the back dark green, and
the belly silvery. The
scales are small, hard and
of an oblong shape. Pike
are sometimes of immense
size, some have been caught weighing as much as seventy or eighty
pounds. Pike are very voracious and will swallow not only fish of a
considerable size, but mice, birds, young ducks, water rats, frogs, &c.
they will even devour theirown young as readily as any thing else.
It is related also of this tyrant, that he has been known to dash at the
nose of cattle who are drinking, as well as the hands of persons lading
water out of ponds or rivers. Yet, it is singular that in hot weather
the Jack loses his appetite, and he becomes so listless that the floats
very near to the surface of the water, and bass there for many hours
at a time, in a sleepy state. At these times other fish swim round
him without being molestedand no baits, however tempting will allare
him, but on the contrary he retreats from every thing of the kind.
Windy weather is alone capable of excitinghim. This continues from
the spawning season till he recovers, and thus Pike and Jack fishing
is not productive of much sport between March and October. Jack
and Pike spawn either in March or April, according to the forward-
ness Of the spring, or warmth of the air, as well as the situation of the
water. They retire in pairs, quitting the rivers for the creeks and
ditches. The usual haunts of Pike and Jack are in still, shady and
unfrequented waters, having a sandy, clayey, or chalky bottom. From
May to October, they place themselves near flags, water docks and


300 THE ANGLER.

other planta, and are seldom found where the stream is rapid, but a
retreat in the neighbourhood of an eddy is a favourite spot for them.
As winter approaches they retire into the deeps, under clay banks, or
where bushes hang over the water, and where stamps and roots of
trees offer them a strong hold. Jack are found in most of our rivers.
The young fry grow rapidly, and will attain a weight of two pounds
the first year, and a pound additional weight each following year, for
many years afterwards. Their perfection should be reckoned from the
time that they lose the name of Jack and take that of Pike. It is
common with anglers to call all under ‘ive pounds weight Jack, and
all above Pike.

Angling for Jack and Pike is a very fascinating sport. That branch
of it called trolling is particularly so, and is pursued by some anglers
with astonishing avidity, to the almost total exclusion of every other
part of the art. Trolling owes much of its charm to the circumstance
that it keeps the fisher in constant exercise, and that the prey to be
to beteken is of a large size, besides which, it may be practised at
that season of the year when other angling is not so successful.
The tackle for Pike fishing is by no means the same as that used for
other angling, it therefore requires more particular notice. In tke
rod used for Jack fishing, the method to be employed, the nature of
the water, and the probable size of the fish are all to be taken into
account. The rod should be much stronger and stouter than common,
and have an anditional joint, so that it may stretch out beyond the
weeds, which is often necessary in river fishing. Bamboo rods are
considered best, but they must be made of very good materials, the
top joint being of whalebone. The line should be extremely long,
and made of plaited or twisted silk; plaited silk is in every respect
the best. The line should be thirty or thirty-five inches in length.
The rod must have rings upon it, for the line to pass through down
the rod, until it reaches a small reel, placed near the handle of the rod,
round which the line is wound, so that when the fishis caught, and
endeavours to escape, the line will unwind itself, the fisherman at the
same time pursuing him up and down the stream, until he is com-
pletly exhausted, when, by winding up the line he may be brought
to the bank.
THE ANGLER. 301

‘Worm fishing for Jack is a species of live bait angling that may
sometimes be practised with success, particularly where small Jacks
are numerous in ditches and dikes, marshes, &c. Of worms, the
brandling 1s to be preferred, and two or three may be used at a time
on a No. 3 or 4 barbel hook, Use a float correspondent to the nature
of the water ; if that be moderately, deep and at all ruffled, a small
sized cork float may be used but when the surface is not disturbed,
use a porcupine’s quill. Retire as much as possible from the bank,
and strike tolerably quick, at least after the second lug is felt, by
which time the Jack has usually got the worm in its throat, A live
fish as a bait, is generally resorted to catch Jack, for every fresh
water fish is eaten by this voracious creature, except tench, and per-
haps large perch. In the southern and midland counties, minnows,
gudgeons, bleak, roach, dace, and chub, are the most common baits.
In the northern parts of the kingdom, the anglers use the above if
they can get them, if not, they have recourse to eels, trout, &c, The
gudgecn is one of the best of the live baits, and is not only liked by
the fish, but will swim strong and live longer than most others, ex-
cept the perch. The gudgeon keeps low also in the water, whereas
most other fish tire and sicken, and soon seek the surface. It ia a
rule that large baits provoke the most attacks, but smail baits take the
most fish, and a good sized gudgeon isa fair measurement for live
bait, where the pike are not of enormous size. Where weeds and
other obstructions abound, live bait cannot be conveniently used, as,
if active, they would entangle the line, and occasion much trouble.
In live bait fishing, a cork float should be used, proportionate to the
size of the bait. The live baitis hooked in various ways, one of the
most simple and least painful being to pass the hook under the back
fin, just even with the roots of its bones, inclosing only a small por-
tion of the skin, by which means the fish will not be materially injured,
and will continue to swim about and show its. Hooking by the lip
is a favourite method with some persons, but it greatly distresses the
fish, and if passed through one lip only, it seldom holds. The bait
being properly fixed, cast it lightly into the water, with the line drawn
out to two thirds the length of the rod, observing to make the first
cast in-shore, but lie as much us possible concealed from view. If
THE ANGLER. 302

success does not follow this, extend the throw further into the water
In all cases, keep the float in view, but endeavour to avoid showing
yourself, particularly in the summer months, when the weather is bot,
warm and bright. At such time, to increase your small chance of
sport, try to get the sun before you and the wind behind you, so that
that neither your shadow nor that of the rod be reflected on the
water.

THE EEL.

There are several varieties of the Eel. One kind, which is very
common, and known to almost every boy, is called the grig. These
bite readily at the hook,
which the common Eel will
not. They have a large
head, a blunter nose, and a
thicker skin. In the Ser-
pentine, Hide Park, there
is another large headed va-
riety, and it may be noticed
that in most standing or
muddy waters, the common
Eel becomes large in the

head, black on the back,
and scien colour beneath, instead of the silvery whiteness of the
variety known among us by the name of the silver Eel. It is said
that the Eel is without scales, but this is an error, for they have scales,
though these are small and close to the body, besides being covered
with a great quantity of skin and slime.

The common Eel is extremely difficult to kill, and may be kept
many hours, or even days, out of water, provided it be placed ina
cool situation. It is also well known that it leaves the water at cer-
tain periods, and wanders about meadows and moist ground, in ques-
of food, or in search of a new situation, Eels go to the sea to spawn
and the young eels ascend the various rivers in millions, in May and
June, Eels lie quiet in deep holes and pools, during the day, and
come out to seek their food by night.


THE ANGLER. 303

The haunts of Eels, during the Spring and Summer months, are
in cavities afforded by roots, stumps, stony masses, and large weed
beds. When the banks are oozy, they generally occupy the holes
below the surface of the water, having an inlet and often an outlet ;
they squeeze themselves also between planks and floorings under the
water, where they are always to be found, as well as in all the depths
about bridge piles, flood gates, &c. &c. In short, wherever thcre is
a hole, they will creep in and make a further hole for themselves to lie
in, and look out for prey, which if it comes within reach, they will
seize on, even in the day, but their habit is to leave these recesses at
night only, when they rove about in search of food.

Float angling for eels is sometimes practiced, with every variety of
worm, on a No. 6, 7, or 8 hook, mounted ona piece of strong gut,
the float is either cork or quill. Let the worm reach the bottom and
trail on it; if two hooks and two baits are used, both hooks must
touch the ground three or four inches from each other. Choose, for
float fishing, deep parts of the water, or gentle currents only, with
muddy or sandy bottoms. Strike two or three seconds after your float
is under water, and then haul out your prize as quickly as possible,
and stop his twisting round the tackle by putting your foot upon him
mmediately behind the head; then crush the head with a blow, or
separate the bone of the neck with a knife, which will enable you to
remove the hook by snipping the mouth with a pair of scissors,
down to the hook, which is often gorged to a considerable distance.
No other plan will secure your hook and line. Ground bait is some-
times useful in this fishing, and is made of small pieces of chicken’s en-
trails, mixed with gravel or sand _A tripping worm buit, on a well
shotted line, with a swall barbel wire hook, about No. 8, will often
succeed in catching them in dark gloomy weather, by the sides of
streams, amongst weeds, &c., but this practice is less successful when
the weather is settled, and on a perfectly bright da/ it will be useless.

This kind of angling will succeed sometimes with Eels, when pieces
of fish, greaves, slugs, and snails ure employed.

Sniggling for Eels, is a practice so ingenious and full of artifice, that
every angler is pleased with it. Every boy who lives withi be sight
of an Eel river can sniggle. The more common country prantice may

20
304 TILE ANGLER,

be thus described :—Take a stick a yard long, with a cleft at one end,
a strong neelle whipped to a small whipcord line, from the eye to the
middle, so that ti2 neeti'e hangs from the middle, which, with a lob-
worm stuck on the needle, constitutes this simple apparatus, The art
consists in putting the worm, needle and line, softly into the mouth
of the Eel holes, which are suffered to remain till taken by the Eel,
when the line and hook are reclaimed, but accompanied by the
Eel also. The more complete and perfect apparatus is as follows :—
The sniggling rod instead of being one yard long ought to be two or
two and a half in length. Two joints of the hazel rods commonly made
up for boys form the best rods, being light and tough. ‘To such a
rod a top must be fixed, and it 16 essential that this should be flexible,
and likewise that it remain bent, that it may be put into the hole ; this
taay be done by having a rod of hazel or willow, and when it has been
bent according to the wants of the flsherman, a small string may be
tied to the point, and that brought down to the middle of the rod, and
tied as tight as may be required. The line employed is not attached
to the rod, but is held in the hand of the angler, either loose or wound ;
the material is fine whipcurd, but a stout plaited line is much better ;
to one end of this line is attached cither a stout hook No. 4 or 5, or
what is much to be preferred, a glover’s or tailor’s button needle, of
about two inches in length, with its extreme point broken off, is now
whipped with some silk, waxed with shoemaker’s wax, first laying
the end of the line nearly half way down the needle, within a quarter
of an inch of the thick or eye end, and tieing it strongly on, the line
will then hang from about the middle of the needle, leaving the smaller
end quite bare, and also a quarter of an inch of the larger, ‘T'o_ bait
the needle, enter the thick end thereof into the worm, near the tail,
and carry it down near to the head, then draw the worm as much back
as will completely cover the needle, the line will then hang from the
tail, and the head will be presented to the Eel, To apply the bait to
the suspected resort of the Eel, put the tail end of the worm a little
way on the point of therod, whether of wire, wood, &c., and thus con-
vey the head end of the worm, just within the mouth of the hole, in a
bank or into a crevice between piles, or any opening between large
stones, allowing as much line to unwind as will suffice for the placing
THE ANGLER, 805

of the worm, This being done, a little time only will elapse, when if
an Eel disposed to take the bait be present, a gentle tug will be felt
sufficient to detach the worm from the rod, on which it cannot of course
be too lightly placed, so that it can be carried to the Eel hole. When
a wire top is used, tie round it, at half an inch from the end, a whip-
ping of silk, to prevent the worm from being pierced by it. tis also
of consequence that the worms should be well scoured, or they will
break to pieces. When a minute has been allowed, you may suppose
that the bait has been gorged, and then, by giving a sudden pull, the
need'e will fix itself across the mouth or throat of the Eel. To draw
him forth, it is requisite that a certain degree of force be used.

Bobbing for Eels is another method of catching this fish. Take
a quantity of well scoured lob worms, having ready a long needle,
with three lengths of worsted, slightly twisted together, put the needje
lengthways through the worm, and draw them down to the worsted,
when two yards are thus prepared, fold them up in links, and tie them
to about two yards of good twine. Having madea knot on it, eight
inchea from the worms, slip a piece of lead with a hole in it,eweighing
from a quarter to three quarters of a pound, according to th curren
fished in, down the line to the knot. Fasten the line so armed toa
managable pole, and let the lead lie on the bottom in thick muddy
water, when the tide runs up strong, or near the mouth of same river.
When the Eels nibble at the bait, they can be felt; give some little
time before it is pulled up, which must be gently, till near the surface,
and then hoist out quickly, the worsted sticking in the Eels teeth pre-
vents their loosening themselves until the line is slackened by throw-
ing them into the boat or upon the ground, When they are removed,
cast the bait in again, frequently great numbers are thus caught,
especially of grigs.

THE SALMON.

This fish is taken in the greatest quantities in the north of England,
Scotland, and Ireland, but is found in most rivers running into the
sca. They make their way up the rivers for miles, to deposit their
spawn, about September or October, and then return to the sea to
recover their strength. They may be taken with small fish and large
306 THE ANGLER,

lobworms, but the best bait is the artificial fly. Few Salmon fishers
agree as to the fly they use, nor is it necessary to follow any particular
model, provided they be large and gaudy. The dragon fly and the
Kingfisher will be found killing, with hook No. 2 or 3.

Salmon generally swim up the stream, and love the heat of the sun,

The length of the rod should be proporticned to the breadth of the
river, and not less than fifteen feet; a large reel is also required, that
will hold a line about eighty yards in length.

The large fish seen in the engraving at the head of these descriptions
is a representation of the Salmon.

GRAYLING OR UMBER,

This fish is very similar in shape to the trout, but rather longer
and more slender, the sides area beautiful silvery grey, with numerous
longitudinal stripes. It swims very swif'ly, disappearing almost like
a shadow, whence its old name of Umber, from the Latin. It may
be taken with the same baits, and at the same stand as the trout. The
principal months to angle for Grayling are September, October, and
November. The smaller ones will then be found in the streams with
sandy or stony bottoms, and may readily be taken with the fly. When
you have hooked one, play it with caution, for they are very tender in
the mouth. In fishing with wort or maggot, strike the moment the
float descends ;—they swim down stream, In fishing with the fly,
they require a smaller fly than the trout, finer gut, and a quicker hand
and eye.

TO CATCH FISH BY THE HAND.

Take Coculus Indicus, and pound it in a mortar till if makes a
paste, with a very small quantity of thin milk, make bails of the size
of a common pill, and throw them into standing water. It does not
answer in running streams. ‘lhe fish that take it will very soon be
intoxicated, and swim on tue surface of the water, and you may easily
take them with your landing net.


THE ANGLER. 307

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FLY FISHING.

Fishing with the artificial fly deserves to be considered as a more
pleasing sport than any kind of bottom fishing, and as it requires
much more neatness and skill in all its parts, to excel in it must as-
suredly be more gratifying.

It requires less preparation, and presents infinately more variety.
The bottom fisher must make ready his worms and his baits, and
visit his ‘‘ ground ’’ the night before, to prepare his intended victims
for his reception. But the fly-fisher, rod in hand, and his book of
flies in his pocket, free from all encumbrance roams for miles along
the banks of the stream, surveying nature in all her beauties, “ listing
to the melody of the waters,”’ and enjoying the while a healthful and
gentle exercise.

Fly- fishing, to be successful, requires great neatness; the learner
should, if possible, go out with some experienced angler, and watch
his movements narrowly, and imitate them as well as he can. We
have before described the rod and the line; we will now endeavour
to give a few precepts to be observed by all who attempt this branch
of the art, without having a living example before their eyes.

The tyro, having provided himself with a rod proportioned to his
308 THE ANGLER.

strength and the stream, must dismiss the idea of a whip from his
mind, and eneavour to use it as a roc—let him begin with the line
only, not putting on any flies, trying at a short length first, and
lengthening it gradually; the rod should be carried gently back
without effort, and thrown forward again when the line has reached
its extent behind him; great care must be taken in this part of the
‘*manceuvre,” or the fly will be whipped off when he comes to use
one. After attaining tolerable proficiency in this, the learner may
then put on one fly, and fish for awhile with that, adopting two or
three when he is able to make proper use of them; fishing in rapids
until he has become expert. In order to know how to drop your fly
at any particular spot, it will be well to fix upon some object floating
in the water, and take that as a marktoaim at. Youmust endeavour
to throw your line so that the bottom fiy shall reach the water first,
it must be done as lightly as possible, so that it may resemble a na-
tural fly settling upon the water; you must suffer the line to float
gently down the stream, at the same time dragging it towards you to
your left hand.

The best time for angling for the fly is when there is a gentle breeze
upon the water ; south or south west winds are to be prefered, when
the water has been disturbed by heavy rains and is just resuming its
natural colour, or when the day is dull and cloudy after a moonlight
night. In cold weather, as the fish get into deep water, you should
let the fly sink a little. If you see a rise, throw your fiy about half
a yard above, and let it fall down with the stream, and strike the
moment the fish rises.

FLIES.

Artificial flies may be had in every variety at the tackle shops, and
they are made so naturally, that we should advise those who have not
the opportunity of taking a lesson from an experienced hand, to
to trust to them rather than to any clumsy attempts of their own.
For those who wish to make their own flies we give the following in-
structions, and should recommend that they pull to pieces carefully
a well made fly, and imitate it as nearly as possible.

It will be requisite to have every thing in readiness before com-
THE ANGLER. 369

mencing ; a hook of the yroper size, a feather of the righ colour,
stripped down on each side, leaving just as much as will do for the
wings at the fine end, a piece of fine gut free from imperfection, and
properly tested as to its strength, and a piece of fine silk well waxed
with shoemaker’s wax. Hold the hook in the Jeft hand, wrap the
silk round the bare hook two or three times, and put the finest end
of the gut on the under side of the hook. If for a hockle fly, begin
at the bend and work up to the head ; after turning three or
four times round the hook and gut, fasten in the hackle, and continue
the winding of the silk until it reaches the end of the hook, then turn
it back two or three times to form the head; the dubbing must now
be twisted round the silk, wrapped upon the hook for nearly half the
proposed length of the body; fasten it there by a single loop, that
voth hands may be at liberty to manage the hackle, When sufficient
of the feather is wound upon the hook, the remainder should be
held under the thumb of the left hand, and the entangled fibres
picked out with a needle. ‘The silk and dubbing must now be twisted
over the end of the hackle, until the body of the fly is of the length
required, and then fastened. If gold or silver twist is used, the
twist should be fastened to the lower end of the body before the
dubbing is applied to the silk. To make a winged fly, the same me-
thod may be observed in tying on the hook, then take the feather.
which is to form the wings, and place it even on the upper side of
the shank, with the roots pointed towards the bend of the hook;
fasten the feather by winding the silk over it, cut the root ends close
with a pair of sissors, and divide the wings as equally as possible
with a needle, passing the silk two or three times between them to
make them stand in the proper position; carry the silk down the
shank of the hook the proposed length of the body, and fasten it ;
then apply the dubbing to the silk, and twist it towards the wings;
fasten in the hackle for legs, and wind it neatly under the wings so
as to hide the ends of the cut fibres: the silk must be fastened above
the wings. In making flies, it is not necessary to copy nature nar-
rowly, or to adopt the fly which at the time happens to be on the
water. Fancy flies, as the fly-makers term them, often take the
fish where others fail, The fly at the end of the line is called a
401 THE ANGLER.

stretcher, and the next droppers ; the first dropper should be about
a yard from the stretcher, and the second about three quarters of a
yard from the first, made on pieces of gut about four inches long, to
detatch at pleasure. The materials required for artificial flies are,—
feathers of the grouse, snipe, bittern, woodcock, partridge, landrail,
golden plover, starling, and jay; hackles from cocks and peacocks ;
furs of all colours, from the skins of squirrels, moles, and water
rats; camel's hair, hare’s ear, and fur from its neck, and the yellow
fur from the neck of the martin; mohairs of different shades, and
camlets; black horse hair, hog’s down, died various colours, gold
and silver twist, and sewing silk of various colours and thicknesses ;
—a pair of fine pointed sissors and small pliers are indispensable.

We shall now proceed to mention a variety of favourite flies, with
the materials requisite to manufacture their artificial substitutes :—

Green Drake or May Fiy.—This is one of the most valuable flies
for trout fishing. It appears about the 20th of May, and continues
about a month ; it will kill at any time of the day, especially in suill
waters; it is found in great plenty on the margins of sandy gravelly
rivulets. The wings are made of the light feather of a grey drake,
died yellow; the body of amber coloured mohair, ribbed with green
silk ; the head of peacock’s harl ; the tail of three long hairs from a
sable muff.

Black Gnat.—This is a favourite fly with some persons, and is
generally considered a good killer, especially when the water is low;
it comes on about the end of April, and continues till the end of May.
The body is made of black ostrich’s harl, and the wings of a pale
starling’s feather ; it must be dressed short and thick.

Hare's Ear.—This is on during the Summer months: the wings
are made of the feather of a starling’s wing; the body of far from
the hare’s ear; the legs of a ginger cock’s hackle.

Coek Tail.—This is on during the Summer months: the wings are
made of a feather from a snipe’s wing ; the body of yellow mohair.

Whirling Dun.—This is also on during the sammer months; the
wings are made of a snipe’s feather; the body of blue fur, wrapped
with yellow silk, anda blue cock’s hackle for legs; the tail of two
hairs from a light coloured muff.
THE ANGLER. 311

Grey Drake.—This fly generally appears about the same time as
the green drake, or a little after, and very much resembles it in shape.
It kills best from three till dark. The wings are made of a dark
grey feather of the mallard ; the body of white ostrich’s harl, striped
with dark silk; the head of a peacock’s harl; and the tail of three
hairs from a sable muff.

Cow-dung Fly.—This fy appears in March, and will kill till Sep.
tember. The wings are made of the feather of a landrail; the body
of yellow camlet, mixed with a little brown bear's fur; and a ginger
hackle for legs : the wings should be dressed flat.

Bee Fly.—-This is an excellent chub fly, and is on during the summer
months: the wings are made from the feathers of a blue pigeon’s
wing; the body of chenil of various colours, arranged in stripes in
the following order,—black, white, light yellow, white, black, white ;
the legs of a black hackle.

Red Palmer.—Palmers are all good killing baits, and may be used
during all the fishing months. ‘The body of this is made of dark
red mohair, ribbed with gold twist, and wrapped with a red cock’s
hackle.

Kingdom Fly.—This is on from June to August, and will kill fish
in any part of the kingdom, The wings are made of a woodcock’s
feather ; the body of white silk striped with green ; and the legs of a
red cock’s hackle.

Peacock Palmer.—-The body of this is made of a peacock’s harl,
wrapped with a dusky red cock’s hackle.

White Gnat.—Thisis a delicate fly, and will kill well in an evening
in the summer months. The wings are made of a small white feather ;
thebody of white silk; and the legs of a red cock’s hackle.

Blue Dun,—This appears early in March, andisa good fly through-
out the year. The best time for useing it is from twelve to two in
March and April. The wings are made of a starling’s feather; the
body of the blue fur from a water rat, mixed with a little lemon co-
toured mohair; the tail is forked, and should be made of two fibres
from the feather used for the wing.

Great White Moth.—Thbis is a night fiy, and should be used in a
dark gloomy night, from eleven o’clock till day-break: when you
312 THE ANGLER.

haer the fish, strike immediately. The wings aremade of a feather from
the white owl; the body of white cotton, and a white cock’s hackle
wrapped round the body.

Red Ant.—This is on from June to August, and is a good killer,
trom eleven till six. The wings are made of the light feather of a
starling ; the body of peacock’s harl, made thick at the tail, anda
ginger hackle for legs.

Gold Spinner.—This appears about the middle of June, and is on
till the end of August. The wings are made of a starling’s feather,
the body of orange silk, ribbed with gold twist ; aud the legs of a red
hackle.

Governor.—This appears early in June, and may be fished with till’
August. The wings are a woodcock’a feather ; the body of a peacock’s
barl, tied with orange silk,

March Brown.—This fly appears about the middle of March, and
continues on to the end of April: itis a most excellent fly, and is
best from eleven o’clock till three. The wings are made of the pale
mottled feather from the tai] of a partridge; the body of fur from a
hare’s ear, well mixed with a little yellow worsted; and a grizzled
cock’s hackle for legs.

Stone Fly.—This fly appears about the beginning of April, and
has been found to kill before that time: it may be used at any time
of the day. The wings are made of a dusky blue cock’s hackle, ora
mottled feather from a hen pheasant; the body of dark brown, and
yellow camlet mixed ; and a grizzled hackle for legs ; the wings should
lie flat.

Black Silver Palmer.—Th2 body of black ostrich’s harl, ribbed
with silver twist, and wrapped with a black cock’s hackle.

Wiliow Fly.—This fiy appears in the beginning of September, and
kills well during the remainder of the season. ‘The wings are made
of a dark grizzled cock’s hackle, and the body of blue squirrel’s fur,
mixed with yellow mohair.

Yellow Palmer.—The body is made of a white hackle died yellow;
the wings of yellow silk.

Black Palmer.—The body of black ostrich’s harl, wrapped with a
black cock’s hackle.
THE ANGLER, 333

The Haze Fly.—The haze fly is on during May and June. The
wings are made from the red feather from a partridge’s tail, not too
dark ; the body of ostrich’s harl, of two colours, black and purple,
twisted very thick, and the legs of a black cock’s hackle.

Fern Fly.—This appears about the middle of June, and is a very
good killing fly. The wings are made of woodcock’s feathers, the
body of orange-coloured silk, and a pale dun hackle for legs.

Little Iron Blue.—This fly comes on early in May, continuing till
the middle of June, it is found in great numbers on cold windy days.
It kills best from e.even to five. The wings are upright, and should
be made of a feather from under 4 cormorant’s wing, or from the tail
of a tom-tit; the body of pale blue fur wrapped with purple silk.

Gravel or Spider Fly.—This appears in the middle of April, and
continues about a fortnight. It is a very delicate fly, and is not often
seen on cold days ; but it is found to kill best then. The wings are
made of the feathers from a woodcock’s wing, the body of lead-coloured
silk, with a black cock’s hackle wrapped under the wings.

Granam, or Green Tail.—This appears about the same time as the
Gravel Fly, and continues on about a week. The proper time to use
it is from seven to eleven, and after five in the evening. The wings.
lie flat, and are made of the shaded feather from a partridge or ben
pheasant ; the body of the dark fur from a hare’s ear, mixed with a
little blue fur, and a yellow grizzled cock’s hackle for legs,

Arl Fly.—This fly appears about the end of May, and continues for
two months, and is a good killing fly at all hours, if the water is not
very low. The wings should be made from the feather of a brown
hen and a grizzle hackle for legs ; the body of peacock’sharl, worked
with dark red silk.

Blue Gnat.—This fly appears about the end of June, and continues
about a fortnight; it is a good fly for trout in September. The wivgs
are made of a feather from a snipe’s wing, or a blue cock’s hackle;
the body of light blue fur mixed with a little yellow mohair.

Oak Fly.—This fly is frequently found on oak, ash, and witlow
trees, in May and June, and points its head downwards. The wings
lie flat on the back, and are made with a feather from the wing of a
partidge; the head of the fur from the hare’s ear the body of dun
fur mixed with orange and yellow mohair.
314 THE ANGLER.

Yellow Sally.—This appears early in May and continues till the
end of June. The wings should be flat, and are made of a hackle died
yellow; the body of yellow worsted unravelled and mixed with fur
from a hare’s ear.

Whirling Blue.—This appears early in August and continues till
the end of the season. The wings are made of the feather of a sea
swallow, the body of pale blue fur mixed with yellow mohair, and a
blue hackle for legs.

Dragon Fly,—The wings of a reddish brown feather from the wing
of a cock turkey, the body of auburn coloured mohair, wrapped with
yellow silk, and a ginger cock’s hackle wrapped under the wings.

King fisher.—The wings of a feather from the neck or tail of a pea;
cock ; the body of deep green mohair, wrapped with light green silk
and a jay’s feather striped blue and white under the wings.

RIVERS, CANALS, ETC., IN THR NEIGHBOURHOOD OÂ¥ LONDON.

The New River is the place where the London angler generally
makes his debut ; it is free for any person to fish in, and is well stocked
from its source, near Ware, in Hertfordshtre, to Islington. Chub,
roach, dace, perch, gudgeons, ells, bleak, and minnows, may be
taken within a mile of London.

The Thames contains all kinds of fish. The jurisdiction of the
Lord Mayor of London extends to Stains; up to that point no one
angle during the months of March, April, and May, under penalty
of twenty pounds; during these months most of the fresh water fish
cast their spawn.

From Stains, to Battersea, various places are staked out, and
and bailiffs are appointed to preserve the fish from being improperly
taken; within these places the angler may expect good sport, with
nearly all kinds of fish.

Merton river contains trout.

The River Lea contains many fine fish ; it runs into the Thames at
Blackwall. The fish are well protected, and several miles are pre-
served, to which an annual payment admits you; in some parts this
isa guinea, in others half a guinea. It contains jack, pike, carp,
tench, perch, barbel, chub, bream, roach, dace, bleak, gudgeons,
eels, and sometimes a trout may be taken.
THE ANGLER, 315

The Mole, which empties itself into the Thames at East Mousley,
in Surrey, contains pike, perch, trout, chub, carp, roach, dace,
bream, gudgeons, and other fish, There is also good sport in the
neighbourhood of Esher, Leatherhead, Cobham, Dorking, and
Riegate.

Woodford River has perch, chub roach, and dace.

The Surry Canal Dock, at Rotherhithe, is well stocked with jack,
perch, roach, bream, and eels. It is a subscription water ; a guinea
a year, or a shilling a day for each day’s angling.

Mitcham River contains ‘rout,

The Commercial Docks, at Rotherhithe, are well stocked with
jack, perch, bream, and eels, No one can fish without a director's
annual admission ticket.

Ilford River, in the upper part, abounds with roach and dace, and
there are also some perch ; between Ilford and the Thames there are

ike.
P Stratford River has roach, dace, chub, perch.

Waltham River has large barbel, chub, roach, dace, gudgeons,
eels, pike, and carp.

Houndslow river has roach, dace, perch, pike, and gudgeon.

Colne River has chub, roach, dace, perch, and pike.

Uxbridge River has fine trout, but it is rented, and you must pay
so much per pound for what you kill.

Carshalton River contains trout.

Lewisham River has goad trout, roach, chub, gudgeon, perch, and
dace.

Wandsworth River has gudgeon, dace, flounder, perch, pike, carp,
and trout.

Weybridge River has large carp, jack, roach, dace, flounders,
barbel, and gudgeon.

Camberwell Canal has ecle, jack, roach, and perch.

Paddington Canal has roach, chub, perch, jack, gudgeons and eels,

LAWS CONCERNING ANGLING.

In the act called the Black Act, it is stated, that any person being
armed and disguised, and who shall steal, or unlawfully take away,
316 THE ANGLER.

any fish oat of a river or pond, or maliciously break down and destroy
the mound or head of any river, whereby the fish shall be lost or
destroyed, or shall rescue any person it custody for such offence, or
procure eny other to assist him therein, he shall be found guilty of
felony, without benefit of clergy.

If any one take, destroy, or kill, any fish, in any enclosed ground,
the same being private property, he shall, on conviction, torfeit five
pounds to the owner of such fish, or, in default of payment, be com-
mi tted to the House of Correction, for any time not exceeding six
ca’endar months.

Any person br aking into an enclosed or private ground, and shall
steal or destroy the fish kept in any pond, stream, or river therein, he
shalt be transported for seven years, and any person receiving the fish,
or buying it, knowing the same to be stolen, shall suffer the like
punishment.

No persons may have in their possession, or keep, any net or other
engine for taking fish, but the makers and sellers thereof, and the
owner or renter of a river fishery, except fishermen and their appren-
tices, legally authorized in navigable rivers; and the owner or occupier
of the said river may seize, and keep, and convert to his own use,
every net, &c, which he shall discover laid or used, or in the possession
of any person thus fishing without his consent.

Any person damaging or intruding, by using fish hooks, or other
engincs to catch fish, without consent of the owner or occupier, must
pay any amount the magistrate or justice orders, provided it exceeds
not treble the damages, and also a fine, not exceeding ten shillings,
for the use cf the poor of the parish wherein the trespass was cum-
mitted, or be committed to the House of Correction, for any term not
exceeding one calendar month, unless he enters into a bond, with one
surety, in a sum not exceeding ten pounds, not to offend again, and
the justice may cut or destroy the nets, &c. taken with the offender
when apprehended,

If any person should unlawfully or maliciously cut, break down, or
destroy any head or dam of a fish pond, or should unlawfully fish
therein, he shall, at the prosecution of the king, or the owner, be
imprisoned three months, or pay treble damoges, and, after such im-
THE ANGLER, 317

prisonment, shall find sureties for seven years for his good behaviour
or remain in prison till he does.

These are the several acts for securing private property in regard
to fish; but any man may erect a fish pond, mound, canal, &c. with-
out licence, because it is a matter of profit, and the increase of
provisions ; also any person or persons considering themselves wronged
or aggrieved by any decision against them by the magistrate or justice,
may appeal against it at the Quarter Sessions, but that determination
will be final.

CONCLUDING REMARKS,

Weather- wisdom is of the greatest benefit to the angler :—our young
friends should therefore pay attention to, and remember the state of
the wind, the clouds, &c., on those days when they find the fish bite,
and when they refuse to take a bait. ‘They may thus not only be
enabled to say when there is a prospect of sport, but also save them
eelves much trouble and disappointment, by staying at home to im-
prove their tackle, or amusing themselves in some other manner
instead of following ‘‘ the devious windings of the stream,”’ when the
weather is unpromising. When the wind blows right across the
water, fish with your back toward it; not merely because you can
throw your line with more facility, but because the fish will certainly
beon that side, watching for the flies, &c. that may be blown from
the bank iuto the water. Throw as near th> bank on which you stand
as the wind, if it be high, will suffer you. In the summer time when
the sun is out in all his splendour, and there is scarcely a breath of
wind stirring, you may often see the fish basking in clear low water,
with their fins and part of their backs above the surface. On these
occasions, they will rise greedily at ahackle, if your foot length be
fine, and you fish ata sufficient distance to be unperceived, under
banks, or straight down the sides of streams. It is supposed that
he best winds for angling are the soutn, west, and south eust. In
hot weather, the cooler the wind blows the better; but in the early
part of the season, and also in autumn, a warm wind is more advan-
ageous, When the wind comes from a cold quarter, such p'aces as
are most protected from its influence should be resorted to, Acloudy
o18 THE ANGLER.

day, with light showers, after a bright night, in general vroves most
favourable to the angler, who may also expect good sport even on
those days when heavy rains descend during the intervals between th:
showers. When acalm bright morning is succeeded by a gloomy
day with a brisk wind without any fall of rain, the fish,—at least, the
larger sorts,—are almost sure to feed.

With these observations we take leave of this subject; our parting
aspiration shall be in our favourite lines from our favourite author,—

Let those now fish who never fished before,
And those who always fished now fish the more.




This is the purest exercise of health,
The kind refresher of the summer-heats ;
Nor, when cold Winter keens the brightening flood,
Would I weak shivering linger on the brink.
Thus life redoubles, and is oft preserved
By the bold swimmer, in the swift illapse
Of accidents disasterous. Hence the limbs,
Knit into force, and the same Roman arm
That rose victorious o’er the conquered earth
First learned, while tender, to subdue the wave.
THOMSON.

SwimMING is anart of which no boy ought to be ignorant, because
it is essential to the preservation of life. It adds materially to the
pleasures of bathing, as it does also to its usefulness. It calls into
active exercise all the muscles of the body, and, therefore, teuds much
to strengthen the human frame. As we before said, swimming also
supplies the means by which in times of any accident, or of peril, we
may preserve Our own lives, or be instrumental in saving the lives of
others.

The whole science of swimming consists in multiplying the surface
of the body by extensive motions, so as to displace a greater quantity
of liquid. As the first requisite of oratory was said to be action, the
second, action, and the third action, so the first, second, and third
requisite in learning to swim is courage. Now there is a vast differ-
ence between courage and temerity ; courage proceeds from confidence,
temerity from carelessness ; courage is calm and collected, temerity is
headstrong and rash; courage ventures into the water carefully, teme-
rity begins to dive before he knows whether he can swim or sink.
Therefore let all young swimmers mark the difference between courage
and temerity. 21
320 SWIMMING.

The effects of cold bathing upon the body vary according to the
construction of the bather, and areinfluenced by the manner in which
the bath is enjoyed. If a person, in the full enjoyment of health,
plunge into cold water, and continue in it but a short time, the sen-
sation experienced on emerging from the water is highly pleasurable ;
and when the body is dried, a glow of warmth pervades the whole
frame, and the bather becomes refreshed and invigorated. The
bather ought, therefore, not to continue for any length of time in the
water ; else the skin will become pale and contracted, and assume the
peculiar appearance termed goose-skin ; numbness and shivering, and
a sensation of weariness will ensue. To remain in the water after
these appearances, is not only to throw away all the benefits of the
previous exercise, but to bring about an exhaustion of strength, so
great as sometimes to prove fatal.

In proceeding to bathe, certain precautions are necessary. Moderate
exercise, accompanied by a general glow upon the surface of the body,
is a better preparation for it than total inactivity.

Before we proceed to offer any remarks upon swimming as an art,
we shall give

DOCTOR FRANKLIN’S ADVICE TO SWIMMERS.

‘ The only obstacle to improvement in this necessary and life- pre-
serving art, is fear; and itis only by overcoming this timidity, that
you can expect to become a master of the following acquirements.
it is very common for novices in the art of swimming to make use of
corks or bladders to assist in keeping the body above water; some
have utterly condemned the use of them; however, they may be of
service in supporting the body while one is learning what is cailed the
stroke, or that manner of drawing in and out the hands and feet, that
produce progressive motion. But you will be no swimmer till you
can place confidence in the power of the water to support you; I
would, therefore, advise the acquiring that confidence in the first
place; especially as I have known several, who, by a little practice
necessary for that purpose, have insensibly acquired the stroke, taught
as if it were by nature. The practice 1 mean is this: choosing a
place where the water deepens gradually, walk coolly into it till it
SWIMMING, 321

ia up to your breast; then turn round your face to the shore, and
throw an egg into the water between you and the shore ; it will sink
to the bottom, and be easily seen there if the water be clean. It
must lie in the water so deep that you cannot reach to take it up but
by diving for it. To encourage yourself in order to do this, reflect
that your progress will be from deep to shallow water, and that at
any time you may, by bringing your legs under you, and standing on
the bottom, raise your head far above the water; then plunge under
it with your eyes open, which must be kept open before going under,
as you cannot open the eyelids for the weight of water above you;
throwing yourself toward the egg, and get forward, by the action of
your hands and feet against the water, till within reach of it. In
this attempt»you will find that the water buoys you up against your
inclination ; that it is not so easy to sink as you imagine, and that
you cannot, but by active force, get down to the egg. Thus you feel
the vower of water to support you, and learn to confide in that power,
while your endeavours to overcome it, and reach the egg, teach you
the manner of acting on the water with your feet and hands, which
action is afterwards used in swimming, to support your head higher
above the water, or to go forward through it.

“‘] would the more earnestly press you to the trial of this method,
because, though I think I shall satisfy you that your body is lighter
than water, and that you might float in it a long time with your mouth

free for breathing, if you would put yourself in a proper posture, and .

would be still, and forbear struggling; yet, till you have obtained
this experimental confidence in the water, I cannot depend upon your
having the necessary presence of mind to recollect the posture, and
the directions I gave you relating toit. The surprise may put all out
of your mind.

*‘ Though the legs, arms, and head of 2 human body, being solid
parts, are, specifically, somewhat heavier than fresh water, yet the
trunk, particularly the upperpart, for its hollowness, is so much
lighter than water, as that the whole of the body, taken alto
gether, is too hight to sink wholly under water, but some part will
remain above, until the lungs become filled with water, which happens
322 SWIMMING.

from drawing water to them instead of air, when a person, in the
fright, attempts breathing, while the mouth and nostrils are under
water.

“The legs and arms sre specifically lighter than salt water, and
will be supported by it, so that a human body cannot sink in salt
water, though the lungs were filled as above, but from the greater
specific gravity of the head. Therefore, a person throwing himself
on his back in salt water, and extending his arms, may easily lay so
as to keep his mouth and nostrils free for breathing: and, by a small
motion of his hand, may prevent turning, if he should perceive any
tendency to it.

‘In fresh water, if a man throw himself on his back, near the
surface, he cannot long continue in that situation but by psoper action
of his hands on the water; if he use no such action, the legs and
lower part of the body will gradually sink till he come into an upright
position, in which he will continue suspended, the hollow of his
breast keeping the head uppermost.

“But if, in this erect position, the head be kept upright above
the shoulders, as when we stand on the g ound, the immersion will,
by the weight of that part of the head that is out of the water, reach
above the mouth and nostrils, perhaps a little above the eyes, so that
a man cannot long remain suspended in water, with his head in
that position.

‘‘The body continuing suspended as before, and upright, if the
head be leaned quite back, so that the face look upward, all the back
part of the head being under water, and its weight, consequently, in
great measure supported by it, the face will remain above water quite
free for breathing, will rise an inch higher every inspiration, and sink
as much every expiration, but never so ow as that the water may
come over the mouth.

“If therefore, a person unacquainted with swimming, and falling
accidentally into the water, could have presence of mind sufficient
to avoid struggling and plunging, and to let the body take this na-
tural position, he might continue long safe from drowning, tii!,
perhaps, help should come; for, as to the clothes, their additional
SWIMMING. 523

weight when immersed is very inconsiderable, the water supporting
it; though, when he comes out of the water, he will find them very
heavy indeed,

“ But, as I said before, I would not advise you, or any one, to
depend on having this presence of mind on such an occcasion, but
learn fairly to swim, as I wish all men were taught to do in their
youth ; they would, on many occasions be the safer for having that
skill; and, on many more, the happier, as free from painful appre-
hensions of danger, to say nothing of the enjoyment in so delightful
andw holesome an exexcise. Soldiers particularly should, methinks,
all be taught to swim; it might be of frequent use, either in sur-
prising an enemy or saving themselves; and if I had now boys to
educate, I should prefer those schools (other things being equal)
where an opportunity was afforded for acquiring so advantageous an
art, which, once learned, is never forgotten.

“T know by experience, that it is a great comfort to a swimmer,
who bas a considerable distance to go, to turn himself sometimes on
his back, and to vary, in other respects, the means of procuring a
progressive motion.

‘When he is seized with the cramp in the leg, the method of
driving it away is, to give the parts affected a sudden, vigourous, and
violent shock; which he may do in the air as he swims on his back.

“‘ During the great heats in summer there is no denger in bathing,
however warm we may be, in rivers which have been thoroughly
warmed by the sun. But to throw one’s self into cold spring water
when the body has been heated by exercise in the sun, is an impru-
dence which may prove fatal. 1 once knew an instance of four young
men, who, having worked at harvest in the heat of the day, witha
view of refreshing themselves, plunged into a spring of cold water;
two died upon the spot, athird next morning, and the fourth recovered
with great difficulty. A copious draught of cold water, in similar
circumstances, is frequently attended with the same effect, in North
America,

‘ The exercise of swimming is one of the most healthy and sgree-
able in the world, After having swam for an hour or two in the
evening, one sleeps cooly the whole night, even during the most ar-
324 SWIMMING.

dent heats of summer. Perhaps the pores being cleansed, the
insensible perspiration increases and occasions this coolness. It is
certain that much swimming is the means of stopping a diarhoea, and
even of producing a constipation. With respect to those wbo do not
know how to swim, or who are affected with a diarrhoea at a season
which does not permit them to use that exercise, a warm bath, by
cleansing and purifying the skin, is found very salutary, and often effects
a radical cure. I speak from my own experience, frequently repeated,
and that of others to whom I have recommended this.

‘‘ When I was a boy, I amused myself one day with flying a paper
kite, and approaching the banks of a lake, which was near a mile
broad, I tied the string to a stake, and the kite ascended to a very
considerable height above the pond, while I was swimming. In a
little time, being desirous of amusing myself with my kite, and enjoy-
ing at the same time the pleasure of swimming, I returned, and
loosing from the.stake the string with the little stick which was
fastened to it, went again into the water, where I found that, lying on
my back, and holding the stick in my hand, I was drawn along the
surface of the water in a very agreeable manner. Having then engaged
another boy to carry my clothes round the pond, to a place which I
pointed out to him, on the other side, I began to cross the pond with
my kite, which carried me quite over without the least fatigue, and
with the greatest pleasure imaginable. I was only obliged occasionally
to halt a little in my course, and resist its progress, when it appeared
that, by following too quick, I lowered the kite too much, by doing
which occasionally 1 made it rise again, I have never since that
time practised this singular mode of swimming, though I think it not

impossible to cross, in this manner from Dover to Calais. The packet-
boat, however, is still preferable.”’


SWIMMING. 325

THE PRACTICE OF SWIMMING.

ENTERING THE WATER.-——STRIKING OUT.

Before entering, it is necessary to wet the head, in order to pre-
vent the pressure of the water forcing the blood up into the bead too
quckly. Dr. Franklin recommends the young learner to walk into
the water upto the breast ;
next, to lie down gently
on his belly, keeping the
breast advancing forward,
and the thorax inflated ;
and then, drawing up his
legs from the bottom, to
strike them forward alter-
nately with the arms, as
oil seen in the engra ing.
The back can scarcely be too much hollowed, or the head too much
thrown back; as those who neglect these points will swim with their
feet too near the surface, instead of allowing them to be about two ©
feet deep in the water. The hands should be placed just in front of
the breast, the fingers pointed forward, and kept close together, with
the thumbs to the edge of the fore fingers; the palms undermost, and

ughtly hollowed. The hands should be struck forward to their utmost
extent, so as not to break the surface of the water, but to make a
sweep as low as the hips, level with the breast: next, draw them back
again quickly, by bringing the arms toward the side, bending the
elbows, and letting the hands hang down, while the arms are raised,
and the hands are brought together as before. In moving the legs
alternately with the hands, they must be drawn up with the knees in-
ward, and the soles of the feet inclined outward, and pushing against
the water, and they should then be thrown backward as widely apart
as possible, These motions of the hands and legs may be practised
out of the water; and whilst exercising the legs, which can only be


326 SWIMMING

done one at a time, the learner may rest one hand on the back of a
chair to steady himself, while he moves the opposite leg. In short, to
advance properly, and secure regular buoyancy, the legs and feet must
act alternately ; the arms descending while the legs are rising, and
the arms rising while the legs descend. The practice of rising with
the water at every stroke, or breasting, should be avoided, as it tires
the body, and is inelegant. If the learner, in his first attempts, sink
a little, or swallow some water, he must not be discouraged, as all
beginners experience such trifles; whilst the difficulty of breathing,
felt on first entering the water, will vanish as proficiency is acquired.
The swimmer should draw in his breath at the instant that the hands,
descending to the hips, cause his head to rise above the surfacs of
the water; and he should exhale his breath at the moment his body
's propelled forward, through the action of the legs; if he act contrary
10 these rules, he must inevitably draw in water every time he breathes.

In walking into the
water, it is very disagree-
able to have the cold water
creeping as it were inch by
inch along the skin, and
persons experienced in
bathing prefer plunging in,
There are two different
modes of plunging to be
acquired ; the flat plunge,
which is necessary to be
acquired in shallow water,
and the deep plunge, which
is used where there is a considerable depth of water. In this plunge
the arms must be outstretched, the knees bent, and the body leant
forward till the head descends nearly to the feet, when the spine and
knees are extended. In the flat plunge, the swimmer must fling
himself forward in an inclined direction, according to the depth or
shallowness of the water.

Before entering the water, the young swimmer should make him-
self thoroughly convinced that the spot is safe, that there are no holes


SWIMMING, 327

in it, no weeds at the bottom, and that it does not contain any stones
likely to cut the feet; he must also be cautions that he does not
enter a stream whose eddy sweeps round a projecting point, or hollow;
the point should slope off gradually, so that he may proceed for ten
or twelve yards from the shore before the water rises to the level of
his armpits.

AIDS IN SWIMMING.—CORKS AND BLADDERS

Some persons advise the young swimmer to use these, while others
as violently objectto them. It appears to us, that the best assistance
a learner can have is one of the long bladders or wizands sold by the
butchers, and used for the covering of large sausages ; one of these
should, after being made wet, be blown out, and then tied round the
neck of the swimmer, whose head will thus be kept above water
while he is learning the stroke; the quantity of air in the bladder
should be gradually lessened as the learner acquires practice. This
aid we consider as highly beneficial, and entirely different to a large
bladder or five or six corks fastened to the shoulders, which certainly
do more harm than good. At the same time we must allow, that
when a young swimmer has corks he gencrally feels the greater con-
fidence in himself, and as confidence is a feeling most important to
attain, so they are useful in urging him on, but they must speedily,
though gradually, be laid aside, so that he may learn to do without
them by degrees. The corks used are six or eight in number, made
in pairs, one pair eight, another six, and a third about four inches
over, These are strung on a cord, knotted at each end, so that they
shall slip along it without coming off. The corks are divided into
two equal portions, and the cord is laid across the breast, but the
swimmer must be very careful that they do not slip down, for the
part they slipped to would rise to the surface, and the head and
shoulders sink beneath. Some years ago, there was a man who ad-
vertised that he could walk upon the water safely, and he invited a
crowd to witness the feat. He stepped boldly upon the wave, equipped
in bulky cork boots, which he had previously tried in abutt of water
at home, holding himself up: by the sides of the tub, ~« it appears
that he had not calculated that the corks were the lightes, ‘ody, and
328 SWIMMING,

would strive to be uppermost, but at the second or third step he made,
all that was seen of him was a pair of legs sticking out of the water,
the movements of which showed that he was by no means at his ease .
he was picked up by help that was at hand, and was conducted home,
after receiving an excellent lesson on the use of corks. There is
another curious story of the like kind,—some soldiers once finding
a few cork jackets among some military stores, determined to try
them on, but mistaking the shoulders for lower fastenings, they put
them on as drawers, and on piunging in, with the hope of being able
to sit pleasantly on the water, their heavy heads went down, and they
narrowly escaped being drowned.

THE PLANK,

The illustration below shows an excellent method of aid to the
young swimmer, and one far better and safer than corks of any kind ;
let him procure a deal or
ins von other light board, five or six
“| welt _ feet long, or even longer and
—~ stronger; its use is to teach
the learner how to make the
atroke with his feet and legs.
It is to be thrown into the
== ———mmmmee- water, and when the learner
is able to support himself for
a short time, he should take
hold of one of the ends with both hands, and his body will thus be
buoyed up ; he should strike out with his legs, in the manner before
directed, and endeavour to hold fast and drive the plank before him,
taking care to keep his hold and follow it closely, or the plank may dart
forward, and leave him to sink in the water, Of the utility of the
plank we have frequently been witness, and can confidently recom.
mend it to those of our young readers who have an inclination to
learn the art of swimming by occasional aid.



SWIMMING OUT OF DEPTH.
We will now suppose the pupil to have made some progress in
SWIMMING. 329

swimming, and to feel anxious to go into deep water. If he feel quite
conscious of his own powers, he may venture a few strokes out of his
depth, across a etream or canal, the depth of which he has already
ascertained to be about a foot or two more than the height of his
body, and which has the deepest part in the middle. Young swimmers
sometimes feel alarmed, when they are aware that they have ventured
where they can no longer put their foot to the bottom, this feeling
flurries them, they strike quick, their hurry increases, fear ensues,
and they have great difficulty in reaching the shore. We earnestly
caution the young not to give way to anything of this sort. Before
he ventures out of his depth, let him calculate his own powers, and
attempt such a distance only as in proportion totkem. One thing let
him always remember,—that it is more easy to swim in deep water
than in shallow water, never let him be in a hurry, but strike slowly
and steadily, and keep good time with his hands and feet, and also
let him breathe at proper and regular intervals, and that is the best
time to draw the breath in when the body is raised by the stroke of
the hands, and hefore he strikes out his feet Boys frequently fiurry
themselves and lose their thoughts by breathing at a wrong time, and
so do persons falling into the water ; if these last were to keep more
quiet, and breathe when they come to the surface, they would remain
much longer float. They draw breath at the moment when they are
striking out with their legs, instead of at the time when the body is
raised by the hand, when at the full stretch of the arm backwards.
During the action of the legs, the head partly sinks, the face is driven
against the water, and the mouth thus becomes filled, which is very
unpleasant. When the hands have nearly made their stroke, the pro-
gress of the body forward ceases, the face is no longer driven against
the water, but is elevated above the surface, then is the time to draw
in the breath, which should be expired when the body is next sent
forward by the action of the legs. During this time, if your mouth be
even with or partly under the surtace, no water can enter it, the air
which you are driving between your lips effectually preventing it,
keep time is one of the swimmers golden rules, unless the pupil pay
attention to it he will make but little progress, and must inevitably
take in a mouthful or two of water.
330 SWIMMING,

TO SWIM ON THE BACK.

To float on the back, with,the face turned to the sky, may seem
difficult, but it is not so, when you are used to the method, and you
could not drown in that
Que position, even if you were
Wa Foxe ~ inclined. To Jearn this,
— you must first be able to
swim the common way,
then, being in the water,
lay yourself gently on
your back, elevate your
breast above the water,
keep your body extended
in a straight line, and put
your head back, so that only your eyes, nose, mouth, and chin, shall
be above the water. By keeping in this position, with tke legs and
arms extended, and paddling the hands gently by the side of the hips,
you will float: if you wish to swim, you must strike out with the
legs, taking care not to lift your knees too high, nor sink your hips
and sides too low, by keeping in as straight a line as possible. ‘T'o
swim with your feet forward, while on your back, lift up your legs
one after the other, let them fall into the water, and draw them back
with all the force you can.



TO SWIM BACKWARDS.

If you wish to swim backwards, which is a pleasant way of resting
when fatigued and at a distance from the shore, when laying on the
back you push yourselves onward with the feet and legs, but to do the
contrary, and advance, you must keep the body extended in a right
line, the breast quite inflated, the hands on the belly, and first lifting
up one leg and then the other, and drawing them with force towards
the hams, let them fall into the water.

TO SWIM ON THE SIDE.

Lower your left side, and at the same time elevate your right, strike
SWIMMING, 331

forward with ‘your left hand, and sideway with your right, the back
of the latter being in front instead of upward, and the thumb side of
the latter downward, so as to serve precisely asan oar. You will thus,
by giving your body this additional impetus, advance much more
speedily than in the common way, it will also relieve you considerably
when you feel tired of striking out forward. You may also turn on
the right side, strike out with the right hand, and use the left as an
oar

TO SWIM LIKE A DOG.

Although the swimmer will not be able to make rapid progress by
this method, it will afford serve asa relief from any other system.
The hands should be placed a little beneath the surface of the water,
with the palms downward. To make progress, each hand and foot
must be employed alternately.

DIVING.

Diving can, by practice, be brought to astonishing perfection.
When swimming, It may be performed from the surface of the water
by turninfi the head downwards, and striking upwarde with the legs.
It is, however, much better to leap in from the bank. In this, the
hands must be raised above the head, placed close together, palm to
palm, and the diver must plunge in head first. By merely striking
with the feet, and keeping the head down, the diver may drive him-
selfa considerable distance beneath the surface ; if he reach the bottom,
he has only to turn his head upwards, epring from the ground with
his feet, and he will soon rise again. In diving, the eyes should be
open, you must therefore take care that you do not close them as you
reach the surface, because it is extremely difficult to open them when
under water.

DOCTOR ARNOT ON THE CAUSES OF DROWNING.

1.—Their [the persons who fall into the water] believing the body
to be heavier than water, which it isnot; and, therefore, that con-
tinued exertion is necessary to keep them swimn:ing, by which means
they become the sooner exhausted.
332 SWIMMING

2.—From a fear that water, by entering the ears, may drown, a
wasteful exertion of strength is made to prevent it; the truth being,
however, that it can only fill the outer ear, or as far as the membrane
of the drum, as is therefore of no consequence. Every diver and
swimmer has his ears filled with water, and with impunity.

3.— Persons unaccustomed to water, and in danger of their being
drowned, generally attempt, in their struggle, to keep the hands above
the surface, from ieeling as if their hands were tied while held below ;
but this act is most hurtful, because any part of the body kept out of
the water in addition to the face, which must be out, requires an
effort to support it, which the individual is supposed at the time to be
incompetent to afford.

4,—Not knowing the importance of keeping the chest as full of air
ag possible, the doing of which has nearly the same effect as tying a
bladder of air to the neck ; and without other efforts, will cause nearly
the whole head to remain above w:ter If the chest be once emptied
while, from the face being under water, the person cannot inhale
again, the body remains specifically heavier than water, and will sink.


- CAGE BIRDS; RABBITS ;
PIGEONS; WHITE MICE;


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Sing on. by fane an! forest old,
By tomb and cottage-eaves ;

And tell the waste of coming flowers,
The woods of coming leaves :-—

The same sweet song that o’er the birth
Of earliest blossoms rang,

And caught its music from the hymn
The stars of morning sang.

Tue love of singing birds is universal; their songs have formed a
theme for the poets of every age. In the following pages, we have
endeavoured to give such directions forthe snaring, teaching, and
general management of the feathered pets, as we consider will be
acceptable to our readers.

Boys living in London can always procure Goldfinches, Linnets,
Larks, &c. from the Bird-men in the streets; while almost every
variety of bird can be purchased at the shops of respectable dealers.
The dweller in the country has seldom this advantage, and must
generally exercise his ingenuity in the construction of traps and
anares, or in discovering the nestlings.

22
336 CAGE BIEDS.

TRAPS AND SNAKES.

The Brick Trap, is formed of four bricks, two lengthways, one
across their ends, and the
fourth between, for a cover
as seen in the engraving.
A stump is driven in tbe
grouad upon which the end
of a forked sprig is placed,
under a straight piece of
stick, which supports the
cover. A bait of bread
crumbs is strewn at the
bottom and around the sides of the trap, and when the bird settles
upon the forked sprig, the prop of the upright brick is displaced, when
the brick falls, and the bird is caught.

The Sieve Trap is contrived as follows ; in the winter season, when
the ground is covered
with snow, sweep around
spot clean, the size of
your sieve, sprinkle some
ashes upon it, with a
few crumbs of bread or
red berries as a bail,
prop up the sieve with
a bit of stick, the stick
having a thin twine
fastened to the centre,
and long enough to reach
to a window, at which
you mustbe seated, and watch the birds hopping under the sieve, when
the string should be suddenly jerked, this, if done properly, will occa-
sion the sieve to fall, and the birds to be caught. You then take a
cloth or apron and draw it under the sieve, taking care not to lift it
so high that the biids can escape, and by drawing up thecloth by the
corners, you will be able to lift the sieve, birds and all, and carry them
into a room.




CAGE BIRDS. 337

Horse-hair Nooses, are for catching Larks, in the winter season.
when the ground is covered with snow. Get some horse hair and.a
long piece of packthread ; make a namber of nooses of the hair, us-
ing two or three together, and fasten these on along the packthread
at distances of about six inches from each othr. Fasten the pack-
thread upon little sticks, which are to be thrust into the ground,
letting it be about six or eight inches above the snow, thus the
nooses hanging down, shall be about the height to catch the necks
of the larks as they run along. When these are rcady scatter oate
or any other grain around the nooses, and the birds searching for
fcod wiil run their heads into the nooses; thousands of larks are
caught in this manner every season.

Trammel Nets, are the same to the bird catcher as the drag net
is to the fisherman. It is about thirty six yards long and six yards
wide it is supported at the ends by two poles carried by two men
with one edge of it along the ground, the other raised up and slight.
ly leaning forwards. This is done on dark nights, and all the birds
that roost on the ground, being disturbed, fly upwards, and are
caught in the net.

THE LINNET.

This is one of the most delightful little songeters we have, and w Il
oon learn to imitate the note of auy other of the sma ler birds. It

builds its nest on little
shrubs which grow 80
common upon heaths and
commons, and also in the.
hedges which surround
grass fields. The eggs
are from four to six ia
number, of a bluish white:
colour, with a few fine red:
pecks over them pare
ticularly at the larger end.
They breed three or for
times in the season, and
the first brood is hatched about the middle of April. When frst


338 : CAGE BIRDS.

teen, the young birds must be covered up warm, and fed everv two
hours, from six in the morning till sunset, or till six or seven o'clock ;
three or four mouthfuls at a time for each bird will be enough, Their
proper food when thus taken is a mixture of bread moistened with
hoiled milk, as soon as they can feed themselves give them a little
scalded rape seed, mixed with white of egg boiled hard, but be very
careful that whatever their food is, let it be fresh every morning, for
if it should turn sour it will occasion cisease. The food for full
grown Linnets is unsoaked rapeseed, ‘This is a good food for summer,
put in winter, ‘oo much of it is apt to make them iil unless it is re-
lieved with a little of something else ; for this purpose they may have
occasionally a little German paste. But if properly fed, this bird is
subject to few diseases. Wher afflicted with the pip, atter pricking
the part with a fine needle, the bird rousi be fed for a few days on
lettuce-seeds, or melon seeds cut small, a little saffron may also be
added to its drink.

The proper cage for linnets is square, like that shown in the cut,

as they are not so apt to bi come giddy, asthey

Sy (are ina canary’s cage, though we do not approve
MTT tua] «of the cage being so small as it generally is,

HH 1 because Linnets are birds whose health is much
ensured by allowing them water to wash with,
two or three times a week. and the usual cages
are two small to admit of a saucer being introduced.

To distinguish the two sexes, you must observe that the feathers
on the back of the cock Linnet are browner than those of the hen
and also, if you syr-ad out the wing of the bird in your hand, you
will observe the white on three or four feathers clean and bright, and
reaching up to the quills, When this is the case you may be sure it is
a cock, as the white upon the hen’s wing is less, and not of so purea
colour. The hens are also smaller than the males, and the cock
nestlings have, besides being browner, a white collar, and have more
white about their wings and tail. The breast of the cock bird is red
in the spring of the year, that of the hen, brown. Old birds sing
much better than young ones, for which reason they are more prized,
particularly those which are yellow with age. [.innets are shy birds
and not easily caught. The best method is by means of cali birds,

hhh

ih
vn

Nu


CAGE BIRDS. 339

end lime twigs, and in autumn by fastening lime twigs to the stalks
of lettuces running to seed.
THE CHAFFINCH. ~ ; :

Tbe Chaffincn is 2 very pretty bird, and sings well, with a variety
of notes. He builds near
the top of a hawthorn
hedge, or on the side of a
tree or garden wall. The
eggs are of a pale grey
colour, with large reddish
brown spots, and a few
red streaks at the larger
end. When first taken
the young birds are to be
fed on rape seed soaked
; In water, and the crumb
of white bread, The way
to ascertain whether the nestling be a cock or a hen, is by puiling
three or four feathers out of his breast ; if the new ones which grow
are red, it may be taxen for granted it is @ cockbird; if not, a hen
bird. The cock indeed may be generelly distinguished without this,
when he is only eight or ten days old. He has more white in the
wing, the breast is redder and all the feathers brighter. His belly is
red, while that of the hen is a dirty kind of green. Thebreast of the
coek even while yet a nestling, shows a reddish tint; the circle round
the eyes is narrower, the wings blaczer, and the lines that cross them,
whiter, The Chaffinch isa hardy bird, and subject to few diseases
and when brought up from the nest wiil sing for seven or eight
months in the year, A dome-shaped cage is not proper for this bird,
as it prefers hopping about the bottom, in front. The shape
should be oblong, nine inches long, seven deep, and seven high ;
with the food and water at the two farthest sides, and the perches
placed opposite. Care should te taken to cut bis claws every month,
as they grow fast in confinement, and he may become entangled by
the wires of his cage.


340 CAGE BIRDS —
THE BULLFINCH.

This is an extremely pretty bird, but ina state of nature, one
which has nothing about it interesting, except its black and fiat pole
and red breast. Its song is very simple and consists of only three
notes, and these are by no
means melodious ; yet bull-
finches may be taugh
almost any song or tune, by
whistling, or playing a
hand organ to them, Bull.
finches are caught in great
“2 numbers in Germany, and
ay? taught to sing God save the
Queen, and many other
melodies. They then become
valuable, indeed, so much
so, that 10 or 12 pounds
have been sometimes given
for a “piping” bullfinch, although when fresh caught they are not
worth above 2d. or 3d, They breed twice or three tives ina year,
and lay each time four eggs which are of u pale bluish colour, and
epotted with dark purple blotches and small red spots, mostly at
the thicker end of the egg. The nest is usually built about five feet
from the ground either in a quickset edge or on a common. Nest-
lings may be taken in the early part of June, when twelve or four
teen days old, but not unless well feathered, When taken, wrap
them up warm and feed them every two hours with rape seed soaked
for eight or ten hours iu cold water and then scalded and strained
Bruise the seed thus softened and mix it with some bread, soaked
until it is soft, in milk, Give them only three or four mouthfuls at
each mea!, aud let it be fresh every day. Old birds may be easily
caught by twigs covered with birdlime, by the aid ot a call bird ;
or in winter time by a horse hair noose, such as we have already
described ; its favourite berries, such as haws being strewed around.
When caught they may be fed with German paste, No, 2, and with


CAGE BIRDS. 34)

rape seed now and then; after a time you may give them always rape
seed sosked in water, with a little green meat occasionally, such as
lettuce, endive, water creeses, &c. But if they are young ones,
during the time of teaching them, it is best to give them poppy seed,
with occasionally a very little hemp. They may also occasionally
have a little plain buiscuit soaked and drained. :

To teach the Bnllfinch, to sing use a bird organ, or flageo-
let, and give him his lessons soon after feediug, 9s he is then atten-
tive. They vary in their capacity for learning, some will take nine
months to learn a single air, others will learn as many as three in
that time.

The first air should be short and simple, and the bird must be
helped to continue the same when he stops in his warble, and
during the time of moulting the tune should be often repeated to
him, as at that time he is apt to forget it. Thus it is that German
birds which fetch a very high price in the summer, when just brought
over, loose their notes entirely in the autumn, when they moult, and
are of no value afterwards, for ‘t is more trouble to teach them a
second time than it is to teach a youug vird.

The cock bird is easily known by his red breast, while those of
the female is brown ; his back is grey, hers brown. If you bring up
yoor birds fron the nest, pluck out two or three feathers from the
breast of each, in a few days other feathers will grow in their place;
if a cock bird, the new feathers will be red, if a hen bird, they will
be brown,

The Bullfinch will live eight or nine years, and is mostry healthy,
unless reared from the nest, when it is subject to many diseases. If
they should get out of order, they may have a mixture of rape, cana-
ry, and hemp seed ; when well again, return to rape only, When
moulting, you may put a clove in their water, and at all times strew
the bottom of the cage with river sand, or fine gravel.

THE CANARY.

This favourite Ielongs to that tribe ot birds well known by th:
name of Finches, ind is found in a wild atate in the Canary Isiands
842 CAGE BIRDS.

whence its name of Canary bird, or more properly Canary finch. Its
colour is more or less yellow, sometimes completely so. It is about
the size of a goidiinc:. The demand for then is now extensive,
they are bred and reared with great ease, and their beauty and the
melody of their song ren-
ders them general favour-
ites, They make a com.
pact nest of moss and
wool closely interwoven,
very similar to the nest of
the linnet and the redpole,
the egg is also very like
that of the linnet, but
somewhat smalle, the
ground colour white, and
slightly tinged with green,
spotted, and streaked
with dark red at the larger end, and in number four or five. It
will breed sometimes four or five times a year, and its age extends to
fourteen or fifteen years. There are about thirty varieties of this
bird, distinguished from each other by the colours of the various
parts of the body. They are not a very tender bird, nor difficult to
bring up. They cannot do well without the warmth of the sun, yet
these cages ought not to be exposed to his beams when scorching.
The original Canary is, in the estimation of the fancy, now worth
little. Mules, and the varieties produced by cross breeding are con-
sidered more valuable, Whatever they be, they ought to possess the
following characters, namely, a fine large cap or crown, extending
over the whole of the back part of the head, of a deep rich orange
colour, not lemon coloured ; and the same richness of ground must
prevail in all its other parts, except where ths rules prescribe black,
namely, in the wings and tail, in which the feathers must be black,
home to the quill ; the tail must have twelve black feathers, and each
wing eighteen feathers, black to the quill. Their backs the first year
are always more or less mottled, anid the first time they change or
moult their quill feathers, they become lighter. Indeed, every season


CAGE BIRDS. 343

after the first, they change their feathers lighter and lighter: there.
fore their beauty is always in the first season, from seven to nine
months old, and to produce a good breed these circumstances are as
necessary in the ben bird as the cock, hence hen cunaries are rather
valuable.

Matching. —TVhe proper season for putting the birds together for
the purpose of pairing, depends very much upon the nature of the
weather, In general, the month of March is the best time, though
in some sexsons it may be done earlier, and in others it is prudent to
wait a month later, During the time of their pairing, they should
be kept high. by giving them sparingly every morning a litt.e chop-
ped egg and bread, mixed with a little maw seed, and some bruised
hemp seed. .\s soon as they become sociable, feed each other, and
sleep on the perch close together, then the breeding cage for the re-
ception may be prepared. Some birds at first pairing fight very much,
and the hen strives tor the mastership. If they should fight too
much, or their disagreement be too long continued, it will be best to
try another hen.

The birds being successfully paired, all now depends upon season,
situation and cage. The time of sitting upon the eggs is thirteen or
fourteen days, and they lay their egga between seven and nine in the
morning. Eggs, when held up to a candle after they have been sat
upon seven or cight days, if they are quite light and transparent
may be considered bad. but when they look thick and dark they may
be considered good. Some hens eat their eggs ; to prevent this, the
best way is to feed the bird very early in the morning or late at night,
ready for the morning, for the first thing she does after laying her
egg, is to fly round. the case for food, which if she does not find, and
that too in some dainty form, she returns to the nest in a rage, and
seems to break the eggs out of pure spite more than from a desire to
eat them,

Feediny.—The seed that universally goes by its own name is the
common foud of the canary, and on it alone it thrives sufficiently, es-
pecially when kept single, as the pet of the parlour. and merely for
the purposes of song; but when intended for breeding, something
more is required, as alrcady observed; hard boiled egg should be
. $44 CAGE B IRDS.

chopped, and mixed with dry stale bread or roll, in quantity much
greater than that of the egg, a little sugar with some maw seed is an
excellent addition, and with these they will bring up their young
healthy and well. ‘They may have at such times ripe dandelion tops,
chickweed or groundsel, but be always sparing of green meat for
birds ; many hundreds are killed every year by too much green meat,
they must always have it fresh every day. Night is the best time to
feed them, as they eat at the first dawn of day. You may if you like,
let them have at all times a little rape seed, mixed with their canary
seed.

Canaries should always be allowed plenty of clear water and fresh
gravel. Besides water for drinking, they should be allowed water
twice a week for washing themselves; a saucer is tne best vessel for
holding it. ‘I'he female while sitting however, should not be allowed
water to wash in.

Should the Canary be attacked with sickness, a little boiled milk
and bread, with new seed in it, will be found an admirab!e remedy ;
previous to giving him this, it will be weti to let him drink two or
three times of water, in which you have put some treacle,

Cages.--The form of cages suitable for singing canaries, are as
various as the fancies of the purchaser or the taste of the wire work-
ers. Some contend for their being small, while others cannut have

them large enough; the first regard the singing
only, the others air and exerc:se. ‘The mere
shape, is altogether a matter of taste. There
are usually three perches. and a drawer at the
bottom, that the cage may be properly and often
_ Cleaned ; a water bottle is placed in ove corner,
and the drawer for the food runs along one of
the sides; a tin or wooden top is sometimes
placed over this, and several round holes are
cut in it, through which the bird gets at its food,
without scattering it about ; sometimes the cage
is made with a hole at each side, and a glass sus-
per.ded betore each hole, one to hold tocd and
the other water, 83 seen in the cage represented above,

PEN Ne aS fice
ata ALL A : i
PUM Hilt ba
Ki i} hb:
Hi } | |
(} My tah!

i


CAGE BIRDS, 345

The breeding cage if it is to be suspended against the wall of the

ae room, has the front,
am == top, and sides of wire,
f




IT @ 7] He Af and the back of wood,

\
|

‘1 Rta een pa or the whole of wire, if
| LU ae ate ad seh

nn mT
il

| a
A
A

it is to be placed upon
astand. It should be






enn ! ca i ill a ° +
ia th eee Niaieenss || Provided with perches
ae 1 3 ee ; of various heights, box-

es for the birds to build
in, and have a net filled
moss, hair, &c., suspended from the top, it should have also a
sliding bottom, with drawers for food and glasses for water.

Building.—The materials used for Canaty’s nests should be 4 -
ways new, clean, and warm. A wooden box of the breeding cage
should have put into it, a little fine, fresh hair, mixed with some
dried moss, and some white wool neatly disposed, so as to give as
little trouble as possible to the bird ia forming it into the shape of a
nest. About a handful of these materials should also be hung up in
the cage so that the birds will very easily form a nest to their mind.

The canary when young, can be taught almost any tune, by means
of whistling, ftageolet or bird organ; according to the instructions
given ina former page. In breeding, rearing, and managing the
canary, no difficulty can possibly take place, if attention be paid to
the remarks we have now made upon this interesting songster.

THE GOLDFINCHs

Of all kinds of birds this is the most beautiful. Its elegant golden
red face, black crown, yellow and finely marked wings make it a
general favourite. It builds, usually, at the top of fruit trees, and
has two or three broodsin a summer, The nest is very small and
neat, and particularly smooth on the outside. It is formed of moss,
grass and smal! twigs, and is lined with hair and wool. ‘I he eggs are
six or seven in number, of a whitish colour, marked with reddish
brown spots at the larger end. They are very tender when young,
346 CAGE BIRDS.

and must he fed at that
time on the crumb of
bread, soaked in milk.
Bruised canary seed, and
afterwards whole canary
seed is the pruper food of
the grown up birds, with
hempseed, _chickweed,
and groundsel occa-
sionally, the Goldfinch is
also partial to thistle seed
and canary seed.

It is a healthy bird
and seldom subject to diseases except from wrong food, particularly
from giving him too much hemp seed.

The goldfinch is taught readily to draw up its food and water in an
ivory bucket, by means of a chain.
To accomplish this, a soft leather
belt is provided with four holes,
through which the wings are passed.
The two ends of this belt meet a little
below the breast, and are held to.
gether by aring, to this a light slen.
der chain is affixed, to each end of
which is fastened a bucket. The
cage is without wires, and is formed
like the annexed engraving, with a
back board, bottom board, and a
piece of cane, bent round and fast-
ened midway to the back for a perch.
At the outer edge of the bottom
board is fastened a ring, through
which passes the ring already des-
cribed, When the bird wants food
ov water, he draws up the chain with
his beak, fixing it at itervals with his feet till he has brought the
bucket within his reach,




CAGE BIRDS. 347

The cock bird is known from the hen by having more black on his
wings, and black above the benk, whereas the hen has red above as
well as under the beak. The cock bird is also darker on the back.

THE SKYLARK.

The Skylark is so abundant as a species, so universal a favourite
and of such a delightful
and loud song in the spring
and summer, that it is
much sought after by bird-
fanciers, and a good bird
will sometimes sell for
twelve or fifteen shillings,
indeed we have known
them to fetch a much
higher price than this, In
a wild state the bird builds
on the ground, The eggs
are jour or five innumber,
of a greyish white ground
tinged with green, and
mottled nearly all over with darker grey and ash colour. The young
are hatched in about fifteen days, and are fit to take about hay time,
that is the first brood; the second brvod about August or harvest
time. The male Skylark is one of our commonest cage birds, from
the readiness with which he is preserved in health under confinement,
and the genersl sprightliness of his song, yet the notes of the lark are
more remarkable for variety and power, than for quality of tone;
his strains are heard during eight months of the year, and he begins
to sing ia Summer time, s00n after two o’clock in the morning, and
continues till sunset. When nestlings vre first taken, they should
be put in a basket with hay at the bottom, and be covered up close
and warm. They are to be fed regularly and moderately every two
hours with white bread, or poppy and rape seed bruised, and soaked
in warm milk, to which atver a day or two, some lean meat may be
added. They must be kept very clean, After about a week put


348 CAGE BIRDS.

them into a large cage, which has some chaff at the bottom, and shift

this every day. They will not be able to feed themselves till they

: = are a month or more old, they

may then have bread, hard boil-

ed eggs and hempseed bruised.

When they are able to crack the

seed they may have it whole

Wid tie mixed with a little bread rubbed

. eld Ht i = small with the hands. When

tea iM able to take care of themselves,

you may put them into a lark’s

cage, such as is represented in
the margin.

Male nestlings may be known
by their yellow colour; but fall
grown birds are not so easily distinguished; the following are the
chief points of difference :—The heel of the male is longer, reaching
below the knee joint, his breast is darker, and more speckled with
black, and he has a larger body. The female has no white lineround
the cheeks, is spotted with black on the back and breast, and the
breast is of a purer white. It is a long lived bird, living in a cage
sometimes as much as twelve or fifteen years. Larks should not be
kept in the hearing of other birds, as it will soon adopt their note,
and very often by so doing, spoil its own. The only disease with
which larks dre much troubled, is a looseness; this may be cured by
putting saffron in their water, and grating a little old cheshire cheese
with their food. !

i
y
:

ani }
er
ES 4 == = oS ose) >
a =:
= Py
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ed f
| wT i Dat et
a "
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TP hia i 7
i}
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Ve
J MAGA



| THE WOODLARK.

Is distinguished from the skylark by its smaller size, shorter tail,
and by a light brown streak over each eye, and ear cover. It pre-
fers hedges, and cornfields, especially those that are surrounded
with. small woods or plantations, and is seldom found in those
open tracks where the skylark is so abundant. It differs also from
the skylark in singing from the branch of a tree, which the sky-
lark does not. Its voice is not so strong as that of the skylark, but
CAGE BIRDS, 349

more resembling the nightingale, and like the last, the woodlark sings
in the warm summer nights. The nest is built on the ground, under
shelter of a low bush or tuft of
grass, the outside of it is formed
of coarse moss, lined with fine
grass, and a little hair or wool.
The eggs are four or five in
number, of a pale reddish white
colour, spotted and speckled
with dull reddish brown, and
as tbe eggs have been found as
early as March, and as late as
July, it seems that the bird
breeds two or three times in
the season. The nestlings are
much sought after by the bird catcher on account of their having not
only a sweet note of its own, but being capable of imitating the note
of many others, particularly of the canary and goldfinch. They feed
on grain, seeds, insects, and worms. Nestlings may be taken when
~ twelve days old, and are to be found most plentiful in the first forte
night in May. They should be fed at first on ant’s eggs, mixed with
bread soaked in milk, The aps, ie given for bringing up skylarks
should be followed in rearing this bird. The old birds, as well as
young, may be caught easily in the beginning of September, in pas-
ture ground, by the side of a wood facing the east. Birds caught at
this time are reckoned the best, as keeping them through the winter
makes them more familiar than taking them in January or February.
They may be taken easily by lime twigs, or by nets, using a good call
bird to attract them. When first caught, he should be fed with ant’s
eggs and poppy seed to encourage him to eat; at first, his food must
be strewed at the bottom of the cage, which should always be kept
well sanded but as his shyness wears off, it may be placed in a trough.
He is the most delicate feeder of the lark tribe, and it is therefore
necessary to vary the food occasionally. For this purpose ‘German
paste No. 2, hemp, oats, and minced ox heart, or mealworms may ‘be
23


350

The Woodlark is subject to the same diseases as the skylark, and
ust be treated in the same manner, and the same remedies applied,
msides which he is subject to one peculiar to himself, which attacks
the feet, rendering them so brittle, that the toes shrivel or ulcerate,
and fall off. Cleanliness is the only remedy, and great care should be
taken that nothing is put into the cage that might become entangled
with or wound the feet.

The cock bird is known by being altogether darker than the femaie,
and with more plainly marked spots on the breast.

THE TITLARK.

This bird builds on the ground, among the furze on moors and
downs, or ina tuft of grass undera bush in fields and orchards.
The nest is small and neat,
resembling the woodlark’s,
and is composed of moss
and dry grass, lined with
the same of a finer texture,
and intermixed with.a few
fibres of the roots, wood
and hair, It lays twcea
year, and the eggs are from
four to six in number,
varying in colour from
pink to brown, and from
a very pale green to
grey. Nestlings may be taken about the middle of May; their situ-
ation may be known by the cry of the old birds as they approach
towards the nest; the young birds should be covered up warm, and
rearied in the way directed for the skylark. The natural food of the
Titlark is all kinds of flies, catterpillars, and ant’s eggs, and great
care will be required to reconcile him to the change he meets with in
confinement. As soon as the bird is taken home, place it in a cage
furnished with two perches, and let it remain quiet for an hour or
two; then give it some mealworms, ant’s eggs or caterpillars, and


CAGE BIRDS, 351

when it has eaten these, let it have German paste, No2. Itisa
very delicate bird, and requires frequent change of food; sometimes
that of the nightingale, and at others bruised hemp seed, mouldy
cheese, mealworms, and ant’seggs. It is subject, besides the diseases
of the pip &c., to lose its feathers, even when not moulting. if neg -
lected and not kept warm, it will quickly waste away, and perish.

The female differs very slightly from the male. Its throat, neck
and breast are of a paler colour, the white spot in the second tail-
feather is smaller, and the two bands situate across the Wings are
whiter.

The Titlark is the smallest of the larks. It has a pleasing song,
though it is only composed of three strains, It is a graceful bird,
and takes graat pains in keeping itself clean, for which purpose it
should be supplied with plenty of clean water. |

THE SONG THRUSH.

The Song Thrush is a general favourite, on account of its fine notes,
which combine power, quality of tone, and variety. It is in song
throughout a great portion
of the year, beginning early
in the spring and continuing
at intervals till autumn. It
frequents small woods, plan-
tations, and = shrubbcriea,
Seeking its food in meadows,
lawns and gardens. It feeds
On insects, worms, snails,
and in the winter on various
berries. The nest is mostly
placed in the centre of a
thick bush, sometimes in a
hoily or fir tree, and occa.
sionally this bird has been known to make its nest in an open
shed or tool house. The nest is formed of green moss and fine roots,
the inner surface smooth and compact, being lined with a thin coating
of cow-dung and rotten wood, so equally spread over and cemented


352 CAGE BIRDS.

that when it is dry it will hold water. The eggs are usually four or
five in number, of a beautifyl light blue colour, with a few small black
spots over the larger end. The young birds are hatched a’: ut the
middle of April. The nestlings should be kept warm, and fed every
two hours with raw meat cut small, or bread soaked in milk and mixed
with hemp seed well bruised. After they are able to feed themselves,
they may have lean meat cut small and mixed with bread, or else
German paste No. 3 or 4. Proper food, clean water, and keeping
the cage always clean and dry, will preserve the Thrush in good health,
as he is subject to few diseases, the principal of them is the cramp,
and this almost always arises from cold ; if however he should be out
of order, a house spider or two, given every morning for a week, will
rostore him to health. The back of the cock is darker and more
glossy than that of the hen, while the belly is whiter and the spots
more strongly marked; the two black lines on the throat are also
broader than in thehen, Thrushes are also easily taken throughout
the year in traps and nets, and also sometimes in winter with limed
twigs a few hawthorn berries being scattered around.

THE BLACKBIRD.

The nest of the Blackbird is generally at the bottom of some close
bush, it is artfully concealed, but as this bird builds early in the
season, before there are many leaves, the nest is easily discovered. The
eggs are generally five or six in number, of a light green marked
with dark brown spots, Nestlings mzy be taken about the beginning
of April, at eight days old, if the quills of the feathers have begun
to show themselves. When taken, feed them every two or thee
hours on lean meat cut very small, and mixed with bread previously
wet with milk. Like the thrush, they must be kept very c'ean at
first, and have at all times a good supply of water, as nothing con-
duces so much to their general health and sprightliness. The dis-
eases to which the Blackbird is subject are not numerous, the most
common is the pip, and we shall hereafter show how this may be
cured,

When young, the different sexes are not easily distinguished, a8
both the cock and hen are of the «ame brown colour, but if one is
" GAGE BIRDS, 353

tlacker than the rest, you may be sure thutit is a cock bird. The
bill of the yourig cock is black, and does ngs turn yellow until nearly
a-year old, at which time
also the plumage turns
black; but the bill of an
old cock is a bright gold
cvlour. When full grown,
the female is larger than tne
male, and her plumage is
a dusky brownish black,
3 , while the male’s is velvity,
dea VN) uel eae and of a pure jet. The
Ve gh NT Blackbird is much altered

_— ’ by confinement, becoming
social and singing much more than in his wild state He may very
readily be taught to imitate a tune played upon a musical instrument.
When the canary is in the room where music is being played, instead
of listening to it, they will begin their own song, and continue it ag
long as the other music lasts : but the Blackbird will listen attentively,
particularly to wind instru-
ments, as the flute or fla-
geolet, and if the tune is
repeated day by day, it
will soon break forth with
with a bar or two, quickly
warbling out the whole,
correctly or incorrectly,
as it may have been taught
—and never afterwards
lose it. If the Blackbird
should be thus taught
three or four tunes, it
will not blend them to-
gether, nor yet lose its
native wood notes. The cage most fit fur the Blackbird is shewn
above.



—

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ne AY 7
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354 CAGE BIRDS.

THE NIGHTINGALE.

The Nightingale is ju considered the sweetest songster that our
woods produce, to describe its note, or mode of singing, is impossible,
it being so varied. It
builds in thorny hedges,
sometimes in a grove 01
orchard, but always in re
tired situations, at some
distance from a house. The
nest is rather loose and
rough, and is formed of
twigs, dried leaves, straw,
and hay, lined with hair
or down, and is very often
built not merely in the
trees or bushes, but also on
the ground, on sandy banks
or hil!s ; so that it is often overlooked, especially when mixed with
materials of the same kind. The eggs are from four to six in number,
of a brownish green colour. The eggs are laid about the end of April,
and the nestlings may be taken about the end of May, but as they are
very tender birds, they must not be removed till they are fully fledged.
It is to be observed, too, that when once nightingales have once chosen
a spot to build upon, they will mostly return to the same spot year by

ear.

, The best way to discover a nightingale’s nest is to listen for his
singing, and this may easily be done, for he sings all day as in the
evening. When you hear a Nightingale, you must watch the place,
at the same time conceal yourself, you will then soon see him descend
to the nest, but in order that he may do so, it is best to stick a few
mealworms about the place he resorts to, which he will soon see and
carry to his young ones, whose noise will betray their place of con-
cealment.

Lake the nest carefully, for the young nightingales can run fast, and
fnot pounced upon quickly, they will get out of the nest and escape.
The voung birds are to be fed upon ant’s, mealworms, ant’s eggs,


CAGE BIRDS. 355

&c., with a small portion of bread. Or if these things cannot be pro-
cured, they may have German paste No. 2, or sheep’s heart cut fine,
and hard eggs grated and mixed with bread, but the German paste is
to be preferred, the heart is to be raw, except in the winter time, Give
them fresh victuals every day, and take care that they have plenty the
slean sweet water, not merely to drink, but to wash in. and when the
birds have washed themselves let the saucer be cleareaaway and the
cage made dry.

This bird is subject te some diseases, and more particularly to the
cramp, arising from cold, and in the Autumn he often becomes husky
and refuses its food, in both cases he may have two or three spiders
a day ; if he has the cramp very bad you may dip his feet and legs in
Sherry wine for two or three minutes each evening, and then cover
him up warm, During the moulting season, the Nightingale suffers
very much, Its stomach at that time gets out of order and the bird
rests with its head under its wing for two or three hours at a time,
with his eyes closed, and his feathers ruffled up. When you observe
these symptoms, give him ant’s eggs, and steep saffron in his water.
Sometimes he becomes very lean and haggard, wien this is the case
give him a fig, chopped very small, among his meat. A rusty nail
may be put in his water, which will act as a tonic, When he has
been two or three years in confinement, he is liable to diseased feet.
To heal them they must be often soaked in warm water and carefully
and tenderly cleansed from loose skin, then dried and anointed with
fresh butter. Male nestlings are known from the females by being
marked with white, and those with a white throat are aure to be males.
The nightingale does not remain in this country all the winter, it
comes to us in April and May, and retires in September, When in
confinement it will sing throughout the year, except when moulting.

THE BLACKCAP.

This is rather a rere bi d but the only one whose song rivals that
of the nightingale. He sings all day, and until very late in the even-
ing. The notes are not go soft and mellow as those of the nightingale,
but much more varied and more distinct. The Blackcap builds in
orebards and thick copse woods, The neat is to be looked for near
856 CAGE BIRDS.

the ground, in low bushes. It is composed of stubble and dried
leaves, lined with hay and hair. The eggs are from four to six, of a
yellowish white, mottled
with yellow, and spotted
with brown, and the hen

He seldom lays more than

RSS

Ree twice in the year, The
i > EN) eggs are hatched about

=

the middle or latter end
of April, and the young
are fit to take ten days
or a fortnight afterwards.
When taken, they may at
first be fed upon bread
and milk. The Blackcap
may be taken in August
with limed twigs baited
with currants, but as it is
@ very suspicious. bird, it
is not easily caught. Its natural food is insects and berries, and when
in a state of confinement you may give him nightingale’s food: and
in other respects treat him as you would the nightingale, as he is
subject to the same diseases. It is difficult to distinguish the sexes,
but when they moult the cap of the cock becomes black, while that ot
the hen remains of its former brown colour. This is not truly an
English bird, but eomes to us from other parts of Europe in April,
and leaves us in September. Although a bird of paradise it will live
with us well through the winter in coufinement, and soon become very
familiar, even taking its food from the hand. The male also relieves
the hen in sometimes taking her place in setting upon the eggs, and
as he often sings while in the nest, he betrays himself and discovers
his habitation. 1n the Summer time the Blackcap is common in all
the southern counties, but are rare in the north of the kingdom, and
in Ireland. In Germany it is called the Monk: with us it -is cailed
the Blackcap, and in some places, the female which has a reddish
brown cap is called the Redhood. The belly is white, but in the
male it does not become so till after the second summer.


CAGE BIRDS. 357

THE ROBIN, OR REDBREAST,

The Robin breeds early in the spring, its nest is formed of dried
grass, moss, dead leaves,
etc., lined with hair, and
sometimes a few feathers.
The nest is frequently
placed on a bank shel-

| ( iN tered by brushwood, at
aN



aul

Soha \ a short distance above
= aT oY ground; its nest is

oe NTC iI ' also sometimes found in

ae FSG

res

~

We

cottages, barns, sawpits,
and curious places of a
like nature The egss
are from five to sevenin
number ; white, spotted
with pale reddish brown. The young birds may be taken when about
twelve days old. They should be kept in a basket for a few days
before they are put in the cage, feeding them with mealworms and
ant’s eggs, and taking care not to overfeed them. When they are
pretty well fledged and able to shift for themselves, put them into a
cage with some moss or wool at the bottom, and try them with a
mixture of meat, hard eggs and bread, chopped very fine; try them
also with a mixture of German paste of different kinds, and let them
have whichever sort they prefer. You may give them mealworms
and ant’s eggs whenever they are to be procured, as these are the
favourite food of the Robin. The only diseases to which this bird is
subject are cramp and giddiness. If they are subject to the cramp,
they must Have plenty of mealworms, and for giddiness, they may
have an earwig every day, or a smooth caterpillar now and then.
There may also be a little saffron or a little nettle seed soaked in
their water when they are moulting, or a small quantity of poppy
seed or marigold flowers chovped up with their food now and then,
The Robin may be easily caught with twigs covered with birdlime, or
with a trap of any kind, The hens should be let loose again, but the

=F

Orme
% OF

A
VAM M Ai iW \
358 CAGE BIRDS,

vocks may kept. If very old they will mostly be sullen and refuse
their food, but young birds will soon be reconciled to their lot, and
‘sing in a very few days. The song of the Robin is sweet and plain-
tive, but not very powerful. The cage best adapted to the Robin is
shown in the engraving, it is formed
of wood, and wired only infront. It
should not be less than a foot and a
half in length, by about one in
depth, and rather more than one in
height. The top should be arched,
covered and stuffed inside with some
inside with some soft material, in
order that the birds may not injure
their heads flying upwards. There
should be two perches, also covered
and made soft. The feeding box is
placedin one of the front corners, and the drinking glass in the
other.



THE ABERDEVINE OR SISKIN.

This is a handsome little green and yellow finch, of the division to
which the common Goldfinch
belongs. It is not quite so
large as that bird, and the

(>) tail is shorter, the wings are

U ‘oh rather long, andare common-

ly held drooping. The bill

is a pale brown tipped with

a blackish brown. The

feathers on the crown of the

head in the male is black in
the spring, but in the autumn
for some time after moult-

ing, they are edged with a

greyish brown fringe, over

each eye is astreak of yellow,
the neck, back, wings, and


CAGE BIRDS, 359

tail, are olive green, paler and mcre yellow towards the tail; across
the wings are bands of yellow, and the under part of the bird are of
the same colour, approaching to white on the belly. The female is
brown on the pole, and is altogether more dingy than the male bird.
Young birds do not acquire their brightest plumage till after the
autumn moult. The whole markings of the bird resemble the common
redpole linnet, but the colours are different. The song of the Aber-
devine is very similar to that of the goldfinch, though not quite so
musical and sweet; it is sharper and more piercing, and finishes
always with a harsh jarringnote. I{s common chirp and calli note also
resemble those of the goldfinch. When singing, it will often attempt
to pecs at any other smaller bird that is confined with it. It is almost
perpetually singing, yet its voice is not sufficiently fine to render it a
first rate song bird, it is however, a species highly prized by the bird
fanciers for the purpose of breeding with canaries, with which it reae
dily pairs. In autumn and winter, these birds are caught in the
neighbourhood of London, in considerable numbers, though they are
much more numerous in some seasons than in others. They are
generally found during the winter where the alder tree abounds. They
may be taken more easily than almost any bird, as they are not at all
shy, and are so fond of company, that if they hear the note of a call
bird on the ground, a whole flock of redpoles will turn aside from
their flight and pounce down upon the net spread for them, or upon
the birdlime twigs put round it, It does not build its nest in
England, but retires in the summer time to the pine forests in Scot-
land. In confinement the Aberdevine is one of the most lively
birds, constantly running along the wires of his cage, and when tame
if any thing it is fond of is held to it, it is always taken with the
head downwards. If a privet berry or a piece of almond, to both of
which it is extremely partial, be given, it generally places it between
ita feet, or holds it with one foot whilst picking it, in the manner
of the tomti. The Aberdevine appears to be very fond of fruit,
it eats the pulp only of the privet, while the bullfinch eats only the
seed. It is remarkably healthy, docile, and famihar, and its progeny
with the canary inherit the same good qualities, for which reason
they are highly prized by amatuers. It is easily taught to perform
360 CAGE BIRDS,

a number of little tricks, such as to open the lid of a box containing
its food, to draw up its water by means of a lucket, and to come
when called, and perch on the hand to be fel. It rarely sleeps
upon a perch, but most commonly clings by ore leg to the wires of
its cage, hence, care must be taken taat cats and rats do not get at
it. Its treatment and food when in confinement should be similar
to that of the linnet. They may be known when flying by the raising
and falling in their flight, and by a chirp which they give at every
fresh action of their wings, this last circumstance, however, is com-
mon to the goldfinch and linnet, and some other birds. The cages
used for the Aberdevine are geuerally small linnet cages, open at all
sides, except at the back and bottom.

RECEIPTS FOR GERMAN PASTE

No, 1.—Take the crumbs of well baked stale white bread, and
having soaked it in clean water about half an hour, squeeze out the
moisture, and add to the bread two-thirds of the same quantity of
well sifted barley meal, then pour boiling; water over the mixture and
stir it well together.

No, 2.—Take the crust of bread and prepare it as directed above,
put it into a stone mortar, and having added some carrot finely grated,
with a few spoontuls of fine barley or wheat flour, grind the whole
well together.

No. 3.—Mix well together twenty-five parts of finely ground
oatmeal, sweet almonds six parts, rape oil two parts, sugar one part,
and carraway seeds one p-rts. When these are mixed well together,
p: 8 them through a sieve.

No. 4.—Take any quantity of No. 3, and add to it one fourth more
of white of egg and a few hempseeds, mix it well, and take care that
it be given to the birds in fine pieces.

QIEACHING YOUNG BIRDS.

It is impossible to give better instructions for teaching young birds
to sing various tunes, than those of the cek brated Lewis de Berg,
which he gives in the following remarks:—‘‘ There is neither lark,
linet, bullfinch, nor goldfiuch, Lut that may be brought to as great
CAGE BIRDS. 361

perfection as the canary finch ; but the English do not take the pains
a German does, they love to sleep while the German is tuning his
pipe, and instructing his feathered songster. There is more to be
done with the lark from two or three o'clock in the morning, than can
be done in many months in the day time, or, when the least noise or
sound is to be heard but from the instructor, and this rule holds good
with all finches. Every thing should be quiet but the master ; as it is
with the human kind, so it is with the feathered, a good tutor seldom
fails of making a good bird. I say begin with your birds when all is
quiet, they will then take much more notice of what you endeavour to
teach them. The age for beginning to instruct should not exceed
three months; 1 sometimes begin sooner, and seldom stay less than
an hour with each bird; I sometimes use my pipe, sometimes whistle,
sometimes sing, but whichever method I adopt, I seldom fail of bring-
ing up birds to please, insomuch that I have often sold a lark for two
guineas, a linnet for one guinea, a bullfinch, when it could pipe finely,
from five to ten guineas, and a goldfinch from one to two guineas ; in
short, the whole of bringing up a bird to sing well, depends entirely
on visiting him early, and furnishing him the last thing before you
leave him with what he is to eat for the day. He should be supplied
daily with fresh water in his fountain, and small gravei at the bottom
of his cage, but short allowance in eating is absolutely necessary to
make him a good songster. When I come to him in the morning, he
is glad to see me; supposing him hungry, says the German, he will
soon begin to talk to me and bid me welcome; at first approaching
my bird I very often give him three or four grains of rice, which have
been steeped in canary, 1 sometimes add a little saffron or cochineal
to the water, according as I find my bird in health and strength, and
I seldom fail of being rewarded with a song for my paina.

‘In the general way of feeding fhe larks, I give a small quantity of
bruised rice with egg and bread, and now and then a few hemp seeds

“T feed the smaller birds with rape seed anda very little canary
with it, the latter being apt to make them grow very fat. I give
them likewise at times a little bruised rice, which does abundance of
service, and most assuredly prevents them falling into a scouring,
which is the death of many a fine bird, Birds accustomed to this
362 CAGE BIRDS,

way of feeding, are seldom troubled with what is called the pip;
they shed their feathers with far more ease than other birds, are
in general much prone to singing, and have a more agreeable note
than birds that have not been so trained.

‘s The reader should observe that when I order grains of bruised
rice to be given, I always expect that the rice had been first soaked
in canary wine, and afterwards carefully dried for use, though giving
the bird a few grains occasionally while they are wet and moist with
this excellent liquor does mighty weil, but it is not to be constanly
practised. The rice should, be only roughly bruised, so as to make
it tender, and consequently more easily tobe eater by the birds. I
have observed many persons in England give loaf sugar to birds, but
this a very great error. I recommend in its place a small piece of
bay salt, or cuttle salt, and now and then a drop or two of spirits of
nitre in their water, If you proceed according to these directions,
you will soon have birds equal to to those of any other nation.”’

MOULTING.

Moulting or changing their feathers is a natural operation with
birds, which cannot be prevented, but which must be assisted by
care and attention. Cold is the greatest danger to which they are
exposed, in passing through this state al] draughts of air must there-
fore be carefully guarded against. When the cages are open, or have
much wire-work, they ought to be partly covered up with a cloth,
to keep the birds warm. Saffron in their water, nourishing food, and
the extra warmth occasioned by the covering to the cage, will soon
restore the bird to a plumage more beautiful than that they cast
off. The covering of the cage should not be taken off all at once,
but gradually; it should then be cleaned thoroughly, end the birds
have their ordinary food. They should be pnt in the sun for an
hour or two, if the weather is fine and warm. The first moult,
which takes place in many birds when they are about three months
old, is partial. The birds then throw off all their down and loose
feathers, and produce their full plumage, ‘The month of September
is the general time for the muulting of old birds,
CAGE BIRDS. 363

DISEASES OF CAGE BIR 8,

Almost all the diseases to which birds are subject arise from im-
proper management. If duly fed, their cages properly cleaned, and.
kept in good air, it is seldom that the birds are found in bad heaitht
Ina state of nature, they are subject to numerous misfortunes, buy
when confined they are exempt from many of these, and when realln
ill they may generally be speedily cured. Colds are the most common
complaint, and these are almost always owing to carelessness: how
frequently are birds hung up close to the top corner of a window,
with the sash down, and a draft of air fit to turn a windmill running
through the cage. They are frequently exposed in this manner for
several hours, late in the evening, without any consideration whether
the air be damp or dry. Green food is to be considered a luxury,
except in the breeding season, but this applies chiefly to seed-birds,
as the canary, linnet, &c. Surfeit is occasioned by improper diet and
cold, particularly.the last In the firet case, if when blowing up the
feathers of the belly it appears swelled, transparent, and full of little
red veins, it may be concluded that the bird is in a bad state of health.
When thus affected, the state of the bowels should be attended to; if
the bowels are not loose, as much magnesia as will lie upon a sixpence
may be put into the bird’s water for two or three consecutive morn
ings, or one or two drops of castor oil may be put into the birds throat
with aquill, If the surfeit arises from cold, put a little saffron and
a few drops of port wine into the water, and let the bird have a little
bruised hempseed, maw seed, or a little dried and powdered sponge
cake, and be always careful that there is gravel at the bottom of all
cages, for it is necessary that all birds swallow particles of this to
assist digestion. The husk is another malady produced by cold, and
is similar to a cough among ourselves. The cure is similar to the
one already recommend for cold. Excessive perspiration is a disease
which attacks hen-birds while sitting. Weakness is the principal
cause, and to cure it, the bird must have nourishing food, such as egg
and bread, and induced to take exercise ; the bird should be washed
every morning in wilk-warm salt and water. The pip is a little blad-
der of whitish matter which forms near the vent of the bird, and
$64 CAGE BIRDS.

may be easuy perceived if the feathers are blown up. To cure
it, prick the bladder with a fine needle, and pnt a drop of salad oil
in the place. Many birds are apt to fall down in fits; if this should
occur and there be no apparent cause for it, you may pulla feather
or two out of his cage, which will draw blood and most likely re-
cover him ; or he may be plunged for a moment in cold water. He
is then restored to the cage, and induced by every means to drink, and
if he can be brought to take a single drop he immediately recovers.

A word as a parting caution to our readers ;—let especial care be
taken that the door of the cage have secure fastenings, or their little
favourites will—as is too frequently the case—become the prey of

The Cat.


RABBITS.

= a .

Nie
“if “






SD LL
ae Bye ee
» ft E

Rassits are delicate, tender, and cleanly creatures. In a state of
nature they are aetive and hardy, living in the midst of apparent bar-
renness, and requiring nothing for their support, but what they can

procure in the fields. The keeping of tame rabbits was never more —
practised than it is at the present time. They are kept as much for
amusement as for profit, aud it is now the custom to pay the greatest
attention to the breed of these animals, and propagate certain varieties
remarkable for their singularity, or rarity. The price of the common
rabbit varies considerably. In some parts of England they may be
purchased when young, for two-pence or three- pence each, but, in
London, they generally cost trom sixpence to e shilling or eizhteen-
pence each. The price of a good fancy rabbit is very considerable,
366 RABBITS,

five, ten, and even twenty guineas, have been paid for a first rate due ;
but good fancy rabbits deficient in some one property, but which will
atill produce very good young ones, can be purchased for less sums.
The fancy rabbit is certainly rather more delicate in constitution than
the common variety, but whatever extra trouble they may incur will
be compensated for by their great value; for these fine creatures do
not require a superior description of Sood.

When properly fed and fattened, the flesh of the rabbit affords good
nourishing food, which may be dressed for eating in several forms,
yielding a variety of dishes, for rich and poor, being equally recom-
mended by their excellence and their cheapness.

Before describing the difference varieties of rabbits, we will quote
William Howitt’s remarks upon the pleasures of rabbit keeping

WILLIAM HOWITT ON RABBIT-KEEPING.

Rabbit keeping is one of the m«st favourite and lasting occupations
of a boy in the country. It is a rational and healthful employment.
It induces a habit of attending to fixed duties at stated hours. His
rabbits must be fed, and kept in good order, or bis parents, if people
of humanity, will soon insist upon their being parted with. A boy
ought to keep no living creature that he does not take a lively pleasure
in looking after and making comfortable. I remember the alacrity
with which I used to be up in the morning, and off into the garden
and fields to gather parsley, clover, sowthistles, and other food for
them ; to clean out their cote, and see that they were all well and en-
joying themselves. I remember, too, the pleasure it was to make
arrangments at first for keeping them. There was the first entering
of the notion into one’s head, of how nice it would be to have rabbits ;
and then the enquiry were they were to be got; and then the hearing
of them, and the going to look at them ; and the eagerness to have
them which the sight of them created. There was the fixing the price,
and the actual fetching them home in a basket, and the putting them
under the hayloft steps till their cote was ready. And then the busy
pleasure of building that cote. It was to be raised in a corner of the
garden, between two walls. Here we built it up with bricks, and
laid on our spars, and covered it over with straw and turf. Then we

‘
RABBITS, 367

had the door to make, and to hang, and a lock to put upon it. And
then we had it to pave with bricks, or the rabbits would soon burrow
out under the walls and run away. Then we had to make a burrow
for them, of bricks, covered with tiles, with a large place at the end ~
for the nest; and lastly, we had to put ina trough for their milk,
and a little trough for their corn. All this dune, the rabbits were
fetched into their new habitation with much gratification. I don’t
believe a palace was ever built with half the pleasure and pride of
that rabbit cote. And what adelight it was to feed them, and watch
them for hours, and, ever and anon, to go and lift off a tile from the
burrow, to see if they had made a nest. What a grand affair when
we found it actually made, and finally found in it six or eight young
rabbits, all warmly wrapped in down plucked from the old doe’s
breast. To see them grow up from day to day, till out they came,
little round, pump, brown things, not so big as one’s fist, with their
bright eyes, and really begin to nibble pursley !

I am no friend to huiches, except to keep bucks in, that they may
not kill or injure others. But except for this purpose, or the mere
purpose of putting them up to feed, give me no hutch, but a
good roomy cote, where the rabbits can leap about and exercise their
limbs, and enjoy their frolic; for when not mewed up in a hutch like
a bird in a cage, or a toad ina wall, they are wonderfully sportive;
and it is quite amusing to see their leaps, and capers, and grimaces,

LAWS RELATING TO RABBITS.

By the common law, if rabbits come on a man’s ground, and eat
his corn or herbage, he may kill them. By the 7th and 8th Geo. IV.
c. 26, s. 36, if any person wilfully and unlawfully, in the night-time,
take or kill any rabbit, in a warren, or place kept for breeding rab-
bits, whether inclosed or not, he is guilty of a misdemenour; and if
in the day-time, the offender shall forfeit such sum, not exceeding
five pounds, as to the justice, by whom he may be convicted, shall
seem meet,
368 | RABBITS.

VARIETIES OF THE RABBIT,

THE WILD RABBIT.

Abundant as the rabbit is in England at the present time, it appear®
to have originally belonged to a warmer climate, and to have been
first known in Africa, from whence they were introduced into Europe
through Spain. The wild rabbit is exceeding prolific, breeding six or
Seven times a year, and producing from five to nine young ones each
time. Though the wild rabbit in its general appearance greatly re-
sembles the hare, yet the two species never intermix, nor inhabit the
same tracts of country; the rabbit dwelling in burrows or holes,
whilst the hare chooses its retreat beneath some low bush, or othe
glightly sheltered situation.

THE COMMON TAME RABBIT,

The chief object in keeping common rabbits is to supply the
table, and those kinds
which excel in point of
flavour are therefore most
in request. White and
yellow rabbits have a
delicacy of flesh not pos-
sessed in any Other co-
lour, but some persons
prefer black and grey
ones, maintaining that

the taste of these greatly resembles that of the wild one.

In selecting rabbits by form, those should be chosen which are
short legged, full bodied, and wide shouldered ; as they are considered
to fatten in a sborter time, to breed better, and to be more hardy than
other kinds. Common rabbits vary in colour, some being entirely
black, others white with red eyes, others mouse-colour, others, some
brown, and some gray with tawny feet, Persons who are particular
with respect to the colours of their rabbits, should endeavour to ascer-


RABBITS. 869

tain the colours of the does from whence their stock came; for it
often happens that rabbits produce litters in which not one young one
of their own teint can be found : thus, if a cross of gray happen to be
in the stock some four or five generations back, it may appear again,
although all your breeding rabbits are of other colours. Gray is the
worst of all colours, in the opinion of the fancy, and the most diffi-
cult to get rid of; yet it does not always happen that gray rabbits
throw litters of their own colour,

To choose does for yearing, take the largest from those rabbits
which have the fewest in their litters; as it is supposed that when
the does have but a few at a time, the young ones are most likely to
turn out fine; let the little ones remain with their mothers until they
are about sia weeks old, when take them away, and keep them in
hutches,—two together,—for about the same period; and as they
become quarrelsome in their dispositions when near four mouths old,
they must then be separated, and kept in different hutches. Tn
lifting your young rabbits, take them by the ears, and place one
hand under the lower part of their backs, for it is injurious to handle
them too much.

The does will breed at the age of six months, but it is better that
they and the bucks be ten or twelve months old before they are first
put together, The doe goes with young thirty days, and towards the
time when she may be expected to kindle, fresh hay or oat-straw, or
both, should be given to her for a bed; when she nibbles the hay or
straw into little bits, it isa proof that she is with young ; and a few
days before kindling, she tears the soft flue or fur from her body, to
make a snug nest for her little offapring. Some fanciers are of opinion
that if the litter be large, and there should be any very small or weakly
rabhits in it, they should be destroyed immediately their defects mani-
fest themselves. This may be somewhat expedient; but, unless the
little ones appear to be particularly weak and sickly, rear the whole
litter, if possible. When a doe has a large litter at a kindle, and
another but few, equalise the number for each to rear.

About six weeks after kindling, the old rabbits may be put together
again; but, if the doe have a large number of sucklings, a longer
period must elapse. If the doe be weak after kindling, a malt mash,
370 RABBITS,

made of fine pollard scalded, er barley-meal with a smait quantity of
cordial horse- ball mixed up with it, will be found beneficial. Bread
soaked in milk and then squeezed rather dry, will also strengthen her
materially, if she can be made to eat it. Those fanciers who keep
their rabbits mewed up in hutches, should not let their does have
more than four litters in a year. Jt is necessary to protect the young
rabbits from the old bucks, otherwise they will be devoured; and as
rats and other vermin are particularly fond of such delicate morsels,
it is requisite to construct the hutches so as to keep out these mau-
rauders. If you have a doe who possesses so little maternal affection
asto destroy her young ones, fatten her at once for the table, for
there can be be little hope of her rearing any of her offspring; but it
is, of course, necessary to ascertain her guilt betore you condemn her,
as it may be that some prowling rat is the real culprit.

To the feedinz of his raboits the young fancier must pay the greatest
attention ; they should be fed twice a day at least; that is, early in
the morning and in the evening, and, according to the rule of many
fanciers, in the middle ot the day. Avoid giving them too much
food; else they will waste that which they cannot eat on the instant.
The most suitable fond is the delicate tops of carrots, celery, parsuips,
hare- parsley, and furze; the leaves and roots of white bait, stalks or
dandelions, milk thistls, and lettuces; fine grass, clover, tares, cole-
worts. and cabbages; apples, pears, pulse, corn, and Jerusalem ar-
tichokes. The cabbage and colewort leaves should be given with dis-
cretion, as they are apt to disagree with the animals; in fact, to much
succulent food is injurious, being likely to produce the disorder termed
vot belly. To guard against this, a due proportion of dry food, such
as fine fresh hay, pea-straw, or corn, should be frequently given with
the moist vegetables. In London and its victnily, grains forma
principal article in the bill of fare for rabbits; and when they are
dieted 0» such food, cabbages, turnip-tops, or coleworts, should be
sparingly given ; the grains, however, when mixed up with pollard,
oat-meal, bran, and split-peas, form excellent and wholesome food.
When greens, roots, and grains are not at hand, the corn may be
slightly moistened with milk or water; indeed, during the dearth of
fresh ve; etable, asmall quantity of fresh tea-leaves, squeezed tolerable
RABBITS, 371

dry, will be found to agree well with the rabbits, Some fanciers give
a table-spocnful of warer, beer, or milk occasionally to their rabbits,
when corn forms the chief part ef their aliment, Rabbits accustomed
to live chiefly upon bran, or any other kind of dry food, will eat with
avidity the parings of turnips, apples, or peare. Potatoes, either
boiled or roasted (but not raw), may be given amongst other food.
When adoe has a litter by her side, soak the split or whole grey
peas for a few houra before they are put into the trough ; and if peas
be given to recently-weaned rabbits, they should also be soaked,
Although we recommend the food to be given, generally, in such
quantities only as the animals can eat in a few hours, yet when a doe
is about to litter, she may have somewhat more allowed to her; and
when she suckles, she will require nearly twice as much as at other
times. As soon as the young ones can hegin to nibble, they must be
supplied with food, three times a day, punctually, If the aim be to
fatten rabbits for the table, the best age to put them up is from five
to eight months; and the most suitable food is, perhaps, barley-meal,
oat-meal, or split peas, or a mixture of them, wth the addition of «
little sweet hay. A table-spoonful of water per diem may be added;
and a email quantity of carrot-tops, sweet majoram, parsley, and basil,
may also te given daily with advantage. The more varied the food
for fattening, the better; but when the animals are once full fat, as
the breeders express it, they often pine away, and lose their plampness,
Experience alone will regulate the exact quantity of food proper for
each rabbit. If the lictle fatlings can be allowed to disport themselves
in a paved yard, for an bour or two, in fine weather, it will add much
to their general condition and health.

The most careful attention shoald be paid to the feeding of the
eaptive pets; for it would be extreme inhumanity to neglect the
little creatures, whose existance depends upon the supply of food
afforded to them, and who, if perishing from lack of nourishment,
cannot escape from their captivity and seek a betterhome elsewhere,

VANCY RABBITS.

The fancy in rabbits, like other fancies, is extremely liable to the
372 RABBITS.

caprices of fashion : some years ago, a very fine common rabbit oftwo
colours was estee.ced a fancy one; but now a rabbit must possess
certain properties, (many of which are never found in the common
kinds,) before it can be clarsed and valued as a fancy specimen : these
recommendations consist in a perfectly symmetrical shape, good
arrangement of colours, full dew-iop, and a peculiar position of the
ears,
its back should te finely arched, and its head held so low, that its
muzzle and the tips of its ears, may almost touch the ground. Many
fancy rabbits have their fore-legs bent very much inwards, but this,
though it appears a deformity, is not of importance, neither doe it
lessen the value of the animal.

The correct arrangement of colours is a very important point.
Rabbits are divided into three varities, distinguished by the colours of
their fur: these are, the lead, or, as it is technically called, the bive-
coloured and white; the black and white; and the tortoise-shell ; and
these varieties are again subdivided into three classee, from the arrange.
ment, of the spots of colour on their faces, termed the single, double,
and butterfly smuts: of these, the latter is the most valuable. The
single smut is a solitary?patch of black or dark colour, situated on one
side of the nose; the double smut, a spot on each side; and the
butterfly smut, a spot on each side of the nose, with a dash of colour
on the nose, forming altogether a slight resemblauce to a butterfly,
whencé the name. Ifa black and white rabbit’s face be ornamented
in this manner, it is said to be a black butterfly smut; and ifa lead-
coloured rabbit shew this mark, it is called a blue butterfly smut. It
is not indespensable that a fancy rabbit should possess these markings ;
but if it do, its value is, of course, enhanced. Osher marks must like-
wise be well defined upon the rabbit, ere it can be esteemed as a _per-
fect fancy one; thus, a patch of dark colour should be on its back,
this is termed the saddle; its tail must be dark, and dark stripes also
on each side of its body, in front, which from their passing downwards
80 ag to meet the saddle, and, as it were, form a collar, are styled by
the fanciers the chain ; the animal's throat may be mottled with dak
colour and white ; but its legs and belly mast be of snowy whiteness.
The spots of colour must not be grizzled, or have many white hairs
RABBITS: 373

amongst them, else the beauty and wholeness of the animal’s colour
are much diminished ; neither should the saddle terminate abruptly,
but have less edees broken in by dark spots, lessening gradually in size
and ending with the chain on the shoulder; these spots, of course,
must also be free from white hairs. It seldom happens that rabbits
exactly perfect in point of colour can be procured, perhaps, scarcely
one in a hundred; the nearer they are to the rules, however, the more
they are valued at least in as far as the property of colour is concerned,
It sometimes happens that very good does produce young ones which
are merely touched with dark colour ; that is, with onty a spot or two
round the eyes and on the back, and perhaps a dark nose: these
little ones are generally weakly, rarely fatten sufficiently for the table,
and, if perfect in other properties, are worthless for replenishing the
stock,

The dewlop is peculiar to fancy breeds, and is highly prized ; it is
a protuberance formed of skin and fat, and is not developed nnti}
the rabbit has nearly attained its full size ; i¢ commences imme.
diately under the jaw, extends downwards in front of the chest, and
ends between the tore-legs ; it is indented in the middle, and ig fre-
quently so large that when the animal is in a state of repose, with its
head drooping, it projects on each side and beyond the chin,

The ears, the most striking peculiarity of the fancy breeds, must
be perfect according to the fancier’s rules; these are, that they
must never measure less than fourteen, nor more than seventeen
inches in length from tip to tip, measured across the head, except
for the oarvlop variety, when the extreme length may be eighteen
inches; in coluur the ears must always be like the darkest tints of
the fur on the body,—if darker, so much the better; and, of course
perfectly free from white markings; fer if any light spots break
the beautiful tone of colour, they produce a pie-bald appearance,
which is a great defect. Fanciers reckon three grades between the
common up-eared rabbit, and the flat or perfect lop; these varieties
are the haif-fop, the forward or horn-lop, and the oar-lop.

THE HALF Lop.

The half lop is so termed when one of the ears falls outwards, and

the other remains upright. A doe of this description, though not so
RABBITS. 374

valuable as a fancy rabbit, will often produce first-rate young ones;
she may therefore be advantageously kept to breed from. When a
young fancy rabbit is found to have only one ear drooping, attach
a small piece of lead to the o.her, so as to keep it in proper position ;
and if this plan is persisted in for some time, it will generally have
the effect of producing the requisite uniformity in the appearance of

the ears.
THE HORN-LOP.

The forward, or horn-lop, is the next degree towards perfection.
By areference to the mar-
ginal sketch, it will be
perceived that the ears fall
downward in front of the
head, like the horns upon
acow. Sometimes, when
the ears fall very obliquely
the concave or hollow
portion is turned outward
so as to be visible when
the rabbit s viewed in front, This peculiarity, which is admired by
some and :ondemned by ovhers, is really of little importance, and at
all events ought not to be considered as a reason for rejecting fancy
rabbits otherwise well formed and handsome.



THE OAR-LOP.

The next variety is the
oar-lop. In this the ears
spread out nearly hori-
zontally from the sides
of the head, like the oars
for a boat: When all
other properties of the
animal are perfect, a
ranuit of this varietyt
very valuable.


RABBITS 375

THE FLAT-LOP.

When the ears of the rabbit instead of pointing upwards, are
stretched directly down.
wards, itis called a * flat
lop,” or perfect lop.
This, as exbibiting a po-
sition of the ears com-
pletely opposite to the
natural state, has been
aoe me considvred as consti-
i dla tuting the most valaable
tA MTN & Soho property of fancy rabe
bits. In a first-rate
fancy lop, the holicws of the ears are turned completely backwards,
that the onter, or con.ex pat of them, may only appear in front:
they should match perfectly in their fall, and the less they slant out |
ward in their descent from the roots, the more handsome they are
considered.



THE FRENCH KABBIT.

The French rcbbit, of which the engraving below in a correct
representation, is supposed to be
the produce of a cross between
the Angora and the white rabbit,
The Anvora rabbit is a most
beautiful animal. It inhabits the
vicinity of the city of Angora, in
Asia Minor, whence it derives its
designation.

Fancy rabbits are not, as is
generally supposed, the result of
an improvement of the English breed of rabbits ; but were originally
brought from Tartary, Persia, and Asia Minor ; and have been made
the means of improvi. g tie domestic breeds in this country. They
require mor: warmth than the common Enelish domestic rabbits and


376 RABBITS,

thrive best in an atmosphere the warmth of which varies from tem-
perate to summer heat The fancy rabbits degenerate unless they are
kept free from cold and wet.

We have before spoken of rabbits of a black and gray colour. If
the rabbits be black and white, grey and white, fawn and white, or
tortoise-sbell, it is deemed indispensable that they should be mixed as
nearly as possible in the following manner :—the greater part of the
back, the haunches, and the budy, should be of the dark colour, or
slightly spotted with white; a chain or series of the darker colour
should come up to the shoulders, and the rest of tle fore part of the
body should be also variegated—white, however, predominating. The
ears should be entirely of the prevailing dark colour of the body; if
otherwise, they are termed pie-bald, whichis a defect. The head should
shew a great deal of colour round the eyes, and at the nose, but it
must not be without white. The belly may be entirely white, and the
throat and dewlap white, dark, or variegated. The spots and dark
parts in general, particularly those on the back, must not have many
white hairs mized among them; if they have, the rabbit will be
grizzled, and deficient in beauty of colour: the spots must be definately
marked on the white, and the colour on the back should not break off
abruptly, neither should it be lightened away into the white by a gra-
dual mixture of white hairs with the black ; on the contrary, the edges
must be gradually and positively broken, by black spots or patches,
lessening in size, and terminating with the chain on the shoulders.
There are, however, but few rabbits that are perfectly coloured; the
nearer they approach to the preceding description, the stronger they
are in this properity. A few rabbits are occasionally seen at the
poulterers, with but two or three pieces of colour on their skins ; for
instance, the head, throa’, shoulders, hips, back and haunches, will
be grey, and