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Early Botany Illustrated, Exhibit Catalog
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00020065/00001
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Title: Early Botany Illustrated, Exhibit Catalog
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida. George A. Smathers Libraries
Publisher: George A. Smathers Libraries
Publication Date: 2004
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Back Cover
        Page 15
Full Text



June 14 September 10, 2004

The Exhibit Gallery
^ Second Floor
Smathers Library
George A. Smathers Libraries
The University of Florida


krw ~

".. 1- f



The idea of an exhibit of some of our botanical books seemed to be
perfect. The stacks are filled with such books as we have a fine col-
lection of botanicalbooks. That soon became the problem. Imagine
that you are given entry to Aladdin's treasure cave with one small
sack and told that you may take anything you desire. But, although
you may fill the sack, you may not take anything else. You fill the
sack and then immediately find another gem. What to do? Rum-
mage through the sack and take something out. This was repeated
many times as I sat on the floor in the stacks looking through our
many beautiful books. What remains can only be a sampling. The
grandeur of the whole treasure cave is only barely glimpsed.

The focus of the exhibit is illustration. There is just passing mention
of the founder of taxonomy Carl Linnaus. Works by John Ray and
John Evelyn of the 17th century are not shown. The eye is the tar-
get and the accompanying text is only complementary. The various
techniques employed to create the images are explained to give some
sense of the means used to create the different effects. The technol-
ogy of a period has benefits and limitations. The methods used to
illustrate botany books evolved as did printing and they have been
applied in all printed visual representations of their time.

Likewise, the nature and appeal of botanical illustration has
evolved. The herbals, which are the foundation of botanical
illustration, were directed to scholars, primarily physicians, yet
Mattioli's 1544 Commentarii is reputed to have sold nearly 40,000
copies in various editions and translations, surely a best seller ac-
quired by nonspecialists. To go about 300 hundred years further,
there were the wonderful Victorian illustrated books, which were
surely purchased by those who had neither gardens nor green-
houses. It is the eye and the eye is entranced.

The exhibit is divided into six sections:

Herbals are a form of material medical, which examines the worlds
of animal, vegetable, mineral for their therapeutic or poison-
ous effect. Herbals concentrate on the effects of plants and try to
describe and illustrate them so that physicians may be able to iden-
tify them. The books have indexes to common names, Latin names,
and also for the illnesses the plants would cure, such as, "For the
swelling of the Goute" in Dodoens. The quality of the images can
vary, which did make the gathering of plants somewhat risky for
the patients.

An offshoot of herbals, books on gardening encompassed more,
most importantly propagation. Gardens began as simple kitchen
gardens and orchards, then expanded to include the development
of formal flower gardens and exotics. The concern was no longer
solely medical. In John Parkinson's book on gardening, the pure
pleasure and joy of growing plants simply because they produce
beautiful flowers is luminously apparent. Parkinson's name comes
up many times in the exhibit.

Botany of Places: The Americas
Along with other valuable commodities, plants and plant speci-
mens were shipped back to Europe. Much of the work of identifica-
tion of new plants and animals was specifically directed and people
in America would be contracted to supply specimens. Beyond the
purely scientific interest and the desire for exotics in gardens, the
contribution of food plants, such as the potato and tomato, had a
revolutionary culinary impact.

Individual Plants
As the study of plants became more scientific and the popularity of
exotics in formal gardens increased, there was a demand for books
related to specific plants. Many of these books were printed in a
large format with an emphasis on ornamental plants and are at the
height of color printing of their time.

Plants began to appear in periodicals of a scientific nature, like the
Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London, which
was first issued in 1666.All aspects of the sciences appeared in its
pages, including botany. Over a century later, William Curtis found-
ed a journal that was exclusively devoted to botany with equal
measure given to scientific and aesthetic considerations.

Children's Literature
The most surprising thing about children's literature on botany is
their complexity. Most read like a thinly disguised college textbook.
Although the context is that of a children's book, the content is
assuredly not. Rita Smith, curator of the Baldwin Library of His-
torical Children's Literature, assisted in the selection of the titles

In entries, a citation to the Hunt catalogue is given where appropri-
ate. The full citation to the Hunt catalogue is given at the end of the
exhibit catalogue along with other selected references. The Hunt
catalogue is of works up through 1800.

Jeffrey A. Barr
Curator of Rare Books

Mattioli, Pietro Andrea, 1500-1577.
[Commentarii in libros sex Pedacii Dioscoridis ... de material
medical. French.]
Commentaires de M. Pierre Andre Matthiole, medecin senois,svr
les six livres de Ped. Dioscoride, Anazarbeen, de la matiere me-
decinale, reueuz & augments en plus de mille lieux par l'autheur
mesme, & enrichis pour la troisieme fois, d'vn grand nombre de
portraits, de plants, & animaux tires au vif, plus qu'aux prece-
dentes editions, auec certaines tables medecinales, tant des quali-
tes & vertus des simples medicamens, que des remedes pour toutes
maladies, qui peuuent auenir au corps human, comme aussi des
sentences, mots, & matieres traictees esdicts commentaires: dau-
antage y a sur la fin, diuers portraits de fourneaux & alembics,
pour distiller & tirer les eaux de toutes plants, auec le moyen de
les conseruer en leurs naiues odeurs mis en francois sur la derniere
edition latine de l'autheur, par M. lean des Moulins ...
Lyon: G. Roville, 1572.
[136],819, [22] p.:ill.; 37 c

Page 653 "Narcisse"

The Commentarii was first printed in Venice in 1544 and was fol-
lowed by more than forty editions in several languages, this being
a French edition from 1572. Following his father, he studied medi-
cine and excelled in botanical studies. The commentaries are on
a material medical in Greek by Dioscorides of the 1st century A.D.
and it also includes descriptions of all the plants known to Mat-
tioli. The diplomat Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq was instrumental in
securing an early 6th century copy of the text Codex chigianus for
the court in Vienna and also gave Mattioli manuscript copies of
Dioscorides. Following the publication of the Commentarii, he was
summoned to the court as physician to Archduke Ferdinand and
then to Maxmilian II.

Cf. Hunt 59, 145

Dodoens, Rembert, 1517-1585.
A nievve herball, or, Historie of plants: wherein is contained the
whole discourse and perfect description of all sortes of herbes
and plants, their diuers and sundry kindes, their strange figures,
fashions, and shapes: their names, natures, operations, and ver-
tues, and that not only of those which are here growing in this
our countries of Englande, but of all others also of forrayne realmes,
commonly used in physicke / first set foorth in the Doutche or
Almaigne tongue, by that learned D. Rembert Dodoens, physition
to the Emperour / and nowe first translated out of French into
English, by Henry Lyte Esquyer.
At London: By me Gerard Dewes, dwelling in Pawles Church-
yarde at the signe of the Swanne, 1578.
[24],779, [25] p.: ill.; 32 cm.

Page 221 "Orchis Serapias"

Rembert Dodoens was the first of a distinguished line of Belgian
botanists. He was educated in medicine at various universities in
Europe, eventually becoming a physician at the court of Emperor
Maxmillian II, like Mattioli, and Maximillian's successor Rudolf
II in Vienna. He published his Cruydeboeck (the title under which
the herbal was originally published) in 1554 and in 1557 it was
published in a French translation Histoire des plants by his friend
and fellow botanist Charles de L'Ecluse (Carolus Clusius.) This is
the edition that Henry Lyte translated, but it was far more than a
translation; a considerable amount of new material and correc-
tions were added, some supplied by Dodoens himself. The Herball
was printed in Antwerp by Hendrik van der Loe for the London
bookseller Garrat D'Ewes.

Hunt 132


Woodcut Relief

A woodcut is iu.ide i.:',i ic [lil.
side (with the : -i.ii I .: .1 :!6:-
of wood. An i!ii.I 1c Is di'.. i :!I
the surface and .,ll rlic ..:.:,d !,.:,t
part of the ima:-4 cur .\:i.. I.J ri .1
sharp knife in rlic .,.i s ic.i 11ri
drawn lines
and with a
such delica- 'C
cy was not

Orch' Scnpin Orclhus SmpML
piunukt ltr.

When inked, only the raised level surface of the image receives the
ink. This type of printing is termed relief, just as the printing
from type is relief. The great benefit of woodcuts is that the block
can be adjusted to be the same height as the type and can therefore
be put into the press with the set type and both can be printed at
the same time.

Gerard, John, 1545-1612.
The herball, or, Generall historic of plants / gathered by John
Gerarde of London, master in chirurgerie.
Imprinted at London: By Iohn Norton, 1597.
[20], 1392, [72] p.: ill.; 34 cm.

Page 781 "Potatoes of Virginia"
Page 1391 "The breede of Barnakles"
John Gerardwas a member of he bred ofBarnaklcs.
the Barber-Surgeons' Com-
pany, but his true interest lay
in botany. He published a cat- / ,
alogue of his garden in 1596, "" .
the first complete catalogue '" ; ,.
ever done. The appearance ,
of the Herball was contro- f "'.r'
versial. The publisher John ,/
Norton had originally com-
missioned Dr. Robert Priest,
a member of the College
of Physicians, to translate -
Rembert Dodoens' Stirpium LT 4.' ."-
historiae pemptades sex, first .' --
printed in 1583. Priest died .-
before he finished the trans- -..Y
lation and the manuscript r-
was acquired by Gerard, who -- --
finished it. He rearranged the
order of the plants from the method of Dodoens to that of Mat-
thias de L'Obel, who was asked by the publisher to correct errors,
of which there were many. The book is not a straight plagiary, for it

SI ,,r
L .'r. "


1 '' i -I

.'. ..

is filled with Gerard's own ob-
servations.The woodcuts were
acquired by the English pub-
lisher John Norton from the
German publisher of the Neuw
Kreuterbuch by lacobus The-
odorus (Tabernaemontaus),
printed in 1588-1591. There
are sixteen original woodcuts,
including the first illustration
of the potato. There are some
recountings of folklore in the
text. For example, the Bar-
nacle-Goose tree is described
and Gerard makes the unfor-

tunate claim to have seen it. The Herball was reprinted in 1636,
much expanded and corrected by Thomas Johnson.

Hunt 175


Parkinson, John, 1567-1650.
Theatrum botanicum: The theater of plants, or An herball of a
large extent : containing therein a more ample and exact history
and declaration of the physical herbs and plants that are in oth-
er authors, increased by the access of many hundreds of new,
rare, and strange plants from all the parts of the world ...: shewing
withall the many errors, differences, and oversights of sundry au-
thors that have formerly written of them ...: distributed into sun-
dry classes or tribes, for the more easier knowledge of the many
herbes of one nature and property, with the chief notes of Dr.
Lobel, Dr. Bonham, and others inserted therein / collected by the
many years travaile, industry, and experience in this subject, by
John Parkinson ...
London: Printed by Tho. Cotes, 1640.
[20], 1755 [i.e. 1745], [3] p.: ill.; 37 cm.

Page 355 "Capsicum longum"

John Parkinson was appointed "Herbarist" to Charles I and was
noted for the garden he cultivated in London. The first book he
published, Paradisi in sole paradisus terrestris in 1629 was on
gardening. (A later edition is included in the exhibit.) In the title,
he refers to Matthias de L'Obel and Johann Bauhin, both noted
botanists. Last in a line of herbalists before the beginnings of the
scientific study of plants, Parkinson divided his subject into seven-
teen classes or tribes. The pepper is in the third tribe, "venomous,
sleepy, and hurtful plants."

"... the fierce vapours
that arise from the huskes
or cods, while one doth
but open them ... will so
pierce the senses by fly-
ing up into the head by
the nostrills, that it will
procure aboundance of
neesings, and draw down
such an aboundance of
thin rheume, that it is to be
admired, forcing tears very
plentifully ..."

Hunt 235

Woodcuts. ,


The expert gardener: or, A ,4 a ,a,
treatise containing certain
necessary, secret and ordi-
nary knowledge in grafting
and gardening: with div-
ers proper new plots for the
garden. Also sundry expert j. --
directions to know the time
and season when to sow and
replant all manner of seeds.
With divers remedies to de-
stroy snails, canker-wormes, P
moths and other vermine. g
Faithfully collected out of __
sundry Dutch and French
London: Printed by William Hunt, 1654.
54 p.: ill.; 21 cm.

Page 34 [Tools]

This volume was originally published in 1594 as The orchard and
the garden and reprinted as the The expert gardener in 1640 and
1654 as one of three titles included in The country-mans recreation.
All the illustrations, except for the tools, are diagrams of possible
formal garden layouts. Many of the garden books of this time were
dominated by such layouts, some extremely elaborate. The tools
are of interest as they are readily identifiable.

Cf. Hunt 170 note, 233,262


Parkinson,John, 1567-1650.
Paradisi in sole paradisvs terrestris, or, A choise garden of all
sorts of rarest birth, time of flowring, names, and vertues to each
plant, useful in physick, or admired for beauty: To which is an-
next a kitchin-garden furnished with all manner of herbs, roots,
and fruits, for meat or sawce used with us. With the art of planting
an orchard of all sorts of fruit-bearing trees and shrubs, shewing
the nature of grafting, inoculating, and pruning of them. Together
with the right ordering, planting and preserving of them, with
their select vertues: all unmentioned in former herbals. Collected
by John Parkinson.
The 2d impression much cor. and enl.
London: Printed by R.N. and are to be sold by R. Thrale,
[12], 612, [16] p.: ill.; 33 cm.

Parkinson's delight in gar- .-. -.-
dens emerges clearly in .
these pages. Divided into -
three sections flower
garden, kitchen garden, and
orchard the book, when .o
published in 1629, was the
first on horticulture printed i
in England. The title is a
play on the author's name;
it translates as "terrestrial
paradise of parking sun" On ''
the title page near the cen-
ter in the background is the
legendary Scythian lamb or -
lamb of Tartary, half plant, L
half animal. It was accepted
as a real creature from the 14th through the 17th centuries. The
woodcut is signed Switzer with an A above. It is generally believed
to be the work of Christoph Switzer who came to England in 1614
and was highly regarded for his woodcuts and engravings. The
printer is undoubtedly Roger Norton.

Hunt 267


Volkamer, Johann Christoph, 1644-1720.
Nurnbergische Hesperides, oder, Grundliche Beschreibung der
edlen Citronat- Citronen- und Pomerantzen-Fruchte: wie solche
in selbiger und benachbarten Gegend, recht mogen eingesetzt,
gewartet, erhalten und fortgebracht werden, Samt einer ausfuhrli-
chen Erzehlung der meisten Sorten, welche theils zu Nurnberg
wurcklich gewachsen, theils von verschiedenen fremden Orten
dahin gebracht worden, auf das accurateste in Kupffer gestochen,
in vier Theile eingetheilet und mit nutzlichen Anmerckungen erk-
laret: Beneben der Flora, oder curiosen Vorstellung verschiedener
raren Blumen samt einer Zugabe etlicher anderer Gewachse, und
ausfuhrlichem Bericht, wie ein richtig zutreffende Sonnen-Uhr im
Gartenfeld von Bux anzulegen, und die Garten nach der Perspectiv
leichtlich aufzureissen: Wie auch einem Bericht von denen in des
Authoris Garten stehenden Columnis milliaribus ... I herausgege-
ben von J.C.V.
Nurnberg : Zu finden bey Johann Andrea Endters seel. Sohn &
Erben, 1708-1714.
2 v. ([8],255, [13] p., [115] leaves of plates (some double, some
folded); [20], 239, [2] leaves, [132] leaves of plates (some double,
some folded)): ill., maps; 36 cm.

Page 166 "Limon dolce"


This work could as well be part of the Botany of Places. Volklamer
was a wealthy Nuremberg merchant who was especially devoted to
the cultivation of citrus. Linnaeus refers to the first part and even
named a genus ;1.,//i,, ;ii, since merged with Clerodendum. He
hired a number of talented engravers and artists to illustrate the
book, which is stunning with its giant beribboned fruit floating in
the sky over towns, estates, and gardens. Often, the manor would
be identified, as here,"In Hrn Doct Silberrad garten." The gardens
in the volume depict fine examples of the formal style with precise
geometrical layouts popular at this time.

Hunt 420


Line Engraving- Intaglio

A line engraving is made by incising lines on a plate, usually cop-
per, with a burin, a tool with a sharp V shaped tip, looking some-
thing like an awl. The lines can vary in width depending on how
deeply the cut is made. The sheet, or plate as it is termed, is then

rubbed with ink and then
wiped clean, leaving the ink .-
in the cut lines and the sur-
face free of ink. The plates are
printed on an engraving press i
where the plate and paper are
put under great pressure by
rollers. The ink in the incised
lines is picked up by the pa-
per from the plate. The process for all prints that are produced from
pulling ink from the recesses, not the surfaces, is called intaglio.


Josselyn, John,f. f
New-Englands rarities dis-
covered: in birds, beasts,
fishes, serpents, and plants
of that country.: Together 4
with the physical and chy-
rugicalremedieswherewith ..
the natives constantly use
to cure their distempers,
wounds, and sores.: Also i
a perfect description of an '
Indian squa, [sic] in all her
bravery; with a poem not
improperly conferr'd upon na,,,lwi .r. r J
her.: Lastly a chronological
table of the most remarkable passages in that country amongst the
English.: Illustrated with cuts./ By John Josselyn, gent.
London,: Printed for G. Widdowes at the Green Dragon in St.
Pauls Church-Yard,, 1672.
[6], 114, [2] p., [1] folded leaf of plates: ill.; 15 cm.

Following page 54 "Hollow Leav'd Lavender"

Josselyn traveled to New England twice, 1638-1639 and 1663-1671
and this is the first book he wrote on his experiences, the second

being largely an expansion ot the tirst. He was most familiar with
Maine, where he visited his brother Henry, who later became dep-
uty governor of Maine and New Hampshire. Josselyn recorded his
observations of the flora and fauna with great accuracy, including
the medical use made of plants; one third of the text is comprised
of lists of the plants and animals he encountered. This is one of the
earliest books on the natural history of New England.

Hunt 322

Ellis, John, 1710?-1776.
Directions for bringing over seeds and plants, from the East Indies
and other distant countries, in a state of vegetation: together with a
catalogue of such foreign plants as are worthy of being encouraged
in our American colonies, for the purposes of medicine, agricul-
ture, and commerce. To which is added, the figure and botanical
description of a new sensitive plant, called Dionaea muscipula: or,
Venus's fly-trap. By John Ellis, F. R.S.
London, Printed and sold by L. Davis, 1770.
[2],41 p.: ill., 1 col.; 25 cm.

Plate facing page [35]


John Ellis was called a
"bright star of natural
history" by Linnaeus.
S-In 1754, he became a
fellow of the Royal So-
'ciety and proceeded to
produce many innova-
-- ...tive works in natural
i- history. In 1764, he was
S appointed agent for
S- Florida in 1764 and also
for Dominica in 1770.
_._. He was greatly con-
S--- cerned with shipping
plants and seeds back
to England, being espe-
cially concerned with shipping over longer distances. He decried
the poor survival rate and proposed various methods of packing
and crating. This was a matter of no small concern to Great Britain,
as witnessed by the expedition of Captain Bligh and the Bounty to
Tahiti in 1787 for the sole purpose of gathering breadfruit to intro-
duce into the West Indies.Almost as an afterthought, Ellis provides
a description of the Venus's flytrap in this small book.

Hunt 606 7 1

Engraving and hand-colored engraving.

Hand-colored Line Engraving Intaglio

The engraving is done in the usual manner, then color is added
by hand. Hand-coloring refers to any print that is then colored by
hand, usually with water-color. The term distinguishes the process
from color added by mechanical means.

Catesby, Mark, 1683-1749.
The natural history of Carolina, Florida, and the Bahama Islands:
containing the figures of birds, beasts, fishes, serpents, insects, and
plants: particularly, those not hitherto described, or incorrectly
figured by former authors, with their descriptions in English and
French. To which is prefixed, a new and correct map of the coun-
tries; with observations on their natural state, inhabitants, and
productions. / By the late Mark Catesby ... Revised by Mr. Edwards
...; To the whole is now added a Linnaean index of the animals
and plants. = Histoire naturelle de la Caroline, de la Floride, et des
isles de Bahama:: contenant les desseins des oiseaux, des quadru-
pedes, des poissons, des serpens, des insects, & des plants, qui se
trouvent dans ces pays-la en particulier, de ceux qui n'ont point ete
decrits jusqu' a present par les auteurs, ou peu exactement dessine.
Avec leurs descriptions en francois & en anglois. On trouve au com-
mencement une carte de ces pays, avec des remarques sur leur etat
natural, leurs habitans, & leurs productions. / Par feu Monsieur
Marc Catesby ... revenue par Monsieur Edwards ... On y a adjoute
uaeusne table selon le system de Linnaeus.
[3rd ed.]
London.: Printed for Benjamin White, at Horace's Head, in
Fleetstreet., MDCCLXXI. [1771]
2 v.: col. ill., col. map; 56 cm. (fol.)

Plate 106 "Cacao Arbor"

The Natural history is the most famous book of American flora
and fauna. It is a foundational and original work on American
species. The plates vary from well designed and accurate to some-
what clumsy, where it is difficult to identify the subject. Overall,
it is a masterpiece and a delight to leaf through. The first edition
was published in parts, 1731-1743, with an appendix published in
1747. A second revised edition was issued in 1754 and the third
edition was issued in 1771, which also includes a list of Linnaean
names. The date, however, is misleading. This copy has two
watermarks and countermarks, translucent images left in the
paper caused by wire designs. These are readily visible when the
paper is held to the light. One is I Taylor with a Strasburg lily used
in the letterpress leaves. John Taylor was not associated with a
papermill until 1786 and this form of the watermark is not re-
corded until the mid 1790s. More startling, the other watermark
is J Whatman 1794. It is known that there are issues of the 1771
edition far after that date based on evidence of the paper, but this
indicates a printing of at least 23 years later.

Hunt 486

Hand-colored etchings.

Hand-colored Etching Intaglio

In etching, the surface of a plate is covered with a wax coating that
is impervious to acid. In all types of prints in which acid is used
the resistant coating is termed the ground. In an etching, the il-
lustration is made with an etching needle, which cuts through the
ground and exposes the surface beneath. The plate is put in an acid
bath and the acid works away at the exposed surface of the plate.
The procCss can produce ,cc ....
d[it 'c ltI ctk- itC; I It t [[e ',i..-
k 11 :c ,.0 cd t' .,! [t : I ,.., 1I1
lid c i ..I cI ::;cd "I" I" -

..II 1 t .t1 .., 111.d V.. I, l':',t i d ..,
AI ,id I l I::t 0
.d i !! t ,I.t cw h I : ..II:,I

, tit ;.t0 ll% d ..rc.. t

d llc7 -it I. th : I, 1

II1 1: e !7 ; L !,:,,:,. c I,:dI d .I !d I

an engraving are smooth. The ends of the lines in an etching are
blunt, unlike the sharpness of an engraving, unless the etching was
touched up with a burin.

Byam, Lydia.
A collection of exotics from the Island of Antigua / by a lady.
[London, White, 1799]
[5] leaves, [12] leaves of plates : col. ill.; 47 cm.

Plate 12 "Coffea Ociidentalis or Coffee Tree"

This is an extremely rare botanical work on the Americas, with less
than ten copies known to exist. The attribution of the work to Lydia
Byam comes from a letter laid-in the Hunt Botanical Library copy
identifying her as the older sister of William Gunthorpe, governor
of Antigua, which also has the initials "LB": handwritten at the bot-
tom of the dedication. Two other copies are bound with A (. '1, I. ,;,,'
; ffi,,: l ,,, f I ; ,:,,- ., i ,: ,,i .i nm and coloredfrom nature in which
the dedication is signed "Lydia Byam." The imprint comes from a
review in the Monthly review, n. s., v. 30, p. 333, November, 1799.

This may be faulty
as the Collection of
fruits, printed in a
similar manner, does
have an imprint be-
ing the Oriental Press
of Wilson & Co. The
dedicatee, Viscount-
ess Galway, was Jane
Westenra Monckton.
A copy offered for
sale by H.P. Kraus
in 1952 has Frances
Jane Monckton writ-
ten on an endpaper
and the Hunt copy
has Elizabeth Mary
Monckton. This copy

'^, wt

-,<: ./ *.......*!,.. MR
^ ^.

^ "' '

has Frances Jane Monckton. The Kraus description of the binding
and the signature indicate it could possibly be the Kraus copy, but
it was acquired in 1955 with no indication of provenance.

Hunt 749

Hand-colored etchings. Some plates also have aquatinting.

Bigelow, Jacob, 1786-1879.
American medical botany, being a collection of the native medici-
nal plants of the United States, containing their botanical history
and chemical analysis, and properties and uses in medicine, diet
and the arts,with colored engravings. By Jacob Bigelow, M. D. Rum-
ford professor and lecturer on material medical and botany in Har-
vard University ...
Boston: Published by Cummings and Hilliard, at the Boston
Bookstore, no. 1,Cornhill. [Cambridge] University Press .... Hilliard
and Metcalf. 1817-20.
3 v., LX leaves of plates: col. ill; 27 cm.

Plate XXXI "Lirodendron tulipfera Tulip tree"

Bigelow received his A.B. from Harvard in 1806 and then attended
medical lectures under Dr. John Gorham. He later went to the Uni-
versity of Pennsylvania, earning his M.D. in 1810 and studied bot-
any under Benjamin Smith Barton. In 1811, he returned to Boston
and began a medical practice with Dr. James Jackson. Beginning in
1812, Bigelow lectured on botany at Harvard with W. D. Peck and
compiled the Florula Bostoniensis, which was published in 1814.
From 1817-1820 he published American medical botany, for which
he drew many of the plates.

A thousand copies of the first edition were issued. This is one of
the two first color plate books printed in America, the other being
William P.C.Barton's Vegetable mater:,i ,,;, Ji, i.fi 1United States,
also printed in 1817. Originally, Bigelow intended to publish

the work with hand-colored engravings, but it soon became
obvious that this method was too costly in both time and
money. He developed a special method of making the prints that
is difficult to positively identify. It looks most like a dust-ground
aquatint, yet it has been suggested that he etched on stone. Details
were added by hand.

Dust-ground aquatint on stone(?) with hand colored details.

Hand-colored Dust-ground Aquatint Intaglio

There are two types of aquatints, spirit and dust-ground. A dust-
ground aquatint is made from a plate that is sprinkled with parti-
cles of ground. The plate is heated and the ground melts. Depending
on the size of the particles and where they are placed on the plate, a
great variety of effects can be achieved. Lines were often drawn on
the plate with an etching needle to delineate outlines, as in etching.

When magnified, prints
made from this process
look like little islands of
white in a sea of ink. The
effect is very tonal and
was first used to imitate
watercolor painting.


Chandler, Alfred, 1804-1896.
Illustrations and descriptions of the plants which compose the
natural order Camellieae and of the varieties of Camellia japonica,
cultivated in the gardens of Great Britain / the drawings by Alfred
Chandler; the descriptions by William Beattie Booth. [Vol. 1]
London: J. and A.Arch, 1831.
xii, 48 p., 40 leaves of plates: col. ill.; 39 cm.

Plate 4 "Camellia reticulata"

No more published.

William Beattie Booth was recognized as a leading expert on ca-
mellias, presenting a paper on the subject in two sessions of the
Horticultural Society
in London in 1829.
Although fellow-
ship in the Society
largely consisted of
the landed gentry, es-
teemed gardeners on
the estate were often
granted the status of
corresponding mem-
bers.Booth is listed in
the published papers
as "Garden Clerk."
Alfred Chandler was
/ a well-known nursery-
man in Vauxhall.

Hand-colored lithographs. Note the glossy effect on the leaves from
a material overlaying the watercoloring.

Elwes, Henry John, 1846-1922.
A monograph of the genus Lilium / by Henry John Elwes. Illus-
trated by W.H. Fitch.
[London]: Printed by Taylor and Francis, 1877-80.
7 pts.in 1 v. (xv, [83] p.), 48 leaves of plates: col. ill.; 57 cm.

Plate 20/1 "Lilium elegans, var. incomparabile"

Walter Hood Fitch was the most prolific and outstanding botani-
cal artist of the 19th century, publishing nearly a thousand im-
ages. When William Hooker was appointed director of the Royal
Gardens at Kew in 1841, he brought Fitch with him from Glasgow,
where he had employed him in his work as chair of botany. Fitch
started publishing in the Botanical magazine in 1834, became its
sole artist soon after, and remained so until 1877. In the Kew bul-
letin of 1915, W. B. Hemsley describes Fitch at work on the Lilium,
"without hesitation, and with a rapidity and dexterity that was
simply marvelous'"

Hand-colored lithographs.




Sander, F. (Frederick), 1847-1920.
Reichenbachia: Orchids illustrated and described / by E Sander,
with the assistance of scientific authority ...
London: H. Sotheran & Co. ...; St. Albans [Eng.]: E Sander
& Co. Orchid growers & importers; New York: I. Forstermann ...,
2 v., 96 leaves of plates: col. ill.; 69 cm.

Volume 1, plate 21 "l.Oncidium Jonesianum 2. Oncidium Jonesia-
num phaeanthum"

A 2d series was issued, 1892-94.

The series was named after Heinrich Gustav Reichenbach, an emi-
nent botanist and specialist in orchids. Sanders was the founder of
a large nursery firm and determined to publish a book on orchids
from all over the world. He employed about 20 collectors to gather
specimens. For the illustrations, he chose Henry Moon, who firmly
believed that flowers should be portrayed as they are and not
altered to an ideal image.


Chromolithograph Planographic

In chromolithography, a number of stones would be prepared, each
bearing a different color ink. The print would be carefully placed in
the same position, or registered, on the stone so the ink would go
where intended.

S........... .. .:::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::: ............................
.. ........ M.M :::

Hand-colored Lithograph Planographic

Lithography was invented by Alois Senefelder in Germany in 1798.
An illustration or text is drawn with a grease pen or chalk on the
surface of a specially prepared stone. The stone is then dampened
and ink applied. The water repels the ink while adhering to the
greasy areas. The print is made on a press somewhat similar to the
presses for intaglio printing. Lithographs can be done in a variety
of ways, but this example was done in the chalk style. The surface
of the stone was roughened and a type of chalk or crayon and a pen
was used. The bits of chalk stuck to the hilltops of the stone, not the
valleys, and produce an irregular dotted pattern when printed. The
degree of darkness is controlled by how hard the chalk is applied
to the stone. Any method of printing from a flat surface is termed
planographic. This example was hand-colored after printing.


The Botanical magazine, or, Flower-garden displayed / by William
[London: Printed for W. Curtis by S. Couchman]
Vol.1 [(1787)]-v. 14 (1800).

Volume 1, plate 1 "Iris Persica"

The Botanical magazine was
started by William Curtis
for the express purpose of
illustrating and describing
exotic plants found in Eng-
lish gardens. His first pub-
lication Flora Londinensis

received praise for its large
carefully reproduced illus-
trations of plants that grew
within ten miles of London.
However, its expense could
not be supported. Curtis
then turned to a smaller
size and concentrated on
the colorful. His magazine
was issued in parts starting I
in 1787 and under different
names and publishers and
is still being published today. Note the reference to John Parkinson's
Paradisi in sole paradisvs terrestris at the end of the description.

Hunt 689

The hand-colored engraving is the first part issued.

Nuttall, Thomas, 1786-1859.
"Description of Collinsia, a new genus of plants"

Volume 1 (1817), page 189-192 (Plate IX"Collinsia") of:
Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.

The Academy was interested in all varieties of the natural sciences,
so naturally it is a good place to search for botanical illustrations.
Thomas Nuttall was a British botanist and ornithologist who came
to the United States in 1805 and returned to England in 1842.Dur-
ing his time in America, he traveled extensively, published numer-
ous works, primarily on botany, and was the curator of the gardens
at Harvard University from 1825 to 1834. This particular article
describes a plant he first collected, then lost, near Lake Erie on an
expedition in the spring of 1810. In the spring of 1816, he returned
to the region and found another specimen near the Ohio River.

The illustration is a stipple engraving colored a la poupee drawn
by Charles Alexandre Lesueur. He was a naturalist who was the
expedition artist on a voyage of discovery in the seas about Aus-
tralia, came to Philadelphia in 1816, and soon became the curator
of the Academy of Natural Science, moved to Indiana 1825-1834,
returned to France in 1835, and became curator of the museum at
Le Havre, 1845-1846.

Not all issues of this engraving are colored. The Rare Book Collec-
tion has another copy from the personal library of the naturalist
Louis Agassiz that is printed in plain black ink.

Stipple engraving printed in color.

Stipple-engraving a la Poupee Intaglio

Stipple engraving uses the burin or a special tool like a punch with
irregular teeth on one end, a mattoir. Small bits of the metal plate
could be flicked off the surface with the burin or a pattern of dots
with the mattoir. Like an engraving, the plate would be covered
with ink and the excess on the surface wiped off. This method pro-
duces a tonal quality. In this example, each color has been applied
to the plate separately with a dauber known as a poupee.Each color
would be applied to the plate at the same time, so the plate would
go through the press only once.


Paxton's magazine of botany, and register of flowering plants.
London: Orr and Smith, 1834-1849.
v. 1-16; 1834-1849.

Volume 1, pages 54-63 "Minulos Smithii (Mrs. Smith's Monkey

Like the Botanical magazine of William Curtis, John Paxton's peri-
odical is devoted to the illustration in color of new and uncommon
plants grown in British gardens. Although primarily horticultural
in appeal, it contains the first descriptions of many new species. It
is clearly designed to be a popular journal with appeal to the in-
formed amateur.

Hand-colored spirit aquatint with added etching and engraving.

Hand-colored SpiritAquatint Intaglio

In spirit aquatint, the ground
is dissolved in a medium
such as alcohol and poured
over the plate. As the alcohol
evaporates, the ground forms
distinctive patterns, most of-
ten like the cracking pattern
of a dried up mud puddle.
By using different grounds,
the patterns can be altered in
predictable ways, some less
circular and more linear.

The orchid album, comprising coloured figures and descriptions
of new, rare, and beautiful orchidaceous plants. / Conducted by
Robert Warner, and Benjamin Samuel Williams; the botanical
descriptions by Thomas Moore; the coloured figures by John
Nugent Fitch.
London, B.S. Williams, 1882-97.
11 v., 528 plates: col. ill.; 32 cm.

Volume 1, plate 8 "Cypripedium stonei"

The Album was started
in response to the great
interest in England in
growing orchids, the
more exotic the better.
It was designed to sat-
isfy the expectations
and needs of growers, I\_ -
both commercial and

"Being of Royal Quarto
size, the pages of the .
Album are sufficiently
large to enable to artist
to produce ample and
intelligible portraits of the plants ... Thus we trust we may be per-
mitted to lay before our patrons an acceptable Annual Album of
Floral Pictures, which will be, at once, welcomed both to the Draw-
ing-room and the Library."

John Nugent Fitch both drew and lithographed the plates. He was
the nephew of the celebrated Walter Hood Fitch and continued his
uncle's work for the Botanical magazine.

Hand-colored lithographs.



A botanical ladder for the young.
London: Religious Tract Society, [185-?]
176 p.: ill.; 15 cm.

Page 33 "Saffron crocus"

This volume uses a common technique of a conversation for teach-
ing purposes. In this case, it is between Emma and her mother.
These are not simple books and the instruction is quite detailed.
One may feel like Emma after her mother lists twelve Linnaean
orders, like Monogynia, Heptagynia, and Polygynia: "Oh, mamma,
do not tell me any more hard names.


Wood-engraving Relief

Unlike a woodcut, the
wood-engraving is
made on the end grain,
or butt, of a piece of
wood instead of with
the grain. The end grain
is much harder and
stable, allowing a much
finer line and greater
detail to be achieved.
Wood-engraving using
similar tools to those
employed in metal en-
graving and the process

is similar. The difference is that in a metal cut, the ink is printed
from the recess; with wood, the ink is printed from the surface left
behind. Like a woodcut, the blocks were type high and could be
printed with the letterpress type.

Cheney, Emma L. (Lewis)
Leaves / Emma L. Cheney.
[United States?]: The Author, [1861?]
ca. 110 leaves: ill.; 20 cm.

Page [8] "Feverfew"

On binding cover: Emma L. Cheney. Date of album from first leaf in
book with signature: "Emma L. Cheney October 1861."

This is a private album of ca. 110 botanical illustrations of leaves
that may have been produced by preparing actual plant specimens,
pressing them on alithographic stone and then printed off the stone,
along with some evidence of hand drawing. Illustrations are gray
toned and identified in manuscript ink inscriptions with botanical
names. Some locales where plants were found are identified: Wind-
sor Woods, Sunset Hill, Cowper's Hill, Willis' Falls, Birch Mountain
and "Old Homestead". Possibly a collection of native American
leaves and some from England. Includes leaves of various heaths,
common medicinal plants, flowers, water lilies, and trees such as
the Mulberry, American Elm, Mountain Oak, and ferns.

Nature print.

Nature Print

Nature prints could be produced by intaglio or planographic tech-
niques. They both involve the transfer of a thin natural object, such
as a leaf, to a surface for printing. Early nature prints were made by
lightly oiling the object, then blackening it with soot from a smok-
ing lamp, and then pressing it onto paper. For a lithographic print,
the object is soaked in a greasy mixture, then laid on a lithographic
stone to transfer the image. In intaglio, the object would be put
between two plates, one
of steel and the other of

lead, and then subjected
to great pressure, leaving
behind an impression of
the object. The lead sheet
could then be electroplat-
ed with copper.



- "/


., !



Lankester, Phebe, 1825-1900.
Talks about plants, or, Early lessons in botany / by Mrs. Lankester;
with six coloured plates and twenty-six wood engravings.
London (West Corner of St. Paul's Churchyard): Griffith and Far-
ran, 1879.
252,4,32 p., [6] leaves of plates :ill.; 19 cm.


"I got out the Book of Paradise too, and propped it up in an arm-
chair, and sat on a footstool in front of it, so that I could read in
between whiles of making the bonnet. There is an index, so that
you can look out the flowers you want to read about."

Color-printed wood-engravings.


Phebe Lankester wrote several popular books on botany, particu-
larly on wild flowers and ferns. This title was written specifically
for children. The colored plates are chromolithographs.

Ewing, Juliana Horatia Gatty, 1841-1885.
Mary's meadow / by Juliana Horatia Ewing.
London : Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, [1886]
96 p.: ill.; 22 cm.

Front cover.

Juliana Ewing was a prolific writer of children's books. This story is
based upon children reading Parkinson's Paradisi in sole paradisus
terrestris and then creating their own garden.

Properly called chromoxylographs, the technique is color printing
from wood as chromolithographs are color printing from stone.As
many wood engravings would be prepared as there were colors to
be printed.

'' JulAWA JtA AW-ihrq

A'W0rrtlB or
a __ I-- -___
!1: ruuiruLrrir rn
I Lk'Lr V, Ii IllYUT1 I Ill lr4h 1J -[l.DDIK,

"1 *


JANUAPI' ,Nn F:I Il i ,, ,'

Selected References

Arber,Agnes Robertson, 1879-1960.
Herbals, their origin and evolution; a chapter in the history of botany, 1470-1670 / by Agnes Arber.
A new ed., rewritten and enl.
Cambridge [Eng.] The University press, 1938.
xxiv, 325, [2] p.: ill.,.facsims.; 24 cm.

Blunt, Wilfrid, 1901-
The art of botanical illustration / Wilfrid Blunt and William T. Stearn.
New ed., rev. and enlarged.
Woodbridge, Suffolk: Antique Collectors' Club in association with the Royal Botanic Gardens, 1994.
368 p.: ill. (some col.); 29 cm.

Gascoigne, Bamber.
How to identify prints: a complete guide to manual and mechanical processes from woodcut to ink jet / Bamber Gascoigne.
[London]: Thames and Hudson, c1986.
1 v. (various pagings): ill. (some col.); 26 cm.

Henrey, Blanche.
British botanical and horticultural literature before 1800 comprising a history and bibliography of botanical and horticultural books printed
in England, Scotland, and Ireland from the earliest times until 1800 / Blanche Henrey.
London; New York: Oxford University Press, 1975.
3 v.: ill.; 28 cm.

Hunt, Rachel McMasters Miller, 1882-1963.
Catalogue of botanical books in the collection of Rachel McMasters Miller Hunt.
Pittsburgh, Hunt Botanical Library, 1958-1961.
3 pts. in 2 v.: ill, port.;. 26 cm.
Note: The Hunt catalogue covers publications through 1800.

Rohde, Eleanour Sinclair.
The old English herbals / by Eleanour Sinclair Rohde...; with coloured frontispiece and 17 illustrations.
London, New York Longmans, Green and Co. 1922
xii, 243,p. col. front., plates, ports., facsims. 26 cm.

Cover art from Paxton's magazine of botany. See page 12.
Catalog design: Barbara Hood

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