ST. JOHNS RIVER WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICT
TECHNICAL PUBLICATION SJ 84-14
GROUND WATER WITHDRAWALS FROM
THE FLORIDAN AQUIFER IN CLAY AND
PORTIONS OF BRADFORD COUNTIES
the St. Johns River Water Management District
Clay County is located in northeast Florida (Inset A) and covers approximately 644 square miles
The county has a population of 74,524 and contains four prominent cities: Green Cove Springs,
Keystone Heights. Orange Park and Penney Farms. Major activities in Clay County include
mineral mining, silviculture. dairy farming, recreation and miscellaneous manufacturing. The north-
east portion of Clay County (Orange Park area) is highly developed in residential and commercial
activities tied to the metropolitan Jacksonville area. Bordered by Alachua County, Baker County
and Bradford County to the west, Duval County (Jacksonville) to the north, St. Johns County to
the east and Putnam County to the south, the county has an excellent supply of fresh ground water.
The major source of potable water in Clay County is the Floridan aquifer, a confined unit of
Eocene age limestone which transmits significant amounts of water. The Floridan aquifer is the
preferred water source in north and central Florida due to its productivity potential and general
good quality. In Clay County, the potable portion of the Floridan aquifer is approximately 25 to
1,800 feet below mean sea level. Southwestern Clay County (Keystone Heights area) is an area of
high recharge to the Floridan aquifer Northeast and southeast Clay County (Orange Park, Green
Cove Springs) and the Black Creek-Middleburg area are discharge areas of the Floridan aquifer.
This discharge of the Floridan aquifer is evident by the presence of flowing artesian wells and two
major springs (Green Cove Springs and Wadesboro Springs). Figure 1 shows the recharge and
discharge areas of the Floridan aquifer in Clay County.
In 1983, the St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD) conducted a study at the
request of the Clay County Board of County Commissioners to determine water use, water quality
and water availability in Clay County. This report details the amount and locations of ground water
withdrawals in Clay County. Due to close proxinmty to the Keystone Heights area, a small portion
of Bradford County (six square miles) within the SJRWMD boundary is included. Water use for this
report is shown in million gallons per day (MGD). Only those withdrawal locations using more than
0.001 MGD (1,000 gallons per day) of ground water from the Floridan aquifer in 1983 were con-
sidered in this study. Due to the specific detail in this report, water use values may vary from those
reported in the 1983 Annual Water Use Survey (Technical Publication SJ 84-5).
WATER USE BY CATEGORY
An important component of this report is the identification of the characteristics of water use in
the Clay County area In Table 1, water use is shown for the following categories: Public Supply In-
dustrial, Institutional, Recreation, Irrigation (agricultural and commercial), and Free-Flowing
Wells. Domestic self-supplied water use is not included because of the vast number of domestic
wells (estimated approximately 7,000 wells), most of which do not meet the minimum withdrawal re-
quirement as an individual system or do not derive water from the Floridan aquifer. Estimated
domestic self-supplied water use for Clay County in 1983 was 2.34 MGD. This estimate is based on
19,999 people on self-supplied systems and 117 gallons per capital day (GPCD). Clay County's per
capital use is 24% lower than the District's average of 153 GPCD, due primarily to less tourism than
other counties within the District.
Public supply water use is the largest consumption category in the study area accounting for
6.7094 MGD (Figure 2). Private or municipal suppliers account for 6.6322 MGD of the public water
use and the remaining 0.0772 MGD is withdrawn by mobile home parks.
Industrial water use amounts to 5.8918 MGD of which 94% (5.5336 MGD) is withdrawn for
mineral mining. The remaining 0.3582 MGD is for food and dairy processing, building material
manufacturing, and other miscellaneous manufacturing.
Irrigation water use totals 1.6520 MGD, of which 68% (1.0584 MGD) is withdrawn for dairy
livestock drinking and washdown. Nursery, pasture, and blueberry irrigation accounts for 0.4832
MGD. The remaining 0.1104 MGD is for commercial and cemetery irrigation.
Institutional water use amounts to 1.3130 MGD with the majority of the use (76%) for military
installations. The remaining use is for schools and churches.
Recreation water use amounts to 0.8759 MGD with the majority of use (67%) for golf course ir-
rigation. The remaining use is for parks, camps and recreation facilities.
Uncontrolled free-flowing wells are those wells that are flowing unused water or are abandoned
with leaking or broken control devices. To date, nine free-flowing wells have been inventoried since
a survey was begun in 1981. The exact number of free-flowing wells are unknown in Clay County,
but estimates of up to 40 have been made by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). Efforts
by the District to locate, plug or control these wells are ongoing. Of the nine wells inventoried, five
are uncontrolled and four have leaking or broken control devices. Total flow from these nine wells
amounted to approximately 0.7938 MGD. In addition to Floridan aquifer water lost to flowing
wells, substantial amounts of ground water are discharged through natural springs. Five springs
are located in Clay County (Inset B). Green Cove Springs discharge equals 3.84 Ft'/per sec or 2.48
MGD. Wadesboro Springs discharge is 1.29 Ft'per sec or 0.834 MGD. The output from the many
seeps at Gold Head Branch Springs is 3.19 Ft'/per sec or 2.065 MGD (discharge measurements
were taken 8-22-84). The other springs within Clay County are Magnolia Springs, and Pecks
Mineral Springs. These springs have no flow data but have been inventoried by the USGS.
WATER WITHDRAWAL LOCATIONS
A major purpose of this report is to identify withdrawal locations from the Floridan aquifer in
Clay and southeast Bradford counties. A total of 82 withdrawal locations were identified (79 in Clay
and 3 in southeast Bradford) and plotted on the large map. This map shows the density of various
water withdrawals (users) within the study area. Each dot represents a well or well field (more than
one) with a 4-inch or greater well that use more than 0.001 MGD. The greatest densities of
withdrawal locations are along Doctors Lake, Black Creek and State Road 21.
Of the total 82 withdrawal locations, 27 are Public Supply, 16 Recreation, 13 Irrigation, 9 In-
dustrial, 9 Free-Flowing Wells and 8 Institutional. Of the 27 Public Supply withdrawal locations, 23
are for private or municipal suppliers.
REGIONAL WATER WITHDRAWALS
To show the magnitude and distribution of water use in Clay County and the small portion of
Bradford County within the SJRWMD, the study area was divided into four regions (Figure 3).
These regions are northeast region (Orange Park-Doctors Lake area), central region (Middleburg-
Black Creek area), southeast region (Green Cove Springs-Penney Farms area), and southwest
region (Keystone Heights-Kingsley Lake area, and six square miles of Bradford County).
Northeast Clay County accounts for 36% (6.2069 MOD) of water use in the study area (Figure 4).
Public Supply (5.4663 MGD) accounts for the majority of the water use in northeast Clay County
(Table 1). Southeast Clay County accounts for 33% (5.6774 MGD) of the water use in the study area.
The water use in this region includes 3.5468 MGD of Industrial and 1.2316 MGD of Irrigation water
use. Southwest Clay County accounts for 23% (3.9655 MGD) of the total water use. The major uses
in this region are Industrial (2.3370 MGD) and Institutional (1.0000 MGD). Central Clay County ac-
counts for 8% (1.3861 MGD) of the total water use in the study area. The major use in this region is
Recreation (0.4830 MGD).
Total water use for 1983 in Clay and portions of Bradford counties within the District equaled
17.2359 MGD. This figure does not include domestic water use (2.34 MGD), spring discharge (5.379
MGD) and unknown free-flowing wells (estimated approximately 40 additional wells). Although
Clay County has an abundant supply of fresh ground water, current growth and potential future
development is causing concern for the water resources of the county. A projected population in
Clay County of 124,100 by the year 2000 will mean an increased demand for potable water.
This report is the first step in determining the relationship of water quality and quantity changes
with pumpage. The results of this study will help local governments protect and manage ground
water supplies and provide a basis for future resource investigation.
Clay County Comprehensive Plan, Clay County Board of County Commissioners, Green Cove
Springs, Florida, June 1979.
Edwards, Scott Jr., Report on Uncontrolled Free Flowing Artesian Wells, Technical Publication
83-3, St. Johns River Water Management District. Palatka, Florida, December 1983.
Florida Estimates of Population: 1983, University of Florida: Bureau of Economic and Business
Research, Gainesville, Florida, April 1984.
1983 Florida Statistical Abstract, University of Florida: Bureau of Economic and Business
Research, College of Business Administration, Gainesville, Florida, 1983.
Healy, H.G., Appraisal of Uncontrolled Flowing Artesian Wells in Florida, U.S. Geological
Survey WRI 78-95, Tallahassee, Florida, 1978.
Marella, Richard L., Annual Water Use Survey: 1983, Technical Publication 84-5, St. Johns River
Water Management District, Palatka, Florida, September 1984.
Phelps, G.G., Recharge and Discharge Areas of the Floridan Aquifer in the St. Johns River
Water Management District and Vicinity, Florida. U.S. Geological Survey WRI 82-4058,
Tallahassee. Florida, 1984.
Projection of Florida Population by County 1985-2020. Bulletin Number 65. University of
Florida: Bureau of Economic and Business Research, Gainesville, Florida, June 1983.
Springs of Florida. Bulletin No. 31, Florida Department of Natural Resources, Division of
Resource Management; Bureau of Geology, Tallahassee, Florida, 1978.
Top of the Floridan Aquifer in the St. Johns River Water Management District. Map Series No.
95, Florida Bureau of Geology, Florida Department of Natural Resources, Tallahassee,
Water Resources of Alachua, Bradford, Clay and Union Counties, Florida. Report of In-
vestigation No. 35 by Florida Geological Survey, Tallahassee, Florida, 1964.
DUVAL CO. -
BAKER I14j 5A
Co. jI-,PUBLIC SUPPLY
SDUVAL (M) Mobile Home Park
At C co. (R) Private or Municipal Supplier
SU O INDUSTRIAL
(B) Building Materials
2o8(F) Food and Dairy Processing
::"00 17 4(M) Mineral Mining
...(0) Miscellaneous Manufacturing
rt(M) Military Installation
220A220 1, I RECREATION
0(G) Golf Course
301A(P) Park or Camp
-30005' U IRRIGATION
Bogg 0D) Dairy Livestock
218 MIDDLEBURG ,759(L) Commercial Lawn
-- -------------- --------------- ST. JOHNS
I qQCO FREE FLOWING WELLS
F--9. c (C) Controlled
Lrf):::::I .| (U) Uncontrolled
w -R %
S ::::i GREEN COVE CAMP BLENDING
i I ze PENN EY FAR MS SPiNS%
z 16 16 16
4J. S eteG
230 CA MP BLENDING lo.5
-..........a ........a. .- .-. --\
MILITARY RESERVATION 17STUDY AREA LOCATION SPRINGS IN
W :. 1/CLAY COUNTY
..C, LAY / JH
r0me M Rd.
2:4:. Peace Minera/ Sp,,,,g droeen coa
-29045' 10 ot= ,S o a
PUTNAMoC .PUTNAM CO .
losSTUDY AREA LOCATIONl SPRINGS IN
10 p.0 CLAY COUNTY
Lake D VL
5' wadesboro slpring
210 C L A Y
...5 Magno/ha Spring
O[P-*,s Minerl 6-ig renC-v
290o45' 10 ea
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0I .5 0 I 2 3 4
This public document was promulgated at a cost of
$1,895.15 or $3.78 per copy to inform the public of the
location and quantities of ground water withdrawals in
Clay and portions of Bradford counties.
TABLE I. Water use (MGD) by category and region
Northeast Central Southeast Southwest Total
5.4663 0.1358 0.6998 0.4075 6.7094
0.0030 0.0050 3.5468 2.3370 5.8918
0.0310 0.2820 0.0000 1.0000 1.3130
0.0705 0.4830 0.1200 0.2024 0.8759
0.2887 0.1131 1.2316 0.0186 1.6520
Free Flowing Wells 0 3474 0 3672 0.0792 0.0000 0 7938
Total 6.2069 1.3861 5.6774 3.9655 17.2359
NOTE: Does not include domestic self-supplied ( 2.34 MGD ) water use.
Gold Head Branch Springs '
-FREE FLOWING WELLS
RECHARGE AND DISCHARGE AREAS
OF THE FLORIDAN AQUIFER
IN CLAY COUNTY
FIGURE 2 WATER USE CMGD) BY CATEGORY
GENERAL REGIONAL MAP
OF CLAY COUNTY
FIGURE 4 WATER USE (MGD3 BY REGION