The Baldwin Library
f ^ University I
liii yY i
S-ientific nrder 1'achyderma.a, or thi, k-skiined ailimrnls.
'ONII.S are beautiful creature-, and are great ti\'ourite, with yount pl'ois.
On Dartn:oor, there is a very hardly and sure-fotel race, well fittd 'or the
rotigh roads and dreary wilds f' that nlountainous country. One of these
ponies has beeu known to carry its owner, a man of great weight, eighty-six
miles, beating the coach which went the same road. The Shetland pony, an
ilhabitant of the extremes northern Scottish isles, is a very small, and oftnd It a
pretty animal; it is remarkably strong for its size, and very docile. In
Scotland they are called Shelties, and as they h:ive to take care itf then elv, '
they run almost wild upon the edge of the steepest mountains.
A friend of ours," says Dr. Ander-on, was not long ago presented with
one of these ele.gait little animals. IIe was several miles from lhonm1, a:d11
puzzled how to convey his newly-acquired property. The Shetlander wa
scarcely more than seven hands i glh, a'id as docile as he was beautiful. 'Cai
we not carry him in our chaise ?' sald his friend. The strange experiment was
tried. Sheltie was placed in the bottom of the gig:, and covered up as well as
could be managed with the apro ; a few bits of bread kept him quit, and
thus he was saftel co-n ved away, and exhibit thie 1 rious .qs-t cle of a
horse riding in a gig."
A gpntlenian had a pony which become attach to a little whitet e dmg that
lived with liin in the stable; ann whenever the horse was tikkpn t, the dog
always ran by his side. One day wenii the groom took out the polnv or exer-
cise, av.d accompanied, as usual, by hi, dog friend, they met a large mastilT
whirlc attacked the little dog, upon which the horse reare i, and to tie asto-
nishment of the bystanders, so well fought his friend's battle, with his fore feet,
that the m:istitf f)lIoun it ftr his interest to scamper off at full ,peed,. ind never
again ventiied, to att:mk the small dog.
It is truly lamentalle that tihe ponies and horses, which are so \v;iltibl. to
man, should often be ti e;ited with great rigour and crueltv. '* I wuuld nut
keep a horse,'' aid a benevolent ilmin, "' that did not lve mle."'
~ ~-;- :
.-'C~v~~ ':r'" .
r . ~. ~r
THE HORSE AND ITS FOAL.
'ven r I tic urt,-r / 'LiO, q -,,i-mu or t1ii, k-.kiniit d s ainn .
THE speed, strength, spirit, an,.l u-efulness of the horse, make it a most val.- i
able creature in the s-rvice of m:n. It lessens his labours, and adds to his
pleasures. The horse, it is said, first came into use in Egypt. In the time of
tthe ftmlne in that land. Joseph gave the people bread tfor horses, G(en. xlv-i.
17. There is a tine description of the war-horse in the book of Job (xxxix.
11. 25;. God commanded that. the Jews should not keep many horses.
Perhaps this was to discourage them fi om war; and to prevent them ftiroi
seeking to extend tie bounds of their country, by wlich they might get sait-
tei ed among the nations, and so rea-e to be a sepainate people, whli-lc Godt in-
tended they should be.
S It was not the custom to shoe houses in early times, so that their hoots were
often easily broken: see Judg. v. 22. Saddles were not used, but the rein and
curb are of ancient date: "Be ye not as the horse, or as the mule.... whose
mouth must be held in with bit and bridle." Psa. xxxii. 9. The foal, colt,
or young horse, is mentioned in various passages in the Bible.
A custom existed among the Egyptian warriors of adorning the necks of their
horses with small bells : this was done to excite the courage of the animals, and
to annoy those who rode on camels, which are said to be startled at the tingling j
of bells. An allusion is made to this practice in Zech. xiv. 20: In that day
S shall there be upon the bells of the horses, HOLINESS UNTO THE Ionr:." This
is a promise that happier and more peaceful times shall be in the earth ; when
S horses, instead of being trained to war and sinful pleasure, shall be only used
for the glory of God. May the gospel spread through all the earth, and that
S blessed time speedily arrive!
i S.ientific order Rodentia, or gnawing animi,.,
IN a natural state the rlbbit is unequal to that rapid course for which tke hare
is adapted. It digs deep holes for shelter and safety, and enjoys the society of
its fellows in spots where food is provided. The ground ot'a warren, nid
S sometimes to a great extent, is pierced all about with deep holes. The gambols
S of its little tenants, as they play in security, or their rapid flight from a:y
S cause of alarm, are not a little amusing. They cemmonlv remain in their bur-
S rows during the day, and come forth about twilight to feel. T'lhe are valued
as an article of food, and also for their fur. Thle keeping of rabbits is a fre-
S quent amusement of young persons.
In its will state the colour of the rabbit's fur is zravi.h-brown, paler or
whitish on the under parts, its tail black above, and white bene:Ath ; but when
domesticated, it. varies greatly in colour; being gray, reddlih-brown, or black,
more or less mixed with white, and often perfectly white.
"Iu sandy heaths, covered with large bushes of forze," says Mr. e-1ll,
rabbits often multiply to a great extent; as the soil is easily removed, and,1
the dense furze affords a secure cover to their retreat, and a wholesome, ready,
S and never-failing boo i; tor thle young tops of the plants are found constantly
eaten down, and the bushes present the appearance of a solid mass, with the
surface even and rounded, as far as the rabbits can reach them standing on third
hinder legs. They make extensive inroads, however, upon corn-fields and plan- i
stations, in which they do considerable mischief by devouring the newly-lrun I
corn, and barking the young trees."
I was. on a fine summer's day," says IMr. Howitt, sitting in the meadows I
opposite Tutbury Castle, in Staffordshire, when I observed a rabbit sitting ,by
its burrow. Suddenly, from a bush at some distance, issued a lati e weasel,
and darting on with the rapidity of an arrow, attempted to make its -ay into
the burrow, in which, no doubt, were the rabbit's young ones. The r:ibbit,
with an air of the utmost cooliess., rai-in. itself, received the weasel with seve-
ral smart thumps upon the head. Hie tieLd b;uk, but speedily renewed the
attack, and was received in the same style. The assault, battery, and retreat
were maintained for at least a quarter of an hour, when the weasel crawled I
away, apparently exhaul.stted, anli appeared no more. Such is the valour infused
by parental instinct into tlhe nmist weak and timi.l creatures." !
S .. _.. ---- __ ... .. .. -- ...... .......
49. ir JR;;io~;-s~. ~:S.'l:
SNEWFOUNDLAND DOG.-ENGLISH TERRIER.-
Scientific order Carniiora, or flslih-e:it.rs.
I: almost every country the dog is the servant and companion of man by day,
S and the guardian of his property at night. His strength, his courage, and all
his useful qualities are 1.id freely at the service of his minister.
i Among the different kinds of dogs the NEWFOUNDLAND takes a first place.
S This general favourite was brought fiom the island to which it owes its name.
There it is employed as a beast of draught, and brings loads of wood and pro-
vision over a rough and difficult country. It probably surpasses, as a water-
dog, every other kind.
O--e of these animals which was kpt at the ferry-house at Worcester, was
the means of rescuing. at different times, several persons from drowning. This
f ithful creature was exceedinglv fond of the water, and seemed even to con-
sider a disinclination for it by other dogs, an insult on the species. Thus,
S if one were left by its master on the bank, and if it stood yelping at the bottom
S of the steps, unwilling to pillow the boat across the river, he would go down
to him, growl :is if in mockery at his f;ars, take him by the back of Iis neck,
S and throw him into th, stream.
S Of the T'RRImER there are two distinict varieties: the one smooth and sleek,
he other having rough hair, and not being so pleasing in form; the former,
too, is of a bright black colour, and the latter generally of a dirty brown.
S The terrier is strong, active, and bold; it is the enemy of almost all kinds of
S vermin, and is therefore of great use in freeing places from rats, polecats, and
S other offensive animals.
\Ve read in Phil. iii. 2, ': Beware of dog,:, beware of evil wolkers.." It is a
caution to avoid angry and quarrelsome persons and alludes to an ancient
custom at liome, to chain lip dogs at the doors of houses ; and to write over
tht-ir head, in Lo l letters l',.:wA r orF ill: DOG.
Ii I I
THE GOAT AND ITS KIDS.
Srci-mific order aw)bintianf, or animals that chew the cud.
Tin.: goat," s:;ys Goldsmitlh, "seems in evrry respect more tittled for a
life of savage liberty than the sheep. It is naturally more lively, and more
possessed with animal instinct. It. ea-ily attaches itself to man, and seems
sensible of his caresses. It is also stronger ani swifter, more iourageolus, and
more lalyfil, lively, c;pricious, and vagrant; it is not easily confined, to the
flock, but chooses its own pastures, and loves to stray remote from the rest.
It chiefly delights in climbing p, ecipices ; in going to the very edge of danger ;
it is often seen suspended on an eminence, hanging over the sea, upon a very
little base, and even sleeps there in security." In Wales, anl some parts of
England it is domesticated, and is of the highest service to the poor. Its skin
is made into what is called morocco leather; and the skin of the kil, or young '
S goat, is formed into soft and beautiful leather for gloves.
S The references in the Bible to the goat are numerous. One in particular,
Leviticus xvi. 20, claims attention. On the great Day of Atonement the high
S priest was comlmaundel t take two selected goats. One of these was to be
killed, the other to be set free in the wilderness. The blood of the slain goat
: was sprinkled on the mercy-seat. The priest thn took tlle live goat, laid both
his hanls on its head, :ind confessed over it the sins of the people, putting K
S them upon tile head of tle goat." The goat was now, l;d by a man into the
wilderness, where it was allowed to escape. bearing l uponl it all the iniquitie" i
of the people. All this was dosinod to tech that it was through shelling of
blood that sin coldl alone be paridoned. But it is not possible that the bloo-l
of bulls and of goats sholdl t:ikl away sins'" 11Hb. x. 4. What thin did this
service sigiiiiy ? It was a type of the deAth of Jeus, who "6 fierd himself
S once for all," and whose blood han power to clezlnie from all sin, in all age, of
the world. lay we, through faith in Him, have uir .sils borne away, to be
remembered against. us no 01more.
I : -. 1I
THE SHEPHERD'S D)OG.
l..ientific order '.arliicnJrai ur flt.h-v'ating u.iiii;ri .
1~ instinct and sagacity,"' nay- Bingley, the, h tphier do., is, perhaps
superior to all others. One ot thlrse dogs is of more essential use to the shep-
herd, than half a-dozen boys would be ; iamore expediti'ill., and is at all time
ready to obey commands .\t a word from iis kecpi.r, it' drives the I:.'ep in
order and regularity to acii ftom their pastirc., ,ndi will s;tl;r no stranfer's
from another flock to intrude upon his. It' :lil of' the sh,-ip attenllit to striy,
S he springs forward in an instant to .topl their Ci. urse. 0i1, e tlhe :idi- oit one of
the Wel-h mountains, I have seen a shepherd point out to his dog a
sheep, on a height more than a niile distant. IHe i.gav tile well-kncownl si,.gnl,
The dog. went off at full speed, and so,.n returned. with the animal to the toc:k.
When at rest, these dogs lie down by their ilt.cstl s wval,,t c',(-itaiiii',g the fi',,
for the day, and preserve it from pliluder."
According to the law of M,.ses, ,di,.g were classed among iincl,ln anninal.,
EIxod. \\ii. 1. Eastern shlepherds do not employ the-e :nimn:l; iidleed they
aie heid but in little esteem in the East. T'Ihey rove about the cities and
villages without a master, and without a home. Nu one makes it IiC care to
f-ed them; they get their tfiod where and how they best can: and ble~. ill-
used and half starve.l, their halbits become Peeidy, ;terce, ;id cruel. Thii will
e\plain the rea.,n why the dog is mostly spoken of in the Bible with so cinvi
Numbers of hungry dogs were commonly drawn to :iny spot where a feast
was hield, and waited around the gate of the iouie, to receive lile fragments that
might be thrown ount to them This tact will remind us of Lazarus at the rih
man's gate, and theldogs which were there licking his wounds. Sumtrinwcs tiife
bulillv entered the loune, and took their ilac;e under the table, to catch any
S fragments that might fall on tlhe fli cir. To this the womiln11 of CF.i'nanI :i;t-
ingly alluded when she pleaded with Jesus. on his appearing to rl'ue her re-
S quest for her atflictel daughter. Matt. x'. '27. But great was her t'aith. anud
i His infinite love her desire wan granted.
_I _______ _~_~ ~~_ I____~ __~__ __~ __ __
TTI \ >-,
i ': '"''
.J 1.. -r-.U,
Scientific order I'ch ydermot a, or thick-_kiii.u.l aninm jls.
THi ass in our land is a meek :inl patient creature. though often treat'l with
neglect and cruelty. It will do much iiuetfl work, and is contented with the
coarsest grass, or the thi:tles that grow by the hedge side. In the choice of
water it is very particular, drinking only of that which is clear and pure.
In the East it is highly valued; and it formed a part of the riches of the
patriarchs. In the early days of Israel, the rich men and judges rode on asses.
as there were few or no horses then kept in the land ; and white asses were par-
ticularly esteemed : to ride on them was a mark of dignity. .Judg. v 10. Our
Saviour rode into Jerusalem upon this lowly creature, a the prophet Zecha-
riah foretold (ix. 9), thus showing his meekness, even while the people shouted
his praises and spread their garments in the way to do him honour. May we
not forget that Jesus loves the humble, but the proud he knoweth afar off."
Its value was also recognized by the Eastern husbandman in the cultivation
of the ground. "The oxen likewise and the young asses that ear (or till)
'' the ground shall eat clean provender, which hath been winnowed with the
shovel and with the fan."' I-a. xxx. 24. Thus the prophet speaks, foretelling 1
a season of great plenty. His words imply a thoughtful care for the animals,
which doubtless conducted to render the asses in the East so superior to our '
Though the ass seems dull and slow, he knows lis master. alnd will some-
times find him out among a crowd of men. God says, The fox knoweth his
owner, and the ass his master's ciib, but Israel doth not know, my people doth
not consider." Isa. i. 8. Even this dull beast seems more grateful and
obedient to its master than men are to lod.
God has committed the ass to our control and care ; let us then learn to use ;
it kindly, and to shun all acts of cruelty. A righteous man regardeth the
life of his boast." Prov. xii. 1)t.
I K ITTI K
i THE CAT AND HER KITT
pi Scientific order (arnicora, or flesh-e.iter
IN ancient E.yvpt, the cat was held in sacred veneration. It was considered :
crime worthy of death to kill one wlfully ; and to kill one accidentally ex-
posed the person to severe punishment. A similar feeling has prevailed in
other countries. It is stated by Herodotus, the Greek hi.itoiian;, that '" when
a cat died, it was embalmed, and interred with honotur; and that the inhabit-
ants of the house shaved their eyebrows in token of sorrow." In Tiliey,
cats are now treated with similar regard.
It appears from an ancient law of one of the Welsh princes, that in his time
a cat was a rare and valuable animal. A penny was paid for a kitling before
it could see, which was doubled from that time till it caught a mouse. A g1o I
mouser was worth fourpence: thi-s, sums are high considering the rel.itive
value of money at that time. A person who had stolen any cat that g:ualded
the prince's granary, was to forfeit a sheep with its fleece, and a Iamnb; or as
much wheat as, when poured on the cat while suspended by the tail, with the
h:ad touching the floor, would form a he;ip high enough to cover the tip of the
Cats, which have greatly multiplied in later ages, are \vey cleanly. In cold
weather they show their fondness for warmth, by securing a Ipl:ce as near as
possible to the fire of the rooms into which they are admitted. If noticed allin
caressed, they give manlly proof of pleasure, hb their singular noise called
" punring," as well as by various motions. An att:wk pro lutes an opposite
elect, andi displeasure is eiquially manifest. Cats sleep lightly. thus reminding
us of their ol iiinal wild state, in which heavy slumbers would be injurious to
them as creatures of priy.
These animals in a dmniestic state possess qual;ties which well ent tle them
to our regard and protection ; if they do not show thle strong andl vivid attn.ll-
ment of the dog, they are vet f an affectionate and gentle disposition, in gr;at..
f'l to their benrefatctor..
, J -W
THE GUINEA PIG.
' i tienlific ler d'i l, ll/ a, i'r g aliwVinlg aninh .i.
'T'il i C a culriious lit tie c'l:it ui'e, :tii hci]s ;ia miidle pl i e ibtween the emou -e
and rabbit tries. In it.- will state it is a native of North Aneiiric.I, ai3d !. -
lows under 'lroiund, or ,beneatli the c',ts of tiers: but it uhas i n ln ,ii' kt-ipt iii
a ionmestic stite in Einglani, wh\\e't it Liiuci attach-'d to it- ke-pri",. Its 'kiTi
is coloreil with a mixture t' ilaik. wl.h:o i, and reillish-brown. Thii treth cl're
particularly strong and shii 1p; ;ini- it ha; lo-;ni kulown, when confined it :a room.
to gnaw its; way speedily through i dlour. It Lreiedily devours all kinds ci'
ve'etibles, aid is very t[uid of nut,. It- Iar: are large, broail1, an11 rounidedl at
the siles. Its upper lip is hi;ilf dliv'idil, aiin its hair is erect, smni\whilt riem-i
bl:ng that of a yo.iurlil pig. It ha.s tbur toes oil the f-,re-lre.s, and three on the
hi ndl, and is li.titute Oi f a tail. In its \ il t state it. liv s iii societies, inhabitin
1dryv llans covPreid with l0ow brushwool1, laun remains .cnceailel lurin the l:it ,
coming forth ont tl app ch of Ieenig to seek its foo., It. possesses either
.cunniingi to av,,id c .lnllti', strengtth to resist, nor swiftnness to esc.iap ft'roin it.
SGuinea pigs are tender animals andr susceplitible ot' Inlicl. anl shoiTl I.0c
pIroviclced with warm place to itltire into in bad weatherr. i their habit-, tlihe
arei extremely neat ai clean ; they imay 1be ,ftnll seen iln tile act of imic'cthini
anidl dressing their fiur, and thlnn cleanling thie coats of their YVinll; oies'. Their
voice is commonly a sort of slqu'akiiig grunt, but it sometimes i. a isli:har and
shrill civ. Their pace is slow, and tlhy nmire- ifrm plale t, plac;ie by a kiln.l I
However t str strute and te tluctut t habits of some animals are. w\t nmv
be sure that all living things display the pvwer, wildom, and goodness of God ;
and we should rise in our thoughts from the creatures; to Him who made them
what they are, gave them life, and provides for their constant wants.
O Lord. how manifold are thy works! in wisdom hast thou made thepr
all." Psalm ,.iv. 24.
Scientific i der jsiminanltia, or animals that chew the cud.
; THE fallow-deer is not so large as the stag, though it is v-py much like it in
form and colour. During part of the year it is prettily sl,,ttedl witli white,
Its horns in the first and second years are very small, but they increase till
J! the animal is five years old, when they become of great size. They are not
; changed every season, like other deer. Fallow deer are usually seen in Engli.h
Sparks, where they love to group under the stately elm trees, or spring across the
green lawn in playful gambols.
Ingenuity is sometimes displayed by the-e animals. The berries on the
thorn-trees are often beyond reach, yet some of the old bucks, or male deer, in
S Bushy Park have been observed to obtain them by simple yet effective means.
They raise then.selves on their hind legs, give a sp ing, entangle their horns in
S the lower branches of the trees, shake them once or twice, thus causing some oft
the berries to fall, and then they very quietly pick them up.
The head of these animals is furnished with two lbreatlhing places besides the
nostrils. When thirsty, they plunge their noses very deep under water, andt
while drinking keep them there a considerable time. But, to prevent in-
I convenience, they open these two vents, one at the inner corner of each eve.
These communicate with the nose, and doubtless afford the deer a more flee
S respiration when running very swiftly; so mercifully does the great Creator
adapt his creatures to their various conditions of life.
S Several kinds of deer were numbered among the cleau animal.-, whihli the '
S Israelites were allowed to eat. Among the daily provision made for Solomon's .
table were (" allow-deer," 1 Kings iv. 23. They are still met with in great
numbers about mounts Tabor and Carmel, in the Holy Land.
Illi I \ i i 1 i ~
THE sheep is f~rnd in almost every country. Its llesh is one of the chief
articles of food, and from its wool much of our clothing is made. The care of
the sheep was one of the earliest employment of mankind. The twelve sons
of Jacob, Moses, and others, were shepherds. and 1avid had charge of his
Sheep require to be constantly taken care of, for thpe' are I able to waner.
So David says, "I have gone a-tray like a lost sheep." They are weak and
timid, and apt to run into danger, and liable to te lost in the nI)llntains.
Hence it is salid, My pIople hath been lost sheep -they have gone from
mountain to hill; they have fi'rgotten their resting place," .er. 1.6, When a
sheep strays and is lost, a good shepherd will seek till he finds it, Luke xv.
Sheep are harmless, patient, and weak, and are thus fit emblems of the right-
eous. And they have a good Shepherd" who seeks them, feeds and guides
them. Isa. lx. 11.
Lambs are often mentioned in Scripture. Two lambs wvre offered in the
temple every day-one as the morning sacrifice, and one as the evening sacri-
fice. Exod. xxix. 38, 39. The sacrifices of lambs had "a grand meaning."
The Jews were taught thereby that those who offered them deserved to die
themselves ; and they were a type, or sign, of the death of Christ. He is "' the
SIamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world." John i. 29. As the
lambs were laid on the Jewish altar, so Christ was laid on the cross a victim,
and for us he died.
The Good Shepherd now invites us to '- the green pastures" of his ordinances
and service, and, by the grace of the Holy Spirit, availing ourselves of the
proffered privilege, we give proof that we know his voice. May the language
of every wanderer be:-
rhy flock with what a tender care
Bless'd Jesus, dust thou keep;
Iuain would my weak, my wandering soul,
Be numnber'd with thy sheep."
'IHE SHEEP AND
*' i- li tiic o iil, Jr i, iiia ,tie', (wr tiii
nal? lhUt 111Pw l ie 'd.
I I i i
Scieatlfic order Rumnian~tia, or animals that chew the cid.
Cows are among the most useful of nll creatures. They supply us with milk
and cream, from which butter and cheese are made. When killed their flesh is
nourishing food ; their fat is melted into tallow to form our candles ; their skins
serve as covers for our trunks, as leather for our boots and shoes, and as binding
for our books; their hair is mixed with mortar for our houses; their sinews
are used as threads by saddle-makers; their gristle is made into glue; their
blood is employed to purity su:ar for our tables; their galls to cv-ianne our
woollens and carpets; f, om some of their hbnes is made an oil, used in cleansing
the harness of coaches; and the l~lger bones are ground to manure the earth.
Nor must we forget the horns: these are made into cupl, combs, and knife-
handles, and when cut into thin plates they serve for the .sdos of la;nte!ns, in-
stead of glass.
Fatlings (Matt. xxii. 4.) are young calves fattened for a feast. The flesh of
the calf was a great delicacy, and was offered at a feast as the most acceptable i
Scripture references to oxen (including the cow, the calf, and the heifer)
are very frequent. Beeves (Lev. xxii. 191 is the old English word for oxen ; i
as kine (Amos iv. 1) is for cows. When the happy and peaceful times of the
gospel kingdom are foretold, it is sail, The cow and the bear shall feed;
their young ones shall lie down together; and the lion shall eat straw like the
ox." Ia. xi. 7.
The Lord appointed in the Jewish services a red heifer, (and the heifers of
the East are mostly of a reddish colour,) to be slain and burnt without the
camp. These sacrifices hal no merit of themselves to take away sin : they I
set forth the shedding of the blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, who "offered
himself without spot to God," as the only perfect atonement for human guilt.
May we have faith in his sacrifice, and through him obtain the salvation of
our souls !
THE COW AND ITS CALF.
A IF -- -
C. ---~- ~.~~--C~ T -- __
-~--- ---^~' -I
3"A!'41L if ,.-
4. .o r ff
I .? ,*
-- I I qy.nrn. ',44w -f
'! I I , 3 '... I II, _-r M i
I I T 5
, .,- % , : II PIAT '-'!W 'I ,, ,
1 ,;,-71qc ritl, FT"i ,,. '4:1 Vt'tll IIIIIR ` il
-- ", 1W, v 11 . , ., ,.I I ro. i 11l
... I III,
, I -4,, -
IZ P11 , ,_ ,'Al
,--t.. T, .? U. R.,;l I . - -1,4W,
.1 .- ;i Eltfltj- ,I
I, L-I... _V, I4 A) V'J ". l
'A I ,,-,,,U r54 ?
- 1 N.I..,- '. .rjr Z,':' 'I ... 5, 1 " "Il ', AN l 11N.1-11 I _1XV V ``I -, 1, i I F
.'K Ill A,'-ft 44I14v, . __7 iq , c _ l ;-V'Ac jl4&j _.
-. U.. f,., i ,
'I," ir, tl I . e X 3 Z1, ` 'I .- I w - -if,
-,I Y,v " , .. rr. M4 ,i_'l!rX 4 4' tl I'l, 6 &,;j ,7 TIShL I- vj k4l, . ,I , V V,, "
I it, ,
-1 A'Y, *O'Y,:A ,- _1 I 'r f I i ;,T" ,4
7, Zi; ,7 _),+" -1 -0 I ,4 4 -V i Io, , .: ,'I,
I .. Z'. .,.j 11 q"g *', tl-?,-_ 4, , 7 I T,,_'t '4A 'It
4 j ,J', `- V f
v 2 IZI'rj,4 T, 1 a ,,A ,` t#,,, T ,4
, . 4 '. i, j f 1, T , , i I I "I", 4 ,
;, il --lc rl I ,
.. -41, _ 4i; I
44 f, 1;,
S_! I yl "v I flll I j
'I" ,j- 't -4 t 41 , I
'I lci T!`_A, ,,4, i `lilj , T I* -41 I- ; III ,
I 1 i , 4 14 11 1, 11 V,!lA
's -1 111 ... I ", J-' I , i A ""Lt ,
I i 11 , ,,- 11 j "IN% ,J,'4 ,j ;J N 'it J, V 1 4 0 4 ) $
-, v ,,, , V O ,,,, O I!i , _,
,JII I _11 I C-',,4 -r *' 4 -
l I A *,j 'I ,, 1 I 44 V ,"#" ,7*1110 , I - I , :IV,4,14 ,,
1 1,1,4 14,,ll , F ,,17'1,7_ r, ,
. t ,;; I -4, i'l , I ",'l i 0, ""', I, *,4, --
"- 1)541 j" -AY A "
, , k 'A ,,, 41, A 4, -y! ,,, i,
.1 , ; k"IT4 4C] f"
-Y .,,j ;tjtk$, i 111,
"_i, i f *Y; P'll _,41 I, , ,klf-,J j -1 O 'it A 4 ,',%l 1,
4villll V-'ffi_ -, -, ";"g I,,, IT ),; _1 :
''I 71,17',, 11 "I '? -i'll I - ? i ` *'et, 47V' ._Ik;`, ,,, .
l '41-11, I ,( ,ja,,,. 1, 4,4I_ 1, %,,YIZ F,18i,l j, "A 'V, 'X I A -iI 'N'' , ,
r j r -- - ,14 1,-'j , t r ,,, J v ,
I .i!llf,-W,"N --,,,, -4ii-
'I I _` ,Tij, I 4, 4 T 1 114-4*
'I: " ` ,Y,, 4V , 't 'ki ;,' -4 v r
* I ,_,, h4l 1* v-4 ir
Y*- W r -4i -- I i ,,, I, 'A -zi:IN 4 :
*' ,b t ,- A", V ,, 7 i I
,g , 'i 4t, ft, IV l -;, ,, T p, f -- -- *e- "t 1 N R V,
- A j ,.,-," 4 ,I 1, J, tAFiiiX .t j t ;Z
'k "i, vr 'I, 'It V4 I 1 vil" 1* TJr ,
f;t"r jT 4 FA I -, i ,
"I '11, ,.
I ", - 4 )l ll'v f1l" T'r, 4 i - [ ,
It 1, G IV -f,,N ""o ,., ,,,l fl'k -V
,9 , , It 1 4 4,- it , i't-li'l N, fl, #, ,, A ,,,, 14 i f -f,')- "' .'' I I: ''
Y% r , It I ,,iJ- "" 14A 11.17 ,.
17 10, Al 'A 11 11 ", PO i 11 11 ,
, 'I VlOltu W, j , "' it i,, 17"W"V l ol I'-
Ifl I I I f t, 11 lr"VI, ] ,
III- XMT *l: I '.. 11 114 C11 I, ,I .1, I 1 I i I , t AI -
411, 44' 'V A 1 ,, , 40
x., J- ,l I 11 I f'-* ", "Lill "TIA _,T' I) 'A 11 y 1, ,', '' I "
!, A A t ll 11 p t I , "
I I V, ll ,,'ll
"I 11 , 1, li 'A ,,,, _T_ I , tjl'Qvr N , I
1,; Mt v il 11 , ll ' f 'l
j,"'v , `*- ,,pi7A I `.,,` k,,,, -"- I ,, ,,,,,j ' "
11 I '' .,Jj - 'r, vy i, v 1;7,14 t ,4 11 ", 1 I
41, ,,, 1 r i"N -,,p i"l,", ,, f "I I
LL - 1114,', "I ,Jp t, 'I , f'l-If, J J- 4 1, t
I 4 ,,, p I I I r4j, , 4 ; '14 -k- 'I'S `-N
It j "s, ( '' .( I U liI Z ,+ I , .4 ",
A', , t_ I fi 1.
11 A 'll , I-1, ;,Xll
l 4, ;il i*' , , ", I -`;jf ') I
'14' I ,j V'l i ;'i u 4,-,rj ;J,, I` i K'lk I I III 1A I 1, ']'* I ., J
4, il", , .
', yp If f 1!14,, 4-j ,,(' 1 AN I , 'r 11.
11 , I-, -, , ", '"; "
, '" ; ip , 't , I V I A4 ,
;! xv, I I L.
,4, l I( ,;, 4: 7 _,, ;,-, kl S_ ,'-AJ,,C A"
1, 7#1 11 I j ii" V W MA"' I , I, 4 j , , ,,4 ,j4 i 1 4,
'It; A I -,4 - I- ,.-, y , i':I flj ."
V, I I I it I ,41 ,
I- .1 11
ll 1, +'AV , .;' I 4,t
41 ;k, I )i 4t z iff, f
(A Of, "i -i, .1 ,,,
, , fl, 11 I ` f I Wilfl i , 4 I
W- I 4 'o '4 N , 't "i ,`4 ,,,,-, -t 11'r, "I'll, 1 I , I X '? I .
, V "Tt Ix- 1, f, I I !,, I 7, 1, ,,, 1,
' ,, I li , R N "In '; -1 ;
"A m i
X ,P -J Jvl t ,, F." A I , I, V ,; _ 4""",
I f. r jr +*;I 11 I -*
'I f' 4 y I IVI` _,?, 6Z I, I,
I ,i A, ,k,) ,?.',AN
" A ,% 4 4, ll , V V Ng ,4,' 1
i Ilil ?_,, T, 7 - T, " ; ,v "I . I
` 1 I) I I -1 1 t 4t t I 1) I' Il I I'llp, e 1,
l I , 't t, It '141A, ,
i ,,f "' s, - 10 w I ,f
-; I I _
, T 11, 1;, 9 .1 ',, "I - I I , ,f 11 I I , J-1,1 -
':, 11 ", ,-#L'j ,6 ,7 If
2" "'t, _I 11 ,V4",4, ,,,,-i,,,
I' , N t, 'If, "77", ,,,, t r, T ,f,A I I'F'l I
'j"'A , ii, I
It , ,I r 11r, , M 'LLI L.. 1
p f ,, ,,i; -1 i
, , ,X
", 'T ,, , , ,,, LJY
; *)!,.Fj ,$
!,OI r M, i, I ,,*; 4 i, v-t -,w i "A Ix .o
, ,, ,` I f ; ; -1 / I," I ,",';
j,'j ) ,
11 j L "'i 11 _OY -11, , f"A 11 f
, I ., !: , ''
Jl J, L ". ;I *i , iIA U ` ' ';,__,ky' ', 'L- I I I 1, I
i,, f I i:ly If T 'f )Lk I .
,,, 2,,f4lfV XX'Lf -
:4 L , ,'l gj I '11
' L 4 4"7 I 4 9 -4 _,O_V-
i I I
F I ,,IL I 11 T' f j4j4*,'- L If' -1L 11 "t 'it J. "I
.:x ri"'(4jM 1 'I -It, j ,, I ; Ir 4, IL a L, y L , f
I 11 I I I 8L , PW 'i
"'I , I ( I ? "L ,
Ci I" IN J icA 'Y -411 1 f4 ,'4 I -1 ,
I, 4" ,
-r-1 ' "I ;A'If I ,j' "'; ,, ,! "? I t' "' fjjj L v I
I 4 *4 ,flt -( ( ," ", _f -j" t' '), j L , )" f) 'L j ')' 1, L ,,-i , -
"! I", N ,J "k "), M iY
't, ' -4 I ` r ' r j , s', , "'
LLL , ,_ J"L 'I 'N j t "',"j 4' I
q 'i, 4 k 4_ ,t, W I %4;1 -1 4 I v I 'i I I I , , l "' L I I
V" 4, I I 4 t I V I 'T, ;
-4 , " ,l , _ L '
j I _ "l 'I# ,,,,, I 'n 1, "i i'l ",I " 'r
, Ij -; , , j! L ?' I 0 `_
,. I 1 , ` `II' -, ,; jel I I , f, , ,j _'-'f L, ,
- I ',,-,,I' fL' , 4 1, 'j"i ' "I ,A , ,, -
1 1 L -_j. "; ' `1' k'T'_t e, i ,;;j iTLII#',I i ;,, -4 L, flill I t'l" '( -1 I , ,
'th J L f1j, ", 11 ,V
J-,, I ,, : , INAT, , I , I L
y )ff ,f I I T I 1 .4
`;,Jlf'AjJ, %_ -7 , r I 0 `
;,_ll 4 14 1, I'll 1! 1,f + ,!, lct.pf jr ',%5- I I -f
NE * I I (' , ; I 4p , , 41, "' -, r, jr"7 4-7, ] , if l f "- ,_0 ; fl,
,4 , L I , ,j ,,k *,Vl L, n 4 ,ij"-f "'-,tjt',, I "'T, ',* F 4 -, 4', - I A-_
,Lt I f f ,#,, ,Y, 2, 'N
; ,V 7 L I' 'AV N fle, T !4' 4A, f I" f ,. 4 F,
10 I(i N 11 j 11V I 4tl ,f ,,V
L ,8 It kW , r _L
- 1 4I 1 , rT V N, , t , 'r JI% v I (IL i:
,,, "A" jli; 1, .4 A I w7 'a -f I 1'e" ,, _'j k "s ,v
fo T i, rvlf-, I ,,p 7 A r 7 1,17 1*1 117, ; j, _ AI I i L
,,, i", 0, I ,A , ?
Ll I V Iat, I t k 'j 'I i ev It i # _l l, 1 v 04' 'r, - I,li"",vi, ,Ii , ,,, ,,;- ,I
I 4v gll I, I I .k f V i'L _r __ " I, ,,!A,l I., pi 1, , 'r "t ,v y iL;o t'
4 W 41
,! ,qV 1, "A IP4,rlj' I'# t ' f
, 'rl i, . L, C,
L , Y I r -,, t ,,
11 *4 I , # T_ c, lIo O rf 4 _t"
d k,, !
Al I I r", I "' I -
( I ' Al i;'I'll ;,`, ?
:z 41 ) 110 _4'11-, ; #3 i 4 t? r 1, N'l _l L ,,
J ,, 0 ItI