Officers, honorary members, and...
 Editorial (continued on pages 61...
 The first issue of the "KITAI"...
 A Russian red cross cover from...
 Some odd major-varieties of the...
 Additional data on the Russian...
 Some notes on used abroads by G....
 Interesting covers in my collection...
 Stamped envelopes of Imperial Russia:...
 The consular airmails by Maj. A....
 Stamped envelopes with advertisements...
 Stamps of the Warsaw local post,...
 Covers of interest to Russian and...
 New information on the Russian...
 The development of the post and...
 Additional notes on Russian vignettes...
 Catalogue of vignetttes by...
 Special Envelopes, printed at the...
 "GOZNAK" presentation album by...
 Supplement of Kordakoff's catalogue...
 Comments no. 2 and N. I. Kordakoff's...
 A new check list of the arms type...
 Flaws on the 10r stamps of the...
 Notes from collectors
 Editorial (continued from page...


Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00020235/00034
 Material Information
Title: Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Physical Description: no. in v. : illus. ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Creation Date: 1962
Publication Date: [n.d.]
Frequency: unknown
Subjects / Keywords: Stamp collecting -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Postage-stamps -- Periodicals -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
Funding: Made available to the University of Florida Digital Collections under special distribution agreement with the <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a>.
 Record Information
Source Institution: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Holding Location: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAB2397
lccn - 59037768
issn - 0035-8363
System ID: UF00020235:00034

Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Officers, honorary members, and representatives of the society
        Page 2
    Editorial (continued on pages 61 and 62)
        Page 3
    The first issue of the "KITAI" overprints by Dr. A. H. Wortman
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    A Russian red cross cover from the first Balkan war by M. N. Kessler
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Some odd major-varieties of the Imperial envelope from the period II and III, 1868-1913 by O. Faberge
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Additional data on the Russian charity issues by O. Faberge
        Page 12
    Some notes on used abroads by G. H. Torrey
        Page 13
    Interesting covers in my collection by G. A. Russell
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Stamped envelopes of Imperial Russia: 1st period, 1848-1863 by O. Faberge
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    The consular airmails by Maj. A. Prado
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Stamped envelopes with advertisements by K. Adler and K. Schmidt (continued from no. 61)
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Stamps of the Warsaw local post, 1915 by I. Braunstein
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Covers of interest to Russian and U.S. collectors by M. N. Kessler
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    New information on the Russian postal services during 1877-78, in Bulgaria by D. N. Minchev, translated by A. Cronin from the Bulgarian magazine "Philatelic Pregled" of December 1961
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    The development of the post and communication services of the Mongolian National Rebublic, and the postage stamps of Mongolia by A. Cronin
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Additional notes on Russian vignettes by C. de Stackelberg
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
    Catalogue of vignetttes by R. Polchaninoff
        Page 48
    Special Envelopes, printed at the occasion of the centenary of Russain postage stamps, 1956 by Kurt Adler
        Page 48
        Page 49
    "GOZNAK" presentation album by K. Adler
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Supplement of Kordakoff's catalogue no. 5 by V. Ushkov
        Page 52
    Comments no. 2 and N. I. Kordakoff's catalogue by V. Ushkov
        Page 53
    A new check list of the arms type issues of 1909-1923 by C. de Stackelberg
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Flaws on the 10r stamps of the 1906-1922 issues by E. F. Newman
        Page 57
        Page 58
    Notes from collectors
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Editorial (continued from page 3)
        Page 61
        Page 62
Full Text
S ", of the

Silver Medals at Belfrade National Exhibition "Zefib 1937"and
N.J +the International Exhibition, Koenigsberg "Ostropa 1935"
Bronse Medals at the International Exhibition "PRa 1935"and
Vienna International Exhibition "WIPA1933"
Recent International Awards:
Silver Medals at Berlin,"Bephila 1957" Parana,"Eficon 1958"
and Buenos Aires,"Temex 1958"
Hamburg "Interposta 1959" Palermo "Sicilia 1959" "Barcelona 1960"
Johannesburg, S. A. "Unipex" 1960- Warsaw "Polska" 1960

PoCcHKa ,
No.6 19fa

0 fi I ECTBA.
Dr. Gregory B. Salisbury
49th and Locust Streets
Philadelphia 39, Pa., U. S. A.


Hon.Memb. Dr. G. B. Bondarerko-Salisbury


Hon. Momb. R. S. S1ilarevski Hon. Memb. A. N. Lavrov


Hon. Momb. A. N. Lavrov


K. Adler Hon. Memb. E. Marcovitch V. Kurbas

2 Officers of the Soc., Hon. Memb. and Representatives of the Society
3 Editorial Continued on Pages 61 and 62
4-7 The First Issue of the "KITAI" Overprints. By Dr. A. H. Workman
8-10 A Russian Red Cross Cover from the First Balkan War. By LI. N. Kessler
10-12 Some Odd Major-Varieties of the Imperial Envelopos from the Period II
and III. 1868-1913. By 0. Faberge
12-13 Additional Data on the Russian Charity Issues. By 0. Faberge
13-14 Some Notes on Used Abroads. By G. H. Tarrey
14-15 Interesting Covers in My Collection. By G. A. Russell
16-21 Stamped Envelopes of Imperial Russia. 1st Period. 184S-1863. By 0. Fabergc
22-25 The Consular Airmails. By iaj. A. Prado
S 26-28 Stamped Envelopes with Advertisements. By K. Adler K. Schmidt
29-33 Stamps of the Warsaw Local Post -1915. By I. Braunstein
33-38 Covers of Interest to Russian and U.S. Collectors. By N. N. Kessler
"*39-41 New Information on the Russian Postal Services During 1877-78, il B4qlcri.
42-44 The Development of the Post and Communication Services of the Mongolian
National Republic, and the Postage Stamps of Mongolia, By A. Cronin
44-48 Additional Notes on Russian Vignettes. By C. de Stackelberg
48 Catalogue of Vignettes. By R. Polchaninoff
48-49 Special Envelopes Printed at the Occasion of the Centenary of Postage
Stamps, 1956. By K. Adler
50-51 "GONAK" Presentation Album. By K. Adlor
52 Supplement to Kordakoff's Catalogue No. 5. By V. Ushkov
53 Comments No. 2 on N. I. Kordakoffts Catalogue. By V. Ushkov
54-57 A New Check List of the Arms Type Issues of 1909-1923. By C. de Stackeberg
57-58 Flaws on the 1CR Stamps of the 1906-1922 Issues. By E. F. Newmat
59-61 Notes From Collectors
61-62 Editorial Continued from Page 3

by D. :T. Minchev translated by A. Cronin from the Bulgarian magazine
"Philatelic Pregled" of December 1961.

No. 62 Page 1



HRESIE T Dr. G. B. Salisbmry
SECETARY RUSSIAN speaking section A, N. La rov
SECRETARY ENGLISH speaking section R. A. Skla"eaWi


A. Kotlar K. Jansson V. Kurbas
N. I. Kardakoff A.N Lavrov E.I. Marcovitch
G. B. Salisbury R. A. Sklarevakd


W, YC. GROUP J. F. Chudoba 426 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn 25, N.Y.
SAN FRANCISO K. Jansson 624, 16 Avenue, San Francisco, California
ESTERN USA LS. Glass 1553 So La terig Baldv ; Los Angeles, 35
*-- --------------------------------------------------- ---------

RNTINA B. Riasnianaki, Larrazabal 2870, Buenos Aires
sETA V. Tvelkmeyer 21 Elizabeth St. Pddington, Sydney, N.S..
EELI I. Braunstein 6 rue Mignot, Delstanche, Ymlles, Brussels
BRZIL A. Vansovlch c/o IAvraria Freitas Bastes Caia (Rio Reg.)
"ZIL P. Beloff Rua Pedrozo 238, Caila Post 2960 (San Paulo Reg.)
"A G. Roaday Woda 29 lyon Avenue, Toronto 10, Ontario
A. Liashenko 1 Rue du Bocage, Paris 15, France
EAT BRITAIN J. Barry 77A St. James Road, Sutton Surrey
E T_ A. Trumpeldor Arba Artsot 25, Tel Aviv

----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ---------CI ~(~~UL- -------- -------~'(
V2isq-apressed by authors are their own and the editors disclaim responsibility

Membership dues are $3.00 per annum for all countries. Application forms
which must be filled out are available upon request, Membership list, code,
bulletins and supplements to membership lists will be sent out annual. Kindly
make checks payable to A. N, Lavrov and not Dr. G. B. Salisbury.

We welcome advertisements from members, non members and dealers. Full
page add is $30,00, half page $15.00, quarter page $7.50 and 5 lines $2.50.
Members of Rossica pay 50% of above rates, Net cost of advertisements to a
member is therefore 25 cents per line. We have on sale some back issues of
the Journal, both in English and in Russian language.

Page 2 No, 62



We hope that this issue is as interesting to our readers as it was to the
editors, for it is composed of many and varied articles. Occasionally a mem-
ber requests a basic article that deals with the stamp issues, as given in the
catalogues, feeling that our material is too specialized for an average col-
lector. We shall be glad to accept such an article, provided that it is em-
bellished with additional data not given in catalogues, information about un-
usual cancellations, early, late usages, out of the way postal use, interest-
ing covers, etc. Repetition of catalogue information only, will bring boredom
and protests.

Our No. 63, to appear late in the year, will also have much of interest
to all. There will be : "Stamps and Receipts of St. Petersburg's Addresnoy
Sbor" by E. Marcovitch, "Interesting Envelopes of the St. Petersburg Town
Post" by 0. Faberge, also his "Watermarks of 1912 service type stamps of
Poltava Zemstvo", "Dotted Postmarks of Odessa and Tauroggen" and other notes
from his amazing collection. Our new member M. A. Bojanowicz of England, win-
ner of the highest international awards for Poland No. 1, will present "Poland
No. 1, Forgeries, Postal Frauds and Tricks". D. Minchev has the "Russian Con-
sular Post in Bulgaria Before Liberation." There will also be: A. Cronin's
"Kyzyl Postmaster and His Spravkas", R. Polchaninoff's "Jugoslavian Post in
Siberia", M.M. Kesslerts "Cover from Liverpool via Ostende and St.- Petersburg
to Finland", late E. F. Hurts "Interseting Covers of Russian Offices in
China", etc.

In No. 63 we shall conclude Dr. C. de Stackelberg's "Check List", 0.
Pabergets article on the envelopes of the First Period, E. F. Newmants "Flaws",
and I. Braunsaein's "Stamps of the Warsaw Local Post of 1915". There will be
a continuation of J. Barry's and W. Kethro's "Postal Vagons of Imperial Ru.sia'a
G. Torreyts "Used Abroads", A. Cronin's "Mongolia", A. Cronin's and W. Stephent
"Tanna Touva", M. Kessler's article "Covers of Interest to the Russian and U.S.
Collectors" and V. Ushkovts "Commentary to Kardakoffts Catalogue."

All those who wish to contribute to No. 63, kindly send in your manu-
scipts as soon as possible


The long awaited competitive exhibition of the New York Chapter of "Ros-
sika" Society of Russian Philately, was held at the Vanderbilt Hotel on May
20, 1962; with displays ranging from Russia No. 1 through the latest issues.

The contests among the exhibitors were far the Dr. Gregory B. Salisbury
Awards for Philatelic Research in Russian and related fields. The theme of
the exhibition "Philatelic Democracy" was examlpified by displays of early
Imperial stamps; Baron Wrangelts Refucee Issues; stamps and covers of General
"Vlasovts issues; as well as the more recent issues related to the flights of
Cosmonauts Yuri Gagarin and Gherman Titov.

iany of the New York area members attended the exhibition; as well as nu-
merous visitors, both from other philatelic fields, and non-philatelists.

continued on Paae 61

No. 62 Page 3

by Dr. A. H. Wortman

The first postal and commercial treaty between Russia and China was
signed at Nerchinsk in Siberia as early as 1689. Other treaties followed,
creating regular postal routes and depots, until in 1870 Russianpost offices
were opened in Urga, Mongolia, and Kalgan, making and Tientsin in China.
Kalgan, situated just inside the Great Wall, was the point of departure of
the caravans going into Nongolia, and in 1863 replaced Kiakhta as the place
of exchange of correspondence between China and Russia,

: ., In 1897 or possibly 1896, the exact date being unknown, :further Russian
Post: Offices were opened in Chefoo and Shanghai; in March 1898 Russia obtained
a twenty-five -year lease of Port'Arthur and the neighboring Bay of Talienwan
and a post office must have been opened immediately at Port Arthur and shortly
afterwards at Talienwan, renamed Dalny.

At all of these post offices Russian stamps were on sale and ordinary
post office business, including the registration of mail, was transacted.

In 1896 an agreement had been signed between the Russian and Chinese
Governments giving Russia authority to build a railway across Manchuria,
providing a short cut from Manchuli on the Siberia frontier to Vladivostok
on the Pacific coast. :This was to become the Chinese Eastern Railway Company
with its-headquarters in an entirely new city, Harbin. No other city in the
world can beat its record of mushroom growth from nothing in 1897 to a city
which now occupies just about one-hundreth place in order in the list of the
world's largest cities, and all within the life-time of many who are now
reading this.

Putnam Weale tells the story ("Manchu'and Muscovite", ]. L. Putnam
Weale, Macmillan, 1904) of how two Russian engineers rode out on.Siberian
ponies into the center of the Manchurian plain where the Chinese Eastern
Railway would pass. They came upon- ani old Chinese distillery on the banks of
Sungari rover, not the true bank as it afterwards transpired, since the river
was in flood, and decided to build the future city"there f It was laid out on
a vast scale fully justified by its subsequent growth. The' earliest recorded
cancellation of Harbin is dated September 10, 1900.

As the building of the railway:progressed, Russian troops were sent in
as guards, and Field Post and Field Telegraph Offices were established. Ge-
nerally the Field 'Telegraph 'Office, being the quicker means of communication,
came first, and a Field Post Office was afterwards organised and occupied the
same building. In 1889 the postal and telegraph services had been amalga-
mated, and it was in fact commonon practice after this date for Russian tele-
graph offices to handle ordinary mail. One finds, for example, covers from
private or commercial corre'pohdence franked with ordinary postage stamps
which have telegraph office :cacellations. Not only are- the words' "Telegraph
Office" included in the cancellations but they appear also on tie Registration
labels of registered mail.

Russian Field Post and Telegraph OffiBes' in' Cna and Manchuria also
handled civilian mail from their commenceme nt.

Page 4 No. 62


All Russian Offices used ordinary Russian stamps until 1899, (providing
us with many interesting "used abroads") when a series of overprinted stamps
was issued to some, but not to all, of them. There does not seem to have
been any particular reason for this, except that France and Germany had al-
ready done the same thing, and Russia was determined to keep up her prestige.

.Prigara says the overprinted series were announced in Circular No. 15 of
the Post and Telegraph "Department, dated April 15, 1899. Breitfuss, that
great Russian collector of the last century, communicated the news to Stanley
Gibbons, who published it in their Monthly Journal dated April 29, 1899. The
actual appearance of the overprinted stamps was reported in the Echo de la
Timbrologie, June 1899 and in le Collectionneur de Timbres-Post of the same

Si: stamps of the then current series of Russian postage stamps on paper
with horizontally laid lines, the 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kopeks were overprinted
diagonally with the word "K I T A I" in Russian letters, the word of course,
being the Russian equivalent of "CITINA' (cf. "Cathay"). The overprinting was
done by typography, in blue on some values and red on others, the letters have
very prominent serifs and their lines are very clear and sharp. The word is
placed at an angle of 57 degrees, to the lower horizontal frame line of the
stamp design, this angle being maintained accurately always. Such accuracy
was probably obtained by making use of the puncture-hole in the colored dot
on either side of:the.sheet of shamps when overprinting, the pucture-hole
being used in the first place to secure proper alignment of the sheet when
making the two printingsof background and frame on the original stamps.

The clean straight edges of all the straight lines of the overprint, and
the symmetry of the letters, together with the diagonal angle are the most
important characteristics of genuine "KITAI" overprints, but this does not
concern us very much here as I have never seen a forged overprint on the first
issue on horizontally laid paper, although of course one might turn up some-

The overprint varies incol6r from blue to dark blue on the 1, 3 and 5
kopek values, and from orange'to vermilion on the 2, 7 and 10 kopeks. There
is not much variation in the colors of the stamps. As will be familiar to
our readers, the background and.main design of the stamps are not always in
the same shade.

Che ck list
"Overprint Overprint
1. 1k orange-yellow blue 2a. 2k deep green,
orange-yellow dark blue overprint mis-
orange-yellow placed upwards vermilion
with yellow 3. 3k carmine blue
background blue '. carmine dark blue
dark blue 4. 5k dull purple blue
2. 2k Lreen vermilion dull purple dark blue
deep green vermilion 5. 7k deep blue orange-verm,
green with deep blue vermilion
very faint 5a. 7k with over-
baclhground vermilion print invert, vermilion

No. 62 Page 5


6. 10k deep blue vermilion
indigo orange

It is not necessary to complicate the list unduly by including minor
variations in the shades of either the main design or the background of the
basic stamps,.

Variety 2a is mentioned by Prigara.. Normally the overprint is absolutely
constant in position- and angle but in this variety it is misplaced to the top
so much that it overlaps the upper frate-line of the stamp. I' have hn example
of it with the overprint at an ang1% of 58 degrees and the cancellation is
SHANGHAI PCGTE RUSSE b 22 12 10 ". Variety 5a is catalogued by Michelbut
1 have not seen a copy.
C A N C 7L L A T I 0 N S

Te Collectionneur de Timbres-Poste, in its June 1899 number announcing
the issue of these stamps added that they were already in use in Port Arthur.
Although Russian. stamps without the overprint wi re 'also used there from the
date of occupation in March 1898 it seems that a supply of the KITAI stamps
was sent as soon as they were issued, and may in fact have arrived earlier
than anywhere else.. In my own collection the earliest dated cancellations
on any KITAI stamps are of PCRT ARTHUR. I have a 1k stamp with 24 VIII 1899
date and a 10k with 2 X .1899. I have no others with 1899 dates but I have
a cover bearing a 3k, two copies of the 5k, a 7k and a 10k, all of which are
uncancelled. It is registered and addressed ti Fenang, and has on reverse a
single circular .ostmark of Shanghai, dated 8 NOV. 1899. It is reasonable to
Assume that this cover was posted on board a ship 'coming from either CHEFOO
-or PRT: ARTHUR, receiving the SHANGHAI postmark .in arrival there, the mail
being:-put ashore to be forwarded to Penang by a ship on that route. There is
no .cover on-record from PTRT ARTHUR bearing the overprinted KITAI stamps.

Prigara states that Circular No. 15 stated that these stamps were for
use in the Russian Postal Establishments (uchrezhdenie) in Shanghai, Chefoo
and Hankow. They were certainly used in Shanghai and Chefoo, but .they were
also regularly used in Peking -and Tientsin&. Ih Hankow their use was somewhat
unusual. Until.:about 1904 it was the Chinese Post Office there which sold the
KITAI stamps when they were needed for franking mail going abroad. Covers
show that the stamps remained uncanelled, the Chinese Post Office putting its
postmark on the cover but not on the stamps. These were cancelled when they
reached the Russian Post Office in Shanghai. The Chines Post Office..thus actne
as a sort of Postal Agent for the Russian- Post Office in Shanghai (See StawpH
of the Russian Empire Used Abroad, Stephen anr Tchilinghirian, jPart IV, p. 364).
It is clear therefore that not all KITAI stamps with Shanghai cancellations
were used from there, some may have originated in Haikow.

The Russian Post Office in Hankow seems to have copmenced to function
about 1904. The earliest recorded Hankow cancellation is dated 29 III 1906,
and is struck on each of two stationary postcards in my collections, dressed
to a reverend gentleman in Nairobi who may have been a philatelist. One is a
Qk KITAI postcard, and the other a 3k Kitai postcard with an additional Ik
KITAI stamp to make up the correct rate for postage abroad.

Page 6 No. 62


There is a remarkable registered cover in Kurt Adler's collection, bear-
ing the KITAI series from 1k to 7k with two copies of the 2k, all cancelled
with the postmark of the Imperial Russian Consular Post Office in Urumchi in
Sinkiang, 22 VI 1906. It is illustrated in Part III of the Stamps of the
Russian Empire Used Abroad work. It is possible that the KITAI stamps were
on sale in this Consular Post Office as early'as 1906, but material from this
office is so scarce that it is impossible to say. In fact I know of no other
KITAI stamps used there.

The only other town where the KITAI stamps were regularly used was DALNY,
situated a few miles further along the coast to the east of Port Arthur on the
Liaotung Peninsula. Field Post Office No. 17, dealing with civilian as well
as military mail, was situated somewhere in the vicinity and I have a postcard
franked with a pair of the 2k KITAI, cecelled No. 17th Field Post Office
17 IX 19-03 Priamur Region ". There was also a civilian post office in the
town, and until recently the only example of its cancellation was recorded
on an ordinary Russian 10k stamp, once in the possession of Mr. S. D. Tchilin-
ghirian and since lost. It has been my good fortune to find three copies of
the 2k KITAI stamps which all came from the same letter and which, when placed
together show virtually two complete strikes dated 26 VIII 1903.

TIETSIN cancellations are commonly found in red up to 1900, and early
CHEF00 in violet, so that unreadable postmarks in these colors on this issue
may safely.'be ascribed to.them. SHANGHAI cancellations were in gray-b.ack
at this time. -

Temporary hand-stamps were used in the PEKING Post Office during the
Boxer Rising. They had a rectangular frame containing the word IEKIN "
and 1900 leaving a space for the day and month to be inserted in manuscripI
Dr. L. S. Snegireff and. I a..a covers showing two types of this cancellation,
differing in size. .

The KITAI stamps of this issue are also known with ship cancellations.
It .may be that -they could be bought from the purser on board ships of the
Russian Volunteer Fleet or the Russian East Asiatic Shipping Company, but no
doubt in many cases passengers brought stamps with them, purchased at ports
like TIENTSIF and CHEFOO where the hips called. I have a piece with two
singles and a pair of the 5k KITAI with the cancellation of the Russian Asia-
tic Shipping Company, "PARfiR HOD. CBSH. R. V. A. P. 14. 8. 08" in blue.

Other examples which I have showing occasional use of this issue are: a
ke with cancellation of nr'r s13erial Japanese Post Office ending in "-G" in
1909, a 3k used at the- Ci,." Field Post Office at Harbin during the Russo-
Japanese War, a 5k used at F.P.O. O0. 13 .(YIMKOW) and a late use of a 3k on
cover at KALGAN in 1916. alganf is pne of the offices which did not receive
a supply of these stamps.

The first issue KITAI stamps were therefore in regular use at: IEKING,
STIE ISIN, PCRT ARTHUR, SHAN AI, C1'FOO, DALNY and the Chinese Post Office in
SIAI ck ; Later they were used at the Russian Post Office in HAIMI O and pos-
sibly regularly at RUTRCHI. Occasionally they were used at HARBIN, RUSSIAN
No. 62 Page 7

by Melvin M. Kessler
The recent acquisition of a Russian Red Cross (RRC) cover used during
the First Balkan War (1912-1913) prompted the writer- to investigate the RRC
aid to the warring Balkan nations. The result has been to identify the Rus-
sian cities that sent volunteer Red Cross units to the Balkan countries and
to pinpoint locations there of .RC operations.
A few words first about the history of the Balkan Wars will bring the
data to be presented into itsproper historical perspective.

The annexation; of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908 by Austro-Hungary was
a turning point in Serbian history and set the stage for the ensuing comple-
Sxities of Balkan intestine disorder, desires for national identity and unity,
and territorial goals that. eventually led to World War I after the assaarZ.-
Snation at Sarajevo on June 28, 1914 of the Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdin-
and, by a Serbian nationalist. Resenting the annexation as well as Turkish
control of the Balkans and inspired to have a Balkan confederation, Serbia
and Bulgaria, on March 13, 1912cdrew up a treaty of alliance that contained
a secret annex that provided for joint military action and division of expected
territorial gains.; IdL May, Greece joined; the alliance and actual military
action against Turkey occurred on October 8 after Montenegro, who supported
the alliance, but had no treaty with the allied countries, declared war with
Turkey over thexMacegdonian question. Turkey was eventually defeated by the
Balkan countriesi.and by the peace terms of 'the Treaty of London, of May 30,
1913, was excluded from, Europe: except in the area of Constantinople.
A Second Balkan War, known as the War of Partition was a short war
(June 29 to August 10, 1913) and a direct result from conflicts arising from
the division of territorial spoils by the victors of the First Balkan War.
Land that Bulgaria had was claimed by others and Bulgaria came out the loser
after she attacked Serbia. On July 9 the Rumaniana came in and took Silistria
and marched on to Sofia and occupied part of Bulgarian territory bordering
on.D->':j".T' Bul-ria. was:reduced in area from 65,350 square miles to 10,882,
and these lands were redistributed. Greece was'the greatest gainer, boeng
nearly doubled in size and. population;. Serbia was increased by 50 percent
approximately in population and more in area; Montenegro was also doubled
in side and population. .: ;-*

The cover- hasra Red Cross at, the lower left and along side it is print,
"Tverkaya Serbryanaya Obschina (Tver Silver Community). At the loer rigit
is 'Etapnyi lazaret imeni goroda S. Peterburga" (Base Hospital in the name of
the city of St. Petersburg).:
The face of the cover has a barely legible "Belgrad Ekspeditsiya" (Bel-
grade Postal Station),- circulVar single-ringed, black cancellation (27.5mm.
dia. with the date 6 3 13 L.317B in center- (March ,3 1913 a;nd postal
There are many excellenthistories 'of -the Balkan Wars and effects of them.
Recommended is E. C. Helmreich's "Diplomacy of the Balkan Wars, 1912-1913",
Harvard University Press 1938.

Page 8 No, 62


time marking 3-7B). The cover is addressed in Serbian in ink (transliterated):
"Predaite Spasoju Stanojevichu Jemljodelzy pochta Veliko Gradishte u selo
Kusich" (Turn over to Spasoje Stanojevich, the Farmer, at the Post Office of
Veliko Gradishte near te Village of Kusich). (Kusich lies about 20 degrees
E of Greenwich and 43 degrees 30 rinites N of equator). There are no stamps
on the cover, censor markings, or manuscript rate notation. It seems that
the cover went via civil mail routing.

It is very likely that the letter was written by a Serbian soldier from
the base hospital established in Belrade by the Tver Silver Community Red
Cross unit, one of a number of RRC city units that contributed to the RRC
effort in the Balkans. The rarity of the cover has not been established yet,
but discussions in New York with Rossica members interested and knowledgeable
of RRC covers during the Rossica meeting last o:-.ember indicate that none has
been seen used during the Balkan Wars, or at least that is the impression I


A letter from the Comite International de la Croix-Rouge (International
Committee of the Red Cross) at Geneva, dated November 30, 1961, in response to
my inquiry about RRC activities in the Br'C-ans during the Balkan Wars indicat-
ed that a number of National Red Cross Societies of the European nations came
to the aid of the Red Cross Societies of the Balkan beligerent states. A
translation of a report was supplied which was written by a Illyine (ILIN) the
President of the Central Committee of the Russian Red Cross at St. Petersburg,
dated December 26, 1912, detailing their activities and aid to the "victims
of the war between the Balkan States and Turkey." The letter was countersigne(
by A Czamanaky (Chamansky)i Master of the Court of H.M. the Emperor and Sec-
retary General of the Central Committee of the International Red Cross.

The RRC allotted 1,,000000 rubles equivalentt of 2,650,000 francs) for
relief to the wounded of the warring armies since hostilities started. To
hasten aid, medical detachments of the RRC left for the Balkans between 4 and
17 October, mostly in special trains following two routes, one across the
Austrian frontier and the other via the port of Odessa.- The personnel and
base and field hospital equipment', supplied by recentlyestablished warehouses,
left by train to facilitate rapid setting up of hospital and ambulances to
receive the wounded without delay. The distribution of base and field hospi-
tals, personnel (including doctors, orderlies, Sisters of Charity and ambulance
staff) were to Bulgaria, Serbia, Montenegro, Greece and Turkey. Personnel
to the countries amounted to 462. The 1,250 hospital beds for the base and
field hospital exceeded the 1,500 already established in the battle .areas in
these countries. The personnel were selected by the communities of Sisters
of Charity and other institutions of the Russian Red Cross Society from the
following cities:

St. Petersburg Kharkov
Moscow Tver
Odessa Kichinev
* The author gratefully acknowledges the assistance that Monsieur Roger Du
Pasquier, Head of the Information Department, gave in supplying information
about the valuable document.

No. 62 Page 9

The MRC detachments were located in the Balkans in the, following towns
(parentheses added.):'

Sofia Constantinople Uskub
Belgrade Philippopol (Bulgaria) Pireaus (Piraleva, Greece)
Nish (Nis, now in Lozengrad Volo (Turkey)
Jugoslavia) Mustaphapasha (Mustafapasba) Dulcignio (Ulcign, Monte-
S- egro), and
"other places according to distribution of troops" (not otherwise idnetified).

These RRC detachments were not incorporated into the medical services of
the belligerent nations. Each unit represented an independent component capa-
ble of carrying out its -aid activities "without being obliged to associate it-
self with other medical institutions". The report ends with the comment that
activities of the detachments "cannot be communicated until after their mis-
sions have. been. completed".

The described cover in connection with the report on activities of the
' RR in the First Balkan War is an exemplication of these activities philatel-
'ically. Other covers from Russian city units similar to the "Tver Silver
Community" cover and locations of Russian units may be a philatelic challenge,
-but we have a start with this cover and information about RRC activities. If
anyone has information about other city units and theiz .operating locations
in the Balk'aris, I would appreciate hearing from. them. It is assumed that the
city units were assigned: to one location during the duratonr of the war becausE
the war was not a long one. However, maybe a city .uit established 4 base
hospital and had a field hospital unit close by that could use a small local
post office'for sending soldier's. mail. From the last.ststement in the report
it would seem that the military channels were, not upd, ,This is also borne ou;
by the described cover which -has no military routi.ng. notations. The cover and
report add to our' informatiohft.about other pre-Woild rtWar I Russian Red Cross
covers used outside of Russia which it is hoped will stimulate further research!
in that direction.- '

00000O00 OOOOOOO. .000000
FRCO 'THE PERIOD II anx I I1 18 1913.
by 0. Faberge. ....
As far as is known to me we cannot find any.maj.r varieties, of the Imper-
ial envelopes from the periods II and III mentioned in catalogues. There is
but one exception. That is the 7 kopek envelope of the 1879 issue, which is
mentioned by Ascher. According to Doctor ABcher there are two pajor varieties:

I). Printed on diagonally laid paper
II). Printed with two impressions of the embossed stamp
Page 10 ...... No. 62


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Mr. Prigara likewise mentions the aforementioned varieties but neither
one of the authors gives any details as to the size of the envelopes or the
positions of the two impressed stamps. Personally I have never seen a copy
of these varieties but there are several others known to me, which are not
mentioned anywhere as far as I know.

Because of the regrettable habit of the earlier collectors to collect
the items of the postal stationery as cut outs (cut squares), some of the
following varieties failed to survive as complete envelopes and are known to
me only as cut outs.

1. A double impression of the embossed stamp, cut out from the 5 kop. red
envelope of 1870 (Ascher No. 15, Prigara City Post for all Cities, No. 2).
Thi's copy has the two impressions well separated and is cancelled with a
double lined C. D. S. of St. Petersburg, dated 11. 6. 1870.

2. An unused envelope 8 kop. gray of 1875 issue (Ascher No. 21d, Prigara
No. 26a). Two impressions of the stamp on the front side. The second
impression is sideways, somewhat to the left of the center and level with
the normal impression in HE.,

3. Variety similar to No. 2. Both impressions of the 8 kop gray stamp -
"cut outs from a used envelope of the 1875 issue. The C.D.S shows only
parts of the inscription iELOQ...... 187.... Both impressions are
close together and upright but the left impression is somewhat lower

4. A used cut out of the 7 kop gray stamp from an envelope of 1879 issue
(Ascher No. 24, Prigara INo. 29). The entire colored part of the impress-
ion shows clear, narrow dashes from SW to NE. Neither the front, nor the
reverse- side, of the paper-itself shows any traces of any dashes it is
plain. The C.D.S. of COTOV has the date 18.6.1879.

5. An albino impression of the 7 kop stamp on the envelope of the issue of
1879 (Ascher No. 24c, Prigara No. 29b). The impression of the stamp is
in the correct NE position and the embossing is very clear.

6. An unused envelope 7 kop. blue of the 1883/84 issue (Ascher No. 29c,
Prigara NO. 33c (b) Two impressions of the stamp on the front side. The
additional impression is upside down in the SW corner of the envelope.

7. An unused envelope 7 kop blue of the 1889/90 issue (Ascher No. 32a,
Prigara No. 35b). The impression is on the reverse side of the envelope,
in the NW corner. It is not quite complete and stretches only over the
left flap. Neither the open inner side of the envelope, nor the opening
flap (whiCh, when folded, partly covers the impression) has received their
respective parts of the impression,

8. An unused envelope 7'kop brown of the 1913 Romanov issue (Ascher No. 46P,
Prigara No. 43c (b) ). Two impressions of the stamp. The additional part
impression is on the opening flap above the ordinary impression ( when the
flap is open).

No. 62 .Page 11

It would be indeed intetesting to -know if any of the readers happens to
have some of these or possibly some other varieties of these issues in their
collections. If a complete cover,of the c out varieties could be detected
we would now on which size of the envelope the different varieties appear.

by 0. Faberge
(See also Rosaica No. 44 & 46/47 -R. Sklareveki and No. 5253 -E .G. Beel)
1 9_0 5. Issu e
Complete sheet 8x5.
As Mr. Sklarevaki reports, .there is an O'B .R A 2 E T -S" overprinted
strip of eight in Mr.Kotlar's collection. This .giwseus.the number of stamps
in a horizontal row of a sheet. I have two large bioecs of 845 but without
margins, both blocks perforated 12xlg- 5 kop (B2) and 10 kop B4). That
- makes 40 stamps exactly.as much. as in the 1 Rub sheet .of the.previous year
(issue of. 1904) It may, or may not be a compete sheet, but the figure 40
stamps to aEsheet seems reasonable to me.. The next treasonable" figure is
80 98x10) but this: brings up'the dimensions to. approximately 24-?7cm. and
would make a rather unwieldy sheet to handle.
Imperf orate on one side .
I have. an uncancelled. copy of 3 kop (B 1), per rated:;1 on three
sides and imperforate ; with margin. at the left side..,
Cancelled 0 B R AZ E T S
I have a ecpy: of 3 kop .(B) 1),. perforated 13-, Qverprinted with large type
of letter-"Tverdi znak", which is the last letter of the -wod .Q BR A Z E T S
and cancelled with a circular S. P. B. 1 Exp. cancellation, dated 29.10.1905.
Early dates on cancellations in my collection
Perf. 212x2-. 3 kop.(B 1). S. P-burg. 1. 1.1905
Perf. 12xl2-. 5 kop.(B 2). S P-burg. 23.12.1904
Perf. 12xl2-. 7 kop.(B 3). 10. 1.1905
Perf. 12xl*-..10 kop.(B 4). S. P-burg, _23.12.1904 & 29,12.04'
Perf. 13 7 kop.(B 3). 10. 4.1905
Ferf. 11- 3 kop.(B 1). Sosnowizy. .30. 31905. .
Perf. 13i l- 3 kop.(B 1). Baku ., 28:, 34,905 ..
SNo t e s o n 1914/1915 Is as u.e -sa ,
Broken lance variety r ,.: .
There are three types of complete sheets with the minor variety "Broken
lance" of the 10 kop. (B 13) known to me, all having 4 copies of this variety,
Fage 12 No. 62

The aforementioned variety:locurs on stamps No. 43, 48, 93 and 95 of each sheet

1. Perf. 11-. Without plate numbers in sheet margins.
2. Perf. 1l-. With plate number "1" (couche), in the lower margin.
3. Perf. 12-. Same as 2.
Berforation varieties part perfs or "fan tails"

I am listing below the part perf varieties known to me.

1. 1 kop (B 5) Perf. 13- three sides, imperforate top.
2. 7 kop. (B 7) Perf. 11- three sides, imperforate right.
3. 7 kop. (B 7) Perf. 11o three sides, imrerforate top.
cancelled with circular postmark "Behnas".
4. 10 lop. (B 8) Perf. 12- three sides, imperforate bottom.
5. 3 kop. (B10) Perf. 12-l three stdes, imperforate left.
6. 3 kop. (B10) Perf. 13- three sides, imperforate left.

Early postmarks of Nos. B 5 to B 8. in my collection

Pert.11l 1 kop. (B 5). Warsaw 29. 4.1915
Perf. 1-. 3 kop. (B 6). S. P-burg 27.11.1914 on cover
Perf. 13-. 1 kop. (B 5). S. P-burg 27.11.1914 on cover
Perf. 13.-, 7 kop. (B 7). S. P-burg 27.11.1914 on cover
Perf. 13-.10 kop. (B 8). S. P-burg 27111.1914 on cover
by G. H. Torrey

My interest in Russian Used Abroads'began with those of the,.Levant region,
particularly what I have termed "Geographical Syria". This was derived
from the formation of a postal history collection stimulated by residence in
Aleppo nearly ten years ago. Travel in the Middle East every three or fo-ir
years provide te with an opportunity to search for new philatelic mater ial and
to further my area knowledge as an historian. Howeverthese notes will range
over the entire field of Russian used abroad.

Among the most inters-ting items in my collection is a mixed franking
cover emanating from Aleppo. Written in Arabic, it begins with the intriguing
inscription in Arabic "Fi Halab, 2nd Tashrin Aw$l 1872, ila Izmir ma'a al-
Muskufi" in Aleppo September 2, 1872 to Smyrna by Muscovy denoting the
writer's intention to send it via the Russian Post Office. Postage was paid
by a 20 para and 1 piastre stamp of the Ottoman 1870-71 issue, Presumably,
these paid the full rate to Smyrna, although it was delivered to the Russian
Post Office at Alexandretta where a pair of 3 kopek 1872 issue for the Levant
were attached and cancelled with the 782 lozenge. The Ottoman stamps rre
cancelled with the Aleppo three line rectangle surr'oubdng the town name in
Arabic, -'On the reverse side are the backstamps of Alexafdretta (Tchilinghi-
rian Type 3 ) and that of Smyrna ( Type 7 ). The addressee, Antun Farkuh,

No. 62 Page 13


probably was the father of Haaji Dawud Farkuh, who operated a line of steamers
plying between Middle Eastern ports at the end of 19th century. The "Hajji
Dawud" steamers regularly called at Smyrna. Time elapsed from Aleppo to
Smyrna was 24 days.
Another Alexandretta cover bears a 2 kopek of: the 1866 issue cancelled
at Beirut by the 783 rhomboid. On the reverse is the .circular Port
Alexandrette ( Type 3 ) date stamp. Evidently, the Alexandretta office
failed to cancel the stamp and&'thl .'eirut office noticed the oversight. The
month and the date are April, 1886.

A recent postmark discovery is a 15 para of the Romanov issue cancelled
at Alexandretta with a variation of Tchilinghirian Type 7 H, but the distance
between the top of the of the word." Agent .'" and the "' A I of Alexandre-
tte is 4mm, instead of'lmt. The ROPIT is.'In.an-serif letters, unlike the
letters in cancellation Type .7. '
to be continued.

by G. A. Russell
1. Chefoo to the Isle of EI h 1903, bearing a 10 kop Russian stamp over-
printed in red-for China,: with:Russian cancellation for Chefoo in black.
Alongside the Russian stampilis a Ic Chinrsa Imperial stamp with-Chinese
postmark of Chefoo, Ap'riL 22, 1903. -The paver is backstzmped Peel (Isle
of man), May 16, 1903.

2. A registered letter from Shanghai to Wellington (New Zealand), May 25,
1903 and .bqAing,,one lo. oqtwo,2 kop and three:5 k6p Russian stamps
overprinted for China, Pos.tmarked..Shanghai in Russian (Type 493). Cover
bears two registered markings, one rubberstamped Shanghai, and the othor
a printed label in Russian. The: letter is marked Via Siberia and
carries the postmark of -P RT A R T, H.U UR'in Russian (Type 539). The
cover is backetamped at ,ellington on July. 29, 1903'

3. A printed business envelope, in Georgian and English. of a merchant in
P 0 T I, bearing a, 7 kop Russian stamp (Scott. #27),. mailed in 1881 to
Constantinople, with the stamp showing a blue postmark of.CONSTAITINOPLE
(a clearer example of which is on the back). It is surmised that the
aforementioned letter, was posted aboard a ship and cancelled on arrival
at Constantinople. .P -. T I. is in-Western Ge;orgia,- 135 miles. north of
Batum, Poti is a port on.:Black Sea at the mouth of the Rion rive. A
railway terminus in the 1880s ,lying in an unhealthy swampy area,
Current population in not known, but in 1939 it was 16,000. It is like-
wise .unknown whether Poti had :its own -Post- Off ice and canceller when this
letter was sent in 1881,,:

4. A cover from Khabaravsk, Far Eastern Republic,. situated 500 miles north
of Vladivostok, bearing 10 k.-overprint on 3- rubles (Scott #10), cancel-
led February 4, 1921 and addressed to Cheb in.-Czecho Slovakia. It shows

Page 14 No. 62

an oval transit postmark "M 0 S K VA -E K S P E D I T I A", April
1921. Pappadopule's Handbook "Issues of Russia-in-Asia" (Shanghai,
1923) states that only 2000 of Scott #10 were issued PERFFC/LTED, where-
as of the same stamp IMERFCRATE (Scott #26) 100,044 were issued.

5. Armenia to Tauris, Persia, September 9, 1923 bearing two overprinted
Armenian stamps (Scott Nos. 327 and 329). Cover arrived at Tauris
on September 27, 1923.

6. A registered cover from K A S H.G A R bearing three 10k/7k Rovanovs,
plus 2 and 3 kop regular stamps, all with Russian postmark of Kashgar,
October 26, 1917. There is also the Chinese postmark Yangliutsing, and
a rubber-stamped legend in purple giving the name and address (Russian)
of the Kashgar sender. The cover also has a Russian registered label
of Kashgar.

7. A registered cover from Sharasume, Mongolia, October 18, 1919, franked
with a pair of 1 ruble, imperforate Russian stamps, plus a A cent and
5 cent stamps of Sinkiang (Chinese), all cancelled Sharasume in Russian.
Thi seems to suggest that stamps of both Sinkiang and Russia were in
concurrent use and were available at Sharasume in 1919. Cover bears
Sharasume registered label in Russian. There is also a postmark of
Peking and the postmark of W A I K U A N (or Foreign Business area
P. O.) where mail from Mongolia went for sorting and delivery. On the
cover, the pair of 1 ruble Russia stamps, is a purple postmark of Japan
(town name at top unreadable) and I. J. P. 0. in the lower segment.

x xx
"x x
x La rge selection Accumulation of 35 years Russia, Border States, x
x Lithuania, Latvia and many other countries. x
x x
"x Also specialized stock of AIRIMAILS and TOPICALS, U.N., Rotary, U.P.U.,x
x Refugee, Europa, Olympics, etc., etc. x
"x Please write for details and/or approvals. x
x x
x S. Serebrakian, Inc. P. 0. Box 44l Monroe, New York x
X MC-X"XXCxyXXXXXX:1 XXXYXXXXXXXxx 'xxy--::xyx;x_- X :xxx: XXXXXXxxxxxxxxx:xxx-:X: :C XXXXXX
o 0
o 0
o For COVERS,postcards, ENTIRES, stamps, SEALS, revenues, VIGNETTES, o
o reply coupons, MONEY CREERS, bank notes, just everything from BALTIC o
o AREA, especially LATVIA. All time stamplessto recent. o
o Andrew PETREVICS 67 Borden Avenue P E RR Y, 'New York. a
000000000000000000OOOco000000O O000000c0000000000000ooooooo 000 00000o00oO

No. 62 Page 15

Ist Period. 1848-1863
Notes based on recent research
by 0. A. Faberge
Survey of catalogues and various literature discussing stamped envelopes
of Russian Empire, and the study of the article published by R. Sklarevski in
No. 59 and 61 of our journal, now gives me a chance to thank him for his ef-
fort, In this way, the somewhat scarce, specialized literature, will now be
available to the collectors interested,in entire.

The subject of Russian stamped envelopes is not only very interesting
but is also very difficult, especially the first period which has not been
fully studied. The first issues, may be considered as mysterious, due to the
fact that much of the information relating to these issues is either not co-
vered in the literature ;or what ,is, listed in, catalogues has occasional errors.
these reasons give me-an, incentive to write this article and thus hoping
that it will produce an impulse to others for, a further study of this classic
A great deal about these issues is certainly well known to collectors,
but some facts which I was able to uncover arq. in contradiction to present
accepted catalogue listings'., I hope that these 'facts will encourage the col-
lectors to examine their:collections anew, thus,;helping to establish a more
accurate classification.

For preparation of stamped envelopes of this lengthy period, paper of
various types was .used. We find pure white paper as. well as lightly toned
paper. The latter are known in yellowish, brownish, grayish and bluish shades.
The quality varies- from smooth to rough and.from soft to hard, either of pure
or of grained composition. Quite often the. pulp was not completely cleaned
and the envelopes prepared from resultant paper contain somewhat large grains,
which hinder one from getting the exact thickness of the paper. It will be
hardly possible to make a chronological table of all the types of papers, which
were used in manufacture of envelopes, because th6 envelopes made from various
types of paper are found with cancellations bearing different year dates. Some
of the date periods found are so long, that it is almost impossible to make
chronological listing based on dates found on envelopes. The only conclusion
one can make is that apparently at first thick, soft and rough paper was used
and that it gradually changed to thin, hard and smooth. Nothwithstanding the
above we can safely establish that thick paper was still used in sixties. For
example, 1 know of a 20 kop envelope, "onthick paper with a circular KISHENEV
cancellation, in bluish green, dated November 11, 1870. The envelopes of this
type were issued in 1855, The other stamped envelope known to me, is likewise
on thick, but smoother paper, cancelled RCSTOV, July 6, 1866. This is quite
understandable, since the envelope (Ascher No. 4c). belongs to 1862 issue.

The establishment of the thickness of paper used during the three (3)
main periods is somewhat simpler. I have measured the thicknesses of great
many of envelopes and therefore am able to gove results of my work.

Page 16 No. 62


"0 A. F6SERG-E

*-WATERm. 3
0' p.s IVO 3 P 4la

P-- C H .3

SWATERM. 3 5 p

WATERM 2 ?.. 5 m 6 l. 7 ,s. 8
t 1,+ I


,os. 5 ra.6o.7 s8

STAMMP ED 4ve LoPEs O F 1MtERlfAL Russila it Pee. 8ai'L -' 3
o-. 4 FfS BERGI.'

". :7. '.

fd 9 d

F. <,o. F. )lOa-.

The thickness of ROPSHA paper, with watermark I, from which were manufac-
tured envelopes of the 1st issue (10, 20 and 30 kop.) varies considerably. With
the material on hand I was able obtain measurements varying from 0.07 to 0.17
millimeters. Figure 1, illustrates uncut and unfolded sheet of Ropsha paper,
with clearly visible watermark (for comparison see Fig. 2). This sheet
measures 240 to 245 x 210m. and the thickness varies from 0.13 to 0.17mm.

The thickness of the Ropsha paper with watermark II varies between 0.065
to 0.105mm.

Envelopes of later issues, manufactured from the paper furnished by
Ekspeditsia Zagotovlenia Gosudarstvenykh Bumag, with Watermark III, is 3:nown
to me with thicknesses which vary from 0,085 to 0.125mn.

When considering the aforementioned papers with three different water-
marks and the groups of issues one may prepare the following table:

I. roopsha paper with watermark I

Sa. Eagle with wide tail 0.11 to 0.15mm.
b. Eagle with narrow tail 0.09 to 0.17mm.
c. Similar to "b", except on thinner paper (1855) 0.07 to 0.1lmm.

II. Ropsha paper with watermark II

a. Eagle with narrow tail 0.065 to 0.10mm.

III. E. Z. G. B. Paper with watermark III

A. Eagle with narrow tail 0.085 to 0.125mm.


We distinguish three watermarlts, which completely cover the paper of
the envelopes of the first period.

Watermark I (Figures 1 and 2)

Large Imperial Eagle with posthorns, enclosed in a horizontal rectangle
measuring approximately 142x113rm. The length of posthorns is approximately
113mm., and the background in its length of. lOcm. has approximately 9- squares.

Watermark II (Figures 3 and 37a)

New Imperial Eagle of smaller size with post horns enclosed in horizontal
approximately lll:79mm. oval. The oval is enclosed in 131x86mm. slightly in-
clined rectangle (parallelogram). The length of post horns is 79mm. and the
background consists of 81 squares in the length of WOcm.

Watermark III (Figure 4)

Eagle similar to one on watermark II, enclosed in a horizontal oval measu-
ring appro:;iately 108x77mm, which in turn is inside of a rectangle approdima-
tely 128:33mm. The length of post horns, which are more rounded than in

No. 62 Page 17

Watermark II is approximately 71mm., and the background has approximately
9 squares in length of 10cm.


The collector who is unable to specialize in this branch either does not
notice or disregards the positions of the watermarks, while on the other hand
serious collector must distinguish all 8 positions of the watermarks. Fig. 5
illustrates schematicaly, without post horns, positions of the eagle visible
through light, from the address side. The important portions of the water-
mark to see are the positions of the scept'(e(C) and of the orb (D).

Position 1 Normal Watermark left right
2 Reversed Watermark right left
3 Reversed Inverted Watermark right left
4 Inverted Watermark left right
5 Normal, lying on left side bottom top *1
6 Reversed, lying on left.side ,top bottom *1
7 Normal, lying 0on right side, .top bottom *2
8 Reversed, lying on right side' bottom top *2

*1 For (C) and (D) Crown on the'-left.-
*2 For (C) and (D) Crown on the right,

Positions 1 and 2 can be ,ruly considered as standard, although entire
are known to me which exist only with one of these two positions. Other po-
sitions, namely 3 to 8, must be considered as rare and certain combinations
of envelopes and watermarks are greatest rarities.

Envelopes in some sizes are found with shifted watermark (rare), and
Prigara, in his book lists one small IQ kpp. envelope of 1863 with diagonal
watermark. I was able to establish that angle of inclination of the water-
mark on the aforementioned envelope is only 10 degrees (to the left) and
which we may consider as one having watermark of- Position 7, i.e. watermark
lying normally on the right side.


Positions of the watermark known to me on the envelopes of 1848 to 1863
are listed on the next page, Numbers in the Table are those of Dr. Ascher,
while the sizes are my own. (In order that the reader may use this table we
precede the Table with measurements, which actually do not appear in this
installment of'the article Editor.

Size a. 133 -142 x 107 112mm.
Size b. 141 1'45 113 116mm.
Size c. 142 145 x 82 86mm.
Size d. 132 137 x 84 86mm.
Size e. 112- 123 x.70 80mm.

Varieties in the Table indicated by (*) are those.reported to me by Mr.
Liphschutz, while those indicated by (0) are varieties of Dr. Ascher with
watermark inverted (Position 4), and which I have not seen.

Page 18 No. 62

Position of Watermark:
SKnife Size 2 .. 3. 4 .5 6 7 .

1848 (Wide tailed Eagle)

No, 1 10 hop. III a X 0
2a 20 kop. III a
2b 20 hop. III b X .
3a 30 -op. III b X X
3b 30 hop. III b X .

1848 (Narrow tailed Eagle)

No. 4a 10 kop. III a *
4b 10 kop. 1848 1 III a X X X X X X X
4c 10 hop. 1862 IV d X
5a 20 !oc. III a X X
5b 20 kop. III a X X X
5c 20 kop. 1855 III b X X X
6 30 lop. III b X X

1861 7a 10 l op. III a X X X
7b 10 kop. 1862 IV c X X
7c 10 kop. 1F62 V d X 0
7d 10 kop. 1862 IV d X X X X
7Fa 10 kop. Wide Tail Eagle III a
8a 20 k0t. III b X 0
8b 20 kop. III b X X .
8Fa 20 kop. Wide Tail Eagle III b
* 9 38 kop. III b X X X.

1863 10a 10 kop. II a x
10b 10 kop. IV e X X X X X
11 .20 kop. III b X
11F 30 kop. Wide Tail Eagle III b X X

(In order to simplify the use of this T A B L E we are describin- the
envelope knives in this installment. It will again appear in its proper order
in the article Editor).

Knife I All edges of the envelopesare straight, and angles are sharp.
Knife 7 All edges of the envelopes are straight, all inside .angles are
rounded. (Inside angles are those between the four corners of
the envelope, when the envelope is open Editor.)
Knife III- Top and bottom portions of the envelope have straight edges. The
horizontally inclined edZes of the sides of the envelope .re
slightly curved.
III Top and bottom portions of the envelopes are without angles.
IIIa- Unlice III, the edges have angles.
Knife IV All edges are straight, angles (inside) in top and bottom portions
of the envelope.
Knife V All edges are concave, angles as in Type IV.

No. 62 Page 19

Em b o s e, d.S t am P (Wertstembel)

The embospings on envelopes of all denominations of the first period are
found on the ungummed 'flaps and exist in two major types.

Type I. Double headed eagle with wide tail
Type II. Double headed eagle with narrow tail

In his time, my late father, Agathon Karlovich Faberge found numerous'
variations in-the cliches of the aforementioned group. His collection
contained all of these types, namely:

10 kop. 26 varieties
20 kop. 17 varieties
30 kop. 15 varieties

I am happy to say that fortunately reproductions of these types still

Likewise, in group two (embossings with narrow tail), many variations in
cliche may be found, the best known of which, and the rarest, is the Ascher,
Type 1A.

Equal ity o f E m b o s s i ng

The clearness of the relief of the. hits terms s in the center of the
embossing partly depends on the care taken in printing and.partly on the
conditions of the cliche itself. During the first period, especially on the
envelopes with a eagle with wide tail, we find very deep and clear relief
impressions of the eagle, on which one may clearly distinguish even the
minute details.

Less clear details:-of the embossing are found more and more often on the
later printings. Also on the carelessly produced envelopes, such as Ascher
size "d" of 1862 and size "e" of 1863-one may find examples with clear-cut
embossing as well.as those with embossing non-existant or-completely; smooth.

The engine work of the background and the inscription, likewise are found
with various degrees of clearness. Examples with clear-cut details of the
complete embossing are found in all printings. On the other hand dirty and
rubbed embossings on which the details of embossing are difficult or complete-
ly impossible to distinguish are known to me of later printings only, which
are probably due.to more careless production.

We assume that the reason why some examples of the later printings are
found with clear-cut embossing is because probably some of the cliches were
not used as much as the others.

I know of a number of impressions prepared from damaged cliches, where
constant breaks and scratches may be seen. Envelopes with above stated
embossings are more or less scarce. (See Figures 6 to 9)

Page 20 No. 62


Envelopes with the embossing greatly displaced, up, down or to the side,
may also be considered as quite scarce. (Figure 10)

The variety with reversed embossing, listed by Prigara and S.F.A.
catalogue, was never seen by me, but I know of one example of 30 kop envelope
with wide tailed eagle having a double impression (Figure 11). Unfortunately
I do not know whether envelopes of other denominations and printings with
double impreesion of the embossing exist.
to be continued


z z
z U K R A I N E z
S.. Z
z z
z All part, all time. The Worldls large stock -of stamps, entire, z
z z
z covers, money transfer cards, etc. Also wanted some material and z
z z
z Ukrainian paper money, officials and locals. z
z z
z John Bulat 141 Elm Street Yonkers, New York z

O 0
0 STAMPS Singles (m-u) #1-2400, pairs, blocks to (25) and covers. 0
o STATES As Batum, Transcaucasian Republic, Far Eastern Rep., Siberia. o
0 OCCUPATIONS Latvia, Lithuania, Finnish, Crete, Mountain Rep., etc. 0
o FOREIGN OFF. China, Turkey. Airs including Consulars. Postal o
0 Stationery (early), Covers including stampless. Many 0
o Duplicates and Specialties. Also literature, o
0 Will sell (above 26 v.lume.s) outright if reasonable 0
o offer is suggested. o
6 Telephone FU-29-227. 0
00000000000000 000000000000o
o Dr. LOUIS SCRCKIN #2600 So. J2ranklin-St. Philadelphia 48, Pa., U.S.A o

f, ., .'.: ..i- ., ! 1 ', 1' . .

$ I buy and exchange paper money. Kindly contact $
$. $
$' K. J A N SS 0 N $


No. 62 ragP 21


by Ma.- A. Prado


The author likes the stamps described in this article, However due to
the number of copies offered in the auctions and by private treaty, he has
some disbelief about the scarcity and quantity issued. Opinions of others
collectors in the field will be gladly appreciated. The author's statements
here are not final. (Many Consular Airmails offered recently are counter-
feits Editor)


The Dereluft Society, a German Concern, although under the control of
the Soviet Government, in 1922 operated the liason between Berlin and Moscow,
via Konigsberg. The payment of the airmail fee was as usual Russian stamps
were affixed in Moscow for letters sent to Berlin, while German stamps were
applied on letter from Berlin to Moscow. Soviet organizations and representa-
tives abroad sent letters and packets via the Russian Embassy in Berlin.
These mailings increased the expenses, and aiming to lower the costs of the
service Russian Ambassador Krestinsky introduced a tax, issuing on July 15,
1922, a set of air mail stamps by overprinting the Imperial Consular Tax


The stamps used for overprinting were the multicolor Imperial Consular
stamps of 10 kop., 50 kop., 2 rub. 25 kop. and the 3 rub. The wall printed
stamps are on unwatermarked paper and have a clear 13-- gauge line perforation.
The stamps are well centered and were issued in sheets of 25 (5x5). The inter-
laced background ha initial "Li I D"* in Russian (Ministerstvo Inostrnnykh
Del or the Ministry of Foreign Affairs) tinted in the lower tablet of the
stamp. The stamps are of two different sizes, namely:

31.8mm. x 70mm. -Rouble values
29.5mm. x 67.8mm.- Kopek values


Figure 1 reproduces the surcharge, where for convenience various dimen-
sions of the surcharge are indicated by a letter. The table which follows
indicates various lengths for each .portion of the surcharge, for each value.

S a b c. d bl b2 dl d2
12 marks 34.2 23 28 23.8 3.4 12.4 11.8 3.4
24 marks 33.8 23.4 27.8 24 3.2 12.4 12 3.2
120 marks 34 24 29.2 24.8 3. 13.2 13 3.2
600 marks 34.6 23 29.8 23.6 3.2 12.2 11.8 3.2
1200 marks 33.8 23.2 31.6 23.6 3.4 12.2 11.8 3.4.

Page 22 No. 62


The center line The initials R. S. F. S. R. have lengths of 33.5, 32.5 and
29mm. The most important features of the center line are letters "C" which
have different format and thickness. The Cts are either thick and open ",
thin and open or thick and nearly closed ".


All catalogues mention 3 different lengths of the center line and a
particular "C" for each length, however the 1955 edition of the Soviet Catalo-
gue mentions two kinds of "O61B for 33.5 length.

When observed through the microscope we can see a well defined typographed
impression, however a check with the quartz lamp brought some contradicting
results. Stamps with the same surcharge and of same origin showed two dif-
ferent colors, one dark red and other pale red.

According to Sanabria, 1948 typesetting was made in the following posit-
ions for each type:

1 1 3 3 2

1 1 3 1 2
The scarcest type is
3 1 3 1 2 Type 2 with "C" being thin
and open ".
3 1 3 1 2

1 1 3 1 2

I contacted xr. K. Adler regarding the scarcity of various stamps and
he kindly supplied the following information: -"90% of all the Consular
Airmail stamps are fraudulent. There were three (3) different kinds of
counterfeit surcharcharges on all values, all made.in Paris by the same
people, from the original type settings found in Riga. The only way to dis-
tinguish the good from the bad is in the SHIIE of the surcharge. Genuine-
surcharges when held against the light become invisible, while the Fraudulent
ones are still visible.".


H. L. Aronson in the article about the Consular Airmails,'published in
the "Russian American Philatelist" writes: "The exact number of each value
issued is unknown, but it appears to be limited; of the higher values of
6CO and 1200 marks, no more than 25 to 50 of each were issued". About one
year before H. D. S. Haverbeck in the "Aerophilatelist's News" writes "It is
believed that no more than a total 2C copies of each denomination were pre-
served unused by those interested in stamp collecting in the service of the
Deruluft Society and in the Russian Embassy. It is known that official
imitations of these stamps were prepared at a considerable later _dte by the
Postal Administration in I.oscow".

No. 62 Page 23


G. M. White in a citation from M. Champion givs in "The PostageStamps
of the Soviet Republics, 1917 1925" the quantities of stamps issued,

12, 24, 120, 600 and 1200M. (on 10k.) 75 to 100 stamps
12 and 24 Marks inverted 8 stamps
1200 on 50k. 10 to 20 stamps
1200 on 2 rub. 25 kop., 1200 on 3 rub. 30 to 40 stamps


Catalogdes and handbooks state that the sodmij were cancelled with inde-
lible pencil. This is confirmed by the Soviet Ctalgue. It also states
"pen and pencil". Robson Lowe, in the Catalogue of -he Stibbe Auction, lot
484, mentions 4 stamps in four separate pieces with bar cancellation. H.D S.
Haverbeck aids us, in saying that "the cancellation was a violet handstamp
with day month and year in one line". The "on cover" items are rare because,
in most of the cases, they were destroyed upon arrival.,


The study of auction catalogues and contacts with other collectors and
dealers leaves me with a deep concern as to the number of stamps issued. In
recent years more than 100 pieces and some errors at very high prices made
their appearances on the market. In July 1961, when I was in N.Y., a dealer
showed me some values of the Consulars in blocks of four. If we count the
number of complete sets in the collections of various collectors around the
world, all claiming to have genuine stamps, we arrive at a very peculiar
situation. Either the number of stamps issue is incorrect or there are many
.forgeries in'some albums in place of genuine ones.


I have in my collection two types of expertization marks, one of the
Soviet Philatelic Association in black, and the other resembling a Chinese
letter repeated twice.- I would appreciate if.other collectors having the afore-
mentioned markings on Consulars in their possession advice me if the stamps so
marked are genuine. (The marking described above as "a Chinese letter repeated
twice" is probably Russian letter "zh ornamented" which is the marking of Mr.
Jemtschoujin Editor).

VII .C <0 N C L U'S I 0 N.S.

Examining the data in Sections I to VII, I have' arrived at the following
.method of classifying this set:
1 Stamps issued by the Soviet Embassy in Berlin for accounting purposes
and used on mail sent to Russia.
2 Favour issue, prepared by the Embassy for friends and philatelists,
after orders came from Moscow to stop the issue and stop using these
3 The "Special" issue prepared by the Soviet Philatelic Association.
(See Paragraph IV)
Forged printing made in Paris, using the original typesets found i Rigg,

Page 24 No.62



In this article we have assembled all of the data that I have gathered in
various publications, my own experiences in collecting this issue, and the data
from other collectors in this field. I would also like to thank L'. Kurt Adler
and Dr. G. B. Salisbury for all the help they gave me. Other collectors are
invited to comment on this article, and perhaps we will then be able to clear
this controversial issue.


ninkus Cat. of 1961. Cat. de la Foste Aerienne of 1937 by T. Champion.
Lichel Cat. of 1961. Russian American Philatelist, Volumes 1 to 4.
Soviet Cats. of 1923 and 1955.
Aerophilatelists News, Vol. VI, No. 15 & Vol. VII, No. 6 (Articlesby Haverbeck)
The Postage Stamps of Soviet Republics, 1917/1925 by G. r]. White.
European Notes by Rene Van Rompay in Stamps, April 10, 1955.

STool for specialists ..........


. For crrefalJ measurement of stamps, overprints, postmarks, etc....This

Scalibrated gauge is accurately mar: d with- mr.. spaces...Can be used

S(it or without magnifying class) to measure even to tenths of a

.lliriter.. .Gage is enr.avd on si-irk and expansion proof

*. T-err.nent rlexr 1cass.


* 350 0,,TD; ;FE:UE CHICAGO 14, I TI .o S
. . .. ... . . ..j... L . . .. ..j .'... .

Oc' OCC0OOC000 OOOOODOOOO003 DOOOC3oooCo C OOOOOO CDo C000 0 00C O 000

C 0
o T n u T o u v a Scott ## 35 and 3 .: I : T r U S D o

o Chas. Hugo Doyle Ladycliff Collem o
o o
o Highland Falls, New Yok o

No. 62 Pag 25

Sby Kurt Adler K. Schmidt
(Continued from No. 61)

---.------- -------------------------------------------------------i-0-------------
E x p la na t i on of the abbreviations used in the table

A. Serial number and printers name. F. Color or colors of advertisements.
B. Serial number on the front. G. Name of the police officer or the
C. Date of the police permit'. precinct issuing the pe-dit.
D. Place of Issuance.. H. Q"?7ity of the envelf.1; lesed.
E. Description & denomination of I. Eai'l.est postmark found on canceled
the stamp on the eir--lope. envelope.
M Postage stamp tyS,: K Entire Type. _
1. 1898, November. ? cp. Type of postage stamp, Series 1 5, SPB.
2. 1898, December. 7 kop. Type of entire, Series 5 -'123, different cities.
3. 1899, September. 5 %op. Type of entire, Series 1-8. 125&130, SPB & Moscow.


1 St. Petersburg 7"1 Blte 5000 9.11.98
2 -- St. Petc=sburg 7;i Blue 5000
3 21.10.98 St. Petcr; ur 7M Blus 5000
4 21.10.98 St. Pe rg 7M Blue 5000
5 2.11.98 St. -"; ;org 71 Blue & red 5000
5 2.11.98 St. Pc ter 'ibi g 7K Blue & red 5000
6 2.11.98 St. Pet-teburg 7K Blue & red 5000
S- 2.11.98 St. Feteraburg 7K Blue & red 5000 25.11.98
8 2.11.98 St. Fetcrsrburg 7K Blue & red 5000
10 24.11.98 St. fPe'sbrg 7K Blue 5000 7.12.98
11 24.11.98 St. Petaraburg 7K Blue 5000 9.12.98

13 3.12.98 St. Petersb'rg 7K Wine red 5000 13.12.98
14 3.12.98 St. Fatersurg 75 Wi4e red 5000
15 9.12.98 St. Petersburg 7K Blue 5000
16 9.12.98 St. Petoxsburg 7K Blue 5000 12.12.98
17 9.12.98 St. Petersburg 7K Wine red --
*18 3.12.98 St. Petersburg 7K Wine red 19.6.1900
19 3.12.98 St. Petersburg 7K Wine red -
20 9.12.98 St. Petersburg 7K Red --
21 9.12.98 St. Petersburg 7K Wine red --
22 9.12.98 St. Petersburg 7K Wine red --
23 4.12.98 Saratov 7K Blue --
24 16.12.98 Riga 7K Blue & red 27. 2.99 *
25 18.12.98 St. Petersburg 7K Wine red -
26 4.12.98 Moscow 7K Wine red 20. 1.99 *
27 15.12.98 Odessa 7K Purple --
28 4.12.98 Saratov 7K Pule --
29 19.12.98 St. PelFersburg 7 Purple --- 12. 1.99
30 19.12.98 St. Petersburg 7kc Pple --

Page 26 No. 62



31 -
32 18.12.99 St. Petersburg 7K Purple 18. 8.99 *
33 22.12.98 Kazan 7K Purple -

35 23.12.98 Sinferopol 7K Purple 14. 2.99 *
36 9. 1.99 Kharkov 7K Purple -
37 23.12.98 Saratov 7K Purple -
38 22.12.98 Saratov K Purple -
39 20. 1.99 St. Petersburg 7K Wine red -
40 14. 1.99 St. Petersburg 7K Wine red -
41 23.12.98 Odessa 7K Blue -
42 18. 1.99 St. Petersburg 7K Blue -
43 8. 1.98-(') Eoscow 7K Blue -
44 20. 1.99 Saratov 7K Blue -
45 22. 1.99 St. Petersburg 7K Blue -
46 8. 1.99 Rostov on Don 7K Blue -
47 8. 1.99c Rostov on Don 7K Blue -
48 8. 1.99 Rostor on Don 7K Blue -
49 -15. 1.Q8-()obscow 7K Blue 25. 3 99*
50 4. 2.99 St. Petersburg 7K Blue -
51 4. 2.99 Mosc o 7K Grey blue -

53 13. 2.99 'Riga 7K Blue & red -

*57 23. 2.99 St. Petersburg 7K Blue -

59 24. 2.99 Warsaw 7K Blue -

61 12. 2.99 I:CCC' 7K Blue

63 22. 2.99 Kharlov 7K Blue -

67 26. 3.99 St. Petersburg 7K Blue 8.11.1900

69 29. 1.99 Moscow 7K Blue & red -
70 10. 3.99 Rostov on Don 7k Blue -

72 24. 4.99 St. Petersburg 7K Blue -

75 16. 4.99 Kazan 7K Blue -

-- 79 -- Odessa 7k Blue & red Shan-- 20.11.99

82 -- Odessa 7K Blue & red Shan-- 2 .11.99

No. 62 Page 27

"A E C D E F G H I
.. 87 17. 4.99 Ufa 7K .. Blue -
89 29. 5.99 St. Petersburg 7K Blue -
90 29. 5.99 St. Petersburg ?7 Blue -

92 14.. 6.99 Warsaw 7K Blue -
93 20. 6.99 Simferopol 7K Blue Menchukov -

95 24. 6.99 Kiev. 7K Wine & red -
Blue .
*97 7. 7.99 Saratov 7K Blue 20.11.99
-98 24. 7.99 Moscow 7K Blue -
99 5. 5.99 Moscow 7K Blue. Trepov -
1 28. 8.99 St. Petersburg 5K* Blue Menchukov -
2 28. 8.99 St. Petersburg 5K* Blue Menchukov 2. 4.1900*
102 26. 8.99 Riga 7K Blue Pashkievich -
103 25.10.99 Warsaw 7K Blue Pashkievich -
104 19.10.99 Warsaw 7K Blue Pachkievich 27.12.99*

"- 108 -------- Odessa 7K Dark blue & Diedricha 3. 6.1900
109 23.11.99 St. Petersburg 7K Blue Mechukov
3 14.12.99 St. Petersburg 5K Blue 3000
5 21.12.99 Moscow 5K Blue Rudnev -
112 ----- Odessa 7K Blue & red DiedrichS
113 10. 1.00 St. Petersburg 7K Blue -
114 10. 2.00 Moscow 7K Dark Blue Trepov -
115 25. 1.00 Moscow 7K Dark blue Trepov -
8 3.12.99 Moscow ..5K Dark blue Trepov Additions to
6 15. 3.00 Moscow 5K Dark blue Trepov Column "F".

120 83 17.10.00 St. P3tersburg 7K Red/d. blue Brinkenhoff 5000 inside red/
120 84 17.10.00 St. Petersburg 7K Red/d. blue Brinkenhoff 5000 green (both)

121 a- .--- Kazan Green. ,. 5000
121 715.12.00 St. Pstersburg 5K Red/d. blue Brinkenhoff 3000
122 83 23.12.00 St. Petersburg 7K: Red/d. blue Brinkenhoff 5000 inside red/
122 84 23.12.00 St. Petersburg 7K Red/i. blue Brinkenhoff'5000 inside red/

123 116 7. 3.01 Warsaw 7 Dark blue Minlukhineen
124 4 26. 3.01 St. Petersburg 5K Red & blue Brinkenhoff 3600
125 10.4.01 St. Petersburg 5K Red & green Brinkenhoff 3000

130 10.11.01 St. Petersburg 5K Green Astapov 3000
Kazan 7K Lt. purple Panfilov
I I I St. Petersburg 7K Blue "-- Mailed Tiflls
00000000000000000000000000 18. 1.99
Page 28 N o. 62


by I. Braunstein

Every collector knows this issue, which came out during the German occu-
pation of Poland (War of 1914-18). But no-one, until now, could establish the
official status of these stamps and their classification is still full of con-
fusion and contradictions. At the same time, many issues of those stamps were
counterfeited, either completely or by means of false overprints on genuine

The lack of documentation often discourages collectors, which in these
cases just fill the empty spaces in the album; but when such collections get
i-to the hands of specialists, most of the stamps run the risk of being reject-
ed either because they are forgeries or because they are found to belong to
other issues.

After studying these stamps in all details and using various documents
pertaining to this period, we are going to:try to bring a little clearness
into these issues and make a lo-Ical classification of these stamps.


During World Uar I, German troops occupied Poland. The Field Post
followed the army closely and assumed tho forwarding of the mail to the large
cities, but because it was so overloaded it could not service the needs of
non-military persons. Therefore, occupation authorities appointed from the
inhabitants of the City of 'arsat: the so called "KO KITET 0EY'ATELSKI MIASTI
WJIRSZ .Y! (I .O.T .1.)", which was entrusted with the duties, of receiving
letters, etc. from the German Field Post and delivering them to their desti-
nation. In order to cover the costs of this service, the aforementioned
Committee was authorized to issue local stamps, which circulated in Warsaw
an. surrounding areas, within a 30 kn. radius. All letters were to. be pre-
paid both with Occupation stamps and with the stamps issued by the Committee,
whereby, at first, the receivers of the letters paid for the latter charge.

At the end of October 1915, German authorities allowed the sale of these
stamps at the offices of the Committee and thus the local rate started to be
paid by the senders. Considering the previous statement, it appears that
these stamps are to :,nsidered as "postage due stamps"durino the 1st.
period from Septenb 1:: 23 to the end of October 1915, and as "postage stamps"
from the end of the Ist. period to the date of their withdrawal from circula-
tion, on October 1, 1916.

From the first days of its existence, the Committee endeavored to restore
normal postal service' within the country and therefore many of its decisions
were nade a little too hastily. The Committee originally intended to apply
the following rates: 5gr. for ordinary letter or postcard, lOgr. for heavier
letters and 20gr. for special delivery. The Committee did not accept registor-
ed letters and the addressee received a notification to report at the German
Field Post Office, where such letters were handed out to him. As far as the
rates for sending newspapers and printed matter are.concerned, they were
entirely forgotten.

No. 62 Page 29


The monetary unit of Poland, which was part of Russia before German
Occupation was the ruble, which was divided into 100 kopeks. The exchange
from Russian to Polish currency was made at the rate of 1- kop. for 1 grosh,
whereby *- kop. existed in theory, but not in practice, and was not in cir-
culation. Therefore from the first days of the Local Post, the Committee
saw that it was impossible for any one to pay 2i kop. for a 5 gr. stamp, and
with the permission from the German authorities a new rate of 6gr. for a
letter up to 25 grams in weight was established and a rate of 2gr. for
printed matter was introduced.

Because, the first issue did not include a 2gr. stamps, newspapers, etc.
were prepaid with diagonally cut halves of 5 or 6gr. stamps, for which the
buyer paid only 2 groshen.

Without waiting for German authorization, the Committee printed 2000
of the two stamps, namely 5gr. dark green on cream background and 1Ogr. dark
brown on buff. The aforementioned two stamps must be considered as prepared
but not issued, since the German authorities prohibited this issue from being
printed without their authorization. A few months later a negligible quanti-
ty of the previously mentioned stamps slipped out unnoticed, and were sold
overprinted 6 groszy ".

The stamps were officially placed on sale on September 23, 1915, and the
Committee exclusively assumed the forwarding of foreign mail. Mail from the
interior was accepted for delivery only after October 21, 1915. As it was
stated before, letters had to be prepaid with German Occupation stamps, to
which were added the Committee stamps and the seal bECZENE OPLACONE "
or paid for delivery.


The stamps are listed in chronological order aid ith our own numbers.
Likewise below each regularly issued stamps we list and describe separately
varieties, forgeries and cancellations.

Not issued stamps

A.-5gr. dark green on cream bac-ground
B. 10gr. dark brown on buff

S,. Stamps not issued without overprints

"C. 5gr. light green on yellow gray background (November 1915)
D. 5,r. green on buff (January 10, 1916).

Issue placed on sale on September 23, 19125

1. 5gr. blue black on brownish or greenish background
2. 5gr. same as No. 1, but uverprinted 6 groszy," without frame (on No. 1)
S3. 5gr. olive green on yellcj csh background
4. 5gr. same as No. 3, but overprinted 6 groszy without frame (on No. 3)
5.10gr. red with yellowish, light brown or beige background

Page 30 o. 62

Issue of September j), 1915

6. 5gr. blue black or olive green overprinted "6 groszy",framed (On Nos. 1 & 3

Issue of October 30, 1915

7. 5gr. blue black on brownish or greenish background, with typographical
overprint "6" (rounded figures)

Issue of Iovember 10, 1915

". 10lr. red (No. 5) with typographic overprint "2" (large)

Issue of November 22, 1915

9. 57r. green on yellowish or yellow pink background (C) and
lithographic overprint "3" (small)

Issue of December 18, 1915

10. 10Or. red (No. 5) with l.tho-raphic overprint "2" (small)

Issue_ of February 2 191

11. 1Ogr. red (No. -) w.th overprint "2 gr," between two rosettes
12. 5gr. green on -'ff (D) with overprint "6 gr." between two rosettes


AUG UST 1915

Two denominations were ordered for that date, and the. two designs used
were kept without alterations during the whole period of use of these stamps.
By order from the Comumttee, designs were created by Prof.E. Troyanovdy and
the lithoTraphic wr:k w: done by J.' Cotty. Two denominrtiens in different
colors and on ba..:-...-;r.. of various shades, but on the same design, namely
5 gr. siren hold:' :-- od above her head (the Warsaw coat of arns) and the
1C gr. Polish eal:- with a crowt, were issued.

Unissued stanrs-s 5 "r. (A) 10 Pr. (B)

A I 5 gr. dark green on crean background. Perf. 11U
A II 5 gr. gray green or oli-ve on buff background. Perforated 11--
A III 5 gr. dark green on cream, Imperforate and ungummed.

SIl 1 0 g r d a r k b r o w n o n ; f f b a c g r o u n d P e r f 1 1 -'
E II 10 -r. dark broin on cream background. Perforated 11
EIII 10 gr. dark brown on buff background. Imperforate

As the authorization to open the Local Post was not received until
September 23, 1915, the aforementioned stamps were not released for use.
Nevertheless, a few months later, a few specimens (rare) of this issue were
released, seemingly because of carelessness. The total printing of these
two denominations was approximately 2000 stamps.

"p o. 62 Page 31


Unissued stamps "A" and "B" are found perforated and imperforate, in
different colors without background on white or gray paper, almost cardboard.


Essays exist in various shades for both denominations, with colored
background, both perforated and imperforate.

First Official Issue -Sept. 22. 1915

1. 5 gr. blue black on brownish background. Perforated 111-
la. 5 gr. blue black on greenish background. Perforated 11

The two aforementioned stamps are found cut in half, vertically or dia-
gonally, for use on newspapers and printed matter. They are also encountered
with private perforations.

3. 5 gr. olive green on yellowish background. Perforated 11-
3a. 5 gr. olive green on buff. Perforated 11
3b. 5 gr. olive green on yellowish or buff background. Imperforate

The total quantity of Nos. 1 to 3 issued is rather difficult to determine.
Nevertheless, on the basis of some date given by the Local Post, approximately
10,000 stamps are thought to have been sold at the post offices- Approximately
40,000 stamps received the overprint "6 groszy" without frame and approximately
60,000 the overprint "6 groszy" with frame.

5. 10 gr. darkred on buff. Perforated ll--
5a. 10 gr. anilinered on yellow. Perforated .U-
5b. 10 gr. mat red on light buff. Perforated 11-
5c. 10 gr. brilliant red on light yellow. Perf orated li-
5d. 10 gr. dark red on yellowish green (slightly bluish paper). Perf. 11
5e. Nos. 5b, 5c, and 5d Imperforate.
5f. Without vertical perforations.
5 W. Without background, perforated and imperforate.

The 10 gr. stamp had si; printings, and were printed until July 1916.
They were in use int-l ctcber 1, 1916. The total quantity of the aforemen-
tioned stamps was 1,660,CO0, of which approximately 282,000 went through the
mails, and approximately 93,000 received various overprints (See Nos. 8, 10
and 11 listed on page 31). The rest of the stamps were used as revenues on
various documents issued by the police department. The stamps were usually
used in pairs on documents, with a round cancellation on which there is a
number of the Commissariate of Police.

On the day of the opening of the post office, the post.office had stamps
of 5 gr. blue black and 5 gr. olive green and 10 gr. red, but as;I said pre-
viously it was necessary to h.' -e 6 gr. for ordinary letters and 2 gr. for
newspapers, therefore an ois::' :int of "6 groszy" was prepared immediately.
In some cases, the postal clx:_s forgot to apply this overprint on 5 gr.
stamps, but the purchaser still had to-pay 6 gr. for the 5 gr. stamp.

Page 32 No. 62

Thus letters can be found with 5 Cr. stamps Nos.l and 3 without overprint,
but they must be cancelled before October 21, 1915, and of course, have the
additional marking "1USCZEITE OPLACO:1.".

IV.ith the exception of usage described in previous paragraph, we must
consider stamps No. 1 and 3 as stamps not put officially in circulation
wiithout overprint.
to be continued

by kelvin Kessler
S U P P L Er : :T t o Pa r t I

Notes on the Winans Covers. See Journal No. 61, Entry 'o. 3, pa'es 13-14.

Following publication of Part I, I received information about two other
Winans covers. One is described in this supplement and the other in the body
of Part II below in association with the Josiah Pierce correspondence.

The.foded letter, owned by !:ortimer Ieinkin of New Yorl: City, is franked
with two U. S. 1851 one cent blues, Type IV, and a three cent dt'l red (Scott's
los.9 and 11, respectively) to .g2:e up the 5 cent U. S. internal-rate for the
overseas mail. There are a number of manuscript numeral.mar':inss, but it is
d.Lficult to identify when they are applied. In all probability, they have
sorr.thing to do with additional postage payments, because' the 5 cent prepaid
postage the internal rate for mail to Russia in the 18501s is most unusual
and should have been more.

The folded letter is addressed to WM. L. Winans, Eso., -e::a-ndrofsky H.
K. Works, near St. Petersburg. ., I take to mean is "Iis majesty's"
1The lette-, written sometime before. April 13, 1853, was sent from Philadelphia
(cancellation and the date are indistinct). On the back of the letter is the
familiar black circular "BC03TO Br Fkt" (British Packet),' dated April 13; an
rwanc-e yellow London transit marking dated April 25; and the red double-ringe'
transit marking "Seebrief per England und 'AachenR, dated 26-4 (A-pril 26) with
letter j3. The letter was received by Winans on Miay 12, 1353, or thereabouts
acccrdirn to his notation.

The letter was written by I. Harrison, an associate or partner of the
IWinanses in their work in St. Petersburg (Harrison's name appears on the
Pierce cover described in Part II). Briefly, the letter mentions that Harrison
can not understand why the count obliged Winans to send all the "young drafts-
men into the shop to work". The allusion is to the young Russians who were
trained as draftsmen and using them as such would be more beneficial to the
government. Harrison, in this connection, asks Winans: "Don't you think you
could put this matter before his Excy (Excellency) so as to have the good ones
sent back to the Drawing DeptV" Harrison is pleased with the relations that
Vinans has with the Chief Director. From the letter it also seems that Winans
and Harrison had some interest for either to apply for the vice- consulship.

:'c. 62 Page 33

The historic letter gives some indication of the faith the'Russians had
in the Americans who helped guide the development of Russian railroads. Fur-
ther discussion about the relations between the Winans and the Russian
officials is outside the scope of this study. Suffice it is to say, that
here is an example of what philatelic interest can uncover in Russian-U.S.
history. Probably very few people are aware of the Winanss efforts in W
Russia -- a small but significant aspect of Russia's industrial and economic
development in the nineteenth century.

10. U.S. Postal Express Service (1919)

The Postal Express Sevice was the unit designated by the Army in July,
1918 to handle the AEF mail. Up until June 1, 1918, the overseas postal ser-
vice was under the Post Office Department. On that date, the military autho-
rities assumed responsibility for all mail incoming to U. S. units overseas.
Transfer of the activity was completed by July 1, 1918.

The Postal E:.press Service at its peak required 4,10/ men to handle mail
delivery through 140 Army post offices and on eighteen trains equipped for
railway mail service. *

The covers described below were dispatched from Postal Express Service
units from Tiflis in Georgia, Russia, and from a field unit, location unknown.


The cover has a blacl- oval (double) postmark, which reads "POSTAL
EXIPESS SERVICE, with No. 975 at the top, dated 15 Jul(y) 1919, and measuring
30.5mm. in diameter.

The legal size envelope has a corner card reading ."American Relief Ad-
ministration". The'cover is addressed to Lt. Col. Wylie T. Conway, Washington
D. C. The censoring officer, Col. H. D. Mitchell, Inf., sent the letter and
manuscript censored it with' notation "Officer's mail".

Cover "b"

This cover is addressed to New Jersey. It has a black oval postmark,
similar in design and of the same size as No. na", olxept it ha' No. 875 in-
stead of 975. The cover is dated 22 Ap(ril) 1919 and has a bar below the date.

"* Letter to Xenophon P.-Smith, Librarian of the Post Office Department,
dated 1 March 1961. The cover has a square magenta C "Passed by: Sase Censor, A.E. F.", Censored by E. P. Peterzin, C. E. R.
( Corps of Engineers, Res.).

The corner card reads "American Commission to Negotiate Peace" -and a
manuscript notation "Russian Field Party",

Page 34 No. 62


C C.' V F T

A collateral collection to U. S. or Russian covers would be the numbered
post offices of the U. S.'Postal Express Service, or of the one from Tiflis
is especially interesting because it indicates that a U. 5, detachment was
there after the war, similar to the British detachments in the Caucasus and
elsewhere in Russia ( See the conclusions). Information on the Postal Ex-
press Services, in addition to those mentioned earlier, are H. A. Coleman's
"Uorld War Mail", in Weekly Philatelic Gossip (April 2'j, 1934), and William
L. Kenyon's nSoldiers' Mail", in the American Legion iLonthly (May, 1936).

It is hoped that a subsequent article may be written detailing the various
U. S. postal cancellations and other foreign troop postal services in Russia
during and after World !War I. A full study of these would bring together
much information not coordinated to my knowledge and would give some insight
how the posts operated under conditions where units were often on the move.

11. Another type of U. S. suspended iail Notice (1920)

Description of the cover

This cover originated in Zhitomir, has Zhitomir registry label and is
dated 7/9 20 (September 7, 1920), and is addressed to Ivew Yor:. Since the
address on the front of the cover was insufficient it'has a parking "Address
Insufficient Returned to Writer. .New York, N. Y. -I. S." An additional
post office label-from the Post Office in New York, reacs Return to sender
for the reason that service is suspended. There are no means available for
transmission of the article to destination." The obverse. has a 14 kop. Arms
stamp Scottts No. 80 and nine cancellations, three in Russian (two in
distinct) and 6 U. S., ranging in date from September 23 to November 1, 1920.

C 0 :" I E E T

Other covers examined had similar suspension of mail notations. rany of
these date from the immediate post war period and into the Civil War period.
These covers are not e::cessively rare, but they are becoming harder to find.
An interesting study night be of the various suspended mail markings, insuf-
ficient address, and thoZs returned to the senders in Yussia and U. S. (See
-.o. 6). The stamps of the 1909-12 issue shows late usage.

It is a apropos to mention here a cover that Dr. Salisbury has with the
sane suspended mail notice described above. The front of this particular
cover has a registered arr-, without adhesives front GOI.EL, Vog., dated
2S/4 22 (April 28, 1922), -r _-zsed to lew York. The diverse has a large
BPtrograd oval, dated /5/22 (::ay 4, 1922) and Uew York oval Registry Division
of June 3, 1922 and New York Station Registry, June 13, 1922. Typewritten
in French is the following inscription "Dans 1 office Internationalo de la
l'expedition de la Poste Centrale de F3trograd etait, dresse un acte concer-
nant l'affranchissement insuffisant. Chef la Section Internationale." (A
very unusual cover).

"No. 62. Page 35


12. U. S. Naval Censored Cover from Arkhangelak (1942)

This cover is franked with contemporary stamps amounting to 3 r. 30 k.

The stamps are cancelled with a straight line Arkhangel, USSR, in English.
The Russian stamps were cancelled by the U.S. Naval attache from the U. S.
Embassy in Moscow. The cover has a black circular "Passed by Naval Censor"
marking, and "U.S.N. Attache, American Embassy" with an'eagle embossed in
the center, in a blue double lined circle.
C 0 M ME N T

According to the owner of.the cover, the.captain of the SS City of Omaha
Swas Capt. Arthur H. Schultz, who sent tho letter to New York City. This ship
was operated by Lykes Brothers for the U.S. shipping administration. The
ship was one in a convoy of ships to Russia and had been bottled up or de-
tained at Archangel for over six months during 1942. The letter was mailed
from aboard the ship, frarxued with Russian stamps, and cancelled at the U.S.
Embassy by the US. Naval attache. No date is indicated. The cover is, in-
deed, unusual, and I suspect that there are not many of them around.

The aforementioned examples show a wide range of subject groupings,
which are by no means exhaustive. Other types of covers have been examined
which could fall into other categories and which would supplement some of the
covers discussed previously-, for example, covers originating :in Siberia with
transit through Japan or .China, with U.S. as destination. In Col. Prince's
collection is one. from'Kharbin Pristan, dated May 23 1919. This cover has
a Kobe, Japan transit marking of May 30. Other covers with stamps of Russian
Offices in China or Offices in Turkey might substantially have a plame in
the study of transit markings.
Another example would be U.S. mail deposited during World War I in for-
eign post offices for transmission to the U.S. postal units or detached ser-
vice and used their mail facilities. Mr. X. Smith in his letter refers to
this, quoting from H. A. Colemants article mentioned earlier: "Much mail
was posted in foreign post offices, when of course foreign stamp rates would
apply. Also much mail was posted in allied army offices, especially by
those troops brigaded in with the British. I may mention that -a member of
the Lakeside Hqspital Unit, the first of any of the U.S. army overseas, has
told me that he believes all of the mail sent out by this unit was posted
in British offices."

Of interest to us in this conAection was the British military post
office mail service in Murmansk and Archangel and other areas in iNorthern
Russia. This service, besides handling its own mail, handled all of the
allied mail (American, French, Italian and Jugoslavian) in Northern Russia.
The office designation was "British Army gail Service." The handstamp
used measured 27mm. for outer diameter and 17mm. for the inner one. The
cancellation reads "ARif PCOT OFFICE" and "PB." with a number indicating

Page 36 No. 62


location, date and time. For e:anmple "P3.1" was Murmansd, "P.B.2" was
Archangel, "P.lE11" was Soroka, "P.B.55" was Bereanik (on the Dvina River
and headquarters of the Dvina Allied Forces). Col. Prince knors of 15 of
them (one unidentified), ranging up to "P,B.99". These cancellations and
covers again illustrate how military post offices can form a fine subject
collection of especial interest to collectors of Russian material. In fact,
it would be hard to duplicate the set of conditions that existed in Russia
during and after World War I. The profitable study of such military covers
originating in Russia mi'ht be assigned to Rossica study group.

Earlier I alluded to correspondence of individuals in Eussia (1Whistler
and Uinans) which could add historical interest to the covers carrying letters
to them or from them. In this connection, I should like to mention that
both Generals Ulysses S. Grant and George B. icClellan of Civil War fame were
observers during the Crimean War. Pieces from their correspondence while in
Russia, if any exist, would be of decided philatelic interest as would be
that of other prominent Americans who lived or stayed in Russia.

Lastly, the question of finds or of possibility of uncovering U.S. early
and philatelically valuable covers and correspondence to individuals in
SRussia (Americans or Russians) or from Russia to U.S. is not too remote. A
case in point has been called to my attention during'the writing of this
pap and columnist of L:ekeelts i.eekly Stamp News. Yr. Ward informed me that sub-
stancial correspondence to Josiah Pierce in St. Petersburg during the 1850's
and 1860's was mentioned to him by Walter Scott, the son of the founder of
the Scott Stamp and Coin Company, who made the find. The find dates back
fifty or more years. I.r. Tard recalls that in this find there were 90 cent
varieties (presumably of the 1861 issue, Scottfs io. 72) as well as earlier
and later covers.

However, another cover of the Fierce correspondence has come to my atten-
tion and is owned by Er. Welvin Schuh of Worchester, Mass. .r. !ard believed
that it.would be difficult to locate the covers from this correspondence. A
descri tion of Yr. Schuhts cover is worth while, and knowledge of this addit-
ional Pierce cover helps toward reconstructing the pieces of correspondence.

The cover is addressed to "Josiah Pierce, Jr., Esc. care of Winans,
Harrison and Winans, St. Petersburg, Russia." Note that Uinans and Harrison
are mentioned, which c-:.--ests that Pierce had something to do with Winans'
railroad work in Russia. The stamps on the cover are two copies of U.S. 1C
cent 1857, Type V (Scott-' I:o. 33), and a 1 cent 1857, Type V (Scott's No. 24),
mi:ing the 21 cent prepaid rate. All stamps are cancelled with black gridiron.
On the back is the black Portland Me (Maine) American Packet cancellation,
dated April 13, 1961. This is an Exchange Cffice cancellation. Also there is
a double ringed red "Seebrief per England und Aachen ", dated 27 April (in
numerals, and letter B). There is a red manuscript "33" on the back of the
cover which :r. Schuh states refers to 33 kopeks to be collected(see below).

Mr. Schuh's notations "annlied to the cover description are of interest
regarding U.S, and Russian mail routing and rates for that period.

TNo. 62 Page 37


"lail to Russia at this time was normally sent by Prussian Closed mail from
New York. Since Portland was not an exchange office for Prussian Closed Mail
until May 1861, this letter was sent by British Open Mail. The letter was
carried by the Allan Line which sailed from Portland in the late fall, winter
and early spring and.from Quebec or Riviere du Loup:;at other times."
"21 cents prepaid postage to the British frontier is indicated on the
cover (5 cents U.S. internal rate, and 16 cents sea postage). Upon delivery
in Russia 33 kopeks was collected. This amounted to about 18 cents which was
distributed 8 cents to Great Britain, 8 cents to Prussia and 2 cents to
Russia ."
The rich field of Russian postal rates in connection with foreign mails
destined to Russia is one that needs more research.
The covers having combined U.S. and Russian interest are many and-certain-
ly are not limited or wanting in diversity. The study of them is rich and has
not been exploited to any degree of depth. A start has to be made somehwere,
and it is joped that this introductory study will serve that end.
Cover Owner References
Cover No. Cover No.
Dr, L. Snegireff 1. 4. lOb. Dr. G. Salisbury 6, 7, 11
Col. E. Prince 2, 3 (both), 9,-lOa William Rice 8
Author 5 Joseph Chudoba. 12
(cheek list of cover categories to follow in #63)

/ ///////////////////// /// /////////////////////////////////////////////////

/ For sale philatelic literature and' over 1000 photostats and many import- /
Sant articles on stamp, Kindly attach reply:coupons to all inquiries. I /
also have some complete sets of Russia, Ukraina Tridents, etc /

X W R I T E /
Bu i 1 d y our /
Phi 1 a t e.l i.c /
S. P R I C E
LL b r a r

I-. / L I S T-
/ Alb. A. Kronenberg "Clematis", 39 Kirchweg, Binnington, Switzerland /

Page 38 No. 62


translated from original of D. N. I.nchev by A. Cronin

Translated from the Bulgarian magazine "Philatelic Pregled" for December 1961.

One of the tasks of the Russian Command at the time of the Russo-Turkish
Her of 1877-78 (War of Liberation) was to ensure regular postal communications
between the troops at the front and their families and relatives. As the most
direct lines of communication 'crossed Rumania, the Russian EIilitary Command
signed a special convention at Bucharest on 2nd(14th) May 1877, registered
'6197. This convention, the reference to which we take from C. Mi.nescu's work
"History of Roumanian Posts" (Bucharest, 1916) organized the receipt and des-
patch of correspondence and parcels between the Rumanian postal stations and
the F.ussian field post offices, while the wrr was in progress.

In that, way, the work of the Russian Fieldpost organization began, devel-
oping widely in our country. To it is due also the creation of the independent
Bulgarian state Post, which commenced its work oh May 1, 1879.

-i, can now cucte some new information and documents on the wor`: of the
Russian fieldpost during the above-mentioned period of time. We have found
this data in the newspapers "Lulgarin" ("The Bulgarian", printed in Bulgarian
A.C.) and "Letuchii Voennyi Listok" ("The Military Leaflet' printed in
Russian A.C.), the latter oeing the official organ of the Russian Army on
active service in our country, as well as documents in thefcrm of an agreement,
preserved in the files of the Bulgarian Historical Archives, attached to
"Vasil Kolarov"-National Library in Sofia.-

It appeared that even from the start, the Russian Fieldpest offices
began to serve the local population. Also in connection with this, the news-
paper "Bulgarin" in its issue of Nov 5, 1877, noted -the following' in its news
items: "The Administration of Military- Posts and Telegraphs has announced
that the telegraphic stations at Pordim, Bokhct, Murvatlar, Ecldkhndiye, and
liedjsdiye are also open for private (i.e. civilian -A.C.) correspondence".
.The -firt two places, Pordi and Bokhot, are near Pleven and the remaining
three are in Dobrudja. The opening of these offices apparently took place
during October 1877, or evln earlier.

The Department of Pcst1- Services laid the foundation of the postal lines
of communication in the form of roads and routes. In order i2206 of Dec. 16,
1877, from the Chief of Staff, Lt. General Nepokoichikzki, published in the
69th issue of the "Letuchii Voennyi Listok" dated DEc. 22, 1877, the following
routes were listed:

1. From the city of Zimnicea (Rumania), via Svishtov, Tsarevets & Pavlovo
to 3yala.
2. From Pavlovo via Kochina, T'rnovo and Dryanovo to Gabrovo.
3. From Svishtov via Tsarev.::-, Corna Studena and B'lgarone to Pordim.
4. From Svishtov via the viLl:.z of Brigadir (Bragadiru in Rumania) and
Jiorthern Rumania to Russia.

No.- 62 Page 39

In the same issue of this newspaper, "Provisional Regulations for postal
routes in BulgaiaU are announced and signed by Prince: Cherkasski, Chief of
the civilian administration in Bulgaria. These regulations consist of 16
parts, laying down precisely the creation, aims and work of the administra-
tive postal communications. The relevant postal routes were also noted
shortly afterwards by the newspaper' "Bulgarin" in its issue 7,34 of Feb. 8, -
1878. '

It is interesting to note that to ensure the'prompt dispatch of the
newspaper "Letuchii Voennyi Listok" to the battlefield sectors and to Russia
itself, the editorship of the paper set up its own temporary postal service
from Svishtov, where the editorial office was at that time, for transmission
to Russe (Rustchuk), T'rnovo and Gorna Studena, and via Zimnicea on to Russia.

In its issue #10 of Nov 9, 1877, the Newspaper "Bulgarin" carried an
article "The Posts in Bulgaria", which we give hereunder in full:-
"In. addition to all other services and amenities which the Russian Govt.
has provided for us Bulgarians, it has now set up a postal service which will
operate in all liberated localities for transmission and for various catego-
ries of mail, as well as for forwarding of money9 packets, letters and news-
papers. Most important of all, 70 post offices with sufficient numbers of
officials and horses will be established. For such a. innovation in Bulgaria,
we are greatly indebted to the Commander-in-Chief of the territory, Prince
Cherkasski, who thought of this idea, and to K. G. Rodcheriko a cultured man,
experienced in this work, who is busying himself with the establishment of
these posts. In addition to. officials called from Russia, many Bulgarians
will be selected, who have had sufficient education to serve in this capacity,
and in general persons who can show they have the ability to serve."

For the transmission-of the Post along designated routes, recourse was
also made to the employment of private persons, who were Bulgarians. A
.typical example is the draft of an agreement which we found recently in the
"Vasil.Xolarov' National Library. The agreement is undated and consists of
nine points, It was concluded -apparently at the beginning of 1878 between
Anastas Hadji Kondev and Dimitr Hadji Yordanov and Co. on the one side
("Hadji" is the title given to a person who has made the pilgrimage to either
Jerusalem or Mecca A. C.), and his Excellency the Staff Commander of the
llth (Russian) Ccrpc:' on the other side. The latter Is name, however, we did
not find indicated. The text of the agreement is hereby given-word for word:

"I. (a). The undersigned, Messrs Anastas Hadji Kohilev, and Dimit'r Hadji
Yordanov & Co. bind themselves to carry te- military mail between
Yeni Zagra (Nova Zagora) and Elena. For this purpose, they are
obliged to maintain the following ihriber, of horses and personal at
the following localities:
Ib). Four pack horses at the village ofTv'rditsa,' and two men.
Sc);. Four pack horses at the locality of KIshlita in the Tvtrditsa
Pass, and two men.
2. Moreover, they are obliged to maintain two riding horses with one man at
Yeni Zagra, one steed at TV8rditsa, one steed at K'shlata, and these

Page 40 Page 62

horses are to be selected for the rapid passage of special adjutants who
will be proceeding with special despatches.
. A man, supervising all these undertakings, should be ready to go around
these three localities..
,. The undersigned, Messrs Anastas Hadji Kondev and Dimit'r Hadji Yordanov & *
Co. are responsible for the upkeep of their horses and the wages of their
$. Messrs. Anastas Hadji Kondev and Dimit'r Hadji Yordanov are obliged to
:.- maintain this Post for a length of 91 days 'from the date 6f coming into
force of this agreement.
6. The Staff Commandor of the l1th Corps is obliged to pay to the undersigned,
"Anastas Kondev and Dimitlr Yordanov & Co., the sum of 42 half imperials
every 7 days.
7. The Staff Commander of llth Corps is to be good enough to make the neces-
"sary arrangements for the provision of stables for the horses of the
undersigned at Yeni Zagra, Tv'rditsa and K'shlata.
8. If the undersigned, Anastas Kondev and Dimit'r Yordanov & Co. evade their
"duties in any way, or cut short their service at an earlier date, they will
be obliged to pay for the remaining number of days of the term for the
transmission of the Post at the rate of 6 half imperials per day.
q. If again, on the part of the Staff Commander, the Post is terminated be-
fore the duration of 91 days is completed, then the Staff Commander will be
obliged to pay for the remaining unused days, up to the total length of
91 days at the rate of 6 half imperials per day. "

o .- -: 0
o 280 Riverside Drive
o New Yoek '25, N.Y. o

"o Want list for collectors and dealers are filled by return mail. Better o
"o grade approvals by country also available, Many rarities & oddities for o
o specialists. Other countries are also on hand. o
o o
o -.. *' .. 0
o r
0 0
oooooooOoooOO coooo0OOOOOOqO,.Oocq.oo.oooooocooooooooooooooooooocoooooocoooooo
"Y3,7. ^J3Y yyyyyy yy3y.;.. .yyyy..yyyyyyyy.. ..
y y
yW ANT D y'
y ,
y Russo-Japanese War. Material, or any Russia used in Manchuria. I am y
y y
y interested in anything Manchurian and philatelic. Also want Russia used y
y in Alexandretta and Tannu Touva. y
y y
y Raymond S. Ehrman 468 Woodland Road Pittsburgh 37, Pa y
"yyyyyrarryyyYy3YyyyyYYY7 y yyyyyyy yyyyyyy7Y yYYYYYYYYYYy YYYYY7 YYYY YYYYYYYYY

No. 62 Page 41

translated from the original Russian by A. Crpnin

A 35 pane brochure published in 1960 at Ulan Batoi. Mongolia, No author
gien except for Chapter IV.

C 0 IT T E N T S

Chartar 1. The "Urto" Postal Service in Mongolia from the 10th to 17th
Chapter 2. The Overland Horse-Post System of the Manchu Tai-Tsin Empire
in Khalka-Mongolia (Outer Mongolia).
Chapter 3. The "Bukhia Elch" Service,
ChaLter Mongolian Postage Stamps.
Chapter 5. The Development of the Post and Communications Media in the
Mongolian National Republic.
Chapter 6. The Development of the Service of Communications in the Mongolian
National Republic.

C H A P T E R 1 The "Urta" Postal Service in Mongolia during the
10th to 17th Centuries.

The rise of the "Urto" (literally "long distance", or "overland", the
last sounding better in the translation A. C.) postal service in Mongolia
goes back to the dim past. Its foundation may be reckoned as being during
the times of the Huns; i.e. in the early years of the present (L.D.) era, a
type of overland service called "urgyn ula" existed among the LMongol tribes
and it was conducted by officials and couriers.

By the third century AD., the Hun princes were sending messengers with
urgent despatches to the Emperor of the Chinese Pan dynasty, and these messen-
gers, in all probability, used the "urgyn ula" service. The "urgn ula"
service lasted after the Hun period rignt up to the 10th Century among the
peoples unhabiting the territory of Mongolia.

Reference sources of Mongolian history quote information on the remar-
able development of the overland postal service in the KIDAN Empire during the
10th and 11th centuries. The Kidans had a horse-post service and from all
accounts, the riders employed by the overland system had travelling permits
while in transit. By decree of the Hans, "pai-tsi" (official documents) were
allotted to messengers proceeding on especially urgent state affairs.

The "urgyn ula" postillionon with uurga" -an "uurga" is a long pole with
a noose at one end, used for lassoing horses and cattle; see Mongolia, Scott's
"'75, Gibbons '58) was one of the types of overland postal service where the
rider replaced his tired horse or horses from the drove assigned to him. The
officials entrusted with the official edicts of the Hans were obliged to pro-
ceed with a speed of 700 li (403km. or 251 miles) per day on the first day
and at 500 li (288km. or 1SC miles) on succeeding days.

Page 42 No. 62


There edsted "silver" edicts, "wooden" edicts, long" edicts, and "fish
like" edicts. There were inscriptions in Chinese upon these documents, read-
ing "welcoming", "urgent", etc.

In the 13th century, the Mongolian overland systems administered their
own widespread and revived service, linking Asia with Europe. In the 12th
chapter of "Iongolian Secret Narrative", completed in 1240, it is noted that
Ugedei Khan (1229-1242) abolished the "urgyn ula" service and organised an
overland system. A decree of Ugedei-Khan is incorporated in this chronicle,
stating that "twenty postillions were to be allotted to each overland station
....should there ever be an occasion of the slightest shortage of horses for
transmission, or sheep for provisions, or of draught oxen and laden carts, the
guilty person shall have half of his lip cut off."

It is also stated in this narrative that one of the greatest measures
taken by Ugedi Khan after accession to the throne of his father was the cre-
ation of overland services for travelling messengers who maintained communi-
cations and performed various missions. It follows from this chronicle that
Mongolia had a widely developed postal service during the reign of Ugedi Khan
(1229-1242*, serving special organs and bringing the communications service
up to especially high levels.

However, it is impossible to specify whether the overland system in
Mongolia originated exactly at that time. In regards to this, the 12th chap-
ter of the Narrative relates that a distribution of several thousands of
postillions followed among the overland stations and those messengers were
stationed systematically along the overland routes soas not to be congregated
unevenly among the inhabitants patronizing the "urgyn ula" system. From this
it may be deduced that until the creation of the overland route system, another
kind of overland system, the "urgyn ula" already existed.

In the history of the Yuan Empire, it is indicated that there were 1496
overland routes on the territory of Llongolia and China. Unfortunately, in
this general data, it is not stated how many routes were specifically on
Mongolian soil. During the timeroff the Yuan Empire, there were maxy types
of lon[ distance services, among them being horse, water-borne, dog and
courier route s.
All these routes were divided into two distinct sections Mongolian
and Chinese. Mongolian overland routes were laid out on Mongolian territory
and were served by iongols, while those existing in China were chiefly staf-
fed by Chinese.

The Chinese, Jan-Teh-huai, proceeding by decree of Khubla Khan in 1247
from Peking to Mongolia, states in his travelling notes that there were many
overland routes in Mongolia and that each route was named after the governor
of the corresponding "hoshun" (region) or locality.

Interesting information about the Mongolian overland service is also
contained in the book by MaWco Polo, the Italian who visited Mongolia and
China from 1275 to 1292. For example, these accounts certify that each over-
land station had 200-300 horses and that the total for the entire Yan Empire
amounted to 200,000 horses. Larco Polo writes that there were also overland
routes in the Gobi, that the overland messengers covered within 24 hours a

No. 62 Page 43

distance of 200-300 iiles (300-400 kln) dilyv Ue recolibcts seeing..nmssen-
gers provided with official documents depicting faldpn,.etc.

After 1368, when the Mongolian dynasty fell in China, the overland ser-
vice was wound up and from the:14th to 17th centuries, it was again replaced
by the "urgyn ula" service.

From the 14th to 17th centuries, during the civil war of the Mongolian
feudal lords, it was not possible to conduct an. overland service for a con-
tinuous length. of time. This lead to the widespread enlargement of the
"urgyn ula" service, which imposed great privation on the population. In
consequence of this, the necessity arose of instituting strict regulations
for the utilisation of the "urgyn ula" service.

With the promulgation in 1640 of the Oirat Legislation in Mongolia, the
application of the urbann yamt ula" ("the post for three purposes" ALC.)
service for political and religious affairs, in case of illness of important
dignitaries, and in cases of hostile attacks and alab the order of exempt-
ion of the lamas from the duties of a postillion were all provided for,

By this legislation, the unlawful use of the "ula" service and of
official provisions were forbidden,
Sto be continued
by C. de Stackelberg
To complete Mr E. I. Marcovitchts excellent article on Russian Vignettes in
##55/58 of the POSSICA, I would like to add a few items he did not list as
well as a few explanatory remarks, which might be of interest to collectors.
These additions actually deal withFantasies and not with Vignettes.
Addendum A. to ROSICA 55, p. 12ff. Dealing with Fantasies of the Russian
The following two items were not listed:
1. A 14 kopek stamp of Russia 1909/16 (Scott #80), overprinted diago-
nally in black with 30 PARA in Russian characters. (See Ill. 1).
2. A2 kopek stamp of 1909/23 surcharged with 10 PARA in red (Scott
i'31) of Russian levant. This stamp is overprinted in black, typo-
graphically with a 3-line Greek inscription, reading "Greek Occupa-
tion: of Mityline". (See ill.2 ).

The same words were printed by the Greek Military -Authorities on
stamps in 1912 during the Balkan Wars, after: the Turkish Island of IMtyline
was occupied by Greece.

The overprint was however made only on Turkish stamps of 1909-1912,
which were found at the local Post Office, but never on Russian Levant stamps.
SPNo. 62


S9. .. 3. i.
S. 6.

fcpihptui't.uuat *
bPe I b3U Is-.'-
brWPl- ('f' lb U'NI-L5 ,"


'6. 17. ft, -19.

//T0l il 1
"o ,1 24. ,t. t.
TD. C. de S-cKwe bers "C 1AdlI^o notes o n

Overtps of Sept. 30, /.9/S 2WA S ZAW Y

(R R 6 66 zz L
geVuwR C. AtSwr/ / /KC' ye-'^ /rc3/^ S'ne fae 'o
Fi 1,

The everprl nt on this 10 PARA, .,kopek stamp is, of quite different type,
in, print and in size from the original* Mityline overpTint.
I would bb thankful te, hear from otAher .collectors if they have any stamps
of Russian levant with this overprint perhaps of different values as e:a
perts in Greek and Russian philately,have never seen any other similar Fanta-
sies, besides the ones in my collection.'
Addendum B. to Rossica #55. p. 5. N O VO TC HERK ASK overprint
I like to add that the aforementioned items were probably executed in
Russia by Mesrs. NN. Lamtew and B. P. Popoff, who were convicted in Moscow
on April 25, 1924, for forging stamps.
It is to be noted that they exist not only with regular and inverted sur-
charges, but were mass produced in every conceivable form. I note the follow-
ing err rs:
a. Double surcharges b. NIumeral "" in "1 P." missing
c. Portions of surcharge "1 P." inverted
Likewise, the so called Type I of the "1 P." surcharge existss in two
subtypes, namely:
Type la As illustrated (15c) in Rossica #55.*P" of "I P." is large.
TvIelb. As illustrated in this issue of the Journal. Double surcharge.
Ill. 3. "F of "1 P." is small.
The Type II (See ill. 15d in RQSSICA #55) has also been surchaigd dia-
gonally from lower left to upper right. (See ill. 4). Finally it must be re-
corded that these Fantasies were even forged, i.e. they eA.st with a different
type of surcharge from the original printing of the Fantasesb..;.::,
Addendum C, to Rossica,#56 age 64,. 'JJesten Army

These stamps were ordered by the Benn6nd Avalov Goer nment in Berlin,
but by the time they were printed the Bermond Avalov Army ceased to exdst and
the whole issue was sold to dealers.
It is to be noted that they exist not 'only perforated 1U-, but also per-
f orated i0- and 11. It is assumed that they were, later perforated by dealers,
in Berlin, from imperforate sheets.
Numerous forgeries of the aforementioned stamps are known to exist.
Addendum D, to Rossica f 56, page 66. Asobny Astrad.

It is interesting to note that these ptamps" were designed by the famous
Cngaver of Imperial Russian Government Printing Office in St. Petersburg and
later director of Latvian State Printing Works in Riga, Prof. R. Sarich.
They were printed at the Latvian State Printing Works in Riga.
The imperforate stamps in my collection are ungummed.
No. 62 Page 45


Addendum E. to RCWSICA #56, page 69 Armeniaq
One set of Fantasies had not been listed by Mr. Marcovitch. This imp-
erforate, gummed set comprises the following 10 values

50 R. lemon 1000 R. blue 4000 R. carmine
300 R. orange yellow 2000 R. violet 5000 R. vermillion
400R. dark brown 3000 R. green 10000 R. ochre
500 R. red

It is interesting to note that under Armenian stamps Nos. 300 to 309,
Perf.lli, which were never used postally, the Scott's catalogue states that
the stamps of this sot printed in colors other than listed are essays.

However, the very detailed KCHL S HANDBOOK points out, that the stamps
Scott calls essays are definitely fantasies or fakes. They were supposedly
printed privately in Vienna and appeared on the stamp market in 1922, well be-
fore the real, perforated and surcharged stamps with new values were postally
issued in Armenia in the Spring of 1923.

Addendum F. to ROSSICA #57. page 60 Latvia

The aforementioned issue was written up many times in the Baltic phila-
telic publications. Apparently the originator of these stamps was Mr. W. A.
Solman, a stamp dealer in Riga. They are known, either as the "RAUNA ISSUEE
or as the "FOEIMA FAKES" Folkman was the postmaster of Rauna (Ronneburg),
who seems to have been involved in the fraud, as most of the existing covers
with these stamps, as well as many single stamps, are either cancelled with a
single line "RAUNA" or with "VOLMEA" (Wolmar), a town near RAUNA.

Addendum G, to RCSSICA #57. rage 61 Estonia

Besides the fantasies listed by Mr. Marcovitch, Sub f4 the "Wesenberg
overprint", i.e. the "EESTI" overprint on the. Ober-Ost stamps,.l. Weiner, in
his famous catalogue, mentions the following fantasies:

l8A. "15" on 3 pf. brown

On Russian stamos of 1909-1918. "EESTI" overprint

1. 1 kop. perforated. 2. 2 kop. perforated. 3. 5 kop. imperforate

Sub. #5 "VIRUMAA". Weiner, however, does not list Mr. Marcovitch's,
#20, i.e. the 30 kopek, grren. This is odd, since Weiner is generally so
detailed and exact.

Besides the above fantasies, Weiner lists a number of other fantastic
surcharges on Estonian stamps and fantasies, which appeared in Estonia during
the 22 years of its independence.

Page 46 No# 62


Addendum H. to R06SICA #5.8 page 60

For completeness, the following fantasies should also be listed:

"a. Soviet Russia

The 100 r. stamp of 1921, Scott, #181 surcharged diagonally from lower
left to upper right with 100.000 RUB, in red. (See ill. 5). This surcharge
was supposedly prepared in Hamburg.

b. The"nL GA ISSUE"

For details of this issue see my article in ROSSICA ?#58, pages 25/26.
(see ills. 20 to 24, in this issue of the Journal.


For five values of this issue, namely 50k., l, 2, 4 and 10 R., see
ROSISC; #46/47, page 4, illustrated article by R. Polchaninoff and likewise
a Note on these items by B. Legky in ROSSICA #44, pages 28/29.

I can only add that although the aforementioned items are ell known in
Europe, I have not been able up to this time to obtain their true history.

I like to add to both of the above that they exist both gummed and un-
gummed and that the only cancelled stamp in my collection is one with the
canceller described by Mr. Legky on page 29 of #44. It appears on a 4 R.
stamp and has date 21.IX 1943. The word at the top of the cancellation, in
correct German reads "STAND t TKO?2ENDATUR" (of Sloboda near Smolensk) and
not "STAADFOECflENDATUR" as ir. Legky erroneously indicated.

rL. R. Polchaninoff was kind enough to send me a 4R. Vlasov stamp, can-
celled with a different canceller, than the one described by Mr. Legky. The
cancellation is smaller in size, being 29mm. in diameter instead of 34mm.
Only the letters "ST. 0. K." between two-small diamonds are larger than on
the first cancellation. In.the lower portion of the cancellation is
"SLCBODA"'in the same large type. It is dated "22 SEP. 43".

Mr. Polchaninoff also drew my attention to an article published in No. 7
of the pre-war ROSSICA of Sept. 1931, written by Cipt. S. Shramchenko, the
great exprt of the stamps of Ukraina, dealing with the so called "HOTINSK
District" or county of Bessarabia issue. These stamps were supposedly issued
in 1919 by the "Directorate" of this district, which did not accept Rumanian
Occupation and declared themselves independent. It is stated that supposedly
Russian, Rumanian and even Austrian Field Post stamps were overprinted on
their order. The first line of the three line overprint, shows the Ukrainian
Arms (the trident), the second line "HOTIN" (diagonally) in Russian characters
and the third line the year "1919".

I consider the aforementioned stamps as pure fantasies, as the
"Directorate" existed only for a short time and never had the opportunity
even to establish the semblance of a postal service in their district.

No. 62 Page 47


Fantasy overprint of Siberia -

Finally, it seems to me that the "Fantasy Overprint of Siberia", listed
in RCBSICA #58, pages 56/57 is the same as the "Vladivostok Air Post Overprint"
listed on pages 58/59. The last named "issue" is also described by our
Editor in #57, on pages 49/50.

by R. Polchaninoff
Addenda to E. Marcovitch's article in Rossica #61.

We have in the U.S. a "Christmas Seal and Charity Stam Society" which
publishes a monthly bulletin "Seal News", and also various cataloguesof la-
bels or vignettes. Greens Catalogue covers anti-tuberculosis labls of the
entire world, including Imperial Russia and USSR. In the 1961 addenda, the
chapter on Russia has been rewritten by the Rossica member R. Polchaninoff.

Mosbaughts "U.S. All Fund Seal Catalogue" is divided into four sections.
1961 volume, Part t Catholic labels (including some Armenia and Ukrainian).
Part III "U S. Foreign, in which are listed labels issued in U.S. (in
dollars). The Russian section is edited by R. Polchaninoff. He lists the
labels of Rossica in this section, beginning with those issued in 1938 at the
time of the stamp exhibition of Rossica.

A catalogue is being prepared for publication, which wii.include the
Red Cross labels of the whole world.

All inquiries regarding the American Society of Ez nnophilia should be
directed to R. Polchaninoff, 411 Montank Avenue, Brooklyn 8, N.Y.
by Kurt Adler
These special envelopes were recorded and described by John Barry in No. 25
of the British Journal of Russian Philately (pages 37 and 38), and'by me in
"Rossica" #56 (pages 83 to 85). Newly assembled information and material, how-
ever, allow me to give here a complete list of these covers with all major
varieties. This may be helpful to topical collectors, as well as to serious
students of old and new Russian entire.

40 kom. Troika This envelope comes on paper with different watermarks,: and
the imprinted stamp may appear in different shades of blue-
"gray '.
a. Watermarked wavy lines b. watermarked circles & squares.

40 kop. Jet This entire comes only with wavy line watermark but the bre
lane color of the imprinted stamp and the cachet may be either-
". a. deep rei or b. pale red
g : *No, 62
Page 48


Fantasy overprint of Siberia -

Finally, it seems to me that the "Fantasy Overprint of Siberia", listed
in RCBSICA #58, pages 56/57 is the same as the "Vladivostok Air Post Overprint"
listed on pages 58/59. The last named "issue" is also described by our
Editor in #57, on pages 49/50.

by R. Polchaninoff
Addenda to E. Marcovitch's article in Rossica #61.

We have in the U.S. a "Christmas Seal and Charity Stam Society" which
publishes a monthly bulletin "Seal News", and also various cataloguesof la-
bels or vignettes. Greens Catalogue covers anti-tuberculosis labls of the
entire world, including Imperial Russia and USSR. In the 1961 addenda, the
chapter on Russia has been rewritten by the Rossica member R. Polchaninoff.

Mosbaughts "U.S. All Fund Seal Catalogue" is divided into four sections.
1961 volume, Part t Catholic labels (including some Armenia and Ukrainian).
Part III "U S. Foreign, in which are listed labels issued in U.S. (in
dollars). The Russian section is edited by R. Polchaninoff. He lists the
labels of Rossica in this section, beginning with those issued in 1938 at the
time of the stamp exhibition of Rossica.

A catalogue is being prepared for publication, which wii.include the
Red Cross labels of the whole world.

All inquiries regarding the American Society of Ez nnophilia should be
directed to R. Polchaninoff, 411 Montank Avenue, Brooklyn 8, N.Y.
by Kurt Adler
These special envelopes were recorded and described by John Barry in No. 25
of the British Journal of Russian Philately (pages 37 and 38), and'by me in
"Rossica" #56 (pages 83 to 85). Newly assembled information and material, how-
ever, allow me to give here a complete list of these covers with all major
varieties. This may be helpful to topical collectors, as well as to serious
students of old and new Russian entire.

40 kom. Troika This envelope comes on paper with different watermarks,: and
the imprinted stamp may appear in different shades of blue-
"gray '.
a. Watermarked wavy lines b. watermarked circles & squares.

40 kop. Jet This entire comes only with wavy line watermark but the bre
lane color of the imprinted stamp and the cachet may be either-
". a. deep rei or b. pale red
g : *No, 62
Page 48


_0 ko. This entire comes in three distinct varieties.
Goniets a. Imprinted stamp in red b. imprinted stamp in pale red
(iail c. Cachot on the left has two golden horizontal strips, one above
Rider) and one below the cachet.

The niomal entire has only a golden frame which is wider
at the bottom. All entire with this imprinted stamp have
the circle and squares watermark.

1 rub. This entire comes in three major varieties.
Eteans of a. Watermarked wavy lines. Imprinted stamp chocolate.
Communica- b. Watermarked circles & squares. Imprinted stamp deep chocolate.
tion c. Watermarked circles & squares. Imprinted stamp pale chocolate.

The stamp imprint, in all cases, is not evenly centered.
In some instances it appears very high on the cover, in others
much lower.

All in all, there are 10 distinct major varieties in this
set of four special entire.
o 0
c Ascher Numbers o
o o
o St. Petersburg Ag 5a 56. Kiev 8a o
o 0
o Russian Empire 2b 3a 4b 5a 6 7a 7c 8a 8b 9 10b 12II o
o 13bl 14aI 14bII 15d 0
,0 o
o : Lot price "150.00 o
o o
0 E. Norman Lurch \ : Box 242 'Stony Brook, New York o
oooi-cso co' oc c'cgcooccg>-'' rccco coccccaccoococoocoo:":r .o*ooooo
O00 -. -- OC 5'C.-": 3 0 OCO -, ?* C,.-," '-C. ^.'CCO C ^.C '- 3COCoo3 O.,,-' ,. '-,',;.OOO3- ? _x x
.--- U-.- - -. Y
S. - --........ -..... ,,-.-- - - - --- ..... 3 U IX ...~ ... .. __XO.


ew issue Service, covers, varieties and errors. V
Want Lists are filled. Russian Empire, Soviets and Zemstvds. x
:: are in stock and are sent on approval. x
x x
x : x
T The L. & F. S T A i P SER V I CE x
B Box 1 Grand Ledge Michigan x
x i x

o. 62 Page 49


Sby Kurt Adler '.
A short time ago I was fortunate enough to acquire a presentation col-
lection of Soviet postage stamps from 1921 to 1930. This collection is es-
pecially interesting for the many-in fact 200--stamps in it are surcharged
or perforated with letter of the Russian word "OBRAZETS"-(specimen). The
stamps are stuck down cn 14. heavy card-board pages in.a 14aby 21 inch album
inscribed with gold letters "USSR GOZNAK POSTAGE-STAMPIS (.) COLLECTION".
This inscription shows clearly that the coollection-was assembled' in Russia.
In addition, there is a complete typewritten (in Russian):list of items in the
collection titled in translation "Album of postage stamps of USSR". The
stamps are described page by page, according to their denominations and
topical meanings. The first entry, for instance, reads "Agriculture, 1 Rubel
imperforate, page I."

One can only guess at the origin and the purpose fot which the presenta-
tion collection was made. Evidently, this album and perhaps a few others were
made up in the nineteen thirties, possibly for some American diplomats of high
standing. One will remember that at.that time diplomatic relations between
USA and USSR were established by President Roosevelt through Ambassador W.
Bullit. GOZNAK, the Government stamp printing establishment was already de-
pleted of most of the stamps. They had to dig into their reserves and where
there were no more reserves, into their sheets of specimens. In one instance,
4 imperforate stamps of the postage dues of 1925 were added to the complete
set of specimen. These four stamps, evidently, were not specimens but came
from the special sheets of imperforates. These four imperforates are the most
interesting and valuable items in the collection. They are Scottts Jll, J12,
J15 and J16, all lithographed. They were mentioned by Raevsky in No. 23/24
of the 1925 issue of the "Soviet Collector'" with a following statement -
"very few imperforates e:xit and they are of considerable rarity".

Until 1924 the word "obrazets" was applied in deep red with one or more
letters of the word "obrazets" on a stamp. From 1924 on, perforating took
place of surcharge. The complete word "obrazets" on a stamp appears only
once, and it is found. on the unissued 1 Rub., perforated, of 1923 (Minkius
No. N256). Otherwise, the surcharge or the perforation extends over strips
of 3 to 5 stamps, covering either single or double strips. It may be found
horizontally, vertically, and in a few cases, diagonally.,

It must be assumed that all of the Soviet stamps exist or existed marked
"obrazets" (specimen), in the archives of the Goznak. It would be very inte-
resting to hear from our members whether they own ar have seen other presenta-
tion collection and whether 'they differ from the one I have described.

The list of specimen stamps contained in the aforementioned presentation
album is as follows: All of the numbers given below are from Scott Catalogue.

S UR C H AR GE D "E R A Z E T 9'

On (1) or two (2) letter horizontal overprint, covering or2 stamps

186, 190, 203, 212, 215, 22, 24 243, 244, 245, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 255, 256,
257, 258, 259, 273, 274, 275, B34, B35, B36, B37, C1. 02, C3, C4 and 05.
Page 50 No. 62

Two (2) to four (4) letter overprint, applied on vertical pairs
177, 178, 179, 180, 183, 241, 241A, B14, B15, and B16

One (1) -letter applied vertiqally on one stamp
201, 206, 230, 231, 233 and 240, 202 and 204

One (1) or two (2).letters applied diagonally on ono (1) stamp
202 and 204
Complete ward "obrazets" applied horizontally on a'stamp
1 ruble, buff,.Scott's Type A52 (See note after No. 241A). Minus No. N256.

Perforated horizontally with one (1) or two (2? letters on a stamp
1 and 2 ruble imperforate, unissued stamps of 1923 set. 283 imperforate.
276, 277, 278, 279, 281, 282, 283, 284, 285, 286a, 287a, 288, 288A, 288B,
.290, 292, 293, 304, 305, 306, 307, 308, 309, 310, 311, 312, 313, 315,
316, 317, 318, 319, 324a,325, 326, 342, 343, 344, 348, 350, 353, 354,
355, 356, 373, 375, 376, 377, 378, 379, 380, 381, 389, B51, B52, B53,
C10 and C11.
Perforated horizontally with two (2. to four (4) letters on a stamp
298, 299,.300, 301, 302a, 303a, 388 (smaller letters), 389, 393, 399, 400, 012
Perforated horizontally with one (1) to three (3) letters on vertical pairA
288B, 321, 322, 359, 382, 386, 391, 392, 394, 395, 396, 397, 402, 403, 404,
405, 4, 4 408, 411,412, 413, 414, 415, 416, 417, 418, 419, 420, 421, 422,
423, 424, 425, 427, 428, 429, 430, 431, 432, 433, 434, 435, 436 437, 452,
454, B54, B55, B56, B57.
Perforated vertically with ong (1) to three(3) letters on a stamp
269, 270, 271, 272, 328, 329, 335, 383, 385, B48, 06, 07 0, C13, Jll, J12,
J13, J14, J15, J16, J17.
Editorial Note Kindly note that there are a number of complete sets in
the above list. The text was altered slightly --* instead
of, for example listing 402-405 we have listed 402, 403, 404
and 405. This was done so that collectors can check of the
individual items that they have in their collections.

No. 62 Page 51


by V. Ushkov
1.7 Text on the overprint is not complete. The following should be added:
"Full price, shown on the bond, without payment fr coupn. For cashier...
*...Bookkeeper........n M 1-17. o ......... ...

V11.30;l, 2 Full text "Present Bond....", etc. Ma.V1. -'135
V11.31:11s3 Full text "EPrice without coupons In".. M1s. 152
VL^O21ta, Two types. Probably associated with thb position of the signers
(averse). They are .stamped or printed. Same remarks apply to
Nos. 22 and 22a.
V11 4hIa Temruke, Kuban Region, Treasury (CP) "Twoae K-ve" (S.RF) "T4-
Military Revolutionary Executive Commitee." Amount
100 rubles. Ml.VI. -277,
VII. 42 Add: Stamped with an eagle without a crown, but with (C.P)
Banr cashier of Tuapse treasury encounters same (R.St.) over
(3cb) of 100 rubles and some with a stamp of the Soviet Workers
Representative, Tuapse, Chernomore Region. Same on (3cb) 100 rub.
.VI. 271, 275, 276.
Sall Add: (C.P) Bank of Uman treasury and (R.St.) Uman Cossak Village
Soviet PeopleseRepresentatives. Amount on (3cb) 100 rubles.
AM.VI: 277.
VIII.1 Borzhom on (3cb) 100 rubles l.Vl: 277. Cvl stamp: Boyzhom
in the middle. On the edge, in Georgian "Has circulation on
par with nominal value and equal to the Bill of Credit".

Almost all of the aforementioed supplements are taken from the list of
obligations which: were circulated as money. (See article by M. L. Ivanov in
1931 issues of the "North Caucasian Collector".

References : M1 and number V.on are my collection,
&bbreviations: ..P stamp.
S.RF- etampq in a rectangular frame
.RSt- Rubber s. tamp with eagle

oooooooooooopo00000O ,ooooiooooo0ooo0,ooo 'oodooooooooooooooo.ioooooooooooooo
0 0
*o Hildatelic LITERAIlUE price list 82pp 50c deductible from first o
o purchase. o
0 0
o o
0 0
0o 0
o We cover almost all Fields of Philately. Catalogues free on request. o
o We buy collections and rarities for cash. o
o o
o Fr i t z Bi 1 1 i 168-39 Highland Avenue Jamaica32, K. NY o
o 0

Page 52 No. 62


by V. Ushkoff

1. I:lU-72a. 1,2:1-3

I like to add a supplement and also make a correction to an interesting
article published by wur editor Dr. G. B. Salisbury in No. 59 and No. 60 of
the Rossica Journal.

First of all, Russia is the only country in the world besides Ukraine
which produced small change money, by.using the averse side of the cliches
prepared and used for postage stamps. Other countries, on the other hand,
used specially prepared metal dies. or dies made from other material.

SLikewise, I would like to reproduce a table from an article of Mr.
Viazelshikov, published in No. 11 issue of November, 1927 Soviet Collector.
The table given below gives the value of money ctanmp in thousands of rubles,
for each value, for the period between 1915 and 1919.

Year 1 ko. 2 kop 3 kop. 10 kop.. 15 kop. 20 kop. Value in Thousand
R double s.
1915 40 40 50 13600 15600 19400 48,730
1916 --- --- 16800 20500 19400 56,700
1917 500 700 1000 32800 40900 41600 117,500
1918 2100 3400 2800 31800 75000 24200 139,300
1919 300 700 1700 31400 36600 47400 118.100
2940 4 _40 5550 126400 1600c 152000 _.480.
Using the above table, I conclude, that money stamps of 1, 2 and 3 kop.,
listed in Kardakoffts catalogue as Nos. 715, 716, 717-719 were not issued in
1916. They were put in circulation in 1917 for a short time only, and for
this reason should be priced higher. The date of the decree, which ordered
the change in the inscription on the reverse side of the aforementioned money
stamps is not known to me.

S2 V.:l, 3a-5a..

25 and 5Ckarb. have on the right of the averse side two small ornaments
which are sometimes missing. The ornaments consist of a flower on the branch,
appearing over the left shoulder of the girl and a "curl" on the bottom of the
plaited ornament under the same figure I do not have 'o. 3 and therefore can
not describe it. The "flower" appears on all paper money printed in Kiev. It
also exists on 25 kerb. printed in Odessa, but is missing on the 50 karb.

The "curl" is found on 25 karb. of both printings and on the 50 karb. of
Odessa printing. It is not the same on Kiev printings. It exists of No. 3a
and on No. 3b with small and large letters. On No. 3c some have the "curl"
and some do not, without considering-those with small and large letters.

No. 62 Page 53


t-C .-de Stackel begr: Z .
Addenda t o Previous In st a.1 m q-nt ., :

STo #59, page 15. 2.kop. (2)..Errars,
.Add, f. .,een chalk ins Plce ."" ,i. Column III, Perf.
To #60. page 21, 10 kop. (2). Errors
Add f. offast misplaced vertically.
g., offset misplaced horizontally.
Place "X" for "f, and "g" between columns II and III, Perf.
Page 23 15 1op. (2) Erors.
S d v. frame offset &, center. intaglio. Place "X" in
Column III, Peirf.
pag 2e 15 kop. (3) .-Variety of f rf,.
Add f. imperf. on one side. Place "f: between columns
II and III, Perf.
"25 kop. (2). Errors.
Add e. only chalk lines missing. Place "X" between
columns I and II, Perf. .
page 25 35 kop. (2). Errors
Add b. partially missing chalk lines. Place "X" in
Column I, Perf.
page 27 70 kop. (3). Errors of Perf,
Add- v. imperf, on one side. Place "X" between columns
II and III, Perf.
To #61 pae 4L 20 kop. (6). Errors of Perf.
Add b. Imperf. on one side. Place "X' between Columns
II and III, Perf.
page 4.1 50 kop. (3). Errors.
Add x. background missing. Place "X" in Column II, Perf.
and .Imperf,
Delete.. x. in .front of line "in back and ront"..
Add m. "to m" (frame missing), Place ."X" in Column II, Imp.
age .i 1 rub. (3). Variety of Perf.
Add g. imperf. on one side. Place "X*' in Column III of
Vertical chalk lines, Perf.

Page 54 No. 62


Vertical Ch. Lines Horiz. Ch. Lines.
3.50 Rubles Perf. Imperf. Perf. Imperf.
1917 III 1917 III III Itriod
(1). Colors
A. Perf. 13-: (But on Hor. Ch. lined
Stamps 13=3xl-).
S a. eddish purple/light green x x
b. Brow., purple/green x x : x
c. Bowm purple/light green x x x
d. iaroon/green x

B, Perf. 12,
a. Maroon/green x

(2). Errors
a. Chalk lines omitted x x
b. Chalk lines omitted & frame intaglio (P.120-) x
c. Offset of stamp x
d. Offset (fragmentary) x
e. Offset of background & fr me x
f. Offset of background & center x
g. Intaglio xx x
h. Intaglio of frame only .. x
i. Double printing x
J. Frame misplaced to N.. E. x
k. Frame misplaced to S. E. x
1. Background misplaced to x.E. x
m. Background misplaced to S.E. x
n. Background misplaced to I.W. x
o. Background misplaced to S.W. x
p. Background misplaced up vertically x
S q. ackground & center misplaced to -N.. x
r. Center misplaced x x x
s. Center misplaced on stamp Perf-. 124- to N1. x
t. Center and backrouad mrisplcced to NE. x
u. Center and background misplaced x
v. Perforations missing .x
V.. Prforations missing at bottom x
x. Perforations missing on left side x.
y. Perforations missing on right side x
z. Perf. mispl. across stamp vert. towards S.W. x

(3). Variety of Perforations
a. Perf. 12- x
b. Rough perforations .
c. Pin perforations x
d. Lisperf. owing to paper crease (Perf. 12-) x
e. P.ouletted (unofficial perforation) x '."K is between 1917 & III

(4). "!itiaped crown" variety x x

(5). "Center & part of frame: light dirty green, the maroon portion of the stamp
changed to light dirty pink". Fohs.
Chemical changelingt x "x" is between 1917 & III

(6). Printed on "ribbed" or mesh paper
S(See Rossica No. 45, page 42) x "x' is between 1917 & III
2 o 62
Page 55

Vertical Chalk Lines
SRfble -Bart. Impert. Perf,.
A, Perforated 1- ..I II III
a. Dark blue/pale green/pale blue (F.P. 1915) x x x
b. Indigo/pale green/pale blue x
e. Dark blue/pale green/milky blue x

B. Perforated 11
a l Dark blue/pale greeq/pale blue x

C. Ierforated 12-
a. Dark blue/pale greep/pale blue x x

(2). Errors
a. Chalk lines missing x
b. Chalk lines missing and intaglio x
c. Chalk lines diagonally on back (folded corner) x
d. Offset of whole stamp x
e. Offset of frame and pin perforated x
f. Offset mispl. vert. up (See Rossica #20, page 167) x
g. Intaglio of whole stamp x
h. Intaglio of stamp Perf. 12- x
i. Intaglio of frame z x
j. taglio of center. Chalk lines missing. x
k. Intaglio of center and frame .. x
1. Double printing of center x
m. Double printing of center. Perf. 12- x
n. Double printing of center, one misplaced x
o. Frame misplaced to left horizontally x
p. Background misplaced x x
q. Background misplaced to right, horizontally x x
r, Background misplaced to SX. x
s. Background misplaced to left, horizontally, x x
t. Background misplaced to N.W. .
u. Background misplaced to S,. ,-
v. Background misplaced up, vertically x
V. Background misplaced down, vertically -
x. Background inverted. RRR : x
y. Center misplaced x x x
z. Center misplaced to right, horizontally x
aa. Center misplaced to SF. x dR x
ab. Center misplaced to left, horizontally x
ac. Center misplaced to NHW. x
ad. Center misplaced to N.W. (Pin Perf. 122) x
ae. Perforation misplaced. Perf. across stamp to N.W. x
at. Perforation missing at top and bottom x
ag. -Perforation missing. "Imperforate between x
ah. Perforation missing at bottom (FPrf. 11 ) x

Page 56 .. .. .: No. 62

... : ": .'

Vertical Chalk Ines
Ferf. Imperf erf
(3). Variety of Perforation __ .._i,.1 _III
a. Imperforate X
:b. Ierfor'atedd I .- X
c. Ibef orated -ll'on three sides,-imp. at bottom X
d. Pin perforated X
e. Pin perforated 1-1- X
f. Pin perforated 11,i and offset frame X

(4). Plate Flaws (Feel)
a. Large "A" & tall "ya" in "Pochtovaya" (Rossica #55, Page 30). X
b. Same as "a", but Ibrforated 12 X

Note: Aforementioned plate flaw appears on stamp #13 of each sheet,
except on the very late printings of the III Period, i.e. on
very dark and very badly printed stamps. (Confirmed by
xir. Liphschutz, Paris).
(5). Color Chanse
a. Yellow background of 10 R., which is misplaced down, vrtically
(Fohs) x X

(6). Paper Varieties
a. Printed on brown craft paper (Fobs) X
b. Crease of paper through right numeral "5" X
(to be concluded in #63)

by E. F. Nwman
S(ont. from #61)

The 1906 Printings (The following were the only printinas on _vert. laid .)

Scott's:to. .72 (S.G. No. `9 .

Sheet size 25 stamps (5x5). 'Positia 'o; "VIsn : Against each one of
the outside stamps of the sheet, there is a "'V in the blank space in the
color of the background&. The base of each' "TV points away from the stamp.
Stamp #4. Flaw B. A..& Additional Flaws The L.H. F-L is very-weak above
the 3rd leaf (down), especially in the N.W. corner. The top F-L
is very weak for 2mm. from the NZ.. corner.
Stamp #8. Flaw A. U.
Stamp #9. Flaw AJKA.
Stamp #1. Flaw D.. A. Additional Flaws The 2nd shading line (down) in the
.- R Vase, iss brken- to the left of its-ceriter. A small break is
in the Base I-F-L, Imm. from the S. E. corner. *--
Stamp #14. Flaw C. D. & D. D.
Stao #15f Flaw V. B.
Stamp #23. Flaw C. C
No. 62 Page 57


Scottls No. 231 (S.G. No. 2 2) -

Russian levant, 1906 printing 0/P 100 Piastres. Mr. Liphschutz has a
complete sheet showing the flaws as described under Scottls No. 72.

Scott's No. 302 (S.G. No. 97)

Russian Refugee Post, 20,000 on 100 Piastres. I have a single copy
with flaw on Stamp #11,

Scott's No, 23 (S.G. No. 26)

Overprinted KITAI for P.0s. in China. I have the following copies with
flaws. A single of No.14. A used block of four, stamps ##3, 4, 8, and 9,
postmarked Shanghai 5-8-15. Also stamp No. 3 showing flaw C. E. We have
found traces of the aforementioned flaw on the sheets examined but it was not
distinct enough to list. However this copy, shows the flaw very distinctly.
Therefore, it may only be present on very late printings of 1906.

The 1915 Printings

Scottts No. 109b (S.G. No. 1&7)

All printings from 1915 onwards were on wove paper and have the chalk
network printed on the face. Sheet size 25 stamps (5x5). Position of V's ..
In the margins as on the 1906 printings.

Stamp 2. Flaw.-C E. Stamp #17, Flaw B, G. & D E.
Stamp 5. Flaw A. B. Stamp #18. Flaw B. A. Stamp #22, Fl D.A. &
Stamp #11. Flaw V. D. Stamp D#9. Flaw'A. H. additional flaws as
Sta 12. Flaw S. C. & V. A. Stamp #20. FlawB. F. stamp #11 of 1906.
Stam p 16. Flaw C. D. & D D. Stamp #21. Flaw B.B. Stamp #24. Flaw V. B
Stamp #25. Flaw C. Cj

Scottts No. 261 (S.G. No. .11

Russian Refugee Post O/P and surcharged 20,000 Piastres. I have a
copy of stamp No, 12:
(to be completed in #63)
00000000 00000000000 0000000ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo oo.
o 0
o WATED I n'f- o. r m a tVi.on, p i c t ur s, a to ap h s o
o 0
oof K onstantin Tsiolkovsky, Maj ors Yurio
.0 0
oGagarin GhermenTitov. o
o o
a All catalogues, books; on Russian stamps written in English, are o
o also desired, o
o o
o WilliamRice P, 0. Box 331 Windsor, Conn. o
o o
Pae 58 000000000 620000000000000o 6200000000000000o 62

Page 58 No. 62


0. A. Faberje, Helsinki, Finlnd

Upon becoming a member, I noted in Rossika #44 an article by Dr. G. B.
Salisbury about Russian "money stamps" in America. Having one of these
"money stamps" in my collection I am forwarding to you two photos of this
interesting item, of 25 kop. value one of face. and the other of the reverse

In #59 of this journal, I.r. R. Sklarevski expresses a wish to know the
number of different types of the blanks "far ordering mineral water in St.
Petersburg" which exist.

I know of three (3) such blanks: Two different types from the collection
of my deceased father, Agathon Karlovich Faberge, which were described by iLr.
S:larevski in #59 of Rossica journal, and another blank, Type II ( "187") in
ny collection.

The aforementioned blank, used in 1875, has a cancellation in the lower
left corner. I enclose three (3) photos of this blank, size of which when
opened is 116/118x222mm. and when folded 118x76mm. The paper of the blank is
rough, yellow brown 0.12mm. in thickness.

0. A. Faberge. Helsinki, Finland. Niini Novgorod Fair Cancellation,

In #57 of this journal, page 58, ir. E. Collins writes about a Nijni
-Tovgorod Fair cancellation in his collection, dated "22.Aug.184'", which Lr.
Barry states to be the earliest date known to him. In my collection of In-
perial Russia there are three (3) stamps tied to pieces by two different
types of these rather interesting cancellations.

(1). 185. 10 kop. Ferf.11 (Scott #$). Double-lined circular cancellation
30/21mm. in diameter. The inscription reads:
unfortunately the year

'2). 1858, 10 kop. Perf. 11- (Scott #8). Single-lined circular cancellation
26mn. in diameter of the typ illustrated by Prigara (VIII/2).

IIZHEGCPOD YAJRI'KA unfortunately the year
1....5. AVG. 5 is not legible.

(3). 1865. lO kop. UMwatermarked (Scott#15). Same as (2)

dated EUL 29 l166 It seems to me that the date of
cancellation (3) is rather early.

To. 62 Page 59


Vsevolod Popov. Nyack, N.Y.

I have an envelope addressed to Paris with notation "mit luftpost via
Konigsberg", franked with Scott Nos. 6 to 9 and cancelled "MCKVA, No. 4
30,5.24 I EKSEEDITSIA __* The envelope also has a violet rectan-
gular 54n8m. cancellation



All of my catalogues (Scott, Minkus, Romeko 56 and Postage Stamps of
USSR 1955) states that Scotts Nos. C6 to 9 were issued in June 1924. The
aforementioned stamps are cancelled on covers 30.5.24, i.e. two days before
June and on June 1st the. cover was already in Berlin. Doesn't this philatelic
cover then become a F D Ct' Pesrhaps other collectgrsahap earlier cancellations,
either on single stamps or on covers of this issue, thius.e king the data given
by catalogues as "June 1924" inaccurate.

Sam Robbine. Los Angeles,. Calif ornia

I would like to report USSR, Scott #1147, 30 kop. light olive (in my
colldetion) instead of sepia (listed color). We exposed the stamp for several
weeks to the sun thst with no results.

Editor The aforementioned stamp was examined by me and forwarded to Kurt
Adler for examination. He- stated; that he had not seen the shade
described above.

B. R. Beede. 287 Sylvan St.. Rutherford. N.J.

Several collectors of German Feldpost material, including myself, are
wording on a handbook and' catalogue of the historical and philatelic details
of the foreign units which joined with the Germans in the invasion of Russia
during World War II. Would you happen to know if there is much interest in
the Rossica Society in such material.
OO O 00000000000000000000000

J. D. T. Bold, Box 184g Waterford, Va.

As a member of the Korea Stamp Society (US) I have been designated to dig
out information on some Russian stamps overprinted for use in Korea circa 1905.
An article by Harry J. Maguire in the West End Philatelist, Vol, page 154,
mentions "Russian stamps overprinted for use in the country (Korea) during the
late war".

l.ax Strassman, Knickerboker Stamp Co, Washington, formerly of New York,
tells me that about the time of the beginning of World War 11 ho received
a "set" of such stamps, prepared but never issued,.from Hamburg; that he dis-
posed of them very quickly and has never seen any such stamps since.

Page 60 No. 62

Vincent Ulnk. Newark. (hio

I have found the 15 kop large die op the following stamps, in addition
to Scott's Nos. 81 and 125:

Scott #220 4/15k. perf. typegraphed surcharge.
;/222 -200r/15k. perf, lithographed surcharge.
#228 -100r/15k. imp. lithographed surcharge.

A copy-of the 7 kop. Scott V78 cancelled 1921 sure wish it was on

A copy af 1POOr. Scott #186 on medium thick paper on which the top rays
are faint, while oh all the, their copies that I have seen the rays are clear
and stop in a definite semi-circle below the letters RSFSR.

A pair of 50r. Scott #231 ahfal0r.' Scb% #233 evidently privately per-
forated 13I horizontally, but imperforate vertically.


The Chairman of the Judges Committee was the outstanding Ihilatelist Mr.
Henry Kramer of the General Stamp Company, who was ably assisted by another
prominent Philatelist, r. Arthur Fendler and Lar. Joseph Chudoba, Chairman of
the New York Chapter of "Rossica" Society.

The Judges unanimously presented the Qrand Award to Mrs. Lydia Calahan
for her display of Zemstvo, stamps and covers.

The Second Award was presented to Mr. Jerri Chaivos for his outstanding
display of Russian Rocket, Sputnik and Space covers and stamps.

The Third Award went to Mr. A. Kotlar, for his display of "Dotted Numeral"
cancellations on early Imperial issues of Russian stamps.

A Presentation award was given to Mr. R. Polchaninoff for his display
of stamps and covers of Russian Exiles.

A vote of thanks was given to Mr. NormanG. Elkins, the son of the late
eminent philatelist in the British field, Mr. Edwin E. Elkins for the marvel-
ous work he had done, in the erecting of frames for the exhibit; and for the
wonderful help given by New York Chapter members, Mr. L. Schulman and ITr. A.
Cohen in mounting the displays, which aided making the exhibition a success.

Joseph F. Chudoba, Chair--an
New YorL Chapter, "Rossica"

lo. 62 Page 61


The San Francisco GrLou is active according to Non. Member X. A. Jansson.
New members have been added, regular meetings have been held and articles from
our Rossica Journal have been reprinted in "RuLsian Life" in Russian language
newspaper in San Francisco,

The Los geles Goup according to Samuel Robbins is Tery active and
holds regular meetings. He confirms emphatti.oaly. that a recent claim stating
that some of L. A. Groups names were used without their knowledge on a no-
minating petition is false:and that "nb: members who signed the petition in
any way changed their positions. We are with you for a better kossica".

Mr. R, Polchaninoff of- 411 MontaxikAvei Brooklyn 8,1N.,Y. infdrms us
that he has many duplicates of Sovietf speta-cncellations, and urges- interested
members to write to him directly.

Page 62 No. 62