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Title: Selections from the collections: African American history in Special Collections: February 15 - April 16, 2004: the exhibit gallery, second floor
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Title: Selections from the collections: African American history in Special Collections: February 15 - April 16, 2004: the exhibit gallery, second floor
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Language: English
Creator: Unviersity of Florida Libraries
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Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2004
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Full Text

Selections from the collections:

African American history

in Special Collections

I IIt I. 1 I 1 I I

'.1 I.,,,

February 15 April 16, 2004

The Exhibit Gallery
Second Floor
Smathers Library
George A. Smathers Libraries
The University of Florida


i .~1~, ~ ,11:~~

Selections from the collections:

African American history

in Special Collections

George A. Smathers Libraries
Department of Special and Area Studies Collections

Smathers Library (East)
The Exhibit Gallery (Second Floor)

February 15 -

The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections
encompasses two units: Special Collections and Area
Studies Collections. Special Collections holds primary
source and rare and special print collections of the
University of Florida Libraries and includes the Rare Book
Collection, the Manuscript Collection, the University of
Florida Archives, and named collections: the P K. Yonge
Library of Florida History, the Belknap Collection for the
Performing Arts, and the Baldwin Library of Historical
Children's Literature. Area Studies is comprised of the
Latin American Collection, the African Studies Collection,
the Isser and Rae Price Library of Judaica, and the Asian
Studies Collection.

The exhibit, "Selections from the collections: African
American history in Special Collections," features a sam-
pling of materials from our special collections holdings
that document and illuminate the experience of African
Americans. The items, selected with care by our curators,
suggest a broad coverage of that experience in terms of
both chronology and endeavors. Of course, we had to
shape our choices according to the physical constraints of
our Exhibit Gallery. There are many materials that we
would like to have had on display, but just wouldn't fit. To
direct you to other holdings, the web version of this cata-
log and exhibit will highlight additional materials and
information for your consideration. We hope that this
exhibit will broadcast the department's goal of enhancing
our holdings in African American history and that we are
interested in obtaining materials from the local to
national-level. These and other holdings are available for
consultation and use by students, faculty, and the general
public in our Research Room located on the second floor,
Smathers Library (East) at the University of Florida.

April 16, 2004

Thanks and appreciation go to the following individuals
for their participation in the project, by selecting from
their collections, preparing the catalog text, and assisting
in the preparation and staging of this exhibit: Jeffrey Barr,
Flo Turcotte (Rare Books); Jim Liversidge (Belknap
Collection); Rita Smith (Baldwin Library); Carl Van Ness,
Frank Orser, Joyce Dewsbury (Archives and Manuscripts);
and James Cusick (Yonge Library). It was indeed a team
effort and I am pleased to acknowledge and recognize the
important work of Barbara Hood, Mandelyn Hutcherson,
John Freund, Joe Aufmuth, Bill Hanssen, Russ Fairman,
and Susan Lupi from University of Florida Libraries. The
Howe Society co-sponsored the exhibit and program.
Distinguished guests participated in the program that
formally opened the exhibit, including Dr. Lemuel B.
Moore, III (director of Cultural Affairs, City of Gainesville)
and Dr. David Colburn (professor of history and provost,
University of Florida). They honored us with their con-
tribution of time and talents. Finally, thanks go to my
colleague in Special Collections, Joel Buchanan (our
African American history liaison), who continues to
inspire and lead us in many important ways. This exhibit
was his idea and his guidance, insight, and leadership
made it all possible.

Robert A. Shaddy, Chair
Special and Area Studies Collections

Department homepage: http://web.uflib.ufl.edu/spec/

Selections from the Rare Book Collection:

Early African American Women Writers

The Rare Book Collection has a wealth of material on the
African experience in the Americas. An important aspect
of the collection consists of African American authors.
While much attention has deservedly been given to mod-
ern writers, here are examples of the foundation upon
which 20th century African American literature was built.

African American Authors, 1745-1945: Bio-bibliographical
Critical Sourcebook /edited by Emmanuel S. Nelson
Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2000

Afro-American Women Writers, 1746-1933: an Anthology
and Critical Guide / Ann Allen Shockley
Boston, Mass.: G.K. Hall, c1988

The Pen is Ours: a Listing of Writings by and about
African-American Women Before 1910 with Secondary
Bibliography to the Present / Compiled by Jean Fagan
Yellin, Cynthia D. Bond.
New York: Oxford University Press, 1991

Prince, Lucy Terry, d. 1821
"Bars Fight, August 25, 1746"
First printed in:
Holland, J. G. (Josiah Gilbert), 1819-1881
History of Western Massachusetts
Springfield: S. Bowles and Co., 1855
v. 2, p. 360
Rare Book Collection: 974.4 H735h

Lucy Terry Prince was the first African American poet,
although her only known poem is "Bars Fight." Based
upon a raid by a group of sixty Indians on two families in
the southwest comer of Deerfield, Massachusetts, it is
considered the most complete contemporary account of
the massacre. The poem was preserved by historians of
Deerfield and was finally printed in Holland's History of
Western Massachusetts. Lucy was a well-known raconteur
and a forceful orator. When she brought a case against a
neighbor of property her husband and she owned in
Vermont, the presiding Justice Samuel Chase was said to
have remarked her plea surpassed that of any Vermont
lawyer he had heard.

Wheatley, Phillis, 1753?-1784
Poems on various subjects, religious and moral
London, Boston, 1773
124, [4] p., [1] leaf of plates: port.; 19 cm.
Rare Book Collection: ENE 73 Howe Collection

Phillis Wheatley was the first
African American and the sec-
ond woman to publish a book I
of poetry. The first, by Anne
Bradstreet, was printed about
100 years earlier. Purchased by
the Wheatley family of Boston
in 1761, she soon demonstrated
an interest in education. Within
16 months, she had learned
English, mastering it in four I
years, and then commenced a
study of Latin. At the age of 14,
she composed her first poem
and continued to write poems for special occasions. Her
first published poem, "On the Death of the Rev. Mr. George
Whitefield," created a sensation, was reprinted several
times, and was eventually included with Ebenezer
Pemberton's Heaven the Residence of the Saints: a Sermon
Occasioned by the Sudden, and Much Lamented Death of
the Rev. George Whitefield, published in 1771. Concerned
with her poor health, the Wheatleys sent her along with
Nathaniel Wheatley to England in 1773, where she was
well received in London society. Upon learning of Mrs.
Wheatley being gravely ill, she returned to Boston after
four months. Phillis was manumitted either in the year of
Mrs. Wheatley's death 1774 or in 1778, the year of John
Wheatley's passing. The portrait of Phillis was drawn by
Scipio Moorhead, an African American artist. One of the
poems in the book is titled, "To S.M. a young African
Painter, on seeing his Works."

Prince, Nancy, b. 1799
A Narrative of the Life and Travels of Mrs. Nancy Prince
2nd ed.
Boston: The Author, 1853
89 p.; 16 cm.
Rare Book Collection: CT275.P848 A3 1853

Nancy Prince's early years were
unsettled; her father died when
she was three months old, her
stepfather was captured by a
British privateer during the War
of 1812 and died in 1813, and


the older children were placed
with other families. At the age of
23, she married Mr. Prince (his
first name remains unknown),
who had served in the court of
the czar of Russia. Within two
months, they traveled to Russia
and took positions at the court.
She returned to America nearly ten years later, her hus-
band remaining in Russia at the behest of the czar, dying
within two years. In Boston, she was involved with the
abolitionist movement. In 1840, she traveled to Jamaica in
the British West Indies, where slavery had been ended in
1833. The first edition of her book was published in 1850
and the third edition in 1856.

Keckley, Elizabeth, ca. 1818-1907
Behind the Scenes, or, Thirty Years a Slave, and Four Years
in the White House
New York: G.W. Carleton & Co., 1868
[4], [ix]-xvi, [17]-371 p.: front. (port.); 19 cm.
Rare Book Collection: E457.15 .K26

Despite the impression given
by the title, only three out of
fifteen chapters recount her
years in slavery. After serving
in a number of households
and southern states, Elizabeth
Keckley was able to purchase
her freedom in 1855.
S'Journeying to Baltimore in
1860, she established a busi-
ness teaching sewing to young
African American women. The
business was not successful
and she went to Washington, D.C., finding work as an
independent seamstress. She soon was patronized by the
Washington elite, her establishment employing 20
women, and came to the attention of Mary Todd Lincoln.

She became one of the closest intimates of Mrs. Lincoln.
After the president's assassination, she helped Mary settle
in Chicago. Because of criticism that the book was too
revealing of the Lincolns' personal affairs, her seamstress
work dramatically decreased and she gave up the trade.
She had been active in social causes, assisting in the
founding of the Contraband Relief Association during the
war and the Home for Destitute Women and Children.

Rollin, Frank A.
Life and Public Services ofMartin R. Delaney, Sub-assis-
tant Commissioner, Bureau Relief ofRefugees, Freedmen,
and ofAbandoned Lands, and the Late Major 104th U. S.
Colored Troops
Boston: Lee and Shepard, 1868
367 p.; 20 cm.
Rare Book Collection: E185.97 .D33

Frank A. Rollin was the pseudonym for Frances Anne
Rollin. She was born into an affluent Charleston, South
Carolina family in 1845 or 1847. They were visiting in
Philadelphia when the war started and remained there to
its end. Returning to Charleston, Frances taught in a
school for freedmen. In July, she filed a complaint against
a steamboat captain for refusing to sell her a first class
ticket. During the pursuit of the legal action, which she
won, she met Major Martin Robison Delany. Before his
army career as the first African American officer, he had
founded a newspaper in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, worked
with Frederick Douglass in publishing The North Star,
studied medicine at Harvard and practiced in Pittsburgh
and Canada, wrote a novel, Blake, or, the Huts ofAmerica,
and led a group of potential colonizers to the Niger Valley
in Africa. Obviously, the stuff of an excellent biography.
After finishing her work, she had great difficulty in find-
ing a publisher, causing her to take up the pen name
Frank. It was the first biography of a free-born African
American. Marrying William Whipper, an attorney, she
returned to Charleston and remained active in political
and social causes.

Kelley, Emma Dunham.
Megda I By "Forget-me-not" (Emma Dunham Kelley)
2nd ed.
Boston: J. H. Earle, 1892, c1891
[6], v-vi, [9]-394 p.: port.; 20 cm.
Rare Book Collection: PS2159.K13 M44 1892

This is the third novel pub-
lished by an African
American woman, but
very little is known about
her other than she married
a man by the name of
Hawkins before the publi-
cation of her second novel.
The first edition of Megda
appeared in 1891 and her
next and final novel, Four
Girls at Cottage City was
published in 1898.

Harper, Frances Ellen Watkins, 1825-1911.
Iola Leroy; or, Shadows Uplifted
2nd. ed.
Philadelphia: Garrigues Brothers, 1893
[4], 282 p.: front. (port.); 20 cm.
Rare Book Collection: 813.4 H293i

SRaised from the age of three
by her uncle, the Rev. William

i 'f educated at his William
Watkins Academy for
Colored Youth. She began
lecturing in 1854 and in 1867
commenced a tour through
the South, addressing moral-
I ity, family, education, and
temperance. She was a par-
ticularly strong advocate of
women's rights, giving pri-
.. vate lectures to freedwomen
at no charge. In 1888, she
addressed the International Council of Women in
Washington. She was a member of the American Women's
Suffrage Association, the Women's Christian Temperance
Union, the American Equal Rights Association, the
National Council of Negro Women, the American
Association for the Education of Colored Youth, the
Universal Peace Union, and the John Brown Memorial
Association of Women. A prolific writer, her first collection
of poetry, Poems on Miscellaneous Subjects, was published
in 1854, followed by several other books and novella pub-
lished in serialized form in the Christian Recorder. Her
only novel, Iola Leroy, first appeared in 1892.

Smith, Amanda, 1837-1915
An Autobiography, the Story of the Lord's Dealings with
the Colored Evangelist Containing an Account ofHer Life
Work of Faith, and Her Travels in America, England,
Ireland, Scotland, India and Africa, as an Independent
Missionary. With an Introduction by Bishop Thoburn
Chicago: Meyer, 1893
xvi, [17]-506 p.: ports., plates; 20 cm..
Rare Book Collection: BV3785 .S56A3 1893

While still young, Amanda's
father was able to purchase
freedom for his family, who
then moved from Maryland
to Pennsylvania. Amanda's
formal education was
slight, amounting to less
than three months. She
went through two difficult _-
marriages, her second hus-
band dying in 1869. In the
same year, she began
preaching. She joined the
Fisk University Jubilee
Singers and while on tour with them, attended the 1872
General Conference of the African Methodist Episcopal
Church in Nashville, Tennessee. She continually battled
the prejudice against women preaching in public. After
attending the 1878 Keswick Convention in England, she
remained for a year, preaching in England, Ireland, and
Scotland. In 1879, at the invitation of Rev. W. B. Osborne,
she went to India, drawing large audiences whenever she
preached. Following a second trip to England in 1881, she
went to Africa, where she remained for eight years. While
attending a Woman's Christian Temperance Union meet-
ing in London in 1894, she decided to establish a home for
children of African descent. This prompted her to write
her autobiography, the proceeds of which she used to pur-
chase a twelve-room house in Chicago for the Amanda
Smith Industrial Home. Friends provided a comfortable
cottage for her in Seabright, Florida, where she passed the
rest of her days.

Selections from Archives and Manuscripts:

Zora Neale Hurston

Many groups of literary manuscripts are found in the
Manuscripts Collection, including the papers of Marjorie
Kinnan Rawlings, John D. McDonald, Carl Hiaasen, Ernest
Mickler, and Frank O'Connor.

One of our most significant and extensive collections is
The Zora Neale Hurston Collection. After Zora Neale
Hurston died on January 28, 1960 in a Fort Pierce, Florida,
hospital, her papers were ordered to be burned. A law offi-
cer and friend happened to pass by the house where she
had lived, stopped and put out the fire, thus saving an
invaluable collection of literary documents for posterity.
Mrs. Marjorie Silver, friend and neighbor of Zora Neale
Hurston, gave the nucleus of this collection to the
University of Florida libraries in 1961. Frances Grover,
daughter of E. O. Grover, a Rollins College professor and
long-time friend of Hurston's, donated other materials in
1970 and 1971. In 1979 Stetson Kennedy of Jacksonville,
who knew Hurston thinplughl Iii \k 1\\1i1i theI
Federal Writers Project. added addilni r al pIaperi.

Photograph of Zora Neale Hurston (center) and
friends, taken outside her home in Fort Pierce, FL
ca 1959

This badly damaged
and charred photo-
graph is the last
known image of
Zora Neale Hurston. -

died indigent and
largely forgotten in
1960 in Ft. Pierce,
Florida. The reestab-
lishment of her rep-
utation was sparked with a 1979 article by novelist Alice
Walker in Ms. Magazine. In 1973, Walker had raised a grave-
stone to mark Hurston's burial place with the inscription:

"A Genius of the South"
1901 1960
Novelist, Folklorist



4_0 t4:

She was actually born in 1891. Confusion over her birth
date is part of the controversy and ambiguity that sur-
rounds so much of her life and career.

This small exhibit attempts to demonstrate a small part of
Hurston's role as a Florida folklorist and novelist, and the
bridge she made between the two crafts

Hurston Papers Burned

IIurston died January 28, 1960, confined by reason of
health and financial status to the St. Lucie County welfare
home. Following her death, her remaining property was
ordered burned. After the fire had been started, Patrick
Duval, a friend and Saint Lucie County deputy sheriff,
came upon the fire, extinguished it, and saved many of
Sher papers and manuscripts, later
..-.. acquired by the University of Florida.
SThis photograph and the manuscript of
S Seraph on the Suwanee are among the
: documents saved from the flames.

-. I

Also saved was the manuscript of an
unpublished biography of Herod, the
Great. Fortunately she had earlier
donated some of her manuscripts to
the James Weldon Johnson Collection
of Yale University. The location of
other manuscripts, including unpub-

liliecd \\cuk are unknown and per
hc\ \(u1d ma\ ing.

Is it She, or isn't it?
Photograph of Zora Neals Hurston(?)
by Alan Lomax, Eatonville,
Florida, 1935

Controversy seems to pervade
all aspects of Hurston's life,
even her photographs.

In addition to having been
raised and having lived in
Florida much of her life,
Hurston made several profes-
sional journeys through the

haps were burned

Sunshine State. In 1935, she was a member of a Recording
Expedition to Georgia, Florida, and the Bahamas with Alan
Lomax and Mary Elizabeth Barnicle.

This photograph, taken in Hurston's hometown of
Eatonville, Florida, during that expedition, is one of the
most popular Hurston photographs, having been pub-
lished many times and used, as here, for promotional pur-
poses. Recent research indicates, however, that the photo-
graph may not be of Hurston, but of an unidentified
Eatonville woman, but uncertainty remains. The photo-
graph will doubtless continue to be identified as Hurston's.

Hurston and the Florida Federal
Writer's Project

Go Gator and Muddy the Water.
Pamela Bordelon, ed. New York: Norton, 1999.

-> wiii BV In 1938, Hurston took
lRA NE, H employment as a writer
FROA TUE FEDERAL WRITERS' PR With the Florida Federal
Writers' Project. She was
assigned as a staff writer to
the Negro Unit in
Slad Jacksonville and worked
r primarily on a proposed
book on the Negro in
H'r Florida. In this role, she
Edited.i produced numerous essays.
nru pOh Typescripts of two are
shown here. The project
was never completed. A
book of writings from it was
finally published in 1993, but did not contain any of
Hurston's contributions. Hurston's FWP writings were not
fully published until they were collected in Go Gator and
Muddy the Water.

Some of Hurston's work was published in the Florida
volume of the American Guide Series (1941), the most
noteworthy of Federal Writers' Project publications.

Florida Folklore

"Go Gator Muddy the Water," typed manuscripts from the
Hurston Papers of the University of Florida.

This essay is an early draft of the title essay in Go Gatorand
Muddy the Water. Hurston explains the origins and devel-
opment of folk songs and stories, giving numerous African
American examples, including stories of Big John de
Conquer, "culture hero of the American Negro folk tale."

Cross City

or Stetson Kennedy. Cross City, Florida. 1939.

As a member of the Florida Negro Book project, Hurston
made a field trip to Cross City, Florida in 1939, to gather life
histories of workers at the Aycock and Lindsay turpentine
plantation. A white supervisor and
photographer joined her. This
photograph has been attributed
both to Robert Cook, the team
photographer, and to Stetson
Kennedy, himself a well known
Florida writer and a supervisor
with the project. Kennedy has
described coming upon Zora sit-
ting on the porch of a turpentiner's
shack and taking a candid photo of
her "rocking and smoking."

Turpentine Camp

"Cross City: Turpentine Camp," typed interview notes from
the Hurston Papers, University of Florida.

Hurston's interview notes from the turpentine camp have
been preserved. The pages shown here indicate the
rough lifestyle, apparently lawless conduct by the camp
managers, as well as some humor from what was still
wild Florida.

Seraph on the Suwanee
New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1948

Hurston early on devised the strategy of blending folklore
with her creative writing and continued it throughout her
career. Seraph on the
Suwanee, the story of Aury
and Jim Meserve, upwardly
mobile Crackers, was
Hurston's final published
book. The novel is located in
a north Florida town, simi-
lar to Cross City, and in Polk
County, and the shrimping
community of New Smyrna,
and draws heavily upon her
knowledge of these locales
from her folklore research.
Jim Meserve, the main male

character, is a turpentine

u -~til(islk~ Fl

woodsrider. Hurston had also worked in a Polk County
phosphate mining camp in 1928 and written an unpub-
lished, unperformed drama called "Polk County."

In a daring and surprising move, Hurston made all the
principal characters of Seraph on the Suwanee white. One
criticism of the novel has been that the white characters
speak a black idiom. In this note to friend, novelist
Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Hurston defends against this
criticism by explaining her hypothesis, based on her
experiences in Dixie County, location of Cross City, that
the language of African Americans and poor whites is
the same.

Lincoln Center Theater Presents
by Langston Hughes & Zora Neale Hurston
Poster Artist: James McMullan

Hurston and her close friend Langston Hughes collabo-
rated on this Florida based folk drama of a quarrel
between two friends. Based upon an Eatonville story,
"The Bone of Contention," by Hurston, the situation
became just that when the authors quarreled over

authorship and ownership of the rights to the play. The
argument prevented production of the drama and ended,
or at least serious ruptured the authors' friendship. Like
much of Hurston's work, Mule Bone was never produced
or published until many years after her death.

-j / - .

I- q k ,. .... .- &.

S 4:-L .

Hand Designed Christmas Card with note to Marjorie
Kinnan Rawlings and Norton Baskin, December 1948,
from the Rawlings Papers, University of Florida

Selections from the Belknap Collection

for the Performing Arts:

"The Ladies who Sang with the Band":

20th Century Pioneers of Song

The Belknap Collection for the Performing Arts spotlights
the talented and determined African American women
who faced resistance and adversity while perfecting their
art on bandstands, theatre and concert stages, radio, film
and in recording studios. Their art is their legacy. Actor
Ossie Davis wrote: "... art, to us, was always, and still is, a
form of self-assertion, a form of struggle, a repository of
self-esteem that racism, Jim Crow, and the Ku Klux Klan
could never beat out of us the only authentic history that
black folks have in America, because we made it ourselves."

Black Magic: A Pictorial History of the African- American
in the PerformingArts / Langston Hughes and Milton
Meltzer. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1967

The Book of Golden Discs: The Records That Sold a Million
/ compiled by Joseph Murrells
London: Barrie and Jenkins, 1978

The Cotton Club / Jim Haskins
New York, Hippocrene Books, 1977

My Singing Teachers: Reflections on Singing Popular Music
/ Mel Torme
New York: Oxford University Press, 1994

A Separate Cinema / John Kisch and Edward Mapp
New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1992

Toms, Coons, Mulattoes, Mammies and Bucks: An
Interpretive History of Blacks in American Films / Donald
Bogle. New York: Bantam Books, 1974.

SPORGY AND BESS (1959). Dorothy
and BESS_ Dandridge (1922-1965) pro-
ejected glamour and
Grandeur on stage and
I,1;'r, 7 screen turning her into an
r "authentic new-style cul-
i- tural icon for Black
'' -America" in the 1950s.
SHistorian Donald Bogle
sI n " I .| wrote: "Although the mar-
,1058 keted image appeared to be
contemporary and daring,
at heart it was based on an old and classic type the trag-
ic mulatto." The final irony was, throughout her career, no
matter how high the peaks, Dorothy Dandridge was forced
to live out an image that eventually destroyed her.

-JAZZ ONA SUMMER'S DAY). Dinah Washington (1924-
1963). Her voice was rich and she filled everything she sang
with heartfelt emotion, successfully blending the sacred
music of her youth with the earthiness of the blues. Dinah
Washington first sang professionally with the Lionel
Hampton Orchestra in 1943. Her biggest solo hit was "What
a Difference a Day Makes" in 1959. Her erratic lifestyle led to
her sudden death in 1963, at age 39. Historian Jim Haskins
wrote: "She was a woman whose music could inspire and
sustain everyone, it seemed, but herself."

CERT (1967). Mahalia
Jackson (1911-1972).
Mahalia Jackson's recording
of "Move on Up a Little
Higher" was the first gospel
hit to sell more than a million
copies. She would give an
entire evening's concert at
the Newport Jazz Festival or
annually at Carnegie Hall,
but refused to sing in the-
atres or nightclubs only in stadiums, churches and concert
halls. In 1968, she sang at the funeral of Dr. Martin Luther
King, where she gave an emotional rendition of "Precious
Lord, Take My Hand". Jackson said of gospel singing "I try to
give it the way I feel and most of the time I feel good. Amen!"

(1964). JOSEPHINE BAKER (1906 -1975). The "Toast of
1930s Paris" in LA REVUE NEGRE, Baker's dancing and the
"comedic and later sensuous use of her body" helped to

IFO ][A M EI 1


create her legend. This
show business celebrity,
combined with her wartime
record (assisting the French
Resistance) and her post-
war activities on behalf of
deprived and homeless
children, make her one of
the major African American
figures of the 20th Century.

SHOWOF'53. 1953; featur-

A ing (clockwise on cover)
Sarah Vaughan, Nat King
Cole, Ralph Marterie and His Down Beat Orchestra, and
Illinois Jacquet and His Great Band). SARAH VAUGHAN
(1924-90). Discovered by bandleader and vocalist, Billy
Eckstine, she modeled her early style after Eckstine. Jazz
great Mel Torme wrote, in 1994, "She was a product of the
Bebop era, just as Ella grew up with Swing...she kept her
ears open to Bird, Diz, and the other bop mavens from
whom she gleaned a computer-brain full of phrases and
riffs." Sarah Vaughan's name was synonymous with jazz
singing for two generations and, according to many critics,
"ranks as a close second only to Ella Fitzgerald in terms of
influence, vocal range and sheer consistent brilliance."

(1917- ). In the 1940s,
NAACP Secretary Walter
White predicted that Lena
Horne "would alter the
trend of Negroes in
American movies." She was
already a star before head-
ing to Hollywood, having
headlined at the Cotton
Club at age 16, starred in
on Broadway and been the
toast of New York at most
major night spots. Her career on film is legendary, but
unsatisfactory. She lost her most coveted role, in SHOW-
BOAT, to Ava Gardner and, as a result of her marriage to
white musician, Lennie Hayton and friendship with Paul
Robeson, she was basically blacklisted in the entertain-
ment industry in the 1950s. Her extraordinary comeback
to the concert stage in the 1960s and 70s thrilled audiences
and her autobiographical show, LENA HORNE: THE LADY
AND HER MUSIC received a special Tony Award for
"Distinguished Achievement in the Theatre" in 1981.

Selections from the Baldwin Library

of Historical Children's Literature:

John Steptoe, Illustrator

John Steptoe is just one of many African American
authors and illustrators represented in the Baldwin
Library of Historical Children's Literature. It was in the
1930's that teachers and librarians recognized the need
for better books about the black experience, which could
be shared with children. Augusta Baker, a young librarian
in Harlem in 1937, was appalled at the representations of
blacks in the picture and story books which presented
them, she said later, "as shiftless, happy, grinning, dialect-
speaking menials," and she challenged publishers, editors,
authors, and illustrators to produce unbiased, accurate,
well-rounded pictures of African American life. She pub-
lished widely distributed bibliographies of appropriate
books, which met these parameters.

It was a long, slow, painstak-
ing road, but John Steptoe's
work Stevie, published in
1969, served as one of those
books which opened the
door for a widening array of
well written, wonderfully
illustrated books for chil-
dren which center on the
African American experi-
ence, in both fictional and .
non-fictional publications. Stevie bylohnSteptoe
The Baldwin Library has an
extensive collection of books
by, for and about African Americans from the 1930s to the
present day, providing a rich resource for the study of the
evolution of African American literature for children
accompanied by bibliographies and biographical diction-
aries which provide access to these books and their
authors and illustrators.

John Steptoe Award for New Talent
McDonald, Janet
Chill Wind
New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2002
The Baldwin Library: 23h3191

In 1995, as an honor to John Steptoe, The Coretta Scott
King Task Force of the American Library Association's
Social Responsibilities Round Table created the John
Steptoe Award for New Talent. These books acknowledge

and affirm new African American talent and offer visibil-
ity to excellence in writing or illustration at the beginning
of a career. The 2003 winner of the John Steptoe Award
for New Talent was presented to Janet McDonald for Chill
Wind, a story filled with humor even as it portrays harsh
truths about a single teenage mother in the inner city.

John Steptoe (1950-1989)
John Steptoe was an innovative children's book author and
illustrator. Born in Brooklyn, New York, he was one of the
first to relate the urban black experience to a primary
grade audience from an authentic perspective. His first
book, Stevie, published when he was 19, was a ground-
breaking book and catapulted Steptoe to national promi-
nence. Written by a young black inner-city man in the lan-
guage of black urban youth and illustrated in a style remi-
niscent of Fauvism, the book was unprecedented in
American publishing. As a teenager, Steptoe was aware of
the lack of books for black children that reflected their
lives. "One of my incentives for getting into writing chil-
dren's books," he said, "was the great and disastrous need
for books that black children could honestly relate to.
I ignorantly created precedents by writing such a book. I
was amazed to find that no one had successfully written
a book in the dialogue which black children speak."

Steptoe's artistic style underwent several transforma-
tions. His first books harken back to Fauvism, with their
dark outlines and wide swatches of bright paint executed
in a soft smudged style and enclosed in heavy outlines.
In the early 1980's he moved to a more energetic electri-
fied-looking style rendered in subtler tones of browns
and grays, eventually arriving at a more realistic style in
both color and representation.

He also moved away from the black American urban envi-
ronment for his inspiration, looking to African settings
and tales for Mother Crocodile and Mufaro's Beautiful
Daughters, and adapting a Native American legend in The
Story of umping Mouse.

Steptoe received many accolades and awards for his work,
including the Coretta Scott King Award for Illustration for
Mother Crocodile and Mufaro's Beautiful Daughters. The
latter title, along with The Story of Jumping Mouse, was
also named a Caldecott Honor Book.

SomethingAbout theAuthor, Anne Commire, ed., Detroit:
Gale Research Company, vol. 8, 1996

Children's Literature Review, Gerard J. Senick, ed., Detroit:
Gale Research Company, vol 12, 1987

Steptoe, John
Daddy Is a Monster...Sometimes
New York: J.B. Lippincott, 1980
The Baldwin Library: 23h35734

Most children find
their parents to be
monsters some-
times and these
feelings are humor-
ously and lovingly
discussed in Daddy
Is a Monster...
Sometimes by two
children who recall
several transformations, brought on by their misbehavior,
of their usually quiet human father.

Steptoe, John
New York: Harper & Row, 1969
The Baldwin Library: 39h10363

In Stevie, Steptoe's first book, a young boy, Robert, has to
overcoming feelings of jealousy when his mother begins
caring for a friend's child during the week. At first, Robert
resents Stevie who plays with his toys and takes away some
of his mother's attention, but when Stevie leaves, Robert
misses him and realizes he had become "kinda like a little

Steptoe, John
Mufaro's Beautiful Daughters
New York: Lothrop, Lee & Shepard, 1987
The Baldwin Library: 39h12707

Mufaro's Beautiful Daughters
is based on a Zimbabwe folk
tale about a man who pres-
ents both his daughters to
the king who has decided to
take a wife.

Steptoe, John
The Story oflumping Mouse
New York: Lothrop, Lee & Shepard, 1984
The Baldwin Library: 39h12708

The Story of Jumping Mouse is an adaptation of a Native
American "why" story that explains how the eagle came to be.

Clifton, Lucille
Steptoe, John, illustrator
All Us Come Cross the Water
New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1973
The Baldwin Library:

In All Us Come Cross the Water, a teacher asks her pupils to
stand in groups according to what country their family
comes from, prompting young Ujamaa to begin a search
for his roots.

Baker, Augusta, selector
The Black Experience in Picture Books
New York: The New York Public Library, 1971
The Baldwin Library: Z1361 .N39 B2 1971 (Reference)

Murphy, Barbara Thrash
Black Authors and Illustrators ofBooks for Children and
Third edition. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1999
The Baldwin Library: Z1037 .R63 1999 (Reference)

Selections from the PK.Yonge

Library of Florida History:

Early Pioneers of Civil Rights in Florida

The BK. Yonge Library actively collects materials relevant
to African American history in Florida for all periods from
the colonial to modern. Information on free people of
color, slaves, black militias, and maroon communities can
be found throughout the colonial records, the territorial
papers, and records of the Civil War and Reconstruction.
The civil rights movement constitutes a major focus of
the materials on the twentieth century. Other areas
where the African American experience is well-represent-
ed include biography, literature, and newspaper publish-
ing and reporting.

Josiah T. Walls (1842-1905)
Soldier, Newspaper Editor, State Congressman and
Senator, U.S. Congressman

.'::- -:.... Born in Virginia's Shenan-
doah Valley in 1842, little is
known of Walls' life until he
enlisted in the Third Infantry
Regiment, United States
SColored Troops, in July 1863.
The unit served in Florida
beginning in 1864, and Walls
Shad assignments at Baldwin,
Jacksonville, and Picolata.
.-." Settling in Alachua County,
~~- he was a delegate to the con-
stitutional convention of
1867 and then entered the state legislature. Beginning in
1870 he served three terms in the U.S. House of

Klingman, Peter D.
Josiah Walls, Florida's Black Congressman of
Gainesville: University Presses of Florida, 1976
157 p.; 24 cm.
Florida Collection: E 664 .W19 K54

Matted Photograph: Josiah T. Walls
Florida History Photo Collection

Harry Tyson Moore (1906-1951)
Civil rights activist and NAACP organizer

Moore fought throughout his adult life for civil rights in
Florida. He organized the state's branch of the NAACP in
Brevard County, serving as state president from 1941 to
1946, and led the battle to equalize teacher pay, to gain
African Americans the vote, and to force prosecution of
lynching and other mob violence.

As Florida's most outspoken activist for equal rights,
Moore became the target of southern racists, especially
chapters of the Ku Klux Klan. When Lake County Sheriff
Willis V McCall shot down two handcuffed black prisoners
in November of 1951, killing one and nearly killing the
other, Moore was among the first to demand prosecution.
He soon began to receive death threats for involving him-
self in the case. On Christmas night, 1951, both Moore and
his wife Harriett died in an explosion that ripped apart
the bedroom of their house. No one was ever arrested or
prosecuted for these murders, although subsequent
investigations in the 1970s and 1990s revealed a Klan plot
to kill Moore.

Green, Ben
Before His Time: The Untold Story ofHarry T. Moore,
America's First Civil Rights Martyr
NewYork: The Free Press, 1999
310 p.; 25 cm.
Florida Collection: E 1985.97 .M79 G74

James [William] Weldon Johnson (1871-1938)
Poet, novelist, composer, and civil rights activist

Johnson ranks with Mary
McLeod Bethune and Zora
Neale Hurston as one of
Florida's best-known African
American writers and educa-
tors. Born in Jacksonville, he
attended Stanton Grade School
and later earned his bachelors
and masters degrees with hon-
ors from Atlanta University
(1894 and 1904, respectively). He
returned to Jacksonville as the

principal of Stanton High School, and became the first
African American accepted to the Florida Bar, briefly tak-
ing up the profession of law before heading to New York
as a writer/composer.

In 1909 while serving as U.S. consul to Nicaragua he
completed his early classic work Autobiography of an
Ex-Colored Man (1912; first edition).

Back in the United States he turned his attention to civil
rights. As field secretary of the NAACP between 1917 and
1919 he was responsible for setting up more than 130
chapters of the organization in southern states.

Johnson is remembered for his fight in the early 1920s to
bring the crime of lynching to national attention. He also
spent as much time as possible writing and composing.
One of his early songs, "Lift Ev'ry Voice and Sing," became
so popular with African American school children and
with church and civic groups that it became known as
the "Negro National Anthem." In 1930 Johnson left his
work with the NAACP to teach writing at Fisk University
in Nashville. During these years he published antholo-
gies of poetry, and a second autobiography Along this
Way. He died in 1938 in an automobile accident while
traveling near his home in Maine.

"Our main effort must consist in hammering the trade
unions continually with the self-evident truth that they
cannot advance or maintain standards and conditions
for white labor while they leave on the outside a ready
and almost unlimited supply of black labor. We must
convince the white worker that our help is needed in the
winning of the cause of labor." James Weldon Johnson,
Negro Americans, WhatNow?, 1935

African Americans in Florida / Maxine D. Jones and Kevin
M. McCarthy, Sarasota: Pineapple Press, 1993

Before his Time / Ben Green, New York: The Free Press,

Josiah Walls/ Peter D. Klingman, Gainesville: University
Presses of Florida, 1976

James Weldon Johnson, Black Leader, Black Voice/
Eugene Levy, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973

James WeldonJohnson, guide to an exhibit at the
National Portrait Gallery, June 15 1970 to June 1, 1971



i %'*-;-


Egypt, Ophelia Settle
James Weldon Johnson
New York: Thomas E. Crowell Co., 1974
41 p.; 23 cm.
Florida Collection: FB J67e

Johnson, James Weldon,
Along this Way: The Autobiography of ames Weldon
New York: Viking Press, 1969
418 p.; 20 cm.
Gift of William and Sue Goza
Florida Collection: E 185.97 .J692 A3x

Johnson, J. Rosamond (score); James Weldon (lyrics)
"Lift Ev'ry Voice and Sing"
New York: CLEF Music Publishing Corp., 1969
Belknap Collection

Anonymous (Johnson, James
Weldon, 1871-1938)
The Autobiography ofan
Ex-Colored Man
First edition
Boston: Sherman French & Co., 1912
207 p.; 21 cm.
Florida Collection: PS 3519
.02625 Z513

Johnson, James Weldon, 1871-1938
Negro Americans, What Now?
First edition
NewYork: The Viking Press, 1935
103 p.; 19.5 cm.
Florida Collection: F326 J67n

Selections from Archives and Manuscripts:

Civil Rights, Rural Life, and Student Protest

The Archives and Manuscripts Section includes the
University of Florida Archives as well as general literary
and historical manuscripts. The emphasis of the latter is
on Florida related materials. Archival records related to
African American history can be found in a number of col -
lections, but only three topics have been highlighted for
this exhibit. The 1963 civil rights struggle in St. Augustine
is chronicled in the special investigation files of Governor
Farris Bryant. African American rural life is documented
through the annual reports of agricultural extension
agents taken from the University Archives. Finally, the
1969 protests against the closing of Gainesville's Lincoln
High School are represented by images taken by a
University of Florida photographer.

St. Augustine Civil Rights Struggle

In 1963 and 1964, Saint Augustine was the scene of a major
civil rights campaign to end racial segregation and vio-
lence against African Americans in that city. The activities
of civil rights organizations and the violent response of the
Ku Klux Klan were closely monitored by the office of
Governor Farris Bryant.

Photograph taken by an investigator from the governor's
office of a sit-in at the Monson Motor Inn in St. Augustine.
The Southern Christian Leadership Conference led by
Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., organized the sit-in. King
and hundreds of others were arrested during the 1964
demonstrations. [From the Farris Bryant Papers,
Investigation Files, Saint Augustine Civil Rights
Movement, 1961-1964.]

Poster distributed by
the Southern Christian
Leadership Conference
asking tourists to boy-
cott Saint Augustine.
[From the Farris Byrant
Papers, Investigation
Files, Saint Augustine
Civil Rights Movement,

. .:. --. ...; .-.--...



S( '_ - ;

Student Protest in Gainesville

In 1969, Alachua County was under court order to inte-
grate its public school system. As part of plans to integrate,
the school board announced it would close Lincoln High
School, a predominantly black school, and relocate its stu-
dents. This decision angered black residents who had
strong emotional ties to Lincoln, and who thought it
should remain open as an integrated school. On
November 25, 1969, some 2,000 students boycotted their
classes and marched down University Avenue to a rally
outside the offices of the Alachua County School Board.
However, protests did not save Lincoln, which closed as a
high school the following year.

[From the Florida Photograph Collection]

Rural African American Life

Throughout most of the state's history, Florida's African
American population resided in rural, not urban, areas.
In several panhandle and northern counties, African
Americans were the majority, not the minority, and farm-
ing was the chief economic activity. [From the Florida
Photograph Collection]

The Florida Cooperative Extension Service was created in
1915 to provide advice and technical assistance to
Florida's farmers. A network of farm and home extension
agents was administered by the University of Florida and
worked closely with researchers at the Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station. In the era of Jim Crow, a
separate network for black farmers was established
under the direction of a state agent at Florida A & M
University. Reports from the Negro State Agent and indi-
vidual African American county agents were sent to
Gainesville and now form part of the University Archives.

Letter from Alachua County Agent Frank Pinder, 12 July
1934, to A. P Spencer, head of Florida's agricultural exten-
sion program, reflecting on Pinder's work with farmers in
the county. [From Series 91b, University of Florida Archives,
Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Annual Reports.]

Photograph of County .
Agent Frank Pinder (far
right) with local farm-
ers receiving sweet
potato vines for plant-
ing taken in 1940. [From
the E. H. Bone Collection,
University of Florida

Photograph of County
Agent McKinley Jeffers
(bottom, right) with farmer
Tally Watson and his family
in Fort White taken in 1955.
[From the University of
Florida Archives Photograph Collection.]

Photograph of Duval County 4-H members preparing
for a trip to the annual state Short Course Meeting in
Tallahassee. [From Series 91b, University of Florida
Archives, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Annual

Display of agricultural products of the Florida Farmers'
Cooperative Association at the 1939 Florida State Fair in
Tampa. The Association marketed the agricultural pro-
duce of African American farmers but achieved success
only after dropping the word Negro from its name. [From
Series 91b, University of Florida Archives, Florida
Cooperative Extension Service, Annual Reports.]

Program for the Farmers
and Homemakers Harvest
Program, October 11, 1946,
Lake City, organized by
Columbia County Agent
McKinley Jeffers and Home
Demonstration Agent Ozella
Sansome. [From Series 91b,
University of Florida
Archives, Florida Cooper-
ative Extension Service,
Annual Reports.]

Farmers and Homemakers

October 11th, 1946

I,. r ,

- JSr

Selections from Archives and Manuscripts:

Recent Acquisitions of Local History

The records and papers ofA. L. Cunningham, Sr. and the
Cunningham Funeral Home document the largest minor-
ity-owned business in Marion County. Two brothers,
Albert and James Cunningham, founded the company in
1955. As morticians, they played a prominent leadership
role in the African American community like African
American morticians throughout the South in terms of
providing a headquarters for political activities; handling
banking needs for the community; and facilitating other
necessary financial, cultural, and social transactions that
required interaction among the segregated components
of the South. The collection includes burial records, pho-
tographs, financial transactions, oral histories, maps,
correspondence related to a number of topics such as
politics, fashion, and others aspects of life in Florida.

Another important recent acquisition to the Manuscript
and Archives Collection are the records of the Visionaires.
This group was founded in February 1938 by eight women
who sought to establish a
community organization THE VISIONAIRES
that could foster civic, cul- -
tural, and social affairs for (_L:. Q, ,...
Negro women in Gainesville,
Florida. Regular meetings
were held every other
Thursday night and dues
were 25 cents per month. iJ
Meetings were held in mem-
bers' homes, in alphabetical ... ...
order. The group was organ- ,,, :,:,,, .,"",":."
ized into three committees:

"".il Program (for literary
jil ....... ,.. : .....' aaffairs), Social (social
.*. IS functions for meetings
I and special events), and
S Civic (programs that
41 u .he viionake 0 promoted the welfare
T .... .. of the African American
community) commit-
,tees. The Visionaires
Collection consists of
minutes of their meet-
ings, records of finan-
cial transactions, pho-
: :tographs, and materials
that document the
organization's participation in school and community
activities (e.g., an annual achievement award based on
scholastic performance by African American high school

The E.A. Cosby Collec- p
tion includes abun-
dant photographs,
booklets, travel maps,
minutes of board
meetings, histories of
fraternal organizations,
and notes of meetings
held by governmental
boards of the city of
Gainesville, Alachua County, and the University of Florida
regarding desegregation efforts. Dr. E.A. Cosby played a
prominent role in the African American community in
the Gainesville area for decades although he was not
native to the South. He documented many activities with
his camera and the com-
munity treasured his work.
Dr. Cosby treasured all sub-
jects and his photographs
were carefully arranged
and stored. He was a per-
son, it was said, who
"keeps everything." In an
important way, the collec-
tion helps document the life of one African American
family in Florida from the 1940s through the 1970s.


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