Front Matter
 Officers and representatives of...
 Flown mail from and to the U.S.S.R....
 Outstanding flights by Soviet airmen...
 American relief administration...
 An A.R.A. card with French indications...
 More about the Ukrainian zip code...
 Some notes on postmaster provi...
 Rossica and Sovietica on foreign...
 The 10 1/2 x 12 comb perforation...
 The missing million rubles still...
 Anatomy of a 1923 inflation cover...
 Notes from collectors
 Book reviews


Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00020235/00062
 Material Information
Title: Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Physical Description: no. in v. : illus. ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Creation Date: 1972
Publication Date: [n.d.]
Frequency: unknown
Subjects / Keywords: Stamp collecting -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Postage-stamps -- Periodicals -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
Funding: Made available to the University of Florida Digital Collections under special distribution agreement with the <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a>.
 Record Information
Source Institution: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Holding Location: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAB2397
lccn - 59037768
issn - 0035-8363
System ID: UF00020235:00062

Table of Contents
    Front Matter
    Officers and representatives of the society
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Flown mail from and to the U.S.S.R. by Ray Hofmann
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Outstanding flights by Soviet airmen by M. V. Vodopyanov
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    American relief administration cards by R. J. Ceresa
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    An A.R.A. card with French indications by Marcel Lamoureux
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    More about the Ukrainian zip code system by William T. Shinn, Jr.
        Page 50
    Some notes on postmaster provisionals
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Rossica and Sovietica on foreign stamps by the Editorial Board
        Page 53
    The 10 1/2 x 12 comb perforation by A. Cronin
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    The missing million rubles still missing by R. J. Ceresa
        Page 60
    Anatomy of a 1923 inflation cover by Kurt Adler
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Notes from collectors
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
    Book reviews
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
Full Text


of the




No. 82 1972


Andrew Cronin
Box 806, Church Street Station
New York, N.Y. 10008


Martin L. Harow


K. Adler, Emile Marcovitch, N. Epstein
J. Terlecky (Ukrainian Editor)



1 Officers of the Society
1 Representatives of the Society
2 Editorial
2 Life of the Society
6 Obituary
7 Flown Mail From and To the U.S.S.R. by Ray Hofmann
37 Outstanding Flights by Soviet Airmen by M. V. Vodopyanov
42 American Relief Administration Cards by R. J. Ceresa
46 An A.R.A. Card with French Indications by Marcel Lamoureux
50 More About the Ukrainian Zip Code System by William T. Shinn Jr.
51 Some Notes on Postmaster Provisionals
53 Rossica and Sovietica on Foreign Stamps by the Editorial Board
54 The 10Y2 x 12 Comb Perforation by A. Cronin
60 The Missing Million Rubles Still Missing by R. J. Ceresa
61 Anatomy of a 1923 Inflation Cover by Kurt Adler
64 Notes from Collectors
72 Book Reviews



S PRESIDENT: Kurt Adler, c/o Metropolitan Opera Inc., Lincoln Centre Plaza, N.Y. 10023
VICE-PRESIDENT: Gordon H. Torrey Ph.D., 5118 Duval Dr., Washington, D.C. 20016
SECRETARY: Joseph F. Chudoba, 426 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, N.Y. 11225
TREASURER: Norman Epstein, 33 Crooke Ave., Brooklyn, N.Y. 11226
CHAIRMAN OF AUDITING COMMITTEE: Andrew Cronin, Box 806, New York, N.Y. 10008
CHAIRMAN OF MEMBERSHIP COMMITTEE: Martin Harow, 17 Second St., Brentwood, L.I., N.Y. 11717
LIBRARIAN: J. Lee Shneidman, Ph.D., 161 W. 86th St., Apt. 5-B, New York, N.Y. 10024
BOARD OF DIRECTORS: Emile Marcovitch, 65-61 Saunders St. Apt. 4-Q, Rego Park, N.Y. 11374
Boris Shishkin, 3523 Edmunds Rd., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20007


G.B. Salisbury Chapter: Joseph F. Chudoba, 426 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, N.Y. 11225
San Francisco: K. Jansson, 624-16 Avenue, San Francisco, California 94118
Washington, D.C.: Boris Shishkin, 3523 Edmunds Road, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20007
Western USA: Lester S. Glass, 1553 So. La Cienega Blvd., Los Angeles, California 90035

Anything in this Journal may be reproduced without permission. However, acknowledgement of the source and a
copy of the reprinted matter would be appreciated.

The views expressed in this JOURNAL by the authors are their own and the Editors disclaim any responsibility.

At the present time the Membership Dues are $7.50, due January 1, for all members. Application forms, which must
be filled out, are available upon request. Membership lists, codes, bulletins and supplements to the membership lists
will be sent out annually. Kindly make all checks payable to:

c/o Mr. Norman Epstein
33 Crooke Avenue
Brooklyn, N.Y. 11226, U.S.A.

We have a very limited number of back issues of the Journal for sale, both in Russian and in English at $2.50 each:
Russian Editions No. 44 to 69; English Editions Nos. 78 to 81 are $3.50 each plus postage; earlier issues from No. 44
are $2.50 each plus postage, except where only Xerox copies available at $5.00 each.




While the Society naturally contains quite a few people of Russian, Byelorussian and Ukrainian origin, many of the
members are non-Slavs. For some of them, the only language they know is their own.

To help them, the Editorial Board has made and will continue every effort to disseminate knowledge in our spheres
of interest, going to the original Russian, Ukrainian and other sources when necessary.

However, those of us who are familiar with Russian will assure you that only thus can you get the full pleasure out
of your collecting. What can match the thrill of reading and recognizing a scarce postmark, all by yourself? The
Cyrillic alphabet is not that hard to master! Once over that hurdle, you can tackle a Russian catalog, using as a
guide the multilingual philatelic glossaries which include Russian, such as the one issued for many years now by
Zumstein & Co. of Berne, Switzerland.

By now, you will be ready for some exposure to grammar. This you can do either in a language course or by self-
study with any of the many excellent books available. You can then start reading Russian philatelic magazines and
other printed matter.

To paraphrase a Moldavian proverb, "He who knows languages, has four eyes." A knowledge of Russian will help
you vastly in studying any other Slav language and will open up a whole new world of varied and fascinating
cultures. The aid it will render your philatelic researches cannot be overemphasized.


Once again our members and contributors did well at an international show, this time at the "Budapest-71" Inter-
national Centenary Exhibition, held at the Hungarian capital from 4-12 Sept. 1971. The results were as follows:

M. V. Liphschutz (France) 200 years of Russian and Soviet Philately.

D. B. Diamandiev (Bulgaria) USSR.
M. V. Liphschutz (France) Finland.

Dr. R. J. Ceresa (England) Russia.
Dr. R. Seichter (West Germany) Ukraine.
Dr. A. H. Wortman (England) Russian Postal History.

Rossica Journal (U.S.A.), with felicitations of the Jury.


John Lloyd (England) Russia.
Dr. G. H. Torrey (U.S.A.) Russia Used Abroad.

D. N. Minchev (Bulgaria) Published philatelic studies.

Our heartiest congratulations to everyone concerned!


Hotel New Yorker "Parlors A-B" Saturday, November 20th 1971

Meeting was called to order at 10:45 P.M. by President Kurt Adler.

Roll call of Officers:

President Kurt Adler (Present) Membership Committee Chairman
Martin Harow (Excused)
Vice-Pres. Dr. Gordon Torrey (Present)
Librarian Dr. J. Lee Shneidman (Absent)
Secretary Joseph Chudoba (Present)
Board of Directors Members:
Treasurer Norman Epstein Present) Emile Marcovitch (Excused)
Emile Marcovitch (Excused)
Editor Andrew Cronin (Present) Boris Shishkin (Excused)
(Also Chairman of Auditing Comm.) Fred Speers (Deceased)

Members Present:
Mr. Rimma Sklarevski; Mr. Melvin Kessler and Mr. B. Howard Rappaport.
M/S/C Cronin, Epstein: To dispense with the reading of the minutes of the previous annual business meeting.

Report of Officers:

President Adler reported on the changes in the meeting places for the regular monthly meetings of the Dr. Gregory
B. Salisbury Chapter (New York). In the past, these meetings were held on the last Sunday of each month at the
Sloane House Y.M.C.A. in New York City. All future meetings will be held on the last Friday of each month
commencing at 7:30 P.M. at the Collector's Club in New York City. No meetings will be held during the months
of July and August. A further report was made on the duties of the elected Officers and full cooperation was re-
quested on this matter by all concerned. It was further suggested that in the matter of new applicants for member-
ship in the Society, a Bank reference be given in the applications. A brief report was also made on the outcome
of the Auction Sale of the estate of our late member Arthur Shields, which was very satisfactory.

M/S/C Chudoba, Epstein: To accept the report of President Adler.


Financial Report: Made by Treasurer Norman Epstein.

Mr. President and Fellow Officers

The financial report this year is going to be infinitely more complex than ever before. First a simple statement of

The last report given was as of October 31st 1970. Our Bank balance as of that date was $713.13.

During the past year we had many expenditures which were necessary for the well being of our Society. Some of
these expenditures will be reimbursed to the Society's treasury. The following is a short resume.

Total Deposits from November 1st 1970 through October 31st 1971 ....... $ 3,590.27
Total withdrawals, checks, bank charges, etc. 11/1/70 to 10/31/71 ......... $ 2,478.39
Bank Balance as of October 31st 1971; as per Bank Statement .............. $ 1,825.01
Checks made out prior to 10/31/71 and not cleared through Bank ......... $ 1,473.41
Actual Balance if above checks are taken into account. 10/31/71 ........... $ 351.60

The Society had laid out expenditures for letting, cataloguing, printing and Auction Rooms in connection with the
Second Annual Auction Sale for which reimbursements will be made. This will be reflected in a healthier financial
report in the coming year.

M/S/C Cronin, Chudoba: To accept the Treasurer's report with a vote of thanks.

Secretary's Report: Made by Secretary Joseph Chudoba.

We have 196 members in good standing as of October 31st 1971; which reflects a loss of 17 members since the last
report. I am sorry to report that three members passed away, namely: Mr. Fred Speers who was a Member of the
Board of Directors, Mr. Albert A. Kronenberg-Sommer of Switzerland and Mr. Georg Eberle of Munich, German.

During the past year, I have received complaints from members who had traded, bought or sold stamps from other
members and did not receive the material or money in exchange. It is for this purpose that a careful screening of
new members is suggested. This type of action is necessary to protect the members from fraud. All major
philatelic societies are using this system.

M/S/C Epstein, Torrey: To accept the Secretary's report.

Balloting Committee Report: By Chairman Raymond Hofmann. (Mr. Hofmann was unable to stay for the meeting,
and the report was read by Secretary Chudoba.)
There were 180 Ballots mailed out, of which 87 were returned. The results of the elections are as follows:
For President Kurt Adler 85 votes
For Vice-President Dr. Gordon Torrey 85 votes
For Secretary Joseph Chudoba 86 votes
For Treasurer Norman Epstein 84 votes
For Librarian Dr. J. Lee Shneidman 83 votes
For Chairman, Membership Comm. Martin Harow 85 votes
For Chairman, Auditing Comm. Andrew Cronin 82 votes
For Board of Directors Emile Marcovitch 81 votes (Elected)
"Rimma Sklarevski 1 vote
"Boris Shishkin 85 votes (Elected)


For Board of Directors Fred Speers 76 votes
". Sam Robbins 1 vote
Raymond Hofmann 3 votes
"Lester Glass 1 vote
"Edward Wolski 1 vote

In favor of amendment to Constitution: 72 votes, Against amendment: 8 votes. President Adler stated that he
would invoke the Constitutional provision in filling the vacancy of Board of Directors member Fred Speers who
died before the balloting was completed.

M/S/C Torrey, Cronin: To accept the Balloting Committee Report.
M/S/C Epstein, Cronin: To adjourn. (Meeting adjourned at 12:00 Midnight)

Respectfully submitted: /s/ Joseph F. Chudoba Secretary.

The Society's Second Auction on 20 November also resulted in us having some visiting members from out of town,
whom we were very happy to meet again. Among them were Melvin Kessler of Ft. Walton Beach, Florida; Mr. D.
Levandowsky; Mr. & Mrs. Wilbur J. Linden of Cincinnati, Ohio; Rimma Sklarevski of Towson, Maryland; Mr. &
Mrs. J. S. Terlecky of Philadelphia, Pa.; Dr. G. H. Torrey of Washington, D.C.; Dick Weinberg of Columbus,
Indiana and Fred Yessis, of Manhattan Beach, California.


It was the great pleasure of the New York members to meet our noted collector M. V. Liphschutz of Paris, France
again in person on the occasion of "Anphilex," organized by the Collectors' Club at the Waldorf-Asotira Hotel
from 26 November to 1 December 1971. Held in honor of the club's 75th anniversary, it was a wonderful show of
classic material, in which M. Liphschutz had a particularly strong and extensive exhibit of many rare items in our
spheres of interest while another member, Jacques Marcovitch, had a fine display of Zemstvo material.

All of us enjoyed the highly interesting and animated philatelic discussions held with M. Liphschutz and we
sincerely hope there will be more of these international get-togethers in the future.



Preparations are under way for the Third Annual Auction Sale in aid of the Society's funds. The commission going
to the Society will be 15% of the gross proceeds.

Suitable material from members will be accepted only without reeves and should be sent to our Treasurer, Norman
Epstein, 33 Crooke Avenue, Brooklyn, N.Y. 11226, U.S.A., to reach him no later than 31 March 1972.

Members are strongly urged to participate in this worthy endeavor. What benefits the Society, benefits you too.




Mr. Eberle passed away in Munich, German during the autumn of 1971, just prior to arrangements to transfer to a
home for senior citizens.

He was a leading specialist in Germany of the Postmaster Provisionals 1920-1922 and an erudite student of
Russian postal history. His knowledge and experience will be sadly missed by the Society. The calibre of his
work may be judged from his contribution herewith to "Some Notes on the Postmaster Provisionals specifically
about the manuscript surcharge from Krichev, Mogilev province.


A noted collector of Ukrainian tridents and philatelic literature, he also succumbed during the fall of 1971 at
Binningen, Switzerland.

Our expressions of sympathy in their loss go out to his surviving wife and daughter.


The death of this prominent philatelist occurred in Moscow on 8 December 1971 at the age of 68. A Doctor of
Geographic Sciences and President of the All-Union Society of Philatelists, he won fame as the radio operator in
the I. D. Papanin expedition which set up North Pole Station No. 1 on 21 May 1937 and drifted for 247 days. He
is shown second from the left on the 30 & 50 kop. values of the Papanin rescue set issued on 21 June 1938 (Fig. 1)

Please see Fig. 2 also for his autograph, given on 25 November 1971, just a few days before his death, on the
occasion of the Moscow-Sofia Philatelic Exhibition held late that month.

Dr. Krenkel' had a general collection, with about 60,000 stampsof the world. Thus, his outlook was international
and he repeatedly advocated the growth of links with philatelic societies abroad. It is sincerely hoped that his
successor will continue along that path. His loss will be sadly felt.


HaIRc npempma s mt ,etm
.y ,J 4r Fig. 1.


by Ray Hofrnann

This is a collecting field which has become increasingly popular over the past few years. Sparked by strong interest
originating in Europe, it has resulted in emphasizing just how scarce and even rare are many of the items in this
area. The writer believes this is an opportune time to list the items in his collection, together with supplementary
data, in the hope that further information and discoveries will be brought to light. The main references used are
"The American Air Mail Catalog" (AAMC) and the "Hermann E. Sieger Catalog" (1968 Editions). Arranged
chronologically, the items are as follows:


A cover to Dresden, Germany franked with the complete set for the 5th anniversary of the Revolution plus the
companion airmail stamp CI. Endorsed "By Air Mail" in both German and Russian, the cover was sent from Moscow,
15 November 1922.



First Flight cover, Moscow 30 Oct. 1924 to Teheran 14 Dec. 1924 and franked with C8-9. This is a well-known


C8a inverted surcharge tied on a flown registered cover with total correct 70 kop. rate, Leningrad 4.8.25 to Riga
8.8.25. Red transit cachet on front in German reading "Mit Luftpost befbrdert / KUnigsberg (Pr.)." Only a few
such covers exist.


(a) First Flight to Moscow from Berlin on May 1, 1926 (overnight flight), thence to Japan. Orange air mail label
inscribed "First Flight 1. Flug Premier Vol / der neuen Luftpostlinie / Berlin Moskau / 1. Obernachtflug /
am 1. 5.1926" with German franking 65 pf. Russian cachet in black reading "POLUCHENO / S VOZDUSHNOI /
POCHTOI" (received by air mail). On the back there is an eight-line Russian cachet reading "For a reply utilize the
Moscow-Berlin-Amsterdam-Paris-London air mail route and also the 'Express' post. Details at post offices" (see
Fig. 1). Postmarks "Berlin (Tempelhofer Feld) Zentralflughafen 1.5.26. 1-2V" and Moscow transit "Moskva
1 L 1.5.26". Received in Tokyo on 26 May.

"FLOWN MAIL FROM & TO THE USSR", by Ray Hofmann.

f n o TBera
o o s3yr4Tecb asB o-no4-
fw MHo4 MocKBaw
A1iw H A MCTe pA a -

Me n 4 o-ti ,,0 0 "P
noApoOHOCT r T ......
Ibx npoAnP n fli I I4

Fig. I.
Fig. 1.

(b) First Flight Le Locle Basle (Switzerland), thence also by air to Berlin and Moscow. Registered Swiss cover
from Le Locle 15 May 1926, Berlin transit 18.5.26 and Moscow arrival 20.5.26. The same Russian eight-line cachet
noted just above also appears on the back. There are also handwritten notations applied in Moscow in French and
Russian, reading "in accordance with instructions, to be sent back to Switzerland, Basle 22/5" and initials. The
Basle return is dated 27.5.26.

(c) C6-9 plus additional 8 kop. postage, thus the correct rate of 58 kop. on flown registered cover Baku 23.6.26
to Berlin 28.6.26 Luftpost.


(d) C6-9 on flown registered cover Kharkov 12.8.26, Moscow transit 14.8.26 and London Registered arrival dated
16 Aug. 1926. The cover bears the unusual Ukrainian cachet struck in red and reading "POVITRYANA POCHTA /
PAR AVION." An English label reading "BY AIR MAIL" was also affixed. This item is addressed to L. Sverdlov,
a London dealer in those days.


(a) First Flight Konigsberg-Moscow via Riga on 15 July. A special official German postal card with imprinted
5 & 20 pf. stamps and inscription "LUFTPOSTKARTE / ERSTER POSTFLUG / KO'NIGSBERG / MOSKAU /
OBER RIGA / AM 15. JULI / 1927," with the coats of arms of the three cities. The card is addressed to A. S.
Davidov, Director of the Deruluft (Germano-Russian) Airline in Moscow, where it was received on the same day.
Considerable initiative is noted in placing on the back a printed message in perfect Russian, which reads as follows:
"On the occasion of the first flight by air mail from Konigsberg to Moscow via Riga, a special air mail postal card
has been issued in a printing of 3000 pieces and serviced with a special postal marking. Availing ourselves of this
opportunity, we direct your attention to the forthcoming 15th. Eastern European Fair, to be held at K'nigsberg
from 21 to 24 Aug. 1927 as a great agricultural exhibition for Eastern Europe, with the largest show programme
in the existence of the Kbnigsberg Fair. The following special shows are linked with it:

East Prussian Dairy Show
East Prussian Fishery Show
Hunting Show

The USSR is participating in this fair with agricultural exhibits. We ask you to honor this exhibition with your

The Committee of the Konigsberg Fair
President of the Fair Council

Lord Mayor"

(b) C6-9 plus additional 14 kop. postage on flown registered cover Rostov-on-Don 10.8.27, Moscow transit
11.8.27 and Berlin arrival 13.8.27. The cover was overpaid by 20 kop.

(c) C10-11 in pairs on flown first day cover, Moscow 1.9.27 to Paris 5.9.27. The cover shows a trilingual three-
line cachet in Russian, German and French for airmail service, reading "Vozdushnoi pochtoi / mit IUftpost (sic) /
par avion." Overpaid by 10 kop.

(d) C10 & C11 (vertical pair with gutter between see Fig. 2) plus additional 15 kop. postage on flown cover
from Moscow 18.10.27 via Berlin 20.10.27 to Vienna 20.10.27. It has been suggested that pairs of the C10-11
issue with blank space between constituted errors in that the paper missed printing in between the rows. However,
the fact is that these stamps were printed in panes of 5 x 8 (5 across by 8 down), with the second pane printed
below the first and separated therefrom by a perforated gutter in the same height as the stamps. The cover is
overpaid by 1 kop.


(a) First Flight Moscow-Kabul (Afghanistan), via Tashkent. C10-11 and other postage, with a total of 63 kop.
on a flown registered cover Moscow 11.7.28, backstamped Moscow 17.7.28 and Kabul 21.7.28. The cover is under-
paid by 5 kop.


(b) C6-9 and 18 kop. additional postage for correct rate of 68 kop. on flown registered cover Moscow 10.8.28,
backstamped Moscow 11.8.28 and addressed via Verkheudinsk to Altanbulak, Mongolia. This was the first flight
Moscow to Ulan Bator, Mongolia, via Verkhneudinsk.

(c) First Flight, opening the Moscow-lrkutsk air route on 17 Sept. 1928. Flown registered cover with 22 kop.
postage from Moscow 17.9.28 to Irkutsk 22.9.28. A special circular cachet was also applied on the back by the
Dobrolet organization. The cachet consists of two lines of words, with the outer circle in Russian and the inner
one in French; the central circle encloses a representation of a biplane.


(a) First Flight Moscow to New York via the Arctic Ocean and Bering Sea. The twin-motored aircraft "Land of
the Soviets" and its crew of four made the long journey with a stop at Seward, Alaska. The cover bears 60 kop.
postage and the mail left Moscow 7.8.29 (see Fig. 3).

See also the commemorative American postcard, with two buttons affixed in the top corners, issued to welcome the
Soviet flyers. The card was published by the Artone Post Card Co., 110 Park Row, N.Y. and issued by "The
Friends of the Soviet," 175 Fifth Ave N.Y. It portrays First Pilot Shestakov, Second Pilot Bolotov, Navigator
Sterligov and Mechanic Fufaev. This card is extremely rare (Fig. 4)

Fig. 4

Fig. 3

(b) Graf Zeppelin Round the World Flight, starting from Friedrichshafen 15 Aug. 1929. An airmail postcard
franked with Germany C36 and addressed to Tokyo where it arrived on 19 Aug. Returned to the Latvian sender in
Liepaja via Moscow 6.9.29 by air.

(c) Exactly as above, but this time on a cover franked with Germany C37 and returned to the Latvian sender in
Liepaja via Moscow 6.9.29 by air.


(a) Registered airmail letter with correct 58 kop. postage from Leningrad 13.6.30, backstamped with the special


LENINGRAD-BERLIN special postmark dated 14.VI.30 (earliest date known of this marking), Berlin transit
14.6.30 and London arrivals of two days later.

(b) Airmail cover with 69 kop. postage from Leningrad with special LENINGRAD-BERLIN marking dated 7.IX.30
and addressed to Brooklyn, N.Y. Handwritten notation in German at the top of the cover, with the following

1. By aircraft to the fast steamer 'Europa.' Mail to be handed over on the high seas.

2. Aircraft to be catapulted from the steamer 'Europa' to New York."

This service did not take place and the cover went by air via Berlin.

(c) Graf Zeppelin Friedrichshafen-Dortmund Flight. Airmail cover with RM 2.26 German postage and addressed
to Manila, Philippines. Leaving Friedrichshafen on 10 Aug. 1930, it reached Dortmund the same day, Berlin the
next day, Moscow transit 12, 13 & 15 Aug. with Russian airmail label attached, Manchouli transit 21.8.30 and
Manila arrival 6 Sept. 30. It also bears the special oval cachet "MIT LUFTSCHIFF/GRAF ZEPPELIN/BEFORDERT"

(d) Graf Zeppelin flight to Russia 9-10 Sep. 1930. Covers and cards from the following countries, all showing
the official triangular marking reading "LUFTSCHIFF / GRAF ZEPPELIN / RUSSLANDFAHRT 1930" and
Moscow arrival 10 Sep. 1930:

Austrian cover with 1s.70g. postage from Vienna 6 Sep. 30.
Austrian card with 1s.60g. postage from Innsbruck 6 Sep. 30.
Danzig cover with 1 G. 50 pf. postage from Danzig 5 Sep. 30.
Danzig cover with 1 G. 50 pf. postage and Italy 25 c. commem. (very unusual combination),
from Danzig 5 Sep. 30. to Italian address.
German cover with 2 RM postage from Friedrichshafen 9 Sep. 30 and addressed to U. S.

German postcards (five) with varied frankings from RM 1.00 to RM 1.03, mailed aboard the
Graf Zeppelin 9.9.30, with German return addresses.

Hungarian postcard with 2 pengb postage, from Budapest 8 Sep. 30.
Liechtenstein postal card with sFr. 1.40 postage from Triesenberg 6 Sep. 30.
Netherlands postcard with 62 1/2 c. postage from Rotterdam 5 Sep. 1930.
Netherlands cover with fl. 1.22 1/2 postage from Helmond 5 Sep. 30 and addressed to U. S.
Saar postcard with 7 fr. postage from SaarbrUcken 6 Sep. 30.
Saar cover with 11 fr. 25c. postage from SaarbrUcken 8 Sep. 30.
Swiss postcard with sFr. 1.40 postage from Romanshorn 8 Aug. 30.

(e) Graf Zeppelin Flight Moscow-Friedrichshafen 10 Sep. 1930. The stamps issued for this famous flight were
C12-13. The rates were as follows: for flown postcards basic foreign surface rate of 10 kop. plus Zeppelin flight
charge of 40 kop.; for flown covers basic foreign surface rate of 15 kop. plus Zeppelin flight charge of 80 kop.;
in the rare cases where items were registered, there was an extra fee of 20 kop. The examples in the writer's col-
lection are listed hereunder:

(A) Franked with Russia C12 or C13 together with special flight cancels:

1. Russian postal card of 3 kop. with additional 7 kop. regular & C12 with cachet 'Mit Luftschiff
"Graf Zeppelin" / Moskau-Friedrichshafen' and handstamped address "FRIEDRICHSHAFEN /
BODENSEE / LUFTSCHIFFBAU / Deutschland." This was the normal way these items were
serviced by the Soviet Philatelic Association. Received at Friedrichshafen 11 Sep. 30.

2. Russian cover with Russia C8 and C13; as above but address and cachet directive all
typewritten. Received at Friedrichshafen 11 Sep. 30.


3. Postcard inscribed 'Par Avion via "Graf Zeppelin" !' and franked with C7 and C12. Friedrich-
shafen transit 11 Sept. 30 and Grasberg, Sweden arrival dated 13 Sept. 30.

4. Russian registered cover with C12 and block of four B57, totalling Ir. 20k. Reference to the
rates quoted above will show that the cover was overpaid by 5 kop. Addressed to a Russian col-
lector c/o the "Iposta" International Philatelic Exhibition held in Berlin from 12-21 Sept. 1930, the
cover has two unusual features as follows:

(a) It is the only envelope so far seen franked with the 40 kop. value (C12), which was in-
tended for the supplementary flight fee on postcards.
(b) This was the first time registered mail was carried by the "Graf Zeppelin" to Friedrich-
shafen, presumably by error. For further data, refer to the Berthold-Kummer Catalogue,
p. 77. It has been stated that only about 40 pieces of registered mail were carried on this
flight, so examples are rare.

5. A similar cover from the same correspondence, but this time franked with C13 and a block of
four B55, again totalling Ir. 20k. and thus again overpaid by 5 kop. This is also a rare registered

6. Another registered item, this time to Riga, Latvia and franked with C13 plus additional 35 kop.
postage to total Ir. 15k. which was the correct rate. It was received in Riga on 14 Sept. 1930.

(B) Franked entirely with other Russian postage together with special flight cancels:

1. A 5-kop. postal card with additional Russian stamps, bringing the total paid up to 52 kop. In
other words, the card was overpaid by 2 kop.

2. A 7-kop. postal card registered and with additional Russian stamps, bringing the total postage up
to 65 kop. The amount should have been 70 kop., so it was underpaid by 5 kop. It was addressed
to the German dealer, Karl Hennig, about whom more below and received in Hamburg on 13 Sept. 1930.

(C) Franked entirely with other Russian postage, cancelled with normal Moscow markings:
These were the work of the Hamburg dealer, Karl Hennig, who had gone especially to Moscow to ser-
vice covers for this flight. Although present on 10 Sept., he apparently arrived at the P.O. after the
sale of the two special stamps had been terminated and he decided to mail his covers through other
Moscow post offices. He succeeded in getting his covers put aboard the "Graf Zeppelin" and having
an oval cachet applied in red and reading in three lines "MIT LUFTSCHIFF / GRAF ZEPPELIN /
BEFO'RDERT" (forwarded by airship "Graf Zeppelin"). It has been stated that this was an "on
board" cachet but confirmation is requested. The two examples in the writer's possession are both
endorsed "Einschreiben" (registered); this service was not rendered by the Moscow post offices but only
after arrival in Friedrichshafen on 11 Sep. 1930. He also added the indication 'Mit Luftschiff "Graf Zep-
pelin" von Moskau nach Friedrichshafen' (via aircraft "Graf Zeppelin" from Moscow to Friedrichshafen).

1. Cover with German airmail label and 53 kop. Russian postage, thus hopelessly underpaid by 62
kop. The Friedrichshafen post office added a German registration label, unumbered but inscribed
"From Abroad, via Friedrichshafen on Lake Constance, Registered." Addressed to Berne, Switzerland,
where it was received on 12 Sept. 1930. Sent from the Moscow-40 post office.

2. Cover with German airmail label and 89 kop. Russian postage, this time underpaid by 26 kop.
Sent from the Moscow No. 6 Despatch Office and addressed to Vienna, which picked up the registra-
tion function and delivered the letter on 18 Sept. 1930;

Two other Hennig covers were noted by Adler & Cronin with Lenin high value postage in Rossica No.
79, p. 33, both being sent from the Moscow-40 post office. Details of further Hennig covers would
be appreciated by this writer. See also the Sieger Catalogue, item No. 85 and the Berthold-Kummer
Catalogue, p. 71.


(D) Later usage of the Graf Zeppelin stamps C12-13:
In his article on "Soviet Postal Rates," V. A. Karlinskii stated that it was not permitted to affix both
stamps to the same sending for the original flight. A cover with both stamps, sent 10 days later from
Moscow-3 Despatch Office by registered express (special delivery) mail to Berlin, was received two days
later. In other words, the cover must also have gone by air. It is addressed to Waldemar Pohl, who
had lived in Russia in the early 1920s and was a leading expert on the Postmaster Provisionals of 1920-
1922. The composite rate for the cover may be broken down as follows:

International surface letter 15 kop.
Express (special delivery) fee 50 kop.
Registration fee (foreign) 20 kop.
Additional airmail fee to
Germany 30 kop.
Total 1r.15 k.

In other words, the cover was overpaid by 5 kop.

(f) DO-X First Overseas Flight Europe-Americas. A link-up cover with Russian postage of three rubles, with regis-
tration endorsement crossed out and sent from Leningrad on 27 Oct. 1930. Three Brasilian "Condor" air stamps can-
celled on back with Berlin arrival of 8 Nov. German air stamps C38-39 were then cancelled with special DO-X
marking dated 30 Jan. 1931. Rio de Janeiro arrival dated 22 April 1931 was struck on the back, as well as the
final destination of Traiquen, Chile 5 July 1931. An unusual triple-combination cover.

(g) Same Leningrad despatch 27 Oct., 3 r. postage & Germany C38-39, same route to Brooklyn destination.


(a) A possibly unique cover prepared by our old friend Karl Hennig of Hamburg. Endorsed in German at the top
front of the cover as follows:
"From Leningrad to the stopping place of the DO-X aircraft in the Cape Verde Islands. From the Cape Verde Islands
with the aircraft DO-X via America to the Canary Islands."

This cover was also carried on the first flight by the DO-X from Europe to the Americas in 1931. Franked with Rus-
sian postage to the amount of 3 r., which was a sizeable sum in those days, the cover left Leningrad on 4 March and
was backstamped in Rio de Janeiro on 22 April. The franking of RM 6.- on the back was cancelled aboard the DO-X
on 1 May and six days later a 15 c. stamp of Portugese Guinea was added at the postal agency of Bolama. This
highly unusual triple combination cover finally reached its destination at Santa Cruz de Tenerife in the Canary Islands
on 16 July

(b) Reopening of the Leningrad-Berlin air route. A registered postcard from Leningrad 4 May 31 via Berlin to
Milan, Italy with the special LENINGRAD-BERLIN pictorial marking cancelling 68 kop. in Russian postage. The
card was thus overfranked by 8 kop. There is a two-line unframed cachet at top in German reading "Erstflug 1931 -
Wiedererfffnung der / Fluglinie: Leningrad-Berlin" (First Flight 1931 reopening of the Leningrad-Berlin air route)

(c) The same cachet on a cover sent beforehand by a collector in Colombia, South America and franked with 38 c.
in Colombian stamps. Russian postage to the amount of 48 kop. was added and cancelled with the LENINGRAD-
BERLIN marking dated 7 May 31. Going by way of Berlin, it arrived at Buenaventura, Colombia on 25 May, where
the Colombian postage was cancelled and the cover then forwarded to Call (28 May). Thus we have another unusual

(d) First Day of Issue of the Dirigible Construction set, imperforate (C15-19). Registered airmail covers were
serviced on 15 May through the Moscow-50 post office by the Soviet Philatelic Association. The writer's example
reached Berlin one day later.


(e) The same set split on two registered airmail covers by the same organization, leaving Moscow on 25 May,
Berlin transit 26 May and Lorch arrival on 27 May.

(f) A 7-kop. postal card with additional 23 kop. postage to pay the 30 kop. airmail card rate from Moscow 4
June 31 to Germany, with Berlin transit of one day later.

(g) The perforated Dirigible Construction set (C20-24) serviced by the Soviet Philatelic Association on 8 June on
a registered airmail cover through the Moscow-50 post office, Berlin transit 9 June to arrive in Lorch on 10 June.

(h) AAMC No. 1141: Round the World Flight of the "WINNIE MAE," by Wiley Post (Pilot) and Harold Gatty
(Navigator) from Mineola, N.Y. 21 June 1931 via Harbour Grace (Nfld), Chester (England), Hannover & Berlin
(Germany), Moscow, Novosibirsk, Irkutsk, Blagoveshchensk & Khabarovsk (USSR),Nome (Alaska), Edmonton
(Canada) and back to Mineola on 1 July (see Fig. 5). The faint violet cachet at bottom right was apparently applied
at Moscow and reads 'The "DOBROLET" Russian Volunteer Airline Company Ltd., / Director of the Central Air
Station' with the representation of an aircraft within the inner circle. The second Russian marking at left, also in
violet, was struck on 29 June 1931, presumably at Khabarovsk. With the Soviet coat of arms in the centre, it reads
'Council for Labor and Defense Management of the "Grazhdvozdukhflot" Far Eastern Air Lines.' The abbrevi-
ated name of this last company means "Civilian Air Fleet." Note also the Berlin transit dated 24 June 1931.

Fig. 5

(i) First Flight Ice Breaker "Malygin" to Friedrichshafen via "Graf Zeppelin." This well-known flight was serviced
by the Soviet Philatelic Association on "Goznak" postcards and envelopes. Both categories of mail bore a three-line
unframed cachet in German reading 'Mit Eisbrecher "Malygin" / und Luftschiff "Gr. Zeppelin" / ARCHANGELSK-
NORDPOL-FRIEDRICHSHAFEN' (by icebreaker "Malygin"/and airship "Graf Zeppelin" / Archangel North Pole
- Freidrichshafen) and a handstamped address reading "LUFTSCHIFFBAU / Friedrichshafen / Bodensee /
DEUTSCHLAND." All items were registered aboard ship and the registration cachet was inscribed in French,
reading 'Brise-glace / "Malyguin." An ornamental German cachet was also applied with the inscription "LUFT-
SCHIFF GRAF ZEPPELIN / POLARFAHRT 1931" (Polar Journey 1931). Russia C26-33 were issued for this
flight and covered the following rates:

Foreign surface postcard charge 10 kop.)
covered by 30 kop. value
Foreign postcard registration fee 20 kop.)


Zeppelin flight fee 1 ruble: covered by 1 ruble value

Foreign surface letter charge 15 kop.)
covered by 35 kop. value
Foreign letter registration fee 20 kop.)
Zeppelin flight fee 2 rubles: covered by 2 rubles value

In other words, C26-27 and C30-31 are incorrectly incribed "VOZDUSHNAYA POCHTA" (Air Mail) on the
stamps, as they only covered the combined surface and registration fees. The mail was cancelled aboard the
"Malygin" with an imaginative postmarker dated 18 July 1931, picked up on the high seas by the "Graf Zeppelin"
on 27 July and delivered at Friedrichshafen on 31 July. The two items for this flight therefore are the following:

(1) Registered airmail postcard with 1 r. 30 k. rate (C26, 28)
(2) Registered airmail envelope with 2 r. 35 k. rate (C27, 29)

(j) Leningrad-North Pole Flight. This was the flight linking with the above, the rates being the same and the
items also serviced by the Soviet Philatelic Association. The three-line unframed German cachet now reads 'Mit
Luftschiff "Graf Zeppelin" / und Eisbrecher "Malygin" / LENINGRAD-NORDPOL.' The mail was sent by the
"Graf Zeppelin" from Leningrad on 25 July 1931, the registration cachet now being inscribed again in French as
"LENINGRAD / Bureau de Poste / Centrale." The handstamped address is given as 'Herrn Proffessor W. J. WIESE /
Eisbrecher "Malygin" / NORDPOL,' the items being received on the ice breaker on 27 July. The writer has the fol-
lowing examples from this flight:

(1) Registered airmail postcard with 1 r. 30 k. rate (C26, 28).
(2) Registered airmail postcard with 1 r. 30 k. rate (C30, 32, line-perforated 12 1/2).
(3) Registered airmail envelope with 2 r. 35 k. rate (C27, 29).
(4) Registered airmail envelope with complete set C26-29, received Vienna 27 Aug. 1931.
(5) Registered airmail envelope with 2 r. 25 k. rate (C31,33, line-perforated 12 1/2).
(6) Registered airmail envelope with complete set C30-33, comb-perforated 12 x 12 1/2), received
Moscow 26 Aug. 1931.

The demand from European collectors has brought to light the scarcity of the complete set perforated, on cover
and it now fetches a high price at auctions. So far, this writer has only seen the complete set comb-perforated on
cover and it would be highly interesting to know of covers with the full set line-perforated 12 1/2, i.e. for this
flight. For a flown cover with the full set line-perforated applied at a later date, see under 1933, item (b).

(k) Unusual combination cover sent from Oslo on 8 July 1931 to Hamburg, Germany with 30 o're Norwegian
postage. For some reason, it was offloaded in Leningrad, whence it was forwarded by adding 45 kop. postage. The
stamps are cancelled with the pictorial "LENINGRAD-BERLIN" marking, dated 26 July 1931 and the cover is
backstamped with Berlin transit of the same day. The Russian rate is correct, as it consisted of the basic 15 kop.
surface foreign letter fee plus the 30 kop. airmail charge for mail to Germany.

(I) AAMC No. 1146: July 28, Herndon & Pangborn Round the World Flight. Two American pilots, Hugh
Herndon and Clyde Pangborn, attempting to beat the record for the around-the-world flight, started from Floyd
Bennett Field in Brooklyn, N.Y. on 28 July, the 2 U.S. stamp being cancelled at the Vanderveer postal station.
They arrived at Croydon Airport on 30 July (see Fig. 6) and then flew across Russia where they touched down at
Khabarovsk, the cover being backstamped there on 29 August (Fig. 7). Either there or at some other stop in
Siberia, an official Soviet cachet was also applied in violet, being inscribed "School for Civilian Pilots of the Far
Eastern Society for the Promotion of Aviation and Chemical Defense, named after Unshlikht" (see Fig. 7; losif S.
Unshlikht was the Soviet Deputy Commissar of Defense). They then proceeded on to Japan where they were
arrested and heavily fined for flying over fortifications. Upon their release on 2 October, the Japanese stamp was
placed on the cover and cancelled at Sabishimi Beach. The next day, they took off to fly 4500 miles over the
Pacific, passing the Kurile and Aleutian Islands and down the coast from Alaska to land at Wenatchee, Wash., on
5 Oct., where the second U.S. 24 stamp was affixed and cancelled. A total of 75 letters was carried on their plane
"Miss Veedol."


. --.,f, *,&% ,,_--

"Fig. 6 .s 'e"- ---
Fig. 7

(m) Registered airmail envelope with 15 kop. imprinted stamp and additional 50 kop. postage from Livadiya,
Crimea 23 Aug. and Vienna arrival of 29 Aug. The 65 kop. rate is correct and made up from the 15 kop. foreign
surface letter charge, 20 kop. registration fee and 30 kop. airmail rate to Austria.

(n) Russian despatch for German Catapult Flight from the steamer "Europe." A registered airmail postacard with S
correct Russian postage of 50 kop. for transmission from Leningrad 1 & 2 Sep. 1931 to Berlin transit 3 Sep.
Endorsed in German "With preliminary catapult flight rate in German stamps," the card also bears 50 pf. German
postage cancelled in Berlin, as well as a special German cachet in violet for the event. The card reached New York
on 9 Sep. and the addressee in Pittsburgh a day later. This is a rare despatch.

(o) Registered airmail cover from Moscow-Khamovniki 11 Sep. 31 to Berlin 12 Sep. with the complete set
C26-33, affixed other than for its original purpose. Here again, C30-33 are comb-perforated 12 x 12 1/2.

(p) Registered airmail cover, serviced by the Soviet Philatelic Association and with the correct 65 kop. rate made
up with C21 and a copy of the blue-grey error C23a, from Moscow-50 post office 15 Sep. 31 to Berlin 16 Sep. A
German airmail label was affixed. Once again, this is a rare usage.

(q) "Europa"-New York Catapult Flight 27 Sep. 1931: an unusual combination cover of especial U. S. interest.
Endorsed at top front in German 'By airmail from Leningrad to the U.S.A. By catapult to the steamer; catapult
charge affixed in American stamps; in the U.S.A. by "Air Mail." Let us now trace what actually happened (see
Figs. 8, 9).
Fig. 7

(m) Registered airmail envelope with 15 kop. imprinted stamp and additional 50 kop. postage from Livadiya,

Crime 23 Aug. and Vienna arrivalmount of 29 Aug. The 65 kop. was affixate isletter by registered made up from Leningrad 19 Sep.
t o Berlin 20 Sep. It was thus underpaid by 14 kop. air of U.S. airmails C on the back was also cancelled

n) Russiat Leningrad. From Berlin, the cover was flown to the steamer "Europa," as confirmregistered by the Germail postacachet ap-with
correct Russian postage of 50 kop. for transmission from Leningrad 1 & 2 Sep. 1931 to Berlin transit 3 Sep.
Endorsed in German "With preliminary catapult flight rate in German stamps," the card also bears 50 pf. German
postage cancelled in Berlin, as well as a special German cachet in violet for the event. The card reached New York

on 9 Splied above the registration cachet and reading "MIT LUFTPOST ZUM D. "EUROPA" BEFRDERT (forwardedspatch.
(o) Registered airmail cover from Moscow-Khamovniki 11 Sep. 31 to Berlin 12 Sep. with the complete set
C26-33, affixed other than for its original purpose. Here again, C30-33 are comb-perforated 12 x 12 1/2.

(p) Registered airmail cover, serviced by the Soviet Philatelic Association and with the correct 65 kop. rate made
up with C21 and a copy of the blue-grey error C23a, from Moscow-50 post office 15 Sep. 31 to Berlin 16 Sep. A

to the steamer "Europa" byGerman airmail label was affixed. Once again, this i mail). The U.S. was al reresented aboard ship as the copy of C at bottom left
(q) "Europa"-New York Catapult Flight 27 Sep. 1931: an unusual combination cover of especial U. S. interest.
Endorsed at top front in German 'By airmail from Leningrad to the U.S.A. By catapult to the steamer; catapult
charge affixed in American stamps; in the U.S.A. by "Air Mail." Let us now trace what actually happened (see
Figs. 8, 9).

Russian postage to the amount of 51 kop. was affixed to take the letter by registered mail from Leningrad 19 Sep.
to Berlin 20 Sep. It was thus underpaid by 14 kop. but the pair of U.S. airmails C1l on the back was also cancelled
at Leningrad. From Berlin, the cover was flown to the steamer "Europa," as confirmed by the German cachet ap-
plied above the registration cachet and reading "MIT LUFTPOST ZUM D. "EUROPA" BEFURDERT' (forwarded
to the steamer "Europa" by air mail). The U.S. was also represented aboard ship as the copy of C11 at bottom left


is cancelled "U.S. GER SEA POST, S.S. EUROPA, SEP 21 1931, 12.30 P." The catapult flight from the s.s.
"Europa" to New York took place on 27 Sep. as noted by the cachet at top left and the cover received in New
York the same day, arriving in Pittsburgh on 28 Sep.



Pittba'Pa av .A on

E seventh Street / .4.

Fig. 8 Fig. 9

(4) An illustrated postcard issued in a printing of 300,000 and featuring an airship flying over the frozen North.
Inscribed "The Dirigible a mighty means of transport and communication with the Soviet North." Sanctioned by
the Commission for Assistance in Dirigible Construction in the USSR and prepared under Order No. 1993 by the
Leningrad Provincial Lithographic Plant at the State Printery named after Ivan Fgdorov. Issued by "O.M.Kh." and
sold at 10 kopeks. The writer's example was sent by air from Leningrad to Berlin on 12 Dec. 1931 and bears 50
kop. postage, the airmail transmission to Germany being overpaid by 20 kop.

This brings to a close the listing of flown mail for 1931 and it can be seen that it was a very busy year for Soviet


(a) Graf Zeppelin Flight to the Netherlands in 1932. Another of the unusual and possibly unique triple combina-
tions prepared by the Hamburg dealer, Karl Hennig, this particular cover was addressed and annotated by typewriter
in a characteristic italic script. Directed to Colombia, South America, the German instructions at the top front of
the cover were 'From Leningrad by air mail to Friedrichshafen, from Friedrichshafen by airship "Graf Zeppelin,"
Flight to the Netherlands 1932.' Also endorsed "Einschreiben" (registered), the cover bears 65 kop. postage (thus
underpaid by 20 kop.), cancelled with the pictorial LENINGRAD-BERLIN cachet dated 24 June 1932 and the
Berlin transit marking of the same date. Then German air stamps C31-32 were postmarked on the same day and
the cover forwarded to Holland by Friedrichshafen on 2 July, an unframed two-line German cachet now being
applied, reading "Mit Luftpost befordert / Leftpostamt Friedrichshafen (Bodensee)." According to the Sieger
catalog, there was no receiving postmark applied for the flight to the Netherlands and this is certainly the case
here. The cover arrived at Baranquilla, Colombia, apparently on 27 July, where Colombian postage was can-
celled and the item finally delivered to Bogota the same day.


(b) AAMC No. 1167, 5 July 1932: Around the World Flight by Mattern and Griffin. The U. S. pilot Jimmie
Mattern and Lt. B. H. Griffin took off from Floyd Bennett Field in Brooklyn, N.Y. on 5 July 1932 in an attempt
to beat the around the world record set by Post and Gatty. They carried a total of ten covers, the writer's example
being franked with the U. S. air stamp of 5< value (C12) cancelled at the New York 15 post office (see Fig. 10).
Proceeding via Harbour Grace, Nfld., they landed at Berlin the next day where German postage was added and
cancelled (Scott No. 367). The next stop was Minsk in Byelorussia, where Scott No. 421 was applied and cancelled
with a bilingual Russo-Byelorussian marking dated 7 July. The flight went on to Moscow but the aircraft broke
down on the hop to Siberia. This cover is autographed by both aviators and bears the signature of Irwin Heiman
on the back.

(c) Sieger No. 171a: "Graf Zeppelin" Fifth South American Flight. A possibly unique cover again prepared by
Karl Hennig, bearing the correct Russian registered airmail postage of 85 kop. to South America (Scott C21-23), a
Colombian 4t commem. and 20( airmail stamp (CF3) overprinted "R" (for registered air mail from abroad), all
affixed by the sender. German instructions at top front reading: "From Moscow by air mail to Friedrich-
shafen. By airship Graf Zeppelin to Brazil. By air mail to Colombia." Sent through the Moscow-50 post
office, which was normally utilized by the Soviet Philatelic Association, on 21 Aug., it was forwarded by
Friedrichshafen on 29 Aug., an unframed German three-line cachet being added, reading "LUFTSCHIFF GRAF
ZEPPELIN / 5. SUDAMERIKAFAHRT / 1932." The cover is backstamped Pernambuco, 1 Sep., Rio, 9 Sep.,
Baranquilla, 1 Oct., and Bogota, 14 Oct. 1932.

(d) Sieger No. 171a: "Graf Zeppelin" Fifth South American Flight. A cover with the correct airmail registered
postage of 85 kop. (C21-23) to Brazil, prepared this time by the German air cover dealer Hermann Sieger of
Lorch, Wairttemberg. The cover bears at top front an unframed German two-line cachet reading 'Von Moskau mit
Flugpost nach Friedrichshafen / Mit Luftschiff "Graf Zeppelin" nach Brasilien' (From Moscow by air mail to
Friedrichshafen / By airship "Graf Zeppelin" to Brazil), apparently prepared and applied by Mr. Sieger himself. The
item went through the Moscow-50 post office on 22 Aug. and was forwarded from Friedrichshafen on 29 Aug. on
the 5th. South American Flight by the "Graf Zeppelin" to reach Pernambuco, Brazil on 1 Sep. 1932.

(e) Sieger No. 171a: "Graf Zeppelin" Fifth South American Flight. Exactly as above, but this time on a Soviet
postcard, with the same franking and thus overpaid by 25 kop.; the correct rate would have been composed of the
30 kop. airmail postcard fee to South America, 10 kop. foreign surface postcard rate and 20 kop. registration fee.


(f) Sieger No. 177: "Graf Zeppelin" Fifth South American Flight. An unusual cover, endorsed "By air mail,
registered," in Russian but sent by ordinary airmail with 75 kop. Russian postage (thus overpaid by 10 kop.)
from Moscow 22 Aug. via Danzig 23 Aug. and Friedrichshafen 29 Aug. to catch the 5th. South American flight
by the "Graf Zeppelin" with Recife arrival of 1 Sep. Readdressed back to Friedrichshafen, RM 1.70 in German
air stamps was then added and cancelled aboard the "Graf Zeppelin" on 6 Sep., arriving at the destination one
day later. This is an interesting double combination cover.

(g) Sieger No. 171: "Graf Zeppelin" Fifth South American Flight. A registered airmail cover sent through the
Moscow-9 post office on 25 Aug. with 1 r. 50 k. postage via Berlin 27 Aug. and Friedrichshafen 29 Aug. to connect
with this flight and arriving in Rio de Janeiro on 2 Sep. 1932.

(h) Second International Polar Year 1932-33: Flight from Franz Josef Land to Archangel. Russia C34-35 were
especially issued to pay the inclusive air express fees of 50 kop. for postcards and 1 r. for covers on this flight. All
items bore a triangular Russian cachet inscribed "Second International Polar Year 1932-33 / First Polar Air Run
1932." The mail left Franz Josef Land on 26 Aug. and received in Archangel two days later. The markings used
at Archangel included a subscript "v" (like handwritten English "b") or subscript "z" (like the Arabic numeral
"3"; this type is much scarcer). The mail was then forwarded by air from Archangel to the destinations. The items
in the writer's collection are as follows:

(1) Trilingual (German, French & English) postcard printed in red, prepared by Hermann
Sieger and normally addressed to him in Lorch, Wu'rttemberg.

(2) Trilingual cover, with all other details as above.

(3) Another type of cover, apparently also prepared by Sieger, with single-line German
cachet reading "Mit Erstflug ab Franz-Josefland" (By first flight from Franz Josef
Land). Franked with C35 and received in Basle, Switzerland on 1 Sep., the cover
also bears the signature of the Italian explorer of the Arctic, General Umberto Nobile.
General Nobile was connected with dirigible construction in the USSR from 1932 to

(4) A cover franked with both C34 and C35, when only the latter was required and addressed
to Moscow, where it was received on 30 Sep. Although philatelic, such frankings are
much scarcer than the normal usages for this flight.

EDITORIAL NOTE: It has been stated that only 10,000 copies of each value were issued. Those that were not
used up on the flight could subsequently be obtained at an enchanced price for valuta (foreign currency) or, in the
case of local collectors, at the State philatelic shops where the price went as high as 30 rubles (i.e. 20 times face
value) for a mint set. The result was that later applications of these stamps on mail were very infrequent and such
usages should be regarded as rare. Several examples are noted chronologically by the owner further on in this

(i) Sieger No. 177c: "Graf Zeppelin" Sixth South American Flight. A postcard prepared by Hermann Sieger with
85 kop. Russian postage and sent by registered airmail from Moscow 8 Sep. via Berlin 9 Sep. to join the connecting
flight Stuttgart-Friedrichshafen (special circular cachet). Mr. Sieger had added the same unframed two-line German
cachet noted in (d) above for the "Graf Zeppelin" flight to Brazil, but this time the card also bears the official mark-
ing reading "LUFTSCHIFF GRAF ZEPPELIN / 6. SUDAMERIKAFAHRT / 1932" with Pernambuco arrival dated
19 Sep. 1932.

(j) Later usage of C34-35, other than for their original purpose on a registered airmail cover from Moscow 17
Sep. to Berlin 18 Sep. 1932. As stated in the note to (h) above, such usages are very infrequent.

(k) Sieger No. 183-7a: "Graf Zeppelin" Seventh South American Flight. A registered airmail cover serviced by
the North West Section of the All-Russian Society of Philatelists at Leningrad and demonstrating several unusual


features, as follows. The Russian postage of 1 r. 80 k. includes C20 and C22, the franking being cancelled with
three strikes of the LENINGRAD-BERLIN pictorial marking, dated 22 Sep. 32 and applied in violet. This is the
only known application of this color on a Zeppelin flight cover. The envelope is endorsed in German at top front:
'From Leningrad by air mail to Friedrichshafen. By airship "Graf Zeppelin" to South America Paraguay.' A
further strike of the LENINGRAD-BERLIN cachet is on the back dated 23 Sep. but this time in black, as well as
the Berlin transit of the same day. The red circular cachet for the connecting Berlin-Friedrichshafen flight is on the
front and the cover is backstamped on arrival at Asuncion, Paraguay 8 Oct. 1932.

EDITORIAL NOTE: The Sieger catalogue lists Russia C20 (the 10 kop. Dirigible Construction stamp in violet) in
a double impression variety, in mint and used. The present cover is the only one known to the owner showing this
variety, at least on a Zeppelin flight. However, bearing in mind that this stamp was printed by the photogravure
process and going by the several loose copies also seen of this variety, it seems that the effect was brought about not
so much by the malfunction of the printing press as in faulty operation of the step-and-repeat camera which pro-
duced the group negatives used for building up the printing plates. In other words, it appears that what we have
here is not a double impression, but a double exposure, with one exposure slightly out of focus and lighter than the
other, which is even more interesting. Further comments are invited from members.

(I) Sieger No. 189b: "Graf Zeppelin" Eighth South American Flight. A 5-kop. postal card with additional 1 r.
45 k. postage incl. C22, sent by registered airmail from Moscow-9 post office 22 Sep. via Berlin 25 Sep. and con-
necting flight Berlin-Friedrichshafen (special circular cachet), with Pernambuco arrival of 13 Oct. 1932. The rele-
vant marking for the eighth flight is also on the card, together with a framed single-line indication reading "Mit
Luftschiff Graf Zeppelin."

(m) As above, but prepared by Hermann Sieger for despatch by registered airmail from Moscow-3 post office 4
Oct. 32 via Berlin 5 Oct. and connecting flight Berlin-Friedrichshafen to arrive in Pernambuco 13 Oct. 1932. The
two examples in the writer's collection are as follows:

(1) Soviet postcard franked with C7-8, C34 and E2, with a total of 85 kop. postage.
(2) Cover franked with C35, i.e., 1 r. postage.

In both cases, we have scarce later usages of the Second International Polar Year stamps.

(n) Same flight and sent through same Moscow-3 post office 7 Oct. with correct 85 kop. postage (C21-23) for
registered airmail despatch to South America and endorsed in German at top front: "Mit Anschlussflug ab Berlin
und mit Graf Zeppelin nach SUDAMERIKA," together with the requested connecting flight cachet. Rio de Janeiro
arrival of 13 Oct. 1932.

(o) A 10-kop. Soviet postal card with additional 60 kop. postage incl. C22, sent by registered airmail from
Moscow-9 post office 12 Oct., via Berlin 15 Oct. to arrive the next day in Vienna, Austria.

(p) Sieger No. 195: "Graf Zeppelin" Ninth South American Flight. A cover prepared by Mr. Sieger, with the
usual handstamped two-line instruction in German: 'From Moscow by air mail to Friedrichshafen / By airship
"Graf Zeppelin" to Brazil'. Sent by registered airmail from the Moscow-3 post office 17 Oct. with correct 85 kop.
postage (C21-23), via Berlin 18 Oct. to Friedrichshafen 24 Oct. and arriving at Pernambuco 27 Oct.

(q) Same flight, utilizing a German postcard especially prepared for "Graf Zeppelin" flights. Franked with Russia
Scott No. 425 and C34, with a total of 1 r. 20 k. postage and sent from the Moscow-9 post office 19 Oct. via
Berlin 20 Oct. and Friedrichshafen departure 24 Oct. to arrive at Bahia, Brazil 27 Oct. 1932. The card also has a
Brazilian cachet in Portuguese reading "Reply Immediately / by Condor-Zeppelin / mail closes Saturday 29.10.32
/ at 6 pm." This demonstrates once again a scarce late usage of C34.



(a) A Soviet 15-kop. envelope with additional 65 kop. postage, sent by registered airmail from Vladivostok 19 Feb.
via Berlin 5 March to Vienna, Austria 6 March 1933. The cover was thus underpaid by 5 kop.

(b) A registered airmail cover serviced by the Soviet Philatelic Association with C30-33 line-perforated 12 1/2 and
applied other than for the original purpose of the set, sent through the Moscow-50 post office 7 Mar. 33 via Berlin
8 Mar. to Neumarkt 9 Mar. 1933. This is the only cover ever seen by the writer with the complete set line-
perforated. Details of other examples would be welcome; the line-perforated stamps may easily be distinguished
since the perforation holes overlap at the corners of the stamps, giving them a characteristic irregular appearance.
The corners of the comb-perforated stamps are always symmetrical.

(c) A Soviet 20-kop. envelope addressed to Austria, erroneously struck with a framed single-line "PAR AVION"
cachet at Leningrad-1 post office 21 May 33 and sent via Berlin 22 May to Vienna 23 May 1933.

(d) Sieger No. 219a: "Graf Zeppelin" Third South American Flight 1933. A registered airmail cover with 2 r.
98 k. postage incl. C29, sent through the Moscow-3 post office 29 May 33 via Berlin 31 May, Munich 8 June and
Friedrichshafen 1 July to arrive in Buenos Aires, Argentina 8 July 1933.

(e) AAMC No. 1187: Attempted Around the World Flight by Jimmie Mattern. Taking off on 3 June in a Lock-
heed Vega with only a few covers, he arrived in Moscow 5 June, Belovo in the West Siberian Region 8 June,
Krasnoyarsk 9 June, Khabarovsk 12 June and then crash-landed near Anadyr' (Eastern Siberia, opposite Alaska),
where he was lost for almost three weeks. He was rescued by the famous Soviet pilot Sigismund Levanevskii (see
Scott C61, C68 and Fig. 19 herewith) and then had the covers postmarked at the Anadyr' Radio & Telegraph
Station on 5 July. Levanevskii flew him on to Nome, Alaska which they reached on 21 July and the covers passed
through Fairbanks 23 July, Juneau 25 July and Edmonton, Canada 27 July (see Figs. 11, 12).

Fig. 11 Fig. 12

(f) German Catapult Flight from s.s. "Bremen" to New York, 9-10 July. A registered airmail letter serviced by
the North-West Section of the All-Russian Society of Philatelists at Leningrad with the correct 85 kop. postage to
the U.S. cancelled with the pictorial LENINGRAD-BERLIN postmark dated 29 June and with another Leningrad


in Berlin the next day where the German postage of 56 pf. was cancelled and the cover then forwarded to the s.s.
"Bremen," from where it was catapulted to New York on 9 July, passing through its registration division and ar-
riving in Pittsburgh on 10 July 1933.

(g) A Soviet 15-kop. envelope with additional 65 kop. postage, sent by registered airmail from Chelyabinsk-7
post office 29 June (overpaid by 5 kop.) and arriving in Berlin on 7 July 1933.

(h) German Catapult Flight from s.s. "Bremen" to New York, 9-10 July. A rare cover with Russian postage only
(1 r. 65 k.) and sent by registered airmail from Moscow-9 post office 1 July 33. Annotated at top front in German
"By air mail from Cologne and Preliminary Flight to New York, Catapult Service. To be forwarded by the S.S.
BREMEN from CHERBOURG on 5 July 1933." A Russian cachet inscribed in French is applied in violet to the
front and reads "By air as far as Berlin," where the cover arrived on 3 July. It was then forwarded by air mail to
the s.s. "Bremen" (German cachet in red) and catapulted to New York on 9 July (German cachet in green). Back-
stamped at New York Registration Division the same day and received in Cleveland four days later.

(i) Do. X Flight Passau, Germany to Staad, Switzerland, 5 Sep. Another cover serviced by the North-West
Section of the All-Russian Society of Philatelists at Leningrad on 7 July with C20 and additional 55 kop. to make
up the correct 65 kop. rate by air to Hungary. The German instructions at top front read as follows: "By air mail
from Leningrad via Berlin to Passau. By aircraft Do. X to Budapest." Despite these directions, the cover went by
air to Berlin, where it was received the next day and then sent on to the final address at Budapest, where it arrived
on 10 July. It was sent back to Germany, where a two-line in cachet in violet was applied, reading "Forwarding de-
layed on account of damage to the aircraft Do. X." Two other German cahcets were applied, reading "By Aircraft
Do. X" and a pictorial type with inscription "PASSAU-AIRCRAFT Do.X-SWITZERLAND 1933" in violet. German
postage to the amount of 51 pf. was affixed at the Passau-2 post office on 5 Sep. 1933 and the cover reached
Staad, Switzerland the same day. Quite an interesting story.

(j) Catapult Flight from s.s. "Europa" to New York, 19-20 July. A rare usage with Russian postage only (1 r.
50 k.) from Moscow-9 post office 11 July by registered airmail via Berlin 13 July. Annotated by hand at top front
in German as follows: 'By air mail from Cologne and preliminary flight to New York. Catapult Service. By
steamer "Europa" from Cherbourg on 15 July 1933.' A red cachet in German was added for forwarding to the
steamer and a further green cachet for the catapult flight on 19 July. The cover went through the New York
registration division the same day and arrived in Cleveland on 20 July 1933.

(k) A 15-kop. Soviet envelope with additional Russian postage of 1 r. 3 k. incl. three copies of C22, sent by
registered airmail from Moscow-9 post office 21 July, via Berlin to Vienna.

(I) Catapult Flight from s.s. "Europa" to New York, 6-7 Aug. A Russian postcard, apparently serviced by Karl
Hennig and bearing typewritten directions in German, reading as follows: "By catapult via New York. In accord-
ance with the purpose, the catapult charge is affixed in German stamps." Addressed to Bogota, Colombia, the card
bears 50 kop. Russian postage incl. C20 and was sent by registered airmail at the correct rate for Germany from
Leningrad 30 July, the stamps being cancelled with the pictorial LENINGRAD-BERLIN cachet. It arrived in Berlin
the next day, where the German postage of 55 pf. was cancelled. Catapulted from the s.s. "Europa" on 6 Aug.
(special violet cachet), it passed through the New York registration division the same day and was then apparently
forwarded by sea to Baranquilla, Colombia, where a previously affixed 4t was cancelled for airmail service on 17
Aug. Although the card was originally annotated to go by the "Tobon" daily express train service to Bogota and a
special 6t stamp of that service affixed for the purpose, the card arrived the next day by air at its final destination.
A most unusual combination.

(m) Sieger No. 223b: "Graf Zeppelin" Fourth South American Flight. A registered airmail cover with 2 r. 65 k.
postage (C23, 25, 29), annotated in German 'By "Graf Zeppelin" to South America' and sent through the Moscow-7


post office on 2 Aug. It was backstamped in Berlin the next day and the connecting flight cachet to Friedrichshafen
* was added in red. It was received in Pernambuco, Brazil on 9 Aug. 1933.

(n) Catapult Flight from s.s. "Europa" to New York, 22-23 Aug. A Russian postcard and again apparently pre-
pared by Karl Hennig for servicing by the North-West Section of the All-Russian Society of Philatelists at Leningrad.
It bears typewritten directions in German, reading: "By catapult to New York. For the relevant purpose, the cata-
pult charge is affixed in German stamps." Showing the correct 50 k. postage for a registered airmail card to Germany,
this item was cancelled with the pictorial LENINGRAD-BERLIN marking on 6 Aug., held over for a day and passed
through Berlin on 8 Aug. The German postage of 55 pf. was cancelled aboard the s.s. "Europa" on 18 Aug. and the
card catapulted to New York on 22 Aug. It went through the New York registration division the same day, Miami
on 24 Aug. and arrived at Bogota, Colombia on 29 Aug. 1933, the Colombian postage on the back of the card
(apparently affixed by Hennig) being left uncancelled.

(o) Sieger No. 226b: "Graf Zeppelin" Fifth South American Flight. A postcard with Russia C23, 25 & 28,
totalling 1 r. 65 k. postage, sent by registered airmail from the Moscow-7 post office 9 Aug. and passing through
Berlin the next day to catch the connecting Berlin-Friedrichshafen flight (red cachet). The Fifth Flight cachet is
applied as well as typewritten directions in German, reading 'Via "Graf Zeppelin" / to South America,' where the
card arrived at Pernambuco, Brazil on 23 Aug. 1933.

(p) Catapult Flight from s.s. "Europa" to New York, 22-23 Aug. A cover with insufficient Russian postage (18
kop.) endorsed at top front in German as follows: 'By air mail from Leningrad to the U.S.A. From the fast
steamer "Europa" or "Bremen" by catapult to New York. Per the relevant instructions, the catapult charge is af-
fixed in German stamps.' Sent from Leningrad 12 Aug., the German postage of 54 pf. was cancelled in transit at
Berlin 14 Aug. and the cover catapulted to New York on 22 Aug., being received at Bronxville, N.Y. the same day.

(q) Sieger No. 229b: "Graf Zeppelin" Sixth South American Flight. A registered airmail cover franked with
O Russia C24 and endorsed at top left in German: and Russian: 'By air mail, registered, 6th. South American Flight
by the "Graf Zeppelin." By aircraft from Berlin to Friedrichshafen.' Cancelled with the pictorial LENINGRAD-
BERLIN marking 25 Aug., it passed through Berlin 27 Aug. to take the connecting flight to Friedrichshafen (red
cachet). A triangular marking for the first flight of the Transatlantic Air Service by Condor-Zeppelin was applied
on the back and the cover reached Montevideo on 7 Sep. 1933.

(r) Sieger No. 229a: "Graf Zeppelin" Sixth South American Flight. A registered airmail cover, apparently pre-
pared by Karl Hennig and serviced by the North-West Section of the All-Russian Society of Philatelists at Leningrad,
with 1 r. 75 k. Russian postage, incl. C20. Endorsed at top front in German: 'From Leningrad by air mail to
Friedrichshafen. Forwarded by airship "Graf Zeppelin" to South America.' Cancelled with the pictorial LENIN-
GRAD-BERLIN cachet on 25 Aug., to reach Berlin the next day and it left Friedrichshafen on 2 Sep. with the special
Sixth Flight cachet, bound for Asuncion, Paraguay.

(s) Sieger No. 232b: "Graf Zeppelin" Seventh South American Flight. A Russian postcard serviced by Hermann
Sieger with 1 r. 65 k. postage (C23, 25, 28) for registered airmail from Moscow-5 post office 8 Sep., with further
50-kop. stamp added at Moscow-1 post office 14 Sep. and passing through Berlin the same day, to take the con-
necting flight to Friedrichshafen. The appropriate Seventh South American Flight cachet was added and the card
reached Pernambuco, Brazil on 20 Sep. 1933.

(t) Same flight as above, but this time in the form of a cover endorsed at top front in French: "PAR AVION
Moscou-Berlin-Friedrichshafen" and immediately below in Russian: "By air mail Germany Friedrichshafen,
Registered, to the Zeppelin." Sent by registered airmail with high franking of 3 r. 50 k. (Russia, Scott Nos. 406,
470-71) the last stamp being the 35 k. Gor'kii stamp of 1932 which is rare on cover, it passed through the Moscow-5
post office on 10 Sep. and the Moscow-1 post office 4 days later, to reach Berlin the same day, in accordance with


the Russian framed cachet applied in violet and reading in French: "By air mail as far aslBERLIN." In addition to
the connecting flight cachet to Friedrichshafen, there is also a boxed three-line German marking on the back, read-
ing 'By Airship LZ 127/"Graf Zeppelin"/ from Friedrichshafen'. The cover arrived in Pernambuco, Brazil on 20
Sep. 1933.

(u) Catapult Flight from s.s. "Bremen" to New York, 1-2 Oct. A series of very interesting covers and a card, ser-
viced by the North-West Section of the All-Russian Society of Philatelists at Leningrad on 22 and 24 Sep. and with
German endorsements at top front, reading: 'By air mail from Leningrad to the U.S.A. From the fast steamer
"Europa" or "Bremen" by catapult to New York. Per relevant instructions, the catapult charge is affixed in German
stamps. The individual details are as follows:

GRAD- New York
BERLIN Leningrad Russian German Berlin Reg. Divn.
cachet date Reg. No. postage postage arrival arrival Other remarks

22.IX. 333 88 kop. 54 pf, 23 Sep. 2 Oct.

22.IX. 345 75 kop. 54 pf. 23 Sep. 2 Oct. Only lower % of one 6-pf. stamp-see Fig. 13.

Additional German cachet reading: "For-
22.IX. 345 75 kop. 51 pf. 25 Sep. 2 Oct. A l G n c t r
warded by air mail/Post office Cologne Airport."

24.IX. 423 75 kop. 51 pf. 25 Sep. 2 Oct. "

24.1X. 502 75 kop. 54 pf. 25 Sep. 2 Oct. "

24.IX. 524 75 kop. 54 pf. 25 Sep. 2 Oct. plus upper 1/4 of 6-pf. stamp missing from the
second cover above (see Fig. 14).

This is a card prepared by Hennig, with Colom-
bian postage on back cancelled at Baranquilla
24.IX. 577 50 kop. 55 pf. 25 Sep. 2 Oct. 12 Oct. German endorsement does not specify
the steamer. Also has the Cologne Airport
transit marking.

All the above items have the special cachet applied aboard the s.s. "Bremen" for the catapult flight to New York on
1-2 Oct. 1933.

Fig. 13 Fig. 14


(v) Sieger 235b: "Graf Zeppelin" Eighth South American Flight. A registered airmail cover, apparently prepared
by Hermann Sieger and franked with 2 r. 65 k. postage (Russia C25, 33 & 35a), sent from Moscow-5 post office
26 Sep., passing through Berlin on 28 Sep. to make the connecting flight to Friedrichshafen and received in Pernam-
Sbuco, Brazil on 4 Oct. 1933.

(w) Same flight by a registered airmail cover with 1 r. 55 k. postage inclu. Scott 479 the 50-kop. MOPR stamp
which is rare on mail, all cancelled with the pictorial LENINGRAD-BERLIN cachet 27 Sep., passing through Berlin
the next day for the connecting flight to Friedrichshafen and arriving at Porto Alegre, Brazil on 5 Oct. 1933.

(x) Sieger No. 238e: Chicago World's Fair Flight. This flight is not listed in the Sieger catalog with Russian post-
age, possibly because the present card, which was prepared by him, only went part of the way, i.e. to Pernambuco,
Brazil, per the typewritten directions he gave (By airship "Graf Zeppelin" to Pernambuco). Franked with 3 r. 15 k.
Russian postage (C25,29 & 35), it was sent from the Moscow-7 post office 11 Oct. by registered airmail passing
through Berlin 12 Oct. to make the connecting flight to Friedrichshafen where the triangular Chicago Flight cachet
was applied. It was received in Pernambuco 17 Oct. 1933.

(y) Same flight, but this particular card went all the way to Chicago, as endorsed by the German inscription at top
left (By airship "Graf Zeppelin" / to the World's Fair in / Chicago). Franked with very high Russian postage of 5 r.
75 k. (Scott 406, C20, 25, 29 & 34), it also left the Moscow-7 post office 11 Oct., passing through Berlin 12 Oct.,
making connections with Friedrichshafen for the special Chicago Flight cachet and arriving in Chicago 26 Oct. 1933.
This card is the only example known to the writer that went to the World's Fair with Russian postage and is an un-
listed item (see Fig. 15).

Fig. 15 Fig. 16

(z) A first day cover of Russia C37-39, sent by registered airmail printed matter rate from the Moscow-50 post
office 3 Nov. to Stockholm, Sweden 8 Nov. 1933. It is hard to reconstruct the rate, but we know the surface for-
eign printed matter charge was 3 kop., plus 20 kop. registration fee and possibly 20 kop. for airmail printed matter
rate to Sweden, thus totalling 43 kop., which means the item was underpaid by 8 kop. For an example of a regis-
tered letter going abroad by air, although the airmail franking of 35 kop. only covered the registered surface mail
rate abroad, see under 1934, item (v). In both cases, the articles probably went through by air by oversight.

From the foregoing, it can be seen that 1933 was also a very busy year for Soviet aerophilately.



(a) A registered airmail cover franked with Scott 487-88, the Leningrad Philatelic Exhibition pair. This set only
had a face value of 50 kop., the surcharge of 1 r. apparently accruing to the exhibition funds. Whatever the case,
it was accepted as adequate postage registered airmail transmission to Germany, although actually underpaid by 25
kop. and it left the Moscow-9 post office 9 Feb., passing through Berlin on 12 Feb. and arriving at Konstanz the
same day. This set is rare on cover, whether or not applied for its original purpose.

(b) A registered airmail cover franked with Scott C40-44, the 10th. anniversary of Civilian Air Services set on
watermarked paper. Apparently serviced by the Soviet Philatelic Association, it left the Moscow-50 post office 14
April to arrive in New York 24 April and Rahway, N.J. the next day.

(c) Catapult Flight from s.s. "Europa" to New York, 30-31 May. A registered airmail cover endorsed in German
at top front: "By air mail from Cologne and preliminary flight to New York. By steamer Europa from Cherbourg
on 26.5. 1934. Catapult Service" and in Russian: "Via Berlin, Germany, by air mail." Franked with 1 r. 55 k.
postage, it left the Moscow-5 post office 23 May with the additional framed cachet in black reading in French "By
air as far asIBERLIN," passing through there the next day. A further red cachet in German was applied, reading
'Forwarded by air mail to the s.s. "Europa"' and it was catapulted from this ship on 30 May (red cachet), passing
through the New York registration division the same day to arrive at Cleveland, Ohio on 1 June 1934. This is
another case of a very scarce usage with Russian postage only, as German stamps should also have been applied for
the catapult charge.

(d) Sieger No. 247: "Graf Zeppelin" First South American Flight. A registered airmail postcard of the Soviet
Philatelic Association, franked by Hermann Sieger with 2 r. 10 k. postage (incl. C23, 35, & 39) and sent from the
Moscow-7 post office 23 May via Berlin 24 May and Friedrichshafen 26 May, to arrive by "Graf Zeppelin" at Per-
nambuco, 29 May 1934.

(e) Sieger No. 250: "Graf Zeppelin" Second South American Flight. A similar card, franked by Sieger again with
2 r. 10 k. postage (incl. C28, 34, 41 & 43) and sent from the Moscow-7 post office 4 June, via Berlin 5 June and
Friedrichshafen 9 June to arrive at Pernambuco 12 June 1934.

(f) Catapult Flight from s.s. "Europa" to New York, 15-16 June. A cover with 1 r. Russian postage incl. C20,
endorsed at top front in German as follows: "By air mail from Cologne and preliminary flight to New York. Catapult
Service" and at bottom left in Russian: "Air mail via BERLIN." Sent from the Moscow-5 post office with the
French cachet "By air as far asIBERLIN" by registered airmail on 6 June, it passed through Berlin the next day and
either there or at Cologne the German postage of 30 pf. was cancelled with crosses. Delivered by air to the s.s.
"Europa" (red cachet), it was catapulted to New York on 16 June, arriving at Cleveland, Ohio the next day.

(g) A registered airmail cover, apparently serviced by the Soviet Philatelic Association and franked with C40-44,
sent from the Moscow-50 post office 10 June, via Berlin 11 June to Vienna, Austria 12 June 1934.

(h) Sieger No. 260: "Graf Zeppelin" Fourth South American Flight. A most unusual registered airmail cover,
originally sent with 3 r. postage from the railway station post office at Zaporozh'e, Ukraine (mail code 40-Y-2) 11
June and with a further Zaporozh'e marking on the back with mail code 439-Y-1, dated 17 June. The cover was
sent back to the first-named office and an additional 25 kop. postage was affixed and cancelled 16 July. It then
went via Berlin 20 July to Friedrichshafen 21 July, where it was serviced for the "Graf Zeppelin" flight, arriving at
Pernambuco on 25 July 1934. This is a very uncommon despatch for a "Graf Zeppelin" flight.


EDITORIAL NOTE: The cover is addressed in German and Russian, the sender being stated as Bernhard Marty of
Zurich, c/o Poste Restante (General Delivery), Zaporozh'e on the Dnieper. There are three towns of this name in
the same province of the Ukraine, i.e. in the Tokmak, Veseliv and Zaporozh'e districts respectively. This explains
the differences in the mail codes shown in the postmarks on the above cover.

(i) Sieger No. 254: "Graf Zeppelin" Third South American Flight. A registered airmail cover with 3 r. postage
(C24) from Taganrog 16 June, via Berlin 22 June and Friedrichshafen 23 June (special Argentina route cachet) to
arrive at Montevideo, Uruguay 28 June 1934. Endorsed in Russian: "Registered, by air, Germany, Friedrichshafen,
to the Zeppelin." A despatch from Taganrog is most unusual.

(j) Catapult Flight from s.s. "Bremen" to New York, 27-28 June. A registered airmail cover, endorsed in German
at top front: "By air mail from Cologne and preliminary flight to New York. Catapult Service" and at bottom left
in Russian: "Air mail / VIA BERLIN." The Russian postage of 95 kop. incl. C22 plus the German postage of 30 pf.
are all cancelled at the Moscow-5 post office 18 June. Overpaid by 20 kop. for registered airmail service to Germany,
the cover bears the French language cachet in black "By air as far as / BERLIN," through which it passed the next
day. A red cachet was added to forwarding by air to the s.s. "Bremen" and it was catapulted to New York on 27
June (red cachet), passing through its registration division and arriving at Cleveland, Ohio the same day.

(k) Catapult Flight from s.s. "Europa" to New York, 8-9 Aug. A registered airmail cover with 1 r. 55 k. postage
incl. C24, endorsed in German at top front: 'Catapult Service. By steamer "Bremen" from Cherbourg on 28 July
1934. By air mail from Cologne and preliminary flight to New York.' Sent from the Moscow-5 post office 30 July
with blue-green French cachet "By air as far as / BERLIN," it passed through Berlin on 1 Aug., where the indication
about the s.s. "Bremen" and Cherbourg are crossed out and "Europa" substituted. Forwarded by air to the s.s. "Europa"
(red cachet), it was catapulted to New York on 8 Aug., passing through its registration division on the same day and
arriving in Cleveland on 9 Aug. 1934. Once again this is a rare usage as the required additional German postage for
the catapult charge had not been affixed.

(I) Sieger No. 271: "Graf Zeppelin" Seventh South American Flight. Another unusual registered airmail cover,
sent with 5 r. postage from the railway station post office at Zaporozh'e, Ukraine (mail code 40-Y-2) 17 Aug., to
pass through Berlin 30 Aug. and Friedrichshafen 1 Sep. to connect for the "Graf Zeppelin" flight to Pernambuco,
Brazil, where it arrived 5 Sep. 1934. The B r. franking (Scott No. 325) is most uncommon and possibly unique on
this flight (see Fig. 16).

EDITORIAL NOTE: The cover is addressed in German and Russian, in the same handwriting as for item (h) above,
the sender now being stated as Paul Griss, Langwiesen, Zaporozh'e.

(m) Same flight as above, but with a Soviet postcard, franked by Hermann Sieger with 2 r. 10 k. postage (C29, 37).
Sent from the Moscow-1 post office 26 Aug., via Berlin 30 Aug. and Friedrichshafen 1 Sep., it was serviced for the
"Graf Zeppelin" flight and arrived at Pernambuco, Brazil 5 Sep. 1934.

(n) A 20-kop. Soviet envelope with additional 60 kop. postage, endorsed "express" and sent by registered airmail
as far as Berlin (French language cachet in black), from Birobidzhan, Jewish Autonomous Province 29 Aug., via Ber-
lin 7 Sep. to arrive in New York 17 Sep. 1934. This is the only flown cover ever seen by the writer to originate
from Birobidzhan (Fig. 17).


Fig. 17
Fig. 18

(o) Sieger No. 274: "Graf Zeppelin" Eighth South American Flight. A Soviet postcard, franked by Hermann
Sieger with 2 r. 10 k. postage, incl. C35, 51 & 52 and sent from the Moscow-1 post office 9 Sep. via Berlin 14 Sep.
to Friedrichshafen 15 Sep. for servicing on the "Graf Zeppelin" flight and arriving at Pernambuco on 18 Sep. 1934.

(p) A registered airmail cover with 95 kop. postage incl. C37-39, sent from Taganrog 24 Sep. via Berlin 3 Oct. to
arrive in Freiberg, Saxony the next day.

(q) A 20-kop. Soviet envelope with additional 1 r. postage, sent by registered airmail from Khabarovsk 15 Oct. to
Berlin, arriving on 18 Oct. 1934. Quite fast service, considering the distance involved and the aircraft available in
those days.

(r) Sieger No. 283a: "Graf Zeppelin" Eleventh South American Flight. Two identical Soviet postcards, with C30,
32 affixed to each of the backs by Hermann Sieger and forwarded to Russia for servicing with the complete Airships
set of 1934 (C53-57). According to the Stanley Gibbons and Michel catalogs, this set was issued on 20 Oct., but
they appear on both cards, sent from the Moscow-7 post office on 17 Oct. sent by registered airmail for a total of
2 r. 10 k. postage each via Berlin 20 Oct. and Friedrichshafen 27 Oct. to make the "Graf Zeppelin" flight to Pernam-
buco, Brazil, arriving 31 Oct. 1934.

Comments on the actual first day of issue of this Airships set would be most welcome.

(s) A cover with the same set (C53-57), endorsed "By air mail to Berlin" and apparently serviced by the Soviet
Philatelic Association, as it was sent by registered airmail from the Moscow-50 post office 13 Nov., arriving in


Vienna, Austria 15 Nov. 1934. The face value of the set is 80 kop., which would have meant an underpayment of
5 kop. for registered airmail to Austria, but for the endorsement for airmail service to Berlin only.

(t) Sieger No. 286c: "Graf Zeppelin" Christmas Flight to South America. A registered airmail cover with 1 r.
postage (C24) and bearing the French language cachet "By air as far as / BERLIN" plus a boxed Russian cachet
reading "AVIOEKSPRESS," sent from the Moscow-3 post office 27 Nov. via Friedrichshafen for servicing on the
"Graf Zeppelin" flight, arriving at Pernambuco 12 Dec. 1934.

(u) Same flight but on an air cover apparently serviced by the Soviet Philatelic Association with the Airships set
C53-57 from the Moscow-50 post office 29 Nov. Additional German postage of RM 1.51 cancelled in transit at
Friedrichshafen 8 Dec. and the cover arrived at Bahia, Brazil 12 Dec. 1934. It would be interesting to hear if other
covers exist of this flight with the Russian Airships franking.

(v) A registered airmail cover, with the Stratosphere Disaster set (C50-52), total face value 35 kop., sent from the
Moscow-3 post office 30 Nov. to Vienna, Austria 2 Dec. 1934. The postage was only sufficient for surface registered
service to Austria, so the cover must have gone by air by oversight.


(a) A Soviet postcard, issued by Mosobllit (Moscow Province Lithographic Plant) on 15 Apr. 1934 to commemorate
the seven heroes of the Soviet Union who rescued the Chelyuskin survivors, utilized with 10 kop. postage on from
Gor'kii 25 Feb. 1935 to St. Petersburg, Fla. The card shows the portraits of the seven pilots, all but one with the
year of birth and a map of the rescue area. The names of the men, year of birth and value of stamp subsequently
issued in their honor are as follows (see also Fig. 18 herewith):

I. V. Doronin 1903 (20 kop.) V. S. Molokov 1895 (30 kop.)
N. P. Kamanin 1908 (40 kop.) M. T. Slepnev 1896 (15 kop.)
S. A. Levanevskii (10 kop.) M. V. Vodop'yanov 1899 (25 kop)
A. V. Lyapidevskii 1908 (5 kop.)

As further information, S. A. Levanevskii was born in 1902.

(b) Moscow-San Francisco Attempted Flight over the North Pole, 3 Aug. The 10-kop. stamp in the Chelyuskin
Rescue Air set, featuring the pilot S. A. Levanevskii (C61), was suitably overprinted and revalued to 1 ruble for this
flight (C68). The cover in the writer's collection bears the desirable small "f" variety (C68b) and is addressed to
New York City. All mail was cancelled with a marking reading "MOSCOW, N 12, 3-SECTION, 3.8.35" and bore a
registration label inscribed in French and reading "MOSCOU / Bureau de Poste 20," with a "C" standing for Central
written over the number "20." A bilingual unframed cachet was applied in violet, reading first in Russian "Air
route / MOSCOW SAN FRANCISCO" and below'it in English: "Special Air Flight / MOSCOW SAN FRAN-
CISCO / through the North Pole." See Fig. 19 for a portrait of S. A. Levanevskii.

EDITORIAL NOTE: According to the German magazine "Illustriertes Briefmarken-Journal" for 17 Aug. & 16 Nov.
1935, the details of the attempted flight were as follows:

The crew, consisting of S. A. Levanevskii, G. F. Baidukov and Levchenko took off in pouring rain in the aircraft
"CCCP No. 025" at 6:05 a.m. on 3 Aug. from Shchelkovo Airport, 19 miles south of Moscow. The aim was to find
the most suitable air route to the U.S. The flight was interrupted because of damage to the oil supply. After repairs,
the weather had worsened to such an extent that it was decided to postpone the attempt until the summer of 1936.


The stamp itself (C68) went on sale for the flight at the Moscow Central Post Office on 2 Aug., with about 5000
copies being sold. Upon postponement, this post office announced that each sender would be offered one of three

(1) Take back his/her cover.

(2) Leave the cover at the post office to be forwarded by the designated flight route in 1936.

(3) Allow the cover to be sent by ordinary postal channels, in which case it would be stamped with a
further Russian cachet reading "Resumption of the Moscow-San Francisco flight is postponed un-
til the summer of 1936. The correspondence is being forwarded by the normal mail route."

Most of the senders chose (3). Mr. Hofmann's cover falls into category (1); President Kurt Adler has a card from
category (3). Does anyone have an item from choice (2)?


iD m t I E

1 i.r, A roanaL. tque Belge
"L6rgtl on de Belgique
VARSOVIK (Pologne )

Fig. 20

Fig. 19

(c) Later usages of this Moscow-San Francisco Flight stamp (C68): Two covers, apparently serviced by the Soviet
Philatelic Association and sent through the Moscow-9 post office by registered air express to Berlin, Germany as

(1) Moscow 28 Aug. to Berlin 29 Aug. 1935.

(2) Moscow 19 Sep. to Berlin 20 Sep. 1935.

(d) Brussells-Warsaw Aircraft Flight & "Belgica" Balloon Flight beyond Warsaw, 14-17 Sep.: A special postcard,
printed by J. Mestdagh of Brussells, inscribed in French 'G. BENNETT CUP 1935 / BY AIRCRAFT BRUSSELLS-
WARSAW / BY BALLOON "BELGICA" BEYOND WARSAW' and addressed to the Honorary Captain of Belgian
Aviation, E. de Muyter, Belgian Legation at Warsaw, Poland. Upon arrival by air at Warsaw, the cards were so in-
dicated with a boxed two-line Polish cachet reading "Nadeszto / poczta lotnicza" and placed aboard the balloon
which eventually came down at Veshenskaya, USSR, a "stanitsa" in the Cossack country (Azov-Black Sea region).
A current 4 or 5-kop. regular stamp was affixed there to the cards, cancelled on 20 Sep. and returned. An un-
framed five-line cachet was then applied to the mail, reading in French as follows: "Departure: Warsaw on 15.9 1935
1935 at 4:58 p.m. Landing: Veshenskaya-on-Don (North Caucasus U.S.S.R.) on 17.9 1935 at 5 p.m. Distance
covered: about 938 miles." The details of the three cards in the writer's collection are as follows:


(1) Unusual despatch with Swiss postage of 40 rp. from Zurich 13 Sep. with Warsaw-19 Airport ar-
rival of same day and Russian 4 kop. stamp (Scott No. 416 see Fig. 20).

(2) Regular Belgian despatch with 1 f. 35 c. postage from Brussells 14 Sep. with same day Warsaw
Airport arrival and Russian 4 kop. stamp affixed.

(3) Regular Belgian despatch with 1 fr. 35 c. postage from Brussells 14 Sep. with same day Warsaw
Airport arrival and Russian 5 kop. stamp (Scott No. 417) affixed.

(e) Two registered airmail covers sharing the Chelyuskin Rescue air set (C58-67), sent from the Moscow-9 post
office 14 Oct. to Vienna, Austria 16 Oct. 1935.


(a) An airmail cover with 1 r. 50 k. postage (strip of C23), from Rostov-on-Don 28 July to Genesee Depot, Wis-
consin. This was the correct rate at the time, being made up of 50 kop. for the foreign surface letter fee, plus 1
ruble airmail charge. Please note that remainders of this 50-kop. dirigible stamps (C23) were widely used in the
late 1930s for the 50-kop. foreign surface letter rate, applicable from 1 May 1936 and such examples thus do not
constitute airmail usages.

(b) An unusual, but understandable return by air mail of the reply half of a 10-kop. Soviet postal card with ad-
ditional 1 r. 20 k. postage affixed. Sent from Vienna, Austria 18 Aug., the total Russian postage of 1 r. 30 k. was
cancelled on arrival in Moscow the next day. The rate is correct: 30 kop. for a foreign surface card, plus 1 r.
airmail fee.


(a) See Fig. 21 for the front of the Memorial Program held by the Explorers' Club in honor of the Soviet Trans-
Polar Fliers V. P. Chkalov, G. F. Baidukov and A. V. Belyakov at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York City on
30 June for their non-stop flight from Moscow 18 June to Vancouver, Washington 20 June, in an ANT-25 aircraft.

(b) See Fig. 22 for the illustrations of a coin and message signed by the three flyers and reading as follows: "This
ten-kopek coin was in the pocket of the trousers in which I flew in the ANT-25 in 1937 from the USSR to the
USA. The crew presents this ten-kopek (coin) to Clara Adams. (signed) Baidukov, A. Beliakov, V. Chkalov."

(c) See Fig. 23 for a signed Photo of the flyers.




Jonr fl. 'vl"

-. Fig. 21

Fig. 22

Fig. 23


(d) A registered express airmail letter with 3 r. 55 k. postage incl. C23, sent from the Moscow-9 post office and
with boxed single-line French language cachet erroneously reading "Par avion susqu'a Prague"; the spelling of the
second last word should have been "jusqu'5." Sent on 8 Sep., it passed through Prague 10 Sep. and arrived in
Vienna, Austria 11 Sep. 1937.

(e) A registered airmail letter with 3 r. 40 k. postage from Archangel 7 Oct. to Leeds, England. Unfortunately,
the cover was not backstamped on arrival.


(a) A 50-kop. Soviet envelope with additional 1 r. 90 k. postage affixed incl. C23, sent by registered airmail from
Kharkov 16 Jan. to Czechoslovakia. Overpaid by 10 kop. and unfortunately not backstamped on arrival.

(b) Russia souvenir sheet C75a on a registered airmail cover, serviced by Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga through the Mos-
cow Foreign post office 26 Jan., arriving in New York 7 Feb. 1938.

(c) Howard Hughes Around the World Flight, 10-14 July. Accompanied by a crew of four, he established a re-
cord for the flight. The cover went through New York G.P.O. at 5 p.m., 10 July, Le Bourget Airport near Paris at
4:55 p.m. the next day to arrive at Moscow 12 July. Here an interesting thing happened. The Russian authorities
had the 20 kop. Second Trans-Polar Flight stamp (Scott No. 641) cancelled in sheet form at the Moscow Airport
post office on 12 July, prior to separating the stamps and applying one to each cover carried by Hughes! In other
words, the stamp was precancelled (see Fig. 24). U.S. postage of 64 was applied on arrival back at the New York
G.P.O. at 5 p.m. on 14 July 1938 and the detailed flight cachet added. A letter enclosed in the envelope states
that few covers were carried and none were sold.

I w w |w^*^%- wj w I:

Fig. 24

-33-Fig. 24



(a) The International Aviation Records set of 1938 (Scott 678-86) on a registered airmail cover from the Moscow
Foreign post office 27 Jan. to Tel-Aviv, Palestin- 7 Feb. 1939.

(b) AAMC No. 1320: Attempted Non-Stop Flight Moscow-U.S.A. on the occasion of the World's Fair, 28 April.
Covers and cards with identical postage totalling 2 r. 30 k., which was correct for registered airmail transmission of
letters to the U.S., were despatched from the Moscow Foreign post office 28 Apr. and carried aboard the aircraft
"Moskva" (Moscow), piloted by Major-General Vladimir K. Kokkinaki and Major Mikhail Gordienko. The aircraft
landed the same day at Miscou Island, New Brunswick, Canada in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, all the items of mail
being postmarked at the Lighthouse post office there. The items in the writer's possession are as follows:

(1) Postcard under registration No. 94. The AAMC states that only 32 cards were carried.

(2) Cover addressed to Grover Whalen, Chairman of the World's Fair, New York, N.Y. and sent under reg.
No. 63. Please see Fig. 25 for the picture of Major-General Kokkinaki presenting the cover to Mr.
Whalen on 6 May, with Major Gordienko on his right. The cover addressed to Mr. Whalen is shown in
Fig. 26; note the special Russian cachet reading "MOSCOW-USA Overflight."

_ig. 25
Fig 25 Fig. 26

A Soviet postcard with 1 r. 50 k. postage incl. the 1 r. Aviation Day overprint, sent from the Moscow-47 post office
31 Aug. to Hamburg, Germany and showing German censorship marking.



(a) A registered airmail cover with 2 r. 45 k. sent from Leningrad 21 Jan. to Bremen, Germany 5 Feb. and ap-
parently delayed by the German censorship.

(b) First Flight Moscow-Minsk-Vilnius-Kaunas-Riga, 11 Feb. A registered airmail cover with 1 r. 30 k. postage,
part of a batch serviced by "Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga," the successors to the Soviet Philatelic Association. Sent
from Moscow-1 post office 10 Feb., it is backstamped Moscow also on the next day, together with the arrival mark-
ing of Riga, Latvia of the same date.

(c) A registered airmail cover with 1 r. postage (C25b pair, C39 & 73) from Leningrad-28 post office 15 June to
Riga, Latvia 18 June 1941, arriving just four days before the Nazi attack on the USSR. The rate is correct for the
1 r. internal air fee, which also included the right to registration service.


A registered airmail cover with the "North Pole-Moscow 1955" overprints, sent from the drifting station North
Pole No. 4 on 5 March to Glendale, Long Island, arriving on 21 March 1956.

This now completes the listing of the flown covers in the writer's collection.

EDITORIAL COMMENT: The foregoing article is an object lesson in what can be accomplished in a field of re-
search. Some of Mr. Hofmann's items are possibly unique and many others in the rare category. Our only regret
is that, due to space considerations, we could not illustrate more of them.

To round off his study, we will now record some supplementary items from the Norman Epstein collection, as

(a) AAMC No. 1146: Herndon & Pangborn Around the World Flight, July 28, 1931. A somewhat similar cover,
without the Brooklyn, Vanderveer Sta. postmark of departure, but with endorsement at bottom left, reading as

"This envelope was carried as part of my personal mail across the Atlantic Ocean from Floyd Bennett Field, N.Y. to
Moylegrove, Wales. Also on the First Non-Stop Crossing of the Pacific Ocean from Sabishimi Beach to Wenatchee,
Wash., USA.
Hugh Herndon Jr."

(b) A connecting flight cover, serviced by the Soviet Philatelic Association for the flight of the airship "Hinden-
burg" over the Atlantic. Franked with 1 r. 21 k. in stamps of the Chelyuskin Rescue set, it left the Moscow-50
post office on 9 Feb. 1935 and departed from Friedrichshafen 6 May 1936 with 75 pf. German air postage (C58),
to arrive in New York on 9 May (see Fig. 27).


^ ^ "^ ,oo_,P a .oo

A. SL -64je,,cd,.


(c) AAMC No. 1320: Attempted Non-Stop Flight Moscow-New York, 28 Apr. 1939. A front originally from the
Franklin D. Roosevelt Collection and addressed by Major-General Vladimir K. Kokkinaki to the President at the
White House (see Fig. 28). Note that the cachet "MOSCOW-USA Overflight" is missing, but the departure and ar-
rival postmarks are there, as well as the typical franking. Major-General Kokkinaki was still alive in 1967 at the age
of 63 and he was the subject of a highly interesting article about this flight, written by Junior Captain of the Engi-
neers V. Milanov for the Moscow magazine "Filateliya SSSR," issue of Feb. 1968, pp. 18-20. Captain Milanov
quotes the letter of thanks sent to Major-General Kokkinaki by the President for the receipt of this very cover and
we have retranslated it back from the Russian for the benefit of our members (this translation will inevitably differ
slightly from the original English version):

"White House, Washington D.C., May 12, 1939.

Dear General Kokkinaki,

I have received the letter which you kindly addressed to me before your departure from Moscow on April 28, 1939
and which you delivered to me as a result of your brave flight from Moscow to the eastern coast of North America
on the way to the USA.

I have noted that on the envelope there were the postmarks of April 28, 1939 of Moscow and New Brunswick
(Canada). This letter is dear to me, as a memento of the historic flight completed by you and Major Gordienko.
Allow me to congratulate you both on the skill and resourcefulness you have displayed and on your successful ar-
rival in the U.S.A.
Yours truly,
Franklin Roosevelt"

Furthermore, we can say that the name Kokkinaki is of Greek, and specifically Cretan, origin coming from the mod-
ern word for "red," which primarily referred to cochineal. However, judging by the photographs seen of General
Kokkinaki, he looks like a real Russian type, rather than a Greek!

As a final note, we have seen cards and two covers from this flight with Moscow registration numbers running from
No. 63 to 111, so 49 items at least were carried, which exceeds the figure of 32 cards stated by the AAMC.


by M. V. Vodop'yanov

Russia had no aircraft industry in tsarist days. There were a few talented inventors and airmen. And there was an
outstanding Russian scientist, Zhukovskii, who worked out the theoretical explanation of the forces maintaining a
heavier-than-air machine in flight, and who was also the author of a series of brilliant researches in the field of aero-
nautics. But the inventions were never made use of, and Professor Zhukovskii's aerodynamic researches found
practical application only abroad. Russia was economically and technically dependent on other European countries
and was therefore doomed to be a backward country. When the tsarist government was overthrown, all the aircraft
industry the Soviet Republic inherited was a few small and badly equipped repair shops and assembly plants.

The progressive period of Soviet aviation began with the end of the Civil War (1922). The country then proceeded
to set up special scientific research institutes and to build aircraft factories. A group of prominent scientists, headed
by Professor Zhukovskii, set about investigating various scientific and technical problems. An outstanding part in
this work was played by the Central Aero-Hydrodynamic Institute, founded by the Soviet government.

In 1925, Soviet airplanes, furnished with Soviet motors, first made their appearance in the international arena. A
Soviet plane, model P-I, piloted by Gromov, took part in a group flight from Moscow to Peking.

The flight was no easy one. The distance to be covered was 4,350 miles, and the route passed over the Ural Moun-
tains, the Siberian taiga, Lake Baikal, and 600 miles of the Gobi Desert, over which no plane had ever flown before.
Thirty-three days after leaving Moscow, the planes landed on the Peking aerodrome. P-1 stood the test splendidly;
in spite of the length and complexity of the flight, it arrived at the finish in perfect technical condition.

However, on landing in Peking, Gromov learned that the Frenchman Arrochard had flown a distance of 4,350 miles,
not in thirty-three days, but in three days! That was what advanced aviation technique meant.

But only a year passed, and the Soviet factories began to turn out airplanes fully capable of competing with

In 1926, Gromov attempted another big flight. In three days-more exactly, 64 hours-he made the circuit of
Europe along the route Moscow-Berlin-Paris-Rome-Vienna-Prague-Warsaw-Moscow, thus beating Arrochard's record.

Every year saw the growing perfection of Soviet airplanes and the growing skill of Soviet airmen.

In 1927, Shestakov flew from Moscow to Tokyo. In 1929, together with Bolotov, he flew in the aircraft "Land of
the Soviets" from Moscow to New York (along the Siberian route, via Nikolaevsk-on-Amur and the Aleutian Islands).
Simultaneously, Gromov, flying a tri-engined plane called "Wings of the Soviets," again made the circuit of Europe.

While Gromov was in Berlin, the Germans were curious to compare the qualities of his plane with one of their own,
and challenged him to a race from Berlin to Trawemnnde, a distance of 125 miles, and back. The Soviet plane was
the victor, making both the outward and return flights faster than the German.

The first big Soviet flights were only a starting point for the further development and perfection of Soviet aviation.
The flights made on Soviet planes from Moscow to Kabul and Moscow to Ankara, and the flights in search of the
crew of the dirigible Italia, which had come to grief in the Arctic, served as a stern test both of the quality of
Soviet aircraft and of the skill of Soviet pilots.


The Soviet Union successfully coped with the difficulties of aircraft production. The effect of the First Five-Year
Plan was to more than treble industrial output as compared with pre-war and to turn the Soviet Union into an
industrial country. In addition, it created a first-class aircraft industry.

In 1934, Soviet aviation gave palpable proof of its high state of advancement and of its brilliant achievements.

An event that thrilled the whole world that year is still fresh in our memories. The steamship Chelyuskin was
crushed in the heavy ice in the Sea of Chukotsk and sank to the bottom. The shipwrecked passengers and crew, 104
men, women and children, landed on the ice and set up the famous "Schmidt Camp." The Soviet Government dis-
patched icebreakers, steamships and dog sleighs to the aid of the sufferers, but the main work of rescue was to be
performed by Soviet aircraft. It was ordinary rank-and-file Soviet airmen who embarked on this daring expedition
into the Far North in the midst of the rigors of an Arctic winter. And despite the immense difficulties, it was these
Soviet airmen who took the Chelyuskinites off the icefloe and brought them safely to the mainland.

This was a triumph. The standard Soviet planes stood the test, and the airmen performed their task in a way which
earned them the title of Heroes of the Soviet Union.

On September 12, that same year, Gromov, Filin and Spirin took off in a R-D plane and landed over three days
later, having spent 75 hours in the air and flown a distance of 7,707 miles in a closed circuit.

The problem of altitude is an important one for aviation. In the lower regions of the atmosphere flying speed is
seriously impeded by the relatively greater density of the air. It is different in the stratosphere, where the density
of the air is insignificant and its resistance considerably less than at the earth's surface. The higher the region of
flight, the greater the speed that can be attained, and the less the expenditure of fuel.

The pioneer of altitude flying in the U.S.S.R. was V. Kokkinaki. On November 21, 1935, after long and persistent
training, he attained a record height of 47,806 feet. It should be mentioned that Kokkinaki did not wear any special
suit for high-altitude flying, nor was the airplane equipped with a hermetically-sealed cockpit.

In the following year, in the course of a few days, Kokkinaki beat one international altitude record after another.
On August 3, 1936, carrying a load of half a ton, he attained a height of 43,000 feet; On August 21 he attained a
height of 36,691 feet with a load of one ton, and on September 7 a height of 37,048 feet with a load of two tons.
Kokkinaki thus beat the world records for altitude (with and without loads) which had previously been held by
France and Italy.

Kokkinaki's example was followed by other Soviet flyers, in particular by Alekseev, who attained an altitude of
41,640 feet with a load of one ton. On September 11, 1936, Yumashev reached a height of 26,574 feet with a load
of five tons, beating the record of the Frenchman Coupet by 4,920 feet. On September 16 of the same year Yuma-
shev raised a load of ten tons to a height of 21,664 feet, which was double the record of the Italian Antonini. On
November 10 of the same year, two Soviet pilots, Nyukhtikov and Lapkin, improved on Yumashev's record, attain-
ing an altitude of 23,065 feet with a load of ten tons. A few days later they set a new record. In a brief period,
all altitude records with loads of from half to thirteen tons were won by the Soviet Union.

The year 1936 was also distinguished by a big Arctic flight. On July 20, Chkalov, Baidukov and Belyakov took off
from Moscow and two days later landed on the small island of Udd (now Chkalov Is.), 31 miles to the northeast of
Nikolaevsk-on-Amur. Their route stretched from Moscow through the whole northern part of the Soviet Union to
the Franz Josef archipelago, then across Severnaya Zemlya, the mountains of Yakutia, Petropavlovsk-in-Kamchatka
and the Sea of Okhotsk. In this non-stop flight of 56 hours 20 minutes, Chkalov, Baidukov and Belyakov covered
a distance of 5,821 miles.


Shortly after this Hero of the Soviet Union Molokov made his Arctic flights in a flying boat, covering a distance of
over 15,500 miles amidst all the difficulties accompanying flying in this part of the world, while Hero of the Soviet
Union Levanevskii opened a new air route from Los Angeles to Moscow.

The most thrilling chapter in the long and dramatic history of the conquest of the Arctic is the one dealing with the
North Pole. There is no other point on the globe which men have striven to reach with such stubbornness and per-
sistence. Many a North Pole expedition has cost the lives of bold and courageous men who have sacrificed every-
thing for the cause of science and the disclosure of the secrets of the Arctic.

Soviet polar explorers have been advancing systematically and steadily into the Arctic, setting up winter camps, radio
stations and trading stations along the whole stretch of the Arctic coast and on the uninhabited islands of the Arctic
Ocean. This, accompanied by the opening of the Great Northern Sea Route, and the numerous Arctic flights of
Soviet airmen, enabled the Soviet Government to set polar scientists and flyers the task of exploring the Central
Polar Basin. It was decided to take advantage of the experience of the Chelyuskinites and to set up a drifting scien-
tific station on the ice in the vicinity of the North Pole.

The scientific side of the expedition was placed in charge of Academician Schmidt, and the command of the flying
force was entrusted to the present author.

The first problem I had to decide was how to land the wintering party and the equipment of the station at the Pole.
As an airman, I was convinced that this could only be done with the heip of airplanes.

History knows of several attempts to reach the North Pole by air. There was Andre's tragic flight in a balloon in
1897, Amundsen's flight in the dirigible Norge in 1926, Admiral Byrd's flight in the same year, and Nobile's unsuc-
cessful expedition on the dirigible /ral.: in 1928. Th-.-ie were all the flying machines that had flown over the North
Poii. They had flown over the Pole, but hid not lid:-Jcd at the Pole. Our task was to land the wintering party -
Ppanin, Krenkel, Shirshov and Fedorov at the North Pole.

While the preparations for the expedition were under way, heated discussions arose among flyers, polar explorers and
scientists. Some recommended a dirigible, others flying boats, others still, having in mind the achievements of Soviet
parachutists, advocated landing the party at the Pole by parachute. The question that aroused most controversy was
v.h.th-er a heavily loaded airplane could be landed on the ice.

The history of Arctic flights knew of only one instance of a plane landing in high latitudes. That was the case of
Amundsen's expedition, whose two airplanes made a landing at 83 N. latitude. After many attempts, and abandon-
ing one of the planes, Amundsen at last managed to take off on the other and return to the mainland.

Breaking records was not the aim of our expedition to the North Pole. Our purpose was to find detailed answers to
the queries evoked by the secrets of the Central Polar Basin. The flying personnel of the expedition included Arctic
pilots Molokov, Alekseev, Mazuruk and Golovin. The difficult task of plotting a course in these high latitudes was
entrusted to navigators headed by Hero of the Soviet Union Spirin. The course of the expedition lay from Moscow
through Archangel, Naryan Mar, Matochkin Shar to Rudolph Is., the jumping-off place of the air squadron to the
Pole itself.

On May 21, 1937, the brooding silence of the cap of the world was shattered by the roar of Soviet planes. At 11.35
a.m. I landed my plane on the thick ice. A moment later thirteen men set foot on the North Pole.

Within a few days all the airplanes of the expedition had assembled at the Pole and over thirteen tons of material
arnd supplies for the wintering party had been deposited on the ice. After the scientific station for Papanin and his
comrades had been fitted up, the four heavy planes rose in the air and took the home course for the mainland.


The initial work of the expedition had been completed. And it was as though Papanin the chief of the "North
Pole" station on the drifting icefloe had raised the semaphore and signalled all's clear on the Transarctic Route
from the U.S.S.R. to the U.S.A. For we had scarcely reached Moscow on our way back from the North Pole, when
Chkalov, Baidukov and Belyakov made a non-stop flight from Moscow to America over the cap of the world, the
shortest route between the U.S.S.R. and the U.S.A.

The three valorous airmen had taken off from the Moscow aerodrome at dawn on June 18, 1937, and at 4:30 p.m.
Greenwich time on June 20 landed at Vancouver, Washington State, near Portland, Oregon. Their plane was in the
air 63 hours 25 minutes and covered a distance of 5,670 miles of land route and 7,100 miles of air route. Of this
distance, 3,665 miles lay over ocean and ice-field. Owing to low-lying clouds and bad weather conditions, an altitude
of over 13,000 ft. was maintained over the whole route. The flight of Chkalov, Baidukov and Belyakov from the
U.S.S.R. to the U.S.A. was undoubtedly one of the most difficult in the history of aviation.

A month had barely elapsed when another Soviet plane, this time manned by Gromov, Yumashev and Danilin, flew
to America by the same route, as though giving final confirmation to the new air-road. This flight, besides its other
objects, was definitely undertaken for record-breaking purposes. The airmen had decided to set a new world straight
line distance record.

Leaving Moscow at 3:21 a.m. on July 12, 1937, they reached San Jacinto, California, 62 hours 17 minutes later. The
distance between the point of take-off and the point of landing was 6,302 miles. The world straight line distance re-
cord had been broken. Gromov, Yumashev and Danilin received the De la Vaux medal for this flight.

The year 1937 was marked by a number of records for speed with load. Baidukov and Kastanaev flew 1,000 kilo-
meters (620 miles) and 2,000 kilometers (1,240 miles) with a load of five tons at an average speed of 174.03 m.p.h.

Kokkinaki and Bryandinskii set three world speed records in one flight (5,000 kilometers without load, with a load
of half-ton and with a load of one ton), showing an average speed of 202 m.p.h.

That same year Soviet pilots broke a large number of records for hydroplanes and for light and sport land planes.
Many of these new records are held by Soviet women: Mednikova set six different records; Osipenko broke several
altitude records with load; Grizodubova set a number of speed records.

In 1937 alone, Soviet flyers registered 18 different world records with the International Aeronautical Federation,
which is in itself something of a world record.

The number of records gained by Soviet flyers is steadily growing. This is a result of the general progress of avia-
tion in the Soviet Union, the day-to-day efforts of its aircraft factories, its airmen and designers. These records focus,
as it were, the high level of Soviet aviation. It should be pointed out that as a rule Soviet airmen use ordinary,
standard factory products for their record flights, and not specially designed airplanes. Their records are therefore
of profound practical importance for the Soviet Union.

And it was with practical purposes in view-the solution of problems confronting the Soviet country-that the non-
stop flights of 1938 were undertaken.

Heroes of the Soviet Union Kokkinaki and Bryandinskii took off from Moscow at 8:36 a.m. on June 27, and 24
hours 36 minutes later landed on the Pacific coast. They thus flew across the whole country from west to east, a
distance of 4,720 miles, in a little over a day. They were followed by three women flyers, Osipenko, Raskova and
Lomako, who crossed the country from south to north. They flew the distance of 1,500 miles from the shores of
the White Sea on a hydroplane in 10 hours 33 minutes. This flight was, as it were, a rehearsal for the next big wo-
men's flight, undertaken by Grizodubova, Osipenko and Raskova on the airplane Rodina. They took off from the
Moscow aerodrome on September 24, 1938, at 8:12 a.m., and 26 hours 29 minutes later brought the Rodina down


in the Far East, near the river Amgun, having made a non-stop flight of 4,006 miles, or 3,693 miles along a straight
line. This was a new world women's straight and broken line distance record. The previous record was 2,708 miles
made by the Frenchwoman Dupeyront.

EDITORIAL COMMENT: Mr. Vodop'yanov is portrayed on the 25 kop. value of the "Chelyuskin Rescue" set (C64).

C. maU- b-41-.. I &a
r~ l Ii.4- Ior *' d- k


by R.J. Ceresa

The recent article by D.B. Diamandiev, "Two Interesting Postcards of 1922" and the Editor's comments have led me
to examine my collection of these cards in greater detail. The thirty-two cards can be divided as follows:

Type Illustrated Colour Frequency Notes

Type la (Figs. 3 & 4, Rossica No. 80) Buff 10 (1)
Type lb Blue 2 (2)
Type II Buff 4 (3)
Type Ilia (Figs. 1 & 2, this issue) Buff 5 (4)
Type Illb White 1 (5)
Type IV (Figs. 5 & 6, Rossica No. 80) Buff 4 (6)
Type V (Figs. 3, 4 this issue) Buff 1 (7)
Type VI (Figs. 1 & 2, Rossica No. 80) Buff 1 (8)
Type VII (Fig. 5, this issue) Buff 1 (9)
Type VII (Fig. 6, this issue) White 3 (10)


1. In general there are no differences in either the English or Russian typeset except in one respect, the typeset
of the address of the Russian Food Remittance Department. Four subtypes have been noted. Since Type IV has no
address, Type la and Type Ib may also exist without the address. The different typefaces of the address could be
explained by successive printings with and without the address; those with the address having different typesets ac-
cording to how the address block was made up at the time.

2. This is a better quality card containing blue rag fibres; otherwise the card is identical to Type la.

3. This seems to be identical to Type la in every respect except the address of the Russian Food Remittance De-
partment (and its title) is underlined with typeset on both sides of the card. Two subtypes of the address were noted
which, as in Type la, are most easily seen in relation to the shape of the numerals. This could therefore be considered
as a variant of Type la, i.e. a subtype, in which the address is underlined.

4. This type is similar to Type IV, having the "3ak. No. 1455." on the front but no address is given for the Ameri-
can Relief Administration. The address is generally added in manuscript but in one case a rubber handstamp has been
used to add "42 Broadway New York City." In this Type as in Type IV the word "Write" appears after RUSSIA in
line four and not proceeding "to the" on line five as in Types la, Ib, II and VII.

5. Differs only from Type Ilia in the distinct white colour. Used for U.K. with rubber handstamp "67 Eaton
Square, London, S.W.1."

6. Similar to Type Ilia and Illb but has the American Relief Administration address. In one example this has
been obliterated and substituted for the London address. Three different subtypes in the address have been noted.
"3ak. No. 1455." appears on the front.

7. In this type the words "Write to the" are all on the same line four following RUSSIA. No address is given for
the American Relief Administration.

8. Address added in violet by rubber stamp.


9. Very similar to Type la except it has the address "67, Eaton Square, London, England." It could very well be
the same typeset with just the address altered.

10. A late issue printed on one side only of commercial scrap printed stationery. No sub types noted.

I hope the above descriptions will assist others in finding new types, which should exist for other European countries
and also for Canada.

The postal rates used with these cards and the combinations of stamps used to make up these frankings are of course
of considerable interest and it is for this aspect that they form part of my collection. The dates of usage and rates
are as follows:

Type: From: Date: To: Rate Franking

IV Kharkov 5.3.22 Boston Rub. 3000 (1)
IV Rostov-on-Don -- London 13.3.22 3000 (2)
la Moscow 20.4.22 New York 6000 (3)
Ib Moscow 20.4.22 8500 (4)
Ib Moscow 20.4.22 Lake Lask, Canada 8000 (5)
la Moscow 20.4.22 Chicago 6000 (6)
VII Moscow 20.4.22 San Francisco 6000 (7)
la Moscow 21.4.22 New York 13,500 (8)
Ila Moscow 21.4.22 Brooklyn 8000 (9)
IV Moscow 21.4.22 New York 6000 (10)
Ila Moscow 27.4.22 "California" 6000 (11)
la (Moscow) -- New York 26.5.22 8000 (12)
la -- New York 29.5.22 6000 (13)
la -- New York 5.6.22 8000 (14)
IV Moscow 5.5.22 New York 6000 (15)
la Moscow 15.5.22 New York 8000 (16)
II Moscow 15.5.22 Washington 8000 (17)
II Moscow 15.5.22 New York 8000 (18)
II Moscow 15.5.22 New York 8000 (19)
II Moscow 23.5.22 New York 8000 (20)
VIII Novovorontsovka 27.5.22 Hamburg 8000 (21)
VIII 29.5.22 8000 (22)
VIII 30.5.22 8000 (23)
V Melitopol' 11.5.23 Detroit Rub. 6 (1923) (24)

Apart from the last card they were all despatched between March and May 1922. Again, apart from the first two and
last cards listed they all give addresses for the recipients of relief parcels in Odessa. The first two and the last four
all have Moscow machine transit cancellations in addition to the town cancellations. It would seem that, apart from
the beginning and end of the period, the cards were sent in bulk to Moscow or were sent off from Moscow for the
benefit of the persons named on the cards. It would be interesting to know if any such relief was sent from, say the
U.S.A., and whether the parcels ever arrived at the named destinations.


1. Strip of three 1000 R definitive, chalk paper.

2. Ditto, additional Id U.K. George Vth stamp for internal postage to Manchester.

3. Strip of four 250 R definitive chalk paper plus 5000R (black) on 2 Rub definitive.

4. 7500 Rub definitive plus 1000 Rub (chalk paper) definitive.

5. Strip of four and three singles of the 1000 Rub definitive (pelure paper) and the eighth stamp the same defin-
itive on chalk paper (very thick).

6. As in note (3), but stamps separated and superimposed to show value tablets only.

7. 1000 Rub definitive plus 5000 Rub on 2 Rub definitive.

8. Four copies of 25 Kop. Postal Savings Bank Stamp (18..issue) used at 250 Rubles each, 5000 Rub on 2 Rub
definitive and a 7500 Rub on 250 Rub (thin paper) definitive, all tied to card.

9. Pair of 50 Kop. Control stamps used at 250 Rubles each and 7500 Rub definitive.

10. Pair of 300 Ruble definitive used at ten times face value.

11. BI ock of six of 1000 Rub definitive.

12. Four pairs of 250 Rub definitive plus 5000 Rub on 2 Rub definitive. 2-cent U.S. Washington coil stamp added
and cancelled Varick St. Sta. May 26, 1922.

13. As in note (6) but additional 2 cent U.S. Washington coil stamp cancelled City Hall Sta, N.Y. May 29, 1922
and card stamped "Misdirected, returned to writer" (New York, NY15).

14. Twelve 250 Rub definitive superimposed on 5000 Rub on 2 Rub definitive. 2 cent U.S. Washington coil added
and cancelled .Sta, 5.6.1922 and card stamped "No such street number, return to sender, Address Incomplete."

15. 5000 Rub (red) on 5 Rub definitive plus 1000 Rub definitive.

16. 5000 Rub (black) on 2 Rub definitive plus 300 Rub definitive used at ten times face.

17. Four 200 Rub definitive (pelure, light brown) used at ten times face value.

18. Four 200 Rub definitive (normal paper, chocolate) used at ten times face value.

19. Two 100 Ruble Controls used at 250 Rubles each plus 7500 (black) on 250 Rub (chalk) definitive.

20. As in note (19).

21. Part sheets of eighty 100 Rub definitive all cancelled with the lozenge grid of Novovorontsovka. Petrograd
transits of 19.6.22.

22. As in note (21).

23. Pane of twenty five and block seven 250 Ruble definitive, cancelled as in (21) and (22).


24. Five 100 Rubles (1922) definitive and two 50 Rubles (1922) definitive, all imperf. (Amongst a number of
these cards which have not had the stamps cancelled and therefore in absence of other markings show no proof of
postal use is one with three copies of the 2250 Ruble Rostov-on-Don Charity Famine issue. It is a Type IV card and
*o stamps appear to have been removed. If this had been prepared for postage before 1st April 1922 the franking
would have been 750 Rubles plus 6000 Rubles to charity, but if after this date then 30,000 Rubles for postage and
37,500 Rubles for charity (since revalued ten times face on 1st April 1922). The former is too low for any rate and
therefore the card was prepared for use after 1st April 1922 and the rate used was the normal rate at that date for
letters overseas.)

The question now arises, what rates were used for these postcards sent overseas? The earliest cards with 300 Ruble
frankings correspond to the internal rate at the time for postcards. If we ignore the 8500 and 13,500 Ruble frank-
ings as 'odd-balls' then there seems to have been a consistent usage of either the international rate of 6000 Rubles
referred to by D.B. Diamandiev or a rate of 8000 Rubles (twice the internal rate) for these cards. This is supported
by a large number of pieces in my collection cut from these cards and franked with pairs of the 1,10 or 100 Ruble
Control stamps (used at 250 Rubles each) in combination with a 7,500 Ruble on 250 Ruble definitive. On the other
hand the 6000 Ruble rate is supported by pieces with pairs of the 300 Ruble definitive and strips of three of the 200
Ruble definitive, all used at ten times face. The rate on the last card is interesting since it is five times the rate for
a local postcard.

A comparison with ordinary postcards of this general period gives the following:

Moscow to France, 22.4.22 22,500 Rubles single definitive, probably philatelic.
Moscow to Germany, 3.6.22 120,000 Rubles perf. Arms Types at one million times face
Moscow to France, 13.7.22 270,100 Rubles as above plus 100 Ruble 4th Anniv.
Moscow to Germany, 9.8.22 270,000 Rubles Perf. Arms types
Novocherkassk to Germany, 23.8.22 300,000 Rubles Imperf. Arms Types (blocks 1 and 4 Kop).
Moscow to U.S.A., 25.8.22 280,000 Rubles Perf. Arms Types.
SMoscow to Germany 19.10.22 270,000 Rubles perf. and imperf. arms Types.
Moscow to Czechoslovakia, 22.6.23 6 Rubles (1923) strip 200 Rubles Prov 1922 imperf.
Moscow to New York, 29.6.23 6 Rubles (1923) block of six 100 Rub. Prov 1922 perf.

Thus the key period to decide on 6000 or 8000 Rubles is missing. Do members have foreign postcards with 6000 or
8000 Ruble frankings with April/May 1922 cancellations or for that matter American Relief Administration Cards
with 270,000 Ruble frankings for July 1922?

by Jacques Posell

On Page 59 of Rossica Journal No. 80, the composer's name is Paliashvili and not Pashiavili. The opera he wrote
was "Abesalom and Eteri" and not "Absolom and Eteri." It was first produced in Tbilisi, 21 Feb. 1919. He was
born in Kutais on 4/16 Oct. 1871 and died in Tbilisi on 6 October 1933. The information which I originally used
came from the musical encyclopedias that were evidently wrong. The above information comes from the score of the
opera, in which his biography is also printed. I bought it as a curiosity for 1 r. 50 k. when we were in Tbilisi, never
thinking that the old boy might some day grace a postage stamp. C'est la vie.


by Marcel Lamoureux

I am writing in regard to the very fine article "Two Interesting Postcards of 1922," by D.B. Diamandiev in the
Rossica Journal, No. 80, pp. 28-31.

I have a similar card in my collection that may possibly be of interest to our members. The format of the card is
the same as those illustrated in the article. However, the text is in French, indicating that the A.R.A. had a
branch office in Paris, at 18 rue Tilsitt. It is franked with a single of Scott No. 205 (7500 r. face value) and two
Control stamps, making up a postal rate of 8000 rubles. Unfortunately, the stamps are not cancelled. It was sent
from a ship docked at Odessa and is addressed to another ship, the "Afon" in Constantinople. The only postal
marking is a transit postmark on the front of the card: STAMBOUL-DEPART 5 July 1922 (see Fig. 7). Needless
to say, I missed out on a nice ship cancel!

Note that the back of the card has the same setting as for Fig. 4, p. 29 in Journal No. 80, except for the French
address (see Fig. 8).

EDITORIAL COMMENT: As can be seen from the foregoing, Mr. Diamandiev really started a whole new train of
investigation with his article in Rossica No. 80. Apart from the cards with settings of the New York City address,
we now know of one English type for London, a French type for Paris and two German settings for Hamburg, one
of which also showing a Vienna address.

In addition, we can announce a further type with New York City address in an entirely new setting under Order No.
326 (see Figs. 9 & 10). Unfortunately, the stamps are again not cancelled so we cannot date its usage, but the card
is printed on buff stock of medium thickness.

Apart from the A.R.A. and the Nansen Mission, a card from which latter we featured in Rossica Journal, No. 79,
pp. 56-57, there were several other organizations in the relief field, including the British Relief Mission. Among the
English staff was a Dr. Farrar, who died in Moscow on 26 Dec. 1921 of typhus which he had contracted in the exe-
cution of his duties (see E.M. Almedingen: "Tomorrow will come," New York City, 1968, pp. 223-224). Does any-
one have cards from this and other unrecorded missions?


STRATION is delivering packages C .4 ." eT co CBOix MHoroicneHHux cKAaAQe B POCCHH nocunKH c AMepMaHCRHMrnpo-
of American foodstuffs from its Tm. Han e o aApecy:
kiIN RELIEF I noTpe6y Te SnanM aaRsneHHqR iar nepecunitn npoAOBeo0bCTBre. TaKrM nyreM Bbi
I.'... "' ;..' r MomeTe cHa6)I+aTb mnodoe rHnO s POCCHm nPOAOBOlbCTBEHHb1 MH nOCblnArlAMH
: } l 6. AMepHKaHcKoA AAMHHHCTpaimH fIOMOUeH, coAepmai.tHMM Ha6op nphnacoa.

a.-d ask for an Apr!icaton Form i. MM 8 POCCHH 09EHb HY)KAAEMCR B C'ECTHLIX nPHnACAX.
lor food remittances. By this me- /f nOMOmTE HAM B BEEE!
ans you can provide any individu- A
al in Russia with standard Pmerl- A / \ .' -_^ ^ .
can Relief Administration FOOD A pec: 4-4 .... ........
PACKAGES. on._ II" **x 0aAAIH
WE ARE IN GREAT NEED U.S. of America. | o .sep,

S IN OUR DI- S Fig. 1. Fig. 2. fo
US INOU '1,S I *.* -j.-.

STRATION is deliverio oackaqes 0L co co -norciHHx Ma.oB POCCH hocu",, c Aea .i
of American foodstuffs ai!d textiles r AOBO('bCameM H May..nKTypc. haniuwHTe no aApecy:
": ---. its many warehouses in .;P, 'e" M a a e
^ -, .. .K,. K.-/,, ', W/ j -' -, :*
*"3%' '-'su 'Tf" ? ;Pk. BTtln 7*(noT[e6ytrk T OnaHK 3aRBfeH 4A W. nepP.C6lnK; i npoO0S-o..cTaO MnH A yva ytat rypD
Ta-uM -yTeM Bw WMt+eTe cHa6l aTb no6oc )Yiiuo B.POCCHH fl nPOAOBOJ/1bC r3EHHblMH1
..TECTMHIbHbLMm nOCblJlAMH AkeDHKoiahC AAMeHHCTpaL4 nomOiuM, cFe-.,
N ... .aIL M H haO 14 CO .. .

n. Itis an in Russia wIthstar i- o-d t S ,^ _/_ _
.e :e ';e A.Tc."rrStion q /.^J. PL AvXpec -C E
, :: .^^ n A-'-itr- s ti "- 'a 4; 'L4 B C rl< FA*'- B OEHE. "
e. Pi 7. AApec: a,'.-

fI l %, , i' '- I j [,, .,' .L *-* *' ..- -.r ** --" .*\ l

'A 5 I I I14 1
i 3 ,


Th ttAMRCAN RTNDMN1-S by R. J. Ceresa. A
STRATION is.deliva- :_kae "a rEPMAHI O.

-VritWtor the,' Ii oao uMForoqwc.:iOn s x ci:ianos a POUCAti nerlKlr i.c AXe ieaCTBc
W t t he r poAono.crThae.M Hanar Te no a;)pcy:

London, E aton Squared a orpe6y ltat O a&ell iB n Aa s 11teB --- T. TaICM iy'eM By
L..ndonU, England. aoATere l K uac a Poccua I1PUOJIBO:IbCTFiEHHNlM1 HOChJIEAMUH
-Auepu*n-sicoa A;] iiuiHCr paana UouHonMH.
d ask for- an Application Form b B POCCHA C JIbHO H^AEiMCa B I PO I'iOJILCTBH,.
tor food r...nittances. In this wa. B P00C141 CRiibH0 HYA(IAEIOMOTTCa B rPEOj,.OJIbCTBHH
you can provide us with packages -.. *. i n M l M'E ..A _i--Z .
contanng .American Foodstuffs. J "" p C-vyPe I .8" tK-aT. y Ei;h
OF tc'OD IN R.SSIA. Fig. 5. i. 6.
l~i .QU~ i~3TaL~ik. ... Fig. 6..
J .... --- ^"P- ": -. .. .. .. .... .. .. ..... .. -- "

MINISTRATION" (La Soci 'i -'. ..'. 'T o noix worw'iniciieni x CKMialtoii n POCC1H nociiui c AcMepnicaiCKHM np0-
ricaine de Secours) ddlivre' ..- : -... ::5, nn C e .: i- -.,:; M rO1oiibCTrneM. lauiniiiiie no aapecy:
nombroux depots qui se .' .. ......... ,... AMERICAN RELIEF ADMINISTRATION
en Russie, des colis alime "- -. -... ".-J j-"-
S.. -.-.-......... 18, Rue Tilsitt. Paris, France.
Ecrive-z v I nt "roTpciyAre 6naKIt 3anlileeHl H AJa isepecujiia iipoAonuolLCTruimi. 'TaiHNM nyT'l M 13U
IOlif~an BDilici ArmirU't9inni r oneTr clau6ajarT nac n PoccHn nP00 UOJlbCTBEHIHLIM f1OCblI KAMM
AmepiKaHcKoi Aj,(%lmlcTpaLt. InloMoumH.
18, Rue Tilsitt, Paris, France, ----7
pour exior un Bulletin de Corn- b B POCCHM CJIbHO HY{fAAElIlCn B nfPOAOBObCTBMM.
made po.ur I:envoi d'aliments. l OMOHMTE HAM B 5BEAE
C'est ainsi que vous pourrez nou:; __
pourvoir. en Russie de colis ali-
mentaires par la Societ6 Ameri- c -- :.....
caine de Secours. .. .. ." ".1.

EST ATROCE! Fig. 8. ,
SECOUREZ- NOUS! (ryp" rop
.. ,-,*......... ... _- ...--.. _-- -- _- .. .. .. ....-..-.--

,0 I 1 oo E 0
MINISTRA.TION' is delivering. cb C3oX Mnoro'.Ce;CHMbx CKJiaOB 8 FOCC1M nocc.n c AmepnmancK.HM
p:clkages of Arnm 'aian foodstuffs 1 poOBOnOim.crTUHeM. HI-anIniiire no aapecy:
from its maily warehouses in I
SRussian Food Remittance Department, 42 Eroadway, New York City,
marien RillO il Ainlsfr, i an li-.,
I lorpeo)ylre enan ww amnewr Anmn nepvecbnjln npooroibCTrv. 'TamnM nYrTC BWb MO-
RIus.iaF-Pood IRluittalnc Departmeut, ere CHa6a'raTb mo6oe anmo u PocCHH nPOOBOhJlbCTBEHHmhlMM OCblJIKAMM
42 Brnad-Ly, New York City, AMepHKanCKoil AAMHMHCTpaluH lnomouiH, coacpXamLniH na(op npHnacos.-
iid ask for an Applicati n Form
tor food remittances. By this me- Mbl B POCCHH OqEHb HYN(I.AEMC,/ B C'ECTHbIX TrHnIACAX.
3ns you can provide any indivi-- /' nOMorHTE HRM B BEAEl
iiual in RlUssia with stn;inard ____ _
Ainerican ItliefAi liIniii .stration- 1
FOOD1- PACKAGES. ABpc: -. ... .. :- .
WE ARE IN GREAT NEED U. S. of America. \ .. '\
OW FOoD IN lRUSSIA. IIEI ,, unu ...... op). .
iUS IN OU D'STrI:SS! 'Fig. 9. ,Fig.1./i
a u. a ,i ANOTHER A.R.A. CARD SETTING (r. pn. ropoj ". .: T. '
(see Editorial Comment). -

6bdl,66M( b-mA0O
4 n n 8- i U p 8S
S.... i:+.p rFig. 2.

i 'O L Fig. 3

r U rIwOp nI"a/Kr. r .( ZIP CODE SYSTEM
, WWWOlnrU0 lWd Q,ll, by William T. Shinn Jr.

13 j Iur n I'a.,. 4/i .i A 2 r.
... rp. .. Fig. 1.
.Moua. jJ. I, IOIIAUK. /

S .. S

by William T. Shinn, Jr.

Apropos of the article by Mr. Cronin in Rossica No. 79 on the Ukrainian Zip-Code system, I have in my collection a
Soviet postal card in Ukrainian which promotes it. Printed in red and of 10 k. value, the card is No. 176 in the
slogan series and was printed by GOZNAK (the State Printing Office) on 4 May 1932 in 1 million copies (Fig. 1).
This is ah example in the illustration, that of ZMIYIV (Zmiev, Khar'kov province), which is 395-y-1. The sender's
code for KIEV is given as 11-y-15, which adds to the list of known combinations for the 11th. postal district in the
Ukrainian capital.

The Ukrainian text on the card reads as follows:

"I obtained a letter in good time because the 'INDEX' or code designation, which has been set up for every inhab-
ited locality in the Ukraine, was specified on the letter. Details at the post office!"

EDITORIAL COMMENT: Following up on the clue given by Mr. Shinn, we have found two other Soviet postal
cards which also promote this mail sorting system. These two cards were printed in blue on the same day as Mr. Shinn's
example and in the same quantities (1 million copies each), but both being of 3-k. value:

(a) No. 185 in the slogan series, it has the following Ukrainian text (Fig. 2):
"The right address on a letter guarantees its delivery in good time! Everybody inform themselves and write in
the addresses the 'INDEX' code designation which has been set up for every inhabited locality in the Ukraine. 'INDEX'
- that is the correct access on a letter! Details at the post office!

(b) No. 186 in the slogan series, with the following Ukrainian text (Fig. 3):
"The 'INDEX' code designation has been set up for every inhabited locality in the Ukraine. Specifying such a
code designation on a letter guarantees its correct transmission and delivery in good time! Details at the post office!

The example in the illustration is that of OLEVS'KE (Olevsk, Zhitomir province), which is 101-y-1 and the sender's
code remained as 11-y-15 in Kyyiv (Kiev). To sum up, we can add the following codes to the original list:
11-y-15 KYYIV-KIEV; 101-y-1 OLEVS'KE-OLEVSK; 395-y-1 ZMIYIV-ZMIEV.

We also know now that the system was launched in 1932 and that a manual or some sort of listing had been pre-
pared as the public was instructed to ask for details at the post office. It now remains for us to find such a listing.



D.B. DIAMANDIEV, Sofia, Bulgaria:

(a) My first item is something of a mystery as it consists of a surcharge reading "10 rub." applied diagonally in
violet on a copy of the 5 r. Arms type 1915 issue (Fig. 1). The mere doubling of the original face value makes it
doubtful. Does anyone have any information testifying to its bona fide character?
(b) The second example is much more convincing, being a block of four of the 5 k. perf. with Kustanai Type II
surcharge, but cancelled at ALESHINSK, 5? June 1920 (Fig. 2). Such a usage is much scarcer than at Kustanai itself.

EDITORIAL COMMENT: Mr. Diamandiev is right about his second item, which is an unrecorded usage. We can also ad-
vise of the existence of the 15 k. perf. with Kustanai Type II used at SEMIOZERNOE (Lot No. 1413 in the 114th. Hein-
rich Salomon Auction, about which more below). The collection of the late Arthur Shields also contain copies of the 5
k. and 10 k. values perf. with the Kustanai Type IV surcharge used at VOROB'EVSKII in 1920, which must be rare. The
usages of the Postmaster Provisionals at smaller places in a postal district is a subject about which much work still remains
to be done.

GEORG EBERLE, Munich, Germany:

I send you a photograph of a pane of 25 of the 250 r. stamp, all with manuscript surcharge "7500 p" (7500 r.) in
indelible pencil and cancelled "KRICHEV, Mogilev prov. 3.8.22" in blue. While at first sight this may look like a
manufactured item, I can assure you it came from the collection of Ritter von Niedermayer, a German instructor
with the Red Army in the early 1920s. He was at Krichev and other small localities, where he found local postmaster

EDITORIAL COMMENT: Investigations are under way to determine the status of this manuscript surcharge. The
pane has since been broken up and a block of six plus a strip of three are now in U.S. hands.

The 114th. Auction of Heinrich Salomon, held at Berlin on 4 Sept. 1971, featured a very fine collection of Postmaster
Provisionals in Lots 1364 to 1500, including unrecorded types, from the following localities:
Armavir, Batraki, Cherkassy, Danilov, Davydovka, Fokino, Fort Aleksandrovskii, Izhevskii Zavod, Kargopol', Kholto-
bino, Kiev, Klin, Koz'modem'yansk, Kustanai, Lodeinoe Pole, Minsk, Molchanovo, Nolinsk, Olekminsk, Pavlovsk,
Petrovsk, Rameshki, Rogachev, Ryazanovka, Rzhava, Sebezh, Sochi (block of 8 used!), Spassk, Surazh, Tashkent,
Teplovka, Tikhinichi, Tomsk, Tsarevo, Venev, Voskresenskoe, Vysokovo-Nekrasino, Zamyt'e, Zaostrov'e and Zhukovka.

Mostly used on pieces or covers. In short, glorious material !!




by D. B. Diamandiev and Georg Eberle.

Fig. 2.

Fig. 1.

i--~---- 1 -------- --- -- -_-_


by the Editorial Board

S We are startii.g a new series under this title about Russian and Soviet topics on foreign stamps. Such stamps issued by
the socialist countries are, of course, quite numerous but we would like to draw attention to lesser known emissions
produced elsewhere. The first two examples are as follows:
This stamp was designed and printed in the United States in dark blue by the recess-engraving process. Known also as the
"Wayzata Airmail," it shows an aircraft of the period flying over the top part of the globe. Various countries are named
on the rim of the globe, including "USSR" at far right near the $1 value indication.
Sponsored by Aerial World Tours, the postage stamp issued was repudiated by the Newfoundland Government and the
special flight covers franked with the stamp were returned uncancelled to the senders. See Fig. 1 for a typical example
of such returns. The stamp is available mint at a modest figure and is a fine specimen of the engraver's art.
Issued on 3 September 1970 as part of a six-value set and showing a scene from the fall of Berlin. Designed by R. Granger
Barrett and printed by Questa Colour Security Printers Ltd. of London, England by lithography.
The genesis of this stamp has an unusual history, as we will now see. The advance publicity photographs for this set, as
reproduced in the philatelic press, showed the above stamp with the Marshal's name misspelled ZUKHOV (3YXOB) see
Fig. 2. However, when the stamp was actually issued, it already bore the corrected spelling as ZHUKOV (XYKOB) -
see Fig. 3.
Correspondence with the Grenada Philatelic Agency, the Inter-Governmental Philatelic Corporation and Questa Colour
Security Printers confirmed that the error made on the part of the artist was caught prior to printing, with all bromides
and relevant material showing it being destroyed. We are especially indebted to Messrs Manfred R. Lehmann and W.F.
Rodgers for their kind help in supplying this information.
Quite apart from his well-known exploits during W.W.II, G.K. Zhukov won first notice as Commander of the First Army
Group during the battle of Khalkhin Gol in August 1939. In this battle, the combined Red and Mongolian Armies inflicted
a crushing defeat on the Japanese forces which were trying to gain control of Mongolia. His comrade-in-arms at the time
was the Mongolian leader Kharloin Choibalsan, first featured on the 1 tug. stamp of 1945 (Mongolia, Scott No. 75 see
Fig. 4). The 20th. anniversary of this famous battle was celebrated by two Mongolian stamps in 1959 (Fig. 5) and the 30th.
anniversary in 1969 by a single Mongolian stamp (Fig. 6). All these issues are available at leading stamp stores in the U.S.

Fig. 2.

lAsrAPAncM M "MAL Prank J. Reach, M. D., by the
U.LA.-VFOUA LAMD 6155 South Kedzie Ave., b the
"NOaWAYV-4WUA Chicago, Illinois,
I- Editorial
-13! tA Fig.3.Ba .
S_ Fig.3. Board.

Fig. 1.. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6.

-53- Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6.

by A. Cronin

First of all, reference is required to the article "The Technology of Producing Postage Stamps," by L.P. Grigor'eva
& N.V. Novokshschenova, Rossica Journal No. 75, pp. 31-32 for the basic principles of comb perforation. To make
the subject clearer for members, additional details are now given.

This particular perforating head was apparently assembled by utilizing a traditional Soviet single-line perforator gaging
101/2 as the back of the "comb" and adding side bars to it, measuring 12 (see Fig. 1). Since the stamps to be per-
forated were in sheets of 75, i.e. 5 stamps across and arranged in 15 rows down the sheet, the perforating head had
six side bars added to help do the top and sides of the five stamps in each row at one stroke of the machine. The
perforating head would then step down to the next row, applying the bottom line of perforations to the preceding
row and adding the side perforations for the current row (Figs. 2 & 3). The machine would step and repeat 15
times to complete the sheet, going through the margins at bottom.

It is the step and repeat action which is important in this particular comb machine. Every time it was operated, a
noticeable gap was made between the preceding side perforations and the following bottom perforations. That is, if
the perforation process started at the top of the sheets and moved downwards, the side gaps were at the bottom of
the stamps. Conversely, if the sheets were fed in from the bottom and the machine moved up the sheets, the side
gaps were at the top of the stamps (see Fig. 6 for such an example). It follows that what we have in the second
case are inverted perforations (Fig. 6).

All of the foregoing applies to stamps in horizontal oblong format. There was, however, one stamp in the vertical
oblong format, perforated by this machine (Fig. 7). In this example, it is assumed that the normal direction of per-
foration was from right to left across the sheets, with the side gaps at left on the top and bottom sides of the stamps.
President Kurt Adler has a variety of this particular stamp (1933 Ethnographic set, 15 k. Turkmenians) from the left
side of the sheet with left margin imperforate, i.e. the perforating head did not perform the 16th. stroke to go through
the left margin of the sheet. The inverted perforation for this stamp would consequently have the side gaps at right
on the top and bottom sides, and the inverted direction of perforation would be from left to right. Once again, it
must be stressed that the perforating head never changed direction. Such changes were caused by feeding in the
sheets in the opposite direction.

This gage in comb perforation was in use for only a short time: May 1931 to July 1933. Since it would have been
highly useful for perforating many other Soviet stamps in similar horizontal and vertical oblong formats, one may
assume that maintenance problems or poor separation properties forced its abandonment. The first stamp so per-
forated was the 15 k. Dirigible Construction stamp of 1931, lithographed (Scott C 21 see Fig. 4). It should be
noted that both this stamp and the 50 k. brown of the same set also exist with the single-line 121/2 perforation, as
well as a bogus single-line 111/2 perforation applied in Berlin.

The pictorial tugrig values of Mongolia, issued in April 1932, exist solely with the 102 x 12 comb perforation (Fig.
5). The rarest stamp with this perforation is the 50 k. 1932 International Polar Year value (Scott C34b, catalogued
at $550 used). The only recorded copy of this variety in the U.S. was a used example in the Arthur Shields collection
(Fig. 6). The new Soviet catalogue says that this variety, which it describes as having a line-perf 10/2 x 12, came
from trial sheets. It is listed therein under No. 390 B and priced at 30 rubles mint. It is unknown in the U.S. in that
condition. Incidentally, this particular set is normally line-perforated 102 or 1212.

It should be noted that successive strokes of the perforating head were occasionally closer than usual and thus elim-
inated the gaps. Also, whenever too many sheets were fed into the machine at one time, the perforations tended to
be ragged, sometimes obscuring the gaps. Generally, however, they are easy to spot.


A classification of the stamps and perforation directions is given hereunder. The purpose of the exercise is to en-
courage members to study their stamps, in case they find variations in directions, opposite to those listed here for
any particular stamp. If so, then they must be rarities, since all examples seen so far have been consistent for any
one stamp.

There are side gaps caused by comb-perforating heads of other gages applied on Soviet stamps. If sufficient interest
is generated by the present article, further studies on the subject will follow in the Journal.


Date of Perforation
Issue Design Location of Side Gaps Direction

May 1931 15 k. litho Dirig. Const. L. & R. sides at bottom normal

50 k. brown L. & R. sides at top inverted

50 k. blue L. & R. sides at top inverted

Apr. 1932 1 T. MONGOLIA L. & R. sides at top inverted

3 T. L. & R. sides at top inverted

5 T. "L. & R. sides at top inverted

10 T. L. & R. sides at top inverted

Aug. 1932 50 k. Int. Polar Year L. & R. sides at top inverted

Apr.-July 15 k. Armenians (Ethno Set) L. & R. sides at top inverted
1933 15 k. Belorussians L. & R. sides at top inverted

"" 15 k. Russians L. & R. sides at top inverted

15 k. Tadjiks L. & R. sides at bottom normal

"15 k. Turkmenians Top & bottom sides at left normal

15 k. Ukrainians L. & R. sides at bottom normal

15 k. Uzbeks L. & R. sides at bottom normal


o O

H. strokeo- "'O oioiiici lo"
............................. 1 0 0% 0000004 0 0* :o
1. stroke 10 00000 :
Head2. Stroke E7 -*-
4 12: :12
14. Stroke-* ........
Pins 15. Stroke-. .[ .. : S I
..... = 00000000000000000 000000000000000:0
loooooooooooooo oooooooooo ooo
o 103
o o
Fig. Fig. 2. Fig. 3.


by A. Cronin.

*. CTX

Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7.


K. Freyman, Capetown, South Africa:
Thanks for No. 78 of our Journal. The article by Dr. Shneidman contained all the mistakes made by Rosselevitch
plus one more added by himself regarding the stamps of the North-West Army. See my article in BJRP No. 7, for
Oct. 1951, p. 138. The figures there are the correct ones.

C. W. Roberts, Ilminster, Somerset, England:
I was quite amazed at Dr. Shneidman's article in No. 78. It must have taken a great deal of research. However, I
am not in agreement with all he writes about stamps available in the Ukraine and enclose an official letter on this
subject, seeing that you do ask for comments. I have tried to be very careful about all the statements I make and
you may be interested to know that Dr..Seichter has approved a draft of my letter. Here it is:
"While I found Dr. Shneidman's article in' No. 78 of the Journal most interesting, I cannot agree with what he
writes about stamps available in the Ukraine (p. 10).
It must be very difficult to draw a line as to what stamps were in short supply and I think it would be better to
separate them into those which were officially overprinted and issued and those which were specially overprinted -
this latter category comprising philatelic and other overprints made to oblige,late prints (reprints) and private over-
prints. For convenience, I will call all these "S".
It should be noted that local postmasters in Volhynia, as well as the other districts mentioned, made and used their
own handstamps.


With regard to the stamps of the Russian Arms types, the 25 k. imperf. was never generally issued anywhere in the
Ukraine although it can be found with Kiev and Kharkov tridents ("S"). The 20 k. imperf. was only normally issued
in Yekaterinoslav but can be found with Kiev, Kharkov and Odessa tridents (all "S"). Otherwise, in Kiev all values
are to be found except the 50 k. and 10 r. imperf. (only "S"). In Kharkov the imperf. 4 k., 50 k. and 70 k. are
only found with Dzenis reprints ("S") and in Yekaterinoslav the 5 r. and 10 r. perf. and 10 r. imperf. are not found.
In Poltava, although a number of values are scarce, only the 4 k. imperf. is unknown. In Odessa all values are found
normally issued except the 4 k. imperf. and 7 r. imperf. (both "S"). In Podolia the imperf. 4 k., 70 k. and 10 r.
are unknown.

Of the other issues, the 70 k. chain cutter Soviet stamp was used in Podolia and also ("S") in Kiev. The 35 k. only
with a late print ("S") in Podolia. The postal savings stamps were regularly overprinted in Poltava, but only the 1 k.
in any quantity. They are also found in Kharkov with Dzenis reprints ("S"). The Romanov issue and the War Charity
issues were never officially overprinted but may be found with Kiev and Kharkov type overprints (all "S"). The 3/2 r.
and 7 r. stamps of 1902 were regularly issued in all districts but not usually in large numbers and in many cases they
are rarities."

Dr. A. H. Wortman, Enfield, England:

Rossica No. 78: Congratulations to you and Lee Shneidman for that article though I cannot agree with everything.
Last paragraph on p. 16: of the close setting for 1 r., 3 r. 50 k. & 7 r., I have 1 r. Petrograd 11.2.20, 3 r. 50 k.
Smolensk 28.1.20 on cover and 7 r. Lipovka, Sar. 2.3.20 on piece.

Derek Palmer, Santiago, Chile:

I have just finished reading No. 78 of the Rossica Journal and felt that I must congratulate you on obtaining that
fine article by Dr. Shneidman on Soviet issues 1917-1923.

As you may recall, I joined Rossica after having heard such splendid reports on your journal and because, at that
time, I was collecting Poland which formed part of the interests of your Society. I sold most of my Poland in 1963
and am now disposing of the balance and so I really have no direct connection with either the Rossica or the B.S.R.P.
to which I also belong; but as long as you can bring out such fine magazines as this present one, I will maintain my
membership, as it is a real pleasure to read such interesting and well-documented articles.

A. Prado, Campinas, Brazil:

Dear Mr. Shneidman,

It was a pleasure to read your article in the Journal of the Rossica Society. It was very illuminating and a good
source of reference.

Accept my best compliments for a well-done work.

Magazine "Filatelia," of Bucharest, Rumania, issue No. 5 for 1971, p. 18:

One of the last numbers of the Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately has published, among other things,
a wide survey of postal and philatelic aspects in the USSR during the years 1917-1923.

The years of civil war, and of consolidating Soviet power over the entire territory of the Union were not lacking in
difficulties in the postal sector.

The heavy legacy of the war, the disorganization caused by civil strife, the effects of inflation, the sporadic supply of
stamps and postal items all caused extremely difficult problems for the organs of the young Socialist state.

The widespread changes in postal rates, as a consequence of the inflation of the money in circulation, lead to an in-
creasing consumption of stamps, such that the production of the stamp printing office and the existing stocks could
keep up only with difficulty.

Many varieties have come about in the repeated printings of these types of stamps as a consequence of utilizing many
grades of ink and paper, as well as from the effects of wear on the plates and printing equipment. To this may be
added the numerous counterfeits, some to defraud the Posts, some to defraud collectors and others finally made to
contribute to the discrediting of Soviet power.


The rise in the rates was not reflected in a uniform way over the whole postal network. Thus, the letters which were
being mailed right up until the new rates came into force show from their dates that both by the manner the fees
were levied and the way franking was applied, there were differences from region to region and sometimes from town
to town.

Because of that, letters which actually went through the mails during the period of inflation demonstrate an excep-
tional philatelic and documentary interest.

The study, signed by J. Lee Shneidman, covers this chapter of postal history in 35 large-size pages and it is accom-
panied by no less than 200 bibliographic or documentary footnotes.
Some strictly subjective viewpoints or conclusions of the author are liable to serious and objective criticisms. How-
ever, the study has the merit of presenting in systematic chronological order and with the ample documentation of
specialist items, a period of great philatelic interest, framing it in the context of one of the greatest epochs in the
history of mankind.


(a) Re the comment by Mr. Freyman, I do not see where his article and the information I presented from Rossele-
vitch disagree in substance. There were two points of disagreement. Mr. Freyman states that forgeries "are not too
numerous." He mentions only three types; I know of two dozen and I even have a forged overprint on the 1909
2-kopek stamp. The second point of disagreement seems to be my statement that the 4 k. and 35 k. stamps were
lacking at the post office. Mr. Freyman does not disagree with the 4 k., but states that 20 copies of the 35 k. were
overprinted; for 20 copies I will not argue.

As for the error I made, I cannot find it unless it is my statement that the OKCA (Northern Army) issue was done
locally. In a letter of 3 Dec. 1969, Dr. Stackelberg informed me that 3 million copies of the OKCA stamps were
printed in Tallinn.

(b) In reply to Mr. Roberts, all I can say is that the information I presented was gathered, as I indicated, from the
five vols. Dr. Seichter and he wrote. His letter, with the exception of the 50 k. imperf., confirms rather than dis-
agrees with my article.

(c) The letter from Dr. Wortman does not disagree with my position. I stated that in November the Government
rushed into production the old ruble values in a new paper-saving format but that these stamps did not reach the
post offices during November or December. Dr. Wortman says that he has one of the stamps from Smolensk dated
January 28 and another from Petrograd on February 11. I thank him for the information, but he simply confirms
my point that the stamps were not available in December.

(d) I cannot respond to the article in Filatelia unless I know what subjectivee viewpoints or conclusions are liable
to serious and objective criticism."

I am most grateful for the help many philatelists have given me since the publication of my original article. I have
revised the work, without changing my position in substance. I have been criticized for accepting Darlow's tale on
the Tiflis locals, but the only point I had to change in my account was to remove the word "machine" from the
description of the rouletting since the job was done by hand using a straight edge as a guide.

The excellent article by P. T. Ashford on Batum in BJRP No. 45 for March 1971 confirms that there were enough
postage stamps in the hands of the populace in April 1918 when the city fell to the Turks.

If there is a thesis to my work, it is a simple one: the confusion existing within the Soviet Postal Administration
was caused not so much by the Civil War as by the fact that NARKOMPOCHTEL (National Commissariat of Posts
and Telegraphs) simply did not understand the dynamics of inflation.


EDITORIAL COMMENT: We cannot remember any article which has excited so much response, both written and
oral. The letters and printed comment reproduced above have brought out some interesting points and the letter
from Mr. C. W. Roberts, summarizing the position in the Ukraine, is particularly useful.

With regard to understanding the dynamics of inflation, there is no doubt that the lesson was well learned. Despite
the all-out war waged by Nazi Germany and its Fascist allies from 1941 to 1945, during which the Eastern Slavs
went through the most harrowing ordeal in their long history, with huge areas of the Western USSR laid to waste
and at least 20 million of its people killed, in short despite this tremendous loss of life, property and resources, the
control over the economy was so firm that there was no rise in postal rates in the 9Y years between 6 Feb. 1939
and 15 Sept. 1948 (see V. A. Karlinskii: "Soviet Postal Rates," Rossica Journal, No. 75, p. 63).

Dr. Shneidman has drawn attention to an intensely absorbing period of Soviet postal history. Please refer also to
Kurt Adler's article "The Anatomy of a 1923 Inflation Cover" reproduced elsewhere in this issue for further data
on this interesting subject.

The correspondence on Dr. Shneidman's article is now closed.


Will all members please note that subscriptions are due on the 1st of January each year, regardless of the original
month of joining. New members receive all the journal issued during the year of joining.

To avoid the unnecessary delays which have occurred in the transfer of funds, our English members are kindly
requested to send their annual dues direct to our Treasurer, Mr. Norman Epstein, 33 Crooke Avenue, Brooklyn,
N.Y. 11226, U.S.A., by the most convenient means: Money order, bank draft, etc., rather than to a central
course in the United Kingdom.

Foreign members in general should add $1.50 to their cheques and bank drafts because of the high bank collec-
tion charges in the U.S.A.


U. S. A.


by R. J. Ceresa


J. Lee Shneidman's comments on the foreign rate for the period December 1st 1922 to Jan. 10th 1923 has led me
to look at the inflation covers in my collection of Civil War Provisionals which fall within this period. They are as

From: To: Date: Registered Rate Franking

Kiev Station Berlin 1.12.22 Yes 300 Rub (1922) (1)
Kharkov New York 1.12.22 No 150 Rub (2)
Moscow Berlin 13.12.22 No 112 Rub (Philatelic) (3)
Bryansk Berlin 14.12.22 No 90 Rub (4)
Tulchin London 18.12.22 Yes 300 Rub (5)
Melinkovsk Toronto 20.12.22 No 150 Rub (6)
Kiev Berlin 22.12.22 Yes 300 Rub (7)
Moscow Berlin 23.12.22 No 150 Rub (8)
Moscow Belgrade 24.12.22 No 150 Rub (9)
Moscow Wiesbaden 1.1.23 No 150 Rub (10)
Moscow Berlin 4.1.23 Yes 300 Rub (11)
Kiev Philadelphia 4.1.23 Yes 300 Rub (12)
Melitopol' Montreal 4.1.23 Yes 300 Rub (13)
Petrograd Belgrade 4.1.23 Yes 300 Rub (14)
Pulin Lager 5.1.23 Yes 300 Rub (15)
Rostov on Don Berlin 6.1.23 No 150 Rub (16)
Belaya Tserkov London 9.1.23 Yes 300 Rub (17)

Apart from a philatelic franking and an 'odd-ball' from Bryansk they all have a franking of 150 Rubles (1922) for
the postage and an additional 150 Rubles (1922) for registration. This listing seems to confirm Lee Shneidman's
findings that there is considerable doubt the 250/500 Ruble (1922) rate went into effect. For the interest of infla-
tion cover collectors, the frankings on these covers are as follows:

1. Block six 45 Rub. 5th Anniv. Revolution plus three 10 Kop perf Arms Types.
2. Block of fifteen 10 Rub. 5th Anniv. Revolution issue.
3. One of each value of the 5th Anniv., issue.
4. Block of nine 10 Kop perf Arms Type no sign of missing stamps.
5. Complete sheet of 100x3 Kopeck imperf Arms Type.
6. Block of fifteen 100,000 Rubles on 250 Ruble Provisional issue, normal paper.
7. Block of thirty 100,000 Rubles on 250 Ruble Provisional issue, normal paper.


8. Block of six of the "train" charity stamp used at 25 Rubles (1922) each.

* 9. Block of eight 14 Kop per Arms Type plus a single 10 Kop Perf Arms Type.

10. Strip of three 40 Rub on 15 Kop imperf Arms Type, three 3 Kop perf Arms Type and single 1 Kop imperf
Arms Type.

11. Strip of five 40 Rub on 15 Kop perf Arms Type and strip of five 20 Rub on 70 Kop perf Arms Type.

12. Two strips of five 25 Ruble 5th Anniv. plus strip of five 100,000 Rubles on 250 Rub chalk paper.

13. Block of ten 27 Rub 5th Anniv. plus strip of three 100,000 Rub on 250 Rubles chalk paper.

14. Block of twelve of 25 Ruble (1922) 5th Anniv. issue.

15. Block of thirty 100,000 Rubles on 250 Rubles Provisional, chalk paper.

16. Block of fifteen 100,000 Rubles on 250 Rubles Provisional, chalk paper, plate 2 (surcharge).

17. Block of thirty 10 Kopeck perf Arms Types.

by Kurt Adler

Please see Figs. 1 & 2 for the front and back of a registered cover, sent on 9 Oct. 1923 through the Moscow 34 P.O.
to New York City, where it was received 18 days later on 27th Oct. by the Registration Section of the City Hall

The franking demonstrates unusual features, as follows:

FRONT: (a) Nine stamps of 10 r. denomination, totalling 90 r. in 1923 money.

(b) Pair of 15-kop. Denikin stamps, worth a total of 30 kop. in 1923 money. Note the odd angle at
which the pair is affixed to the cover.

BACK: Pane of 25, plus a strip of 5 of the 10 r. stamp of 1922, face value 300 r. in 1922 currency, or 3 r. in
1923 money.

The total franking was therefore 93 r. 30 k. in 1923 money.

Referring to V. A. Karlinskii's article "Soviet Postal Rates" for this period (see Rossica Journal No. 74, p. 44), we
see that the international charges as of 1 Oct. 1923 were 45 r. for an ordinary letter plus an additional 45 r. regis-
tration fee. In other words, the 90 r. franking in 1923 stamps at the top front of the cover was sufficient to send
the letter abroad. Why then the overfranking of 3 r. 30 k.?

Th, 30 stamps representing 3 r. in 1923 money were a very small outlay, compared to the 90 r. required by the
rate but l[he practically occupy the entire back of the envelope. That is why they were affixed, to ensure that the
co:,r would not te ta,'-iered with, as it went to a known stamp dealer on Nassau Street.

V', ..nd good, but what about the pair of Denikins at front? Looking inside the cover and holding it up to the
lij. Nve sei :he jnsw.r. The sender had originally written "Vozdushnaya pochta" (Airmail) at an angle at left
r i, ;,chn,,rj his mndl to surface routing when mailing the cover and then affixed the Denikin pair at the same
ani over t11. "Airnml" indication!


So the cover is not quite as exotic as it seems at first sight. Consulting the data given by Mr. Karlinskii was a lead
to solving the problem.

However, that is not the full story. The letter reached the U.S. in record time, as we have seen; so it must have gone
by airmail to Germany at least and thence by ship to the port of New York. So the sender got a bargain in trans-
mission anyway!


Large specialized sheet collection of 25.000 stamps, mounted in mint sheet albums, very high catalogue $1100.00
Same but only 15.00 stamps, all in sheets with full borders 475.00
7.500 250.00
RUSSIA 1909/17: 32 diff. sheets of 100 with 20 gutterpairs each, or 50 (Rouble values) with
6 "V" labels each (3000) 80.00
Same, but only 15 diff. sheets (including #85a), full borders 32.00
Same, but collection of over 100 diff. multiples (1600 stamps) all with gutterprints, "V" labels,
watermarks etc., in 2 books 110.00
1917: Nr. 131-33, 137a, 138b, all with 6 "V" labels (250) 22.00
1917: #131: 4 panes of 50.1 sheet of 100 all with diff. platenumbers or in diff colors (300),
with 6 "V" labels each 28.00
1917: 8 diff. Rouble sheets of 50 (400) with 6 "V" labels each 33.00
#87gh, imperf., horizontal lozenges, sheet of 50 (Scott $500.00) 110.00
block of 6 $ 60.00 18.00
"strongly shifted center (50) 125.00
Underground shifted downwards and sidewards thus forming 50 very
rare and interesting varieties. Unique sheet. Would-be pride of any exhibition 475.00
Gibbons #195/97, Savings stamps, 3 sheets of 100 19.00
#141 Scott: Money-Stamps, very rare sheet of 100 25.00
#131 Scott: Underground shifted downwards 4 mm, thus forming 50 very rare and interesting varieties 125.00
Sheets of 100 with different plate-numbers, colors,
watermarks, guttercrosses, gutterpairs, etc.:
Nr. 74: 2 different sheets $ 4.00 Nr. 84: 2 diff. sheets 9.00
Nr. 76: 3 12.50 Nr. 85: 5 diff. sheets 22.50
Nr. 77: 3 11.00 Nr. 86: 3 diff. sheets 10.00
Nr. 82: 2 8.00 Nr. 121 & 123:
Nr. 83: 2 9.50 2 diff. sheets 7.00
Nr. 125: 3 12.50
UKRAINE Tridents: 20k perf. and 1 Rouble imperf (100 & 50) 27.50
Same, but 2 sheets of 50: 1 Rouble, with different plate numbers 19.00
Same, but 6 sheets of 100, 2 sheets of 50 (1R.), all different 90.00
Same, but 7 sheets of 1 Rouble with borders, all different by plate-numbers, colors and 2 sheets
with a double overprinted stamp. 90.00
Scott Nr. 81/137: 3 diff. sheets of 100, each with 20 gutterpairs 22.50
1919 Czechoslovak Occup., 204, sheet of 100 without gum 9.00
1919 Czechoslovak Occup., 3 complete mint sets of 5 (15) 20.00



by Kurt Adler

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Leonard Tann, London, England:

I recently acquired a "find," the currency stamp of 1917 being the 2 k. with the overprint "2" on the face, which
should have the inscription type on the back without the imperial eagle. However, in this case the back is entirely
blank. It will be listed in Stanley Gibbons as No. 180a. This item has been granted a certificate of genuineness by
the Expert Committee of the British Philatelic Association.

Some details of the stamp are as follows: the card is yellowish and the perfs show signs of "coarseness," before the
perforating pins became totally ineffective as on late currency-stamp issues. The overprint "2" on the face shows a
slight weakening of the plate, as the inside line of the figure is blurred and thinned. How many of these items exist
I do not know. Mr. Eric Parsons over here has a twin. Perhaps members possessing a similar item could drop me
a line.

There is another variety in these currency-stamp issues, namely on the 1 k. of the March 1917 emission, which has
the inscription on the back inverted compared to the design on the front of the stamp. This is in the collection of
a friend, being in a marginal block of four.

Andrejs Petrevics, Perry, N.Y.:

Re the interesting piece by Dr. A. H. Wortman in Rossica No. 80 on the aberrant date stamps for Riga, I can add to
the list with the following serial letters and dates: RIGA 7.3.05, k x x; RIGA 19.8.05, m x x.

Will other members please examine their material of this period to see what other serial letters and dates can be

Kurt Freyman, Capetown, South Africa:

Regarding the note by Mr. Cronin on the usages of the local stamps issued by the German Tenth Army in Byelorussia
(see Rossica Journal, No. 76-77, p. 7), I beg to inform you that I had in my collection a cover from GORODEYA,
Minsk province to Reval (Tallinn) in the then German-occupied "Ob. Ost" territory. Not philatelic, without the Ger-
man stamp but showing a German censorship mark with a capital R in a circle. The same applies to a cover from
Minsk to Reval.

Alex Droar, Surbiton, England:

There is one article in your excellent Rossica Journal, No. 76-77, to which I might be able to add some information
and that is about the 1918 Control Labels mentioned on page 7. I have one cover and one card, of which I shall
now give you some details:

(a) A cover with the 60 pf. Control Label cancelled by pen stroke in blue and sent from MOGILEV. Addressed
to Slavn'e on the Minsk-Brest Railroad, it has a receiving double-circle bridge type postmark on the flap, reading
"SLAVYANY,a, 6.9.18" (Fig. 1). Note the handstamp struck in violet struck at bottom right to indicate that 40 k.
was to be charged for delivery.

(b) The special postcard issued by the Tenth Army Postal Service, franked this time with a 30-pf. Control Label
and an additional German 10-pf. stamp, both cancelled BOBRUISK,m, 29.9.18 (Fig. 2). The card has a German


censorship double-circle mark in violet, reading "POSTPRUFUNGSSTELLE" (Postal Examination Point) and in the
centre "C 10 / M" in two lines, probably applied by the Germans at Minsk. There is also a Warsaw handstamp for
" local delivery which collected another 10 pf.

Editorial Comment: We see from the interesting information forwarded by Messrs Freyman and Droar that we can
confirm usages of these labels from three more localities as originally listed in Rossica Journal No. 76-77, namely
from BOBRUISK, GORODEYA and MOGILEV. This brings the total of known usages up to nine places, so we
still have a long way to go in classifying this material so as to determine which are the scarcer postmarks. Note that
Mr. Droar's cover from Mogilev was pen-cancelled only and it is possible that the cancellers at this office were lost
or destroyed because of the unsettled conditions of that period. Do any members have any material from Mogilev
dating from this time to confirm the above hypothesis?

Dr. Leonid Kvetan-Chenakalo, New York, N.Y.:

Please see Fig. 3 for a letter featuring an L-shaped strip of six 3-k. stamps showing the classical error of "V" (5) in
the background instead of "III" (3). Mailed from Kronshtadt on 5/17 Oct. 1871, it reached St. Petersburg 5th.
Despatch Office on the same day and was then sent on by train to the Prussian border. Here it received the normal
German marking in red, reading "AUS RUSSLAND / FRANCO / 19.10.71 / BUR. AMB. XI EDK. BDG" (presum-
ably RPO/TPO No. 11 from Eydtkuhnen to Brandenburg) and it finally reached its Copenhagen destination on 21
Oct., the entire journey taking 4 days.

It would be very interesting to know of other multiple frankings of this famous error.

Sam Robbins, Los Angeles, Calif.:

Further to the informative note by B. A. Evans in Rossica Journal No. 78, p. 55 on the continuing "Used Abroad"
status for the Khorezmi (Khivan) People's Soviet Republic, please see Fig. 4 for the illustration of an item I recently
acquired. This is a money-order card transmitting 4000 rubles on 14 June 1920 from Khiva to Tokmak in the
Semirechenskii (Seven Rivers) Region for the village of Belyi Beket, where it arrived on 16 August. The destination
is now situated in the Kirghiz SSR.

Note the payment of the commission with six 5-k. Postal Savings stamps, which were now worth five rubles each,
or a total of 30 rubles. The commission was thus 0.75% of the amount transmitted.

Editorial Comment: The Khan of Khiva was driven out by the Red Army and the Soviet Republic established in
April 1920, so Mr. Robbin's money-order card is an early usage from the Soviet period. A treaty of alliance and an
economic agreement between the RSFSR and Khiva were signed on 13 Sept. 1920 and the "Used Abroad" status
continued until March 1923, as Mr. Evans has pointed out. We would welcome details of other finds in this area
from our members.

Walter Frauenlob, Bern, Switzerland:

See Fig. 5 for a stampless cover with the script marking of Mogilev-Podol'skii and sent to the Austrian side of the
border town of Gusyatin, where it was received on 1 April 1860, per the French notation on the flap. Note the
double-circle cancel reading "GUSSIATIN" in Latin letters and dated 26 March 18(60). This was probably applied
by the exchange post office on the Russian side of the border, but we need to see more material before definite
conclusions can be formed. The post office on the Austrian side would have used the Polish spelling for the town,
namely Husiatyn.


As background information, members will recollect that the Russian border exchange office at Gusyatin used No. 3
in the oval form of the "dots" cancellations. Any further information on the workings of such border offices would
be much appreciated.

Notes on items held in Moscow:

(a) See Fig. 6 for an imperf. pair of the 35 k. chain-cutter stamp (the first Soviet stamp), cancelled "NYANDOMA
OLON., b, ?7.11.18?" in the P.F. Mazur collection. This small town is a station between Konosha and Obozerskaya
on the railroad from Moscow to Archangel and it is now included in the Archangel province rather than Olonets
province as just shown. The exact usage of this imperf. variety is thus established. The 70 k. value also exists im-
perforate, but is much rarer as many of the so-called imperfs are from sheet margins which missed the last row of
perforations at top, i.e. they originally had "fantail" margins and the perforations were then trimmed off to create
"imperforate" varieties, complete with sheet margin! The new Soviet Catalogue of 1970 lists the 70 k. imperf. in
used condition at 75 rubles. We in the U.S. have never seen it in that state and it would be interesting to know
where it was on sale.

(b) We are indebted to Prof. K. Berngard for the photograph of a surprising variety on the first 15 k. mailman fee
stamp for judicial matter. Please refer to Fig. 7 for a block of four in a Moscow collection from what is apparently
a proof sheet for this overprint on the 15 k. fiscal stamp, in which the second line of the overprint has a "b" instead
of an "i" for the spelling of the word "pochtalyona" (of the mailman). This was apparently corrected before issue,
since all the copies we have examined in U.S. collections show the "i" spelling but there is still a chance that copies
with the proof overprint are lying around unnoticed. We would like to hear from members if they discover any
such examples!

Dr. Vasil Stoyanov, Ruse, Bulgaria:

I can advise the existence of two further markings for Soviet ships that ply along the Danube and call at my port
city of Ruse. See Fig. 8 for the cachet of the "VOLGA," struck in red and dated 17 Sept. 1970 at Ruse. A similar
marking for the "DNEPR" is shown in Fig. 9 as being struck in black and also showing the Ruse postmark dated
27 Oct. 1970.

John Lloyd, West Bergholt, England:

I enclose three photostats of ship mail items in my collection, as follows:

(a) Fig. 10 shows an Imperial postcard with three strikes of a circular cancellation reading "S PAROKHODOM /
IZ / KRONSHTAD / TA" (By steamer from Kronshtadt) and also the St. Petersburg 7th. City Post marking dated
15 May 1887 in the same shade of bright blue ink. Thus both marks were obviously applied on arrival at St.

(b) Fig. 11 shows the back of a cover bearing a circular postmark reading STEAMER "NIZHNII-PERM'" (4),
dated 21 July 1894. This is much rarer than the reverse "PERM'-NIZHNII" direction due apparently to going against
the current of the swollen river and at certain times of the year to timber logging, this being floated down the Kama
river, very often preventing shipping proceeding upstream. It is said that at such times it was quicker to go over-
land when journeying from Nizhnii Novgorod to Perm'.

(c) Fig. 13 features a Soviet 10 k. postcard in the slogan series with an oval cancellation reading "POCHT. PAROKH.,
d, 26.7.32, ASTRAKHAN'-NIZHNII" (Postal Steamer Astrakhan'-Nizhnii Novgorod). The card arrived at Kazan'
two days later.


Abraham Cohen, Brooklyn, N.Y.:
Please refer to Fig. 13 for the illustration of a cover, franked with a 104 U.S. stamp cancelled "U.S. Navy, Aug. 23,
1942, A.M., KOLA INLET, RUSSIA" Pnd addressed to New York City. The sender gives his address on the flap as
"Barents Sea, aboard U.S. Naval Craft." This item apparently originated from a U.S. Navy ship escorting a convoy
of war supplies to the port of Murmansk in Northern Russia. There appears to be little written about this subject
and it would be appreciated if members would send in details of further material.

Kurt Adler, New York, N.Y.:
The warning about the trimming of stamps with fantail margins, as stated in section (a) of the "Notes on items held
in Moscow" also applies to would-be purchasers of the rare imperf. varieties of Soviet commemoratives. See Fig. 14
for a fantail copy from the left side of the sheet of the 1938 "Shota Rustaveli" stamp, which has been "improved"
to turn it into the imperforate stamp. What gives it away is the cancellation to order which is of a type character-
istic for 1938. When the rare imperforates were released from the Leningrad Postal Museum in 1942, some of them
were also cancelled to order with a Tula marking which is completely different from the 1938 types.
Many collectors have shunned the cancelled to order varieties of Soviet stamps, but a study of them can turn out to
be very interesting and, as has just been demonstrated above, highly useful for expertization purposes.


DO-X mail


rare AIRMAIL covers

ALL W ORLD (a very carce Z.pMn card of our

Including Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Bulgaria, for sale

Please send detailed want-lists

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New York, N. Y. 7


"TEMATICHECKOE KOLLEKTSIONIROVANIE" (Topical Collecting), by A. I. Kachinskii. A brochure of 64 pages,
issued for the All-Union Society of Philatelists by the "Soyuzpechat' Publishers, Moscow 1969 in an edition of
20,000 copies. Price 22 k.

A very useful and concise review of the subject, and including the FIP rules for showing such collections at interna-
tional exhibitions.

This brochure appears to be the first in a low-priced series of "The Philatelist's Library," which now also includes the
following titles:

"AZBUKA FILATELISTA" (The Philatelist's Alphabet), by A. F. Kolesnikov, Moscow, 1969. Same publishers. Con-
tains 48 pages and priced at 16 k., with 40,000 copies printed.

A brochure for beginners, giving the basic required information.

stamps), by V. P. Vladimirtsev. Moscow, 1970. "Svyaz'" Publishers. Contains 80 pages and priced at 16 k., with
40,000 copies printed.

Another brochure, aimed at the collector of the above-named topic and giving him all the basic data.

Stamps), by A. A. Gorbatsevich. Moscow, 1970. Same publishers as before. Contains 40 pages and priced at 7 k.,
with 20,000 copies printed.

Once again, a topical brochure on the subject noted in the title.

"OCHERK PO TEORII TEMATICHESKOI FILATELII" (A Survey of the Theory of Topical Collecting), by F.
Seebauer. Translated from the Czech by I. M. IIl'inskaya. Moscow, 1970. Same publishers. Contains 64 pages and
priced at 16 k., with 25,000 copies printed.

A brochure done in thorough Czech style and giving all the necessary basic information.

"KHIMICHESKAYA PROVERKA I CHISTKA MAROK" (The Chemical Examination and Cleaning of Stamps), by
Ladislav Novotny. Translated from the Czech by Anatolii Kachinskii, Moscow, 1970. Same publishers. Contains 32
pages and priced at 7 k., with 40,000 copies printed.

A highly interesting booklet, which delves into the benefits and abuses of the chemical treatment of papers and inks,
strictly from a philatelic viewpoint. It should be in every collector's library.

"POLONICA NA RADZIECKICH ZNAKACH POCZTOWYCH" (Polonica on Soviet Postage Stamps), by Prof. Dr.
Antoni taszkiewicz. A booklet in the "Little Library of the Warsaw Philatelist" series, issued by the Warsaw Sec-
tion of the Polish Union of Philatelists in 1970, in an edition of 1000 copies. Contains 44 pages plus 14 plates with


86 excellent illustrations. No price indicated, but obtainable from the author at Bachmacka 2, m8, Warsaw 87,

S Covering the topic of things Polish on Soviet stamps, envelopes, illustrated postal cards and cancellations, Professor
,Laszkiewicz has uncovered an enormous amount of interesting data. Among other things, we learn that the noted
flier S. A. Levanevskii was a Pole (Zygmunt Lewoniewski), while an artist of Polish origin, Jerzy Grzeszkiewicz, has
designed many stamps of the USSR.

This carefully produced booklet is a model of what can be done when investigating a topical subject.

"NUME DE LOKALITETS'" (Names of Localities), by A. I. Eremiya. Published by the Institute of Language and
Literature, Academy of Sciences of the Moldavian SSR, Kishinev, 1970, in an edition of 3000 copies. Contains 224
pages and priced at 1 r. 13 k.

The Moldavian language is basically the same as Rumanian, but with a higher proportion of words of Slav origin and
written in the Cyrillic alphabet. The author is a leading expert on Bessarabian toponimy and this work contains
background information of great interest to investigators of the postal history of Bessarabia, of which the Moldavian
SSR forms the greater part. Articles on Bessarabian cancels are planned for future issues of our Journal.

"ROZOVYI MERKUR" (The Rose Mercury), by FrantiSek Langer. Translated from the Czech by E. Kol'man and
Ye. Kontsevaya. A paperback of 120 pages, issued by the "Svyaz'" Publishers, Moscow, 1969 in an edition of 40,
000 copies. Price 63 k.

A collection of seven stories about stamps and postal history, written in a highly competent and interesting way. Al-
though none of them refer to our spheres of collecting, the book is a valuable aid to any collector as a general inter-
national background to philately.

"KALENDAR' FILATELISTA 1970" (The Collector's Calendar, 1970). Compiled by eleven members of the All-
Union Society of Philatelists. A paperback issued by the "Soyuz" Publishers in an edition of 50,000 copies. Price
55 k.

An array of interesting facts, keyed to specific days in the year and arranged in philatelic form. Very useful for

"SOVETSKII KOLLEKTSIONER 7" (Soviet Collector 7). A paperback manual of articles, issued by the
"Svyaz'" Publishers. Contains 152 pages and printed in an edition of 20,000 copies. Price 81 k.

After a preface, the manual leads with an article by E. Vasil'ev "At the Sources of Artistic Leniniana," about a rare
postcard issued for him in 1918 and the commentary thereon by V. Shleev, an art expert. The section on philately
then takes up "The Difficult Roads to Space Philately" by A. Gurshtein and M. Levin. Another topic, that of stamps
on stamps, philatelic exhibitions, Days of the Postage Stamp etc. is pursued by M. Izraelit in "The Mail of Philately."
Dr. N. V. Luchnik then follows with a beautiful study of "Steamship Mail in Russia," listing many rare markings.
Yu. Rudnikov keeps up the pace with a fine article entitled "New Data on the Zemstvo Post and its Stamps"; Dr.
L. Peisikov surveys "Overprint varieties on stamps of the USSR: Feb. 1959 to Dec. 1961," with much useful data;
the Editor, B. Stal'baum writes "From the depths of investigation" about stamps of the Khvalynsk Zemstvo, and a
fine section by D. Kuznetsov, L. Yakushevich and N. Navolochkin gives valuable information on local stamps of


That tireless researcher, Ya. Vovin, then presents us with details of 5 vignettes for an unofficial courier postal ser-
vice at Novosibirsk in 1962. Numismatists follow with'"The story of a Mistake" by V. Koretskii, about a rare 1-k.
coin of 1727; A. Shishkin writes of "The conventional designations of mints and engravers on the coins of European
countries"; there is a listing by A. Shaten of Soviet commemorative medals for 1968 and N. Navolochkin records the
banknotes issued from 1918 to 1920 in the Far East under the title of "The Maritime Ruble struggles on"; the late
L. D. Rozenberg writes about "The money vouchers of Arensburg" from 1861 to 1919 and the postcard collectors
then take over with "The Postcard 1917-1919" by M. Zabochen', listing many historic types, while S. Babintsev and
N. Tagrin give a "Bibliography of Card Collecting 1897-1967." Mr. O. Lasunskii looks at "Real and Imaginary"
book plates and this issue ends with book reviews and an obituary.

"SOVETSKII KOLLEKTSIONER 8" (Soviet Collector 8). Issued by the "Svyaz'" Publishers, Moscow, 1970
as a paperback in 20,000 copies. Contains 168 pages and priced at 83 k.

The centenary of Lenin's birth is the guiding theme of this manual and Editor B. Stal'baum pays due tribute in the
article "Lenin, Children, Philately," with interesting sidelights on Soviet philately in the 1920s. The Lenin topic in
philately is also the subject of "The Union of Science and Labor," by A. & N. Tereshchenko. Our old friend, D. N.
Minchev of Sofia, then gives us a fine treatment in his usual thorough style of "The Russian Posts in Bulgaria during
the War of Liberation of 1877-78," including many illustrations and a useful map. Another excellent study follows
by A. Vigilev on "The Mail to the White Sea," covering the late 17th.-early 18th. centuries and Prof. K. Berngard
tabulates "The Perforation of Prerevolutionary Postage Stamps." The noted specialist S. M. Blechman comes in with
"The History of the Posts and the Circulation of Mail in the Tuvan ASSR," done in detail, with much fascinating
information. A most unusual article by I. Sachkov treats "The Bottle Mail," in which Russian hydrographic institutes
dropped special reply cards in bottles into the Black Sea to test currents; the details given are most absorbing. A
thoughtful study by M. Izraelit "About Collecting and Gathering" then follows and the numismatic section lists
"Soviet Commemorative Medals for 1969," by A. Shaten. Postcard collector A. Shleev goes "Along with Mountain
Paths of Switzerland" to describe Lenin's journey of 1904, F. Ryabov views "Political Satire on Matchbox Labels"
and N. Strizhak surveys "Leniniana on Book Plates." The book reviews then close off this interesting issue.

"COMPEX 71 DIRECTORY." A paperback issued by the COMPEX Committee, Chicago, 1971. Contains 200
pages and obtainable for $1.00 postpaid from Dr. James J. Matejka Jr., 216 Hotel La Salle, Chicago, III. 60602.

This year's issue of the traditional Compex Directory featured Pan Slavic Philately. Seven articles were supplied by
Rossica members and contributors: "Fields of Russian Philately," by our President Kurt Adler; "A Classification of
Bulgarian Philately from 1877 to 1879," by D. N. Minchev, which presented a useful overall view; "Remarks on the
Zemstvo or Rural Posts and Stamps," by K. K. Schmidt; "Counter Revolutionary Stamps of Russia," by Dr. Louis
A. Sorokin, with interesting background notes; "Soviet Prewar Verification Notices," by A. Cronin, including a ref-
erence to Tuva; "Soviet Varieties," by the Rossica Editorial Board; "Afognak what it means," by R. Polchaninoff,
on Alaskan place-names of Russian origin, and two articles by non-members: "The Story behind the Chelyuskin Air-
mails," by John Freehafer and "Ruthenia Forgotten Area of Europe," by Karl-Heinz Teumer, on Carpatho-

There are also two other articles on Slavic themes: "Czechoslovakia Music Sheets" and "Alphonse Mucha Slavic
Painter." Other contributions include studies on U.S. cancellations, Alaska Postal History and Scandinavia. All in
all, the Directory is crammed with information and is wonderful value for the money.

"KATALOG POCHTOVYKH MAROK SSSR 1918-1969" (Catalogue of Postage Stamps of the USSR). Issued by
the "Soyuzpechat'" Publishers of the Central Philatelic Agency at the Ministry of Communications of the USSR,
Moscow, 1970, in an edition of 100,000 copies. Beautifully bound and printed, it contains 656 pages and is priced
at 3 r. 55 k.


Based on the same principles as the 1957 edition, the catalogue gives much background data of use to topicalists and
the medium collector. A welcome addition is the arrangement given of the five types for the Consular Airmail over-
prints on the sheet and a special section by V. A. Karlinskii on regular, Savings Bank and control stamps of prerevo-
lutionary Russia, which were used in the early Soviet period.

However, many interesting varieties, not necessarily scarce, are absent and the useful classification of the arrange-
ments of stamps on the sheets has been dropped. Improvements on these lines, listings of the Postmaster Provision-
als of 1920-1922, the Soviet issues for Carpatho-Ukraine, Latvia, Lithuania etc. and rectification of pricing anom-
alies to prevent local collectors being cheated by sharpshooters would all help to enhance the appeal of future edi-
tions of the catalogue.

"FUTBOL V FILATELII" (Football in Philately), by M. E. Levin and E. P. Sashenkov. A paperback issued by the
"Svyaz"' Publishers, Moscow, 1970, in an edition of 40,000 copies. Contains 136 pages and priced at 26 k.

A nicely produced and well-illustrated work, it gives the football enthusiast all he wants to know about his philatelic
topic. Booklets of this type are of great value in getting beginners interested in philately.

"KATALOG-SPRAVOCHNIK : KOSMICHESKAYA FILATELIYA" (Catalogue-Handbook of Space Philately), com-
piled by Ya. B. Gurevich and V. I. Shcherbakov. A paperback issued by the All-Union Society of Philatelists, Mos-
cow, 1970, in an edition of 30,000 copies. Contains 136 pages and priced at 65 k.

Divided into three parts, it covers Soviet stamps, envelopes, postal cards and special cancels on this topic followed by
an appendix with highly valuable biographical details on the Soviet cosmonauts, an index of the designers for the
stamps, envelopes and cards, topical subdivisions and a table of the arrangements of the stamps on the sheets. Ideal
for the Space enthusiast.

"FILATELISTICHESKAYA BIBLIOGRAFIYA" (Philatelic Bibliography), compiled by S. Babintsev, Ph.D. A paper-
back issued by the All-Union Society of Philatelists, Moscow, 1970 and published in an edition of 15,000 copies.
Contains 128 pages and priced at 33 k.

An index of basic literature in the form of books and articles on the history of the Posts, postage stamps and
philately, published in the Russian language over the 125-year period from 1843 to 1968, the contents are carefully
subdivided into a variety of sub-headings to help the philatelic investigator.

Such a publication is a great help in locating hitherto unknown data and postulating new findings. As the French
so aptly put it: "Savoir, c'est pouvoir" (Knowledge is Power).

"POSTAL HISTORY JOURNAL," for Sept. 1971. Published by the Postal History Society Inc., P.O. Box 24, Bay-
side, N.Y. 11361. Price $3.50 per copy.

The issue noted above of this journal contains an excellent article by our member Arnold Engel of Philadelphia on
"Censor Markings Censorship by the Soviet Union during the Great Patriotic War" of 1941-1945, with much basic
information and interesting illustrations. The writer asks that collectors possessing unlisted censorship markings con-
tact him so that complete information on these cachets may be recorded. We urge members to extend him every


the Russian Baltic Sea Provinces of Livonia, Estonia and Kurland), by C. G. Rucker. Scale 1:605,000. Size 100 x
78 cm. This is a reprint of the 7th. improved edition, published at Reval (Tallinn) in 1914, with an alphabetic in-
dex of 31 pages, containing around 4000 place names.

The most detailed map of the Baltic area, it not only shows each village, but also all estates, pastorates, post offices,
inns etc. in what is present-day Estonia and Latvia. We highly recommend this publication and it is obtainable at
$8.00 postpaid from Firma Kubon & Sagner, 8 Munchen 34, Schliessfach 68, West Germany.


Leading off with an interesting article by the late Fred W. Speers on "The Rs of Schmidt and Chuchin," space is
then devoted to an absorbing piece by R. P. Knighton on "The Finnish Postal Museum" and a report on the 1969
British Diamond Jubilee Congress, where our member Michel Liphschutz signed the Roll of Distinguished Philatelists.
The second and final part of "Russian FPOs for the Polish Forces in W. W. II" follows by M. A. Bojanowicz and A.
Droar, covering the subject in great detail. Dr. A. H. Wortman then appears with a well reasoned article on "The
Three Triangles Expeditsiya Markings," postulating that they were for checking the correct postage. "A Flaw on the
10 k. issue of 1866-1875" is given timely treatment by Prof. O. Winterstein and "The First Estonian Airmail" fol-
lows with many interesting details from the pen of D. McDonald. Our learned member and fellow signer of the
R.D.P., Mr. M. A. Bojanowicz, appears again with "Russian Railway Cancellations used in the Kingdom of Poland -
Part 2," done in his usual comprehensive style. Mr. A. S. Waugh then gives the modern collector vital data on "Min-
iature Sheets of the Soviet Union Part 5" and the conscientious Leonard Tann contributes "Further Observations
on the One-Rouble Stamp." This fine issue is then wrapped up with reports on meetings of the Society and book


Once more under the leadership of our old friend P. T. Ashford, this issue leads off with a definitive article by Dr.
A. H. Wortmen on "Some Plate Flaws" of Imperial stamps. The new Editor then steps in with a glorious study of
"Russian Mail of the 18th. Century," including a very early marking for Moscow. Translations of "Special Postmarks
of Russia," by Ya. Vovin and "The Search continues," by Oleg Forafontov, both very informative and reprinted
from Filateliya SSSR, then follow. Eric S. Poulter talks about "My Kind of Collecting," describing five interesting
items of the 1917-1920 period, homage is paid to "C. C. Handford-80 years young!" and the Editor proceeds with
"News and Views." A fine report is given of "Philympia 1970" and Mr. Ashford's article on "The British Occupa-
tion of Batum" is then reprinted from The Philatelic Journal of Great Britain for Jan. & Apr. 1962. Reviews of
new literature, publications available, obituaries and meeting reports terminate what this reviewer believes to be the
finest BJRP number to date!

by Irving Hagler and assistants. Second Edition, Miami, 1971. Published by the HJMR Co., Box 308, North Miami,
Fla. 33161 at $7.50 clothbound and $5.00 paperbound, both including five credit vouchers worth $1.00 each for
each purchase from the list, priced at $3.00 or more.

Undoubtedly the finest and most comprehensive production in the field of listing and pricing philatelic literature,
this work is a labor of love which was compiled by utilizing computerized techniques to assemble around 50,000
titles covering practically every phase of philately and postal history for almost every country in the world.

The volume is worth buying just for the listing of literature in several languages on our own spheres of collecting
and it is very extensive. So many collectors are unwilling to pay to acquire information and help on their own
specialties; one look at this work and they will certainly change their minds. In short, it is very highly recommended.


"STAMP COLLECTING": A weekly magazine of philately, published in London, England.

The issue of 11 March 1971 of this bright weekly contains a most interesting article "The Russian 'Arms' Type Issue
1908-1923," by our member Barrie Evans and printed with several informative illustrations on pp. 75-83. Its chief
merit is in the meticulous way it appeals to any collector with an enquiring mind to specialize in the varied fortunes
of this historic series of postage stamps. Our member deserves great credit for the fine job of philatelic publicity
that he has done.

"STAMP MONTHLY": A monthly magazine of philately, with some illustrations in color, published by the Stanley
Gibbons group in London, England.

A no less commendable job was done for Russian Philately by our member Leonard Tann in the April issue of this
magazine on the Russian Currency Stamps, giving all the necessary facts in a bright and eminently readable manner.
This was followed up in the July issue by a letter from the same author, giving details of two further varieties that
had come to his attention after writing the original article. Please see the "Notes from Collectors" section in this
present Rossica Journal for details on these varieties.

"THE LIBRARY OF RUSSIAN CLASSICS." A series of texts by standard Russian authors, all unabridged and in
the original Russian, most of them stressed and with introductions, notes and vocabularies. Published by Bradda
Books Ltd., 3c Glebe Road, Letchworth, Herts, SG6 IDS, England and available in this country from Schoenhof's
Foreign Books Inc., 1280 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, Mass. 02138.

Featuring the most famous Russian authors such as Chekhov, Gogol', Gor'kii, Lermontov, Pushkin, Tolstoi, Turgenev
etc., these texts are a wonderful help in studying the Russian language and at the same time enjoying the classics of
Russian literature. Specially printed in Poland to the order of the publishers, they have the great advantage of being
made available at very reasonable prices which are sometimes lower than for the equivalent translations into English!
Strongly recommended for the aspiring student of the Russian language.


Members are advised to make the following corrections to the article "The Russian Postal Services in Bulgaria during
1877-1879" by D.N. Minchev, as published in the Rossica Journal No. 81:

Page 6, second row from bottom: instead of "until the end of 1879," read "until August 1879."

Page 29, list of postal stations: for No. 3, Gabrovo, instead of "21 Nov. 1878," read "21 Nov. 1877."

Page 32, line 22 from top: Instead of "July 1879," read "July 1878."