Officers of the society
 Representatives of the society
 Life of the society and annual...
 Russia's air mail cachets by Fred...
 Forgeries and bogus items of the...
 Soviet space stamp errors by Anthony...
 Two interesting postcards...
 Some reflections on the period...
 Latvian traveling post office (RPO)...
 New data on the Russian fieldpost...
 Abberrant Riga date-stamps by Dr....
 Collector's corner in "Novol Russkoe...
 The case of the missing million...
 Russia's musicians on stamps by...


Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00020235/00013
 Material Information
Title: Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Physical Description: no. in v. : illus. ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rossica Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Creation Date: 1971
Publication Date: [n.d.]
Frequency: unknown
Subjects / Keywords: Stamp collecting -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Postage-stamps -- Periodicals -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
Funding: Made available to the University of Florida Digital Collections under special distribution agreement with the <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a>.
 Record Information
Source Institution: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Holding Location: <a href="http://www.rossica.org">Rossica Society</a> Library.
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAB2397
lccn - 59037768
issn - 0035-8363
System ID: UF00020235:00013

Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Officers of the society
        Page 2
    Representatives of the society
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Life of the society and annual business meeting
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Russia's air mail cachets by Fred Speers
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Forgeries and bogus items of the Nikolaevsk-on-Amur issue by the Ediotiral Board
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Soviet space stamp errors by Anthony L. Okolish
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Two interesting postcards of 1922
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Some reflections on the period 1916-20 by Leonard Tann B.A.
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Latvian traveling post office (RPO) cancels by Andrejs Petrevics
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    New data on the Russian fieldpost in Rumania during 1877-79 by D. N. Minchev
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Abberrant Riga date-stamps by Dr. A. H. Wortman
        Page 44
    Collector's corner in "Novol Russkoe Slovo" by Emile Marcovitch
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
    The case of the missing million rubles: Soviet postal rates, Dec.1, 1922 to Jan. 10, 1923 by J. Lee Shneidman
        Page 48
    Russia's musicians on stamps by Jacques Posell
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
Full Text


of the




No. 80 1971


Andrew Cronin
Box 806, Church Street Station
New York, N.Y. 10008


Martin L. Harow


K. Adler, Emile Marcovitch, C.P. Bulak,
J. Terlecky (Ukrainian Editor)


2 Officers of the Society
2 Representatives of the Society
3 Editorial
4 Life of the Society
4 Annual Business Meeting
7 Russia's Air Mail Cachets by Fred Speers
20 Forgeries & Bogus Items of the Nikolaevsk-on-Amur Issue by the Editorial Board
26 Soviet Space Stamp Errors by Anthony L. Okolish
28 Two Interesting Postcards of 1922
32 Some Reflections on the Period 1916-20 by Leonard Tann B.A.
35 Latvian Traveling Post Office (RPO) Cancels by Andrejs Petrevics
41 New Data on The Russian Fieldpost in Rumania During 1877-79 by D. N. Minchev
44 Abberrant Riga Date-Stamps
45 Collector's Corner in "Novol Russkoe Slovo" by Emile Marcovitch
48 The Case of the Missing Million Rubles: Soviet Postal Rates,
Dec. 1, 1922 to Jan. 10, 1923 byJ. Lee Shneidman
49 Russia's Musicians on Stamps by Jacques Posell



PRESIDENT: Kurt Adler, c/o Metropolitan Opera Inc., Lincoln Centre Plaza, N.Y. 10023
VICE-PRESIDENT: Gordon H. Torrey Ph.D., 5118 Duval Dr., Washington, D.C. 20016
SECRETARY: Joseph F. Chudoba, 426 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, N.Y. 11225
TREASURER: Norman Epstein, 33 Crooke Ave., Brooklyn, N.Y. 11226
CHAIRMAN OF AUDITING COMMITTEE: Andrew Cronin, Box 806, New York, N.Y. 10008
CHAIRMAN OF MEMBERSHIP COMMITTEE: Mr. Martin Harow, 17 Second St., Brentwood, L.I. 11717
LIBRARIAN: J. Lee Shneidman, Ph.D., 161 W. 86th St., Apt. 5-B, New York, N.Y. 10024
BOARD OF DIRECTORS: Emile Marcovitch, 65-61 Saunders St. Apt. 4-Q, Rego Park, N.Y. 11374
Boris Shishkin, 3523 Edmunds Rd., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20007
Fred W. Speers, 118 N. Caroline Way, Escondido, Calif. 92025


G.B. Salisbury Chapter: Joseph F. Chudoba, 426 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, N.Y. 11225
San Francisco: K. Jansson, 624-16 Ave., San Francisco, Calif. 94118
Washington, D.C.: Boris Shishkin, 3523 Tunlaw Rd., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20007
Western USA: Lester S. Glass, 1553 So. La Cienega Blvd., Los Angeles, Calif. 90035

Anything in this Journal may be reproduced without permission. However, acknowledgement of the source and
a copy of the reprinted matter would be appreciated.

The views expressed in this JOURNAL by the authors are their own and the Editors disclaim any responsibility.

At the present time the Membership Dues are $7.50, due January 1, for all members. Application forms, which
must be filled out, are available upon request. Membership lists, codes, bulletins and supplements to the member-
ship lists will be sent out annually. Kindly make all checks payable to:

c/o Mr. Norman Epstein
33 Crooke Avenue
Brooklyn, N.Y. 11226

We have a very limited number of back issues of the Journal for sale, both in Russian and in English at $2.50 each:
Russian Editions No. 44 to 69; English Editions (10 various only). Others are sold out.



PRESIDENT: Kurt Adler, c/o Metropolitan Opera Inc., Lincoln Centre Plaza, N.Y. 10023
VICE-PRESIDENT: Gordon H. Torrey Ph.D., 5118 Duval Dr., Washington, D.C. 20016
SECRETARY: Joseph F. Chudoba, 426 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, N.Y. 11225
TREASURER: Norman Epstein, 33 Crooke Ave., Brooklyn, N.Y. 11226
CHAIRMAN OF AUDITING COMMITTEE: Andrew Cronin, Box 806, New York, N.Y. 10008
CHAIRMAN OF MEMBERSHIP COMMITTEE: Mr. Martin Harow, 17 Second St., Brentwood, L.I. 11717
LIBRARIAN: J. Lee Shneidman, Ph.D., 161 W. 86th St., Apt. 5-B, New York, N.Y. 10024
BOARD OF DIRECTORS: Emile Marcovitch, 65-61 Saunders St. Apt. 4-Q, Rego Park, N.Y. 11374
Boris Shishkin, 3523 Edmunds Rd., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20007
Fred W. Speers, 118 N. Caroline Way, Escondido, Calif. 92025


G.B. Salisbury Chapter: Joseph F. Chudoba, 426 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, N.Y. 11225
San Francisco: K. Jansson, 624-16 Ave., San Francisco, Calif. 94118
Washington, D.C.: Boris Shishkin, 3523 Tunlaw Rd., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20007
Western USA: Lester S. Glass, 1553 So. La Cienega Blvd., Los Angeles, Calif. 90035

Anything in this Journal may be reproduced without permission. However, acknowledgement of the source and
a copy of the reprinted matter would be appreciated.

The views expressed in this JOURNAL by the authors are their own and the Editors disclaim any responsibility.

At the present time the Membership Dues are $7.50, due January 1, for all members. Application forms, which
must be filled out, are available upon request. Membership lists, codes, bulletins and supplements to the member-
ship lists will be sent out annually. Kindly make all checks payable to:

c/o Mr. Norman Epstein
33 Crooke Avenue
Brooklyn, N.Y. 11226

We have a very limited number of back issues of the Journal for sale, both in Russian and in English at $2.50 each:
Russian Editions No. 44 to 69; English Editions (10 various only). Others are sold out.




The increasing emergence of newly independent countries and the realization on the part of many postal administra-
tions that postage stamps are an effective vehicle for cultural, promotional, touristic, educational and other purposes
had led to an ever-growing flood of new issues over the past few years.

So far as general catalogs are concerned, the result has been inevitable. The volumes issued annually are becoming
more and more unwieldy, no matter what the space-saving measures in printing layouts. In our country, the Minkus
organization took the initiative some years ago by issuing five regional catalogs in handy paperback format at
popular prices. One such region includes Russia and States, USSR and Central Europe.

Now it is the turn of the Stanley Gibbons group of companies in England. Their well-known Green (Europe and
Colonies) and Blue (Africa, America and Asia) catalogs have been discontinued. Paperback editions in nine group-
ings have appeared during the fall of 1970. Surprisingly, our spheres of collecting are not covered by any of the
sections released so far.

We repeat, surprisingly, since there is no doubt as to the popularity of Russia and associated countries. Prices have
been rising steadily for the past thirty years in the international philatelic markets, as the consequence of genuine
and widespread collecting interest in our area. It is no exaggeration to say that for variety, scope and potential, our
spheres of collecting are unmatched elsewhere in philately.

In the opinion of the Editorial Board, there is a considerable market in the English-speaking world for a compre-
hensive catalog devoted entirely to Russia and States, Mongolia and Tuva, the Ukrainian areas and the Baltic States,
Bukhara, Khiva, Offices Abroad, etc. The paperback trend among the catalog publishers fits the bill exactly and
our Society is ready to put all its accumulated knowledge and expertise at their disposal, either here in the United
States or abroad in the United Kingdom.

Let us hear from you, gentlemen publishers!


Will all members please note that subscriptions are due on the 1st of January each year, regardless of the original
month of joining. New members receive all the journals issued during the year of joining.

To avoid the unnecessary delays which have occurred in the transfer of funds, our English members are kindly
requested. to send their annual dues direct to our Treasurer, Mr. Norman Epstein, 33 Crooke Avenue, Brooklyn,
N.Y. 11226, U.S.A., by the most convenient means: Money order, bank draft, etc., rather than to a central course
in the United Kingdom.

Foreign members in general should add $1.50 to their cheques and bank drafts because of the high bank collection
charges in the U.S.A.

U. S. A.

In addition to this issue of the Journal, members will find enclosed a supplement of improved illustrations for
No. 79. These may be inserted by members into their copies of No. 79 as required.



Two Rossica members, Mrs. Edith M. Faulstich of Yonkers, New York and Eng. IIl'ya Braunstein of Belgium served
on the International Jury at the recent Philympia International Philatelic Exhibition, held in London, England
from 18 to 26 September 1970. From what Edith told us in a recent letter, it was a wonderful experience. Once
again, Rossica members did well for themselves and we list the successful participants hereunder:

CLASS OF HONOR: M. A. Bojanowicz Poland
M. V. Liphschutz Russia 1760-1900

VERMEIL MEDAL: R. W. Canman China
R. W. Canman Hong Kong
M. V. Liphschutz Finland

LARGE SILVER MEDAL: W. Frauenlob Russia
A. Prins Jnr. Zemstvos 1865-1920
Dr. J. Kuderewicz Poland 1564-1864
Dr. R. Seichter Ukraine

SILVER MEDAL: J. Lloyd Russia 1700-1930
C. W. Roberts Ukraine
F. W. Speers Zemstvos 1865-1920
F. W. Speers Russia, Romanov Essays
F. W. Speers Russian Airmails
Dr. E. M. Tolman Mongolia 1877-1940
G. T. Turner Stamp Collectors (Topical exhibit)
The Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately.

Good work and congratulations, fellows!

The sale in aid of the Society's funds, which took place on Sunday, 22 November 1970, during the annual ASDA show
was a great success, even though only six people sent in lots for disposal. The highlight was the collection of 65 Post-
master Provisionals of 1920-1922, sold to England. Competition was keen for many other lots.

This was a highly satisfactory result for our first effort and we hope to hold more sales by tender in the future. Mem-
bers are kindly urged to begin setting aside duplicate saleable material as the chances for disposal are excellent, thus
benefiting both the seller and the Society.


Suite #2508 Penn-Garden Hotel Saturday, November 21, 1970

Meeting was called to order at 9:00 P.M. by President Kurt Adler.

Officers Present Officers Absent
Prt-ident Kurt Adler Membership Committee Chairman
Vice-President. Dr. Gordon Torrey Martin Harow (Excused)
Secretary Joseph Chudoba Librarian Dr. J. Lee Shneidman
Treasurer Norman Epstein Trustee Emile Marcovitch
Editor Andrew Cronin Trustee Boris Shishkin (Excused)
(Also Chairman of Auditing Comm.) Trustee Fred Speers (Excused)



Members Present: Mr. Rimma Sklarevski, Dr. Leonid Kvetan, Mr. Ray Hoffman,
Mr. Joseph Taylor, Mr. Francis McClenin, Mr. Martin Cerini.

M/S/C Epstein, Cronin: To dispense with the reading of the minutes of the previous annual business meeting.

Treasurer Norman Epstein was then given the floor and submitted the following financial report:
To all Officers of Rossica Society:
This is the annual financial report made to the Officers of the Society at each annual November Meeting. Prior to
the report, the financial books of the Society had been audited by Mr. Cronin and Mr. Chuboda and found to be in
order up to and including October 31st 1970.
Bank Balance as of December 31, 1969 ................ ................... .... $ 1,379.60
Deposits made up to and including October 31, 1970 ..................... .............. 2,018.50

Total $ 3,398.10
Total Expenditures up to and including October 31, 1970 ................. ........... $ 2,684.08
Checks issued ............ ..... ............................... $ 2,679.24
Bank Service Charges ........... ............................ $ 4.84

Total $ 2,684.08
Bank Balance as of October 31, 1970 ................ ............. ............ $ 713.13
Confirmed Balance as per Bank statement dated November 5, 1970 ............ .... ... ... $ 713.13

M/S/C Torrey, Cronin: To accept the financial report submitted by Treasurer Epstein.
Secretary Joseph Chudoba made his report as follows:
Members in good standing as of last annual meeting 203
Members in good standing as of this date 213
Gain in membership since last meeting 10
Two members have passed away since last meeting: Mr. Arthur Shields and Dr. Von Richter.

Seven members have resigned but the enrollment of 19 new members offset our losses, resulting in gaining ten
additional members.

A letter was read from Trustee Boris Shishkin who had met with an accident while in Switzerland, where he is presently
confined to a hospital. He expects to return to the States shortly, but will have to continue hospitalization upon his
return. He also sent a check for $20. as a contribution to the Society. A letter was also received from Dr. Torrey stat-
ing his willingness to share expenses for our hotel suite and also he enclosed a check for $20. as a contribution to the

M/S/C Cronin, Epstein: To accept the report of the Secretary and extend a vote of thanks to Mr. Shishkin and Doctor
Torrey for their financial contributions.
Auditors report was then made by Mr. Andrew Cronin. The books of the Society had been carefully checked and were
found to be in order.

M/S/C Torrey, Chudoba: To accept the Auditors' report.
The floor was then opened to general discussions covering various phases of Society activities. The question was raised
regarding advertisements for the Journal. Many stamps dealers have been contacted, with varying degrees of results.
It had been brought to the attention of the meeting that nominations and elections of National Officers were due to
take place before our next annual meeting and that proper steps be taken to bring this matter to the attention of the
A general discussion took place regarding methods to facilitate auctions for the benefit of the Society. It was sug-
gested that in the future, material should be sent well in advance and be publicized so that prospective buyers will
have a chance to inspect lots well in advance of the actual auction.



Discussion took place regarding the poor illustrations of stamps and covers in #79 of the "Rossica" Journal. Much
criticism was made by Mr. Cronin regarding the illustrations in the "Local 1932-33 surcharges of Tuva" article
which was submitted by Mr. S. M. Blekhman.
Dr. Kvetan also criticized the poor illustrations in the article entitled "The story of the Postage Stamps of the Far
Eastern Republic." The original stamps submitted for photography had been in fine clear condition, but apparently
the fault lay with the person who made the illustrations. It was decided that in the future, before illustrations are
printed in the Journal, the Editor and Publisher will have to make a double check on these before acceptance for
inclusion in the Journal.

M/S/C Epstein, Cronin: To adjourn. Meeting adjourned at 10:00 P.M.

Respectfully submitted:

/s/ Joseph F. Chudoba

We are pleased to announce that at a meeting of the Council of the Royal Philatelic Society, held on 19 Nov. 1970
at London, England, three Rossica members were elected Fellows of the Society, as follows:

Eng. ll'ya Braunstein of Brussells, Belgium
Mrs. E. M. Faulstich of Yonkers, N.Y., U.S.A.
Mr. Daniel W. Vooys of Canajoharie, N.Y., U.S.A.

Mr. Braunstein is the world's leading authority on the Soviet Consular Airmails, while Mrs. Faulstich is an expert on
the postal history of the Allied Expeditionary Forces in Siberia. Mr. Vooys is currently President of the American
Philate'ic Society, now totally 23,500 members and is the editor of the "Philatelic Literature Review," the quarterly
journal of the Philatelic Literature Association.

Our sincere congratulations to all three of you on your election to fellowship in what has been called the greatest
philatelic society in the world!


With A Check List of Aerophilatelic Dates
by Fred W. Speers

(Reprinted from the "S.P.A. Journal" for January 1970, by kind permission of the Editor, Mr. Belmont Faries).

Mr. Speers, a veteran member of the Society of Philatelic Americans and a member of the Postmaster General's
Citizens' Stamp Advisory Committee, is a well known student and writer in the field of Russian philately whose
exhibits have won awards in international competition.

Considering the attention centered in 1969 on the rounding out of a half century of air mail history, it is rather
surprising that little was done to mark off the aerophilatelic milestones of the Soviet Union. This is particularly
interesting in view of the fact that Aeroflot, the Soviet government's monopoly airline, is the world's largest in terms
of route miles (more than 300,000 miles).

Of possible interest as a forerunner to Soviet aerophilately is the military frank, known used in July, 1916, of the
Seventh Division of Aviation of the Seventh Russian Army in the field west of Petrograd. (See Illustration 1.)

Early recognition of the importance of air post came from the Ukraine prior to its incorporation into the Soviet
Union. In the summer of 1918 arrangements were made between the governments of the Ukraine, Austria, Poland
and Germany for flying diplomatic mail between Kiev and Berlin on the Austrian military line which had been set
up March 20 (some say March 30) to link Vienna and Lemberg (Lvov) via Cracow. Diplomatic mail carried between
Kiev and Berlin was given a special oval-shaped cachet. (Illustration 2 shows such a cachet with the date of Aug. 24,
1918 written on it.) Oct. 15, 1918, is the date given by Sanabria for shutting down of this line.

Turning now to strictly Soviet operations, it appears desirable to condense them, divide them by dates and years and
to put emphasis on first flights and cachets in relation to other events in Soviet aerophilately (such as dates of issu-
ance of stamps and dates of actual flights or events, most of which have been rather thoroughly covered both by
catalogues and articles in the philatelic press).

It is confusing to note that in many instances various catalogues give different dates for issuance of Russian stamps,
both air mail stamps or ordinary ones with aviation themes. In preparing this somewhat extensive checklist, signifi-
cant differences have been noted in some cases so great (a year or more) as to suspect such differences as being
due to typographical errors.

Omitted here are references to etiquettes, postal stationery, Red Air Fleet labels and charity labels with aviation
themes, each subject a specialty in itself and deserving of inclusion in a comprehensive compilation of Russian

Use has been made of many of the standard catalogues Scott, Sanabria, Gibbons, Minkus, Le Cercle Philatelique,
two Russian catalogues and other publications, as well as covers and postcards themselves. A comprehensive bibli-
ography is given at the end of this article.

Illustrations 1-15, 17-24, 26-30, 35 and 48 are actual size. The other illustrations are slightly smaller than the
original markings.

Omitting 1916 and 1918, already summarized, the grouping begins with 1922.


May 3 Generally accepted as opening date of the Moscow-Smolensk-Koenigsberg-Berlin air route. Its first flight
marked the opening of Deruluft operations. Mail received a one-line "Mit Luftpost" cachet in a rectangular box
with wavy lines and applied at either starting point (Moscow or Berlin) with either blue, violet, black or red ink.
(III. 3.)


July 15 Issuance of Russian consular air mail provisionals which were revenue stamps surcharged in various colored
inks with words reading "Aerial Post/R.S.F.S.R." and then in the third line below the value in German marks. Use
of these, issued on initiative of the Soviety Embassy in Berlin, was restricted to a short time of about only two weeks
when Moscow ordered their discontinuance.

Nov. 7 Issuance of the provisional air mail stamp with the overprint of an outline of a plane in red. It was placed
on sale only in Moscow. Mail received from Leningrad destined for Berlin on Nov. 8 is believed to have been trans-
ported there with mail from Moscow. (The earliest cover I have with the provisional on it is postmarked Balta
Nov. 10.)

Dec. 2 Earliest reported date of second boxed "Mit Luftpost" cachet. It has straight lines and measured 46 x
11mm. Violet or gray ink. (III. 4.)


June Billig's Handbook No. 9 cites this as the month of the first Moscow-Leningrad flight but gives no specific date.

June Introduction of three-line receiving cachet reading in Russian "Received by Aeroplane." Black ink. (III. 5.)
The British Society of Russian Philately Journal says this is known used as late as 1930.

July This month, date uncertain, marked opening of the Moscow-Nizhny Novgorod (now Gorki) air route. It was
the first all-Soviet air post operation and is generally recognized as opening Aeroflot operations. Distance was about
250 miles. No special cachet is known.

July 28 Date of issuance and public sale in Vladivostok of unofficially printed charity overprints on leftover Tsarist
stamps to raise funds for Volga famine victims. The overprint (in red), surmounted by an airplane read "Vladivostok/
1923/20 Kop." The flight, made July 29, was to Spassk-Primorsk, 141 miles north, by way of Nikolsk (renamed
Voroshilov in the 1930s and Ussuriysk in 1958). The stamps were placed on sale on July 29 in both Spassk-Primorsk
and Nikolsk for the return flight. No special cachet; ordinary departure and arrival marks.


April 15 (Sanabria and Gibbons: May 5) Given by Billig's Handbook No. 9 as date of first Moscow-Berlin
flight with gold currency surcharged air mail stamps (Scott C6-C9). Minkus and a Soviet catalogue give simply June.
Scott merely says 1924. (Earliest cover I have bearing these stamps is postmarked Moscow May 23.)

May Date uncertain. Introduction of new cachet with Russian word meaning "By Aeroplane" in rectangular box.
Applied in shades of violet at Moscow. (111. 6.)

June 11 Earliest reported date of use of the third boxed "Mit Luftpost" cachet. Borders of its rectangle, which
are 37 to 38 mm long, are heavier than those of the two previous ones. Violet ink. (111. 7).

July 17 Opening of Kharkov-Odessa air route via Poltava and Elisevetgrad. Ordinary departure and arrival marks.

Aug ,,.... puprted date of use of boxed "Par Avion" cachet. Bright violet ink. (111. 10.) (Note An
identical cachet but in pale violet was used in Odessa in 1925 by the Ukrvozdukhput Society for the Development
of Aviation in the Ukraine.)

Sept. 20 Earliest reported date of use of one-word Russian cachet reading "By Aeroplane" in straight line
rectangle. Violet ink. (111. 11.)

Oct. 30 Moscow Teheran flight departure date. A special bi-lingual (French and Russian) rectangular cachet was
applied in Moscow. (III. 8.) Stamps were cancelled with Moscow postmarks of Oct. 30. Teheran arrival mark Dec. 14.



June 17 Earliest reported date of use of two-line bilingual (Russian and German) cachet boxed in irregular hexagon-
al shape. Measures 65 mm long and 16 mm deep at center. Violet ink. (111. 9).


April 30 Opening of one-day service between Moscow and Berlin via Smolensk and Kovno. Covers backstamped
Berlin May 1.

April 30 This date is also cited in the May, 1954, publication of the British Society of Russian Philately as the
date of the first Moscow-London flight. A long two-word one-line cachet in Russian is described there as having
been applied with violet ink in Moscow. (111. 12.)

May 1 Opening of Moscow-Tiflis air route. Ordinary departure and arrival marks.

Aug. 3 Opening of air route from Verchneudinsk to Urga (Mongolia) via Ulan Bator. Ordinary departure and
arrival marks. Mail to Harbin was forwarded there where it was again backstamped.

Sept. 17 Earliest reported date of use of three-lined boxed tri-lingual cachet in Russian, German and French. Red
ink. (111. 13.)


Sept. 1 (Sanabria); Gibbons says August and Minkus says Sept. 2 Date of issuance of First International Airport
Congress stamps (Scott C10-C11). Conference was held at The Hague.


June 18 Earliest reported date of two-line bi-lingual (Russian and French) unboxed cachet. "Par Avion" in lower
line beneath Russian words for air post. Light violet. (111. 14.)

Aug. 1 Opening of Moscow-Novossibirsk air route via Kazan, Sverdlovsk, Kurgan and Omsk. Ordinary departure
mark. Mail backstamped Novossibirsk Aug. 2.

Aug. 11 Opening of Moscow-Ulan Bator air route via Verchneudinsk. Ulan Bator arrival mark Aug. 18.

Sept. 18 Opening of Moscow-lrkutsk air route. Special circular cachet applied in dark violet ink. (III. 15.)

Sept. 22 Return flight, Irkutsk-Moscow. Circular cachet like previous except that it reads "lrkutsk-Moscow" and
was applied with green ink. (III. 16.)


May 1 Opening of Alma Ata-Semipalatinsk air route. Ordinary departure and arrival marks.

Aug. 7 Date given in Billig's Handbook No. 9 as that of Moscow postmark on mail flown from there to New York
via Arctic Ocean and Bering Sea. Arrival date for this special flight is given as Sept. 29.



May 1 Moscow-Tashkent first flight. Ordinary departure and arrival marks.

May 15 Opening of Vitim-Bodaybo air route from Yakutsk in the Maritime Provinces. Ordinary departure and
arrival marks.

July 6 Earliest reported date of unboxed straight line two-word cachet in Russian reading air post. Dark violet.
(111. 17.)

Sept. 7 Date of issuance to officials of Russia's Graf Zeppelin stamps (Scott C12-C13). Actually they were
placed on sale to the public only in the morning of Sept. 10, one day before the Moscow-Friedrichshafen return

Sept. 7 Date of special large circular cachet applied in Leningrad with black ink to mark opening of same day air
service between there and Berlin. (111. 18.) Mail also bears Leningrad departure mark Sept. 8 and Berlin arrival
mark of same date.

Sept. 10 Date of ordinary Moscow arrival marks applied on mail brought there by Graf Zeppelin from Germany.

Sept. 10 Date of special bilingual (Russian and French) cachet applied in Moscow on mail bound for Germany on
Graf Zeppelin's return flight. Black ink. (III. 19.)

Sept. 11 Moscow Germany (to Friedrichshafen) flight by Graf Zeppelin. Friedrichshafen arrival mark Sept. 11.


May 15 Date of Issuance of imperforate dirigible construction set (Scott C15-C19).

June 1 Date of issuance of perforated dirigible construction set (Scott C20-C24).

June 29 Date handwritten on large circular cachet applied in Moscow on mail carried by Wiley Post and Frank
Gatty west to east across Russia on their 'round-the-world flight. Design shows wreath surrounding U.S.S.R. coat
of arms. Three small labels on each side near bottom of wreath. Light violet ink. (III. 20.) (Note-The "Winnie
Mae" also made stops at Novossibirsk, Irkutsk and Blagoveshchensk.

July 14 Earliest reported date of unboxed thick-lettered one word air mail cachet, 57 mm long, in Cyrillic letter-
ing. Dark violet or black ink. (III. 21.)

July 18 Date of issuance of first North Pole set which appears both imperforate (Scott C26-C29) and perforated
(Scott C30-C33).

July 18 Date in circular cachet used to cancel North Pole stamps on cards or envelopes mailed on board the ice-
breaker Malygin for transfer to the Graf Zeppelin. Black ink. (III. 22.) (Note-All mail involved in Malygin-Graf
Zeppelin operation was required to be registered.)

July 25 -- Date in circular cachet applied on mail originated in Leningrad for transport by Graf Zeppelin to the
Malygin or further. Black ink. (III. 23.)


July 27 Date of cachet (like III. 22) when applied on board the Malygin as an arrival or transit mark. Black ink.
The date is that of the rendezvous, made by water landing, of Graf Zeppelin with Malygin. (On arrival at Friedrich-
shafen mail received a circular arrival or transit mark dated July 31.)

Aug. 8 Earliest reported date of use of small (28 x 15 mm) two line boxed cachet in Russian reading "Aeroplane
Post." Violet ink. (111. 24.)


April 29-30 Leningrad-Moscow flight by Russian-built dirigible BK-1. Mail carried, mostly official, received rec-
tangular five-line boxed cachet reading "Conveyed/ by/ Dirigible/ May 1/ Leningrad-Moscow." Violet ink. (111. 25.)

May 1 Leningrad-Moscow flight by dirigible SSSRB-1. Special cachet; no description available.

Aug. 25 Leningrad-Moscow flight via Tula by dirigible BK-1. Special cachet; no description available.

Aug. 26 Date of issuance and first use of set of two Second Polar Year stamps (Scott C34-C35) which occurred on
board the icebreaker Sibiriakov. The stamps are the only ones bearing the legend "USSR Air-Express." The mail re-
ceived a circular cachet (III. 26) applied with black ink and a triangular one (III. 27) in red ink. The mail was then
flown to Archangel aboard a plane which had rendezvoused with the icebreaker near Franz Josef Land. Archangel
arrival or transit mark Aug. 28.

Sept. 21 Date of issuance of re-drawn Scott C16 (new stamp given number C25) which was engraved and printed
in gray black instead of being lithographed in gray blue as C16 had been.

Dec. 1-2 Flight from Moscow to Leningrad and return by dirigible SSSR-3. Special cachet; no description available.

Dec. 14-15 Flight from Moscow to Leningrad and return by dirigible SSSR-4. Special cachet; no description


May 28 Earliest reported date of use of three-line bilingual (Russian and French) boxed cachet measuring 45 x
26 mm. Black ink. (111. 28.)

Nov. 3 Date of issuance of three value set of stamps honoring stratosphere balloonists for their ascent made Sept.
30. (Scott C37-C39.)


Feb. 10 Date of issuance of five value set of stamps commemorating ten years of civil aviation and air mail ser-
vice. One set issued on watermarked paper (Scott C40-C44) and the other on unwatermarked paper (Scott C45-C49).

June 1 Opening of one-day air route between Moscow and Tiflis.

Sept. 15 Date of issuance of three value set of stamps honoring victims of stratosphere disaster which occurred
Jan. 30. (Scott C50-C52.) Issued both perforated and imperforate.

Oct. 20 Date of issuance of five value set of stamps honoring Russian-built dirigibles. (Scott C53-C57.)



Jan. 25 Date of issuance of ten value set of stamps (Scott C58-C67) to honor flyers who rescued by plane mem-
bers of Schmidt Arctic expedition after icebreaker Chelyuskin was wrecked.

Aug. 3 Date of issuance of surcharged stamp intended to honor anticipated Moscow-San Francisco flight which
took off on same day. Flight was aborted but about 5,700 stamps were sold. (Basic stamp was Scott C61 which
after being surcharged was designated as Scott C68.)


Feb. 9 Date of special flight described in Billig Handbook No. 9 as Moscow-lrkutsk-Wrangel Island-Cape Chelyuskin-
Arctic Sea-Archangel-Moscow.

March 22 Start of four-plane flight from Moscow to vicinity of North Pole via Franz Josef Land to establish
U.S.S.R.'s first drifting ice station. A flight over the North Pole was made May 21.

June 18-20 Moscow-North Pole-Canada-Alaska flight which terminated at Eugene, Oregon.

July 1 Date of arrival in Moscow of Aeroflot's first flight from Stockholm via Riga.

July 12-14 Second trans-Polar flight which originated at Moscow. It terminated at San Jacinto, Calif.

Aug. 12 Third trans-Polar flight which also originated at Moscow. Plane was lost before reaching Alaska.

Nov. 15 Date of issuance of Jubilee Aviation Exhibition souvenir sheet (Scott C75a) of four 1 Ruble stamps. Date
coincided with opening of the five-day exhibition in Moscow.

Dec. 23 Date of issuance of set of seven value Aviation Exhibition stamps (Scott C69-C75).


March 21 (Gibbons: Feb. 15) Date of issuance of four value set of stamps (Scott 625-628) to commemorate first
anniversary of start of Soviet aviators' flight to North Pole.

April 26 (Gibbons: April 10) Date of issuance of four value set of stamps to commemorate first trans-Polar flight.

May 26 (Gibbons: April 13) Date of issuance of three value set of stamps (Scott 640-642) to commemorate
second trans-Polar flight (which set a world's record of 6,252 miles).

July 10-14 Dates of Howard Hughes' west to east 'round-the-world flight from New York. Stops in Russia were
made at Moscow and Omsk (both on July 12) and at Yakutsk the following day. A Russian stamp was affixed to
each of the small number of covers carried and it was given an ordinary Moscow cancellation of July 12. Two covers
were reportedly mailed by a crew member at Yakutsk.

Nov. 4 (Gibbons: Oct. 7) Date of issuance of nine value set of stamps (Scott 678-686) to honor records achieved
by Soviet airmen and air women as recognized by the International Air Federation.



April 8 Date of issuance of three value set of stamps (Scott 718-720) in honor of women flyers' nonstop flight
from Moscow to a point in Siberia near Olekminsk and Komsomolsk. They had hoped to reach Vladivostok. The
stamps were issued perforated but they also exist imperforate.

Aug. 18 Date of issuance of Aviation Day five value set of stamps (Scott C76-C76D). They are like comparable
values of the Nov. 4, 1938, issue but colors were changed and a two-line overprint reading "18 August/Day of
Aviation CCCP" was added. Four different colors were used in the overprints.


Feb. 10 First flight Moscow-Riga via Minsk. Vilnius and Kaunas. Special two-line cachet reading "Mit Erstflug/
Moskau-Minsk-Vilnius-Kaunas-Riga." Black ink. Riga arrival mark Feb. 11. (III. 29.)


March 3 Issuance of three stamps, all of 1 Ruble value (Scott C77-C79), marking tenth anniversary of 1934
stratosphere balloon disaster. Design similar to that of issue of Sept. 15, 1934, but "30.1.1944" was added at
lower left.

May 25 Two provisional air mail stamps (Scott C80-C81) issued. A three-line red surcharge reading in Russian
"Airpost/1944/1 Ruble" was placed on a 20 Kopeck stamp (Scott 860) of 1942 and on a 30 Kopeck stamp (Scott
860A) of 1944.

October (Date uncertain) Issuance of a 60 Kopeck stamp (Scott 951) honoring a Soviet war hero pilot, B. Safonov.
The stamp was one of a set of five.


Sept. 16 (Gibbons: Aug. 19) Issuance of set of nine stamps (Scott 993-1001), all of 1 Ruble value, depicting
various planes used in World War II.


March 26 Issuance of an Aviation Day supplementary set of nine values of stamps (Scott 992A-9921) with designs
similar to those of Sept. 16, 1945, set although colors were changed and values reduced to kopecks.


Sept. 1 (Soviet catalogue: August) Issuance of two-value set of stamps (Scott 1159-1160) honoring Day of the
Air Fleet.

July 25 (Sanabria: July 28; Gibbons: Aug. 24; Soviet catalogue: August) Issuance of overprinted stamps (Scott
1246-1247) of Sept. 1, 1947. The small three-line red overprint in Russian reads "June/1948/year." Scott and the
Soviet catalogue say they were issued to mark the Day of the Air Fleet. Both Sanabria and Scott say they were on
sale one day only.


Dec. 10 Issuance of 1 Ruble stamp (Scott C82) showing a Yakovlev-9 plane flying over a red banner.


Nov. 1 Issuance of a set of eight stamps (Scott C83-C90) in five values on various colored papers. Four of the
set's five designs show localities served by Russian aviation and the fifth shows a map of air routes.


Sept. 19 Issuance of set of four value stamps (Scott 1590-1593) in two designs. Lowest value features emblem
of Society of Assistance to Army, Air and Navy (D.O.S.A.A.F.), post-World War II successor to Osoaviakhim
(O.D.V.F.). Set was issued to promote interest in aviation.


March 16 Issuance of stamp (Scott 1693) to commemorate 50th anniversary of birth of Valeri P. Chkalov (1904-
1938), pilot of three-man crew which made first trans-Polar flight to U.S. in June, 1937.


March 2 Issuance of 2 Ruble stamp showing an llyushin-2 plane over a mountain stream.

May 26 Issuance of 1 Ruble stamp (Scott C92) somewhat similar to that of March 2. Design shows similar plane
over the Don River.

May 31 Issuance of two stamps (Scott C93-C94) of same design and both of 2 Rubles value but one is chocolate
colored and the other is blue.

Nov. 20 Issuance of three value set of stamps (Scott 1765-1767) to publicize Soviet drifting ice stations in the
Arctic. Design shows helicopter landing at such a station.

Nov. 22 Issuance of two stamps (Scott C95-C96) overprinted in red with three-line inscription in Russian reading
"North Pole/Moscow/1955." (Basic stamps were those issued March 2 and May 26.) Overprinted ones were for use
on Ice Station No. 6 where mail bearing them received a special circular cachet (III. 30) and then was flown to Mos-
cow or beyond. (Note-C96 is known imperforate.)


June 8 Issuance of multi-colored stamp (Scott C97) to commemorate opening of Ice Station No. 6.

Aug. 15 (Scott: Aug. 5) Issuance of multi-colored stamp (Scott 1854) to commemorate third world parachute
jumping contest in Moscow in July.

Oct. 7 Arrival in Moscow of first East Berlin-Moscow Deutsches Lufthansa flight. Ordinary Moscow arrival mark
Oct. 7.

Nov. 17 Issuance of stamp (Scott 1892) depicting claimed balloon ascent of Kryakutny in 1731.



June 3 Moscow-Brussels first flight. Special circular dated cachet. Violet ink. (111. 31.)

July 23 Moscow-Amsterdam first flight. Special circular dated cachet. Violet ink. (III. 32.)

Aug. 3 Paris-Moscow first flight. Special circular dated cachet with plane tilted to left. Violet ink. (III. 33.)

Aug. 4 Moscow-Paris first flight with TU-104 plane. Special circular dated cachet with plane tilted to right.
Violet ink. (III. 34.) Also 52 x 48 mm boxed bilingual (Russian and French) Aeroflot cachet in dark violet ink.
(III. 35.)

Aug. 11 (Minkus: Aug. 12) Issuance of two stamps (Scott 2086-2087) to honor civilian aviation. Issued both
perforate and imperforate.

Aug. 15 Delhi-Moscow first jet flight. Special circular dated cachet. Black ink. (III. 36.)

Aug. 18 Moscow-Delhi first jet flight. Special circular dated cachet. Dark violet ink. (III. 37.) Delhi arrival mark
Aug. 1.

Aug. 19 Issuance of set of 12 stamps commemorating centenary of Russian stamps. Three (Scott 2101, 2105 and
2106) have aviation themes.

Sept. 26 Issuance of International Geophysical Year souvenir sheet (Scott 1767a) showing scientist at ice floe
observation post served by air.

Oct. 1 Issuance of four stamps (Scott 2147-2150) in three values to honor civil aviation. They exist both perforated
and imperforate.

Dec. 5 Moscow-Cairo first flight. Special circular dated cachet. Black ink. (III. 38.)


January (Date uncertain) Issuance of another stamp (Scott 2151) with design like that of Oct. 1, 1958) set in
honor of civil aviation.

March 3 Moscow-Peking first flight. Special circular dated cachet. Black ink. (III. 39.)

March 5 Issuance of stamp (Scott C98) showing helicopter over Moscow Kremlin.

April 7-8 Opening of Budapest-Moscow-Budapest air service. Special circular dated cachet. Black ink. (III. 40.)

May 16 Moscow-London first jet flight. Special circular dated cachet. Black ink. (III. 41.)

May 28-30 Conference of International Federation of Aviators in Moscow on occasion of its 52nd year. Special
circular dated cachet with initials "FAI" on it. Black ink. (III. 42.)

June 6 Moscow-Vienna first flight. Special circular dated cachet with "CCCP" in straight line at top and with no
enclosing solid circular line. Silhouette of plane has "AUA" on right wing. Black ink. (III. 43.)



April 1 Opening of Berlin-Moscow-Berlin air service with llyushin-18 planes. Special circular dated cachet. Black
ink. (III. 44.)

April 2-3 Opening of Paris-Moscow-Paris air service with French-built Caravelle planes. Special circular dated cachet.
Black ink. (III. 45.)

April 7-8 Opening of Brussels-Moscow-Brussels air service with American-built Boeing 707 planes. Special circular
dated cachet. Black ink. (III. 46.)


Dec. 15-24 Dates on special circular cachet commemorating flight by an Ilyushin-18 and an AN-10 from Moscow
to Antarctic and return. Black ink. (III. 47.)

Dec. 20 Issuance of helicopter stamp of March 5, 1960, surcharged with new 6 Kopeck value and "1961" to left
of four horizontal bars with three small arches each. (Scott C99.)


May 21 Issuance of overprinted souvenir sheet of Sept. 26, 1958, to mark passage of 25 years since establishment
of first drifting ice station. Each of the four stamps of the sheet (Scott 1767b) was overprinted "1962" and a three-
line inscription containing dates "1937-1962" was printed at bottom.

Dec. 30 Issuance of 6 Kopeck stamp (Scott C100) to commemorate 20th anniversary of French Air Force's
"Normandy-Neman" escadrille which fought on eastern front alongside Russians in 1942.


Feb. 9 Issuance of set of three stamps (Scott C101-C103) to commemorate 49th anniversary of Aeroflot.


Dec. 31 Issuance of five stamps (Scott C104-C108) showing aircraft over various airports. Issued to publicize
civil aviation.


June 3 Arrival in Kiev of Aeroflot's first East Berlin-Kiev flight. Special Aeroflot 40 x 17 mm boxed rectangular
cachet (in German) dated June 1. Purple ink. (III. 48.) Kiev arrival mark in red June 3.

June 6 Arrival in Kiev of first East Berlin-Kiev Interflug flight. Kiev arrival mark in red June 6.



Journal of British Society of Russian Philately, Nos. 14-15, 29 and 30. 1954, 1959. Articles by John H. Reynolds,
John Barry and James Negus.

World Airmail Catalogue, 1966. Nicolas Sanabria Co., Ridgefield, Conn., 1965.

Catalogue of Soviet Cachets and Cancellations. Vovin, Moscow, 1963. (In Russian.)

Russia, Poland, Romania. Minkus Publications, New York, 1965.

American Air Mail Catalogue. Vol. 2. American Air Mail Society, Albion, Pa., 1950.

Standard Postage Stamp Catalogue. Combined edition, Scott Publications, New York, 1967.

Priced Catalogue of Air Mail Stamps and Airposts of the World. Second edition, D. Field, London, 1934.

Obliterations, Vols postaux, cachet et obliterations specials. Champion, Paris. 1937.

Priced Postage Stamp Catalogue, 1959. Vol. 2. Stanley Gibbons Ltd., London, 1958.

Philatelic Handbook. Vol. 9. Fritz Billig, New York, 1948.

Timbres-Poste U.R.S.S., 1917-1941. Cercle Philat6lique France-U.R.S.S., Paris. 1969. (In French.)

Postage Stamps of U.S.S.R. M.T. Milkin, Moscow, 1955. (In Russian.)

Man's Fight to Fly. Heinmuller, Aero Print Co., New York, 1945.

In addition to the above secondary source material, extensive utilization has been made of covers and stamps in the
author's collection.



Cash for South Russia material: mint, used, blocks, sheets, and covers. Michael Rayhack,
10 Overlook Avenue, Little Falls, New Jersey 07424

Cash for Postmaster Provisional of Russia 1920-1922, with "PYB," "P" or numeral over-
prints, also covers. Michael Rayhack, 10 Overlook Avenue, Little Falls, New Jersey 07424


by Fred W. Speers

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by the Editorial Board

Following upon the valuable first-hand information given by the late F. I. Chenakalo in Rossice No. 79, pp. 19-26,
we are now setting down the combined results of the research on this issue carried out by Rossica members M.
Kessler of Florida; K. Adler, A. Cronin and N. Epstein of New York; Dr. R. Ceresa of England and the valuable
assistance rendered by Prof. O. Winterstein of Zollikon, through the intermediary of Mr. Kessler. The data gathered
are presented herewith under the headings of (1) Bogus items, (2) Forgeries and (3) Cancellations.

(1) BOGUS ITEMS: Mr. Chenakalo has provided the background for the spuriousness of the 10/5 kop. perf.
and 20 kop. imperf. overprints (Scott Nos. 51 A and 69). Prof. Winterstein and the catalog of the Baron von
Scharfenberg collection have this last item with a bogus cancellation (see B.1 below under cancellations). Prof.
Winterstein has this stamp with just the upper half of the overprint (normal application, deleting the 15 kop. sur-
charge) and also with complete frame, with the 15 kop. surcharge missing. Once again, these varieties are bogus
on this imperforate stamp.

We can add two more bogus values to this list, the 15/20 kop. perf. (Scott 59a) and the 15/20 kop. imperf.
(Scott 69a), which are catalogued as errors. Prof. Winterstein has a normal copy mint of No. 59a, as well as a
double overprint, an inverted overprint and finally a normal copy with bogus cancellation. Neither of these
stamps was recorded in the Chenakalo list, the von Scharfenberg catalog, the 1927 Soviet catalog nor the certifi-
cate of 5 May 1922, quoted by S. A. Pappadopoulos in his 1923 booklet "The issues of Russia-in-Asia" and re-
produced by Mr. Kessler in Rossica No. 71, pp. 62-63.

By elimination, the list of genuine values is as follows:

51 10/4 kop. 65 10/1 kop.
52 10/10 kop. 66 10/2 kop.
53 15/14 kop. 67 10/3 kop.
54 15/15 kop. 67A 10/5 kop.
60a 15/20/14 kop. 68 15/1 rub.
55 15/35 kop. 70 20/1 rub.
56 15/50 kop. 71 20/3/2 rub.
57 15/70 kop. 72 20/7 rub. (Type II -
58 15/1 rub. double outer frame
59 20 kop. line)
60 10/20/14 kop.
61 20/31/2 rub.
62 20/5 rub.
63 20/7 rub. (Type I single
outer frame line)
64 20/3 kop. Semi-Postal
stamp of 1914.

Looking at the four bogus values, i.e. 10/5 kop. perf. (Scott 51A), 15/20 kop. perf. (Scott 59a), 15/20 kop. imperf.
(Scott 69a) and 20 kop. imperf. (Scott 69), it appears that Pappadopoulos had subsequent access to two of the three
handstamps utilized to surcharge the basic stamps, namely the 10 and 15 kop. handstamps, which he apparently ap-
plied at some time after he wrote his brochure, to create the above four spurious items.


Note also the types of the basic 7 rub. stamp that were surcharged. For the perforated stamp, only the single outer
frame line variety was utilized, while for the imperforate stamp, Type II with the double outer frame line was
treated. Any stamps with the order reversed must be bogus.


Surcharge Reference No. Dimensions Inking Notes Illustration

10 kop. F1 14.25x19.25mm. Shiny black "HA" is 0.75 mm. high Fig. 1

10 kop. F2 15x20 mm. Dull black Space between legs of "r" Fig. 2
is 1.5 mm.

10 kop. F3 14.75x19.75mm. Shiny black Thick worn letters and no Fig. 3
dot after "B"
10 kop. F4 14.5x20.25mm. Shiny black "HA" is 1.25 mm. high Fig. 17

15 kop. F1 17x23 mm. Shiny black (a)"HA" is 1.4 mm. high Fig. 4
(b)Top of "5" is 1.9 mm. long
15 kop. F2 17.25x23.25mm. Dull black (a)"HA" is 1.5 mm. high Fig. 5
(b)Top of "5" is 2 mm. long.
Possibly a worn version of

15 kop. F3 16.75x22.5 mm. Shiny black (a)Thick worn letters Fig. 6
(b)Exists with upper half only Fig. 7
for 20 kop. value
15 kop. F4 14.5x20 mm. Shiny black (a) Completely wrong Fig. 8
(b)"KOP" & "ZOL" horiz.
instead of slanted.
(c) Nick at top of left bar of
"11" at left.
(d)Exists with upper half only
for 20 kop. value.
(e) Exists with bogus cancel- Fig. 8 & 14
see cancel section below.
(f) Exists with full frame but Fig. 9
no surcharge value.

20 kop. F1 19x26 mm. Dull watery (a)Top bar blunt at left Fig. 10
black (b)Letters "HA" 1.5mm. high.
This is a particularly
dangerous forgery.

20 kop. F2 18.5x26.5mm. Dull black (a) No stop after "B" Fig. 11
(b)Long foot to "2"
(c)"HA" 1 mm. high
Occurs applied on previous-
ly used stamps.


Surcharge Reference No. Dimensions Inking Notes Illustration

20 kop. F3 19 x 26 mm. Shiny black (a)Thick worn letters Fig. 12
(b)"HA" 2 mm. high.
Dull black
on 3 kop.

It is not excluded that other forgeries exist and they will be listed in subsequent issues of the Journal as they come
to light.

(3) CANCELLATIONS: These are of the greatest importance for this issue and in connection with this problem, we
quote in full from p. 73 of the F. G. Chuchin catalog "The Civil War in Russia 1917-1924," Issue No. 3, Moscow
1927. This information has been cited before by others without acknowledgement of the source:

"In May 1921, a so-called Priamur Provisional Government (Merkulov regime), composed of coalition elements, was
set up throughout the Maritime Province and particularly at Nikolaevsk-on-Amur.

It was very difficult to arrange for communication with Vladivostok at that time and the new administration decided
to issue its own stamps for postal needs.

All stamps of the Russian Empire which were found in the town and neighboring localities (1909-1917 issue) were
utilized for this purpose, being overprinted "PVP" (Priamur Provisional Government) and the new values of 10, 15
and 20 gold kopeks for ordinary, registered and foreign mail. The surcharges were applied very roughly by hand,
since all the printeries in Nikolaevsk had been reduced to uselessness as a result of the various occupations of the

Since the postal canceller was lost upon evacuation of the town, the stamps were cancelled only in Vladivostok, to
where the mail was despatched from Nikolaevsk-on-Amur."

The conclusion is obvious. The only used stamps that can be regarded as genuine are those with a recognizable and
valid Vladivostok postmark of the period.

The bogus and questionable cancellations known to us are as follows:

B.1. A double-circle type with diameters 342 and 18 mm. and empty date bridge 71 mm. high, struck in dull black.
This is inscribed "RUSSKAYA POCHTA" (Russian Post) at top, with an asterisk at each side and "NIKOLAEVSK-
NA-AMURE" (Nikolaevsk-on-Amur) at bottom, all in the old spelling. Found both on genuine surcharges as shown
in Fig. 13 and also on the fraudulent 10/5 kop. perf, 15/20 kop. perf, 15/20 kop. imperf and 20 kop. imperf varieties
concocted by Pappadopoulos from the original handstamps. Prof. O. Winterstein has a cover with the 15/14 kop.,
15/70 kop. and 20 kop. (Scott No. 59) all perforated and the 10/1 kop. with two copies of the 10/3 kop. all imper-
forate, showing this marking with a handwritten date 30.X.21 and a Vladivostok arrival of 11.11.21. The cover is
addressed to V. V. Borgest ahemm).

B.2. Another double-circle type with diameters 25 and 12% mm., inscribed "NIKOLAEV" in large letters in the old
spelling, with an asterisk at bottom and a date bridge 6 mm. high with a fixed date which apparently reads 13.3.21
(Figs. 8 & 14). It has been seen on stamps with the 15 kop. F4 forgery (horizontal "KOP" & "ZOL"), as well as
with the figure of value missing in the surcharge on the 20/14 kop. stamp perforated.


B.3. A further double-circle marking with diameters 32 and 21 mm., mispelt "NIKOLAIERSK" at top in the old
spelling and "PRIMORSKAYA OBL." at bottom, with asterisks at the sides and a date bridge 11Y2 mm. high show-
ing a date sometime in 1921. Only one example has been noted so far, struck in brown-red on F1 of the 10/2 kop.
imperf. surcharge in the Dr. R. Ceresa collection (Fig. 15).

B.4. An unusual fabrication this time, in the form of a cover from the M. Kessler collection, addressed in the new
spelling to Franz Mikhailovich Zenevich at Koreiskaya 35 in Vladivostok. It bears a genuine 15/14 kop. surcharge
which has the guarantee marks of Dr. Paul Jemtschoujin and Lissiuk of New York placed beside it. The postmark,
in the new spelling, reads "NIKOLAEVSK PRIMOR. b. 12.7.21," with a confirmatory strike below the stamp. To
the left of the stamp are two impressions in the old spelling reading "SEVERNYE UEZDY,v,PAROKH. 13.7.21"
(oval Northern Districts Steamer, b) and "VLADIVOSTOK, g, 20.7.21" (Fig. 16). These two markings also appear
on the back of the cover.

Here we apparently have a case of the Soviet replacement cancel for Nikolaevsk, now in the new spelling, backdated
to before its manufacture to obliterate the stamp. The "Vladivostok g" postmark is genuine and known to have
been applied on stamps at least as late as 17 Nov. 1922 (see Fig. 11, p. 26 of Rossica No. 79). The Northern Dis-
tricts Steamer marking also seems genuine, but judging from other puzzling usages for this cancel seen elsewhere, it
appears that it may have fallen into unauthorized hands as a result of the Civil War.

B.5. Our final "postmark" is a bogus double-lined circular effort for Vladivostok, struck in red on a red stamp (10/3
kop. imperf. of F4 see Fig. 17) and with a diameter of 25% mm. No further details can be distinguished.


In summing up, it is realized that the foregoing data contain surprises and upset some previously held opinions. No
attempt has been made to describe the characteristics of the genuine surcharges, as we do not intend to make the
going easier for future forgers.

Members desirous of having their material verified are invited to send it in by registered mail to Mr. Kurt Adler,
Metropolitan Opera, Lincoln Center Plaza, New York, N.Y. 10023. The stamps will be returned by the same method
at the owner's expense and the fees charged for expertization will help the Society's finances.

Finally, we want to thank once again all those who have participated in this important study. Only in that way has
it been possible to bring the facts to light. Further data will be published as they become available.


"Forgeries and bogus items of the
Nikolaevsk-on-Amur issue," by the Editorial Board.


i J.. .......

Fig. 13
Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 6


Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11

Fig 13

Fig. 12


.Fig. 17

Fig. 14 F 1 F 1
_____ F^ i.1 ________^^^^ ______Fig. 16 _


In accordance with ARTICLE IV of the Constitution of "Rossica" Society, all members are hereby notified that
nominations and elections of Officers of the Society will take place this year.

Nominations will take place during the months of April, May and June, the deadline being June 30th 1971. Nom-
inations are open to all members in good standing and members wishing to place the names of other members as
candidates for Office must submit their names and aspiring Office to the Secretary of the Society prior to the June
30th deadline. The Secretary of the Society will then submit the names of all candidates to the Balloting Committee
which will conduct the elections.

The actual balloting will take place from August 1st to October 15th 1971. The results of the elections will official-
ly be made known at the Annual Business Meeting of the Society, to be held in November 1971.


In accordance with ARTICLE I, Section 2 of the Constitution of "Rossica" Society, a proposed amendment to
ARTICLE II: Section 3 (a) has been submitted:

The present sub-section now reads: "Any member failing to pay the National Dues within the first six months of the
then current year shall be dropped automatically from membership, etc."

The proposed amendment is to change this to read: "Any member failing to pay the National Dues within the first
three months of the then current year shall be dropped automatically from membership, etc."

The voting on the proposed amendment shall be included with the voting for National Officers of the Society.


by Anthony L. Okolish

The first Soviet space stamp with an error is the overprinted Konstantin Tsiolkovskii stamp for the Sputnik 1 launch
- Scott 2021. This overprint has been counterfeited. "Filateliya SSSR" January 1969 page 16 describes the falsifi-
cation of the overprint in the following manner: (Drawing included but not too accurate see Fig. 1). The draw-
ing at the top is the proper overprint with the falsification at the bottom; note the errors. The slant bar between the
'4' and 'X' is higher by 1mm and inclined more to the left, missing the 'X' which on the original would touch the top
serif of the 'X'. The dash between the 'X' and '5' is 1mm from the top of the cipher '5', while in the falsification
the dash is in the center.

The letters in the original are not only square at the top but are regular along a straight line while on the falsification
the letters are rounded and erratic below a straight line.

The 'M' in MIRE is 0.9mm wide while on the false copy it is 1.0mm. The letter 'K' is inclined right while the 'Y' is
inclined left and 'YC' is set lower than the rest of the letters in MCKYCCTB

Misregister of colors printed are found on practically all of the space stamps; the most obvious are on the:

Red on 10k
Pale Blue on 6k . . Yuri Gagarin (Scott 2464, 2465).

Orange on 6k . ... Gherman Titov (Scott 2510).

Blue on 2k ........ Launching of 5th Space craft (ZVEZDOCHKA DOG) Scott 2491.

Red on 10k ........ Vostok 5-Vostok 6 (Scott 2752)

VOSTOK-6 Valentina Tereshkova 6k (imperforate copies only) The 'P' in CCCP has a smear or an error (Scott 2750

VOSTOK-6 Valentina Tereshkova 6k color error. I have a registered cover with the stamp in light blue and olive
brown. The catalogues list this stamp as blue green and dull carmine (Scott 2750).

VOSTOK-5/VOSTOK-6 10k; both perforated and imperforated copies have vertical lines above and below the stamp
in relief (Scott 2753).

#3043a Minkus Tsiolkovski April 12, 1964. Moon in magenta instead of purple.

VOSKHOD 1 6k Issued 17/10/64; Scott 2955. I have one copy on cover dated 13/10/64.

VOSTOK 3 & 4 Minkus #2784t; there is a white dot after the third 'C' in CCCP. I have no copies of this.

LUNA 9 overprint on the LUNA 4 stamp Scott 3160 .... The final 6 in 1966 has been smeared to resemble 1965 -
1968 and variations. LUNA-9 becomes LUNA-8. (See drawings in Fig. 2.)

LUNA-9 10k (Black & Silver) Scotts 3274, 3276. Both black and silver stamps with the Earth-Moon flight and
Moon scene have errors with the Silver missing. (See drawings in Figs. 3 & 4.)

"LUNA-11" (Scott 3289) .... There appears to be two separate printings or the ink must be running as the letters
are very thick on some while they are thin on the others.

LUNA-11 (Scott 3289) .... There appears on some copies 3 white spots left of 6k which I believe is due to lack
of color of gray-violet of Earth.


"Soviet Space Stamp
,4X-57 r. lepl BbiM BMErrors." by
Anthony Okolish.

-X57r. lepBbi B MWpe

'C KyC CTB. C nyfTH1 Mk 3eJnM '
Fig. 1 Fig. 3

198 8508686 T"EAECEAHC
3.2. 3333
Fig. 2 Fig. 4


by D. B. Diamandiev

During 1921-1922, an American organization known as the "American Relief Administration" carried out activities
connected with helping the famine-stricken in the USSR. The director of the organization was Herbert Hoover, the
future president of the USA, while the administration was also aided in its activity by hundreds of persons outside
the USA.

The ARA set up its network throughout the Soviet Union and one of its first duties was the establishment of postal
facilities for those seeking its help. Special postcards were printed for this purpose with the aims and addresses of
the organization specified thereon; namely, its headquarters at 42 Broadway in New York City and branches in Eur-
ope at Ferdinandstrasse 56 in Hamburg and Elisabethgasse 1 in Vienna.

We would like to bring to the notice of Rossica readers two postcards which we believe to be interesting, as follows:

(1) A postcard sent from Moscow on 9 April 1922, arriving at New York on 24 May and immediately redirected
from New York to beyond the borders of the U.S. (see Figs. 1 & 2).

The Moscow franking is quite interesting. There is one stamp of 7500 rubles (issue of March 1922) and a 50-kop.
control stamp. The latter, however, had a selling price of 250 rubles, regardless of the face value of the stamp, as
was the case with all savings and control stamps circulating in the USSR at that time. In short, the visible rate paid
is 7750 rubles. The remains of yet another stamp are clearly to be seen in the upper right corner, together with the
same Moscow dated postmark (see Fig. 1). In other words, the missing stamp was a Soviet one.

What, then, was the situation? At that time, the postal rates were being changed very often in the USSR. That is
the reason why the senders, in a great number of cases, franked their correspondence in accordance with the changed
rates without observing the distinction between internal and international mail.

The rates in force from 1 Feb. 1922 to 1 April 1922 for internal correspondence were specified as follows:

Postcards 4,000 rubles
Local letters 6,000 rubles
Intercity letters 10,000 rubles

The applicable rate for an international postcard was 6000 rubles from 22 Feb. to 1 April 1922. The fee for an
international postcard was 18,000 rubles from 1 to 30 April 1922.

As can be seen, and that was generally the case, the card in question was franked in accordance with the rate in force
from 1 Feb. to 1 April 1922, although nine days past the latter date had elapsed before the card was sent. Conse-
quently, the missing stamp most likely had a face value of 250 rubles, which had the greatest usage at that time. In
other words, the total franking would have been 8000 rubles, which was also the total for the internal postcard rate
plus the rate for a local letter, in accordance with the original tariffs in force from 1 Feb. to 14 April 1922.

Arriving in New York City, a current American two-cent stamp in red with the likeness of George Washington was
placed on the card where the missing Soviet stamp would have been and then forwarded from the USA. It must be
assumed that the postal rate at that time for an international postcard was two cents.


Whether the card was sent to either of the European branches of the ARA or to the addressee in Bulgaria is not
known. However, the fact that the card was found in Bulgaria supports the second contention.

(2) A postcard, sent from Moscow on 20 April 1922, to Chicago (Figs. 3 and 4).

So far as the rate was concerned, it is very clear that it was franked in accordance with the international postcard
fee of 6000 rubles, which already had been superseded 20 days previously.

The two cards shown here are very interesting and shed light on the history of the USSR in the first very difficult
years following the October Revolution.

EDITORIAL COMMENT: Examination of Mr. Diamandiev's two cards in Figs. 1 to 4 shows that his first example
has a German text on the left of the face side. This type was previously unknown to us. Note that the settings on
the backs of the cards (Figs. 2 & 4) are identical in both cases.

Please see Figs. 5 & 6 for front and back settings which are different again from those on Mr. Diamandiev's cards and
also note the order designation "Zak. No. 1455" on the face at bottom right.

It appears that all the ARA cards were printed in Russia. This has been a relatively unexplored field and we would
appreciate members advising us of what different settings, front and back, they possess, together with the dates of
usage. All new discoveries will be published in subsequent issues of the Journal.

1971 Our 53rd Year STAMPS WANTED



We want the most for your stamps. We gladly pay it without delays or bargaining. Bring in personally, or send in
by insured mail or express, attention: Appraisal Dept.

All shipments are held aside intact awaiting your specific instructions after we send our offer or advice. Informal
appraisals are free, and our buyer can visit you to inspect larger properties.

915 Broadway & H Telephone:
New York, N.Y. 10010 (212) 533-0790

"Rated first in stamps by all standard authorities"

Stolow's has purchased outright, at the top market price, with immediate cash payment, more than $500,000,000
worth of fine stamps. Our needs are unlimited. Fair treatment is always assured.


"Two interest postcards of 1922," by D. B. Diamandiev. Figs. 1 to 4
-'"f ____________5 .p --'t. I, i ....... _" '"_ '------'V'- m

iA.A ;^ jt i OR AMLPHKAHCHAh AJlithO AliWAiH 1104914

m' ,nll of ,,K .... ..... ... .. .. ." .. ^ -. ,lT..

,l U eabcthstras. Jr'--' f.1< 1,4
E'In Rus d ch

sehr grosse Hunuer.-not. .. *-.
k Helft uns aus d.;-r Ni;.. Fg. 2

: e Si tn .... .... .. .. ..

The 'A1 E.m PA CH- A A-A A1', H HHCT PAtiHH T1O H

W l-- "I"" "h o u s c t i r- R .- -S-tA "- 3 > I, -V"' B h* -b'< ; AA r: "( I, ., "' ir ;. -
J -J' C A .J .'. ADMNl RA1 q .
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seyou croce Hu n wi eh k nt.... I '

WE AKE IN L.,'A'1 M-I --
42[P ,, I N IIT ,,:,, F, 4,
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corranui A mc .Fg I

Wne ARB l I

The L\M;R;:CAN lCF A;',',r!- "Two interesting
STRATION is de;:vering pnckac:? |s postcards of
cf Amerikan foodstuffs from its 1922, by
many warehouses in RUSSIA. Write D. B. Diamandiev
to the .

[ E /ti[[ IlLf I tI:... ..I "
R. sian Food rer';t,:t cc Depatr-r, / ,
42 Bro:dway, fl w "'rk Cit,, t ..

ard ask for an Apricalt:on For,-ni 1/ "
,or food remittances. By this me-
.o ou can proi'ide a y irdivi. ..
in Russia with sta'-d:rd Ame;
can Relief Admr;-.... n FO 'D Fig. 5


"Ba"A2T eo CBOiX MHorO MwaneImwx cKrnaAoB B POCCMHH nocbwlHM AMepH1aHCnHM npo
4ijs6iretwt. HaMuaie nqTeashwpm e :-
tusm'lo T txiasttance Department 42 Brtradf/ft Y City
(4 noTpe6 yflTe (J&aH 8saRBeHHR jRA nepecblKm nipofOBOiabcTBMR. TaSKHM nyreM Bb
MOmeTre cHa6iaTb nioKoe PHLmo B POCCHH fPO4LOBOlbCTBEHHt1iftNCbrnl.AMAH
o. AMepHKaHCKoi AAmMHHHCTpauHMH rloMooi coAepmHaLU HMM Haop npMnacoa.


Anpec: ...i ........ ... ..... -
L (NM iiuu .41Aia)
-.. t<)4<^L-< ^^c^----L- --- -
L ;.uua n Ho'Iei;)

(ry3cpHi-i B ropoA)


by Leonard Tann B.A.

The excellent article by Dr. Shneidman that appeared in Rossica 78 on the 1917-23 period, together with its copious
footnotes, raises, in passing, three interesting points that I would like to offer some clarification about: (1) What is the
origin and status of the bizarre errors of the Arms series of 1917-20? (2) What is the status of the 14c/14k imperforate
that purports to belong to the post Revolutionary issues for China? (3) Can we state definitely that subsequent to the
Duma period (March/October 1917) printings of the 7k blue and 14k blue and rose were in fact discontinued?

(1) No collector of the Revolutionary period could be unaware of the bizarre and freakish errors consequent on the re-
printing of the Tsarist Arms series over the years 1917-20. This includes the perforate/imperforate Duma issues with
vertical varnish (chalk) lines, and the Soviet reprints with horizontal varnish lines. Extreme shifts, double impressions,
inversions and offsets plague these particular issues more than ever before, and it might even seem that 50% plus of all
issued stamps contained some variety. It is only after having seen large numbers of stamps of these issues bearing one,
two and even three errors, that the faintest tinge of suspicion begins to creep in.

Collectors of Imperial Russia know of varieties not only on the 1909-17 issue, but also on earlier issues. Inverted and
shifted centres are known issued and used. Imperforates and inverted background shadings are recorded as being passed
over the post office counter in the normal manner. The present writer has two copies of the 1902-5 1r, both with
centres shifted 150%, that is 12mm, and a sheet with a similar shift is known to have been sold at the Moscow Central
Post Office in 1907 in a normal manner. Neither these nor their companion varieties of the time or of earlier issues are
questioned. The Romanov issue itself has a number of major and minor errors, all very desirable and all thoroughly
above board. Why then should the 1917-20 issues of the Arms set with more or less comparable varieties be questioned?

The reason seems to be because of the multiplicity of the errors and their very nature. No stamps before fell victim to
so many misprintings as these did. The 1r. value is known with an extreme shift of centre, a double frame and violently
shifted background shading. Copies are known with double centres, one inverted. This, surely, is stretching credibility
too far. Having printed one shifted centre, would the workman accidentally invert the sheet and print a second centre?
Could sheets already containing a double frame and misplaced background really be considered worthy of a centre prior
to general issue?

Dr. Shneidman, in his article, states that rampant inflation and the lack of usable stamps necessitated these reprints in
great haste, and the sloppy printing and the mass of errors were due to the normal sequence of stages being ignored
(Rossica 78, p.16). This is an interesting suggestion, but even if the normal sequence was ignored, badly aligned stamps
or grossly off-centre designs would not merit completion. Had the printer, however, actually gone on to complete the
printing processes as best he could, (perhaps adding some final touches!) such blatant and glaring misprints should have
been detected at the final checking.

Checking finished sheets of stamps by electronic computer nowadays is not entirely favoured, as the machine can detect
minute shifts of colour that are not visible to the naked eye. The method adopted by many European countries, and
probably also used in the period under review in Russia, is for the checker to flick swiftly through the batch of sheets.
Having firmly fixed in the mind the correct design, any sheet that deviates from that pattern can be detected by the eye
jn a fraction of a second. The offending sheet is then removed and destroyed. Human beings are not infallible, and in
our own time we know of freak sheets that have found their way quite genuinely onto the counter. The same must have
been true in Russia, for each issue from the first stamp onwards has its accompanying varieties. And the 1917-19 issues
should prove no exception.

Why are so few of these remarkable errors found used, when mint copies seem to be so proliferate? If the Soviets were
so desperate for stamps, as Dr. Shneidman indicates, more would be found used.


There seem to be three possibilities. The first is the obvious one, namely, that these stamps are genuine 100% errors,
the result of bad printing and lax supervision in all departments. These sheets were not detected at the checkout, and
were issued to post offices. At this point one of several things could have happened. The postal clerks could have sold
these varieties to known collectors to supplement their meagre wages. Post offices with these sheets could have been
captured during the civil war, and their stocks looted. Or they were sold over the counter normally, but most of the pur-
chasers decided to keep these errors rather than use them, and they found their way onto the philatelic market.

The second possibility is rather similar. These stamps could be genuine errors but were removed at the checkpoint of
the Printing Office from the batches of finished stamps prior to general release. Instead of being fed into the nearest in-
cinerator, they were sequestrated by "base capitalists, enemies of the Working Class," who sold them out of the back
door at a profit, and thence to the philatelic market.

The third possibility has two facets. One has been suggested in a previous issue of Rossica. The infant Soviet Govern-
ment was desperate for foreign exchange to buy much-needed things from countries that had not joined in the unwritten
international pact of political and economic ostracism of Soviet Russia. The Government decided to make philately
pay. Wads of the old Tsarist stamps were offered in bulk to collectors and dealers, but to make these "lots" sell more
quickly, sheets containing these fantastic errors were included. The dealer or collector, thinking he was onto a "find,"
would willingly purchase the batch with an eye to future profit. So, it would seem, according to this opinion, these
stamps were deliberately fabricated on orders from the Russian Commissars in the interests of the faltering economy.

The other suggestion is that the workers in the Printing Office for their mutual financial benefit, fabricated these bizarre
items. One man himself could not have done it, but with the taciturn agreement, or active co-operation and partnership
of the personnel involved in the various processes, these "under-the-table-sheets" were sold to willing collectors or deal-
ers, and the workers had a non-taxable supplementary income. Dr. Shneidman mentions that the workers in the State
Printing Office printed stamps in their spare time (Rossica 78, p.24 fourth paragraph) and they may well have utilized
some of their spare time in an effort to line their own pockets. And in the circumstances of the time, who can blame

So here are the possibilities accounting for the spate of freaks and errors consequent upon the reprinting of the Arms
issues. Opinion is divided, and until concrete evidence is available, or reliable eyewitness reports come to light, you may
take your pick.

(2) The second question to which this essay is devoted, concerns the 14c/14k blue and rose in imperforate condition.
Singles and pairs have turned up, and one recent auction by Stanley Gibbons here in London offered a complete sheet
of 100, divided into the usual four panes of 5x5.

The appearance of this stamp in imperf condition may not be entirely unconnected with any willful and deliberate fab-
rication of the Arms type errors mentioned above. There is every possibility that in addition to other "sideline" activ-
ities, the workers at the Printing Office ran a few imperf sheets through the overprinting machine, and some of these un-
official sheets became mixed up with batches actually sent off to Peking. Their appearance there would have no official

In 1917, probably during the Duma period, when there was a strike in the perforating department, blocks of the Tsarist
Arms stamps, normally blocks of 10, 5 across x 2 down, were overprinted "Obrazets," "Specimen," and were in imperf
condition. All values are known thus, and this stage represents the very last stage before official issue. Those who visited
Philympia in London may recall seeing one exhibit on the Romanov issue containing imperf blocks of 10 likewise over-
printed, but being in design, colour etc., identical to the issued type. It would seem that specimen blocks were inspected
of the Arms stamps in imperforate condition before actual issue in that state.


As by this time the 7k and 14k no longer served any immediate function, save that of supplementing postage, imperf
blocks were submitted and rejected. Although the 7k is known imperforate owing to a genuine error in 1909, later im-
perf blocks would be identified with the earlier error, rather than a later post-Revolution specimen. Rejected imperf
sheets of the 14k value may have been authorized for extra-territorial use, in China. Suitably overprinted in the new
dollars and cents, these few odd sheets were dispatched normally. In Peking they may have been regarded as oddities
and set aside. It would be interesting to know if there are any used copies. If, as it seems was the case, the stamp situa-
tion was nigh on desperate, a few sheets of the 14k imperf that had been run off would not have been wasted. Dr.
Shneidman in his article suggests on several occasions that a lack of stamps was sometimes solved by philatelists coming
forward with definitive of the 1889/94 and 1902/5 series. The hand reached to the very bottom of the barrel to uti-
lize everything available. Should some imperf sheets of the 14k be allowed to go to waste? The heavy mail now pass-
ing through China might have seemed the ideal answer to these imperf 14c/14k stamps.

Unless it can be proved that the 14 cents overprint is a definite forgery, we must conclude that these stamps originated
from the State Printing Office. The fact that the overprint is in cents rather than the earlier "Kitai," suggests a late
Duma or early Soviet period. Were these stamps officially issued in the first place possibly as proofs, then issued to post
offices in China? Is it a fabricated issue concocted by the workers in their spare time and offered through philatelic
channels? Or, once again, a deliberate issue by the Commissars to secure foreign exchange? Any suggestions?

(3) The third question was with regard to the possible reprintings during the Duma period of the 7k and 14k Tsarist
Arms values in perforated condition. The major catalogues normally have a note stating that these values were not re-
printed after the March Revolution. Indeed, it would seem that these values were curtailed after the rise in postal rates
and the ensuing surcharge overprint in mid-1916. Thereafter, their only use was to supplement other values.

A rather trying, but useful and interesting exercise, is to build up studies of each value of the Arms set, from the early
1909 printings, following the various shade nuances and paper textures, noting also the sharpness or otherwise of the
perforations, right up until demonetisation in 1923. Marginal blocks of the early printings bear the date on them,
"KREDIT. TIP. 1909," and these are normally used as the starting points. The 14k is known with the date 1909, and
the 7k with 1911. Those are the shades to start with.

It will be noticed that the studies of these two values are much shorter than any other value. One can glean perhaps six
or seven shades for the 14k, all shades of which are found overprinted 20k in 1916. The 7k affords more to study than
the 14k, although still less than the other values. The shade varieties seem to parallel other values in perforated condi-
tion, through the faded colours and scratchy appearance of the Revolutionary period. The 7k value can also be found
with coarse perforations, but not as badly punched as other denominations. At this point the 7k study too breaks off.

The varieties of these two values in comparison with the rest of the Arms series of the period are frequently met. The
14k has a shifted centre, and copies of this error have been recorded used, but all well before the Revolution. This vari-
ety probably commands higher prices reflecting its scarcity in comparison to the large numbers of varieties met with on
other stamps. The 7k is recorded offset, the ink penetrating the paper. This particular variety, is one which is hardly
known on the Arms series between 1909 and 1916/17. The 1r. 1910 issue, with yellow-orange centre is known with
the centre offset. But the spate of offsets of all values (except the 14k) is associated with 1917, the post-revolutionary
era and its printings. Thus it would seem that the 7k was printed and issued at least during the Duma period, although,
as it seems, never in imperforate condition.

The 10k stamps were much in demand. As Dr. Shneidman points out, the clerks made their most frequent mistakes in
calculation when odd values were involved. In using 10s and multiples of 10, they were usually, but not always, correct.
As, in addition to the ordinary 10k definitive, the 10k surcharge on the 7k blue was still being issued and used, it would
seem that the 7k stamp was printed along with the rest in the initial Duma printings, most of which were overprinted 10k.
All were perforated and issued. As inflation set in, the unnecessary dual process of printing 7k stamps and overprinting
them 10 was discontinued, and this value was curtailed altogether. It had outlived the 14k, but at last fell into disuse


Although many other stamps required a two-stage or three-stage printing process, these processes were to complete the
actual stamp. The overprinting would have seemed unnecessary, and the paper saved to print higher value stamps in
their usual format. It would be interesting to see if someone could write some notes on Revolutionary covers bearing
copies of the 7k blue and 10k surcharge on the 7k, to see how late and how frequently they were used in this period.

by Andrejs Petrevics

In their heyday, railway lines were the most rapid means of communication. Nowadays, the railway has given way
to other methods of transportation, but it still carries a lot of goods and passengers where the speed is not so im-
portant. This also includes a large proportion of mail transmission.

The territory of Latvia is covered with a thick network of railway lines. The first lines were built in the 19th centu-
ry, when Latvia was a part of the Russian Empire. During WW1, German armed forces occupied Latvia and built
more railroads for military purposes and also to exploit the natural wealth of the country's forests. In independent
Latvia, still more lines were added for the transportation of freight and passengers.

The first line was built in 1860. This line, crossing the eastern part of Latvia, connected RITUPE with ZEMGALE,
being part of the direct St. Petersburg-Warsaw route. The next line, from RIGA to OREL, was built in 1861-68,
linking RIGA with INDRA in Latvia and then going on to OREL. The first line to join two cities in Latvia was the
RIGA-JELGAVA track, built in 1868.

The postal administration made extensive use of the railroads for the transportation of mail. In addition to carrying
mail, special mail coaches were built and put into use between cities on almost all railway lines. These coaches, call-
ed Travelling or Railroad Post Offices (TPO or RPO), gathered mail, sorted it out and carried it to the sedentary post
office nearest the addressee.

These TPOs/RPOs used special cancels, indicating that the mail was handled by this method. The early markings are
in circular form, with the inscription in Russian reading "POCHTOVYI VAGON No....." Later on, oval-shaped can-
cels were used, giving the names of the locations between which the relevant mail coach was traveling, e.g. TAPS-90-
RIGA. Both types, circular and oval, can be subdivided into a more detailed classification.

Such markings may be considered as forerunners to the Latvian TPO/RPO cancels, the subject of this article. In
some cases, the same cancelling devices were probably used, with just the inscriptions changed from Russian to Lat-
vian. Only two Latvian cancels were in circular form, all others being ovals and we may therefore consider the latter
as standard for Latvian TPO/RPO markings. On both types of cancels, we find the names of the places between which
the relevant train was traveling. On all postmarks, there is the term "PASTA VAGONS," meaning mail coach, or its
abbreviation "P.V." After the change in orthography in 1921, the letter W was replaced by V, the length of pronun-
ciation denoted by H was now shown by a "-" sign over the vowel (RIGA was now RIGA) and EE was spelled IE.
For reasons of economy however, the cancels in the old spelling were in use for many years, some of them until the
incorporation of Latvia into the Soviet Union. After WWII, Latvian TPO/RPO cancels were superseded by Soviet
Russian types in circular form.

The present listing of Latvian TPO/RPO cancels has been compiled from the research done by Eng. E. Becker (Ham-
burg, Germany), Walter E. Norton (Philadelphia, Pa.), Jacques Hermann (Valby, Denmark), K. Rungis (Chicago, III.),
J. P. Visser (Bergen, Netherlands), B. Marquardt (Bremerhaven, Germany) and the author of this article. My sincere


thanks to these collectors for their friendly cooperation! It is not a complete and final listing and much more has to
be done in this field. Further information, corrections and new discoveries would be greatly appreciated. The illus-
tration of the cancellation types were taken from the excellent tables of Latvian postmarks, prepared by Eng. E.

Now for a few words about the technical presentation of this listing. The cancels have been divided into types I-VII,
according to the composition of the test, as follows:

Column 1: Numbering assigned by the author to a specific cancel.

Column 2: Place names of the railway line on the cancel, arranged in the Latvian alphabetical order.

Column 3: TPO/RPO designation, as given on the cancel.

Column 4: Cancellation type, in Roman letters.

Column 5: Number of vertical lines in the cancellation segments.

Column 6: Earliest and latest known years of use for this particular cancel.

OTRADI, or the abbreviation OTR. Found on cancellation types V, VI and VII after the placenames, denoting that
this was a round-trip train. The word "otradi" means reverse or return.

NOD. This was the abbreviation for NODALA and appeared on cancel types VI and VII to indicate that the train on
this line only had a compartment of a passenger coach set aside for TPO/RPO use. That was mostly the case on
narrow-gage lines which carried little traffic. The word "nodala" means section or compartment.


No. L i n e Pasta Vagons Type Segm. Years

4. BALBINAVA RIGA P.V.b IV 8/7 21-22
5. BAUSKA MEITENE UN OTR. P.V.NOD.No 31 un 32 b VII 11 26
6. DAUDZEVA NERETA UN OTR. P.V.NOD.No 43 un 44.a VII 11 33-35
7. DAUGAVPILS ABRENE P.V.No 17.a V 0 39-41
8. DAUGAVPILS EGLAINE UN OTR. P.V.NOD.NoNo 49 un 50a VII 12 28-39
11. DAUGAVPILS INDRA UN OTR. P.V.NOD.NoNo 41 un 42.a VII 10 35-36
12. DAUGAVPILS INDRA UN OTR. P.V.NoNo 41 un 42.a V 0 42-43
14. DAUGAVPILS KRUSTPILS P.V.No 58.a V 9 38-39


No. Line Pasta Vagons Type Segm. Years

17. EKENGRAVE DAUDZEVA UN OTR. No No 43 u. 44.a V 11 25-31
18. ERGLI RIGA P.V. 20-a a V 0 40
19. GULBENE APE UN OTR. P.V.NOD.NoNo 25 un 26.a VII 10 28-39
20. GULBENE APE UN OTR. P.V.NOD.NoNo 25 un 26.a VII 0 40-41
21. GULBENE PI.AVINIAS RIGA P.V.No 6.a V 11 30-38
22. GULBENE PIAVINAS RTGA P.V.No 6.a V 0 39-43
24. JEKABPILS AKNISTE UN OTR. P.V.N.NoNo 53 un 54.a VII ?/ 3 ?
25. JEKABPILS. AKNISTE UN OTR. P.V.N.NoNo 53 un 54.a VII 0 41
30. JELGAVA TUKUMS UN OTR. P.V.NOD.No 27 un 28a VII 0 40
31. KALKUNI RIGA P.V.a IV 10/11 24
32. KALKUNI RIGA P.V.b IV 11 24
33. KARSAVA RIGA P.V.No. 20.a V 9 38-40
34. IEMERI RIGA P.V.No 22.a V 9 37-39
36. KRUSTPILS RIGA P.V.No. 16a V 9 37-38
37. KRUSTPILS RIGA P.V.No. 16a V 0 39-40
39. LEEPAJA- RIGA P.W.a III 0 20-33
40. LEEPAJA- RIGA P.W.a III 0 41
42. LIEPAJA AISPUTE UN OTR. P.V.No 33 un 34.a V 0 39-43
43. LIEPAJA ALSUNGA UN OTR. P.V.NOD.No 35 un 36a VII 9 34-35
44. LIEPAJA KULDIGA UN OTR. P.V.No 35 un 36.a V 0 38-43
45. LIEPAJA PAURUPE UN OTR. P.V.NOD.NoNo 47 un 48.a VII 9 27-35
46. LIEPAJA- RIGA P.V.No 12a V 9 35
47. LIEPAJA RIGA P.V.No. 12b V 9 37-40
48. LIEPAJA RIGA P.V.No. 56a V 9 31-37
49. LIEPAJA RIGA P.V.No.56b V 11 31-38
50. LIEPAJA RIGA P.V.a IV 0 38-41
51. LIEPAJA RIGA P.V.No 56.a V 0 38-41
52. LIEPAJA RUCAVA UN OTR. P.V.NOD.NoNo 47 un 48a VII 0 40
53. LIEPAJA RUCAVA UN OTR. P.V.NOD.NoNo 47 un 48a VII 0 43
54. MEITENE RIGA P.V.a IV 10/9 39
57. RESEKNE RIGA P.W.a III 7 20-24
58. RESEKNE RIGA P.W.b III 7 20-23
59. REZEKNE SITA P.V.No 31a V 9 38-39


No. Line Pasta Vagons Type Segm. Years

64. RIGA ERGI P.V. 19-a.a V 0 41
65. RIGA KALKUNI P.V.b IV 10 24
66. RIGA KARSAVA P.V.No 19a V 0 40
67. RIGA KARSAVA P.V.No 27a V 0 41
68. RIGA KEMERI P.V.No 21.a V 9 38-41
69. RIGA KRUSTPILS *P.V.No 15a V 9 32-41
71. RIGA LEEPAJA P.W.a III 0 20-39
72. RIGA LIEPAJA P.V.No 11a V 11 35-36
73. RIGA LIEPAJA P.V.No 11b V 9 36
74. RIGA LIEPAJA P.V.No 55.a V 9 29-35
75. RIGA LIEPAJA P.V.No 55b V 11 30-38
76. RIGA LIEPAJA P.V.a IV 0 40-41
77. RIGA LIEPAJA P.V.No 11.b V 11 40-43
78. RIGA LIEPAJA P.V.No 55.a V 0 39-42
80. RIGA PLAVINAS GULBENE P.V.No 5.a V 0 39-42
83. RIGA RESEKNE P.W.a III 7 21-25
85. RIGA RITUPE P.V.No 7.a V 9 29-39
86. RIGA RITUPE P.V.No 7.b V 9 27-33
87. RIGA RITUPE P.V.No 7.a V 9 37-39
88. RIGA RITUPE P.V.No 7.b V 9 36-41
89. RIGA ROJIENA P.V.No 45.a V 0 38-42
90. RIGA SECE P.V.No 15a V 9 26-30
92. RIGA VALKA *P.W.a III 8 21-38
93. RIGA VALKA *P.V.a IV 0 38-39
94. RIGA VALKA P.V.No l.a V 0 39-43
96. RIGA VENTSPILS P.V.No 13.b V 9 38-39
97. RIGA VENTSPILS P.V.No 13b V 0 41
100. RIGA WENTSPILS P.W.a III 0 22-39
101. RIGA ZEMGALE *.P.V.No 9a V 9 27-41
102. RIGA ZEMGALE P.V.No 9a V 9 36-39
103. RIGA ZEMGALE P.V.No 9b V 0 41
104. RIGA ZILUPE P.V.No 3a V 9 26-32
105. RIGA ZILUPE P.V.No 3b V 9 31-32
106. RIGA ZILUPE P.V.No 3a V 9 38
107. RIGA ZILUPE P.V.No 3b V 9 38-39


No. L i n e Pasta Vagons Type Segm. Years

108. RITUPE RIGA P.V.No 8a V 9 27-35
109. RITUPE RIGA P.V.No 8b V 9 25-35
110. RfTUPE RIGA P.V.No 8a V 9 36-39
111. RITUPE RIGA P.V.No 8b V 9 39-41
112. ROJIENA RIGA P.V.No 46.a V 9 36-43
113. SALDUS AIZPUTE UN OTR. P.V.No 33 un 34a V 0 40-42
114. SECE RIGA P.V.No 16a V 9 41
115. SITA REZEKNE P.V.No 32a V 9 39
117. STENDE MAZIRBE UN OTR. P.V.NOD.NoNo 37 un 38.a V 9 28-43
118. VALKA MOISAKULA UN OTRADI P.V.N.No 23 un 24a V 11 31-39
119. VALKA MOISAKULA UN OTRADI P.V.N.No 23 un 24a V 0 40
121. VALKA RIGA P.W.a III 7 21-39
122. VALKA RIGA P.V.No 2a (small a) V 0 40
123. VALKA RIGA P.V.No 2a (large a) V 0 39-40
126. VALMIERA SMILTENE UN OTR. P.V.NOD.NoNo 21 un 22a ? 0 38
127. VECGULBENE OPE *.P.V.NOD a VI 9 25-27
129. VENTSPILS MAZIRBE UN OTR. P.V.N.NoNo 39 u.40.a VII 9 34-44
130. VENTSPILS RIGA P.V.a III 9 24-40
131. VENTSPILS RIGA P.V.a IV 0 40-41
134. WENTSPILS RIGA P.W.a III 0 22-39
139. ZEMGALE RIGA P.V.No 10a VI 9 31
140. ZEMGALE RIGA P.V.No 10b VI 9 27-29
141. ZEMGALE RIGA P.V.No 10a VI 9 36-40
142. ZEMGALE RIGA P.V.No 10 b VI 0 39-41
143. ZILUPE RIGA P.V.No 4a VI 9 29-35
144. ZILUPE RIGA P.V.No 4b VI 9 25-33
145. ZILUPE RIGA P.V.No 4a VI 9 36-46
146. ZILUPE RIGA P.V.No 4b VI 9 36-40
147. ZILUPE RIGA P.V.No4b VI 0 ?


Vete .- / "Latvian Traveling
Post Office (RPO)
*'**" Cancels," by
SAndrej's Petrevics

S -,3S5 'S fLatrian railroad
network at the
". : beginning of 1914.

1 )4 r o siLsC f

&- ~ Latvian railroad
SA network at the
098 end of 1938.

I.. O Map taken from
u 1r r"Latvju
IIr ,. E nciklopedija,"
SI Sweden, 1958.

L I U V Ait* ai-.f .fn
"PAT lt p 0
M^^W rM r cip
n r cu/

Ljas d:e!scej tltls; augiJ 1914. g., apraki 1 j g.

"0-f --

)vJ P. NI

Type I Type II Type III Type IV

22 340. 14 25)f [ c

VV. rOD.Nbs^

Type V Type VI Type VII
P.V.N2- ... -40- P.V.NOD. P.V.NOD. N...

by D. N. Minchev

Just as in many other phases of historiography, so also in postal history unknown material continues to turn up, shed-
ding additional light on the problems which have already been the subject of published investigations. This has also
been the case now with us. Recently, we were able to find a series of hitherto unknown original archival documents
which now permit us to enrich one of the areas which was the topic of one of our studies, devoted to the activities of
the Russian Fieldpost in Rumania during 1877-78. In the present article, we shall attempt to present for the first time
something new in connection with the problem noted above. This should unquestionably be of interest to specialists
and those concerned with Russian postal history relating to this particular period of time.

In addition to the postal stations about which we have already written (Br5ila, Buzu, Movila Banului, Casota, Barlad,
Zimnicea etc.: see Note 1), the Russian Fieldpost in Rumania also set up its agencies at Ploesti, Bucharest, Galati (Gal-
atz) and Giurgiu. They may be distinguished, in common with the remaining Russian fieldpost stations by the number-
ing of the "otdeleniya" (agencies) in the corresponding dated cancels.

After the declaration of war at Kishinev on 12/24 April 1877, the Russian forces began to move across Rumania on the
way towards the Turkish frontier, in accordance with an agreement concluded previously with the Rumanian Govern-
ment. On 1 May 1877, the General Staff of the Russian Danube Army was set up for a time in the city of Ploesti. The
Administration of the Russian Fieldpost Service was also installed there, together with Fieldpost Office No. 1, whose
area of operations covered by its agencies encompassed Rumania and the territories to the south of the Danube, i.e. Bul-
garia, Thrace, etc. In the meantime, the first Russian fieldpost agencies were also opened on Rumanian territory, about
which we referred a little further back.

Despite the fact that the Russian forces had crossed the Danube into Bulgaria during the night of 26/27 June 1877 and
had moved successfully forward, the Administration of Postal Communications of the Russian Army continued to be
based in the Rumanian capital of Bucharest during the early days of December in the same year. We learn about this
from letter No. 203, dated Bucharest, 6 Dec. 1877, from the above-named Administration to Vladimir Trubacheev, the
leading organizer of the Russian Civilian Postal Service in Bulgaria. In accordance with another document, the Staff of
the Russian forces in the rear continued to be situated during the summer of 1878 in the Rumanian capital, which was
the main signalling centre with Russia. This explains why the 7th. agency of the above-named fieldpost office operated
in Bucharest. There is a note on the activities of this fieldpost agency at Bucharest in circular No. 1618 of 9 Nov. 1878
from the Postal Administration in Bulgaria, whose location at that time was at Adrianople. The circular was addressed
to the postal stations in Bulgaria. From letter No. 11984 with date 28 Nov. 1878 from Fieldpost Office No. 1, now at
Adrianople, we learn that the 7th. agency still remained in Bucharest. Mail destined for it had to be forwarded via field-
post agency No. 1 in Ruse (Rustchuk). According to Tchilingirian, the noted investigator of Russian Posts Abroad, the
cancel of the 4th. fieldpost agency was being utilized in Bucharest towards the end of 1877. While that was probably
the case for 1877 and for a time in 1878, we see this particular agency mentioned in the list of fieldpost agencies oper-
ating in Bulgaria around the middle of 1878, specifically in the city of Varna, in accordance with circular No. 1618,
noted above.

With regard to the city of Galati, we learn from the same circular that fieldpost agency No. 2 was located there. Accord-
ing to circular No. 1 of the Russian Postal Administration in St. Petersburg, the mail between Russia and Bulgaria and re-
turn was being forwarded during Feb. 1878 by RPO (TPO) No. 75 on the newly-opened Bendery-Galati railroad (2), in-
stead of via Ungeni. It can be assumed from this that fieldpost agency No. 2 was situated in Galati from the beginning
of 1878. It is clear from letter No. 11984 cited above that this agency had suspended its work at Galati, as it had been
moved to Reni sometime between 20-30 November 1878. Mail destined for fieldpost agency No. 2 had now to be sent
to Reni via fieldpost agency No. 1, which was in Ruse.


We have the following data at our disposal regarding the question of the opening and operations of the Russian field-
post agency at Giurgiu. With the installation of the Russian Army under the walls of Constantinople and the conclusion
of the Treaty of San Stefano (19 Feb./3 Mar. 1878), the state of affairs was radically changed. Instead of Svishtov (Sis-
tov) and Zimnicea (Zimnitsa), whose role had dwindled considerably, other towns had now become centres of commu-
nication between Bulgaria and Russia. These new cities were Ruse, the main Bulgarian harbor on the Danube and a
station on the Ruse-Varha railroad, and Giurgiu, the Rumanian port city opposite Ruse and the first station on the Giur-
giu-Bucharest railroad. For this reason, fieldpost agency No. 15 was moved on 15 Feb. 1878 from Zimnicea to Giurgiu.
This we found out from letter 5050 with the same date from the Fieldpost Administration, which was itself also moved
from Svishtov to Ruse. In that way, an agency of the Russian fieldpost service was set up in Giurgiu. There is informa-
tion about the closing of this agency in letter No. 11984 noted above, whereby the personnel had been recalled to
Adrianople. Mail addressed to Giurgiu for this agency had now to be sent to Ruse. From all the foregoing, it can be
concluded that fieldpost agency No. 15 operated in Giurgiu from 15 Feb. to the second half of Nov. 1878.

The two Russian civilian and fieldpost agencies in the Rumanian Danube town of Zimnitsa (now Zimnicea) were the
only ones in the first group founded on Rumanian territory with the intention of maintaining communications with
Russia and return and also having a direct link with Bulgaria. Side by side with their opposite numbers in the town of
Svishtov, situated on the Bulgarian side across from Zimnicea, the relevant stations in these two neighboring cities play-
ed a very important role for almost six months. The civilian and fieldpost agencies in Zimnicea, whose operations com-
plemented each other, had already been opened by the beginning of October 1877. Let us concern ourselves above all
with the civilian agency. Mr. K. Rodchenko, one of the managers, together with V. Trubacheev, of the civilian postal
service in Bulgaria informs us about its inauguration in his letter dated 15 Oct. 1877. Prince Cherkasskii, the Director
of the Civilian Administration in Bulgaria, in his report No. 63 of 24 Sept. 1877, suggested to the Commander-in-Chief
of the Army, among other things, that a postal route be established from Zimnicea via Svishtov and T'rnovo to Gabrovo,
with eight stations along it, including one at Zimnicea. Between Zimnicea and Svishtov, communications were effected
by boat and during the winter by sleighs. The sum of ten rubles was originally allocated to equip the agency in Zimnicea
with the most necessary items (3).

From an inventory of the items dispatched in Nov. 1877, we also learn of the agency being provided with a mail box.
There is mention in telegram No. 330 of 19 Nov. 1877 from Trubacheev at Svishtov to Prince Cherkasskii that the post-
al route between Svishtov and Zimnicea was completely ensured. The Russian civilian postal agency in Zimnicea was set
up in the house of a Rumanian citizen, Constantine Copolides by name (4). We have eight documents at our disposal re-
lating to the closing of this agency. As already stated, the conclusion of the Treaty of San Stefano also had repercussions
on the means of communication, among other things. In the first instance, both Svishtov and Zimnicea lost their great
importance. Their position was taken over by Ruse and Giurgiu. In a letter dated 5 Feb. 1878 to General D. G. Anu-
chin, Trubacheev suggested that the stations at B'lgarene, Gorna Studena, Karagach, Pavlovo, Tsarevets and Zimnicea be
closed. Two telegrams to Anuchin, dated 7 and 9 March 1878, relate to the same matter. In a telegram from Anuchin
on 10 March 1878 to Trubacheev in Svishtov, permission was given to close the agency at Zimnicea and it was regarded
as being completely out of service as from 4 April, in accordance with letter No. 390 of 12 March, sent by the Director
of Postal Affairs in Bulgaria. The transient character of the agency, together with its short-lived activity, may help to ex-
plain the lack of a specific cancel. As already noted, the fieldpost agency began operating in Zimnicea around the begin-
ning of Oct. 1877. The 15th. fieldpost agency carried out its activities there until 14 Feb. 1878, when the agency was
transferred to Giurgiu. This particular fieldpost agency had its own dated canceller.

The postal station in the village of Brigadiru, stiuated 17-1/2 versts (12 miles) N.E. of Zimnicea on the way to Bucharest,
was opened at the beginning of Oct. 1877. This fact comes to light from a letter by Konstantin Rodchenko, dated 15
Oct. 1877, in which there is mention of the establishment of postal stations, both at Brigadiru and Zimnicea. The sta-
tions at Brigadiru, which lasted until the end of 1877, served only to forward mail between Zimnicea and Bucharest and
thus had a very limited function. There was neither a civilian nor a fieldpost agency there and for that reason it did not
have its own postal canceller.


It is necessary that we also concern ourselves with the role which the Rumanian post office at Zimnicea had in its opera-
tions with the Russian agencies in the same town. We have four documents relating to this matter, dated 18 Nov., 27
Nov.. and 14 Dec. 1877, as well as 8 Jan. 1878. We will examine the two which we found to be the most relevant. In a
telegram dated 27 Nov. 1877 to Adjutant General Drentel in Bucharest, it was arranged that he notify the Rumanian
Postal Administration that in accordance with Article No. 10 and others of the U.P.U. Convention, the newly-established
Russian postal service in Bulgaria had begun operations and would forward in a few days' time all classes of mail for
Russia and other European countries. Such mail would be transferred from the post office at Svishtov to the Rumanian
one at Zimnicea. From Trubacheev's letter No. 5 of 8 Jan. 1878 to Prince Cherkasskii, we find out that the Civilian
Postal Service was ready to receive all classes of mail from "the Rumanian post office" at Zimnicea, while the fieldpost
agency which was established on a temporary basis in Svishtov, would only accept mail destined for military personnel.

From everything set down so far, it can be stated with certainty that the following agencies of Fieldpost Office No. 1
(the only one in the Balkans) operated on Rumanian territory, namely:

No. 2 at Galati
Nos. 4 & 7 at Bucharest
No. 15 at Zimnicea and Giurgiu

It still cannot be said positively in what city fieldpost agency No. 11 was working. It can only be stated that it was lo-
cated in Rumania until the end of 1877, since we come across it during 1878 in Bulgaria somewhere around T'rnovo or

Also, documents have not yet been found to indicate which agencies operated at Braila, Buzau (with the adjacent villages
of Movila Banului and Casota), Birlad and Cernavoda. We cannot exclude the possibility that supplementary new mate-
rial will turn up in the future, shedding light on the areas that are still shrouded in darkness.

(1) D. N. Minchev: "The Rumanian State and the Russian Military Posts in the War of 1877-78," Filatelia, Bucharest,
No. 3/1962. The article was reprinted in Rossica No. 64, pp. 13-16.

(2) The Bendery-Galati railroad was built during the same Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78.

(3) According to the expense entries of the "Ledger for Income and Expenditure of the Postal Administration in Bul-
garia for 1877-78" and a bill from the Governor of Svishtov, dated 19 Nov. 1877.

(4) This appears in letter No. 931 for 15 Oct. 1877 from Naiden Gerov, the Governor of Svishtov.


by Dr. A. H. Wortman

The double circle type of date-stamp which came into use for towns from 1903 has two star-shaped ornaments at the
foot with a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet on the right, a, b, v, g, and so on to distinguish which particular hand-stamp
was used at any given time. Some towns having only one or two hand-stamps in use did not get very far down the
alphabet, others such as Odessa, used so many that after going through the alphabet they started all over again with
double letters. They were not all necessarily in use at the same time; as the old hand-stamps became worn out, new
ones with new letters were supplied. We are so accustomed to seeing the letter of the hand-stamp on the right-hand
side that any deviation from this rule becomes obvious at once.

Looking through some foreign postcards, one was seen with an arrival date-stamp of RIGA with the letter on the
left. This was on a postcard from Corfu in 1905. It was so intriguing that a search was made through thousands of
duplicates, stamps and covers, to see if any others could be found from any town. This search was at first unsuccess-
ful but in the end three more and a further possible one were discovered, all from Riga.

Those discovered so far are: Letter "i" 21. 3. 05 on postcard
Letter "k" 3. 3. on vertically laid Ik
and 9. 3. 05 on 10k Charity
Letter "1" 12. 1. 06 on 10k Charity pair 20k

All these have two ornaments with four petals as in the illustration. The further possible example mentioned is a 10k
vertically laid with two ornaments which are six-rayed stars in such positions that the letter if any, would have to be
on the left, but unfortunately that part of the cancellation is off the stamp.

During the search only one other example was found with either "i," "k" or "I" and that was a "k" with the letter
on the right, an arrival date-stamp of 12. 3. 07 on the reverse of a cover from Staraya Bukhara and this has six-rayed
stars. The 10k "possible" with the six-rayed stars has the date 10. 3. 07.

Riga cancellations are very common and it would be interesting to know whether other collectors have any of these
left-handers, not only from Riga but from any other town. The sequence of "i," "k," "I" found on so few examples
is also intriguing, and there is no doubt that these aberrant Riga date-stamps are scarce.

21. 3. 05


by Emile Marcovitch

The American daily newspaper in the Russian language, Novoe Russkoe Slovo, which celebrated its 60th anniversary
in 1970, has another new section called "Collector's Corner" which started with the issue of August 1968. R. V.
Polchaninov, in charge of this section, has interesting articles each Sunday on the subject of various collections.

This pastime was known from the days of Roman civilization. In those days patrons of art collected sculptures and
paintings. With the advent of printing the bibliophiles appeared. They loved books and created the most valuable
libraries. With the appearance of postage stamps and illustrated post cards, the number of collectors has grown enor-
mously. These collector's items were easily accessible. Other collectors appeared such as collectors of autographs,
coins, paper money etc., etc.

It is understandable that the collecting mania could appear only in a civilized society. Simultaneously with the
collectors, came the patrons who were interested in the collections but who primarily, were themselves not collectors.
Humanity is indebted to these for the creation of very rich art galleries, libraries and museums. The collecting of
art works or museum pieces was possible only for the very rich. Therefore the number of collectors was very limited
and other amateur collectors had to look for cheaper objects which they could afford in order to satisfy their collect-
ing interests. This was also the case in philately or postage stamp collecting. Philately is today perhaps the most
popular branch of collecting and it is therefore not strange that most of the articles in the "Collector's Corner" are
devoted to this subject.

Apart from information about the issues of postage stamps in the U.S.S.R., the U.S.A., Canada and the United
Nations, "Collector's Corner" tells us about the philatelic organization "Rossica," about issues on Russian subjects,
about philately in the Soviet Union today and about the difficulties and achievements of Soviet philatelists.

Next in popularity after philately is the collecting of match boxes and match covers. This particular pastime appeared
and spread after the second world war and is explained by the cheapness and availability of these match labels. Both
state and private match factories of some countries produced them in large amounts in order to satisfy the numerous
collectors. Most of these labels are crudely printed, their production costs are much lower than the cost of postage
stamps and so they can be sold very cheaply. There are very few collectors of Russian match labels abroad so the
"Collector's Corner" has to date, only three articles on this subject, (1) Collectors of Match Covers, (2) History of
Matches and their Labels and (3) Review of J. Randall's book "Match Labels."

The collecting of "erinnophilia" or non-postal stamps nowadays called "vignettes" is more extensive. These can be
divided into many classifications; as an example, the commemorative and jubilee groups. The oldest known commem-
orative vignette is dated 1851 and was issued on the occasion of an international exhibition in London. The earliest
known charity vignette was issued in Greece in 1831 and was sold for the benefit of refugees from the Island of
Crete. This vignette, unknown outside of Greece, was described in the article "The First Vignette in the World."

Another article described the collection of vignettes of E. Marcovitch. A third article, "Stories of the French Printer,
Delandre" dealt with the man who was responsible for large amounts of all kinds of charity vignettes issued during
the first world war. He was eventually jailed for unscrupulous handling of the vignette business. Besides the charity
and commemorative vignettes there are also vignettes devoted to propaganda, commercial publicity, political, aviation,
scouts and a variety of other subjects. The "Collector's Corner" gives very little attention to erinnophilia, although
Mr. Polchaninov himself has a very interesting collection of vignettes.



The collecting of illustrated post cards was very popular in the beginning of this century, but was replaced by other
subjects after the first world war. "Collector's Corner" has many articles devoted to the collecting of illustrated post
cards. An article, "Who invented the postcard?" was published to commemorate the centenary of postcards. It
happens that postcards, as with many other discoveries, had their forerunner several centuries earlier. This is told in
Polchaninov's article, "Congratulatory cards and illustrated letters of three centuries." It was written in connection
with an exhibition of the same name held last spring in Frankfurt-on-Main, Germany.

For some time ago there have existed in Russia and in other countries, collections of book labels or "Ex-Libris"; labels
that appeared soon after the invention of book printing. An article, "Ex-Libris" was devoted to this subject. In this
article the earliest known Russian book label is mentioned. This is a XVth century label of the library of the Prior of
Solovetskii Monastery, Father Dosifei. The same article mentions the classic work on this subject by Udo Yvasko,
"Description of Russian Book Labels." The publication of this book coincided with the occasion of 200 years of the
use of "ex-libris" in Russia and describes 2503 known book labels from 1702-1918. In the same article Polchaninov
reviews O. Losunskiji's "Real and Imaginary" dealing with the same subject and published in the "Soviet Collector"
year book of 1970 (no. 7).

One of the earliest types of collecting was numismatics, the science of collecting coins and medals, known since the
days of the Roman empire. Several articles were published on the subject of numismatics; two of them were devoted
to the history of numismatics in Russia and about numismatic museums and literature. Also two articles on numis-
matics in Russia and one about Alaskan medals (many of them related to "Rossica," i.e., matters pertaining to Russia).

Several interesting articles are dedicated to Alaska. One of them describes in detail the paper money of the Russian-
American Company, the so-called "colonial stamps in America." They were issued and in use from 1816 to 1834.

Three articles deal with Soviet paper money of the coal mines on Spitzbergen Island. Also of interest are the articles
on Mahno's paper money; of the use of old bank notes for commercial publicity purposes, and the review of A.
Slabo's catalogue, "Money and Medals of War Prisoners" in which are described the paper money used in camps.

The collection of articles by Polchaninov (there are actually more than 100) comprise a real encyclopedia of all types
of collecting. We can see from his writings that of most importance are the articles on Russian emigres and all that
touches Russia and its culture. Until now, no one occupied himself with this subject and Polchaninov is the first to
concern himself with this for the benefit of the public and the press. Polchaninov's column is therefore devoted to
the subject of "Rossica" its philately, numistics and erinnophilia. There also exists in "Rossica" the subject of
toponymics. Toponymics is the study of the origin of geographical names. Polchaninov has written two articles on
this subject and in this area he is without doubt the first pioneer. These two articles deal with Alaskan post offices
that have Russian names.

Such names are subdivided into three groups: (1) The offices that have preserved their Russian names, (2) The names
of towns which were changed by Americans; for example: Novoarkhangelsk, now Sitka; Alexander Fortress, now
Kushagak (Aleutian word); Suvorov, now Naknek (Aleutian word), (3) Local names in Russian pronunciation or Rus-
sian names in local pronunciation; for example: Miednoriechka is now Matanuska; Kugusig (volcano in Aleutian) be-
came Igiugig in Russian pronunciation. Konian (gull in Aleutian) became Kodjak in Russian; Kodiak now, etc., etc.
Polchaninov is now working on a new article on the same theme-Russian names in America, Canada, Yugoslavia etc.

Various articles describe emigre museums and collections. For example: The Museum "Rodina" (Fatherland) in Lake-
wood, New Jersey; Museum of Russian Culture in San Francisco; "Orthodox Church Room" of P.M. Fekula's collec-
tion in New York; Museum of Music of A.A. Bernardi in France; M.B. Khitrovo's collection of miniature figures, and
finally, the collections of Zemstvo stamps and vignettes of this writer.


Reviews are also presented of collecting literature dealing with Russian materials published in U.S.S.R. and abroad.
Such articles deal with the magazines "Rossica" and "Russian Philatelist," both published in New York; Journal of
"The British Society of Russian Philately," "Sperati and his Book" (about the famous forger of rare postage stamps)
"Philately S.S.S.R." (issued since 1966) and the Soviet magazine, "History of Descriptive Art."

I also wish to mention the articles on general matters rarely discussed in print but still referring to collections such
"Parents, Attention" (about young philatelists)
"Collecting in the U.S.S.R."
"History of rubles in Soviet historical novels"
"Soviet collectors are allowed to swap stamps with collectors abroad"
All these articles are of considerable interest to persons interested in collecting and the variety of subjects in all the
articles of "Collector's Corner" have a common aim: the study and description of Russian collections and museums
abroad, emigrants' collections, producers of emigre vignettes, post cards, ex-libris, etc. Also the study of Russian
themes on foreign issues of postal and non-postal stamps, coins, medals, paper script money, etc. and etc.

All of these articles are important and interesting. It would be a great pity if they were to be forgotten and lost to-
gether with old newspapers. Collectors and researchers would be most grateful to the author if he could publish all
of them in book form. This will then become a collector's encyclopedia and would be a most valuable handbook in
every collector's library.

Emile Marcovitch


by J. Lee Shneidman

What was the postal rate for foreign mail between December 1, 1922 and January 10, 1923? According to the cata-
log published by the Cercle Philatelique and to Vladlen Aronovich Karlinskii, who quotes an edict published in
V.Ts.l.K., no. 274 for Dec. 3, 1922, the postage rate for foreign countries was 250 Denznak rubles or 2,500,000 old
roubles; the registration charge was an additional 250 DRs.

I question whether this rate went into effect.

On Dec. 1 a letter left Gaisin (Podolia) for London; on Dec. 2, a letter left Sobolevka (Podolia) for London. Each
letter had thirty 5k. arms stamps affixed. Since the 5 k. stamp sold for 5 DR. each, the total was 150 DR. or 100
DR (1,000,000 R.) short. It is possible that the postmasters in these Podolian hamlets did not know of the new rate.

On Dec. 2, a registered airmail letter left Kiev for Berlin with thirty 10 k. stamps and one 5 k. stamp for a total of
345 DR., of which 45 DR paid the airmail postage. There is only 300 DR. for postage and registration 200 DR.
short. On Dec. 14, a letter left Odessa for Winnipeg, while another left Yalta for Vienna. The first letter has seven-
teen 5 R. stamps (85 DR.) and five 1 R. stamps (5 DR), and six 100,000 R. on 250 R. (60 DR.); the second letter
has ten 14 k. stamps (140 DR), and one each 7 k. and 3 k. (10 DR). In both cases the postage paid was 150 DR. or
100 DR. short. Was it possible that in Kiev, Odessa, and Yalta the postmasters were ignorant of the charge? On
Dec. 15 a letter left Kiev for Berlin with six 25 DR. 5th Anniversary Stamps. Again short 100 DRs. Two weeks
after the new rates, is it possible that the postmaster in Kiev was still ignorant? Since the six letters cited came from
the Ukraine, was it possible that the Ukrainian postal service had its own rate?

On Dec. 4 a letter left Minsk for New York with six 10 DR. and two 45 DR. 5th Anniversary stamps; on Dec. 9 a
letter left Moscow for Boston with only 150 DRs. in postage; on Christmas Day a letter left Moscow for Berlin with
fifteen 100,000 R. on 250 R. In each case the letters were 100 DR. short. On Jan. 2, 1923 a letter left Petrograd
for Kleinmantel,Germany with only 150 DRs.; on Jan. 3, a letter left Kiev for New York with three 50 DR. soldier
stamps. Again the letters are 100 DRs short. On Jan. 9, a registered letter from Tashlyk, Tiraspol to London had on
300 DRs. or 200 short. On Jan. 11 a letter left Petrograd for N.Y. with six 25 DR. 5th Anniversary Stamps.

While it is possible that Podolian hamlets may not have known of the new rate, it does seem doubtful that the same
would be true in Moscow, Petersburg, Odessa, Kiev, Yalta, Minsk, etc. The question, therefore, is, whether the 250 R.
rate ever existed.

Would collectors look through their collections to see if they have any envelopes with the 250 DR. rate?


by Jacques Posell

The Soviet government has always shown a great interest in postally honoring its famous men of science, letters and
the arts. While there has been no dearth of stamps calling attention to the accomplishments of the revolution, the
political and military leaders, and the beauties of life abundant in the Socialist State, Soviet Russia has also faithfully
proclaimed to the world its past glories in fields other than political revolution and military might.

Its cultural achievements have definitely not been neglected and as far back as 1925 a set of two stamps was issued
to honor the 200th anniversary of the Academy of Sciences in Leningrad and its founder M.K. Lomonosov; and in
the same year a set of two stamps was issued for Prof. A.S. Popov, a pioneer in the field of wireless telegraphy. This
is of eminent importance when one realizes that the country had just recently emerged from five years of revolution,
counter-revolution and civil war, and that the Soviet government itself was not firmly established until 1921. By con-
trast, our own country did not postally honor our men of science and letters until 1940 when the "Famous Ameri-
cans" sets appeared, approximately 150 years after the American government was established.

In Russia however, two stamps were issued in 1932 honoring the famous writer Maxim Gorkii. From then to the
present day, without interruption, at least one famous personage in Russian arts, letters, or sciences has been postally
recognized almost annually. Russia's men of music have not been neglected either, though most of the composers
whom the Soviets have seen fit to honor on stamps are all of pre-Soviet vintage. Though Sergei Prokof'ev has been
dead since 1953 he also has thus far been neglected by the postal authorities; in all fairness however, they might only
be waiting for an appropriate anniversary date in this case. Another major composer who also has not yet been
honored postally is Aleksandr Skryabin (1872-1915). Perhaps his anniversary date, 1972, will not be forgotten.

Four classifications can be made for the musical stamps of Russia, and this article which will be devoted to capsule
biographies, identification of musical notations and appropriate comments (when necessary), will be arranged in the
following order:

1. Russian composers
2. Nationality composers
3. Russian composers honored by other countries
4. Composers of other countries honored by Russia

A further classification will be devoted to related musical topics excluding the composers. Following are the compos-
ers of Russia arranged alphabetically. Catalogue numbers and dates are from Scott's catalogue.

ALYAB'EV, A.A. #1584, Aug. 15, 1951. Note. Although this stamp is labelled A.A. Alyab'ev (Aleksandr Aleksan-
drovich), Nicolas Slonimsky, editor of Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Musicians gives the patronymic as Nikolae-
vich. Alyab'ev, Russian song composer, was born Aug. 15, 1787 in Tobolsk, Siberia and died in Moscow March 6,
1851. He served in the Russian cavalry during the war of 1812 and was with the armies in the entry of Dresden and
Paris. Upon his return to Russia he lived in Moscow but was exiled to Tobolsk in 1825 on suspicion of murder after
a card game. In 1831 he returned to European Russia to live in the Caucausus, in Orenburg and in the Crimea before
settling again in Moscow. Alyab'ev wrote well over 100 songs of which "The Nightingale" became extremely popular
and was often used in the music lesson scene in the "Barber of Seville." The opening of this song is the music printed
on the stamp. Glinka and Liszt also made piano transcriptions of it. He also wrote a symphony, three string quartets,
a violin sonata and the opera "The Prisoner of the Caucasus" which attained great popularity in his day.


BALAKIREV, MILYI ALEKSEEVICH # 1948, May 20, 1957. Balakirev was born in Nizhnii-Novgorod Jan. 2, 1837
and died in St. Petersburg May 29, 1910. A self-taught musician, he helped found the "Free Music School" concerts
in St. Petersburg in 1862 which he directed for a total of 41 years. From 1867 to 1870 he conducted concerts of
the Imperial Music Society in St. Petersburg and from 1883 to 1895 he was conductor of the Court Chapel. A pas-
sionate admirer of Glinka and Dargomyzhskii, he gathered about him the leading younger musicians of the time
(Musorgskii, Borodin, Cui, Rimskii-Korsakov) and with them became the founder and head of a new Russian school
of nationalism. This group, under the aegis of Vladimir Stasov, famed music critic, soon became known as the
"Kuchka" or "the Mighty Five" and devoted itself to Russian music based on Russian folk lore, literature, history,
folk songs and Russian themes generally as opposed to the musical influences of Western Europe. Balakirev composed
two symphonic poems, "Russia" and "Tamara," an Oriental Phantasie for piano, "Islamy," overtures, etc.

DARGOMYZHSKII, ALEKSANDR SERGEEVICH #2776, Sept. 10, 1963. Dargomyzhskii was born in the Govern-
ment of Tula, Feb. 4, 1813 and died in St. Petersburg Jan. 17, 1869. From the age of four he lived in St. Petersburg
where he later studied with Franz Schoberlechner, Austrian pianist and composer. He was already a brilliant pianist
at the age of twenty and after holding a government position for four years, he devoted himself exclusively to music
study for a period of eight years. In 1845 he visited Germany, Paris and Brussels and in 1847 his first opera
"Esmeralda" was produced in Moscow. His best opera, "Rusalka" was given in 1856 in St. Petersburg and his other
famous work, "Kamennyi Gost" (The Stone Guest) was scored by Rimskii-Korsakov and was produced there post-
humously in 1872. Dargomyzhskii wrote a great variety of music and was a leader in the school of Russian national
dramatic realism. The background on the stamp pictures a scene from the opera "Rusalka."

GLINKA, MIKHAIL IVANOVICH #1723-24,July 26, 1954. Glinka, pioneer Russian composer, sometimes referred
to as "the father of Russian music" was born in Novospasskoe, in the government of Smolensk June 1, (May 20)
1804. A nobleman by birth, music was not a regular part of his education. He therefore studied privately with many
teachers on his travels to different countries. In Italy he met Donizetti and Bellini and was greatly influenced by
their music. He returned to St. Petersburg in 1835 and at the suggestion of the poet Zhukovskii, began to work on
his intensely patriotic opera, "Ivan Susanin" which was produced as "A Life for the Tsar" at the Imperial Theatre on
Dec. 9, 1836. This opera became the basis for a Russian national school of music. His second opera, "Ruslan and
Ludmilla" produced Dec. 9, 1842 was a superior work and must be regarded as the foundation of distinctively Rus-
sian music. In 1844 Glinka went to Paris where he met Berlioz. He then travelled through Europe, finally settling
in Berlin where he died Feb. 15, 1857. Months later his sister Ludmilla had his remains returned to be buried in St.
Petersburg. A statue honoring the composer was erected in 1906 and was placed in front of the St. Petersburg Con-
servatory. Besides his two operas, Glinka wrote works for orchestra, chamber music, piano music and much vocal
music. The line of music on the 40 k. stamp is from a chorus in Act 5 of "A Life for the Tsar." Freely translated,
the text reads: "Glory to Holy Russia, solemn holy day of the Tsar." The 60 k. stamp pictures Glinka playing for
the poets Aleksandr Pushkin and Vasilii Zhukovskii.

A second set of stamps, #1907-08 was issued in 1957 to commemorate the 100th anniversary of Glinka's death. The
40 k. stamp pictures the composer and the 1 r. stamp depicts a scene from "Ivan Susanin." NOTE: After the Rus-
sian Revolution, "A Life for the Tsar" became unacceptable for production in the Russian theatres. However, on
Feb. 27, 1939 it was revived in Moscow under the original title of "Ivan Susanin" with all references to the Tsar elim-
inated from the text the idea of saving the country was substituted for saving the tsar.

KALINNIKOV, VASILII SERGEEVICH #1585, August 15, 1951. Kalinnikov was born in Voin near Mtsensk in the
government of Orel. He studied in Orel where he sang in a high school choir and earned his living by tutoring and
conducting choral groups. In 1884 he went to Moscow and entered the Conservatory there but was forced to leave
after a year because of his inability to pay. He then studied bassoon at the Music School of the Moscow Philharmon-
ic Society and earned his living as a bassoonist in theatre orchestras while at the same time he studied composition
with A. IIl'inskii and Blarenberg. After graduating from the school in 1889 he devoted himself mainly to composition.
His most successful work, the Symphony in G minor, which was composed in 1895, was first presented in Kiev in


1897. A second symphony in A major, also first played in Kiev a year later, was not as successful. Other major
works were a cantata, "John of Damascus," a ballade for solo voices, chorus and orchestra, "Rusalka," a string
quartet and an Overture and Incidental Music to "Tsar Boris" a play by Aleksei Konstantinovich Tolstoi. Because of
his irregular living habits he contracted tuberculosis, was sent to Yalta for treatment and died there a few months
later. The notation on the stamp, though vague and indistinct, is clearly the opening theme of the second symphony
in A major. The score is dedicated to Aleksandr Nikolaevich Vinogradskii (1854-1912) a famous Russian conductor
of his time. The title page bears a very unusual dedication, for the composer used the opening theme of the sym-
phony as a song with words, as follows: "Aleksandr Nikolaevich, my dear and good friend, this work is dedicated to
you in the hope that you will like it." (Since this is the only singing dedication ever encountered, perhaps it can be
considered the forerunner of today's singing commercials!)

LYADOV, ANATOLII KONSTANTINOVICH #1758,July 5, 1955. Lyadov came from an exceptionally gifted musi-
cal family. His father, Konstantin, was conductor of the Imperial Opera in St. Petersburg; his grandfather was con-
ductor of the St. Petersburg Philharmonic Society; his uncles were also professional musicians. Lyadov was born in
St. Petersburg May 10, 1855 and died in Novgorod August 28, 1914. He studied at the St. Petersburg Conservatory
(composition with Rimskii-Korsakov) but was expelled for not attending classes. However, he passed the final exam-
ination brilliantly and was immediately engaged there as instructor of harmony and theory, which post he held until
his death. Among his students were Prokof'ev, Myaskovskii and Boris Asaf'ev. Lyadov was always fascinated by Rus-
sian folk lore and his arrangements of Russian folk songs are invaluable for their authentic harmonization. From his
many works, his best known are "The Music Box," "Kikimora" and "The Enchanted Lake." The music on the stamp
is No. 7 "Plyasovaya" or "Tanzlied" from the Eight Russian Folk Songs for orchestra Op. 58.

RIMSKII-KORSAKOV, NIKOLAI ANDREEVICH #938-941 and #2074. Two stamp issues were devoted to Rim-
skii-Korsakov; the first, issued June 1944 commemorated the 100th anniversary of his birth. The second, issued June
5, 1958 commemorates the 50th anniversary of his death. Rimskii-Korsakov was born March 18, 1844 in Tikhvin,
near Novgorod into a family which traditionally served in the Russian navy. He himself became a naval officer by W
profession and a gifted but mainly self-taught amateur musician later. He was always interested in music, and com-
posed constantly and attended concerts whenever possible during the eleven years he spent in the navy. Finally in
1873 he decided to leave the service and to devote himself fully to music. The Ministry of Marine created a post for
him of Inspector and Supervisor of Bands of the Imperial Navy. He became a professor of composition and instru-
mentation at the St. Petersburg conservatory which position he held until his death. Among his outstanding pupils
there were Glazunov, Lyadov, Arenskii, Ippolitov-lvanov, Grechaninov, Cherepnin and Stravinskii. He was also an
accomplished conductor who did much to promote Russian music in other lands. A member of "the Mighty Five,"
he was greatly influenced by Balakirev. After Musorgskii's death, he revised and orchestrated that composer's "Boris
Godunov" and it was in his version that this masterpiece became famous. He also orchestrated Borodin's opera
"Prince Igor" and Dargomyzhskii's "The Stone Guest" thus making it possible for these operas to be produced. He
was a prolific composer himself and in the art of orchestration Rimskii-Korsakov had few equals. He composed four-
teen operas of which "Le Coq d'Or" is best known in this country. Other famous works are "Scheherazade,"
"Capriccio Espagnole," "Russian Easter Overture," "Antar Symphony" and many, many others. He died in Lyubensk
near St. Petersburg June 21, 1908.

RUBINSTEIN, ANTON GRIGOREVICH #1745,Dec. 30, 1954. Famed pianist, composer and pioneer of musical
education in Russia, Rubinstein was born in Podolia Nov. 28, 1829. He was of a family of Jewish merchants who
became baptized in Berdichev in 1831. As a child he showed great musical talent and at the age of ten was taken to
Paris where he played before Chopin and Liszt. He then toured Europe, working his way back to Moscow in 1843.
Then after studying some years in Berlin, he again toured Europe as a pianist and composer. Returning to Russia in
1858, he was appointed court pianist and conductor of the Court concerts. A year later he became director of the
Russian Musical Society and in 1862, over great opposition from "the Mighty Five," he founded the Imperial Con-
servatory in St. Petersburg which was the first conservatory in Russia, and where he was both director and piano pro-
fessor for many years. Four years later, in 1866, his brother Nikolai, also a pianist, composer and conductor, estab-
lished the Moscow Conservatory where he served as director. Rubinstein wrote a great amount of music and it was


his most cherished desire to be recognized as a great dramatic composer. However, it is only as a pianist that he has
won lasting fame. He composed many operas of which "The Demon" is still perhaps the best known today; also five
concertos for piano, six symphonies, symphonic poems, chamber music, 165 songs and a multitude of piano pieces.
He died in Peterhof, near St. Petersburg, Nov. 20, 1894.

CHAIKOVSKII, PETR IL'ICH #789-793, 2044-46, 2209, 2579, 3207-09. The most popularly known and univer-
sally accepted of all Russian composers is undoubtedly Chaikovskii. When one thinks of Russian music the name
Chaikovskii comes immediately to the fore. More postal issues have been devoted to him than to any other Russian
composer. Born May 7, 1840 in Votkinsk, govt. of Vyatka, a small town in the Western Urals, the family moved to
St. Petersburg in 1850 and young P&tr began his studies for the law. At 19 he graduated from the School of Juris-
prudence and became a clerk in the Ministry of Justice. He had studied music privately and in 1862 at the age of
22, entered the newly established St. Petersburg Conservatory and studied under Anton Rubinstein. Four years later
he became professor of harmony at the newly founded Moscow Conservatory where Nikolai Rubinstein was the
director and where he remained until 1878. All forms of music are represented in his works: he composed six sym-
phonies, ten operas of which "Eugene Onegin" and "The Queen of Spades" are the best known today. His three
ballets, "The Sleeping Beauty," "The Nutcracker" and "Swan Lake" are all in today's ballet repertoire. He wrote
concertos, chamber music, songs, orchestral works which have attained universal fame such as, "Marche Slave," "Over-
ture 1812," "Francesca da Rimini" etc. and etc. In 1891 Chaikovskii came to New York to partake in the dedica-
tion and opening ceremonies of Carnegie Hall. He conducted four concerts of his music in New York, one in Balti-
more and one in Philadelphia. He then returned to St. Petersburg in a few weeks for a concert tour as conductor in
Russia, Warsaw and Germany. He conducted the first performance of his 6th symphony, the "Path4tique" in St.
Petersburg on Oct. 28, 1893. A few days later, on Nov. 6, he died of cholera.

The first Chaikovskii stamps #789-793 were issued in 1940 to commemorate the 100th anniversary of his birth. The
musical quotation on #790 and 791 is the main theme after the opening fanfare, in the first movement of the Fourth
Symphony in F minor. The music on #793 is the opening theme of the Prelude to "Eugene Onegin," Chaikovskii's
most famous opera. First produced in Moscow in 1879, this work has since been performed in major opera houses
throughout the world. The other two stamps in the set picture the Chaikovskii museum in Klin. On March 18, 1958
another set was issued #2044-46 perforated and imperforate to mark the First International Chaikovskii Competition
for violin and piano which was held in Moscow in March and April of that year. This set features two portraits of
the composer and a scene from the ballet "Swan Lake." In 1959, a set of famous statues was issued and among them
#2209 pictures the statue of Chaikovskii which stands in front of the Conservatory in Moscow. #2579 was issued
April 19, 1962 to honor the Second International Chaikovskii piano competition held in Moscow April 2 to May 7,
1962. This bust of Chaikovskii is by Z.M. Vilenskii and is in the Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow. Finally, on May 26,
1966 three more stamps were issued #3207-09 to mark the Third International Chaikovskii Competition which this
time included pianists, violinists, cellists and vocalists from all countries. This event was held in Moscow, May 30 to
June 7, 1966. The 4 kop. stamp pictures the Moscow Conservatory; the 6 kop. pictures Chaikovskii and the 16 kop.
stamp in the Chaikovskii House in Klin.

The U.S.S.R. is a nation composed of many nationalities. While Russia is the largest and most influential of the 15
Republics which comprise the Soviet Union, and while the Russian language is universally taught throughout the land,
the other peoples are strongly encouraged to develop their own language, and their own culture and literature. Poets,
writers, musicians, scientists who represent the different nationalities within the Soviet borders have often been postally
honored by the Soviet government. Examples which readily come to mind are the stamps issued for Shota Rustaveli,
Georgian poet; Taras Shevchenko, Ukrainian poet and painter; Khachatur Abovian, Armenian writer; G.M. Sundukian,
Armenian playwright and many others. The musicians, too, have luckily not been neglected and the following is a
comprehensive survey of the nationality composers of the U.S.S.R.


GADZHIBEKOV, UZIR #3254,Oct. 12, 1966. Gadzhibekov, Azerbaijani composer, was born in Adzhabedy, near
Shusha Sept. 18, 1885 and died in Baku Nov. 23, 1948. One of the two most significant composers of Azerbaijan,
he became prominent only after the revolution when his music was hailed as a true expression of his people. His
first opera, on a native subject, "Leily and Medzhnun" was produced in Baku on Jan. 25, 1908, and his comic
opera, "Arshin Mal Alan" (Baku Oct. 25, 1913) had numerous performances. His best work is the opera "Kyor-Ogli"
(A Blindman's Son) which was produced in Baku April 30, 1937 and at the Azerbaijan Festival in Moscow on April
5, 1938 and for which he was honored with the Order of Lenin. Gadzhibekov is the only composer ever to be elected
to the Supreme Council of the U.S.S.R. A scene from "Kyor-Ogli" is the subject of the stamp.

GULAK-ARTEMOVSKYJ, SEMEN STEPANOVICH #2778,Sept. 10, 1963. Gulak-Artemovskyj, Ukrainian singer and
composer, was born in the Ukraine Feb. 16, 1813, and died in Moscow April 17, 1873. He studied voice in Italy and
sang at the Imperial Opera in St. Petersburg from 1842 to 1864. He then lived in Moscow. His opera, "Zaporozhets
za Dunaem" (A Cossack beyond the Danube) was produced in St. Petersburg on April 26, 1863 and subsequently
attained great popularity. The stamp pictures a scene from the opera.

KOMITAS #3645,Sept. 18, 1969. The following information was supplied by Dr. Lev Ginsburg, musicoligist, music
historian and biographer, of the Moscow Conservatory and by Mr. Mihran Kojian, concertmaster of the National Sym-
phony Orchestra, Washington, D.C.

Komitas (Gomidas) Vartabed, christened Soghoman Soghomonian, was born Sept. 26 (or Oct. 8) 1879 in Guidinia,
Turkey, in Asia Minor. His parents were musical and composed many songs in the Turkish language. His father and
uncle sang in church choirs. Soghoman was enrolled at the Kevarkian Theological Seminary where he showed an es-
pecial aptitude for music. In 1890 he was ordained a deacon and in 1893 took his vows as a monk and assumed the
name of Komitas or Gomidas.

In 1896 he went to Berlin to study music at the Richard Schmidt Conservatory, and philosophy at the University of
Berlin. Three years later he returned to Etchmiadzin (the papal home of the Armenian Church near Yerevan) as lec-
turer at the Kevarkian Seminary. He collected Armenian peasant songs and dance music and proved the originality of
much Armenian music by making comparisons of notations of Kurdish, Georgian and Persian folk songs. Komitas
wrote much polyphonic music for the Divine Liturgy of the Armenian Church. He also composed more than 3000
original folk songs and was well known as a teacher, choral director and singer.

In 1910 after harassment from other monks and a conflict within church circles, he left Etchmiadzin and established
himself in Constantinople. In 1915, during the massacres of Armenians by the Turks, Komitas was arrested and exiled
to the interior of Anatolia where he was witness to the slaughter of countless Armenians. He now experienced severe
mental shock and lost his reason. From 1918 until his passing, Komitas maintained a deathly silence. He died in a
mental hospital in Paris on Oct. 21, 1935. In 1936, at the request of the Armenian authorities, his body was trans-
ported to Yerevan.

MAGOMAEV, MUSLIM #3253,Oct. 12, 1966. Magomaev, Azerbaidjan composer, was born in Shusha Sept. 18, 1885
and died in Baku July 28, 1937. A self-taught musician, he never mastered the technique of composition, but his
ability to transcribe the native melodies faithfully from the original, has placed him next to Gadzhibekov as a repre-
sentative figure in Azerbaijan music. His compositions include several symphonic poems and two operas, "Shah Ismail"
(Baku 1916) a series of songs and interludes on native themes, and "Nargiz" (Baku Jan. 1, 1936) which is based on
events of the Russian revolution. The stamp pictures a scene from "Nargiz."

PETRAUSKAS, MIKAS #2823,Dec. 20, 1963. Petrauskas, Lithuanian composer, was born in Kaunas Sept. 29, 1873.
He was an organist in a church at the age of fifteen and then went to St. Petersburg to study with Rimskii-Korsakov
at the Conservatory. He became involved in political activities during the revolution of 1905 and was imprisoned.
Upon his release he went to Vilna (Vilnius) and there in 1906 he produced his opera "Birute." In 1907 he emigrated


to America, settled in Boston and in 1914 he founded the Lithuanian Conservatory in South Boston. There he pro-
duced the operas, "The Devil Inventor" and "Egle, Queen of Snakes." (Petrauskas himself sang the part of the King
of Snakes.) His other opera is "The King of the Forest." Petrauskas also published arrangements of Lithuanian songs,
and a dictionary of musical terms in Lithuanian. In 1930 he went back to Lithuania and died in Kaunas March 23,

SAYAT-NOVA #2664,Nov. 17, 1962. Ashug (minstrel) Sayat-Nova, Armenian poet, minstrel-musician was born in
1712 at Sanah, Georgia. A one-time serf and weaver, he became court musician to the Georgian King Heraculius II
(1761-1798) where his duties consisted of singing, reciting, playing, composing and entertaining the king's guests in
their own languages. Because of his biting criticism of the king, he was expelled from the court after twelve years,
and made to take holy orders at the Kakhavana Monastery where he was known as Father Stephanos. He spent the
next 25 years there and was killed on Sept. 20, 1795 by the soldiers of the Persian Agha Mahmed in the Tiflis inva-
sion. About 210-220 of his songs exist in Georgian, Turkish and Armenian. The folk music of Georgia reached its
peak of development in the 18th century with the advent of Sayat-Nova. In his day he was widely known as a poet
and his poems were translated into Russian by Valerii Bryusov.

(The above information was supplied by Mihran Kojian, concertmaster of the National Symphony Orchestra, Wash-
ington, D.C.)

Only two Russian composers have been postally honored by other countries. In 1957 on the occasion of the 100th
anniversary of the death of Glinka, stamps were issued in his honor by Bulgaria #996, and by Romania #1220; actu-
ally neither of these appeared until 1958. In 1947, in a set of eight stamps for famous men, Romania included a
stamp for Chaikovskii #B357. This set was originally announced as having been issued by the Romanian-Soviet Study
Institute and consists of four stamps for Romanians and four for Russians; the others being Lomonosov, Pushkin and
Ilya Repin. 1947 is not an anniversary date for Chaikovskii so we can assume that the Romanians acted only out of
respect for Chaikovskii and in comradely friendship to Russia. In 1967 Hungary issued a set of eight stamps picturing
scenes from famous operas. Among them is a stamp #1848, portraying a scene from "Prince Igor" by Aleksandr
Borodin. The operatic characters portrayed are Yaroslavna (Igor's wife), Igor and Khan Konchak. Since these three
characters do not appear simultaneously in the opera, we have to concede a bit of artistic license here. And finally,
in a souvenir sheet of eight stamps issued by Austria in 1969 to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the Vienna
State Opera, one stamp, #840h depicts a scene from the "Swan Lake" ballet of Chaikovskii. These are the only
stamps issued by foreign countries directly or indirectly devoted to Russian music.

By contrast, Russia, in keeping with other countries, has very often philatelically honored the anniversaries of world
famous composers such as Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, etc. To date a total of ten stamps has been issued commemor-
ating the anniversaries of some of the world's most respected composers. These are:

BEETHOVEN, Ludwig van, 1770-1827; #3795. Issued Dec. 16, 1970 to commemorate the 200th anniversary of
the birth of the great German composer and showing a fragment of the opening of the "Appassionata Sonata" in F
major for piano Op. 57. Perhaps the greatest revolutionary spirit in music, Beethoven represents the fullest maturity
in emotional scope, in formal construction and in instrumental treatment of the classical forms of the sonata, con-
certo and the symphony. He is still considered by many to be the greatest instrumental composer of all time. Wrote
9 symphonies, an opera, "Fidelio," 5 piano concertos, a violin concerto, 16 string quartets, etc., etc.-all masterpieces
and all in the repertoire today.



CHOPIN, Frederic, 1810-1849,#2406. Issued in 1960 to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the birth of
Poland's incomparable pianist and composer for the piano. The portrait is after a famous print by Delacroix and the
music in the background is from the "Revolutionary Etude" for piano, Op. 10 No. 12. Chopin composed 2 concer-
tos, 6tudes, Sonatas, Nocturnes, Valses, Scherzos, Polonaises, Preludes, Fantaisies, Mazurkas, etc. and etc. for the piano.
Other works include songs, a piano trio, a cello sonata, etc.

GRIEG, Edvard, 1843-1907, #2023. This stamp was issued in 1957 to mark the 50th anniversary of the death of
the famous Norwegian composer and pianist. One of the most famous of Scandinavian composers, Grieg's importance
lies in the fact that he did not shrink from flavoring his works with a strong strain of Scandinavian tonality to which
is due most of their charm. His best known compositions are his Concerto for piano, the two "Peer Gynt" Suites,
the "Holberg Suite," the piano and violin sonatas, various songs and piano pieces.

HAYDN, Franz Joseph, 1732-1809,#2195. Issued to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the death of the great
Austrian composer. Haydn was the first great master to develop the then new instrumental style of the symphony
which reached its zenith in the works of Beethoven. He was a prolific composer of more than 110 symphonies, 77
string quartets, several large choral works and much instrumental music.

LISZT, Ferencz, 1811-1886,#2536. Issued in 1961 to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the birth of the
famous Hungarian pianist, composer and teacher. In his early compositions, Liszt was a romanticist. Later, he be-
came one of the most ardent champions of realism in music and created a new descriptive form called the symphonic
poem. He was perhaps the greatest pianist who ever lived but devoted his greatest energies to composing. He left two
piano concertos, 12 symphonic poems, "A Faust Symphonie" for chorus and orchestra, much choral music, piano
music, etc. Liszt was one of the grand figures in music.

MOZART, Wolfgang Amadeus, 1756-1791, #1879. Issued to commemorate the 200th anniversary of the birth of the
great Austrian composer. One of the brightest stars in the musical firmament, Mozart's productivity in his short life
of 35 years was astounding. He composed in all forms and in great quantity: 41 symphonies, over 15 operas, some 25
piano concertos, 5 violin concertos, chamber music of all kinds, sonatas, cantatas, masses, etc. and etc. Though con-
stantly troubled with money matters and forced to live a life of poverty which led to an early death and a pauper's
grave, Mozart's music never reflected his personal troubles and is perennially fresh and charming.

ROUSSEAU, Jean-Jacques, 1712-1778,#2589. Issued to celebrate the 250th anniversary of the birth of the cele-
brated writer, philosopher, political theorist and composer. Rousseau was born in Switzerland and died in Paris. He
had a thorough knowledge of musical theory, and in Paris contributed the musical section to Diderot's "Encyclopedia."
He wrote much tuneful music, some of which exists today and after years of wandering in several countries, he set-
tled in Paris in 1770 where, in poverty, he lived in a garret and copied music.

SCHUMANN, Robert, 1810-1856,#2323. Issued to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the birth of the famous
German composer, pianist and music critic. In his adult life, an unfortunate accident to a finger forced him to de-
vote all his endeavor to composition and to literary work. He was one of the founders of the "Neue Zeitschrift f'r
Music" which publication exerted a great influence on the musical life of the period. Schumann composed four sym-
phonies, a piano concerto, chamber music, several volumes of songs, etc. After a long period of mental illness, he died
in an insane dsylum near Bonn on July 29, 1956. The music on the stamp is the opening of "Traumerei" from
"Kinderscenen" (Scenes of Childhood) Op. 15 for piano.

VERDI, Giuseppe, 1813-1901, #2745A. Issued to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the birth of Verdi, one of
the great operatic composers of the world and the greatest figure in Italian opera. Over a period of 59 years, he pro-
duced 26 operas, the most famous of which are "Rigoletto," "II Trovatore," "La Traviata," "Aida" and "Otello."
Verdi pursued his artistic integrity and not even the tide of Wagnerism could affect his individuality. Besides operas
he wrote a Requiem Mass, a string quartet and much choral and vocal music.


WAGNER, Richard, 1813-1883,#2745. Issued to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the birth of the great
German operatic composer and one of music's great geniuses. Originator of the "leitmotif," he developed his own
form of music drama based on Teutonic legend and mythology. Ever a controversial figure, perpetually in debt, be-
set by enemies, living for years as a political exile and leading a stormy personal romantic life, in musical expression,
Wagner towers like a colossus above all other dramatic composers. The sublimeness of his music utterly belies the
knavery of the man who created it.

We will now turn our attention to the various stamps, Russian and non-Russian, which pertain to music directly or

THE BOLSHOI THEATRE. In 1951 Russia issued a set of two stamps, #1553-54 to celebrate the 175th anniversary of
the Bolshoi Theatre on which occasion the Institution was awarded the Order of Lenin. This beautiful structure on Sverd-
lov Square in the center of Moscow is also known as the Moscow Opera House. It was completed in 1776 during the reign
of Catherine II, and was long the center of musical activity in Russia. The 1 rub. stamp pictures Glinka, Chaikovskii,
Musorgskii, Rimskii-Korsakov and Borodin, operatic composers whose works have been performed many times there.
This is the only known instance of five major composers for the price of one postage stamp.

THE RUSSIAN BALLET. In no country in the world is the art of ballet appreciated more than it is in Russia. Russia
had an Imperial School of Ballet in 1738, almost 125 years before there was an Imperial Conservatory. From the time of
Empress Anne to the present, the Russian ballet grew and prospered under government protection and patronage. The
greatest of Russian composers, scenic artists, ballet masters, choreographers, directors, all contributed their talents to
make Russian ballet the most outstanding in the world. One need only mention famous names such as Petipa, Kshesin-
skaya, Pavlova, Karsavina, Fokin, Nizhinskii, Ulanova, Plesetskaya, Dyagilev, and a host of others to realize the signifi-
cance of ballet in Russia.

In 1961 and 1962 four stamps were issued honoring four famous Russian ballets in the repertoire today. #2548 pictures
a scene from "The Red Poppy" with music by Reinhold M. Gliere and original choreography by Vasilii Tikhomirov. This
ballet was first performed at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow June 14, 1927. It was revised in 1949 by the composer and
is now known as "The Red Flower." #2549 pictures a scene from "The Flames of Paris." This ballet of the French
Revolution was composed by Boris V. Asaf'ev with choreography by V. Vainonen and was first performed in Leningrad
on June 23, 1923. #2550 pictures Sergei Prokof'ev's beautiful ballet "Romeo and Juliette." The choreography is by
L.M. Lavrovskii and the first performance took place in Leningrad Jan. 11, 1940. The final stamp is #2551 and pictures
a scene from Chaikovskii's famous ballet "Swan Lake." The original choreographer was the noted Petipa and the first
performance took place at the Bolshoi in Moscow, Feb. 20, 1877.

DYAGILEV, Sergei Pavlovich,Monaco June 1, 1966,#636. Dyagilev (1872-1929) great Russian impressario and organ-
izing genius, occupies a unique place in the annals of Russian ballet. A man of impeccable artistic taste, he had an un-
canny ability to recognize and surround himself with the most talented people in the various arts which contributed to
the ballet. Calling on Russia's greatest dancers, stage painters, composers and choreographers, he established the seasons
of Russian ballet in Paris in 1909 and the Dyagilev Ballets Russes soon became the exemplar in the field of ballet art. In
the field of music he is responsible for presenting Shalyapin (Chaliapin) and other Russian artists in Paris concerts in 1907,
and in 1908 he presented the first Paris performances of Boris Godunov with Shalyapin in the title role, with phenomenal
success. For his ballet company he commissioned works from the composers Cherepnin, Stravinskii and Prokof'ev.


Nikolai N. Cherepnin wrote the ballet "Narcissus and Echo" for him and Igor Stravinskii contributed his three greatest
ballet scores: "Firebird," "Petrushka" and "Le Sacre du Printemps." Prokof'ev gave him "Chout," "Le Pas d'Acier"
and "L'Enfant Prodigue." The stamp also pictures Rene Blum, who, with Col. W. de Basil, reorganized the company
in 1932 as the "Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo."

THE PYATNITSKII CHORUS #2459 April 7, 1961. The Pyatnitskii Choir, also known as the State Russian People's
Choir, was founded by Mitrofan Yefimovich Pyatnitskii (1864-1927). A good singer and imaginative interpreter, he gave
recitals of folk songs which were highly successful. In 1911 he organized his choir and drew on singers, dancers and
instrumentalists from the regions of Ryazan, Voronezh and Smolensk and who therefore specialized in the folk songs of
these areas. Originally made up predominately of female voices, it is now a large mixed chorus internationally known
through its recordings. In 1961 when the stamp was issued, the conductor was Vasilii Khvatov. It is not known whether
he is still the conductor today. Pyatnitskii was a famous researcher of folk music, a meticulous scholar and exacting
musician who kept his arrangements as close as possible to the simplicity of the original songs.

SHALYAPIN, FEDOR IVANOVICH #3058,June 25, 1965. Shalyapin (Chaliapin) celebrated Russian basso, was born
in Kazan Feb. 13, 1873 and died in Paris April 13, 1938. Of humble origin, he was apprenticed to a shoemaker at the
age of ten and at fourteen became a chorister in a travelling opera company. While in the Caucasus in 1892, he met the
singer Usatov who taught him and helped him. Operatic appearances soon followed in St. Petersburg and Moscow,
followed by foreign engagements in Milan, Paris and New York. He was in London in 1913 and returned to Russia at the
outbreak of World War I where he stayed until 1920. During these years he devoted himself to benefit causes and con-
certs for the revolution and was awarded the title of "People's Artist of the Republic." This title was removed in 1927
when he emigrated to Paris where he remained until his death. Shalyapin was one of the greatest singing artists of all
time. He was especially famed for his interpretation of Musorgskii's "Boris Godunov." Other famous roles included
Boito's "Mephistopheles," Don Basilio from Rossini's "Barber of Seville" and Leoporella in Mozart's "Don Giovanni."
The stamp pictures a reproduction of a painting by V.A. Serov made in 1905 and which hangs in the Tretyakov Gallery
in Moscow. Serov was the son of the Russian composer and critic A.N. Serov.

In Oct. 1970 Bulgaria issued a set of six stamps honoring famous singers and scenes from their operatic roles. Among
them is a stamp picturing Shalyapin in his most famous role as Tsar Boris. Bulgaria #1898.

STASOV, VLADIMIR VASIL'EVICH #1988-89, Sept. 23, 1957. Famed music critic, librarian and biographer,
Stasov exerted a powerful influence on the course of Russian music. He was born in St. Petersburg January 14, 1824
and from 1845 until his death 61 years later, he was connected with the public library in that city where he served
for 34 years as head of the Fine Arts Dept. An intimate of contemporary Russian musical life of the 19th century,
he exercised powerful weight as a music critic and as the champion of nationalism and the neo-Russian school of the
Mighty Five (Balakirev, Borodin, Musorgskii, Cui and Rimskii-Korsakov). He wrote numerous essays and musical bio-
graphies of Russian composers which were published in book form in 1894 in St. Petersburg in honor of his 70th
birthday. A fourth and final volume appeared in 1905. He died in St. Petersburg Oct. 23, 1906. Stasov was also
well known as an art and theatre critic. The stamp is a reproduction of Repin's portrait of Stasov made in 1883
which now hangs in the State Russian Museum in Leningrad.

PUSHKIN, ALEKSANDR SERGEEVICH #1360, 1949. Many Russian composers have written operas based on the
works of famous Russian writers. "Snegurochka" by Rimskii-Korsakov is based on a play by Aleksandr Ostrovskii;
"Katerina Ismailova" by Shostakovich, originally known as "Lady Macbeth of Mtsensk" is based on a story of the
same name by Nikolai Leskov-just to cite two examples. But to Aleksandr Pushkin (born Moscow June 6, 1799,
died St. Petersburg Feb. 10, 1837) Russia's foremost literary figure, goes the distinction of having provided the nar-
ratives and source material which served as the basis for more Russian operas than any other author. Many of Rus-
sia's great composers turned to the works of Pushkin for their ideas and plots for their operas. Following is the im-
pressive list of composers indebted to him. (This list may not be complete and readers might know of other Pushkin-
inspired musical works which have been omitted here.)


Alyab'ev, A.A. A Prisoner in the Caucausus

Asaf'ev, Boris The Bronze Horseman
~A Feast in Time of Plague

Cui, Cesar The Captive in the Caucausus
~A Feast in Time of Plague

Dargomyzhskii, A.A. Rusalka
~The Stone Guest

Glinka, M.I. Ruslan and Ludmilla

Lourie, Arthur A Feast in Time of Plague

Musorgskii, M. Boris Godunov

Napravnik, Eduard Dubrovskii

Rakhmaninov, S.V. Aleko (The Gypsies)
"The Miserly Knight

Rimskii-Korsakov, N.A. The Legend of Tsar Sultan
"Le Coq d'Or
"Mozart and Salieri

Stravinskii, Igor Mavra (The Little House at Kolomna)

Chaikovskii, P.I. Eugene Onegin
"Mazeppa (Poltava)
"Pique Dame

Besides the operas we know of two ballets which are based on Pushkin's tables. These are: "The Fountain of Bakh-
chisarai" with music by Boris Asaf'ev, and the "Bronze Horseman" composed by Reinhold M. Glibre. Kalinnikov
also wrote "Rusalka" a ballade for solo voices, chorus and orchestra.

We include two foreign writers who are pictured on Russian stamps. Though noted mainly for their literary works
and their socialistic views, they are of great importance in the fields of music history and musical criticism. Both
achieved fame in the field of music before devoting themselves entirely to literature.

ROLLAND, ROMAIN #3154,1966. Rolland, famous French author and musicologist, was born in Clamecy, Nievre,
Jan. 29, 1866 and died at Vezelay, Yonne, Dec. 30, 1944. After graduating from the Ecole de Rome in 1895, he
became Professor of History of Music (1896) at the Ecole Normale. In 1900 he organized the first international con-
gress for the history of music in Paris and in the next several years he edited and helped organize other societies and
publications devoted to musical history. Rolland is most widely known for his book "Jean Christophe," a musical
novel based on the life of Beethoven which is remarkable for its blending of historical accuracy, psychological analysis
and romantic interest. For this he received the Nobel prize for literature in 1905.


SHAW, GEORGE BERNARD #1878 Oct. 17, 1956. G.B. Shaw, famous dramatist, was born in Dublin, Ireland,
July 26, 1856 and died in England Nov. 2, 1950. Before achieving fame as a playwrite he was active as a music
critic in London, writing under the name 'Corno di Bassetto.' In 1899 he wrote "The Perfect Wagnerite," a highly
individual socialistic interpretation of Wagner's "Ring of the Niebelungs." His criticisms from the London papers
were reprinted in several volumes in 1950 and 1954. Shaw's play "Arms and the Man" was made into an operetta,
"The Chocolate Soldier" (1908) by Oskar Strauss; his "Pygmalion" was produced as a highly successful musical
comedy in 1956 titled "My Fair Lady."

At this writing, two Russian stamps have just been announced honoring the composers Pashiavili and Spendyarov.
Since it will be several months before they appear, photographs unfortunately cannot be included in this article.

PASHIAVILI, ZAKHARIA PETROVICH, Georgian composer, was born in Tiflis (Tbilisi) in 1872 and died in Kutais
in Dec. 1933. He studied at the Moscow Conservatory with Taneev (1900-1903), then returned to his native city
where he became a piano teacher and conducted choirs and the orchestra. He spent several years travelling through
Georgia collecting folk song material which he carefully studied and in which he traced Greek, Byzantine and Persian
influences; he also made valuable researches in folk instruments. All these studies he put to use when he composed
his opera "Absalom and Etery" which was produced in Tbilisi in 1913. The libretto, based on a Georgian legend,
was also written by the composer. He wrote two more operas on national themes; "Daicy" (1924) and "Latavra"
composed between 1925 and 1930. During the last several years of his life, Pashiavili was director of the Tbilisi
Conservatory and after his death the opera house there was named after him. He was one of the scholars who col-
laborated in the publication in 1939 of the first authentic collection of Georgian folk music.

SPENDYAROV, ALEKSANDR AFANAS'EVICH, Armenian composer, was born in Khakovka, near Simferopol,
Nov. 1, 1871 and died in Yerevan, May 7, 1928. He came of an Armenian family of amateur musicians but he did
not study music seriously until he was in his twenties. His first interest was painting and in 1890 he went to Moscow
University where he studied natural history and law; he was admitted to the bar in 1897. Abandoning law, he be-
came a private pupil of Rimskii-Korsakov in St. Petersburg where he stayed for four years and during which time he
wrote mainly chamber music. His early works are in the traditional style of the Russian national school. However,
with the two sets of "Crimean Sketches" and the symphonic poem "The Three Palm Trees" (after Lermontov),
Spendyarov established himself as a composer in the Oriental Russian style, making use of Armenian melodic and
rhythmic elements. From 1924 he lived in Yerevan, studying and collecting Armenian folk music which he utilized
later in his unfinished opera "Almast" based on an Armenian poem. After his death it was completed by Maximil-
lian Steinberg and was produced in Moscow on June 23, 1930, and later revived at the Festival of Armenian Music
in Moscow in 1939.


We are plee-d to present the above topical study to our readers, written by an eminent member of our Society.
Born in Paris, France, he came to the U.S. at an early age. After graduation from the Curtis Institute of Music
in Philadelphia, he was principal double-bass player of the National Symphony Orchestra in Washington, D.C.
(1932-1936). He then went to the Cleveland Orchestra where he was principal double-bass player for 25 years,
with interludes at the Hollywood Bowl Orchestra (1947-1949), and the Central City Opera Company for 12 years
(summers). He also was a double-bass teacher at Oberlin College Conservatory for 23 years. He is currently co-
principal at the Cleveland Orchestra.

This Orchestra visited the U.S.S.R. in 1957. Please see Rossica Journal #52-53, pp. 12, 13 for coverage by Mr.
Posell of this tour. Thank you again Mr. Posell for the present fine article.


_________ by Jacques Posell

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We are breaking up a large
specialized collection of 1943 Typo-printed in Kizil. St.
p ei-S ize (etio 19 ,Gibbons 1970 #134/37 ....................
EMPIRE-SOVIET (up to 1945) (See ROSSICA most interesting article by Mr. A.
o oo o o Cronin published a few years ago.)
On hand a large selection ARMS-25k, SLATE BLUE, one horizontal
Accumulation of 40 years . perforation (134) ................................... 2.50
ERRORS, COVERS, UNLISTED VARIETIES, Incl. do-2 horiz. perform. ................................. 1.50
Offices China, Levant do-strips of 5 ........................................ 29.50
Armies, Far East. Armenia, 25k BLACK with gum (135), one
Georgia, Azerbaydjan, Latvia, Lithuania, etc., etc. horizontal perforation ............................ 3.00
do-2 horiz. perform. ................................ 5.00
o oooo 0 0 0 do-strip of 5, scarce .............................. P.O.R.

We will gladly make approvals (many were disintegrated)
to a specialist. No obligations. 25k GREEN, scarce (136) .................... 25.00
Attractive Prices Convenient Terms. BUILDING-50k GREEN (137) .............. 25.00
(Stamps were printed one by one, using rather poor
o o 0 0 0 quality available paper. Some were hand painted with

We are paying TOP prices gum. 25k green, 50k green, were printed in vertical
for scarce or rare varieties, collections. pairs together.
covers (indl. ZEMSTVO) etc. Offers subject to prior sale!
We will pay Top Prices for used or on cover.


1925-Academy, without wtmk.
perforate (326/7) ................................... 50.00
1927-Esperanto (374) ........................ 40.00 We are breaking up a large collection including
1934-Mausoleum (525) ........................... 30.00 R's and Covers.
Feodorov, 40k (530a) ..................... 60.00
1935-Frunze, 2k (580) ........................... 60.00 Sorry no WANT LIST service individual approval
Bauman, 4k (581) ........................... 30.00 selections. Please give preferred Districts. Our stock
do-light violet ............................... 40.00 is arrange according to Schmidt catalog.
1936-Papanin (646) ............................... 60.00
Pairs pro rata some also available used
P 0 R subject to prior sale. Introductory special offer 44
different unused .................... ............... $22.00

WE ACCEPT U.S. Postage at face. (No Spec. Del.)

P. O. BOX 448